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March 2014

  1. Ahmed.K.Mohammed, Mohammed.I.Nader and Batool.H.AL-Ghurabi

    A comparison was done for serum glucose, glycated hemoglobin, adiponectine and adenosine deaminase and insulin level with type 2 diabetes mellitus Iraqi patients. Sixty unrelated type 2 diabetes patients (age ≥35 years) who had a strong family history of diabetes (50 of 60 versus 0 of 40 for controls, P < 0.001) and 40 healthy subjects were study.it was obtained that adiponectin and insulin level was lowered significantly in diabetic patients as compared with control group while significantly elevated serum HbA1c and adenosine deaminase in patients group as compared with control.

  2. Al-Khafaji, N.J., Al-Zubaedi Raad Mahmood and Tareq Rifaaht Minnat

    Methanol extract from cotoneaster fruit by using soxhlet apparatus was obtained. While aqueous extract was prepared by using magnetic heater. 1 g of solvent residue was dissolved in 10 ml of dimethyl sulphoxide, in same time, 1g of aqueous extract was dissolved in 10 ml of dimethyl sulphoxide, to obtain concentration of 100mg / ml, this depend for preparation of the 100, 50, 25 mg /ml for antimi-crobial activity assay for decoctions, for aqueous extract 1 g of air-dried plant material was added to 10 ml. of distilled water, left for 24 hours, mean while for alcoholic extract 1 g of powdered fruit added to 10 ml methanol (70 %) left for 24 hours. This 100 mg /ml depend for preparation of the 100, 50, 25 mg /ml for antibacterial activity assay. Isolated pure bacteria used in this study were: E. coli, Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus subtlis, Pseudomonasspp and Proteus spp. The results showed that agar well diffusion method was more valuable to determine the antibacterial effects of both aqueous and alcoholic extracts of cotoneaster sp. In comparison with agar disc method, the alcoholic extract was more effective and showed higher antibacterial effect against all bacteria sp. In comparison with aqueous extract also both aqueous and alcoholic extract were concentration dependent as they were more effective at concentration 50 mg /ml in comparison with 25 mg /ml . at 100 mg /ml were highly effective in comparison with 25 and 50 mg ml the plants used in this study could be potential source of new antimicrobial agents.

  3. Dr. Prabhati Gupta, Dr. Suhail Majid Jan, Dr. Munaza Shafi, Dr. Reyaz Ahmad Mir and Dr. Zahoor Ahmad Teli

    The term gene therapy originally referred to the treatment of a disease by means of genetic manipulation. It involves the transfer of a therapeutic or working gene copy into specific cells of an individual in order to repair a faulty gene copy. Thus, it may be used to replace a faulty gene, or to introduce a new gene whose function is to cure or to favourably modify the clinical course of a condition. With the better understanding of the disease progression and new advancement in biological science, gene therapy has emerged to enhance existing therapy and has radically recast approaches to the management of periodontal diseases. Since the advent of gene therapy in dentistry, significant progress has been made to control periodontal disease and reconstruct the dentoalveolar apparatus. Gene therapy is one of the recent advancements and its applications in the field of periodontics are reviewed in general here.

  4. Dissou Affolabi, Frédéric Sogbo, Aderemi Kehinde, Jeanne Orekan, Barnabé Lafia, Jocelyn Akakpo, Séverin Anagonou and Marcel Zannou

    In low resource - countries like Benin, HIV viral load is rarely available for monitoring antiretroviral treatment, which is generally based in these settings on clinical assessment together with T-cell CD4 count. In this study, we present our experience of setting up HIV viral load in Cotonou and the relative contribution of this test in monitoring such patients. From May 2013 to January 2014, 139 participants aged above 15 years were tested for both T-cell CD4 count and HIV viral load. We observed that HIV viral load was above 3 Log10 copies/ml in 15 participants (10.8%) though their CD4 count was above 350 cells/µl. HIV viral load could help for early detection of patients with incomplete virologic response to antiretroviral treatment in Cotonou.

  5. Sinan Kırım, Şakir Özgür Keşkek, Mehmet Bankir, Abdullah Canataroğlu

    Background: Obesity is a chronic metabolic disease associated with cardiovascular and atherosclerotic changes. It is also a public health problem due to its related complications. High homocysteine levels are important markers for the development of atherothrombosis and atherosclerotic changes. Obesity with high homocysteine levels influences metabolic risk and makes individuals prone to comorbidities. In this study, we aimed to evaluate the effect of exercise on homocysteine levels in patients with obesity. Methods: A total of 40 patients with obesity were included in this study; weights and heights were measured, and body mass indexes (BMIs) were calculated. A standard exercise program, which lasted 4 months, was applied to all patients. All of the patients walked regularly for 20 minutes before breakfast, and for 30 minutes two hours after dinner. The homocysteine levels at the baseline were compared with the values after 4 months. Results: There were significant differences in the body weight, serum lipids and insulin levels (p<0.05) in these patients. The mean homocysteine level was 10.5±4.3 at the baseline, while it was 9.1±3.1 at the 4th month. Although there was a decrease in the homocysteine level, it did not reach statistical significance (p>0.05). Conclusion: Obesity and high homocysteine levels are significant risk factors for cardiovascular disease. However, regular exercise can decrease body weight and homocysteine levels in patients with obesity.

  6. Chatterjee, P., Biswas, I., Banerjee, A. and Palit, P.

    An Insect diversity survey was carried out at Rashikbil wetland Region and South Khayerbari, Westbengal, India. The diurnal insect diversity was very high, with a mean of twenty eight species recorded during our exploration. Diurnal insects were only photographed through digital camera to prevent injury and damage. A pitfall trap study were mediated in Rasikbil wetland Region for quantitative assessment of surface dwelling forms. A total of seven order and seventeen families were identified from both of the study sites. Twelve species were recorded from Rashikbil Wetland Region and eighteen species from South Khayerbari Eco park of which three species were never been reported from these sites previously. Such findings provide important data to enhance the need and effort in biodiversity conservation. Forest fires, illegal hunting for wild animals and orchids, felling of trees and agricultural activities are among the threats to these sites which directly affect its insect diversity. To mitigate these threats, it is important to adopt a multi-disciplinary and participatory approach in a smart partnership involving relevant stakeholders and the local communities in monitoring, enforcement and promoting environmental awareness.

  7. Naeem Khan, Raies Ahmad Qadri and Devinder Sehgal

    Streptococcus pneumoniae (or pneumococci) is the leading cause of life-endangering diseases like pneumonia and septicemia. Antigenically variable Pneumococcal surface protein A (PspA) is one of the better defined pneumococcal virulence factors. Based on its sequence PspA has been classified into three families and six clades. Here, we repot cloning, expression and purification of all six clades of PspA (extracellular domain only). Bioinformatics analysis suggested that N-terminal fragments of PspA were highly variable at amino acid level while evolutionary conserved at secondary structural level. Study showed that the all PspA have very high content of α-helical structure and no other structure have been observed except random coil. The mice immunized with recombinant PspA fragments elicited very high antibody titers and confirmed the immunogenicity of PspA. Hence, our results would help to identify the cross-reactivity of antibody and structurally correlate across the clade of PspA.

  8. Satheeshkumar, B., Nareshkumar, S. and Kumaraghuru, S.

    Hospital’s key primary mission is to ensure continuous ward care service with appropriate number of nursing staffs and the right mix of nursing skills. The planning and scheduling is done to avoid additional non essential cost for hospital. Nurses’ preferences are taken into considerations such as the number of night shift and consecutive rest days. To present a mathematical modeling technique by means of linear programming as an efficient tool to solve problems related to optimization in healthcare. Hospital must be staffed 24 hours a day by a limited number of nurses. This paper illustrates how a linear programming solves the nurses scheduling problems. This paper illustrates how linear programming has been effectively used in Nurses scheduling at a multi-speciality Hospital in Coimbatore.

  9. Mukesh Kumar Jogi, Naresh Kumar, Sukhvinder Singh Purewal, Pradeep Ganguly and Nidhi Bansal

    Water plays very important role in the sustenance of life. Due to economic and population growth, water resources has became polluted in India. In the present study, comparative analysis of physico-chemical properties of water from different locations of Distt. Alwar of Rajasthan was done. Physico-chemical properties were pH, Conductivity, Total Hardness, Dissolved Oxygen, Residual Chlorine, Chlorides, Alkalinity, Acidity, Free CO2, Total Solids and Fluoride.

  10. Rakhi Soman, Naveen kumar Gande, Rajeswari Ambati, Pavan J. Kundur, Ashwathanarayana, R., Berhanu Dagnaw Bekele and Shashidhar H. E.

    The present investigation was conducted to estimate genetic variability parameters and correlations that exist for grain iron concentration and yield attributing characters and also to identify transgressant lines based on grain iron concentration in rice. One hundred and sixty recombinant inbred lines (RILs) of IRRI38 X Jeerigesanna were grown under aerobic condition at University of Agricultural Science, Bangalore in augumented experimental design during wet seasons of 2011 and 2012.Grain iron concentration of RILs ranged from 7 to 24ppm. Nine transgressant lines were identified based on high iron concentration in grains, ranging from 14-24ppm. Analysis of variance revealed significant differences for all the traits. Grain iron concentration and grain yield per plant showed high phenotypic and genotypic coefficients of variation. Number of productive tillers per plant (r=0.55) and number of tillers per plant (r=0.46) exhibited significantly positive correlation with grain yield per plant. Grain iron concentration showed negative correlation (r = -0.004) with grain yield per plant. Path coefficient analysis indicated that number of productive tillers per plant (0.869) and number of tillers per plant (0.744) have positive direct effect on grain yield per plant. Grain iron concentration (-0.012) showed negative direct effect on grain yield. Therefore, breeding for high iron concentration and high yield should be executed separately.

  11. Thanikkodi Dhanalakshmi and Boobalan Raja

    Diabetic hypertension continues to be the leading health problem around the globe. The goal of this study was to examine the effect of dehydrozingerone (DZ), (4-(4-hydroxy-3-methoxyphenyl)-3-buten-2-one) on type 2 diabetes and hypertension induced in male Wistar rats. Type 2 Diabetes mellitus was induced by a single intraperitoneal injection (40 mg/kg bw) of streptozotocin (STZ) and hypertension was induced by daily oral administration of Nω-Nitro-L-arginine methyl ester (L-NAME) 40 mg/kg bw dissolved in drinking water for 4 weeks. Effects of DZ against diabetic hypertension were assessed by measuring systolic and diastolic blood pressure, and biochemical parameters such as plasma glucose, alkaline phosphatase (ALP), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), gamma-glutamyltranspeptidase (GGT), in serum and urea, uric acid and creatinine in plasma. Intraperitoneal injection of DZ (50, 100 and 200 mg/kg bw) to diabetic hypertensive induced rats significantly reduced plasma glucose levels and systolic and diastolic blood pressure. The hepatic and renal functional markers are also significantly decreased. Our histopathological examination confirmed the biochemical findings. Among the three doses used, DZ at a dose of 100 mg/kg was effective compared to other two doses. Our results suggested that DZ has the potential to reduce diabetic and hypertension in STZ and L-NAME induced diabetic hypertensive rats.

  12. Vijay Yadav Tokala

    A survey has been conducted in Kalyandurg area of Ananthapur district in Andhra Pradesh, India to determine the status of production technology, pre-harvest and post harvest techniques among Banana growers. The survey was done using Commodity System Assessment Methodology (CSAM) with few modifications as per requirement, which was originally developed by Jerry LaGra. The observations made were documented, which showed that the farmers are mostly following modern farming techniques for production but still lack enough knowledge about pre-cooling, pre-harvest and post-harvest handling techniques. There is a need to keep the farmers update to date for the any new production technology practices, new varieties, crop diversification, crop rotation, export potential and about processed products.

  13. Ramesh Kumar, T., Merin Emerald, D. and Iyyappan, V.

    The morphology of male accessory reproductive gland appear as transparent short and pear shaped body exhibits a single layered glandular epithelium surrounded by basement membrane and muscular wall. The MARGs constitute a single layer of glandular epithelium. The male accessory gland opens into the vasa deferentia (or) the distal end of the ejaculatory duct. They may be ectodermal in origin, when they are known as ectadenia, and in this case they open into the ejaculatory duct, ectadenia, occur in coleopteran and possibly other groups, but lack of embryological information makes this uncertain. Glands of mesodermal origin, mesadenia are found in orthoptera and is some cases, tenebrio (coleopteran) for inotance, both ectadenies and mesadenia are present. MARGs are involved in various reproductive functions such as sexual excitement, mating, oviposition, transfer of sperm through seminal fluid and gonadial development. A primary function of these secretions is to facilitate sperm transfer, but they may also act as barriers to further insemination, either physically (or) by altering the behavior of the female. The MARGs showed some remarkable changes in the insects treated with zinc (25 ppm median lethal concentration).The myoepithelial cells that cover the tubular glands are disintegrated, the basement membrane is with less secretaty granules.

  14. Suresh Kumar, Anil Sharma, Vandana and Khaling Mikawlrawng

    Medicinal plants are important sources for isolation of pharmaceutical drugs. The current available drugs are in many ways either inefficient or unaffordable to ever increasing forms of microbial infections. Screenings of medicinal plants used by the traditional medicinal healers are the main sources for formulation of herbal drugs. Phytochemicals present in plants are economically important sources of drugs, fragrances, pigments, food additives and pesticides. The present paper reports the analysis of qualitative, quantitative and antimicrobial properties of Centella asiatica L., Lawsonia inermis L. and Eclipta alba L. Centella asiatica was found to have maximum contents of Flavonoids and phenolics whereas Lawsonia inermis has maximum contents of tannin. Antimicrobial analysis study showed that Centella asiatica has maximum antibacterial property against Escherchia coli MTCC68 and the plant extract of Eclipta alba showed maximum antimicrobial property against Staphylococcus aureus MTCC3160. The present work will help in understanding the comparative phyotochemical and antimicrobial properties of Centella asiatica, Lawsonia enermis and Eclipta alba. Centella asiatica, and set forward towards isolation and characterization of the bioactive compounds present in these medicinally important plants.

  15. Punam Sen and Dr. R. Rajendran

    This paper explores the antibacterial efficacy of certain Indian medicinal herbs obtained from the north-eastern states of Tripura. The employed method of screening the potency of herbs was disc diffusion method. The antibacterial activity of the herbs were compared with standard antibiotic ointment cosvate available in the market. Both gram positive and negative bacteria were used as test organisms. The activity index of the herbal extract against the pathogens were calculated. Among the five chosen herbs, two of them showed the highest antibacterial activity.

  16. Mariappan, M. and Karuppasamy, R.

    Most of the studies reported the effects of metals on fish under the exposure to a single metal, whereas the fishes in the polluted water bodies are typically exposed to mixtures of metals. Hence, the aim of the present study was to investigate the acute toxicity of copper (Cu) and cadmium (Cd) in single and co-exposure on mortality rate and behavioural changes in freshwater fish Cyprinus carpio. The static and renewable bioassay method was adopted to determine the lethal concentration (LC50) of tested metals through probit analysis. The 96 hr LC50 values were 38.36 mg/L for Cu, 92.23 mg/L for Cd and 23.90 mg/L for Cu plus Cd, respectively. The dose and time dependent increase in mortality rate was observed in C. carpio in response to individual and combined exposure of Cu and Cd. Behavioural response under this investigation showed prominent changes of erratic swimming activity, increase in opercular movement, exudation of mucous over the bodies, loss of equilibrium and body dispigmentation in C. carpio exposed to Cu, Cd and Cu plus Cd mixture at their various lethal concentrations. Comparing the 96 hr LC50 and behavioural changes, that Cu plus Cd was the most toxic, followed by Cu and Cd. The results further show that the single exposure of Cu was more toxic than the Cd, but in the binary exposure of Cu and Cd, both are interact with each other and enhance the toxic effect which indicates synergism. The observed data suggest that C. carpio considered as a good biomarker to access the metallic contaminants of freshwater aquatic bodies.

  17. a Md. Sohrab Hossain, b Moftah Massaud Bennama, c Venugopal Balakrishnan, b Nik Norulaini Nik Ab Rahman and Mohd a* Omar Ab Kadir

    The Clinical solid waste management has been raised a significant problem in most developing countries including Malaysia. The main reason of the mismanagement of this type of wastes is the lack of effective waste management strategy that can be easily implemented during clinical solid waste handling, transport and final disposal. Aware of the significance of the issue, the study was conducted in the form of a case study in one of the largest healthcare facilities in Penang Island, Malaysia, namely, the Hospital Lam Wah Ee. It was found that the hospital has taken apposite steps in safe management of clinical solid waste within its premise that comply with the relevant Ministry of Health regulations of Malaysia. However, the clinical solid waste management at the hospital required trained clinical staffs, effective control and high financial investments. Despite the health risks and environmental impacts, clinical solid waste is still disposed through incineration. The present study revealed the urgency to adopt effective sterilization technology in clinical solid waste management. The clinical solid waste materials would be recycled and reused after it has been sterilized, which would minimize the waste generation as well as its disposable cost.

  18. Subba Rao Nelupudi and Pratap Singh

    The wireless channel is central within this context, thus estimating the channel is the key to make CR operational, taking in consideration that the transmission-reception technology is available. In this thesis, we design a MIMO system using OFDM modulation technology to transmit and receive two signals over the mobile wireless channel. First formulate the pilot design as a new optimization problem. We use MIMO concept to enhance system capacity and robustness of the wireless transmission. In Multi-Input Multi-Output (MIMO) based cognitive radio (CR) systems, with the increasing demand for data rate and reliability in Wireless communications and devices, several issues become very important like bandwidth efficiency, quality of service and radio coverage. In this paper, we evaluate the performance of selective adaptive arrays signal processing and selective space-time block coding signal processing and compare their performance under perfect CSI available at both the transmitter and receiver. By comparing their performance, we see that selective adaptive arrays signal processing outperforms selective space-time coding signal processing when perfect CSI is available at both the transmitter and receiver.

  19. Jyothi, D. and Lalitha Kumari

    Color distribution of digital images and segmentation in photo images is a challenging and important problem that finds numerous applications ranging from album making and photo classification to image retrieval. Previous works on human segmentation usually demand a time-consuming training phase for complex shape-matching processes. In this paper, we propose a straightforward framework to automatically recover human bodies from color photos and contrast equalization, midway histogram, color enhancement, and color transfer. Employing a coarse-to-fine strategy, we first detect a coarse torso (CT) using the multi cue CT detection algorithm and then extract the accurate region of the upper body. Then, an iterative multiple oblique histogram algorithm is presented to accurately recover the lower body based on human kinematics. The approach relies on the key observation that artefacts correspond to spatial irregularity of the so-called transportation map, defined as the difference between the original and the corrected image.

  20. Mallikarjuna, M. and Ranjit Kumar, K.

    Today we want fast ways of communication; research on even more faster alternatives is going. In present time, 4th generation wireless communication standards is among one of such technologies. The building block of this technology is MIMO-OFDM system. But one of the drawbacks associated with OFDM is high PAPR. In this paper, we propose a new nonlinear companding algorithm that transforms the MIMO OFDM signals into the desirable statistics form defined by a linear piecewise function. By introducing the variable slopes and an inflexion point in the target probability density function, more flexibility in the companding form and an effective trade-off between the PAPR and bit error rate performances can be achieved. The presented theoretical analyses are well verified via computer simulations.

  21. Jaya Sankar, C. H. and Devaraju, Y.

    Wireless passive sensor networks (WPSN) designed to operate using MB do not have the lifetime constraints of conventional WSN. System lifetime of wireless sensor networks (WSN) is inversely proportional to the energy consumed by critically energy-constrained sensor nodes during RF transmission. In that regard, modulated backscattering (MB) is a promising design choice, in which sensor nodes send their data just by switching their antenna impedance and reflecting the incident signal coming from an RF source. The communication performance of WPSN is directly related to the RF coverage provided over the field the passive sensor nodes are deployed. This paper puts forward the ITPSN protocol, which makes the original single two nodes two-way messages exchange way into the third node monitor mode, greatly reduces the synchronous time, saves the time and energy for synchronization, adds the judgment of the node failure and treatment of node failure, and improves the robustness and expansibility. The simulation results show that ITPSN inherited TPSN’s low energy consumption, low average errors and can effectively reduce the time and energy needed for synchronization, strengthening its robustness.

  22. Sasikala, N. P. and Dr. Anto Bennet, M.

    The video compression is used to reduce the size of the video files. The MPEG files are compressed then the fine details of video are lost their originality due to quantization. Lost details of video not appear after decompression. The better video processing algorithms and many techniques like pre-processing and low pass filters are used to reduce the compression error. The character recognition is used to find the data in written or printed document or any data source. In this character recognition, data is scanned by a special scanner. Pattern matching algorithms is used in character recognition to find character that may be in any form. In the proposed coder scanned document are compressed using video codec method. The scanned page will decomposed in to N number of blocks. Then that will arrange in sequence to build video. Video sequence is compressed using advanced video codec (H.264/AVC). The pattern matching algorithm is used to reduce the data lost during the decompression. This method will give high quality of video compression compared with conventional methods. The performance and evaluation will be shown by Peak Signal to Noise Ratio (PSNR) and Structural Similarity Metric (SSM). Simulation results are shown by using MATLAB R2013a.

  23. Mr. Satish B. Bhise, Mr. Jamir A. Inamdar and Mr. Sachin N. Wandre

    This paper presents a number of commercial peer-to-peer systems for live streaming have been introduced in recent years. The behavior of these popular systems has been extensively studied in several measurement papers. Due to the proprietary nature of these commercial systems, however, these studies have to rely on a “black-box” approach, where packet traces are collected from a single or a limited number of measurement points, to infer various properties of traffic on the control and data planes. Although such studies are useful to compare different systems from end-user’s perspective, it is difficult to intuitively understand the observed properties without fully reverse-engineering the underlying systems. In this paper we describe the network architecture of Zattoo, one of the largest production live streaming providers in Europe at the time of writing, and present a large-scale measurement study of Zattoo using data collected by the provider. To highlight, we found that even when the Zattoo system was heavily loaded with as high as 20,000 concurrent users on a single overlay, the median channel join delay remained less than 2 to 5 seconds, and that, for a majority of users, the streamed signal lags over-the-air broadcast signal by no more than 3 seconds.

  24. Prof. M. S. Chaudhari, Amol Medhane, Sandip Sonar and Abhaysinh Patil

    Energy has always been an issue since Wireless Sensors came into existence (WSN). Any of the WSN systems consist of number of small and low cost sensor nodes. These sensor nodes powered by small batteries. Usually, for many applications, once WSN is deployed in such areas where human cannot reach on daily basis. Sensors gather required data and send to the sink node. As WSN works on batteries there is need of system which preserve the energy and balanced the overall usage of network. This system offers Energy optimization by using various technologies like load balancing, Sleep scheduling.

  25. Lalit Narde, Gaurav Shinde, Rohit Nalla and Prof. A.V. Nadargi

    Lately, research for context-aware systems has risen significantly. New social needs require innovation new technology to build rich omnipresent computing spaces. Such spaces allow users to use services without caring of any interaction with the system. For bringing this in existence, some context awareness is needed so computers, based on their environment, can behave accordingly. Mobile Advertising is one of such new needs and has shown to have a large potential due to the very personal and intimate nature of the devices and the possibleness of reaching a broad range of targets. In this paper we discuss Bluetooth Advertisement System, a context-aware pervasive system for advertising in large commercial areas. Bluetooth Advertisement System uses Java and Bluetooth wireless technology making it a very client-specific system. We describe the overall architecture and discuss the execution steps taken to build this application.

  26. Galphade, M. N., Suresh Khule, Sumit Sharma and Rohit Khose

    Digital image manipulation software is now readily available on personal computers. It is therefore very simple to tamper with any image and make it available to others. Insuring digital image integrity has therefore become a major issue. Watermarking has become a popular technique for copyright enforcement and image authentication. The main aim of this project is to provide software which will help to detect the manipulation in the photo. Most digital cameras employ an image sensor with a color filter array such as shown on the left. The process of Demosaicing interpolates the raw image to produce at each pixel an estimate for each color channel. With proper analysis, traces of Demosaicing are exhibited in the peak of an analysis signal. The presence of Demosaicing indicates the image is from a digital camera rather than generated by a computer.

  27. Isaac KwasiNuamah and Alhassan Emil Abdulai

    Aim: To evaluate the success of intra-oral implants as replacement restorations for missing teeth in two clinics in Ghana from January 2000 to December 2010. Patients and Method: A retrospective study carried out on patients who have had missing teeth replaced with implant-borne restorations. The age, sex, indications for treatment, radiographic records, date of implant placement, the type of luting agent used, the state of the implant if still presentand radiographic assessment were retrieved from their medical records, followed by a clinical examination.The data was analysed using Microsoft Excel spreadsheet. Findings:65implants wereplaced in 30 patients with 41.54 % (N=27) in the maxilla and 58.46% (N=38) in the mandible. The lower left sextant (N=18) was the commonest site. The average age was 52.67years. The male: female ratio was2.33:1. Most of the patients requested this treatment to help improve mastication (“chew meat”). Using Misch’s criteria, three implants (4.62%) have failed and 62 (95.38 %) are so far classified as successful up till 2013. All three failed implants were Trans mucosal. Conclusion: This study shows that the success rate of implants as an alternative restorative technique in Ghana is comparable to that of several other countries.

  28. Indulekha, C.

    Manjula Padmanabhan’s oeuvres are often branded as ‘feminist’ since they primarily focus on social issues that are totally women centric and told from their point of view. Her scripts penned realism like ‘dowry deaths’, gang rape, alienation, and marginalization of Indian women in a patriarchal discourse. Her well-acclaimed dramatic piece Lights Out! (2000), delineates the darker side of patriarchy that is insensitive to female sensibility. It forefingers on the trial and tribulations of a macabre crime, i.e. the daily rape of an anonymous woman, that is never shown onstage combined with routine tea, candlelight dinner and the gracious conversations of hosts and guests in a middle-class flat. This paper attempts to read beyond the narrative where this ‘space in erasure’ is viewed through the ‘Third Space theory,’ enunciated by the social theorist Homi Bhabha. This ‘in-between’ space provides an emancipated terrain for the subjugated women to extend their novel strategies of selfhood or resistance there by breaking the First space-Second space dualism.

  29. Kamal Kumar. M.

    Urbanization is a key to transform from traditional rural economies to modern industrial one which concentrates population in urban unit. At present, India is among the countries with low level of urbanization. During the last fifty years, Indian population has grown two and a half times whereas urban India has increased nearly five times. In 2001, 306.9 million Indians were living in nearly 3,700 towns and cities across the country, and is expected to increase to over 400 million by 2011 and 533 million by 2021. Most urban settlements are characterized by shortfalls in stock housing and water supply, urban encroachments in extreme area, inadequate sewerage, traffic congestion, pollution, poverty and social unrest making urban governance a difficult task to maintain healthy urban environment. High rate of urban population growth is of concern among India’s urban and town planners for efficient urban planning. Therefore, there is an urgent need to adopt modern technology of remote sensing which includes both aerial as well as satellite based systems which allows collecting lot of physical data easily on repetitive basis with speed. Along with this, GIS helps to analyze the data spatially, generate various modeling thereby optimizing the whole planning process. These information systems makes the overall planning process effective and meaningful by offering interpretation of spatial data with other socio-economic data.

  30. SoheilaPanahi, AidaSuraya.MdYunus, Rusnani.Abdul Kadir, Wan Marzuki. Wan Jaafar and Mohammad SaeedPanahi

    The aim of this study was to examine whether there are significant relationship between age and psychological well-being components among graduate students. Psychological well-being is measured using the Scales of Psychological Well-being with six dimensions including: autonomy, environmental mastery, personal growth, positive relationships with others, purpose in life and self-acceptance. A total of 534 graduate students (155 males and 379 females) were selected from one Malaysian university. Data was analyzed using Pearson correlation. The finding of this study revealed significant correlation between age and autonomy, personal growth, purpose in life and overall psychological well-being. In addition, the result indicated that majority of the respondents practiced moderate level in the six dimensions. However, there were no significant correlation between age and environmental mastery, positive relationship, and self-acceptance among the graduate students.

  31. Selvasundhari, L., Vembu Babu, Vinola Jenifer, Jeyasudha, S. and Govindasamy Thiruneelakandan

    The present study has been conducted to evaluate the antioxidant activity of medicinal plant Avicennia marina. Stem bark of Avicennia marina was powdered and extracted with 95% ethanol and water by cold extraction method. The water and ethanol extract of air dried stem bark was estimated by using spectrometric method. Antioxidant activity of Avicennia marina was determined in the presence of different methods namely reducing power assay, DPPH assay, Superoxide radical scavenging assay, Nitric oxide radical scavenging assay ect,.the determinations are conducted by in vitro methods the water and ethanolic plant extraction achieved a maximum antioxidant activity in a different concentration.

  32. Dhanesh Kumar K. U., Namritha Prabhu and Pooja Pai

    Back ground and objectives: Falls are the major problem associated with old age. Many studies have explored the relationship between falls and physical performance but those studies were focused mainly on the frail elderly having several health problems. Hence it is important to clarify and evaluate the relation between falls and physical fitness in healthy elderly. The aim of this study was to analyze the correlation between the falling risk and physical fitness in healthy elderly and determining the top parameters affecting the fall risk. Methodology: this study was cross sectional design which includes 60 elderly subjects whose mean age was 73.17±5.81 years. All the elderly subjects were selected on the basis of their cognitive function (MMSE.24) and fulfilled the physical fitness criteria as determined by SFT. All healthy subjects then underwent fall risk and balance assessment to evaluate the correlation between fitness, balance and fall risk. Results: A strong positive correlation of BBT and SLST with chair stand, arm curl and 2 min step test was found, but the correlation of BBT and SLST with” 8 foot up-and go test “ were negative. However, no significant correlations of BBT and SLST with chair sit and reach test, back scratch test (p.0.001) was found. The results of regression analysis showed that chair test was the top most parameter of SFT which affects fall risk and balance. Conclusion: Falling risk increases with declining of upper and lower extremity muscle strength, aerobic endurance, agility and dynamic balance performance. Lower extremity strength was most relevant with fall risk and balance. it was concluded that the older persons falling risk, balance and physical fitness level should be evaluated in some intervals .according to their falling risk, balance and physical fitness level, the rehabilitation programmes should be planned.

  33. Sengottaian, N. and Ambika, R.

    Calotropis has been ethnomedicinally utilized from ancient times. Calotropis leaves were collected from the Campus Playground of Urumu Dhanalakshmi College, Trichy and authenticated through the Rapinat Herbarium, St.Joseph’s college, Trichy. Calotropis leaves were collected dried, powdered and extracted with 80% methanol. The Rhizosphere bacteria of Calotropis was isolated and identified based on their morphological and biochemical characters. Plant extract was tested against the rhizosphere bacteria of Calotropis (Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Eschercia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus subtilis) for the antimicrobial activity in Muller – Hinton agar medium at different concentrations.

  34. Dr. Ashfaqul Hassan and Dr. Shifan Khandey

    The art of preservation of bodies is very old dating back to centuries. But in recent times the motive for Preserving the human bodies has Changed. Advancements in Science and Technology combined with advancements in Biotechnology and Nanotachnology have been combined in the Latest Techniques of Cryopreservation of human bodies referred to as Cryonics The art of Preservation of Dead Bodies has progressed to preservation of bodies by freezing or cryopreserving. The Purpose is basically to preserve life. It can be used to freeze bodies for times until the time the cure for their cause of death is available. Advanced nanorobots will keep all human body cells in perfect repair, preventing disease Lately the Cryopreservation techniques are being adapted with the purpose of preserving people’s bodies after death in hope that in the future, medicine will be able to revive them.

  35. Dr. Thaer Hameed Mohsin

    Pleomorphic adenoma, also called benign mixed tumor, is the most common tumor of the salivary glands. About 90% of these tumors occur in the parotid gland and 10% of them occur in the minor salivary glands. The most common sites for pleomorphic adenoma of the minor salivary glands are the palate, followed by the lips and the cheeks without any ulceration or perforation of the mucosa. Other rare sites include the floor of the mouth, tongue, tonsil, pharynx, the retromolar area and the nasal cavity. Here, we are reporting a case of pleomorphic adenoma of the minor salivary glands of the check in a 36-year old woman perforate the check mucosa. The mass was removed by wide local excision. There were no recurrences after a follow-up period.

  36. Mustafa Ahmed Jasim

    This study aimed to cover a part of neurotoxic effects of Ivermectin on domestic pigeons, for this purpose the up and down method were utilized to determine the intramuscular median lethal dose of Ivermectin in pigeons, functionally observed markers were used to illustrate the behavioural changes that caused by Ivermectin to each injected pigeon in addition to motor behavioural reflexes. The results of 24 hours intramuscular median lethal dose was 84.4 mg/kg, about 4-8 hours were needed to appearance of toxicosis, signs were ataxia, unilateral laying against the surface, slight to total mobility impairment, mild disturbance in muscular tone ranged from hypotonia to atonia, with passive resistance to catch, on the other hand there was absence in all examined reflexes (click, palpebral and righting). In conclusion, Ivermectin has moderate neurotoxic effect on domestic pigeons; it exhibits inhibitory central and peripheral impacts via dual Gabaergic and Glycinergic neural pathways.

  37. Obike H. I. Ezejindu D. N., Ezejindu C. N.

    This work focuses primarily on investigating histological effects of Aframomum melegueta aqueous extract on the spleen of adult wistar rats following oral administration. Twenty wistar rats of weights 180 – 215kg were divided into four groups designated as A,B,C and D. Group A served as the control and were orally administered with 0.35ml of distilled water daily; the experimental groups B,C & D were orally administered with 0.55ml, 0.65ml and 0.75ml of Aframomum melegueta aqueous extract for twenty eight days respectively. Twenty four hours after the last administration, the animals were weighed, anasthetized under chloroform vapour and dissected. Spleen tissues were removed, weighed and trimmed down for histological studies. The final body weight of the experimental groups (B, C & D) increased significantly (P<0.001) with the control. The relative spleen weight of the experimental groups B,C & D statistically increased (P<0.001) with the control (A). Histological results showed normal spleen architecture in the experimental groups B, C, & D relative to the control (A). This study therefore suggests that consumption of Aframomum melegueta aqueous extract at different doses did not induce spleen of adult wistar rats.

  38. Hala, Hammad Mohammed Zain Ahmed and Mofida, Yousif Elkhalifa

    The main objectives of this study were to determine the knowledge pertaining to diabetes mellitus of traditional healers in Khartoum State, and to explore some of their practices towards their patient’s advices, treatments, diagnosis, following up and referral systems. The target population of the study consisted of 40 herbalists. The sample was purposive and interviews guided by semi-structured open-ended questionnaires were used. The results obtained indicated that the healers had a primary knowledge about diabetes and had a willingness to learn more about the disease. 90% of the herbalists stated that diabetes is due to disturbances in the pancreas, and the main causes of the disease were diet high in fats and carbohydrates (22.5%), or due to genetical factors (20%). The most two well known symptoms stated by the studied herbalists were frequent urination (87.5%) followed by thirst (67.5%). More than half of the herbalists (55%) believe that diabetes could be completely cured. Concerning the average number of patients, 55% of healers mentioned that more than 10 diabetic patients usually visit the traditional healers’ center per month. For a better monitoring and control of diabetes in Sudan training of traditional healers was urgently needed. Further studies concerning the effectiveness of medicinal plants used for treating diabetes are also needed.

  39. Ammar Ismail Jabbar and Rabbab abdl Al ammer

    This study was carried out on eight healthy adult of local hedgehogs of both sex, to elucidate the normal morphology and architecture in the conducting region of respiratory system of hedgehog and distinguish the normal lobulation of lungs. The animals were divided in to two groups. Groups –A for anatomical study, while group -B fore cast technique. The mean length, diameters of both trachea and bronchi also the number of lung lobes are recorded. The trachea was observed to be cartilaginous tube extend from larynx to the lung at thorax terminates by bifurcating in to the right and left principle bronchi above the base of the heart at the 4th thoracic vertebra. The right primary bronchus branched into three secondary lobar bronchi which provide each lobe of right lung (cranial, caudal, middle) while the bronchus of the accessory lobe arise from the middle secondary bronchi. The left primary bronchus is branched directly into several tertiary bronchioles. The lungs were observed to be sponge organ pink color, occupied most of the thoracic cavity, consisting of five portions. The right lung has four lobes cranial middle, caudal and accessory lobes. The caudal lobe is largest one, while the smallest one is the accessory lobe. The left lung has only one lobe occupied most the left side of thoracic cavity.

  40. Amarjeet D. Patil, Preeti Mehra, Vijay Bhola, Sunita A. Patil, R. L.Gogna, Nilesh Virani, Dr. Ankit Desai and Dr. Kush Mukhi

    Propofol has been described as a potent hypnotic drug producing anaesthesia within one arm-brain circulation time, possessing a rapid recovery time and causing minimal postoperative sequelae. It has also been associated with dose-dependent fall in blood pressure on induction with a slightly higher incidence and longer period of post-induction apnea. It may be used for adults before an uncomfortable procedure, to relax and reduce awareness but not cause deep sleep. It is also used to reduce awareness and cause sleep for adults who are being treated in an intensive care unit. Our report of A 48yr old female, weight 55 kg and height 152 cm, posted for excision of fibroadenoma of right breast. Her medical history included high blood pressure, diabetes, and gastroesophageal reflux. Medications on admission included telmisartan, omeprazole, metformin. She was asymptomatic on all these medications. She showed that induction with propofol can cause bradycardia. There are several reports in the literature as well which suggested that how during propofol anaesthesia a low heart rate may occur. The bradycardia may be prevented by premedication with atropine.

  41. Shu-Lin Uei, R. N. PhD., Huei-Chuan Sung, R. N. PhD. and Hsia-Tzu Kao, R. N. MSN.

    Introduction: The traditional role of filial care for frail elderly in Chinese family, the responsibility of caring has typically fallen on women, especially on the daughters-in-law (DILs). To date, little is known about the impact of these DIL caregivers in Chinese society. This study aimed to explore the experiences of DILs on their caregiving involvement for parents-in-law (PILs) with dementia. Methods: A qualitative design of phenomenological methodology was used employing focus group discussion and participant observation with thirteen DILs. Participants were recruited from the psychiatric outpatient department of a hospital in Eastern Taiwan. Content analysis was used to identify themes. Results: Four main themes emerged: (1) care burden with filial obligation; (2) suffering alone; (3) feel powerless; and (4) adaptation. Discussion: The social expectations of DILs as primary family caregiver and lack of effective skill for caring PILs with dementia may lead DILs to feelings of vulnerability with associated physical problems and emotional strain. Family based interventions and educational programmes are recommended as a potential means to alleviate caregiver burden of the DILs .

  42. Shrikanth Shetty, A., Sanjay B. Bhagoji, Anupama Taklikar and Mrutyanjay Mirje

    Aims and Objectives: To identify the specific pathogenic organisms risk factors responsible for infection in corneal ulcer patient. Materials and Method: The present study was undertaken on 100 patients of corneal ulcer attending the outpatient department of Navodaya medical college hospital and research centre, Raichur, with special reference to the etiology and predisposing factors, examination in detail for morphological features, microbiological work up, management and follow up. Results: Out of 100 patients in 100 eyes, M: F ratio was 1.7:1. Most common age group affected was between 31 – 50 years for all types of infectious keratitis 37.5%, 44.1%, 37.5% and 49.99% for bacterial, mycotic, mixed and sterile keratitis. Socio-economically poor classes had 87% of keratitis. Keratitis occurred more frequently in the residents of rural areas 79%. Trauma was found to be the most common predisposing factor 60% followed by chronic dacryocystitis 6%,chronic steroid use 6%, lid disorders 6%, dry eye 5%, corneal degenerations / dystrophy 4%, contact lens use 1%, diabetes 1%, none 11%. Inferonasal cornea was involved with highest frequency in bacterial and central cornea in fungal keratitis. Staphylococcus epidermidis 37.04% was the most common bacterial isolate followed by staphylococcus aureus 24.07%. Fusarium sp. 33.3% and aspergillus sp. 33.3% were most common of fungal isolates. Conclusion: Central corneal ulceration is a common problem in surroundings of Raichur and most often occurs after a superficial corneal injury with organic material. Bacterial keratitis is maginally higher than fungal keratitis. Staphylococcus epidermidis is most common bacterial and Fusarium spp. And aspergillus spp are the most common fungal isolate. Staining can be the efficient tool for starting the specific medical therapy in the management of corneal ulcer in the places where culture facilities are not available.

  43. Yadollah Ramezani and Dr.Mahmoud Mobasheri

    Background: AIDS epidemic is currentlyin the third step of its emergence and has turned into an epidemic threatening the physical community. According to a report of WHO 68 million were infected with AIDS by December 2002 and adolescents were identified as the population at the highest risk of AIDS. Since the transmission routes of this disease are limited, an increase in the level of knowledge of people, especially the adolescents, about AIDS/HIV can be very helpful in the reduction of HIV infection. This study was conducted to investigate knowledge of and attitudes toward HIV/AIDS in male high school students in Semirom, Iran Methods: The population of this descriptive, cross-sectional study was male high school students in Semirom, Iran. The questionnaire included knowledge questions on the disease and its transmission routs and attitude questions on AIDS and its victims. The responses were based on a four-point Likert scale (“strongly agree” to “strongly disagree”). The data were analyzed by SPSS software through demographic variables. Results: Although around 80% of the students had accurate knowledge about the contagious nature of the disease, there were still misconceptions about the disease and importance of preventing HIV transmission in a way that around 35% of the students did not know the importance of observing hygiene in the prevention of this disease. Conclusion: We recommend that schools be considered as one of the central focuses in AIDS reduction strategies, and students’ training on all aspects of HIV/AIDS as a complementary part of school curriculum be seriously addressed by government and educational policy makers.

  44. Joseph John and Sujana, K. A.

    In this study, the main objective was to document all pesticide plants used in Wayanad district, a questionnaire based interview conducted among 200 rural farmers. All the data were recorded in previously designed data sheets to reflect different objectives. Sixty eight species belonging to 33 families were recorded during the survey. For analysis, Informant consensus factor (ICF) was calculated to indicate information homogeneity. The ICF value 1.00 is observed for Azadirachta indica and is considered as the most important pesticide species from the study area. Other important pesticide plant species are Allium sativum (0.97), Nicotiana tabacum (0.94), Zingiber officinale (0.71), Pongamia pinnata (0.64) and Curcuma longa (0.64). The minimum ICF value 0.04 is recorded for Anamirta cocculus followed by Euphorbia hirta (0.045), Lobelia nicotonifolia (0.045) and Derris brevipes (0.05) indicates the limited usage of this plant as bio-pesticide. Some important pesticide plants like Derris brevipes, Madhuca longifolia, Quassia indica, Toddalia asiatica were reportedly becoming increasingly rare and would need conservation efforts. Research on active components, pesticide preparations, application rates and environmental impact of botanical pesticides are a prerequisite for sustainable agriculture and recording this knowledge before it disappears with the aging farmers was seen as urgent.

  45. Ismail A. Abdul-Hassan,Mayasah M. Khalid and Yahya D. Saihood

    Calpain10 is a member of a large family of intracellular proteases. It was the first candidate gene for Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), earlier studies on Mexican-Americans and other populations have shown that polymorphisms, SNP-43, del/ins-19 and SNP-63, of this ubiquitously expressed protein influence susceptibility to T2DM. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) (for DEL/INS-19) and Polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) (for SNP-43 and SNP-63) were used to detect the calpain10 variants by using specific primers and restriction enzymes.Enrichment of allele 1(2R) in Del/Ins-19 and 2R/2R genotype were found in T2DM patients. While the alleles and genotypes distribution of SNP-43 and SNP-63 were not significantly different between patient groups and non-diabetic control subjects. The genotype AA in SNP-43 and genotype TT in SNP-63 were not found neither in T2DM nor in control subjects. Of the eight haplotypes detected, enrichment of haplotype 112 defined by variants of, SNP-43, Del/Ins-19, and SNP-63 was seen in patients. The distribution of the other haplotypes was comparable between patients and control subjects. The calpain10 haplotype combinations were also obtained, and the haplotype combinations 111/111 and 111 / 112; created by SNP-43, del/ins-19 and SNP-63 was associated with increasing the risk of T2DM.

  46. Vijayalakshmi Selvakumar, Dr. A. Panneerselvam, Dr. N. Vijayakumar, Dr. Mohan A. Savery and Dr. N. Tajuddin

    Muthupet range now consists of six Reserved Forests, viz, Muthpet RF, Thuravikadu RF, Vadakadu RF, Maravakadu RF, Thamarankottai RF, and Palanjur RF. Maravakadu RF (area: 1490.12 ha.): Maravakadu RF was created as per G.O.Ms.No.721, forests and Fisheries, Dept., 6th July 1979 with an area of 1356.07 ha. The Maravakadu RF Extn. Bit-I was created as per Govt.Ir. no.56675/FR-III/86-9, dt 20.8.87 with an area of 134.05. ha. The Maravakadu RF is located in Pattukottai taluk of Thanjavur district. The term “endophytes” includes a suite of microorganisms that grow intra-and/or intercellularly in the tissues of higher plants without causing over symptoms on the plants in which they live, and have proven to be rich sources of bioactive natural products (Tan and Zou, 2001). Suaeda monica leaves and rhizosphere soil of the plant was collected during four seasons, premonsoon, monsoon, post monsoon and summer. Sterilized and fragmented leaves were maintained in petridishes with Potato Dextrose Agar medium (PDA) at 280 C until the isolation of the fungi. Soil fungi was isolated using Warcup, 1950 method. Thirty species representing 11 genera, 3 morphotypes determined as mycelia sterilia. Maximum number of fungi isolated from the fresh leaves of Suaeda monica. Phoma sp, Aspergillus sp and Penicillium sp were most frequently isolated. 9 species recorded from soil and endophytic fungi. Choanephora present only in rhizosphere soil. Maximum number of fungi isolated from summer season, minimum number of fungi isolated from monsoon season. Majority of the fungi belongs to Ascomycota and Deuteromycota.

  47. Ambika, R., Kavitha, P., Panneerselvam, A. and Sengottaian, N.

    Rhizobium species were isolated from the rhizosphere soil of maize plants and studied for their ability to produce bacteriocins. Rhizobium, a nitrogen fixing bacteria can live in the rhizosphere soil of non-leguminous plants, exist freely and entraps atmospheric nitrogen and converts the unreactive nitrogen molecule to ammonia, a form that is readily utilize by plants. Rhizosphere soil from maize plants were collected from Lalgudi Taluk, Trichy District and identified based on their morphological and biochemical characters. The efficient strains were used for the production of bacteriocin.

  48. Nongmaithem, N., Roy, A. and Bhattacharya, P. M.

    Heavy metals are constantly being released into the ecosystem resulting in soil pollution which in turn enters in to the food chain through crops and also affect the microbial health in soil. Some heavy metals are essential for plants and microbes in trace amount but become toxic at high concentration whereas, others are toxic even in trace amount. Since microbial growth is affected by the presence of heavy metals in soil, in the study attempt was made to determine the effect of two metals viz., cadmium and nickel on mycelial and carpogenic growth of R. solani. The results revealed that as nonessential heavy metal cadmium is highly toxic to R. solani at 2-3ppm and nickel although be an essential metal element, however becomes toxic above 60 ppm concentration.

  49. Rajesh Kumar, Gajendra Singh Rajpoot and Reenu Chaudhary

    Propolis is a natural composite balsam, collected by honey bees from the buds of various plants. Propolis collected from beekeepers was tested for it’s antioxidant & free radical scavenging activities. Propolis was found to have polyphenol, flavnoids and quercetin substance in abundance, which possess properties like anti-inflammatory, anti-cancer, anti-allergic, anti-toxic and antioxidant properties. The aim of present study is to study therapeutic activities in Indian propolis obtained from Apis mellifera L.

  50. Deepa James and Gleena Mary, C. F.

    Microorganisms such as fungi, bacteria and viruses produce a mixture of structurally related compounds referred to as secondary metabolites which have no function in their physiological development. The natural products of microbial origin are categorized into insecticides, fungicides, bactericides, herbicides and nematicides. The major insecticides of microbial origin include avermectins, milbemectins and spinosyns isolated from actinomycetes. Bacteria such as Bacillus thuringiensis and Photorhabdus luminescens are considered to be potential insecticides. Fungicides and bactericides from microbes comprise of strobilurins, blasticidin, kasugamycin, and validamycin among which, strobilurins are the new generation fungicides effective against both higher as well as lower fungi. Different species of Pseudomonas and Trichoderma have emerged as potential biocontrol agents for the major diseases of commercial crops. Hence, several beneficial microorganisms have been found to be the active ingredients of a new generation of microbial pesticides or the basis for many natural products of microbial origin.

  51. Srinivas Pai, K., Sanjay B. Bhagoji and Anupam Biswas

    Background and objectives: Hypertension and abnormalities of lipid profile often co-exist. Several well conducted epidemiological studies have demonstrated that cholesterol levels are significantly higher in hypertensive patients than in age, sex and body mass index matched normotensive patients. Hence this study is undertaken to study the demographic profile of hypertensive patient (sex, age group and other comorbid factors) and Comparison of lipid levels between hypertensive and healthy subjects. Methodology: Present study was conducted in Kasturba Medical College and Hospital, Mangalore on 50 hypertensive and 50 normal subjects aged (30-80 yrs.). Lipid profile was estimated for Total cholesterol (CHOD-PAP Method), HDL Cholesterol (second-generation enzymatic colorimetric method), Triglycerides (GPO-PAD method), LDL-C-[Total cholesterol –(HDL-C+VLDL-C) and VLDL-Cholesterol (VLDL –C). Following were the statistical tests used; CHI – SQUARE TEST, Z – MANN WHITNEY TEST, and H – KRUSKUL WALLIS TEST. Results: All the lipid fractions TC, TGL, LDL-C, VLDL, TC/HDL-C ratio were higher in the hypertensive than those in the healthy controls. This study found no significant difference in hypertensive and non-hypertensive Subjects in relation to veg and non-veg diet. The values of diabetics with hypertension showed no significant increase in mean lipid levels when compared with diabetics without hypertension. There was a very highly significant increase in TC, TG and VLDL (P<0.001) in obese compared to non-obese patients. Interpretation and Conclusion: In the present study group age range was from 30-80 years and mean age was 55 years. Higher numbers of patients of hypertension were seen between age group 50-60 years contributing to 36% of the cases studied. There was no significant difference in the mean values of lipid levels in IHD and non-IHD hypertensives. There was no statistically significant different between the hypertensive and normal subjects in the relation to smoking and alcohol consumption. There are no statistically significant difference in the lipid level with men and women with hypertension. In this study we observed that factors like type of diet, diabetes, smoking, alcohol consumption, age, sex and is chaemic heart disease contributed to the observed results very less when compared with the obesity.

  52. Jehan Abdul Sattar Salman and Dijlah Abdullah Alimer

    In this study, production of biosurfactant by Lactobacillus rhamnosus isolated from vagina of Iraqi healthy women was studied. The optimal condition of biosurfactant production including aeration, growing at different temperature for different incubation periods of times were studied. Anaerobic condition for 24 hours at 30°Cwas fitting to biosurfactant production. Additionally, biosurfactant was extracted by chloroform: methanol (2:1) and partially purified by acid precipitation, surface activity of crude and partial purified biosurfactant were studied, antibacterial, antiadhesion and antibiofilm activities were evaluated against some Urinary tract infectioncausative bacteria, including Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumonia, Burkholderia cepacia and Staphylococcus aureus isolated from urine samples of Iraqi women suffering from UTI. Crude biosurfactant showed surface activity higher than partial purified biodurfactant.Both crude and partial purified biosurfactant showed inhibitory effect against UTI causative bacteria at concentration (32) mg\ml against S.aureus, K.pneumonia and B.cepacia, and (64) mg\ml against E.coli, and showed inhibitory effect on adherence and biofilm formation of these bacteria, K.pneumoniawas more sensitive to biosurfactant follow by S.aureus, while B.cepacia was more resist.

  53. Süleyman AYDIN, Münevver SUBAŞI and Elif Berrak GÜNDÜZ BAHADIR

    The purpose of this study is to determine whether there are differences between the effects of computer based animation techniques and worksheets in the unit of granular structure of matter on 6th grade students’ academic success. In this study semi-experimental method was used. The study sample consists of 43 6th grade students. An achievement test consisting 20 multiple choice item was used as a tool for data collection. During the application period, computer based animations were used in one of the sample group while in the other were worksheets. Study data were evaluated using SPSS 15 software package program. To analyze Independent Sample T-Test was used to determine between the effects of the techniques mentioned above. From the findings after finishing the study it was seen that the academic success obtained from the data of group where computer based animations used in, is more effective than the academic success obtained from the data of group where worksheets used in.

  54. Gajbhiye, B. R. and Bhoye, R. C.

    An investigation was carried out to studies on sulphur fractions in soils of Lohara tahsil of Osmanabad district during 2011-12. For study, 180 representative soil samples were collected from 30 different villages of Lohara tahsil. The collected soil samples were grouped into three orders viz, Vertisols, Inceptisols and Entisols. Out of the total surveyed soil samples, 37 per cent soil samples were grouped under Vertisols while, 40 and 23 per cent soil samples were grouped under Inceptisols and Entisols, respectively. These soil samples were analysed for chemical properties and sulphur fractions. The soils of Lohara tahsil were alkaline in reaction and found safe limit of electrical conductivity for growing crops. Organic carbon content in study area was low to medium while, these soils were calcareous in nature, Available S were categoried as low while, total and other remaining forms of S were noted as low to medium in soils. The pH, EC and CaCO3 were negatively but significantly correlated with sulphur forms whereas, organic carbon was positively and significantly correlated with all forms of sulphur under Vertisols, Inceptisols and Entisols of Lohara tahsil of Osmanabad district.

  55. Srinivasa Rao, D., Bhaskara Rao, M., Prayaga Murty, P. and Venkaiah M.

    The paper provides information on 158 species of ethno botanical plants belonging to 68 genera of 54 families of Angiosperms and one pteridophyte used by the primitive and aboriginal people of Makkuva mandal, Vizianagaram district, Andhra Pradesh. The tribal people of Makkuva Mandal largely depend on herbal medicines, plants products for primary health care and their daily life.

  56. Priyanka Rani Majumdar, Abdullah-Al Mamun and Bhakta Supratim Sarker

    The research work was conducted to demonstrate the management strategies of the floodplain area and socio-economic improvement of people for floodplain aquaculture of Begumgonj upazilla situated in Noakhali District of Bangladesh. Data were collected through focus group discussion and interviewing with farmers and committee members of the floodplain (dogi) management. The studied floodplain (dogi) area (Sonali community based fish culture project) is 12 acre which was brought under floodplain aquaculture project by RFLDC-DANIDA. Almost 90000 fish fingerlings were stocked in floodplain during May-June. Average fish production in the Sonali community based fish culture project were 13% prawn, 50% carp, 4% SIS and 33% large fingerling. Average expenditure of fish culture was BDT 89025.00 and income from floodplain was BDT 141500.00. The results of the present study indicate that community-based fish culture in floodplain is technically feasible, economically profitable, environmentally non-destructive, and socially acceptable. In marketing systems, local agents, whole sellers, local fish traders and retailers may be present as a middleman.

  57. Babby, A., Elanchezhiyan, C., Suhasini S. and Chandirasegaran, G.

    Tannic acids are a naturally abundant plant phenolic compound in the human diet and are known to have drug property for some diseases. In the present study the antidiabetic efficacy of tannic acid was investigated experimentally. The diabetes was induced by intraperitoneal injection single dose of streptozotocin (50mg/kg b.w). After three days (72hr) of induction of diabetes. The diabetes animals were treated with tannic acid (200mg/kg b.w) and glibenclamide (600µg /kg b.w). Blood glucose estimation was performed every week of the study The tannic acid treated diabetic rats significantly decreased the level of body weight, blood glucose as well as increased level of insulin, glycogen and lowering level of creatine levels. These finding demonstrated that tannic acid possess anti hyperglycemic activity against STZ induced diabetic rats. The antidiabetic effects of tannic acid was compared with standard anti diabetic drug glibenclamide.

  58. Abbas Hmood Al-Khafajy

    The In recent years many researchers has been focused on the use of biomass residues as low cost and locally available adsorbents for the removal of different organic and inorganic chemicals by the adsorption process. In this study the powder of Oleaster Seed were used in their charcoal form for the removal of Bovine serum Albumin (BSA)and Egg white Albumin(EWA)from aqueous solution. Various experimental parameters such as BSA and EWA concentrations, contact time, adsorbent dose, pH and temperature were studied to establish the conditions for the removal of BSA and EWA. Isotherm data were fitted to the Langmuir and Freundlich adsorption isotherm equations. Results showed that the maximum extent of adsorption occurs in pH=5 and pH=3 at a temperature of 302K for Oleaster Seed charcoal respectively. Thermodynamic data ΔG, ΔH and ΔS showed that the adsorption process is exothermic on the surface of Oleaster Seed.

  59. Shriram, S.

    Computers, Mobile phones and the Internet have become part of our life. As most human activities are part of computer and mobile networks, many traditional crimes have also changed their modus operandi and certain new crimes have come into existence. Most of these instruments permit their users a high degree of privacy. The technology does not distinguish between use and misuse, cyber criminals enjoy privacy too. The internet is a global medium while laws are mostly local. This makes investigation agencies difficult to find jurisdiction when a cyber crime originated out from a different country.

  60. Rasha Hosny, Th. Abdel-Moghny, Ramzi, M., Desouky, S. E. M. and Shama, S. A.

    Treatment and disposal of large amount of oily produced water is a considerable economic and environment burden for oil and gas industry. The treatment of produced water requires the separation of suspended and dissolved component such as emulsified oil droplets. The goal of this research is to prepare chitosan as a natural polymer from chitin to yield clean oily produced water has enough beneficial uses like drilling, stimulating, or water flooding. The prepared chitosan characterized by the FT-IR spectrometry, and X-ray diffraction. Then, the percentage of oil droplets removal was evaluated by HPLC and SEM (scanning electron microscopy). It was found that the chitosan could successfully remove 81.45% of residual oil at 0.01ppm dosage, under mixing time at 20 min, mixing rate 200 rpm, sedimentation time for 30 min and a pH value ranging from 5.0 to 6.0.

  61. James Ochepo Adikwu

    Although land capability assessment provides a ranking of the ability of an area to support a range of agricultural activities on a sustainable basis people in most parts of the world show less interest than apathy to it. More often than not, farmers in most nations depend on local knowledge of land capability identification; employing especially vegetation type parameter rather than empirical studies of soils together with other attributes of the land. In Nigeria, the demand for good understanding of the physical characteristics of land, its inherent qualities and farm management practices in the nation to maximize profits in agricultural investments in recent times is great. This study is undertaken in Obagaji Area in that spirit. Some specific materials used include compass, spade, pickaxe, trowel, tape measure, containers for soil samples, soil auger and note book. The primary sources of data for this study are the farmers and their farms while maps: 1:250000 map of Nigerian Vegetation and Land use covering 1976/1993/95 periods on four adjoining sheets;-64:Markurdi are the secondary sources. Data analysis involved the use of descriptive statistics. The data collected for this study include soil field texture, general thickness of soil profile, soil erosion hazards, water logging and flooding, land use and farm management practices. Soil sample collected at root depth were analyzed for texture, permeability and internal drainage. The land capability map was prepared based on the observed general textural characteristics and depth of the soil, degree of slope and erosion hazards. The maps were prepared based on the guidelines for soil profile description presented by the Food and Agricultural Organization of the United Nations. Class II is the dominant soil class in the study area, while loamy soil is the commonest soil textural class. Generally, the soils are both non-alkaline and non-saline. Obagaji area is a farming region where a large number of farmlands are left unused while many others are underutilised, only a negligible number are intensively cultivated. Emphasis has been on extensive farming system rather than intensive system.

  62. Akpan, Patrick Udeme-obong

    This work Investigates using the Ansys fluent CFD tool, the pressure difference exerted on a bluff body object and discusses the flow field from inlet to outlet. The objectives of this work are to discuss the flow field from inlet to outlet, to investigate the pressure difference exerted 25mm upstream and 25mm downstream of the bluff body object for different volumetric flow rates (4 l/s, 5 l/s and 8 l/s).The total pressure losses across the plate for the 4 l/s, 5 l/s and 8 l/s flows are 17.38 kPa, 27.14 kPa and 69.62 kPa respectively. These losses are partly due to the level of turbulence with the 8 l/s flow having the maximum turbulence intensity of over 250% exceeding those of the 4l/s and 5l/s flows which are ~130% and ~160% respectively. When compared with the mean operating pressure (101.325 kPa), these pressure losses represents 17.1%, 26.8% and 68.7% change for 4l/s 5 l/s and 8 l/s flows respectively.

  63. Nandhikumar, R., Dr. Subramani, K. and Dr. Syed Shafi, S.

    In the present investigation newer and simple synthetic methods of 2- (1, 2, 3- benzotriazol -1- yl – methyl) thiozolidine acetic ethyl ester is described. Benzotriazole 1 is converted to carbothioamide 3 by reaction with ethylchloroacetate followed by thiosemicarbazide. The compound 3 is converted t o corresponding thiazolidine compound by treatment with Diethyl Acetylene Dicarboxylate (DEAD) With Thiosemicarbazone Derivatives. Structural elucidation is accomplished by IR, and 1 H NMR spectral data of the synthesized compounds. Based on the antibacterial studies of the compound 1 and 2, it can be concluded that compound 2 showed (plate-1)high activity against Escherichia coli (gram -negative bacteria) at 100µgconcentration then compound 1.

  64. Sumithra, R. and Manjunatha, N.

    The problem of Magneto-Marangoni-convection is investigated in a two layer system comprising an incompressible electrically conducting fluid saturated porous layer over which lies a layer of the same fluid in the presence of a vertical magnetic field. The lower rigid surface of the porous layer and the upper free surface are considered to be insulating to temperature perturbations. At the upper free surface, the surface tension effects depending on temperature are considered. At the interface, the normal and tangential components of velocity, heat and heat flux are assumed to be continuous. The resulting eigenvalue problem is solved exactly for both parabolic and inverted parabolic temperature profiles and analytical expressions of the Thermal Marangoni Number are obtained. Effects of variation of different physical parameters on the Thermal Marangoni Number for both profiles are compared.

  65. Dr. Ahmed Najem Abd

    This research reports measurement the densities ρ, and refractive indices, , for the systems of (N.M. Morpholine + n-nanone + n-octane + n-heptane) and (N.M. Morpoline + 1-nanonal + 1-octanol + n-heptane) over the rang of temperatures (293.15k – 323.15k). From experimental data of densities, and refractive indices, the excess molar volumes, , and excess refractive indices , were calculated for quaternary systems. The excess function results for these systems were observed rocking between positive and negative deviation from ideality depending on molecular interaction in these system. The Flory theory has been extended for the theoretical prediction of excess molar volumes of quaternary systems studied here depending on the pure component liquid parameters. The theory predicted the volumetric behavior and magnitudes of, , well. Refractive indices for quaternary system studied in this work can be predicted by using different refractive indices mixing rules, found good agreement between the experimental and predicted values of the refractive indices for the quaternary system studied here.

  66. Er. Mohd. Saif and Dr. Mohammad Tariq

    In the present work the thermal performance analysis of a simple open cycle gas turbine power plant which is situated at Uran in district Raigad of Maharashtra, India is carried out at varying ambient temperature and pressure ratio and a comparison is made from the stipulated ISO conditions. The analysis of the cycle has been carried out using software developed in C++. The results show that for every 50C rise in ambient temperature the gas turbine loses 0.44 % in terms of thermal efficiency and 0.5 MW of its useful power. Also there is a loss of 3.36 % in thermal efficiency at pressure ratio 9 as ambient temperature increases from 283 K to 313 K, this loss increases up to 3.89 % at pressure ratio 21, which reveals that, as pressure ratio increases percentage loss in thermal efficiency increases on increasing the ambient temperature. The thermal performance analysis reveals that, the ambient temperature and compression ratios are strongly influence the performance of gas turbine power plant.

  67. Ade Adedokun

    In most urban centres like Lagos, conversion of Residential structures for pressing commercial needs ‘seems to have become the norm. Residential properties always get built because of the sustained demand which guarantees good return. Once trends begin to suggest that there are higher returns to gain from commercial property they begin to convert existing buildings especially when it is difficult to get suitably located land and the cost of building is high. Given the above scenario it becomes relatively cheaper to convert existing residential structures to other uses, more so since existing residential areas have the added advantage of being in the city center with access to existing services such as electricity, water supply, telephone and transportation. Such locations also offer advantages of proximity to require labour and markets. The market forces when aggressively pursued as a major determinant in property development in the urban centres as a result of either bad planning or weak planning management tend to obviate the ‘public good” that is inherent in good planning. Worse still is a situation where such a force is allowed to invade the “Planned Residential Areas (PRA) which are both symbol and model for urban life and development. The paper tries to turn away from the theoretical background and assumptions, associated with market enforces in real estate to highlight the consequences associated with conversion. It is Pertinent to mention that policy decisions at any level are not to be seen as immutable for flexibility is the keynote of successful property management.

  68. Tiene M. B. Turangan, Amin Setyo Leksono, Soemarno and Diana Arfiati

    The study was conducted to examine the distribution of the invasion of water hyacinth on the lake surface Tondano. Research methods spatial approach to the analysis and interpretation process of digitization of satellite imagery application SIGs that ArcGIS 10. The data used are: Landsat satellite image of Quick bird with a spatial resolution of 0.6 meters recording in 2006 and 2011. Based on the results obtained image interpretation, the distribution of water hyacinth invasion (Eichornia crassipes) has grown and spread of high speed, so the plant is considered a weed that damages aquatic environments and greatly contribute to water quality, lake eutrophication and silting process. The rate of spread of water hyacinth is different in each observation station, due to differences in content of nutrients, especially nitrogen and phosphate in the water. Based on the analysis of satellite imagery interpretation and digitization of 2006 wider distribution of water hyacinth 130.77 hectares or 2.82% in 2011 and increased to 292.66 hectares or 6.32%. This means that during the period 2006 - 2011 water hyacinth increased by 161.89 ha with an average annual growth of 32.38 Ha. Based on the data rate distribution hyacinth invasion, may predict the next few years will be entirely Tondano lake surface is covered by water hyacinth management if no serious action.

  69. Kumar, E., aRajasekaran, S. and Muthuraj, D.

    Trimanganesetetraoxide (Mn3O4) nanoparticles have been synthesized via Microwave Assisted solution method. The structural analysis was carried out using X-ray diffraction. It showed that the Mn3O4 nanoparticles exhibited tetragonal hausmannite structure. Grain sizes were estimated from Particle size analyser, XRD and Transmission Electron Microscopy images. The size of the nanoparticles is around 24 nm. The Mn3O4 product was investigated by X-ray diffraction, FT- IR, Particle size analyzer, SEM and HRTEM studies.

  70. Srivastava, K. K., Shubha Srivastava, Md. Tanweer Alam and 1Rituraj

    The interaction between picric acid (acceptor) and o-phenanthroline (donor) have been studied spectrophotometrically in THF solvent for the evaluation of reliable value of association constant in the formation of weakly bounded charge transfer complex. The value of association constant (K) was calculated using standard equations such as Benesi-Hildebrand, Scott, Foster Hammick Waldley, Rose Drago Ayad, El-Hati, Lang, Scatchard, Seal-Sil Mukherjee, at wavelengths358.5 378, 400 and 420 nm in THF solvent. The value of association constant of the 1:1 complex insolution, calculated by different standard equations ranges between 1561 and 4928. The wide range of variation of the calculated values of K led us to guest for the reliable value. The reliability of different calculated values was examined. The Benesi- and Hildebrand method was found to give most reliable value of K. The most reliable value of K for complex was found to be 1907. The stoichiometry of the complex was established spectrophotometrically by Jobs’s method of constant variation.

  71. Dr. Sekar P. C. Subburajan, M. and Reuben, D.

    Risk is an integral part of financial services. When financial institutions issue loans, there is a risk of borrower default. When banks collect deposits and on-lend them to other clients (i.e. conduct financial intermediation), they put clients’ savings at risk. Any institution that conducts cash transactions or makes investments risks the loss of those funds. Development finance institutions should neither avoid risk. Like all financial institutions, microfinance institutions (MFIs) face risks that they must manage efficiently and effectively to be successful. If the MFI does not manage its risks well, it will likely fail to meet its social and financial objectives. When poorly managed risks begin to result in financial losses, donors, investors, lenders, borrowers and savers tend to lose confidence in the organization and funds begin to dry up.

  72. Henry Ajagbawa

    Economic and social development is a common theme pursued by the human race. The United Nations (UN) has adopted a far more robust and inclusive measure of comparability of human development amongst countries, the human development Index (HDI) which incorporates socio-economic, political and related themes. The HDI measure is a more appropriate tool for comparative measure of the development of the human race across countries as opposed to Per capita GDP measures. Whereas, entrepreneurial activities are critical to economic development and indeed social, cultural, political, technological and environmental improvement of the society, we are not clear on the extent or nature of the relationship that may exist between the two phenomena. Our study would attempt to filter critical components, characteristics, activities and attitudes in entrepreneurship and set up a hypothesis to test if there is a causal relationship between both phenomena, and to isolate specific variables that best discriminate and or describe the behavior of the groups amongst the dependent variable cases.

  73. Debasmita Panigrahi and Prof (Dr.) B. N. Mishra

    The shift from the defined benefit to the defined contribution scheme in India has enveloped within its purview a lot of changes, the most essential being the attitude of the individuals towards planning for their retirement. The pension products offered by various life insurance companies was not considered much as a source of retirement saving due to the concept and existence of defined benefit system till 2003. Abolishment of defined benefit program combined with opening of the insurance market after the year 2000 to the private players gave rise to the increased purchase of these policies from the private companies. This paper basically deals with the selection of insurance companies based on various criteria’s like number of pension schemes offered by each company, the returns they provide to their customers, the flexibility in their investment options etc. So based on these criteria a weight is assigned to each of them and a final score is deduced with the help of Analytical Process Hierarchy and the companies are ranked based on their score. So looking into these scores an individual has to decide as to which company he/she has to invest his money to get higher returns and benefits.

  74. Augustin Amaladas, L.

    Business creates assets to self by using natural resources by creating social environmental liabilities by degradation of environment. Traditional double entry financial accounting is more concern about quantification of business transactions in terms of money. Traditional money measurement concept accounting is limited when it comes to measuring natural wealth degradation. We are behind the times… Jet pilots don’t use rearview mirrors. If we want to account for the environment, it is necessary to look ahead. Developing future accountants who can measure quantitatively the environmental degradation depends on the present commerce and management teachers who have ability to understand and teach the methods to measure, costs related to environmental degradation. It is a pleasure, challenge and duty of the commerce and management faculty throughout the world in particular in India to understand the importance of implementation of environmental accounting as a part of university curriculum as a nation building exercise. The present paper aims to discuss the significance of environmental accounting in Indian university curriculum. The data required for the study have been collected from primary and various secondary sources. This research is descriptive in nature. Understanding reliable estimates of environmental damages, upstream/downstream costs of pollution, recovery from the market (carbon credit), cost of management activities, research and development costs, costs for social programs and costs for handling environmental damage will help commerce teachers to inculcate knowledge in commerce students and the government to implement the environmental accounting in the near future in India.

  75. Azuka, C. V., Obi, M. E. and Igwe, C. A.

    Evaluating microaggregate stability and sesquioxides content of degraded Ultisol is important for sustainable management and productivity of the soils and our agroecosystem. A research was conducted in the runoff plots at the University of Nigeria Nsukka Teaching and Research Farm, in 2010 and 2011 to evaluate changes in microaggregate stability, and sesquioxides contents of Nkpologu sandy loam soil under different cover and soil management practices. The management practices were bare fallow (BF), grass fallow (GF), legume (CE), groundnut (GN), sorghum (SM), and cassava (CA) cultivation. Soil samples for analysis were taken at 0-20 cm depth at the end of each cropping season and five-month interval. There were significant effect (p<0.05) of soil and cover management on the sesquioxides (Fe2O3 and Al2O3) and the organic matter (O.M.) contents. Fe2O3 recorded the lowest value (5.88%) under the BF while the highest value (10.18%) was recorded under SM. However, the lowest value (0.265%) of Al2O3 was recorded under GN, and the highest value (0.345%) was recorded under CA. Although, the soil and cover management practices did not have significant effect (p<0.05) on the microggregate stability indices; water dispersible silt (WDSi) and clay (WDC), clay flocculation index (CFI), dispersion ratio (DR), aggregated silt and clay (ASC), and clay dispersion index (CDI) measured, there were traces of variability (CV 16-31%) in the microaggregate stability indices under the different soil and cover management practices. The most varied index was WDSi (CV 30.8%) while the least varied index was DR (CV 16%).Both Fe2O3 and O.M. had significant high positive correlation with DR (0.6658; 0.7615) and CDI (0.6068; 0.5360), but significant high negative correlation with ASC (-0.7675; -0.6918) and CFI (0.6068; -0.5360) respectively. However, while Fe2O3 had significant high positive correlation with WDC, O.M. content had a poor positive correlation with WDC. On the other hand, Al2O3 had poor correlation with all the microaggregate stability indices studied. The sesquioxides and O.M. had similar but opposite correlation coefficients with CDI and CFI respectively. It was clear that O.M. and Fe2O3 played major role in the microaggregation of the soil studied. A continuous vegetative cover management practices and adequate crop residue management were recommended for this soil, due to its fragile nature to minimize further structural degradation and further leaching of the basic cations in the soil which affects the sesquioxides and O.M. contents.

  76. John Aluko Orodho

    This paper assesses the financing mechanisms of Free Day Secondary Education (FDSE) education policy focusing on the sustainability of the programme in terms of fostering the desired equity and quality of education provided. It is concerned with one main question: What is the unfinished business in the current education financial arrangement in Kenya? To answer the question, the paper sets out to achieve three objectives: To profile the current trends in enrollment and equity in secondary school education in Kenya; to assess the funding strategy for the secondary education sectors in the country; and to examine the emerging challenges and implications of the free education policy in Kenya in order to establish the unfinished business. The source of data for the paper was a combination of secondary data through desk literature review and primary data from interviews with 136 secondary school teachers and principals pursuing their school-based degree programmes at Kenyatta and Mount Kenya Universes during the 2012/2013 academic year. The major finding is that while on the one hand the implementation of the policy has resulted into exponential quantitative growth in students’ enrollment; on the other hand , the education sector is fraught with multifarious and intertwined finance related challenges of providing quality and equitable education thereby resulting in conspicuously wide and severe regional and gender disparities in access to, and quality of education. The funds meant for the day secondary schools are grossly inadequate and irregularly remitted to schools and this has exacerbated acute shortages of essential learning physical and human resources forcing teachers to resort to unconventional instructional techniques. The overall impact has been low quality outcomes of education and emergence of compulsory latent user charges to be shouldered by the already over-burdened poor households, especially those residing in urban slums and ASAL regions. It is concluded that the unfinished business in the current Government funding strategy is to make is sustainable and hence there is an urgent need to devise alternative additional sources of funding in order to increase the current capitation from a flat rate of Khs.10, 265 to 32,747 for boys and 33,707 for girls who should get an extra Ksh.960 to meet their sanitary needs. It is recommended that day secondary schools in Kenya should be encouraged to generate extra funds from income generating activities and work out mechanisms of eradicating all bottlenecks related to additional educational financial burden for children from poor socio-economic backgrounds that hinder them from accessing equitable and quality education.

  77. Abudu Sakara, Moses Namong and Samuel Kofi Badu-Nyarko

    The effectiveness and success of family planning depends on the involvement of couples (wife and husband) but this hardly happen in most communities as evidenced in the Wa municipality of Ghana. It is the belief, though erroneously among most males that the practice of family planning should be the sole responsibility of the female. This paper examines the factors, which inhibit male active involvement in family planning practice, and the strategies that can be implemented to make males effective and reliable partners in family planning practice in the Wa District of the Upper West region, Ghana The survey method, using the purposive and simple random sampling techniques was employed. Data for the study were gathered by the use of focus group discussions, structured interview schedules and questionnaire from a sample size of 160 respondents made up of married men and staff of the Reproductive Health unit of Ministry of Health. The findings of the study revealed that men perceive family planning as a preserve for women. The militating factors against male involvement identified include lack of attractive, safe and convenient male contraceptives, female oriented family planning facilities, service providers tend to be mostly females, high premium placed on children, disapproval of modern contraceptives by their religions- the catholic and Islamic faiths, the association of family planning with promiscuity and pressure to have many children by polygamous family The strategies identified by the study for effective male involvement include intensive education on benefits, misconceptions and rumours based on level of formal education ,traditional setting , geographical location and vocation of the people. The target for education should include religious leaders, chiefs and opinion leaders who are custodians of these deep rooted cultural and religious beliefs

  78. Ayodeji K. Ogundana, Jamiu A. Aladejana, Oluwakemi O. Oladapo-Adeoye and Abel O. Talabi

    Investigation of the bituminous sand in parts of the eastern Dahomy basin was conducted to establish its lateral continuity across the area. The study area cuts across Irele and Odigbo Local Government Areas of Ondo State and Ovia-West Local Government Area of Edo State, Nigeria. Five core holes (BTW–1, BTW–2, BTW-3, BTW-4, and BTW-5) each of diameter 75mm were bored using mechanical rig. BTW-1 and BTW-2 are located at Ayadi village and Ajana-Ejidokun in irele and Odigbo Local Government Area of Ondo State respectively while BTW-3, BTW-4 and BTW-5 are located within Ibru Farm in Ovia-West Local Government Area of Edo State. Seven different lithologic units (Lateritic Topsoil, Sand, Shaly-sand, Shale, Limestone, Bituminous sand and Basement) were identified. The average overburden thickness in the study area is 14.8m while the average depth to the basement is 34m. Wells BTW-3, BTW-4 and BTW-5 encountered basement at shallow depths of 30m, 42m and 30m respectively indicates reduction in depth to basement towards north-eastern sector of the study area. The average Correlation of the holes revealed two bituminous horizons encountered by wells BTW-2, BTW-3 and BTW-4 while wells BTW-1 and BTW-5 encountered one bituminous horizon. The average thickness of the first bituminous horizon is 1.7m while that of the second bituminous horizon is 3m. Results of the study have established lateral continuity of the bituminous sand across the area but with reduced thickness towards Ovia-West Local Government Area of Edo State, Nigeria.

  79. Al-Otaibi N. M., El-Sabrouty, M. N. and Shehata, M. A.

    Fourty thin sections were prepared for the study of the shell wall microstructure of the molluscan shells were collected from Abhor, Jeddah, Kingdom Saudi Arabia. The studied shells comprise: Arca imbricate, Anadara (Anadara) antiquate, Tellina rugosa, Spondylus (Spondylus) gaederopus Tridacna gigas, Chama pacifica, Cardites antiquate, Dosonia (Dosonia) radiate, Barbatia barbata, Turbo argyrostomus, Nerita polita, Cerithium ruppelli, Strombus gibberulus, Strombus fasciatus, Bursa granularis, Cypraea staphylae, Conus virgo, Nassarius arcularis, and Terebra nebulosa.The detailed microscopic examination has revealed many observations of shell wall microstructures.

  80. Emenike, Maureen Ifeyinwa

    The Role Of Traditional Education in the Development of the African Child is a paper that is intended to highlight the importance of restructuring the style and type of education used in the socialisation of the African Child at the early stages of his/her life in other for the child to imbibe the socio-cultural values of his/her society alongside the western type education. In my findings and research in personal identity crises, it is noted that when an individual does not properly assimilate a particular culture where he/she finds himself/herself. Such an individual does not come out well rounded. The paper has highlighted those forms of traditional types of education that should be integrated with the western type education and why.

  81. Dr. Vasantha, S., Mrs. Krithika M. and Miss. Dhyana Sharon Ross

    Viral marketing has emerged as an important concept in India as in other parts of the developing and developed countries and has become a necessary tool for every organization. Although there is increasing popularity among viral marketing, factors influencing to such a new communication medium, remains largely unknown. Hotmail has become one of the first to exploit online viral marketing since its email service was launched in the late 1990s, when every outgoing email contained a short message at the bottom with a link for people to click and sign up. In 1996, Steve and Tim also took advantage of viral marketing as a new phenomenon to promote the adoption of Hotmail, a free web-based e-mail service provider, and viral marketing launched this e-mail system from zero to 12 million subscribers in only18 months at very little cost (Shukla, 2010). Viral marketing has attained a large growth in popularity in last few years. This paper attempt to study the perception of the internet users on viral marketing and the role of social media on the growth of viral marketing Business firm have risen to occasion and have started responding to environmental challenge by practicing viral marketing strategies.

  82. Rahila Iftikhar, Razaz Tawfiq and Azra Kirmani

    Between January 2013 and December 2013, the medical records of 602 medical and applied medical students at King Abdulaziz University were audited to determine the risk of Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection. Fifty-two students (8.6%) had a positive purified protein derivative (PPD) test. From the positively tested students 27 students (51.9%) had an induration of ≥10 mm, while 25 students (48.1%) had an induration of > 12 mm. Of the students who tested positive, 23 students (44.2%) did not present for follow up or receive treatment; 2 students (3.8%) did not complete treatment. A chest X-ray was done in students with a positive PPD. Of these, 5.76% students had a positive X-ray finding, but they were not offered treatment. Overall, applied medical students at King Abdulaziz University are at risk of contracting tuberculosis. Students should be screened for tuberculosis as early as in the preclinical years to protect both students and patients. Students who test positive should be counseled and treated to prevent infection.

  83. Dr. Farquana Qushnood and Dr. Zaheera Sultana, S.

    Background and Objectives: Anemia is a serious health problem in India. Anemia which is often untreated or inadequately treated is emerging as a potential contributor to the development and progression of cardiovascular disease. Hence the present study was undertaken to find out LV function changes in severely anemic patients by Echocardiography. Methodology: Present study was conducted in Al-Ameen Medical College and Government district Hospital, Bijapur. 31 anemic patients (aged 18-40 yrs) and equal number of age and gender matched non anemic healthy individuals were volunteers. All anemic patients and controls were subjected for hemoglobin estimation and M mode 2D Echocardiography. Echocardiographic parameters- IVSTd, LVIDd, LVPWd, IVSTs, LVIDs, LVPWS, EDV, ESV, SV, CO, EF, FS were studied. Statistical analysis was done by Student’s unpaired‘t’ test. Results: Statistically significant variations were found in parameters- Wt, BSA, BMI, PR, DBP, LVIDd, LVIDs, EDV, ESV, SV, CO, EF, FS in anemic patients compared to controls. Ht, SBP, IVSTd, LVPWd, IVSTs, LVPWs showed no variation. Interpretation and Conclusion: The findings of increased LVIDd, LVIDs, EDV, ESV, SV, CO and decreased EF, FS, in anemic patients compared to controls may be as a consequence of hyperdynamic circulatory state leading to vascular and cardiac changes. These changes are mainly due to increased preload, decreased afterload, changes in cardiac geometry. These factors increases systolic wall stress resulting in eccentric LV hypertrophy and over time leads to LV systolic dysfunction.

  84. Isam E. Diaband Mahdi H. A. Abdalla (PhD)

    X-ray is one of the ionizing radiation that penetrates living tissues and generate chemically active free radicals these in turn potentially causes DNA damage. This study aimed to determine hematological changes, in particular total white blood cells count (TWBC), red blood cells count (RBC) and platelets count in X-ray workers in Sudan. Following informed consent, one hundred and twenty individuals; sixty apparently healthy volunteer X-ray technicians worked 8 hours a day for six days per week, and age and sex matched sixty unexposed healthy control were enrolled. TWBC, RBC and platelets count were determined for all participants. A significant correlation between a reduction in the TWBC count and the duration of the exposure to X-ray radiation was determined, however, no significant differences were observed in the mean values of RBC, TWBC and Platelets count between the X-ray technicians and the un-exposed healthy controls. We concluded that long-term exposure to X-ray may cause a low degree of severity of disease which is expressed in terms of haematological changes

  85. Mohammad Almohaimeed

    The objective: The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of developmental dental anomalies among the intermediate schools' Saudi students in Qassim region of Saudi Arabia. Subjects and Methods: The study was based on clinical examination of a selected dental anomalies among 2826 Saudi children (1562 male and 1264 female) aged 12-14 year from different administrative areas of Qassim, Saudi Arabia.The anomalies were related to the number, size and shape of permanent teeth. Results: The following anomalies were identified: hypodontia (0.4%), supernumerary teeth (0.1%), microdontia (0.4%), peg-shaped lateral incisors (0.6%), macrodontia (1.7%), dens in dent (0.1%) and talon cusp (1.0%).These anomalies were more prevalent in female than male children. Conclusion: The prevalence of the dental anomalies among 12-14 years old school in Qassim area showed to be higher than the recommended international rates.

  86. Dr. Varalakshmi K. L., Dr. Padmavathi G., Dr. Roopashree Ramakrishna and Dr. Suman Tiwari

    Craniovertebraljunction shows the presence of various anatomical variations and abnormalities. The present case report describes a case of fusion of superior articular facets of atlas vertebra with the occipital condyles, observed during the routine osteology classes for undergraduate medical students of MVJ Medical College and Research Hospital, Bangalore. Such type of complete or partial fusion of atlas vertebra with occipital bone is known as occipitocervical synostosis. Occipitalisation of atlas is associated with various neurological signs and symptoms ranging from mild headache to sudden unexpected death due to the narrowing of foramen magnum compressing the spinal cord or brain stem.

  87. Dr. Neeravari, Ashalatha, Dr. Siddiq.Mukkamil. Ahmed, Dr. A. R. Raghupathi, Dr. Natarajan.Muthuvelu and Dr. Ambreen Aman

    The prevalence of multiple myeloma is increasing and is the most common hematological malignancy in old age. Despite increasing knowledge at times the criteria for multiple myeloma are not fulfilled. This study was carried out to show the significance of diagnostic modalities in diagnosis of multiple myeloma based on hematological, biochemical, serum and urine electrophoresis, radiological imaging techniques, and bone marrow plasmacytosis since the clinical features of multiple myeloma are variable. It is important to make early diagnosis as diagnostic delays can cause morbidity and mortality. We report 29 cases of plasma cell dyscrasias out of which 25 cases were multiple myeloma, 3 MGUS & 1 of dysgammaglobulinaemia.

  88. Dr Cauvery, K. and Dr Naveen Karbhari

    Introduction: The shortage of health professionals in rural areas is a global problem. The urban and rural maldistribution of doctors results in severe problems regarding access to and performance of health care services. Retaining doctors in rural areas is a challenging task for a number of reasons, ranging from personal preferences to difficult work conditions and low remuneration. The objective of the study was to understand the factors influencing medical and dental house surgeons choice to work in rural PHC’s as a basis for designing policies to redress geographic imbalances in health professional’s distribution. Method: A total of 385 dental and medical house surgeons provided a unique contingent valuation data in a cross sectional survey conducted in 4 medical and 4 dental colleges in Maharashtra, using a questionnaire concerning their preferences, related incentives to work in various rural and remote primary health centres of Maharashtra state, India. Results: The response rate obtained for the study was 89 %, (n= 344), with only 24% of house surgeons expressing their willingness to serve in rural/remote primary health centres. Most of them stressed for increase in salary, better accommodation and infrastructure of the hospitals as the factors for increasing their retention in remote rural areas. Conclusion: Although most Indian students are motivated to study medicine and dentistry by the desire to help others, this does not translate into willingness to work in rural areas. Efforts from the government to build intrinsic motivation during medical and dental training to serve in these deprived areas should be in focus with addition to improved working and living conditions and better remuneration.

  89. Dr Cauvery, K. and Dr Naveen Karbhari

    Introduction: The shortage of health professionals in rural areas is a global problem. The urban and rural maldistribution of doctors results in severe problems regarding access to and performance of health care services. Retaining doctors in rural areas is a challenging task for a number of reasons, ranging from personal preferences to difficult work conditions and low remuneration. The objective of the study was to understand the factors influencing medical and dental house surgeons choice to work in rural PHC’s as a basis for designing policies to redress geographic imbalances in health professional’s distribution. Method: A total of 385 dental and medical house surgeons provided a unique contingent valuation data in a cross sectional survey conducted in 4 medical and 4 dental colleges in Maharashtra, using a questionnaire concerning their preferences, related incentives to work in various rural and remote primary health centres of Maharashtra state, India. Results: The response rate obtained for the study was 89 %, (n= 344), with only 24% of house surgeons expressing their willingness to serve in rural/remote primary health centres. Most of them stressed for increase in salary, better accommodation and infrastructure of the hospitals as the factors for increasing their retention in remote rural areas. Conclusion: Although most Indian students are motivated to study medicine and dentistry by the desire to help others, this does not translate into willingness to work in rural areas. Efforts from the government to build intrinsic motivation during medical and dental training to serve in these deprived areas should be in focus with addition to improved working and living conditions and better remuneration.

  90. Eliverta Zera, Prof. Ass Elizana Zaimi Petrela and Prof. Dr Mimoza Lezha

    Background: The patients suffering from hypertension demonstrate a higher risk development of CHD. Arterial hypertension (AH) is one of the main factors to cardiovascular diseases (CVD) and general mortality. Aim: The objective of this study was to determine the difference in the frequency of risk factors and in-hospital outcome in hypertensive and normotensive patients with AMI in Durres population, Albania. Methods: The study included 454 patients with acute myocardial infarction (AMI) admitted to in the Cardiology Department, Regional Hospital of Durres, Albania between January 2009 to October 2012 . In hypertensive and normotensive patients with AMI were analysed risk factors (cigarette smoking, age, gender, hypertension and blood lipids, diabetes, obesity, family history, previous MI,AMI localization) Results: Of 454 pts ,327(72.03%) were male and 127 (27.97%) were women. 264 (58.1%) patients were hypertensive. Comparing to men,women presented less frequently with hypertension (64.39% vs 35.61% to women respectively). Hypertensive pts were younger than normotensive pts (61.93±11.21 vs 64.81±10.85, p 0.005). We did not find significant differences in age among females or males in both groups (hypertensive vs normotensive). According to the age group a statistically significant difference was recorded only in the age group from 45-54 years. (12.1%vs 21.1% in normotensive (p 0.008). Hypertensive patients had obesity (p=0.017; RR:1.59; CI95%: 1.093-2.325) and dislipidemia (p<0.001, RR:4.04; CI95%: 2.651-6,161). Normotensive patients had smoking habits (p=0.002) and family history (p=0.021), No significant differences were found between hypertensive and normotensive patients with regard to other risk factors. In-hospital mortality was higher in hypertensive patients.13(4.9%) out of 14(3.1%) patients with fatal MI were hypertensive.(p=0.005, OD: 5.73;CI95%: 1.263-7.088). Conclusion: In hospital mortality was higher in hypertensive as compared to normotensive patients with AMI. Hypertensive patients were younger than normotensive patients. No significant differences were found between hypertensive and normotensive patients with regard to other risk factor. Women were older than men in both groups. It is not sufficient to analyze risk factors of patients with AMI stratified by hypertension status to accurately predict the early outcome.

  91. Vinsi M. S. and Dr. Mahipal Singh

    Cancer is the most leading cause of death worldwide among the women. Nurses play a vital role in the health care team and often assure responsibility for health, assessment, client education and concurrent method of diagnosis and treatment of cervical cancer. The objectives of the study are (a) To assess the knowledge regarding cervical cancer and its prevention among B.Sc Nursing Students. (b) To find out the different mean of knowledge score of cervical cancer and it’s prevention among four batches of B.Sc nursing students. The descriptive research design was used. The data was obtained from 142 samples studying in the Bombay Hospital College of Nursing, Indore. The finding of the study shows that there is significant difference in knowledge score about cervical cancer and its prevention among four batches of B.Sc. Nursing Students. Out of 142 samples B.Sc. nursing I year students 39 (27.4%), II year students 38(26.8%) III year students 25 (17.6%) and IV year students 40 (28.2%) were having very good knowledge regarding cervical cancer and its prevention.

  92. Dr. Nasser Ali Nasser Al-Jarallah

    Introduction: Examination of students’ beliefs about themselves, or self-theories, may provide important insight into their behaviour and these results shall contribute to the body of knowledge demonstrating the utility of the motivational concepts for understanding health sciences students’ effort and achievement. This study shall examine the relationship between the students’ believes about their intelligence, their curiosity and inquisitiveness, and whether these adaptive personal beliefs are predictive of their academic achievements. Method:A Sample of 245 students were randomly selected from different colleges offering medical and health sciences courses from various newly established universities in Saudi Arabia. Implicit Theories of Intelligence Scale and Curiosity and Exploratory Inventory were used for measuring the outcomes. Result:It was found that the incremental intelligence beliefs accounted for 25% of the variance in students’ course grades, F(3,563) = 40.98, p < .05, adj. R² = .31, whereas exploratory curiosity accounting for 13% and absorptive curiosity accounting for 8% of the total variance. Discussion: In our sample, the students’ incremental beliefs were significantly higher than their entity beliefs. Our results also showed that the students who believe intelligence is malleable are more likely to inquisitive behaviours; in our sample, the inquisitive behaviour were significantly positively associated with students’ course grade leading to excellence in academic performance.

  93. Dr. Smita S. Pudale, Dr. Bolde Saroj Ashok, Dr. Pandit Gopal Ambadas, Dr. Dhavale Rajashree Gajanan and Dr. Chikhale Nitin Pandharinath

    A wide spectrum of primary as well as secondary diseases can affect liver. In the present study liver was examined from clinical autopsies during the period of 5 year. The aim of study was to study spectrum of histopathological lesions encountered in liver autopsy. Five years retro prospective study included 451 clinical autopsies. Sections from liver were studied with the help of H&E and special stains wherever necessary. The various hepatic lesions in this study were circulatory disorders (29.05%), hepatitis (21.29%), steatosis, (16.18%), cirrhosis (4.43%), granulomatous hepatitis (3.10%) and various hepatic neoplasm (2.88%), hepatic abscesses (0.89%), liver disorder in pregnancy (0.67%), metabolic disorders (0.44%) and hepatic lesions in multisystem diseases like malaria (0.22%). Circulatory disorder was the most common finding followed by steatosis. Primary and secondary neoplasms were seen in 13 cases of liver autopsies. The serious and fatal lesions of fulminant hepatitis with sub massive and massive necrosis were found in 4 cases. An autopsy is a magnificent learning tool in the hands of pathologists to study the histopathological spectrum of diseases which help to study the in situ disease process as well as rare incidental diagnosis.

  94. Dr. Umesh Pratap Verma

    Pyogenic Granuloma is a type of inflammatory localized gingival enlargement of the oral cavity which is benign tumor like lesion. It occurs due to deleterious effects of chronic low grade irritation, trauma, hormonal factors and some drugs. This case report highlighted the presence of massive localized gingival enlargement in a 12 years old female child. History, Clinical, Radiological and Histopathological analysis showed that this is a case of pyogenic grnuloma. This is unique because of 12 years old child, rapidly growing nature and large size of lesion.

  95. Latha, G., Ambikapathy, V. and Panneerselvam, A.

    Mangroves provide a unique ecological environment for diverse microbial communities. Hence the present study revealed to analyze the diversity of the bacterial and fungal communities of a mangrove in Pichavaram of south India. Six samples of throwed and partially buried in soils were collected from various sites in Pichavaram, Samples were serially diluted and using pour plate technique, colonies were enumerated. Colony morphology, Biochemical studies were used to identify the microbes. This work will help to know about the diversity and ecological function of the bacterial communities found in mangrove ecosystems, especially in biodegradation of polyethylene.

  96. Singh, A.K., Gautam, U. S., Shrivastava, P., Jai Singh and Tomar, A. K.

    In India, the potential yield losses due to weeds in wheat are estimated upto 50 per cent depending upon degree of weed infestation, weed species and management practices. Due to improper application and stage, losses of herbicides increased manifold, be fond of significant reduction in crop yield with adverse effect on soil health. Nozzles used by farmers for herbicide spray, play a vital role in efficacy of herbicides. The efficacy of different nozzle systems viz. hollow cone, even flat fan, twin orifice flat fan, and full cone were assessed for the application of post emergence herbicides in irrigated wheat with a control treatment. The herbicides i.e. sulfosulfuron and 2,4-D were applied after 25 days after sowing of the crop, cv. HD 2864. Sprayer nozzle performance was evaluated in terms of weed density (m-2) weed biomass, plant height (cm), number of effective tillers/plant, grains/spike, wheat grain yield and wheat straw, at farmers’ field in Katni district of Madhya Pradesh during 2007-08 and 2008-09. Statistical analysis indicated that the nozzle type had significant effects on grain yield and dry biomass of weeds. The results revealed that the knapsack sprayer fitted with twin orifice flat fan nozzle for herbicide application, gave better weed control due to its comparatively less spray drift than the others. The weed density was observed highest in the herbicide applied using hollow cone nozzle due to its fine droplet size responsible for high spray drift and lowest in twin orifice flat fan nozzle followed by even flat fan and full cone nozzles respectively. The weed control efficiency of herbicides applied through full cone nozzle was also higher than the hollow cone nozzle. The yield attributes, grain and straw yield of wheat was noted high with twin orifice flat fan nozzle due to its better herbicide efficacy.

  97. Pandey Sudhanshu and Payasi, Devendra

    Thirty genotypes including two standard checks were tested under rainfed and irrigated situations separately. Correlation coefficient analysis revealed that pods plant-1and biological yield plant-1 was positively associated with seed yield under both situations. In rainfed condition secondary branches and hundred seed weight also showed positive association with seed yield and in irrigated condition pod-bearing length had shown positive association with seed yield. Path analysis revealed that hundred seed weight, pods plant-1, seeds pod-1, plant height and primary branches plant-1 under rainfed, and biological yield, pods plant-1, hundred seed weight, plant height, primary branches plant-1 and days to maturity under irrigated condition were found to be major contributors to the seed yield. These traits should get priority in selection scheme for high seed yield.

  98. Shivakumar P and Krishna M S

    Studies of age based female mate preference suggested that female preference for male age in different taxa was found to be mixed and various hypotheses have been proposed with conflicting prediction. The present study in D. malerkotliana noticed that females of all ages preferred to mate with a middle aged males more frequently than young or old males. Further middle aged males showed significantly greater courtship acts to courting females. The female showed least rejection behavior and copulated longer with middle aged male than young or old males. Female mated with middle aged male had produced a significantly greater number of progeny but insignificant variation was found in eggs laid by female mated with different male age classes. Female mated with middle aged male lived shorter. Thus our study in D. malerkotliana shows the occurrence of age based female mate preference and female preferred middle aged male to obtain direct fitness benefits.

  99. Dr. Hanamantrao Vitthal Deshmukh

    Dependence of different countries on fossil fuels, leads to increasing the cost of oil in world market. To overcomes this problem the countries have to give extra emphasis on indigenous and renewable energy sources. The present paper deals with the study of bio energy production mainly biogas by using Aquatic weed Echhornia and wastes from Agro- based industries like Distillery, Sugar industry, Dairy and Farm house waste. The pretreated and untreated Echhornia biomass alone and in combination with waste was used, there was marked increase in biogas production in weed and waste combination. Experiments were carried out in 1-L digester flasks; measurement of biogas was done by water displacement method. The biogas production was recorded up to 30 days. In general Distillery waste and pretreated Echhornia showed highest 616.33 mL/day biogas production. The use of Echhornia and Distillery waste can be made to supplement the conventional substrate like dung in urban and rural areas to augment the biogas production.

  100. Sowmya, M. L. and Hegde, S. N.

    Male mating a second female after the first (male remating) is a common feature particularly in mass culture of Drosophila. Female remating is not frequent as that of male remating, but yet it is reported in few species here we report that males of D.gangotri and D.nagarholensis, remounting the same female for second and subsequent times immediately after first mount. There was no relation between courtship latency and mating latency or copulation duration (first mount). However, the copulation duration of second and subsequent mounts gradually decreased in both the species. D.gangotri and D.nagarholensis also showed female remating. Even during female remating, the repeated male mounting occurred. Only the copulation duration of first mating and second mating of D.gangotri was not significant. Males of D.nagarholensis remounted the same female for three times, whereas D.gangotri mounted the same female twice, immediately after first mount. The male remounting is absent in D.kikkawaii and D.bipectinata. Fitness traits (Fecundity, hatchability, viability, fertility and sex ratio) were studied and result showed significant variation between first, second, third mounts for D.nagarholensis. In case of D.gangotrii except hatchability and sex ratio all other fitness traits showed significant variation between first and second mount.

  101. Sandhya Deepika, D., Laxmi Sowmya, K., Ratna Kumar, P. K. and Ashok, P.

    The present study was undertaken to evaluate the water quality of the Pedabida panchayat of Ananthagiri mandal in Visakhapatnam district with affable means. The physicochemical and the microbial studies are most important regions by which we are able to test the portability of water. The isolation and characterization of the pathogenic microorganism from the water sample collected were the main emphasized area of the study. In this study drinking water samples were collected from a bore, a well and a stream for a period of one years i.e., from April 2011 to March 2012. The various constituents monitored include the physicochemical characters, the bacterial parameters like Total plate count (TPC), Most probable number (MPN) and isolation and identification of pathogenic bacteria. The physicochemical characters of all the three drinking water samples were within the recommended permissible level of WHO. The total plate count was above the WHO guidelines values (<10CFU’s/ml) in the three water samples studied and the highest count was during August. The bacteria isolated were E. coli, Salmonella, Shigella, Staphylococcus, Group D Streptococcus, Vibrio cholera and V. parahaemolyticus and Pseudomonas. The samples were inoculated and were incubated at 370C for 24 hrs or 48hrs.for appropriate bacterial growths. Thus we can use this study for the assessment of the water and to resolve the hygienic problems of the water.

  102. Wanjala, Simon P. Omondi, Njehia, Bernard and Ngichabe, Christopher

    This study sought to assess the structure and performance of the milk market in Western Kenya. Quantitative data was collected from 385 milk consumers in four counties, while qualitative data was obtained from officials of selected cooperatives, Ministry of livestock and Kenya Dairy Board. Frequencies, percentages, means, correlation and chi square tests were used to analyze data. The findings of this study revealed that farmers and traveling traders supplied 58% of total milk traded, with 70% of the milk passing through the informal channel. Problems associated with milk suppliers included adulteration with water (65.5%), addition of chemicals (18%) and physical dirt (13.5%). There was a significant correlation between channel and contamination of milk (p<0.05). The region’s milk deficit was 177million litres/year, with demand estimated to be 392 million litres against a production of 215 million litres. The main milk markets included households, hotels, institutions who bought raw milk at USD 0.70 per litre while cooperatives bought at between USD 0.37 and USD 0.65. Consumers surveyed preferred quality (56%), price (27%), quantity (9%), packaging (5%) and reliability (3%) as attributes influencing choice of milk supplier. Based on these findings, milk marketing strategy in the region should prioritize quality and pricing. Though households, hotels and institutions offered good prices, they were unsustainable, scattered and unable to absorb increased volumes in an upgrading strategy designed to increase milk production. It is recommended that cooperatives, though comparatively buy milk at lower price, are the better option.

  103. Asma, V. M. and Afidam, K.

    Twenty sacred groves situated in Trichur District, Kerala, were selectedfor the study. 92 medicinal plant species are identified. The plants include 40 trees, 14 shrubs, 14 climbers and 24 herbs. The dicotyledons are 73 in number and Monocotyledons, 19. The identified plant species belonged to 46 families.

  104. Lad R. J. and Samant J. S.

    Rapid growth of construction activity, to meet the modern day requirements of increasing population and housing and infrastructure development needs of the society, has immensely boosted the demand for building materials in Kolhapur district. Stone quarrying continues to play major role in this process. However, the activity has caused serious environmental degradation and socio-economic conflicts in the study area. The major environmental and socio-economic problems related to quarrying revealed during this study include, landscape alteration, hill cutting affecting local biodiversity, generation of unproductive wastelands, dust pollution, noise pollution, illegal stone extraction, accidents and in some areas lowering of groundwater table.

  105. Srivastava, S. and Rahman, S.

    The most abundant and highly conserved HSPs are the HSP70 family members. They are known to perform a range of vital cellular functions under stressed as well as in normal conditions to maintain the intracellular integrity and in adaptation and survival of the parasite within the hostile environment. In most of the parasitic infection, parasitein its life cycle undergoes an inevitable thermal shift during migration between vectors and hosts. This shift results in producing a significant heat shock response to which the parasite counteracts to protect itself from aberrant conditions. HSPs, as known to play an essential role as chaperon and its functions are also being explored in recent times for their role in immune response. This review is showing a detail study of HSPs in various parasitic infections.

  106. Sandeep Kaushik, Khaling Mikawlrawng, Sonone N. G., Shweta Subramaniam and Ashish Kumar Choudhary

    Since time immemorial Simarouba glauca have been used as a natural medicine in the tropics. Aspergillus flavus, A. parasiticus, and Penicillium puberulum are well known transmitters of aflatoxin. Crude methanol and ethanol extracts from fresh and dried leaves of Simarouba glauca were tested for their inhibitory activity against pathogenic aflatoxin producing fungus Aspergillus parasiticus. Screening for the antifungal activity using well diffusion assay showed the inhibition against the tested fungi. Ethanolic extracts were found to be more effective as compared to methanolic extracts against the fungus. The present study shows that Simarouba glauca could be new a source for antifungal agent. The continuance of this study should include the isolation of the compounds responsible for the antifungal activity present in this medicinal plant.

  107. Sukhvinder Singh Purewal, Naresh Kumar, Pradeep Ganguly and Mukesh Kumar Jogi

    Present study was carried out to determine the quality of different water samples using various parameters i.e. pH, Total hardness, Residual chlorine, Conductivity, Chloride ion concentration, Dissolved oxygen, Acidity, Alkalinity, Total Dissolved Solids, Free Carbon Dioxide and Fluoride ion concentration. pH of different water samples were ranged from 7.09-8.06. Total Hardness varied from 1666-66.66 mg/l. Variation in conductivity was from 0.400-1.000. Chloride ion concentration ranged between 71.0-1056.2 mg/l. Variation on dissolved oxygen contents were between 0.6-1.0 mg/l. Acidity and alkalinity of different samples varied from 12.5-37.5 and 300-1125 mg/l. Total dissolved solids and fluoride content ranged between 0.01-0.03 mg/l and 0.111-0.610 mg/l respectively. Although there is no variations found in case of Residual chlorine and free carbon dioxide amount.

  108. Dr S. Karthika Nagarajan

    Background: Oral mucositis is a common, dose limiting and potentially serious complication of both radiotherapy and chemotherapy of head and neck cancer. Homeostasis of both malignant and normal host cells are affected. This study is conducted mainly to evaluate application of oral leukocytes as an indicator of mucositis progression during the course of chemo-radiotherapy (CRT). Methodology: 30 patients who were diagnosed as having malignancy and were undergoing CRT as treatment option using Intensity Modulated Radiation Therapy (IMRT) were selected and followed up through course of treatment. The procedure involved clinical scoring, collection of oral washings and preparation of buccal smears from both study group and control group. Results: The results revealed a significant occurrence of oral mucositis in almost all patients during followup. There was a significant increase in percentage of oral leukocytes in patients when compared to controls (P<0.005). There was a significant decrease in blood leukocyte level when compared to control (P<0.005). The changes in the oral neutrophil counts correlated with WHO clinical score. Conclusion: Assessment of oral leukocyte especially neutrophils can be considered for evaluation and prediction of mucositis development during CRT. Therefore, this assessment may be useful in research studies aimed at preventing mucositis and can also be used as an adjunct in tracking mucositis development and plan therapy.

  109. Laxmaiah.Kocharla and Dr. Raghava Rao, K.

    Wireless Sensor Networks play a vital role in applications like disaster management and human relief, habitat monitoring, studying the weather and eco systems, etc. Since the location of deployment of these WSNs is usually remote, the source of energy is restricted to battery. A Significant amount of work has been done by researchers in the past to achieve energy efficiency in WSNs. In this paper I propose a scheme to optimize the power utilization in a WSN. Many of the WSN applications form a tree topology for communication. In a WSN, that adopts tree topology, it is observed that the nodes at higher levels of the tree tend to consume more power when compared to those at lower levels. In our proposed workload-balance query/result routing tree construction scheme, I construct the final routing tree by keeping in mind the workload of nodes at various levels of the tree. This way, the tree construction takes place with workload at each level being evenly distributed among the nodes at that level. The proposed approach not only increases the lifetime of the network, but also utilizes the battery power optimally. Simulation results show a considerable increase in the lifetime, and effectiveness of the wireless senor network, as a result of applying our proposed tree construction technique.

  110. Rajalakshmi, S. and Aruna, S.

    Photochemistry, a sub discipline of chemistry is the study of interactions between light and atoms or molecules. Photochemistry describes chemical reactions that proceed with the absorption of light. Everyday examples include photosynthesis, the degradation of plastics and the formation of vitamin D with sunlight. Photochemical reaction of thioamide derivatives gave the cyclised, oxidized and dehalogenated compounds. Thioamide derivatives are well known for their antimicrobial activities and they have drawn much attention because of their novel heterocyclic chemistry. Light is clearly manifesting itself as a unique reagent in organic synthesis as many of the novel reactions involve photochemical reaction as a key step. The synthesized thioamides are characterized by IR, 1H, 13C, Mass and analytical spectral data.

  111. Prof. A. V. Nadargi, Vaibhav Danve, Varsha Tikale and Ashwini Udmale

    In day to day life there are many different kinds of pointing devices for interaction between human and computer. One of the most developed pointing devices is the mouse. Also traditional input devices are mostly wired devices, except for some Bluetooth enabled ones. In this paper, we propose and develop an effective color tracking method based on a simple color classification i.e. Red, Blue, Green. We can use single piece of paper to handle mouse operation when user move his or her hand on piece of paper the mouse pointer will ne move on screen. This paper includes two major procedure training and tracking. In training procedure the user specifies a color distribution, the training data will be classified into several color cluster using randomized list structure and in color tracking procedure, the color will be segmented in real-time form the background and advantages of this procedure or paper is, It is fast because the image segmentation algorithm is automatically performed on a small region surrounding the hand.It is robust under different lighting condition. To additional control we can use microphone to handle the mouse operation i.e. left, right button. This proposed method has good potentials in many real application, such as virtual reality.

  112. Thangaraj, G. and Ramu, A.

    Phase transfer catalyzed free radical polymerization of butylmethacrylate (BMA), using peroxydiphosphate (PDP) as an initiator and hexadecyltrimethylammonium chloride (HDTMAC) as a phase transfer catalyst was studied. The polymerization reactions were carried out in ethyl acetate – water bi phase media at 50 ± 0.10C in an inert atmosphere under unstirred condition. The effect of various kinetic parameters such as different concentration of monomer, initiator, phase transfer catalyst (PTC) different acid strength and temperature were studied. The reaction orders with respect to monomer, initiator and the phase transfer catalyst concentrations were found to be 1, 0.5 and 0.5 respectively. The rate of polymerization (Rp) was independent of acid strength and ionic strength. Based on the experimental results obtained, a suitable mechanism has been proposed for the polymerization reaction and its significance was discussed.

  113. Sayanna, Veeraiah T. and Venkata Ramana Reddy Ch.

    Four simple and sensitive extractive spectrophotometric methods have been described for the assay of Lansoprazole either in pure form or in pharmaceutical formulations. The developed methods involve formation of coloured chloroform extractable ion-pair complexes of the drug with bromothymol blue (BTB), bromophenol blue (BPB), bromocresol purple (BCP) and bromocresol green (BCG) in acidic medium. The extracted complexes showed absorbance maxima at 419, 417, 416 and 414nm with use of the cited reagents, respectively. The stoichiometry of the complex is found to be 1:1 in each case. Beer’s law is obeyed in the concentration ranges 2.5-25, 4.0-30, 4.0-40 and 4.5-45μg/ml with BTB, BPB, BCP and BCG respectively. The effect of concentration of dye, pH, and interference of excipients have been studied and optimized. The limits of detection and quantification have been determined for four methods. All the four methods have been validated as per the guidelines of ICH. The methods have been applied to the determination of drug in commercial tablets and results of analysis were validated statistically through recovery studies.

  114. Milind Labhsetwar

    Electronic resources play a vital role in the field of science, medical, engineering and Commerce etc studies. Electronic access to technology journals has become important and valuable tool for researchers, students and faculty. The user community is becoming more and more familiar with these tools and now they have started using them very regularly. The Ministry of Human Resource Development (MHRD), has set up the “Indian National Digital Library in Science and Technology (INDEST) consortium.” and UGC Infonet by UGC and so on these monitoring body also want to promote use of electronic services. Electronic Services are also more demanding by the library users so it’s important to planning these sources for maximum utilization of these sources.

  115. Sasikala, S. and Dr. Balamurugan, P. Ph.D

    In this paper proposes solutions for speaker diarization in TV talk shows for multimodal approaches. Both audio and video data can be taken for multimodal approach. In this paper can decomposes two levels such as, the reliable datasets can be formed for TV shows and SVM is used to classify the audio and video data based on unsupervised approach. Both audio and video data can be assembled by the association of visual and audio descriptors. Tabu search is introduced for improve the accuracy of the searching method. Once audio and visual features have been extracted, the system taking through collect the learning and classifying audiovisual frames based on SVM using Tabu search method. Time complexity will be reduced by using Tabu search. The result will produce the better output by using Tabu search algorithm. There are two schemes are measured for audio and video data such as audio-only classification scheme and parallel audio/visual classification scheme. The improvements of speaker diarization methods can be established effectively.

  116. Nagarajan, G. and Shankar Ganesh, V.

    In this paper, the system deals with content based retrieval by using three dominant content retrieval techniques and queries used to retrieve the videos. The query sets are given to identify the relevant videos. Media Professionals utilize this audio-visual archives to capture the video material. The primary goal of this project is to investigate how to retrieve the videos by using content based retrieval. The performance of content based video retrieval will improve with the help of cross referencing and multimodal re-ranking method. This project utilizes logged searches, content purchases, session information, and simulators to create realistic query sets and relevance judgments. This paper also guides how to take into account the information needs and retrieves data already present in the audiovisual archive, and demonstrate that retrieval performance can be significantly improved when content-based methods are applied to search. The improvements of the audio visual archives can be established effectively and to produce good results.

  117. Aseel Shakir Mahmood and Ibtisam Qahtan Abdul Kreem

    Celery is good source of flavonoid. They have also other positive effects on human health The aim of current research was to study and compare an antioxident activity. The hexanolic extracted and purification flavonoides from celery plant by using Thin layer chromotography (TLC). The study showed the effects of different three concentrations (10,20,30) of celery flavonoid extract on the effectiveness of liver enzymes (GPT,GOT) in blood and liver mice through injuction Subcutaneous of laboratory mice during period of tow weeks in same age mice. The results of experiments demonstrate that the indicated ther were a significant differences (P

  118. Kavithaa, K. ., M. Ilayarajab, R. Sayee Kannanb

    Sulphonated carbon derived from plant viz., Nelumbo Nucifera has been prepared and blended with Phenol-Formaldehyde Resin (PFR) by varying the percentage of blending (%w/w) and Physico-chemical parameters like, density, gravimetric swelling (%) attritional breaking (%) and Cation Exchange Capacity (CEC) of various metal ions have been determined. For a given metal ion, CEC decreases with the increase in percentage of blending NNSC with PFR. The blending of PFR upto 30% (w/w) of Nelumbo nucifera retains almost all the essential physico-chemical characteristics including CEC, as compared to that of the PFR. It is concluded that the sulphonated Nelumbo nucifera carbon could be used as blending material in the PFR to lower the cost of the ion-exchange resin for water and wastewater treatment, especially for the removal of metal ions.

  119. Saleh Mohammed Al-Turki and PrakashKuppuswamy

    Cloud Computing is an emerging paradigm which has become today’s hottest research area due to its ability to reduce the costs associated with computing. Cloud computing, it is most interesting and enticing technology which is offering the services to its users on demand over the internet. Since Cloud Computing stores the data and disseminated resources in the open environment, security has become the main obstacle which is hampering the deployment of Cloud environments. Even though the Cloud Computing is promising and efficient, there are many challenges for data security as there is no vicinity of the data for the Cloud user. The main scope of this paper to solve the security issues in both cloud providers and cloud consumers using existing hill cipher symmetric key algorithm with some implementation on modulo function.

  120. Lalith Kumar, D. L., Ayanar, R., Gowtham, P. and Vinoth kannan, S.

    This project is designed to improve Electrical versus Thermal efficiency. We have used infrared penetration heating system to improve efficiency up to 95% thermal efficiency and 100% electrical efficiency. We are going to construct a furnace model to improve our system by reducing the weight factor of the furnace by changing the forming procedure of the furnace casing by using of composite insulation material. A real fabrication model is to analyze IR heating system. IR lamps will be used to provide heat. From the furnace, the temperature is sensed by the thermocouple, which is based on the principle of See back effect. Temperature acquired from the thermocouple is indicated on the screen of the computer. The computer will also compare the temperature acquired with the set temperature and control action if any will be done by the solid-state relay that avoids instantaneous heating. The infrared (IR) heating has the potential to be used for solutionizing of metal forgings with benefits of reduced energy consumption, increased productivity, and improved microstructure and mechanical properties.

  121. Nabeel A. Bakr, Tagreed. M. Al-Saadi and Noor A. Hameed

    In this study, we report the qualitative phase analysis performed by Rietveld X-ray diffraction using “Fullprof” program for nano and micro powder of ZrO2 before and after heat treatment at (1180 °C). Rietveld refinement on X-ray data for the samples is performed. The obtained results have a good optimization between the observed X-ray diffraction pattern and that calculated by Rietveld method. This optimization is determined according to R-pattern factor (Rp), the weighted-profile factor (Rwp), and goodness of the fit (GOF). The particles morphology of the powder before and after heat treatment is identified using SEM. The final result shows that Rietveld refinement is more accurate than comparing method.

  122. Waseem Aslam

    This paper guides us about the impact of Exchange rate Pakistan rupee in terms of US Dollar and KSE 100 index. We take the data of period comprises from January 01, 2006 to December 31, 2012 excluding year 2013due to general elections of Pakistan, which held in May 2013 after which stock market took a boom. We applied different statistical tools to analyze the obtained data. We also analyze the causal relationship between both the time series. First of all we carry out normality test and found that both PKR-USD exchange rate and KSE 100 index are non-normally distributed. We conclude through unit root test that both series are stationary at the level form. Furthermore we found negative correlation in between KSE100 indices and USD-PKR exchange rate though very weak relationship exists. Furthermore we check for causal relationship between two time series through Granger Causal Test and found that bidirectional relationship exists between KSE 100 indices and Exchange Rate.

  123. Paramjeet Cheema

    Palynology, the science of pollen, spores, algal cysts and other microscopic plant bodies is a multi-disciplinary field with applications in botany, zoology, entomology, immunology, forensic science, geology, archaeology, geography and environmental sciences. Pollen and spores collectively called palynomorphs can serve as valuable forensic tools. Their utility lies in their abundance; different dispersal mechanisms; resistance to mechanical, chemical and biological destruction; microscopic size and specific morphology. Pollen groups charactering different environment and scenes can easily be picked up and transported. Their often morphology allows identification of parent plant which can be related to a specific ecological habitat or a specific scene. Pollens are expected to be omnipresent may it be a fossil, rock, soil and dirt, hair, fur, woven material, packaging material, air filter, drugs, honey, dried fruit, tobacco, tea, stomach and intestine or excreta. As cited in literature, the forensic use of pollen and spores i.e. forensic palynolgy can be applied to cases of forgery, production and distribution of illegal drugs, assaults, robbery, theft, rapes, homicide, genocide, terrorism, arson, hit and run crimes, counterfeiting of currency, fake antiques, removal of artifacts from historic and archeological sites, illegal poaching of animals and cases involving illegal pollution of the environment. Despite being an effective tool, the full potential of forensic palynolgy remains unutilised and ignored in most countries including India.

  124. Dawood Muhammad Baig and Hina Affandi

    This study focuses on investigating the effect of leverage, capital intensity and its impact on firm’s profitability of the motor vehicle industries of Pakistan. For this purpose, two independent variables, i.e. leverage and capital intensity were in use into concern to recognize their effect on dependant variable, i.e. firm’s profitability. This study concluded that the leverage and capital intensity is significantly associated with firm’s profitability as total debt, long term debt and total long term debt to total assets are positively associated with return on sales while total assets to gross sales are positively associated with return on assets. Therefore the cautious decisions should to be taken in provisions of firm’s profitability which in return would help in signifying financial restructuring for this sector in future.

  125. Neelakantan P. R. and Dr. Prof K. P.V. Ramanakumar.

    Investment is often regarded as a rational process of decision making for maximizing profit and minimizing losses. This article tries to emphasis that an investment process is not a strategic, methodological or a rational process but is based on emotional responses of individual investor given a volatile platform. An entire field of study known as Behavioral finance studies the emotions behind economic decision-making. Behavioral finance is a combination of economics, psychology, game theory to model decision making by individuals. Understanding Investor psychology helps in making sound and rational decisions. The last 10 years have been difficult for investors. The US Subprime mortgage crisis, the Satyam corporate accounting fraud saga and its aftermath, business and investor caution have led to poor and volatile returns from stock market. Investing methods that seemed to have worked well for many years have seemingly made investors lose faith in the stock market due to its volatile nature. This article should help the investor prudence by understanding the whole process of the functioning of stock market, understand the market cycles of good times and bad times, investor reaction towards economic and business cycles, identifying investment opportunities and managing risks. This should reiterate that understanding investor psychology offers best defensive stance and the awareness of past market cycles should not throw the investor into surprise. It is intended to help us investors make better choices. We make choices based on what we see, hear and with pre-conceived notions which we have accumulated and demonstrated over our lifetimes. This should be a thoughtful article for improvement and for recognition of false confidence and making better investment decisions through awareness.

  126. Muna Haseeb Hwayed

    Background: Throughout the last decades many studies have been tended to investigate, identify and treat different linguistic or non-linguistic errors made by learners in their spoken and written language. Sometimes instructors' errors are involved in few researches also. Aims: This study is concentrated on investigating the linguistic errors (LEs) that were found out in the test sentences (TSs)- interrogatives (InTSs) and imperatives (ImTSs)- made by instructors who are non- native speaker nor specialists in English language. This study aims to answer these questions: 1- Which type of TSs are used more frequently? And why? 2- Are there LEs in these TSs? And what are their categories ? 3- What are the reasons behind committing them? and how can they be avoided? Methods: (323) TSs written in (51) test papers are subjected to the statistical investigation and analysis. These TSs were used to test scientific materials taught in English in Baquba Technical Institute. Conclusions: Results show that ImTSs are used more frequently than the InTSs because the former easily constructed and achieve the same purpose, i.e., elicitation of information. In these TSs, (439) LEs are identified and divided into three categories: syntactic (which is divided into six classes), punctuation and spelling respectively. The reasons behind these LEs are attributed to the shortage in the instructors' competence of the linguistic principles and rules that govern the language construction. Consequently, these instructors use English language but they do not know it systematically. Finally, the present study sets up recommendations to avoid these LEs in the test papers and in other types of writings.

  127. Joyce Agalo and John Oluoch

    The great advances in information and communication technology (ICT) have made it possible for individuals to live, learn, work, communicate and undertake leisure activities in a different and better way. In addition, the current world order requires quality systems which are efficient, accurate, and fast for operation and service delivery. For this reason, technologies and especially the ICTs open up new horizons that provide avenues and strategies leading to the emergence of new perspectives and approaches. In education, some of the emerging perspectives considered in the paper include: the changing learning environments, learner profiles, and roles of the teacher; adoption and integration of educational technologies; emphasis on quality; and the institutional ranking systems. Technology is being used to enhance learning as well as facilitate teaching in the classroom and virtually at a distance across all disciplines and levels. The impact of technology on the quality of education delivery has been tremendous. The development of self -learning instructional materials and use of learner/content management systems through blended and e-learning have enhanced the quality, structure, delivery, monitoring, evaluation, flexibility and access to content. By levering into the multiple technological tools that are available for teaching and learning today, we are better equipped to enhance learning and teaching at the same time. However, despite the positive impact, there are issues and challenges which must be addressed, ranging from costs associated with development and maintenance of infrastructure, sustainability especially with the high rate of obsolescence and training of staff to acquire the appropriate skills, to changing the mind-set of those responsible for the provision of education to accommodate and appropriately invest in emerging trends. Examples used in the paper are drawn mainly from our experiences through interactions with colleagues from different institutions and within our work environments.

  128. Sheriff Ghali Ibrahim and Abdullahi Nuhu Liman

    The tension and cinematic events unfolding in Ukraine, especially in its part of Crimea, is a move seemingly replicating the cold war. The political impasse is triangular in nature due to the involvement of Moscow, the west and Kiev in the crisis. The paper examines the nature of the current crisis in Ukraine and analyses the relationship between the hitherto Russo-American containment and rivalry under the era of cold war. With the aid of library instruments, the paper discovers that, secession of Crimea is a reality, where Russia will never allow her borders threatened by the existence of the west in Ukraine. The paper concludes that, Russia and the west are in a critical contest for the ownership and control of Ukraine, as the situation exacerbates, the annexation of Crimea by Russia is the best solution, that is, win-win situation. The paper also recommends that, maximum restraint should be exercised by the united states and NATO under the European union, as excess pressure may result to a third world war, among other things.

  129. Bhuvaneswaran, C., Ganesh, A., Muruganandam, R. and Muthukrishnan, A.

    An attempt has been carried out to develop rule-based classification through a raster GIS to improve the accuracy of land cover classification derived from ETM Data To produce rule based land cover classification for the study area (a part of Dehradun district).Rules to be produced for each land cover class in different bands namely green, red, near infrared, mid infrared 1, mid infrared 2, NDVI and PCA and to compare the rule based approach for each class in each band rule based approach for each class in each band.

  130. Bhuvaneswaran, C., Ganesh, A. and Sumathi, M.

    Land use mapping is important for evaluation, management and conservation of natural resources of an area and the knowledge on the existing land use is one of the prime pre-requisites for suggesting better use of land. In this study, three mapping approaches (unsupervised, supervised and GIS post processing) were used to identify, demarcate and map the land use/ Land cover categories in the Uppar Odai Sub-Watershed, Tamil Nadu, India. The following land cover classes were discriminated: Evergreen forest, Deciduous forest, Rabi only, Kharif only, Current fallow, Scrub / Degraded forest and Built-up. The results showed that the cultivated land still covering about 39 % of the Uppar odai sub watershed. While current fallow covers 35 % of the total sub watershed. The Uppar odai sub watershed land cover map confirmed the intensive agricultural activities. This paper also showed that Landsat-like sensors can provide feasible land cover maps of Uppar odai sub watershed, although ancillary data are required to help image interpretation.

  131. Dr. Shoiab Ahmad Bhat, Dr. Md. Arshad and Mudasir Qadir

    A street child is any girl or boy for whom the street has become his or her habitual abode or a source of livelihood, and who worked on the street and went home to their families at night. The scenario of street children is considered to be the most important problem facing both developed and developing societies. Street children constitute a snubbed group as they are the product of economic growth, war, poverty, loss of traditional values, domestic violence, physical and mental abuse. Every street child has a reason for being on the streets, and the present study was an endeavor to analyze the reasons or causes of a child on the streets. The research work was an exertion to highlight the socio-economic problems faced by the street children in Jammu and Kashmir with special reference to Srinagar district. Street children are the most perceptible fragment of our society, deprived with vital services like education and health care, and the most difficult to protect. They become the victim of all forms of exploitation and abuse, and their daily lives are likely to be very different from the idyllic childhood. The findings of the study divulge that there are many reasons for children to decide to leave their homes: poverty, disagreement at home, disintegration in family, unable to pay school fee and to find jobs.

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