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Plagiarism Detection

IJCR is following an instant policy on rejection those received papers with plagiarism rate of more than 20%. So, All of authors and contributors must check their papers before submission to making assurance of following our anti-plagiarism policies.













March 2014

A comparison was done for serum glucose, glycated hemoglobin, adiponectine and adenosine deaminase and insulin level with type 2 diabetes mellitus Iraqi patients. Sixty unrelated type 2 diabetes patients (age ≥35 years) who had a strong family history of diabetes (50 of 60 versus 0 of 40 for controls, P < 0.001) and 40 healthy subjects were was obtained that adiponectin and insulin level was lowered significantly in diabetic patients as compared with control group while significantly elevated serum HbA1c and adenosine deaminase in patients group as compared with control.

Methanol extract from cotoneaster fruit by using soxhlet apparatus was obtained. While aqueous extract was prepared by using magnetic heater. 1 g of solvent residue was dissolved in 10 ml of dimethyl sulphoxide, in same time, 1g of aqueous extract was dissolved in 10 ml of dimethyl sulphoxide, to obtain concentration of 100mg / ml, this depend for preparation of the 100, 50, 25 mg /ml for antimi-crobial activity assay for decoctions, for aqueous extract 1 g of air-dried plant material was added to 10 ml.

The term gene therapy originally referred to the treatment of a disease by means of genetic manipulation. It involves the transfer of a therapeutic or working gene copy into specific cells of an individual in order to repair a faulty gene copy. Thus, it may be used to replace a faulty gene, or to introduce a new gene whose function is to cure or to favourably modify the clinical course of a condition.

In low resource - countries like Benin, HIV viral load is rarely available for monitoring antiretroviral treatment, which is generally based in these settings on clinical assessment together with T-cell CD4 count. In this study, we present our experience of setting up HIV viral load in Cotonou and the relative contribution of this test in monitoring such patients. From May 2013 to January 2014, 139 participants aged above 15 years were tested for both T-cell CD4 count and HIV viral load.

Background: Obesity is a chronic metabolic disease associated with cardiovascular and atherosclerotic changes. It is also a public health problem due to its related complications. High homocysteine levels are important markers for the development of atherothrombosis and atherosclerotic changes. Obesity with high homocysteine levels influences metabolic risk and makes individuals prone to comorbidities. In this study, we aimed to evaluate the effect of exercise on homocysteine levels in patients with obesity.

An Insect diversity survey was carried out at Rashikbil wetland Region and South Khayerbari, Westbengal, India. The diurnal insect diversity was very high, with a mean of twenty eight species recorded during our exploration. Diurnal insects were only photographed through digital camera to prevent injury and damage. A pitfall trap study were mediated in Rasikbil wetland Region for quantitative assessment of surface dwelling forms. A total of seven order and seventeen families were identified from both of the study sites.

Streptococcus pneumoniae (or pneumococci) is the leading cause of life-endangering diseases like pneumonia and septicemia. Antigenically variable Pneumococcal surface protein A (PspA) is one of the better defined pneumococcal virulence factors. Based on its sequence PspA has been classified into three families and six clades. Here, we repot cloning, expression and purification of all six clades of PspA (extracellular domain only).

Hospital’s key primary mission is to ensure continuous ward care service with appropriate number of nursing staffs and the right mix of nursing skills. The planning and scheduling is done to avoid additional non essential cost for hospital. Nurses’ preferences are taken into considerations such as the number of night shift and consecutive rest days. To present a mathematical modeling technique by means of linear programming as an efficient tool to solve problems related to optimization in healthcare. Hospital must be staffed 24 hours a day by a limited number of nurses.

Water plays very important role in the sustenance of life. Due to economic and population growth, water resources has became polluted in India. In the present study, comparative analysis of physico-chemical properties of water from different locations of Distt. Alwar of Rajasthan was done. Physico-chemical properties were pH, Conductivity, Total Hardness, Dissolved Oxygen, Residual Chlorine, Chlorides, Alkalinity, Acidity, Free CO2, Total Solids and Fluoride.

The present investigation was conducted to estimate genetic variability parameters and correlations that exist for grain iron concentration and yield attributing characters and also to identify transgressant lines based on grain iron concentration in rice. One hundred and sixty recombinant inbred lines (RILs) of IRRI38 X Jeerigesanna were grown under aerobic condition at University of Agricultural Science, Bangalore in augumented experimental design during wet seasons of 2011 and 2012.Grain iron concentration of RILs ranged from 7 to 24ppm.

Diabetic hypertension continues to be the leading health problem around the globe. The goal of this study was to examine the effect of dehydrozingerone (DZ), (4-(4-hydroxy-3-methoxyphenyl)-3-buten-2-one) on type 2 diabetes and hypertension induced in male Wistar rats. Type 2 Diabetes mellitus was induced by a single intraperitoneal injection (40 mg/kg bw) of streptozotocin (STZ) and hypertension was induced by daily oral administration of Nω-Nitro-L-arginine methyl ester (L-NAME) 40 mg/kg bw dissolved in drinking water for 4 weeks.

A survey has been conducted in Kalyandurg area of Ananthapur district in Andhra Pradesh, India to determine the status of production technology, pre-harvest and post harvest techniques among Banana growers. The survey was done using Commodity System Assessment Methodology (CSAM) with few modifications as per requirement, which was originally developed by Jerry LaGra.

The morphology of male accessory reproductive gland appear as transparent short and pear shaped body exhibits a single layered glandular epithelium surrounded by basement membrane and muscular wall. The MARGs constitute a single layer of glandular epithelium. The male accessory gland opens into the vasa deferentia (or) the distal end of the ejaculatory duct.

Medicinal plants are important sources for isolation of pharmaceutical drugs. The current available drugs are in many ways either inefficient or unaffordable to ever increasing forms of microbial infections. Screenings of medicinal plants used by the traditional medicinal healers are the main sources for formulation of herbal drugs. Phytochemicals present in plants are economically important sources of drugs, fragrances, pigments, food additives and pesticides.

This paper explores the antibacterial efficacy of certain Indian medicinal herbs obtained from the north-eastern states of Tripura. The employed method of screening the potency of herbs was disc diffusion method. The antibacterial activity of the herbs were compared with standard antibiotic ointment cosvate available in the market. Both gram positive and negative bacteria were used as test organisms. The activity index of the herbal extract against the pathogens were calculated. Among the five chosen herbs, two of them showed the highest antibacterial activity.

Most of the studies reported the effects of metals on fish under the exposure to a single metal, whereas the fishes in the polluted water bodies are typically exposed to mixtures of metals. Hence, the aim of the present study was to investigate the acute toxicity of copper (Cu) and cadmium (Cd) in single and co-exposure on mortality rate and behavioural changes in freshwater fish Cyprinus carpio. The static and renewable bioassay method was adopted to determine the lethal concentration (LC50) of tested metals through probit analysis.

The Clinical solid waste management has been raised a significant problem in most developing countries including Malaysia. The main reason of the mismanagement of this type of wastes is the lack of effective waste management strategy that can be easily implemented during clinical solid waste handling, transport and final disposal. Aware of the significance of the issue, the study was conducted in the form of a case study in one of the largest healthcare facilities in Penang Island, Malaysia, namely, the Hospital Lam Wah Ee.

The wireless channel is central within this context, thus estimating the channel is the key to make CR operational, taking in consideration that the transmission-reception technology is available. In this thesis, we design a MIMO system using OFDM modulation technology to transmit and receive two signals over the mobile wireless channel. First formulate the pilot design as a new optimization problem. We use MIMO concept to enhance system capacity and robustness of the wireless transmission.

Color distribution of digital images and segmentation in photo images is a challenging and important problem that finds numerous applications ranging from album making and photo classification to image retrieval. Previous works on human segmentation usually demand a time-consuming training phase for complex shape-matching processes. In this paper, we propose a straightforward framework to automatically recover human bodies from color photos and contrast equalization, midway histogram, color enhancement, and color transfer.

Today we want fast ways of communication; research on even more faster alternatives is going. In present time, 4th generation wireless communication standards is among one of such technologies. The building block of this technology is MIMO-OFDM system. But one of the drawbacks associated with OFDM is high PAPR. In this paper, we propose a new nonlinear companding algorithm that transforms the MIMO OFDM signals into the desirable statistics form defined by a linear piecewise function.

Wireless passive sensor networks (WPSN) designed to operate using MB do not have the lifetime constraints of conventional WSN. System lifetime of wireless sensor networks (WSN) is inversely proportional to the energy consumed by critically energy-constrained sensor nodes during RF transmission. In that regard, modulated backscattering (MB) is a promising design choice, in which sensor nodes send their data just by switching their antenna impedance and reflecting the incident signal coming from an RF source.

The video compression is used to reduce the size of the video files. The MPEG files are compressed then the fine details of video are lost their originality due to quantization. Lost details of video not appear after decompression. The better video processing algorithms and many techniques like pre-processing and low pass filters are used to reduce the compression error. The character recognition is used to find the data in written or printed document or any data source. In this character recognition, data is scanned by a special scanner.

This paper presents a number of commercial peer-to-peer systems for live streaming have been introduced in recent years. The behavior of these popular systems has been extensively studied in several measurement papers. Due to the proprietary nature of these commercial systems, however, these studies have to rely on a “black-box” approach, where packet traces are collected from a single or a limited number of measurement points, to infer various properties of traffic on the control and data planes.

Energy has always been an issue since Wireless Sensors came into existence (WSN). Any of the WSN systems consist of number of small and low cost sensor nodes. These sensor nodes powered by small batteries. Usually, for many applications, once WSN is deployed in such areas where human cannot reach on daily basis. Sensors gather required data and send to the sink node. As WSN works on batteries there is need of system which preserve the energy and balanced the overall usage of network.

Lately, research for context-aware systems has risen significantly. New social needs require innovation new technology to build rich omnipresent computing spaces. Such spaces allow users to use services without caring of any interaction with the system. For bringing this in existence, some context awareness is needed so computers, based on their environment, can behave accordingly. Mobile Advertising is one of such new needs and has shown to have a large potential due to the very personal and intimate nature of the devices and the possibleness of reaching a broad range of targets.

Digital image manipulation software is now readily available on personal computers. It is therefore very simple to tamper with any image and make it available to others. Insuring digital image integrity has therefore become a major issue. Watermarking has become a popular technique for copyright enforcement and image authentication. The main aim of this project is to provide software which will help to detect the manipulation in the photo. Most digital cameras employ an image sensor with a color filter array such as shown on the left.

Aim: To evaluate the success of intra-oral implants as replacement restorations for missing teeth in two clinics in Ghana from January 2000 to December 2010. Patients and Method: A retrospective study carried out on patients who have had missing teeth replaced with implant-borne restorations.

Manjula Padmanabhan’s oeuvres are often branded as ‘feminist’ since they primarily focus on social issues that are totally women centric and told from their point of view. Her scripts penned realism like ‘dowry deaths’, gang rape, alienation, and marginalization of Indian women in a patriarchal discourse. Her well-acclaimed dramatic piece Lights Out! (2000), delineates the darker side of patriarchy that is insensitive to female sensibility. It forefingers on the trial and tribulations of a macabre crime, i.e.

Urbanization is a key to transform from traditional rural economies to modern industrial one which concentrates population in urban unit. At present, India is among the countries with low level of urbanization. During the last fifty years, Indian population has grown two and a half times whereas urban India has increased nearly five times. In 2001, 306.9 million Indians were living in nearly 3,700 towns and cities across the country, and is expected to increase to over 400 million by 2011 and 533 million by 2021.

The aim of this study was to examine whether there are significant relationship between age and psychological well-being components among graduate students. Psychological well-being is measured using the Scales of Psychological Well-being with six dimensions including: autonomy, environmental mastery, personal growth, positive relationships with others, purpose in life and self-acceptance. A total of 534 graduate students (155 males and 379 females) were selected from one Malaysian university. Data was analyzed using Pearson correlation.

The present study has been conducted to evaluate the antioxidant activity of medicinal plant Avicennia marina. Stem bark of Avicennia marina was powdered and extracted with 95% ethanol and water by cold extraction method. The water and ethanol extract of air dried stem bark was estimated by using spectrometric method.

Back ground and objectives: Falls are the major problem associated with old age. Many studies have explored the relationship between falls and physical performance but those studies were focused mainly on the frail elderly having several health problems. Hence it is important to clarify and evaluate the relation between falls and physical fitness in healthy elderly. The aim of this study was to analyze the correlation between the falling risk and physical fitness in healthy elderly and determining the top parameters affecting the fall risk.

Calotropis has been ethnomedicinally utilized from ancient times. Calotropis leaves were collected from the Campus Playground of Urumu Dhanalakshmi College, Trichy and authenticated through the Rapinat Herbarium, St.Joseph’s college, Trichy. Calotropis leaves were collected dried, powdered and extracted with 80% methanol. The Rhizosphere bacteria of Calotropis was isolated and identified based on their morphological and biochemical characters.

The art of preservation of bodies is very old dating back to centuries. But in recent times the motive for Preserving the human bodies has Changed. Advancements in Science and Technology combined with advancements in Biotechnology and Nanotachnology have been combined in the Latest Techniques of Cryopreservation of human bodies referred to as Cryonics The art of Preservation of Dead Bodies has progressed to preservation of bodies by freezing or cryopreserving. The Purpose is basically to preserve life.

Pleomorphic adenoma, also called benign mixed tumor, is the most common tumor of the salivary glands. About 90% of these tumors occur in the parotid gland and 10% of them occur in the minor salivary glands. The most common sites for pleomorphic adenoma of the minor salivary glands are the palate, followed by the lips and the cheeks without any ulceration or perforation of the mucosa. Other rare sites include the floor of the mouth, tongue, tonsil, pharynx, the retromolar area and the nasal cavity.

This study aimed to cover a part of neurotoxic effects of Ivermectin on domestic pigeons, for this purpose the up and down method were utilized to determine the intramuscular median lethal dose of Ivermectin in pigeons, functionally observed markers were used to illustrate the behavioural changes that caused by Ivermectin to each injected pigeon in addition to motor behavioural reflexes.

This work focuses primarily on investigating histological effects of Aframomum melegueta aqueous extract on the spleen of adult wistar rats following oral administration. Twenty wistar rats of weights 180 – 215kg were divided into four groups designated as A,B,C and D. Group A served as the control and were orally administered with 0.35ml of distilled water daily; the experimental groups B,C & D were orally administered with 0.55ml, 0.65ml and 0.75ml of Aframomum melegueta aqueous extract for twenty eight days respectively.

The main objectives of this study were to determine the knowledge pertaining to diabetes mellitus of traditional healers in Khartoum State, and to explore some of their practices towards their patient’s advices, treatments, diagnosis, following up and referral systems. The target population of the study consisted of 40 herbalists. The sample was purposive and interviews guided by semi-structured open-ended questionnaires were used. The results obtained indicated that the healers had a primary knowledge about diabetes and had a willingness to learn more about the disease.

This study was carried out on eight healthy adult of local hedgehogs of both sex, to elucidate the normal morphology and architecture in the conducting region of respiratory system of hedgehog and distinguish the normal lobulation of lungs. The animals were divided in to two groups. Groups –A for anatomical study, while group -B fore cast technique. The mean length, diameters of both trachea and bronchi also the number of lung lobes are recorded.

Propofol has been described as a potent hypnotic drug producing anaesthesia within one arm-brain circulation time, possessing a rapid recovery time and causing minimal postoperative sequelae. It has also been associated with dose-dependent fall in blood pressure on induction with a slightly higher incidence and longer period of post-induction apnea. It may be used for adults before an uncomfortable procedure, to relax and reduce awareness but not cause deep sleep. It is also used to reduce awareness and cause sleep for adults who are being treated in an intensive care unit.

Introduction: The traditional role of filial care for frail elderly in Chinese family, the responsibility of caring has typically fallen on women, especially on the daughters-in-law (DILs). To date, little is known about the impact of these DIL caregivers in Chinese society. This study aimed to explore the experiences of DILs on their caregiving involvement for parents-in-law (PILs) with dementia. Methods: A qualitative design of phenomenological methodology was used employing focus group discussion and participant observation with thirteen DILs.

Aims and Objectives: To identify the specific pathogenic organisms risk factors responsible for infection in corneal ulcer patient. Materials and Method: The present study was undertaken on 100 patients of corneal ulcer attending the outpatient department of Navodaya medical college hospital and research centre, Raichur, with special reference to the etiology and predisposing factors, examination in detail for morphological features, microbiological work up, management and follow up. Results: Out of 100 patients in 100 eyes, M: F ratio was 1.7:1.

Background: AIDS epidemic is currentlyin the third step of its emergence and has turned into an epidemic threatening the physical community. According to a report of WHO 68 million were infected with AIDS by December 2002 and adolescents were identified as the population at the highest risk of AIDS. Since the transmission routes of this disease are limited, an increase in the level of knowledge of people, especially the adolescents, about AIDS/HIV can be very helpful in the reduction of HIV infection.

In this study, the main objective was to document all pesticide plants used in Wayanad district, a questionnaire based interview conducted among 200 rural farmers. All the data were recorded in previously designed data sheets to reflect different objectives. Sixty eight species belonging to 33 families were recorded during the survey. For analysis, Informant consensus factor (ICF) was calculated to indicate information homogeneity. The ICF value 1.00 is observed for Azadirachta indica and is considered as the most important pesticide species from the study area.

Calpain10 is a member of a large family of intracellular proteases. It was the first candidate gene for Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), earlier studies on Mexican-Americans and other populations have shown that polymorphisms, SNP-43, del/ins-19 and SNP-63, of this ubiquitously expressed protein influence susceptibility to T2DM.

Muthupet range now consists of six Reserved Forests, viz, Muthpet RF, Thuravikadu RF, Vadakadu RF, Maravakadu RF, Thamarankottai RF, and Palanjur RF. Maravakadu RF (area: 1490.12 ha.): Maravakadu RF was created as per G.O.Ms.No.721, forests and Fisheries, Dept., 6th July 1979 with an area of 1356.07 ha. The Maravakadu RF Extn. Bit-I was created as per Govt.Ir. no.56675/FR-III/86-9, dt 20.8.87 with an area of 134.05. ha. The Maravakadu RF is located in Pattukottai taluk of Thanjavur district.

Rhizobium species were isolated from the rhizosphere soil of maize plants and studied for their ability to produce bacteriocins. Rhizobium, a nitrogen fixing bacteria can live in the rhizosphere soil of non-leguminous plants, exist freely and entraps atmospheric nitrogen and converts the unreactive nitrogen molecule to ammonia, a form that is readily utilize by plants. Rhizosphere soil from maize plants were collected from Lalgudi Taluk, Trichy District and identified based on their morphological and biochemical characters.

Heavy metals are constantly being released into the ecosystem resulting in soil pollution which in turn enters in to the food chain through crops and also affect the microbial health in soil. Some heavy metals are essential for plants and microbes in trace amount but become toxic at high concentration whereas, others are toxic even in trace amount. Since microbial growth is affected by the presence of heavy metals in soil, in the study attempt was made to determine the effect of two metals viz., cadmium and nickel on mycelial and carpogenic growth of R. solani.

Propolis is a natural composite balsam, collected by honey bees from the buds of various plants. Propolis collected from beekeepers was tested for it’s antioxidant & free radical scavenging activities. Propolis was found to have polyphenol, flavnoids and quercetin substance in abundance, which possess properties like anti-inflammatory, anti-cancer, anti-allergic, anti-toxic and antioxidant properties. The aim of present study is to study therapeutic activities in Indian propolis obtained from Apis mellifera L.

Microorganisms such as fungi, bacteria and viruses produce a mixture of structurally related compounds referred to as secondary metabolites which have no function in their physiological development. The natural products of microbial origin are categorized into insecticides, fungicides, bactericides, herbicides and nematicides. The major insecticides of microbial origin include avermectins, milbemectins and spinosyns isolated from actinomycetes. Bacteria such as Bacillus thuringiensis and Photorhabdus luminescens are considered to be potential insecticides.

Background and objectives: Hypertension and abnormalities of lipid profile often co-exist. Several well conducted epidemiological studies have demonstrated that cholesterol levels are significantly higher in hypertensive patients than in age, sex and body mass index matched normotensive patients. Hence this study is undertaken to study the demographic profile of hypertensive patient (sex, age group and other comorbid factors) and Comparison of lipid levels between hypertensive and healthy subjects.

In this study, production of biosurfactant by Lactobacillus rhamnosus isolated from vagina of Iraqi healthy women was studied. The optimal condition of biosurfactant production including aeration, growing at different temperature for different incubation periods of times were studied. Anaerobic condition for 24 hours at 30°Cwas fitting to biosurfactant production.

The purpose of this study is to determine whether there are differences between the effects of computer based animation techniques and worksheets in the unit of granular structure of matter on 6th grade students’ academic success. In this study semi-experimental method was used. The study sample consists of 43 6th grade students. An achievement test consisting 20 multiple choice item was used as a tool for data collection. During the application period, computer based animations were used in one of the sample group while in the other were worksheets.

An investigation was carried out to studies on sulphur fractions in soils of Lohara tahsil of Osmanabad district during 2011-12. For study, 180 representative soil samples were collected from 30 different villages of Lohara tahsil. The collected soil samples were grouped into three orders viz, Vertisols, Inceptisols and Entisols. Out of the total surveyed soil samples, 37 per cent soil samples were grouped under Vertisols while, 40 and 23 per cent soil samples were grouped under Inceptisols and Entisols, respectively.

The paper provides information on 158 species of ethno botanical plants belonging to 68 genera of 54 families of Angiosperms and one pteridophyte used by the primitive and aboriginal people of Makkuva mandal, Vizianagaram district, Andhra Pradesh. The tribal people of Makkuva Mandal largely depend on herbal medicines, plants products for primary health care and their daily life.

The research work was conducted to demonstrate the management strategies of the floodplain area and socio-economic improvement of people for floodplain aquaculture of Begumgonj upazilla situated in Noakhali District of Bangladesh. Data were collected through focus group discussion and interviewing with farmers and committee members of the floodplain (dogi) management. The studied floodplain (dogi) area (Sonali community based fish culture project) is 12 acre which was brought under floodplain aquaculture project by RFLDC-DANIDA.

Tannic acids are a naturally abundant plant phenolic compound in the human diet and are known to have drug property for some diseases. In the present study the antidiabetic efficacy of tannic acid was investigated experimentally. The diabetes was induced by intraperitoneal injection single dose of streptozotocin (50mg/kg b.w). After three days (72hr) of induction of diabetes. The diabetes animals were treated with tannic acid (200mg/kg b.w) and glibenclamide (600µg /kg b.w).

The In recent years many researchers has been focused on the use of biomass residues as low cost and locally available adsorbents for the removal of different organic and inorganic chemicals by the adsorption process. In this study the powder of Oleaster Seed were used in their charcoal form for the removal of Bovine serum Albumin (BSA)and Egg white Albumin(EWA)from aqueous solution. Various experimental parameters such as BSA and EWA concentrations, contact time, adsorbent dose, pH and temperature were studied to establish the conditions for the removal of BSA and EWA.

Computers, Mobile phones and the Internet have become part of our life. As most human activities are part of computer and mobile networks, many traditional crimes have also changed their modus operandi and certain new crimes have come into existence. Most of these instruments permit their users a high degree of privacy. The technology does not distinguish between use and misuse, cyber criminals enjoy privacy too. The internet is a global medium while laws are mostly local.

Treatment and disposal of large amount of oily produced water is a considerable economic and environment burden for oil and gas industry. The treatment of produced water requires the separation of suspended and dissolved component such as emulsified oil droplets. The goal of this research is to prepare chitosan as a natural polymer from chitin to yield clean oily produced water has enough beneficial uses like drilling, stimulating, or water flooding. The prepared chitosan characterized by the FT-IR spectrometry, and X-ray diffraction.

Although land capability assessment provides a ranking of the ability of an area to support a range of agricultural activities on a sustainable basis people in most parts of the world show less interest than apathy to it. More often than not, farmers in most nations depend on local knowledge of land capability identification; employing especially vegetation type parameter rather than empirical studies of soils together with other attributes of the land.

This work Investigates using the Ansys fluent CFD tool, the pressure difference exerted on a bluff body object and discusses the flow field from inlet to outlet. The objectives of this work are to discuss the flow field from inlet to outlet, to investigate the pressure difference exerted 25mm upstream and 25mm downstream of the bluff body object for different volumetric flow rates (4 l/s, 5 l/s and 8 l/s).The total pressure losses across the plate for the 4 l/s, 5 l/s and 8 l/s flows are 17.38 kPa, 27.14 kPa and 69.62 kPa respectively.

In the present investigation newer and simple synthetic methods of 2- (1, 2, 3- benzotriazol -1- yl – methyl) thiozolidine acetic ethyl ester is described. Benzotriazole 1 is converted to carbothioamide 3 by reaction with ethylchloroacetate followed by thiosemicarbazide. The compound 3 is converted t o corresponding thiazolidine compound by treatment with Diethyl Acetylene Dicarboxylate (DEAD) With Thiosemicarbazone Derivatives. Structural elucidation is accomplished by IR, and 1 H NMR spectral data of the synthesized compounds.

The problem of Magneto-Marangoni-convection is investigated in a two layer system comprising an incompressible electrically conducting fluid saturated porous layer over which lies a layer of the same fluid in the presence of a vertical magnetic field. The lower rigid surface of the porous layer and the upper free surface are considered to be insulating to temperature perturbations. At the upper free surface, the surface tension effects depending on temperature are considered.

This research reports measurement the densities ρ, and refractive indices, , for the systems of (N.M. Morpholine + n-nanone + n-octane + n-heptane) and (N.M. Morpoline + 1-nanonal + 1-octanol + n-heptane) over the rang of temperatures (293.15k – 323.15k). From experimental data of densities, and refractive indices, the excess molar volumes, , and excess refractive indices , were calculated for quaternary systems. The excess function results for these systems were observed rocking between positive and negative deviation from ideality depending on molecular interaction in these system.

In the present work the thermal performance analysis of a simple open cycle gas turbine power plant which is situated at Uran in district Raigad of Maharashtra, India is carried out at varying ambient temperature and pressure ratio and a comparison is made from the stipulated ISO conditions. The analysis of the cycle has been carried out using software developed in C++. The results show that for every 50C rise in ambient temperature the gas turbine loses 0.44 % in terms of thermal efficiency and 0.5 MW of its useful power.

In most urban centres like Lagos, conversion of Residential structures for pressing commercial needs ‘seems to have become the norm. Residential properties always get built because of the sustained demand which guarantees good return. Once trends begin to suggest that there are higher returns to gain from commercial property they begin to convert existing buildings especially when it is difficult to get suitably located land and the cost of building is high.

The study was conducted to examine the distribution of the invasion of water hyacinth on the lake surface Tondano. Research methods spatial approach to the analysis and interpretation process of digitization of satellite imagery application SIGs that ArcGIS 10. The data used are: Landsat satellite image of Quick bird with a spatial resolution of 0.6 meters recording in 2006 and 2011.

Trimanganesetetraoxide (Mn3O4) nanoparticles have been synthesized via Microwave Assisted solution method. The structural analysis was carried out using X-ray diffraction. It showed that the Mn3O4 nanoparticles exhibited tetragonal hausmannite structure. Grain sizes were estimated from Particle size analyser, XRD and Transmission Electron Microscopy images. The size of the nanoparticles is around 24 nm. The Mn3O4 product was investigated by X-ray diffraction, FT- IR, Particle size analyzer, SEM and HRTEM studies.

The interaction between picric acid (acceptor) and o-phenanthroline (donor) have been studied spectrophotometrically in THF solvent for the evaluation of reliable value of association constant in the formation of weakly bounded charge transfer complex. The value of association constant (K) was calculated using standard equations such as Benesi-Hildebrand, Scott, Foster Hammick Waldley, Rose Drago Ayad, El-Hati, Lang, Scatchard, Seal-Sil Mukherjee, at wavelengths358.5 378, 400 and 420 nm in THF solvent.

Risk is an integral part of financial services. When financial institutions issue loans, there is a risk of borrower default. When banks collect deposits and on-lend them to other clients (i.e. conduct financial intermediation), they put clients’ savings at risk. Any institution that conducts cash transactions or makes investments risks the loss of those funds. Development finance institutions should neither avoid risk. Like all financial institutions, microfinance institutions (MFIs) face risks that they must manage efficiently and effectively to be successful.

Economic and social development is a common theme pursued by the human race. The United Nations (UN) has adopted a far more robust and inclusive measure of comparability of human development amongst countries, the human development Index (HDI) which incorporates socio-economic, political and related themes. The HDI measure is a more appropriate tool for comparative measure of the development of the human race across countries as opposed to Per capita GDP measures.

The shift from the defined benefit to the defined contribution scheme in India has enveloped within its purview a lot of changes, the most essential being the attitude of the individuals towards planning for their retirement. The pension products offered by various life insurance companies was not considered much as a source of retirement saving due to the concept and existence of defined benefit system till 2003.

Business creates assets to self by using natural resources by creating social environmental liabilities by degradation of environment. Traditional double entry financial accounting is more concern about quantification of business transactions in terms of money. Traditional money measurement concept accounting is limited when it comes to measuring natural wealth degradation. We are behind the times… Jet pilots don’t use rearview mirrors. If we want to account for the environment, it is necessary to look ahead.

Evaluating microaggregate stability and sesquioxides content of degraded Ultisol is important for sustainable management and productivity of the soils and our agroecosystem. A research was conducted in the runoff plots at the University of Nigeria Nsukka Teaching and Research Farm, in 2010 and 2011 to evaluate changes in microaggregate stability, and sesquioxides contents of Nkpologu sandy loam soil under different cover and soil management practices. The management practices were bare fallow (BF), grass fallow (GF), legume (CE), groundnut (GN), sorghum (SM), and cassava (CA) cultivation.

This paper assesses the financing mechanisms of Free Day Secondary Education (FDSE) education policy focusing on the sustainability of the programme in terms of fostering the desired equity and quality of education provided. It is concerned with one main question: What is the unfinished business in the current education financial arrangement in Kenya?

The effectiveness and success of family planning depends on the involvement of couples (wife and husband) but this hardly happen in most communities as evidenced in the Wa municipality of Ghana. It is the belief, though erroneously among most males that the practice of family planning should be the sole responsibility of the female.

Investigation of the bituminous sand in parts of the eastern Dahomy basin was conducted to establish its lateral continuity across the area. The study area cuts across Irele and Odigbo Local Government Areas of Ondo State and Ovia-West Local Government Area of Edo State, Nigeria. Five core holes (BTW–1, BTW–2, BTW-3, BTW-4, and BTW-5) each of diameter 75mm were bored using mechanical rig.

Fourty thin sections were prepared for the study of the shell wall microstructure of the molluscan shells were collected from Abhor, Jeddah, Kingdom Saudi Arabia.

The Role Of Traditional Education in the Development of the African Child is a paper that is intended to highlight the importance of restructuring the style and type of education used in the socialisation of the African Child at the early stages of his/her life in other for the child to imbibe the socio-cultural values of his/her society alongside the western type education. In my findings and research in personal identity crises, it is noted that when an individual does not properly assimilate a particular culture where he/she finds himself/herself.

Viral marketing has emerged as an important concept in India as in other parts of the developing and developed countries and has become a necessary tool for every organization. Although there is increasing popularity among viral marketing, factors influencing to such a new communication medium, remains largely unknown. Hotmail has become one of the first to exploit online viral marketing since its email service was launched in the late 1990s, when every outgoing email contained a short message at the bottom with a link for people to click and sign up.

Between January 2013 and December 2013, the medical records of 602 medical and applied medical students at King Abdulaziz University were audited to determine the risk of Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection. Fifty-two students (8.6%) had a positive purified protein derivative (PPD) test. From the positively tested students 27 students (51.9%) had an induration of ≥10 mm, while 25 students (48.1%) had an induration of > 12 mm. Of the students who tested positive, 23 students (44.2%) did not present for follow up or receive treatment; 2 students (3.8%) did not complete treatment.

Background and Objectives: Anemia is a serious health problem in India. Anemia which is often untreated or inadequately treated is emerging as a potential contributor to the development and progression of cardiovascular disease. Hence the present study was undertaken to find out LV function changes in severely anemic patients by Echocardiography. Methodology: Present study was conducted in Al-Ameen Medical College and Government district Hospital, Bijapur. 31 anemic patients (aged 18-40 yrs) and equal number of age and gender matched non anemic healthy individuals were volunteers.

X-ray is one of the ionizing radiation that penetrates living tissues and generate chemically active free radicals these in turn potentially causes DNA damage. This study aimed to determine hematological changes, in particular total white blood cells count (TWBC), red blood cells count (RBC) and platelets count in X-ray workers in Sudan. Following informed consent, one hundred and twenty individuals; sixty apparently healthy volunteer X-ray technicians worked 8 hours a day for six days per week, and age and sex matched sixty unexposed healthy control were enrolled.

The objective: The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of developmental dental anomalies among the intermediate schools' Saudi students in Qassim region of Saudi Arabia. Subjects and Methods: The study was based on clinical examination of a selected dental anomalies among 2826 Saudi children (1562 male and 1264 female) aged 12-14 year from different administrative areas of Qassim, Saudi Arabia.The anomalies were related to the number, size and shape of permanent teeth.

Craniovertebraljunction shows the presence of various anatomical variations and abnormalities. The present case report describes a case of fusion of superior articular facets of atlas vertebra with the occipital condyles, observed during the routine osteology classes for undergraduate medical students of MVJ Medical College and Research Hospital, Bangalore. Such type of complete or partial fusion of atlas vertebra with occipital bone is known as occipitocervical synostosis.

The prevalence of multiple myeloma is increasing and is the most common hematological malignancy in old age. Despite increasing knowledge at times the criteria for multiple myeloma are not fulfilled. This study was carried out to show the significance of diagnostic modalities in diagnosis of multiple myeloma based on hematological, biochemical, serum and urine electrophoresis, radiological imaging techniques, and bone marrow plasmacytosis since the clinical features of multiple myeloma are variable.

Introduction: The shortage of health professionals in rural areas is a global problem. The urban and rural maldistribution of doctors results in severe problems regarding access to and performance of health care services. Retaining doctors in rural areas is a challenging task for a number of reasons, ranging from personal preferences to difficult work conditions and low remuneration.

Introduction: The shortage of health professionals in rural areas is a global problem. The urban and rural maldistribution of doctors results in severe problems regarding access to and performance of health care services. Retaining doctors in rural areas is a challenging task for a number of reasons, ranging from personal preferences to difficult work conditions and low remuneration.

Background: The patients suffering from hypertension demonstrate a higher risk development of CHD. Arterial hypertension (AH) is one of the main factors to cardiovascular diseases (CVD) and general mortality. Aim: The objective of this study was to determine the difference in the frequency of risk factors and in-hospital outcome in hypertensive and normotensive patients with AMI in Durres population, Albania.

Cancer is the most leading cause of death worldwide among the women. Nurses play a vital role in the health care team and often assure responsibility for health, assessment, client education and concurrent method of diagnosis and treatment of cervical cancer. The objectives of the study are (a) To assess the knowledge regarding cervical cancer and its prevention among B.Sc Nursing Students. (b) To find out the different mean of knowledge score of cervical cancer and it’s prevention among four batches of B.Sc nursing students. The descriptive research design was used.

Introduction: Examination of students’ beliefs about themselves, or self-theories, may provide important insight into their behaviour and these results shall contribute to the body of knowledge demonstrating the utility of the motivational concepts for understanding health sciences students’ effort and achievement. This study shall examine the relationship between the students’ believes about their intelligence, their curiosity and inquisitiveness, and whether these adaptive personal beliefs are predictive of their academic achievements.

A wide spectrum of primary as well as secondary diseases can affect liver. In the present study liver was examined from clinical autopsies during the period of 5 year. The aim of study was to study spectrum of histopathological lesions encountered in liver autopsy. Five years retro prospective study included 451 clinical autopsies. Sections from liver were studied with the help of H&E and special stains wherever necessary.

Pyogenic Granuloma is a type of inflammatory localized gingival enlargement of the oral cavity which is benign tumor like lesion. It occurs due to deleterious effects of chronic low grade irritation, trauma, hormonal factors and some drugs. This case report highlighted the presence of massive localized gingival enlargement in a 12 years old female child. History, Clinical, Radiological and Histopathological analysis showed that this is a case of pyogenic grnuloma. This is unique because of 12 years old child, rapidly growing nature and large size of lesion.

Mangroves provide a unique ecological environment for diverse microbial communities. Hence the present study revealed to analyze the diversity of the bacterial and fungal communities of a mangrove in Pichavaram of south India. Six samples of throwed and partially buried in soils were collected from various sites in Pichavaram, Samples were serially diluted and using pour plate technique, colonies were enumerated. Colony morphology, Biochemical studies were used to identify the microbes.

In India, the potential yield losses due to weeds in wheat are estimated upto 50 per cent depending upon degree of weed infestation, weed species and management practices. Due to improper application and stage, losses of herbicides increased manifold, be fond of significant reduction in crop yield with adverse effect on soil health. Nozzles used by farmers for herbicide spray, play a vital role in efficacy of herbicides. The efficacy of different nozzle systems viz.

Thirty genotypes including two standard checks were tested under rainfed and irrigated situations separately. Correlation coefficient analysis revealed that pods plant-1and biological yield plant-1 was positively associated with seed yield under both situations. In rainfed condition secondary branches and hundred seed weight also showed positive association with seed yield and in irrigated condition pod-bearing length had shown positive association with seed yield.

Studies of age based female mate preference suggested that female preference for male age in different taxa was found to be mixed and various hypotheses have been proposed with conflicting prediction. The present study in D. malerkotliana noticed that females of all ages preferred to mate with a middle aged males more frequently than young or old males. Further middle aged males showed significantly greater courtship acts to courting females. The female showed least rejection behavior and copulated longer with middle aged male than young or old males.

Dependence of different countries on fossil fuels, leads to increasing the cost of oil in world market. To overcomes this problem the countries have to give extra emphasis on indigenous and renewable energy sources. The present paper deals with the study of bio energy production mainly biogas by using Aquatic weed Echhornia and wastes from Agro- based industries like Distillery, Sugar industry, Dairy and Farm house waste. The pretreated and untreated Echhornia biomass alone and in combination with waste was used, there was marked increase in biogas production in weed and waste combination.

Male mating a second female after the first (male remating) is a common feature particularly in mass culture of Drosophila. Female remating is not frequent as that of male remating, but yet it is reported in few species here we report that males of D.gangotri and D.nagarholensis, remounting the same female for second and subsequent times immediately after first mount. There was no relation between courtship latency and mating latency or copulation duration (first mount). However, the copulation duration of second and subsequent mounts gradually decreased in both the species.

The present study was undertaken to evaluate the water quality of the Pedabida panchayat of Ananthagiri mandal in Visakhapatnam district with affable means. The physicochemical and the microbial studies are most important regions by which we are able to test the portability of water. The isolation and characterization of the pathogenic microorganism from the water sample collected were the main emphasized area of the study. In this study drinking water samples were collected from a bore, a well and a stream for a period of one years i.e., from April 2011 to March 2012.

This study sought to assess the structure and performance of the milk market in Western Kenya. Quantitative data was collected from 385 milk consumers in four counties, while qualitative data was obtained from officials of selected cooperatives, Ministry of livestock and Kenya Dairy Board. Frequencies, percentages, means, correlation and chi square tests were used to analyze data. The findings of this study revealed that farmers and traveling traders supplied 58% of total milk traded, with 70% of the milk passing through the informal channel.

Twenty sacred groves situated in Trichur District, Kerala, were selectedfor the study. 92 medicinal plant species are identified. The plants include 40 trees, 14 shrubs, 14 climbers and 24 herbs. The dicotyledons are 73 in number and Monocotyledons, 19. The identified plant species belonged to 46 families.

Rapid growth of construction activity, to meet the modern day requirements of increasing population and housing and infrastructure development needs of the society, has immensely boosted the demand for building materials in Kolhapur district. Stone quarrying continues to play major role in this process. However, the activity has caused serious environmental degradation and socio-economic conflicts in the study area.

The most abundant and highly conserved HSPs are the HSP70 family members. They are known to perform a range of vital cellular functions under stressed as well as in normal conditions to maintain the intracellular integrity and in adaptation and survival of the parasite within the hostile environment. In most of the parasitic infection, parasitein its life cycle undergoes an inevitable thermal shift during migration between vectors and hosts. This shift results in producing a significant heat shock response to which the parasite counteracts to protect itself from aberrant conditions.

Since time immemorial Simarouba glauca have been used as a natural medicine in the tropics. Aspergillus flavus, A. parasiticus, and Penicillium puberulum are well known transmitters of aflatoxin. Crude methanol and ethanol extracts from fresh and dried leaves of Simarouba glauca were tested for their inhibitory activity against pathogenic aflatoxin producing fungus Aspergillus parasiticus. Screening for the antifungal activity using well diffusion assay showed the inhibition against the tested fungi.

Present study was carried out to determine the quality of different water samples using various parameters i.e. pH, Total hardness, Residual chlorine, Conductivity, Chloride ion concentration, Dissolved oxygen, Acidity, Alkalinity, Total Dissolved Solids, Free Carbon Dioxide and Fluoride ion concentration. pH of different water samples were ranged from 7.09-8.06. Total Hardness varied from 1666-66.66 mg/l. Variation in conductivity was from 0.400-1.000. Chloride ion concentration ranged between 71.0-1056.2 mg/l. Variation on dissolved oxygen contents were between 0.6-1.0 mg/l.

Background: Oral mucositis is a common, dose limiting and potentially serious complication of both radiotherapy and chemotherapy of head and neck cancer. Homeostasis of both malignant and normal host cells are affected. This study is conducted mainly to evaluate application of oral leukocytes as an indicator of mucositis progression during the course of chemo-radiotherapy (CRT).

Wireless Sensor Networks play a vital role in applications like disaster management and human relief, habitat monitoring, studying the weather and eco systems, etc. Since the location of deployment of these WSNs is usually remote, the source of energy is restricted to battery. A Significant amount of work has been done by researchers in the past to achieve energy efficiency in WSNs. In this paper I propose a scheme to optimize the power utilization in a WSN. Many of the WSN applications form a tree topology for communication.

Photochemistry, a sub discipline of chemistry is the study of interactions between light and atoms or molecules. Photochemistry describes chemical reactions that proceed with the absorption of light. Everyday examples include photosynthesis, the degradation of plastics and the formation of vitamin D with sunlight. Photochemical reaction of thioamide derivatives gave the cyclised, oxidized and dehalogenated compounds. Thioamide derivatives are well known for their antimicrobial activities and they have drawn much attention because of their novel heterocyclic chemistry.

In day to day life there are many different kinds of pointing devices for interaction between human and computer. One of the most developed pointing devices is the mouse. Also traditional input devices are mostly wired devices, except for some Bluetooth enabled ones. In this paper, we propose and develop an effective color tracking method based on a simple color classification i.e. Red, Blue, Green. We can use single piece of paper to handle mouse operation when user move his or her hand on piece of paper the mouse pointer will ne move on screen.

Phase transfer catalyzed free radical polymerization of butylmethacrylate (BMA), using peroxydiphosphate (PDP) as an initiator and hexadecyltrimethylammonium chloride (HDTMAC) as a phase transfer catalyst was studied. The polymerization reactions were carried out in ethyl acetate – water bi phase media at 50 ± 0.10C in an inert atmosphere under unstirred condition. The effect of various kinetic parameters such as different concentration of monomer, initiator, phase transfer catalyst (PTC) different acid strength and temperature were studied.

Four simple and sensitive extractive spectrophotometric methods have been described for the assay of Lansoprazole either in pure form or in pharmaceutical formulations. The developed methods involve formation of coloured chloroform extractable ion-pair complexes of the drug with bromothymol blue (BTB), bromophenol blue (BPB), bromocresol purple (BCP) and bromocresol green (BCG) in acidic medium. The extracted complexes showed absorbance maxima at 419, 417, 416 and 414nm with use of the cited reagents, respectively. The stoichiometry of the complex is found to be 1:1 in each case.

Electronic resources play a vital role in the field of science, medical, engineering and Commerce etc studies. Electronic access to technology journals has become important and valuable tool for researchers, students and faculty. The user community is becoming more and more familiar with these tools and now they have started using them very regularly.

In this paper proposes solutions for speaker diarization in TV talk shows for multimodal approaches. Both audio and video data can be taken for multimodal approach. In this paper can decomposes two levels such as, the reliable datasets can be formed for TV shows and SVM is used to classify the audio and video data based on unsupervised approach. Both audio and video data can be assembled by the association of visual and audio descriptors. Tabu search is introduced for improve the accuracy of the searching method.

In this paper, the system deals with content based retrieval by using three dominant content retrieval techniques and queries used to retrieve the videos. The query sets are given to identify the relevant videos. Media Professionals utilize this audio-visual archives to capture the video material. The primary goal of this project is to investigate how to retrieve the videos by using content based retrieval. The performance of content based video retrieval will improve with the help of cross referencing and multimodal re-ranking method.

Celery is good source of flavonoid. They have also other positive effects on human health The aim of current research was to study and compare an antioxident activity. The hexanolic extracted and purification flavonoides from celery plant by using Thin layer chromotography (TLC). The study showed the effects of different three concentrations (10,20,30) of celery flavonoid extract on the effectiveness of liver enzymes (GPT,GOT) in blood and liver mice through injuction Subcutaneous of laboratory mice during period of tow weeks in same age mice.

Sulphonated carbon derived from plant viz., Nelumbo Nucifera has been prepared and blended with Phenol-Formaldehyde Resin (PFR) by varying the percentage of blending (%w/w) and Physico-chemical parameters like, density, gravimetric swelling (%) attritional breaking (%) and Cation Exchange Capacity (CEC) of various metal ions have been determined. For a given metal ion, CEC decreases with the increase in percentage of blending NNSC with PFR.

Cloud Computing is an emerging paradigm which has become today’s hottest research area due to its ability to reduce the costs associated with computing. Cloud computing, it is most interesting and enticing technology which is offering the services to its users on demand over the internet. Since Cloud Computing stores the data and disseminated resources in the open environment, security has become the main obstacle which is hampering the deployment of Cloud environments.

This project is designed to improve Electrical versus Thermal efficiency. We have used infrared penetration heating system to improve efficiency up to 95% thermal efficiency and 100% electrical efficiency. We are going to construct a furnace model to improve our system by reducing the weight factor of the furnace by changing the forming procedure of the furnace casing by using of composite insulation material. A real fabrication model is to analyze IR heating system. IR lamps will be used to provide heat.

In this study, we report the qualitative phase analysis performed by Rietveld X-ray diffraction using “Fullprof” program for nano and micro powder of ZrO2 before and after heat treatment at (1180 °C). Rietveld refinement on X-ray data for the samples is performed. The obtained results have a good optimization between the observed X-ray diffraction pattern and that calculated by Rietveld method. This optimization is determined according to R-pattern factor (Rp), the weighted-profile factor (Rwp), and goodness of the fit (GOF).

This paper guides us about the impact of Exchange rate Pakistan rupee in terms of US Dollar and KSE 100 index. We take the data of period comprises from January 01, 2006 to December 31, 2012 excluding year 2013due to general elections of Pakistan, which held in May 2013 after which stock market took a boom. We applied different statistical tools to analyze the obtained data. We also analyze the causal relationship between both the time series. First of all we carry out normality test and found that both PKR-USD exchange rate and KSE 100 index are non-normally distributed.

Palynology, the science of pollen, spores, algal cysts and other microscopic plant bodies is a multi-disciplinary field with applications in botany, zoology, entomology, immunology, forensic science, geology, archaeology, geography and environmental sciences. Pollen and spores collectively called palynomorphs can serve as valuable forensic tools. Their utility lies in their abundance; different dispersal mechanisms; resistance to mechanical, chemical and biological destruction; microscopic size and specific morphology.

This study focuses on investigating the effect of leverage, capital intensity and its impact on firm’s profitability of the motor vehicle industries of Pakistan. For this purpose, two independent variables, i.e. leverage and capital intensity were in use into concern to recognize their effect on dependant variable, i.e. firm’s profitability.

Investment is often regarded as a rational process of decision making for maximizing profit and minimizing losses. This article tries to emphasis that an investment process is not a strategic, methodological or a rational process but is based on emotional responses of individual investor given a volatile platform. An entire field of study known as Behavioral finance studies the emotions behind economic decision-making. Behavioral finance is a combination of economics, psychology, game theory to model decision making by individuals.

Background: Throughout the last decades many studies have been tended to investigate, identify and treat different linguistic or non-linguistic errors made by learners in their spoken and written language. Sometimes instructors' errors are involved in few researches also. Aims: This study is concentrated on investigating the linguistic errors (LEs) that were found out in the test sentences (TSs)- interrogatives (InTSs) and imperatives (ImTSs)- made by instructors who are non- native speaker nor specialists in English language.

The great advances in information and communication technology (ICT) have made it possible for individuals to live, learn, work, communicate and undertake leisure activities in a different and better way. In addition, the current world order requires quality systems which are efficient, accurate, and fast for operation and service delivery. For this reason, technologies and especially the ICTs open up new horizons that provide avenues and strategies leading to the emergence of new perspectives and approaches.

The tension and cinematic events unfolding in Ukraine, especially in its part of Crimea, is a move seemingly replicating the cold war. The political impasse is triangular in nature due to the involvement of Moscow, the west and Kiev in the crisis. The paper examines the nature of the current crisis in Ukraine and analyses the relationship between the hitherto Russo-American containment and rivalry under the era of cold war.

An attempt has been carried out to develop rule-based classification through a raster GIS to improve the accuracy of land cover classification derived from ETM Data To produce rule based land cover classification for the study area (a part of Dehradun district).Rules to be produced for each land cover class in different bands namely green, red, near infrared, mid infrared 1, mid infrared 2, NDVI and PCA and to compare the rule based approach for each class in each band rule based approach for each class in each band.

Land use mapping is important for evaluation, management and conservation of natural resources of an area and the knowledge on the existing land use is one of the prime pre-requisites for suggesting better use of land. In this study, three mapping approaches (unsupervised, supervised and GIS post processing) were used to identify, demarcate and map the land use/ Land cover categories in the Uppar Odai Sub-Watershed, Tamil Nadu, India.

A street child is any girl or boy for whom the street has become his or her habitual abode or a source of livelihood, and who worked on the street and went home to their families at night. The scenario of street children is considered to be the most important problem facing both developed and developing societies. Street children constitute a snubbed group as they are the product of economic growth, war, poverty, loss of traditional values, domestic violence, physical and mental abuse.





Rosane Cavalcante Fragoso, Brasil


Chief Scientific Officer and Head of a Research Group

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Luai Farhan Zghair
Hasan Ali Abed Al-Zu’bi
Fredrick OJIJA
Firuza M. Tursunkhodjaeva
Faraz Ahmed Farooqi
Saudi Arabia
Eric Randy Reyes Politud
Elsadig Gasoom FadelAlla Elbashir
Eapen, Asha Sarah
United State
Dr.Arun Kumar A
Dr. Zafar Iqbal
Dr. Ruchika Khanna
Dr. Recep TAS
Dr. Rasha Ali Eldeeb
Dr. Pralhad Kanhaiyalal Rahangdale
Dr. Nicolas Padilla- Raygoza
Dr. Mustafa Y. G. Younis
Dr. Muhammad shoaib Ahmedani
Saudi Arabia
United State
Dr. Lim Gee Nee
Dr. Jatinder Pal Singh Chawla
Dr. Devendra kumar Gupta
Dr. Ali Seidi
Dr. Achmad Choerudin
Dr Ashok Kumar Verma
Thi Mong Diep NGUYEN
Dr. Muhammad Akram
Dr. Imran Azad
Dr. Meenakshi Malik
Aseel Hadi Hamzah
Anam Bhatti
Md. Amir Hossain
Mirzadi Gohari