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October 2015

  1. MassaweLaurencia Ndelamo, Massawe Estomih, S. and MakindeOluwole Daniel

    Discovery of a dengue outbreak early is the major step towards implementing effective dengue interventions resulting in reduced mortality and morbidity. A dengue mathematical model is useful tool for prediction of an outbreak and evaluation of control measures. However, such a model must be carefully parameterized and validated with epidemiological data. Data obtained from the ministry of health and social welfare in Tanzania are used to analyse various parameters of dengue transmission and outbreak model. Validation of the model is done with 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013 2014 and 2015 data from ministry of health and social welfare in Tanzania, number of dengue cases obtained in the year 2010 to 2015 are used as independent variable (observed data). Accuracy of the model for predicting outbreak is assessed through coefficient of determination. A well fit model is obtained for Tanzania to be used as a predictive model to predict possible outbreak. Numerical simulations are performed to fit the model to available data for dengue fever disease in Tanzania and to determine the role played by some key parameters. From the results, it is observed that the forecasted dataagree very close to the actual data.

  2. Nihad Elsadig Babekir Ismail, Alsadig Gassoum and MohiEldein Abass Abdalla

    Background: Patients with diabetes mellitus have a high risk of atherothrombotic events. Many studies have shown a variety of diabetes mellitus related abnormalities in hemostasis and thrombosis. The diabetic condition contributes for initiation and progression of microvascular and macrovascular complication. Materials and Methods: This is a cross sectional study that had been conducted at Alrakah Hospital during May 2012 to June 2012. The study included samples from type 2 diabetic patients diagnosed clinically at Alrakah Hospital, during the above mentioned period. The study was conducted in accordance with the guidelines of the local ethical committee. The aim of this study is to investigate the coagulation parameters in diabetic type 11 patients, these parameters included (PT, APTT, TT, Fibrinogen and D- dimer). Citrated venous blood samples were collected from50 patients of diabetes mellitus type II, and thirty from non-diabetes individuals as control. Data were analyzed by using statistical package of social science (SPSS). Results: The most affected age group was 20-45years which encountered in 44%of the patients. According to the duration of the disease 78% of the patients were found within the period of 5-10 years p =0.000.

  3. Sheikh Jan, M., Samiera Hassan, Tariq Abdullah Mir, Bilal Ahmed, Khurshid Iqbal and Fomda Bashir Ah

    Background: Embolism is a dreaded complication of Infective Endocarditis (IE). Embolism may cause an acute myocardial infarction (AMI). (Cecchi et al., 2004; Deprele et al., 2004) Neurological complications develop in 20-40% of cases, most of which are stroke or transient ischemic attacks. Central nervous system (CNS) involvement is most common; stroke comprises up to 65% of embolic events and may be the presenting sign of I.E. in up to 14% of cases (Jones and Sickert, 1989), Up to 90% of CNS emboli lodge in the distribution of Middle cerebral artery and carry a high mortality rate (Pruitt et al., 1978). Objectives: To study the major embolic complications in duke definite infective Endocarditis patients. Design: A Prospective hospital based study conducted over a course of three years on fifty consecutive cases of duke definite infective Endocarditis. Methods: Fifty patients of Infective Endocarditis (IE) were evaluated and studied for prevalence of major embolic complications during treatment in hospital and six weeks follow up. Results: Of the patients studied (n=50), 29 (58 %) were males and 21 (42 %) were females. Embolic complications were documented in 8 (16%) of patients: 3 (37.5%) had stroke, 3 (37.5%) had peripheral embolism most commonly to femoral and popliteal vessels and 2 patients developed embolic MI. Conclusions: Embolism is a common complication in IE, embolism most commonly involves CNS and peripheral vascular system. Coronary emboli may cause AMI.

  4. Maria Erbenia Soares de Freitas, Fagner Pereira da Silva and Luciene Rodrigues Barbosa

    This systematic review aims to identify scientific publications addressing the use screening scales Postpartum Depression (PPD) applied until sixth month after postpartum in mothers over 15 years. A systematic review was conducted using PubMed, LILASC, MEDLINE and the PRISMA guidelines (Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses), using the following keywords: Postpartum Depression, Brief psychiatric rating scale, Maternal Depression. The search resulted in 55 articles that were screened by title and abstract, these 09 articles were analyzed. In this research observed it most articles discuss the importance of early screening and the relationship between anxiety, maternal availability and PPD.

  5. Marjena BIXHI, Pranvera LAZO and Joana GJIPALAJ

    The aim of present study is: i) to determine trace metals content in blood serum of pregnant and non-pregnant female, ii) to find a possible correlation between the metals under investigation, iii) to show the effectiveness of therapy with substitute of some elements during pregnancy. 77 blood samples were collected from February to March 2013 using the procedure described in World Health Organization (WHO) protocol. The serum samples were prepared using the high speed centrifuge (3600 rpm, in gel tubes) and than were diluted to 1:10 ratio with de-ionized water that contains 0.25% Triton X-100. The analysis of blood serum samples were carried out via i) Atomic Absorption Spectroscopy (AAS) with acetylene-air flame measuring absorbance of magnesium, calcium and zinc, ii) flame Atomic Emission Spectroscopy by measuring emission intensity of sodium, potassium and lithium, iii) graphite furnace Atomic Absorption Spectroscopy is used for lead, iron, copper, chrome, nickel, manganese content in serum samples. Results reported show that: 1) the range of concentration of Na, K, Ca, Mg, Zn, Cu, Mn, Ni were within the normal concentration range of each element. 2) The concentration of most of elements were higher in pregnant female who were treated with substitutes demonstrating the effectiveness of the substitutes therapy, 2) the female under investigation have normal concentration values of Li, an element related to the nervous system, and low concentration values of Pb, a toxic element.

  6. Noora K. AbdulQader, Waad M. Raoof and Abdulameer A. Al-Mussawi

    Aims: 1- To evaluate the incidence of Pseudomonas aeruginosa bacterial pathogen in burn patients. 2- To determine the Biofilm producing P. aeruginosa Methods: Total of 62 samples have been collected from patients who attended to the center of Burn in Al-Faihaa General Hospital in Basra City from the period 01/03/2015 to 1/6/2015. Including 36 (58%) females and 26 (42%) males, aged between 6 months – 78 years. All specimens were directly inoculated onto plated of P.P.A and incubated at 37 ºC for 24 hrs and identified by microscopic examination and biochemical tests include (Oxidase, indole, Vogas-Proskauer, urease, Methyl red, citrate utilization and Kligler) and using CHROMagar media. Ability of P. aeroginosa to forming biofilm tested by using Congo Red Agar and confirmed by genetic detection using pslA, IcaA and IcaD genes by PCR technique. Results: The current results showed that, forty two (67.7%) positive samples were identified as P. aeroginosa by biochemical tests and CHROMagar medium, three samples (7.1%) were positive for biofilm forming on Congo red agar, three samples (7.1%) were positive to pslA gene, one (2.4%) positive to IcaA gene and all negative to IcaD gene. Conclusions: We wish to emphasize that the P. aeroginosa present at high frequency among burn patients, and this give difficult to healing infections. A screening procedure using CHROMagar media give better results and faster in identifying P. aeroginosa than conventional methods. Gene identification was the best biofilm forming test.

  7. Nidhi Kumar

    Background of the study: Celiac disease is an autoimmune disorder that can occur in genetically predisposed people where the ingestion of gluten leads to damage in the small intestine. It has emerged as an increasingly recognized public health problem and is one of the main cause of morbidity and mortality. Objectives: To assess the knowledge and level of perceived difficulties regarding gluten free diet among celiac disease patients. Methodology: A non-experimental descriptive research design was used and 100 celiac disease patients were selected by using convenience sampling technique. A structured questionnaire was used to assess the knowledge and Likert scale was developed to assess the level of perceived difficulties among celiac disease patients. Results: It was found that maximum numbers of celiac disease patients (46%) were having good knowledge and about (67%) of patients had high level of perceived difficulties regarding gluten free diet. The study also focused that the most frequently occurring perceived difficulty in individual difficulties was in finding gluten free food at restaurants (91.3%), in emotional and psychological difficulties, was to control themselves while watching others eating normal diet (71.6%), under the social difficulties was in attending meal invitations (77.6%), in financial difficulties they found gluten free food more costly (90%). A significant relationship (p≤0.05) of knowledge with marital status and family income and perceived difficulties with disease duration and adherence to gluten free diet (p≤0.05) was found among celiac disease patients. Conclusion: The finding of the study concluded that maximum number of celiac disease patients had good knowledge and majority of patients had high level of perceived difficulties regarding gluten free diet. The study also focused that, the most frequently occurring perceived difficulties were in finding gluten free food at restaurants, in controlling themselves while watching others eating normal diet, in attending meal invitations because of dietary restrictions, and in finding gluten free food more costly. Also the study revealed that there was significant relationship of knowledge with marital status and family income, level of perceived difficulties with disease duration and adherence to gluten free diet among celiac disease patients.

  8. Prabhakhar, A. and Narayanasamy, S.

    This study was carried out to assess the nutritional status of children with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) between 4 -12 years, based on their height, weight and to analyze their eating practices. The study also examined the impact of nutrition intervention on awareness and food choices of mothers having children with ADHD. This is a specific population study, conducted in a special school of Chennai city. The sample recruited for the given study consisted of 60 mothers having children with ADHD. The purposive sampling technique was adapted for the selection of the sample. The nutrition intervention was designed based on the height, weight, BMI percentile (NCHS-CDC)6 of children with ADHD and preference of food choices of their mothers. The choices made by them had low consumption of protective foods like fruits vegetables, pulses and eggs and high consumption of high fat, processed and fast foods. The investigator gathered the data from 60 mothers having children with ADHD using an interview based questionnaire at the baseline and also after the one month of the intervention. This tool consisted of 12 items targeting to assess the awareness about nutrition and preferences about food choices of the respondents. The intervention program involved group counseling form others and food display on packed lunch and healthy eating. The qualitative data was assessed using the content analysis for intervention (Scoring key for the questionnaire) and the quantitative data was analyzed by using SPSS software version 17. Results of the study revealed that, before the intervention children with ADHD were found to have weight imbalances and their mothers exhibited very little knowledge on nutrition and healthy food choices. Whereas post intervention, mothers showed a statistically significant increased awareness on nutrition and food selection when compared to the baseline data. However no significant change was observed in the weight of the children with ADHD. The nutrition intervention for mothers having children with ADHD had a significantly positive impact on their knowledge and food selection practices. The awareness and the knowledge about healthy food choices among the mother scan play a key role in managing the symptoms like hyperactivity or attention deficit. The study emphasizes the need of many such interventions in this area of nutrition and ADHD.

  9. Edi Hartoyo, Qomariyatus Sholihah, Rahmi Fauzia and Dwi Nur Rachmah

    This study aims to determine the effect of breakfast counseling on the coal miners activities and health. This study is an experiment Quasi Experimental with design The Non Equivalent Control Group. This design uses two groups, the first group and the second group are given a pretest and post test, but only one group is given the treatment (counseling). Research instrument was a questionnaire safety and health knowledge with the number of items by 10 item valid and reliable questions, with 10 score for the correct answer and 0 for a wrong answer. The study sample 25 for the control group and 25 samples for the experimental group. Quantitative data analysis use SPSS analysis technique. The study states that there is a significant effect of the counseling provision on having a breakfast on the activity and health of coal miners.

  10. Abeer Mokhtar Mohammad Ibrahim

    A study in the purpose of pain assessment in neonates and relief of pain cycles; not only for ethical view but also because repeated painful exposures can cause deleterious consequences. Gathered information from various medical references and previous studies discussing pain physiology, modulation and pain calibration instruments all are provided for this purpose. In Egypt, pain in neonates is underestimated and it's prevalent among the public that circumcision is preferably carried out in the first week. And from this point, we were determined to make this study about pain in neonatal age.

  11. Valdir Cesarino de Souza, Enio Pereira de Sousa, Sandra Sereide Ferreira da Silva, Allan Carlos Alves, Ana Lúcia C. Sousa, Arturo R. Felinto and Alandey Severo Leite da Silva

    Aim: To investigate the coronary heart disease aggravated by climate variations in Borborema region*. Method: It was used a quantitative non-experimental method in a cross-sectional and exploratory field research, conducted through medical records from João XXIII Hospital and the use of questionnaires to cardiac patients, from February 2010 to February 2012. The survey sample used consisted of 712 respondents, which was the total data collected. For data analysis, it was used the Pearson’s correlation coefficient. It was considered for this study the maximum, minimum, and medium temperatures provided by INMET - the meteorological station of the National Institute of Meteorology, located on the premises of Embrapa - Brazilian Agricultural Research Corporation in the city of Campina Grande, Paraíba (PB), Brazil. The research was registered by the Ethics Committee of UEPB – State University of Paraíba, under number: CAAE 0007.0.133.000-1. Results: The data revealed no relevant statistical correlation between coronary morbidity and climatic variations. Conclusion: Climate variability in the researched area does little influence on the onset and / or worsening of coronary heart disease

  12. Shanone C. Pereira, Jissa, V. T., Shaji Thomas, Preethi, T. R., Remani, P. and Sujathan, K.

    Fine Needle Aspiration Cytology is considered as a reliable and cost effective method for the initial evaluation of thyroid nodules. But it poses a diagnostic challenge in differentiating benign follicular adenoma from follicular carcinoma and follicular variant of papillary carcinoma as they have similar cytological appearance. Present study focused on the identification of an immuno marker for the differential diagnosis of thyroid malignancy and to compare the expression of Galectins and Bcl-2 to explain its role in apoptosis. We performed immunohistochemistry of galectin-1, galectin-3 and bcl-2 on cell block prepared from FNA material and corresponding tissue sections on 289 samples. Galectin-3 mRNA expression was quantified using Real time PCR. Western blotting was carried out in surgically excised fresh tissue specimens. Pap stained slides were also subjected to immunocytochemistry without de-staining. Galectin-3 was found to be highly significant (P<0.001) in the differential diagnosis of malignancy from adenoma with high diagnostic accuracy of 97.8%. All the samples of papillary carcinoma with distant metastasis showed intense expression of galectin-3 and bcl-2. A negative correlation in the expression pattern of galectin-3 and bcl-2 was observed in the case of thyroiditis. QRT- PCR revealed a significant over expression of galectin-3 (2.4 fold) in papillary carcinoma. The present study observed a correlation for the over expression of Galectin-3 with its anti-apoptotic activity and suggests galectin-3 immunohistochemistry along with morphological evaluation and quantitative assessment to eliminate unwanted thyroidectomies for benign nodules.

  13. Halima M. Sule, Danjuma Salihu, Badung Z. Gyang and Isaac Bot

    Obesity has been linked as an independent risk factor for cardiovascular disease including hypertension. Varying patterns of this relationship exists across race, ethnic group and geographical location. Body mass index (BMI), waist circumference (WC) and waist hip ratio (WHR) are simple methods of assessing obesity. This study aimed to assess obesity using BMI, WC and WHR, and to examine the respective relationships with hypertension. In a hospital-based cross-sectional descriptive study, 556 adult out-patients were recruited and relevant data was collected from them. Data was analysed using Epi info 7 statistical software package. Confidence interval of 95% and significance level of <0.05 was applied. According to BMI cut-offs, 60% of the subjects were overweight and obese; by WC cut-offs, 65.5% of the subjects were in the increased risk and high risk category; and abnormal WHR was found in 57.4% of the subjects. Fifty-three percent of the total population were hypertensive. Subjects with abnormal BMI, WC and WHR made up 76%, 81% and 72% of the hypertensive population respectively. There was significant correlation between anthropometric indices (BMI, WC and WHR) and hypertension (p=<0.05). All three methods were useful in assessing obesity and correlating obesity with hypertension.

  14. Doroudi Alireza, Erfani Mostafa, Zaheri Maryam, Saadati Seyyed Mostafa, Ahmadi Faramarz, Kiasat Ali, Etesami Behrooz, Meghdadi Hossein and Rezaee Saeed

    This study was launched to evaluate the efficacy of ultrasound irradiation technique versus boiling water bath method for preparation of 99mTc-UBI 29-41 samples and assess the bio distribution of radiotracer samples in the infected rats induced by Staphylococcus aureus. The 740MBq (20 mCi) 99mTc-UBI 29-41 samples were reconstituted by boiling water bath or ultrasound irradiation technique. The 99mTc-UBI 29-41 samples were administrated intravenously to the infected rats. Then qualitative and quantitative studies have been performed. The ITLC and radio-HPLC studies have demonstrated the 99mTc-UBI 29-41 samples with good yields could be prepared by new developed technique. All affected foot’s rats could be visualized by scintigraphy imaging. The imaging studies have indicated that the radiotracer samples prepared due to the above mentioned modalities shows very identical bio distribution in the infected rats. The ultrasound irradiation technique is convenient and efficient method to reconstitute the 99mTc-UBI 29-41 kits. It can be recommended as alternative method to prepare infection-seeking radiotracer samples in radioisotope imaging in the clinical practice.

  15. Ashakiran, N. and Khursheedalam

    A hepatitis B virus (HBV) is endemic in India and has an etiological role in hepatitis, 50-60% of which end up with chronic liver disease. A total of 100 patients diagnosed as alcoholic liver cirrhosis were screened for HBV. 100 healthy subjects without any evidence of chronic liver disease were taken as controls. 18% of the samples were positive for hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg). Serum bilirubins, enzymes (AST, ALT, ALP, and GGT) were significantly increased. In conclusion, heavy alcohol consumption significantly increases liver disease with HBV positive patients.

  16. SupriyaGachinmath, Vani, C. and Srikanth, N. S.

    Anaerobic infection is usually polymicrobial in nature and has a significant role in mortality and morbidity of CNS infection. The bacteriology of Brain abscess is complex and consist of polymicrobialanerobic infections. We aimed to study the rate of isolation, poly microbial nature, association of predisposing factors and sensitivity pattern of obligate and facultative anaerobes in Brain abscess cases. This study was conducted in St Johns medical college, Bengaluru from January 2009 - June 2015.Total 30 samples were processed for the aerobic and anaerobic culture following the standard protocol. Out of 30 samples, 21 yielded the growth of pathogenic organisms. Obligate anaerobes were the major pathogens which were isolated from Brain abscess at the rate of 50% and Peptostreptococcus spp (10/26) was the most common obligate anaerobe other than Bacteroidesfragilis,Fusobacteriumspp, Prevotella spp etc. Chronic suppurativeotitis media was the common predisposing factor associated with Brain abscess other than congenital heart disease (CHD), Diabetes mellitus, sinusitis, etc. Polymicrobial synergism was most commonly associated with the obligate anaerobes contributing upto (46.6%) when compared to facultative anaerobes. Three pus aspirates yielded the growth of aseptatezygomycotic fungii and two cases having a fatal outcome of death. Antibiotic sensitivity of Bacteroidesfragilis showed intrinsic resistance for Penicillin and Microaerophilic streptococci showed intrinsic resistance to metronidazole. This study signifies about the polymicrobial obligate anaerobic infection in brain abscess and its association with the predisposing conditions like CSOM, sinusitis, CHD etc. Also it is important to look for the sensitivity pattern in complicated cases which helps in evidence based therapy. Hence this will results into better clinical outcome decreasing the morbidity and mortality associated with CNS infections.

  17. Saliha Koc

    Complexity of health care requires a more efficient use of resources. Due to the continuous improvements in information technologies, nurse call systems support patient-employee communication. The aim of the study is identify benefits of nurse call system used in Acibadem Healthcare Group (ASG) and ensure the dissemination of usage of this system in Turkish hospitals.

  18. Dr. Amita Sharma and Dr. Sonam Sharma

    An unusual case of simultaneous presence of supernumerary teeth in primary and permanent dentition is presented and discussed. Presence of supernumerary tooth in the primary dentition itself is a rare phenomenon. Early diagnosis is essential to avoid complications.

  19. Seema and Maheshwari, S. K.

    In today’s era, the business success is based on the employee abilities and capabilities. Work- family conflicts is becoming more common now a day due to work pressure and family responsibilities. This research focuses on the comparison of work-family conflict and job satisfaction among different groups. The Sample size selected for this research is 120 participants , 30 each from the 4 groups i.e nurses, doctors, clerks, teachers. After the study, it is identified that there was a negative correlation between work family conflict and job satisfaction among the professionals in different groups. This research is limited towards the sample size and in the future, the researcher can expand the sample size in order to explore new factors or dimension related to work-family conflicts and employee job satisfaction. This research plays a significant role for managers because it can help in identifying strategies through which managers can increase employee job satisfaction.

  20. Abhijeet Kore, Priya Vaswani, Tushar Khandagle and Swapnil Jadhav

    Complete denture with an acrylic denture base is a successful treatment modality for many edentulous cases, but there are repeated episodes of fracture due to reasons of occlusal disharmony, flexure and fatigue as a result of alveolar resorption and impact as a result of dropping the denture. Denture reinforcements in form of metal mesh though a suitable alternative for alleviating fracture episodes; it exposes the metallic component in certain areas and hence affects the overall patient compliance. In situations where extensive resorption of the residual ridge has occurred, it is not uncommon to have a buccolingual width of 5 mm or less. The potential for denture fracture is therefore inherent commonly in anterior region. This case report aims at using an economical and less time consuming procedure for reinforcement by use of metal mesh and technique to avoid metallic display in mandibular complete denture.

  21. Dr. Arathi, S., Dr. Sujata. Giriyan and Dr. P. K. Rangappa

    Background and objectives: Leukemias represent one of the most important problems in the field of haematology. Early diagnosis of various subtypes of leukemia and intervention has improved the prognosis and disease free survival. This is a clinicopathological study of leukemia undertaken at KIMS, Hubli, with the following objectives, • To study the pattern of leukemias in this part of North Karnataka. • To study clinical and haematological presentations of acute leukemias. • To ascertain the utility of cytochemistry in the diagnosis of acute leukemias. Methods: Clinical history of eighty leukemia patients was recorded. Peripheral smear examination was done and various haematological parameters were noted. Cytochemistry was done in all 37 cases, of acute leukemia using MPO, SBB and PAS stains. Interpretation and Conclusion: Leukemia is prevalent in this region of North Karnataka as in other parts of India. In almost all age groups and types of leukemias, males predominated. The commonest type of leukemia observed in this study was CML and CLL was less frequent. The presenting symptoms and clinical features of these patients were similar to those observed in other reported studies. While peripheral smear examination and bone marrow studies remain key to the diagnosis of leukemia, conventional cytochemical techniques need to be used for typing and subtyping of leukemias.

  22. Shilpa Jain, Sucheta, Ruchita, Monika, Meenu Paliwal and Himanshu

    In the present work, novel derivatives of veratric acid (V1- V34) were synthesized and tested in vitro for their antibacterial activity against Gram-positive bacteria Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus subtilis and Gram negative bacteria Escherichia coli as well as antifungal activity against fungal strains Candida albicans and Aspergillus niger by standard serial dilution method using ciprofloxacin and fluconazole as reference compounds in case of antibacterial and antifungal activity respectively. The IR, 1H NMR and 13C NMR spectral data of the synthesized compounds were found in agreement with the assigned molecular structures. The investigation of antimicrobial screening data revealed that most of the synthesized compounds demonstrated good antimicrobial activity against all bacteria and fungi used in the study. Compounds (V2, V21, V25, V28) demonstrated most significant activity against C. albicans (MIC=6.25 µg/ml). The outcome of the study suggested that the test compound V28 may be utilized as potential antimicrobial agent against S. aureus, B. subtilis, E. coli, C. albicans and A. niger. mt-QSAR investigation with linear regression analysis was applied to find the relationship between chemical structures and biological activities of a series of analogs quantitatively. mt-QSAR studies revealed that antimicrobial activity of these synthesized derivatives against microorganisms under test mainly governed by topological parameters [valence zero order molecular connectivity index Vkier’s alpha second order shape index (2)] and electronic parameter [total energy (Te)].

  23. Dr. Beenish Yousseff and Dr. Nadiya Yousseff

    Objective: To explore appropriate second line therapies for management of severe postpartum hemorrhage at caesarean and vaginal delivery. Methods : A prospective study was done of 100 women at Lalla Ded Hospital of GMC, Srinagar, of primary postpartum hemorrhage unresponsive to standard medical therapy. In all of these PPH cases, women were treated with appropriate oxytocic agents and prostaglandin analogues. Intravenous infusions of oxytocin, intravenous methergine and / or intramuscular carboprost tromethamine were all used in accordance with our hospital protocol. 50 patients of failed medical therapy were managed with utero vaginal packing, and in another group of 50 patients Sengstaken Blakemore Oesophageal Catheter [SBOC] was inserted. Women with traumatic PPH and secondary infection were excluded from our study. Coagulation studies were carried out in all patients to exclude coagulopathy as the cause of, or a catalyst for the hemorrhage. Result : In the SBOC group, balloon tamponade succeeded in arresting hemorrhage in 47 patients out of 50 (94% success rate), whereas 3 patients who developed PPH after caesarean section failed the tamponade test and underwent urgent caesarean hysterectomy, (6% failure), due to the ongoing hemorrhage. In the uterine packing group, success was achieved in arresting hemorrhage in 39 patients (78% success rate) and failed in 11 patients (22% failure rate). 6 underwent caesarean hysterectomy and 5 patients who developed PPH after normal vaginal delivery underwent postpartum hysterectomy. Statistically, there was a significant difference with respect to outcome of tamponade procedure between the two groups (p-value = 0.021). There was no statistical significance with respect to the cause of PPH, mode of delivery, duration of labour or gestation at delivery. Conclusion : The results from our observations strongly support the use of balloon tamponade for unresponsive postpartum hemorrhage. Balloon tamponade showed a higher success rate of 94%, as compared to 78%, in the uterine packing group, with least morbidity and lower intervention rates.

  24. Harishkiran N. Elukoti, Indumathi, S., Deepak, U.G. and Ishuwar Kanabur,

    Spontaneous renal pelvis rupture (SRPR) is extremely uncommon and thought as a nontraumatic leakage of the urine from the renal pelvis. It is usually secondary to calculus causing obstruction. A clear differentiation between the forniceal rupture and upper ureter/ renal pelvis becomes very important as both course and treatment are different. Around seventy percent of ureteric stones are present in the distal ureter. Effective treatment of distal ureteric stone is by keeping the patient under observation and medication. These stones usually pass spontaneously under observation: however, some causes complication like urinary tract infection, hydronephrosis and abnormal renal function. Spontaneous perforation of the renal pelvis is a rare condition that leads diagnostic and therapeutic problems. We present a case report of male patient who is under conservative treatment presenting as spontaneous rupture of the renal pelvis with urinoma formation.

  25. Ali Hassan Alhaiti, Linda Katherine Jones, Abdigani Qasim and George BinhLenon

    Background: Although there has been significant improvement in both understanding and treating type 2 diabetes, there is no indication of a decrease in its prevalence. This trend has led to an hypothesis that are still risk factors that have not been fully understood and dealt with and patient need effective treatment programs to help them deal with such. For along time, medical experts have emphasized the need for diabetic patients to exercise lifestyle changes such as dieting and engaging in physical exercise in order to maintain their conditions. Objectives: Self-care is increasingly becoming an important for diabetic patient seeking to manage their conditions. Consequently, this study is geared towards evaluating the efficiency level of self-care programs among type 2 diabetes (T2D) patients in Saudi Arabia. It will also describe the self-care programs’ effects on the outcome of disease and patients’ quality of life, and the importance of associated educational programs. Methods: This is a systematic review of published studies exploring the quality of self-care management, as well as its effect on promoting quality of life among T2D patients in Saudi Arabia. This review revealed 11 published papers which included Prospective cohort study, uncontrolled quasi-experimental intervention study with pre–post assessment, non experimental retrospective cross sectional survey, naturalistic observation, case control study, and qualitative interview. Results: The results from this review indicated that a significant percentage of T2D patients do not observe, or are selective with the type of self-care management they use. This habit leads to reduced quality of life, prolonged stay at the hospital, and extended recuperation period. The reviews indicated that educational programs have promoted self-care management among T2D patients. An educational program promotes self-care management among T2D patients and provides additional training for healthcare to facilitate and encourage self-care activity among the patients to minimize the growing number of T2D patients.

  26. Harjit Kaur, Sanjeev Jain, Navnit Kaur, Gaurav Pandav

    Research has now established that a thorough understanding of the implant related complications is essential if implant retained restorations are to be employed predictably. Biological complications in implant dentistry are referred to as peri-implant mucositis and peri-implantitis. Peri-implantitis, if not successfully treated, may lead to complete disintegration and implant loss. Bacteria, mainly Gram-negative anaerobes are an essential factor for the onset and progression of peri-implantitis. However, the disease is probably the result of interplay of several factors that may influence the host inflammatory response, including smoking, stress, genetic variation in relevant genes (polymorphism), occlusal overload, impaired healing, poor surgical technique, poor bone quality and poor prosthesis design. Diagnosis is based on changes of colour in the gums, bleeding and probing depth of periimplant pockets, suppuration, x-ray and gradual loss of bone height around the tooth. Therapeutic objectives focus on correcting technical defects by means of surgery and decontamination techniques such as abrasion with carbon particles, citric acid solution, topical tetracycline application and laser surgery.

  27. Simarpreet, Mamta, Pooja Tondon and Jasbir Kaur

    A 'high risk pregnancy' sounds daunting, but like every other issue, knowledge is the key for coping with and treating the pregnancy with complications. Hence, a descriptive study was carried out to assess the awareness regarding high risk factors of pregnancy among 150 pregnant women selected by convenience sampling technique, visiting antenatal OPD of a selected hospital of Ludhiana, Punjab. A structured questionnaire was used to assess the socio-demographic variables along with the level of awareness. It was found that more than one-third (34.7%) of pregnant women had below average level of awareness, one-third of women (33.3%) had average level of awareness, (30%) had good level of awareness and only (2%) had excellent level of awareness. The score of respondents was higher in the area of age & parity (80%) and least in the area of abnormal presentation (34.5%). Source of information, parity, number of live children and history of complications in previous pregnancy had statistically significant impact (p<0.05) on the level of awareness. The study concludes that the level of awareness regarding high risk factors of pregnancy was below average. Hence, dissemination of Information Education and Communication material was done to enhance the awareness.

  28. Siddharth Acharya, Shieiba Gomes and Asif Yousuf

    India today is a booming economy and the third fastest growing in the world. At one level, India hopes to become a major force at the global stage, yet, over one third of income is spent towards food and related consumption and hence, social security support for health, education, housing etc. becomes critical. However, since independence, little has changed in context to changing the social security situation in the country. Though the government has taken numerous steps towards improving the living standards and the health situation of citizens in India, the impact has not been as profound as anticipated. The government of India has been making efforts through a galaxy of programs and initiatives over the years to improve the health situation of the nation. In the wake of the Alma Atta declaration of ‘Health for All by 2000’, these efforts have gained substantial momentum. Though efforts are being made in the right direction, more needs to be done to achieve the desired goal set by the governments. The current paper is a review of the major health problems plaguing the nation in the present era.

  29. Dr. Nachiikait S. Kulkarni, Dr. Dnyanesh N. Morkar and Dr. Rekha patil

    In India spread of dengue fever and dengue haemorrhagic fever is increasing, neurological manifestations are also increasing, although they may be under reported because of lack of awareness. There are some atypical manifestations of dengue, such as dengue encephalitis, dengue rhabdomyolysis, dengue myocarditis, dengue hepatitis and dengue cholecystitis which are mostly go unnoticed. We report here a case of 20 year Fever, Headache and difficulty to movie the lower limbs female presented with of dengue fever with myocarditis and rhabdomyolysis. On CNS examination she had B/L lower limb power was 1+/5, proximal > distal. Her other systemic examination was normal. On MRI scan she had multiple small cerebellar bleed. On investigations, Dengue Ig G tests was Positive. CPK levels were high (1751), LDH leves were high (206) and urine myoglobin test was also positive suggestive of Rhabdomyolysis. In course of her illness she developed myocarditis too ECG showed tachycardia non specific ST-T changes and T wave inversion. Her 2D echo-cardiography report was normal. She was treated with good IV hydration, steroids, platelets transfusions n mannitol. At the time of discharge power in both limb was 4/5 and general condition improved.

  30. Bhagyashree Joshi and Dr. Erach Bharucha

    The purpose of this review of literature was to examine studies on “Gender and Indian Hospital Industry.” Five main themes were developed during the process of this review, namely, Gender and leadership, Factors resulting in gender bias, Future female leadership, Solutions adopted to resolve gender bias, and last theme was Gender and hospital Industry. Result shows lack of Indian literature on gender and leadership from the hospital industry. Thus, this review recommends researchers to conduct studies on gender and leadership in relation to ‘Indian hospital industry’.

  31. Sankhyashree Roy, Adhikary, M. M. and Acharya, S. K.

    In India, farmers concentrate mainly on crop production which is invariably subjected to a high degree of uncertainty in income and employment. To sustain the income and productivity, the farmers has to integrate ancillary propositions with crop production. There are other parameters also which effect the crop production and Annual income of farmers. The objective of the study is to estimate the Annual income of Tribal farmers of Tripura, to estimate the interaction between them and to imply micro level policies. To conclude the work, following independent and dependent variables were taken: Age, Education, Family Education Status, Family Size, Educational Aspiration, Farm Mechanization, Farm Size, Economic Status, Adoption leadership, Scientific Orientation, Risk Orientation, Management Orientation, Orientation towards Competition and Annual Income of farmers. State Tripura, district West Tripura, block Kamalghat and village Shantipara were selected purposively as because there are more number of Tribal farmers and the number of respondents 82 were selected randomly. By analyzing the data with statistical tools, such as, Mean, Standard deviation, Coefficient of variation, Correlation coefficient, Regression analysis and Factor analysis, the following results were obtained: Variables Age, Family Education Status, Family Size, Educational Aspiration, Risk Orientation have exerted positive and significant correlation with the dependent variable Annual Income of farmers. Then the variables Family Education Status, Farm Size and Risk Orientation has recorded a significant causal-effect impact on Annual Income of the farmers.

  32. Janani, R. and Jeyabalan, D.

    In the present study the methanolic extract of Artocarpus hirsutus Lam., Cinnamomum wightii Meisner, Diopyros paniculata Dalz., Garcinia gummi-gutta (L.) Robs. Garcinia indica Choiss, Michelia nilagrica Zenk. Rhododendron arboreum (Zenk.) Tagg.) leaves were evaluated against Culex quinquefasciatus. Artocarpus hirsutus, Cinnamomum wightii, Diopyros paniculata, Garcinia gummi-gutta, Garcinia indica, Michelia nilagrica and Rhododendron arboreum leaves extract were tested for their biological, larvicidal, pupicidal, antiovipositional activity, repellency and deformities against Culex quinquefasciatus. The larval, pupal and adult mortality were increased significantly with increasing levels of plants leaves extract concentrations. The adult emergency also significantly affects by the treatment of all the plant leaves extract. The larval and pupal duration were extended by the treatment of all the plant leaves extract. Adult longevity and fecundity were greatly reduced after the treatment of plant extracts. At 4% the Diopyros paniculata leaves extract showed strong oviposional deterrency. The Diopyros paniculata leaves extract treatment significantly enhanced repellency activity.

  33. Zahora Ismail, Azmy Mohamed, Zamri Rosli and Noraini Rosli

    The purpose of this study was to document Melanau knowledge of medicinal plants in Balingian, Mukah, Sarawak. Information was obtained from semi-structured interviews, personal conversations with practitioners and direct observations. Our data covered 43 species of medicinal plants belonging to 28 families. We found that most species are for post-natal (10 species) and hypertension (7 species), disorders which are prevalently and primarily treated with medicinal plants. In the treatments, the plants are used mainly as food and drinks (Averhoa carambola, Carica papaya, Nephrolepis bisserata, Cocos nucifera, Centella asiatica and Curcuma longa), medicinal baths and externally. Fast disappearance of the traditional culture and natural resources due to urbanization and industrialization suggests that the unrecorded information may be lost forever. Thus, there is an urgent need to record this valuable Melanau medicinal knowledge and keep it for the next generation.

  34. Murad Khan, Aftab Ali Shah, Murad khan, Anam Bibi, Nazish Sherin, Manzoor Ahmad and Mohammad Nisar

    Human pathogenic bacteria have employed high levels of multidrug resistance (MDR) with enhanced morbidity and mortality. MDR develop hindrance in disease control by intensifying the possibility of spreading of resistant pathogens, thus, declining efficacy of treatment. MDR in bacterial infections has impaired the current antimicrobial therapy and demanding the search for other alternatives. Search for natural product extracting from high valued medicinal plants are the alternative source for discovery of new drugs useful against MDR bacteria. Henceforward, this study is designed to investigate the in vitro antibacterial activity of selected medicinal plants extracts against Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Proteus Vulgaris in comparison with commercial antibiotic discs using disc diffusion method. Different fractions of eight high valued medicinal plants were screened. The fractionated extract of Chenopodium album, Quercusincana, Zizipus jujube leaves, Zizipus jujube Flower, Grevillea robusta, Corydalis govaniana, Solanum nigrum showed antibacterial activity confirming through zone of inhibition ranging from 0-18.3 mm against Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Proteus Vulgaris. While Trifoliumrepens, Lamoniumcabuliciumfailed to control bacterial growth on disc diffusion. We suggest that the protocol used in this study is useful for the investigation of more plants used for antibacterial activity and plant having active natural products serve as a source for antibacterial compounds.

  35. Udotong, J. I. R. and Ukot, C. A.

    Qua Iboe River estuary is one of the three estuaries in Niger Delta region, Nigeria. Huge petroleum exploration and production activities go on, placing the country as the 8th largest oil producer in the world. The residents are poor, show symptoms of PEM, thus depending on sea foods as their major source of protein. Cymbium glans, a marine snail is commonly consumed in the area. Microbiological, nutritional and trace elements of C. glans from QIR estuary were investigated. While total heterotrophic bacterial count of gut and tissue of this organism ranged from 1.6x106 to 1.8x106cfu/g and 9.5x105 to 1.0 x106cfu/g, respectively; the total coliform counts ranged from 3.5x105 to 2.0 x106 cfu/g and 5.5x105 to 8.5 x105 cfu/g from the gut and tissue, respectively. Fungal counts from the gut ranged from 5.5 x105 to 6.5 x105cfu/g and from 4.5x105 to 5.0x105 cfu/g for tissue. Proximate analysis revealed that C. glans had 76.05 - 77.79% moisture, 6.06 - 7.84% ash, 59.15 - 61.25% protein, 4.25 - 4.75% lipid, 6.74 - 22.46% carbohydrate, amongst others. Calcium, zinc and iron levels exceeded the recommended limits set by USDA. C. glans is not wholesome and harbours some microorganisms of public health significance, though nutritionally rich.

  36. Dr. RekhaBattalwar, SaneeshaSahni and MisbahDhunna

    Objective: To assess the prevalence of medical disorders in 60-90 year old elderly from Mumbai city, India Methodology: A cross sectional study was conducted in 99 (males 48) elderly with the mean age of 71.2±7.2 years. A pre-tested questionnaire was used to collect information regarding prevalence of medical disorders in elderly. Analyses were performed using SPSS software and P-value < 0.05 was considered to be statistically significant. Results: A very high prevalence of dental problems (49.5%), vision problem (40.4%), bloating (36.4%), migraine (30.3%) and hypertension (29.3%) was seen in the study. Heartburn (26.3%), back pain (24.2%), hyperlipidemia (22.2%), swollen legs, (20.2%) muscle pain (18.2%), impaired memory (18.2%), chest pain (17.2%), claudication (16.2%), dizziness (16.2%), skin rashes (16.2%), abdominal pain (15.2%), numbness (14.1%) and nausea (9.1%) was also high. Diabetes was present in 11.1% elderly and 3% suffered from thyroid disorders. Female elderly had significantly higher prevalence of hyperlipidemia, loss of conscious, dizziness and impaired memory as compared to male elderly (p<0.05). Conclusion: A high prevalence of dental and disorders are prevalent in elderly. Female elderly are at higher risk of developing mental health disorders and hyperlipidemia. Medical awareness camps should be conducted to detect and help elderly with medical disorders.

  37. Banerjee Swati, Adak Kamala, Adak Mohini Mohan, Ghosh Sumana and Chatterjee Amitava

    The ancient use of Trichosanthes dioica leaves as a valuable remedy in traditional medicine guided the authors to search out for its inherent chemical characteristics responsible for such activity. The present study encompasses a complete analysis of the leaf portion W.R.T. protein, carbohydrate, moisture, vitamin C, minerals, phytochemicals and in-vitro antioxidant activity in term of DPPH and ABTS+ free radical scavenging assay. Experimental data of the leaves were expressed on the basis of a comparative analysis w.r.t. the corresponding Trichosanthes dioica fruits, the data of which were already established. The principal components in general and the carotenoids in particular of the T. dioica leaf may place it at a higher position to act as a nutrient pool to fight against Vitamin deficiency. Although T. dioica leaves are deficient in sodium, potassium and calcium contents in comparison to the fruits, but in term of % of coparison the high iron content (+5924.12%) and lower phytate content (-70%) make the former a very efficient and economic source of iron nutrition to the anaemic. The higher oxalate (+401.57%) and lower calcium (-28.80%) contents of T. dioica leaves make it unsuitable for consumption for the people suffering with Ca-deficiency diseases. Methanolic leaf extract of T. dioica is a better source (in term of % of comparison) of polyphenols (+1068.19%) and flavonoids (+664.84%) than the corresponding contents in the fruit part. Result showed that, the extract exhibited significant DPPH (16% more effective than the fruits) and ABTS+ free radical scavenging activities.

  38. Echereme, Chidi Bernard and Mbaekwe, Ebenezer Ike

    Preliminary screening was carried out on Baphia nitida to establish the presence of certain bioactive compounds. Alcohol extract of fresh leaves of B. nitida was obtained and several identification tests, each specific for detecting the presence of a particular chemical compound were carried out, using standard techniques, on the alcohol extract. The chemical compounds tested for include alkaloids, glycosides, tannins, saponnins, flavonoids, reducing compounds, polyphenols, phlobatinnins and anthraquinones. The results showed that polyphenols showed heavy presence and alkaloids, glycosides, tannins, saponins and reducing compounds were present in light amounts. The findings of this test present a rough estimation of the biological (pharmacological) activities of leaf extract of B. nitida. Practically, the actual biological (pharmacological) activities of the individual compounds can only be determined by isolating and testing of these compounds on experimental animals

  39. Ashakiran, N. and Khursheedalam

    Hepatitis C virus (HCV), the agent responsible for most cases of blood born hepatitis is a major cause of cirrhosis, hepatocellular carcinoma and HCV related endstage liver disease. Large amount of scar tissue in the liver is a result of chronic inflammation and injury leading to cirrhosis. Significant amounts of consumption of alcohol are the most important factor in accelerating progression to cirrhosis. Quasi - species nature of HCV allows the virus to cause chronic infection. HCV is not directly cytopathic and liver lesions are mainly related to immune mediated mechanisms. The present paper deals with the co-factors influencing the outcome of the disease, wide spectrum of clinical presentations in HCV and the significance of various laboratory tests in the case of liver cirrhosis along with HCV.

  40. Hiralal Jana

    During post green revolution, indiscriminate use of chemicals in agriculture and their adverse effect on soil health and environment has created an alarming situation. A situation has resulted which urgently demands an environmentally safe, sustainable and simultaneously, economically viable production system. This indeed is essential for optimizing production and the same time to minimize threat to environment. Considering the importance of the study, the objective, to portray the agro-chemicals use pattern of tomato growers in controlling insect-pests and diseases was undertaken. The study was conducted in Hooghly district of West Bengal. For the selection of area and respondents of the present investigation, multi-stage random sampling technique and universe method were adopted. The study indicates that majority of the respondents were literate (85%), majority of the respondents (58%) had 1.1 to 4.0 bigha of own cultivable land, majority of respondents (60%) had 0.6 to 2.0 bighas of vegetable cultivable land, majority of respondents (65%) were related with vegetable cultivation up to 20 years, majority of respondents (66%) had up to 20 years of experience on application of agro-chemicals on vegetable crops. Generally, leaf eating caterpillar, fruit borer, mealy bug and white fly were seen on tomato cultivation. In case of disease, the main diseases were-seedling rot, late blight, fruit rot and leaf curl. The respondents used various brands of various chemicals with several doses to control the insect-pests and diseases. Mainly infestation of insect-pests and diseases was seen on mature stage of the crop. In seedling stage the respondents applied 30-40 litres of water for spraying chemicals whereas at mature stage, it was 80-100 litre of water. Majority of the respondents (70%) applied chemicals 2-7 days interval whereas the spraying was most preferred method of application of agro-chemicals (100%). Respondents got information regarding use of agro-chemicals mainly from agricultural input retailers at the time of purchasing of chemicals. Therefore, on the basis of the present investigation, the various extension agencies those are working in the study area should reorient their extension strategies accordingly.

  41. Patil Sunita, Rajeshwari Sivaraj, Venckatesh, R. Vanathi, P. and Rajiv, P.

    Silver nanoparticles synthesis is a vastly growing area of research adding day by day new applications in various fields. There are a number of physical and chemical methods which are energy and capital intensive and employ toxic chemicals. Thus more and more researchers are involved in green synthesis of nanoparticles from plants, fungi and bacteria. Use of silver nanoparticles in the field of biomedical nanotechnology and nanomedicine is rapidly increasing because of their antimicrobial, anticancer, antioxidant property and less toxicity. Cancer is one of the most deadly diseases treated by conventional chemotherapeutic agents exhibiting poor specificity and dose limiting toxicity. The present study is aimed to throw a focus on the potential of green synthesized silver nanoparticles cytotoxicity on skin cancer cell lines and its application as an anticancer agent. Green silver nanoparticles from different origin have the ability to defend against various types of cancers. The data available for comparison are mostly in vitro studies and therefore in the coming days in vivo studies, development of formulation and clinical trials are required for utilizing the anticancer potential of silver nanoparticles in practice.

  42. Shende, R. A., Desai, S. S. and Tejashree S. Lachyan

    Fifteen F2’s along with 8 parents were used to estimate genetic variability and heritability among 11 developmental, growth, yield and yield related attributes in brinjal (Solanum melongena L.) during rabi 2012-13. The magnitude of genotypic variance as well as genotypic coefficient of variation were low as compared to both of phenotypic variance as well as phenotypic coefficient of variation indicating thereby, the influence of environment in the expression of these traits. Highest phenotypic coefficient of variation was recorded for number of fruits per cluster followed by, number of fruits per plant, average weight of fruit and fruit yield per plant suggesting that usefulness of phenotypic selection in improving these traits. The estimates of heritability in broad sense were high for number of fruits per cluster, number of fruits per plant, width of fruit, days to initiation of flowering, length of fruit, fruit yield per plant and days to last picking while the moderate estimates of heritability was recorded for average weight of fruit, days to first picking, plant height and number of primary branches per plant. High heritability coupled with genetic advance was recorded for fruit yield per plant revealed that the presence of lesser environmental influence and prevalence of additive gene action in their expression.

  43. ShahdI Daoud, Mona A. M. Alqahtani, Dalal H. M. Alkhalifah, Mudawi M. Elobeid and Afrah E. Mohammed

    Recently, the biosynthesis of nanoparticles has been considered as a new approach of research. In the current investigation, the green chemistry of silver nanoparticles synthesis from aqueous solution of silver nitrate as a rapid eco-friendly technique was described. Extracellular biosynthesis of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) was carried out using plant extracts of Salvia officinalis L. The AgNPsformation was detected by the colour change of plant extracts and confirmed with the help of UV-Vis spectroscopy where the peak values were in the range of 425– 445 nm. In this study, bio-synthesized AgNPsas well as the ethanolic extract of S.officinalis were tested for their antibacterial activity using a well diffusion method against some bacterial species; Pseudomonas aeruginosa (Gram negative) and Gram positive bacteria (Bacillus subtilis, Streptococcus faecalis and Staphyllococcusaureus). Results from this investigation showed that AgNPs mediated by S. officinalis had an inhibition zone diameter ranging between (3.4 – 9.5 mm). Inhibition zone ranged (11.1 – 16 mm) was observed effect for S. officinalis leaves extracted with ethanol. Furthermore, MIC (Minimum Inhibitory Concentration and MBC (Minimum Bactericidal Concentration) were also determined for the ethanolic leaves extract. The MIC was 25 mg ml and the MBC was 50 mg/ml. The observed differences among the bactericidal activities against the tested organisms might be attributed to the microbe characteristics. Our findings indicated that AgNPs synthesis mediated by S. officinalis extracts had an efficient bactericidal activity. Future investigations are required to perform experiments to explore the unknown mechanism for the bactericidal activity of biogenic AgNPs.

  44. Jean Wini Goudoungou, Elias Nchiwan Nukenine, Christopher Suh and Dieudonné Ndjonka

    The maize weevil, Sitophilus zeamais is largely widespread maize pest across the world. It causes important losses of stored maize grain since infestation starts in field and continues in storage. Therefore, an environmentally safe and economically feasible pest control practice needs to be available. The effect of Acacia polyacantha and Hymenocardia acida wood ashes, Plectranthus glandulosus leaf powder and diatomaceous earth (Fossil Shield) was assessed on the development of the immature stages (egg, larva and pupa) and the fecundity of S. zeamais. Ten couples of insects were introduced in maize treated with sublethal contents to allow egg-laying. The number of eggs was counted after staining of infested grain. The batches of infested grain with different immature stages were treated with three contents of each powder. The number of adult emerged was recorded. The number of eggs laid by treated insects decreased slightly by increasing of product content. The application of wood ashes, leaf powder and diatomaceous earth did not suppress completely the development of immature stages. However the number of insects emerging from different stages was considerably reduced compared to the control (0 g/kg). Not significant difference (P > 0.05) was observed concerning the number of insects emerging from different stages at 0 g/kg. The four insecticidal materials substantially reduced the fecundity and the development of immature stages.

  45. Shyam S. Kunjwal and Anju Thapliyal

    The present study was carried out to evaluate the growth of snow trout with periphyton based diet in captive condition in three raceways of running water system with a view to find out the suitable artificial substrate for periphyton based culture of Schizothorax richardsonii (Gray). Different artificial substrates; Tree branches, Sugarcane bagasse, Paddy straw, Bamboo poles (Dead organic materials) Plastic sheet, Plastic pipes (non bio degradable) and other material like stones and pebbles were used for the production of periphyton community. Bamboo poles and other non- biodegradable substrates were found suitable substrates having without any adverse effect on the water quality of the pond. Growth, survival and production performance of snow trout was evaluated in the 12 months field experiment using Bamboo poles and Plastic sheet. Periphyton based culture of snow trout is profitable eco-friendly in aquaculture practice for hills.

  46. Irshad Hussain Ghanghro, Aneela Atta ur Rahman, Allah BuxGhanghro, Muhammad Ilyas Siddiqui and Mahvish Jabeen Channa

    Water is the most precious natural source on our planet, solid waste disposal will increase the contamination in drinking water sources. Hyderabad, the second largest city of Sindh province is situated on the left bank of Indus River. It was observed that the large volume of refuse is left and burned in the premises of the main drinking water sources of Hyderabad and this raw water is supplied to consumers, causing water borne disease outbreaks. Water samples were collected from inlet and out let filter plants of study area, at locations Hyderabad. pH, Conductivity, Salinity, TDS (Total Dissolved Solids)and Turbidity were analyzed on the spot. While other quality parameter such as Arsenic, Chlorides, Fecal coliforms, Total Coliforms and E.coli were also analyzed using standard methods. The bacteriological result shows that the all samples contain unacceptable number of coliforms bacteria. The microbiological contaminants and other causative agents are major problem of the community the government must have to take necessary steps for Safe drinking water.

  47. Jhansi Rani, S., Supraja, P., Sujitha, A., Kiranmayee, P. and Usha, R.

    Artemisia annua L., a medicinal herb, produces secondary metabolites with antimicrobial properties. The purpose of this study is to determine the antimicrobial activity of ethanol, methanol and hexane extracts of Artemisia annua during different flowering stages against bacterial species (Klebsiella pneumoniae, Shigella dysenteriae and Staphylococcus areus) and fungal species (Aspergillus niger and Aspergillus flavus). The zone of inhibition was calculated. Results indicate that the different concentrations of various extracts under study exhibit antimicrobial activity among different microorganisms. When compare to bacterial and fungal species, bacterial species showed highest zone of inhibition. At post flowering stages of the plant, maximum zone of inhibition was observed when compare to pre flowering stage of the plant.

  48. Mahvish Jabeen Channa, Allah Bux Ghanghro, Sagheer Ahmed Sheikh, Shafi Muhammad Nizamani and Irshad Hussain Ghanghro

    The aim of this research work was to assess the aflatoxin contamination of wheat during the storage time therefore wheat samples were collected with different time intervals i-e May, July and October 2014 from upper, central and bottom sack of the same selected stack from 11 public godowns of Hyderabad Division, for Mycological study of aflatoxin in stored wheat stock samples. The results revealed that percentage frequency of aflatoxin producing fungi (Aspergillus parasiticus and Aspergillus flavus) was found increased in the bottom portion during the month of October in comparison to upper and central portions of the months May and July, and higher concentration of afllatoxin were found in the higher frequency percentile samples that is Bolhari, Dadu, Aarazigodowns showed 22ng/g concentration of aflatoxin whereas K.N shah and Sehwan having concentration of about 23ng/g, the percentage of moisture in highly contaminated wheat samples were also noted high i-e 13.7, 14.8, 14.9, 14.5 and 14.6% respectively. In proximate findings no such effect was seen in crude fiber and fat but protein (11.99%) and moisture (8.56%) showed lower value at the bottom sack wheat in the samples that showed higher contamination. Wet and dry gluten was found low in all portions of sacks but among all portions the bottom sacks showed more decreased i-e 22.11% in wet and 9.67% in dry gluten due to high contamination in wheat samples taken in the month of October. It was concluded that Aflatoxin producing fungi develop their colonies along with increasing storage time in godowns due to moisture, temperature and change of weather such as monsoon, which was observed the most favorable condition for growing their colonies contaminating the wheat and making it unsuitable for human consumption.

  49. Najma Nikkath S. and Samuel Selvaraj, R.

    The impact of climate change on annual air temperature and precipitation has received a great deal of attention by scholars worldwide. Many studies have been conducted to illustrate that changes in annual temperature and precipitation are becoming evident on a global scale. This study focuses on detecting trends in annual temperature and precipitation and Aerosols (PM10)for Chennai city For this study, the widely used modified Mann-Kendall test was run at 5% significance level on time series data for the yearr2014. The resultant Mann Kendall test statistic (S) indicates how strong the trend in temperature, PM10 and precipitation is and whether it is increasing or decreasing. There is a increasing trend in the rainfall and PM10 measured at T. Nagar, whereas decreasing trend in the temperature and PM10 of Kilpauk regions of Chennai.

  50. Neetusingh

    A signifying step towards the identification of morbidity at community level need an interview-based diagnosis, several frame works, standardized scale and instrument focus on reproductive health. More recently, both biological and socio-economic landmarks bracketing the morbidity status of adulthood have moved in opposite directions. Objective: 1. To assesses the underweight and obesity of the subjects on the basis of their anthropometric measurements. 2. To elicit anemia by using biochemical parameters. 3. To find out the level of self-esteem, anxiety and depression among women. Methodology: The study conducted in urban area of Varanasi city. The approaches adopted for the study was cross-sectional one. For these study 310 women belonging to reproductive age groups (15 to 49 years) except more than four months pregnant women (i.e. excluded from the study) was selected from four Mohall’s of Varanasi city by adopting multistage random sampling procedure. The tools in the study were pre-designed and pre-tested schedule comprising of family and individual schedule for measuring the anthropometric measuring and biochemical estimation. Self esteem, Anxiety and depression level was assessed by questionnaire method using pre-designed and pre-tested inventory. Result: under nutrition in women (15-49 years) of age has been higher (i.e. 71.5%) than the present study In this study prevalence of obesity was 1.29% and 7.42% using previous WHO criteria and proposed asian criteria, respectively The study has shown that psychological morbidity on the criteria of scale of self esteem, anxiety state-trait and depression were 31.94%, 32.58%, 30.65% and 20.97%, respectively. Majority of women 54.52% had normal in all psychological parameter and 0.32% showed abnormal psychological status in all psychological parameter.

  51. Anoop Kumar Reddy, G., Nishanth Reddy, B., Narendra Kumar, T. and Kishor Kumar, K.

    Deep Hole Drilling involves drilling a hole through the thickness of the component, measuring the diameter of the hole, trepanning (cutting a circular slot around the hole) a core of material from around the hole. During drilling operation, friction between work piece-cutting tool and cutting tool-chip interfaces result high temperature on cutting tool. The effect of this generated heat affects shorter tool life, higher surface roughness and lowers the dimensional sensitiveness of work material. Thus, Increased tool wear being a natural phenomenon in all machining processes leads to tool failure. There is growing demand in machining process for high productivity with use of high cutting velocity and feed rate. Such machining inherently produces high cutting temperature. The performances of machining operations are changed by use metal cutting fluids because of their lubrication, cooling and chip flushing functions. Cooling lubrication is an essential condition to achieve the economical tool life and the required surface quality in many cases. As they are used to provide lubrication and cooling effects between cutting tool and work piece and cutting tool and chip during machining operation. Hence the influence of generated heat on cutting tool would be prevented. This paper deals with review on coolants and their application in deep-hole drilling operation.

  52. Sendi Seb Rengma, Dr. Jinamoni Saikia and Olivia Sunny

    Homework is regarded as school work which is assigned by teachers to complete outside the school time to help them develop confidence and motivate them to study more. It encompasses a number of activities like a period of reading to be performed, writing to be completed, problems to be solved, a project to be prepared or other skills to be practiced. It increases the level of knowledge and improves the abilities and skills of the students. The present study was undertaken to study the attitude of school students towards homework and to find out if there is any gender difference in the attitude towards homework. The sample comprised of 80 school students between the age group of 14 –15 years( class-IX) drawn from the Jorhat district of Assam. The Attitude Scale towards Homework (ASTH) developed by Mishra (2006) was administered to collect the necessary information. It can be highlighted from the findings that majority of the respondents (67.5%) had neutral attitude towards homework, while 20 per cent of the respondents had favourable attitude and 12.5 per cent of the respondents had unfavourable attitude towards homework. It was also found that more number of girls (25%) had favourable attitudes towards homework than that of boys (18.75) and similarly more number of boys (31.25%) had unfavourable attitude towards homework than that of girls (12.5%).

  53. Dr. J. Paul Mansingh, Debella Deressa Bayissa, Fikadu Abdise Erena and J. Nancy

    The coronary heart disease (CHD) is a leading case of premature death and disability in developed countries. It has been projected to become a leading cause of death among developing nations by 2020. Most important modifiable risk factors of CHD are high cholesterol level, high blood pressure and cigarette smoking. Occurrence of high cholesterol and high blood pressure in a population is determined by diet, physical activity, body weight and their interplay. Metabolic syndrome is a disorder of energy utilisation and storage, diagnosed by co-occurrence of three out of five of the following medical conditions: abdominal (central) obesity, elevated blood pressure, elevated fasting plasma glucose, high serum triglycerides and low high-density cholesterol (HDL) levels. Metabolic syndrome increases the risk of developing cardiovascular disease, particularly heart failure and diabetes. There is scarcity of studies assessing diabetes and other cardio vascular risk factors in Sub Saharan Africa including Ethiopia. There is lack of data on metabolic syndrome among the Ethiopians. Therefore, a study was conducted to assess the awareness of metabolic syndrome, prevention activities and perceived barriers in reducing health risk among teaching staff of Ambo University, Ambo, Ethiopia. The study was conducted among the teaching staff of Ambo University, Ambo, Ethiopia. In order to give equal chance for all staff being included in the sample, the different colleges in the University are considered as different strata and proportionate random sampling technique was used. In this study, the response rate was 38% i.e. 81 respondents gave their response. It was found that majority (69.10%) were normal in the BMI category. It was found that most of them were aware of the metabolic syndrome. The reason might be the educational level of the respondents. It is clearly evident from the study that most of them were not having the metabolic syndrome. Smoking is very low among this study group. Only abdominal obesity was found to be significant at 0.01 level across BMI categories. ‘Increasing physical activity’ and ‘eating more fruits and vegetables’ were the major two preventive activities followed. ‘Lack of personal motivation’ was the major barrier to health improvement. Psychological factor like ‘lack of motivation’, acting as barrier to health improvement can be changed by providing exposure to various information sources.

  54. Rama Devi, A. and Mary Esther Cynthia Johnson

    Ibrahimpatnam Lake, which is Fresh water Lake, was taken up for ecological investigation, over a span of one year. According to Bruvold and Panborn 1966 the waters of Ibrahimpatnam Lake at 1 and site2, are unacceptable for drinking purpose. According to BIS 1983 and WHO 1984 the water quality is beyond the permissible limit and cannot be used for driking purpose.

  55. Rojina Tokpam, Dr. Jinamoni Saikia and Tulika Borah

    Emotional intelligence is the ability to recognize one’s own and other people’s emotions to discriminate between different feelings and label them appropriately and to use emotional information to guide thinking and behavior. Emotional intelligence plays a significant role in personal life as well as professional success. The present study was undertaken to find out the level of emotional intelligence of young working adults. A total sample of 200 working adults were selected from Jorhat town. A standardized structured questionnaire named “Emotional Quotient Test” (EQ Test) developed by Chadha and Singh (2003) was administered to assess emotional intelligence. The study revealed that majority of the respondents (76.5%) had high level of emotional intelligence. Few of them (5.5%) had moderate level of emotional intelligence and none of the respondents were found to have low level of emotional intelligence. It was found that more than half of the respondents had high level of emotional competency (51.5%) while majority of the respondents were found to have moderate level of emotional sensitivity (51.5%) and emotional maturity (68.5%).

  56. Dr. J. Paul Mansingh, Debella Deressa Bayissa, Fikadu Abdise Erena and Nancy, J.

    It is essential for consumers to know about the nutrition information because it can help them to choose healthier food and to avoid contents or ingredients that they are allergic to. It is important that consumers have basic nutrition knowledge first, before appreciating nutrition labelling. The utilisation of food labels and nutrition information on food packages by consumers has been the focus of a number of recent studies. Scientific reports link trans-fats with raising blood LDL (“bad”) cholesterol levels, which increase the risk of coronary heart disease. To date few studies have explored consumers’ perception of trans-fat following the recent government policies and media influences regarding trans-fat labelling and guidelines. The study was conducted among the teaching staff of Ambo University, Ambo, Ethiopia. In order to give equal chance for all staff being included in the sample, the different colleges in the University are considered as different strata and proportionate random sampling technique was used to select the respondents. In this study, the response rate was 38% i.e. 81 respondents gave their response. From the study it was found that taste and habit were the two major factors that motivated the respondents to choose the foods. The awareness of food label and nutrient information was more. Even though the awareness of nutrient information was high, the utilization of nutrient information on shopping was comparatively low. The awareness of trans-fat among the respondent was very low. Therefore, the government should formulate action plans to create awareness of trans-fat among the people.

  57. Ajish Muraleedharan and Karuppaiah, P.

    Investigation was carried out to study the effect of nutrients and growth regulators on the production of Anthurium (Anthurium andreanum) cv. Tropical. The experiment was conducted in Factorial completely randomized block design with four levels of foliar nutrients viz. Sea weed extract, panchakavya, humic acid and control and four levels of growth regulators viz. gibberillic acid, Triiodobenzoic Acid, Benzyladenine and control. The treatments were replicated thrice. The plants were maintained under 75 per cent shade net and with a growing medium mixture of coir pith + coconut husk. Among the different treatment combinations, foliar spray of Humic acid and gibberillic acid evinced maximum plant height, plant spread, number of flowers per plant, flower stalk length, spathe length, spathe breadth and the number of days taken for flower bud appearance was also earlier in this treatment.

  58. Rajeswara Rao, D., Subramanyam, K., Narasinga Rao, MR. and Vidyullatha, P.

    Cognitive Behavioral Therapy has quickly expanded in ubiquity in the course of the most recent forty years. It appreciates solid observational backing, and the assemblage of examination into its adequacy is growing with every passing year. Cognitive behavioral treatment holds an exceptional status in the field of emotional wellness treatment that addresses the relationship between how we think, feel and go ahead. There is creating eagerness for the Cognitive model of psychotherapy empowered by an expansive collection of examination disclosures demonstrating its ampleness for a varied game plan of psychiatric issue and remedial conditions. CBT is a procedure of instructing, guiding, and fortifying positive practices. This paper tosses some light on present day systems of Cognitive behavioral treatment for bipolar disorders, schizophrenia and trichotillomania.

  59. Bagirzade, G. A., Tagiyev, D. B. and Manafov, M. R.

    Kinetic regularities of vapor ammoxidation of xylene on the V-Sb-Bi-Cr / γ-Al2O3-oxide catalyst in the temperature range 648-708K are studied. It is shown that the formation of the phthalimide occurs both directly from o-xylene and in parallel through tolunitrile phthalonitrile. It is determined that the carbon dioxide formed by oxidation of o-xylene and decarboxylation of phthalimide, and benzonitrile from o-tolunitrile, and phthalimide.

  60. Srinivasan S. and Vinothbabu, N.

    This paper proposes to construct a wind turbine that has a very low cut in speeds and aims to optimize the earlier model of Vertical axis wind turbine (VAWT). A wind turbine is a device which is generally used to convert wind energy into mechanical energy, which is in turn converted into electrical energy. Wind turbines are broadly classified into two types: Horizontal axis wind turbine (HAWT) and Vertical axis wind turbine (VAWT). For the optimization of the earlier model of VAWT, using the curved blades made of acryl polymer which reduces the drag force and overcomes the problem of poor starting. In VAWT, the mechanical power generation equipment can be located at ground level, so it makes the maintenance easy and they are omni-directional (they do not need to be pointed in the direction of the wind to produce power).

  61. Saeid Parsa and Pooya Parsa

    To study percentage of increase in some basic consumer goods from year 2009 to 2015 comparing to 10% increase of salary for lectureres and researchers, increase in purchasing price to their 10% increase in yearly salary is compared, and with the data used it has been shown that their purchasing power has increase and matches to 10% increase in two recent years 2014 and 2015.

  62. Dr. Prafullachandra P. Tekale, Dr. Smruti P. Tekale and Dr. P. N. Pabrekar

    Chemical kinetic modelling is a concept for modelling chemical reactions by studying the reaction mechanism. The hydrogenation reaction of phenol was carried out using titnia supported ruthenium catalyst at 323 K and 2.07 Mpa hydrogen pressure. A Langmuir– data and a fundamental modeling approach that will enhance understanding of the reaction rate equations. Hinshelwood–Hougen–Watson (LHHW) model was proposed. The study provides both extensive and data and a fundamental modeling approach that will enhance understanding of the reaction rate equations.

  63. Karmandeep Brar, Shailesh Garg and Manpreet Singh

    Around the world 80% of the power is developed with the use of fossil fuels. So the present need is to develop such a device which stores the energy present in the air and store it in the form of electrical field in capacitors. The main aim of this research paper is develop a circuit on the basis of the theories put forwarded by NIKOLAA TESLA about free energy. In this circuit we have used an antenna which is used to capture the charges present in the air and a ground link to capture opposite charges from ground and store them in capacitors. Which are connected with diodes for unidirectional flow of current.

  64. Indira, E. and Annadurai, B.

    A pot culture study was conducted during 2014(Oct) to2015(Jan) in Theri soil. Theri lands are located along the coastal areas of Tuticorin district of Tamilnadu, South India. Proper management of the land is difficult because of its poor quality structure, low nutrition, meagre moisture holding capacity, low value of organic content, and high value of hydraulic conductivity. The permeability of water in theri soil is high and is not suitable for agriculture which is presently considered as a wasteland. The objective is to nurse the soil back to health and reclaim the soil, Farm Yard Manure (FYM) is amended with theri soil to reduce the fertility constraints of the soil. The effect of soil physical properties were investigated by ameliorating the soil with Farm Yard Manure. The experiment was laid out in a pot culture with ten treatments replicated thrice. In order to reduce soil Physical constraints and to make the soils fit for sustained water availability and large agricultural applications, different proportions of FYM tried on soil and the Physical and Physico -chemical parameters which brings the soil cultivable are studied and their inter relationships were determined.

  65. Prasanth, S. and Avinash, P.

    In this work, a rainfall map of the area under study was prepared and from the map thus prepared, irrigation requirements of a particular crop was analysed. Average rainfall intensity over the last 5 years was collected and linked with GIS to obtain the required map. As GIS can easily handle, store, analyze, manipulate and retrieve spatial data, map preparation can be easily implemented using GIS environment. The work was executed using ArcGIS 10.2

  66. Daniel Schwantes, Affonso Celso Gonçalves Jr., Gustavo Ferreira Coelho, Marcelo Angelo Campagnolo, Marcelo Gonçalves do Santos, Alisson Junior Miolaand and Eduardo Ariel Völz Leismann

    This study examined the performance of the adsorbents created from the pie of Crambe abyssinica Hochst and its adsorption capacity for removal of metal ions Cd(II), Pb(II) and Cr(III) from contaminated water. Firstly, crambe pie was obtained, dried, milled and sifted for standardization of its particle size. The crambe biomass was chemically modified with H2O2, H2SO4 and NaOH by solutions of 0.1 mol L-1. After this step were performed the adsorption tests aimed to determine the best conditions of pH, adsorbent mass, and contact time between adsorbent/adsorbate to the removal of the metals Cd, Pb and Cr. From these preliminary results were obtained the adsorption isotherms and thermodynamic parameters, such as ΔH, ΔG and ΔS. It is observed that the modifying solutions were effective in the modification of adsorbents, resulting in adsorbent materials of high capacity. It is noted an equilibrium time for Cd, Pb and Cr about 40 minutes. By the obtained results can be concluded that the modified crambe pie are excellent adsorbent materials, renewable, with high availability and low cost, being an attractive alternative for industrial use in advanced treatment systems, for removal of metals as Cd, Pb and Cr.

  67. Shahanas, K. A. and Selin, M.

    Recognition of person by means of their biometric characteristics is very popular among the society. Among this, for personal identification fingerprint recognition is an important technology due to its unique structure. Human fingerprints are rich in details called minutiae. This can be used for identification marks for fingerprint verification. Large volume of fingerprint images are collected and stored day by day from a wider range of applications. Compression of data is commanding of under certain circumstances due to large amount of data transmission and efficient memory utilization. A new and efficient fingerprint compression algorithm using sparse representation is introduced. Obtaining an over complete dictionary from a set of fingerprint patches allows us to represent them as a sparse linear combination of dictionary atoms. In the algorithm, first construct a dictionary for predefined fingerprint image patches. For a new given fingerprint images, represent its patches according to the dictionary by computing l0- minimization and then quantize and encode the coefficients and other related information using lossless coding methods. A fast Fourier filtering transformation for image post processing helped to improve the contrast ratio of the regenerated image Here, considered the effect of various factors on compression results. In Automatic Fingerprint identification System, the main feature used to match two fingerprint images are minutiae. Therefore, the difference of the minutiae between pre- and post-compression is considered in the project. The experiments illustrate that the proposed algorithm is robust to extract minutiae. From the results, we can say that the proposed system provides better PSNR and verbosity for reconstructed images. Compression using sparse provides a better compression ratio also.

  68. AbdulHameed Khalifa and Math, M. C.

    The prices of conventional fuel used for domestic purpose is rising day by day at a fast rate. Biomass is an alternative source of energy which is renewable in nature. Biomass is used for cooking purpose from several centuries. In India, simple rice husk stoves are in use from a long time which is cheap but it emits tiny, rich in silica ash particles in the flue gas. It causes health problems to the user. In this project, an attempt has made to design and fabricate a user-friendly, eco-friendly and economical rice husk gasifier stove. New rice husk gasifier stove generates luminous blue flame having thermal efficiency around 29% similar to LPG stove. This stove will be helpful for people in rice growing rural areas where abundant quantity of rice husk is available. The main objective of this work is to help rural families for whom LPG stove is not affordable and where indoor air pollution is common due to traditional cooking methods. This gasifier has ability to consume 3.5 kg of rice husk per batch and it operates 60 minutes to 80 minutes. By using this stove, one time meal for a family of 6-7 peoples can be cooked.

  69. Dr. Prakash, S. B. and Kiran Ningappa Kotin

    Nanofluid is colloidal suspension of nanosized solid particles in a liquid. Generally nanoparticles are made of metals, oxides, carbides, while base liquids may be water, ethylene glycol or oil. Having suspended tiny particles in the base liquid improves the thermal conductivity and thus the increase in heat transfer performance is expected. A test study has been completed to examine the0heat0transfer0performance of water and CuO nanoparticles. This current experiment demonstrates the increases in convective heat transfer in nanofluid. The nanofluid developed by adding CuO nano sized particles of 10-20 nm in base liquid. Demineralized water is used as base liquid. Nanofluid with different volume fraction of CuO nano sized matter between 0.025-0.5 percent used in this current work. The test setup consists of a test section that includes copper pipe of 1000 mm length, inner diameter 10mm and a heater. To minimize the heat loss in test section, insulation layer is covered. Thermocouples are utilized in test section to measure the temperatures. The effect of solid volume fraction, nanofluid flow rate and the inlet temperature on heat transfer performance of the nanofluid is examined in this current work. The results show an increment in heat transfer with raising volume0fraction of CuO nanoparticles and increase in temperature.

  70. Dr. Bhausaheb Bendre

    Physics is not only collection of the facts and principals but it describes how the physics universe behaves. The various principles of physics are now have also been found to be very useful to tackle the problems in non physical sciences. This paper is recollecting the ideas of Physics to find a growing applicability in almost all walks of life and finding remedies in all the problems / threats faced by the society all over the globe.

  71. Umesh, H. R. and K. V. Ramesh,

    The carbohydrate polymer dextran, majorly formed by Leuconostoc mesenteroides (gm + ve Lactic acid bacterium) is widely recognized as causing agent of large sucrose losses in sugar industry during different stages of processing. Recently the pathogenic potential of L mesenteroides has been established. Antibacterial activities of Ruta graveolens and Plumbago zeylanica extracts against several bacterial strains have been reported. The aim of this study was to evaluate the possible antimicrobial potential of Ruta graveolens stem and Plumbago zeylanica leaf extracts (chloroform, methanol, ethanol, aqueous) against major sugar loss causing Leuconostoc mesenteroides (MTCC *107). For this purpose, the bacterium L. mesenteroides was tested. Antimicrobial activity was done using agar well diffusion method. Tested extracts showed antibacterial activity against the selected bacterium L. mesenteroides. The test microorganism was more susceptible to methanolic extracts of both Ruta graveolens and Plumbago zeylanica with mean diameters of inhibition being 18.22mm, 22.35mm and MIC being 12.5mg/ml, 6.25mg/ml respectively, followed by ethanol, chloroform and aqueous extracts. Relatively less antimicrobial inhibitory activity was shown by aqueous extracts of both plants. The P. zeylanica leaves extracts shown comparatively better antimicrobial property than R. graveolens stem extracts as evidenced by mean zone of inhibition and MIC. These promising findings suggest the presence of antibacterial activity of the tested plants, exhibited by their bioactive compounds, and serving them as an alternative antimicrobial agents against sugar loss causing microorganism L. mesenteroides. Further, results are beneficial for sugar industry.

  72. Khatua, C. K., Nayak, S. K. and Dr. C. S. Panda

    With the availability of easy and inexpensive methods to create and store images in digital formats, the visual information preserved and shared electronically has grown dramatically. Since the non-textual information like images, audio and video preserved in digital format are increasing day by day, effective applications to manage and retrieve these content are essential, which are commonly known as content based image retrieval (CBIR). Firstly, keyword annotation is labor intensive, and it is not even possible when large sets of images are to be indexed. Secondly, these annotations are drawn from a predefined set of keywords which cannot cover all possible concepts images may represent. Finally, keywords assignment is subjective to the person making it. This paper focuses on color based image retrieval to develop a system that uses the color as a visual feature to represent the images. To improve the efficiency and effectiveness of color-based retrieval, color histogram method has been proposed. Experimental results show that the color histogram features containing spatial structural relations are robust to image translation, scaling and rotation, and for retrieval of visually similar object from the image sequences, the color histogram method gives good retrieval precision with speed.

  73. Abida Choudhury, B. and Atri Deshamukhya

    Long-term behavior of atmosphere in terms of temperature, pressure, humidity, cloud cover, precipitation etc defines climate of a specific area. Urban areas are characterized by high density of human created structures viz., high buildings, roads etc and high concentration of population. Urban climate is greatly influenced by human activity. Due to human activity, the temperature of any urban area in general is higher than the surroundings and hence they behave as heat islands. The building materials are non-reflective, concrete road surfaces have high thermal capacity and hence absorb heat during day-time which is slowly released at night thereby increasing the temperature. Presence of factories and increased car use within the city causes pollution which creates smog and forms a pollution dome. This pollution dome allows short-wave insolation to enter, but traps outgoing long-wave terrestrial radiation, therefore increasing the amount of heat retained. These urban heat islands can have effect on pressure, humidity, cloud cover and hence precipitation over the region as a whole. In this piece of work, we have examined the trends in relative humidity, cloud cover and precipitation pattern over northeastern region of India during last two decades and tried to see their correlation with rapid urbanization in the region. It is observed that the rapid urbanization has led to substantial irregularities in precipitation pattern and cloud cover over the region.

  74. Sarhan, H. H., Elbakhshawangy H. F. and Abd El-Kawi O. S.

    A three-dimensional study of steady laminar natural convection in partially top vented enclosure is investigated numerically. A discrete heat source mounted on the substrate at the bottom wall is used to simulate an electronic component. Three types of heat source are used with vent aspect ratio ranging from 0.0 to 0.1. The problem is described by continuity, momentum and energy partial differential equations, which are expressed in Cartesian coordinates system. The proposed governing equations are transformed to a set of dimensionless partial differential equations which, is solved with finite difference technique. A computer program is developed to solve the present proposed mathematical model. Solutions are obtained for Rayleigh number ranging from 1.0×104 to 1.0×106, enclosure aspect ratios ranging from 0.1 to 1.0 and Prandtl number 0f 0.7. The resulting flow and temperature patterns are discussed. Accordingly, the values of Nusselt number for different values of problem parameters are obtained. Comparisons between the present obtained results and the previous theoretical studies are performed for different values of problem parameters.

  75. Gudata Abara

    The study deals with assessment of financial performance analysis in Ethiopian commercial banking sector for a period of five years (2007-2011). It was found that state owned bank, Commercial Bank of Ethiopia stands first in assets management where as Awash International Bank took the first rank in terms of profitability performance. The third finding explains that Construction and Business Bank pertains to stand last in terms of liquidity management. Lastly, Private owned bank, United Bank stood at the first rank in terms of solvency and risk management among all sample banks under study.

  76. Dr. Nemat Sheereen, S.

    The performance of banking activity through internet has become a necessity since internet become popular among all age group. According to Internet and Mobile Association of India, 30% of respondents have a relationship with one bank, 60% with 2-3 banks, 8% with 4-5 banks and 2% with more than six banks. The survey conducted by them also pointed out that nearly 29% of respondents do not use online banking as they have concerns about the privacy of information. People are increasingly using net banking for a wide variety of purposes, as it is very convenient. Online banking has a major role to play in capital market transactions too. This paper explores the familiarity of internet banking services among the general public. The study indicates that even though this service provides a number of benefits to the stakeholders importance to be given to certain factors in order to explore the minds of stakeholders.

  77. Elizabeth Farisai Hove

    The trials of well- known figures in society always attract media publicity; the trials of O. J Simpson in the United States and recently that of Oscar Pistorius in South Africa can be cited as examples. Even more interesting are the trials of well known ‘men of God’ be it pastors, evangelists, bishop or whichever title is used. In Zimbabwe well-known church leader, Pastor Robert Martin Gumbura was convicted of rape and sentenced to forty years in jail in February 2014. His trial attracted a lot of media attention and he soon became a household name, and not only he but his congregation and all connected with him. In all of these cases the role of the media has come under scrutiny. Be it murder or rape, women are usually the victims or are they? Are they the victims, villains or victors? The Gumbura case in 2014 in Zimbabwe will be used as a case study. The case raised all these questions and his eleven wives, other church female churchgoers and any women associated with the pastor soon became part of the spotlight. Comments and speculations on their lifestyle and relations became quite commonplace in the mainstream media and social media. Even the victims of rape were not spared on these platforms. The dynamics of gender and the media became central during this trial. This paper reflects upon the portrayal of women in rape cases by the media. Focus was mainly on but not confined to two leading national papers in Zimbabwe, The Herald and Newsday. Social media platforms such as Whatsapp and Facebook were also referred to. The period under study was from October 2013 until February 2014 when the pastor was convicted.

  78. Gagandeep Kaur and Dr. Suresh Sharma

    Reproductive health is an integral part of general health and a core feature of human development. It reflects the health of a woman during her childhood, and is crucial during adolescence and adulthood, as the status of her health, nutrition, and access to healthcare determines the newborn’s health. Pregnancy during adolescence is a result of the lack of knowledge, education, experience, income, and power relative to older women, and is considered as child pregnancy. A cross-sectional slum based study was carried out in six slums of Delhi among 300 respondents who had ever given live birth. Results showed that 76.9 percent of the women had at least one child. Public source of availing Ante Natal Care (ANC) services were high. As services have been improved and are better facilitated, it has added a push for institutional deliveries. Along with free medicines and free check-up are lucrative for poor women, as almost 56.9 per cent of women utilised ANC services from government hospital and 33.1 percent from the government dispensary. Most of the deliveries were institutional deliveries which is safer than that of home deliveries, which is recognized as critical for reduction of maternal and neonatal mortality. The regression analysis showed number of visits for ANC comes out to be highly significant as the number of ANC visits increase, probability of low birth weight of babies’ decreases. The association between low birth weight and socio-economic factors was found significant. The standard of living index was also associated with better pregnancy outcomes as lower the standard of living or economic status of the household, more will be the probability of low birth weight. The study also shows that among all the six slums more than 80 percent of the women had normal delivery. There is an urgent need for improving reproductive health at school and community level for adolescent living in slums of Delhi to reduce the maternal and infant mortality.

  79. Chepng’etich Tonui, Bitok Esther and Chepsiror Philomena

    In recent years, growing knowledge of the critical importance of childhood development for lifelong learning and growth has led to increased calls for professionalism of early childhood educators including higher standards for training and education. As part of this renewed attention to professional development, professionals in the field should develop the national competence framework for early childhood care and education, with the goal of assuring that all educators of young children have the necessary knowledge and skills to meet children’s development needs. Suitable to their vital role in the venture of education, teachers at all levels require effective and sufficient education to be able to adequately carry out their roles and responsibilities. There are disparities of ECDE teacher education levels of education from early childhood to tertiary education. ECDE Teacher education is a whole range of activities that constitute preparation for and improvement of the teaching profession. This encompasses both pre-service and in-service teacher education course. These forms of teacher education courses involve the study of professional disciplines, teaching subjects and general knowledge subjects. The need and demand for more teachers has resulted in re-engineering and expansion of teacher education programmes for all levels of education with the realization that teachers are crucial personnel whose contribution activates the optimal functioning of the social, economic and political feature of a country. This authenticate the fact that ECDE teacher education is an important driver for sustainable development since literally every knowledgeable and skilled individual in micro and macro productive activity has been shaped in some ways by the contribution of an EDCE teacher. This paper, surveys the various teacher competencies ECDE teacher should have and 5 levels of ECDE teacher education in Kenya in an effort to assess and propose instrumental adjustments to sharpen their impact on sustainable development.

  80. Dr. T. Subash

    Forensic accounting has come into limelight due to rapid increase in financial frauds and white-collar crimes. The integration of accounting, auditing and investigative skills creates the specialty, known as forensic accounting. In fact, forensic accounting is the ‘specialty’ practice area of accounting that describes engagements, which result from actual or anticipated disputes or litigation. ‘Forensic’ means “suitable for use in a court of law,” and it is to that standard and potential outcome that forensic accountants generally have to work. It uses accounting, auditing, and investigative skills to conduct investigations, and thefts and frauds cases. No doubt, FA is listed among the top-20 careers of the future. Initially, forensic accountants were used by government agencies to uncover and investigate leading frauds. They became financial detectives; independent experts employed by management to uncover fraudulent financial reporting and misappropriated assets. In the current reporting environment, forensic accountants are in great demand for their accounting, auditing, legal, and investigative skills. They can play a vital role in coordinating company efforts to achieve a cohesive policy of ethical behavior within an organization. The article aims at finding the role and importance of forensic accounting and a forensic accountant in detecting frauds.

  81. Dr. Jayaram, K. and Dr. Dorababu, K. K.

    The success and effectiveness of distance education systems largely depends on the study materials. Writing for distance education is a more challenging task and quiet different from that face-to-face teaching or writing for a book or a journal. Self-learning materials depend on exploiting the various means and ways of communication to suit it to the needs of learners. SLMs can perform the functions of a live teacher, and thereby how a distance learner may have all the learning experiences which a student may have in a classroom situation. SLMs include all the material prepared to stimulate independent study/learning. The learners in distance education have less contact with either the institution or the tutor, and depend heavily on these specially prepared teaching materials. Revision of SLMs is as important as the development of the materials for the first time because of two reasons. Every distance teaching course needs to be updated from time to time to incorporate the developments in the field of study or discipline. The other reason is to review the performance of the courses in the light of the feedback that you get from the students, tutors, counselors, experts and others in order to make the course more relevant, learner friendly and academically rich.

  82. Nilay Kanti Barman, Ashis Kumar Paul, Soumendu Chatterjee and Mihir Kumar Pradhan

    Global climate change may increase sea level as much as 1m over the next century and in some stretches and also augmented the frequency and severity of storms. Hundreds of thousands of square kilometers of coastal wetlands and other lowlands could be submerged. Beaches could move back as much as a few hundred meters and protective structures may be breached. Flooding would threaten lives, agriculture, livestock, buildings and infrastructures. Saltwater would advance landward into aquifers and up estuaries threatening water supplies, ecosystems and agriculture in some areas. Some nations are particularly vulnerable. Even in nations that are not on the whole predominantly vulnerable to sea level rise, some areas could be dangerously threatened. Examples include India, Bangladesh and other areas economically dependent on fisheries or sensitive to changes in estuarine habitats. As a result of present population growth and development coastal areas worldwide are under rising pressure. In addition augmented exploitation of non-renewable resources is debasing the purposes and values of coastal zones in many parts of the world. Consequently, populated coastal areas are becoming more and more susceptible to sea level rise and other impacts of climate change. Even a minute rise in sea level could have unfavorable effects. So the sustainable coastal zone management is necessary instantly in the low lying coastal zone. The approaches of the sustainable coastal zone management are described in the present attempt.

  83. Manash Protim Baruah and Devojit Bezbaruah

    The study area in and around Pasighat is bounded between two major collision originated orogenies, NE-SW trending Himalayan orogene and NW-SE trending Mishimi Hills. Evidence such as discontinuous mountain front, different levels of terrace in the rivers, presence of number of cross-faults implies that the whole area is in transient state and active tectonics is modifying the geomorphology of the area. In the present study, mapping of the terraces present in the frontal part of the area is carried out and different level of terraces area marked. By observing the local gradient of each level and compared with that of the present river bed, it is inferred that most of the terraces undergoes considerable degree of warping and post depositional tilting has occurred in those particular locality. Further, occurrence of earthquakes having magnitude > M5 in the vicinity of the crossfaults also testify the activeness of the region.

  84. Binija George

    The banking industry in India has a huge canvas of history, which covers the traditional banking practices from the time of Britishers to the reforms period. Therefore, banking in India has been through a long journey. Today banking is known as innovative banking. The use of technology has brought a revolution in the working style of the banks. Information Technology has had a positive impact on substitutes for traditional funds movement services. With networking and interconnection new challenges are arising related to security privacy and confidentiality to transactions. In this paper, an attempt is made to explain the changing banking scenario. The study also identifies the challenges and opportunities for the Indian banking sector in changing banking scenario.

  85. Danielle Nunes Pozzo, Uiliam Hahn Biegelmeyer, Maria Emilia Camargo, Marta Elisete Ventura da Motta, Tania Craco and Suzana Leitão Russo

    The systems of innovations are sets of agents, politicies, resources and technologies that, articulated, promote one or more innovations, radical or incremental. Besides the individual changes of each agent in the process of innovation, the inter organizational relation creates common management factors between the involved agents. These factors turn out to be an extrinsic result of the relation, guided by the common objective that the parts share. The present article analysis these factors from the theory of the edge of chaos, proposing the application of it to the system of innovation. This proposal has the objective to enlarge the empiric application of the edge of chaos theoretical approach, at the same time that contributes to the comprehension of the systems of innovation. Through the semi-structured interviews with representative agents from the system, in the state of Rio Grande do Sul, in south Brazil, it has obtained information, after crossed with the theoretical reference. The results of the research created propositions about the resources, technologies, politics and learning. It is expected to reply the study in national extent in order to confirm the obtained data in this stage.

  86. Dr. Sakunthala, A.I.

    The deplorable status of the socially oppressed, culturally neglected and economically exploited Dalits has led them to paucity, subjugation and dehumanisation, culminating them into cultural silence. The plight of a Dalit becomes all the more pathetic when the Dalit is a woman. She has to face not only the caste discrimination, but the gender inequalities and economic disparities too. A Dalit woman is thrice- marginalised – by Caste-Hindus, Caste Hindu women and Dalit men themselves simultaneously. Although Dalit movement started in mid-nineteenth century for the upliftment of these marginalised communities, issues of Dalit women are still neglected not only by mainstream feminist literary movement, but also by patriarchal Dalit movement. Nowadays women have started protesting against the discrimination and injustices levelled upon them and are trying to create a female space for themselves. In the post-Ambedkar period, Dalit women used literature as a weapon to counter the mainstream feminist writings that include the genres like poetry, short story, essays novel and autobiography.

  87. Dr. Subramonian, G. and Suprabha, K.

    The Government has the responsibility for giving free and compulsory education to all children. The aim of education is to produce educated people. Education is considered as ‘fundamental right’ across the globe and essential for the exercise of all human rights. In this context, the Government of India has implemented the Right of Children to Free and Compulsory Education Act 2009 for ensuring education for all. Exploring the literature review, the study is conducted with a view to understand teacher educator’s perception towards the efficacy of RTE Act 2009. In this study, the investigator used a survey method by which Coimbatore District in Tamil Nadu was taken as a population. By using random sampling, a total of 100 teacher educators were selected from the population. Likert type 5 point perception scale was used for data collection. The dimensions of the scale taken for data analysis were Availability, Accessibility, Acceptability and Adaptability of RTE Act 2009. The result of the study revealed that there is a significant difference in teacher educators’ perception towards Right of Children to Free and Compulsory Education Act 2009 and its dimensions with respect to their gender, domicile, and medium of instruction

  88. Eugene Owusu-Acheampong and Irene Owusu-Acheampong

    The general objective of the study was to determine how employee’s performance could be enhanced through effective application of Health, Safety and Welfare Facilities at the School of Medical Sciences KNUST, Kumasi. The study used the descriptive survey design. The population for the study were all the staffs in the medical school. The total population amounted to 188. One hundred and thirty (130) staffs out of the total population were sampled for the study. This constituted about 69 per cent of the entire population. This was made possible by the use of Krejcie and Morgan (1970) formula for sample size determination from a given population. The stratified random sampling, systematic sampling and the simple random sampling techniques were used to select study participants. Questionnaire administration was the data collection method employed for the study. The specific instrument used was questionnaire. The questionnaire was made of both closed-ended and open-ended questions. Out of the total of one hundred and thirty questionnaires distributed, 125 were retrieved representing 96 per cent response rate. The data obtained was analysed using graphs and cross-tabulation. Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS) was the software used for the analysis. The study found that most of the staffs were aware of a facility responsible for First Aid as required by Health and Safety and Welfare conditions / regulations but unfortunately, the majority of the staff appeared ignorant about the frequency of health checks which is very necessary for employees. Since regular health checks has the potential of diagnosing or identifying health conditions or disease states of the staff, the study recommended that education on health checks be intensified at the School.

  89. Alberto Castelli

    While China is looking up at the Western scientific achievements, seeing in it the way through independence, the European intelligentsia to the pretentious positivist understanding of the world answered declaring the bankrupt of the Western civilization. It is true that the technological progress of the last century surpassed the achievements of three thousand years prior this period, but science brought catastrophes. Cities and souls in ruins are what remain of the scientific revolution. However the May Fourth movement seems not to be aware of the European collapse as to say that their understanding of the Western civilization is based on an historical misunderstanding. I therefore wonder whether we would have had May Fourth without such a misunderstanding. If China had known that Europe itself didn’t believe anymore in her historical background, would China have brandished it anyway as example of a new era?

  90. Kimingiri George Warari

    Families are one of the strongest socializing forces in life. They teach children to control unacceptable behaviour, to delay gratification, and to respect the rights of others. Conversely, families can teach children aggressive, antisocial, and violent behaviour. The study aimed at determining the influence of parenting styles on delinquency among juveniles in rehabilitation centres in Nakuru town, Kenya. The ex post facto research design was applied since the Juveniles have already left their homes. The study was conducted in the Juvenile Institutions in Nakuru town, Kenya. Nakuru town has three juvenile delinquent institutions composed of 209 juveniles. The sample size of 161 juveniles aged between ten to nineteen years was drawn from the three institutions. Purposive sampling method was used in selecting these Juvenile Institutions. The researcher administered questionnaire to the juvenile delinquents in order to collect information on their previous parental experiences. Validity of the instruments was verified using expert opinion while the reliability was measured using a pilot study at Molo Probation and Aftercare Centre. Cronbach’s Alpha method was applied to test internal consistency of the instrument. A reliability coefficient of 0.707 was realised. Descriptive statistics frequency tables and percentages were used to analyse data with the aid of Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS) version 16 for windows. Results revealed that parenting styles influence juvenile delinquency. Parents need to adopt authoritative parenting style, high in warmth and high in control, in order to reduce juvenile delinquency trends. Parents need to spend more time with their children and encourage interpersonal communication. The findings from the researcher suggest further research on the influence of modern society on juvenile delinquency.

  91. Rose Cherono Maangi, Hesbon M.N. Kodero and Jackson K. Too

    The main objective of the study was to investigate the factors that affect provision of career guidance services in public secondary schools based on Ginsberg Theory of career development which states that career guidance is developmental but is very significant during adolescence. Based on the study, this paper examines the nature of training given to teacher-counsellors to undertake their guidance and counselling work in secondary schools. The study was conducted using survey research design. The participants were teacher-counsellors from 10 public secondary schools in Ekerenyo Division, Nyamira North District, Kenya. A sample size of 30 teacher-counsellors was selected using stratified and simple random sampling techniques. Data was collected through the use of teacher¬-counsellor career guidance questionnaire. The collected data was analyzed using descriptive statistics: frequencies and percentages. The study found out that most guidance and counselling teachers had not received specialized training in guidance and counselling. It was therefore recommended that more teachers should be trained in guidance and counselling, especially in areas such as career guidance. The findings of the study are of great help to counsellors, teachers, parents, the whole community, curriculum developers and policy makers in education in developing programmes to strengthen the capacity of teachers to effectively undertake career guidance and counselling of students in schools.

  92. Ritika Ojha, Kranthi Pamarthi Kumar and Dr. Umesh Chandra Pati

    This paper proposes a novel approach to track the solar position and hence, a suitable position for adjusting the orientation of a Photo-voltaic array so as to attain more energy than an array in fixed position. The approach implements Kalman Filter algorithm to track maximum power-point (MPPT), motor position and piston position. The finite state machine includes five states and is Mealy machine. Using the proposed technique, MPPT can be tracked to an efficiency of 97% within a time as low as 4.5ms. The position of PV array is tracked with an error of ±2%. Experiments have been carried out in partially shaded and falling irradiance level conditions, and it was found that the proposed method is simple as well as cost effective in comparison to systems using GPS to track the position.

  93. Tracy Carpenter-Aeby, Dr. Victor Aeby, Lei Xu, Porsche Hunter, Jennifer Lee, Brittany Marshall and David Meetze

    Researchers analyzed previous and current practices with regard to homelessness, school-aged children, substance abuse, and interventions. The data revealed much of the current practices to be lacking in specific needs of the currently homeless or the individuals in danger of becoming homeless. Researching a cross section of the four categories of homelessness, substance abuse, school-aged children and interventions showed enough data to support the researchers’ hypothesis: social work interventions improve the performance of school-aged children facing homelessness and substance abuse. Research has established that having good, trustworthy relationships within the school system, engagement in structured crisis based shelters and positive family support, encouragement, and empowerment are proven to be effective interventions for school-aged youth faced with homelessness.

  94. Sudha Pandey and Dr. Shalini Agarwal

    Learning disability (LD) is defined as the brain’s inability to receive process, analyze or store information. Dyscalculia is difficulty in learning or comprehending arithmetic such as difficulty in understanding numbers, learning how to manipulate numbers, and learning math’s facts. It is generally seen as a specific developmental disorder like dyslexia. Dyscalculia is a mathematical learning disorder where the mathematical ability is far below expected for a person’s age, intelligence and education. This study explored assessment of learning disability (dyscalculia) among school going children. The study sample comprised 60 school going children (boys and girls) of different boards (CBSE, ICSE, UP) from three private schools at Lucknow city. The dyscalculia children were assessed through standardized Learning Disability Battery Part I was used to screen dyscalculia children. The reliability and validity of the scale was .82 and .69 respectively. The results revealed significant difference between type of board and category of dyscalculia. The study highlights the need to educate parents and teachers about learning disabilities (dyscalculia, dysdraphia, dyslexia etc), and to strengthen the social support network of these children’s families.

  95. Neelam Rani, Manikant Yadav and Mathur, Y. K.

    Etch is a process step for microelectronics industry. Plasma etching form reactive neutral fragments and charged ions and electrons by dissociation and ionization of natural gas. The substrate to be etched is placed is contact with this mixture and etching produce through the synergistic interaction of the substrate and directionally impinging ions. In this paper we discussed Properties, different methods and steps of etching for the semiconductor manufacturing process. In this paper we discussed number of advantages and disadvantages of plasma etching.

  96. Daniela Koceva, Snezana Mirascieva and EmilijaPetrova-Gorgeva

    This research has to give an answer to the questions that have a causality relation with the better educational achievements of the people from other ethnic groups. I have chiefly considered the parents’ social status which means that I will mostly look into the parents’ level of education, although this status encompasses much more. The basic aim of the research is to examine the differences of students’ educational achievements based on ethnicity in the Primary Schools in Macedonia. The research is realized through determination of the connection between the educational achievements of the students from other ethnic groups in Macedonian primary schools and their parents’ education. The analysis of the results has shown that there are differences in the students’ achievements, and those differences are answer to the questions concerning the level of parents’ education as one of the reasons for students’ underachievement. The method used for the research is a hybrid, and quantity and quality approaches have been used.

  97. Murat Selim Selvi and Yasemin Kayar

    Businesses have performed reproduction by obtaining cheap raw materials thanks to reverse logistics activities. The aim of this study is to identify the problems being faced in reverse logistics process and to provide solutions for these problems. For this purpose, 23 industrial enterprises were examined in the scope of sample. The research is a case study which can be defined as “integrated multi-case design” type. “Maximum diversity sampling” was made to find out different and similar problems in reverse logistics. Words and phrases were used as analysis unit in this study, descriptive and discourse analyses were performed on qualitative data. Some sentences were quoted directly. The obtained results were submitted to the approval of the respondents. Thereby, it was contributed to construct validity of the research by creating evidence chain. This study showed a total of 21 problems in reverse logistics process. Some of them are storage, damages encountered during shipping, wrong deliveries and incorrect returns, damages encountered during shipping, waste management, and no knowledge of environmental issues, customer returns etc.

  98. Gargi, HarendraYadava, Manbendra Deka, Rajendra Kumar and Alok Sahay

    Terminalia arjuna Bedd. is a slow growing plant and it takes minimum four/five years after plantation to take up silkworm rearing on these plants. Present study reports for the first time propagation technique of Lagerstroemia speciosa for rearing of tropical tasar silkworm Antheraea mylitta D. on the foliage of L. speciosa vis a vis Terminalia arjuna. Rooting percentage did not differ much during various seasons in L. speciosa. Most suitable months for vegetative propagation are from March to September. Days taken for rooting extended significantly during December in both the species. Results reveal that silkworm rearing on L. speciosa can be taken up after 2/3 years of plantation and two consecutive rearing can be conducted on same plants whereas T. arjuna takes 4-5 years and can sustain only one rearing in a year. First crop rearing results show that larval duration was slightly higher in L. speciosa (32 days) as compared to T. arjuna (28 days). Similar trend was observed during second crop also where larval duration was more in L. speciosa (52 days) as compared to T.arjuna (43 days). ERR (%) was almost similar on both the food plants in both crops. Silk ratio (%) was 13.08 in L. speciosa and 13.38 in T. arjuna. During second crop, silk ratio ranged between 14.55 % in T. arjuna to 14.96% in L. speciosa. There was slight difference in the filament length in the cocoons harvested on L. speciosa and T. arjuna but non-breakable filament length was almost similar in T. arjuna (366.25m) and L. speciosa (364.75m). Grainage behavior in L. speciosa was at par with T. arjuna. Therefore, it is concluded that L. speciosa can be taken up under block plantation/mixed plantations in rainfed areas for tropical tasar culture as it is easy to propagate and fast growing as compared to T.arjuna. Moreover, it has an added advantage over T. arjuna that two consecutive silkworm rearing can be taken up on the same plantation.

  99. Manas Pal and Jana, N. C.

    The term ‘wasteland’ is essentially understood as degraded land which is currently under-utilized and or land which is deteriorating for lack of appropriate water and soil management or on account of natural causes. Wasteland can be the resulted form of inherent or imposed disabilities such as by location, environment, chemical and physical properties of the soil or financial or management constraints (Wastelands Atlas, 2010). Thus, it is a humble effort to identify the principal factors responsible for the formation of wastelands over the 10 Gram Panchayats of Khoyrasole Block in Birbhum District, West Bengal.

  100. Liliane TANDZI NGOUNE, Vernon GRACEN, Eddy Léonard NGONKEU MAGAPTCHEU, Martin YEBOAH, Eric NARTEY, Hortense MAFOUASSON APALA and Noé WOIN

    A line x tester analysis involving 112 test-cross hybrids and their parents was conducted in 12 environments for different agronomic traits from 2012 to 2014 in the Bimodal Humid Forest Zone of Cameroon. The hybrids were crosses between twenty-five inbred lines and three open-pollinated varieties with four testers. The objectives of the study were to estimate general and specific combining ability effects of the inbred lines and to identify heterotic groups of maize inbred lines under stress conditions, control and across environments. A simple lattice design 12 x 12 was used with two replications. Analysis of variance indicated significant mean squares due to line (GCA) for yield, plant aspect, ear aspect, ear height, plant height and anthesis – silking interval under acid soil conditions. The effect of the tester (GCA) was not significant for yield but line x tester (SCA) showed significant effect for all the traits taken under stress environment. The comparison of GCA sum of squares to SCA sum of squares showed that the contribution of SCA was higher for almost all the traits recorded under acid soil, control and across environments except for ear height in acid soil environments. Most of these traits were predominantly controlled by non-additive gene actions in their expression. SCA explained 68%, 73% and 53% of the total sum of squares among crosses under acid soil, control soil and across environments, for yield. Meaning that yield was mainly controlled by the non-additive genes than the additive gene in the study environments. This confers the advantage of exploiting heterosis to improve grain yield of maize hybrids. Four distinct heterotic groups were identified under acid soil and across environments.

  101. Noormohammadpour, P., Behrangi, E., Ehsani, A. H., Goodarzi, A., Talebi, M. and Gholamali, F.

    Background: Hirsutism is a common disorder in women of reproductive ages, occurs about 5-10%, which could have great impact on women’s quality of life. There are many hirsute women with not any other clinical or laboratory clues of hyper-androgenism, called idiopathic hirsutism, and among them there are many cases of laser-resistance, that necessities further evaluation and combination therapies. Methods and Materials: This case-control study conducted on 130 patients with laser-resistant idiopathic hirsutism. Patients who needed to 6 or more laser sessions, for acceptable therapeutic response, considered as the case group and the responsive patients who needed to 5 or less sessions of laser, as the controls. Serum Prolactin, Testosterone (T) and Dihydrotestosterone (DHT) levels were measured. Results: Mean age, height, weight, hirsutism score, prolactin also testosterone and dihydrotestosterone levels in case and control groups were statistically significant different. Relative androgen levels were higher in the case group. Conclusion: Patients with laser-resistant idiopathic hirsutism substantially had higher levels of androgens, although in normal ranges, which could result in being benefited from anti-androgens in combination with hair-removal lasers, also amount of androgens levels especially DHT at the beginning of laser therapy could be to somewhat predictor of patient's prognosis regarding to final therapeutic response.

  102. Deepak U.G., Vinod Joshi, Agarwal K. C., Sanjay S., Narendra U. and Mohan J.

    Invasive pulmonary aspergillosis is the most common form of infection by aspergillus species among immune-compromised hosts, involving respiratory tract in 90% of cases. Although this infection frequently involves the lung parenchyma, it is unusual to find it limited to tracheobronchial tree, a condition known as invasive aspergillus tracheobronchitis (IATB). Endobronchial Aspergillosis, a variant of Invasive Aspergillus tracheobronchitis, a rare manifestation, where disease is limited to tracheobronchial tree without invasion of lung parenchyma.

  103. Samah Yousif Fadl-Almula Aljaser and Enaam A. abdel rhman

    Background: Hepcidin is a 20–, 22–, or 25–aminoacid peptide hormone, produced in the liver and detectable in serum and urine, Hepcidin controls plasma iron concentration and its increases in response to inflammatory stimuli (Weinstein et al., 2002; Nemeth & Ganz 2006). Diabetes mellitus Is a group of related diseases in which the body cannot regulate the amount of glucose in the blood, Diabetes-related chronic hyperglycemia can lead to a hypoxic environment in the renal interstitium, which results in impaired production of erythropoietin (Singh et al., 2009). Anemia of chronic disease is reflecting a reduction in red blood cell (RBC) production by the bone marrow, with a component due to mild shortening of RBC survival. A number of factors contribute to this hypoproliferative state. (Papadaki et al., 2002; Weinstein et al., 2002) Objective: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the Role of Hepcidin Level in Development of Anemia among Diabetic Sudanese Patient in Khartoum state. Materials and Methods: A total 42 patinets diagnosed with Diabetes and anemia enrolled in this study, serum was separated from participants for ELISA, to estimate hepcidin level. Results: A total 42 patients diagnosed with anemia and Diabetes, their ages ranged between (13-79) years (mean SD 45 ± 20, the mean value of hepcidin level (13.6) both male 24 (12.7%) and female 18 (14.6%) from different age groups. The mean value of blood Glucose (79.066). The hepcidin level showed correlate with duration of disease and with gender (p.value <0.05) the relation of hepicdin level. Conclusion: In summary, we conclude that serum hepcidin level has significant correlation with gender and duration of disease, so it is manly work as acute phase protein prapotinal with duration, but has no association with RBcs parameters, DM and age

  104. Imran Nazir Salroo, Arsheed Iqbal, Afroza Jan, Waseem Ahmad Shah, Fouzia Nazir and Humaira Nazir

    Bronchopulmonary Sequestration is a rare congenital malformation of lower respiratory tract that lacks normal communication with the tracheobronchial tree. In 1977, Huber stated that aberrant arterial supply of sequestered lung could be encountered. The term pulmonary sequestration was first used in 1946 by Pryce. It was also termed as bronchoarterial malinosculation by clements in 1987. It is a non functional mass composed of dysplastaic lung parenchyma, embryologically detached from the tracheobronchial tree and receiving its own blood supply from a systemic artery, usually 75% from thoracic or abdominal aorta and 25% of sequestrations receive their blood flow from the subclavian, intercostals, pulmonary, pericardiophrenic, innominate, internal mammary, celiac, splenic or renal artery. The venous drainage is variable (1) computed Tomography, magnetic resonance angiography are able to demonstrate the aberrant arterial vessel feeding the sequestration. The blood supply of 75% of pulmonary sequestrations is derived from the thoracicabdominal aorta. The remaining 25% of sequestrations receive their blood flow from the subclavian, intercostal, pulmonary, pericardiophrenic, innominate, internal mammary, celiac, splenic, or renal arteries.

  105. Olayinka, J. N. and Adarabioyo, M. I.

    This research was carried out to determine the age at menarche of adolescent girls in Ado Ekitiand also to identify any decline in the average age at menarche over the years and if factors such as nutrition type, academic level and socioeconomic lifestyle of parents affect its’ onset. Three hundred and forty two (342) girls were randomly selected in both public and private Schools in Ado-Ekiti, Ekiti state using well structured and closed endedquestionaires. Some socio-economic variables were “measured” such as fathers and mothers educational level, occupation of father and mother, type of accommodation and nutritional type. Multivariate Regression Model was considered and fitted since the age at menarche was a continuous measurement. Backward elimination method was used to select the most parsimonious model. This study reveals that menarcheal age of adolescent girls in Ado Ekiti is 12.85 ± 0.0995 at 95% confidence interval (95% CI= 12.95-12.75) and also demonstrated a decline in the menarcheal age of adolescent girls. The study also reveals that father’s education, mother’s education, father’s occupation and nutritional type affect age at menarche.

  106. Lakshmi, L. and Dr. Mathangi, D. C.

    Elderly population is considered as vulnerable group of population in the world. (World Population Prospects Sep’14 Census). Due to the changing trend towards nuclear families and materialism among the younger generation in modern industrial life led to a force on elderly to stay in old age homes. It has been observed that aged population in India needs recreational activities in the form of therapies especially music therapy which has got an effect on well being status of the elderly. The objectives of the study were to assess the effect of music therapy on psychological problems of the elderly residing in a selected geriatric and to associate the effect with selected demographic variables. The study was conducted in ‘Little Drops’ old age home (experimental group), and ‘Little Angles’ old age home (control group), Chennai, Tamil Nadu. A Quasi experimental design Pre-test/Post-test Control Group was used. Elderly samples of 101 in experimental group and 100 in control group were selected. Purposive sampling technique was used in selecting the samples. The effect of music therapy on psychological problems was assessed by using Subjective Well Being Inventory Scale, a modified WHO scale. Pre test was done before the intervention of administration of music therapy. It was administered to the participants who were included in listening to a predesigned instrumental music based on raga Malkauns, for duration of 22 minutes at a specified time in the evening for a period of 30 days. The collected data were analyzed using the descriptive statistics and inferential statistics. The study results revealed that, there is a significant relationship between the effect of music therapy and the level of well being among elderly; also showed a significant relationship between age and occupational status with the level of well being. The study concludes that training in the field of geriatrics and gerontology for Para professionals in counseling the elderly including music therapy beneficial effects on the problems of the elderly.

  107. ZakariaMahdyMorsy Nada (MD) and Muhammed Sayed Ahmed Emarah (MD)

    Objective: To choose the suitable dose of letrozole (LTZ) for ovulation induction in anovulatory patients with polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS). Design: Prospective randomized study. Setting: OB/GYN department, Benha Teaching Hospital, Benha, Egypt. Patient(s): 120 anovulatory infertile women with PCOSthatwerenot responded to clomiphene citrate(CC) stimulation for one cycle. Intervention(s): The studied patients were randomly divided into 3 groups (A, B, C). LTZ was given in increasing dosage from group "A" to group "C". Materials and Methods: In group "A": the dose of letrozolewas 2.5 mg / day, in group "B": it was 5 mg / day, and in group "C": it was 7.5 mg per day. The LTZ was given from day 2-6 of the menstrual cycle. Main outcome measures were: ovulation rate, number of mature follicles, endometrial thickness and pregnancy rate. Results: On increasing the LTZ dosages between the three groups (A, B and C),only the mean number of dominant follicles and the numbers of ovulatory cycles were significantly increasing; (P=0.025) and (P=0.012), respectively. On the other hand, the relation was insignificant for mid-cycle endometrial thickness and the pregnancy rate; (P=0.542) and (P=0.765), respectively.The differences in the age, duration of infertility and body mass index (BMI) were not statistically significant between the three groups. Conclusion:Letrozole is superior to CC in ovulation induction for patients with PCOS. Increasing the letrozole dosage will increase the number of mature follicles and ovulation rate, but has no effect on pregnancy rate.Until studies with large sample sizes are available, LTZ may be used as the first or second option for ovulation induction and to start with 2.5 mg per day and increase the dose gradually in the subsequent cycles if there is no adequate response.

  108. Dr. Isma Niyaz, Dr. Riyaz Ahmed Tasleem, Dr. Humaira Bashir, Dr. Nazia Bhat, Dr. Neelofar Gul, Dr. Bilal Musharaf Banday and Dr. Samina Kanday

    Bone marrow examination is the simplest, cheapest and most reliable method to diagnose most of the malignant and non malignant hematological disorders in a short span of time. The aim of this study was to evaluate the pattern of hematological diseases diagnosed by bone marrow examination among patients with suspected hematological disorder .This was a prospective study conducted on bone marrow aspirations and biopsies performed from 1st April 2013 to 30th September 2014. A total of 130 bone marrow aspirations + biopsy were studied during this time period. Age ranged from 15-80 years. There were 68 females and 62 males with female to male female ratio of almost 1:1. The most frequent indications for bone marrow examination were unexplained anemia or pancytopenia found in 80% of request forms. The most common hematological disorder encountered was anemia accounting for 62.3% of all cases. This was followed in order of frequency by acute leukemias (9.23%), plasma cell dyscrasias (6.92%), lymphoproliferative disorders (6.15%), Myeloproliferative disorder (6.15%), platelet disorders (3.84 %), and Myelodysplastic syndrome (2.3%). In addition metastatic deposits of adenocarcinoma were observed in 1.5% cases. The study provided a valuable insight into the pattern of involvement of bone marrow by various hematological disorders in our community.

  109. Sharif M Shaheen, Pavel Bakardzhiev, Denitsa Momekova and Stanislav Rangelov

    Background: Curcumin is a non-toxic neutracical, which possesses/exhibits an antioxidant activity and inhibits intracellular factors such as Nf-B, cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2), lipooxygenase (LOX), and inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS). However, it is poorly absorbed and has a limited bioavailability. If curcumin could be delivered directly into the cell, it might be a potential therapeutic agent. Objective: The aim is to prepare a medicament to deliver curcumin directly through the cutaneous membrane and to find out the potentiality as a topical therapeutic. Method: We synthesized a polyglycidol-derived lipid, DDP-PG (Mw = 2650), which was incorporated into hydroxypropyl methyl cellulose, HPMC (7%), to prepare a rub containing curcumin. Another formulation containing monoolein rac glycerol, MO (a reported skin penetration enhancer) with DDP-PG was incorporated as a control. Subsequently, curcumin-containing DDP-PG was evaluated directly for therapeutic purposes treating local apoptotic skin, inflammatory site and benign tumor mass (wart). Results: The diffusion of curcumin was evaluated in vitro using a biomembrane (fish swim bladder). The diffusion of curcumin form DDP-PG based formulations did not differ from that of MO, which indicated their suitability as a transdermal vehicle. Accordingly, after application in a few dermal disorders, it showed skin cured very promisingly from apoptotic keratinocytes, clearing the inflammation perfectly and dramatically reduced the size of the wart (a benign tumor) as well. Conclusion: Curcumin can be delivered directly with a du novo skin penetration enhancer, DDP-PG in HPMC based rub. A “Bench to Bed Technology” was approached for controlling local inflammation, apoptotic keratinocytes, and benign tumor like wart, studied here.

  110. Ambigai Rajendran, Sivakumar Gopalakrishnan, Pallavi, L. C. and Sinu, E.

    In recent days the sexual crimes against children are more in numbers irrespective of age and gender. Researchers have proved that the child victims are often unaware of the sexual abuse and they are in a confused state without even knowing what is right or wrong behavior/touch. The crime is increasing more due to the growing number of dual career couples in all classes of people. Hence, they don’t find personal time for their kids to educate or create awareness on personal care, self-protection, and sexual crimes. Teachers are the second parents of many children, as per our Indian education system; there is a gap between the children and teachers in sharing the personal and social information. Home and School is the primary environment for a child to learn the needed life skills, hence people involved in these two environments should educate them with all necessary information which a child should know. Because, research says that the child who is abused in their childhood is the adults with more traumas in accepting a normal or successful life. Our paper was developed by referring various research studies happened in child sexual abuse. There were studies conducted for identifying the child victims, the authors of the paper were trying to you those methods a intervention tool in educating the children. The current will explain about the various methods and its pros and cons in application.

  111. Zaid Sayedalamin, Osama Almutairi, Hassan Allam, BashairAlzahrani, Haya Albougami, Nudrat AZubari and Mukhtiar Baig

    Aim: The aim of this study was to assess awareness and attitude towards cervical cancer sign symptoms, risk factors and its prevention among female medical and non-medical students’ in Jeddah, Saudi Arabia. Subjects and Method: This cross sectional study conducted at King AbdulAziz University (KAU), Jeddah. The SPSS 21 was used to analyze data. Results: Majority of students (87.8%) have heard about cervical cancer and most of the participants knew that it is a preventable disease (70.4%). More than half of students (57.4%) heard of Pap smear test, while only (9.5%) participants have got done the Pap smear test. Question about the awareness regarding vaccine against cervical cancer only 30.5% of participants were aware that vaccine is available against cervical cancer and 37.8% of students have heard about HPV infection. Many participants (52.1%) were in the view that vaginal bleeding after menopause is the symptom of cervical cancer followed by vaginal bleeding between periods (35.5%) and fever and weight loss (33.5%) and others. When we compared the knowledge of medical students with non-medical students, there was significant difference in several aspects of knowledge regarding cervical cancer, HPV, vaccine, and Pap smear test. The barriers against seeking cervical examination were variable, as (25.6%) of students believed that shyness is a barrier for them, other barriers were, too busy, fear form the expected results and others. About the source of information, 28% stated that the curriculum was the major source followed by the other sources like, awareness campaigns, family members and others. Conclusion: Results of present study propose that the knowledge of the majority of the female students is not adequate about the sign symptoms, risk factors, and preventive measures.

  112. Dr. Mayank Gupta, Dr. Awdhesh Kumar and Dr. Manoj Kumar Pathak

    Death may be natural (resulting from disease) or unnatural deliberate action of other (homicide), intentionally self inflected (suicide), result of an environmental influence (accident). Female deaths due to unnatural causes, especially in the first few years of their married life, have been observed in Indian society for the last few decades. Present study is carried out at forensic medicine department, Institute of Medical Sciences, Banaras Hindu University, Varanasi. Relevant information and subjective data like age, sex, habitat, and manner of death of various causes of death victims have been collected from medico legal autopsy register. Data are analyzed retrospective for periods of two and half years from January 2012 to July 2014 The aim of this study is to find out the pattern of unnatural deaths in female and the various factors associated with such deaths in Varanasi region and to out find remedial measures to bring down the incidence. Burn 834(51.74%) contribute most common cause and 21 to 40 year found to be the most common age group affected 880(54.60%). Female residing in rural area 1385(86.92%) and religion Hindu 1452(90.07%) were way more affected. Together, the two age groups i.e. 13-20 years & 21-40 years, constitutes an alarming 74.25% of the total female cases. Such unnatural death can be prevented by education, awareness, change in attitude and mindset of society etc.

  113. Rahul Kumar, Devendra Kumar, Neerja Trivedi and Rakesh Kumar Dixit

    A rapid and sensitive HPLC-PDA method was developed for the quantification of diclofenac in human plasma using chlorzoxazone as internal standard. The analyte and internal standard were extracted from the plasma sample using simple protein precipitation method. Chromatographic separation was achieved on a Thermo (250 × 4.6 mm, 5 µm) column with a mobile phase consisting 0.1 % formic acid in TDW and acetonitrile (40: 60, v/v with); at a flow rate of 1.0 ml /min. The assay was validated with a linear range of 1.25 – 40 µg /ml for diclofenac using 200 µL of plasma sample. The intra- and inter-day assay precision ranged from 2.03% to 6.69% and 1.63 to 5.24 %, respectively, and intra- and inter- day assay accuracy was between from 1.86 to 6.7% and 2.85 % to 5.18%, respectively. The method was successfully applied to the protein binding studies of diclofenac in human plasma.

  114. GyörgyBalla and LajosLakatos

    Our recently published case reports (Lakatos et al., 2015) – together with other healthy and highly educated patients of the long-term (28-40 years) follow-up – suggest that D-Penicillamine /DPA/-therapy of newborn infants may have significant neuroprotective effects in cases jeopardized by bilirubin-induced neurologic dysfunction (BIND) or retinopathy of prematurity (ROP).The first patient (42 ys)is now a member of a famous operahouse in Germany as an opera singer, the second one (16 ys) is excellent in music and matematics. These cases are all the more remarkable as the most common sequelae of neonatal hyperbilirubinemia /NHBI/ is the sensorineuralhearing impairment. These unexpected effects may be related to DPA capability to alter the most important gasotransmitters (nitric oxide /NO/ system, carbon monoxide /CO/, hydrogen sulfide /H2S/ biosynthesis, and copper /Cu+/ homeostasis in the brain, where Cu+ is an endogenous modulator of neural circuit spontaneous activity). According to our hypothesis DPA can modulate the function of these neurotransmitters and can protect the brain (especially the basal ganglia and retina) from injury, such as BIND and ROP.

  115. Akhtar Pooja, M., Bokil Apoorva, N. and Yardi Sujata

    Background: Balance is a key component of a complex game like badminton. Core, is an important component of badminton players, which functions to maintain postural alignment and balance. However, it is not clear how it affects dynamic balance in sports persons. The purpose was to study the effects of core strengthening on static and dynamic balance in badminton players using SEBT, Stork test and Tandem Walk test. Methods: It was a pre-test post-test study design, in which 30 healthy young badminton players (Mean age 13.70 ± 1.47 years) from Badminton Academy, Mumbai were selected. Measurements of their pre test parameters were recorded. Intervention: Subjects were assessed and subjected to 8 weeks (4 days/week) of core strengthening program which consisted of four levels and lasted for 30 minutes per session. Subjects progressed to the next level at 2-week intervals. After 8 weeks post-test was conducted. Main outcome Measures: The subjects were evaluated using the Star excursion Balance Test (SEBT), Stork test and tandem walk test. Results: There was statistically significant improvement in SEBT scores measuring dynamic balance and Stork test measuring static balance. (p value< 0.001) Conclusion: Core strengthening of eight weeks duration is effective in improving dynamic balance in healthy, young badminton players.

  116. Viresh Ashok Nandimath, Suresh K. Mangulikar, Anand D. Gosavi, Mulje, S. M. and Bennishirur, W. A.

    Background: Pandemic influenza A (H1N1) 2009 has posed aserious public health challenge world-wide. Genetic re-assortments in the influenza virus cause fast and unpredictable leading to recurrent epidemics of febrile respiratory disease every 1 to 3 years. Aim & Objectives: To study the clinico-epidemiological profile of the swine flu influenza A H1N1. To study the certain epidemiological correlates affecting the outcome of disease. Material & Methods: A descriptive study conducted on suspected swine flu Influenza A H1N1 patients admitted in infectious disease ward (IDW). The personal interview technique combined with clinical examination was done uniformly using the pre-tested structured questionnaire. Results: Out of total patients admitted in IDW, 60.34% were females & 39.66% were males. 55.17% of patients were from urban area while 44.83% from rural area. Out of 58 patients 12 patients were confirmed cases of swine flu influenza A H1N1, while 46 were confirmed negative. Proportion of confirmed cases of swine flu influenza A H1N1 83.33% in females as compared to 16.67% in males. Influenza A H1N1 resulted in death of 05 (41.67%) confirmed cases among total 12 confirmed cases. Out of 12 (100%) confirmed swine flu influenza A H1N1 cases 09 (75%) expired patients had one or other predisposing factor associated. Conclusion: Cough, running nose, body ache and fever are the most common symptoms with which the patients usually present. The risk of death was seen more in patients associated with predisposing factors.

  117. Arupkumar Chakrabartty, Debasis De, Kazi Monjur Ali, Abhinandan Ghosh and Debidas Ghosh

    Objectives: The present study explores who are those people discontinued from DOTS regime, had irregular compliance and why it happened so. Methods: The study was conducted in 36 DMCs from 12 TUs of three districts in West Bengal, India. Information was collected from two groups – 590 DOTS defaulters from treatment registers and directly from 74 DOTS defaulters. Excluded people are those who were put on DOTS but did not complete full treatment or had anytime become defaulter. Factors were explored on the reasons of retrieval or non-retrieval of DOTS defaulter group and why a few persons became early defaulters and others late defaulters. Results: Results indicated that only 12.4% could have been retrieved into DOTS treatment. Retrieval is influenced by literacy, employment and caste. Among defaulter respondents, knowledge about symptoms of tuberculosis is very poor. Percentages of higher stigma level (28-44) were more (62.2%) compared to lower stigma level (0-27) (37.8%). Mean duration of persons on DOTS is 26.9 days. Early defaulters (3-27 days) are 47.3% compared to delayed defaulters (28-90 days) 52.7%. People who have started DOTS have better knowledge and positive attitude towards health services meant for RNTCP. No socio-economic factors have significant relationship with the non-adherence to DOTS. However, long term therapy, side effects of drugs, no remedies for side effects, poor welcoming attitude of service providers are determinants of non adherence. Conclusion: Finally the outcome of the present study recommends undertaking an in-depth study to explore causes of exclusion from adherence to DOTS when conventional determinants have been proved non-significant.

  118. Dr. Adiraju Surya Lakshmi, MD. and Dr. V. V. Satyanarayana, MD.

    The use of drugs to increase human happiness and to improve the quality of life physically, mentally and socioeconomically is a serious matter of concern. Chronic disabling conditions become common in old age and affect the quality of life. Quality of life (QOL) is an important measure of health care, which measures the gap between expectations and achievements. Effect of Drug use on quality of life in elderly Indian population with hypertension was studied using Mc Master Health Index. The study population was divided into test group (hypertensive patients on regular treatment) and control group (Not on any treatment or on treatment for less than 3 months). All three parameters of QOL namely physical, emotional and social were studied using Mc Master Health Index questionnaire. The results were statistically compared using ANOVA and chi square. Our results point toward better overall QOL in patients on regular treatment.

  119. Dr. Adiraju Surya Lakshmi, MD. and Dr. V. V. Satyanarayana, MD.

    E.C.G is the most widely used test for both the diagnosing and estimating the prognosis of CAD. ST segment and T wave changes are most commonly evaluated parameters of E.C.G. Atorvastatin have found to decrease ischemic events apart from its hypolipidemic effect. The main objective of this open prospective randomized, controlled study was to evaluate the effect of addition of atorvastatin to conventional antianginal treatment on ST segment and T wave changes on E.C.G. The study was conducted for duration of 2 months in 30 patients of CAD (15 in each group). Group A was started on conventional antianginal treatment and group B was started on Atorvastatin 20 mg once a day at night in addition to conventional treatment. The ECG changes were recorded after 15, 30, 45 and 60 days using 12 lead E.C.G. At the end of the study, no significant difference was found in E.C.G changes between the group A and group B. A slight improvement in ST segment changes in group B patients was observed but the effect was statistically not significant. So, addition of atorvastatin to conventional antianginal treatment did not have a significant effect on reversal of ischemic changes on ECG in patients of CAD.

  120. Farhat Tabasum, Shylla Mir, Muzamil Ahmad and Mudasir

    Background and Objective: The clinical definition states “any amount of bleeding from or into the genital tract following birth of the baby up to the end of the puerperium which adversely affects the general condition”3. Postpartum haemorrhage is a leading cause of maternal morbidity and mortality. In India it accounts for 25-30% of maternal deaths1. Uterine atony accounts for 80% cases of primary PPH. Most uterotonics require parental administration, maintenance of cold chain which is necessary for their potency and which is not always possible in some peripheral centre’s. Misoprostol a prostaglandin E1 analogue does not need refrigeration, has long shelf life and is stable at high temp. It is very effective for prevention of PPH. Methodology: Prospective study was conducted in Lalla Ded hospital; associated hospital of Government medical College Srinagar, the only tertiary care hospital for Gynecology and Obstetrics in the Kashmir Valley over a period of 18 months. Sample size: The number of patients was 200. Group A: 100 patients (study group) received 600g of oral misoprostol immediately after delivery of the baby. Group B: 100 patients (control group) received 3 tabs of placebo similar in appearance. Our study was primarily designed to study the effectiveness of misoprostol (oral) for prevention of postpartum haemorrhage (PPH). The primary outcomes measured were : amount of blood loss, pre-delivery and post delivery haematocrit, haemoglobin pre delivery and post delivery, duration of third stage of labour, need for manual removal of placenta, need for other oxytocics, need fof blood transfusion and side effects of misoprostol were also recorded

  121. Dr. Hilal Ahmad, Dr. Khurshid Ahmad, Dr. V. Vikas, Dr. Yasmeena Akhter, Dr. Abdul Hai and Dr. M. Haseeb

    Introduction: The aim of this study was to analyze the pattern of limb injuries in road traffic accident patients. Methods: This study is a retrospective study of patients who had sustained a road traffic accident and have attended the emergency department of Government Medical College Jammu from June 2013 to Dec 2014, showing relevant clinical information including age, gender, bone fractured, site of fracture (upper 3rd, middle 3rd, lower 3rd), side involved (Right, left), fracture pattern, open or closed fracture and any associated injuries (Head injury, Chest injury, abdominal injury, vascular injury and Nerve injuries). Data obtained were analyzed in frequencies. Results: During the 18 months study period, 1222 injured patients were seen in the emergency department. Out of these 826 (67.5%) patients were confirmed cases of fracture. Majority of fractures were seen in lower limb. In patients with confirmed fracture cases most (69.7%) were closed fracture and remaining (30.2%) were open fractures. The majority of patients were in the 3rd and 4th decades. Males were involved more than females (1.83:1). Femur was the most common individual fractured bone. Conclusion: Road traffic accidents (RTA) were observed to be the leading cause of bone fractures especially in individuals in their 3rd and 4th decades of life, constituting most of its victims. Males were observed to be predominantly involved with the lower extremity the most affected site of bone fractures. A large proportion of these patients have associated visceral injuries with high morbidity and mortality, therefore various strategies for prevention, early recognition and treatment of injuries due to road traffic are required for optimal outcome.

  122. Dr. Prabhavathi, R., Dr. Sreenivasulu, A., Dr. Chaitanya Kumar, G., Dr. Narasimha Reddy, P., Dr. Vara Prasad, G. and Dr. Sujit, T.R.

    Background: There are many adjuvants in the market which have been successfully used in combination with local anesthetics for intraop and postop analgesia.dexmededetomidine is a recent addition to the area of intensive care.it is a highly selective alpha 2 adrenergic agonist which is now gaining popularity as a new neuraxial adjuvant. Materials and Methods: sixty adult patients of ASA grade I-II were randomly divided into two groups of thirty each. Groups Clonidine (C), and Dexmeditomidine (D) received hyperbaric bupivacaine 0.5% 2.5 ml intrathecally with clonidine 75µg&dexmedetomidine 5 µg respectively. Hemodynamic data, degree of motor block (modified bromage scale), time to reach sensory block to L1 level, time for two segment regression of sensory block and time to reach modified bromage 0, total duration of analgesia were assessed. Results: Onset of motor block was delayed with group D as compared to group C .The difference was statistically insignificant (191.23 ± 98.04 sec in group D vs 171.75 ± 57.75sec in group C , p=0.001). Onset of sensory block was delayed with group C as compared to group D (83 ± 32.42 sec in group D Vs 115 ± 39.35 sec in group C, p=0.01 ). Dexmedetomidine produced significantly longer duration of sensory and motor block as compared to Clonidine. Regression time of sensory block was 374.34 ± 44.54 min for group D as compared to 302.5 ± 29.18 min for group C. Regression time to reach Bromage 1 was 317 ± 32 min for group D as compared to 220 ± 48 min for group C patients remained hemodynamically stable in both Dexmedetomidine and Clonidine groups. Conclusion: It can be concluded that though both clonidine and dexmedetomidine prolonged duration of sensory and motor block of bupivacaine, dexmedetomidine is better in terms of longer duration of action.

  123. Dr. Raghavendra S. Patil, Dr. Eric J David, Dr. Rajeev Gandhi, Dr. Praveen Kulkarni, Dr. Nathaniel Sase and Dr. Vinod Parmashetti

    Objective: Chronic hepatitis B is a growing worldwide public health issue. Its prevalence and the mode of transmission of the virus varies greatly between parts of the world. Hepatitis B is a serious infection of the liver caused by the hepatitis B virus (HBV) and can lead to premature death from cirrhosis (scarring of the liver), liver failure, or liver cancer. This study was designed to assess the Chronic HBV Infection. Methods: RT-PCR, HBeAg & Anti-HBe are performed to know the viral load, Infectivity level & effect of Antiviral Treatment from the Hepatitis B positive Patients. Results: Chronic HBV infection is dangerous because there are often no symptoms. Conclusions: Chronic HBV infection is the leading cause of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), the most common type of primary liver cancer. People chronically infected with HBV are 100 times more likely to develop liver cancer than those who are not infected

  124. Dr. Jatinder Singh, Dr. Manjote Kour Sahni, Dr. Sufoora Bilquees, Dr. I. H. Munshi, Dr. S. M. Saleem Khan, and Dr. Inaam Ul Haq

    Background: About 120,000 people die on road in India every year. Although India has only 1% of the world’s motor vehicles, but it accounts for 6% of the global road traffic deaths. Research question: What are the different epidemiological determinants related to road traffic accident cases? Objectives: 1.To study the various epidemiological factors related to road traffic accident cases. Study design: Descriptive study. Setting: Study was performed in two tertiary healthcare delivery institutes in Kashmir. Participants: 316 victims of road traffic accidents who reported to BJH & SMHS hospitals in one year period. Study variables: Demographic characteristics of the victims, time, day and month of accidents. Category of road users involved in road traffic accidents, mode of accidents etc. Statistical analysis: Proportions and percentages. Results: There were 80.7% male and 19.3% female accident victims. Students were the maximum (22.2%) among the victims. Majority of the victims belonged to the joint families 207(66%) whereas 109(34%) were from nuclear families. Those driving the vehicles constituted the largest (44.9%) of the victims followed by Pedestrians (31.6%). Among the motorized vehicles, two wheeler drivers were more (44.3%) involved in accidents.

  125. Krishna Reddy, S.V. and Ahammad Basha Shaik

    Purpose: To compare the efficacy of different treatment strategies for distal ureteral stones. Material and Methods: A total 161 patients were included in the study. Based on the treatment modality, patients were divided into four groups. Patients in group 1 (n=38) with stone size of ≤ 10 mm2 only received conventional treatment including daily hydration of 2500 mL, ciprofloxacin, diclofenac sodium and a spasmolytic agent; group 2 patients (n=39) with stone size of ≤ 10 mm2 received conventional treatment as in group 1 and tamsulosin 0.4 mg orally daily for 4 weeks; and. Group 3 (n=33) with stone size of ≤ 15 mm2 underwent extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy (ESWL), Group 4 (n=51) with stone size of ≤ 15 mm2 underwent ureteroscopy. Following treatment, all groups were compared in terms of stone-free rate and time to expulsion. Results: Following treatment, the stone-free rates for groups 1, 2 , 3 and 4 were 47.37%, 56.41%, 63.64 % and 94.12% (P < .0001) respectively. The mean expulsion times for groups 1, 2, 3 and 4 were 15.04 ± 3.80, 15.12 ± 2.45, 7.56 ± 4.31 and 1.95 ± 1.08 days respectively (P < .0001). Compared to the other treatments, the stone-free rate and mean expulsion time in the ureteroscopy group were significantly increased and decreased respectively. Conclusion: There are several treatment options for distal ureteral stones. Based on our data, we conclude that ureterorenoscopy should be the standard of care for distal ureteral stones.

  126. Dr. Vijay Vikas Sharma, Dr. Mohammad Azhar ud din Darokhan, Dr. Omeshwar Singh, Dr. Kanav Mahajan and Dr. Jabreel Muzaffar

    Low back pain is an extremely common health problem throughout the world. It is one of the common causes of activity limitation and work absentism and hence causes great economic burden on our country. Low back ache has multifactorial etiology. Aim of this observatiobal study that was conducted from December 2013 to December 2014, was to know about the clinical trends of low backache in patients and its distribution with respect to age, sex and occupation. Present study was conducted on 1800 patients at post graduate department of orthopaedics G.M.C Jammu on out patient department basis. In this study low back ache was seen more common in third and fourth decade, more in males but with female preponderance in the geriatric age group. Low back ache was more common in non sedentary occupation group of population. Duration of low back ache was mostly two months to two years. Most of the etiological causes were responsible for mechanical back ache.

  127. Dr. Syed Masuma Rizvi, Dr. Nikita Gandotra and Dr. Abhinav Sharma

    Background: To study the role of plasma C - reactive protein in early pregnancy as a predictive tool for preterm delivery. Methods: A total of 125 patients between 12-22 weeks of gestation attending OPD were included in the prospective study and followed up to delivery. Finally 100 patients were available for the final study design. C - reactive protein was measured and maternal and fetal outcome of the deliveries was estimated. Results: Out of 100 women available for the final analysis, 32 (32%) were CRP positive and 68 (68%) were CRP negative. A total of 15 (15%) women had preterm deliveries (<37 weeks) out of which 25 % were CRP positive. High CRP levels were associated with increased incidence of preterm labour with odds ratio of 2.908.Neonatal morbidity was higher in newborns of CRP positive mothers. Conclusion: There is a positive association of elevated maternal CRP levels in early pregnancy and risk of preterm labour and hence it can predict high likelihood of preterm labour.

  128. Dr. Eswaran, M. A., Dr.Rathika Rai and Dr. Maheswari, H.

    Complete denture fabrication is a challenge in case of remaining teeth present. Patient satisfaction is the ultimate goal of a dental treatment. To improve the quality of the complete denture prosthesis and comfort to the patient, preservation of the remaining structures is utmost importance. This case report deals with use of remaining natural tooth to aid in retention, stability and support of tooth supported over dentures. The treatment longevity depends on patient’s oral hygiene maintenance and periodic recalls.

  129. Dr. Nikita K. Irani, Dr. Mugdha Kowli, Dr. Radha Verma, Dr. Kiran Gaikwad and Dr. Chirag Vaja

    Tuberculosis is an infectious disease caused by acid fast bacilli Mycobacterium Tuberculosis1. It primarily affects the lungs and causes pulmonary tuberculosis, but can affect any organ of the body and is then called secondary tuberculosis. Tuberculosis is the most widespread and persistent human infection in the world. The infection can involve any organ and mimic other illnesses, hence called ‘the great mimicker’. The incidence of tubercular mastitis although decreasing in the West, could show resurgence with the global pandemic of AIDS. Tuberculous mastitis is a rare clinical entity and usually affects women from the Indian sub-continent and Africa. It often mimics breast carcinoma and pyogenic breast abscess clinically and radiologically, may both co-exist. Fine needle aspiration cytology (FNAC) / biopsy are essential for diagnosis and tuberculosis culture when positive may be very useful to guide antimicrobial therapy. Antitubercular drugs in combination with aspiration or surgical drainage are usually associated with an excellent outcome.

  130. Dr. Vasudha Seth, Dr. Deepika, P. C., Dr. Pratibha Shashikumar and Dr. Priyanka Nitin

    Solitary gingival enlargements in children are a relatively common finding and are usually the result of a reactive response to local irritation. Giant cell reparative granuloma (GCRG) is not a true neoplasm but rather a reactive process; its origin could be triggered by trauma or inflammation. Peripheral Giant Cell Granuloma (PGCG) is least commonly diagnosed among various hyperplastic gingival lesions. It accounts for 7% of all benign tumors of the jaw. It is also known as peripheral giant cell reparative granuloma. This is a case report of a 14 year old boy which highlights the importance of depth of excision for successful treatment outcomes.

  131. Dr. Shailesh Chandra, Gupta Dr. Brajesh Kumar and Dr. Sanjay Kumar Sinha

    Hypoglossia –Hypomelia is rare congenital anomaly affecting the tongue and limbs. Hall in 1971 classified it under a complex group of disorders called oro Mandibular limb hypogenesis Syndrome. It is an extremely rare condition with around 40 cases reported in world literature. The etiology of the syndrome is unknown. Some type of intrauterine trauma is the most widely accepted etiology. The characteristic features of the syndrome are hypoglossia, limb anomalies of variable degrees and micrognathia of the mandible. It is characterized by failure of development of intraoral region and distal extremities .It is congenital and there seems to be no sex predilection. We hereby report a case of 15 years old girl patient presenting with retruded mandible, hypoglossia and limb anomaly (hypomelia) Her parents and other siblings were normal. Positive prenatal history of maternal hyperthermia was obtained suspecting it to be cause of Oro Mandibular limb hypogenesis

  132. Nishant K. Vyavahare, Akash K. Baranwal and Mohan L. Paul

    Context: Total obliteration of root canal space and accessory canals is necessary for successful endodontic root canal treatment. On the horizon, GuttaFlow which has some properties like cold yet flowable, expansion instead of shrinkage, greater density of gutta-percha have made this material to be chosen for study. Aims: Aim of study was to evaluate homogeneity and adaptation of GuttaFlow to canal walls and to evaluate apical microleakage of obturated teeth at the interface in comparison to the laterally and vertically condensed G.P. Methods and Material: 124 human maxillary central incisors were decoronated followed by root canal preparation. Teeth were then randomly divided into 3-groups of laterally condensed (LC), vertically condensed (VC) and GuttaFlow (GF). To check the homogeneity, the 3-groups divided in to sub-groups A, B, and C respectively while to check the microleakage, the 3-groups divided in to another sub-groups I, II, and III respectively (sub-groups having 20 teeth each, with 2 negative and 2 positive control). Group A, B, C were horizontally sectioned at two levels and digitally photographed at 20X magnification using stereo-microscope. Area of voids was measured using AutoCAD image analyzing software. Group I, II, III specimen were prepared and sectioned longitudinally to measure linear extent of dye penetration using 2% methylene blue dye. Finally, the collected data were statistically analyzed. Results: Group A and C showed statistically significant difference for presence of voids. Considering apical microleakage, an extremely statistically significant difference was found between group I and II and group I and III. Also, the single cone technique using GuttaFlow showed a superior result as compared to LC technique Conclusion: In terms of apical micro-leakage, the sealing ability of GuttaFlow is superior to the gold standard of lateral compaction with sealer and comparable to that of thermo plasticized G.P. technique.

  133. Tapas Das and Dr. Sutapa Roy

    Obesity is now considered as a serious public health problem and increasing at an alarming rate in developed and developing countries of the world. It is directly linked to lifestyle and diet, and has become a serious health issue for the urban population with the improving standard of living, physical inactivity and modern high calorie diet. Total 135 subjects within the age group 15-65yrs were grouped as i) yoga with diet group ii) only yoga group and iii) control group and advised to follow the yoga training schedule for 6 months. Subjects who assigned to the yoga with diet group, and only yoga group, yoga intervention comprised of Asanas, Pranayama, and Meditation, for about 1 hour a day and 5 days in a week. Control group did nothing only to maintain as usual daily living during the study. After 6 months study result shows statistically and clinically significant. The analysis has been done using STATA11.1, statistical software it was observed that body weight (p<0.01), BMI (p<0.1), Waist circumference (p<0.01), systolic blood pressure (p<0.01), fasting blood sugar (p<0.05) significantly decreased in Yoga with diet group in comparison to control as well as only yoga group. Only yoga group also shows improvement in comparison to control group. Yoga is beneficial in maintaining good health and wellbeing by regulating body weight, improving Biochemical parameters and helpful to overcome the obesity related complications as well as metabolic risk factor. Yoga could be beneficial to prevent or delayed onset of Type-2 diabetes and cardio vascular diseases.

  134. Muhammed H. Meslam, Nourhan M. Sayed, Hadir M. Abdelkader, Hazem Abd El-mageed, Menna T-Allah A. Mohammed, Ahmed Tammam, Ehsan A. Elshinawy and Soliman Ghareeb

    Background: Regular blood pressure measurement is considered as a window that shows how effective the managment could be .Despite the fact that studies had shown that populations gained a little bit more knowledge in the recent years, how this knowledge is implied still remains a question. Aim: Our aim was to evaluate whether Hypertensive patients regularly measured their blood pressure or not. In addition to that, we wanted to find out the reasons why they didn’t measure their blood pressure regularly as told, so we become able to shed some light on these reasons hoping for this problem to be solved. Methods: An observational cross-sectional descriptive study was carried out at Kasr Alainy teaching hospitals. Participants were adults aged above 18 years old, not in pain and able to co-operate where they were alert and fully conscious. The questionnaire was administered verbally and blood pressure was measured for each Participant. This study is considered the first Egyptian study held to assess people's awareness about the importance of regular Blood pressure measurement and also finds out to what extent they are applying it in their regular life. Results: We had a sample of 440 with CI 99% and a hospitalization period range of (1-210) days. Even though 66% of the sample confirmed that BP should be measured regularly, 76% of the sample didn’t do that. This paradox was further more clarified with their reason which was lack of awareness regarding the importance of regular blood pressure measurement. That was further more confirmed with the fact that the majority of the sample didn’t know the element of Hypertension diagnosis. Conclusion: The results show a hugely unaccepted low level of awareness about hypertension and the importance of regular blood pressure measurement. We strongly recommend a public action to raise the awareness level.

  135. Dr. Swapnil S. Singhai

    Vertigo is defined as the sensation of movement of self or environment, often rotary. Vertigo results from a mismatch of the brain’s three primary information systems: visual, vestibular, and sensory. Benign paroxysmal positional vertigo is the most common condition that causes recurrent vertigo, with typical paroxysmal nystagmus. Women are more affected than the men. The key physical test finding is observed on Dix-Hallpike testing. This disorder is common, easily treated; correct diagnosis avoids costly and unnecessary testing. Therapy via repositioning maneuvers is non-invasive procedures that have been found to be long term effective for BPPV. The purpose of this case study is to determine the therapy is an effective and safe treatment option that can enhance the speed and degree of recovery, minimal risk and high patient acceptance in preference to other methods of treatment of BPPV.

  136. Dr. Ajay Chhikara, Dr. Alok Bhalla and Dr. Samir Gupta

    Lumbar hernia is a rare condition and can occur due to blunt injury following motor cycle accident. The condition can result in chronic pain and small unrecognisable swelling. Delay in diagnosis can occur in such cases and result in poor quality of life for years. We report a case of lumbar hernia which occurred following blunt injury and was not diagnosed until five years after its first presentation. Computerized Tomography (CT) scan along with clinical findings confirmed the diagnosis. Patient underwent successful herniorraphy using a prolene mesh. Timely diagnosis is desirable in case of lumbar hernia not only because it is associated with serious bowel complications but also because associated chronic pain results in poor quality of life. High index of clinical suspicion along with imaging modalities can clinch the diagnosis. Repair using a mesh can be performed for the condition.

  137. Jaiswal Sagar, B., Chiraq Patel, Yogesh Patel and Hemant Mathur

    Objective: To evaluate the result of operative fixation of distal radius fracture using volar locked compression plate. Introduction: Distal radius fracture are one of the most common and are one of the most disabling fracture when untreated & when mal-united , as wrist joint contributes a large share in the dexterity and optimum upper limb function. While treating these fracture (operatively/ non-operatively) achieving articular congruity, restoration of adequate range of motion & prevention of wrist arthritis is the prime thing. We studied the results of operative management in distal radius fractures. Patients and Method: Our study consisted of 50 patients with distal radius fractures, between 20-50 years. Medically unfit patients, open fractures, pathological fractures were excluded from our study. Fractures were classified using AO/OTA classification system. After primary splinting, fractures were fixed using volar locking compression plate, at mean 4 days of trauma. Serial follow us were made after discharge to evaluate the patient clinically and the fracture radiologically. We used Gartland & Werley Scoring system for final evaluation of the patients. Results: Our study had 84% of excellent, 14% good and 2% fair results. We had no cases with nonunion or malunion. We had no case with infection. All cases returned to their preoperative occupation except one which had to change his job; included in fair outcome. Conclusion: From our study we conclude that, volar locking compression plate is a valid treatment option for the management of distal radius fracture.

  138. Israa H. Al-Shrufi, Saife D. Al-Ahmer, Khiaria J. Tothli and Noor I. Al-Baiyati

    Background: Pantoea agglomerans is an opportunistic human bacteria characterized by shaped aggregations or symplas-mata, yellow pigment-producing colonies that were 2 mm in size, nonhemolytic, and convex were detected on a blood agar plate. It belongs to the family Enterobacteriaceae and is responsible for infection diseases ranging from plant-thorn arthritis, osteoitis, osteomyelitis and traumatic wound infections to septicemia. Bacterial identification systems were performed by using manual and automated methods as phenotypic assays, and PCR method as molecular assay. Aims and objectives: The aims of the present study were to review the impact of Pantoea agglomerans in septicemia cases, and study the role of 16S rRNA gene in the molecular detection of Pantoea agglomerans in patients with clinical diagnosis of septicemia. Materials and Methods: In this study blood samples from 75 patients with clinical diagnosis of septicemia were used for blood culture, Gram staining, culture, VITEC-2 Compact and PCR methods. PCR was performed with primer pair targeted to the 16S rRNA gene of Pantoea agglomerans. The result of the PCR was compared with conventional methods of blood culture, Gram staining, culture and VITEC-2 Compact methods. The PCR positive samples were identified by presence of ~1500 bp amplicon of the 16S rRNA gene. Results: Conventional methods of blood culture, Gram staining, culture, VITEC-2 Compact methods showed a positive results in 14 (18,6 %) of 75 patients with clinical diagnosis of septicemia. PCR detected all 14 (18,6 %) samples that were positive by conventional method. Two (2.6 %) of 61 (81,3 %) patients who were negative by conventional methods were positive by PCR method. Statistical analysis revealed that the PCR to have a sensitivity of 95.1 % in the detection of Pantoea agglomerans in septicemia cases. Conclusion: Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) is a rapid, specific and sensitive method to detect Pantoea agglomerans in septicemia cases of human.

  139. Vineetha, S., Bijoy Nandan, S. and Rakhi Gopalan, K. P.

    Macrobenthic fauna is important in paddy fields (man managed temporary wetlands) due to its significant role in nutrient cycling. Macrobenthos in Maranchery Kole paddy fields, Vembanad Kole wetland, a Ramsar site in Kerala, India was studied during Punja (summer crop season) 2011. Macrbenthos belonged to 3 phyla, 4 classes [Insecta (78%), Oligochaeta (20%), Bivalvia (1%), Crustacean (1%)] and fifteen families. The average benthic abundance was 399±581 ind./m2, showing a decreasing trend from the beginning of the crop season to the end. As paddy plants grow up, shading by paddy plants reduced the sunlight penetration to the bottom of the paddy field thus reducing decomposition rates resulting in decrease in detritus quantity, which lead to decreased abundance as detritus feeders were the predominant group there. Further the growth of paddy plants leads to the increase in paddy root structures thus gradually decreasing habitable area for benthic fauna resulting in decreased abundance as the crop season progressed. No significant correlation emerged between benthic abundance and environmental parameters, Available limited habitable area and agricultural practices might have determined abundance. Further the narrow range of environmental variables (as paddy fields were man managed) also might have resulted in insignificant correlation.

  140. Dr. Godfrey Ekata and Dr. George Ojie-Ahamiojie

    This paper set out to examine whether early exposure to research tenets was a predictor of research support in Nigeria and the United States. Data relating exposure to and support for research were collected in the both countries and analysed using the SAS statistical software. The results show no statistically significant relationship between early exposure to research and support for academic research. There is also no significant relationship between someone’s level of education and a willingness to support academic research.

  141. Fereydoon Bondarian, Majid Gholibaygian, SepidehTorabi, Maziar Bahreini and MansourOmidi

    Papaversomniferum (opium poppy) is an herbaceous, annual and diploid plant that is very important because of pharmacological and strategic view in the world. The limitation of this plant farming, hard and law amount extraction of this plant alkaloids cause studying about tissue culture of papaver somniferum L. for getting high level of these components. This plant has a special group of alkaloids named benzylisoquinoline is due to secondary metabolites such as morphine, codeine and papaverineis a great value in pharmacy. In this research tissue culture of this plant to achieve the best hormonal levels for callus induction and regeneration examined from seed way culture. Small samples of leaves, roots and hypocotyls of 30-45 days from seedling s were transferred to different media with hormonal treatments. Best of hormone treatment for callus induction is 2mg/l 2, 4-D and 0.25mg/l BAP, 4mg/l 2, 4-D and 0.5mg/l BAP and best hormonal levels for regeneration includes 1mg/l BAP and 0.1 mg/l 2, 4-D.

  142. Padma, V. and Raji Sugumar, V.

    Introduction: The purpose of this study is to assess the Insulin Index of a specially developed Functional Ingredient Mix (FIM) for Type 2 diabetic patients. Certain foods cause an Insulin response despite there being no carbohydrates present, and some foods cause a disproportionate insulin response relative to their carbohydrate load. Hence Glycemic Index and Glycemic Load are not reliable markers. Methods: Five selected healthy individuals were given measured quantity of the Functional Ingredient Mix and their insulin levels were measured for 9 times at 15 minutes intervals for 2 hours. White bread as reference food was given to the same subjects and their insulin levels were recorded for 9 times at 15 minutes interval for two hours. Results: The average insulin index value for FIM at 15 minutes interval was less than the white bread. At 30 minutes the insulin value was almost half for the FIM in comparison to white bread. The mean insulin values was found to be decreasing with time for FIM. Conclusion: This study on insulin index with normal, healthy individuals, highlights the fact that the formulated FIM produces less glycemic load which is indicative of the nil insulin burst. FIM supplementation taken regularly may also decrease the medicine requirement of patients with type 2 diabetes when combined with dietary and lifestyle modification as suggested in numerous epidemiological studies.

  143. Sumayya Wani and Madan L. Khurana

    Background: Patients with Diabetes mellitus (DM) develop low levels of High Density Lipoprotein (HDL) during the initial progression of disease. This study was aimed to analyze the relation of HDL with number of heavy meals per day in off springs of patients with type 2 DM. A large number of pathologies such as type 2 DM, obesity, Insulin resistance and Metabolic syndrome are associated with low and dysfunctional HDL Methods: A total of 120 cases and 120 controls completed the study. Cases and Controls were divided into three groups based upon the intake of number of heavy meals per day. Results: In group I, mean HDL of cases was 31.54± 7.96 where as that of controls was 49.58 ± 6.24. Similarly in group II, mean HDL of cases was 21.85 ± 4.52 where as that of controls was 49.28 ± 6.92. In group III, mean HDL of cases was 21.08±5.50 and of controls was 46.69± 4.57. Conclusions: There is a positive, significant and inverse relationship of HDL and number of heavy meals per day in the off springs of patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus; higher levels of HDL being associated with lesser intake of heavy meals and vice versa.

  144. Abdulrazak Ado, Bala Sidi Aliyu, Naziru Dahiru, Rabiu Sani Shawai, Sale Ali Ibrahim, Surayya Mustapha, Jamilu Yusuf, Mohd Tanimu Badamasi and Aisha Auwal

    This is a laboratory trial to further test the efficiency of the production of leaves of Eucalyptus camaldulensis and Tamarindus indica in the control of Callosobruchus maculatus, a storage cowpea insect pest. Two cowpea varieties Dan’ila and 207-15 were introduced into glass container containing the test material. The glass container was replicated thrice and arranged in randomized block design for 41 days at temperature between 240c – 28oc and 41% - 70% humidity. The result obtained at three days post treatment shows that Eucalyptus caused significant adult mortality compared to that of Tamarind and rates of Oviposion between the checks of the individual treatment at p = 5% were no significant. Result obtained at one week post treatment shows adult mortality in both Dan’ila and 207-15 treated with Tamarind sample is more significant then Eucalyptus treated sample. The result Obtained at two weeks post treatment show egg count was significantly suppressed by the Eucalyptus treated sample then followed by Tamarind treated sample. The differences in progeny emergence between the checks and treatment level were found to be significant at 35 days post treatment. Number of infested seed was high in Dan’ila and 207-15 treated with Tamarind then those treated with Eucalyptus. Also the grains damage were highly significant in Dan’ila treated samples and 207-15 treated with Tamarind. At 40 days post treatment, progeny emergence, seeds infestation and loss in weight of grain were significantly suppressed by Eucalyptus treated sample then Tamarind. Eucalyptus shown greater capacity to suppress large build up of this insect in cowpea grains. Thus it can be concluded that the Eucalyptus powder produced a much better protection against the stored cowpea insect Callosobruchus maculatus then Tamarindus indica.

  145. Genene Tsegaye Mekonnen and Anteneh Fekadu

    Integrated watershed management (IWM) is one of the best strategy to halt soil degradation. It mainly comprises protecting and rehabilitating watershed areas aimed to mitigate problems of runoff and floods, rehabilitate degraded lands, enrich ground water, increase production and vegetation cover. A holistic approach has been followed participating all stakeholders and it has operational since 2011 trough mobilizing community, constructing soil and water conservation structures, planting biological stabilizers, enclosing communal land and maintaining the structures. Apart from the massive IWM, South Agricultural Research Institute has implemented a pilot project at two mini watershed areas namely Qotto Asano and Ojojie. To attain the objectives, SARI has implemented technology introduction, watershed management, training and technology scaling up simultaneously. The lessons from technology innovation revealed that the watershed residents have been actively participated in problem identification, planning, technology choice, designing, bylaws setting, implementing, evaluations and maintenance. Lastly, in implementing IWM, there are an immense social, economical, institutional and environmental challenges that need emphasis of policy makers and development practitioners. Benefit, impacts of incentives, absence of linking community bylaws to formal laws, financial limitation, failure to consider land use, soil type and slope during designing are challenges that need policy considerations and remedy actions for sustainable use of natural resources.

  146. MaziarBahreini, MojganBorumand and Fereydoon Bondarian

    In this study, Phenylalanine ammonia lyase (PAL) was evaluated as one of the important enzymes in the pathway of phenylpropanoids synthesis in order to understand the structural fold and sequence homology; so that it was extracted from Protein Data Bank (PBD): X-ray crystallographic structures of Rhodosporidiumtoruloides (1T6J) as a genus of fungi category and (1W27) Petroselinumcrispum as a genus of plants category. In order to structural analysis of PAL has been used some software include Protein Structure Comparison Tool V 1.4, on-web PDBe version based on secondary structure matching (SSM) and Combinatorial Extension(CE) for Structure Alignment, calculation of statistical indicators such as Z-score, p-value, Q-score and etc. Finally PAL showed a significant relationship between structural sequences of 1T6J & 1W27 in terms of structural folds similarity and partialhomology with calculated indices between the two enzymes.

  147. Mulugeta Sisay

    In developing countries including Ethiopia, human needs for watershed resources are increasing from time to time. On the other hand the existing watershed resource goes down and unable to meet the demand of the urban as well as the rural communities. Due to this fact, Watershed development has been considered as one of the strategies to create a healthy environment and improve livelihood, and efforts have been made in different parts of the country Ethiopia. However, the effort aimed at improving rural livelihood through managing watershed resources chased failure to understand farmer’s attitude and participation. Therefore this study tries to identify people’s attitude, level of participation in watershed development activity and analyze the relationship in Karasodity watershed, Southern Ethiopia. Combinations of methods were used to achieve the stipulated objective. Different PRA tools/techniques were employed in addition to formal questionnaire survey. The attitude scale was administered on the sample farmers (N=313) who were asked to express their reaction in terms of their agreement or disagreement with each item developed and standardized by selecting any one of five response categories strongly agree, agree, undecided, disagree and strongly disagree. In the study watershed farmers’, experts of different background from Agricultural and Rural Development Office, and watershed implementing committees were involved in the project management. With increasing funds allocated to watershed development, non government organization (i.e. Sefte-net) aggressively participated in implementing this program in the area, and demonstrated the importance of farmer’s involvement in the success of watershed development. The present inspection reveals that on an average 84% of the respondents participated at the planning stage. A very high proportion of respondents contributed in the form of labour, followed by participation in the form of both labour and money. The study result also revealed that the majority of respondents (89%) had partial awareness where as a very low proportion (1.59%) is having complete level of awareness. Fair level awareness was observed for agroforestry, mixed cropping and intercropping. Thus, it may be concluded that majority of respondents are having positive attitude towards the watershed development programme. Establishing learning capacity in local communities may be particularly important to achieve sustainable participatory watershed management because of the importance of local institutions and collective action in the watershed environment. The research or learning process can be a way to united diverse stakeholders around common interests and goals.

  148. Temur Vasadze, Nino Memiadze and Ketevan Dolidze

    The article deals with the specific diversity of the wild flora ferns in the Ajara floristic region as well as gives the systematic-geographical and ecological-coenotic analysis. In the Ajara floristic region ferns are represented by 51 species of 27 genera and 11 families. According to the number of species the following are the leading families: Dryopteridaceae (21), Aspleniaceae (9), Pteridaceae (7). The leading genera are: Dryopteris (9), Asplenium (7), Polystichum (5). According to the geographical structure the majority of the ferns belong to the holarctic, Mediterranean, Caucasian, subtropical, South American, palaearctic and Asian geo-elements. In accordance with the relation to humidity, there are 38 mesophytes, 5 – mesohygrophytes and 8 xerophyte species of ferns. According to the relation to the light, there are 6 heliophytes, 22 sciophytes and 23 facultative heliophytes.

  149. Huascar Lindbergh Frias Vilorio

    The objective of this research is to demonstrate the need to use existing biotechnology in the flora of the Dominican Republic. The flora has been labeled by many researchers as one of the most varied in the Antilles. There are 5,000 different species, of which 2,000 are endemic; 2,400 are native to our island and about 600 came to us from other countries and continents. In the central highlands of the Dominican Republic are extensive pine forests. In wetter coastal regions mangrove area lies parallel to the coast. Endemic species constitute 40% of the flora of the island. In this group are pinosse (Pinus occidentalis), royal palm (Roystonea hispaniolana), palm or coconut Catey macaque (Bactris plumeriana) and guano (Coccothrinax montana).

  150. Shanmugham Bhuvana and Vava Mohaideen Hazeena Begum

    In the present study, the modulatory effect of Hibiscus rosa-sinensis flower petals treatment on the levels of plasma glucose, insulin, lipids and glycoproteins in 10% D-glucose feeding for 4 weeks were examined. The H. rosa-sinensis flower petals (1000mg/kg of body weight) was mixed with normal chow diet and administrated for 4 weeks as preventive and curative effects. The levels of plasma glucose, insulin, lipids and glycoproteins were increased significantly, whereas the levels of plasma HDL was decreased in 10% D-glucose fed rats. Administration of H. rosa-sinensis flower petals reversed these hyperglycemic and hyperlipidemic statuses in 10% D-glucose fed rats. These observed effects were found to positively correlate with the proanthocyanidins and -carotene content of the H. rosa-sinensis flower petals. The present study concludes that the H. rosa-sinensis flower petals possess a significant beneficial effect on glucose, insulin, lipid profiles and glycoprotein moiety in addition to its antidiabetic and antiatherosclerotic effects. Thus, the results of the present study indicate a positive role of H. rosa-sinensis as a therapeutic agent for diabetes and atherosclerosis in 10% D-glucose fed rats.

  151. Rajani, A., Seeta, Y., Sunitha, E. M., Dr. K. Shailaja and Prof. P. Manikya Reddy

    This paper deals with the study of physico-Chemical parameters of FaukksSagar Lakewater located in Jeedimetla near Kompally, Hyderabad. Telangana State. Monthly changes in physical and chemical parameters such as Water Temperature, Transparency, Turbidity, Total Dissolved Solids, pH, Free Carbon dioxide, Total Hardness, Chlorides, Alkalinity, Phosphate and nitrates, were analyzed for a period of one yearfrom June 2013 to May 2014.According to APHA Standard methods. The result of this analysis point out the fact that all the parameters are not permissible limits. The result indicates the lake is polluted and can’t be used for Domestic and Irrigation.

  152. Mohamed Nisha, P. and Dr. Raji Sugumar, V.

    The present study was under taken to assess the efficiency and self suitability of the kitchen waste compost as organic manure, through the estimation of its typical physical and chemical characteristics. To assess the physical and chemical parameters, kitchen waste compost was collected from a self designed compost bin. The visual inspection showed that the sample was physically uniform, free flowing, no hard lumps, blackish brown in color, free from objectionable odor and it was found to have 51.2 % moisture with bulk density 450.2 kg m-3, particle size less than 3 cm and 42% volume reduction. The results obtained from chemical analysis of the generated compost include: pH value 6.15; Electrical Conductivity 647 µS/cm; Total Organic Carbon 5.55%; Total Nitrogen 0.23%; Total Phosphate 0.15%; Total Potash 0.3% and C/N ratio 24.1. The results indicate that the physical and chemical parameters more or less lie at par with standard and thus indicate the good quality of the composts. Composting of solid urban wastes could be adapted country wide to transform garbage to enriched organic manure and also a better solid waste management option.

  153. Sathe, T. V.

    Guava Psidium guajava Linn. is native of tropical America and introduced in India in early 17th century and at present it has occupied an area of more than 60,000 acres in India. It has great nutritional value as fruits contain a very rich vitamin-C and - A and contain good amount of calcium. However, the crop is attacked by more than 80 species of insects. Therefore, fruit production sale and its proper utilization play an important role for earning good dividend. At ripening and storage stage the fruits were damaged by fruit flies Dacus spp., White flies, Aleurocanthus and Dialeurodicus, Thrips Selenothrips, Aphid, Coccids and mealy bugs, Drosophilla spp., etc. The protection of fruits from insects is essential part of guava economics. Pest occurrence and damage to crop and pest control strategies are given in the paper.

  154. Ahmed M. Abd El-Gawad, Ibrahim A. Mashaly andRasool I. Al-Nafie

    The present study aims to evaluate the antioxidant activity of Cakilemaritima, Centaureaglomerata, Juncusbufonius, Lactucaserriola and Reichardiatingitana collected from Egypt, as well as to characterize their allelopathic potential against Bidenspilosa L. Total phenolics, tannins, alkaloids, flavonoids and saponins were determined in the studied plants. The antioxidant activity was measured based on the reduction of DPPH. The allelopathic bioassays of germination and growth were assayed. L. serriola attained the highest values of phenolics, tannins and alkaloids compared. However, C. glomerata exhibited the highest values of flavonoids and saponins. The IC50values of the antioxidant inhibition for R. tingitana, J. bufonius, L. serriola, C. glomerata and C. maritima were 663.98 ppm, 1026.62 ppm, 1029.45 ppm, 3783.05 ppm and 4964.20 ppm, respectively. The aqueous extracts of L. serriola was completely inhibited the germination of B. pilosa at 20 mg ml−1. Moreover, the extracts of C. glomerata, R. tingitana, C. maritima and J. bufonius inhibited the germination of B. pilosa by about 79.80%, 64.65%, 49.49%and 39.39%, respectively.Similar inhibitory effects on radicle and plumule growth were observed. Although, L. serriola is commonly considered as a noxious weed, it may be used in controlling B. pilosa.

  155. Malangmei, L., Rahaman, S. M., Haldar, S. and Bera, B. K.

    Economists of all over the world have been shown a great concern on livelihood security of the rural people living in developing countries. Conceptually ‘livelihood’ denotes the means, activities, entitlements and assets by which people make a living. Assets are defined as natural (land and water), social (community, family and social networks), political (participation and empowerment), human (education, labour, health and nutrition), physical (roads, clinics, markets, schools and bridges) and economic (jobs, saving and credit). Livelihood security has been interpreted in different ways by various scholars. This is a very broader arena and often misjudged with income security. Therefore, this paper is aimed to critically examine the existing literature and draw meaningful interpretations regarding the different facets of livelihood security.

  156. Kero Jemal, B. V. Sandeep and Sudhakara Rao Pola

    Medicinal plants produce different secondary metabolites which are used as medicines in different parts of the plant such as leaf, root, flower and seed. In recent years, the usage of different medicinal plants for the treatment of different alignments in traditional and modern medicines has been increasing. Generally, in India, it is estimated that over 6000 plants are in use in traditional and herbal medicine. Allophylus serratus and Premna tomentosa are medicinal plants, which have traditional uses against various diseases. The objective of this review is to compile medicinal values of Allophylus serratus and Premna tomentosa.

  157. Harit Kasana and Gaurav Pratap Singh Jadaun

    Rituximab is a recombinant therapeutic chimeric mouse/human monoclonal antibody that binds to CD20; a transmembrane phosphorylated protein, located on pre-B and matures B-lymphocytes. It then recruits the body’s natural defences to attack and kill the marked B-cells. It is primarily used to treat patients with relapsed low grade Non-Hodgkin’s Lymphoma. The blood cancer therapy rituximab was the world's best-selling oncology drug in 2013, with nearly $8 billion in sales, according to industry data. This article describes the overview of rituximab including mechanism of action, indications and adverse reactions.

  158. Jyothilekshmi, S. and Aswathy J Panicker

    New usages of old crops hold promise to restore the balance of trade reduce our dependence on imports and to meet the growing needs of industrial products of human population. Fruit plants are playing a vital role in providing nutritional and economical security to the poor mass in rural areas. There are many plants still underexploited and unexplored. Jamun (Syzygium cumini) is an important fruit crop belongs to family Myrtaceae. It is an underutilised indigenous fruit tree of South India. The present study was an attempt to exploit Syzygium cumini as a new plant source of choice for beta amylase enzyme for industrial production because the enzyme is abundant in the fruits, which allows for relatively low cost production. Beta amylase was extracted from Syzygium cumini fruits and was successfully immobilised in calcium alginate beads. The pH optima for free and immobilised beta amylases were found to be 6.5 and 6.8 respectively, time of incubation in the range of 15-20 minutes, optimum substrate concentration in the range of 0.5 % - 1.25% and optimum temperature were 400C for free and 450 C for immobilised beta amylases activities.

  159. Kandhavelu, M. and Senthilkumar, P. K.

    The present study provides information on antioxidant analysis of different extracts of Strychnos nux-vomica leaf. The various parts of Strychnos nux-vomica are recommended for upset stomach, vomiting, abdominal pain, constipation, intestinal irritation, heartburn, insomnia, certain heart diseases, eye diseases, depression, migraine headaches, nervous disorders, problems related to menopause in women and respiratory diseases in the elderly. Different extracts of Strychnos nux-vomica were prepared based on the polarity in solvents of hexane, chloroform, ethyl acetate, acetone and methanol. Among all the solvents used methanol extract of Strychnos nux-vomica showed potential antioxidant properties as tested by the methods of radical scavenging activity. Hence the present exploration of antioxidants studies of Strychnos nux-vomica will be useful in the synthesis and preparation of new drugs of pharmaceutical importance.

  160. Alemayehu Mullatu, Mulugeta Sisay and Mekuria Argaw

    Despite the significance of woody species in terms of economic and environmental benefits in Ethiopia, there have been either fragmented, or modified or completely destroyed and changed into other land use system as a result of a long history of dense human settlements, and intense farming and grazing. The overall objective of this study is to assess the status of woody species diversity, regeneration and structure and their contribution to the inhabitant in Masha and Andracha district of Sheka zone in Southwestern Ethiopia. Systematic sampling and simple random sampling techniques were employed to conduct survey of households. Furthermore, vegetation data were collected in a total of 160 plots (20m x 20m) in four Peasant Associations (PAs) following gradient of accessibility (village to deep forest). The vegetation data analysis revealed that there were a total of 20 woody plant families were recorded in the four PAs. Where 27 species were found in sample plots in Modi PA, 29 species were found in all three PAs. The Shannon index-(H) of each PA woody vegetation were 3.0862 in Beto, 3.1373 in Abelo, 3.0662 in Chegecha and 2.9402 in modi. The density of woody species were 3681/ha in Beto, 3190/ha in Abelo, 3312/ha in Chegecha and 2886/ha in Modi. The mean comparison shows significance difference for tree size classes 50-60, 70-80 and 80-90 cm in Beto and Abelo PAs. Survey result reviled that the livelihood strategies in the study area mainly depend on woody species and their products. As a result the inhabitants in the study district retain woody species for their various uses. However, woody species with more products play important role on local livelihoods; hence conservation of woody species is essential to sustain their livelihoods.

  161. Udayan Bhattacharyya, Disharee Nath and Tapash Dasgupta

    Jute (Corchorus spp.) is the second most important fibre producing plant in India. The study on jute at the molecular level till date is very limited. Simple sequence repeats (SSRs) are useful tools as molecular markers in genetic studies. Recently with rapid advancement of sequencing and documentation in public data base has enabled scientists in hassle free data mining. Development of high throughput method for detection of SSRs has given a new dimension in their use as molecular markers. In the present study, 826 EST sequences of Corchorus capsularis and 30 EST sequences of Corchorus olitorius, downloaded from National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI) and were analyzed through bioinformatic tools like UniVec, trimest, CAP3, and MISA. Several microsatellite markers were identified for these two species of jute which would be further helpful for genetic mapping. The study of functional domain markers (FDM) can provide information of functional property of microsatellite markers and predicted protein domains. The functional domains designed from SSR-FDMs will help to analyze molecular markers that have functional importance and should also facilitate the analysis of genetic diversity in plants.

  162. Qadir, S. A. and Sugumar, R. V.

    Assertiveness reflects people’s expression of their genuine feelings, standing up for their legitimate rights, and refusing unreasonable requests. Assertiveness training helps individuals to cope assertively, be more confident and competent in handling difficult situations. The present study was undertaken with an aim to find out the effectiveness of an assertiveness training program on assertiveness skills and mental, physical and spiritual wellbeing of Muslim adolescent girls. A total of 100 Muslim adolescent girls who were found to be situationally non assertive were selected by systematic random sampling method and assigned randomly to the test (n=50) and control group (n=50). The Rathus Assertiveness Schedule by Rathus (1973) was used to assess the assertiveness level of the selected Muslim adolescent girls. The mental, physical, and spiritual well-being of the selected girls was assessed by the Mental, Physical, and Spiritual Well-being Scale (MPS) developed by Vella- Brodrick and Allen (1995). Assertiveness training programme was planned and conducted for a period of five weeks held once weekly. Post test was done after a period of two months to assess the effectiveness of the intervention programme. The data obtained was subjected to statistical interpretation using SPSS (version 17). The findings of this research confirmed that the assertiveness training programme has been very effective in improving the assertiveness as well as the overall wellbeing of the adolescents.

  163. Kauser, T. and Sugumar, R.

    The paper attempts to study the effect of stress intervention programme on occupational stress among the police personnel in Chennai city. In the present investigation a total sample of 100 police personnel were taken with equal number of them belonging to both the gender. The tools used to assess the occupational stress among the police personnel was Police stress inventory - by Pioneer and Rothman (2006). The data obtained was subjected to statistical interpretation using SPSS (version 17). Results revealed that there was significant difference in the pre test and post test scores of stress for male and female police personnel and also for police personnel on whole. The post test scores were found to be less than the pre test scores which indicates that the stress level had decreased for the police personnel of both gender after the intervention programme. When the pre test and post test stress scores were observed separately for both genders there was not found to be any difference between them. It was also observed that female police personnel were on the higher side of stress in comparison to male police personnel.

  164. Venkatalakshmi, V., Vasanthi P and Murali Mohan, M.

    In anthropological literature, the early studies, particularly of late nineteenth century anthropologists had recorded women’s participation in all aspects of social, economic, political and religious aspects as they were but not emphasizing or focusing distinctly on women. In the present study the analyzed data are presented under three broad heads, such as 1. Procurement and Transport. 2. Sale of fish (wet) and 3. Dry fish and Sale. Each head is further sub headed according to the information pertaining to type of marketing or vending methods and locations. Fisher women activities at domestic level besides the economic are dealt in detail to draw the domestic and entrepreneurial tenacities.

  165. Duncan Lenairoshi, Peter N. Keiyoro and Josephine W. Ngunjiri

    Conflicts are common phenomena in many regions of the world especially in areas, which are endowed with scarce natural resources. The demographic consequences of conflict and violence in the developing world are receiving increased attention and so is cattle rustling related conflicts in Kenya. Samburu County specifically Baragoi sub-county has been experiencing series of serious conflicts especially relating to cattle rustling since 1994. The worst incidence was the Baragoi massacre that led to mass death and injury of soldiers in November 2012. Different governmental and non-governmental organizations have been trying to do away with cattle rustling albeit, it has proven futile because of various factors that influence of cattle rustling related to conflict resolutions in Baragoi Sub-County. The specific objectives were evaluated and they included how proliferation of small arms, physical terrain, cultural practices and local leaders influence curtailment of cattle rustling in Baragoi Sub-County. The study employed mixed research designs. Probability sampling techniques that included cluster sampling, proportionate, simple random and stratified sampling were used, besides non-probability sampling methods that included purposive sampling. Data were collected using mixed method both quantitative and qualitative; research instruments such as questionnaires and focus group discussion guide for community members and interview guide for key informants aided in data collection. Quantitative data were analyzed using Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS) version 20 and presented using frequencies, means and percentages while qualitative data was analyzed and categorized into themes and presented in form of narratives.

  166. Dr. V. Gayathri, Nesiriya, M., Karthika, A. and Jisha Sebastian

    The present study on the growth of plants such as, tomato, french beans and lady’s finger using panchagavya was conducted during January 2015 to March 2015. Panchagavya was prepared and it was initially used to soak the seeds. Later, the germination percentage was observed. The germination percentage was found to be higher in seeds treated with panchagavya solution than the control seeds. The morphological characters such as, number of leaves, shoot length and root length were measured in plants treated with different concentrations of panchagavya solution (5%, 6%, 7% and 8%). As the concentration increased, the values also increased accordingly in all the tested plants.

  167. Vasanthi, P., Venkatalakshmi, V and Murali Mohan, M.

    In Indian social research, village is considered as one of the units for understanding networks of socio-cultural and economic organization. Such studies are paramount in conceptualizing the social processes such as sanscritization, dominant caste (Srinivas 1955), caste hierarchies (Dube 1960, Dumont and Pocock 1957), jajmani system (Wiser 1969), etc., in Indian context. The Census of India in its survey operations of 1950-51 periods had produced a few monographs on village ethnographies emphasizing the socio-economic and cultural mosaic. Of late, these village studies are contextualized in evaluating the change and continuity of the village profile. Among such monographs, Mufuzbandar a fishermen village in Srikakulam district on the coast of Bay of Bengal has been used as benchmark for the present study to assess the status of fishermen.

  168. Navnath G. Kashid and Subhash B. More

    Chlorophyll mutations are considered as indicators of mutability, in present investigation a wide spectrum of chlorophyll mutations like Xantha, Chlorina, Chloroxantha, Viridis and albino could be recorded in M2 generation, grown from the harvested seeds of M1 in Chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.). The frequency of these mutants revealed an increasing trend with an increasing concentration of all the mutagens in both the cultivars of chickpea.

  169. Madhu, S. V. and Savithramma, D. L.

    Transformation of tomato with heterologous genes requires rapid and efficient transformation protocols. Agrobacterium mediated transformation protocol of tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L.) cv. 'Pusa Ruby' using Pg NHX1, AVP1 and co-expression of Pg NHX1+AVP1 gene under 35S promoter and poly A signal of CaMV in pBI121 binary vector was optimized by varying parameters such as type of explant, combination of hormones, concentration of antibiotic, bacterial culture and co-cultivation period. Cotyledons were found to be the best explants for shoot regeneration in tomato compared to Hypocotyls with 96.95% and 95.90% shoot regeneration, respectively. The hormonal concentration Zeatin (1mg/l), IAA (0.1mg/l), Adenine sulphate (25 mg/l) produced higher shoot regeneration. The selection of transformants on antibiotic kanamycin was standardized at 100mg/l and the transformation efficiency was optimized at Acetosyringone concentration of 375 µM and bacterial culture of 1 x 108 at 72 h incubation was standardized to obtain the transformation efficiency of 38.81%. With this modified protocol it was possible to obtain transformed plants within a period of 65 to 75 days with a high regeneration and transformation efficiency.

  170. Shanmugam, R. and Prabudoss, V.

    PGPB (Plant growth promoting bacteria) are the group of bacteria which can able to enhance or influence the growth, development and yield of crop plants. The beneficial effect on the growth of crop plants actually due to ‘N’ fixation, Phosphorus solubilization and growth promoting substances production (IAA, GA3, etc.). PGPB includes the vital ‘N’ fixing diazotrophs namely Azospirillum and a known endophytic diazotroph Gluconacetobacter and also phosphorus solubilizer namely Bacillus and Pseudomonas. In the present research about ten isolates of Azospirillum, Bacillus and Pseudomonas were isolated from ten different rhizosphere soil samples of maize from Salem District. These isolates were purified, characterized and identified as Azospirillum brasilense, Bacillus megaterium and Pseudomonas fluorescens. In addition the isolation of Gluconacetobacter diazotrophicus from the rhizosphere soil samples of maize ends in failure whereas the same organisms was successfully isolated from root extract of maize and purified and all these isolates were maintained for further study.

  171. Anuj Kumar Gupta and Prashant Khadke

    Mucin 1 (MUC1) is polymorphic transmembrane protein containing large extra cellular domain with variable number of highly conserved tandem repeats, aberrantly over expressed in most human carcinomas. Tumor suppressor protein, p53 is highly conserved, expressed in normal tissues and integrity of p53 function is essential for the maintenance of the non-tumorogenic phenotype of cells. Thus, p53 plays a vital role in suppressing the development of cancer. Tumor suppressor activity of p53 is reported by growth arrest of cells, DNA repair, senescence, differentiation or by apoptosis. It is reported that MUC1 promotes the arrest of growth to DNA damage by p53 dependent mechanism. The expression and regulation of p53 and MUC1 could be useful markers for metastatic potential tool for human carcinomas including breast and colorectal carcinomas.

  172. Reena Pundir and Sharma, C.

    Indian mega city, Delhi has witnessed a rapid growth in population and urbanization during last few decades. The quality of air has affected due to rapid urbanization. As a step in this direction, efforts have been initiated to develop emission inventories of direct and embodied emission of pollutants from different sectors in Delhi. This paper presents the emission estimates of direct and embodied emission of pollutants like CO2, CO, CH4, HC and NOx for Delhi. Sector wise emission inventory of pollutant due to the consumption of energy products (viz. Gasoline, Diesel and Coal), traditional biomass, enteric fermentation, paddy fields and waste sector have been estimated from the year 1990 to 2005 in Delhi. The present study indicate that both direct and embodied emission are responsible for the air quality degradation. The increasing embodied emissions with time from energy sector and industrial sector indicate, rapid urbanization and development.

  173. Vinay Kumar, M., Naresh B., Nagesh Kumar, G.V.

    The multi-level inverters are used in high power and medium voltage applications, since 1975 and are gaining much attention due to numerous advantages like common mode voltage, operation at both fundamental and high switching frequency, drawing input current with low distortion, reduced harmonic distortions. This paper proposes a single-phase eleven level transformerless grid-connected photovoltaic converter. The common-mode leakage current is minimised using a transient circuit and efficiency is improved by regulating flying capacitor voltage with suitable switching strategy. Simulation results show the effectiveness of the proposed topology.

  174. Mahendhiran, P. D. and Ranjani, R.

    In general, encountered type of query is to find the k nearest neighbor objects to a given query point. In many applications interested only in the objects that are directly visible to query points. In this paper, we formulate invisible objects which are not directly visible to query points. We can retrieve the invisible objects with the help of visible objects which are nearer to the query point. We also propose an algorithm efficiently to process the Aggregate visible k nearest neighbor query to maintain the query updation. An aggregate k nearest neighbor query finds k objects with the smallest aggregate distance to a query point. An aggregate NN queries constitute a generalized form of nearest neighbor search, where there are multiple query points. Our algorithm dramatically reduces the time complexity during the search process

  175. Kripa, K. M. and Nithin Mohan

    Shear lag effect on the buckling behaviour of laminated composite box beams is investigated. The investigation involved modelling the box beams for buckling load factor and a method for analyzing the shear lag effects on symmetrically laminated thin walled composite box beams. Studies were done on various parameters affecting both shear lag and buckling as the strength is affected by these conditions. The orthotropic nature of laminated composite box beams has to be taken into consideration in all these analyses. The modelling has been analyzed by ANSYS15.

  176. Sobur Ahmed, Fatema-Tuj-Zohra, Arup Sarker, and Md. Abul Hashem

    The most common method of preserving of raw hides/skins is curing with sodium chloride. Soaking is the first physiochemical operation in tannery, where huge amount of curing salt is released to environment and increased salinity of the wastewater in the form of total dissolved solids (TDS). Chloride is highly soluble and stable that is not affected by the effluent treatment plant. In this study, goat skin was preserved using indigenous Azadirachta Indica (neem) leaf paste with potassium chloride (KCl) to reduce the pollution load in the wastewater. The efficacy of the alternative system was assessed by monitoring the parameters e.g. total viable count (TVC), total coliform count (TCC), total Staphylococcus count (TSC), hair slip, odor, isolated bacterial count and loss of moisture content. Results revealed that preservation of goat skin using Azadirachta Indica leaf paste with 10% potassium chloride (KCl) was effectively preserved the goat skin for the span of 30 days.

  177. Lamiae Mrharrab, Yahya Ababou, Slahedine Sayouri, Abdelilah Rjeb, Sylvain Massey, Abdelhalim Elbasset and Mohammed Zouhairi

    Lead titano-zirconate (PZTx), with different concentrations in Zr (x ranging from 26 to 78), was synthesized by the conventional solid state reaction route. Pellets annealed at 900°C during 4 hours have been characterized by X-Ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy (XPS). Determination of the constituents at the surface of the samples from XPS analysis has given good agreement with nominal compositions.

  178. Santhi Mol, P. and Supriya, L. P.

    Network security measures are needed to protect data or information during the transmission. Security is an important factor in the network transmission. Secure transmission of multimedia object means the secure transmission of text, image, audio and video. Cryptographic techniques provide the security during transmission of multimedia objects. Cryptography means converting data from readable form to unreadable form. Advanced Encryption Standard (AES) algorithm provides greater security for data. Here, AES algorithm with 128 bit key is used for encryption and decryption process. Secure hash value is calculated for ensuring the security. SHA1 algorithm is used for calculating the hash value of the multimedia objects. AES algorithm prevent various types of attacks like message disclosure, replay attack etc.

  179. ER. Kamal Ved

    In this paper I a study is carried out on tracking modes I and II for compound parabolic concentrator and cylindrical parabolic concentrator type across the different latitudes of India for different times of day. Since the solar irradiation level is different for different latitudes and the total amount of energy received at ground level from the sun at the zenith depends on the distance to the sun and thus on the time of year. The comparison between different cities which fall at different latitudes for various time using solar concentrators is done using MATLAB programming with respect to the solar flux and other solar parameters and analyzing using graphical output from the program was done. The importance of this thesis is that it will help in deciding the type of geometry to be used for receiving maximum radiation and flux for given solar concentrator system.

  180. Teuma Mbezi M., Ekobena Fouda H. P., Tabi, C. B. and Kofané, T. C.

    Methods such as chlorophyll fluorescence, the amount of O2 emitted or the amount of CO2 assimilated are commonly used to estimate the photosynthetic activity of plants, but none of these methods shows us directly the electrical activity that occurs during photosynthesis. The purpose of this study is to show that the photosynthetic activity can be obtained from the behavior of the electrical resistance of extra chlorophyll space. The model used in this study is that of Cole. It appears from our analysis that there is a distinct relationship between the behavior of the extra chlorophyll space resistance and the amount of O2 emitted or the amount of CO2 assimilated according to the intensity of the light; while the amount of O2 emitted or the amount of CO2 assimilated increases according to the intensity of the light up to a certain threshold, the extra chlorophyll space resistance decreases according to the intensity of white, blue, yellow and red light until it reaches a certain threshold. However, the green light is found to be inactive.

  181. Barakat A. F. Kamel, Mohammed A. K. Alsouz and Hawraa Q. Hami

    In this research work the proton-ligand dissociation constant of [2-oxo-2H-chromene-3-carbo hydrazide] and metal-ligand stability constants of its complexes with metal ions (Ni+2 and Cu+2) have been determined potentiometrically at 298, 308 and 318 K. The stability constants of the formed complexes increased in the order: Ni+2 > Cu+2. The effect of temperature was studied and the thermodynamic parameters (ΔH, ΔS and ΔG) were derived and discussed. The dissociation process was endothermic and spontaneous. The formation of the metal complexes has been found to be spontaneous and endothermic.

  182. Mona A. Abdel-Fatah, ‎Nabila H. Hussien and H. H. Shaarawy

    The Removal of undesirable organic or dyestuff impurities from water through electrochemical processes is based on the selecting the suitable electrodes and potential/current conditions required for the degradation of these impurities. In this investigation the rhodium/rhodium oxide/titanium thermally activated modified electrode was used for the electrochemical degradation blue 113 azo dye in its aqueous solutions. The results of oxidation process electro generated Fenton's agent were expressed in terms of the remaining dye concentration and COD removal, which were determined instrumentally. The different operating conditions of treatment process were studied which include: current density, pH, and temperature, time of electrolysis, conductive electrolyte concentration, and initial dye concentration. The optimum operating conditions for each dye were determined. The under-test modified electrode gave good results for the complete removal of dye and COD.

  183. Özge AKKUŞ and Hüseyin TATLIDİL

    The first aim of this study is to introduce the probability models in modelling the traffic crash data and present comprehensive interpretations of the statistical findings. The second aim is to reveal the risk factors that have important effects on the driver injury severity in bus accidents in Turkey. Data collected by The Department of Traffic Training and Research of General Directorate of Public Security and General Command of Gendarmerie were used. By reference to the ordinal nature of the dependent variable, Ordered Probit Model (OPM) and Ordered Logit Model (OLM) were constructed. The application results show that the average risk of injuries increases along with a 56-year-old or older driver. Other factors leading to the increases in the probability of injury severity are traveling on province road, rainy weather conditions and the accidents occurring as bumping to a stationary material. Accidents occurring as bumping from rear-end or one side of vehicle are is all associated with less severe injuries. Besides the remarkable interpretations of the model results, we also tried to find out which probabilistic model in what conditions fits well in the analysis of a crash data?

  184. Nila, V. M., Raijan, K. J., Susmitha Antony, Riya Babu, M. and Neena Rose Davis

    Human hair is considered as a waste material in most parts of the world and is a common constituent found in municipal waste streams which cause enormous environmental problems. This is an attempt to find the possibilities of using hair as fibre reinforcement in concrete, thereby forming an alternative way for the safe management of hair waste. Human hair is strong in tension; hence it can be used as a fibre reinforcement material. Hair Fibre, an alternate non-degradable matter, is available in abundance and at a very cheap cost. Present studies have been undertaken to analyse the effect of human hair on plain cement concrete on the basis of compressive, crushing and flexural strengths and cracking control to economize concrete and to reduce environmental problems. Experiments were conducted on concrete cubes with various percentages of human hair fibre i.e. 0%, 1.5% and 2% by weight of cement. By testing we found that there is an increment in the various properties and strength of concrete by the addition of human hair as fibre reinforcement which makes it suitable for an alternative additive for concrete to enhance its mechanical properties. Also, hair fibre reinforced concrete can be an alternative method for the hair waste management.

  185. Rakesh Trivedi, Ritesh Patankar and Laukik Patel

    In today’s world of digital communication, processing of frames of video requires efficient and effective algorithm which requires least processing time and provides suitable selection of scenes like dance, fight, and flash from HD video. This paper deals with processing of HD video frames to determine fade effect where actually darker scenes are located. DCT of 16 level and block based algorithm is employed to reduce frame processing time. Transition from darker to brighter scene and vice a versa is detected using mean of successive frame. Mean of all frames of successive frame are to be compared and from that transition is detected.

  186. Narsimha Reddy, B.

    Automation of power system fault identification using information conveyed by the wavelet analysis of power system transients is proposed. Probabilistic Neural Network (PNN) for detecting the type of fault is used. The work presented in this paper is focused on identification of simple power system faults. Wavelet Transform (WT) of the transient disturbance caused as a result of occurrence of fault is performed. The detail coefficient for each type of simple fault is characteristic in nature. PNN is used for distinguishing the detail coefficients and hence the faults.

  187. Héctor Torres-Silva and Diego Torres Cabezas

    Although seismic waves have been studied for many years, their soliton nature has only recently come to wide notice. Deformation solitons propagate along earthquake faults and induce earthquakes. Rotation solitons are generated in earthquake sources and propagate throughout the Earth. The conclusion to be reached from our example is that the research on seismic solitons is essential for investigating the propagation of seismic waves and helps understand mechanisms triggering earthquakes. This paper discusses the development of elastodynamics equations similar to Maxwell's equations in a chiral single-mode which is applied to a seismic channel, which is dispersive and nonlinear. The chirality is described in terms of the formalism proposed by Born-Fedorov. The nonlinearity is Kerr-type, and dispersion of the medium is taken into account explicitly through the Taylor series expansion. Through numerical calculations these theoretical results would allow analyze the effects of chirality on the soliton equation for propagation of S-seismic pulses of strong earthquakes as happened recently in Japan Chili and Nepal.

  188. Dr. Thangaraj Beaula and Mrs. M. Priyadharsini

    A new approach is proposed for finding an optimal solution for fuzzy transportation problem involving fuzzy trapezoidal numbers. This method is demonstrated with a numerical example.

  189. Faiz MMT Marikar

    Assessment standardizing is a long fed issue to tackle the examiners fairness. It reduces variation among the student’s evaluation and testing procedure that could adversely affect others. However, individual marking with a proper guidelines will make the assessment somewhat fair than the group marking or conference marking. Equivalent grid want make the evaluation equal. Although testing accommodations are by now standard practice in most large-scale testing programmes, for the most part these practices lie outside formal educational measurement theory. This article was building on recent research in group marking with multiple disciplinary which is much affective that the individual marking. Marking grid which was based on common matching examinees will give us high accuracy. The present focus is assessment for special populations, but it is argued that the principles apply more broadly.

  190. Md AbulKalam Azad and Mohammad ShafiullahKutubi

    The Abbasid regime of 508 years deserves significant portion in the Arab history and Islamic history. Abbasid rulers set up lots of historic instances in the case of governance, education, socio-economic structure, infrastructural development and so on through their pompous and versatile lifestyle and culture.This article strives to pinpoint the major traits of Abbasid rulers by assessing the noticeable trends of their lifestyle in the light of historical facts.

  191. Mathew Ngulugulu Mgendu, Alimas Mhina Juma and Lucas David Jocelyene

    This paper establishes the effects of poaching and its impacts to community members’ around national parks in Arusha region. The study used a cross-sectional design due to limited research resources particularly time and funds in order to empirically investigate the effects of poaching and impacts to community development of members around Tarangire, Arusha and Ngorongoro national parks. Primary and secondary data collections tools were administered to a sample of 60 respondents, Management of Tanzania National Parks Authority (TANAPA) Head Quarter, Park warden, Community Leaders and community members. Whereby, questionnaires were used to collect quantitative data from Community members and Community leaders, Qualitative data were collected through interview schedules that were administered to the TANAPA HQ Management and Park Warden, focus group discussion were administered to community leaders and community members, observation and documentary analysis methods were also used to collect data. Using Statistical Package for Social Science (SPSS) for analysis and presenting of the findings, poaching activities contributes on lowering the social livelihood of the people around the parks. Though poaching activities, depressing the social livelihood of the people, it does to economic livelihood of the people too. From the study findings, some of conclusions were made to TANAPA (government) do face some challenges such as, poor policy on wildlife protection, low participation from local members and cultural interference, also women are not engage in poaching activities are being taken negatively in the society, that is they are wrongly in cultural aspects, also are taken has no other works to do.

  192. Faiz Mohammad Kakar, Syed Ainuddin, Dr. Mohammad Usman Tobawal and Khair Muhammad Kakar

    The conservation of biodiversity, habitat and ecosystems is inevitable approach of Protected Areas globally because they are highly threatened by environmental challenges. Pakistan is a part of this global struggle for achieving the target of 17% of world to be declared protected areas till 2020. The prime objective of this paper is to analyze the awareness level, their management and legislation of the protected areas in Baluchistan. For the purpose a Key Informant survey was conducted through cheek list using purposive sampling techniques. The key informants selected include academicians, foresters, tribal leaders, concerned NGOs workers, staff of international conservation entities and agriculturists. The result revealed that the overall picture about awareness level is not encouraging where only 8% of the informants were aware about the number of protected areas and 37 % were found familiar with the basic concept of protected areas in Baluchistan. On the other hand survey results about the potential and preferences towards the management of protected areas (PAs) revealed that 54.1% of the informants thought that the potential of protected areas in Baluchistan is very high, 41.6% cited the potential is high, only 4% mentioned that the potential is low. Among the key informants only 12.5% were aware about the legislation for protected areas in Pakistan about environmental protection, likewise 33.3% knew about current legislation in Pakistan. Similarly 79.1% were aware about the current legislation in Balochistan and likewise 70.8% were familiar with legislation regarding protect areas in Baluchistan. There is always a room for improvements therefore the awareness level regarding protected areas are not on the mark. Thus this paper has initiated the baseline data for further studies and will serve the provincial stakeholders for raising sensitization among masses about protected areas in the province.

  193. Venkatachalam, K. Dr. Ilanthirayan, A. and Basakaran, N.

    Urban growth in India has been very significant during the past decades. The urban population had doubled from 1901 to 1947 and it increased again six fold from independence to 2001. One of the most talked about aspects of this growth is the emergence of three agglomeration that have exceeded 14 millon inhabitants in 2007, thus belonging to the "mega cities" of the world, as defined by the united nations. The present paper studies the status of the population growth in Namkkal Town of Namkkal District, using Geographical information system. The study include the level of urbanization with industrial activities based on the population growth. In addition to the study will carry the population, sex-ratio, education, and workers in the town.

  194. Dr. Estelita D. Calvo and Prof. Marina S. Macasil

    The study was pursued to comeup with inventory metacognitive strategies of the First Year College of Education students at Eastern Samar State University Salcedo Campus. The study was conducted during the second semester school year 2013-2014 to 147 students. The descriptive-correlation survey method was utilized in the study using questionnaires to determine the student based profiles and the metacognitive strategies of the first year teacher education student of Eastern Samar State University Salcedo Campus school year 2013-2014. The data collected were summarized, tabulated, categorized and analysed using frequency counts, percentage and mean. The Cramer’s V was computed to test the null hypotheses. The level of significance was set at 0.05 for rejecting and accepting the hypotheses. Based on findings of the study, first year teacher education students at ESSU Salcedo campus are generally females, within the appropriate age for first year and are mostly average learners. A greater percentage are fairly motivated and fairly engaged on their academic task. These students are generally practicing metacognitve strategies in all their academic undertakings although some of them still need to acquire their metacognitive skills for effective cognitive processing and successful learning.The metacognitive strategies indicate that students are capable of explicitly thinking about their ideas or conceptions held. There are metacognitive strategies that posted positive relationship to student based factors however there are specific student based factors that are not associated.

  195. Dr. Falguni C. Shastrri

    People differ in their abilities, willingness, interests, choices, styles, methods, practices, and habits of reading. They help in mastering the content of learning. Hence, efforts should be made to develop reading habits since childhood with due planning. Books are the treasured wealth of wisdom in the world and the inheritance of generations and nations. Happy is the person who acquires the habit of reading since childhood. Poor indeed is the person who does not read, and empty is his life. Reading has different forms, e.g., classic reading and online reading. Both have their advantages but as the world is changing and new technologies are seen every day, we see that the online reading is becoming more powerful, preferred, and influencing.

  196. Malvika Iyer and Dr. S. Raja Samuel

    This research paper aims to explain the findings of the goodness-of-fit of the factors influencing attitude of undergraduate students towards differently-abled individuals. A comprehensive attitude tool was developed with various factors influencing attitude such as inclusion, employment, relationships and marriage, society, positive bias, negative bias and behaviour/ conduct. The 4 points Likert scale questionnaire was distributed to 1000 undergraduate students in Chennai ensuring adequate representation across social science/ arts, science and engineering disciplines. Confirmatory Factor Analysis pertaining to factors influencing attitude of undergraduate students towards differently-abled individuals reveals that all the factors show good fit to the sample data.

  197. Dr. B. P. Mahesh Chandra Guru, Dr. V. Shanmugam, Somanna and Mr. M. Dileep Kumar

    India is the second largest country of the world after and it has got roughly constitute 25 per cent of its total population scheduled castes and scheduled tribes. The Constitution of India provides for a number of safeguards for the Scheduled Castes and Scheduled Tribes which are of its unique features. The main objective of these safeguards was to level up, socially and economically backward classes, particularly the Scheduled Castes and Scheduled Tribes in as short time as possible. All these safeguards have, apparently, been provided to facilitate the implementation of the Directive Principle contained in Article 46 of the Constitution. The scholars and advocates have strongly advocated the need for protective discrimination as well as affirmative action. The Central and State Governments have also launched several welfare and developmental programs to fulfill the constitutional obligations in free India in order to make SC/ST communities catch up other sections of Indian society in the race for social, economic, political and cultural progress. The dream of establishment of welfare society cannot be actualized if the constitutional provisions are not implemented by all the stakeholders of social justice and economic equity.

  198. Sujatha, P., Balaselvakumar, S. and Baskaran, R.

    Landuse and Landcover changes for the years 1990, 2000 and 2010 have been analysed. Each of the landuse and landcover types exhibit positive and negative changes in all decades that have been considered. Agricultural land, Natural vegetation and water bodies show a decrease in area whereas fallow land, built-up land, scrub without scrub lands and sandy areas go on increasing. The change in land use and land cover category shows a decrease in agricultural land 2088.48sq.km; natural vegetation; 492.52sq.km and water bodies 247.03sq.km respectively whereas an increase in built-up land I & II 316.16sq.km and 359.37sq.km, fallow land 346.91sq.km, scrub without scrub land 367.42 sq.km and sandy area 165.23sq.km. In 2020, the area of agricultural land would decrease to 2010.98 sq.km as per the estimation. It has been estimated that in 2020 the area of built-up land-I would be 338.12 sq.km and Built-up land –II would be 381.11sq.km.The major reasons for these changes are increase in population, climate change and socio economic development activities.

  199. Biplob Roy, Suprova Dutta, Hrishikesh Sinha and Mrinal Das

    The purpose of the study was to investigate the attitude of physical education professional students towards intramural. For the purpose of the study 30 physical education professional students were collected randomly from Baliapal Physical Education College, Orissa, India. Attitude Inventory Questionnaire was used for getting attitude towards Intramural Competition and the responses to the 25 statements given by the student were evaluated in the manner described by “Liker 2”. In this scaling technique each statement was assigned to a value on a five point scale. To find out the attitude towards Intramural Programmed, Median and co-efficient of variation were calculated. It has been found the attitude of the physical education professional students towards Intramural Competition is favorable.

  200. Balaselvakumar, S., Kumaraswamy, K. and Jawahar Raj, N.

    In this paper an attempt has been made to understand the groundwater suitability for irrigated agriculture in Marudaiyar sub-basin. The chemical aspects of groundwater in the study area, 32 control wells considered which are almost equally distributed throughout the study area. Geo-chemical data were analysed to understand the pH, Electrical Conductivity, Total Hardness, TDS and SAR in the study area. The plotted geochemical data in the USSL diagram indicates 34.37 per cent (in pre-monsoon) and 46.87 per cent (in post-monsoon) of water samples are of good category and most of these samples are of C3S1 type. The poor water quality category is 3.12 per cent in pre-monsoon and 6.25 per cent in post-monsoon. The assessment of groundwater quality for irrigated agriculture using Modified Piper’s trilinear diagram shows result similar to that from the USSL diagram.

  201. Diljeet Singh

    The avifaunal diversity of Bhattiyat valley in district Chamba of Himachal Pradesh was studied during 2008-2010 (opportunistic) and July 2011- June 2012 (monthly basis). In total, 135 species of birds belonging to 12 orders and 35 families were recorded. The highest number of species were found in order Passeriformes (80) 59.2 % followed by Ciconiiformes (17) 12.5 % and least number (1) in other 3 orders. The highest number of species were found in family Muscicapidae (24) 17.7 % followed by Passeridae (13) 9.6 % and least number (1) in other 11 families. The residential statuses of species were found as Resident (75) 55.5 %, Summer visitor (22) 16.3%, Winter visitor (21) 15.5%, Passage migrant (12) 8.8%, Vagrant (4) 2.9% and Uncertain (3) 2.2%. The relative abundances of species were found as Very Common (10) 7.4%, Common (41) 30.3%, Uncommon (65) 48% and Rare (18)13.3%. Two globally threatened species were reported and their relative abundances were found as Uncommon (Egyptian Vulture Neophron percnopterus ) and Common (White-rumped Vulture Gyps bengalensis). Two peculiar species Siberian Rubithroat Luscinia calliope and Hill Blue Flycatcher Cyornis banyumas were recorded as new additions to bird list of Himachal Pradesh. The other interesting rare species found was Collared Scops Owl Otus bakkamoena.

  202. Dr. Vinod L. Parab and Amey V. Palav

    Transition metal oxides (Vanadium Pentoxide and Niobium Pentoxide) Catalyzed nitration of 2-and 4-benzyl pyridine’s was studied under conventional condition. Niobium Pentoxide serves as the best catalyst in regioselectivity of nitro group at para position.

  203. Gayatri Oleti

    This paper collates and evaluates different studies that have been done in examining impact of microfinance on women empowerment. A huge amount of literature is available on the positive impact of Microfinance on women. This paper captures studies conducted in different countries to assess the impact. While most of the studies have shown a positive correlation between participation of women in micro finance and degree of empowerment few studies also have shown “no impact” on decision making power, health nutrition status of women who participate in microfinance programme. Literature reviewed also indicates that when microfinance programmes are implemented as standalone programmes without any linkages or focus on health and nutrition impact of programme towards empowerment is not visible. This paper also highlights need for further study on impact of microfinance in different economic status of women.

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ASSOCIATE CHIEF EDITOR

   

Jean-Marc SABATIER
Chief Scientific Officer and Head of a Research Group
France

Advantages of IJCR

  • Rapid Publishing
  • Professional publishing practices
  • Indexing in leading database
  • High level of citation
  • High Qualitiy reader base
  • High level author suport

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

EDITORIAL BOARD

Luai Farhan Zghair
Iraq
Hasan Ali Abed Al-Zu’bi
Jordanian
Fredrick OJIJA
Tanzanian
Firuza M. Tursunkhodjaeva
Uzbekistan
Faraz Ahmed Farooqi
Saudi Arabia
Eric Randy Reyes Politud
Philippines
Elsadig Gasoom FadelAlla Elbashir
Sudan
Eapen, Asha Sarah
United State
Dr.Arun Kumar A
India
Dr. Zafar Iqbal
Pakistan
Dr. SHAHERA S.PATEL
India
Dr. Ruchika Khanna
India
Dr. Recep TAS
Turkey
Dr. Rasha Ali Eldeeb
Egypt
Dr. Pralhad Kanhaiyalal Rahangdale
India
DR. PATRICK D. CERNA
Philippines
Dr. Nicolas Padilla- Raygoza
Mexico
Dr. Mustafa Y. G. Younis
Libiya
Dr. Muhammad shoaib Ahmedani
Saudi Arabia
DR. MUHAMMAD ISMAIL MOHMAND
United State
DR. MAHESH SHIVAJI CHAVAN
India
DR. M. ARUNA
India
Dr. Lim Gee Nee
Malaysia
Dr. Jatinder Pal Singh Chawla
India
DR. IRAM BOKHARI
Pakistan
Dr. FARHAT NAZ RAHMAN
Pakistan
Dr. Devendra kumar Gupta
India
Dr. ASHWANI KUMAR DUBEY
India
Dr. Ali Seidi
Iran
Dr. Achmad Choerudin
Indonesia
Dr Ashok Kumar Verma
India
Thi Mong Diep NGUYEN
France
Dr. Muhammad Akram
Pakistan
Dr. Imran Azad
Oman
Dr. Meenakshi Malik
India
Aseel Hadi Hamzah
Iraq
Anam Bhatti
Malaysia
Md. Amir Hossain
Bangladesh
Ahmet İPEKÇİ
Turkey
Mirzadi Gohari
Iran