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November 2015

Mucoepidermoid tumors of the bronchus are rare tumors. These tumors arise from terminal ducts of proximal tracheobronchial tree. Although mucoepidermoid carcinoma of the salivary gland is relatively common, mucoepidermoid carcinoma arising from the mucous glands of the bronchus is rare. These neoplasms usually exibits slow local growth and rarely metastasize to distant site. Though it is rare in children, it should be thought of when suspecting an intrabronchial mass in children. It usually presents with symptoms of airway obstruction and recurrent respiratory infections.

Objective: Transfluthrin, an inhalational pyrethroid insecticide, commonly used in different kinds of mosquito repellents, (also acts against flying insects & various pests) has toxic potential. This study thus aimed at assessing the histopathological effects of transfluthrin exposure using the rat model.

Introduction: Schwanomma are benign tumours of neural crest origin which are slow growing, well encapsulated soft tissue or intrabony mass. It may originate from any of central, peripheral or autonomic nerves that have Schwann cells. Two types are distinguished, central or peripheral. Schwanomma is most commonly found in tongue followed by floor of mouth, palate, gingiva, vestibule and salivary glands. We present a rare case of palatal schwanomma in a young male.

Sphenochoanal polyp is a rare entity of the paranasal sinuses, which arise from the sphenoid sinus and extend into the nasopharynx. It mimics antrochoanal polyp in symptomatology and hence diagnosis requires radiological guidance. Recurrent sphenochoanal polyp poses further challenge to the ENT surgeon, for the cause of recurrence also has to be cleared. Here we discuss a case of recurrent sphenochoanal polyp in its clinical, radiological, histopathological and surgical aspects.

Introduction: Immunohistochemical detection of Human epidermal growth factor (HER-2 / neu) is necessary in the evaluation of breast cancer. According to data in the literature, 10-30% of breast cancers show expression of this marker, which applies as unfavorable prognostic factor. Therefore, it is important in the selection of patients who will benefit from adequate treatment with Herceptin.

This article reviews the research on the teachers' attitudes toward inclusion of students with autism in the regular classroom and thereby finds out the teacher-related factors that might impact teacher attitudes toward inclusion of students with autism. Teachers play the vital role as a decision maker in implementing inclusive education for students with autism.

Background and Objective: There is no safe single treatment for autoimmune disorders until this writing. This new modality is challenging this notion with safe non toxic method named MAM14 immuno therapy. This new method have been tried on many types of autoimmune disorders in the last 25 years in our lab at Kuwait University Faculty of Medicine. In this article we demonstrate the difference of MAM14 on four out of the 14 autoimmune disorder studied compared to control who received conventional chemotherapy. Patients and Methods: Data accumulated of 1400 patients compared to 1400 controls.

The stimulant leaf khat (Catha edulis Forsk) has been consumed by people living around the horn of Africa, East Africa and the Middle East. It contains many different compounds but its psychostimulant property is mainly related to cathinone which is similar in structure and pharmacological activity to amphetamine. Cathinone is mainly found in the young leaves and shoots. It is expected that the concentration of cathinone determines the market price of khat. Khat must be picked and collected in the morning and chewed as early as possible till that afternoon to preserve maximum potency.

Co-infection with Human Immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and Mycobacterium tuberculosis the causative agent of Tuberculosis (TB), has been referred to as the “cursed duet” as a result of the attendant morbidity and mortality due to their synergistic actions. This study was carried out to detect Sero prevalence of HIV infection among known tuberculosis patients In Khartoum state –Sudan, and to detect relation between certain factors such as gender, age, residence, occupation, treatment and duration of TB. It was descriptive cross-sectional study conducted from April to June 2015.

Pulmonary tuberculosis is mainly a disease of the respiratory system, caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis. According to WHO, one-third of world population have tuberculosis infection. The present study was undertaken to compare ZN satin with fluorescent stains. A total of 500 clinically suspected cases of pulmonary tuberculosis formed the study group. Sputum samples were screened for acid-fast bacilli by ZN stain, Rhodamine-Auramine stain and rapid fluorostain.

Treatment of class III malocclusion in growing subjects is a challenging part of contemporary orthodontic practice. Many treatment approaches are given in the literature. However successful orthopedic correction through growth modification has decreased the surgical correction of growing class III patients.

A survey was carried out to study socio-economic status of 60 dog owners in Corporation of Chennai, Tamil Nadu. Multistage random sampling procedure was adopted and relevant data were collected through personal interview with the help of pre-tested interview schedule. The result revealed that the Graduates (46.60 per cent) are more interested in dog rearing followed by Post graduates (16.60 per cent), Professionals (15.00 per cent), persons with Secondary level (13.30 per cent) and primary (8.30 per cent) level of education.

The Metabolic syndrome has been known to occur in several chronic infections like HIV. Several studies have documented increased prevalence of metabolic syndrome in HIV patients on antiretroviral therapy. However, sparse data exists about metabolic syndrome in treatment naive HIV patients. We studied the prevalence and components of metabolic syndrome in treatment naive HIV patients. Study protocol: This cross sectional study included 134 HIV patients and controls. Different aspects of metabolic syndrome along with CD4 count was quantified.

The Bhagwat Gita offers a valuable literature on Rational Emotive Behaviour Therapy. It has a determined focus on removing cognitive distortions from the mind of the Arjuna and remotivating him to fight the battle by the therapist The Krishna. The Krishna as a therapist transformed Arjuna’s distress narrated in Chapter 1 to liberation and renunciation as mentioned in Chapter 18 through a single REBT session of nearly 2-4 hours. The basic premise of REBT is that our thoughts, not external events affects the way we feel.

Urachal sinus is one of a spectrum of urachal abnormalities and it most commonly found in children. They are very rarely seen in adults. We report here a case of infected urachal sinus in 18 year old male. Patient was present with bloody umbilical discharge and periumbilical pain. The diagnosis was suspected clinically and conformed with ultrasonography and computed tomography scan. An initial broad spectrum antibiotic therapy followed by compete excision of the sinus and fibrous tract without cuff of bladder has been therefore performed.

Background: Part of chiropractic education involves a requirement for clinical education. Traditionally the clinical education for chiropractors has been profession specific, with little inter professional engagement. There exists paucity in the literature on the amount of inter professional clinical engagements in chiropractic programs. Objective: To explore the perception of final year students from an American Chiropractic college regarding their level and understanding of inter professional engagement. Methods: A qualitative exploratory descriptive design was used for this research.

Aesthetics is the word which is derived from the Greek as "perception", which deals with beauty and the beautiful. It may be divided into two dimensions as objective (admirable) and subjective (enjoyable) beauty. Objective beauty implies that the object possesses properties that make it unmistakably praiseworthy. Subjective beauty is value laden, and is related to the tastes of the person contemplating it.

Introduction: Nurses in hospitals are the key to any health care delivery system. An efficient patient care comes not merely from modern equipment and drugs, but from a group of well-motivated medical, paramedical and skilled personnel. “A Happy Employee is a Productive Employee” who must be satisfied with his/her job. Job satisfaction in nurse should be of great concern to any health organization. Nurses hold the majority of positions in most health care settings and replacement of nursing personnel is costly and time consuming.

Background: Nodular Fascitis is a pseudosarcomatous tumor. It is a reactive process rather than true neoplasm. It is very difficult to diagnose on cytology, hence can be mistaken for other malignant mesencymal tumor. CASE : 14yr female presented with right forearm swelling since 1yr. Clinical diagnosis was Fibroma. USG-guided FNAC done. FNAC and Histopathology section shows pleomorphic, bizarre spindle cells and multinucleated cells. Differential Diagnosis were given on FNAC and Histopathology which was confirmed on Immunohistochemistry as Nodular Fascitis.

The Department of Radiology in King Faisal Specialist Hospital and Research Center is committed to excellence in research, particularly in pioneering new advances in technological innovation. As one of the top Radiology Departments in the world, it is recognized for its strength in physics, engineering, molecular imaging and clinical medicine.

The maturity of a scientific discipline is marked by knowledge of its roots, knowledge of evolution of concepts from ancient times to present and an intelligent look into the future. Newer thoughts have been superimposed on the matrix of older ideas. The important discoveries and decisions of past centuries became the springboard for inventions and advances of the field in coming centuries. So, periodontology in modern era presents the blend of the thoughts from the times periodontal disease was first noticed in history.

Shoulder and Arm is exposed to trauma and in significant number vascular injury is associated which requires surgical intervention. We had come across the variations in the second and third part of axillary artery in 2 limbs out of 42 limbs dissected. The surgeon should be aware about these variations as to plan the treatment of the smaller diameter arteries require different preparation in terms of technique, suture material and anesthesia time.

Aims: To measure the Bone Mineral Density (BMD), determine the prevalence of osteoporosis in elderly men and correlate various risk factors with osteoporosis. Material & Methods: Subjects were randomly selected for this study after explaining the detailed objective of the study, informed consent was taken. A total 140 subjects age ≥60 years male were included in this study. Results: The prevalence of osteoporosis in study population was 14.3%. There was negative correlation of BMD with age (p>.05), glycemic status and diabetes mellitus (p<.01).

Caner cervix is a major cause of morbidity and mortality in developing countries like India. The pre-neoplastic stages of cancer cervix are Low Grade Squamous Intraepithelial Lesion (LSIL) and High Grade Squamous Intraepithelial Lesion (HSIL). The major aetiology is high-risk human papilloma virus infection by subtypes like HPV 16,18,33 etc. The human uterine cervical epithelium responds to the sex hormones like oestrogen and progesterone. Many neoplastic and pre-neoplastic conditions of the cervix are known to alter the expression of these receptors.

FNAC has outgrown as a diagnostic tool in thyroid swellings. However, the routine parameters are influenced by the prevalence of the disease which is high among hospital based studies.

Non Hodgkins lymphoma presenting as a mediastinal mass with localized invasion into adjoining structures and the chest wall is an extremely rare entity. Recent advances in immunohistochemistry and genetic profiling has helped to sub classify the malignancy type, which improves accuracy in treatment and in predicting prognosis. Diffuse large B cell lymphoma (DLBCL) and its subtype the mediastinal large B-cell lymphoma (MLBCL) have been identified as the most common types of Non Hodgkins lymphoma having mediastinal involvement.

Introduction: Dengue fever is one of the emerging infectious diseases which cause significant morbidity and mortality in children and adults especially in developing countries. According to World Health Organization two fifths of the world population is at risk from dengue disease and every year 50 million dengue virus infections are suspected world over. Aim: To know the serological profile of dengue infection in our area in different age groups. Material and Methods: It is a retrospective study.

Study design and Objective: This was a cross sectional retrospective study aimed to identify frequency and classify lymphadenopathy in adult Sudanese patients investigated by fine needle aspiration cytology. Methods: Fine needle aspirates were obtained from 639 patients having enlarged lymph nodes, stained by Pap stain and assessed under a light microscope. Data and findings were analyzed using SPSS program version 16. Results: From the 639 cases, 361 were benign and 278 were malignant with predominance of metastatic cancer.

The study was aimed at studying the correlation between VENOUS CLINICAL SEVERITY SCORE (VCSS), VENOUS DISABILITY SCORE (VDS) AND VENOUS REFLUX GRADING BY VENOUS DOPPLER in Varicose veins of lower limbs. This study was conducted in the Department of General surgery, ESI-PGIMSR, over a period of 18months. The study group consisted of 75 patients between 24 to 75yrs (mean 44.41 ± 12.967), inclusive of both males (n=70) and females(n=5).

Background: Burden of non communicable diseases is rising at current and has led to epidemic proportions in most of the developing countries like India. There is a growing concern regarding these diseases as they do not have have a specific or single cause which is easily amenable to control activities. But, the multiple factors causing these diseases are lifestyle related which can be easily limited or controlled with simple approaches of promotive and preventive services aimed at population levels.

Study design: Comparative clinical trail. Objective: To evaluate the efficacy of misoprostol (sublingual versus vaginal) for cervical ripening before hysteroscopy. Patient and Methods: Sixty women who were admitted to Banha University hospital department of obstetrics and gynecology for surgical hysteroscopy. The sixty women were divided into two groups. Group one 30 cases received 400 μg misoprostol (two tablets each tablet 200 μg) under the tongue 6h before hysteroscopy.

Children of all age groups are at high risk for accidents and injuries. The truth is that majority of the injuries happening to children below the age of five happen at home and they are to a maximum level preventable. Physiological characteristics and age appropriate curiosity make them suffer injury. One of the oldest theories which address the behavioral change is Health Belief Model (HBM). In this article the authors are explaining the way they managed to develop an instrument for injury assessment in children with a view to prepare a home safety supervisory program for caregivers.

Introduction: Central serous chorioretinopathy (CSCR) is a common maculopathy mainly affecting young and middle aged adults and occurring more frequently in men than in women. The acute manifestation is serous detachment of the microscopy retina at the posterior pole which is caused by active retinal pigment epithelial (RPE) leakage. 7Although exact pathophysiology of CSC has not been clearly understood the primary abnormality leading to RPE disruption and leakage is thought to be increased choroidal permeability.

Introduction: Surgical site infection following orthopedic surgeries is a dreaded complication. So prior knowledge, its identification and stratification of factors of surgical site infection is vital in application of measures to avoid surgical site infection. Materials and Methods: This study was done in JIPMER Pondicherry between January 2013 and August 2014. We aimed at identifying the factors associated with a higher risk for the development of culture positive SSI.

It remains unknown whether successful H. Pylori eradication therapy leads to a relief of dyspepsia and subsequent arrest or reducing the acid suppressants use. Aim of the study is to assess H. Pylori eradication therapy and utilization of acid suppressant medications in patients with peptic ulcer disease. The eradication of helicobacter pylori is recommended for patients with peptic ulcer. In the present study out of 280 patients consulted 82 had H. Pylori positive result. Among these 60 patients undergone eradication therapy successfully.

Introduction: It is observed that recurrence rate after first spontaneous pneumothorax ranges between 25% and 50%. Among the wide variety of agents that are available for pleurodesis, povidone iodine is now perhaps the most useful agent as it is cheap, easily available, effective and safe. This study was conducted to establish the efficacy and safety of povidone iodine as an agent for pleurodesis in patients with recurrent pleural effusion and pneumothorax.

Ksharasutra has been described in the ancient text books of Ayurveda (Indian traditional medical system) as medicated caustic thread, a Para-surgical measures for the treatment of all those conditions which demand gradual excision of overgrown soft tissue. This condition includes haemorrhoids, polyps, papillae and also the non-healing chronic sinuses (i.e. Fistula-in-Ano) and ulcer where debridement is an essential factor to permit a healthy healing pattern. Ksharasutra is prepared by coating in cotton thread with Kshara (Alkali) made from whole plant of Achyranthus aspera L.

A Multicultural Lifestyle Change Questionnaire that included English, French and Chinese versions which was developed by Ning Tang was pilot-tested in 98 English, French and Chinese speaking immigrants in two adjacent cities (Ottawa and Gatineau) of Canada. The participants were recruited by a purposive sampling and answered the questions in the questionnaire with self-reporting. The pilot-testing results exhibited that the questionnaire had higher validity (face validity, content validity, criterion-related validity and construct validity) and reliability (test-retest reliability).

Background & Objective: The femoral artery has been the usual route of access for Coronary Angiography. In recent past some trials have suggested that radial artery as a route of access for Coronary Angiography reduces local vascular complications & bleeding as compared to femoral route. We present our study aimed to assess the two routes viz. a viz. complications & feasibility. Methods: Our study is of prospective comparative design, conducted in SMHS Hospital Srinagar, a tertiary care institute, associated hospital of Government Medical College Srinagar.

Introduction: Cervicogenic headache is a syndrome characterized by chronic hemicranial pain that is referred to the head from either bony structures or soft tissues of the neck. Since 1980, it was believed that there was an involvement of the cervical facet joints in the neck pain and Cervicogenic headache due to trauma (whiplash injury) or arthritic changes. Lateral atlanto-axial joints pathology can also be the cause for cervicogenic headache.

Introduction: Childhood dysphonia requires precise assessments, based on the subjective and objective assessments; to quantify the functional, physical and emotional domains along with acoustical aspects. Aims: This study aims to check acoustic voice parameters of children aged between 5 and 12 years along with the impact on subjective domains. Methods: 30 normal school going children were divided into 3 groups (n=10 in each) which were mild, moderate and severe handicap including males and females. Subjective using pVHI and objective using MDVP assessments were done for each group.

Orofacial pain can present with pain of odontogenic and nonododntogenic origin. It arises from facial area, tempero-mandibular joint, ear, pharynx and larynx. The dilemma the clinician faces is the correct diagnosis of these pains. Many times misdiagnosis of orofacial pain resulting in multiple endodontic procedures or even worse that still extraction recommended with no resolution of symptoms. Knowledge of the various nonodontogenic pains will ultimately prevent misdiagnosis and delivery of incorrect treatment.

Traumatic injuries at the cervicothoracic junction are relatively a rare event compared with injury to other areas of the cervical spine. The transition from the mobile cervical to the rigid thoracic spine makes the cervicothoracic junction unstable. Due to relative rarity of these injuries, the ideal surgical management has not been clearly defined. There is debate over whether the vast majority of these injuries can be treated with a posterior only approach or if anterior or combined approaches have clearly defined roles for these injuries.

Purpose: To study the factors affecting specular microscopic changes in corneal endothelium in relation to cataract surgery. Material and Methods: Four hundred fifty seven patients were included in this study, the patients who underwent cataract surgery. The patients were examined before surgery & after 6 weeks of surgery on follow up visits. Corneal endothelial examination was done with non-contact Specular Microscope (TopconSP- 2000P) after detailed ocular examination. Result: ACS increased in all three types of surgery.

Acute Chest Syndrome (ACS) is a potential life threatening complication of Sickle Cell disease (SCD) characterized by the presence of new pulmonary infiltrates with respiratory findings in a patient with SCD. It is the second commonest cause of hospital admission in SCD, next to vasoocclusive crises and accounts for 25% of mortalities. The aetiology is unknown but infection and infarction play major roles. Common presenting features include fever, cough, wheezing, chest pain and pleural effusion. An abnormal Chest X-ray is generally required to confirm the diagnosis.

The present study was carried out in the postgraduate department of Pathology at Government Medical College, Srinagar, India, to study the histopathological pattern of thyroid lesions reported a tertiary care hospital in Kashmir retrospectively for a period of three years. During this study, 165 thyroidectomy specimens were analyzed. Their corresponding slides were retrieved and reviewed. Out of these, 37 cases were non-neoplastic and 128 were neoplastic.

Sturge Weber Syndrome is a sporadic neurocutaneous disease characterized by facial port-wine stain, ocular abnormalities (glaucoma and choroidal hemangioma) and leptomeningeal angioma. Port-wine stain and abnormal findings like soft tissue calcification or bony changes in skull radiographs, mental retardation, ocular involvement and hemiplegia. Oral manifestations of the disease may vary considerably and changes in morphology and histology of gingiva, periodontium and pulp have been reported.

Sturge Weber Syndrome is a sporadic neurocutaneous disease characterized by facial port-wine stain, ocular abnormalities (glaucoma and choroidal hemangioma) and leptomeningeal angioma. Port-wine stain and abnormal findings like soft tissue calcification or bony changes in skull radiographs, mental retardation, ocular involvement and hemiplegia. Oral manifestations of the disease may vary considerably and changes in morphology and histology of gingiva, periodontium and pulp have been reported.

Objective: The aim of this study was to evaluate and compare in vitro the effectiveness of one-step self-etching adhesive and two glutaraldehyde-containing desensitizers in reducing dentin permeability in extracted human premolar teeth prepared for full-coverage restorations using a dye penetration test. Materials and Methods: Thirty -six intact human premolars were prepared in a standardized manner for full coverage restorations. The exposed coronal dentin was completely covered by nail varnish except for a finish line and a ring area of 2mm coronal dentin.

Background: In recent years, the success ratio in cataract surgery has significantly increased as a result of advances in surgical methods and equipment1-2.It is known that cataract surgery alters the ocular biomechanical properties. The aim of this study is to compare the central corneal thickness and IOP pre-op and post-op phacoemulsification cataract surgery. Methods: We included 50 patients in our study with cataract above 50 years of age. The phacoemulsification cataract surgery was performed by same surgeon with the identical material in all study subjects.

Pneumomediastinum and bilateral pneumothorax are rare complications of miliary tuberculosis. In this case report, a 14-year-old girl with sputum positive miliary tuberculosis complicated by pneumomediastinum and bilateral pneumothorax, is presented and relevant literature is discussed.

The current trial was performed to investigate the influence of sunflower seeds on the oxidative status of laying hens. Fifty (Hisex) bird, 20 week old, were obtained from Animal Production Research Center (kuku), were divided into two groups (n=25) for each one. The control group (A) was under control diet based on corn, maintains the (NRC, 1994) requirements for laying hens, the experimental group, supplemented by 10% sunflower seeds added to the diet.

Tobacco production involve curing process which results to continued harvest of indigenous vegetation leading to depletion of forests resources and loss of biodiversity, which have long term negative effects on food security and livelihood of the communities living in the Lake Victoria basin. The continued use of unsustainable practices contributes towards increased environmental degradation leading to increased levels of pollution, fertilization and siltation of Lake Victoria and surrounding water bodies.

The present study was carried out in order to investigate the impact of municipal waste water of Sargodha city on physio-chemical attributes and mineral status of two selected vegetables Yellow Mustard & Radish. Field surveys were carried out. Three experimental sites i.e. Silanwali road, Chak 85 and Faisalabad road were selected in Sargodha during this survey. Water, soil and vegetable samples were collected from these sites.

As maize is the second most widely grown cereal crop in Ethiopia, effective protection is needed against storage insect pests including grain moth, Sitotroga cereallela. In an effort to develop a non-synthetic pesticide control approach, a study was conducted to determine the best dose of two cooking oils, Ethiopian mustard (Brassica carinata) and cotton (Gossypium hirsutum), to control S. cereallela under laboratory conditions. The oils were applied at the rate of 0.2 to 0.5 ml per 250 g of grain and compared with untreated control and malathion super dust as standard check.

Heavy metal pollution causes potential ecological risk. Phytoremediation technology is cost effective and ecologically friendly in which plant utilizes its natural abilities to restore environment. Phytoremediation is a diverse collection of plant-based technologies that use either naturally occurring, or genetically engineered plants to clean contaminated environments. Plant selection is most important for determining the success or failure of the phytoremediation project.

Paraquat (PQ) is used as herbicide. The present study was designed to investigate the potential protective effects of sodium butyrate (SB) against the toxic effects induced by PQ. The experiment was carried out on 50 male albino rats divided into five groups. Some parameters were assessed. The results revealed that PQ induces significant increase in malondialdehyde levels, serum 8-OHdG and nuclear histone deacetylase (HDACs) activity. Cytoplasmic GSH concentration and catalse activity were decreased in a significant way. Serum and tissue TAC remained unchanged.

Gluten and wheat flour are two important food ingredients used to influence texture of vegetable sausages. The effect of gluten and wheat flour on the textural properties of vegetable sausages was studied using response surface methodology (RSM). Vegetable sausages were prepared from soy proteins (tofu), heat-modified soy flour, gluten, wheat flour, water, xanthan gum and vegetable oil. Using different levels of gluten and wheat flour various vegetable sausages were obtained. Overlaid contour plots of textural indices were analyzed.

In order to diversify milk production, which still comes from cows only, in Benin, dairy goats from Alpine race are being adapted in a private farm located in Allada since 2005. The study had examined not only the level of the goats’ milk production, but also the cheese productivity associated with it. Thus, dairy and cheese productions had been recorded for 73 days (j25 to j97). These data had been extrapolated for the whole lactation period, with Puillet dairy mechanistic model prediction.

Stalked barnacles of the genus Octolasmis Gray 1825 (Poecilasmatidae) are sessile invertebrates frequently found attached to decapods mainly in the branchial chambers of crabs. The main factors that determine the settlement and the distribution of stalked barnacles are water flow, which affects food availability, ventilation and removal of metabolites. Octolasmiscor was found attached on the external mouthparts, carapace margins and gill chambers of the crabs. This observation of Octolasmiscor attached to Scylla serrata is the first time record from the diamond harbour of West Bengal.

Investigation into the effects of Moringa oleifera leaf extract on bacteria (Aeromonas hydrophila) infected adult African mud cat fish (Clarias gariepinus) was conducted using twenty infected adults Clarias gariepinus and treated with M. oleifera leaf extract at concentrations of 25%, 50%, 75% and 100% respectively.

The Kole lands a unique wetland ecosystem of Kerala, is located 0.5-1.0m below mean sea level. An experiment was conducted in the College of Horticulture, Vellanikkara, Kerala to study the influence of secondary and micronutrients viz. calcium, magnesium and boron on nutrient uptake and yield of rice in Kole lands.

Marine biotechnologyis likely to play a major role in the commercial production of bio-active molecules and pharmaceuticals. The global market for products from marine biotechnology is forecast to reach over US$ 4.8 billion by 2020 and therefore marine bio-resources offer a lot of scope for the health and well-being of aquaculture production in the country through marine bio-business. In India, the developments in the field of aquaculture have been put forth by governmental initiations like DBT programme.

Naturally physical environment largelly determines which plant lives in a particular climate, plants growing in different ecological conditions; consequently they are referred to as xerophytes, hydrophytes, and epiphytes etc. Thus, shows certain adaptive features which enables them to survive under such conditions, these are phylogenetic characters. In the course of time, plants were able to cope with a range of conditions through the physiological, morphological and behavioral abilities they possessed.

An on farm study was conducted to determine farmers’ experiences, perceptions and adoption of agroforestry soil conservation technologies in central highlands of Kenya. There were clear indications from earlier studies that appropriate implementation of agroforestry strategies especially on sloping agricultural terrain could reduce soil erosion by over 50%, boost soil fertility and increase crop yields. The concern was finding out what would drive farmers to either adopt or fail to adopt such promising technologies.

Wheat, the third major staple crop of Nepal has been suffered from many diseases. Various diseases are the major limiting factors of considerable wheat production; one of them is rust. There are three types of rust in wheat, leaf rust, stripe rust and stem rust (Black rust). However, the major biotic constrains are yellow rust in hills and leaf rust in plains of Nepal. Severity of leaf rust gradually increasing year after year in hills of Nepal also.

Isolate Pseudomoans fluoresces for studying the multiple antagonistic activity. The five different rhizosphere soil samples were collected and inoculated into selective media and their morphology was observed. Human skin swabs were collected for the isolation of five different pathogens such as Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus, Bacillus subtilis, Salmonella, Clostridium. The morphology characteristic of human skin pathogens causing microorganisms identified by performing Gram’s staining, capsule staining, motility test.

Plants have formed the basis of sophisticated traditional medicine systems that have been in existence for thousands of years. Ephedra foliata Boiss. Ex. C.A. Mey is a xerophytic plant and grow sunder adverse soil and climatic conditions such as highlight intensity and high temperature. Total 5 PGRs (Plant Growth regulators) viz. IAA (indole-3-acetic acid), NAA (1-napthaleneacetic acid), 2,4D (2,4-Dichlorophenoxyaceticacid), Kinetin and BAP (6 Benzyl aminopurine) were used.

Alkaloids, from the natural sources are commonly used in medicine for their medicinal properties; agriculture in the form of pesticides based on their toxicity. They are present in natural sources, or biologically synthesized from amino acids. Alkaloid, quinoline; are extensively used for various purposes as preparation of dyes, production of specialty chemicals, and has derivatives which are used as therapeutic candidates. Quinoline derivatives are identified from an indigenous plant variety Toddalia aculeata obtained from Kolli hills, in central Tamil Nadu, Namakkal district of India.

An experiment was conducted on research farm in Gorgan University of Agricultural Sciences and Natural Resources during the crop year of 2005-2006to study the effects of planting date and density on yield and yield components of hulless barley. An experiment was carried out as factorial by using the randomized complete block design with four replications. The examined factors were included three levels of planting date in 27 NoV, 23DeC, 2Feb and density was at three levels of 200, 300 and 400 plants per square meter.

Citrus psylla (Diaphorinacitri) is sap sucking bug that is belonging to family Psyllidae and having the order is Hemiptera. It has become one of the potential pests of citrus orchards in Pakistan. Its nymph sucks the cell sap and produce honeydew, while on the other hand adults are carrier of greening disease in citrus plant. Data was collected from 10 plants selected randomly from an acre field. Nymph population was scouted on twig basis from the four sides of plants. Adult population was scouted by sweeping the Arial net across the four geographical sides of the plant.

This study was examined effects of difference composition on seedling quality and growth of tomato plant as well as concomitant evaluated the influences of mixture of medium composition with rice husk ask and coconut fiber. The result showed that biomass allocation, including shoot weight and root volume was affected by medium composition on seedling stage.

The goal of the present study was to isolate and characterize astaxanthin from Portunus sanguinolentus (Three Spotted Crab), Callinectes sapidus (Blue Crab) and Paralithodes brevipes (Spiny King Crab) using the three different types of solvent mixture such as Hexane: Isopropanol, DMSO: Acetone and acetone. The biochemical composition present in the shells of three crab varieties were evaluated and subjected to the isolation of astaxanthin.

The capital city of India, New Delhi has been recognized as the most polluted city in the world. World Health Organization (WHO) has reported this as per their findings in 2014. Bandyopadhyay et al., 2014. It is indeed an alarming issue for the health of our future generations in India. We are aware of the ill effects of environmental pollutants and toxicants on health status of human as well as other living organisms and the environment (Ghosh and Parida 2015). The most vulnerable to the toxic effects of the pollutants are children and old people.

Lead poisoning was studied in a mining area of odisha. The study area taken is in between the radius of 5km. from the mining site. Males of different age groups living in different distances are considered for observation. The PbB level increases with increase in age up to 55years and slight decrease in PbB level ins seen in the people aged above 56. The EP level also increases with increase in age and distance from the mining site. The level of EP increases beyond normal above PbB level 10µg/100ml. A considerable increase in EP level is seen in PbB level>30µg/100ml.

Botia lohachata or “Y- loach”, an endangered and vulnerable fish, has both ornamental and edible value. Schistosomiasis or snail fever, a serious disease affecting human, domestic animals and wild animals is naturally controlled by the “Y-loach” in eating the freshwater snail and therefore plays a significant role in controlling the disease. The aim of the present study was, therefore, to breed this ornamental fish in captivity, study the embryonic development and conserve the fish in its natural habitat. The fecundity of females ranged from 3,731 to 23,120.

Black gill disease in Litopenaeus vannamei was studied during 2014 in the grow-out ponds of Tamilnadu. The disease was characterized by black coloration and destruction of gills due to which lamellae became atrophic and necrosis. In severe cases, the disease led to chronic mortality of shrimps during the culture. The fungal stain Aspergillus sp. was isolated from the diseased gill. The prevalence of infection reached upto 80 % on 95th days. The b value of the diseased shrimps was slightly lower than normal one.

RPHR-1005 is a stable, elite restorer line of rice possessing highly desirable medium-slender grain type and is the male parent of the popular public bred hybrid DRRH-3. However, both RPHR-1005 and DRRH-3 are highly susceptible to major diseases like bacterial blight (BB) and blast.

Gastro oesophageal reflux disease GERD has a global impact on health and it impairs the quality of life of a substantial proportion of the world’s population. This study focuses on assessing the dietary regimen, medication and placebo on relieving gastroesophageal symptoms caused by excessive production of gastric acids in the body. It is also caused by the backward flow or regurgitation of stomach contents passing up into the oesophagus. Obesity and overweight are risk factors of heartburn and oesophageal erosions. Body Mass Index (BMI) of participants were determined.

The river Sonkosh or Sankosh enters India at Jamduar (89°51/39.4// E and 26°43/59.8// N) of Kokrajhar district of Assam streaming from the snow fed upstream of Bhutan. It extends up to the Feshimari-Jaldhuaghat (89°47/26//E and 26°22/39// N) of West Bengal state. From the confluence point with another river called Raidak, It is known as Gangadhar river which flows through Dhubri district of Assam and joins with the Brahmaputra River.

The objective of the present study was aimed to evaluate the distribution and phenotypic identification of pathogenic Vibrio alginolyticus and other Vibrio sp. Total halophilic and Vibrio sp were isolated from marine water and sediment samples of Chennai East Coast Region [ECR]collected from Thiruvanmyur to Mahabaliburam by standard spread plate method.

Protected agriculture is considered from the modern agricultural techniques that help increase production and fill the food gap, it provides crops in non off-season traditional, reduce losses resulting from the change in climatic conditions, Production early seedlings for exposed planting, produce good quality crops, reduce allocated area to cultivation the same crop compared with the exposed agriculture, and rationalization of irrigation water consumption.

Cyanobacterium Chlorogloeopsis fritschii Mitra 1950 displayed irregular rounded and elongated cell packets during in-situ germination and controlled culture conditions. The strain was investigated for acetylene reduction activity and also assessed for lipid profiling and fatty acid composition by Nile red method followed GC-FID using Supelco standard. Investigation expressed high and considerable amount of acetylene reduction activity i.e., 4.47 and 11.27 nmole C2H4/µg of Chl-a/hr during 15th and 30th days growth phase respectively.

The present study was carried out to evaluate the changes in growth and yield in wheat (Triticum aestivum) crop when grown under elevated CO2. Different chambers were used: ambient CO2 chamber and elevated CO2 chamber. Crop was grown from seedling to maturity inside the chamber under ambient CO2 and elevated (future) CO2 (500 ± 50 ppm). Crop resulted in greater biomass compared to ambient CO2. The high concentration of CO2 resulted into increase shoot length, root length and number of tillers in terms of their size and weight.

The present work aimed at analyzing the pollution extent of Eloor, an important industrial hub of Kerala. The study targeted at analyzing the impact of industrial pollutants on the physicochemical soil properties and the plant diversity of the site. The site selected for the purpose was Pathalam Bund zone of Eloor. The chemical analysis revealed that the pH of the polluted sample was alkaline while it was neutral in case of control sample. The polluted soil sample carried more chemical load like sulphate, chloride, phosphate, magnesium, calcium.

Salinity stress is one of the most serious problem in arid and semi-arid region of the world, which limits the growth and productivity of crop plants. Its harmful effects can be minimized by application of various chemicals mainly phytohormones i.e.-auxins, cytokinins, brassinosteroids, GA3 etc. Gibberellic acids are plant growth regulators that are also known to induce various physiological responses in plants. Gibberellic acid interacts with other hormones to regulate various metabolic processes in the plant.

Finger millet was grown under three year old Melia azedarach in red sandy loam soil with different management options viz., application of FYM @ 10 t ha-1, 100% RDF (40:20:20 NPK kg ha-1) alone, and in conjunction with 75% RD N with 25% N through FYM, Vermicompost, Poultry manure; also with biofertilizers @ 5 kg ha-1Azospirillum and PSB along with finger millet alone as sole cropping with 100% RDF.

Ethiopia, as compared to the rest of the world, is a region most grounded in poverty due to periodic drought and extreme variable environment making agriculture a risky economic activity. As a consequence, agricultural production has been deteriorating over time, and forces rural people in the region to look for alternative employment option other than agriculture. Ethiopian rural female-headed households (FHH) are not exceptional to this scenario.

In this study, histogical, histochemical and morphometric features of ovaries from adult zebrafish (D. rerio) were invastigated by light microscopy. In zebrafish which has asynchronous ovary, oocyte development was observed in four main stages as primary growth stage (PGS), cortical alveolar stage (CAS), vitellogenic stage (VS) and mature oocyte stage (MOS).

This is the first report on identification of plasma material for development of indigenous HBV standard for nucleic acid techniques. The HBsAg positive plasma bag was collected from National Capital Region. The hepatitis B virus in the plasma was quantitated by using four different lots of two different assays. The mean viral load determined was 5.59 log10 IU/ml. The plasma material was found to have genotype-D of the HBV. The nucleotide sequence was submitted under accession no. LK995378.

Antimicrobial activity of the methanol extracts from the internal shell of L. duvauceli and S. pharaonis were tested against eight pathogenic bacteria namely Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus subtilis, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Aeromonoas hydrophila, Streptococcus pyogenes, Vibrio fischeri, Klebsiella pneumonia, Escherichia coli and one fungal strain Candida albicans by well diffusion method. The methanol extracts of Loligo duvauceli was found to be effective against Streptococcus pyogenes, Klebsiella pneumonia, Aeromonoas hydrophila, Vibrio fischeri, Escherichia coli and Candida albicans.

The primary productivity of the river Rushikulya in the district of Ganjam, Odisha has been assessed from January to December during 2013 and 2014 at three different study stations. The lowest (0.19 gcm-2day-1) and (0.21 gcm-2day-1)while the highest 1.79 and 1.76 gcm-2day-1 values of NPP were recorded during August and April of 2013 and 2014 respectively. This is comparable to the production of riverine ecosystem in the tropics. However the rate of primary production is adversely affected by environmental pollutants.

The study aimed at comparing antibacterial potential of 3 polar and 3 non-polar organic solvent extracts of Acacia nilotica leaves against 9 reference bacterial strains and time kill kinetic study of ethyl acetate extract against S. typhi. Antibacterial activity was assessed against 9 standard bacterial reference strains viz.

Urban parks are significant in various ways. Apart from their recreational, health and fitness values, they contribute to the ecology of urban areas by maintaining the biological diversity of human interfered areas. They act as critical habitat spaces for urban wild life. Their role in sequestering carbon dioxide and acting as sinks for pollutants is well understood. The current paper is an effort to understand the species composition and carbon sequestering potential of a park in Bengaluru.

Applications of synthetic pesticides is one of the methods used to increase agriculture production, due to their long term persistence, slow degradability and toxicity affects other organisms.. Present study was carried out to investigate the effect of profenofos on the haematology of the fish Notopterus notopterus. Fishes were exposed at sub lethal concentration of profenofos, thereafter blood was assayed for selected haematological parameters. Reduction in the number of RBC, Hb, and WBC indicating anemia.

The present studies were carried out on the diversity of phytoplankton in relation to physico- chemical parameter from July 2012 to June 2013 in chikkakere, Periyapatna, Mysore, Karnataka. The water samples were analyzed to physical and chemical parameters by following the standard methods of APHA (2005) and Trivedi and Goel (1984). The quantitative analysis of phytoplankton was done by Lackey’s drop method modified by saxena (1987). Total 29 species were recorded which are belonging to Bacillariophyceae, Chlorophyceae, Cyanophyceae, Euglenophyceae and Desmidiaceae.

In order to ensure the quality of diagnostic kits for safeguarding public health in the country the evaluation of immunodiagnostic kits is done with in-house reference plasma panels. In this context, the maintenance of plasma samples stored frozen is extremely important. The objective of the present study was to evaluate the stability of plasma samples positive for anti-HIV antibodies stored over a decade.

The objective of this study is to assess the response of Oreochromis mossambicus to cadmium by determination of 96 hours LC50 value and behavioural response from exposure to different cadmium concentration. In this study conducted for 30 days enzymatic response of antioxidant defense system under heavy metal cadmium exposure was studied in the brain tissue. A decline in activity of superoxide dismutase and catalase was observed while an increase was in the activity of glutathione peroxidase was evaluated.

The traditional uropathogens are changing many of their features, particularly because of antimicrobial resistance. The present study aimed to provide etiology and antibiotics sensitivity about UTI among patients attending Khartoum Hospitals. The study was carried out using 332 urinary bacterial isolates collected from different hospitals in Khartoum State. All isolates were identified and tested for their antimicrobial resistance to various antibiotics in vitro by the Kirby-Baur disk diffusion method. High rate of UTIs was caused by E. coli (47.3%) followed by S.

Rice blast, caused by Magnaporthe oryzae, causes yield loss associated with injuries on leaves and necks. Broad spectrum introgression of blast resistance genes Pi-54 and Pi1 from the donor parent NLR145 (Swarnamukhi) into cold tolerant rice variety Tellahamsa (C10754) was carried out using marker assisted selection. The target genes were detected through the blast gene specific molecular marker Pi-54 MAS for gene Pi54 and molecular marker RM224 which is closely linked to gene Pi1 in F1, BC1F1, BC2F1 and BC2F2 generations.

This paper presents novel technique for recognizing faces. From the last two decades, face recognition is playing an important and vital role especially in the field of commercial, banking, social and law enforcement area. It is an interesting application of pattern recognition and hence received significant attention. The complete process of face recognition covers in three stages, face detection, feature extraction and recognition. Various techniques are then needed for these three stages.

This paper presents a two-dimensional gas pipeline model in cylindrical coordinates. The flow is assumed compressible and adiabatic. A modification in the energy equation of the compressible Navier-Stokes is made. First, a substantial derivative of the equation of state for an ideal gas (where pressure is the dependent variable) is obtained. A substitution for the substantial derivative of pressure in the energy equation is then made. This eliminates any derivative of pressure in the energy equation.

The hepatoprotective activity of water extract of Ficus benghalensis (Family Moraceae) bark was studied against ethanol (3g/kg, 20% w/v p.o. once daily for 28 days) induced liver damage in rats. Ethanol produced significant changes in various liver parameters. It increased the biochemical parameters like AST, ALT, ALP, total bilirubin and decreased the levels of albumin and total protein along with changes in histological parameters (damage to hepatocytes). Treatment with water extract of Ficus benghalensis bark (at a dose of 400mg/kg, p.o.

Water is a vital resource for human survival. In the present study, the physicochemical characteristics of groundwater of Alangudy, Aranthangi, Gandharvakkottai and Karambakkudi Taluks, Pudukkottai District, Tamilnadu, India. In the study area were assessed for its suitability for drinking and irrigation purposes. A total of 100 water samples were collected from tube wells from different parts of study area area.

Deep Packet Inspection (DPI) is more widely used in all applications or services such as Intrusion Detection System (IDS), which used with or within a network. DPI investigates all data present in the packet as it goes through an inspection to determine the transported application and protocol. Deep packet inspection mostly uses regular expression matching as a main operator. Regular expressions (RegExes) are used to represent complex string patterns flexibly in many applications varying from network intrusion detection and prevention systems (NIDPSs).

Air pollution became a real problem with industrial revolution. Today over two billion pounds of pollutants are released to the atmosphere each year. This paper focuses on different bio-technologies, which can be used to reduce the emissions of volatile organic compounds to the atmosphere from chemical process industries. The term volatile refers to the tendency of a compound to evaporate. By definition VOCs are emitted from a myriad of chemical industrial processes.

Analyzing for the utilization of real power or useful power by the load at Sardhar Vallabhai Patel Block (SVPB). When load is energized either on alternating current (AC) or direct current (DC) supply, comparing loads real and imaginary power consumed when they are AC or DC load. The electrical characteristics of load are maintained constant for both supplies. For light load, its luminous is maintained at 2400 luminous seconded by fan’s speed between 500 to 800 rpm. The total light and fan load at SVPB is tabulated.

That optical fibers and carbon Nanotubes, today, have vital portion in industry and technology and increasing need for these two fields is clearly visible, is an axiom. In this paper has been tried by expressing some functional similarities between optical fibers and carbon Nanotubes (CNTs), bridge to communicate these two areas to be mapped. Finally, referring to this point that some performed research show optical fibers can be future generation of accelerator; the communication bridge from carbon Nanotubes (CNTs) has been extended.

The aim of this work is to recover and characterize oil from Bottom Tank Oily Sludge from Brega oil refinery in Libya. The benefits would be two-folds, firstly to reduce the environmental impact of oily sludge and secondly to improve oil utilization efficiency as the sludge has a high content of valuable hydrocarbons.

Many aqueous waste products cannot be destroyed by biological treatment and several industrial waste water containing highly toxic substances are difficult to dispose off. New processes have to be developed for the treatment of such effluents. Super critical water oxidation (SCWO) is one of such newly developed process, in which toxic organic chemicals present in waste water or sludge can be completely destroyed or converted into less harmful products. SCWO is operating at pressure and temperature above critical data for water (Pc=22.1 MPa & Tc = 374 0C).

This paper includes matching of fingerprint images based on the minutiae and bifurcation points. Euclidean distance algorithm helps in recognition of input images depends upon the threshold value. Euclidean distance calculated between the feature vectors. A Gabor filter used to differentiate the extracts features of fingerprint images. Gabor feature of wavelet transform method helps in detecting minutiae and bifurcation points which help in finding the match of input fingerprint image.

In this study it was performed multiple emulsions of water in oil in water (W1/O/W2) containing insulin. The aim was to isolate the insulin molecule in emulsions of this type for optimal protection against digestive degradation. These emulsions were made in two steps, a first step of formulating a water-in-oil emulsion wherein the oil phase consists of peanut oil, not frequently used and tested in these types of emulsions, and a second one of multiple emulsion formulation.

Land degradation is a crucial constraint of crop production across the world, especially for the developing countries with low income to invest in good and profitable cropping technologies. Different engagements have been taken by the head of different African states to improve the use of inorganic fertilizers, as a key factor of crop production improvement, but with few successes. The Abuja commitment has been adopted but now it is expiring with few results.

Cleaner production (CP), conceived as the vital tool to increase productivity as well as achieve sustainable Development, is now being accepted worldwide as an approach to overcome the draw back of the End-of-Pipe (EOP) treatment and also to tap the potential of the minimizing the wastage, increasing profitability of the units and protecting the environment. With reference to above there appears to be good scope for studying “Cleaner Production Options” in Industrial Distillery Sector.

Currently, there are significant challenges faced by the farming industry, which are a reduction in the available labour workforce, and a more 'corporate' style of farming. So such factors demand an increase in farming efficiency and productivity. In this regard, Autonomous Agriculture is seen as an effective tool for bringing together the areas of robotics, embedded systems and precision agriculture (PA) which not only deals with issues of agronomy but also provides better technology like “On-farm sensing and control” to actuate autonomous farm machinery for better farm management.

In this paper, we establish the generalization of T-contractive type of mappings on Banach space. In (Huang and Zhang, 2007) Huang and Zhang generalized the concept of metric spaces, replacing the set of real numbers by an ordered Banach space.

Synthesis of 4’-thionucleosides and their analogs (2’-Modified 4’-thionucleosides, 6-Azapyrimidine-2’-deoxy-4’-thionucleosides, 4’-Ethynyl-2’-deoxy-4’-thionucleosides, 5-Substituted 2’-Deoxy-2’-fluoro-4’-thionucleosides)has been discussed briefly in this review. Hydrolytic stability of purine and cytosine 2’-deoxy-4’-thionucleosidesand 2’-deoxy-4’-thiouridines and their 5-substituted analogs in aqueous acidic solutions was also elaborated. This study shows that cytosine and purine 2’-deoxy-4’-thionucleosides are more stable toward acidic hydrolysis than their unmodified counterparts.

The global oil crisis in last decade has created energy and power crisis is forcing the people to look for energy efficient alternatives. Cleaner technology is the anticipate and prevent philosophy by way up gradation in order to improve the efficient use of natural resources and the energy sources within the industry. This paper represents one Dye Manufacturing Unit A at Vatva, Ahmedabad (Gujarat) India, in which one cleaner production tool, technology modification is applied for the efficient use of the boiler spare steam for the production of the ice.

Phenol-Formaldehyde resin (PFR) grafted Nano-Fe2O3 (nFe2O3) was fabricated for Bi(III), Hg(II) and Cd(II) removal using a novel polycondensation method. The present materials were carefully examined by FT-IR spectra (FT-IR), Scanning electron microscope (SEM), energy-dispersive microanalysis (EDX), and thermo gravimetric analysis (TGA). PFR-nFe2O3 showed excellent uptake effects for Bi(III), Hg(II) and Cd(II) removal with a pseudo-second order model. The Freundlich models well described the equilibrium isotherm than the Langmuir model.

Background We aimed to assess satisfaction determinants in public and private outpatient clinics. Methods We did a cross sectional survey in Soba university hospital outpatient clinic in October 2015. We included all adult patients and companions came to outpatient clinic. We assessed demographic data and patient satisfaction towards private and public hospitals outpatient clinic experience. We used the Patient Satisfaction Questionnaire (PSQ-18) to assess patient satisfaction. We recruited 400 participants randomly and took verbal consent.

This paper presents a new denoising based multi-level filtering technique algorithm for image restoration. It is designed to eliminate the errors or quality degradation in image by the means of multi filtering techniques. This work uses Pseudo Inverse Filter and Wiener Filter techniques of filtering. With the help of this hybrid method, proposed work denoises the image and improve the quality of the image. Digital image processing has been and will continue tohave an important role to extremely varied applications. Proposed work is implemented in .NET.

The classical solid state method was developed to prepare solid-solution x PFN + (1-x) PMN, shows a good homogenization of the starting products. The powder was heat treated at 300°C and then calcined at 850°C. The products were characterized by XRD, microstructure of the samples was analyzed with scanning electron microscope (SEM), and dielectric measurements were performed using an impedance analyser (LCR, HP 4284 A) in the frequency range from 100 Hz to 2 MHz.

Information Technology is an era which has changed the life of human being in all respect. The profession in IT-Industry differs from other professions. At one side it gives high salary, good status, and opportunity to work in abroad but at other side, with basic, computerized reporting systems mostly in place, IT-Professionals are being relied upon to produce, with often demanding deadlines, innovative computer applications which enhance the competitive position.

Association Rule Mining has been the area of interest for many researchers for a long time and continues to be the same. It is one of the important tasks of data mining. It aims at discovering relationships among various items in the database. There are several algorithms of which Apriori is the classical and most famous algorithm. But in classical Apriori algorithm human intervention is required for the threshold values of support and confidence. To solve this problem, an automated Apriori algorithm is proposed in this paper, where correlation coefficient of the items has been considered.

In this paper, our aim is to come up with a platform which will help in reducing the time and cost for retrieving the information. Here we describe the implementation of the dashboard to achieve the same using SharePoint Technology. Dashboard is a site presenting the most significant information on a single page. Provide interactive summary of a management report, Consolidates, Aggregates, and Arranges Measurements in a visual representation on a single screen and acts as a one stop reference.

In the present work we study the issues of the test control in physical education. Nowadays, one of the problems facing the researchers in the field of physical education is the need for the fundamental restructuring of the test control system in the direction of modernization, introduction of innovative approaches and modern technologies of its organization.

The formation of nanoemulsions water – in – diesel using nonionic surfactant, nonionic emulsifier and different water content from 14 to 40% (v/v) was investigated. The effect of water content on the emulsion stability was studied. The efficiency of the formed water- in- diesel was studied by measuring open burning time, calorific value, viscosity and mean droplet sizes using atomic transmission microscope (ATM).

We live in on-demand, on-command Digital universe with data prolifering by Institutions, Individuals and Machines at a very high rate. This data is categorized as "Big Data" due to its sheer Volume, Variety, Velocity and Veracity. Most of this data is unstructured, quasi structured or semi structured and it is heterogeneous in nature. The volume and the heterogeneity of data with the speed it is generated, makes it difficult for the present computing infrastructure to manage Big Data. Traditional data management, warehousing and analysis systems fall short of tools to analyze this data.

According to the general research, approximately 35% of the national territory is rich in gold. The vast mineral potential in Ivory Coast (Cote d’Ivoire) could increase the mining sector's contribution to the national GDP in the future years beyond 5%.The political unrest due to the rebellion in 2002 and the post electoral crisis from December 2010 to April 2011 has been a brake on development of all economic activities in Ivory Coast, especially in the mining sector.

Plant extract mediated bio reduction method can be used as an alternative to traditional chemical methods for the production of metal oxide nanomaterials. The present study, aimed to develop a rapid, eco-friendly method for the synthesis of ZnO NPs using Azolla leaf extract by microwave irradiation. The formation of nanocrystals was confirmed by employing standard characterisation studies such as UV-Vis spectroscopy, Scanning electron microscopy (SEM), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) and X-ray diffraction method (XRD).

A study has been carried out to explore the Physico-chemical characteristics of mine water pumped out from coal mine located at Neyveli, South India. Water samples, from five different sites through a canal were collected and analyzed for physico-chemical parameters, like; pH value, electrical conductivity, total hardness, total alkalinity, total dissolved solids, chlorides and sulphates. Results were compared with water standards and discussed.

The need to stabilize expansive soils such as black cotton soil in order to mitigate the inherent deleterious property of swelling and shrinking cannot be fully overemphasized. For the soil to be effectively utilized as subgrade it has to be stabilized and more importantly at a relatively cheap cost. So to attempt stabilizing the black cotton soil, this research uses palm kernel shell ash and lime to study the potential of stabilizing with the locally available material.

In the current progressively evolving environment, learning administration addresses the discriminating issue of hierarchical reception, survival and ability. As learning administration speak to hierarchical procedures that look for mix of information and data handling abilities of data and correspondence and inventive and creative limit of people. As information is quickly turning into the most vital resource of association, assembling is no more special case.

In this paper, we present hiss-triggered chorus emissions recorded at Indian Antarctic Station, Maitri (geomagnetic latitude = 700 46/ S, longitude = 110 50/ E, L = 4.5) during 3 February 2001. The recorded data has been analyzed we find that the wave intensity of chorus events are usually a function of frequency and also it varies from event to event. Chorus emissions are supposed to be triggered by the non-linear process involving whistler mode wave and energetic electrons.

Background and objective: Hirschsprung’s disease is a disease that occurs in a newborn child with an incidence of one in 5000 live births with a male predominance. In our setup for the diagnosis of Hirshcsprung’s disease, haematoxylin and eosin staining in a formalin fixed tissue was routinely practiced. As a novel diagnostic procedure, rapid on table acetylcholine esterase stain was tried.

Recent terrorists activities in Lake Chad basin (comprises of countries such as Nigeria, Niger, Chad and Cameroon) have adversely affected the socio political and economic situation in the region. The study involves assessing the historical background and charatersitics of Boko Haram terrorist group and investigating the sources of funding Boko Haram terrorist group and effect on socio political and economic activities.

Migration has become an integral part for the growth and development of the global economy. According to the UN, Migration from rural to urban areas has played a key role in the social and economic development of a country. Migration can have many implications on the individual as well as their families (http://migratingoutofpoverty.dfid.gov.uk/files/file.php?name=wp2-impact-...).

This study was designed to investigate sense relations of lexemes in Macha Dialect of the Oromo Language through the application of linguistic knowledge. It was set to identify the different horizontal and vertical sense relations in the dialect and to describe them systematically. Qualitative method was used to achieve the objectives of the study, and text analysis was employed in the discussions of the findings. The sense relations predominantly used in the dialect are antonymy, synonymy, hyponymy, homonymy, polysemy, member-collection, meronymy, portion-mass and metonymy.

In this study it made an in-depth analysis of the role of wage as an important instrument of management policy to increase welfare in Albania. Specifying a model of linear regression simple two independent variables to determine the relationship that exists between real average wage per employee in the public and private sectors where the employment rate and GDP per capita, is another contribution of this study. The main finding of this study is that the Gross Domestic Product per capita is significantly positive impact on the average monthly wage per employee.

The aim of this study is to determine the socio-economic and professional conditions of Turkish migrant workers from Giresun in the United States. To that general aim, this study investigated the social origin and family structure, quality of life, features related to working life, working conditions, social and political participation, thoughts about living in the United States and expectations of future of these migrant workers. The research was carried out with 92 Turkish migrant workers from Giresun, working in Connecticut; Bridgeport, New Haven and Danbury.

This paper attempts to highlight the historical development of Competition Laws with a view to gain insight into the underlying reasons that have led to development in the field as an important requirement for a competitive business environment in some developed and developing countries. The origin and goals of implementing major legislations during different periods of time in countries having well known established Competition Laws are discussed to give a picture of their importance and the reasons behind their implementation.

The education of children with special needs has become a worldwide phenomenon. Inclusive education is an approach that focuses on the idea that all children should have equal learning. Removing barriers to participation in the learning of all learners is at the core of inclusive education. This study set to explore the challenges that interfere with the successful implementation of inclusive education. The qualitative case study deemed fit to be used in the study.

The study of settlement is of the essence to human geography because the appearance and structure of settlement in any particular region reflects man’s relationship with the environment, grown up over a long period of time. By studying the housing characteristics, size and types of settlement we can see something of the history of man’s explorations and humanizing with the environment. Settlement reflects not only man’s response to his environment but also the religious and social traditions of his society.

Reservation is indeed the process of setting aside a certain percentage of seats vacancies in educational institutions, government institutions and legislative institutions for the members of weaker sections in a pluralistic society like India. At the national level, the reservation policy originated in the form of Montague-Chelmsford Reform (1919). In 1925 the British Government decided to earmark certain quota in Government jobs for minority communities. The Indian Government implemented reservation policy in 1950.

The study sought to investigate the use of written tests in examining the speaking skill in English language in secondary schools in Kenya. Based on the study, this paper presents and discusses findings on the nature of distribution of score patterns in the written and oral production test of the speaking skill in English language in secondary schools.

Venture capital will play an important role and significant impact of small and medium Enterprises (SME). New technology based venture with cutting edge research and technology. This paper deals about whether a truly global market for venture capital and private equity is emerging or whether the current situation of segmented national market is likely to endure. Here also discussed about categories, stages and process in the Venture Capital funding.

Metaphysics, a way or a branch in philosophy studies the basic constituents of the world by investigating into the nature of the fundamental related to the ultimate nature of reality and the human knowledge. One basic feature of metaphysics is that it requires into what there is in the world. It is the philosophy concerning the nature of existence, truth and knowledge. It has the totality of being and existence, that is, the nature and structure of reality in its all embracing and general aspects.

The issue of women terrorism has been in existence for a long period of time. In the recent time, women enmancitipation is in place to put women in their rightful position. In this paper, we will examine the problems faced by the girl-child right from birth until she strifes to fulfil her destiny as a woman as it is expressed in the novel tittled “Odún Á Yako” written by Níkèé Adésànyà. This will help us to pinpoint the probems a girl-child faces in the society. The work will be based on feminist theory.

The aim of the study is find out the relationship between socio economic status and social, emotional and behaviour problem of students studying in Adi-Dravidar welfare schools, for which the survey method has been adapted. Random sampling technique has been used for the present study for the selection of sample. The sample of the study includes the adolescent students studying in Adi- Dravidar Welfare School in Cuddalore District of Tamilnadu, India. The social, emotional and behaviour problem scale standardised by R. Gnanadevan et al.

Urban agriculture contributes to food security and food safety in two ways: first, it increases the amount of food available to people living in cities, and, second, it allows fresh vegetables and fruits and meat products to be made available to urban consumers. This study was attempted to investigate the factors affecting the implementation of UA at household level and the economic benefits it has in Holeta Town. From Holeta administrative town, two kebeles which have large number of households Goro Qerensa and Burqa Harbu were purposively selected.

Groundwater quality in Chhindwara block has been studied with special reference to the presence of fluoride. Fluoride, above the guideline value of WHO, has been found in groundwater of the study area. This high fluoride concentration shows some type of correlation with other ionic constituents present in the ground water. The fluoride contents have positive correlation with Na+, K+ and depth of source, and negative correlation with Mg+2, Ca+2, total alkalinity and total hardness. Fluoride does not show any type of correlation with Cl-, NO3-, and SO42-.

The term Quality of Work Life (QWL) was probably coined originally at first international conference of QWL at Arden House in 1972 (Davis and Cherns, 1975). From a business perspective, quality of work life (QWL) is important since there is evidence demonstrating that the nature of the work environment is related to satisfaction of employees and work related behaviors (Greenhaus et al., 1987). As QWL is a multifaceted concept it differs from individual to individual. This study aims to reveal the perceptional differences on QWL that existing between urban and rural workers.

The study has been conducted on a sample of 80 students to examine the level of cognitive self-management. The sample of the students has been taken of those students who are studying in second year D.T.Ed. Teacher trainees in District Institute of Education and Training, Madurai district. The random sampling technique was used in this study. The data were analyzed statistically by using mean, standard deviation and ‘t’ test.

The purpose of this paper is to evaluate the role of Nigeria as a Hegemon in maintaining peace and stability in the West African Sub-Region and its current reversal while confronting the Boko Haram (BH) insurgents. Due to the scarcity of basic essentials of live such as food, health, education, and shelter in the West African Sub-Region, comes the inadequacies that led to the growth of impoverished, uneducated, unemployed, hunger-stricken and restive populations all over the Sub-Region.

The aims of this research are; (1) long term purposes: to improve the food security for Papuan farmers, and reduce the economic gap between Papuan and the migrants population, since the socio-economic jealousy has been happening. (2) For the short term purposes areanalyzing the differences between the consumption behavior of Papuan and the migrant farmers. The analysis method used is quantitative analysis. The results shows that there is the difference between the consumption behavior of Papuan farmersand migrant farmers in fulfilling the needs of food consumption.

The aim of this study was to understand and analyze the significance of the influence of The Fiscal Decentralization and Papua Special Autonomy against Direct expenditure of district / city governments in Papua. Results of analysis and hypothesis testing, concluding that the Fiscal Decentralization effects, fiscal decentralization is intended to finance the implementation of the tasks of government, public services and regional development.

The reliability of a system is the probability that when operating under stated environmental conditions, the system will perform its intended function adequately. We consider the strength of the system X and the stress Y as random variables. The component fails at the instant that the stress applied to it exceeds the strength and the component will function satisfactorily whenever X>Y. The quasi-likelihood function was introduced by Wedderburn (1974), to be used for estimating the unknown parameters in generalized linear models.

The study examined the gender difference and its impact on agricultural productivity in Sheko district of Bench Maji zone, located at 573 km south west of Addis Ababa, the capital of the country. The specific objectives were to assess the extent to which the agricultural production system is gender oriented; to examine access and control over productive resources; and to estimate men’s and women’s productivity in agriculture. Cross-sectional data collected from a total of 150 respondents were used in this study whereby 75 were female headed and 75 were male headed households.

Women have been subjugated in various ways in the patriarchal dominated society. The patriarchal hierarchy systems are not willing to accept women coming into the mainstream in decision making. Maram tribal women are also denied their basic rights under the guiseof customary law and tradition. The Patriarchal hegemony strongly inculcates the mind of the society leaving the women in the Periphery. However, they have more privileges than other Naga tribal women.

While the constitution of India aims to create an equitable and equal environment for those who were denied their rightful place in the previous government and social structure, this includes protection of women from harassment in various spheres. In the unorganized sector where women are more vulnerable, there is the need to take a different approach rather than a traditional questionnaire approach or the so called survey approach.

In many developing and developed countries, program managers and policy makers who constantly dealing with poverty related interventions have to make best decisions from a wide range of program and policy options. Information for making such decisions must be based on sound data-based analysis. In order to make such analysis, there is a need to undertake empirical studies. Therefore, the main objective of this study was to assess the rural household poverty status. The district under study has 37 Kebeles and 5 Kebeles were selected using simple random sampling.

Species diversity and community structure of tropical wet evergreen forest of Singphan Wildlife Sanctuary was studied in three disturbance regime i.e., highly disturbed (HD), moderately disturbed (MD) and undisturbed (UD). A total of 185 species representing 159 genera belonging to 86 families were recorded. The species richness (trees, herbs and shrubs) was found to be highest (59 species) in UD followed by MD and HD. The total basal area was recorded highest (131.5 m2 ha-1) in UD followed by HD and MD.

E-commerce is widely considered the buying and selling of products over the internet, but any transaction that is completed solely through electronic measures can be considered e-commerce. E-commerce is subdivided into three categories: business to business or B2B, business to consumer or B2C and consumer to consumer or C2C also called electronic commerce. M-commerce is a term that is used to refer to the growing practice of conducting financial and promotional activities with the use of a wireless handheld device.

The present paper analyse the spatio-temporal variations in different type of land use in Palakkad District, Kerala. Agriculture is the main activity and 89% of the district population is rural in nature. The utilization of land for different purposes in the district indicates the relationship between the existing environmental condition and human society. The data on general land use for the period 2001 and 2011 were collected and processed by using simple statistical techniques and the results are cartographically mapped and interpreted.

The purpose of this research is to recognize how Korean political environment affects the activity of environmental NGO. Thus, this study analyzed the relationship between Korean successive government and environmental NGO. This research focused environmental NGO as a main sector in Korean civil movement. This study analyzed Korean Federation for Environmental Movement as a delegate of environmental movement group. The research method of this paper was basically established based on new institutionalist perspective.

Increased competition, highly educated consumers, and increase in standard of living are forcing many businesses to review their customer service strategy. Public sector banks are sharpening their products and services while reasserting their strengths to cater to younger, savvier customers. The Foreign banks and private banks have already incorporated the concept of Service Marketing in their working. There is enough evidence that demonstrates the strategic benefits of quality in contributing to market share and return on investment.

A field experiment was conducted during July to October, 2015 under deep clay soil at the Experimental farm, Faculty of Agriculture, Annamalai University to study effect of foliar nutrition on growth and yield of maize. The experiment was conducted in randomized block design and replicated thrice. The experiment comprised of ten treatments viz., control (water spray), liquid organic supplements Jeevamrutha, Beejamrutha, Vermiwash at 3 and 5% concentration applied 3 times on 20, 40 and 60 DAS.

Background: Maternal mortality is relatively high in Ethiopia with more than one in five deaths to women aged 15-49 years. This is mainly attributed to pregnancy and pregnancy related causes. Postnatal care utilization is extremely low in Ethiopia with more than nine in ten mothers received no postnatal care at all while only 5% received postnatal care within the critical first two days after the delivery. Therefore, the objective of this study was to identify the magnitude and determinants of postnatal care services utilization in Hadiya Zone, Southern Ethiopia.

A study on the health and nutritional status of 300 women aged between 20-60year were selected by random sampling method from cotton textile industries.

Background: Community Health Workers (CHWs) form a vital link between community and the health system. In India, this role is played by Accredited Social Health Activists (ASHAs)-village level female workers. Studies indicate that CHWs, if selected in consultation with community and in a transparent way, can lead to better acceptability of CHWs in community, better performance of CHWs and expected outcomes of the programme. Aim: This study looks at the selection process of the ASH As and its effects on the working relationship with her co- workers.

Tablet computer games widely increased among children. The impact of this technology on children should be studied. The purpose of this study was to investigate wrist and neck extensors muscle activity in children during tablet playing and to investigate playing effect on pain threshold in shoulder region. Thirty right-handed healthy children (15 boys and 15 girls) with age ranged 5-7 years participated in this study. Electromyography data were collected from cervical erector spinae, upper trapezius, and right wrist extensors. Pressure pain threshold over trapezius muscles were measured.

This study aimed to describe the survival strategies of migrant citizens in their new social environment different from their respective areas. This study used a qualitative approach cored on aspects of ethnographic methods. The unit of analysis in this study is a migrant population of people living in the region of Southeast Sulawesi Government Konawe. Data collection efforts in the field using observation, interviews and Focus Group Discussion (FGD) on the existence of a migrant population of people with a variety of Problems.

Aneurysmal bone cysts are rare benign bone tumours that were first described by Jaffe and Lichtenstein in 1942. They account for 1% of all biopsied primary bone tumours and appear as rapidly growing destructive lesions that expand the cortices. ABC can exist either as a primary bone lesion (70%) or as a secondary lesion when a preexisting osseous lesion can be identified (30%). A 4 years old male child present with a progressive swelling over proximal part of right arm for last 10 months. For last 3 months it rapidly increased in size, accosiated with throbbing pain.

The incidence of prostate cancer is on the rise with the increase occurring more rapidly in developing countries which constitute a serious public health concern. Prostate cancer is the most commonly diagnosed cancer in men and ranked second as the cause of cancer related deaths. The objective of the study is to determine the awareness and screening practices for prostate cancer among older men attending outpatient clinics in selected hospitals in Cross River State, Nigeria.

It is very usual to come across a case of acute abdomen with peritonitis in day to day surgical practice. Most often the cause of peritonitis is a hollow viscus perforation. Here we are reporting a case of patient coming to casuality with acute abdomen and peritonitis. X ray abdomen and ultrasongraphy was consistent with the diagnosis of perforation peritonitis and it was so on exploration, but the site of perforation was upper part of rectum without any pathology that is spontaneous rectal perforation which was very unusual in surgical practice.

Background: Objective: This is a study to determine the knowledge and practice of Standard Precaution among Health care providers in primary and secondary health care facilities in Imo State. With the occurrence of new and re-emerging infectious diseases in the world today especially in the West African sub-region; such as Ebola Viral Disease, Lassa Fever, etcetera; It becomes imperative to examine the knowledge and practice of health care providers of preventive measures established by the World Health Organization, for the prevention of hospital acquired infections.

In this paper, we introduce the concepts of g ̂^*s-continuity and g ̂^*s-irresoluteness mappings and their characterizations.

This study is to compare the low dose with standard Pritchard's regime for controlling convulsion in patients of eclampsia. In this hospital based prospective study, cases presenting with classical features of eclampsia (beyond 20 weeks of pregnancy and upto 7 days postpartum) and meeting inclusion criteria's were included as per confounding of both the groups i.e. Group-A and Group-B. 25 cases were given low dose Magnesium Sulphate (Study Group; Group-A) and 25 cases were given standard dose regimen (Control Group; Group-B) after informed and written consent.

Obesity is an increasing global problem. It has important implications, as it is associated with various life threatening diseases and metabolic disorders. Scientists at the Tel Aviv University have confirmed the long-held notion that sedentary lifestyle leads to obesity. Researchers said that the more time people spend sitting, the more fat they accumulate in the lower half of their bodies, or backside.

Diagnosis of canine babesiosis, caused by Babesiagibsoni is difficult, especially in dogs with chronic infection or carrier. A Semi-nested Polymerase Chain Reaction assay was developed and standardized by using three oligonucleotide primers targeting the hypervariable region of18SrRNA gene. The specific primers amplified theB. gibsoniDNA, while no nonspecific amplification was detected with DNA from non-infected dogs as well as from dogs infected with other species. All the samples were tested by blood smear examination as well as semi-nested PCR assay.

The levels of serum urea and creatinine were determined in 134 pregnant women and 44 non pregnant controls. There was a significant (p=0.0094) decrease in urea levels between the pregnant (15.4± 4.3 mg/dl) and the nonpregnant group (17.3±3.2mg/dl) and a highly significant (p<0.0001) decrease in creatinine levels between the pregnant (0.66±0.11mg/dl) and nonpregnant controls (0.76±0.09mg/dl). The pregnant women were categorized into 4 groups (0-12w), (13-24w), (25-36w)and (37-40w) as per their weeks of gestation and the levels of urea and creatinine in these groups were analyzed.

Multilocular peritoneal inclusion cysts (MPICs) are neoplasm composed of multiple small cysts filled with serous fluid. It is well defined but rare entity, predominantly in women of reproductive age group. MPICs are cysts of peritoneum or postoperative peritoneal cysts, benign cystic mesothelioma, inflammatory cyst. They have been referred to as multilocular peritoneal inclusion cysts (MPICs). Herewith we are reporting two cases of MPICs, both were belonged to reproductive age group and clinically manifested by lower abdominal pain with palpable mass.

Periodontal regeneration is the ultimate goal of periodontal therapy. For this purpose, numerous modalities have been advocated including, the modification of the root surface that is biomodification procedures in order to detoxify, decontaminate, and demineralise the root surface. Tetracycline has been well known as a broad spectrum antibiotic, although its effect as a root conditioning agent is yet to be explored.

The contemporary world which is supposed to be a world of triumph is also a world of anxiety or stress. Right from the time of birth till the last breath drawn, an individual is consistently visible to innumerable stressful condition. Hence, it is not astonishing that such subject has been intensifying with the advancement of the current era, which has been called the age of stress and depression. Depression can also interfere with normal functioning and frequently causes difficulties with work, social and domestic adjustment.

Background and objective: The purpose of the study was to compare the efficacy of normal saline with heparinized saline flushing on patency of peripheral intravenous catheters among hospitalized children. Material and Methods: The research design used in this study was randomized double blind clinical trial. Population of the study comprised of all the children in the age group 2 months to 1 year who were admitted and received intravenous medications in the Paediatric medical ward of JIPMER.

Triple rule out (TRO)-Multidetector computed tomography (MDCT) angiography denominates an ECG-gated protocol that allows for the depiction of the pulmonary arteries, thoracic aorta, and coronary arteries within a single examination in patients with heart rate of upto 80 beats per minute. TRO MDCT Angiography is most appropriate for the patient who is judged to be at low to intermediate risk for acute coronary syndrome (ACS) and whose symptoms may also be attributed to acute aortic syndrome (AAS) or acute pulmonary embolism (PE).

Introduction: Diabetes Mellitus is a categorized as a disease with multi-system complications. Congestive heart failure is one of the last resorts of cardiovascular complications, and is featured by the presence of diabetic cardiomyopathy, indicated by diastolic left ventricular dysfunction, which is easily assessed clinically and with echocardiography. Objective: To study the prevalence of LV diastolic dysfunction in asymptomatic patients diagnosed as diabetes mellitus. Method: The study was carried out on 100 diabetics and compared with 100 age and sex matched controls.

The potential of Okra and Rosselle for phytoremediation of Fe, Mn, Cu and Zn was investigated. A pot experiment using three types of soil with different properties and concentration of examined metals was conducted. The pots were filed with 3 kg of garden soil. The plants were grown for a period of 40 days. The results showed that Okra and Rosselle are hyperaccumulators for Fe, where the highest translocation factor values were 312 and 119 respectively.

Background: Malnourished children have lower resistance to infections; they are more likely to die from childhood ailments like diarrhoeal diseases and respiratory infections; and for those who survive, frequent illness sap their nutritional status, locking them into a vicious cycle of recurring sickness, faltering growth and diminished learning ability. Objective: To assess the prevalence, pattern and co-morbidities of malnutrition among under-five children in rural and urban communities of Owerri Capital Territory, Imo State.

Background: A decline in balance function has been reported in women from 40 years of age onward. Dynamic balance tests are used to predict fall risk in elder women (Plisky et al., 2009; Shaffer et al., 2013; Gribble, 2012; Schmitz, 2007). Objective: 1) To find Normative Y balance test value in Middle aged women and compare Y balance test value in age groups 41-50 and 51-60 years of females. Method: 200 females age between 41-60 years were recruited from community of Charotar region and divided in groups1 & 2.

Tubercular abscess is usually an extension from the underlying lymph node or bone, but occurrence at the site of intramuscular injections is rare.1 We present one such case of tubercular abscess mimicking injection site abscess.

Background: Since 2009, Government Medical College, Aurangabad, which is a tertiary care hospital in the region, has been regularly admitting cases of pneumonia and ARDS, that are labeled as swine flu suspects, in the Isolation Ward. Those cases whose report tests positive for H1N1 are retained in the well equipped Ward, whereas the others are shifted to the general MICU or respective wards. This study correlates SpO2 on admission with the outcome in swine flu patients admitted to Government Medical College, Aurangabad from January 2015 to May -2015.

Background : HIV‐2 is intrinsically resistant to non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase (NNRTI) drugs, Nevirapine and Efavirenz, the mainstay of national first line ART regimen.1 Studies mention that there is no clearly accepted regime for the management of HIV‐2 . Aim of study: To study the response to second –line ART drugs (as prescribed by NACO) in the HIV‐2 cases attending ART center of tertiary care hospital. Method: It is a cross- sectional study. Of the 12906 HIV cases registered in the ART Center of this institute, 16 cases are HIV‐2 cases.

Primary resection and radiotherapy for oral carcinoma present a myriad of challenges during prosthetic rehabilitation. A 65 years old lady developed microstomia, post-radiation xerostomia, altered muscle attachments following subtotal maxillectomy involving the entire premaxilla. Here, standard procedure for rehabilitation was tried with hollow complete denture. The final outcome of the functional prosthesis proves that simple prosthetic rehabilitation modified in harmony to her post-morbid condition can provide the best option for treating such elderly patients.

Introduction: Acute critical illness is characterized by catabolism exceeding anabolism. Nutritional support has now recognized as sine qua non in management of critically ill. Timely initiation of optimal nutritional support is important to limit the catabolic process. The awareness among nursing staff about nutritional therapy is important for the overall management of patients in the ICU. Aim and Objectives: This research project aimed to assess the Nursing care practices on enteral feeding in critically ill patients.

The carbon to nitrogen ratio (C/N) determination is one of the most important parameters of soil characterization. The validity of the methods used for determining organic carbon and total nitrogen in some Aridisols soils collected from Khartoum State, Sudan was studied. Organic carbon (O.C) was determined by wet combustion method which was considered as a reference or standard method against Walkley-Black and Tinsley methods that are widely used in the Sudan.

The purpose of study was to assess the accumulation of heavy metals (Zinc, Nickel, Copper, Manganese, Cadmium, Chromium, Iron, and Lead) in agricultural soils and their uptake by grass being irrigated by municipal sewage water. In current time the environment is heavily polluted by various toxic metals, which create a danger for all living beings. Phytoremediation can be potentially used to remediate metal contaminated sites.

In order to determination the effects of pH and salinity on germination and root elongation in three corn (Zea maize.L) cultivars, an experiment was conducted in factorial on the base of randomized complete design with four replication in agronomy lab. of Islamic Azad University Science and Research Branch of Tehran-Iran 2014. The ecological factors included three levels of pH (6.5, 7.5 as control and 8.2) as well as three levels of salinity (Distilled water as control, 6 and 10 g/l of sodium chloride) effect on three corn cultivars (KSC703, 704 and 705) had observed.

The toxic effect of cypermethrin on the serum cortisol of Labeo rohita was studied. The fish were exposed for 24, 48, 72 and 96 hours in 10 and 20% sub lethal concentrations of 96 h LC50 of cypermethrin (0.0037 ppm). There is no much significant variation in the plasma cortisol level of the control fish at different experimental peirods. But in the cypermethrin fish there is an eloquent increase in the plasma cortisol level with increase in concentration and time of exposure.

Distribution pattern of earthworm fauna in Nilgiris District were studied during North East monsoon and South East monsoons of 2013. The survey was carried out in 26 stations in different elevations ranging from 763 to 2336 meters above msl.

This study was conducted at Poultry Farm of Animal Resources Dept., College of Agriculture, University of AL-Qasim Green to investigate the effect of adding Lycopene to the ration on productive traits of broiler Ross 308. Use the 90 broiler chicks Ross 308 day-old were randomly assigned to three treatments (by 3 replicates per treatment 10 chicks per replicate), and treatments were as follows: control group without adding lycopene to the ration, add lycopene by 250 mg / kg feed (first treatment) and add lycopene by 500 mg / kg feed (second treatment).

Ralstonia solanacearum, a known dreaded soil borne phytopathogenic bacteria, has been causing enormous crop losses in tropical, subtropical and temperate regions across the world including the eastern plateau and hill regions of India, where soil is mostly acidic. In this study, honey bee derived peptide apidaecin and some antibiotics observed to be exhibiting antimicrobial efficacy against the bacteria R.solanacearum isolated from infected tomato, brinjal and capsicum plants.

Nature has been a source of herbal medicinal agents for thousand of years and an impressive number of modern drugs have been isolated from natural sources. About 80% of the world’s population rely mainly on traditional medicines for their primary health care. Areca catechu L. (Palmaceae), commonly known as Areca nut in English, is a perennial tree occurring throughout the Indian subcontinent and used traditionally for several medicinal purposes. Areca catechu is the most widely cultivated species in the genus Areca and has been distributed by humans throughout the tropics.

The 145 samples were collected from different region from Iraq during March 2014 – February 2015, distributed into 55 samples imported and 90 samples local markets include: corn, wheat, malt, soybeans, compete cow's feed and feed additives. The samples were analysis to quality and quantity detection of aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) by using methods of Thin layer chromatography(TLC), High performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and Enzyme Linked Immune Sorbent Assay (ELISA) techniques.

The textile industry is the largest industry in terms of value, production and also in effluent generation. With the increasingly important requirement for textile manufacturers to reduce pollution in textile production, the use of enzymes in the chemical processing of fibers and textiles is rapidly gaining wider recognition because of their non-toxic and eco-friendly characteristics. As far as textiles are concerned, researchers’ emphasis on reduction of the use of harsh chemicals and reuse of effluent waste water.

Spatholobus purpureus Benth.ex Baker, a medicinally important plant belongs to the family Fabaceae. Traditionally roots are used in the treatment of Haemoresic septicemia in animals. In the present study, the bioactive compounds of Spatholobus purpureus root have been evaluated using GC-MS. The chemical compositions of the acetone extract of S. purpureus were investigated using Perkin-Elmer Gas Chromatography - Mass Spectroscopy. GC-MS analysis of S. purpureus acetone extract revealed the existence of the GC-MS chromatogram of the seventeen peaks presented.

Introduction: Helicobacter pylori (H pylori) is the most common bacterial infection in human. In our study we are studying histopathological changes in gastric mucosa in patient with H. pylori infection. Comparison of staining methods in terms of their cost, time required, reproducibility of techniques and ability to demonstrate H. pylori in Paraffine sections were also done. Materials and methods: Prospective analysis of 100 patients presented with acid peptic disorder to our gastroenterology outpatient department for a period of 1 ½ year was carried out .

Information dissemination is a key element in the adoption of the different striga control technologies. Majority of farmers tend to lag in adoption of Striga control technologies due to lack of information about the technologies. Information materials should thus include simple explanations to farmers on how the control measures work. This study sought to establish the most preferred communication channels by farmers in accessing agricultural technology based information.

Introduction: Rheumatoid arthritis is an autoimmune disease of unknown etiology characterised by persistent inflammatory synovitis involving multiple peripheral joints in a symmetrical distribution. Cathepsin K is a cysteine protease that plays an essential role in osteoclast function and in the degradation of protein components of bone matrix. It is synthesized by osteoclast and activated synovial macrophages and it cleaves collagen type I, collagen type II and osteonectin, therefore having a role in bone remodelling and resorption.

Alzheimer’s disease (AD) is one of the most common neurodegenerative diseases AD is characterized by adult-onset progressive dementia, beginning with subtle memory failure that becomes more severe and is eventually incapacitating. The most common neuropathological feature of AD is the presence of neurofibrillary tangles and amyloid deposits that form plaques and cerebrovascular accumulations. AD is divided into familial and sporadic forms.

Tragelaphus buxtoni and Tragelaphus scriptus meneliki are spiral-horned antelopes endemic to highlands and south eastern highlands of Ethiopia respectively. The ranges of both species often overlap and are threatened by the loss and degradation of their montane habitats. The objective of the study was to identify their preference and associated vegetation characteristics of montane habitats in Arsi Mountains National Park. Intensive-Modified Whitaker nested plot design was used to sample vegetation and scat across habitats.

To assess the soil health under transgenic Bt cotton grown soils (RCH-2 Bt, Bunny Bt and NHH 44 Bt) expressing cry1Ac gene were evaluated for their effects on soil microbial population, Microbial Biomass carbon (MBC), Microbial Biomass Nitrogen (MBN), soil respiration, and Dehydrogenase (DHA) activity to ascertain for rhizosphere soil quality under field conditions.

The article analyzes the composition and conservation significance of the plants protected by the global and national “Red Lists” in the specific diversity of the Ajara floristic region. The article discusses the peculiarities of growth-development and reproductive biology of the plants of the tertiary period relict species of wingnut - Pterocarya pterocarpa growing at the Batumi Botanical Garden, protected by the International Union of Conservation of Nature (IUCN), Georgian “Red Book” and Georgian “Red List”.

Coffe seeds are classified like intermediate, presenting difficulties in production of viable and vigor seeds for a long period of time. The objective of this work was to evaluate the viability of coffee seeds using different microbial control agents storage in natural environment. The fruits were selected in cherry phase, peeled and desmucilated in natural fermentation for 12 hours, with initial water content of 42%.

Oxidative stress is defined as the imbalance between the production of free radicals and the ability of the body to detoxify their harmful effects through neutralization by antioxidants. The aim of the study was to investigate the effect of cadmium on oxidative stress enzymes and the reversal effect of vitamin-C. For this purpose rats were exposed to cadmium through subcutaneous injections and post administration of vitamin-C for a period of thirty days.

During the period of 2013-2015, in the proving grounds of the Agricultural Institute - Shumen was performed an assessment for the agent causing cercosporosis – Cercospora beticola Sacardo from 16 selection materials of mangold. The assessment is made under natural infectious background, with importing of the leaf fertilizer umustim” (1000ml/ha), as well as without it. For the aims of the examination is performed proving test on the block method scheme, in four successions. The recordings are made based on point scales unified by the Agricultural Institute.

During the period from 2012 – 2014,in the proving grounds of the Agricultural Institute – Shumen, has been performed an assessment of the selection forms of sugar beet to the agents causing fusarium rotting and scab root decay. The assessment is performed under field conditions in natural infectious background, with block method attempts, in 4 successions and with size of the cultivation area – 10.8 m2. The disease spreading is recorded and shown in % of sick plants per unit of area (ha).

Concrete although is a mechanically strong construction material, but suffer from several inherent drawbacks, such as low tensile strength, permeability to liquid and consequent corrosion of reinforcement, susceptibility to chemical attack and low durability, ultimately reduced service life. Therefore, properties such as strength, permeability, crack formation and corrosion properties defines the overall quality of concrete.

A pot trial study was conducted to determine the efficacy of combined application of both fungal and bacterial antagonistic organism against Fusarium wilt of cotton. Further, also to estimate the rhizosphere population of antagonistic organism. Among the treatment, combined application of T. viride + P.

In this Paper presents the result for different dielectric constant values and the result is performed by thickness of 2.88mm and resonance frequency of 2GHz where 2.32 (Duroid) are gives the best result. In the recent years the development in communication systems requires the evelopment of low cost, minimal weight, low profile antennas that are capable of maintaining high performance over a wide spectrum of frequencies. This technological trend has focused much effort into the design of a Microstrip patch antenna.

As evident from the literature, in recent years a significant portion of research work in heterocyclic chemistry has been devoted to pyrazolines containing different aryl groups as substituents. The coordination chemistry of pyrazoline derived ligands has received much attention, primarily due to their biological implications. Several studies have centered around synthesis and structural studies of metal complexes of pyrazolines containing bidentate ligands (S, N, O donors) due to the reported biological activities of these donor ligands and complexes obtained from them.

In this paper we obtain the size of the disc in which the zeros of polar derivatives of polynomial of degree n with real coefficients with respect to a real α lie.

In this paper we compare the best partitions of data units (cities) obtained from different algorithms of Ascendant Hierarchical Cluster Analysis (AHCA) of a well-known data set of the literature on symbolic data analysis (“city temperature interval data set”) with a priori partition of cities given by a panel of human observers. The AHCA was based on the weighted generalised affinity, a(k,k'), with equal weights, and on the probabilistic coefficient, α_WW (k,k'), associated with the asymptotic standardized weighted generalized affinity coefficient by the method of Wald and Wolfowitz.

A user would issue a query and expect a response to be returned within the deadline. While the use of fault tolerance mechanisms through redundancy improves query reliability. We develop a mathematical model for the lifetime of the sensor system as a function of system parameters including the “source” and “path” redundancy levels utilized. Data sensing and retrieval in wireless sensor systems have a widespread application in areas such as security and surveillance monitoring.

Introduction: The indiscriminate disposal of waste has resulted in a rise in deadly infections such as Human Immunodeficiency virus and Hepatitis B. Therefore, Biomedical Waste Management has recently emerged as an issue of major concern. Objectives: To study the handling, segregation and collection practices of bio-medical solid waste in the hospital and its mandatory compliance with Regulatory Notifications for Bio-medical Waste (Management and Handling) Rules, 1998.

This paper presents an algorithm for calculating mixed Nash equilibria in 2-player games. The algorithm is based on the mathematical equivalence between the expected payoff function of bi-matrix games and the fuzzy average. It was proved that the expected payoff function of 2-player games is identical to the fuzzy average of two linguistic values when the payoff matrix is replaced with the consequence matrix, the strategy sets are replaced with term sets in linguistic variables.

SnO2 nanoparticles were synthesized by microwave assisted hydrothermal method using SnCl2•2H2O as a precursor. The synthesized SnO2 nanoparticles were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier Transform Infra-Red spectroscopy (FT-IR), Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM), Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM), to find their structure and crystal size, functional group, particle morphology, surface morphology respectively. The broad peaks in the X-ray diffraction spectra indicate that the obtained powder is SnO2 and are in crystalline nature.

Simultaneous with developing science and technology, increasing need to controller devices is felt more than before. Among these controller devices, those sensors preparing with optical fiber due to themselves advantages are very popular. In this study factor of distance in three main directions for an optical fiber sensor from 200 to 2700 micrometer has been studied and results was shown in two orders, microwatt and dBm. Accordingly, the maximum light reach to second fiber when two fibers be only fixed in a line (Z axis).

The predicament of defense has been an obsession of torment to any escalating nation. It has been branded that one dome by which this hindrance can be scuffled is to boast a safe border where the populace that nomadic of the nation is being documented and properly scrutinized. In line, to skirmish the colonization control, the manuscript consequently anticipated a safe and sound frontier defense using dual countenance check through Boast Cosseted (BC) scheme.

Highly engaged workforce can increase innovation, productivity, and bottom-line performance when their jobs are well designed. Job design represents the delineation of task responsibility as dictated by organizational strategy, technology and structure. This study explores the effect of job design on employee engagement using the social exchange theory. The study considers the relationship between the variables of job design which include skill variety, task identity, task significance, autonomy and feedback on employee engagement. The study employed cross-sectional survey design.

The objective of the study was to investigate the occurrence of upper extremity musculoskeletal overuse injuries among professional lawn tennis players belonging Gwalior region. The total of 86 professional tennis players (N=86) having at least 3 years of competitive experience were purposely selected for the study. The data was collected through interview method. The overuse injuries selected for this study were associated with Wrist, Elbow and Shoulder joint. The percentage analysis statistical technique was employed to analyse the data.

The word tax is derived from the Latin word ‘taxare’ meaning to estimate. Tax policies play an important role on the economy through their impact on both efficiency and equity. The replacement of the state sales taxes by the Value Added Tax in 2005 marked a significant step forward in the reform of domestic trade taxes in India. The goods and services tax (GST) is aimed at creating a single, unified market that will benefit both corporate and the economy.

In Islam, ethical values have the highest significance in business transactions. They are the most important elements that can distinguish Islamic business from conventional business. For this reason, this paper examines the implementation of Islamic business ethics in term of merchants, commodities circulating in the market, and market movements. The research adopts classical and modern jurists’ approaches to analyse jurisprudential issues on the theme from the Islamic juristic perspective. It explores ethical conducton financial products and services.

Oral Narration plays a prominent role in the life of the tribal’s. It chronicled the history of the people and its identity. This tradition recorded the very life of the people, their beliefs, the wars fought, the cultivation systems, the values and beliefs, the customs and traditions, events of peace and war and their entire social life. This rich oral tradition has been the only source of history handed to the present generation according to each narrator’s best knowledge and memory power .The hegemonic narration influenced the life of the people in all aspects.

The study aimed to find out the performance of Teacher Education students in their English subjects. It also determined the significant differences in the performance of the respondents when they were grouped as to sex, course and year level. It utilized the descriptive method in describing students’ performance and attitude towards English subjects at West Visayas State University – Janiuay Campus (WVSU-JC).

The purpose of this study was to investigate the influence of type of school on academic motivation and academic performance among secondary school students attending day schools within Nakuru municipality. The study also investigated how gender, age of the student, and category of school contribute towards academic motivation and academic performance. The objectives specific to this study were to investigate how type of school influenced academic motivation and academic performance. The study adapted the ex-post facto design.

Rivers are one of the most dynamic entities over the earth’s surface. River channels are confined to symmetrical and definite track. They persistently shift their courses over the space through time. A river has its tendency to attain an equilibrium condition so as to adjust itself with the varying fluvial-geomorphic as well as climatic conditions. Changes in river channel and its immediate surroundings over space and time require historical analysis and careful observation of the river system.

The investors carefully watch the performance of stock markets by observing the composite market index in general and BSE Sensex in particular before their investment. The Sensex (market index) acts as a yardstick to influence foreign investors to secure investments in the form of Forex Reserves. It provides a base for investors in forecasting future trends in the market. Hence, It is essential to understand whether Sensex causes Forex Reserves or otherwise to formulate suitable policies.

This study aims at investigating EFL College Students' Attitudes Toward Using Facebook and its Impact on Writing Skill. The population of this research comprises the number of the students attending the third stage at English Departments in College of Basic Education and College of Education, Misan University. A random sample of fifty EFL students has been chosen to be the study sample. It includes 12 males (24%) and 38 females (76%). The participants range in age from 21 to 22 years. In order to fulfill the aim of the present study, a checklist is constructed by the researcher herself.

Meaning has been one of the primordial issues of concern because of its enigmatic nature not only in the Oriental Philosophy but also in the Occidental tradition. Initially rationalism and empiricism dominated the ambit of analytic philosophy, and it is not an exception to these impacts. Later on, the concept has been dealt with structuralist and post-structuralist perspectives. The paper undertaken hereby aims at conducting a contrastive study on the conception of the problem of meaning approached by two schools of philosophy: structuralism and post-structuralism.

Hypertension is one of the major health challenges of 21st century, which, for most countries, has developed together with rapid cultural and social changes, ageing populations, increasing urbanization, dietary changes, reduced physical activity, and other unhealthy behaviors. Objectives: (1) It is aimed to determine the temperament of persons suffering from hypertension. (2) To estimate the prevalence of hypertension in different temperaments. (3) To study the relationship, between hypertension and temperament, if any.

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