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April 2017

This is a review paper intended to bring to focus the concept of effective service delivery as applicable in the health sector and the seemly causes of low productivity in the context of our country, Nigeria vis-à-vis its attendant public health implication. The objective of this review work is to determine the extent to which the basic components of health services delivery could contribute to meeting the health care needs of the population or otherwise in our circumstance as a nation.

Aim: To determine the various denture marking systems used for identification of the Subjects for personal identification in post mortem scenarios in the literature. Sources used: An electronic search was conducted for articles written in English or translated into English listed with pubmed, Cochranelibrary, Science Direct, Wiley online library, Google scholar data bases, till January 5th 2017 reporting various ways of denture marking and their uses.

Topic: Presence of bla NMD 1 gene in urinary isolates of klebsiella species Aim : To detect the presence of bla NDM 1 gene for the production of MBL in urinary isolates of klebsiella species in tertiary care hospital. Objective: A sum total of 20 will be used to detect the presence of bla NDM 1 gene for the production of MBL in urinary isolates of klebsiella species in tertiary care hospital. Background: Recently the B BETA-lactamase NDM 1has become a source of serious concern.

Aim: The aim of this study was to evaluate the various smile parameters among South Indian population. Materials and Methods: 50 subjects of age 18 to 25 years with a pleasing smile were selected for the study. Static photographs of posed smiles were taken in natural head position, with camera lens perpendicular to the occlusal plane. The following smile parameters were quantified using Adobe Photoshop ruler software. 1. Maxillary incisor exposure (mm) 2. Smile index (SI) (mm) 3. Smile arc 4. Most posterior maxillary tooth visible 5. Anterior height of the smile (%) 6.

Aim: To determine the morphometric of pterion in south Indian skulls Materials and Methods: A total 40 dry human adult aged skull of unknown sex were studied. A 0-150 mm digital electronical calliper was used for Morphometrical measurements. Results: In the present study, four Types of pterion: sphenoparietal, frontotemporal, stellate and epipteric were observed in south Indian skulls. The dominant type of pterion was Sphenoparietal (83%).

Aim: To review the literature on the advances on enamel regeneration and the challenges faced. Objective: To compile the various advances in the field of enamel regeneration. Background: Enamel is the outermost covering of the crown of the teeth. It consists of 96% organic material and 4% inorganic material. The most abundant protein in enamel is amelogenin. Since it's the outermost covering it is prone to damage and dental caries despite of its strong structure. Reason for the project: The ameloblasts degenerate after enamel formation and so enamel cannot be regenerated in case of damage.

Aim: To asses the knowledge, attitude and awareness about infection control among dental students. Objective: To asses the knowledge about infection control of the dental student in order to evaluate the attitude and awareness about infection control among dental students using various parameters. Back Ground: Infection is the invasion of an organism's body tissues by disease-causing agents, their multiplication, and the reaction of host tissues to these organisms and the toxins they produce.

Aim: To study the uses of BRUSHES App in visual education. Objective: To observe and compare the educational results between visual learning methods and standard textbook learning techniques. Materials and Methods: A video was made on a topic by using BRUSHES App. A sample size of 100 students was chosen. 50 students answered an MCQ quiz after reading the topic and 50 answered the same quiz after watching the video made on it by using the BRUSHES App and the results were compared. Results: The mean rank of the correct answers by textbook learning method is 1.90 and by video it is 3.10.

The outcome of root canal treatment is based on efficient disinfection of the root canal system and prevention of reinfection. Enterococcus faecalis has been found to be one of the predominant bacteria in root canal failure teeth. The bacteria appear to be highly resistant to available medicaments. Irrigants have been traditionally delivered using a syringe and a needle. The problem with this irrigation technique is inadequate replacement of the irrigant throughout the root canal system. Therefore various new devices like Endoactivator have been introduced.

Ramipril is an angiotensin- converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitor, used to Hypertension (high blood pressure) and congestive heart failure (CHF). These inhibitors relax (arterioles) the muscles around small arteries. They expand the arterioles and allow to blood flow through more easily. This reduces blood pressure (B.P).

Aim: To know the principles of resin infiltration technique. Background: Resin infiltration technique was first described in 1970s for conservative management of non cavitated smooth surface curious lesions. Caries infiltration is a micro-invasive treatment to arrest non-cavitated caries lesions. The method is based on the penetration of low-viscosity light-curing resins, so called infiltrants, into the pores within the enamel lesion. Reason: This technique is a minimally invasive technique to treat the non cavitated smooth surface caries.

Anxiety is the major reason for skipping the dental appointments by the patient. Anxiety differs from one individual to another and past dental treatment experienced by the patient also determine the anxiety levels of the patients. In this clinical study pre operative anxiety levels and the changes in the vitals such as blood pressure, pulse and oxygen saturation of the patients undergoing first mandibular third molar impaction surgery were recorded and analysed its anxiety associated changes prior to the procedure.

Introduction: Placenta previa is an obstetric complication in which the placenta is inserted partially or wholly in the lower uterine segment. It is a leading cause of antepartum haemorrhage (vaginal bleeding). It affects approximately 0.4-0.5% of all labours. Women with placenta previa often present with painless, bright red vaginal bleeding. This commonly occurs around 32 weeks of gestation, but can be as early as late mid-trimester. Much debate has been given to the optimal timing of delivery in cases of placental abnormalities.

Introduction: Aim of the study to evaluate the association between facial morphology and various depths of curve of spee and variations in males and females in South Indian population. Methods: 96 diagnostic casts and lateral head cephalograms of selected subjects on the basis of depths of curve of Spee as measured on the mandibular casts were selected. The subjects were divided into three Groups (Group-I- 0-2 mm, Group -II >2-4 mm and Group-III >4 mm of curve of Spee), (n=32, m=16, f=16) and further into subgroups according to sex.

Sepsis occurs when pathogenic infections become systemic, and the response itself leads to both morbidity and mortality. Here I propose, that the immune response is a “localized” response, evolved to isolate infections and to prevent them from spreading when our epithelium is damaged, that goes into overdrive when pathogens do break through the “barrier” and invade the body in a systemic manner.

Background: Many techniques have been discussed to record horizontal condylar inclination and transfer it to an articulator, but the most popular and commonly used technique to determine horizontal condylar inclination is use of inter-occlusal protrusive records. Considering, this study was planned to evaluate the effect of three different inter-occlusal recording materials on horizontal condylar guidance values in two different semi adjustable articulators with reference to condylar guidance values obtained by lateral cephalometric tracing.

Objective: The present study was undertaken to search out the status of antioxidant enzymes, apoptotic markers of sperm pellet and their molecular mechanism study in the diabetic patients under regular and irregular mode of different duration dependent treatment protocol within 25-40 years age group. Methods: Blood glycemic sensors, seminal catalase, superoxide dismutase (SOD), Bax, Bcl-2 protein, transcriptions of catalase, SOD, Bax and Bcl-2 genes in sperm were evaluated.

Inflammatory Pseudotumor of the paratesticular region are rare and are often misdiagnosed. Despite being rare, Inflammatory tumors of the paratesticular area represents the second most common paratesticular mass after adenomatoid tumor roughly comprising 6% of the lesions. They present clinically as long standing painless scrotal masses. These are reactive proliferation of inflammatory and fibrous tissue. The initial stimulus may be a previous surgery, trauma, infection, or inflammation.

The popularity of application of kinesio tape (KT) during the rehabilitation process, and the need for empirical evidence on the effect of kinesio tape are compelling reasons to perform further researches on KT. This study was conducted to explore the changes that may occur in the peak torque (PT) of ankle evertors and invertors as well as the ankle strength ratios (EVCON/INVECC and EVECC/INVCON) as a result of applying different taping modes. The examined taping modes were; No tape, athletic tape (AT) and kinesio tape (KT).

Microleakage and marginal opening are related to most of the fixed restoration failures. The luting cements irrespective of their contents show some amount of dissolution when they come in contact with oral environment. Marginal opening between cemented crowns and their tooth margins mainly related to cement dissolution. This in vitro study investigated the effect of two different luting agent namely resin cement and resin modified glass ionomer cement on microleakage under metal crown. Twenty intact human premolars were randomized to two groups of ten teeth each.

Radiation therapy is used as a single modality in the curative treatment of early stage head and neck cancer or as a part of multimodality therapy in the curative treatment of locally advanced head and neck cancers. Adverse tissue reactions associated with the use of radiotherapy in the management of patients with head and neck cancer are painful and they diminish the quality of life, often discouraging the patient from taking treatment. RADIATION CARRIER works as a boon for these patients.

Cutaneous fungal infections are common diseases in humans, and can also be caused by dermatophytic fungi and some yeasts. Superficial candidiasis is a common infection of the oral cavity, vagina, skin and esophagus, although most infections occur in patients who are immunocompromised. Candida albicansis responsible for many of these infections, but occasionally other members of the genus are associated, and generally infect the skin, nails, or mucous membranes. This study involves the determination of antifungal activity of Candida spp against apple cidar vinegar.

Background and Objectives: Symptomatic gallstones are easy to treat, unfortunately however asymptomatic gallstones are as easy to treat. This creates a problem for health care planners in the form of the financial implications involved, since asymptomatic gallstones are even more common than gallstones associated with symptoms and require no surgical intervention, while the funds diverted towards dealing with them drains the health care establishment of much needed funds in an era of costly health care.

Background: The Reorientation of Medical Education (ROME) Program has been adopted by World Health Organization. The implementation of ROME in spite of its visible and tangible benefits has not been possible in most of the medical colleges in India. The Mahatma Gandhi Institute of Medical Sciences (MGIMS), Sewagram, is one of the exceptions where ROME programme is being implemented since last fourty years. The present study is an attempt to understand the student’s perspectives and learning during the reorientation of medical education programme.

Background: Panoramic radiograph serves as an indispensible screening and diagnostic tool in oral and maxillofacial imaging. This study was designed to detect the frequency of occult pathologies using the panoramic radiograph. Aim and Objective: To estimate the occult pathologic findings in panoramic radiographs unrelated to the chief complaint and clinical diagnosis. Methodology: This study was conducted at the Department of Oral Medicine and Radiology in a teaching dental hospital using 1032 panoramic radiographs retrieved from May 2015 to October 2015.

Objectives: To correlate the severity of the disease, maternal and perinatal outcome with Lactic Dehydrogenase levels in serum in patients of preeclampsia and eclampsia. Methods: A prospective comparative study was conducted in department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology in Govt Rajaji Hospital, Madurai. Out of 150 women studied, 75 women were normal pregnant women, 28 women were non severe preeclampsia, 27 cases were severe preeclampsia and 20 cases were eclampsia. The statistical analysis was done by chi square test analysis of variance and sample “t” test.

Background: Gestational trophoblastic disease (GTD) is an uncommon complication of pregnancy, worldwide the incidence varying between 0.5 & 0.8 cases per 1000 live births. β-hCG has been used as standard tool for monitoring the biological activity of trophoblastic diseases and as a tumour marker. The abundant vascular supply of the tumour makes Colour Doppler Ultrasound a potentially useful tool to study its clinical behaviour. Objective: To evaluate the role of uterine artery doppler in earlier prediction of resolution in post molar surveillance compared to serial β-hCG follow up.

This paper presents a care of takayasu arteritis, a rare large vessel inflammatory disease complicating pregnancy. Takayasu arteritis is a chronic granulamatous inflammation of aorta and it’s major branches which can manifest as isolated, atypical and/or catastrophic disease. It can involve any/or all major organs. It has been reported from all parts of world but more prevalent in Asians / Indian descent. In Indians, abdominal involvement is common when compared to aorta.

Background: The rising problem of triple burden of diseases among the urban poor in the absence of affordable health care services is a big public health challenge in India. This paper explores the health care seeking behavior and utilization pattern among families residing in the slum areas of Mumbai, India. Methods: Simple random sampling was used to decide the sampling frame of six plots consisted of 1000 households. Data were collected from 15% of these households by choosing the household by systemic random sampling.

Primary Pulmonary Hypertension (PPH) is a life-threatening disease. Vasodilator drug have been used as a treatment but their efficacy is uncertain, a new treatment strategy using high dose of calcium channel blockers as one of the drug used. Nifidipine is one such drug of the family of calcium channel blockers that induced gingival overgrowth. Drug induced gingival overgrowth remains a significant problem for periodontologist.

Background: This study was undertaken to evaluate the effect of various cavity configurations on the tensile bond strength of hybrid and nanofilled composites. Materials and Methods: In this in vitro study eighty extracted molars of the permanent dentition were divided into two main experimental and two control groups (Group I & Control I - Hybrid composite; Group II & Control II - Nanofilled composite). Cavity of 2mm depth and 3mm, 4mm and 6mm diameter was prepared for each experimental group. Accordingly, group I and II were divided into 3 subgroups (n = 10).

Blood transfusion is an important mode of transmission of infections to recipients. The aim of the study was to assess the prevalence of transfusion-transmissible infections among blood donors. A five years retrospective study was conducted at F.A.A. Medical College, Barpeta, Assam among voluntary and replacement donors from the 2011 to 2015. Donors were screened for prevalence of HIV, HBV, HCV, Malaria and syphilis. (A total of 18279 donors undergone screening test MP, RPR, HbsAg, HCV and HIV prior to collection.

Purpose: To measure and compare the display of maxillary and mandibular anterior teeth during rest, speech and smiling and to determine the effect of age and gender on tooth visibility during the above mentioned expressions in a group of Indian population. Materials and methods: A digital videographic technique was used to record 120 subjects when they were smiling and speaking and at rest. Individual frames of interest were captured and the tooth visibility was measured with the help of software presentation tools.

Background: Sexual variations in human skeleton and dentition have been of great concern for both odontologists and anthropologists. The tooth crown size is a valuable tool and provides significant information on human evolution and biological alterations in forensic evaluation. Objectives: To determine the mesio-distal (MD) and bucco-lingual/palatal (BL) crown width of all permanent maxillary and mandibular first molars on dental cast for sex determination. Material and Method: A prospective study was undertaken in 200 participants of age 16-35 years.

The anatomic complexities and variations are constant challenges for successful endodontic therapy. A unique morphology with double canal systems in each root was identified. The morphology was characterized by a single palatal root with two canals joining in the apical third, single mesiobuccal root with two mesiobuccal canals and single distobuccal root with two distobuccal canals with two separate orifice and two separate foramina. The present case report discusses the endodontic management of an unusual case of a maxillary first molar with three roots and six canals.

This study is to find the association between serum vitamin D levels and severity of acute respiratory tract infections (ARTI) in children from an area with abundant sunlight. A one year cross sectional observational study conducted at a rural tertiary teaching hospital at Kolar, South India with a sample size of 82 clinically diagnosed ARTI and serum Vitamin D levels measured. Cases were classified into three sub groups as per Integrated management of childhood illnesses (IMNCI).Amongst, thirteen (15.8%) cases had no pneumonia, 38 (46.4%) had pneumonia and 31 (37.8%) had severe pneumonia.

Access to safe water, proper refuse and sewage disposal, as well as good personal and environmental hygiene which affect the health of populations remains a challenge for many developing countries. Sanitation practices including water sanitation, solid waste management, sewage disposal and personal hygiene and the occurrence of fever and diarrhoea among respondents were assessed in this study. It was a cross- sectional study conducted in 3 settlements of Tudun Wada ward of Jos North LGA of Plateau State among 355 adult respondents selected by a multistage sampling technique.

Introduction: WHO has estimated that 75 % of deaths in developing countries will be due to obesity related diseases. Hence, this study was conducted to assess the lipid profile in apparently healthy Sri Lankan subjects who were not diagnosed with any chronic or major diseases (apparently healthy). Methods: An interviewer administered questionnaire was used to obtain socio demographic data. Blood samples obtained from individual participants after 12 hours overnight fast was tested for lipid profiles. Anthropometric measurements were obtained according to standard procedures.

Impression making is a crucial step of complete denture construction. While many surveys have been conducted on this topic elsewhere, there are few such surveys in India with none in Goa. The purpose of this study was to survey dental practitioners across the state of Goa for complete denture impression materials and techniques. A questionnaire consisting of 27 questions regarding complete denture impression procedures was prepared which was distributed to 156 dental practitioners at Indian Dental Association Conference, Goa State Branch.

Aim of the Study: To review and suggest treatment approach for Primary Leiomyosarcoma of cervix. Material and Method: This literature review has been done to find out optimum management protocol for Primary Leiomyosarcoma of the cervix by search in PubMed Central, Embase, Cochrane, and Web of Science Central database. The obtained information, thus, has been classified as per Oxford Centre for Evidence Based Medicine (OCEBM) level of evidence, and National Comprehensive Cancer Network (NCCN) Categories of Evidence and Consensus.

Cysticercosis is a systemic parasitic disease caused by the larval form of cestode Taenia solium and it presents with variable clinical manifestations. The patient most commonly presents with subcutaneous and muscle involvement in the form of nodular lesions. However involvement of breast, as in this case, is a rare presentation. A perimenopausal female presented with swelling in the upper outer quadrant of right breast since 2 months. The Ultrasonography (USG) examination was performed and it suggested a well defined hypoechoic lesion.

The pcarried research work on the introduction gives us wide perspectives for the use of new species and sorts of trees and shrubs in the greening of our republic. The main successful adaptation of exotics in planting is a comprehensive assessment of plants capacity in the new environment. Introduced plants must be resistant to adverse environmental factors, characterized by rapid growth and distinguish with their high decorative qualities. There are carried out more introduction works at the Institute of Dendrology of ANAS regarding to them.

Background and objectives: The prison population is a unique and challenging one, with many health problems, including poor oral health. Dental diseases can reach epidemic proportions in the prison setting. The aim of the study was to assess the oral health status and treatment needs of prisoners in district jail of Raichur city, Karnataka. Material and Methods: A cross sectional study was carried out on 102 prisoners (males were 98 and females were 04) in the district jail of Raichur.

Pleomorphic adenoma of the lacrimal gland (PALG) is a rare benign mixed tumor of the lacrimal gland. We are presenting a fifty nine years old male with painless swelling of left eye lid and a palpable mass on superolateral aspect of lid. On computed tomography CT scan of orbit that mass was indenting the globe with invasion of sheath of lateral rectus muscle. On surgical excision it was proved a case of PALG. No case has been yet reported with PALG producing compression of globe and lateral rectus muscle sheath involvement.

The preferred approach for mandibular full arch prosthesis is placement of implants between and beyond the mental foramen for better stress distribution and elimination of cantilevers. The rigid framework over these implants is splitted to overcome the action of mandibular flexion. However, in situations of unavailability of bone in posterior mandible, the traditional branemark approach of placing 4 to 6 implants between mental foramen is used.

Cardiomyopathies are important causes of cardiac death in people and are responsible for arrhythmias and premature heart failure in all age groups. Although many cardiomyopathies are inherited, biochemical markers are a fundamental part of the diagnostic work-up and are useful in the prognostic and therapeutic assessment of disease. Excluding that of idiopathic DCM, there are various pathogenic pathways that can lead to DCM. Different pathways yield different biochemical substances that can be used as biomarkers.

Background: More than 50% of new cases of lung cancer are diagnosed in elderly patients. Does age is a factor for deciding the treatment options? The question remains unsolved even in present era as the median survival time of elderly patients was significantly lower compared with that of younger patients. Methods: We conducted a cross sectional study using data base of 175 patients of primary lung cancer with age 60 years and above diagnosed in indoor and outdoor of the Department of Radiotherapy at Regional Cancer Centre, RIMS, Manipur, India from January 2011 to December 2015.

Infertility is defined as failure to conceive despite one year of cohabitation and exposure to pregnancy, by the World Health Organization (1991). It is acquiring a proportion of global widespread prevalence of approximately 8-12%.Patient records from these fertility clinics were analysed and 2112 women out of 3051 women were identified as being infertile with the major cause being Polycystic ovary syndrome. The treatment modalities offered to these women were IUI and ICSI. This study aims to create awareness about it and its early detection as the treatment modalities are expensive.

Background: Diabetes Mellitus is one of the most common metabolic disorder and leading cause of death & disability in the world. It is due to absolute or relative insulin deficiency which leads to increased blood glucose level. Magnesium is a crucial co-factor for many enzymatic reactions involved in metabolic process. So Mg depletion has negative impact on glucose homeostasis and insulin sensitivity.

Background: Among different plaque controlling methods tooth brushing is the primary and most important measure to remove dental plaque and to maintain good oral hygiene. Effective tooth brushing is dependent on multiple factors. Toothbrush grip among different factors affecting tooth brushing is less well studied and documented. Aim and Objective: The aim of the present study is to evaluate the effectiveness of plaque removing ability with tooth brush grip in children aged 6-10 year.

Purpose: The purpose of this study is to evaluate the role of internal layer of periosteum in a new bone formation in the dynamic periosteal distraction. Materials and methods: A custom-made dynamic periosteal distraction device consisted of titanium plate fixed to the lateral surface of the mandible in 10 adult rabbits. The plate was perforated in 5 rabbits (group1) and non-perforated in the others (group 2). Periosteal distraction was started 7days after placement of the periosteal distraction device. Then the device was activated at a rate of 0.25 mm every12 hours for 5 days.

Perforated duodenal ulcer is a common surgical emergency and the most common cause of peritonitis. Despite antiulcer medication and Helicobacter eradication, Perforated peptic ulcer (PPU), is still the most common indication for emergency gastric surgery and is associated with high morbidity and mortality. The outcome might be improved by performing this procedure laparoscopically. Laparoscopic omental patch repair of perforated peptic ulcer carries less morbidity and mortality and early return of patients to their normal dailyroutine.

Background and Objectives: Annually more than 1 million new cases of oral cancer are detected in the Indian subcontinent of which 92-95% are Oral squamous cell carcinomas (OSCC).A wide spectrum of chromosomal, genetic and molecular alterations is associated with both pathogenesis and malignant transformation of OSMF and oral leukoplakia, yet majority remains unclear.A correlation of E-cadherin-160C/A with cancer susceptibility was described in a premalignant diseases.In this context this study aims at investigating the association between polymorphism in the CDH1-160 promoter region in pati

Aim: To assess the knowledge and create awareness of opportunistic infection of aids in the general population of Chennai. Objective: To assess the knowledge regarding the symptoms, mode of transmission, causes, and prevention and control measures associated with opportunistic infection of aids in the general population of Chennai .also to study the relationship of level of awareness between age, sex and educational status.

Introduction Despite newer technological advances in dentistry in recent years, there still exist major challenges for the restoration of excessively flared endodontically treated teeth with extensive coronal tooth structure loss. The aim of this study is to evaluate and compare the fracture resistance of excessively flared endodontically treated teeth with extensive coronal tooth structure loss with different reinforcement techniques. Method: Standardized MOD cavities were prepared on single rooted premolars followed by root canal preparation.

Aim: To emphasize the recent updates on stem cell and regenerative medicine - therapeutic approaches and challenges. Objective: To study and review the various available literatures on stem cell and regenerative medicine both their therapeutic approaches and challenges in the field of medicine and dentistry Background: Stem cells have been defined as clone cells that undergo both self-renewal and differentiation to more committed progenitors and functionally specialized mature cells. In the recent times, stem cells have been identified in a variety of tissues of an adult body.

Aim: To write a systematic review on the various treatment options in the management of bruxism. Material and method: A literature search was performed, to search on the related article on bruxism. Since the literature of bruxism is broad topic, this paper is focusing on treatment that available to treat bruxism patients. The article was searched via National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI) in order to get accessed for Pub Med articles, by using the following query: 'treatment option for bruxism' or 'management of bruxism' or 'therapy of bruxism' or 'way to control bruxism'.

Objective: To determine risk factors in the 25- to 55-year-old population who visited to the Community Hospital of Palizada, Campeche during the period from Augist 2015 to July 2016. Materials and Methods: A cross- Analytical, observational and descriptive, including patients attending the Community Hospiatl of Palizada, Campeche, 114 met the inclusion criteria, 57 male and 57 female. Results: Of the 114 patients evaluated: 23 (2.17%) were within the normal weight limit, 51% (44.73%) were overweight and 40 (35.08%) were found to be diagnosed with obesity.

Background and objectives: Copper and Zinc are important trace elements that play a vital role in maintaining various functions of the body at cellular level. Copper and Zinc are involved in many of the anabolic and catabolic enzymatic reactions in the body which determine the cellular growth and differentiation. Copper is responsible for up-regulation of collagen synthesis by regulation of enzyme lysyl oxidase thus enhancing fibrosis in OSMF. Zinc is involved in maintaining cell membrane integrity that is disturbed in OSMF.

Premature labor is well known complication of burns in pregnant women. Ritodrine is a beta-adrenergic receptor agonist that is commonly used to arrest premature labor. A case of burn in pregnancy in which ritodrine resulted in tachycardia, hypokalemia and hyperglycemia is presented. Other side effects of ritodrine are discussed to increase the awareness of burn surgeons to these side effects.

Background: Galvanism is having dissimilar metals in the teeth (e.g.-amalgam, or gold and mercury, or stainless steel and mercury) causes galvanic action, electrical currents, and much higher mercury vapour levels and levels in oral Mercury and other metals accumulate in the oral cavity in fibroblasts, macrophages, and multinuclear giant cells of connective tissue, in blood vessel walls. Such mercury including that in the commonly formed amalgam tattoos moves to other parts of the body over time in significant amounts.

Nosocomial infections are the hospital acquired infections caused by the pathogenic microorganisms such as bacteria, fungi, viruses and parasites. The purpose of this study was to demonstrate the importance of the use of antiseptics in preventing and controlling the nosocomial infections. Hand washing is the most important factor in controlling the transmission of nosocomial infections by bacteria, viruses and pathogens. Most of the health care professionals do not wash their hands before and after contact with the patients.

Aim: To determine the knowledge and awareness of various topical anaesthetic agents used in dentistry among the dental practitioners. Background: Topical anaesthesia is a numbing gel it is used to numb your gums or other tissues before an injection so that u can't feel the needle glide in and to relieve the pain during procedures. These products contain drugs such as benzocaine, lidocaine or tetracaine. Materials and method: A questionnaire was made consisting of 10 questions. It was send to 50 dental practitioners working in Chennai and were asked to answer.

Trichosporon asahii, has been reported increasingly in immunocompetent hosts. There are only sporadic reports of infections caused by T. asahii reported. We report a case of successful management of T. asahii infection with orally administered fluconazole in a 71 year old patient.

Background: A lot of oral and nasopharyngeal microorganism are present on the dental cast. The amount of microorganisms that are found in the oral fluids ranges from 4 millions to 5 billions per 1 milliliter, and that in dental plaque ranges from 10 and 1000 billions per 1 gram. These microorganisms survive on the dental cast even after removing then from the impression material and cause threat to the health of dental practitioner and thus the patients.

A plethora of patients undergo root canal procedures on a day to day basis. The drop out from the treatment protocols is even higher due to patient and/or doctor incompliance or even failure of treatment. This results in patients referring themselves elsewhere with symptoms due to incomplete treatment. In most of the cases it is noticed that the failure is associated with faulty coronal seal. The fault in the coronal seal may be due to varied reasons like infection of the prepared canals, fracture of restorations between appointments, doctor induced perforations and patient defiance.

Gallstones disease provides significant input to surgical opd and cause morbidity worldwide. Cholelithias is develops because of an imbalance in the chemical composition of bile inside the gallbladder and it is due to multifactorial etiology which include chronic alcoholism. Symptomatic patient's will undergo cholecystectomy. The important complications of long term gallstones are acute pancreatitis, cholecystitis, obstructive jaundice which alter the liver function and decrease the life expectancy.

Aneurysmal bone cysts (ABC’s), a rare distinct pathologic entity, is an intraosseous, osteolytic lesion seen as locally destructive, rapidly expansile which has been reported to affect mainly the metaphyseal region of long bones and vertebrae. Aneurysmal bone cysts secondary to ossifying fibroma remains a relatively uncommon finding in the facial bones, and it is extremely rare with only very few cases reported in the mandible.

Introduction: The most common emergency admissions to surgical ward are patients with acute abdominal pain, out of which spontaneous hollow viscus perforation is the commonest. The role of proton pump inhibitors in peptic ulcer disease treatment is tremendous for past two decades and significantly reduces the incident of peptic ulcer perforation and their surgical intervention as well. The appendicitis followed by its perforation is the commonest surgical emergency in young individuals. And ilea perforation due to typhoid is also not uncommon.

Removable Prosthodontics treatment involves the replacement and restoration of teeth by artificial substitutes. The number of adultpatients wear removable partial denture (RPD) due to their partially dentate are keep increasing. The treatment is done to avoid further loss of tooth by prosthodontics rehabilitation. Removable Prosthodontics treatment can offer exceptional satisfaction for both patient and dentist. The trend of the removable partial dentures had changed across the time through evolution of prosthodontics. The changes of trend including the impression techniques used.

Maxillofacial infection may range from low-grade, well localized infections to severe life threatening facial space infection. Oral and maxillofacial space infections have several etiologies such as odontogenic cause, surgical treatment, upper respiratory tract infection, penetrating trauma, and malignancies. Neglect of odontogenic infections can have serious consequences. The authors report a case of rapid progressive temporal and occipital space infection that originated from dental caries, which is a medical emergency.

Introduction: Trauma that affects the elbow region may result in significant soft tissue defect with exposure of the antecubital neurovascular and other vital structures. In this case study role of brachioradialis and latissimus dorsi muscles in reconstruction of complex upper limb defect is evaluated. Case Study: A fifty year old patient presented with severe crush injury to right upper limb which was salvaged with three staged surgical procedures.

Introduction: unlike the last decade the field of periodontics has evolved in the recent years and has gained utmost importance in the field of dentistry. There has been a tremendous about of advancement in diagnostic aids and methods in relation to periodontics. Materials and methods: The present study was carried in the form of a survey among 100 dental practitioners in rural areas in Navi Mumbai (Uran, Turbhe, Kalamboli, Panvel) with a minimum of one year of active clinical practice. Interns, dental students, and especially periodontists were excluded from the survey.

Ventral hernia repair is among the most common surgical operations performed worldwide and the two operative techniques most frequently used in case of ventral hernia are the onlay and sublay repair. However, it remains unclear which technique is superior. Objective: To evaluate the repair of ventral hernia by two different meth¬ods onlay (Conventional method) and sublay (retromuscular preperitoneal) methods.

Aim: To assess the radiation risk in Orthodontic patients. Materials and Methods: 116 patient records were assessed . 94 patients were advised CBCT for non Orthodontic reasons while 22 Orthodontic patients were advised CBCT. These patients were assessed for the number of 2D radiographs taken before advising a CBCT. Results: It was observed that multiple radiation exposure was done for the orthodontic patient. Most of the 2D radiographs taken before advising CBCT was IOPAs and OPGs for Non Orthodontic patients while it was IOPAs, OPGs and LatCephs for Orthodontic patients.

We present a case of splenic abscess causing pneumoperitoneum in a patient with diabetes mellitus. The presentation was initially vague and later evolved to an acute abdomen. An X-ray of the chest did not reveal pneumoperitoneum which was later detected by a CT scan. Exploratory laparotomy was performed under a clinical suspicion of hollow viscus perforation. This case report emphasizes that a ruptured abscess should be included in the differential diagnosis of acute abdomen in an immunocompromised patient.

The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of different surface treatments and zirconia type (white or colored) on shear bond strength (SBS) between zirconia and resin cements. Two main groups were created according to zirconia color. After coloring, white and colored sintered zirconia was divided into four surface treatment groups: control, air abrasion, silica coating, and air abrasion + erbium-doped yttrium-aluminum-garnet (Er:YAG) laser (n=20). After surface treatment, surface roughness and scanning electron microscopic analyses were conducted.

We are not normally conscious of our teeth, although we realize that they enable us to enjoy our food and to speak clearly, and that they make a contribution for better or for worse to our appearance. Patients commonly seek treatment when an edentulous space is visible or when they have difficulty in eating. There are however other indications for treatment which may lead the dentist to prescribe dentures. Successful dental prosthesis should represent the lost tissues in approximately the same amounts and in the same positions from which the tissues were lost.

Oral cancer is the 6th most common cancer worldwide. However the incidence of oral cancer is increasing day by day. It may involve any anatomical site of the oral cavity. It is estimated around 43% of cancer death are due to usage of tobacco in any forms, unhealthy diet, alcohol consumption, change in lifestyle, and infections. It is known that over one-third of cancers are preventable and one-third are potentially curable provided they are diagnosed and treated in the early stage of the disease. This requires multidisciplinary approach to prevent and manage the disease.

Introduction: Eclampsia is a potentially fatal disorder of pregnancy with a significant maternal and fetal morbidity and mortality rate. Objective: To investigate the incidence of eclampsia and its maternal and perinatal outcome of eclamptic patients admitted to Al-Thawra Modern General Hospital. Methods: A descriptive, cross-sectional study was carried out from April 2015 to March 2016. Data were collected as a face to face interview with eclamptic patients or their relatives. The questionnaire was used to collect data regarding present and past medical history.

To interpret the pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics properties of a drug molecule, plasma protein binding plays a substantial factor. The present study has been done to investigate the interaction of Tramadol hydrochloride (TRD) with bovine serum albumin (BSA) under physiological condition (pH 7.40) using UV absorption and fluorescence spectrophotometry at different temperatures (298K and 308K).

In the modern health care environment, professional nurses are required to respond to dynamic, complicated situations that require skills in problem solving, professional knowledge, decision-making ability, and group collaboration. Problem based learning (PBL) is a constructive teaching method that has positive learning outcomes. Yet no study has thus far examined the critical components that makes PBL work. This literature review will outline the origin of PBL, the characteristics that make PBL work, the advantages of PBL, the theoretical underpinnings of PBL, and the limitations of PBL.

Amelogenesis Imperfecta(AI) represents structural developmental defect of tooth enamel having complex inheritance pattern. It represents a group of heterogenous conditions. AI has several names such as hereditary enamel dysplasia, hereditary brown enamel, hereditary brown opalescent teeth. In this disorder, the enamel is hypoplastic, hypomineralized or both. It may show autosomal dominant, autosomal recessive, sex-linked or sporadic pattern.

Facial nerve paralysis (FNP), or Bell’s palsy is a neuropathy of the peripheral seventh cranial nerve, usually resulting from traumatic, compressive, infective, inflammatory or metabolic abnormalities and it results in a characteristic facial distor¬tion that is determined in part by the nerves branches involved. However, in many cases no etiology is identified and the eventual diagnosis is idiopathic. Facial nerve palsy is a rare complication of an inferior alveolar nerve block anaesthesia.

The main objective of this research paper is to utilize the waste carbide inserts in various machining operations by developing the index able boring bars, index able milling cutters which can be used for utilization of waste carbide inserts. The turning insert having size CNMG 120408 is used. In industry this carbide insert is used for turning processes. This is negative insert having 80 degree angle and rhombus geometry. Four edges are used and after using its edges this insert become wastage.

Objective: Metabolic syndrome is still unknown among Cameroonian population and few studies have been done among workers in Africa. This study aimed to estimate metabolic syndrome prevalence among Campus Police workers of Yaounde I University, Cameroon. Methods: A total of 53 workers (6 women and 47men) participated in the study, they were aged between 20-55 years. For their studied data, they were referred to the Andre Fouda Medical Fundation in Yaounde. Metabolic syndrome was diagnosed using Adult Treatment Panel-III (ATP-III) 2001 guidelines.

The prevalence of obesity is increasing throughout the world and in Cameroon especially with the high rate of nutritional transition. Its etiology is dependent on modifiable risk factors such as nutrition knowledge, level of physical activity, eating practices, access to employment and others factors. Therefore, it is a call of concern for everybody, mostly future civil servant such as higher teacher training students to be equipped with nutritional knowledge for further adoption of appropriate healthy eating practices.

Background: The simultaneous presence of Metabolic syndrome and type 2 diabetes among individuals is a favorable field for development of cardiovascular diseases. The aim of this study was to evaluated metabolic syndrome magnitude (MetS) among members of type 2 diabetic community of a Cameroonian rural area. Methods: A cross sectional study with a total of 100 known diabetic patients (37women and 63men) participated in the study at Mbaré district hospital, they were aged between 32-68 years.

Justicia is a genus of about 420 species of flowering plants in the family Acanthaceae native to tropical to warm temperate regions of the America with two species occurring north into cooler temperate regions. Justicia gendarussa is a traditional medicine used in treating ailments such as arthritis, paralysis, diaphoretic, diuretic, antispasmodic properties. The term Phytochemical means the chemicals found in plants. The phytochemical screening demonstrated the presence of different types of compounds like carbohydrates and flavonoids.

Faba bean (Vicia faba L.) is the most important legume crop being grown predominantly in the Ethiopian highlands of Oromia region where soil acidity and nutrient depletion pose serious limitation to land productivity. Field experiment was conducted during 2015 rainy season (July-Sept.) to investigate the effect of integrated nutrient and lime application on soil fertility and productivity of faba bean at Telecho, Wolmera district, in the highlands of Western Ethiopia.

Aim: The aim is to find out the effective sterilisation method used for dental burs using Enterococcus Faecalis as an indicator. Methodology: The present study was performed on 40 detnal burs which is divided into four different groups containing 10 dental burs. Out of this group one group is kept as control and the other three groups were tested for the efficacy of sterilisation with different methods: autoclave, glutaraldehyde and glass bead sterilisation respectively.

To determine the infection rates with Toxoplasmosis in Baquba city, sera of women, ewes and does, cats, rabbits and birds from different discrete of Baquba city, Diyala, Iraq were examined for presence of toxoplasma antibodies. Latex agglutination test and ELISA were used. It was found that 17.33%; 23.39%; 63.29%; 67.86%; 50% and 21.43% of women, ewe, does, rabbits, cats and birds had toxoplasma antibodies in their sera respectively. It is suggested that Ovine, Caprine, Feline, Rabbits and birds toxoplasmosis may be a substantial health problem in Diyala.

Introduction: Pulmonary Tuberculosis (PTB) is a severe bacterial infection that continues to be the main cause of morbidity and mortality. Compromised immune status due to micronutrient deficiency is one of the key factors predisposing to PTB infection. The aim of the present study was to assess the trace elements Copper and Zinc status in PTB patients and to evaluate the diagnostic role of Cerruloplasmin (Cp) and Cerruloplasmin Albumin ratio (Cp/Alb).

India is the world’s fastest growing economy, second most populous and largest democracy in the world. All these factors also make her one of the most energy requiring nations of the world. Since it does not have enough of the mineral oil and gaseous resources, it has to depend on other nations for fulfilling its energy needs, 80% of oil, 1/4 of its total coal consumptions and 1/6 of natural gas are imported from energy rich nations. With this perspective a lot of money is spent on importing the oil from Middle East countries like Iran, Saudi Arabia and other nations, rich of oils.

Present study revealed that agricultural manipulations brought about significant changes in the physico-chemical properties & floral composition but failed to cause significant differences in the abundance of microarthropod groups even though their number were less in the agricultural fields. Acari was the most common group in both cultivated and uncultivated sites. Oribatida comprised about 60% of the acarofauna in the uncultivated wasteland and constituted <50% of acari in the cultivated land.

Kerala comprises of 36 unique kinds of Scheduled Tribes (ST) whose livelihoods show wide variation.Their traditional jobs also vary such as hunting-gathering, shifting cultivation, settled agriculture, contract labour, etc. Attappadi, one of the prominent forest regions of Kerala, is situated in the north eastern part of Palakkad district of Kerala.

SahacharanAyurvedic herb has primarily been used to cure all types of Arthritis.Janu means knee and Basti signifies retaining something inside or containing something. Thus JanuBasti is the Ayurvedic therapy where hot medicated oil is made to retain on the surface of the knee portion of body. At present, there is no cure for OA of Knee. The management of OA of Knee is broadly divided into non-pharmacological, pharmacological, and surgical treatments, which are highly symptomatic and commonly associated with troublesome side effects.

The field of education in medical science is traditionally divided in two branches as one medicine and other surgery. The division was done in ancient time, by virtue of that there are two Agnivesh and Dhanwantari sampradaay exist in Ayurveda from very early stage of human civilization. Acharya Sushruta is the major scholar of Dhanwantari sampradaay. Acharya Sushruta laid down the fundamentals of surgery in the very first surgical text in Indian history.

Inflammatory Bowel Disease (IBD) is a chronic inflammatory disorder of the colon. The disease is more prevalent in developed countries and an increase in IBD cases is observed in developing countries. In susceptible individuals, IBD occur due to an imbalance between genetic and environmental factors. Alteration in the gut microbiota can influence the development of immune repertoire of an individual, thereby playing a vital role in the development of IBD. The two main disease entities of IBD are Crohn’s disease (CD) and Ulcerative colitis (UC).

Mokara is atropical orchid species for flower cutting mainly in Ho Chi Minh City. Their flowers are beautiful and colorful diversity, harvesting 8-10 flower-stalks per plant per year, and it is not enough for demands in local and export. Their coefficient of propagation is low naturally after an economic cycle of 5-6 years. Each plant gives 1 main shoot and 1-3 lateral buds. Flower-stalks were favored as materials for in vitro cultivation.

This paper deals with the study of eco-physiological parameters of three lakes presented in khammam rural, Telangana, India. For this purpose both physico-chemical and biological parameters were analysed for a period of one year from April 2013 to March 2014. According to APHA standard methods the results of analysis point out the fact that all the parameters are under permissible limits. The result indicates that all the lakes are good and can be used for domestic and irrigation purpose.

A study was undertakento evaluate the haemato-biochemical and antioxidant effects of triphala on J.curcas deoiled seed cake induced changes in chicken. Two weeks old, seventy two, vencob broiler chicks maintained on standard broiler diet (BIS, 1992) were randomly divided into four groups of eighteen birds each. Group I was maintained on standard broiler diet (BIS, 1992), group II was given standard diet supplemented with five per cent raw jatropha deoiled seed cake (JSC).

Typhoid fever is an acute illness associated with fever that is most often caused by the Salmonella typhi bacteria. Once the bacteria is ingested it quickly multiplies within the stomach, liver or gall bladder and finally enters the blood stream causing symptoms like fever, headache etc. these cases as of 2010 caused about 190000 deaths up from 137000 in 1990 in whole world, India, Pakistan and Egypt are also known high risk area for developing this disease.

The influence of crude aqueous extract of jojoba meal and leaves with simmonds in (MS and LS) and without simmonds in (MS-1 and LS-1) at several concentrations on Physio chemical, microbiological and sensory characteristic of mango drink through storage was assessed. The inhibitory effect of Jojoba extract was tested as a preservative and its effect on the chemical components and sensory properties of the mango syrup prepared by simulating the industrial method and storing it at room temperature for 180 days.

Different methods of Rhizobium inoculation were attempted and it was found that Rhizobium applied in the form of water suspension just below the seed gave maximum nodulation followed by lime pellecting. Groundnut seed often possess a problem of seed inoculation because of delicate seed coat. Rhizobium inoculation has significantly influenced all the nitrogen fixing traits which ultimately contributed to the dry pod yield of groundnut. Beneficial effects of inoculation of plant growth and yield have been frequently observed in groundnut Rhizobium interation

This review paper deals with the biodegradable polymers synthesized by the grafting reactions of caprolactone on to cellulose and its derivatives. A detail study of different methods available in literature for the synthesis of new biodegradable polymers of cellulose and its derivatives by grafting of polycaprolactone are discussed.

The present study aimed at determining the change in the leaf nutrient contents of different resistant and susceptible cultivars/varieties of greengram against root-knot nematode, Meloidogyne incognita infection. Four resistant cultivars, 24 ML-233, 7 GGG 10-14,17 IPM 9901-6 and 8 GM 04-02 and two susceptible cultivars 28 PM 10-12 and 29 PUSA 0672 were selected to assess for change in leaf. Nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium contents of both infected and healthy plants.

Aim : To analyse THE anti-inflammatory effects of tea tree oil Objectives : This research is done to analyse the anti-inflammatory effects of tree tea oil. Background: Many complementary and alternative medicines have enjoyed increased popularity in recent such product is tea tree oil (tto) which is the essential oil steam distilled from the australian native plant, melaleuca alternifolia. Employed largely for its anti-inflammatory and anti- microbial properties.

In Ayurveda, Diabetes Mellitus can be interpreted under the broad clinical entity described as Prameha. Prameha is a multi systemic disease caused by the imbalance of Tridosha (biohumors), initially mediated through Kapha affect urinary system and manifest as polyuria. The primary focus of pathogenesis in prameha shows the role of increased abdominal adiposity in the susceptibility of DM. Different types of Prameha mentioned in Ayurvedic classics can be compared with various stages of diabetes.

Quantum confined semiconductor structures have attracted recent attention of researchers as potential candidate for nonlinear optical applications. There has been a rapid research activity in the field of nonlinear optics. One such nonlinear effect is Harmonic Generation. In this paper, we report the generation of second harmonic by CdS semiconductor quantum dot prepared by simple chemical route. SHG is one of the important 2nd order non-linear optical effect.

This work is interested in the frequency study of the dielectric properties of BT ceramics. In this regard, we used two methods for measuring capacitance. In the first method the frequency was varied in the interval 100Hz – 1000 kHz and the measuring temperature was varied with a rise rate of 1°C/min, whereas in the second method the measurement temperature was first fixed and after its stabilization the capacitance measurement was started in a frequency range which varies between 1 kHz and 2 MHz by a step of 1 kHz.

Now a day’s construction industry is the second largest industry in world. But this industry faces many risks related to time and cost with the help of BIM we can minimize this risk. Building Information Modeling (BIM) is a technical tool that allows a project to build virtually before being built physically. By generating a 5D modelling we can manage any project related to time and cost. The BIM extends methodology into three dimensional (3D) drawings in the three primary dimensional width, height and depth.

There are numerous ways of admitting students into the University system in Nigeria. These methods include admission through the Unified Tertiary Matriculation Examination (UTME), part time programs, diploma programs and the pre-degree program. In recent times, applicants who seek admission into the University system through the pre-degree program but fail to meet the requirement of their preferred course of study are usually allocated an alternative course of study. This process is however usually done without considering the academic strength and ability of the applicant.

Information technology (IT) is dramatically changing the business landscape. Although organization cultures and business strategies shape the use of IT in organizations, more often the influence is stronger the other way round. IT significanStly affects strategic options and creates opportunities and issues that managers need to address in many aspects of their business. This page outlines some of the key impacts of technology and the implications for management.

In today's scenario, increase in growth of staffs and students population, leading to an insufficient transportation facilities. Staffs and students needs to take college bus as their transport source as they need to travel a long route. But the problem is, there is no easy way to know with how many people a college bus takes ride. This paper is to create a college bus transport management system where a travel faculty and students will get college bus information.

Metal complexes of Schiff base derived from 2-amino thiophenol and 2-hydroxy napthaldehyde (HL) have been synthesized and characterised by elemental analysis (C,H,N), infrared, electronic spectroscopic tools. The complexes are found to have the formula [ML(H2O)] where M is Cu(II), Cd(II), Pb(II). The interaction of Cu(II) complex towards Human Serum Albumin (HSA) was examined with the help of electronic spectroscopic tools. The electron transfer mechanism of copper (II) complex examined by cyclic voltammetry and indicate copper (II) complex gives Cu(II)/Cu(I) couple.

The outline of a new genetic algorithm (GA) is introduced to detect the location of license plate (LP) symbols. An adaptive threshold method is applied to overcome the dynamic changes of illumination conditions when it converts the image to binary. Connected Component Analysis Technique (CCAT) is used to detect candidate objects inside the unknown image. Two new crossover operators, which based on sorting, are introduced, which greatly upgrade the convergence speed of the system.

In this study, the performance and emission characteristic tests have been carried out on a single cylinder direct injection diesel engine running under constant speed and variable Brake power. In this study, the engine tests have been conducted with Butea monosperma oil methyl ester (B100) and their blends with conventional diesel oil in the proportions of 10:90 (B10), 20:80 (B20) and 50:50 (B50). A series of tests have been conducted for each of test fuel. The engine is allowed to run at constant speed at 1500RPM, but at different BP (1, 2, 3, 4 and 5kW).

A 3-(2-Hydroxylphenylimino) indolin-2-one [HPI2O] is use as a reagent for the extractive spectrophotometric determination of Cerium. The reagent HPI2O gave instantaneous and stable brown colour complex with Cerium at pH 5.0. The colour reaction in detail has been explored and the possibility of photometric determination of the micro amounts of Cerium is established with necessary conditions. A linear calibration graph over the concentration range 1 ppm to 12 ppm was obtained by applying the spectrophotometric method at wavelength 430 nm.

A flow-injection (FI) spectrophotometric procedure is proposed for Trifluoperazine Hydrochloride (TFPH) determination in pharmaceuticals. The proposed method is based on the injection of 50 µL sample solution into an oxidizing agent stream of ammonium ceric salphate with the optimum flow rate of 2.0 ml min-1. The violet [TFPH- sulphanilic acid (SA)] complex is monitored at 545 nm. The (FI) system and the experimental conditions were optimized. Under the optimum conditions, calibration graph was obtained for 0.5-120 µg ml-1and the detection limit 0.0459 µg ml-1.

More than 50% of new cases of lung cancer are diagnosed in elderly patients. Does age is a factor for Are outdated traditional education, distance education, information technological infrastructure, partnerships and financial resources common problematic issues facing many of the educational institutions in our world today? With this into considerations, are these issues vital in order to stabilize the political and economic embroidery of an institution or organization, and its psychological and sociological awareness?

The main challenge for companies today is the need to ensure that there is efficiency at the work place. Most problems in manufacturing companies can be attributed to lack of ensuring quality services to customers which arises as a result of poor inventory management. Meanwhile, industries in Ghana have been blamed by not ensuring proper inventory management practices and which has resulted in customer service dissatisfaction.

The study has been designed to analyze the Challenges of Internally Generated Funds and its contributions; evidence from Techiman North District Assembly. The purpose of the study was to acquire in-depth knowledge about the various sources of Internally Generated Funds (IGF) and to clarify our understanding of problems associated with the assembly’s revenue generation. A purposive sampling technique was used. Primary data was the main source of data for the study. The researchers administered questionnaires to assembly members, unit committee members and opinion leaders in the district.

The cultural values of society has been oblivioned in the process of globalization, sustainability of cultural values began to be widely discussed lately and the protection of these values in today's societies owned and transferred to future generations has become more important than the need. Nowadays culinary culture of a society is among the most important elements referred to a combination of tourism, has begun to take an active role in promoting the country. The aim of this study; Orthodox sect's founder St.

The teacher training in India was first started in Vedic period. In that period the senior students among the Brahmins were given the chance to teach junior students and thus were trained in teaching. The modern teacher training in India was first started by European missionaries. In the beginning they trained the students in teaching different subjects but later on they also started to develop in the trainees some basic concepts regarding education and teaching. Teacher education system is an important vehicle to improve the quality of school education.

Sustainable development is the development that meets5% needs of the present without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their own needs. Education is the essential tool for` sustainable development. In the present paper we will through light on the concepts of sustainable development and education for sustainable development.

Education problem on streen children and illiteracy eradication are the world’s problem. This research is aimed to know and observe effectiveness of android media use to eradicate illiteracy for street children in Semanggi Area, Surakarta City. This research is a research which utilizes desctiptive method. The research method utilized are observation, interview, and document review of qualitative descriptive analysis.

The paper intends to identify the relationship between words & its proper concepts at primary school level. This study is Descriptive in nature wherein Survey Method and Developmental Studies with especial references to Cross-Sectional Approach were used side by side. While, Four Point Scale for Subjective Assessment, Achievement Test of Language Skills (Oral- Cum- Written), Achievement Test of Comprehension and a Structured Interview for Pupils of Classes I-V were used as instrument to collect the data.

Emotional intelligence has been a source of concern and research towards the end of the 20thcentury. It refers to the capacity for recognizing our own feelings and those of others, for motivating ourselves and for managing emotions well in us and in our relationships. The objectives of the study were to assess the level on emotional intelligence among higher secondary school students and to associate the level on emotional intelligence of higher secondary school students with their demographic variables.

In India poverty remains a chronic condition for almost more than 35% of India’s rural population. A major cause of poverty among India’s rural people, both individuals and communities, is lack of access to productive assets and financial resources. Further, high level of illiteracy, inadequate health care and extremely limited access to social services are common among poor rural people. Both central and state governments have brought out many measures and programmes to eradicate rural poverty. They have failed to achieve the desired objective.

Buchanania lanzan plants suffer damage by biotic factors like grazing, hacking, repeated fire, indiscriminate harvesting (lopping and cutting), insect and diseases attack which adversely affect the growth and productivity. This economically important tree species were susceptible to damage several insect pests and diseases. Experiments on effect of chemicals on fruits yield of B. lanzan for control of insect pests and diseases were laid out in natural stand and during seed storage.

This study investigated the extent socio-economic status of income and motivation influence academic achievement of Chemistry students in Abakaliki Education zone, Ebonyi State. Three research questions were formulated to guide the study and two hypotheses were tested in the study. Two structured questionnaire and Chemistry Achievement Test (CAT) were major instruments used to collect the relevant data for the results of the study.

Plyometric is another type of body weight exercise that is taking on popularity among women. It is a form of exercise training designed to produce quick and powerful movements. It is a form of exercise training designed to produce quick and powerful movements. Plyometric training is a high intensity work out and only well conditioned athletes should use them as a training tool. Even then athletes should be under the supervision of a qualified coach or trainer. It is also suggested athletes check themselves for signs of injury and over training. Contractions are what cause muscles to move.

Introduction: Crowdfunding is a way to raise finance from public / individuals to fund a project or venture. It is a form of gathering funds over the internet by (Campaign) advertising the purpose and need of the project or venture. People interested in the thought / idea tends to invest or send money (any amount) in the form of monetary donation or sometimes in exchange for a future product, service or reward. The term crowdfunding was first coined in a blog post by Michael Sullivan in 2006 and has its roots in charitable donations (Castelluccio, 2012).

The problem of academic performance cuts across both developed and developing nations of the world. Many factors play a role in students’ academic performance. These factors can be within or outside the school context. Within the school environment, the head teachers’ leadership role largely shapes the overall performance of a school. Based on this understanding, this paper explores how the unique role of secondary school principals in the provision of teaching and learning materials influences the academic achievements of learners.

The objectives of this paper is study the Growth Rate of India’s Trade in Textile and Clothing with SAARC Countries from 1972 to 2011. Regional Trade Agreements have become increasingly prevalent since the early 1990s. India’s relations with SAARC countries are entrenched deeply. In addition to an overlapped cultural and religious heritage, the SAARC countries share a common vision on many regional and international affairs.

In almost every country, the proportion of people aged over 60 years is growing faster than any other age group. This population ageing can be seen as a success story for public health policies and for socioeconomic development, but it also challenges society to adapt, in order to maximize the health and functional capacity of older people as well as their social participation and security. An assistive device often means an evident change in a person’s ability, more easy to notice than the effects of most of other types of physiotherapy or occupational therapy intervention.

Urban centers are heritage by themselves. Cultural heritages are non renewable and non replaceable. Once destroyed, it has gone for good and could not be revived, and replaced in its authentic form. Heritage need protection by laws. In the absence of protective laws, cities would be destroyed by regeneration. The article is aimed at exploring the status of Cultural Heritage in the city of Dire Dawa with particular emphasis on Kezira quarter. This is mainly because some of cultural heritage of Kezira has gone.

This research paper describes the academic library services give to users; also here is brief introduction of Dr. S. R. Rangnathan’s 5 laws, cataloguing, and Bibliographic records. This research paper focuses on the services given by SDMSG Polytechnic Institutes library to the library users to simplify their research. Researcher target is to fulfill readers/users demands towards the library within short time. By this research researcher gets forward to the web media and fulfill the reader’s demands. Dr. S.R. Rangnathans 4th law of library science i.e.

This article deals with the cultural development and general perception of the concept of "intelligence" and "economic intelligence" in France. After the Cold War, finance and markets assumed a greater importance in determining the relations between countries; however, it took a long time for the French elite to be convinced of the existence of “economic warfare” and to define a culture of its own in the field of intelligence. Still, when all the international analyses were strongly related to the Cold War ideology and talking about economic warfare seemed like an abuse of language, C.

Fissure-in-ano is a linear boat shaped ulcer in the anal canal . It is always associated with spasm of anal sphincter, bright streaks of blood with the passage of stool and pain after defecation. Patient desist defecation rather than going through the agony, leading to constipation. Among anorectal disorders nearly 87% of patients are suffering from fissure-in-ano. Now a day’s people are busy and they don’t prefer hospital stay and surgery. Under the above circumstances, there is a need to find out simple and patient friendly medicament.

This study was designed to investigate the influence of socio-economic factors of parents’ educational background and marital status on the academic performance of students in Abakaliki Education zone, Ebonyi State. Two research questions were formulated to guide the study and two hypotheses were tested in the study. A structured questionnaire was used as the instrument for data collection for the analysis for results of the study. The instrument was face validated and the reliability coefficient determined using the Cronbach Alpha Approach, which gave a coefficient index of 0.86.

The objective of this review is to describe conflict across religions in Indonesia. Method used in this review is the review of theories and also the review of literatures. Result of this review indicates that living in the harmony of religions will need some understandings. First is syncretism, suggesting that all religions are equal. Second isreconception, meaning to reconsider the religion when it confronts with others. Third is synthesis that will create a new religion which the elements are taken from various religions.

Background: A cataract is a clouding of the normally clear lens of your eye. For people who have cataracts, seeing through cloudy lenses is a bit like looking through a frosty or fogged-up window. Intraocular lenses (IOLs) are medical devices that are implanted inside the eye to replace the eye's natural lens when it is removed during cataract surgery. IOLs also are used for a type of vision correction surgery called refractive lens exchange. Aim: To estimate the incidence of cataract and IOL replacements among general population.

Country of origin is one of the widely researched areas in marketing. With globalization there have been numerous changes in the production and marketing of products and services. India has turned into another rising economy the world is seeing. Parcel of shopper strong brands from various parts of the world is multiplying in Indian market. Thus India is by all accounts an immaculate destination to concentrate on the impacts of COO.

In the field of consumer behavior family is the central consuming unit and their behavior is a matter of research for marketers since long time. In the family, there are three components, like mother, father and children. Father is most crucial component of family in Indian culture and second role of mother because these two are most important factors of family which constitutes a family. In consumer decision making, one more very important factor is growing very rapidly, which is the role of child.

Aim and objective: Assess the effect of anti tar toothpaste (X TAR) and its impact on calculus prevention. X tar toothpaste provides better action in calculus prevention when compared to mechanical removal alone. Background: Dental calculus is composed of inorganic components and an organic matrix. Different calcium phosphates which include hydroxyapatite make up the mineral components of dental calculus.

Purpose: The purpose of the study was to compare the dimensional stability of three different alginate impression materials at three different storage periods. Materials and Methods: A brass model representing maxillary edentulous ridge was used as a master model in this study. Three customised abutments A,B,C were CAD/CAM machined to simulate full veneer preparation. They were positioned on the master model one in the anterior region and two in the posterior region on either side of the ridge.

Mayer Rokitansky Kuster Hauser Syndrome is a congenital aplasia of uterus, bilateral fallopian tubes and upper 2/3 of vagina; with normal secondary sexual characters and a normal 46XX karyotype. It affects 1/4500 women and its first sign is primary amenorrhoea in young women. A 16 yr old girl presented with primary amenorrhoea with lower abdominal pain. There was blind vaginal pouch and secondary sexual characters normally present. On endocrinological profile patient was hypothyroid.MRI report showed MRKH Syndrome with 8X12cm left ovarian hemorrhagic dysgerminoma.

Aim: To determine and compare the antifungal activity of ethanolic extracts of Neem twig and Banyan root against clinical isolates of Candida albicans. Materials and Methods: A total of 20 non repetitive clinical isolates of Candidaspecies were collected from different samples of immunocompromised individuals attending Saveetha Medical college, Thandalam. Characterized by carbohydrate fermentation and assimilation tests and confirmed further using HiChromagar. The ethanolic extracts of Neem and Banyan were prepared. The sensitivity of Candida to the extracts was tested.

Basal cell carcinoma (BCC) is the most common malignant tumor of skin. The most common site (80%) is head and neck, tumour also commonly seen on nose, eyelids, inner canthus of eye, behind ears etc. A number of histopathological subtypes of basal cell carcinoma have been defined. Out of which few are rare subtypes. BCC exhibits a varied morphology such as adenoid, keratotic, sebaceous, basosquamous, apocrine, eccrine or fibroepithelial. Adenoid type of BCC is one of the rare histopathological types of BCC which is difficult for diagnosis.

Siderosis oculi is recognized as a severe emanation of retained, iron made, intraocular foreign body. The injury quintessentially results while battering or pounding metal and most of the times presents in males. Outcome and clinical findings vary depending on time, course and anatomic site within the eye. The prognosis is related to size, position, chemical composition of foreign body. The presence of encapsulated foreign bodies and retention time of foreign bodies also predicts the development of complications.

Background: Based on clinical and histomorphological study, differentiating Chronic Plaque Psoriasis from chronic eczematous lesions of palmoplantar region is a diagnostic challenge, however, it has some implications for the patient's management and prognosis. Aim: This study is designed to evaluate immunohistochemical markers for distinguishing psoriasis from eczema of palmoplantar region in patients referring to Razi Skin Hospital, Tehran, Iran. Materials and Methods: Comparative cross-sectional study was carried out at Razi Skin Hospital, Tehran, Iran.

Background: Oxidative stress is observed in gastric ulceras it contributes to the mucosal injury. Melatonin (Mel) has protective functions of the gastric mucosa. Theaim of this study is to examine the protective effect of Melon gastric mucosa in acute lesions induced by hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) induced gastric lesions in rat model of ethanol-induced gastric ulcer. Methodology: This study was performed in male Sprague-Dawley rats (200–250 g) in 9 groups of equal size (n = 45): Intra-peritoneal (i.p.) injection of Mel (12.5, 25 and 50 mg/Kg) 30 min before H2O2treatment.

Aim: To analyse the perception of Patients towards the preferred kind of prosthesis in Chennai Background: Implants are stand-alone replacement teeth that use a prosthetic root that is set directly into the jaw. This prosthetic root is extremely strong and will last for entire lifetime. Dental implants can be expensive and require a surgical procedure, which can make it an undesirable choice for some patients. All the above reasons make implants a secondary option to FPD and RPD despite their disadvantages to function.

Lichen planus is an autoimmune muco-cutaneous condition affecting the skin and oral mucosa. The most common oral sites involved are buccal mucosa and tongue, gingiva being confined to only 10% of the oral presentation of the lesion. The purpose of this case report is to report a case of plaque type lichen planus in a 29 year old male patient with the chief complaint of whitish gum in the upper front tooth region since last 9 months. Histopathologic examination with hematoxylin and eosin stain confirmed the diagnosis of lichen planus on gingiva.

Edentulism is a devastating condition characterized by partial or complete loss of teeth, which can have a severe pathological impact on oral, systemic and psychological health of the individual. This article enumerates the various etiological factors contributing edentulism to enhance better understanding about this condition and hence enact suitable remedial measures.

Skull base tumors are a challenge to neurosurgeons. Starting from meningiomas, pituitary tumors to clival chordoma or acoustic schwannoma all demand a complex case planning and strategy (Koutourousiou et al., 2013). We present a skull base meningioma in a adult male treated in two stage surgery with complete tumor excision with no gross neurological deficit. Single stage exhausting prolonged surgery weighs inferior to staged surgery with good outcome with minimal complications.

Cognitive behavior deficits following frontal lobe tumors comprise a series of symptoms related to the involvement of the prefrontal region. So, clinical signs express the alteration of brain superior functions, creating the psychopathological syndrome, an organic psychiatric syndrome. This consists of two types of symptoms, those called negative, depressive type, the pseudo-depression syndrome, positive ones, manic type, the pseudo-maniac syndrome, also known as moria or moriatic syndrome.

Drug carrier can be defined as the administration of drug from natural or synthetic origin, in order to control in vivo availability of drug molecules for pharmacological effects. Rapid and efficient drainage and the relative impermeability of the cornea account for poor ocular bioavailability. To increase ocular bioavailability of drug, we need to increase ocular residence time of the drug. In situ gelling systems are viscous gelling solutions that posses phase transition on the eye due to change in certain physical and chemical properties.

Hyperglycemia in animals can be induced by different methods: namely, chemical treatment (eg. streptozotocin, alloxan), dietary intervention (eg. excess feeding of sucrose/fructose/fat) with/without chemical treatment, pancreas removal (pancreatectomy), and genetic modifications (eg. transgenic animals).

Objectives: To assess the risk of cardiovascular diseases associated with air pollution in Eastern Mediterranean Region (EMR) by summarizing the existing knowledge from previous studies in the region and to identify knowledge and research gaps to support further research efforts. Methods: Literature search between January 2000 and June 2016 using the combinations of keywords and hand search resulted in 366 articles published in the EMR. Of those, 13 studies met the inclusion/exclusion criteria.

Uterine scar dehiscence is the disruption of the integrity of myometrium which may be complete or incomplete depending on the intactness of serosa. It can present as endometritis, sepsis & pelvic abscess. We report a case of a 24-year-old woman presented on 30th day of puerperium following caesarean section was admitted through our emergency service with complaint of high grade fever & abdominal distension. Patient’s was managed in an intensive care unit. After stabilization of patient she was shifted to operation theatre. Intraop she had uterine scar rupture with pyoperitoneum.

We report a rare case of compound heterozygous condition of Hb-D/β-thalassemia (Hb-D/β+) in a Rajasthani family of Western India after analyzing four samples (3 blood + CVS) using DNA sequencing and Hb electrophoresis including phenotypic indices. This condition is identified in Rajasthan state only with Hb-D/β disease in two cases i.e. father and Chorionic villus sampling (CVS), though Hb-D Punjab traits are known. Hence, it is recommended that this condition may require blood transfusion on suggestion of clinician and phenotypic characters.

Primary cutaneous CD30- positive large cell lymphoma (CD30+ PCLCL) represents a spectrum of disease, with lymphomatoid papulosis (LyP) at the benign end, and primary cutaneous anaplastic large cell lymphoma (PCALCL) at the other. We present two cases of CD30+PCLCL. First case presented with papules and nodules with severe itching. Biopsy of the skin showed atypical multinucleate RS like cells. Second patient had a history of ulcerated plaques and papules over scalp, back and thigh which showed many atypical cells.

Background: Human periodontal disease comprises a heterogenous group of infectious diseases that lead to pathologic destruction of the periodontium. Periodontal diseases have varied aetiology i.e. bacterial, host response and clinical disease progression. The most important blood-typing system, the ABO blood group, is the determinant for transfusion reactions and organ transplantation. Here in this study we will be investigating the prevalence of chronic periodontitis in patients with different blood groups.

Background: Acute pancreatitis is one of the commonest disorder in surgical practice. Numerous advances have been made in diagnosis and treatment of acute pancreatitis. Predicting outcome in these cases still remains difficult. Multiple scoring systems have been developed to predict its severity. Aim: This study was aimed at comparing the traditional scoring systems: Ranson’s and Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Examination (APACHE II) in predicting severity in a prospective cohort of patients with Acute Pancreatitis.

Background: Squamous cell carcinoma of gall bladder is a rare presentation with limited literature hence adjuvant treatment is still ill defined with under-powered studies showing controversial role of adjuvant treatment. Aims: To analyse prognostic factors affecting outcome, role of adjuvant treatment and outcome. Settings and Design: This was a retrospective analysis conducted from January 2010 to December 2013 in a tertiary care centre of North India.

This is an Experimental study with a total of 40 patients. All patients diagnosed as plantar fasciitis on clinical evaluation. All the Patients were assessed using VAS before intervention (7.65) in the form of local PRP injection. Sequentially during the follow up at different interval the VAS was found reduced significantly (1.57) at the end of 6 months. Study has shown that PRP injection is an effective treatment modality for chronic plantar fasciitis in short term without any significant complication.

Paraumbilical hernia is a common condition encountered by surgeons. Though PUH has a tendency to be associated with high morbidity and mortality in comparison with inguinal hernia because of the higher risk of incarceration and strangulation, there still appears to be a certain discrepancy between its importance and the attention it has received in the literature. Hence PUH needs to be studied further. Objectives of the study: • To study the different surgical Management of paraumbilical hernia. • Immediate Postoperative complications.

Aim: To conduct a cross-sectional questionnaire survey to assess the level of knowledge, awareness and practices concerning the pathology dengue. Background: Dengue fever is an acutefbrile disease due to a viral infection and presents with severe headache, retro-orbital pain, muscular and joint pain as well as a rash. Therefore, the most important strategy in the prevention and control of dengue lies in the control of its vector, the Aedes mosquito.

This study was premeditated to study the interactional effect of emotional intelligence, dependence proneness and gender in empty nest syndrome among middle aged men and women. A sample of 480 middle age men and women (240 male and 240 female) were randomly drawn from twin city of Bhilai and Durg.

Following tooth removal/extraction, horizontal bone loss occurs at a faster rate and to a greater extent compared to vertical bone loss. Horizontal ridge defects are of increased concern for the placement of dental implants and implant-supported dental prosthesis. Various techniques have been proposed to treat horizontal ridge defects and create sites favorable for dental implant placement. These techniques vary depending upon factors such as the tissue thickness, arch position, and availability of autogenous bone.

▪ The present study was conducted to understand the role of NIPPV in patients with acute exacerbation of COPD who are medically unresponsive. The sample size was 40. ▪ The mean age of the study population was 60.7± 7.2 yrs. ▪ Out of the 40 cases included in the study, 36 (90%) were males and 4 (10%) were females, sex ratio 9:1(male:female). ▪ A history of smoking was obtained in 90% of study population. ▪ The Borg dyspnoea score improved from 5 at baseline to 1.4 ± 0.07 at discharge.

As to achieve a desired tooth movement the bracket slot dimensions need to be accurate, if not the treatment would be compromised. Slot dimensions are a critical factor in orthodontic tooth movement. However very little is known about the accuracy of the slot dimensions of commercially available brackets. Aims and objectives: To evaluate slot dimensions of four different commercially available 0.022 slot MBT prescription brackets.

Background: Mental health (stress, anxiety, depression etc.) and obesity have become global concerns in recent years leading to many health concerns like metabolic syndrome. Sedentary lifestyle, over-nutrition (high caloric/fatty diet), substance abuse etc. can contribute to the above as "modifiable factors". The purpose of the present study is to determine if "non modifiable factors" like blood group can be an attributing factor for causation of these disorders and whether any particular blood group is more predisposed to them.

Background: Coronary Artery Disease results from accumulation of atheroma that reduces blood flow leading to ischemia and later infarction. Cardiac enzymes like cardiac troponin I and creatinine kinase MB are measured to further establish the diagnosis but not its prognosis. IL-6 increases at an early stage of atherosclerosis and peaks during myocardial infarction. Alkaline phosphatase is responsible for dephosphorylation of pyrophosphate, a calcification inhibitor which leads to calcification of blood vessels.

Background: Nationally representative as well as comparative studies had never been done in three West African countries: Ivory Coast, Cameroon and Gabon. Hence, this study focuses on comparison of HIV/AIDS related knowledge and acceptance attitude towards people living with HIV/AIDS (PLHA) of female youth among the three highly prevalent West African countries. Methods: The study utilized nationally representative datasets from Demographic and Health Surveys (DHS) of Ivory Coast 2011/12, Cameroon 2011, and Gabon 2012.

Foreign Body (FB) within the rectum occurs infrequently and its management is challenging for the emergency physicians due to variation in type of objects, host anatomy, time of insertion, and amount of local contamination. Usually, the presentation is late after multiple unsuccessful attempts for the removal of the FB by patients themselves at home. We report a 35-year-old male patient presented to the emergency department with an FB (glass bottle) in the rectum inserted due to falling from tree.

Coronary heart disease has been defined as “impairment of heart function due to inadequate blood flow to the heart compared to its needs, caused by obstructive changes in the coronary circulation to the heart”. Coronary artery disease is the leading cause of death among women, regardless of race or ethnicity and causing the deaths of 1 in 3 women.

Introduction: Literature search, showed few studies on cut throat injuries from this part of the world though the problem appears not uncommon. This study was undertaken to determine, in those who reached the hospital, the causes, presentation, management and outcome of cut throat injuries in Enugu, southeast Nigeria. Methods: It was a retrospective study of all the patients with cut throat injuries who presented and were managed at the department of Otorhinolaryngology, Head and Neck Surgery of the Hospital from January 2010 to December 2015.

Stress hyperglycemia is a heterogeneous entity with unique pathophysiological features. Present practice is to treat hyperglycemia irrespective of its cause. The optimum target glucose range in stress conditions is still undefined, and different targets should be compared on the basis of their risk-to-benefit ratios and individualized decision should be taken. Still large prospective studies with follow-up data comparing diabetes and stress hyperglycemia are needed.

Burn trauma is as old as the discovery of fire in the history of mankind.. Injuries secondary to severe burns rank among the most serious forms of trauma resulting in anatomic, physiologic, endocrinology and immunologic stresses especially when burns involve >20% of total body surface area. Significant thermal injuries induce a state of immuno suppression that predisposes burn patients to infectious complications.

Objectives: To compare LED phototherapy with the standard compact fluorescent lamp (CFL) phototherapy in the management of healthy term and late pre- term neonates with non-hemolytic jaundice and to see whether it is as effective as or more effective than the compact fluorescent lamp (CFL) phototherapy Methods: The protocol and study design were submitted & was approved by the institution research committee & ethics committee.

Plasma cell granuloma is a non neoplastic lesion classified and described under pseudoinflammatory tumor category. Frequently these lesions are found in lungs and rather uncommonly seen in the oral cavity, making diagnosis and treatment actually complicated. They can arise in areas such as brain, orbit, paranasal sinuses, head, neck, larynx, tonsils, ears, liver, kidney, stomach and heart. Intraoral plasma cell granulomas are seen involving tongue, lip, oral mucosa and gingiva. Its etiology, biological behavior, ideal treatment and prognosis are still unclear and rather controversial.

Aims and Objective: To correlate the mesio-distal width of base of the philtrum to the combined mesio-distal width of the maxillary central incisors in males and females. Materials and Methods: A total of 70 individuals who were native of Dakshina Kannada region with an age ranging from 19 - 23 years male and females were selected for this study. Two most prominent points were marked at base of philtrum. These points were marked by drawing a line along the vertical ridge of philtrum and marking a point where they meet the vermillion border of upper lip.

In present days dementia is one of the fast emerging major public health problem in many developing as well as developed countries. As the generation grows older, more number of people enters old age and as a consequence, the number of dementia patient increases, as this is mostly found in the older populations. Though biology of human being is almost same in each and every part of the globe, but the quality of life varies significantly in different socio cultural backgrounds regarding healthy aging.

Background: In the earlier research publications of the author he has identified the presence of nanoparticles (NPs) of the drug material in all the higher dilutions of homeopathic drugs; viz, Lycopodium and Ferrummetallicum. Method: The present study isdone with the help of HRTEM (High Resolution Transmission Electron Microscope) and EDS (Energy Dispersive Spectroscopy). Result and Conclusion: 1. The analysis of homeopathic drug Aur met (Gold) shows the presence of nanoparticles of Gold in all the potencies studied, i.e. 6c, 30c, 200c, 1000c, 10000c, 50000c and 100000c 2.

The aim of the present study is to evaluate the anti-anemic activity of hydro-alcoholic leaf extract of Aegle marmelos against phenylhydrazine induced hemolytic anemia in rats. Phenylhydrazine (60mg/kg) was administered intraperitoneally for 2 days to induce anemia in rats. The animals were divided in to four groups of 6 animals each. Group I served as normal control, group II as anemic control, group III as reference control administered with Vitamin B12 and group IV animals were treated with 200mg/kg, of hydro-alcoholic leaf extract of Aegle marmelos.

Aim: To evaluate and compare the marginal accuracy of multiple unit cast restorations fabricated by Conventional and Ringless casting technique. Method: A forty standardized wax patterns are fabricated on a type IV stone replica of a multiple unit stainless steel die with standardized pontic space. The wax patterns are divided into four groups. Group IA: Ringless casting with conventional wax elimination method. Group IB: Ringless casting with accelerated wax elimination method. Group IIA: Metal ring casting with conventional wax elimination method.

Neurofibromatoses, mutation of the NF1 gene are autosomal disorders formed as neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF1), neurofibromatosis type 2 (NF2), and schwannomatosis. Neurofibromatosis type 1 is the most common of these disorders, seen 1 in 3500 individuals worldwide (1). Characteristic features of the disease; café au lait spots, neurofibromas, lisch nodules, macrocephaly, short stature, hypertelorism, thorax abnormalities, tumours of the central nervous system (optic and chiasm gliomas), orthopaedic abnormalities, endocrinological disorders, and malignancies (2).

Aim: To study the fetal and maternal outcome in patients with eclampsia in central Indian population. Background: Eclampsia is associated with devastating maternal and fetal complications, so we decided to study pregnancy outcome in eclampsia patients. Methodology: A Retrospective study carried out in department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology in Indira Gandhi Government Medical College, Nagpur. Fifty Cases of eclampsia from January 2015 to July 2016 were included in our study.

The main aim of the article is to develop a simple dissolution method for Enrofloxacin immediate release tablets by UV spectroscopy and validate as per ICH guidelines. The optimized dissolution method includes potassium di hydrogen phosphate pH 4.5 as dissolution media, apparatus as USP Type 2 Paddle, rpm as 100, temperature of dissolution media as 37±0.5ºC, dissolution volume as 500ml, dissolution time point as 30 minutes, working concentration of standard and sample as 5μg/ml and a detection wavelength of 276 nm.

Material and Methods: Tissue sections were stained by the following stains to demonstrate different mucins: H&E, Periodic acid-Schiff's (PAS), PAS-D, PAS-Ph AB ph 2.5 and 1, AF, combined AB-PAS, and combined AB 2.5–AF. Results: In group 1 - Sulphomucins and neutral mucins concentration is more compared to sialomucins. In group 2 - Increase in sailo mucins concentration compared to sulpho mucins and neutral mucin. In group 3 - increase in sailomucins.

Background: Oral and dental health are a fundamental part of public health and the proper health behaviors and attitudes are necessary for health correlated workings. It depends on the person recognition and his behavior. Attitudes usually reveal his experiences, familial beliefs, culture and other life conditions that have an effect on oral health behavior. Aim of the study: The present study was designed for evaluating the influence of oral health awareness on periodontal disease status among university non dental students in King Khalid University.

Brown spot caused by Bipolaris oryzae is one of the destructive diseases of rice in the world and causes severe losses in grain quality and quantity. Use of resistant varieties is the sustainable and eco-friendly way of controlling brown spot disease in rice. In this concern, we evaluated 20 rice genotypes under glasshouse and field conditions during June, 2014-May, 2015 to determine the level of resistance against B. oryzae. Disease assessment was done by calculating disease severity, area under disease progress curve (AUDPC) and AUDPC per day (AUDPC/day).

In the eastern part of Ethiopia, land scarcity is one of the most important problems constraining food production. This problem has compelled farmers to practice monocropping and exposed the land to soil erosion and infertility. Therefore, it is important to practice a cropping pattern that enhances food production per unit area and also alleviates the problem of land degradation. Cassava (Manihot esculenta) could be a good candidate for this purpose since it is a drought tolerant crop that may produce higher yields per unit area.

The diagnostic study of Bambara Groundnut (BG) (Vigna subterranean (L.) Verdc) production, marketing, agronomic practices was conducted in four villages sampled from two districts of Missenyi and Muleba in Kagera region, Tanzania, East Africa. The resuts indicated that about 93.3% of the farmers involved in BG production were female and children of less than 20 years old. Male (6.7%) were involved in land preparation in so known as assisting their women during cultivation, that means male were indirectly participating in BG production.

First trimester diet is most important because in first few weeks the fetus relies on simple diffusion of oxygen & nutrients from the mother’s blood. From about 12 weeks the placenta controls all. Essential nutrients (Wendy Martinez et al., 2006) - thiamine, riboflavin, folate/folic acid, vit. A,C&D, calcium, phosphorus, magnesium, zinc, copper, selenium, iodine, omega 3 fatty acids etc. But important is folate/ folic acid & vit.D. Supplementary folic acid is needed prior to conception & up until 12 weeks gestation to lower the risk of neural tube defects.

Aerva lanata is consists different kind of secondary metabolites such as steroids, alkaloids, flavanoids, saponind etc., that act as antimicrobial substance to control pathogens. The butanol extracts of Aerva lanata leaves was found all kinds of secondary metabolites. The butanol extract (150 µg/ml) of A.lanata was showed maximum inhibition 5.8 mm against Klebsiella Sp, 5.1 mm against Staphylococus aureus, 4.5 mm against Micrococcus Sp. and 2.6 mm against Pseudomonas Sp. Followed by butanol, hexane, ethanol, chloroform and water showed their antimicrobial activity against test pathogens.

Tifton 85 is a promising pasture propagated only by vegetative method, which requires technologies for production of seedlings and deployment of pastures. Thus, the aim of this study was to evaluate alternative substrates for the production of Tifton 85 seedlings. The experiment was conducted under completely randomized design with six treatments and four replications. The studied treatments were: fresh wood shavings, decomposed wood shavings, decomposed wood shavings+soil, carbonized rice husk, soil and commercial substrate.

One of the priorities of malaria elimination or at least reduction has been prevention methods. To apply these methods, understanding transmission influencing factors is crucial. The majority of driving factor of malaria transmission are environmental and climatic features. Plenty of regression analysis methods has been implemented to assess the relationship of malaria transmission and environmental and/or climatic features. Nonetheless, the majority of regression methods for the case lacked robustness.

Brazil is the largest producer of sugarcane in the world; due to the increased use of irrigation systems in sugarcane fields, it is important to search for methods to assist with the rational use of irrigation water. Among the methods used to quantify transpiration, the Penman-Monteith (PM) method is based on a strong biophysical approach. The study aimed to use the PM method as a basis for estimating the crop transpiration of sugarcane. The experiment was conducted in an experimental area of 2.5 ha, irrigated by center pivot.

The present research was conducted to evaluate the efficacy of Plumeriarubra products on bruchid beetles (Callosobruchusmaculatus (F)) during storage. A synthetic insecticide, Pirimiphos methyl and four Plumeriarubraproducts (leaf, stem bark, root bark and flower) powders were tested on cowpea (Vignaunguiculata) seeds infested with teneral adults of Callosobruchusmaculatus in a completely randomized design. Data were collected on mean number of eggs laid, mean eclosion, mean number of emerged adults, and mortality of insects at different treatments.

According to Ayurveda, the superior vital essence of all bodily tissues is called Ojas. It is responsible for defence against diseases in human body. There are various conditions like Prameha, Pandu, Madhumeha, Shosha, Rajayakshma, Ojonirodhaka in which Ojus loss is a characteristic features. According to concept of Ojus or Bala or Vyadhikshamatva, the body resistance powers have importance in daily welfare, not only for prevention of disease but also for recovery after disease affliction.

Ethnozoology deals with the study of the relationships between human societies and animal resources around them and ethnoentomology deals with the study of the relationship between the human societies and insect resources around them. The present paper is an endeavour to study and document the relationships between the people and the different kinds of insects available around them vis-a-vis their use as food, medicine, bio-indicators, religious beliefs, etc. among the ethnic Meitei communities in Bishnupur District of Manipur, NE India.

The present ethnobotanical exploration study presents the folk medicinal plants used by certain tribes (Kondadoras) in Visakhapatnam district of Andhra Pradesh in India. As the valuable source of knowledge on traditional medicinal plants usage is not adequately documented, this study impedes their widespread use and validation. Here we have recorded indigenous knowledge and standard practices for human disease control of these tribes.

Purified asparaginase that’s highly purified extracted from frozen plant seeds of Pisam sativum var J of. were used to determine the specificity of enzyme against different substrates. Enzyme specificity was 783.1, 28.1, 11.4, and 13.7 U/mg of L-aspargine, L-aspartic acid, L-glutamine, and L-glutamic acid respectively. The cytotoxicity effect of purified asparaginase of frozen seeds of Pizum sativumvar J of.

The main objective of this study is to apply recommender system in Benishangul Gumuz Micro and small enterprise sectors (BGMSEs). As a methodology, interview and document analysis methods were employed and the necessary data cleaning, filtering and modelling as well as representations were performed. Finally the recommender system was developed and tested on BGMSEs, 80% of experts and members are satisfied with the developed system.

Analysis of plant leaves image so far been an important and difficult task, especially for leaves with complicated background where some interferents and overlapping phenomena may exist. To extract the plant leaf from complicated background is challenging since we need to remove the soil, residue and etc. In order to obtain the greeness of image, Excess Green Vegetation Index is obtained to ease the segmentation process. But, the problem raise when dealing with uneven illumination. This paper proposed Modified Excess Green Vegetation Index to overcome this problem.

In this paper we present the modeling, simulation and analysis of the energy conversion equations describing the behavior of a hybrid system of wind turbine and biomass/ gas turbine and district heating hybrid system for power generation and district heating. A numerical model based upon the aforementioned equations has been developed, integrated, coded and the results were compared to experimental data. The model fairly predicted with experimental data under various conditions.

It is the responsibility of structural engineers to ensure the built environment that can withstand extreme dynamic actions, such as wind, traffic or earthquake. Structural engineers must understand how the built environment will respond to such dynamic actions. In essence an earthquake resistant structure has to resist the lateral inertial forces in a safe and reliable manner. A structure has to be designed to resist the lateral actions applied to it by the earthquake ground motion.

Aluminium matrix composites (AMCs) have gained considerable amount of research emphasis and attention in the present era. Research is being carried out across the globe to produce new combination of MMCs. MMCs are prepared by adding a variety of metal particles with monolithic alloys using several techniques. An attempt has been made to produce aluminum metal matrix composites reinforced with nickel (Al3Ni) particles by the in situ reaction and applying friction stir processing. When the specimen was stirred 2 passes, the formed Al3Ni was tiny to be detected.

A new real transform, named M-dimensional real transform is developed, which can help to represent signals using real additions without complex arithmetic, and which offers a different way of signal analysis. The MRT exhibits redundancy. All the implementation is build in FPGA using verilog.

Blended Portland cements are hydraulic cements in which a well-defined fraction of the Portland cement clinker is replaced by other hydraulic, pozzolanic or non-hydraulic materials. Their general behaviour is similar to that of Portland cement since they harden when mixed with water and form the same calcium silicate hydrates (C-S-H) and calcium aluminate hydrates (C-A-H). The addition of supplementary cementitious materials (SCMs), such as metakaolin to cement generally improves workability, durability, and long-term strength.

This research paper is a comparative study of different clustering & classification algorithms. Clustering algorithms are compared on the basis of accuracy parameter, cluster distribution and time taken to build model. The six accuracy parameters for evaluating accuracy of classification algorithms are used. These parameters are TP rate, precision, recall, ROC area, f-measure and kappa statics.

In the present scenario Data Mining is an emerging powerful tool for analyzing the data. Data mining is the process of extracting the valid, relevant and useful information from the data. And association belongs to the discovery data mining techniques, which are used to find patterns inside the data. This paper deals with the some of the measures of association for data mining. And the goal of the quest paper is to use the statistical method of association for mining the data.

Online Social Networking sites (OSNs) inspire the people to come close and increase communication easily. To make communication easily there are various online social sites that are available like Facebook, Twitter etc. which brought world closer. Social networking is one of the fastest media to spread the information. Users has a freedom to share their own emotions in terms of pictures, text etc. To do communication user have to create its account on respective web site then he/she may allow to perform various activities like adding friends, sharing videos and images.

The Unified Power Flow Controller (UPFC) is a typical FACTS (Flexible AC Transmission Systems) device that is the most sophisticated and complex power electronic equipment and has emerged for the control and optimization of power flow and also to regulate the voltage in electrical power transmission system. This paper propose the real, reactive power and voltage control through a transmission line by placing UPFC at the sending end using computer simulation. The L index is the parameter which is used to check the stability.

Measurements were carried out to investigate the potentialities of gamma back-scattering technique in detection of hidden contrabands such as codeine (C18H21NO3) and cannabis (C21H30O2). This is done using an assembly consisting of 241Am gamma source, producing about 5×107 photon.s-1, in conjunction with a NaI(Tl) detector. The source-detector distance was optimized and the optimal configuration was selected.

Micronutrient is a vital for improving nutritional status of leaf of tasar host plants and subsequently has impact on silkworm in producing good quality cocoons. In Present day, seventy five surface soil samples representing tasar growing states of Bihar and Jharkhand in India were analyzed for the basic soil parameters viz., pH, EC, OC and available micronutrients (DTPA extractable) viz., Zn, B, Fe, Cu and Mn. The soil reaction of selected sites was neutral to slightly alkaline with low level of electrical conductivity of soils.

In today’s Life everyone has to face challenges. Every software has risk which should be managed very carefully. Risk identification, risk estimation and risk evaluation is done in order to avoid, monitor and manage risks and its Impact. To achieve a quality product risk mitigation, monitoring, and management is performed.

In the software development life-cycle, software maintenance is considered as one of the most critical process. A considerable amount of information needs to be managed during the process software maintenance. The requirement of particular software might not be fulfilled by a particular tool or technique. So we require different tools and techniques for different components of the software. This paper briefly explains some of the software maintenance techniques and tools.

There is great competition between the Java and .NET from many years. These two technologies are used to develop web application by adding new features. In this paper, we will compare the features of the two technologies which are J2EE and ASP.NET. We will discuss the similarities and differences which include: IDE, Databases, Market value, MVC, Low-level code safety. This paper is helpful to those who are not involved in web development or those who want to change the technology either to Java or .NET and want to increase their knowledge with a new platform.

Studies on the thermodynamics of binary electrolyte system containing mixture of 1,2-dimethoxyethane (DME) and ethylene carbonate (EC) at various temperatures (25, 40, 50, 60 and 70 oC) and mole fractions (1.000, 0.7197, 0.5982, 0.4905, 0.3910, 0.2997 and 0.2157 of DME) was carried out. The parameters (density, viscosity, excess volume, free energy of activation of flow, excess viscosity, d-parameter, excess Gibbs free energy, change in free energy, enthalpy and entropy) of mixing were examined.

This study investigates the influence of entrepreneurship education’s two independent teaching variables in promoting entrepreneurial intention among Nigeria tertiary students, examining the impacts of risk-taking propensity, pedagogical teaching method, and perceived importance of favourable business environment as moderator. Aim to expose the latest innovative trends and directions in entrepreneurship education training and development, via current scientific research.

The forms that the body allows to sculpt seem to diversify as opportunities to transform their own appearance. Thus, aging seems to escape the desirable body pattern that a contemporary society values. There are many as requirements for a society which expresses meant and establishes relations with the medium to which one wishes to belong. This research aims to analyze how the consumption practices of beauty products for men, seeking to establish relationships between meanings and practices of care.

Adolescents are a heterogeneous group with diverse needs that vary depending on factors such as age, gender, marital status, place of residence and educational attainment. A healthy adolescence is the corridor to a healthy adulthood. Evidence suggests that adolescents continue to have a variety of unmet needs with reference to reproductive health. Objective: A descriptive, cross-sectional community based study was conducted among 22 adolescent girls situated in Chengalpattu. Knowledge related to puberty, menstruation & menstrual hygiene in the present study.

The intent of the paper is to see the present scenario of teacher education in India in the light of the educational policies, recommendations, commissions and various educational committees working towards the upliftment of the teacher education programmes.

The aim of this research was to evaluate the relationship between the athletic identity perceptions of athletes, who were studying in a School of Physical Education and Sports, selected variables. A total of 288 athletes participated in this study. The participants were studying at the School of Physical Education and Sports at Istanbul Gelişim University, and they were selected from students agreed voluntarily to participate this research by the random sampling method who were individual athletes and team athletes. The research consisted of two stages.

This study intended to find out the importance of phonological awareness in improving students’ reading ability. The participants were the English teachers and principal in a non-profit making kindergarten, which the medium of instruction is mainly Chinese. Since the English teachers are the ones who teach in the classroom, their responses are valuable for us to understand the improvements or deterioration in students’ reading ability.

This study was carried out in the pastoral zone of Niger with the aim of validating outputs of the BIOMASAH model developed by the AGRHYMET Regional Centre (ARC) relative to real data collected over the 2001-2011 period by the Ministry Livestock and Animal Industries (MEIA) of Niger. We used parametric tests (t-tests) and nonparametric tests (Wilcoxon and sign tests) for mean comparisons. A correlation analysis was performed by calculating Pearson’s r, Spearman’s ρ, Kendall’s T and Hoeffding’s D correlation coefficients.

The smart weeds or Knot weeds are one of the major aquatic and marshy land inhabitants belonging to the Family Polygonaceae are primarily found in damp and marshy places. The present study reveals the fact of occurrence of several (14 Nos.) such species along the course of river Kolong which is a major river of the district Nagaon, Assam, India. Though the Knot weeds are considered as weed, yet a number of economic utilization are also found as revealed from the study. Some of the weeds are rare and endangered due to the loss of habitats and extensive use (eg. Polygonum microcephalum).

The discourse on the existence of African philosophy is the Archimedean point to most Philosophers of the 20th century. There is for and against views on the existence of African philosophy among philosophers. However, in this article I try to develop an argument that illustrates the existence of African philosophy (African philosophy resulted due to western discourse on Africa and Africans reaction on it). Almost all African philosophers agree on the existence of African philosophy albeit there is disagreement on the issue of what constituted African philosophy.

Necessity of women participation for development has been considered to be part of programmes and a provision under MGREGS for women workers provides opportunity for such empowerment. Women workers participation percent was34 percent, against the 33 percent of worked reserved for women under the Act. Equal wages are received under the programme for both men and women though wages under casual work differs among both men and women. The income and the wages received under the programme has contributed to the total income of the household though in less amount.

The rapid urbanization is the matter of grave concern in contemporary time because it leads to urban sprawl. The numbers of changes have come in urban areas such as development of industry, service sector, employment and educational services. These changes have led to job opportunity and better way of life in urban areas. Consequently, the individuals are migrating from rural areas to urban areas and they are creating many problems in urban areas such as uncontrolled population, inner city neighbourhood, and heterogeneous environment.

With increased business use of electronic media to advertise to individual consumers today notwithstanding, direct mail continues to be a big part and concern in our everyday lives. At the same time, direct mail advertising continues to be a major source of revenue to many businesses and government agencies like the United States Postal Service. For a period of about six months, a total of 39,663 direct mail items were collected from residential neighborhoods of the nine county San Francisco Bay Area, with a combined total population estimate of 7 million people.

Background: Health and Family Life Education (HFLE) is a life skill based program designed to be implemented in schools the Caribbean countries to enable children and young people develop skills that can improve their overall health and academics. Whereas the programme had begun in most of the Caribbean countries, many have undertaken some level of evaluation of their programmes. Trinidad has not done so. This is an attempt to begin as assessment of the implementation of the programme in Trinidad and Tobago.

In the present era of globalization, the world has become an economic village. The globalization of the business world as well as the development of e-commerce creates the necessity of global accounting language. A number of multi-national companies are establishing their businesses in various countries with emerging economies. Different accounting framework and guidelines for different countries has created confusion for users of financial statements. Thus, this conceptual paper supports the case for a single set of globally accepted accounting standards.

There has been an immense focus on the topic of Corporate Social responsibility (CSR) in the recent times. Last decade saw a paradigm shift in the manner in which business operations are undertaken. Big industrial families often engaged in philanthropic activities contributing huge amounts for social, educational and community purposes. However, such donations did not belong to the shareholders but were often from personal savings. The inclusion of section 135 in Companies Act 2013 made it mandatory for companies to spend 2% of their net profits on CSR activities.

To find out the effect of nitrogen fertilizer on tuber quality and storability of potato varieties, an experiment was conducted for two consecutive years during 2012-13 and 2013-14 at Vegetable Research Center, G.B.P.U.A. & T. Pantnagar. Two potato varieties and five nitrogen levels (0, 75, 150, 225, 300 kg N/ha) were used in the experiment as treatment.

Aiming to verify the sufficiency of diversity and abundance of bees in two areas of passion fruit cultivation, one with agricultural pesticides (area 1) and the other, of organic planting (area 2), in southern Brazil, sampling collections were untaken monthly, from January 2016 to May 2016, using entomological nets on flowering feet and tagging of individuals with numbered tags. Individuals not visually identified were prepared for identification. The flowers that were open were marked, per month, and the fruiting rate was inspected after 15 days.





Rosane Cavalcante Fragoso, Brasil


Chief Scientific Officer and Head of a Research Group

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Faraz Ahmed Farooqi
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Dr. Ali Seidi
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