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April 2017

  1. Asiton-a Solomon Ibama

    This is a review paper intended to bring to focus the concept of effective service delivery as applicable in the health sector and the seemly causes of low productivity in the context of our country, Nigeria vis-à-vis its attendant public health implication. The objective of this review work is to determine the extent to which the basic components of health services delivery could contribute to meeting the health care needs of the population or otherwise in our circumstance as a nation. The methodology applied were traditional review of published literatures concerning the subject and bringing to fore the connecting issues to form basis for policy formulation as well as further empirical studies as much as possible. This paper takes a look at the most occurring factors and /or components of effective health services delivery, under three (3) broad components, namely; Health System Infrastructure component, Material and Equipment component and Human Resource component, then, bringing to fore the overbearing feasible causes of low productivity in the health sector in Nigeria, such as poor awareness creation on available services, high cost of services, unavailability of drugs/basic equipment, attitude of health care providers, poor working environment, poor remuneration and sitting of health facilities, by using performance in its various dimensions as the measurable tool in these perspectives. The public health implication of low productivity in the health sector may mean that the spectrum of activities geared toward prevention and control of diseases and or health conditions of public health importance are incapable of achieving or promoting optimal health of the population. In conclusion, it is very necessary that components/factors of effective health services delivery are adequately harnessed in a synergistic approach to solving issues of low productivity at every facet of our development as a nation, state, local government and community.

  2. Ahmed Hilal Sheriff, K., Dr. Dhanraj, M. and Dr. Preetham Prasad Nittla

    Aim: To determine the various denture marking systems used for identification of the Subjects for personal identification in post mortem scenarios in the literature. Sources used: An electronic search was conducted for articles written in English or translated into English listed with pubmed, Cochranelibrary, Science Direct, Wiley online library, Google scholar data bases, till January 5th 2017 reporting various ways of denture marking and their uses. Results: The database yielded 20 articles in total out of which 11 articles were selected and the data was extracted in terms of study design, type of denture marker, method of denture marking, advantages and disadvantages of the denture marking. Conclusion: The literature has listed 9 Engraving and 18 embedding methods of denture marking. The superiority of one technique over the other could not be established with the available data, hence more standardized trials needs to be initiated to throw more light on this domain.

  3. Aniruddh Menon and Dr. Gopinath

    Topic: Presence of bla NMD 1 gene in urinary isolates of klebsiella species Aim : To detect the presence of bla NDM 1 gene for the production of MBL in urinary isolates of klebsiella species in tertiary care hospital. Objective: A sum total of 20 will be used to detect the presence of bla NDM 1 gene for the production of MBL in urinary isolates of klebsiella species in tertiary care hospital. Background: Recently the B BETA-lactamase NDM 1has become a source of serious concern. Initially isolated from klebsialla pneumonia and Eschirichia coli isolates recovered in Sweden from a patient who was initially admitted in India, NDM 1 producers have subsequently been identified in various other countries in UK and Pakistan and indentified in K pneumonia, Citrobacterfreundii, enterobacter cloacae. Reason: To study the presence boa NDM 1 gene in our isolates for antibiotic resistance and for better treatment procedures.

  4. Aroonika S. Bedre and Dr. Revathy Gounder

    Aim: The aim of this study was to evaluate the various smile parameters among South Indian population. Materials and Methods: 50 subjects of age 18 to 25 years with a pleasing smile were selected for the study. Static photographs of posed smiles were taken in natural head position, with camera lens perpendicular to the occlusal plane. The following smile parameters were quantified using Adobe Photoshop ruler software. 1. Maxillary incisor exposure (mm) 2. Smile index (SI) (mm) 3. Smile arc 4. Most posterior maxillary tooth visible 5. Anterior height of the smile (%) 6. Posterior height of the smile (%) Results 1. Average maxillary incisor exposure was 8.05 mm. 2. Average Smile index was 8.60 mm. 3. Most common Smile arc was flat and parallel types. 4. Most posterior maxillary tooth visible was the 2nd premolar and 1st molar. 5. Anterior height of the smile (%) was average for most of the people. 6. Posterior height of the smile (%) was high for most of the people. Conclusion: The dentist’s knowledge of the smile aesthetics among a particular population is essential while restoring a patient’s intraoral harmony so as to achieve functional and aesthetic balance.

  5. Karthik, E. V. G. and Dr. Thenmozhi

    Aim: To determine the morphometric of pterion in south Indian skulls Materials and Methods: A total 40 dry human adult aged skull of unknown sex were studied. A 0-150 mm digital electronical calliper was used for Morphometrical measurements. Results: In the present study, four Types of pterion: sphenoparietal, frontotemporal, stellate and epipteric were observed in south Indian skulls. The dominant type of pterion was Sphenoparietal (83%). This was followed by stellate (6.0%), epipteric (6.0%) and the least was frontotemporal (5.0%) and their respective distances from frontozygomatic fissure and zygomatic arch were measured. Conclusion: Relationship between the middle meningeal artery and the pterion is of great importance in the field of surgery, anthropology and in forensic medicine. The relationship between the point of middle meningeal artery and the pterion is not only playing roles in approaching the anterior division of middle meningeal artery, it is also useful in approaching the Brocca’s area on the left side of brain and the lateral (Sylvian) cerebral fissure.

  6. Geethika, B. and Dr. Gifrina Jayaraj

    Aim: To review the literature on the advances on enamel regeneration and the challenges faced. Objective: To compile the various advances in the field of enamel regeneration. Background: Enamel is the outermost covering of the crown of the teeth. It consists of 96% organic material and 4% inorganic material. The most abundant protein in enamel is amelogenin. Since it's the outermost covering it is prone to damage and dental caries despite of its strong structure. Reason for the project: The ameloblasts degenerate after enamel formation and so enamel cannot be regenerated in case of damage. There are many ceramic materials and metals which are used to replace enamel but none of it matches enamel in functions -both protective and aesthetic. Studies in this field would bring about a drastic change in the field of dentistry.

  7. Geethika, B. and Dr. P. Gopinath

    Aim: To asses the knowledge, attitude and awareness about infection control among dental students. Objective: To asses the knowledge about infection control of the dental student in order to evaluate the attitude and awareness about infection control among dental students using various parameters. Back Ground: Infection is the invasion of an organism's body tissues by disease-causing agents, their multiplication, and the reaction of host tissues to these organisms and the toxins they produce. Infection control is the discipline concerned with preventing nosocomial or healthcare-associated infection, a practical (rather than academic) sub-discipline of epidemiology. Hence infection control plays an important role in dental hospitals and awareness about it can access the quality of treatments given. Reason for the project: To evaluate the knowledge, attitude and awareness of dental students about infection control to prevent the spread of infectious diseases and to assure quality dental treatment.

  8. Anisha. A. Mahtani and Dr. Brundha, M. P.

    Aim: To study the uses of BRUSHES App in visual education. Objective: To observe and compare the educational results between visual learning methods and standard textbook learning techniques. Materials and Methods: A video was made on a topic by using BRUSHES App. A sample size of 100 students was chosen. 50 students answered an MCQ quiz after reading the topic and 50 answered the same quiz after watching the video made on it by using the BRUSHES App and the results were compared. Results: The mean rank of the correct answers by textbook learning method is 1.90 and by video it is 3.10. Hence the results show a significant increase in the number of correct answers by the video based learning method. Conclusion: The results of the study suggest that video based teaching method is more effective. Aim: To study the uses of BRUSHES Application in visual education and compare the educational results between visual learning methods and standard textbook learning techniques.

  9. Dr. Jastinder Singh, Dr. Rajat Bhandari, Dr. Rajiv Tiwari, Dr. Deepika Singla, Dr. Manjot Singh, Dr. Saransh Tuli, Dr. Pardeep Mahajan and Dr. Prashant Monga

    The outcome of root canal treatment is based on efficient disinfection of the root canal system and prevention of reinfection. Enterococcus faecalis has been found to be one of the predominant bacteria in root canal failure teeth. The bacteria appear to be highly resistant to available medicaments. Irrigants have been traditionally delivered using a syringe and a needle. The problem with this irrigation technique is inadequate replacement of the irrigant throughout the root canal system. Therefore various new devices like Endoactivator have been introduced. This device enhances hydrodynamic phenomenon by means of the subsonic activation of a passive smooth polymer tip. Another recent method to combat pathogens is the use of lasers. This study was aimed at comparing the antimicrobial efficacy of 5% sodium hypochlorite, subsonic activated solution and diode laser in elimination of Enterococcus faecalis from the root canal.

  10. Dr. A. Samabasiva Rao and Hareesh Reddy, M.

    Ramipril is an angiotensin- converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitor, used to Hypertension (high blood pressure) and congestive heart failure (CHF). These inhibitors relax (arterioles) the muscles around small arteries. They expand the arterioles and allow to blood flow through more easily. This reduces blood pressure (B.P). Controlled release matrix tablets of Ramipril were prepared by using three polymers, one of the hydrophilic polymer hydroxy propyl methyl cellulose K15M (HPMCK15M) with four concentrations (drug: polymer ratios-1:1, 1:2, 1:3, 1:4), PVPK300, and Karayagum by wet granulation method. The granules were evaluated for bulk density, tapered density, bulkiness, angle of repose, Hausners ratio and compressibility index. In vitro release studies revealed that Ramipril formulation with high proportion of HPMCK15M (1:4) was able to control the drug release for 12 hours (85.4 1.26). The in-vitro drug release data, curve-fitting kinetic analysis and all the formulations followed the mechanism of erosion and diffusion. All the formulations were subjected to stability analysis for stored at 45°±2 C, 75 5 RH up to 45 days.

  11. Nivashini, G. S. V.

    Aim: To know the principles of resin infiltration technique. Background: Resin infiltration technique was first described in 1970s for conservative management of non cavitated smooth surface curious lesions. Caries infiltration is a micro-invasive treatment to arrest non-cavitated caries lesions. The method is based on the penetration of low-viscosity light-curing resins, so called infiltrants, into the pores within the enamel lesion. Reason: This technique is a minimally invasive technique to treat the non cavitated smooth surface caries.

  12. Dr. K. Prabhusankar, Dr. G. Muralidharan, Dr. V. Usha and Dr. Varun Muthuraman

    Anxiety is the major reason for skipping the dental appointments by the patient. Anxiety differs from one individual to another and past dental treatment experienced by the patient also determine the anxiety levels of the patients. In this clinical study pre operative anxiety levels and the changes in the vitals such as blood pressure, pulse and oxygen saturation of the patients undergoing first mandibular third molar impaction surgery were recorded and analysed its anxiety associated changes prior to the procedure. In this clinical study it was found that the patients were more anxious about the treatment environment room, females were more anxious than males. No significant changes in blood pressure, heart rate and oxygen saturation were reported preoperatively. The anxious score were found to be insignificant between previously operated and non-operated patients.

  13. Laila Ezzat

    Introduction: Placenta previa is an obstetric complication in which the placenta is inserted partially or wholly in the lower uterine segment. It is a leading cause of antepartum haemorrhage (vaginal bleeding). It affects approximately 0.4-0.5% of all labours. Women with placenta previa often present with painless, bright red vaginal bleeding. This commonly occurs around 32 weeks of gestation, but can be as early as late mid-trimester. Much debate has been given to the optimal timing of delivery in cases of placental abnormalities. Given these risks, numerous official organizations have been proponents of active medical management in cases of placenta previa, as well as placenta accreta, increta, and percreta. In particular a prophylactic, elective cesarean delivery prior to the onset of labor is theorized to reduce the rates of spontaneous hemorrhage, which increase proportionally with advancing gestational age. The optimal timing of delivery in placenta previa is an important issue that is understudied in the literature. After all, with the increasing rate of cesarean deliveries, an increase in the incidence of placenta previa is expected to be observed. Materials and Methods: A retrospective study, data files and the case notes was retrieved from the medical records department at Aswan university hospital from January 1/2013 to December 31/2013. in the form of data relating to the age, parity, gestational age, method of termination, perinatal outcomes, and related maternal complications. We sought to compare neonatal outcomes among pregnancies with placenta previa delivered at the late-preterm period, namely 35 and 36 weeks gestation, relative to the early-term period at 37 and 38 weeks gestation, taking 38 weeks gestation as reference. The data was entered in the computer for statistical analysis using one proprietary statistical package which is statistical packages for the social science (SPSS). Results: There were 4284 deliveries during the period under review of these 67 patients had placenta previa the age of the patients ranged from 20- 40 years with average 30 years .The gestational age at delivery ranged from 28 – 39 wksAs regard perinatal morbidity and mortality, 2 cases complicated by IUFD which represents (2.98%). Birth at 35, 36 and 37 weeks was associated with no greater odds of meconiumpassage, fetal distress, fetal anemia, neonatal seizures, increased ventilator needs, or infant death. However, APGAR scores<7 were more common at 35 and 36 weeks 4cases (33%) and 3cases (21%) respectively; as were NICU admission rates:3 cases(25%) and 2 cases(14%) Conclusion: Barringmaternal indications, early-term deliveryin placenta previa appears to be associated with fewerneonatal complications and no greater risk than late-pretermneonatal complications and no greater risk than late-pretermdelivery

  14. Dr. Abida Banu, Dr. Rohan Rai and Dr. K. Nillan Shetty

    Introduction: Aim of the study to evaluate the association between facial morphology and various depths of curve of spee and variations in males and females in South Indian population. Methods: 96 diagnostic casts and lateral head cephalograms of selected subjects on the basis of depths of curve of Spee as measured on the mandibular casts were selected. The subjects were divided into three Groups (Group-I- 0-2 mm, Group -II >2-4 mm and Group-III >4 mm of curve of Spee), (n=32, m=16, f=16) and further into subgroups according to sex. Cephalometric and study cast variables were measured and subjected to statistical analysis with curve of Spee as the dependent variable and others as independent variables. Results: SNB, APDI, L-E line were negatively correlated and ANB, ODI,G-SN-POG were positively correlated with depth of curve of Spee in both males and females. Conclusion: Various parameters in the facial morphology contributes to the curve of spee. This, will be helpful in diagnosis as well as determination of this relationship is useful to assess the feasibility of leveling the curve of Spee by orthodontic treatment.

  15. Jacob Z. Dalgaard

    Sepsis occurs when pathogenic infections become systemic, and the response itself leads to both morbidity and mortality. Here I propose, that the immune response is a “localized” response, evolved to isolate infections and to prevent them from spreading when our epithelium is damaged, that goes into overdrive when pathogens do break through the “barrier” and invade the body in a systemic manner. A multi-pronged “early” approach modulating the immune response is likely the best way to prevent sepsis from developing fully and to limit its damaging effects on the micro-vascular systems of the body’s organs.

  16. RUTHIKA PATIL

    Background: Many techniques have been discussed to record horizontal condylar inclination and transfer it to an articulator, but the most popular and commonly used technique to determine horizontal condylar inclination is use of inter-occlusal protrusive records. Considering, this study was planned to evaluate the effect of three different inter-occlusal recording materials on horizontal condylar guidance values in two different semi adjustable articulators with reference to condylar guidance values obtained by lateral cephalometric tracing. Materials and Methodology: For the study, 15 patients of age 18-24 years were selected with full complement of dentition. (n=15). Maxillary and mandibular impression were made ans two pairs of cast were made. Mounting was done for respective artiulators. Three protrusive inter-occlusal records were made with each material. The semi-adjustable articulators were programmed to obtain the readings of horizontal condylar inclination of both the right and left side. The cephalograms were traced and the horizontal condylar guidance values were obtained. Results: The results of the studies showed that, Arcon articulators have better level of accuracy of recording HCG than that of non-arcon articulators. Polyvinyl siloxane and polyether material exhibit better level of accuracy of recording HCG in both arcon and non arcon articulators. Alu wax is not recommended material with either of the articulators.

  17. Sumanta Bera, Abhinandan Ghosh, Bhabani Prasad Pakhira, Joydeb Roychowdhury and Debidas Ghosh

    Objective: The present study was undertaken to search out the status of antioxidant enzymes, apoptotic markers of sperm pellet and their molecular mechanism study in the diabetic patients under regular and irregular mode of different duration dependent treatment protocol within 25-40 years age group. Methods: Blood glycemic sensors, seminal catalase, superoxide dismutase (SOD), Bax, Bcl-2 protein, transcriptions of catalase, SOD, Bax and Bcl-2 genes in sperm were evaluated. Results: Levels of blood glycemic sensors, activities of antioxidative enzymes like catalase and superoxide dismutase and translation value of apoptatic markers like Bax protein, Bcl-2 protein, and transcriptions of catalse, SOD, Bax and Bcl-2 genes in sperm was corrected significantly after treatment of diabetic patients under regular mode for 4 to 5 years though not up to the control level. When the duration of the said treatment was extended beyond 4-5 years up to 15 years there are no significant recovery further in this line. In contrast, the levels of these sensors were shifted towards the pathological direction further along with the extension of the duration of the irregular treatment more in comparison to the irregular pattern treatment for 4-5 year of the diabetic patients.. Conclusion: So, it may conclude that regular mode of treatment is more effective for correction of spermiological sensors in diabetic patients in respect to irregular mode of treatment. Moreover, irregular mode of treatment with prolog duration may exert more adverse effect on spermiological sensors in diabetic patients.

  18. Dr. Nitika Grover, Dr. Arnav Kr. Roychoudhury and Dr. Nidhi Bansal

    Inflammatory Pseudotumor of the paratesticular region are rare and are often misdiagnosed. Despite being rare, Inflammatory tumors of the paratesticular area represents the second most common paratesticular mass after adenomatoid tumor roughly comprising 6% of the lesions. They present clinically as long standing painless scrotal masses. These are reactive proliferation of inflammatory and fibrous tissue. The initial stimulus may be a previous surgery, trauma, infection, or inflammation. Although benign, this often clinically mimics intrascrotal malignancy and usually remains undiagnosed preoperatively. To our knowledge no recurrence has been reported after complete excision of paratesticular inflammatory pseudotumour, however continued follow up is strongly recommended. The aim of this paper is to emphasize the importance of distinguishing benign mimickers and pseudotumors from true neoplasia.

  19. Ghada Aly, Salam El-Hafez and Nagui Nassif

    The popularity of application of kinesio tape (KT) during the rehabilitation process, and the need for empirical evidence on the effect of kinesio tape are compelling reasons to perform further researches on KT. This study was conducted to explore the changes that may occur in the peak torque (PT) of ankle evertors and invertors as well as the ankle strength ratios (EVCON/INVECC and EVECC/INVCON) as a result of applying different taping modes. The examined taping modes were; No tape, athletic tape (AT) and kinesio tape (KT). The study was conducted on thirty healthy volunteers of both sexes. Isokinetic concentric and eccentric PT assessments have been done for both ankle evertors and invertors using the Biodex 3 isokinetic dynamometer. All subjects were tested with the different taping modes at 30º/sec and 120º/sec. Repeated measures MANOVA revealed significant increase in the concentric and eccentric evertor PT, the EVECC/INVCON strength ratio at both of the tested velocities (30º/sec and 120º/sec) and the eccentric invertor PT at 120º/sec (P ˂ 0.025) when using KT. It was concluded that, KT has an impact on PT of ankle evertors and invertors as well as ankle strength ratio.

  20. Dr. Siddhant Bumb, Dr. Dilip Kakade, Dr. Amit Jagtap and Dr. Riddhi Kulkarni

    Microleakage and marginal opening are related to most of the fixed restoration failures. The luting cements irrespective of their contents show some amount of dissolution when they come in contact with oral environment. Marginal opening between cemented crowns and their tooth margins mainly related to cement dissolution. This in vitro study investigated the effect of two different luting agent namely resin cement and resin modified glass ionomer cement on microleakage under metal crown. Twenty intact human premolars were randomized to two groups of ten teeth each. They were prepared in a standardized manner for receiving full metal crowns. Crowns were made following a standard laboratory technique and cemented on their respective abutments. The specimens were subjected to thermocycling for 500 cycle, placed in methylene blue solutions for 24hrs and vertically cut in the buccolingual direction. The microleakage in the area of tooth-cement interface was defined as linear penetration of methylene blue and was determined with a stereomicroscope to assign microleakage scores using a five-point scale. A significant association was found between a cement type and degree of microleakage. The smallest degree of microleakage was observed in specimens luted with resin cement, followed by modified resin glass-ionomer cement. The importance of gap formation and microleakage has been clearly established but the exact amount that becomes clinically significant remains undefined.

  21. Dr. Neha Hakepatil, Dr. Nilesh Bulbule and Dr. Amit Jagtap

    Radiation therapy is used as a single modality in the curative treatment of early stage head and neck cancer or as a part of multimodality therapy in the curative treatment of locally advanced head and neck cancers. Adverse tissue reactions associated with the use of radiotherapy in the management of patients with head and neck cancer are painful and they diminish the quality of life, often discouraging the patient from taking treatment. RADIATION CARRIER works as a boon for these patients. It is an ancillary prosthesis used to administer radiations to the confirmed areas by the means of capsules, beads or needles of radiation emitting materials such as radium, iridium or cesium. Its function is to hold the radiation source securely in the same location during the entire period of treatment. Fabricating customized radiation carriers for inaccessible areas, such as the nasopharyngeal space, requires the patient to be under conscious sedation or general anaesthesia to allow impressions for indirect processing techniques. This article highlights on newer advancements and various types of radiation carriers.

  22. Janhvi Manohar and Dr. Gopinath, P.

    Cutaneous fungal infections are common diseases in humans, and can also be caused by dermatophytic fungi and some yeasts. Superficial candidiasis is a common infection of the oral cavity, vagina, skin and esophagus, although most infections occur in patients who are immunocompromised. Candida albicansis responsible for many of these infections, but occasionally other members of the genus are associated, and generally infect the skin, nails, or mucous membranes. This study involves the determination of antifungal activity of Candida spp against apple cidar vinegar. The MIC of apple cider vinegar was appeared to be 0.25% for Candida spp. It is also a safer treatment modality with almost no side-effects. Apple cider vinegar seems to be the most economical product to have anti-fungal properties. Such activity may suggest promising effective alternative orsynergistic remedy to the popular antifungal drugs.

  23. Dr. Manoj Kumar, Dr. Shashi Kumar, Dr. Arun Kumar Tiwary, Dr. Mritunjay Sarawgi and Dr. Anjay Kumar

    Background and Objectives: Symptomatic gallstones are easy to treat, unfortunately however asymptomatic gallstones are as easy to treat. This creates a problem for health care planners in the form of the financial implications involved, since asymptomatic gallstones are even more common than gallstones associated with symptoms and require no surgical intervention, while the funds diverted towards dealing with them drains the health care establishment of much needed funds in an era of costly health care. In this review we attempt to clarify the fact that asymptomatic gallstones need no intervention in most cases, thereby saving the patient unnecessary surgery and the health care establishment costs, both in the financial form and in manpower. Materials and Methods: This study is based on 25(twenty-five) patients came at RIMS, Ranchi with Gallstone disease on the period of April 2015 to September 2016. Patients who can benefit from this treatment are those who have small gallstones may be less than 1.5cm in diameter and which have high cholesterol content. Results and Conclusion: My data confirm that UDCA can dissolve radiolucent gallstones even at 4 mg/kg, a dose which after 6 months of treatment induced stone reduction or disappearance in 33% of patients. The success rate improved at the higher doses, 50% of patients showing partial or complete dissolution with 8 mg/kg and 65%with 12 mg/kg. Therefore, I conclude that there is a relationship between the dose employed, over the range of 4-12 mg/kg, and the response in terms of stone dissolution at 6 months.

  24. Dr. Ranjan Solanki, Dr. P. R. Deshmukh, Dr. S. S. Gupta, Dr. C. M. Maliye, Dr. A. M. Mehendale and Dr. B. S. Garg

    Background: The Reorientation of Medical Education (ROME) Program has been adopted by World Health Organization. The implementation of ROME in spite of its visible and tangible benefits has not been possible in most of the medical colleges in India. The Mahatma Gandhi Institute of Medical Sciences (MGIMS), Sewagram, is one of the exceptions where ROME programme is being implemented since last fourty years. The present study is an attempt to understand the student’s perspectives and learning during the reorientation of medical education programme. Methods: The quantitative data was collected with a questionnaire with banks of questions regarding perceptions and knowledge gained during the ROME Programme using a five-point Likert scale. This was done before and after the programme. This utility scale was administered at end of the ROME camp. The Weighted mean and consensus was calculated for both scales. The pre and post programme weighted mean and consensus were analysed using students paired t test. Results: There is significant difference between weighted means of scores regarding Knowledge about implementation of national health programmes, research methodology Sessions on personal development before and after the camp. There is no significant difference in weighted mean scores of the students before and after camp. (P=0.0746) regarding the knowledge of clinical skills. Conclusion: To conclude ROME programme is an effective tool to bring about much needed shift in the focus in medical education. The ROME programme could be revitalized in all medical colleges in India.

  25. Dr. Yoga, S., Dr. Vishwanath, R., Dr. Sitra, G., Dr. Vandana, Dr. John Baliah and Dr. Kayalvizhi

    Background: Panoramic radiograph serves as an indispensible screening and diagnostic tool in oral and maxillofacial imaging. This study was designed to detect the frequency of occult pathologies using the panoramic radiograph. Aim and Objective: To estimate the occult pathologic findings in panoramic radiographs unrelated to the chief complaint and clinical diagnosis. Methodology: This study was conducted at the Department of Oral Medicine and Radiology in a teaching dental hospital using 1032 panoramic radiographs retrieved from May 2015 to October 2015. The images were evaluated for the presence of occult pathologic findings which were unrelated to the chief complaint and clinical diagnosis. Statistics was calculated with simple percentage analysis was done. Result: Out of 1032 panoramic radiographs examined, occult lesions unrelated to the chief complaint and clinical diagnosis were observed in 165 (15.98%) panoramic radiographs. The percentage of the incidental findings in 165 panoramic radiographs were periapical pathologies (26.67%), periodontal pathologies (23.6%), tooth anomalies (4.84%), congenitally missing teeth (5.45%), supernumerary teeth (3.63%), generalized rarefractions (9.7%), carotid artery calcifications (1.81%), cysts and tumors (7.89%), TMJ pathologies (9.1%), and styloid process elongation (3%). The study reiterates on the diagnostic utility of panoramic radiograph in routine clinical situations, school health program and forensics.

  26. Dr. N. K. Mahalakshmi

    Objectives: To correlate the severity of the disease, maternal and perinatal outcome with Lactic Dehydrogenase levels in serum in patients of preeclampsia and eclampsia. Methods: A prospective comparative study was conducted in department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology in Govt Rajaji Hospital, Madurai. Out of 150 women studied, 75 women were normal pregnant women, 28 women were non severe preeclampsia, 27 cases were severe preeclampsia and 20 cases were eclampsia. The statistical analysis was done by chi square test analysis of variance and sample “t” test. Results: LDH levels were significantly elevated in women with preeclampsia and eclampsia (<0.001). Higher LDH levels had significant correlation with high blood pressure (p<0.10) as well as poor maternal and perinatal outcome. Conclusion: High Serum LDH levels correlate well with the severity of the disease and poor outcomes in patients of preeclampsia and eclampsia.

  27. Dr. Jothi Sundaram and Dr. Chithra

    Background: Gestational trophoblastic disease (GTD) is an uncommon complication of pregnancy, worldwide the incidence varying between 0.5 & 0.8 cases per 1000 live births. β-hCG has been used as standard tool for monitoring the biological activity of trophoblastic diseases and as a tumour marker. The abundant vascular supply of the tumour makes Colour Doppler Ultrasound a potentially useful tool to study its clinical behaviour. Objective: To evaluate the role of uterine artery doppler in earlier prediction of resolution in post molar surveillance compared to serial β-hCG follow up. Methods: A longitudinal prospective cohort study was conducted in Government Rajaji Hospital, Madurai over a period of 12 months from August 2015 to August 2016.40 cases of vesicular molewere studied andassessed before and after suction evacuation by measuring serum β-hCG level and finding its relation with Uterine ArteryResistance Index (RI). Results: Out of the forty patients,36 patients showed resolution of mole characterised by fall in b-hcg values and rise in U/A RI while 4 patients showed progression to invasive mole characterised by plateauing or rise in b-hcg values and a fall in U/A RI in the post evacuation period compared to pre evacuation values.Based on these observations,patients were grouped as molar pregnancy resolution(↑UARI with ↓ẞHCG – 90.00%) and molar pregnancy progression(↓UARI with ↑ or plateau ẞHCG – 90.00% ) groups showing a statistically significant differencewith a p value of <0.05 implying that variation in UARI measurement in relation to ẞHCG levels correlate strongly, inversely and negatively. Conclusion: Finding such a significant correlation between serum β-hCG level and Doppler indices suggest that uterine artery Doppler may be used to predict the course of the disease much earlier than serial follow up with B-hcg.

  28. Dr. C. C. Nandhihi, Dr. Kavitha and Dr. M. N. Swathika

    This paper presents a care of takayasu arteritis, a rare large vessel inflammatory disease complicating pregnancy. Takayasu arteritis is a chronic granulamatous inflammation of aorta and it’s major branches which can manifest as isolated, atypical and/or catastrophic disease. It can involve any/or all major organs. It has been reported from all parts of world but more prevalent in Asians / Indian descent. In Indians, abdominal involvement is common when compared to aorta. This was a case of Bilateral renal artery stenosis, aortitis with aortic regurgitation grade III and left ventricular/atrial dilatation. Pregnancy in case of Takayasu arteritis may be uneventful in milder forms of disease but may be catastrophic because of relapse which is common in pregnancy (or) worsening of disease because of physiological changes in pregnancy.

  29. Dr. Shweta Singh and Dr. Shrikant Kalaskar

    Background: The rising problem of triple burden of diseases among the urban poor in the absence of affordable health care services is a big public health challenge in India. This paper explores the health care seeking behavior and utilization pattern among families residing in the slum areas of Mumbai, India. Methods: Simple random sampling was used to decide the sampling frame of six plots consisted of 1000 households. Data were collected from 15% of these households by choosing the household by systemic random sampling. Results: Apart from the proximate factors such as quality of health care services, distance from home, behavior of the staff; socio-economic factors such as educational status of individual, per capita income has an influence over health seeking behavior of individual. Conclusion: There is a need to focus beyond the factors that are more closely related to health, the distal factors; social determinants of health, which are more closely influencing the health care utilization behavior.

  30. Dr. Harish Chandran, Dr. Nandini Manjunath, Dr. Praveen J Shetty and Dr. Merwyan Nithin Gonsalves

    Primary Pulmonary Hypertension (PPH) is a life-threatening disease. Vasodilator drug have been used as a treatment but their efficacy is uncertain, a new treatment strategy using high dose of calcium channel blockers as one of the drug used. Nifidipine is one such drug of the family of calcium channel blockers that induced gingival overgrowth. Drug induced gingival overgrowth remains a significant problem for periodontologist. The pathogenesis of drug induced gingival overgrowth is uncertain and various risk factors and etiological agents like age, sex drug dose and duration, genetic factor and local factors. Management of such condition where it interferes with esthetic, function and occlusion includes non surgical or surgical intervention. This case report highlights the management of one such case of patient with primary pulmonary hypertension at dental office.

  31. Dr. Yogesh Ahirrao, Dr. Shalini Aggarwal and Dr. Nayana Anasane

    Background: This study was undertaken to evaluate the effect of various cavity configurations on the tensile bond strength of hybrid and nanofilled composites. Materials and Methods: In this in vitro study eighty extracted molars of the permanent dentition were divided into two main experimental and two control groups (Group I & Control I - Hybrid composite; Group II & Control II - Nanofilled composite). Cavity of 2mm depth and 3mm, 4mm and 6mm diameter was prepared for each experimental group. Accordingly, group I and II were divided into 3 subgroups (n = 10). The teeth were restored with self etch adhesive and Hybrid & Nanofilled composite as per the experimental groups. For the control group specimens, teeth were grounded to expose the dentin surface and the additional composite was placed on the flat surface. All restored teeth were sliced to produce 1mm thick sections which were then trimmed into an hour glass shape with the narrowest portion at the adhesive interface. The specimen was tested for tensile strength at a cross head speed of 1mm/min. Results: In both the groups 3mm diameter samples showed less strength as compared to the 4mm and 6mm diameter samples. Control groups showed significantly better strength as compared to the experimental groups. (p< 0.001) Conclusion: C-factor affects the tensile strength upto certain limit. Flat surface showed better tensile bond strength as opposed to the cavities. Nanofilled composite showed equal or higher tensile bond strength as compared to the hybrid composite.

  32. Dr. Dipankar Baruah, Dr. Sangeeta Deka, Dr. Rashmirekha Goswami and Dr. Deepjyoti Kalita

    Blood transfusion is an important mode of transmission of infections to recipients. The aim of the study was to assess the prevalence of transfusion-transmissible infections among blood donors. A five years retrospective study was conducted at F.A.A. Medical College, Barpeta, Assam among voluntary and replacement donors from the 2011 to 2015. Donors were screened for prevalence of HIV, HBV, HCV, Malaria and syphilis. (A total of 18279 donors undergone screening test MP, RPR, HbsAg, HCV and HIV prior to collection. The voluntary donors count was 17048 (93.3%) compared to 1231 (6.7%) replacement donor. All the TTI’s prevalence rates were found to be significantly lower amongst voluntary blood donors compared to replacement blood donors. Prevalence of malaria were high given the fact that it is endemic in our area. There was no HCV case signifying the need of more sensitive kits in our population than the commonly employed rapid test. Rate of HIV infection in subject population was found to be lower than the national average. The voluntary donors can be considered safe compared to replacement donor.

  33. Dr. Bala Saraswati Bhat, Dr. Chethan Hegde, Dr. Deeksha Sharma, Dr. Himanshu Arora and Dr. Manish Jadhav

    Purpose: To measure and compare the display of maxillary and mandibular anterior teeth during rest, speech and smiling and to determine the effect of age and gender on tooth visibility during the above mentioned expressions in a group of Indian population. Materials and methods: A digital videographic technique was used to record 120 subjects when they were smiling and speaking and at rest. Individual frames of interest were captured and the tooth visibility was measured with the help of software presentation tools. ANOVA, Tukey HSD and t tests were used to analyse the collected data and to f ind out age and sex correlations. (P<=0.05) Results: Mandibular anterior teeth were more visible during speech as compared to maxillary anterior teeth which were displayed more during smiling and at rest. As the age increased, the display of maxillary anterior teeth decreased during smiling, speech and rest while the display of mandibular anterior teeth increased during smiling only. In Females, maxillary anterior teeth were more visible during speech than males, who display more of mandibular anterior teeth. Females displayed more maxillary anterior teeth than males during smiling and at rest. Conclusion: This study offers guidelines for achieving an esthetic outcome taking into consideration the changes taking place in the visibility of anterior teeth with age and the differences in the two genders.

  34. Dr. Chandramani B. More, Dr. Rao Naman Rajeshkumar, Dr. Ruchita Peter and Dr. Pranay T. Patel

    Background: Sexual variations in human skeleton and dentition have been of great concern for both odontologists and anthropologists. The tooth crown size is a valuable tool and provides significant information on human evolution and biological alterations in forensic evaluation. Objectives: To determine the mesio-distal (MD) and bucco-lingual/palatal (BL) crown width of all permanent maxillary and mandibular first molars on dental cast for sex determination. Material and Method: A prospective study was undertaken in 200 participants of age 16-35 years. The BL and MD crown width of all the permanent first molars was measured on maxillary and mandibular dentalcast by using digital vernier calliper, separately by two investigators. The measurements were subjected to statistical analysis, using Pearson’s correlation coefficient, Kappa test, Chi Square Test, linear regression model. Results and Observations: The maximum number of participants were between the age group of 16-20 years (16%). The male participants (55%) outnumbered the female participants (45%). The MD crown width of maxillaryfirst molar (10.51 ± 0.761 for males, 10.24 ± 0.586 for females) and for mandibular first molar (10.68 ± 0.750 for males, 10.38 ± 0.671 females) and the BL crown width for maxillary first molar (9.91 ± 0.858 males, 9.63 ± 0.668 for females) and for mandibular first molar (9.75 ± 0.756 for males, 9.51 ± 0.649 for females), was highly significant (p < 0.05). An equation was derived for estimating sex from the tooth crown measurement and the sectioning points were determined based on maxillary and mandibular first molar. The accuracy for determining sex from maxillary and mandibular first molar crown was 64.0 % and 66.5 % respectively. Conclusion: The maxillary and mandibular first molar exhibited sexual dimorphism. But mandibular first molar is the most significant tool for determining sex.

  35. Dr. Ramesh Chandra, Dr. Poonam Singh and Dr. Braj Bhushan Mall

    The anatomic complexities and variations are constant challenges for successful endodontic therapy. A unique morphology with double canal systems in each root was identified. The morphology was characterized by a single palatal root with two canals joining in the apical third, single mesiobuccal root with two mesiobuccal canals and single distobuccal root with two distobuccal canals with two separate orifice and two separate foramina. The present case report discusses the endodontic management of an unusual case of a maxillary first molar with three roots and six canals.

  36. Dr. Jyothi, A., Dr. Sudha Reddy, V. R. and Dr. C. D. Dayanand

    This study is to find the association between serum vitamin D levels and severity of acute respiratory tract infections (ARTI) in children from an area with abundant sunlight. A one year cross sectional observational study conducted at a rural tertiary teaching hospital at Kolar, South India with a sample size of 82 clinically diagnosed ARTI and serum Vitamin D levels measured. Cases were classified into three sub groups as per Integrated management of childhood illnesses (IMNCI).Amongst, thirteen (15.8%) cases had no pneumonia, 38 (46.4%) had pneumonia and 31 (37.8%) had severe pneumonia. Vitamin D level was insufficient in 58.5%, deficient in 34.2% and sufficient in 7.3%. Pneumonia and its severity with deficient Vitamin D levels association were statistically significant (p<0.001). Significant association existed between Vitamin D levels with clinical pallor, socioeconomic status and sunlight exposure. The deficiency of vitamin D was found to be a modifiable risk factor in prevention of ARTI.

  37. Miner, C. A., Okoh, E. O. and Dakhin, A. P.

    Access to safe water, proper refuse and sewage disposal, as well as good personal and environmental hygiene which affect the health of populations remains a challenge for many developing countries. Sanitation practices including water sanitation, solid waste management, sewage disposal and personal hygiene and the occurrence of fever and diarrhoea among respondents were assessed in this study. It was a cross- sectional study conducted in 3 settlements of Tudun Wada ward of Jos North LGA of Plateau State among 355 adult respondents selected by a multistage sampling technique. Data was collected using an interviewer administered questionnaire and a checklist and analyzed using SPSS version 20. The most common sources of drinking water were pipe-borne water and borehole. About 20% treated their water at home. Nearly 70% practiced insanitary refuse disposal methods. About 74% used the water closet that flushes into septic tank as toilet facility. Less than a quarter of respondents washed their hands after defecating and only 39.2% always washed their hands with soap. The prevalence of fever was 5.4% and that of diarrhea was 1.4% among the respondents. The study showed that most households generally practiced poor environmental sanitation and hygiene which affected their health status.

  38. Athiththan, L. V., Farook, F. N., Hettiaratchi, U. P. K. and Perera, P. P. R.

    Introduction: WHO has estimated that 75 % of deaths in developing countries will be due to obesity related diseases. Hence, this study was conducted to assess the lipid profile in apparently healthy Sri Lankan subjects who were not diagnosed with any chronic or major diseases (apparently healthy). Methods: An interviewer administered questionnaire was used to obtain socio demographic data. Blood samples obtained from individual participants after 12 hours overnight fast was tested for lipid profiles. Anthropometric measurements were obtained according to standard procedures. All data were analyzed using the Statistical Package for Social Sciences version 17 and p-value< 0.05 was considered statistically significant. Results: The mean age of the population was 38 (± 12SD) years. The percentages of overweight (21.3%) and obese (35.6%) were comparatively high even though the subjects were apparently healthy. Further, the percentage of males with abdominal obesity (41.8%) was higher than that of females (23.0%). All the lipid parameters, except HDL-C were elevated in the obese group compared to non-obese even though both means were within the normal range; but among the obese subjects 46 % had elevated TC (>5.1 mmol/L) and 42.3% had elevated LDL-C (> 3.4 mmo/L). There was a significant increase in TC/HDL with increasing BMI. Conclusion: This study contributes to the finding that the percentage of overweight and obesity is very high in Sri Lanka. Though the study population was apparently healthy, the percentage of obese subjects with altered lipid profile was higher indicating the necessity for an effective screening process.

  39. AnkitaChamaria (BDS), Meena Aras (BDS, MDS) and Vidya Chitre (BDS, MDS)

    Impression making is a crucial step of complete denture construction. While many surveys have been conducted on this topic elsewhere, there are few such surveys in India with none in Goa. The purpose of this study was to survey dental practitioners across the state of Goa for complete denture impression materials and techniques. A questionnaire consisting of 27 questions regarding complete denture impression procedures was prepared which was distributed to 156 dental practitioners at Indian Dental Association Conference, Goa State Branch. Microsoft Excel was used to prepare graphs to show the percentage of responses. 107 responses were received, yielding a response rate of 69%. The following conclusions could be drawn from the results: Impression compound was the most frequently used material (45%) for preliminary impression. Selective pressure was the most predominant impression philosophy (60%). Most dentists performed final impressions in a border molded custom tray. The most common materials of choice for border molding and final impressions were modeling plastic impression compound (86%) and zinc oxide eugenol paste (51%) respectively.

  40. Mittal, S., Verma, Y. P. and Kumar, T.

    Aim of the Study: To review and suggest treatment approach for Primary Leiomyosarcoma of cervix. Material and Method: This literature review has been done to find out optimum management protocol for Primary Leiomyosarcoma of the cervix by search in PubMed Central, Embase, Cochrane, and Web of Science Central database. The obtained information, thus, has been classified as per Oxford Centre for Evidence Based Medicine (OCEBM) level of evidence, and National Comprehensive Cancer Network (NCCN) Categories of Evidence and Consensus. Current treatment scenario for sarcoma and its outcome will be discussed for treatment naive case of primary leiomyosarcoma of cervix based on systematic review, line listing of old reported cases and treatment evidence. Results: Leiomyosarcoma of cervix, though, is rare malignancy, the number is steadily increasing. It generally occurs in the perimenopausal and postmenopausal population, mean age being 46 years. No specific risk factor has been identified so far. Diagnosis is confirmed by histopathology and immunohistochemistry. Prognosis corresponds to stage and grade of disease. Combined modality including surgery, radiotherapy and chemotherapy used in these patients has achieved better survival compared to any single modality. Conclusion: Aggressive approach with combined modality including surgery, radiotherapy and chemotherapy need to be used in these patients to achieve better survival. Though, intensive literature search reveals lack of definitive guidelines for management of leiomyosarcoma of cervix, rising number of cases warrants to frame the guidelines.

  41. Dr. Manav Sawhney and Dr. Sonali Bisht

    Cysticercosis is a systemic parasitic disease caused by the larval form of cestode Taenia solium and it presents with variable clinical manifestations. The patient most commonly presents with subcutaneous and muscle involvement in the form of nodular lesions. However involvement of breast, as in this case, is a rare presentation. A perimenopausal female presented with swelling in the upper outer quadrant of right breast since 2 months. The Ultrasonography (USG) examination was performed and it suggested a well defined hypoechoic lesion. The patient was advised fine needle aspiration cytology (FNAC) for further evaluation and the smears prepared from the clear fluid aspirated showed fragments of larva with folded walls and refractile hooklets. A cytomorphological diagnosis of a parasitic infection of breast caused by Taenia solium (Cysticercus Cellulosae) was made. This case report emphasizes the usefulness of FNAC in diagnosis of Cysticercosis in unusual sites like breast and presents a rare cytological finding of hooklets. It once again establishes the importance of FNAC in investigating breast swellings.

  42. Mammadov, T. S., Abbasova, Z. H. and Mammadova, Z. A.

    The pcarried research work on the introduction gives us wide perspectives for the use of new species and sorts of trees and shrubs in the greening of our republic. The main successful adaptation of exotics in planting is a comprehensive assessment of plants capacity in the new environment. Introduced plants must be resistant to adverse environmental factors, characterized by rapid growth and distinguish with their high decorative qualities. There are carried out more introduction works at the Institute of Dendrology of ANAS regarding to them. This article presents the results of studying some bioecological peculiarities of the North - American species in the dry subtropical conditions of Absheron. It was revealed that the studied species successfully grow and bear fruit in terms of Azerbaijan. Carried researches show that these plants have wide benefits for their use in landscaping as the style of landscape design. Thus, the considered materials allow us to conclude that, in the dry subtropics of Azerbaijan successfully cultivated trees and shrubs of the subtropical, temperate - warm and temperate bioclimatic vegetation zones of the North American region.

  43. Vengal Rao, B., Kamalsha, S. K., Sirisha Rao, M., Pradnya Jadhav and Divya Sahu

    Background and objectives: The prison population is a unique and challenging one, with many health problems, including poor oral health. Dental diseases can reach epidemic proportions in the prison setting. The aim of the study was to assess the oral health status and treatment needs of prisoners in district jail of Raichur city, Karnataka. Material and Methods: A cross sectional study was carried out on 102 prisoners (males were 98 and females were 04) in the district jail of Raichur. A specially designed questionnaire was used to assess the demographic variables and oral hygiene practices. A clinical examination was done according to WHO (World Health Organization) criteria 1997 and recorded using WHO Oral Health Assessment Form. Results: The mean age of the study subjects was 29.9(+ 9.74) years and the mean DT, MT, FT and DMFT was 1.59(+1.58), 0.52(+3.02), 0.05(+0.21) and 2.16 (+3.44) respectively. The prevalence of dental caries and periodontal disease was 76.5% and 93.1% respectively. The oral hygiene status was poor in 33.7% of the study subjects. Conclusion: Poor oral hygiene, high prevalence of periodontal disease and dental caries are major public oral health problem among the prisoners, which require special attention and efforts from government and other organizations to meet their treatment needs.

  44. Raj, A., Bahadur, H. and Shirazi, N.

    Pleomorphic adenoma of the lacrimal gland (PALG) is a rare benign mixed tumor of the lacrimal gland. We are presenting a fifty nine years old male with painless swelling of left eye lid and a palpable mass on superolateral aspect of lid. On computed tomography CT scan of orbit that mass was indenting the globe with invasion of sheath of lateral rectus muscle. On surgical excision it was proved a case of PALG. No case has been yet reported with PALG producing compression of globe and lateral rectus muscle sheath involvement.

  45. Dr. Mrunal Burute, Dr. Dilip Kakade, Dr. Nayana Anasane and Dr. Madhura Kaluskar

    The preferred approach for mandibular full arch prosthesis is placement of implants between and beyond the mental foramen for better stress distribution and elimination of cantilevers. The rigid framework over these implants is splitted to overcome the action of mandibular flexion. However, in situations of unavailability of bone in posterior mandible, the traditional branemark approach of placing 4 to 6 implants between mental foramen is used. In such cases, when a continuous rigid cobalt chrome or zirconia framework is used, the increased cantilever lengths and mandibular flexion causes stress at bone implant interface. To avoid this, the framework should be selected of a material which has modulus of elasticity close to that of bone. A new upcoming modified PEEK material, with combination of rigidity and elasticity close to human bone, is a more natural material for implant prosthesis.

  46. Dookhun Muhammad Nabeel, Ji-Nan Zhang and Xin-Zheng Lu

    Cardiomyopathies are important causes of cardiac death in people and are responsible for arrhythmias and premature heart failure in all age groups. Although many cardiomyopathies are inherited, biochemical markers are a fundamental part of the diagnostic work-up and are useful in the prognostic and therapeutic assessment of disease. Excluding that of idiopathic DCM, there are various pathogenic pathways that can lead to DCM. Different pathways yield different biochemical substances that can be used as biomarkers. In this review, we mainly introduce some conventional and potential emerging biomarkers of dilated cardiomyopathy.

  47. YumkhaibamSobita Devi, Dulasiraman Ponnas, S., Nithin Raj, D., Himadri Kumar Daru, Devandiran, R. S. and Laishram Jaichand Singh

    Background: More than 50% of new cases of lung cancer are diagnosed in elderly patients. Does age is a factor for deciding the treatment options? The question remains unsolved even in present era as the median survival time of elderly patients was significantly lower compared with that of younger patients. Methods: We conducted a cross sectional study using data base of 175 patients of primary lung cancer with age 60 years and above diagnosed in indoor and outdoor of the Department of Radiotherapy at Regional Cancer Centre, RIMS, Manipur, India from January 2011 to December 2015. Results: The median age at diagnosis was 70years. There were 113 male (64.6%) patients and 62 female (35.4%) patients. The most common radiological presentation was mass (59.4%) followed by collapse-consolidation (22.8%) and pleural effusion (17.8%). Out of 175 patients, 51% of patients had squamous cell carcinoma, adenocarcinoma (33.7%), large cell carcinoma (9.1%) and undifferentiated carcinoma (6%). The median overall survival in patients underwent chemotherapy alone was found to be 17 months, in patients undergone concomitant chemo-radiation was 23 months , in patients underwent radiotherapy alone 16 months, patients underwent targeted therapy 14 months and patients who received best supportive care was 5 months. Conclusion: Our results allow us to conclude that elderly patients with good performance status are likely to benefit from radical treatments. Concurrent chemo-radiation seems to increase median survival even in elderly population with advanced stage disease.

  48. Janhvi Manohar and Dr. Brundha, M. P.

    Infertility is defined as failure to conceive despite one year of cohabitation and exposure to pregnancy, by the World Health Organization (1991). It is acquiring a proportion of global widespread prevalence of approximately 8-12%.Patient records from these fertility clinics were analysed and 2112 women out of 3051 women were identified as being infertile with the major cause being Polycystic ovary syndrome. The treatment modalities offered to these women were IUI and ICSI. This study aims to create awareness about it and its early detection as the treatment modalities are expensive.

  49. Harikrishnan Ramachandran Nair and Renju Karingattuparambil Ramesan

    Background: Diabetes Mellitus is one of the most common metabolic disorder and leading cause of death & disability in the world. It is due to absolute or relative insulin deficiency which leads to increased blood glucose level. Magnesium is a crucial co-factor for many enzymatic reactions involved in metabolic process. So Mg depletion has negative impact on glucose homeostasis and insulin sensitivity. Magnesium deficiency also results in failure to inhibit entry of calcium into myocardial cells, failure to extrude Ca from the cells and failure of sarcoplasmic reticulum to sequester excess Ca. Mg deficiency is typical in chronic, stable mild type 2 DM and may be a strong predisposing factor for development of complications such as retinopathy, thrombosis and hypertension and also for the development of excess cardiovascular morbidity associated with diabetes. Objectives: Aim of this study was to compare the serum Magnesium concentration in patients with type 2 Diabetes Mellitus and non-diabetes controls to assess its impact on complications. Primary objective: To estimate the diabetic profiles - FBS, PPBS and HbA1C along with Magnesium and Calcium profiles in diabetes cases and non-diabetes controls. Method: The current study population included age matched 115 patientsi.e., 75 cases who attended the Diabetic clinic and 40 controls who attended the out- patient wing of General Medicine during the study period. After getting written consent, blood samples for estimation of different parameters were collected. Serum samples were used to estimate urea, creatinine, plasma concentration of glucose (both fasting as well as postprandial), serum Magnesium, serum calcium & concentration of HbA1c in EDTA blood samples were also estimated. Result: The mean serum Mg levels were lower in diabetic patients (1.59+/- 0.242 mg/dL).The age group 61-70 reported higher the number of low Mg levels. Diabetic females showed low levels of Mg than in diabetic males. According to duration of diabetes majority of low Mg levels were seen in patients who had diabetes for >7 years. The correlative studies of magnesium with age and duration of diabetes both showed a suggestive negative correlation with r = - 0.240, p = 0.001 and r = - 0.409, p = 0.001 respectively and a moderate negative significant correlation with r values - 0.733, - 0.706 and - 0.780 respectively were obtained between serum Mg with FBS, PPBS and HbA1C. A moderate positive significant correlation with r = + 0.647 and p = 0.001 was obtained between serum Mg with serum Ca. Conclusion: Low Mg in the diabetic patient were correlated with hypertension with predominant associated complications such as Diabetic Retinopathy, Diabetic Neuropathy and Cellutitis. In hypomagnesaemia diabetic patients higher levels of HbA1C indicate the risk of development of diabetic complications. Preventing hypomagnesaemia in Diabetes Mellitus by supplementing Mg is helpful in increasing insulin sensitivity and delaying the development of diabetic complications.

  50. Dr. Rajib Saha, Dr. Amitava Bora, Dr. Prof. Shabnam Zahir and Dr. Prof. Gautam Kumar Kundu

    Background: Among different plaque controlling methods tooth brushing is the primary and most important measure to remove dental plaque and to maintain good oral hygiene. Effective tooth brushing is dependent on multiple factors. Toothbrush grip among different factors affecting tooth brushing is less well studied and documented. Aim and Objective: The aim of the present study is to evaluate the effectiveness of plaque removing ability with tooth brush grip in children aged 6-10 year. The objectives are to investigate effectiveness of tooth brush grip and to assess plaque reduction after standardizing brushing time and standardized brushing motion at different interval. Materials and Methods: Participants were selected on the basis of inclusion and exclusion criteria. Pre brushing plaque index were calculated for different tooth brush grip. Participants were given tooth brush and tooth paste and asked to brush as they do at home for standardized time. Immediate post brushing plaque index was calculated. Participants and their parents were taught a standard tooth brushing motion (modified stillman) and asked to brush at home twice daily for 7 days under strict parental guidance. After 7 days plaque index were calculated. Difference in plaque index for each grip were calculated and statistical analysis was done. Result and conclusion: Plaque reduction has a direct correlation with tooth brush grip. Distal oblique type of tooth brush grip is most prevalent and most effective type.

  51. Ahmad Al Nashar, Hekmat Yakoob and Elias Boutrous

    Purpose: The purpose of this study is to evaluate the role of internal layer of periosteum in a new bone formation in the dynamic periosteal distraction. Materials and methods: A custom-made dynamic periosteal distraction device consisted of titanium plate fixed to the lateral surface of the mandible in 10 adult rabbits. The plate was perforated in 5 rabbits (group1) and non-perforated in the others (group 2). Periosteal distraction was started 7days after placement of the periosteal distraction device. Then the device was activated at a rate of 0.25 mm every12 hours for 5 days. The animals were sacrificed after of 8 weeks of consolidation period. The specimens were then fixed, decalcified, and stained with hematoxylin and eosin. Results: In group 1, Histological evaluation of control specimens showed a various amount of new bone formation with large spaces between bone trabeculae. On the other hand, a thin layer of a newly osteoid bone under the titanium mesh was detected in group 2 after 8 weeks. Conclusion: The results of the present study indicated that the internal layer of periosteum has important role in bone formation in the dynamic periosteal distraction.

  52. Dr. Osama Abdullah Abdul Raheem, Dr. Abd-EL-Aal A-Saleem, Dr. Hassan Ahmed Abdallah and Dr. YaserA.Razek

    Perforated duodenal ulcer is a common surgical emergency and the most common cause of peritonitis. Despite antiulcer medication and Helicobacter eradication, Perforated peptic ulcer (PPU), is still the most common indication for emergency gastric surgery and is associated with high morbidity and mortality. The outcome might be improved by performing this procedure laparoscopically. Laparoscopic omental patch repair of perforated peptic ulcer carries less morbidity and mortality and early return of patients to their normal dailyroutine. Patient and methods: This study was conducted in Aswan University Hospital on 30 male patients between April 2014 and July 2015 who underwent laparoscopic repair of perforatedpeptic duodenal ulcer. The patients were admitted in urgent setting. A detailed history was taken, all patient past history of gastritis or on medication of NSAID drugs. The patients were examined and showed surgical abdomen with board like rigidity. Main diagnostic procedure we performed was abdominal X-ray in erect position. In 9 cases, additional abdominal ultrasound examination was carried out. A standard work-up was performed. Postoperative data willbe recorded including: Operating time, Amount of postoperative analgesia, Duration of hospital stay, Post operative collection, Time needed for returning to work, Low grade fever, Vomiting and Wound infection. All the above data will be collected and analyzed to obtain statistically relevant results. Results: There were 30 patients who underwent laparoscopic repair of perforatedpeptic duodenal ulcer. No conversion was happened for any of the 30 patient attempted. All patient was male; mean age was 28.5 (range 25–35) years. In all cases close of perforation with omental patch only. Mean duration of the operation was 65 (range 55–80) minutes. Mean postoperative hospital stay was 5 (range 5–7) days. Only one patient (3.3%) developed fever, tachycardia, abdominal pain and leucocytosis, abdominal U/S was done for him, and showed subhepatic collection which was drained by percutaneous drainage. Two patients (6.6%) developed wound infection and treated with local dressing. About eight patients suffered from port site pain post-operative (26%) and treated with single dose of pethidine. All patients return to work within one week after discharge from hospital. Conclusion: Laparoscopic repair of a perforated peptic ulcer is an amenable and feasible technique within the hands of experienced laparoscopic surgeon. No need to put drain after lap repair of perforated duodenal ulcer provided good wash, suction and movement of patient up and down to suck fluid.

  53. Namratha Kaviraj Karkera, Kruthika S Guttal, Praveen Kumar Shetty, Anil Bapu Bargale, Raghavendra D Kulkarni, Bhushan B Kulkarni and Hiremath, S. V.

    Background and Objectives: Annually more than 1 million new cases of oral cancer are detected in the Indian subcontinent of which 92-95% are Oral squamous cell carcinomas (OSCC).A wide spectrum of chromosomal, genetic and molecular alterations is associated with both pathogenesis and malignant transformation of OSMF and oral leukoplakia, yet majority remains unclear.A correlation of E-cadherin-160C/A with cancer susceptibility was described in a premalignant diseases.In this context this study aims at investigating the association between polymorphism in the CDH1-160 promoter region in patients with Oral leukoplakia and Oral sub-mucous fibrosis (OSMF) and in healthy control group of patients. Materials and Methods: The study comprised of 90 samples, of which 30 belonged to OSMF, 30 Leukoplakia and 30 controls with tobacco related habits but without any trace of oral potentially malignant disorders. A detailed history of the subjects was recorded following which clinical examination and histopathological confirmation was done. Genomic DNA isolation was done from saliva samples and PCR amplification were done to assess polymorphism of E-cadherin gene. Results: 14 and 3 patients from OSMF showed C/A and A/A polymorphism respectively. 9 and 4 patients showed C/A and A/A polymorphism in leukoplakia subjects. Notably 13 (43%) of habitual chewers also showed polymorphism. Conclusion: Within the limitations of the present study it can be concluded that there is a correlation of E-cadherin gene polymorphism with OSMF & leukoplakia.

  54. Amina Bano

    Aim: To assess the knowledge and create awareness of opportunistic infection of aids in the general population of Chennai. Objective: To assess the knowledge regarding the symptoms, mode of transmission, causes, and prevention and control measures associated with opportunistic infection of aids in the general population of Chennai .also to study the relationship of level of awareness between age, sex and educational status. Background: People with healthy immune systems can be exposed to certain viruses, bacteria, or parasites and have no reaction to them—but people living with HIV /aids can face serious health threats from “opportunistic” infections (Opportunistic infections). Recent studies have highlighted the importance of increasing awareness of opportunistic infection of aids and reducing the associated stigmas to reduce the incidence of aids and enable earlier diagnosis and effective treatment. This study is done to assess the level of knowledge of the general populace, about various aspects of opportunistic infection of aids and to assess the relationship of the level of awareness with age, sex and educational qualification of the participants. Reason: The reason is to study the level of knowledge of the general populace, about various aspects of opportunistic infection of aids, and to assess the relationship of the level of awareness to age, sex and educational qualification of the participants

  55. Dr. Sneha L. V., Dr. Vedavathi B., Dr. Jewel Darsan, Dr. Roopa R Nadig

    Introduction Despite newer technological advances in dentistry in recent years, there still exist major challenges for the restoration of excessively flared endodontically treated teeth with extensive coronal tooth structure loss. The aim of this study is to evaluate and compare the fracture resistance of excessively flared endodontically treated teeth with extensive coronal tooth structure loss with different reinforcement techniques. Method: Standardized MOD cavities were prepared on single rooted premolars followed by root canal preparation. Samples were randomly divided into 3groups(n=10). Group I-Apically snugly fitting Fiber post was luted using Rely X. Group II-Both fiber post and Ribbond were placed in the post space. Group III-Fiber post along with accessory post were luted in the canal. Remaining access cavity was filled with packable composite in increments in all the groups. The specimens were subjected to thermocycling. Universal Testing Machine was used to evaluate the fracture resistance. Statistical analysis of data was done using ANOVA and Bonferroni’s test. Results: Highest mean fracture resistance was recorded in group II followed by group III, and Group I. There was no statistical significant difference between groups. Group II showed 100% favourable fracture pattern. Conclusion: Overly flared structurally compromised teeth restored with combination of fiber post and Ribbond showed higher mean fracture resistance with favourable fracture pattern.

  56. Amina Bano

    Aim: To emphasize the recent updates on stem cell and regenerative medicine - therapeutic approaches and challenges. Objective: To study and review the various available literatures on stem cell and regenerative medicine both their therapeutic approaches and challenges in the field of medicine and dentistry Background: Stem cells have been defined as clone cells that undergo both self-renewal and differentiation to more committed progenitors and functionally specialized mature cells. In the recent times, stem cells have been identified in a variety of tissues of an adult body. Depending on the source, they have the ability to form one or more, or even all cell types of an organism. Stem cell research has shed light on our understanding of developmental biology and offered much hope for cell replacement therapies overcoming a variety of diseases. Reason: The literature survey inoculates the various approaches for the application of stem cell in modern world for the benefit of mankind.

  57. NurulAfiqah Amani BintiZaaba, Dr. Ashok and Dr. Dhanraj

    Aim: To write a systematic review on the various treatment options in the management of bruxism. Material and method: A literature search was performed, to search on the related article on bruxism. Since the literature of bruxism is broad topic, this paper is focusing on treatment that available to treat bruxism patients. The article was searched via National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI) in order to get accessed for Pub Med articles, by using the following query: 'treatment option for bruxism' or 'management of bruxism' or 'therapy of bruxism' or 'way to control bruxism'. All of the articles abstracts in english was reviewed and screened. Results: Based on the electronic search, there were about 16 publication in total, which suitable for analysis. Two articles involve combination of both occlusal splint and massage therapies, four study involve the usage of occlusal splint alone for treatment, one article involve in comparison of effectiveness of treatment in between the occlusal splint and cognitive behavior, occlusal splint with drugs as well as occlusal splint with biofeedback. There was also one article which used contingent electrical stimulant for the treatment and the rest through pharmalogical approaches. Conclusion: Bruxism is a common parafunctional habit which can happen either during sleep or awake. There is no exception for age, gender or even race. There are various treatment available to treat bruxism, but it not specifically to stop bruxism. Rather than stop the habit, this treatment help to reduce the adverse effect and control the habit

  58. Betty Sarabia Alcocer, Betty Mónica Velázquez Sarabia, Graciella Rosado Vila, Rafael Zapata May, María Eugenia López Caamal, María Concepción Ruiz de Chávez Figueroa, María de la Luz Romero Orozco, Ana Laura Cipriano Arcos, Carlos Manuel Cervera Arribal

    Objective: To determine risk factors in the 25- to 55-year-old population who visited to the Community Hospital of Palizada, Campeche during the period from Augist 2015 to July 2016. Materials and Methods: A cross- Analytical, observational and descriptive, including patients attending the Community Hospiatl of Palizada, Campeche, 114 met the inclusion criteria, 57 male and 57 female. Results: Of the 114 patients evaluated: 23 (2.17%) were within the normal weight limit, 51% (44.73%) were overweight and 40 (35.08%) were found to be diagnosed with obesity. Of the 40 patients diagnosed with obesity, 19 were male and 21 were female, 25 of which were in obesity grade 1, 12 were in obesity grade ll and three in obesity grade III, extreme or morbid. Patients with grade III obesity were found to be female. Conclusions: Obesity is a Public Health problem characterized by excess body mass, which is an important risk for chronic degenerative diseases.

  59. Dr. Swati Dhingra, Dr. Ranjana Garg and Dr. Vijay Raghavan

    Background and objectives: Copper and Zinc are important trace elements that play a vital role in maintaining various functions of the body at cellular level. Copper and Zinc are involved in many of the anabolic and catabolic enzymatic reactions in the body which determine the cellular growth and differentiation. Copper is responsible for up-regulation of collagen synthesis by regulation of enzyme lysyl oxidase thus enhancing fibrosis in OSMF. Zinc is involved in maintaining cell membrane integrity that is disturbed in OSMF. The purpose of the study was to evaluate the changes in the serum Cu and Zn levels and to relate these alterations with the severity and progression of the disease. Materials and methods: In this hospital-based study, 20 clinically diagnosed cases of OSMF and 20 healthy age and sex matched controls were taken. The subjects were screened properly and an informed consent was obtained from all the patients and controls following which blood samples were collected. After serum separation, analysis for Cu and Zn was done. Results: Serum Cu was found to be increased in patients with OSMF and serum Zn was found to be depleted in patients when compared to the control group. Furthermore, a progressive trend was seen in the levels of serum Cu with the increasing grades of OSMF. No significant relation was observed in the levels of Zn with the disease progression. Conclusion: The above findings suggest a correlation of serum Cu and Zn levels to OSMF. Increasing levels of serum Cu in the progressive grades of OSMF can be used as a marker of disease progression and severity. Serum Zn can be considered as an early marker of the disease.

  60. Al-Qattan, M. M. and El-Sayed, A. A. F.

    Premature labor is well known complication of burns in pregnant women. Ritodrine is a beta-adrenergic receptor agonist that is commonly used to arrest premature labor. A case of burn in pregnancy in which ritodrine resulted in tachycardia, hypokalemia and hyperglycemia is presented. Other side effects of ritodrine are discussed to increase the awareness of burn surgeons to these side effects.

  61. Chandrapooja, J., Dr. M. Dhanraj and Dr. Revathy Gounder

    Background: Galvanism is having dissimilar metals in the teeth (e.g.-amalgam, or gold and mercury, or stainless steel and mercury) causes galvanic action, electrical currents, and much higher mercury vapour levels and levels in oral Mercury and other metals accumulate in the oral cavity in fibroblasts, macrophages, and multinuclear giant cells of connective tissue, in blood vessel walls. Such mercury including that in the commonly formed amalgam tattoos moves to other parts of the body over time in significant amounts. Such metals are documented to cause local and systemic lesions and health effects and also are dispersed to other parts of the body. The aim of this study is to emphasise the recent updates on galvanism in prosthodontics and to review on various literatures available for effects of galvanism on oral cavity and their clinical significance. Materials and Methods: A questionnaire based study consisting of 10 questions and was distributed among local population. The sample size was 50. The research was done among the dental final year students in Chennai. Result: From the survey we come to know that more than 90% dental students were aware of oral galvanism but nearly 70% of the students were not aware of adverse effects and some specific conditions in oral galvanism. Conclusion: It is necessary for a dental student to be aware of adverse effects of oral galvanism and some specific conditions so that they will be able to diagnose and treat patients with rare and idiopathic condition better.

  62. Attiq ur Rehman and Wafa Majeed

    Nosocomial infections are the hospital acquired infections caused by the pathogenic microorganisms such as bacteria, fungi, viruses and parasites. The purpose of this study was to demonstrate the importance of the use of antiseptics in preventing and controlling the nosocomial infections. Hand washing is the most important factor in controlling the transmission of nosocomial infections by bacteria, viruses and pathogens. Most of the health care professionals do not wash their hands before and after contact with the patients. This study was performed to improve the quality of life by providing knowledge about the control of nosocomial infections. Tertiary health care facilities were examined and it was found that there was a deficiency in the knowledge regarding the hand washing and its role in the prevention of nosocomial infections.

  63. Gayathri R Menon, Dr. Dhanraj, M. and Dr. RevathyGounder

    Aim: To determine the knowledge and awareness of various topical anaesthetic agents used in dentistry among the dental practitioners. Background: Topical anaesthesia is a numbing gel it is used to numb your gums or other tissues before an injection so that u can't feel the needle glide in and to relieve the pain during procedures. These products contain drugs such as benzocaine, lidocaine or tetracaine. Materials and method: A questionnaire was made consisting of 10 questions. It was send to 50 dental practitioners working in Chennai and were asked to answer. Result: It was found that 53.2%of dental practitioners are not aware of adverse effect of topical anesthetics. 73% of patients dislike topical anesthesia due to its taste. Conclusion: It was found that all the participants who answered the survey had adequate awareness about topical anesthesia. The mode of administration of topical anesthetics should be improved. The taste of it should also be improved in the case where topical anesthetics are to be given for children.

  64. Haluk Kılıç, Ebru Tarıkçı Kılıç and Mehtap Turfan Alkan

    Trichosporon asahii, has been reported increasingly in immunocompetent hosts. There are only sporadic reports of infections caused by T. asahii reported. We report a case of successful management of T. asahii infection with orally administered fluconazole in a 71 year old patient.

  65. Chandrapooja, J., Dr. R. V. Geetha and Dr. Subha

    Background: A lot of oral and nasopharyngeal microorganism are present on the dental cast. The amount of microorganisms that are found in the oral fluids ranges from 4 millions to 5 billions per 1 milliliter, and that in dental plaque ranges from 10 and 1000 billions per 1 gram. These microorganisms survive on the dental cast even after removing then from the impression material and cause threat to the health of dental practitioner and thus the patients. Though the dental casts does not have suitable environment for the multiplication of the inhabiting microorganisms, individual protective measures like wearing gloves and protective goggles should be put into practise in order to avoid contamination of dental impressions and casts with microbes and their transmission. Aim: The aim is to investigate the microbial content on the dental cast. Materials and Methods: The sample size of 10 was chosen and the sample were collected aseptically by rotating sterile cotton swabs moistened with peptone water over the dental cast that are used in the dental clinics. Conclusion: Various methods to prevent cross-contamination in dental clinics are used. Most significant methods of disinfecting impressions is using sodium hypochlorite which is a powerful disinfectant against bacteria and viruses and usage of glutaraldehyde.

  66. Dr. Vivian Flourish D’Costa, Dr. Madhu K Bangera and Dr. Shakkira Moosa Kutty

    A plethora of patients undergo root canal procedures on a day to day basis. The drop out from the treatment protocols is even higher due to patient and/or doctor incompliance or even failure of treatment. This results in patients referring themselves elsewhere with symptoms due to incomplete treatment. In most of the cases it is noticed that the failure is associated with faulty coronal seal. The fault in the coronal seal may be due to varied reasons like infection of the prepared canals, fracture of restorations between appointments, doctor induced perforations and patient defiance. This review revolves around the root canal and its microflora and its cleaning and shaping protocols along with the comparative evaluation of coronal seal materials for the intended purpose.

  67. Bharathidasan, R., Maheshwari Narayanan, Kalaiselvi, K. and Ambujam, G.

    Gallstones disease provides significant input to surgical opd and cause morbidity worldwide. Cholelithias is develops because of an imbalance in the chemical composition of bile inside the gallbladder and it is due to multifactorial etiology which include chronic alcoholism. Symptomatic patient's will undergo cholecystectomy. The important complications of long term gallstones are acute pancreatitis, cholecystitis, obstructive jaundice which alter the liver function and decrease the life expectancy. The present study was conducted in vinayaka mission medical college and hospital, karaikalto assess the biochemical markers as prognostic indicators in patients with cholelithiasisamong alcoholics. A total of 22 patients (case) in which 11 alcoholics and 11 non alcoholics who were age and sex matched with multiple stones in gall bladder, symptomatic and undergoing cholecystectomy were recruited for this study. 25 normal individuals as controls were recruited for this study. Serum total and direct bilirubin were estimated by DMSO method. Serum SGPT, SGOT, GGT, Lipase, Amylase and Serum alkaline phosphatase level were estimated .In the present study liver function biochemical parameters were found to increase in alcoholic gallstone disease individuals when compared to healthy individuals and also compared to gallstone disease nonalcoholic subjects. ALP and Direct billirubin were significantly elevated in alchoholic gallstone disease subjects (p=0.01,p=0.04) when compared to healthy individuals. Thus elevated biochemical parameter levels in blood could predict the presence of liver damage and also indicates the severity of gallstone disease and its complications among alcoholics.

  68. Dr. SthitaprajnaLenka, Prof.(Dr.) Sobhan Mishra, Prof.(Dr.) Santosh Subudhi, Dr. ZubenMohanty and Dr. Sushil Sahu

    Aneurysmal bone cysts (ABC’s), a rare distinct pathologic entity, is an intraosseous, osteolytic lesion seen as locally destructive, rapidly expansile which has been reported to affect mainly the metaphyseal region of long bones and vertebrae. Aneurysmal bone cysts secondary to ossifying fibroma remains a relatively uncommon finding in the facial bones, and it is extremely rare with only very few cases reported in the mandible. This case report reveals one such, in a 42 year old lady, who presented with a solitary swelling of the right mandible, with obliterated vestibular depth, which showed Central Ossifying Fibroma as a pre-existing lesion, transforming into Aneurysmal Bone Cyst. Such rare entities are usually misdiagnosed and this gradually results in inappropriate treatment planning and poor prognosis.

  69. Dr. C. Balamurugan and Dr. G. V. Manoharan

    Introduction: The most common emergency admissions to surgical ward are patients with acute abdominal pain, out of which spontaneous hollow viscus perforation is the commonest. The role of proton pump inhibitors in peptic ulcer disease treatment is tremendous for past two decades and significantly reduces the incident of peptic ulcer perforation and their surgical intervention as well. The appendicitis followed by its perforation is the commonest surgical emergency in young individuals. And ilea perforation due to typhoid is also not uncommon. Aims and Objectives: To identify the common fungal micro-organisms responsible for peritonitis in hollow viscus performation. To identify influence of fungal infection in determining the outcome following surgery. Materials and Methods: All patients in whom a diagnosis of hollow viscous perforation is made are included in this study. The study will be done after patients’ informed consent. In all these patients peritoneal fluid will be collected during surgery and sent for microbiological analysis. Microbiological analysis includes fungal culture. And will be taken for analysis. Post operatively, mortality and morbidity of the patient will be co-related with culture reports. Results: Duodenal perforation is the most common (40 cases), followed by ileal (18 ceases) and appendicular (14 cases) perforations. Gastric perforation is least common hollow viscus perforation in this study (7 cases).Gastric, duodenal and ileal perforations are common in males, where as appendicular perforation is common among females.

  70. Mohamad Qulam Zaki Bin Mohamad Rasidi

    Removable Prosthodontics treatment involves the replacement and restoration of teeth by artificial substitutes. The number of adultpatients wear removable partial denture (RPD) due to their partially dentate are keep increasing. The treatment is done to avoid further loss of tooth by prosthodontics rehabilitation. Removable Prosthodontics treatment can offer exceptional satisfaction for both patient and dentist. The trend of the removable partial dentures had changed across the time through evolution of prosthodontics. The changes of trend including the impression techniques used. The articles from various sources are reviewed for their content on impression techniques (Removable Partial Denture). Journals reviewed are Pubmed, Scopus Indexed, other Prosthodontics journals, Prosthodontics books that available online, and website of any Prosthodontics department from university worldwide.

  71. Dr. Sthitaprajna Lenka, Dr. Narendran Achutan, Dr. Saurav Dutta, Dr. Nitish Kumar Panda and Dr. Karishma Rathor

    Maxillofacial infection may range from low-grade, well localized infections to severe life threatening facial space infection. Oral and maxillofacial space infections have several etiologies such as odontogenic cause, surgical treatment, upper respiratory tract infection, penetrating trauma, and malignancies. Neglect of odontogenic infections can have serious consequences. The authors report a case of rapid progressive temporal and occipital space infection that originated from dental caries, which is a medical emergency. Early recognition and prompt treatment direct to the underlying sources of infection are crucial. Surgical incision and drainage and broad-spectrum intravenous antibiotics are the mainstay of treatment to reduce morbidity and mortality from this lethal condition. Management should be based on early diagnosis and immediate management with intravenous broad-spectrum antibiotics and surgical intervention.

  72. Dr. Kaushik Paul, Dr. Saurabh Sharma and Dr. Deepashree Paul

    Introduction: Trauma that affects the elbow region may result in significant soft tissue defect with exposure of the antecubital neurovascular and other vital structures. In this case study role of brachioradialis and latissimus dorsi muscles in reconstruction of complex upper limb defect is evaluated. Case Study: A fifty year old patient presented with severe crush injury to right upper limb which was salvaged with three staged surgical procedures. Brachioradialis and latissimus dorsi muscle flaps and split skin grafting were used for this complex reconstruction of upper limb Conclusion: The brachioradialis muscle flap is reliable option for coverage of the anterior defects of the elbow. It has a good blood supply and there is minimal functional morbidity when it is used. The latissimus dorsi muscle flap is one of the most reliable and versatile flaps used in reconstructive surgery. Pedicled Latissimus dorsi muscle with split thickness skin graft is the primary choice for reconstruction of large complex arm and elbow defects.

  73. Dr. Neelesh Papineni, Dr. Q. J. A. Shakir, Dr. Ranjeet Bapat and Dr. Devanand Shetty

    Introduction: unlike the last decade the field of periodontics has evolved in the recent years and has gained utmost importance in the field of dentistry. There has been a tremendous about of advancement in diagnostic aids and methods in relation to periodontics. Materials and methods: The present study was carried in the form of a survey among 100 dental practitioners in rural areas in Navi Mumbai (Uran, Turbhe, Kalamboli, Panvel) with a minimum of one year of active clinical practice. Interns, dental students, and especially periodontists were excluded from the survey. The questionnaire consisted of 11 questions. The questions ranged from chief periodontal complain of the patient to the level of satisfaction of private dentists after periodontal therapy. Results: the observations were that majority if the private practitioners used basic diagnostic aids, which were not sufficient to determine periodontal disease. Also majority of the practitioners do not refer the patient to a periodontist in the first visit or follow up with the patient after phase 1 therapy Conclusion: The lack of awareness and applications about periodontal healthcare in urban areas of Navi Mumbai practitioners in terms of diagnostic techniques, systemic disease relationships and reasons for referrals to periodontists. There is a need for patient motivation for disease prevention and guidance to general dentists for patient referrals to periodontists for enhancement to better treatment outcomes.

  74. Dr. Osama Abdullah Abdul Raheem, Dr. Mahmoud S.Ahmad, Dr. Ahmed Abdelmonein Abdel Rasheed and Dr. Mahmed Kandil

    Ventral hernia repair is among the most common surgical operations performed worldwide and the two operative techniques most frequently used in case of ventral hernia are the onlay and sublay repair. However, it remains unclear which technique is superior. Objective: To evaluate the repair of ventral hernia by two different meth¬ods onlay (Conventional method) and sublay (retromuscular preperitoneal) methods.

  75. Sujatha Ponnusamy, K. Vijaya Lakshmi, K.S. Premkumar and S. Sumalatha

    Aim: To assess the radiation risk in Orthodontic patients. Materials and Methods: 116 patient records were assessed . 94 patients were advised CBCT for non Orthodontic reasons while 22 Orthodontic patients were advised CBCT. These patients were assessed for the number of 2D radiographs taken before advising a CBCT. Results: It was observed that multiple radiation exposure was done for the orthodontic patient. Most of the 2D radiographs taken before advising CBCT was IOPAs and OPGs for Non Orthodontic patients while it was IOPAs, OPGs and LatCephs for Orthodontic patients. For the non Orthodontic patient the mean number of 2D radiographs advised before taking CBCT was 2.19 (SD 1.90) while for the Orthodontic patient the mean number of 2D radiographs taken were 4.73 (SD 1.83) The radiation exposure was however still quite low. The amount of radiation was also calculated using “radiationcalculator.com”. Conclusion: There is still a distinct possibility to reduce the radiation for the Orthodontic and Non Orthodontic patient.

  76. Lee Fei Yee, AndeeDzulkarnaen Zakaria, Luqman Mazlan and Ismail Sagap

    We present a case of splenic abscess causing pneumoperitoneum in a patient with diabetes mellitus. The presentation was initially vague and later evolved to an acute abdomen. An X-ray of the chest did not reveal pneumoperitoneum which was later detected by a CT scan. Exploratory laparotomy was performed under a clinical suspicion of hollow viscus perforation. This case report emphasizes that a ruptured abscess should be included in the differential diagnosis of acute abdomen in an immunocompromised patient.

  77. Dr. Burcu Akça, Dr. Değer Öngül, Dr. Burçin Karataşlı, Dr. Bilge Gökçen-Röhlig and Dr. Bülent Şermet

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of different surface treatments and zirconia type (white or colored) on shear bond strength (SBS) between zirconia and resin cements. Two main groups were created according to zirconia color. After coloring, white and colored sintered zirconia was divided into four surface treatment groups: control, air abrasion, silica coating, and air abrasion + erbium-doped yttrium-aluminum-garnet (Er:YAG) laser (n=20). After surface treatment, surface roughness and scanning electron microscopic analyses were conducted. Then, Panavia F 2.0 and RelyX Ultimate Clicker cements were each applied to 10 specimens from each subgroup. The specimens were stored in distilled water at 37°C for 24 h, and then subjected to 5,000 thermal cycles between 5°C and 55°C. SBS was measured using a universal testing machine at a crosshead speed of 0.5 mm/min. SBS values were compared using analysis of variance and Turkey’s honestly significant difference test (p < 0.05). Roughness values were analyzed using ordinary linear regression. SBS was significantly greater in the air abrasion + Er:YAG laser group (14,055 MPa), and the control group (5,678 MPa) had the lowest value; it did not differ between the air abrasion and silica coating groups. SBS of colored specimens (9, 33 MPa) was significantly lower than that of white specimens (10,45 MPa). Roughness was related significantly to bond strength. These results show that all tested surface treatments were suitable, but that air abrasion + Er:YAG laser treatment was most effective.

  78. Dr. Prashant A. Karni, Dr Ramesh P. Nayakar, Dr. Abhijit P. Patil, Dr. Aditya Acharya, Dr. Swapnil Shankargouda and Dr. Mallikarjun H. Doddamani

    We are not normally conscious of our teeth, although we realize that they enable us to enjoy our food and to speak clearly, and that they make a contribution for better or for worse to our appearance. Patients commonly seek treatment when an edentulous space is visible or when they have difficulty in eating. There are however other indications for treatment which may lead the dentist to prescribe dentures. Successful dental prosthesis should represent the lost tissues in approximately the same amounts and in the same positions from which the tissues were lost. Although the provision of partial denture may represent the completion of course of dental treatment, the planning of the prosthetic restoration should commence with the patients first visit. There is, of course a great deal of satisfaction to be gained from restoring a mouth in the ideal manner. However, the more patients who have elaborate and time consuming programmes of treatment provided the fewer of the population will receive care. Because of the limitations in dental manpower and the high cost involved the treatment prescribed may often have to be a compromise. This however, should never result in one losing sight of the essential principles of partial denture design which must always be upheld.

  79. Dr. Saraswathi Gopal

    Oral cancer is the 6th most common cancer worldwide. However the incidence of oral cancer is increasing day by day. It may involve any anatomical site of the oral cavity. It is estimated around 43% of cancer death are due to usage of tobacco in any forms, unhealthy diet, alcohol consumption, change in lifestyle, and infections. It is known that over one-third of cancers are preventable and one-third are potentially curable provided they are diagnosed and treated in the early stage of the disease. This requires multidisciplinary approach to prevent and manage the disease.

  80. Intisar Ali Mohammed, Rokaia Mansor Alahdal and Nabil Ahmed Al-Rabeei

    Introduction: Eclampsia is a potentially fatal disorder of pregnancy with a significant maternal and fetal morbidity and mortality rate. Objective: To investigate the incidence of eclampsia and its maternal and perinatal outcome of eclamptic patients admitted to Al-Thawra Modern General Hospital. Methods: A descriptive, cross-sectional study was carried out from April 2015 to March 2016. Data were collected as a face to face interview with eclamptic patients or their relatives. The questionnaire was used to collect data regarding present and past medical history. Data were analyzed using SPSS. Results: Out of 11923 deliveries, 62 women were suffered from eclampsia representing an incidence rate of 5.2 cases per 1000 deliveries. Eclampsia was more common among primigravida (61.3%) especially among age group twenties (59.6%). More than two third of patients came in the antepartum period (64.5 %) with estimated gestational age of more than 37 weeks. Thirty-five of eclamptic women (56.5%) delivered by cesarean section, while seventeen patients (27.4%) delivered vaginally. Most of the eclamptic patients (87.1%) were illiterate or with a primary school education and had either low antenatal care visits or have not received any at all. There was5 maternal death, given a case maternal fatality of 8% with a maternal mortality rate from eclampsia of 42/100 000. About thirty-one percent had at least one serious complication. Of 21 perinatal death, given perinatal mortality rate 33.9%, of which 12 (19.4%) were early neonatal death and 9 (14.5%) were stillbirth. The leading causes of early neonatal death were prematurity and birth asphyxia. Conclusion: The frequency of eclampsia and it is associated morbidity is still high due to bad maternity health services and lower coverage of antenatal care.

  81. Arifur Rahman, Md. Reazul Islam, Sabreena Chowdhury Raka, Abul Hasnat and Md. Saiful Islam

    To interpret the pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics properties of a drug molecule, plasma protein binding plays a substantial factor. The present study has been done to investigate the interaction of Tramadol hydrochloride (TRD) with bovine serum albumin (BSA) under physiological condition (pH 7.40) using UV absorption and fluorescence spectrophotometry at different temperatures (298K and 308K). Spectral methods are the most robust techniques for scrutinising the reactivity of chemical agents and biological systems since it permits nonintrusive measurements of the sample molecule in low concentration under identical physiological conditions. Quenching of BSA was also observed in presence of TRD by the fluorescence method. Quenching constants were determined at different temperatures (298K and 308K) using the Stern-Volmer equation. The thermodynamic parameters namely, enthalpy change (∆H), entropy change (∆S), and Gibb’s free energy change (∆G) were analysed based on Van’t Hoff equation. It was found that with the increase of temperature, the value of Stern-Volmer constant increases in case of TRD. From this quenching mechanism, it was found that quenching of BSA-TRD system is static. Based on the thermodynamic parameters, hydrophobic interaction and hydrogen bonding were found to be involved in the formulation of complexes in BSA-TRD system. As Gibb’s free energy change was negative, the interaction was a spontaneous process for the BSA-TRD system at both temperatures (298K and 308K). Binding constants (K) and the number of binding sites (n) were determined at different temperatures (298K and 308K). Based on the findings from the experiment regarding the interaction of BSA-TRD, the drug-protein binding mole ratio is 1:1 at temperatures 298K and 308K. The binding process is reversible and spontaneous.

  82. Homood A. Alharbi

    In the modern health care environment, professional nurses are required to respond to dynamic, complicated situations that require skills in problem solving, professional knowledge, decision-making ability, and group collaboration. Problem based learning (PBL) is a constructive teaching method that has positive learning outcomes. Yet no study has thus far examined the critical components that makes PBL work. This literature review will outline the origin of PBL, the characteristics that make PBL work, the advantages of PBL, the theoretical underpinnings of PBL, and the limitations of PBL. We researched books and databases including Academic Search, ERIC, EBSCOHost, PsychINFO, PubMed, MEDLINE, and CINAHL. This review identifies the components that make PBL work. Incorporating these components in the practice of teaching will lead to better learning outcomes.

  83. Dr. Sandeep Kaur, Dr. Kirandeep Kaur, Dr. Neha Mahajan and Dr. Abhiroop Singh

    Amelogenesis Imperfecta(AI) represents structural developmental defect of tooth enamel having complex inheritance pattern. It represents a group of heterogenous conditions. AI has several names such as hereditary enamel dysplasia, hereditary brown enamel, hereditary brown opalescent teeth. In this disorder, the enamel is hypoplastic, hypomineralized or both. It may show autosomal dominant, autosomal recessive, sex-linked or sporadic pattern. Here, we report three cases among six children of the same family with Amologenesis imperfecta, analyse the clinical presentation, dignostic features and clinical complications of Amelogenesis imperfecta.

  84. Dr. Sandeep Kaur, Dr. Meenu Sangral and Dr. Kirandeep Kaur

    Facial nerve paralysis (FNP), or Bell’s palsy is a neuropathy of the peripheral seventh cranial nerve, usually resulting from traumatic, compressive, infective, inflammatory or metabolic abnormalities and it results in a characteristic facial distor¬tion that is determined in part by the nerves branches involved. However, in many cases no etiology is identified and the eventual diagnosis is idiopathic. Facial nerve palsy is a rare complication of an inferior alveolar nerve block anaesthesia. It may be either immediate or delayed, depending on the time between administration of injection to onset of symptoms. A case of 40 year old man reported to the clinical OPD (Outdoor patient) who developed facial paralysis 10 days after extraction of mandibular third molar under local anaesthesia, and subsided in about 3 months with minimal residual deficits.

  85. Jasvarinder Chalotra

    The main objective of this research paper is to utilize the waste carbide inserts in various machining operations by developing the index able boring bars, index able milling cutters which can be used for utilization of waste carbide inserts. The turning insert having size CNMG 120408 is used. In industry this carbide insert is used for turning processes. This is negative insert having 80 degree angle and rhombus geometry. Four edges are used and after using its edges this insert become wastage. To utilize the other edges the special size of boring bar 25mm diameter for turning operation and 63mm diameter milling cutter for gangue milling is developed and used for machining in this research. To evaluate the effects of these special tools the taguchi methodology is used. The output results such as material removal rate and surface roughness is analyzed by taguchi methodology. Various materials are used to optimize and observe the results.

  86. Damaris Enyegue Mandob and Miwanag Paul Rodrigue

    Objective: Metabolic syndrome is still unknown among Cameroonian population and few studies have been done among workers in Africa. This study aimed to estimate metabolic syndrome prevalence among Campus Police workers of Yaounde I University, Cameroon. Methods: A total of 53 workers (6 women and 47men) participated in the study, they were aged between 20-55 years. For their studied data, they were referred to the Andre Fouda Medical Fundation in Yaounde. Metabolic syndrome was diagnosed using Adult Treatment Panel-III (ATP-III) 2001 guidelines. Results: The prevalence of metabolic syndrome among workers was (5.66%). Low HDL Cholesterol (54.72%), High blood pressure level (41.51%) and abdominal obesity (20.75%) were respectively the commonest metabolic syndrome features. 5.66%, 0% and 0% had three, four and five criteria for metabolic syndrome, respectively. A high proportion of the workers (79.25%) has at least one metabolic syndrome abnormality. Conclusion: Although metabolic syndrome prevalence is still low among Campus police workers of Yaounde I University, a high proportion of them are already at greater metabolic syndrome risk. Annual Medical check-up and educational programs for cardiovascular diseases in these workers should be an efficient measure for good cardiovascular health.

  87. Mengue Mi Ngue Martin and Mandob Enyegue Damaris

    The prevalence of obesity is increasing throughout the world and in Cameroon especially with the high rate of nutritional transition. Its etiology is dependent on modifiable risk factors such as nutrition knowledge, level of physical activity, eating practices, access to employment and others factors. Therefore, it is a call of concern for everybody, mostly future civil servant such as higher teacher training students to be equipped with nutritional knowledge for further adoption of appropriate healthy eating practices. This study aimed to assess both the prevalence of obesity and the attitudes related to obesity amongst students of the Higher Teacher Training College of Yaounde I-Cameroon. The study was conducted among two hundred and eleven students (92 men and 119 women) aged between 18 and 40 years. A questionnaire related to identification and attitude related to eating disorders was filled, anthropometric and clinical parameters were also measured during the Higher Teachers’ Training College open days of year 2015. The prevalence of obesity amongst students was 3.8%, significantly higher (p=0.002) among female (5.9%) than men (1.1%). The students’ attitudes about obesity were found not satisfactory, particularly in regard with the preference of sweet taste. In fact, the main practices eating disorders consisted of high consumption of soft drinks (67.8%), low consumption of fruits and vegetables (34.6%) and munching between meals (54%). Although the prevalence of obesity was low in this studied population, it is important to include nutrition courses in the training programs of this institution in order to give adequate nutrition knowledge to those future civil servants.

  88. Damaris Enyegue Mandob and Essoh Vanessa Falonne

    Background: The simultaneous presence of Metabolic syndrome and type 2 diabetes among individuals is a favorable field for development of cardiovascular diseases. The aim of this study was to evaluated metabolic syndrome magnitude (MetS) among members of type 2 diabetic community of a Cameroonian rural area. Methods: A cross sectional study with a total of 100 known diabetic patients (37women and 63men) participated in the study at Mbaré district hospital, they were aged between 32-68 years. Anthropometry, blood pressure and fasting blood glucose were measured Metabolic syndrome was diagnosed using Adult Treatment Panel-III (ATP-III) 2001 guidelines. Results: The prevalence of MetS among this rural diabetic community was 41.23% (45.95%) for women and (36.51%) for men. Among the diabetic men a total 88.89% of patients had low HDL (52%), 42.62% had hypertension, 18.03% had increased waist circumference. The most common abnormalities among diabetic women were low HDL (91.89%) increased waist circumference (59.45%) and hypertension (56.76%). Conclusion: This study shows that metabolic syndrome is less frequent among diabetes patients of rural Cameroon therefore cardiovascular risk is still low.

  89. PushpaRani, V., Deepak Kumar, K., Parimalam, M., Delphine Jaya Mary, J. and Meena Kumari, G.

    Justicia is a genus of about 420 species of flowering plants in the family Acanthaceae native to tropical to warm temperate regions of the America with two species occurring north into cooler temperate regions. Justicia gendarussa is a traditional medicine used in treating ailments such as arthritis, paralysis, diaphoretic, diuretic, antispasmodic properties. The term Phytochemical means the chemicals found in plants. The phytochemical screening demonstrated the presence of different types of compounds like carbohydrates and flavonoids. Antibacterial activity reported against pathogens such as Escherichia coli, Stretomyces aureus. Pseudomonas showed that the plant extract can be used to treat diseases caused by these bacteria. Antioxidant activity was determined at ambient temperature by means of a 2,2-diphenyl-1-1-picrylhydryzyl (DDPH) colorimeter.

  90. Woubshet Demissie, Selamyihun Kidanu and Cherukuri V Raghavaiah

    Faba bean (Vicia faba L.) is the most important legume crop being grown predominantly in the Ethiopian highlands of Oromia region where soil acidity and nutrient depletion pose serious limitation to land productivity. Field experiment was conducted during 2015 rainy season (July-Sept.) to investigate the effect of integrated nutrient and lime application on soil fertility and productivity of faba bean at Telecho, Wolmera district, in the highlands of Western Ethiopia. The investigation consisted of nine treatments namely- (t1):control, (t2): compost at 5t ha-1,(t3) :lime at 611kg ha-1, (t4): compost at 5t ha-1 + lime at 611kg ha-1,(t5): lime at 611kg ha-1 + DAP 150 kg ha-1 research recommendation (69 kg p2o5 ha-1) and biofertilizer (500 g ha-1), (t6):site specific recommendation (npsb at 150 kg ha-1, kcl at 100 kg ha-1)+ biofertilizer (500 g ha-1), (t7): lime at 611kg ha-1 + npsb at 150 kg ha-1, kcl at 100 kg ha-1 and biofertilizer (500 g ha-1, (t8): lime at 611kg ha-1 + compost at 5t ha-1 + npsb at 150 kg ha-1, kcl at 100 kg ha-1) and biofertilizer (500 g ha-1) (t9): lime at 611kg ha-1 + 2.5 t ha-1 compost and biofertilizer (500 g ha-1)with 50 % of soil test based fertilizer recommendation (npsb at 75 kg ha-1, kcl at 50 kg ha-1,). The experiment was laid out in a randomized complete block design (RCBD) with 3 replications. Soil samples were collected before and after lime application and analyzed for selected soil properties. Lime requirement was determined based on exchangeable acidity. Soil analysis result revealed that lime application raised soil pH from 3.80 to pH level ranging from 6.70 to 6.86.Yield and yield components of faba bean were significantly (p<0.05) affected by imposed treatments where in the highest and significant crop yield response was obtained with t8 (2882.9 kg ha-1). However, in most cases the difference in yield and yield attributes, and soil parameters due to t1, t2, t3,t4, t6, were not discernible suggesting that all elements of soil health and fertility issues need to be addressed together. The economic analysis indicated that the highest net return (38833.50 birr ha-1) and MRR (1333.94) was obtained with t9. Hence, it can be concluded that integrated use of lime at 611kg ha-1, bio fertilizer 500 g ha-1 + 2.5 t ha-1 compost along with 50 % of soil test based fertilizer recommendation (npsb at 75 kg ha-1, kcl at 50 kg ha-1, ) for faba bean is advisable for farmers in the study area and locations with similar agro-ecologies to maximize faba bean yield and economic return.

  91. Nivashini, G. S. V., Dhanraj, M., Muralidharan, N. M. and Hemani, K.

    Aim: The aim is to find out the effective sterilisation method used for dental burs using Enterococcus Faecalis as an indicator. Methodology: The present study was performed on 40 detnal burs which is divided into four different groups containing 10 dental burs. Out of this group one group is kept as control and the other three groups were tested for the efficacy of sterilisation with different methods: autoclave, glutaraldehyde and glass bead sterilisation respectively. Background: Burs are the most widely used armamentarium in all most all branches of dentistry in which sterilisation of utmost importance as a preventive measure for cross-infection. This study is done to evaluate various sterilisation methods that can be used which is of short duration and effective. Results: In this study, we came to a conclusion that none of the sterilising methods were found to be efficacious in dental burs. However, among the three sterilisation methods autoclave and glutaraldehyde showed 60% sterility and glass bead sterilization showed 40%. Conclusion: Amongst the sterilisation methods used autoclave and glutaraldehyde showed highest decontamination followed by glass bead sterilisation.

  92. Ziadoon Sameer Zaidan Al-Dulaimi, Al-Khafaji Nazar Jabbar and Nadem Kazal

    To determine the infection rates with Toxoplasmosis in Baquba city, sera of women, ewes and does, cats, rabbits and birds from different discrete of Baquba city, Diyala, Iraq were examined for presence of toxoplasma antibodies. Latex agglutination test and ELISA were used. It was found that 17.33%; 23.39%; 63.29%; 67.86%; 50% and 21.43% of women, ewe, does, rabbits, cats and birds had toxoplasma antibodies in their sera respectively. It is suggested that Ovine, Caprine, Feline, Rabbits and birds toxoplasmosis may be a substantial health problem in Diyala.

  93. Dr. Sandhya Mishra, Pallavi Taparia, Dr. Dharamveer Yadav, Dr. Suresh Koolwal and Tapas Kanu Vyas

    Introduction: Pulmonary Tuberculosis (PTB) is a severe bacterial infection that continues to be the main cause of morbidity and mortality. Compromised immune status due to micronutrient deficiency is one of the key factors predisposing to PTB infection. The aim of the present study was to assess the trace elements Copper and Zinc status in PTB patients and to evaluate the diagnostic role of Cerruloplasmin (Cp) and Cerruloplasmin Albumin ratio (Cp/Alb). Method: 120 Adult PTB patients (60 newly diagnosed and 60 relapse) attending the Institute of Respiratory Disease, SMS Medical College, Jaipur and 60 healthy non family members of patients / Controls were enrolled for the study. After informed consent, sputum examination and Routine Biochemical analysis along with Serum Copper (Cu), Zinc (Zn) and Cerruloplasmin (Cp) were estimated in fasting sample for all subjects. Result and Discussion: Serum Protein, Albumin and Zinc were significantly reduced in PTB group as compared to controls due to increased catabolism, anorexia, pre-existing undernutrition and Acute Phase Response associated with PTB. Serum Cu and Cp were significantly high which may be due to increased hepatic synthesis of acute phase proteins. Cu correlated strongly only to Cu/Zn ratio but the later was found to have good correlation with all parameters estimated. Similarly, Cp/Alb ratio correlates well with Cp as well as Cu and Zinc. Conclusion: Trace elements alteration in PTB is significant and can be used in nutritional monitoring of patients. Early estimation of micronutrient status can help identify at risk individuals and prevent occurrence of relapse. This would also enhance survival and early recovery of patients. Cp/Alb ratio can be used as additional tool to assist diagnosis and Prognosis of PTB.

  94. Siddharth Vats and Prachi Bhargava

    India is the world’s fastest growing economy, second most populous and largest democracy in the world. All these factors also make her one of the most energy requiring nations of the world. Since it does not have enough of the mineral oil and gaseous resources, it has to depend on other nations for fulfilling its energy needs, 80% of oil, 1/4 of its total coal consumptions and 1/6 of natural gas are imported from energy rich nations. With this perspective a lot of money is spent on importing the oil from Middle East countries like Iran, Saudi Arabia and other nations, rich of oils. This also makes its economy vulnerable to the continuous threat due to presence of very volatile geo-political peace and increasing instability. Since, Indian economy will keep on expanding especially the manufacturing sector with the “Make in India” initiative by the current government. The domestic production of other energy sector like solar power and electricity production is not catching up with the required growth rate; it would be inevitable to say that alternate energy especially the bio-fuels from biomass can help India to become self dependant in the energy front and a big booster to the “Make in India” campaign.

  95. Madhuchhanda Duari (Rakshit), Angsuman Chanda and Tanmay Bhattacharya

    Present study revealed that agricultural manipulations brought about significant changes in the physico-chemical properties & floral composition but failed to cause significant differences in the abundance of microarthropod groups even though their number were less in the agricultural fields. Acari was the most common group in both cultivated and uncultivated sites. Oribatida comprised about 60% of the acarofauna in the uncultivated wasteland and constituted <50% of acari in the cultivated land. Oribatida outnumbered collembola in wasteland and fodder field but in sugarcane field trend was opposite.

  96. Sachana, P. C. and Anilkumar, A.

    Kerala comprises of 36 unique kinds of Scheduled Tribes (ST) whose livelihoods show wide variation.Their traditional jobs also vary such as hunting-gathering, shifting cultivation, settled agriculture, contract labour, etc. Attappadi, one of the prominent forest regions of Kerala, is situated in the north eastern part of Palakkad district of Kerala. It is one of the 43 tribal development blocks in India.The very working of the development paradigm, by uprooting them from their niche, language, modes of understanding, livelihood etc., proves to be against their interests.The pressure for subsistence fall heavily on women. The loss of traditional agricultural land compels them to engage in wage labour. As gender discrimination is prevalent among tribal labour, the women are forced to work for lower wages.Tribal women were less conscious about their actual living conditions. Theywere unaware of their relative poverty also they were oblivious to their developmental needs.Perception of freedom from poverty was found to be high among the respondents. Similar wayperception of freedom from insecurity of tribal women was found to be very high.

  97. Dr. MatekarManjula Vishal and Prof. Dr. Surendra M. Vedpathak

    SahacharanAyurvedic herb has primarily been used to cure all types of Arthritis.Janu means knee and Basti signifies retaining something inside or containing something. Thus JanuBasti is the Ayurvedic therapy where hot medicated oil is made to retain on the surface of the knee portion of body. At present, there is no cure for OA of Knee. The management of OA of Knee is broadly divided into non-pharmacological, pharmacological, and surgical treatments, which are highly symptomatic and commonly associated with troublesome side effects. These treatments are either expensive or not available for common people in developing countries. AcharyaSushrutahas explained Vayu entrapped in Snayu (muscles), Sandhi (joint) & Asthi (bone) which should be treated with Janubasti with SahacharTaila(BarleriaPrionitis). Hence the patient should be kept under Janubasti therapy. 50 pts.were selected from the Dept. of Panchakarma OPD BharatiVidyapeeth Ayurveda Hospital Pune. Sahachar Tail wasPurchased fromAgsati Pharmaceutical’s Pune . Janubasti with Sahachar Tail was done dailyonce for 30 minutes for 7 days and f/u were taken on 15th and 30th day. Janubasti reduces all signs and symptoms of OA of Knee i.e. pain, swelling, Tenderness, Pain during extension and flexion, tenderness, difficulty during walking without any treatment-emergent adverse effect. Janubasti with SahacharTailashown significant results (i.e. P value is <0.05) in cardinal signs and symptoms of osteoarthritis of Knee.

  98. Dr. Kumar Alok and Dr. Singh Narinder

    The field of education in medical science is traditionally divided in two branches as one medicine and other surgery. The division was done in ancient time, by virtue of that there are two Agnivesh and Dhanwantari sampradaay exist in Ayurveda from very early stage of human civilization. Acharya Sushruta is the major scholar of Dhanwantari sampradaay. Acharya Sushruta laid down the fundamentals of surgery in the very first surgical text in Indian history. Though due to the advancement of medical science, it introduce new technique that completely transformed the practice of surgery over the period of time, many fundamentals of concepts & ethics laid by Sushrut still hold valid today. In the management of Bhagandara Acharya Sushruta mentioned different types of incision like Langlaka, Ardhlanglaka, Sarvatobhadraka, Gotirthaka for vataj and Chandrak, Ardhchandraka and Kharjorpatraka for the Kaphaj Bhagandara for Chedana karma. All these incisions are explained for the proper drainage of the fistulous track. The incision are planned in the manner that explore the maximum cavity of fistula including secondary track also. So these incision are fully valid in the modern day surgery also. In this present study we tried to explain the importance of these different incisions during treatment of Bhagandara.

  99. Debjani Mandal, Manali Biswas and Dr. Abhishek Basu

    Inflammatory Bowel Disease (IBD) is a chronic inflammatory disorder of the colon. The disease is more prevalent in developed countries and an increase in IBD cases is observed in developing countries. In susceptible individuals, IBD occur due to an imbalance between genetic and environmental factors. Alteration in the gut microbiota can influence the development of immune repertoire of an individual, thereby playing a vital role in the development of IBD. The two main disease entities of IBD are Crohn’s disease (CD) and Ulcerative colitis (UC). This review focuses on various environmental factors involved in development of IBD. Such environmental factors comprise of hygiene, air pollution, smoking, oral contraceptives (OCPs), Non-steroidal Anti-inflammatory Drugs (NSAIDs), stress and diet. Higher hygiene standards will lead to greater risk of development of IBD, due to lack of exposure to enteric pathogens. Air pollutants increase the risk of development of IBD. Smoking has a protective effect in UC and an opposite effect in CD. Prolong use of OCPs and NSAIDs has been associated with the risk of IBD. Intake of high protein diet increases the risk of IBD. On the other hand, fruits and vegetables have a protective effect in IBD. Stress and depression worsen the symptoms of IBD and increases the chance of relapse of IBD in patients. However, these environmental factors do not show a consistent result and further research is required for deciphering the role of these factors in the development of IBD.

  100. Ho Thi Nga, Bui Thanh Hoa and Tran Van Minh

    Mokara is atropical orchid species for flower cutting mainly in Ho Chi Minh City. Their flowers are beautiful and colorful diversity, harvesting 8-10 flower-stalks per plant per year, and it is not enough for demands in local and export. Their coefficient of propagation is low naturally after an economic cycle of 5-6 years. Each plant gives 1 main shoot and 1-3 lateral buds. Flower-stalks were favored as materials for in vitro cultivation. The second internodes (non-flower internode of stalk) cultivated on the medium MS + BA (1 mg/L) + coconut water (10%) + PVP (50 mg/L) gave 2.68 shoots/cluster. Single leaf was separated and cultivated on the medium MS + BA (1.5 mg/L) + coconut water (10%) reached 67.66 shoots/cluster. The multiple-shoot cluster was separated to small cluster with 2-3 shoots/cluster and cultivated on the multiple medium MS + BA (0.75 mg/L) + coconut water (10%) gave 103.33 shoots/cluster. Multiple-shoot clusters were separated to 2-3 shoots/cluster and cultivated on regenerated medium MS + coconut water (15%) formed 3 shoots/cluster and rooted on the medium MS + IAA (0.5 mg/L) + coconut water (10%) + activated charcoal (1 g/L) with 4.66 roots/shoot. The effect of genotypes on shoot regeneration is significant from internode and multiple-shoot propagation in vitro.

  101. Ranjith, NirmalaBabuRao and Vanitha, B.

    This paper deals with the study of eco-physiological parameters of three lakes presented in khammam rural, Telangana, India. For this purpose both physico-chemical and biological parameters were analysed for a period of one year from April 2013 to March 2014. According to APHA standard methods the results of analysis point out the fact that all the parameters are under permissible limits. The result indicates that all the lakes are good and can be used for domestic and irrigation purpose.

  102. Sreelakshmi, M. S., Mammen J. Abraham, Nair, N. D., Manomohan, C. B., Usha, P. T. A. and Vishnurahav,R.B.

    A study was undertakento evaluate the haemato-biochemical and antioxidant effects of triphala on J.curcas deoiled seed cake induced changes in chicken. Two weeks old, seventy two, vencob broiler chicks maintained on standard broiler diet (BIS, 1992) were randomly divided into four groups of eighteen birds each. Group I was maintained on standard broiler diet (BIS, 1992), group II was given standard diet supplemented with five per cent raw jatropha deoiled seed cake (JSC). Group III was given five per cent untreated JSC as well as four per cent triphala and group IV was given five per cent untreated JSC for first two weeks, four per cent triphala for last four weeks. The experimental birds were maintained on the respective dietary regimes for a period of 42 days. Haemato-biochemical parameters and liver antioxidant levels were estimated at day 28 and at the end of the experiment. Parameters such as haemoglobin (Hb), volume of packed red cells (VPRC), total leucocyte count (TLC), total erythrocyte count (TEC), serum protein, albumin and superoxide dismutase levels (SOD) showed a significant reduction in raw JSC fed group II. Triphala supplemented groups III and IV showed significant reduction in these values, but were lower in magnitude when compared with group II indicating ameliorating effect. A significant increase in aspartate transaminase (AST), creatinine and tissue lipid peroxidation (LPO) was observed in group II. Group III, and IV showed significant increase in these parameters than control birds, but were lower when compared with those of group II. These were due to protective action of triphala on group III and IV, among the groups III and IV, group IV showed highest protection in jatropha toxicity.

  103. Dr. Saurabh Parauha, Dr. M. A. Hullur and Dr. Prashanth, A. S.

    Typhoid fever is an acute illness associated with fever that is most often caused by the Salmonella typhi bacteria. Once the bacteria is ingested it quickly multiplies within the stomach, liver or gall bladder and finally enters the blood stream causing symptoms like fever, headache etc. these cases as of 2010 caused about 190000 deaths up from 137000 in 1990 in whole world, India, Pakistan and Egypt are also known high risk area for developing this disease. A clinical study comprising of 15 patients of either sex attending OPD clinic of AMVH Hubli and presenting with clinical manifestation of Typhoid confirmed by Widal test were selected for observational study. All the patients were received Sanjivani vati 2 tab. bid with Kiratadisapta Kashaya (20 ml) twice daily after food. It was given for 21 days and follow up period was of 1 month with weekly visit. From the result obtained we can conclude that therapy with this Ayurvedic combination of drugs shown significant relief (p< 0.001) in symptoms after 21 days of treatment.

  104. Makpoul, K. R. and Ibraheem, A. A.

    The influence of crude aqueous extract of jojoba meal and leaves with simmonds in (MS and LS) and without simmonds in (MS-1 and LS-1) at several concentrations on Physio chemical, microbiological and sensory characteristic of mango drink through storage was assessed. The inhibitory effect of Jojoba extract was tested as a preservative and its effect on the chemical components and sensory properties of the mango syrup prepared by simulating the industrial method and storing it at room temperature for 180 days. Protein and fat decreased while ash content and total soluble solid (TSS) increased during storage. A slight slight decrease in pH was observed with a relative increase (p <0.05) in the acidity of stored pulp samples. Significant inhibition of total bacterial count (TBC) was observed on the application of the specific concentration. Storage time significantly increased the CFU/ml of drink samples as maximum growth was observed after 180 days of storage. The sensory properties of the mango pulp samples were adversely affected by the addition of preservatives, but the samples were accepted by the judges even after six months of storage.

  105. Jinturkar, B. P.

    Different methods of Rhizobium inoculation were attempted and it was found that Rhizobium applied in the form of water suspension just below the seed gave maximum nodulation followed by lime pellecting. Groundnut seed often possess a problem of seed inoculation because of delicate seed coat. Rhizobium inoculation has significantly influenced all the nitrogen fixing traits which ultimately contributed to the dry pod yield of groundnut. Beneficial effects of inoculation of plant growth and yield have been frequently observed in groundnut Rhizobium interation

  106. Azam, Mohammad and StephenP. McCarthy

    This review paper deals with the biodegradable polymers synthesized by the grafting reactions of caprolactone on to cellulose and its derivatives. A detail study of different methods available in literature for the synthesis of new biodegradable polymers of cellulose and its derivatives by grafting of polycaprolactone are discussed.

  107. Ritu Kumari Pandey, Nayak, D.K. and Rajesh Kumar Kar

    The present study aimed at determining the change in the leaf nutrient contents of different resistant and susceptible cultivars/varieties of greengram against root-knot nematode, Meloidogyne incognita infection. Four resistant cultivars, 24 ML-233, 7 GGG 10-14,17 IPM 9901-6 and 8 GM 04-02 and two susceptible cultivars 28 PM 10-12 and 29 PUSA 0672 were selected to assess for change in leaf. Nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium contents of both infected and healthy plants. Maximum N₂ content of 196.61% was noted in variety 7 GGG 10-14 while minimum as 88.57% in variety 28 PM 10-12.Similarly P₂O₅ was maximum (46.49 %) noted in varieties 29 PUSA 0672 and minimum -52.26% in varieties 28 PM 10-12. The crude protein content was maximum (-4.10 %) in the varieties 8 GM 04-02.

  108. John Rozar Raj, B. and Geetha, R.V.,

    Aim : To analyse THE anti-inflammatory effects of tea tree oil Objectives : This research is done to analyse the anti-inflammatory effects of tree tea oil. Background: Many complementary and alternative medicines have enjoyed increased popularity in recent decades.one such product is tea tree oil (tto) which is the essential oil steam distilled from the australian native plant, melaleuca alternifolia. Employed largely for its anti-inflammatory and anti- microbial properties. It is a complex mixture of approximately 100 terpenes and hydrocarbons, the main component being terpinen-4-ol which comprises at least 30% of the oil. Materials and methods: The reaction mixture consists of test extract at different concentrations and 1% aqueous solution of bovine albumin fraction. Ph of the reaction mixture was adjusted using small amount of 1n hcl. The samples were incubated at 37oc for 20 min and then heated at 57oc for 20 min. After cooling the samples, the turbidity was measured spectrophotometrically at 660 nm. The experiment was performed in triplicate. Results: Concentration. The percentage activity was analysed and the results were tabulated. at the concentration of 100 μl, tea tree oil showed significant activity as that of the control.

  109. Seetha Chandran, Prakash Mangalasseri, Patgiri, B. J., Galib, R., Prasanth Dharmarajan, Krishnkumar, V. and Prajapati, P. K.

    In Ayurveda, Diabetes Mellitus can be interpreted under the broad clinical entity described as Prameha. Prameha is a multi systemic disease caused by the imbalance of Tridosha (biohumors), initially mediated through Kapha affect urinary system and manifest as polyuria. The primary focus of pathogenesis in prameha shows the role of increased abdominal adiposity in the susceptibility of DM. Different types of Prameha mentioned in Ayurvedic classics can be compared with various stages of diabetes. Symptoms of beta cell destruction in prodromal stage and vascular complications due to deformities in rasayani (channels of nutrition) are mentioned. Aetiopathology of Prameha in described in a unique way, which emphasize that management should be focused on correction of metabolism at multi systemic level, to prevent the complications. The paper gives an insight in to the aetiopathogenesis of Prameha in relation to that of Diabetes Mellitus.

  110. Ajoy Roy and Nath, S. S.

    Quantum confined semiconductor structures have attracted recent attention of researchers as potential candidate for nonlinear optical applications. There has been a rapid research activity in the field of nonlinear optics. One such nonlinear effect is Harmonic Generation. In this paper, we report the generation of second harmonic by CdS semiconductor quantum dot prepared by simple chemical route. SHG is one of the important 2nd order non-linear optical effect. Due to size confinement, high quantum efficiency gives high intensity beam at half of the wavelength range on exposing the quantum dots in UV/VIS region of optical wavelength. The observed Second Harmonic Generation is achieved only when there is a phase matching between pump wave and generated wave.

  111. Elbasset, A., Sayouri, S., Lamcharfi, T. and Abdi, F.

    This work is interested in the frequency study of the dielectric properties of BT ceramics. In this regard, we used two methods for measuring capacitance. In the first method the frequency was varied in the interval 100Hz – 1000 kHz and the measuring temperature was varied with a rise rate of 1°C/min, whereas in the second method the measurement temperature was first fixed and after its stabilization the capacitance measurement was started in a frequency range which varies between 1 kHz and 2 MHz by a step of 1 kHz. In particular, the results found show, that the values of the dielectric constant are higher and the transition temperature Tc lowered by 12 °C in the second method.

  112. Kamane, C. L., Kamble, D. D., Patil, A. R., Patil, K. J., Jadhav, R. B. and Chandak, P. G.

    Now a day’s construction industry is the second largest industry in world. But this industry faces many risks related to time and cost with the help of BIM we can minimize this risk. Building Information Modeling (BIM) is a technical tool that allows a project to build virtually before being built physically. By generating a 5D modelling we can manage any project related to time and cost. The BIM extends methodology into three dimensional (3D) drawings in the three primary dimensional width, height and depth. With the above, time as the fourth dimension (4D) and cost as the fifth dimension (5D). For 5D modelling we have to use some software’s such as AUTOCAD, REVIT ARCHITECTURE, MICROSOFT PROJECT, NEVIS TIMELINER. Firstly create 2D plan of any project then import into Revit architecture software. In Revit arch. Software obtain 3D model of the project. Then we have to use MSP software, all information should fill in MSP software. This MSP links into Navis Timeliner software with 3D model from revit Architecture. 5D BIM makes a perfect visualization tool to monitor the project progress. It is very easy and appropriate tool to be used for construction cost and resource management. All the steps of construction could be modified and managed at any point of time by simply clicking on the element and activity. Using this technology, time, cost and labour management becomes smooth and feasible.

  113. Ikono Rhoda, BabalolaAbimbola and IrojuOlaronke

    There are numerous ways of admitting students into the University system in Nigeria. These methods include admission through the Unified Tertiary Matriculation Examination (UTME), part time programs, diploma programs and the pre-degree program. In recent times, applicants who seek admission into the University system through the pre-degree program but fail to meet the requirement of their preferred course of study are usually allocated an alternative course of study. This process is however usually done without considering the academic strength and ability of the applicant. Hence, the academic performance of the candidate in the alternative course of study is usually poor. This is because the candidate is usually not psychologically prepared for the alternative course of study. Consequently, this paper studies the existing process of admitting students into the University system in Nigeria through its pre-degree program. This is achieved by interviewing stakeholders in the admission process. This study considered ObafemiAwolowo University, Ile-Ife, Nigeria as its case study. The study also designed a framework that carefully allocates students into an alternative course of study by considering their academic strength and ability. This is with a view to assisting stakeholders in making effective decisions on alternative course allocation.

  114. Dr. V. Suryanarayana, Dr. G. Venkata Ravi Kumar, Mrs. S. Vidya Devi and Prof. Karimella Vikram

    Information technology (IT) is dramatically changing the business landscape. Although organization cultures and business strategies shape the use of IT in organizations, more often the influence is stronger the other way round. IT significanStly affects strategic options and creates opportunities and issues that managers need to address in many aspects of their business. This page outlines some of the key impacts of technology and the implications for management. Business strategy - collapsing time and distance, enabling Electronic Commerce Organization Culture - encouraging the free flow of information Organization Structures - making Networking and Virtual Corporation a reality Management Processes - providing support for complex decision making processes Work - dramatically changing the nature of professional, and now managerial workplace - allowing work from home and on the move, as in Telework

  115. Ms. Priya, S., Archana. K. R. and Sandhiya, R.

    In today's scenario, increase in growth of staffs and students population, leading to an insufficient transportation facilities. Staffs and students needs to take college bus as their transport source as they need to travel a long route. But the problem is, there is no easy way to know with how many people a college bus takes ride. This paper is to create a college bus transport management system where a travel faculty and students will get college bus information. The Static transport management system is done as a solution for the educational organization to over come problem like facing insufficient bus to travel, to identify students who have paid and unpaid bus fair. Data are maintained manually and it is hard to track and maintain. This paper is a sustainable mobility and way to maintain record of faculty and students of the college bus.

  116. Animesh Patra, Akhil Pandey and Surajit Maity

    Metal complexes of Schiff base derived from 2-amino thiophenol and 2-hydroxy napthaldehyde (HL) have been synthesized and characterised by elemental analysis (C,H,N), infrared, electronic spectroscopic tools. The complexes are found to have the formula [ML(H2O)] where M is Cu(II), Cd(II), Pb(II). The interaction of Cu(II) complex towards Human Serum Albumin (HSA) was examined with the help of electronic spectroscopic tools. The electron transfer mechanism of copper (II) complex examined by cyclic voltammetry and indicate copper (II) complex gives Cu(II)/Cu(I) couple. Antibacterial activities of the complexes were studied by agar disc diffusion method and exhibited significant activities against gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria.

  117. Reyana, A., Rajeswari, K. and Reshma Elsa Varghese

    The outline of a new genetic algorithm (GA) is introduced to detect the location of license plate (LP) symbols. An adaptive threshold method is applied to overcome the dynamic changes of illumination conditions when it converts the image to binary. Connected Component Analysis Technique (CCAT) is used to detect candidate objects inside the unknown image. Two new crossover operators, which based on sorting, are introduced, which greatly upgrade the convergence speed of the system. Color (RGB) to Grayscale (GS) change is executed using the Filtering technique by eliminating the hue and saturation data while maintaining the luminance. Most of the CCAT problems, such as touching or broken bodies, edge-based techniques were also implemented to perceive the plate based on the high density of vertical edges inside it detecting license text and at the same time distinguishing it from similar patterns based on the geometrical connection between the symbols constituting the license numbers is the specific approach. These plates usually contain different colors written in different languages, and use different fonts.

  118. Channa Keshava Naik, N., Arun, S. B., Yatish, K. V., Suresh, R. and Shiva Niranjan, N.

    In this study, the performance and emission characteristic tests have been carried out on a single cylinder direct injection diesel engine running under constant speed and variable Brake power. In this study, the engine tests have been conducted with Butea monosperma oil methyl ester (B100) and their blends with conventional diesel oil in the proportions of 10:90 (B10), 20:80 (B20) and 50:50 (B50). A series of tests have been conducted for each of test fuel. The engine is allowed to run at constant speed at 1500RPM, but at different BP (1, 2, 3, 4 and 5kW). The performance and emission characteristics of blends are analyzed and compared with conventional diesel oil. The experimental results obtained for BMSOME are comparable with conventional diesel oil with the increase in engine performance and reduction in engine exhaust emissions.

  119. Vijay J. Ghodvinde, Pitale, S. M., Janwadkar, S.P., Prashant P. Lohani, Rana, P.K. and Yadav, D.K.

    A 3-(2-Hydroxylphenylimino) indolin-2-one [HPI2O] is use as a reagent for the extractive spectrophotometric determination of Cerium. The reagent HPI2O gave instantaneous and stable brown colour complex with Cerium at pH 5.0. The colour reaction in detail has been explored and the possibility of photometric determination of the micro amounts of Cerium is established with necessary conditions. A linear calibration graph over the concentration range 1 ppm to 12 ppm was obtained by applying the spectrophotometric method at wavelength 430 nm. The stoichiometry of the complex is established as 1:1 (M:L) by Job’s method of continuous variation and confirmed by mole ratio method. The Sandell’s Sensitivity is 0.0303 µg cm-2 with molar absorptivity 4623.92 L mol-1 cm -1. The results of the prescribed procedure applied for the determination of the micro amounts of Ce (IV) in various synthetic and standard steel samples are presented.

  120. Kamal M. Mahmoud and Maadh T. Abdurhman

    A flow-injection (FI) spectrophotometric procedure is proposed for Trifluoperazine Hydrochloride (TFPH) determination in pharmaceuticals. The proposed method is based on the injection of 50 µL sample solution into an oxidizing agent stream of ammonium ceric salphate with the optimum flow rate of 2.0 ml min-1. The violet [TFPH- sulphanilic acid (SA)] complex is monitored at 545 nm. The (FI) system and the experimental conditions were optimized. Under the optimum conditions, calibration graph was obtained for 0.5-120 µg ml-1and the detection limit 0.0459 µg ml-1. The correlation coefficient was 0.9990. The method was successfully applied to the determination of this drug in pharmaceutical formulations with a sample throughput of 120h-1. The results obtained by the proposed method were in good agreement with those obtained by the official method at 95% confidence level.

  121. Iwasan D. Kejawa

    More than 50% of new cases of lung cancer are diagnosed in elderly patients. Does age is a factor for Are outdated traditional education, distance education, information technological infrastructure, partnerships and financial resources common problematic issues facing many of the educational institutions in our world today? With this into considerations, are these issues vital in order to stabilize the political and economic embroidery of an institution or organization, and its psychological and sociological awareness? What is it that is to be learned and thought in our institutions and, what really is lifelong education; and how is to be carried out in the society of ours? It is found that education may be the training of the mind to perform desire functions or to perpetuate the modality of obtaining an end or result. Actually, the accessibility of distance education by lifelong learners may be hindered by unavailability of enough technical and economical supports.

  122. Asiedu Ampomah Benjamin, Addai Kyeremeh Emmanuel and Batola David

    The main challenge for companies today is the need to ensure that there is efficiency at the work place. Most problems in manufacturing companies can be attributed to lack of ensuring quality services to customers which arises as a result of poor inventory management. Meanwhile, industries in Ghana have been blamed by not ensuring proper inventory management practices and which has resulted in customer service dissatisfaction. Hence this research was conducted to examine Inventory Management as a Cost Reduction Tool in Manufacturing Firms in Ghana using selected manufacturing firms in the Techiman Municipality as a case study. A total sample size of one hundred and nine (109) respondents was used for the study. The study uses qualitative and quantitative approach in analysing the data. Primary data was collected with the aid of a questionnaire and analyse using descriptive statistics as well as regression analysis. The regression results show that there exist an inverse relationship between inventory management and cost incurred from a firm. Furthermore, the outcome of the study reveals that among the inventory management practices practiced include accurate record of information, proper accounting records and positive surprise visits. It was also realized that having a good stock plan contributes immensely to organizational performance. It also came out from the study that positive surprised checks on employees are part of the important strategies to be adopted in inventory management. The study recommends that the company should try by all means to adhere to inventory polices made. In order to ensure that the company adheres to inventory policies, under no circumstance should items of inventory be allowed to leave stores without proper requisition.

  123. Asiedu Ampomah Benjamin, Anthony Fianu and Addai Kyeremeh Emmanuel

    The study has been designed to analyze the Challenges of Internally Generated Funds and its contributions; evidence from Techiman North District Assembly. The purpose of the study was to acquire in-depth knowledge about the various sources of Internally Generated Funds (IGF) and to clarify our understanding of problems associated with the assembly’s revenue generation. A purposive sampling technique was used. Primary data was the main source of data for the study. The researchers administered questionnaires to assembly members, unit committee members and opinion leaders in the district. It was disclosed that Techiman North District Assembly had the following as its sources of internal generated funds; rates, lands, (excluding stool lands), fees and fines, licenses, rents, investments. It was also found out that mobilized revenue is used to construct roads, setting of social amenities, improving the agric sector and building schools. It was concluded that the awareness level of respondents on the taxes charged by the Techiman North District Assembly was low and generation of internally generated funds is faced with a lot of challenges which needs to be addressed immediately. It was recommended that there should be provision of appropriate logistics and incentives to revenue collectors who exceed their targets. There should be sanctions for tax payers who default.

  124. Dr. Yusuf ACAR

    The cultural values of society has been oblivioned in the process of globalization, sustainability of cultural values began to be widely discussed lately and the protection of these values in today's societies owned and transferred to future generations has become more important than the need. Nowadays culinary culture of a society is among the most important elements referred to a combination of tourism, has begun to take an active role in promoting the country. The aim of this study; Orthodox sect's founder St. Gregeourus's hometown Güzelyurt's culinary culture and gastronomy tourism was analyzed. For this purpose, interviews were held face to face with the local administrators, officials from the Provincial Directorate of Tourism and the local people and necessary information about local culinary culture was obtained by using the interview method. The region's culinary culture can be revitalized with gastronomy tourism is transferred to future generations and take its rightful place in the promotion of the country. In this study, specific to local culinary culture, molasses, wine, bread and meat dishes were explained. This study is also important in order to promote the tourism potential of Güzelyurt District, which is a religious center, by taking advantage of its gastronomic attractiveness

  125. Dr. Digar Singh Farswan

    The teacher training in India was first started in Vedic period. In that period the senior students among the Brahmins were given the chance to teach junior students and thus were trained in teaching. The modern teacher training in India was first started by European missionaries. In the beginning they trained the students in teaching different subjects but later on they also started to develop in the trainees some basic concepts regarding education and teaching. Teacher education system is an important vehicle to improve the quality of school education. The revitalization and strengthening of the teacher education system is a powerful means for the upliftment of educational standards in the country. There are many issues that need urgent attention for improving the quality of teacher education programme. One of them is the need of innovations in teacher education programme. Innovativeness means the ability to think beyond the boundaries and create something which is different from that which already exists. Without innovations, no progress is possible. Teachers have to be innovative and their grooming has to start from their training institutions. Innovations in teacher education include IT literacy, interactive teleconferencing etc. NPE (1986) stated “The existing system of teacher education needs to be overhauled or revamped.” Unfortunately, the secondary teacher education institutions in India are stated to be largely not innovative. There are some resisting factors in our education system which prevents the teacher education institution from being innovative such as lack of physical facilities and funds, lack of diffusion of innovations among teacher educators, rigid framework, lack of research orientation etc. This paper provides an overview of Assessment in teacher education in India. It traces the development of India’s assessment system in education and the legislative policies aimed at reform of examination focusing on the progressive changes in the policies for betterment of assessment/evaluation.

  126. Harsangeet Kaur

    Sustainable development is the development that meets5% needs of the present without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their own needs. Education is the essential tool for` sustainable development. In the present paper we will through light on the concepts of sustainable development and education for sustainable development. Objectives, progress, challenges faced in the decade (2005-I4) of education for sustainable development declared by UNESCO have been discussed in the present paper Post-decade of education for sustainable development Global Action Program given by UNESCO has also been discussed in the paper.

  127. Aninditya Sri Nugraheni, Siti Zubaedah and Lailatu Rohmah

    Education problem on streen children and illiteracy eradication are the world’s problem. This research is aimed to know and observe effectiveness of android media use to eradicate illiteracy for street children in Semanggi Area, Surakarta City. This research is a research which utilizes desctiptive method. The research method utilized are observation, interview, and document review of qualitative descriptive analysis. Result of the research which is resulted is that learning method of Android-based gradual functional literacy that can give effective learning activity to improve school residents’ understanding, enable instructors in providing and bringing media which can effectively improve school recidents’ interest towards learning media utilized in Functional Literacy Learning.

  128. Dr. Abida Siddiqui, Dr. Mumtaz Khawaja, Uzma Punhwar and Anjum Shaheen

    The paper intends to identify the relationship between words & its proper concepts at primary school level. This study is Descriptive in nature wherein Survey Method and Developmental Studies with especial references to Cross-Sectional Approach were used side by side. While, Four Point Scale for Subjective Assessment, Achievement Test of Language Skills (Oral- Cum- Written), Achievement Test of Comprehension and a Structured Interview for Pupils of Classes I-V were used as instrument to collect the data. After analysing the data through mean score this study reveals that at primary level, language development is at alarming position. Though Pupils have developed their language skill in some extend but they are still in able to associate the words to its proper concepts. The study suggest that the Pedagogy should be based on development of comprehension rather than reading & writing of content alone so that pupils may be able to develop the linkages of the concepts with others areas of knowledge.

  129. Dr. Abirami, P. and Ms. Rekha, J.

    Emotional intelligence has been a source of concern and research towards the end of the 20thcentury. It refers to the capacity for recognizing our own feelings and those of others, for motivating ourselves and for managing emotions well in us and in our relationships. The objectives of the study were to assess the level on emotional intelligence among higher secondary school students and to associate the level on emotional intelligence of higher secondary school students with their demographic variables. The study was descriptive research design in nature which was carried in 100 students who were selected by non probability convenient sampling technique. The tool used for the study comprises of 2 sections, section A- Demographic Data (which includes age, gender, year of study, monthly income, education of father, education of the mother, type of family, religion, age at married, income, type of family, ) and section B- a structured questionnaire developed by the investigator which includes 15 questions to assess the level of emotional intelligence. Reliability of the tool was r= 0.07 .The pilot study was conducted on 10 higher secondary school students who met the inclusion criteria were selected by non probability convenient sampling technique. The findings revealed the feasibility, reliability and practicability of the tool for the main study. The major findings of the study reveals that among 100 students, None of them have inadequate emotional intelligence. 86 (86%) have moderate level of emotional intelligence, 14 (14%) students have adequate emotional intelligence. There is a significant association on the level of emotional intelligence among HSS students with their demographic variables such as education of mothers. There is no significant association with respect to other demographic variables. The Study concluded that a person`s emotional make-up largely determines his or her professional success. They believe that emotional intelligence is the most important determinant of the extent of professional and personal success in life

  130. Dr. Honnappa, S.

    In India poverty remains a chronic condition for almost more than 35% of India’s rural population. A major cause of poverty among India’s rural people, both individuals and communities, is lack of access to productive assets and financial resources. Further, high level of illiteracy, inadequate health care and extremely limited access to social services are common among poor rural people. Both central and state governments have brought out many measures and programmes to eradicate rural poverty. They have failed to achieve the desired objective. In the recent past the studies on rural development have gained momentum among the Indian economists. In the process of achieving rural development the Panchayats are expected to play an important role, since the period of independence. Hence the present study is placed in this context to examine the role of panchayat raj systems in the rural development of Karnataka state and also to suggest suitable measures for the effective functioning of panchayat raj institutions in improving the socio-economic conditions of the rural people. The study is based on both primary and secondary data. The primary data has been collected from field survey in the sample of seven districts of Karnataka state. It was found that there were some facilities given by gram panchayats, which have been inadequate like quality of roads and sanitation. But, the rural people in certain districts from the sample have shown their satisfaction with some services like education, providing drinking water and streetlights facilities. As it was seen that due to the successful intervention by panchayat raj institutions in poverty alleviation schemes there are some structural changes in the villages.

  131. Meshram, P. B. and Soni, K. K.

    Buchanania lanzan plants suffer damage by biotic factors like grazing, hacking, repeated fire, indiscriminate harvesting (lopping and cutting), insect and diseases attack which adversely affect the growth and productivity. This economically important tree species were susceptible to damage several insect pests and diseases. Experiments on effect of chemicals on fruits yield of B. lanzan for control of insect pests and diseases were laid out in natural stand and during seed storage. The studies revealed that spraying of combination of chemicals- endosulfan 0.07% + bavistin 0.2% + alpha NAA 40 ppm were found to be most effective. But the endosulfan has now banned and therefore the second alternative treatment i.e. monocrotophos 0.04% + bavistin 0.2% + alpha NAA 40 ppm was also found to be most effective for the production of inflorescence / fruits and protection against sap suckers i.e. thrips, Rhipiphorothrips spp. and diseases of B. lanzan. Seed mycoflora Aspergillus spp. and Rhizopus nigricans (Ehn.) in storage were also studied. The protein, carbohydrate and oil percentages were comparatively less in infected seeds as compared with the healthy seeds. Fungicide, dithane M-45 0.1% superior control and exhibited 4.06% protein content and 47.58% oil content.

  132. DR. IHEANYI O. IGWE

    This study investigated the extent socio-economic status of income and motivation influence academic achievement of Chemistry students in Abakaliki Education zone, Ebonyi State. Three research questions were formulated to guide the study and two hypotheses were tested in the study. Two structured questionnaire and Chemistry Achievement Test (CAT) were major instruments used to collect the relevant data for the results of the study. The main questionnaire for the study had a reliability coefficient of 0.78 using the Cronbach Alpha Approach while the Chemistry Achievement Test had a reliability coefficient of 0.88 using Kuder-Richardson-20. A total of 306 senior secondary II students were used for the study as sample. Data collected were subjected to analysis using mean and standard deviation for the research questions while t-test statistic was used to test the hypotheses. The results of the study showed that parents’ level of income and motivation do influence Chemistry students’ academic achievement. The two hypotheses tested were significant. The researcher therefore recommended among other things that parents should work hard to get sufficient funds to cater for their children’s needs both in the home and at school. Again, there should be optimum motivation in different kinds to encourage the children to have interest in their schooling so that they can develop positive attitude towards their studies. The schools should ensure the provision of both qualified teachers and material resources to motivate the students also. When these recommendations are implemented, the academic achievement of chemistry students would increase tremendously.

  133. Dr. K. Usha Rani

    Plyometric is another type of body weight exercise that is taking on popularity among women. It is a form of exercise training designed to produce quick and powerful movements. It is a form of exercise training designed to produce quick and powerful movements. Plyometric training is a high intensity work out and only well conditioned athletes should use them as a training tool. Even then athletes should be under the supervision of a qualified coach or trainer. It is also suggested athletes check themselves for signs of injury and over training. Contractions are what cause muscles to move. The importance of plyometric revolves around the basic concept that a pre-stretched muscle is capable of generating more force. It is also proven that plyometric training mixed with strength training can result in greater gains in both. Plyometric training will bridge the gap between strength and speed. It will benefit athletes of all lone correctly. The purpose of this study was to find out the effect of plyometric exercise on vertical jump performance of inter collegiate players. To achieve this purpose of the study twenty five volleyball players and twenty five non volley ball inter collegiate players of Alagappa University College of Physical Education, Karaikudi were randomly selected as subject. The group was equated based on the initial test. The standing broad jump was used to equate the group. Each group fifteen players were selected for research. The age group of the subjects was between 22 years to 25 years. Experimental design, equated group design was used. Control group was not subjected to any treatment. Experimental group was subject to the experimental treatment At the end of six weeks of experiments, the vertical jump performance of the control and experimental groups were taken. The collected data were subjected to statistical analysis. The‘t’ ratio was used. Conclusion: Based on the limitation, delimitation of the study it was concluded that plyometric exercise improves the vertical jump performance of the players.

  134. Leon Hongo Awiti, Dr. Margaret Oloko and Prof. Charles Rambo

    Nyanza region in the Western part of Kenya has the highest concentration of non-governmental organizations (NGOs) implementing HIV and AIDS interventions. Nonetheless, the region is cited to have a high prevalence HIV infection of 15.3% while the prevalence rate for Kenya stands at 7.4%, this has partly been blamed on poorly formulated strategies that have failed to reduce new HIV infections in Nyanza to zero.The purpose of the study was to examine the influence of strategy formulation on performance of HIV and Acquired Immune-Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS) interventions managed by NGOs in Nyanza Region and the moderating influence of stakeholder participation on such relationship. This study used a positivist and interpretive paradigms adopting an ex post facto research survey design. Both quantitative and qualitative approaches. The target population for the study was 18 the departmental heads of program management, 18 monitoring and 18 evaluation and program implementation in NGOs registered by the NGO council as implementing HIV and AIDS interventions as a major focus and operating within Nyanza Region. The study also targeted the directors of the three governing bodies for HIV programming. The population was thus 60 respondents. Non-probability purposive sampling was used to pick the respondents. The research used two instruments: questionnaires, Interviews schedules. Content validity was measured by using the Content Valid Index (CVI). The researcher used Cronbach's Alpha reliability to measure the internal consistency of the questionnaires, r (6 items)=0.839. Data analysis was done through descriptive statistics and inferential statistics such as chi-square odds ratio, hypothesis testing, logit regression modeling. Organisations that did strategy formulation to a small extent were 1.091 more likely to have non-performing HIV/AIDS interventions compared to those that conducted strategy formulation to a large extent, X2(1) =11.018, p= 0.049, CL=95%. Similarly organizations engaging stakeholders in strategy formulation to a small extent were 1.111 more likely to more likely to have non-performing HIV/AIDs interventions compared to those that engaged stakeholders to a large extent, X2(1) =5.030, p= 0.033, CL=95%. There was a significant relationship between strategy formulation and performance of HIV and AIDS interventions managed by non-governmental organisations in Nyanza Region, critical value= 3.84 and the X2(1) value=11.018, 3.84 <11.018.There was a significant moderating influence of stakeholder participation on the relationship between strategy formulation and performance of HIV and AIDS interventions managed by non-governmental organisations in Nyanza Region. Critical value= 3.84 and the X2(1) value =5.030, 3.84 <5.030. The study recommends that the NGOs managing the HIV and AIDS interventions should strengthen their strategy formulation processes and engage stakeholders more meaningfully in the strategy formulation process.

  135. Prof. Paramjeet Kaur and Dr. Shreya Virani

    Introduction: Crowdfunding is a way to raise finance from public / individuals to fund a project or venture. It is a form of gathering funds over the internet by (Campaign) advertising the purpose and need of the project or venture. People interested in the thought / idea tends to invest or send money (any amount) in the form of monetary donation or sometimes in exchange for a future product, service or reward. The term crowdfunding was first coined in a blog post by Michael Sullivan in 2006 and has its roots in charitable donations (Castelluccio, 2012). It was initially used to support projects as diverse as record albums, books, ecology trips, scientific research (Aitamurto, 2011, Gaggioli, 2013) Research Method: Sampling Method: The present research being an empirical in nature includes survey method and fact finding enquiries. The data collected would be processed with the help of statistical techniques such as frequency, standard deviation, cross tabulation, etc. to obtain the relevant results and fulfill the stated objectives. Data Collection: Primary data is collected firsthand by a researcher through experiments, surveys, questionnaires, focus groups, interviews and taking measurements, while the secondary data is readily available and is available to the public through publications, journals, magazines and newspapers. Data Analysis: Findings of study - Reward based crowdfunding model is much preferred by the fund raisers for their startups and business ventures. - Majority of the fund raisers are satisfied with donation based crowdfunding model of crowdfunding.

  136. Justina Syonthi Ndaita (PhD)

    The problem of academic performance cuts across both developed and developing nations of the world. Many factors play a role in students’ academic performance. These factors can be within or outside the school context. Within the school environment, the head teachers’ leadership role largely shapes the overall performance of a school. Based on this understanding, this paper explores how the unique role of secondary school principals in the provision of teaching and learning materials influences the academic achievements of learners. The paper is informed byaresearch that wascarried out in Kitui West Sub-County of Kenya. The study employed a mixed methods research design, which included survey and naturalistic designs. It targeted nine (9) schools, one hundred and seventy-six (176) students, fifty-four (54) class teachers, nine (9) principals and three (3) District Quality Assurance and Standards Officers (DQASOs). In total, the sample comprised two hundred and forty-two (242) respondents out of whom two hundred and three (203) actually participated in the study. Data collection instruments used included questionnaires for students and teachers and interview guides for the principals and DQASOs. The collected data was analysed using both quantitative and qualitative data analysis approaches. Statistical Package for Social Science (SPSS, Version 17) aided the process of data analysis. The quantitative data was computed to produce frequencies and percentages. On the other hand, qualitative data analysis was conducted on the data collected using the interview method and reported in narrative form along quantitative data.From the analysis of the research findings, it was established that the main role that secondary school principals played in relation to educational resources included evaluating the adequacy of instructional materials, advising teachers on the most current instructional resources and encouraging teachers to develop innovative teaching aids. Based on the findings, it was recommended that all the educational stakeholders, namely parents, the government and school administration, should come together to find strategies for ensuring educational resources are sufficiently provided to meet educational needs. Moreover, school leaders should organize funding initiatives to facilitate the construction of school laboratories and libraries and, at the same time, collect more funds to purchase and equip these facilities with modern educational resources.

  137. Ajay Kumar

    The objectives of this paper is study the Growth Rate of India’s Trade in Textile and Clothing with SAARC Countries from 1972 to 2011. Regional Trade Agreements have become increasingly prevalent since the early 1990s. India’s relations with SAARC countries are entrenched deeply. In addition to an overlapped cultural and religious heritage, the SAARC countries share a common vision on many regional and international affairs. Textile and clothing sector plays a major role in SAARC region for promoting regional trade; it is a major source of foreign exchange and largest industrial sector of SAARC region and contributes towards employment of skilled and unskilled labor in the region. The contribution of textile and clothing towards the GDP and international trade of SAARC countries is very high, and therefore, any problem in the textile and clothing sectors has macroeconomic national implications. In our study we found that the growth rate of India’s exports of textile and clothing items started improving after the establishment of SAARC in 1985, experienced high growth since 2002 after the implementation of SAPTA as well as many bilateral agreements between India and other SAARC nations. This increase, however, was not uniform for all the nations and the exports to Maldives and up to some extent Bhutan had lower growth compared to other nations. On the other hand, exports of textile and clothing to Sri Lanka, Bangladesh and Pakistan experienced high growth,

  138. Singh Vandana and Agarwal Shalini

    In almost every country, the proportion of people aged over 60 years is growing faster than any other age group. This population ageing can be seen as a success story for public health policies and for socioeconomic development, but it also challenges society to adapt, in order to maximize the health and functional capacity of older people as well as their social participation and security. An assistive device often means an evident change in a person’s ability, more easy to notice than the effects of most of other types of physiotherapy or occupational therapy intervention. In spite of this, there is very little evidence in this area. The use of assistive device has been such among one and all that it has become unthinkable, of a life without assistive device. The knowledge of these assistive device tremendous and often debated that the usage and satisfaction of assistive device among third generation people.

  139. Belew Worku

    Urban centers are heritage by themselves. Cultural heritages are non renewable and non replaceable. Once destroyed, it has gone for good and could not be revived, and replaced in its authentic form. Heritage need protection by laws. In the absence of protective laws, cities would be destroyed by regeneration. The article is aimed at exploring the status of Cultural Heritage in the city of Dire Dawa with particular emphasis on Kezira quarter. This is mainly because some of cultural heritage of Kezira has gone. The study revealed that Kezira’s landscape is under major menace of Local Development Project, which has already demolished some of its cultural heritage, hence in appalling condition to vanish its history and identity. The main driving force is the Local Development Project. The absence of strong and effective relevant legislation has given an impetus to LDP. The legal framework for Heritage Conservation of the city has gaps as shown from its failure stop the indiscriminate destruction of its heritage. Failure to address each other among various offices of the city, lack of awareness and lack of commitment are among the factors that contribute to the destruction of cultural heritage, thus vanishing history of Kezira. The article concluded that the condition is more serious that need immediate intervention. Kezira and its landscape deserve designation as cultural heritage of Ethiopia. It recommended the possible solutions for saving kezira’s heritage through Historic landscape strategy, thereby protecting the history of Dire Dawa. This article is a kind of a call to conserve the cultural heritage of Kezira and its history threatened by local development project.

  140. Mrs. Borade Gauri Prashant

    This research paper describes the academic library services give to users; also here is brief introduction of Dr. S. R. Rangnathan’s 5 laws, cataloguing, and Bibliographic records. This research paper focuses on the services given by SDMSG Polytechnic Institutes library to the library users to simplify their research. Researcher target is to fulfill readers/users demands towards the library within short time. By this research researcher gets forward to the web media and fulfill the reader’s demands. Dr. S.R. Rangnathans 4th law of library science i.e. Save the Time of the Reader is the target of this research. For this research researcher choose the Sir Dr. M.S. Gosavi Polytechnic Institute Library. Researcher implements new ideas to get the proper services to the users of the library within very short time.

  141. Gagliano Giuseppe

    This article deals with the cultural development and general perception of the concept of "intelligence" and "economic intelligence" in France. After the Cold War, finance and markets assumed a greater importance in determining the relations between countries; however, it took a long time for the French elite to be convinced of the existence of “economic warfare” and to define a culture of its own in the field of intelligence. Still, when all the international analyses were strongly related to the Cold War ideology and talking about economic warfare seemed like an abuse of language, C. Harbulot and P. Baumard urged the need to reconsider intelligence activities and to apply them in the national economy, overcoming the negative connotation that "renseignement" had. Researching, processing and spreading any piece of information that can be considered strategic is the only formula we can rely on in order to face the last challenges posed by globalization. Between 1992 and 1994, the expression “economic intelligence” officially entered the French public debate on national competiveness, together with the request for public intervention in the national economy. Harbulot and Baumard kept recommending the systematic search and interpretation of the information available to everyone, showing a new way to interpret the markets. The new approach is different from traditional intelligence by the nature of its field of application (open information); the nature of its actors (inserted in a collective information culture context), and its cultural specificities (each nation’s economy generates its own specific model of economic intelligence).

  142. Sharma Divya Deepak, Jondhale Prakash, Bhushan Vikram Vir and Karpe Prathamesh

    Fissure-in-ano is a linear boat shaped ulcer in the anal canal . It is always associated with spasm of anal sphincter, bright streaks of blood with the passage of stool and pain after defecation. Patient desist defecation rather than going through the agony, leading to constipation. Among anorectal disorders nearly 87% of patients are suffering from fissure-in-ano. Now a day’s people are busy and they don’t prefer hospital stay and surgery. Under the above circumstances, there is a need to find out simple and patient friendly medicament. Manjishtadi taila is the best drug for Vranaropana, Vedena nashnam. Hence Manjishtadi taila is preferred in Fissure-in-ano. Moreover Manjishtadi taila is the drug of choice for vrana which is mentioned in Baishajaya Ratanavali. Considering the above facts, an attempt is made to evaluate the clinical efficacy of Manjishtadi taila in the management of Fissure-in-ano. The patients attending the O.P.D. and I.P.D. of the S.J.G. Ayurvedic Medical College & Hospital, Koppal will be selected for the study. External application Manjishtadi taila varti along with internal medicine like Trikatu and Swadisht Virecana choorna will be given for 30 days. Clinical response was assessed at an interval of 5 days. External application of Manjishtadi taila varti along with internal medication shows significant effect in fissure-in-ano by its vedana shamaka, daha prashmana and rakta stambhna proprieties.

  143. Dr. Francisca N. Ogba and Dr. Ntasiobi C.N Igu

    This study was designed to investigate the influence of socio-economic factors of parents’ educational background and marital status on the academic performance of students in Abakaliki Education zone, Ebonyi State. Two research questions were formulated to guide the study and two hypotheses were tested in the study. A structured questionnaire was used as the instrument for data collection for the analysis for results of the study. The instrument was face validated and the reliability coefficient determined using the Cronbach Alpha Approach, which gave a coefficient index of 0.86. This figure is of high internal consistency indicating that the instrument was suitable for use for the study. A total of 150 senior secondary II students were used for the study. The data collected were subjected to analysis using mean and standard deviation for the research questions while t-test statistic was used to test the hypotheses. The results of the study showed that parents’ educational background and marital status have influences on students’ academic performance. Hypothesis 1 was not significant while hypothesis 2 was significant. The researchers recommended among other things that the parents should improve on their educational background to guide their children at home. Again, the home environment should be made peaceful environment and united while the school should have qualified teachers. Both the home and the school should work closely to enhance students’ academic performance at school. Based on the findings of the study educational implications, recommendations were made which if implemented would boost the academic performance of students tremendously.

  144. Sholih Mu’adi

    The objective of this review is to describe conflict across religions in Indonesia. Method used in this review is the review of theories and also the review of literatures. Result of this review indicates that living in the harmony of religions will need some understandings. First is syncretism, suggesting that all religions are equal. Second isreconception, meaning to reconsider the religion when it confronts with others. Third is synthesis that will create a new religion which the elements are taken from various religions. Fourth is replacement, recognizing that one religion is the only one that is righteous. Fifth is agree in disagreement (agreed in difference), which believes that one religion is the best religion.

  145. John Rozar Raj, B.

    Background: A cataract is a clouding of the normally clear lens of your eye. For people who have cataracts, seeing through cloudy lenses is a bit like looking through a frosty or fogged-up window. Intraocular lenses (IOLs) are medical devices that are implanted inside the eye to replace the eye's natural lens when it is removed during cataract surgery. IOLs also are used for a type of vision correction surgery called refractive lens exchange. Aim: To estimate the incidence of cataract and IOL replacements among general population. Objective: This survey is conducted to estimate the incidence of cataract and IOL Replacements among general populations. Materials and Methods: This is a clinical observational study. The data was collected for 300 patients from the Ophthalmologist to whom the aim of the study was first explained. The incidence of cataract and IOL Replacements were analysed. The results were represented in the form of graph, table and a pie chart. Results: The study was conducted for 300 patients. Out of which 42 subjects (14%) had cataract and 24 subjects (8%) were ready for IOL Replacements.

  146. Dr. Astha Joshi, Dr. D. K. Pandey and Dr. Anil Vashisht

    Country of origin is one of the widely researched areas in marketing. With globalization there have been numerous changes in the production and marketing of products and services. India has turned into another rising economy the world is seeing. Parcel of shopper strong brands from various parts of the world is multiplying in Indian market. Thus India is by all accounts an immaculate destination to concentrate on the impacts of COO. In this study mobile phone product category have been selected and the stimulus level is product category falling under consumer good category and is durable in nature. For the present study responses were taken from customers through structured questioner.

  147. Dr. Anil Singh Parihar

    In the field of consumer behavior family is the central consuming unit and their behavior is a matter of research for marketers since long time. In the family, there are three components, like mother, father and children. Father is most crucial component of family in Indian culture and second role of mother because these two are most important factors of family which constitutes a family. In consumer decision making, one more very important factor is growing very rapidly, which is the role of child. Therefore, marketers are focusing on all the components of family, parents as well as children. In past research, the role of father and mother was considered for study and in some studies the role of children were also examined. In this study, a segment of children that is teenager was undertaken to study. Teenagers are the children of ager group between thirteen to nineteen years. This is the growing, choose, information getter, knowledgeable, internet savvy group in our country. A very scientific and systematic approach was applied to undertake this study. The study is based on a well organized literature review and then the objectives of study were determined. The data was collected through survey method to identify various products categories based on influence exerted by teenagers on their parents. This study is good for the academician to look into the family decision making process and the role of teenage child in family. Parents also can understand their children how they influence them to fulfill their demands. This study also very fruitful for the marketers, they can understand the role of each component of family because there is cut-throat competition in the market. So, they can develop their strategies to increase their market share and to compete with their counterparts.

  148. Benly Paulraj and Jaiganesh Ramamurthy

    Aim and objective: Assess the effect of anti tar toothpaste (X TAR) and its impact on calculus prevention. X tar toothpaste provides better action in calculus prevention when compared to mechanical removal alone. Background: Dental calculus is composed of inorganic components and an organic matrix. Different calcium phosphates which include hydroxyapatite make up the mineral components of dental calculus. Mineralization of dental plaque can be delayed by the presence of crystallization inhibitors, such as pyrophosphate .The X TAR toothpaste consists of pyrophosphates which prevents the calculus formation. Our current study includes usage of anti tartar toothpaste in gingivitis patients after scaling and evaluated after 1 month Result: This study showed that the use of x TAR toothpaste has its own action in calculus prevention with the help of pyrophosphates present in it.

  149. Dr. Debashish Basak, Dr. Arunoday Kumar, Dr. Debojyoti Das, Dr. Niladri Maiti, Dr. Dhruba Chatterjee, Dr. Anirban Das, Dr. Praveen B. Reddy and Dr. Amrendra Kumar

    Purpose: The purpose of the study was to compare the dimensional stability of three different alginate impression materials at three different storage periods. Materials and Methods: A brass model representing maxillary edentulous ridge was used as a master model in this study. Three customised abutments A,B,C were CAD/CAM machined to simulate full veneer preparation. They were positioned on the master model one in the anterior region and two in the posterior region on either side of the ridge. The centre of the cross hair reference lines made on the occlusal surfaces of abutments was used for measuring linear dimensional changes. A total of 90 impressions of the master model was made by all three irreversible hydrocolloids and stored in three different storage period of 30 minutes, 12 hours and 24 hours. The casts were poured after three storage period with type IV gypsum product and the inter abutment distance between the abutments were measured with the electronic vernier caliper. Results: ANOVA analysis showed no significant differences (p< .05) at 30 minutes storage period between all three alginates and a very high significant difference (p< .001) at 12 and 24 hours storage periods. Conclusion: The dimensional accuracy of the improvised alginates Cavex CA37 and Neocolloid were greater than the conventional Algitex in delayed pouring of the cast.

  150. Dr. Priyanka Rahariya, Dr. Vinu Choudhary and Dr. Kusum Lata Meena

    Mayer Rokitansky Kuster Hauser Syndrome is a congenital aplasia of uterus, bilateral fallopian tubes and upper 2/3 of vagina; with normal secondary sexual characters and a normal 46XX karyotype. It affects 1/4500 women and its first sign is primary amenorrhoea in young women. A 16 yr old girl presented with primary amenorrhoea with lower abdominal pain. There was blind vaginal pouch and secondary sexual characters normally present. On endocrinological profile patient was hypothyroid.MRI report showed MRKH Syndrome with 8X12cm left ovarian hemorrhagic dysgerminoma. Laparotomy was done where we found left ovarian cystic mass (around 8x12cm) filled with hemorrhagic fluid with intact capsule. Left sided salpingo oophorectomy done. Right side ovary and fallopian tube were normal. In pelvis there were two uterinovaginal bulbs connected by a band like uterus, with agenesis of upper vagina. On Karyotyping 46XX chromosomal pattern was found.

  151. Kadambari Sriram and Dr.Gopinath, P.

    Aim: To determine and compare the antifungal activity of ethanolic extracts of Neem twig and Banyan root against clinical isolates of Candida albicans. Materials and Methods: A total of 20 non repetitive clinical isolates of Candidaspecies were collected from different samples of immunocompromised individuals attending Saveetha Medical college, Thandalam. Characterized by carbohydrate fermentation and assimilation tests and confirmed further using HiChromagar. The ethanolic extracts of Neem and Banyan were prepared. The sensitivity of Candida to the extracts was tested. Results: Of the 20 clinical isolates of Candidaspp, 6/20 (30%) were from oral thrush, 5/20 (25%) from urine, 3/20 (15%) from sputum, 3/20 (15%) from vaginal swab, 2/20 (10%) from ear swab and one (5%) from wound swab. The banyan extract seemed to have greater antifungal effect than neem. Conclusion: Banyan was found to have greater effect than neem. Voriconazole as a standard has a greater sensitivity in comparison with the other two herbal extracts.

  152. Dr. Deepak Chandrakant Kelgandre, Dr. Saurabh Sabnis, Dr. Dinesh Rajput and Dr. Roshan Chandwani

    Basal cell carcinoma (BCC) is the most common malignant tumor of skin. The most common site (80%) is head and neck, tumour also commonly seen on nose, eyelids, inner canthus of eye, behind ears etc. A number of histopathological subtypes of basal cell carcinoma have been defined. Out of which few are rare subtypes. BCC exhibits a varied morphology such as adenoid, keratotic, sebaceous, basosquamous, apocrine, eccrine or fibroepithelial. Adenoid type of BCC is one of the rare histopathological types of BCC which is difficult for diagnosis. Here we reported one such rare case of adenoid BCC.

  153. Nishant Vardhan and Tarun Sood

    Siderosis oculi is recognized as a severe emanation of retained, iron made, intraocular foreign body. The injury quintessentially results while battering or pounding metal and most of the times presents in males. Outcome and clinical findings vary depending on time, course and anatomic site within the eye. The prognosis is related to size, position, chemical composition of foreign body. The presence of encapsulated foreign bodies and retention time of foreign bodies also predicts the development of complications.

  154. Fatemeh Montazer, Zahra Safaeii Naraghi, Pedram Mehryan and Dorna Motevalli

    Background: Based on clinical and histomorphological study, differentiating Chronic Plaque Psoriasis from chronic eczematous lesions of palmoplantar region is a diagnostic challenge, however, it has some implications for the patient's management and prognosis. Aim: This study is designed to evaluate immunohistochemical markers for distinguishing psoriasis from eczema of palmoplantar region in patients referring to Razi Skin Hospital, Tehran, Iran. Materials and Methods: Comparative cross-sectional study was carried out at Razi Skin Hospital, Tehran, Iran. Immunohistochemical stains for VEGF, Ki67, and GLUT-1 were performed on 45 cases including 15 patients with palmoplantar psoriasis, 15 patients with palmoplantar eczematous lesions, and 15 patients with diagnosis of lichen planus as control group. Results: The expression of Ki-67 were not significantly different between psoriatic and eczematic lesions but it was more severe in patients with psoriasis. VEGF staining showed a higher vascular proliferation in psoriasis than in eczema and lichen planus. There was no significant difference between GLUT1 expression in 3 examined groups but most cases of psoriasis show diffuse distribution for GLUT1 staining compared with eczema and lichen planus, which mostly show discontinuous staining for GLUT1 marker. Conclusion: Our findings indicate that VEGF immunostaining shows a significantly more expressed vascular proliferation in patient with psoriatic lesions, and can be helpful as immune marker for differentiating palmoplantar psoriasis and eczema of this region.

  155. Nermien E. Waly and Mohamed Fath EL-Bab

    Background: Oxidative stress is observed in gastric ulceras it contributes to the mucosal injury. Melatonin (Mel) has protective functions of the gastric mucosa. Theaim of this study is to examine the protective effect of Melon gastric mucosa in acute lesions induced by hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) induced gastric lesions in rat model of ethanol-induced gastric ulcer. Methodology: This study was performed in male Sprague-Dawley rats (200–250 g) in 9 groups of equal size (n = 45): Intra-peritoneal (i.p.) injection of Mel (12.5, 25 and 50 mg/Kg) 30 min before H2O2treatment. Gastric ulcers were scored and ulcer index was calculated. Glutathione (GSH) and glutathione peroxidase (GSH-px) activity was measured using spectrophotometry. Gastric thiobarbituric acid reactive substance (TBARS) as an index of lipid peroxidation (LPO) was measured. Results: Gastric mucosal level of reduced glutathione (GSH) and glutathione peroxidase (GSH-px) activity were significantlydecreased by H2O2 administration, while melatonin pretreatment significantly increased both TBARS was increased after H2O2 administration and this increase was inhibited by melatonin. Melatonin was more protective, when compared with ranitidine and omeprazole. Mel gastro-protective effect was reduced by indomethacin and completely blocked by diethylmaleate. Conclusions: the results suggest that melatonin protects rat gastric mucosa against H2O2-induced damage possibly by scavenging reactive oxygen species via increases of GSH level, GSH-px activity and reduction of lipid peroxidation in the gastric mucosa. This suggests that Melmayprotect against alcohol induced peptic ulcer.

  156. Nauma Hafeez, C. and Dr. Dhanraj

    Aim: To analyse the perception of Patients towards the preferred kind of prosthesis in Chennai Background: Implants are stand-alone replacement teeth that use a prosthetic root that is set directly into the jaw. This prosthetic root is extremely strong and will last for entire lifetime. Dental implants can be expensive and require a surgical procedure, which can make it an undesirable choice for some patients. All the above reasons make implants a secondary option to FPD and RPD despite their disadvantages to function. This survey analysis the qualities of a preferred prostheses in dentistry. The above data can help innovate a relevant prosthesis for mordern India. Materials and Methods: The sample size of this study is 100 patients. The patients undergoing prosthodontic treatment were asked to fill out the questionnaire containing 10 questions regarding their interest in this treatment, preferred prosthesis, factors influencing their choice were asked. The data were collected from the questions and analysed. Results: From this study we found that FPDs were the most preferred due to affordable cost and time. Conclusion: having understood the patients perception of dental procedures gives us an insight on improving dental care as a whole.

  157. Dr. Vidhi Soni, Dr. Gaurav Bakutra, Dr. Rashmi Phulari and Dr. Arpan Shah

    Lichen planus is an autoimmune muco-cutaneous condition affecting the skin and oral mucosa. The most common oral sites involved are buccal mucosa and tongue, gingiva being confined to only 10% of the oral presentation of the lesion. The purpose of this case report is to report a case of plaque type lichen planus in a 29 year old male patient with the chief complaint of whitish gum in the upper front tooth region since last 9 months. Histopathologic examination with hematoxylin and eosin stain confirmed the diagnosis of lichen planus on gingiva. Topical application of steroids and surgical excision of the lesion are the treatments of choice for such lesion.

  158. Aishwarya, A. S. and Dhanraj Ganapathy

    Edentulism is a devastating condition characterized by partial or complete loss of teeth, which can have a severe pathological impact on oral, systemic and psychological health of the individual. This article enumerates the various etiological factors contributing edentulism to enhance better understanding about this condition and hence enact suitable remedial measures.

  159. Dr. Ali Al Mashani, Dr. Neeraj Salhotra, Dr. Azmat Ali, Dr. Munther Al Zabin, Dr. Salim Al Abri, Dr. Mohammad Hashim and Dr. Ahmed Al Risi

    Skull base tumors are a challenge to neurosurgeons. Starting from meningiomas, pituitary tumors to clival chordoma or acoustic schwannoma all demand a complex case planning and strategy (Koutourousiou et al., 2013). We present a skull base meningioma in a adult male treated in two stage surgery with complete tumor excision with no gross neurological deficit. Single stage exhausting prolonged surgery weighs inferior to staged surgery with good outcome with minimal complications.

  160. Chirchiglia, Domenico, Guzzi, Giusy, Murrone, Domenico, Chirchiglia, Pasquale and Marotta, Rosa

    Cognitive behavior deficits following frontal lobe tumors comprise a series of symptoms related to the involvement of the prefrontal region. So, clinical signs express the alteration of brain superior functions, creating the psychopathological syndrome, an organic psychiatric syndrome. This consists of two types of symptoms, those called negative, depressive type, the pseudo-depression syndrome, positive ones, manic type, the pseudo-maniac syndrome, also known as moria or moriatic syndrome. The frontal brain tumor is the most frequent of all brain tumors, stronger are frontal lobe connections with the limbic lobe, which explains the cognitive symptoms. Pseudodepression syndrome or apathetic syndrome is characterized by apathy, indifference, motor perseveration, loss of self, motor programming deficits. These are symptoms related to impaired dorsolateral frontal cortex. Pseudomaniac syndrome instead comprises disinhibited, impulsive behavior inappropriate jocular affect, euphoria, emotional lability, poor judgment and insight, distractibility. Orbital frontal cortex is involved in the origin of such symptoms. The limbic cortex plays an important role in the development of cognitive disorders of the frontal lobe, affecting the symptoms for the rich connection with the frontal circuits. Definitely, brain frontal lobe tumors causing cognitive disorders represent a relevant factor regarding the relational and social aspects of life.

  161. Dr. G. Pratap Kumar and Vandana Esteru Rani

    Drug carrier can be defined as the administration of drug from natural or synthetic origin, in order to control in vivo availability of drug molecules for pharmacological effects. Rapid and efficient drainage and the relative impermeability of the cornea account for poor ocular bioavailability. To increase ocular bioavailability of drug, we need to increase ocular residence time of the drug. In situ gelling systems are viscous gelling solutions that posses phase transition on the eye due to change in certain physical and chemical properties. The purpose of the present work was to develop in situ gelling systems for fluroquinolone drugs viz. levofloxacin hemihydrate, ofloxacin (BCS Class I); and norfloxacin, equivalent to 0.5%, 0.3% and 0.3%w/v respectively by using three different mechanisms for phase transition viz. pH, ion and temperature. In situ gel forming abilities of the developed systems significantly controls precorneal drainage. Thus, increased residence time in eye would help to increase ocular bioavailability. Optimized thermosensitive in situ gelling medicated formulation containing levofloxacin hemihydrate, ofloxacin and norfloxacin was found to be well tolerated and nonirritant. The optimized systems of levofloxacin hemihydrates, ofloxacin and norfloxacin are in situ gelling and remain in the form of clear solution.

  162. Selim Fakhruddin, Wael A. Alanazi and Keith E. Jackson

    Hyperglycemia in animals can be induced by different methods: namely, chemical treatment (eg. streptozotocin, alloxan), dietary intervention (eg. excess feeding of sucrose/fructose/fat) with/without chemical treatment, pancreas removal (pancreatectomy), and genetic modifications (eg. transgenic animals). The current study test if a two-week sequence of oral and intraperitoneal glucose loading can sustain hyperglycemia inSprague Dawley rat.A dose of 80 gm.kg-1BW (feed), 2 gm.kg-1BW.ml-1 (drinking water), 2.25 gm.kg-1BW.ml-1(IP) (first week) and increased in the second week to 80 gm.kg-1BW, 2.5 gm.kg-1BW.ml-1, 2.75 gm.kg-1BW.ml-1 of glucose in feed, drinking water, and injection (two times/day) respectively, was selected from 15 different administered doses. A first week moderate increase in plamsa glucose was observed followed by a sustained elevation in plasma glucose levels in the second week. Plasma glucose levels increased on average to 265 mg.dl-1 and 371 mg.dl-1 on day 9 and day 12, respectively. Moreover, the observed hyperglycemia was sustained through day 14 of the study. In addition, plasma insulin levels also significantly increased from 8.92 μlU.ml-1 in control to 27.24 μlU.ml-1 in the glucose-treated group. Hyperglycemia and the resulting hyperinsulinemia promoted a significant increase in mean areterial pressure (MAP) throughout the entire study.The stated dose is effective to develop a lean hypertensive hyperglycemic Sprague Dawley rat model, thereby excluding the confounding factors of obesity and chemical treatements, when studying cardiovascular, renal, and diabetic complications.

  163. Prof. Yousef S Khader, Dr. Mohammad Alhwarat, Dr. Nour Abdo, Dr. Mostafa Abdelrahman, Dr. Faris N Gharaibeh and Dr. Ibrahim Iblan

    Objectives: To assess the risk of cardiovascular diseases associated with air pollution in Eastern Mediterranean Region (EMR) by summarizing the existing knowledge from previous studies in the region and to identify knowledge and research gaps to support further research efforts. Methods: Literature search between January 2000 and June 2016 using the combinations of keywords and hand search resulted in 366 articles published in the EMR. Of those, 13 studies met the inclusion/exclusion criteria. Results: Thirteen studies from few countries in EMR have examined the effect of air pollution on cardiovascular disease and met the inclusion criteria. Most of studies were conducted in Iran. The most common study designs were ecological time series and cross-sectional studies. The reviewed articles showed that air pollution has a significant association with cardiovascular morbidity, especially in high risk groups, but not with mortality. For the majority of reviewed studies, limitations do exist in all studies even well conducted ones. The limitations and shortcomings that arise from inappropriate study designs, poor assessment of exposure and outcomes, questionable sources of data, lack of standardized methods, poor adjustment of confounders, limited geographical area studies, small sample sizes, poor statistical modeling, and not testing for possible interactions between exposures. Conclusion: Air pollution has a significant association with cardiovascular morbidity, especially in high risk groups, but not with mortality in the reviewed studies. However, the limited number of studies in few EMR countries makes it difficult to construct evidence on the effect of air pollution on cardiovascular diseases in the region. The reviewed studies did not sufficiently represent the different geographic locations and compositions of the countries.

  164. Dr. Kishore Chandra Mahapatra, Dr. Santosh Kumar Dora, Dr. Tusar Mahapatra, Dr. Debashish Dash and Dr. Snehadarshini Karanth

    Uterine scar dehiscence is the disruption of the integrity of myometrium which may be complete or incomplete depending on the intactness of serosa. It can present as endometritis, sepsis & pelvic abscess. We report a case of a 24-year-old woman presented on 30th day of puerperium following caesarean section was admitted through our emergency service with complaint of high grade fever & abdominal distension. Patient’s was managed in an intensive care unit. After stabilization of patient she was shifted to operation theatre. Intraop she had uterine scar rupture with pyoperitoneum. Due to grossly necrotic tissue over the scar, peripartum hysterectomy with peritoneal lavage was done. Her general conditions improved after the surgery. These patients usually have features of septicemia like high grade fever, tachycardia, and tachypnoea with lower abdominal pain and possible signs of peritonitis depending on the spread of abscess. They should be managed with intravenous broad spectrum antibiotics; drainage of pyoperitoneum and in some cases peripartum hysterectomy may be required.

  165. Nidhi D Shah, Parth S Shah, Hari Shankar P Ray, Nikunj B Khatri, Ketan K Vaghasia, Sandip C Shah and Mandava V Rao

    We report a rare case of compound heterozygous condition of Hb-D/β-thalassemia (Hb-D/β+) in a Rajasthani family of Western India after analyzing four samples (3 blood + CVS) using DNA sequencing and Hb electrophoresis including phenotypic indices. This condition is identified in Rajasthan state only with Hb-D/β disease in two cases i.e. father and Chorionic villus sampling (CVS), though Hb-D Punjab traits are known. Hence, it is recommended that this condition may require blood transfusion on suggestion of clinician and phenotypic characters. Further six month old daughter suffered with β0/β0 mutations of homozygosity with blood transfusion too. Therefore it is rare and novel, is suggested to have prenatal screening for better management of families and to discourage marriages possessing such carriers in the society.

  166. Dr. Swati Aggarwal, Dr. Karuna Gupta, and Dr. Jayanti Mehta

    Primary cutaneous CD30- positive large cell lymphoma (CD30+ PCLCL) represents a spectrum of disease, with lymphomatoid papulosis (LyP) at the benign end, and primary cutaneous anaplastic large cell lymphoma (PCALCL) at the other. We present two cases of CD30+PCLCL. First case presented with papules and nodules with severe itching. Biopsy of the skin showed atypical multinucleate RS like cells. Second patient had a history of ulcerated plaques and papules over scalp, back and thigh which showed many atypical cells. Atypical cells in both cases stained positive for CD30, CD3 and CD4 and negative for ALK, EMA. After a thorough clinicopathological correlation a diagnosis of CD30+PCLCL – lymphomatoid papulosis was made in first case and CD30+ PCLTCL – Anaplastic type in second. CD30+ PCLCL are characterized by an excellent prognosis. Therefore, it is essential to consider other differentials before making a final diagnosis.

  167. Dr. Vipin Agarwal, Dr. Sunny, Dr. Mehak Kaul and Dr. Sonali Agarwal

    Background: Human periodontal disease comprises a heterogenous group of infectious diseases that lead to pathologic destruction of the periodontium. Periodontal diseases have varied aetiology i.e. bacterial, host response and clinical disease progression. The most important blood-typing system, the ABO blood group, is the determinant for transfusion reactions and organ transplantation. Here in this study we will be investigating the prevalence of chronic periodontitis in patients with different blood groups. Material and Methods: A total of 875 subjects in the age group of 25 yrs and 45 yrs and of both sexes with equal percentage of males and females were selected at random, belonging to Rishikesh, Uttarakhand. The study subjects were grouped into healthy/mild gingivitis, moderate/severe gingivitis, and periodontitis group, based on Loe and Silness index and clinical attachment loss as criteria. The study group was further categorized and graded using Ramfjord’s periodontal disease index. Further blood investigations were made to detect the blood group. Results: It was concluded that the blood groups B and A were associated with diseased periodontium. Conclusion: The prevalence of blood group A is more in this geographic location, followed by blood groups B and O, and the least prevalent was blood group AB. There was an increased prevalence of subjects with blood groups A and O with healthy periodontium, while blood groups B and A showed inclination toward diseased periodontium. This association can be due to various blood group antigens acting as receptors for the infectious agents associated with periodontal disease.

  168. Dr. Mangesh Hivre and Prof and Head Dilip Gupta

    Background: Acute pancreatitis is one of the commonest disorder in surgical practice. Numerous advances have been made in diagnosis and treatment of acute pancreatitis. Predicting outcome in these cases still remains difficult. Multiple scoring systems have been developed to predict its severity. Aim: This study was aimed at comparing the traditional scoring systems: Ranson’s and Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Examination (APACHE II) in predicting severity in a prospective cohort of patients with Acute Pancreatitis. Material and methods: The study comprised of 144 patients of acute pancreatitis. According to the Atlanta classification the patients were classified into having mild or severe acute pancreatitis. Ranson score and APACHE II score were used for predicting the severity of acute pancreatitis. Samples were analysed and data analysed. Results: Out of the 144 cases of acute pancreatitis, 39 had severe acute pancreatitis, correlating with APACHE II score ≥8, 54 had mild acute pancreatitis with score <8. 24 had severe acute pancreatitis, correlating with Ranson score ≥3, 70 had mild acute pancreatitis with score <3. AUC curve for 24 hours APACHE II score was larger than AUC curve for RANSON score and the difference was found to be statistically significant (p<0.01). Conclusion: APACHE-II scoring system seems to have the highest accuracy in assessment of the severity and outcome of Acute Pancreatitis, and appeared to be a more influential tool than Ranson Score, however Ranson score was better in predicting complications of pancreatitis.

  169. Kapoor Rakesh, Thakur Pragyat, Gupta Rajesh, Vaiphei Kim and Mahajan Rohit

    Background: Squamous cell carcinoma of gall bladder is a rare presentation with limited literature hence adjuvant treatment is still ill defined with under-powered studies showing controversial role of adjuvant treatment. Aims: To analyse prognostic factors affecting outcome, role of adjuvant treatment and outcome. Settings and Design: This was a retrospective analysis conducted from January 2010 to December 2013 in a tertiary care centre of North India. Materials and Methods: It analysed patients of squamous cell carcinoma of gall bladder for clinical presentation, treatment, prognostic factors and outcome. Results: Nine patients of pure squamous cell carcinoma were found. All patients had cholelithiasis and presented in locally advanced stage. Five patients were resectable while four were unresectable. Resectable patients underwent extended radical cholecystectomy followed by adjuvant chemotherapy and radiotherapy. Margin status post surgery was an important prognostic marker on multivariate analysis. Unresectable patients underwent palliative chemotherapy based on their eastern cooperative oncology group performance status. Resectable patients had a median survival of 18 months, while unresectable patients had a median survival of five months. Conclusion: Surgery remains the main stay of treatment and adjuvant treatment has no proven benefit although there was a trend towards better survival in our cohort, especially in patients with positive margins.

  170. Sirazul Haque Malik, Anil Kumar Juyal and Gita Negi

    This is an Experimental study with a total of 40 patients. All patients diagnosed as plantar fasciitis on clinical evaluation. All the Patients were assessed using VAS before intervention (7.65) in the form of local PRP injection. Sequentially during the follow up at different interval the VAS was found reduced significantly (1.57) at the end of 6 months. Study has shown that PRP injection is an effective treatment modality for chronic plantar fasciitis in short term without any significant complication.

  171. Arun Prasath Sinraj, Nagaraja Anekal, L. and Surag Kajoor Rathnakar

    Paraumbilical hernia is a common condition encountered by surgeons. Though PUH has a tendency to be associated with high morbidity and mortality in comparison with inguinal hernia because of the higher risk of incarceration and strangulation, there still appears to be a certain discrepancy between its importance and the attention it has received in the literature. Hence PUH needs to be studied further. Objectives of the study: • To study the different surgical Management of paraumbilical hernia. • Immediate Postoperative complications. Methods: This is a prospective study conducted in ESI Model Hospital attached to ESIC MC & PGIMSR from January 2015 to June 2016. Ninenty cases have been studied. Patients with umbilical port site hernia, with previous mesh implantation, pregnant women and those requiring emergency surgery have been excluded. Twenty four patients underwent Anatomical repair and 66 patients underwent Mesh repair. Follow up was done in 1week, 4 weeks, 6 months, 12 months and 18 months. Results: Paraumbilical hernia was more common in middle-aged patients and in females. Commonest predisposing factors were multiparity and obesity. Postoperative complications like seroma, haematoma, infection were similar in both procedures (Anatomical repair and Mesh repair). There were no recurrence following Anatomical repair. There was one recurrence following Mesh repair. Conclusion: In our study, paraumbilical hernia was found more commonly between fourth and fifth decade of life with female: male ratio of 1.4:1. Most common presenting symptom was a soft bulge located adjacent to the umbilicus which is readily reducible. Multiparity was the most common precipitating factor in females and smoking was most common precipitating factor in males. Percentage of recurrence following Anatomical repair was 0% and following mesh repair was 0.015%.

  172. Shreya Svitlana, A. and Dr. M. P. Brudha

    Aim: To conduct a cross-sectional questionnaire survey to assess the level of knowledge, awareness and practices concerning the pathology dengue. Background: Dengue fever is an acutefbrile disease due to a viral infection and presents with severe headache, retro-orbital pain, muscular and joint pain as well as a rash. Therefore, the most important strategy in the prevention and control of dengue lies in the control of its vector, the Aedes mosquito. Due to the absence of a vaccine or a cure, the only effective measure available to prevent and control dengue is by preventing transmission of the disease by the Aedes mosquito. Materials and Method: Study design: cross-sectional questionnaire survey. Sample size: 100. Subjects: urban population. The survey was conducted online utilizing the website apps.surveyplanet.com. Questionnaire in English enlisting 15 questions that primarily focussed on the knowledge, awareness and practises regarding dengue. Data management and statistical analysis were performed using Microsoft-Excel. Result: On analysis of result obtained under etiology, signs and symptoms, investigation and treatment and prevention. Under the category of etiology, the average mean of awareness is 74%, under signs and symptoms it is 47%, investigation is 64% and prevention and treatment is 57%.Hence,although average knowledge is present it is necessary to promote awareness of dengue to ensure control against this epidemic disease. Conclusion: Although appreciable knowledge about dengue exists, it did not translate to adoption of preventive measures. Thereby producing need to reduce this knowledge application gap. Thus, understanding people perception and practices could help in identifying the targets areas to control outbreaks and promote awareness.

  173. Vijaylaxmi Singh and Dr. Babita Dubey

    This study was premeditated to study the interactional effect of emotional intelligence, dependence proneness and gender in empty nest syndrome among middle aged men and women. A sample of 480 middle age men and women (240 male and 240 female) were randomly drawn from twin city of Bhilai and Durg. A survey method through questionnaire was used for data collection .Empty Nest syndrome of subjects assessed with the help of self made questionnaire of empty nest syndrome which was standardised before survey, Emotional Intelligence Inventory (E.I.I by Bar On’s 1997) adopted by Mishra (2000) and Dependence Proneness scale constructed and standardized by Sinha, (1975) was used. After ensuring the homogeneity of variance the scores of empty nest syndrome was subjected to 2 x 2 factorial design of ANOVA treatment to work out the main effects of the three factors viz. gender, emotional intelligence and dependence proneness. The interactional effect of emotional intelligence and dependence proneness on empty nest scale empty (F=0.875) which is also found to be insignificant at 0.05 confidence interval (p<0.05) therefore our first two factor interactional hypothesis that the subjects with high emotional intelligence and low dependence proneness would score higher in empty nest scale than the subjects with low emotional intelligence and high dependence proneness has been rejected. The interactional effect of gender and emotional intelligence on empty nest scale (F=25.446**) which is significant at 0.01 confidence interval (**P>0.05) therefore our second main hypothesis that middle aged male with high emotional intelligence would score lower in empty nest scale than low emotional intelligence middle aged female has accepted. The interactional effect of emotional intelligence and dependence proneness on empty nest syndrome (F=0.057) which is found to be insignificant at 0.05 confidence interval (p>0.05) therefore our third interactional hypothesis that the middle aged male with high dependence proneness will score significantly lower in empty nest syndrome than the middle aged female with low dependence proneness has been rejected.

  174. Dr. Poonam P. Dholakia, Dr. Sharath K. Shetty, Dr. D. Gopalakrishnan, Dr. Anita Kulloll, Dr. Aneesha Acharya, Dr. Santosh S. Martande, Dr. Krupa Pathak, Dr. Vijay Waghmode and Dr. Sukhada Deo

    Following tooth removal/extraction, horizontal bone loss occurs at a faster rate and to a greater extent compared to vertical bone loss. Horizontal ridge defects are of increased concern for the placement of dental implants and implant-supported dental prosthesis. Various techniques have been proposed to treat horizontal ridge defects and create sites favorable for dental implant placement. These techniques vary depending upon factors such as the tissue thickness, arch position, and availability of autogenous bone. Each technique has its own advantages and disadvantages & predictive success level. This review focuses on various techniques available to augment horizontal ridge defects for dental implant placement.

  175. Dr. K. Ramesh Kumar, Dr. B. Phani Kumar and Dr. Bhardwaj Reddy

    ▪ The present study was conducted to understand the role of NIPPV in patients with acute exacerbation of COPD who are medically unresponsive. The sample size was 40. ▪ The mean age of the study population was 60.7± 7.2 yrs. ▪ Out of the 40 cases included in the study, 36 (90%) were males and 4 (10%) were females, sex ratio 9:1(male:female). ▪ A history of smoking was obtained in 90% of study population. ▪ The Borg dyspnoea score improved from 5 at baseline to 1.4 ± 0.07 at discharge. (p <0.0001) ▪ The mean respiratory rate dropped from 34.8 ± 4.4 before NIV to 13.82 ± 1.96 (p <0.0001) at discharge. Heart rate too decreased from 102.4 ± 10.9 to 77.1 ± 9.65(p <0.0001). ▪ The mean pH changed from 7.29± 0.02 at baseline to 7.4 ±0.03 at discharge (p <0.0001). ▪ There was also a marked improvement in mean PaCO2 and PaO2 which changed from, 67.3 ± 5.61, 54.6 ± 8.85 at baseline to 50.02 ± 4.08, 75.1 ± 9.71 at the time of discharge respectively (p<0.0001 for both parameters). ▪ Respiratory rate at baseline was significantly higher in the patients who failed to respond to NIV and there was a significant improvement in the clinical and blood gas parameters within the 1st of NIV in the successful group whereas no such improvement was observed in the failure group. ▪ In the present study NIPPV was successful in 34 patients (85%) and 6 patients (15%) failed to respond and required intubation. Of them, 2 patients did not consent and left against medical advice. 4 were intubated and all of them eventually expired. No mortality was observed in the patients improved and continued on NIPPV. ▪ The mean IPAP used in the present study was 16.5 ± 0.9 and mean EPAP used was 5.2±0.52. ▪ NIPPV was used for an average of 38.5±13 hrs. ▪ The incidence of complications in the present study was 10% which included aspiration pneumonia (2.5%), irritation of eyes (5%) and dryness of mouth (2.5%). ▪ The mean duration of hospital stay in the present study was 10.32±3.46 days. Our results strongly support and encourage the use of NIPPV as a first line ventilatory management in patients with respiratory failure due to acute exacerbations of COPD.

  176. Dr. Rajashekar K., Dr. Harieesha K.B, Dr. Hemanth M., Dr. Karthik. J. Kabbur and Dr. Sharmada B.K.

    As to achieve a desired tooth movement the bracket slot dimensions need to be accurate, if not the treatment would be compromised. Slot dimensions are a critical factor in orthodontic tooth movement. However very little is known about the accuracy of the slot dimensions of commercially available brackets. Aims and objectives: To evaluate slot dimensions of four different commercially available 0.022 slot MBT prescription brackets. Materials and Methods: 100 Upper right central incisor brackets from 4 different manufacturers(3M Unitek -Gemini 0.022, American orthodontics-Mini Masters 0.022, Chirpans orthodontics – Eco-plus 0.022, Modern orthodontics-Sapphire 0.022) were measured for slot depth and width using confocal microscope which gives a digital readout accurate upto 1 micron and the brackets were grossly examined for surface defects using microscopic images. Results: The slot sizes were oversized, or undersized ranging from 0.017 inches to 0.031 inches, none of the manufacturers brackets were dimensionally accurate, surface irregularities were more evident in sapphire and Eco-Plus bracket slots Conclusion: Slot dimensions are not accurate, which might directly and unintentionally affect the planned tooth movement.

  177. Dr. Megha Agrawal and Sumana, H. M.

    Background: Mental health (stress, anxiety, depression etc.) and obesity have become global concerns in recent years leading to many health concerns like metabolic syndrome. Sedentary lifestyle, over-nutrition (high caloric/fatty diet), substance abuse etc. can contribute to the above as "modifiable factors". The purpose of the present study is to determine if "non modifiable factors" like blood group can be an attributing factor for causation of these disorders and whether any particular blood group is more predisposed to them. This study was taken up to explore the differences in psychological heath and physical health among various blood groups in a group of normal healthy young individuals and to assess if blood group can be considered as a predictor of obesity and poor psychological health. Objectives: To explore the differences in BMI, perceived stress and psychological morbidity among different blood groups in young healthy adolescents. Materials and Methods: Two hundred healthy adolescents were included in the study after applying exclusion criteria and taking informed consent. Cohen’s Perceived Stress Scale (PSS) and General Health Questionaire-12 were used to assess stress and psychological morbidity respectively. The height and weight of the subjects were measured and blood groups were assessed using agglutination reaction. Statistical Analysis: Data was entered in Microsoft excel (2011) and was analyzed using SPSS 16. The values have been represented as Mean± SD. The mean values have been compared among different blood groups using ANOVA and unpaired “t” test. Association has been found using Chi square test. p<0.05( two tailed) has been taken as statistically significant. Results: Out of 200 students (143 males, 57 females), 72 had O blood group (36%), followed by 68 having B (34%), 46 having A (23%) and 14 having AB blood group (7%). 189 were Rh positive (94.5%) whereas only 11 were Rh negative (5.5%). The results showed no significant differences between different blood groups with regards to BMI or psychological health (PSS and GHQ-12). However, PSS scores were significantly worse in females as compared to males (p<0.01).

  178. Aiyelabowo Faith, Ying Wang, Mengxiang Zhang, Jingti Deng, Kasangye Aurelie and Chomba Ignatius

    Background: Coronary Artery Disease results from accumulation of atheroma that reduces blood flow leading to ischemia and later infarction. Cardiac enzymes like cardiac troponin I and creatinine kinase MB are measured to further establish the diagnosis but not its prognosis. IL-6 increases at an early stage of atherosclerosis and peaks during myocardial infarction. Alkaline phosphatase is responsible for dephosphorylation of pyrophosphate, a calcification inhibitor which leads to calcification of blood vessels. Aim: This study is to investigate serum levels of IL-6 and ALP and their connection to the severity of CAD and also to determine if IL-6 and ALP are correlated or independent predictors of the severity of CAD. Methods: Fasted blood samples were collected to test for IL-6 and Alkaline Phosphatase from August 2016 to February 2017 in 80 patients with positive results of coronary angiographies at Qilu Hospital of Shandong University and divided into four groups; control (20), stable angina (20), unstable angina (20) and acute myocardial infarction (20). Results: IL-6 and CAD showed a significant relationship with a p value of 0.018 (P value < 0.05). Additionally, ALP and CAD showed a very significant relationship (P < 0.001). However, IL-6 and ALP yielded a negative correlation coefficient value (r= -0.032) and p value was 0.779 (P > 0.05). Conclusion: Results from our study showed that there is a significant correlation between both IL-6 and ALP to the severity of CAD. However, there is no relationship between IL-6 and ALP as their role in CAD progression is independent of each other.

  179. Eyasu, H. T., Henok, K. A., Simon, A. G., Afewerki, W. T., Minet, T. H. and Russom, T.

    Background: Nationally representative as well as comparative studies had never been done in three West African countries: Ivory Coast, Cameroon and Gabon. Hence, this study focuses on comparison of HIV/AIDS related knowledge and acceptance attitude towards people living with HIV/AIDS (PLHA) of female youth among the three highly prevalent West African countries. Methods: The study utilized nationally representative datasets from Demographic and Health Surveys (DHS) of Ivory Coast 2011/12, Cameroon 2011, and Gabon 2012. IBM SPSS 22 was used to run multivariate logistic regression to find out the associates of HIV/AIDS related knowledge and attitudes as well as comparison among the countries. Results: There was lack of comprehensive HIV/AIDS knowledge and acceptance attitude towards people living with HIV/AIDS in the three countries. Age, residence (except Cameroon), educational level, religion (only in Ivory Coast), marital status and wealth index (except Ivory Coast) were significant associates of comprehensive HIV/AIDS knowledge. On the other hand, age (except Gabon), residence (only in Ivory Coast), educational level (except Gabon), religion (only in Cameroon), wealth index and comprehensive HIV/AIDS knowledge showed significant associations with acceptance attitude towards people living with HIV/AIDS. Higher comprehensive HIV/AIDS knowledge was detected among youth in Gabon (AOR=2.08, p<0.001) and Cameroon (AOR=2.06, p<0 .001) than in Ivory Coast. Results of acceptance attitude were in reverse manner to knowledge where less acceptance attitude was detected in Gabon (AOR=0.89, p=0.023) and Cameroon (AOR=0.86, p=0.003) than in Ivory Coast. However, comprehensive knowledge and acceptance attitude in Cameroon did not differ significantly from that of Gabon. Conclusion: Generally, very low comprehensive HIV/AIDS knowledge and acceptance attitude towards PLHA were observed in the three countries and specifically in Ivory Coast. At this instant, it is urgent to give emphasis on education to adolescents and rural residents. A need to convey information in a manner that is contextually appropriate, socio-culturally acceptable and gender-sensitive is suggested.

  180. Dr. Shyam Prasad Keshri, Dr. Shashi Kumar and Dr. Vinay Pratap

    Foreign Body (FB) within the rectum occurs infrequently and its management is challenging for the emergency physicians due to variation in type of objects, host anatomy, time of insertion, and amount of local contamination. Usually, the presentation is late after multiple unsuccessful attempts for the removal of the FB by patients themselves at home. We report a 35-year-old male patient presented to the emergency department with an FB (glass bottle) in the rectum inserted due to falling from tree. The patient was managed by exploratory laparotomy with successfully removal of FB with primary closure of rectal rent with loop ileostomy was done. We reviewed the management options from the currently available literature.

  181. Arulanandhan Ettiyan, Dr. Banugopanar Balaraman and Dr. Arjunan Senthil kumaran

    Coronary heart disease has been defined as “impairment of heart function due to inadequate blood flow to the heart compared to its needs, caused by obstructive changes in the coronary circulation to the heart”. Coronary artery disease is the leading cause of death among women, regardless of race or ethnicity and causing the deaths of 1 in 3 women. Women with coronary artery disease present differently than men, have different pathophysiologies and risks profiles and are often significantly older and thus often have poorer outcomes the study was concluded at Government Coimbatore Medical College hospital, Coimbatore during September 2010 to June 2011. This study was done as a descriptive study. Hundred female patients admitted with clinical features and ECG changes and associated disease and Biochemical marks taken as cases. The following are conclusion that could be inferred from this study on clinical spectrum and risk factors among female patients. 1. The most common presentation is chest pain. 2. The most common cardiovascular sign is basal lung Crepitations. 3. Increased waist hip ratio is associated with increased risk of Myocardial Infarction in female population 4. Most of the patients with Myocardial Infarction have dyslipidaemia. 5. Diabetes Mellitus clearly related to Myocardial Infarction. 6. Hypertension also associated with Increased risk and Myocardial Infarction. 7. Sedentary habits also associated with increased risk of coronary artery disease. 8. Most common presentation is ST elevation MI. 9. Among STEMI most common type of MI is Antero septal MI. 10. OCP intake accounts for risk of obesity and MI.

  182. Nwosu Jones Ndubuisi, Agu Kenneth Amaechi and Chime Ethel Nkechi

    Introduction: Literature search, showed few studies on cut throat injuries from this part of the world though the problem appears not uncommon. This study was undertaken to determine, in those who reached the hospital, the causes, presentation, management and outcome of cut throat injuries in Enugu, southeast Nigeria. Methods: It was a retrospective study of all the patients with cut throat injuries who presented and were managed at the department of Otorhinolaryngology, Head and Neck Surgery of the Hospital from January 2010 to December 2015. Results: Fourteen cases were studied, 11 males and 3 females with a ratio of 3.67:1. The ages were 18-69 years with a mean age of 32.50 (SD 13.87) years. Attempted suicide 8(57.1%) was the commonest presentation. The other causes were homicidal injury 4 (28.4%) and 2 (14.3%) cases of accidental injury. Psychiatric illness (35.7%) was the commonest underlying cause of suicidal attempt while motor vehicular crashes (14.3%) was responsible for the 2 accidental injuries. Armed robbery attack, fights during land disputes, domestic violence and sexual assault were the causes of homicidal injury. Most of the injuries 12(85.7%) occurred in Zone 11 area of the neck. Emergency tracheostomy was done in all the patients. This was followed by prompt exploratory surgical intervention with resultant 100% survival. Conclusion: suicidal attempt was the commonest presentation in patients with cut throat injuries. Early presentation, prompt intervention with adequate treatment produced good outcome.

  183. Dr. Balram Sharma

    Stress hyperglycemia is a heterogeneous entity with unique pathophysiological features. Present practice is to treat hyperglycemia irrespective of its cause. The optimum target glucose range in stress conditions is still undefined, and different targets should be compared on the basis of their risk-to-benefit ratios and individualized decision should be taken. Still large prospective studies with follow-up data comparing diabetes and stress hyperglycemia are needed.

  184. Dr. Lancy, J. and Dr. Seema.A.Nayar

    Burn trauma is as old as the discovery of fire in the history of mankind.. Injuries secondary to severe burns rank among the most serious forms of trauma resulting in anatomic, physiologic, endocrinology and immunologic stresses especially when burns involve >20% of total body surface area. Significant thermal injuries induce a state of immuno suppression that predisposes burn patients to infectious complications. The organisms responsible for infections in patients who suffer severe burns may be endogeneous or exogeneous which include bacteria, fungi and viruses which can change over time in the individual patient. A total no. of 22 patients with age group ranging from 16 years to 70 years with 10% to 70% burns were brought to the casualty of the Govt. Medical College, Trivandrum, following an accidental blast injury which occurred in a temple premises at Puttingal, a village at Kollam District in Kerala on 10/04/2016. A total no of 56 samples ofexudates, 10samples of blood for culture and sensitivity were received within 24 hours central microbiology Laboratory at Govt. Medical College Hospital Trivandrum from the third day of admission onwards. The most common bacteria isolated from the exudates was Pseudomonas aeruginosa (39.58%) followed by Acinetobacter species (27.08%) Klebsiella pneumoniae (20.83%) MRSA (8.33%) and Staphylococcus aureus (2.08%) and Enterococcus faecalis (2.08%). Blood culture was positive in 30% samples. Multi Drug Resistant strains of pseudomonas aeruginosa, Ecoli and Acinobacterbaumanii were isolated from blood samples. Centralline tip from one patient and tracheal aspirate from two patientsyielded Acinobacterbaumanii. The patients were treated with appropriate antibiotics according to the antibiotic sensitivity pattern of the isolates obtained from clinical specimens and surgical interventions done wherever needed. The mortality rate was 9.07% in this study. This is significantly less when compared to many other studies, the reasons being strict and efficient Infection Control Practices in our institution.

  185. Dr. Jose, O., Dr. Cyril Ignatius Rozario and Dr. Suresh Babu, T. V.

    Objectives: To compare LED phototherapy with the standard compact fluorescent lamp (CFL) phototherapy in the management of healthy term and late pre- term neonates with non-hemolytic jaundice and to see whether it is as effective as or more effective than the compact fluorescent lamp (CFL) phototherapy Methods: The protocol and study design were submitted & was approved by the institution research committee & ethics committee. New born infants born at 35 or more completed weeks of gestation who developed hyper bilirubinemia needing phototherapy within the first 7 days of life and willing for the study were enrolled after getting informed consent. Results: Out of 120 newborn babies in the study group, 60 babies were in LED group and 60 babies were in CFL group. Sexual ratio in LED (M:F) is 31:29 &CFL group is 34:26 .The mean birth weight in LED was 2.9kg and in CFL group was 3.1 kg. The mean age in hours at onset of phototherapy was 67.4hrs in LED & 70.1in CFL group and time of detection of hyperbilirubinemia was also comparable in both groups. Mean STB at beginning of phototherapy was 17.4 in LED & 17.8 in CFL and STB after 6hours were 14.7 & 15.1 in LED & CFL groups respectively. At the ends of phototherapy the STB values was 11.8 in LED and 13.4 in CFL groups and mean age of newborn at the end of phototherapy was 83 hrs and 86.1 hrs in LED & CFL groups and mean duration of phototherapy was 15hrs and 16 hrs in LED & CFL groups respectively. The failure rate of phototherapy in LED group was 3.3% while CFL group was 1.7%, which is not significant. The rate of decrease in STB at 6hrs and end of phototherapy in both groups were not statistically significant. Conclusion: Both CFL and LED phototherapy are equally effective in reducing serum total bilirubin although their properties like light intensity irradiance, zero decay of light intensity, area of body surface irradiated, which are determinants of effective phototherapy, are significantly different.

  186. Malathi Manne, Shivani Neelam, B.N. Hitasree, Syed Afroz Ahmed, Charu Suri, Shahela Tanveer and Shravan kumar

    Plasma cell granuloma is a non neoplastic lesion classified and described under pseudoinflammatory tumor category. Frequently these lesions are found in lungs and rather uncommonly seen in the oral cavity, making diagnosis and treatment actually complicated. They can arise in areas such as brain, orbit, paranasal sinuses, head, neck, larynx, tonsils, ears, liver, kidney, stomach and heart. Intraoral plasma cell granulomas are seen involving tongue, lip, oral mucosa and gingiva. Its etiology, biological behavior, ideal treatment and prognosis are still unclear and rather controversial. Both clinically and histopathologically, it may be misinterpreted as various pathological entities thus necessitating the complete evaluation of patient and proper histopathological and immunohistochemical analysis of the tissue to rule out other lesions with poor prognosis. This case presents a 35 year old female with an enlargement in the right buccal mucosa masquerading as carcinoma and the histological evaluation revealed plasma cell infiltrates in the connective tissue. The immunohistochemistry revealed kappa and lambda light chains with a polyclonal staining pattern, which confirmed the diagnosis of plasma cell granuloma.

  187. Dr. Ravi Raj, Dr. Manjusha, Dr. Madhu Ranjan, Dr. Rohit and Dr. Krishna Chetan, I. R.

    Aims and Objective: To correlate the mesio-distal width of base of the philtrum to the combined mesio-distal width of the maxillary central incisors in males and females. Materials and Methods: A total of 70 individuals who were native of Dakshina Kannada region with an age ranging from 19 - 23 years male and females were selected for this study. Two most prominent points were marked at base of philtrum. These points were marked by drawing a line along the vertical ridge of philtrum and marking a point where they meet the vermillion border of upper lip. The width between these two points were measured by vernier calipers to the fraction of 1/10th of a millimetre. After doing a brief oral examination, proper size perforated rim lock stock tray was selected. Alginate impression powder was mixed with water and maxillary and mandibular impressions were made and the casts were poured immediately. Base was made for the casts and the casts thus obtained were mounted at maximum intercuspation. Dial vernier caliper (with 0.01 mm accuracy) was used for the cast measurements. The measurements were obtained from the patient and also on the dentulous cast in mm, average value was tabulated and analyzed statistically. Results: There was highly significant correlation (p<0.001 & r= 0.831) between mean width of base of the philtrum and the combined width of maxillary central incisors in both the sexes. Conclusion: There is correlation between the mesio-distal width of base of the philtrum to the combined mesio-distal width of maxillary central incisors among males and females which can be used as a guide for selecting the width of artificial maxillary central incisors among Dakshina Kannada, Karnataka population.

  188. Kallol Kumar Bhattacharyya

    In present days dementia is one of the fast emerging major public health problem in many developing as well as developed countries. As the generation grows older, more number of people enters old age and as a consequence, the number of dementia patient increases, as this is mostly found in the older populations. Though biology of human being is almost same in each and every part of the globe, but the quality of life varies significantly in different socio cultural backgrounds regarding healthy aging. As often, people ignore early symptoms and signs of dementia, so all dementia cases are not reported and this is more so in developing countries. As curative treatment for majority of dementia is still elusive, care giving is an important component of the management of dementia, whether it is delivered by family members or by other trained healthcare personnel. This article aims to compare the present scenario of dementia care in a developed and a developing country.

  189. E. S. Rajendran

    Background: In the earlier research publications of the author he has identified the presence of nanoparticles (NPs) of the drug material in all the higher dilutions of homeopathic drugs; viz, Lycopodium and Ferrummetallicum. Method: The present study isdone with the help of HRTEM (High Resolution Transmission Electron Microscope) and EDS (Energy Dispersive Spectroscopy). Result and Conclusion: 1. The analysis of homeopathic drug Aur met (Gold) shows the presence of nanoparticles of Gold in all the potencies studied, i.e. 6c, 30c, 200c, 1000c, 10000c, 50000c and 100000c 2. Nanoparticles of Aur met were found mostly in Quantum Dots scale in all the dilutions. 3. The study proves that homeopathy is really a material science and not merely an energy medicine or placebo therapy as considered earlier.

  190. Joshi Ankur, Soni Priyanka, Vyas Narendra, Khan Javed, Malviya Sapna and Kharia Anil

    The aim of the present study is to evaluate the anti-anemic activity of hydro-alcoholic leaf extract of Aegle marmelos against phenylhydrazine induced hemolytic anemia in rats. Phenylhydrazine (60mg/kg) was administered intraperitoneally for 2 days to induce anemia in rats. The animals were divided in to four groups of 6 animals each. Group I served as normal control, group II as anemic control, group III as reference control administered with Vitamin B12 and group IV animals were treated with 200mg/kg, of hydro-alcoholic leaf extract of Aegle marmelos. All the test drugs were administered once daily for 28 days through oral route. On 29th day blood was withdrawn, through tail puncture under phenobarbitone anesthesia and subjected to the estimation of RBC, Hb and percentage Hematocrit. Both the hydro-alcoholic leaf extract of Aegle marmelos and Vitamin B12 significantly increased the RBC, Hb and Hematocrit levels which conclude that, Aegle marmelos leaf extract exhibits anti-anemic activity.

  191. Vani Holgaval Mallappa, Saquib Ahmed Shaikh, Lekha Krishna Pillai and Niranjan Kochli Channappa

    Aim: To evaluate and compare the marginal accuracy of multiple unit cast restorations fabricated by Conventional and Ringless casting technique. Method: A forty standardized wax patterns are fabricated on a type IV stone replica of a multiple unit stainless steel die with standardized pontic space. The wax patterns are divided into four groups. Group IA: Ringless casting with conventional wax elimination method. Group IB: Ringless casting with accelerated wax elimination method. Group IIA: Metal ring casting with conventional wax elimination method. Group IIB: Metal ring casting with accelerated wax elimination method. The vertical marginal gap was measured at six sites per sample, using a digital optical microscope at 6.25X magnification. Result: The mean vertical marginal gaps of castings fabricated using ringless groups IA and IB (274.9±131.6 µm) were significantly less (p < .004) than those castings fabricated using the ring casting groups IIA and IIB (379.9± 106.9 µm). The conventional wax elimination groups (IA, IIA) showed higher vertical marginal discrepancies (393.8±116.6 µm) than the accelerated wax-elimination groups (IB, IIB) (215.9±73.02 µm); however, the difference was not statistically significant (p < 0.05). Conclusion: The ringless casting technique can produce accurate and acceptable multiple-unit restorations in fixed prosthodontics.

  192. Mehmet Salim Akdemir, Ebru Tarıkçı Kılıç, Ayhan Kaydu and Serdar Ayçiçek

    Neurofibromatoses, mutation of the NF1 gene are autosomal disorders formed as neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF1), neurofibromatosis type 2 (NF2), and schwannomatosis. Neurofibromatosis type 1 is the most common of these disorders, seen 1 in 3500 individuals worldwide (1). Characteristic features of the disease; café au lait spots, neurofibromas, lisch nodules, macrocephaly, short stature, hypertelorism, thorax abnormalities, tumours of the central nervous system (optic and chiasm gliomas), orthopaedic abnormalities, endocrinological disorders, and malignancies (2). In this case report we describe the management of a patient with NF posted for urgent strongule herni with multiple neurofibromas common on his back and face causing difficulty both in regional anesthesia and general anaesthesia.

  193. Dr. Samidha Malewar and Dr. Bhakti Gurjar

    Aim: To study the fetal and maternal outcome in patients with eclampsia in central Indian population. Background: Eclampsia is associated with devastating maternal and fetal complications, so we decided to study pregnancy outcome in eclampsia patients. Methodology: A Retrospective study carried out in department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology in Indira Gandhi Government Medical College, Nagpur. Fifty Cases of eclampsia from January 2015 to July 2016 were included in our study. Study deals regarding the association of eclampsia to age of women, parity, gestational age, number of convulsions, mode of delivery, complications and fetal outcome. Results: Study comprised of 50 pregnant women with eclampsia. We found that 1) Mean maternal age was 23.6 years. 70% were primigravidae. 16 patients (32%) had foetuses with intrauterine growth restriction 2) 50% patients had convulsions after 36 weeks of gestation and mean gestational age was 36.4 weeks 3) Significant association was present between the rising levels of liver enzymes (i.e. SGOT and SGPT) and the maternal complications like HELLP syndrome, DIC and postpartum haemorrhage with p value of <0.001 4) Rising levels of uric acid were not significantly associated with the risk of maternal complications.5)Four(8%) patients required ICU admission, out of which two (4%) had mortality.6) In our study 3 babies were stillborn and 7 died in early neonatal period. The perinatal mortality in our study was 20%. Conclusion: As in our study all except one were unbooked for antenatal care, the high incidence of eclampsia can be reduced by proper antenatal care, diagnosing, admitting and treating mild and severe preeclampsia cases. Timeliness in the management of these cases can reduce the perinatal mortality.

  194. Manasa, Mahes h, Ibrahim and Hepsebah, N. J. R.

    The main aim of the article is to develop a simple dissolution method for Enrofloxacin immediate release tablets by UV spectroscopy and validate as per ICH guidelines. The optimized dissolution method includes potassium di hydrogen phosphate pH 4.5 as dissolution media, apparatus as USP Type 2 Paddle, rpm as 100, temperature of dissolution media as 37±0.5ºC, dissolution volume as 500ml, dissolution time point as 30 minutes, working concentration of standard and sample as 5μg/ml and a detection wavelength of 276 nm. The developed method resulted in Enrofloxacin exhibiting linearity in the range 1.25-10μg/ml. System precision and intra-day precision are exemplified by relative standard deviation of 0.148% and 0.950% respectively. Method was found to be rugged/inter day precise as % RSD was found to be 0.924%. Percentage Mean recovery was found to be in the range of 90-110 % by absolute method during accuracy studies. Hence it can be concluded that effective dissolution method by UV spectroscopy is developed and validated which can be applicable in various pharmaceutical industries.

  195. Sangamesh Rakaraddi, S., Dr. Lakshmiprabha, S., Dr. Rairam, G. B.

    Material and Methods: Tissue sections were stained by the following stains to demonstrate different mucins: H&E, Periodic acid-Schiff's (PAS), PAS-D, PAS-Ph AB ph 2.5 and 1, AF, combined AB-PAS, and combined AB 2.5–AF. Results: In group 1 - Sulphomucins and neutral mucins concentration is more compared to sialomucins. In group 2 - Increase in sailo mucins concentration compared to sulpho mucins and neutral mucin. In group 3 - increase in sailomucins. In adults -more acidic mucin especially sulpho mucin compared to sialo and neutral mucin and in sinonasal carcinoma- increase in sialo mucins compared to neutral and sulpho mucins. Conclusions: Change in functional collaboration of the cell before change in structure and hence affect the formation of mucins. Hence early detection of mucinal changes may be the first step before structural changes occurring in many diseases.

  196. Mohammed M.A. Abdullah Al-Abdaly, Mohammed Salman J. Almalki, Hussein Mohammed A. Alhelaly, Majed Ali H. Almajdoa and Bandar Hassan Mohammad Alfifi

    Background: Oral and dental health are a fundamental part of public health and the proper health behaviors and attitudes are necessary for health correlated workings. It depends on the person recognition and his behavior. Attitudes usually reveal his experiences, familial beliefs, culture and other life conditions that have an effect on oral health behavior. Aim of the study: The present study was designed for evaluating the influence of oral health awareness on periodontal disease status among university non dental students in King Khalid University. Methodology: Three hundred university, non dental students were selected in this study and they were divided according to their selected colleges into three equal groups Humanities, Engineering and Sciences. They completed the questionnaire of the present study during a personal interview. Plaque index (PLI), gingival index (GI), periodontal pocket depth (PPD), and clinical attachment loss (CAL) were recorded. The data were collected and analyzed by means of computerized SPSS statistical package. Results: All the patients completed the study uneventfully. Participants showed poor knowledge of causes, signs, symptoms, and preventive measures of gum disease; there were significance differences between our study groups (p 0.05) and there were significance differences between the first level and final level an almost of the participants of our study groups (p 0.05). In periodontal examination there was statistically significant differences in all the periodontal parameters in the comparison between all groups of the present study and harmonious with their oral hygiene knowledge. Conclusion: There were significant differences in oral health awareness related periodontal disease and status among non dental students in King Khalid University in different levels of studies and different specialist.

  197. Pantha, P., Shrestha, S. M., Manandhar, H. K., Gaire, S. P., Aryal, L. and Yadav, D. R.

    Brown spot caused by Bipolaris oryzae is one of the destructive diseases of rice in the world and causes severe losses in grain quality and quantity. Use of resistant varieties is the sustainable and eco-friendly way of controlling brown spot disease in rice. In this concern, we evaluated 20 rice genotypes under glasshouse and field conditions during June, 2014-May, 2015 to determine the level of resistance against B. oryzae. Disease assessment was done by calculating disease severity, area under disease progress curve (AUDPC) and AUDPC per day (AUDPC/day). Response of rice genotypes to brown spot disease was found similar under both the field and glasshouse conditions. The tested genotypes showed variable response to the level of resistance. Mean AUDPC value varied from 80.36 to 340.05. Sabitri appeared the most resistant with AUDPC value of (80.36) followed by Radha-4 (108.02), while Sankharika (340.05) was the most susceptible among the tested genotypes. Grain yield ranged from 2.76 to 4.76 t ha-1. Of the tested genotypes, Sabitri and Sankharika yielded the highest (4.76 t ha-1) and the lowest (2.76 t ha-1) grain yields, respectively. Grain yield was negatively correlated with AUDPC (r = -0.628**). Thus, the genotypes Sabitri and Radha-4 could be utilized as a source of resistance for breeding of rice for brown spot resistance.

  198. Gebisa Benti and Gezu Degefa

    In the eastern part of Ethiopia, land scarcity is one of the most important problems constraining food production. This problem has compelled farmers to practice monocropping and exposed the land to soil erosion and infertility. Therefore, it is important to practice a cropping pattern that enhances food production per unit area and also alleviates the problem of land degradation. Cassava (Manihot esculenta) could be a good candidate for this purpose since it is a drought tolerant crop that may produce higher yields per unit area. However, farmers in eastern Harerghe zone have no acquaintance with how cassava is processed into different food items. Therefore, the objectives of study were to evaluate performance of cassava and to determine the mixing ratio of sorghum-cassava flour for suitable food preparation in the study area. The treatments consisted of three cassava varieties (Kello, Qulle and local check). The experiment was laid out in randomized complete block design and replicated three times. Data were analyzed using the Generalized Linear Model of SAS Statistical Software package. Results revealed that there was significant (P<0.05) differences among the varieties for root diameter, root yields and number of roots per plant at Fedis and Erer. However, all others parameters did not significantly differ among the varieties. Kello and Qulle had increased root diameters by about 18.3% over the local check at Fedis while the local variety exceeded Kello and Qulle varieties in the number of roots per plant by about 14.1 and 36.7%, respectively. Kello and Qulle variety had superior root yields over the local variety by about 11 and 5 tons, respectively. There was also significant (P < 0.05) differences across the two locations for all parameters, except root length. The result showed that Qulle was more attractive in root color and ranked first among the evaluated varieties. Thus, it was found to be the most preferred variety in terms of sensory traits such as taste. Sole cassava flour was more preferred for cake making than the mixing ones for the three varieties. For porridge preparation, the ratio of 25 and 75% of cassava and sorghum flour, respectively, was the most preferred formulation for Qulle and the local variety while 50 and 50% of cassava and sorghum flour ratio was the most preferred formulation by farmers. According to attendants, Injera was not physically attractive when the ratio of cassava flour increased as compared to sorghum flour for the three varieties. Thus, sole sorghum flour was preferred by farmers for Injera making. In conclusion, Kello and Qulle variety performed well at Fedis and similar agro-ecology and they were most preferred by farmers for cake and porridge making.

  199. Karwani, G. M., Alenoma, G., Ddamulira, G., Uzoh, I. M., Umeugochukwu, O. P., Msigwa, Z. P. and William, M.M.

    The diagnostic study of Bambara Groundnut (BG) (Vigna subterranean (L.) Verdc) production, marketing, agronomic practices was conducted in four villages sampled from two districts of Missenyi and Muleba in Kagera region, Tanzania, East Africa. The resuts indicated that about 93.3% of the farmers involved in BG production were female and children of less than 20 years old. Male (6.7%) were involved in land preparation in so known as assisting their women during cultivation, that means male were indirectly participating in BG production. Age wise the majority (59.2%) had age between 41 to 50, followed by elderly (20.8%) of age >50 who were involved fully in Bambaranut production compared to (20%) of age <41. The results indicated that most BG farmers had attended at least primary education (94%). Bambara groundnut production was mainly in small holding (≤0.5ha) of about (88.3%). The 99% of BG farmers intercrop the bambaranut plants with other crops especially with cassava (Manihot esculentum) while (1%) sole plant the crop. Two planting system were identified in Kagera region; Farmers plant BG on ridges along and across the hills in Missenyi and Muleba districts respectively. The yield of BG generally was low (150-400kg ha-1) due to lack of improved seeds (89.2%), pests and diseases especially Fusarium wilt (35%), gender imbalance, land tenure system were mentioned as constraints of the production of BG. It was noted that high price of BG of approximately 1.6-2.0$ kg-1 compared to beans which costs approximately 0.75-8.00$ kg-1 in retail basis. Thus encourages few farmers continue growing BG in the region. However, the informal marketing system was ranked highest in the study areas. Scientific investigation of the formal marketing of BG in Kagera region and Africa in large might be necessary to ensure household income.

  200. Vd. Ashlesha A. Nagrale, Dr. M. B. Nikumbh, Dr. M. K. Dawre and Dr. Sanjay Rathod

    First trimester diet is most important because in first few weeks the fetus relies on simple diffusion of oxygen & nutrients from the mother’s blood. From about 12 weeks the placenta controls all. Essential nutrients (Wendy Martinez et al., 2006) - thiamine, riboflavin, folate/folic acid, vit. A,C&D, calcium, phosphorus, magnesium, zinc, copper, selenium, iodine, omega 3 fatty acids etc. But important is folate/ folic acid & vit.D. Supplementary folic acid is needed prior to conception & up until 12 weeks gestation to lower the risk of neural tube defects. Therefore due to nutritional deficiency congenital fetus anomalies are found and for early detection of all these anomalies for healthy population it is most important so now a day’s first trimester anomalies scan are started. So for prevention of anomalies as well as healthy population to study conceptual Masanumasik aaahar according to Bruhtrayi. Which fulfill all nutritional requirements and help to avoid such a nutritional related congenital anomalies. Prevalence (Andres et al., 2006) - Overall prevalence of congenital anomalies in study population was 2.6%. Out of these 64.4% were detected by first trimester anomaly scan. Detailed first trimester anomaly scan and first trimester fetal echocardiography should be performed to detect the fetal anomalies early.

  201. Amarnath, S., Narayanan, K. R., Venkataraman, R. and Dhasarathan, P.

    Aerva lanata is consists different kind of secondary metabolites such as steroids, alkaloids, flavanoids, saponind etc., that act as antimicrobial substance to control pathogens. The butanol extracts of Aerva lanata leaves was found all kinds of secondary metabolites. The butanol extract (150 µg/ml) of A.lanata was showed maximum inhibition 5.8 mm against Klebsiella Sp, 5.1 mm against Staphylococus aureus, 4.5 mm against Micrococcus Sp. and 2.6 mm against Pseudomonas Sp. Followed by butanol, hexane, ethanol, chloroform and water showed their antimicrobial activity against test pathogens. A. lanata may be useful to control different antibiotic resistant strains due to presence of active bioactive compounds.

  202. Igor Bagnara, Gabriel FeixHeckler, Leonardo ErenoTadielo, Jordana Augusta Rolim Zimmermann, Gabriela CerattiHoch, Deise DalazenCastagnara, Marcelo Dal Pozzo and Rodrigo Holz Krolow

    Tifton 85 is a promising pasture propagated only by vegetative method, which requires technologies for production of seedlings and deployment of pastures. Thus, the aim of this study was to evaluate alternative substrates for the production of Tifton 85 seedlings. The experiment was conducted under completely randomized design with six treatments and four replications. The studied treatments were: fresh wood shavings, decomposed wood shavings, decomposed wood shavings+soil, carbonized rice husk, soil and commercial substrate. The cuttings were obtained from developed plants of Tifton 85 and deployed in pre-filled polyethylene trays of cells with substrates studied. In substrates measured the carbon (C), nitrogen (N) and the ratio carbon to nitrogen (C: N), as well as the survival percentages at 15; 30 and 45 days and plant height at 30 and 45 days after implantation. In transplanting, at 45 days evaluated the dry weight of shoot and root system and its relation. In the field the seedlings were evaluated the percentage of survival set after transplanting. The wood shavings treated by composting method stood out for use in the production of seedlings of Tifton 85, as it presented the best C: N ratio (18: 1) and high survival rates in seedling production.

  203. Desta Firdu MEKONNEN and Prof. Dr. Ensar BAŞPINAR

    One of the priorities of malaria elimination or at least reduction has been prevention methods. To apply these methods, understanding transmission influencing factors is crucial. The majority of driving factor of malaria transmission are environmental and climatic features. Plenty of regression analysis methods has been implemented to assess the relationship of malaria transmission and environmental and/or climatic features. Nonetheless, the majority of regression methods for the case lacked robustness. Recently circular regression analysis is gaining acceptance by many academicians to assess scenarios that have circularity in their nature. There are few circular regression models but their applicability and tractability are not fully assessed as for their linear counterpart. We assessed the applicability of these models on Malaria data collected for time series analysis titled “Association of climatic variability, vector population and malaria disease in the district of Visakhapatnam, India”: we used Fourier methods with ordinary linear regression. We applied different properties of circular distributions and assumptions. We transformed linear time in months to circular time and convert it to radian form since directional analysis is best suited to radian measures. We used malaria cases in months as a dependent linear variable and months in radian as acircular explanatory variable. We have assessed the correlation between these variables and found it right, so we apply circular regression on them and found avery sensible model with few drawbacks.

  204. Kassio S. Carvalho, Murilo S. Vianna, Daniel S. P. Nassif, Leandro G. Costa, Marcos V. Folegatti and Fábio R. Marin

    Brazil is the largest producer of sugarcane in the world; due to the increased use of irrigation systems in sugarcane fields, it is important to search for methods to assist with the rational use of irrigation water. Among the methods used to quantify transpiration, the Penman-Monteith (PM) method is based on a strong biophysical approach. The study aimed to use the PM method as a basis for estimating the crop transpiration of sugarcane. The experiment was conducted in an experimental area of 2.5 ha, irrigated by center pivot. To use the PM model, it was necessary to use sub-models for estimating the crop aerodynamic resistance (ra), the canopy energy balance (Rnef), vapor pressure deficit in the crop environment (Δe), and canopy resistance (rc). When relating Rg with Rnef and net radiation from above the cane field, there is an R2 of 0.85 and 0.84, respectively. Ra was strongly influenced by the wind speed and the proposed rc sub-model performed well, with an R2 of 0.62. To quantifying the temperature of the canopy can determine Δe variable of PM model and the sub-model used to estimate the temperature of the canopy presented an R2 of 0.84. PM model was relating with transpiration measured by sap flow sensors and presented a R2 of 0.72 and relating the evapotranspiration measured with the method of the Bowen ratio (BRM) with the ETc model proposed, there is an R2 of 0.54, and an angular coefficient of 1.09.

  205. Adenekan, M. O., Akinloye, J. O., Ayeni, A. A. and Sonibare, O.

    The present research was conducted to evaluate the efficacy of Plumeriarubra products on bruchid beetles (Callosobruchusmaculatus (F)) during storage. A synthetic insecticide, Pirimiphos methyl and four Plumeriarubraproducts (leaf, stem bark, root bark and flower) powders were tested on cowpea (Vignaunguiculata) seeds infested with teneral adults of Callosobruchusmaculatus in a completely randomized design. Data were collected on mean number of eggs laid, mean eclosion, mean number of emerged adults, and mortality of insects at different treatments. The results obtained revealed significant (P ≤ 0.05) differences in the mean oviposition rate, mean eclosion and total developmental period of the insects treated with different products of Plumeriarubra. The highest number of eggs oviposited and ecloded were 85.4 and 81. 6 respectively, which were significantly different when compared with the values of 43.2 and 40.2 obtained when the root bark powder was applied. The total developmental period obtained for the cowpea weevils ranged from 16 – 23 days. No plant product matched the efficacy of Pirimiphos-methyl; however, the powder of Plumeriarubra flower showed good potential as insecticide for the control of cowpea weevil (Callosobruchusmaculatus) on cowpea (Vignaunguiculata) during storage.

  206. Dr. Kaur Manpreet, Dr. Sharma Anita and Dr. Kushwaha Archana

    According to Ayurveda, the superior vital essence of all bodily tissues is called Ojas. It is responsible for defence against diseases in human body. There are various conditions like Prameha, Pandu, Madhumeha, Shosha, Rajayakshma, Ojonirodhaka in which Ojus loss is a characteristic features. According to concept of Ojus or Bala or Vyadhikshamatva, the body resistance powers have importance in daily welfare, not only for prevention of disease but also for recovery after disease affliction. Today’s AIDS is one of such disease in which Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) is causative factor leading to fight against disease. It is one of the serious global health disease. Currently there is no vaccine or cure AIDS except Anti Retroviral Therapy but it is expensive and inaccessible in many countries. Here the review article attempts to understand the concept of Ojus and HIV in scientific way and it’s over all effect on human body and it’s management according to Ayurveda like Dincharya, Ritucharya, Swasthavritta, Rasayana and Vajikarana etc.

  207. Th. Ajita Chanu, Robindra Teron and O. Shashi Kumar Singh

    Ethnozoology deals with the study of the relationships between human societies and animal resources around them and ethnoentomology deals with the study of the relationship between the human societies and insect resources around them. The present paper is an endeavour to study and document the relationships between the people and the different kinds of insects available around them vis-a-vis their use as food, medicine, bio-indicators, religious beliefs, etc. among the ethnic Meitei communities in Bishnupur District of Manipur, NE India. The present study reveals the use of 39 species of insects belonging to 39 genera and 28 families by the ethnic Meitei community of the District. The work was carried out during the period from May 2015 to August 2016. Information was collected from the ethnic local Meitei community, particularly the local elders and medicinal practitioners. Identification of insect specimen was done using collections from the markets. The high nutritive values and medicinal properties of insects are discussed.

  208. Rohini Ijjirouthu, B., Hamsaveni, N., Sujeet Kumar, Bhavya, C. and Suresh Kumar, K.

    The present ethnobotanical exploration study presents the folk medicinal plants used by certain tribes (Kondadoras) in Visakhapatnam district of Andhra Pradesh in India. As the valuable source of knowledge on traditional medicinal plants usage is not adequately documented, this study impedes their widespread use and validation. Here we have recorded indigenous knowledge and standard practices for human disease control of these tribes. A cross sectional study was carried out using semi-structured questionnaire to document knowledge of 49 traditional healers (40 male and 9 female) in medicinal plant use for treatment of human ailments. 226 plant species claimed medicinal properties against major human ailments and botanically belongs to 78 families. Most of the plant species reported belongs to one of these major families: Solanaceae, Fabaceae, Asteraceae, Malvaceae, Moraceae, Apocynaceae and Amaranthaceae. They majorly use herbs (44 %), trees (27 %) and shrubs (19 %) for preparing medicine. Leaves (31 %) and roots (17 %) were the major plant parts used in this study area. This study showed that traditional medicinal plants play a significant role in meeting the primary healthcare needs of the ethnic groups. Collected information from traditional healers can be used for further study.

  209. Zena Abdullah Khalaf, Salih A. Al-Bakri and Ayat adnan Abbas

    Purified asparaginase that’s highly purified extracted from frozen plant seeds of Pisam sativum var J of. were used to determine the specificity of enzyme against different substrates. Enzyme specificity was 783.1, 28.1, 11.4, and 13.7 U/mg of L-aspargine, L-aspartic acid, L-glutamine, and L-glutamic acid respectively. The cytotoxicity effect of purified asparaginase of frozen seeds of Pizum sativumvar J of. against L20B tumor cell line measured at wave length of 450, 492 and 620nm respectively, it showed that’s purified asparaginase has maximum inhibitory effect on tumor cell line reached to 33, 33, and 23% growth at 450, 492 and 620nm respectively. Cell survival and remaining activity of L20B tumor cell line after treatment with purified asparaginase reduced to 68, 65 and 77% respectively after incubation with purified asparaginase at concentration of 150 µg/ml, while the cell line remaining activity percentage reduced to 66.6, 67.7 and 76µg/ml respectively.

  210. Yirga Yayeh Munaye

    The main objective of this study is to apply recommender system in Benishangul Gumuz Micro and small enterprise sectors (BGMSEs). As a methodology, interview and document analysis methods were employed and the necessary data cleaning, filtering and modelling as well as representations were performed. Finally the recommender system was developed and tested on BGMSEs, 80% of experts and members are satisfied with the developed system.

  211. Wan Mahani Abdullah and Shahrul Nizam Yaakob

    Analysis of plant leaves image so far been an important and difficult task, especially for leaves with complicated background where some interferents and overlapping phenomena may exist. To extract the plant leaf from complicated background is challenging since we need to remove the soil, residue and etc. In order to obtain the greeness of image, Excess Green Vegetation Index is obtained to ease the segmentation process. But, the problem raise when dealing with uneven illumination. This paper proposed Modified Excess Green Vegetation Index to overcome this problem. The conventional based-auto-threshold method (Otsu's thresholding), ExG (Excess Green Vegetation Index) was compared with Modified Excess Green Vegetation Index to evaluate the performance of them. Experimental results have showed that Modified Excess Green Vegetation Index has superior performance over ExG Otsu's threshold in term of is insensible to illuminant variations.

  212. Sami, S. and Garzon, J. P.

    In this paper we present the modeling, simulation and analysis of the energy conversion equations describing the behavior of a hybrid system of wind turbine and biomass/ gas turbine and district heating hybrid system for power generation and district heating. A numerical model based upon the aforementioned equations has been developed, integrated, coded and the results were compared to experimental data. The model fairly predicted with experimental data under various conditions.

  213. Kiran, T., Jayaramappa, N. and Rajesh, R. N.

    It is the responsibility of structural engineers to ensure the built environment that can withstand extreme dynamic actions, such as wind, traffic or earthquake. Structural engineers must understand how the built environment will respond to such dynamic actions. In essence an earthquake resistant structure has to resist the lateral inertial forces in a safe and reliable manner. A structure has to be designed to resist the lateral actions applied to it by the earthquake ground motion. The main objective of this study is to understand the requirement of reinforcements for static and dynamic loading on the structure. Here the analysis is carried out for two models with uniform column size for whole building height i.e 450X450mm and two models with varying column size from bottom to top storey i.e from 400X400mm to 300X300mm varying 50 mm per two stories. The analysis and design is carried out using the standard & convenient software package ETABS 2015 and manual designs are carried out to validate the reinforcement obtained from the software. It is observed that the reinforcement required for beam reinforcement required for dynamic behaviour is 5.3% more than that required for static loading of structure. It is also observed that the reinforcement required for columns for dynamic loading is 27.3% more than that required for static loading. In case of footings the reinforcements are 3% more for dynamic loading than static loading if structure is provided with varying column size from bottom to top storey and 5% more if structure is providing with uniform column size for entire structure.

  214. Balakrishnan, M., Ravi Shankar, P., Maneesh John, Rahul Balakrishnan and Tensan Baby

    Aluminium matrix composites (AMCs) have gained considerable amount of research emphasis and attention in the present era. Research is being carried out across the globe to produce new combination of MMCs. MMCs are prepared by adding a variety of metal particles with monolithic alloys using several techniques. An attempt has been made to produce aluminum metal matrix composites reinforced with nickel (Al3Ni) particles by the in situ reaction and applying friction stir processing. When the specimen was stirred 2 passes, the formed Al3Ni was tiny to be detected. Al3Ni subsequently became apparent when stirring 4 passes and the fine Al3Ni particles were dispersed homogeneously in the composites The microstructures of the material were investigated. The results showed that the microstructures Friction stir zone were uniform and with small equiaxed grains in in-situ AMCs.

  215. AswathiSanal and AnuRani Philip

    A new real transform, named M-dimensional real transform is developed, which can help to represent signals using real additions without complex arithmetic, and which offers a different way of signal analysis. The MRT exhibits redundancy. All the implementation is build in FPGA using verilog.

  216. Sani Nazifi Dalhatu, Mukesh Kumar, Saxena, S. K. and Singh, N. B.

    Blended Portland cements are hydraulic cements in which a well-defined fraction of the Portland cement clinker is replaced by other hydraulic, pozzolanic or non-hydraulic materials. Their general behaviour is similar to that of Portland cement since they harden when mixed with water and form the same calcium silicate hydrates (C-S-H) and calcium aluminate hydrates (C-A-H). The addition of supplementary cementitious materials (SCMs), such as metakaolin to cement generally improves workability, durability, and long-term strength. However, use of SCM concrete is sometimes limited due to a lack of understanding about material behaviors and a lack of proper specifications for its construction practice. In this paper the hydration of OPC in the presence of 30% metakaolin and 0.8% superplasticizer was monitored as a function of time with the help of heat evolution calorimeter, X-ray diffraction and SEM studies. Water consistency, setting time and compressive strengths were measured. Results have been discussed.

  217. Dr. Jyotsna Sinha and Deepika Sharma

    This research paper is a comparative study of different clustering & classification algorithms. Clustering algorithms are compared on the basis of accuracy parameter, cluster distribution and time taken to build model. The six accuracy parameters for evaluating accuracy of classification algorithms are used. These parameters are TP rate, precision, recall, ROC area, f-measure and kappa statics. The four error measurement parameters for evaluating error rate of classification algorithms are considered i) RMSE (Root mean squared error) ii) MAE (Mean absolute error) iii) RRSE (Root relative squared error) iv) RAE(Relative absolute error).

  218. Richa and Anurag Kulshreshtha

    In the present scenario Data Mining is an emerging powerful tool for analyzing the data. Data mining is the process of extracting the valid, relevant and useful information from the data. And association belongs to the discovery data mining techniques, which are used to find patterns inside the data. This paper deals with the some of the measures of association for data mining. And the goal of the quest paper is to use the statistical method of association for mining the data. The method is applied on the census data and it is found that the performance of new method is giving satisfactory results.

  219. Kishor Jadhav, Manish Rai and Dr. Mohit Gangwar

    Online Social Networking sites (OSNs) inspire the people to come close and increase communication easily. To make communication easily there are various online social sites that are available like Facebook, Twitter etc. which brought world closer. Social networking is one of the fastest media to spread the information. Users has a freedom to share their own emotions in terms of pictures, text etc. To do communication user have to create its account on respective web site then he/she may allow to perform various activities like adding friends, sharing videos and images. Social Networking Sites provides individual and separate space all users to post the status such a space is called Wall. But sometimes people post irrelative messages on a particulars wall which may cause a serious problem to user's reputation. To overcome this challenge some filtering criteria should be used. This paper has surveyed the details of existing filtering techniques.

  220. Dipali Kiratsata and Gaurav Gangil

    The Unified Power Flow Controller (UPFC) is a typical FACTS (Flexible AC Transmission Systems) device that is the most sophisticated and complex power electronic equipment and has emerged for the control and optimization of power flow and also to regulate the voltage in electrical power transmission system. This paper propose the real, reactive power and voltage control through a transmission line by placing UPFC at the sending end using computer simulation. The L index is the parameter which is used to check the stability. Voltage stability is concerned with the ability of a power system to maintain acceptable voltages at all buses under normal conditions and after being subjected to a disturbance. The assessment of voltage stability has also become more complicated due to strengthening of power systems. The research work mainly dealt with performance analysis of IEEE-14 bus system for voltage stability, computation of voltage collapse point and enhancement of power system stability by using UPFC.

  221. Nassreldeen Elsheikh

    Measurements were carried out to investigate the potentialities of gamma back-scattering technique in detection of hidden contrabands such as codeine (C18H21NO3) and cannabis (C21H30O2). This is done using an assembly consisting of 241Am gamma source, producing about 5×107 photon.s-1, in conjunction with a NaI(Tl) detector. The source-detector distance was optimized and the optimal configuration was selected. The results in terms of contrast ratios and Figure of Merit verified the feasibility of utilizing the proposed system in detection the targeted samples when sealed in a plastic cylindrical cane. The high contrast ratios achieved; 25% for codeine and 11% for cannabis verified the good distinction ability of the device.

  222. Srivastava, P. P., Pandiaraj, T., Susmita Das, Sinha, S. K. and Sinha, A. K.

    Micronutrient is a vital for improving nutritional status of leaf of tasar host plants and subsequently has impact on silkworm in producing good quality cocoons. In Present day, seventy five surface soil samples representing tasar growing states of Bihar and Jharkhand in India were analyzed for the basic soil parameters viz., pH, EC, OC and available micronutrients (DTPA extractable) viz., Zn, B, Fe, Cu and Mn. The soil reaction of selected sites was neutral to slightly alkaline with low level of electrical conductivity of soils. The micronutrient status and their relationship with soil properties were also studied. Among the micronutrients, Fe was found to be deficient by 4% and sufficient by 87%, Mn was found to be sufficient by 100%, Cu was found to be sufficient by 85%, Zn was found to be in medium range by 68% and 32% sufficient and B was found to be 59% in medium and 37% by sufficient range. Further, most micronutrients showed positive correlation with pH, EC and OC.

  223. Krishna Dilip Suchak and Prof. Pinal Patel

    In today’s Life everyone has to face challenges. Every software has risk which should be managed very carefully. Risk identification, risk estimation and risk evaluation is done in order to avoid, monitor and manage risks and its Impact. To achieve a quality product risk mitigation, monitoring, and management is performed.

  224. Ketan Sangadiya and Pinal Patel

    In the software development life-cycle, software maintenance is considered as one of the most critical process. A considerable amount of information needs to be managed during the process software maintenance. The requirement of particular software might not be fulfilled by a particular tool or technique. So we require different tools and techniques for different components of the software. This paper briefly explains some of the software maintenance techniques and tools.

  225. Davinder Kaur

    There is great competition between the Java and .NET from many years. These two technologies are used to develop web application by adding new features. In this paper, we will compare the features of the two technologies which are J2EE and ASP.NET. We will discuss the similarities and differences which include: IDE, Databases, Market value, MVC, Low-level code safety. This paper is helpful to those who are not involved in web development or those who want to change the technology either to Java or .NET and want to increase their knowledge with a new platform.

  226. Millicent U. Ibezim-Ezeani and Ledisi I. Menegbo

    Studies on the thermodynamics of binary electrolyte system containing mixture of 1,2-dimethoxyethane (DME) and ethylene carbonate (EC) at various temperatures (25, 40, 50, 60 and 70 oC) and mole fractions (1.000, 0.7197, 0.5982, 0.4905, 0.3910, 0.2997 and 0.2157 of DME) was carried out. The parameters (density, viscosity, excess volume, free energy of activation of flow, excess viscosity, d-parameter, excess Gibbs free energy, change in free energy, enthalpy and entropy) of mixing were examined. Generally, the values of density, viscosity, excess viscosity and free energy of activation of flow increased with decrease in mole fraction of DME. Result analyses showed that the trend in values of excess volume, change in free energy and entropy of mixing for mole ratios of DME is: 0.7197 > 0.5982 > 0.4905 < 0.3910 < 0.2997 < 0.2157; while that of d-parameter is: 0.7197 < 0.5982 < 0.4905 > 0.3910 > 0.2997 > 0.2157. In the whole temperature range studied, the negative values of change in free energy of mixing indicate the spontaneous and exergonic nature of the system; whereas the positive values of entropy of mixing suggests the disorderly behavior of the binary electrolyte system. The enthalpy of mixing is zero, which affirms the involvement of non-bonding interactions.

  227. Adima Julius Osaremen and Ramraini Ali Hassan

    This study investigates the influence of entrepreneurship education’s two independent teaching variables in promoting entrepreneurial intention among Nigeria tertiary students, examining the impacts of risk-taking propensity, pedagogical teaching method, and perceived importance of favourable business environment as moderator. Aim to expose the latest innovative trends and directions in entrepreneurship education training and development, via current scientific research. The respondent of 642 students, screened to 527 usabledatasets, all from Nigerian universities and polytechnics taking entrepreneurship studies in six tertiary institutions from three strata stratified adopted. Structured questionnaires and Partial Least Square Structural Equation Modelling (3.2.4 version) are used for data collection and analysis. This study applauds Risk-Taking Propensity and entrepreneurial teaching variables. The study recommends that the institution given mandate to create job creators should constitute the goal and stakeholders should consciously embrace instilling risk taking propensity through dynamic pedagogical teaching methods that correlate with the real world business environment.

  228. Tonny Kerley de Alencar Rodrigues and RanieleCimara da Conceição Gomes

    The forms that the body allows to sculpt seem to diversify as opportunities to transform their own appearance. Thus, aging seems to escape the desirable body pattern that a contemporary society values. There are many as requirements for a society which expresses meant and establishes relations with the medium to which one wishes to belong. This research aims to analyze how the consumption practices of beauty products for men, seeking to establish relationships between meanings and practices of care. The results bring considerations about the use and forbidden that appear to be limited as practices for the man who show interest in being vain. This includes the prejudice that other men and / or women may come to about any behavior that deviates from the proper attitudes of men. But by way of exception, some men feel ashamed to consume beauty products and services, others seem to fall ill for the ideal of beauty, consume without limits, and when they are not their desires develop physical and emotional illnesses. Finally, in the conclusion, the results provide information that can help the management of operations on how to generate a product (packaging, colors, names and scents) that differentiate the consumption of men and women.

  229. Sudha, M., Suga Priyanka, L. S. and Padmanaban, P.

    Adolescents are a heterogeneous group with diverse needs that vary depending on factors such as age, gender, marital status, place of residence and educational attainment. A healthy adolescence is the corridor to a healthy adulthood. Evidence suggests that adolescents continue to have a variety of unmet needs with reference to reproductive health. Objective: A descriptive, cross-sectional community based study was conducted among 22 adolescent girls situated in Chengalpattu. Knowledge related to puberty, menstruation & menstrual hygiene in the present study. Methods: Qualitative study was used to collect data. In depth interview and focus group discussion was conducted to collect the data. ID guides and FGD guides were used. Ten in depth interviews and two focus group discussion (6 respondents in each group) was conducted. Findings: Respondents were found to be in the age group between 13 yrs-18 yrs and the mean age was 15yrs. majority of the respondent associated menstrual cycle with impure blood, cleaning of body, unhygienic. None of the respondents were aware about the organ that was associated to menstrual bleeding and about the necessary for ovulation and neither were they using sanitary pads. All the respondents were aware of the physical changes that were associated with puberty. Majority (20) of the respondents expressed that their moments within and outside the house. They interaction with the male members of the house was also restricted. Majority of them had absented themselves from going to school due to the distance, lack of washroom and water facilities in the school. Conclusion: Knowledge on puberty, menstruation and menstrual hygiene is very essential for a healthy adulthood. This measure needs to be taken to impart knowledge and also to ensure that conducive environment is provided at school.

  230. Dr. Anviti Rawat and Monika Singh

    The intent of the paper is to see the present scenario of teacher education in India in the light of the educational policies, recommendations, commissions and various educational committees working towards the upliftment of the teacher education programmes. The various educational policies which are analysed are National Policy on Education 1986, Kothari commission, Yashpal committee National commission on teachers (I&II) 1985, Justice Verma commission, Knowledge commission 2005, Right to education 2009, Curriculum frame work for quality teacher education 1995 and National curriculum framework for teacher education (2009). These policies and recommendations given time to time led to the propagation and revolutionary changes in the teacher education courses and institutions at all levels. The paper reflects on how Teacher Education in India has evolved from the past so many years till now and the vision for the teacher education for the future.

  231. Aydın PEKEL

    The aim of this research was to evaluate the relationship between the athletic identity perceptions of athletes, who were studying in a School of Physical Education and Sports, selected variables. A total of 288 athletes participated in this study. The participants were studying at the School of Physical Education and Sports at Istanbul Gelişim University, and they were selected from students agreed voluntarily to participate this research by the random sampling method who were individual athletes and team athletes. The research consisted of two stages. The first, “Personal Information Form”, which includes the branch of sport (individual or team), the years of playing sport and information about the number of competitions attended. The second stage is to determine the “Scale of Athletic Identity”, which was developed by Brewer and Cornelius (2001) is the sporting identity perceptions of athletes, and the Turkish adaptation of which was done by Öztürk and Koca (2013), was used in the second stage. The data acquired were recorded with the IBM SPSS 22 packaged software. Mann Whitney U, Kruskal Wallis Test Statistics was applied as the statistical process. In the findings, 62.8% of the volunteers participating in the study were 37.2% of the team athletes were individual athletes, 37.5% of the sports year were 1-5 years, 50.0% of the sportspeople were 6-10 years, 12.5% and over years. When the number of competitions are examined, it is determined that 20.5% of the participants are between 20 and 20%, 16.3% are between 21 and 40, 7.6% are between 41 and 60 and 55.6% are over 61.there is a meaningful difference according to the sports branches of the athlete identity of the participants. There are differences according to the sports years of athlete's identity perception of participants. There are also significant differences according to the number of competitions of the athlete's identity aegis of the participants. In conclusion, while no significant difference was determined between athletic identity perception and the sports branch, a statistically significant difference was determined between athletic identity perception and the years playing sport, and the number of competitions.

  232. Cheng Ching Ho

    This study intended to find out the importance of phonological awareness in improving students’ reading ability. The participants were the English teachers and principal in a non-profit making kindergarten, which the medium of instruction is mainly Chinese. Since the English teachers are the ones who teach in the classroom, their responses are valuable for us to understand the improvements or deterioration in students’ reading ability. Furthermore, this research was mainly focused on Hong Kong context, so it will be interesting for us to find out how ESL students perform under the instruction of phonological awareness.

  233. Issa Garba, Illa Salifou, Bakary Djaby, Ibra Touré and Bernard Tychon

    This study was carried out in the pastoral zone of Niger with the aim of validating outputs of the BIOMASAH model developed by the AGRHYMET Regional Centre (ARC) relative to real data collected over the 2001-2011 period by the Ministry Livestock and Animal Industries (MEIA) of Niger. We used parametric tests (t-tests) and nonparametric tests (Wilcoxon and sign tests) for mean comparisons. A correlation analysis was performed by calculating Pearson’s r, Spearman’s ρ, Kendall’s T and Hoeffding’s D correlation coefficients. The results showed that the BIOMASAH model generally overestimated biomass (983.17 vs. 591.17 kg/ha) with a highly significant difference relative to the field findings (P <.0001). Pearson’s r (0.15), Spearman’sρ (0.22) Kendall’s T (0.13) and Hoeffding’s D (0.1) correlation coefficients were low but highly significant (p <.0001). Grazing pressure and spatiotemporal variability of rainfall helped explain the noted differences.

  234. Dr. Siba Saharia, Dr. Medhi, K. K. and Dr. Borkataki, S.

    The smart weeds or Knot weeds are one of the major aquatic and marshy land inhabitants belonging to the Family Polygonaceae are primarily found in damp and marshy places. The present study reveals the fact of occurrence of several (14 Nos.) such species along the course of river Kolong which is a major river of the district Nagaon, Assam, India. Though the Knot weeds are considered as weed, yet a number of economic utilization are also found as revealed from the study. Some of the weeds are rare and endangered due to the loss of habitats and extensive use (eg. Polygonum microcephalum).

  235. Tadie Degie Yigzaw

    The discourse on the existence of African philosophy is the Archimedean point to most Philosophers of the 20th century. There is for and against views on the existence of African philosophy among philosophers. However, in this article I try to develop an argument that illustrates the existence of African philosophy (African philosophy resulted due to western discourse on Africa and Africans reaction on it). Almost all African philosophers agree on the existence of African philosophy albeit there is disagreement on the issue of what constituted African philosophy. Western’s(many of them) argued that African’s don’t have philosophical texts, don’t come up in a common definitions of the subject and they are not doing philosophy. As a result, it is difficult to consider or assume African’s as doer of philosophy. However, in reaction to this thought of the western’s, African thinkers toiled day and night, investing their energy and resource to provide convincing evidence that African’s are really practicing philosophy and have accessible philosophical texts. In my point of view, African philosophy should be the appropriations of the African thoughts and non-African thoughts. Therefore, in this article I try to develop sound premises that prevails the existence of African philosophy even if it is at level of minimal.

  236. Akaibel.D.Arengh and Prof. S. C. Srivastava

    Necessity of women participation for development has been considered to be part of programmes and a provision under MGREGS for women workers provides opportunity for such empowerment. Women workers participation percent was34 percent, against the 33 percent of worked reserved for women under the Act. Equal wages are received under the programme for both men and women though wages under casual work differs among both men and women. The income and the wages received under the programme has contributed to the total income of the household though in less amount. Income earned from wages under the programme has enabled them to spend in different items but around 69 percent are spent mostly on food item. There are problems in the worksite faced by the women workers which can be changed if all the provisions under programmes is implemented as per the norm.

  237. Upendra Bhai Patel and Prof. (Dr.) B.L. Teli

    The rapid urbanization is the matter of grave concern in contemporary time because it leads to urban sprawl. The numbers of changes have come in urban areas such as development of industry, service sector, employment and educational services. These changes have led to job opportunity and better way of life in urban areas. Consequently, the individuals are migrating from rural areas to urban areas and they are creating many problems in urban areas such as uncontrolled population, inner city neighbourhood, and heterogeneous environment. Social scientists, Geographers & Urban planners identify the pattern of urban sprawl, recognition of magnitude and direction of changing sprawl and its effect on land use/land cover change so they develop a plan to provide basic amenities such as water, sanitation, electricity, etc. Lucknow is also experienced a high rate of urbanization facing the problems of social, infrastructural, industrial and environmental. The pattern of urban sprawl, its magnitude and effects on Land use/Land cover (LULC) will be identified with the help of temporal data of primary and secondary (satellite images & ancillary data) and also field survey & ground truth. The collected data will be analyzed by using Remote Sensing & Geographical information system (GIS) techniques and statistical software. The study will provide a methodology for sustainable planning of land use and urban growth using various techniques. Remote Sensing & GIS and satellite images will be used in this study to provide spatial inputs and model for describing growth. This is useful for the urban planning in Developing Countries where land use data is not available regularly. GIS based study will help a lot for monitoring urban sprawl compared to Conventional technique.

  238. Oscar Wambuguh

    With increased business use of electronic media to advertise to individual consumers today notwithstanding, direct mail continues to be a big part and concern in our everyday lives. At the same time, direct mail advertising continues to be a major source of revenue to many businesses and government agencies like the United States Postal Service. For a period of about six months, a total of 39,663 direct mail items were collected from residential neighborhoods of the nine county San Francisco Bay Area, with a combined total population estimate of 7 million people. Results show that three major business categories: retail corporations, miscellaneous companies, and credit card financial institutions contributed about 56% (22,197) of total direct mail received (n=39,663). This business trend is supported by the continued growth in the U.S. economy plus the many benefits accruing to businesses using direct-mail advertising as they target and individualize direct mail advertising to potential consumers. To many businesses, the direct mail remains highly measurable, cost effective, flexible, and customizable. As consumers learn and adopt better strategies to reduce direct mail delivered to their mailboxes, they will continue to face increased challenges considering the substantial revenue and the many jobs created by direct mail advertising.

  239. Onuoha, C. A., Dyer-Regis, B., Onuoha, P. C., Herbert, S. and Jameson-Charles, M.

    Background: Health and Family Life Education (HFLE) is a life skill based program designed to be implemented in schools the Caribbean countries to enable children and young people develop skills that can improve their overall health and academics. Whereas the programme had begun in most of the Caribbean countries, many have undertaken some level of evaluation of their programmes. Trinidad has not done so. This is an attempt to begin as assessment of the implementation of the programme in Trinidad and Tobago. Design: A qualitative design was employed to explore the research issue utilizing the Active Implementation Frameworks (AIFs). Semi-structured face-to-face interviews were held with key informants; two focus sessions were conducted with primary and secondary school teachers and also four pertinent documents were reviewed. Results: Data gotten from these sources were analysed into themes and presented as statements. Two main themes emerged, implied need for the programme and diverse programme outlines. Discussion: The findings were discussed in relation to the AIFs and other literature. Conclusion: Result from the study suggests that implementation of the programme aligns with the tenets of the AIFs to an extent. Full adherence is however necessary to achieve the full benefits of this programme.

  240. C. A. Pallavi Gupta, Dr. Javaid Akhter and Dr. Barnali Chaklader

    In the present era of globalization, the world has become an economic village. The globalization of the business world as well as the development of e-commerce creates the necessity of global accounting language. A number of multi-national companies are establishing their businesses in various countries with emerging economies. Different accounting framework and guidelines for different countries has created confusion for users of financial statements. Thus, this conceptual paper supports the case for a single set of globally accepted accounting standards. India, being an emerging economy calls for convergence of Indian accounting standards with International Financial Reporting Standards. An attempt has been made to assess the challenges and opportunities entrusted with IFRS convergence. Comparison of Indian Accounting Standards and IFRS has been done to estimate the quantum of effort required in convergence process.

  241. Dr. Rajender Kumar and Upasana Dhanda

    There has been an immense focus on the topic of Corporate Social responsibility (CSR) in the recent times. Last decade saw a paradigm shift in the manner in which business operations are undertaken. Big industrial families often engaged in philanthropic activities contributing huge amounts for social, educational and community purposes. However, such donations did not belong to the shareholders but were often from personal savings. The inclusion of section 135 in Companies Act 2013 made it mandatory for companies to spend 2% of their net profits on CSR activities. It also lays down that the companies must explain the reasons if they fail to fulfill this requirement. Thus, mere disclosure of reasons for not spending the profits on CSR activities would amount to compliance of the provisions of law. The paper examines the pattern of CSR spending of 30 companies constituting the S&P BSE SENSEX index on CSR activities for years 2014-15 and 2015-16 and tries to reveal how they fared in their CSR initiatives.

  242. Girish Chandra, Udit Kumar, Manoj Raghav and Pankaj Kumar

    To find out the effect of nitrogen fertilizer on tuber quality and storability of potato varieties, an experiment was conducted for two consecutive years during 2012-13 and 2013-14 at Vegetable Research Center, G.B.P.U.A. & T. Pantnagar. Two potato varieties and five nitrogen levels (0, 75, 150, 225, 300 kg N/ha) were used in the experiment as treatment. It was observed that the dry matter content (%), specific gravity (g/cm3), TSS content (%) and reducing sugar content (mg/100 g) were higher in variety Kufri Surya than Kufri Sadabahar, while the protein content (%) was observed higher in Kufri Sadabahar (V1) than Kufri Surya (V2). The dry matter content was recorded highest (21.00 %) with treatment N1 (75 kg N/ha) while, specific gravity was highest (1.06 g/cm3) with treatment N0 (0 kg N/ha). The TSS content (4.34 %) and Protein content (7.34 %) were maximum with treatment N2 (150 kg N/ha), while reducing sugar content (182.60 mg/100 g dry matter) was highest with treatment N4 (300 kg N/ha). The weight loss and sprouted tubers were recorded higher in Kufri Surya upto 60 days storage, while after 90 days storage, it was higher in Kufri Sadabahar (V1). The number and weight of rotted tubers (6.97 % and 7.83 %, respectively) were recorded higher in Kufri Sadabahar (V1) than Kufri Surya (V2). The storability of potato tubers decreased with the increase in nitrogen level from N0 to N4. Thus, for getting higher seed size tuber yield, variety Kufri Surya with application of 150 kg N/ha is better than all other treatments and it also maintain optimum quality of tuber.

  243. Tatiane Beatriz Malinowski Baran, Denise Monique Dubet da Silva Mouga, Pedro Carlos Pinheiro, Celso Voos Vieira and João Carlos Ferreira de Melo Junior

    Aiming to verify the sufficiency of diversity and abundance of bees in two areas of passion fruit cultivation, one with agricultural pesticides (area 1) and the other, of organic planting (area 2), in southern Brazil, sampling collections were untaken monthly, from January 2016 to May 2016, using entomological nets on flowering feet and tagging of individuals with numbered tags. Individuals not visually identified were prepared for identification. The flowers that were open were marked, per month, and the fruiting rate was inspected after 15 days. A total of 276 individuals were collected in area 1, of the species Xylocopa frontalis (60%), Bombusmorio (36%), Xylocopabrasilianorum (2%), Centris (Melacentris) dorsata (2%) and Centris (Trachina) similis (36%). In area 2, 267 individuals were captured: Xylocopa frontalis (44%), Xylocopabrasilianorum (31%) and Bombusmorio (25%). There was seasonality of the pollinators. The daily activities of the pollinators were attuned to the opening hours of the flowers. The number of estimated pollinators reached the minimum amount required for pollination of the crop. The fruiting is moderate and correlated to the number of pollinators in one area. There is possibly a need for a larger number of individuals for a higher pollination rate.

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