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April 2020

  1. Daniel Vasquez Valverde and Emily Sanderson Chacón

    Congenital nasolacrimal duct obstruction (CNDO) is the most common lacrimal system disorder encountered in pediatric ophthalmology, occurring in approximately 5% of infants. It is usually congenital in origin resulting from a failure of canalization of the nasolacrimal duct. The obstruction is most commonly at the valve of Hasner where the nasolacrimal duct would normally enter the nose. It is the most common cause of epiphora in infants, however more specific signs include the presence of high tear meniscus and mucoid discharge that may cause crusting of the eyelid margins and skin erythema. CNDO resolves spontaneously in most cases, but a subset of patients have persistent symptoms that require treatment. Conservative management with lacrimal sac massage is the first line of management within the first year of life. After said time patients unresponsive to conservative management often undergo an intervention to surgically open the obstruction, including probing, balloon dacryocystoplasty, silicone intubation, inferior turbinate fracture, endoscopic intranasal surgery and dacryocystorhinostomy (DCR).However, no consensus has been reached regarding either optimal timing or type of intervention, so the decisionshould be based between patients family and the ophthalmologist.

  2. AKOUETE Coffi David, SAÏDOU Victor, LANHA Magloire, HOUNSOU Sèmako Julien, ABALLOT Emile-Jules, DANSOU H. Pierre and HASCHAR-NOE Nadine

    This article conceives a system of evaluation of the organizational performance of a node of the associative network of the African athletics. Performance indicators aligned with the major strategic objective have been developed and integrated into a performance construct of a network entity. The developed measurement system assesses the organizational performance of the outputs against baseline activity forecasts perceived by the network's top. It is likely to constitute the frame of a physical computing medium that can generate objective values different from the sports results in force for evaluation purposes of this network.

  3. Dr. Pooja Thawani, Dr. Nayana Anasane and Dr. Amit Jagtap

    Background: Implant supported over denture is a very common treatment modality in edentulous patients. Especially 2 implant supported mandibular (OD-1) type of prosthesis is very widely used by clinicians. These over dentures can be used with varying attachment systems. This systematic review compares two implant attachment systems i.e. Ball and Locator to know which one provided better retention. Results: A total number of 94 articles were identified through the electronic search. Only 3 articles were included on the basis of inclusion and exclusion criteria. All the 3 articles were reviewed by the two authors for their study characteristic. All the articles showed varying results regarding retention characteristics provided by both attachment systems. Conclusion: We can conclude that Locator attachment systems are relatively better than ball attachment systems.

  4. Dr. Archana R Naik, Dr. Pallavi Nanaiah, K., Dr. Sunil Satyanarayana, Dr. Savita, A.M., Dr. Subbu Kashyap, Dr. Remya, R.M., Dr. Madhukeshwara S Naik, Dr. Shwetha, K.O. and Dr. Salwa Mohammad

    Background: Magnification system is a popular practice in the dental procedures in the last 3 decades. A magnified view of a tooth surface may facilitate detection and removal of calculus that is located on the subgingival surface. Aim and Objective: The aim of this study was to assess the efficacy of magnification loupes as an adjunct to scaling procedure for the treatment of gingivitis or Periodontitis. The primary objective is to compare the results of ultrasonic scaling by with and without the use of Magnification loupes. Posture assessment was our secondary objective. Methods: The 26 patients who were selected for the study were subjected to non surgical treatment by ultrasonic scaling. The quadrants were divided equally between right and left sides. On one side ultrasonic scaling was performed with naked eye. On contralateral side ultrasonic scaling was performed with the use of Magnification loupes. Clinical baseline data including probing depths, oral hygiene index and Bleeding index were recorded before treatment and at 4 weeks. Results: At 4 weeks, compared with the control group, there were statistically significant difference in OHI and Bleeding Index. Conclusion: The use of magnification loupes for scaling did not significantly improve clinical outcomes as compared to scaling without any visual aid.

  5. Viral Patel and Ashvin kankotiya

    Background: Cholecystectomy is currently a frequently performed operation. The most common reason for a Cholecystectomy is gallbladder stones. Usually the bile ducts are sterile. However, the presence of gallstones within either the gallbladder or biliary tree is associated with the bacterial colonization of the bile. Therefore, it is important to know the microbiological flora of the gallbladder before prophylactic antibiotics are given. Aim and Objectives: To evaluate the microbiological profile of bile from gall bladder in patients undergoing Cholecystectomy. Methods: Patients undergoing laparoscopic or open Cholecystectomy in SSG Hospital, Baroda between September 2018 and December 2019 were included in this study and bacteriological examination of bile were done of this patients bile. Results: In this study a total of 78 patients(54 female and 24 male) who met the inclusion crieteria were included both open as well as laparoscopic Cholecystectomy . Number of Patients with positive bile cultures were 19(24.36%) and those with negative culture were 59(75.64%). Escherichia coli was the most common isolated bacteria Among positive bile culture group (63.16%) and 15.38% Among all patients. Other organisms isolated were pseudomonas (3.85% Among all patients), Klebsiella (2.56% Among all patients), Coagulase Negative Staphylococcus and Staphylococcus Viridans (1.28%). Conclusion: In vast majority of patients the bile was sterile, and Escherichia coli was the most common isolated bacteria Among positive bile culture group.

  6. Anantha Venkata Srikar Muppirala,, Tejaswi Manasa Emany, Tejaswi Katne, Sneha Kidambi, Venkata Karthik Kalepu and Niveditha Parthasarathy

    Background: - The current study aimed to investigate awareness, general attitude and perspectives of a sample of dental students belonging to various levels of education residing in Telangana region regarding their knowledge and future expectations of Cone Beam Computed Tomography (CBCT). Materials and Methods: An anonymous questionnaire consisting of 11 questions was distributed among 365 dental students which included final BDS students, interns, and Post-Graduation (PG) students belonging to KNR University of Health Sciences, Telangana. They were contacted through E‑mail and they have completed an online questionnaire. The data were collected, sorted and analysed in view of the objectives of the study, using descriptive analysis and Chi‑square tests of significance. Results: The results of this survey are indicative that education level and place of work had a significant effect on awareness regarding the use of CBCT in daily dental practice. It was found that out of 365 individuals who participated in the study, 135 of them were final year BDS students, 85 were interns and 145 were PG students. The rate of awareness about CBCT varied among the three groups with statistically significant difference (P<0.05) for various criteria. Conclusions: This study showed that having a higher education level and being in a tertiary workplace improved CBCT knowledge which in turn increased the number of patient referrals when the indications justified it for better diagnosis. Observing the positive attitude, it was concluded that students should be provided with thorough practical knowledge and efforts should be made to improve their practical knowledge.

  7. Dr. Khushboo, Dr. Subrata Saha and Dr. Subir Sarkar

    The ideal time to start an orthodontic treatment is a controversial topic.Different authors have reported different methods in an attempt to determine the best indicator of maturity, which include body height, body weight; sexual maturation; frontal sinus, chronological age, biological age or physiological age; hand-wrist maturity cervical vertebrae; dental eruption; dental calcification stages and biomarkers. Although the carpal radiograph is proven to be efficient and safe, presently, new proposals to evaluate the bony age have appeared with the intention to reduce the number of radiographic exposures to the patients. The purpose of this article is to review one such method, which is Cervical vertebral maturation analysis and its various application in dentistry.

  8. Kang Alamusi, Sergelen, O., Bayanduuren, B., Munkhbayrlakh, S. and Gonchigsuren, D.

    Developmental dysplasia of the hip (DDH) is a common cause of secondary hip osteoarthritis. Adult patients with developmental dysplasia of the hip develop secondary osteoarthritis and end up with total hip arthroplasty (THA) at a younger age. Because of the altered anatomy of dysplastic hips, THA in these patients represents a technically demanding procedure. There are different classifications of dysplastic hips in adults. Since in the majority of the cases the diagnosis is formed based on the clinical exam and X-rays, most common classifications are based on X-rays of the pelvis and hips. The most common is classification according to the Crowe with 4 different degrees of dysplasia. Crow classification is based on two-dimensional analysis of the pelvic X-ray and on, basically, just a vertical displacement of the femoral head, it is still predominant classification due to simplicity and availability.With the development of highly accurate CT images, the 3D printing technology has provided high precision implants for surgical solutions, improving the success rate of complex and difficult surgeries. In this study, the time to weight loading in the 3D printing patients was less than that for the conventional hip replacement patients. Additionally, the postoperative Harris scores were higher in the 3D printing group. Indicating that the 3D printed prostheses are closer to patients' anatomical structures, and allow for better coordination of human biomechanics. Also, the 3D printing technology applied in hip arthroplasty speeded up the recovery of patients after surgery and improved their quality of life. Based on these results, we suggest that the 3D printing approach provides a better short-term curative effect that is more consistent with the physiological structure and anatomical characteristics of the patient, and we anticipate that its use will help improve the lives of many patients.

  9. Adjoby Cassou Roland, Koffi Soh Victor, Effoh Ndrin Denis, Gbary-Lagaud Eléonore, Soro Ngolo Alassane, Akobé Privat, Angoi AyaVirginie and Boni Ehouman Serge

    Objective: To identify causes of maternal death and dysfunctions in patient management. Methodology: Retrospective and descriptive study, in the department of gynecology and obstetrics, which covered a period of 4 years (2014 to 2017). Results: In our study, the intra-hospital maternal mortality ratio was 665 per 100,000 live births. The average age of the deceased patients was 25 years. The majority were in the informal sector (46.7%) and without a profession (41.3%). The patients had an average parity of 2.5. At least 4 ANCs were performed in 47.6% of our patients who had been evacuated in 89.3% of the cases. Direct obstetrical causes were the most common (78% of cases vs. 22% for indirect causes). Hemorrhage accounted for 67.4% of direct obstetrical causes (and were dominated by haemorrhages in the immediate postpartum (50.8%)), followed by vasculo-renal syndromes (26.4%) and infections (6.2%). The deaths were mainly due to "3 delays" with, 89.3% of delay at the initial consultation. The dysfunctions found at the Teaching Hospital of Cocody were the lack of blood products and the unavailability of operating theaters which were permanently occupied. Maternal deaths were preventable in 91.3% of the patients in our study. Conclusion: In sub-Saharan Africa, dysfunctions in health services are most often responsible for most maternal deaths.

  10. Farhaan Sayeed, Kaushik Raman and Prof. Abhishek Venkteshwar

    Purpose: Research in the field of Sleep cycle have gained momentum over the years. Therefore understanding Sleep cycle will be viewed as increasingly important. India has been regarded as the youngest country in the world by the UN as it has the world’s largest youth population where more than 365 billion people are between the age group 10 and 24 years. This clearly indicates that the fate of the country lies in the hands of its Youth. Sleep cycle is one of the most neglected component in the Indian Society due to the complexity in its computation. Sleep cycle shapes an individual’s personality, measured bybig 5 personality traits of an individual (Openness to experience, Conscientiousness, Extraversion, Agreeableness and Neuroticism) and controls the behavior of the person which has a strong relationship with the social skills. This article aims at examining the effect of Sleep cycle on University Students during Covid 19 outbreak.

  11. Esther Kaluku, Dr. Selpher K. Cheloti and Dr. Redempta Maithya

    The purpose of this study was to analyze life skills education as used by head teachers in managing students discipline in Kenya; specifically, within public secondary schools in Machakos Sub-County. The objective of this study was; To determine the use of Life Skills Education on management of discipline in public secondary schools in Kenya. The study was guided by situational theory of leadership which is characterized leadership in terms of task behavior and relationship behavior. The study adopted a descriptive survey design. The target population comprised of head teachers, teachers and students. The study sample was 421. Data was collected using 3 sets of questionnaires. Quantitative data was analyzed using Statistical Package of Social Sciences software programme version 22. Inferential analysis was done using chi square statistics at the .05 level of significance. The study established that head teachers need to use a variety of administrative practices to manage students’ discipline. The study found that the use of life skills education influenced the management of school discipline significantly (ℵ^2(df(3))=28.846;p<.05). The study recommends that the Kenya National Examination Council (KNEC) should start examining LSE since it is an important subject in managing discipline and molding social emotional skills of learners. These study findings are beneficial to head teachers and other stakeholders in education regarding how they manage discipline related issues in schools.

  12. Isdine Aziz Nambon, D.A., Karim TRAORÉ, AdamaTRAORÉ, Pascal BAZONGO, OuolaTRAORÉ and Hassan Bismarck NACRO

    Cotton is the main cash crop in Burkina Faso and the total cotton acreage is over1/10 of arable land. But, the overall benefit of cotton is negatively affected by decreasing yields due to constant soil degradation. The current study is a contribution to a better understanding of soil biological and chemical properties changes under cotton farming system. To do so, a study was undertaken at Farako-Bâ research stationina split-plot design with crop rotations including cotton in the main plots and fertilization options in the secondary plots. The results showed higher soil organic carbon and nitrogen in rotation “Rice-cotton” plots compared to the other rotations. The results showed also a significant increase in soil phosphorus from 68.57 to 148.76 mg/kg1. However, the level of these nutrients was below the recommended rates to support a good crop production. The soil biological activity was better with the combined application of organic and mineral fertilizers and highest for “Rice-cotton” rotation compared to cotton monoculture. Our results show positive correlation between soil biological activities and soil organic carbon, total nitrogen and soil available phosphorus. The sustainability of the cotton farming system depends highly on suitable combination of good agricultural practices.

  13. Pierre Alain Kouassi KONAN, Kohué Christelle Chantal N’GAMAN-KOUASSI, Christian Kouadio KOUASSI, Janat Akhanovna MAMYRBEKOVA-BÉKRO and Yves-Alain BÉKRO

    The influences of different extraction methods and the extraction time of total phenols, flavonoids, condensed tannins, and the antioxidant activity of the ethanolic extracts obtained from the roots of Palisota hirsuta were studied. The extractions were performed by maceration, decoction and Soxhlet method, with absolute ethanol every 30 min (30 min, 1h,1h30 min, 2h and 2h 30). For each extract it was determined the total phenolic content (TPC), the total flavonoid content (TFC), the total condensed tannins (TC), the ability to scavenge DPPH, and Fe3+ reducing power. Soxhlet extraction showed the highest yield extraction. Maceration method led to the highest concentration of phenolics and flavonoids, and also the highest DPPH scavenging activity. However, the highest concentration of condensed tannin and the highest Fe3+ reducing power were obtained by Soxhlet used. Beside in general, the TPC, TC, TFC and antioxidant activity increased when extraction time was increased from 30 min to 2h, but their decreased after 1h30 min for using as decoction and Soxhlet methods.

  14. Dr. Maya Sanjiv Indurkar and Dr. Swarali Nanasaheb Nagare

    Background: Dentin hypersensitivity (DH) is a common oral health problem affecting one or more teeth of many individuals. Recently, considerable attention is being given to the research concerning the use of mineral components of inorganic portion of the tooth structure - calcium and phosphate in dentistry. Nano-HAP containing dentifrices are newer products which are available in market for DH. Objective: To compare and evaluate the effect of nano-HAP dentifrice with 5% Potassium nitrate containing dentifrice, which has been widely used in reducing DH. Methods: The study was a single centre, randomized double blind, parallel group design with a duration of 4 weeks. About 46 patients were selected, randomly divided into two groups and provided with one of the either dentifrices: • Nano-HAP containing - AclaimTM, Group Pharmaceuticals, Bangalore, India. • 5% Potassium Nitrate containing - RA ThermosealTM, ICPA Health Products Ltd., Mumbai, India. They were evaluated clinically using three different stimuli, i.e., tactile, air blast, and cold water test. Patient’s response to various stimuli were recorded using Visual Analog Scale (VAS) at baseline and after 4 weeks. Inter-group comparison and Intra-group comparison at baseline and after 4 weeks were evaluated using Mann-Whitney Test and Wilcoxon matched-pairs signed-ranks test for non-normally distributed variables. Results: Both groups showed reduction in sensitivity scores at 4 weeks of usage of respective dentifrices, difference between groups was statistically non-significant. Conclusions: Because nano-HAP containing dentifrice showed greater reduction in sensitivity compared to potassium nitrate containing dentifrice, it may provide a new direction for treatment of DH.

  15. Anudeep Babu Aravala, Akarsh Kumar, Sasank Devarakonda

    Start-ups are much-needed shields to drive the developing economy like India. In today’s competitive arena, start-ups entail numerous benefits in terms of leading the innovation in turbulent times. Our line of focus is on start-ups because they are strongly believing sustainability as the new currency when compared to profitability which helps to foster the economic, social, and environment quadrants. in other words, it is a mutually progressive instance for both talented aspirants and organizations. This study covers the vital impacts of start-ups on decrementing the unemployment rate in India and covers how the start-ups counter the crisis situations, which in turn helps in the holistic development of this knowledge-based eco-system.

  16. Shilpa Bais, Payal Kamble, Shivani Chandekar, Ankit Katre, Akshay Ade, Rohit Bhivgade Prachi Pathak and Kamlesh Meshram

    India is rich in water resources, having a network of as many as 113 rivers and vast alluvial basins to hold plenty of ground water. But due to tremendous increase in the demand of water due to increase in population as well as the deterioration of available water, it has now become the necessity to find ways to reuse the available water. Hence it becomes important to find ways to treat the available polluted water in the simplest way for the benefit of mankind. In this work, evaluation of vermifiltration using different natural ingredients and activated charcoal is done. Activated charcoal is used as natural Ingredient employing Eisenia Fetida (Earthworm species) to filter sewage waste water. The whole investigation was carried out for 90 days and the filtrated water was tested for various critical parameters namely, pH, removal efficiency of BOD, COD, Total dissolved solids, Total suspended solids, Turbidity, Odour, Colour, Nitrate, Chlorine. The aim of this review is to evaluate the performance of vermifilter using activated charcoal.

  17. Reeti Pandya and Dr. Darshana Bhatt

    The present paper critically examines the challenging idea of India’s ‘Subaltern tradition and culture keeping into consideration the well acclaimed novel of Devi: Chotti Munda and His Arrow. This paper has been prepared in order to explore the correlation between narrative style, language, and the Subaltern studies. Most of her celebrated fiction deals with the tribal, and the Dalits, and their contribution in the Socio-Cultural Indian History. The major concerns of the present research are to tackle the issues of exploitation, the concern with gender-bias as well as the use of language as a tool to subvert the stereotypical narrative style of the so-called ‘Main-stream’ authors. The power that lies in the narrative fiction of Mahasweta Devi has been consistently analyzed and critically studied in order to shape the present research. The central focus of the paper remains to be the narrative organization which may include the Tribal Dialogic Exchange, along with the Indian Context. This analysis has been followed by the visible context of ‘Resistance’, and ‘Post-Colonial Studies’ in the present works of Mahasweta Devi. These texts also incorporate within them the various issues of class, race, and gender. The major subaltern groups in Mahasweta Devi’s fiction dwell in the states such as, Bihar, Bengal, and Orissa. As a whole the paper acts as a complete Discourse of the themes which have been already mentioned above.

  18. Annie A. Parmis and Precious C. Domingo

    This study was conducted to investigate the students' English language proficiency and anxiety level among Freshmen College and Senior High School students at the Visayas State University (VSU). The first set of data was gathered from 227 Freshmen College students selected at random. Research instruments used were a questionnaire, English proficiency tests, and in-depth interviews. Data were gathered using descriptive statistics. Wilcoxon and Friedman analyses were also used. Results showed that the Freshmen College students' overall English language proficiency is "fair". Most of them had average proficiency in listening, speaking, reading, and writing. Only a few got high proficiency level in these areas. Through in-depth interviews, results further revealed that the factors affecting the respondents' English language proficiency were the type of school attended, sources of support, English teachers, study habits, and attitudes toward the English language. The study has come to conclude that respondents were aware of their level of language proficiency, and that they could attribute this on some factors that somewhat affect their learning of the target language. The second set of data was gathered from 203 Senior High School students through a questionnaire and English proficiency tests. Data were analyzed using descriptive statistics and Pearson r statistical analysis was employed to determine relationship between proficiency and anxiety. Findings revealed that the Senior High School students were competent users of the English language in four language skills -- listening, speaking, reading, and writing. This means that they can communicate and express their ideas well using the English language. Results suggest that taking a proficiency test to determine one's level in language proficiency would be a good challenge for students if they really do want to improve their proficiency in the target language which is English.

  19. Giulio Tarro, MD, PhD

    Northern Italy, especially Lombardia and Veneto, has been affected by the COVID-19 coronavirus epidemic for weeks. Trying to isolate the carriers of the disease in connection with China is not an effective strategy to contain the disease, since the virus is transmitted like the flu virus and we can expect to have patients who have had no contact with possible carriers. According to Coronavirus genetic map, there are 3 isolated viruses in Italy. After that of Spallanzani (Rome) Covid 1 (Chinese), that of S. Raffaele Covid 2 (mutation of Chinese already known from the references) called Milanese, here is that of Sacco Hospital which is only a relative of the first two. It seems to be the same as that isolated in Finland, Germany, South America and it is hypothesized to have arrived in Europe long before the Chinese epidemic (November 2019 – March 2020). In Italy, however, the number of swabs and the procedures for carrying them out is essentially left to the arbitration of the Regions; a chaos that prevents any reference model from being determined. With this situation, it is not clear why among the various strategies that could have been adopted, after the home isolation of the population not engaged in certain work activities, there is even a quarantine for all people. Measure that it is not clear how long it can last.The real number of people infected in Italy is at least 4 or five times higher than that declared by the recovered patiens. Lombardia is the region in the first place for using tampons; this is the reason combined with the casual praxis to present as "coronavirus deaths" patients who, on the other hand, could have deaths associated with coronavirus (ie suffering from previous pathologies that caused death) that could explain the "mortality peak for COVID19" of Lombardia. It would be appropriate before identifying the primary cause of death in COVID19, carrying out the necessary pathological investigations and, above all, defining a standard to be applied throughout the national territory.

  20. Dr. Ankur Akela and Dr. Ravi-kant

    BACKGROUND: Intestinal anastomosis is a common procedure both in elective emergency surgeries. The key to a successful anastomosis is the accurate reunion of two viable bowel ends with complete avoidance of tension. Double layer anastomosis incorporates a large amount of ischemic tissue into the suture line leading to tension and increased chance of leakage and luminal narrowing while a single layer anastomosis causes minimal damage to vascular plexus and bowel lumen. OBJECTIVES: To study advantages of single layer v/s double layer anastomosis. METHODS: The materials for the clinical study were collected from patients admitted to Indira Gandhi Institute Of Medical Sciences Patna. GROUP1-All single layer anastomosis was performed by using continuous synthetic absorbable monofilament 3-0 suture taking all layers of bowel wall except the mucosa in to the bite. GROUP2-All double layered anastomosis was performed using continuous silk 3-0 Lembert suture for outer layer and continuous running Vicryl 3-0 suture for inner layer. RESULTS: A total of 96 patients were included in the study. The average time taken for anastomosis was 9.12 min for single layer whereas for double layer it was 13.38 min. The mean time taken for return of bowel sounds for single layer anastomosis was 2.32 days whereas for double layer it was 3 days. The average duration of hospital stay was 5.9 days for single layer whereas for other group it was 7.29 days. CONCLUSION: Single layered extra mucosal anastomosis is much safer and cost effective than the conventional double layered method.

  21. Dr. Girish Nazirkar, Dr. Dimple Suresh Akul and Dr. Girish Ashok Bakhtar

    A successful management of full mouth rehabilitation demands a multi-disciplinary approach for its long-term success. Treatment of a maxillary and mandibular distal free end edentulous arch along with upper and lower anterior teeth requires various contemporary and conventional prosthodontic treatment modalities. Management of distal extension situation provides complexity of biomechanical problems due to the three-dimensional movements of the distal extension denture. Cast partial dentures can be an excellent option when economic or anatomic conditions do not permit the use of dental implants. They give functionally and esthetically good results. This article describes full mouth rehabilitation of a partially edentulous patient with cast partial dentures and fixed partial denture.

  22. Şükrü Kalaycı

    In this study, the novel membrane chloride-selective electrode consisting of 30% of tridodesylmethylammoniumchloride (TDMC) as the active material, 50% of PVC as the membrane matrix and 20% of dibutylphatalate (DBF) as the plasticizer wasdeveloped. In this electrode, the potential change occurs from 10-5 to 10-1 M chloride ion and the slope of linear portion corresponds to 55,0± 2,0mV per decade change of chloride concentration. Furthermore, the interference effects of some ions, such as F-, I-, NO3-, SO42-, Na+, K+, Cu2+ and Fe3+ were not observed.The response time and lifetime of electrode was 60 s and 6 months, respectively. It has been observed that pH did not affect the sensitivity of the electrode. This electrode has been used for the direct determination of 32,0 ± 0,5 mg/L chloride in the spring water.

  23. RODRIGUES, Alexandre Fernandes da Silva;MEIRELES, Gláucia Oliveira Abreu Batista, REIS, Meillyne Alves dos, MATOS, Marcos André de, MELO, Lígia Bráz, MOURA, Sinara Gomes; SANTOS, Nádia Ferreira Silva, OLIVEIRA, Elizângela Diniz Fernandes, Moraes Filho, Ie

    Objetivo: Descrever o conhecimento dos enfermeiros sobre o gerenciamento dos resíduos de serviço de saúde gerados nas Unidades Básicas de Saúde no município de Anápolis-Goiás. Metodologia: Trata-se de um estudo descritivo com abordagem qualitativa.Foi utilizada a amostra probabilística aleatória simples por sorteio, a partir de uma lista no total de 35 Unidades existentes, da qual foi escolhida a amostra desejada, de 20 UBS no total para atender 57% da assistência atendida no Município de Anápolis GO. A amostra foi composta por 14 enfermeiros (as). Foi utilizado o método de análise a partir da perspectiva de BARDIN (2011). Resultados: Através da análise dos dados foram levantadas 4 categorias e 1 subcategoria, sendo elas: Categoria 1: Conhecimento sobre o RSS e a sua dificuldade em classificá-los.Subcategoria 1.1: A falta de estrutura e oferta dos insumos dificultam o fluxo de segregação e manejo dos RSS.Categoria 2: A incerteza sobre o manejo externo e a disposição final dos RSS.Categoria 3: A importância do enfermeiro na elaboração do PGRSS e sua contribuição na assistência de enfermagem indireta.Categoria 4: As ações de enfermagem na educação continuada e permanente para redução dos impactos ambientais causados pela falta do GRSS. Considerações: A falta do conhecimento técnico acerca do PGRSS vem de encontro com o pouco contato com as legislações vigentes que abordam essa temática. O conhecimento das leis e resoluções com abordagem ambiental se faz necessário para a prática da assistência segura exercida pelo profissional de enfermagem, com ênfase no enfermeiro.O enfermeiro, como líder da equipe de enfermagem, desempenha um papel importante quanto à orientação e supervisão das etapas relativas ao adequado manejo dos RSS nas UBS, até o seu descarte final. Esse profissional articula-se com os demais atuando, tanto em situações terapêuticas quanto naquelas gerenciais, inclusive, participando das negociações das políticas institucionais, e demais atividades, onde pode-se citar a elaboração do PGRSS. Acredita-se que espaços de reflexão, no cotidiano da assistência, podem produzir mudanças na realidade de trabalho. Essa investigação desperta para a necessidade de implantação de estratégias de educação, objetivando minimizar agravos à saúde e ao meio ambiente oriundos do descarte incorreto dos RSS.

  24. Dr. Arunkumar, J.R., Dr. Sundar Rajan M. and Dr. Anusuya, R.

    This paper presents on key issue in WSN is to develop an energy-efficient clustering Protocol with lower energy consumption for transferring information from channel heads to BS (Base Station). A multi-level hierarchical structure performs in effectively route and collect data in WSN. Hierarchical clustering algorithms are having the increased network lifetime. The primary point in these algorithms is the cluster head selection using midpoint algorithm to improve initial centroid selection procedure. The proposed protocol works on selecting the best Cluster Head (CH) by considering some parameters such as residual energy, distance between cluster heads, nodes and base station to work on long lifetime of network. Overall simulation performance is compared with standard algorithms and achieved efficient energy consumption.

  25. Sondos A. Alturkistani and Shadi S. Al-Khayyat and Marwan R. Al-Hajeili

    Targeted anit-cancer drugs in general and Tyrosine Kinas inhibitors specifically have been approved and used recently; so did the understanding of their limitations and side effects. Hitherto, side effects of certain Tyrosine Kinase inhibitors are still being reported with no or little precedents. An example of these rare under reported adverse reactions is hepatic encephalopathy (HE) which has been reported for a total of 11 times with Sunitinib, Regorafenib, Sorafenib and once with Pazopanib. This is a case of a 32-year-old known case of advanced breast adenocarcinoma who underwent neoadjuvant chemotherapy followed by surgery and radiotherapy with excellent response initially but progressed unfortunately to include metastatic chondrosarcoma. Pazopanib has been offered to the patient at her late stages as part of a palliative therapy plan. Soon after, the patient presented to the ER with change in level of consciousness. After ruling out other differentials; HE has been suspected then approved when symptoms resolved after its discontinuation and proper management. The infrequent encounter of HE as a side effect of Pazopanib renders its diagnosis a challenge. This case illustrates the importance of keeping an open mind to rare diagnoses and is a valuable addition to the literature in this matter.

  26. Rabiul Islam, Md. Abu Sayeed Imran, Md. Golam Mosaib , Md. Ekhlas Uddin, Shahriar Mahmud, Shaharuq Nahid Sohana and Md. Firoz Alam

    Nutrient deficiency in the soil poses a big challenge to food production globally. The use of artificial nitrogen fertilizer to aid crop yield is a common farming practice, despite its undesirable effects and hazard to the environment and human population. This research work aimed at isolation, identification & characterization of Rhizobium species from chickpea rhizospheric soil samples collected of the southern region of faridpur district in Bangladesh. Isolation of Rhizobium species was culture on Yeast Extract Mannitol Agar (YEMA) medium incubated 3 days at 320C. A total of 10 Rhizobium species isolates were isolated from rhizospheric soil samples. They are also found to be gram-negative, rod-shaped morphology, fast grower, indole producers and positive for catalase test. All isolates were found with bare absorption of Congo red dye & no growth on YEMA with 2% NaCl. Out of 10 only 3 isolates (FSRS-3, FSRS-7, and FSRS-9) were identified as Rhizobium species on the basis of the authentication test (nodulation check with (Cicer arietinum). These three rhizobial isolates may be useful to increase the symbiotic biological nitrogen fixation in legume plant chickpea (Cicer arietinum) and can be used as potential biofertilizer owing to their plant growth-promoting characters.

  27. Dr. Isa-Allean Blacksher ND, OMD, PhD

    Swift and virulent, the CORONA VIRUS continues to sweep across the globe causing the deadly infectious COVID-19 disease with such a violent and calculated force that the world struggles to find ways to understand, control, combat or even intercept this new virus. The world is gripped in fear! The word coronavirus refers to the family of viruses that cause respiratory infections that it belongs to and COVID-19 is the official name for the disease it causes. 1 At this point Stanford University has announced that the Corona virus may be up to 85 times more infectious then being reported. 2 As scientists and healthcare workers contemplate the negative impact and deadly pathological aspects of this disease the goal of finding a viable treatment option becomes increasingly important for a disease that presently has no known cure. Right now several options are being investigated in laboratories worldwide to help pharmaceutical companies develop treatments and vaccinations, but development of these involves accurate research and timely trials that will prevent immediate availability. So what about the alternative options? There are actually unique and effective alternative phytochemical medicinals that can treat viruses including the Corona virus and others like SARS and H1N1. But overall it is known that in the west the general public is not encouraged to consider alternative medicine as a first-option, especially for treating a global pandemic condition like this! Although alternative methods are just as viable scientifically and have been proven effective for treatment of symptoms experienced with the COVID-19 – the public may be too afraid to contemplate this right now. But, what if these options work? As a doctor, parent and world citizen, I would truly appreciate any type of a feasible treatment defense against this pandemic - I feel that it would be crucially valuable to me, my family, my community, and ultimately to the world. So far though, knowledge of an alternative option like this for COVID-19 has eluded mainstream officials and the mainstream media has not even mentioned the topic. PubMed ONLY has one listing 3 and more content can be found about alternative options on YouTube than from a western medical doctor in a hospital setting, but In the east the situation is very different. In China, alternative and mainstream medicine reside side-by-side in the same hospitals, alternative medicines were and still are being utilized to treat the virus and this has helped many of their patients recover and control the deadly symptoms of the virus. In the USA however, alternative medicine is not considered mainstream and at the time of an outbreak it may not even considered a relevant or safe option because it is not thought to be truly medicinal or effective enough for treating extreme conditions like COVID-19. The fact is, studies show that there are several safe, effective alternative treatment options for COVID-19 that work.

  28. Deborah Rebecca Kyazze, Dr. John S. Maani and Rev Dr. Grace Lubaale

    Cognitive development begins right from birth, and as a child develops with time his/her mental abilities increase, depending on stimuli and people he/she interfaces with. The research study focused on examining the fathers’ parenting practices and the children’s cognitive development from three through five years of Mityana District. The study used a cross sectional research design and data was generated using focal group discussions, interview guides and child behavior rating scale. The study revealed that there were various parenting practices among fathers’ which contribute to the Children’s development of language, problem solving skills as well as growth in intelligence from three through five years. After the Pearson correlation coefficient statistics was done it was established Fathers’ parenting practices and Children’s concept development were found to have a very positive relationship (r=0.417, p<0.05), Fathers’ parenting practices and Children’s development of language were found to have a significant positive relationship (r=0.532, p<0.05) and Fathers’ parenting practices and children’s problem solving were found to have an average positive relationship (r=0.380, p<0.05).Arising out of the findings, the study recommends that fathers’ parenting programs be put in place to help them commit more quality time with their children for better mental development.

  29. Dr. Kabilan Saminathan. MS, MCh

    Urethral strictures in children are rare. Their incidence is not reported even in text books. Even institutions with 32 years of practice have experienced only a few cases. Principles we use for adult strictures is followed for children. Most of strictures in children are due to trauma. Most common strictures are Posterior urethral distraction Defects. The posterior injuries are difficult to manage than in adult. Incidence of incontinence and impotence higher than adult injuries. The anterior urethral injuries are commonly due to urethral instrumentation. Straddle injuries are very uncommon, as in this patient. Can be managed effectively like adult injuries.

  30. Farin Angoom Mithila, Md. Monowar Hossain, Ashik Tanvir Riham and Mahbubul Morshed

    Novel coronavirus was first reported on December 2019 in Wuhan, Hubei Province, China and so far more than 33,00,000 infections and over 2,34,000 deaths have been reported. The detail mechanism of action of this virus to host cell or body is remaining unknown. This virus could transfer during human-to-human close contacts, with a basic reproductive number about 2.5. To identify the target for vaccine therapy or other antiviral drug design, it is important to understand the virus attachment mechanism to the host, replication, transmission, etc. This study is an overview of these mechanisms reported so far from different research groups. This review will help us to understand COVID-19 and its mechanism of action in human body.

  31. Edwige-Salomé Sopie YAPO, Chigata Lohona SORO, Martine Manéhonon BEUGRE, Dognimeton SORO, Koutoua AYOLIE, N’guessan Olivier KONAN and Justin Yatty KOUADIO

    Maize (Zea mays L.) is a cereal that has grown in all agricultural regions of the world. It is a cereal grown in a wide variety of growing conditions ranging from tropical to temperate climates. However, climate change, which is causing more intense drought followed by severe soil degradation, will lead to a reduction in the development and production of maize plants in northern Côte d'Ivoire. The aim of this study was to develop high-performance cultivars adapted to environmental conditions within a short period of time; Gamma radiation-induced mutation techniques were initiated. Three different gamma radiation doses (100; 200; 300 Grays) were applied to maize seeds of the variety EV8728. These seeds had grown and the technique of controlled self-fertilization was carried out as soon as the first flowers appeared. Data collected were analyzed with Statistic software. The impact of gamma irradiation at different doses on the growth and yield of first generation maize mutants was evaluated. Analyses of variance showed that the different irradiation doses had a very highly significant effect (p < 0.001) on all parameters studied. Stem heights showed a reduction of 7.41 % in stem height for 100 and 200 Grays dose followed by a reduction of 25.6 % for 300 Grays dose compared to the control. The weight of spikes with and without the spathes decreases with increasing radiation dose. The highest values were given by plants from controls (120, 26± 8,93a) and the lowest values were obtained from plants that seeds were irradiated at the 300 Grays dose (66,29 ± 16,51c). All, the results obtained indicate a significant reduction in the morphological and production parameters studied, except for sensitivity or resistance to lodging which is not related to the different doses. This reduction is accentuated at 300 Grays compared to the other radiation doses and the control. This effect is more or less important depending on the dose applied and is reflected in the biomasses or dimensions of the organs. For example, the use of gamma radiation has led to a morphological and physiological change in maize plants grown with new capabilities. These data have shown that gamma radiation can, at any dose, create drought resistant crop mutant to improve maize production in areas affected by severe soil degradation.

  32. Dr. Sutanu Modak

    Alternate rapid maxillary expansion and constriction (Alt-RAMEC) is a very effective procedure before facemask therapy as it loosens the palatal suture very efficiently and prevent unnecessary over-expansion of maxilla. A 12 years old patient reported with retrognathic maxilla with anterior crossbite. Posterior arch width was normal. Alternate rapid maxillary expansion and constriction was done followed by facemask therapy. Forward movement of maxilla has occurred. After skeletal correction fixed mechanotherapy was carried out to correct minor dental discrepancy.

  33. Dr. Abira Chattopadhyay, Dr. Aritra Chatterjee, Dr. Soumen Mandal, Dr. Md. Arif Hossain, Dr. Mohsina Hussain and Dr. Sanjit Barman

    Background: Intramuscular vascular malformations are uncommon tumours in the head and neck region. The masseter muscle is the most common site. Approximately 40% of the venous malformations are located in the head and neck region and occasionally are associated with phleboliths. Because of their rare occurrence, deep location and unfamiliar presentation, these malformations are often difficult to diagnose and treat subsequently. Objective: The objective of the study is to formulate a correct diagnosis and treatment plan when this type of lesion is encountered to prevent untoward complications or recurrence. Case Report: We present a case of a middle aged lady, presenting with secondarily infected intra masseteric venous malformation with phleboliths. The lesion was excised in toto along with the masseter muscle and the patient was followed up for 6 months. Conclusion: Any lesion in the region of the parotid or angle-ramus must be evaluated thoroughly prior to surgery. In cases of Intra masseteric venous malformations, where surgery is the primary option, total masseteric excision should be the treatment of choice as there is negligible cosmetic or functional disability, a better chance of clearance and reduced incidence of recurrence.

  34. Dr. Tarush Thakur, Dr. Rohit Gupta, Dr. Aprajita Dogra and Dr. Shipra Mahajan

    Introduction: Patients who undergo orthodontic therapy also have changes in their oral ecologic, such as a low-pH environment, increased retentive sites for Streptococcus mutans, preventive strategies should be independent of patient cooperation, and the drug should be released over a prolonged period of time. Hence incorporation of antibacterial agents in orthodontic adhesivess provide desired results. Aims and objectives: To assess the antimicrobial properties of orthodontic composite resin when combined with various antimicrobial agents and their effect on the mechanical properties of the composite material along with the evaluation of the release of anti-microbial agents from the modified composite. Material and Methods: 100 extracted premolars divided into 4 groups (25each)and each group was bonded with composite adhesive mixed with respective anti-microbial agent Benzalkonium Chloride 0.1% (w/w) ,Chlorhexidine 0.2% (w/w) and Triclosan :0.3% (w/w)The statistical analysis was done using IBM SPSS (Statistical package for social sciences) software (Version 21.0). Conclusion: Benzalkonium chloride modified adhesive showed better dependability and clinical reliability as compared to Triclosan modified orthodontic adhesive group and Chlorhexidine modified orthodontic adhesive group.

  35. Ketaki Kanade and Vivek Singh Tanwar

    The pandemic of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), originated in China, has become a major public health challenge for all the countries around the world. The World Health Organization has declared thishappeningas a public health emergency of international concern. As of April 20, 2020, COVID-19 has been recognized to spread globally, with a total of 2,314,621 laboratory-confirmed cases and 1, 57, 847 deaths. Infection control measures are necessary to prevent the virus from spreading further. Considering dental practice, the risk of spreading this infection is very high between patients and dentists. In this regard, for dental clinics and hospitals in affected areas with COVID-19, strict and effective infection control protocols are urgently needed. This article highlights essential knowledge about Covid-19, its spread in dental settings, preventive measures for it and management protocols for dental practitioners, based on relevant guidelines and research.

  36. Dr. Santhi, J.

    Health implies a sound mind, in a sound body, in a sound family and in a sound environment. At present changes in lifestyle and dietary pattern stemming from rapid modernization have favoured an increase in non-communicable diseases among the people. Among the non-communicable diseases diabetes is now recognized as one of the fastest growing threats to public health in almost all countries of the world. Globally, an estimated 463 million adults are living with diabetes, according to the latest 2019 data from the International Diabetes Federation. In order to effectively manage diabetes people must acquire the necessary knowledge on diabetes. The objective of the study is to know the knowledge on diabetes and its management among the selected Diabetics. For this study there are 300 Diabetics in the age group of 30 – 50 years were purposely selected by purposive random sampling method from the three villages namely Athoor, N. Panchampatti and Perumalkovilpatti in Athoor Block of Dindigul District, Tamil Nadu. In order to collect the required data an Interview Schedule was framed and pre tested. The finalized Schedule was used to collect the data from the Diabetics. To assess the knowledge on diabetes among the Diabetics the scores were given. The data was analyzed using the Statistical Package of Social Sciences (SPSS 16.0) programme. Among the selected 300 Diabetics 164 (54.7 %) of the Diabetics were males and 136 (45.3 %) of the Diabetics were females. More than half (56%) of the Diabetics were either illiterates or had education only up to primary level. One third (27%) of the Diabetics belonged to sedentary type of workers. The majority (86%) of the Diabetics belonged to low income and economically weaker section group. Among the Diabetics 32.7 percent, 30 percent and 22.7 percent reported that they got the information on Diabetes through mass media such as Television, Radio and Newspaper respectively. Twenty percent and 13 percent of them reported that they got the information from Physicians and ANM (Auxiliary Nurse Midwife) respectively. Regarding knowledge on diabetes more than half (54%) of the Diabetics obtained very poor scores (1-10). Forty five percent (45%) of the Diabetics obtained poor scores (11-20). Only one percent of the Diabetics belonged to the fair group (20-30). It was noticed that none of the Diabetics scored above thirty. This indicates their knowledge on diabetes was very poor. Hence, the study concludes, it is felt essential to give diabetic education to the Diabetics to effective management of their diabetes.

  37. Mary Njeri Thiong’o (PhDc) and Dr. Sunday Baba

    A business ecosystem provides the assets and environment within which entrepreneurs and businesses operate. The health status of the business ecosystem influences the development, growth and sustainability of the enterprises. Agribusiness incubation being a new concept in Africa and executed using different models coupled with the sparse assets, there is a need to develop an understanding of agribusiness incubation and the operational ecosystem. An Incubator ecosystem mapping provides the baseline understanding of the resources including assets necessary for successful agribusiness incubation services to be provided. The mapping process included consultations with Agricultural, Technical, Vocational Education and Training institutes (40), recommendations from the project inception meetings, information derived from the field data collected from 24 Research /Vocational/ Technical Institutes, 90 Agribusinesses, 7 Associations, 30 Service providers, 16 Financial service providers, 11 policy related institutions, 3 Government Ministries in Accra, 4 Incubators, 30 Ministry of Food &Agriculture (MOFA) potential incubators, 50 Potential Incubators by Ministry of Business Development and 60 Business Advisory Centers (BACs). The mapping identified several institutions such as colleges of agriculture and vocational institutes with assets that could support agriculture and agribusiness incubation for in cubatees or accelerate small and medium enterprises (SMEs) to create opportunities. The diagnostic concluded that the existing assets were able to enrich the incubation ecosystem and support the growth and development of incubators. Depending on the geolocation and spatial distribution, the different assets could play a critical supporting role in enriching the incubators ecosystems and increase the probability of success of any business incubation program. In conclusion, it was established while the incubator and entrepreneurship ecosystem is improving in Ghana, there were still fundamental changes that needed to happen, especially focused on the management of viable assets, attitudes towards working together, enhanced cooperation and less competition as well as government increasing its efforts to provide affordable co-working spaces and collaborating with private business and capacity development providers. The diagnostic review recommended that there was need for diverse ecosystem actors to collaborate on initiatives aimed at building the business ecosystem. This would improve the business incubation ecosystem, the operating environment; accelerate the nurturing of innovations, which would in turn improve the growth and the success of fledgling start-ups for enhanced decent jobs and wealth generation.

  38. Dr. Vishnu Priya, M.

    Background: Children and sports go hand in hand. When it comes to water sports and especially swimming, they are the favourite forms of exercise for children. As per the study by Nilesh Netaji Kate et al., 2012, exercise in the form of swimming for more than two years produces a significant improvement in the pulmonary functions. This improvement is directly proportional to the duration of swimming. Hence, this study is carried out to compare the lung functions between children swimming regularly for the past two to three years and non-swimming children. Aim: To assess and compare the basal anthropometric parameters and pulmonary ventilation among swimming and non- swimming children. Forced Vital Capacity (FVC), Forced Expiratory Volume in first second (FEV1), Forced Expiratory Volume percentage (FEV1%) and Peak Expiratory Flow Rate (PEFR) are recorded using a spirometer. Methodology: A total of 120 subjects were included for the study. Study group consisted of 60 male & female children of age 8 to 12 years, from Dr.MGR Stadium, Race Course, Madurai who has been swimming regularly for at least 3 days a week for the past two to three years. Age, Sex and BMI matched 60 children who have not indulged in any sports activity were allocated as the control group. Basal anthropometric parameters were recorded. Basal cardiovascular parameters were recorded. The pulmonary functions of the subjects were measured using portable computerised spirometer (spirobank-G). Spirometry was performed with the subject in the sitting position, head slightly elevated and nose clips applied. After taking a deep breath the subjects were asked to expire as fast and forcibly as possible into the mouth piece. The best of three consistent trials was recorded. Results: Statistical analysis by student’s t- test revealed that the anthropometric and basal cardiovascular parameters did not vary significantly between the study and control group with a ‘p’ value > 0.05. The pulmonary function tests show an increase in swimmers when compared with normal individuals. Results analysed using student’s t- test revealed a statistically significant ‘p’ value (p <0.05). Conclusion: The present study concludes that exercise in the form of swimming for more than two years produces a significant improvement in the pulmonary functions. This improvement is directly proportional to the duration of swimming. Hence swimming inculcated at an early age makes the children grow into a healthy, confident and self- esteemed adults.

  39. Abeer Alatawi, Eloisa M. Bonus, Reem Hommadi, Shroq Abutaleb, Amani Saleh, Reem Aldarbi and Abeer Alharbi

    Background: Kingdom of Saudi Arabia employees a large number of health professionals from various nationalities. It is pertinent to assume that nursing of patients would be affected seriously owing to the differences in professional attitude of health care nurses working in various hospitals in KSA. Moreover, there is no research study that has investigated the outdoor patient’s satisfaction, therefore this study is to provide base line for evaluating patients satisfaction regarding health care services. Purpose: Main aim of this study was to assess the patients’ satisfaction related to quality of nursing care provided at King Khaled (KKH) and King Fahad (KFH) Hospitals in Tabuk City, Saudi Arabia. Method: Cross-sectional descriptive study design was used to recruit 100 patients from outpatient department (OPD) in two regional hospitals in Saudi Arabia. A standardized questionnaire, “Patient Satisfaction with Nursing Care Quality Questionnaire (PSNCQQ) was used to collect data with slight modifications to suit regional cultural variations. Results: The majority of the OPD patients were satisfied with the quality of nursing care provided by the two governmental hospitals. Courtesy and respect was found to be the highest rates parameter among the several tested parameters of quality care which indicates a strong cultural norms of care and family values are still intact. It also revealed that the patients were least satisfied on how much nurses values the importance of choices with regards to treatment and the recognition of patient’s opinions. Conclusion: Overall quality of nursing care was satisfactory however a communication gap between patients and nurses needs to be removed wherein patients would be involved in making decision about certain medical care and treatments. Health care strategies should thus focus on improving communication skills of the nursing staff to have a stronger impact on health care satisfaction level among the patients.

  40. Dr. Mohit Biswas, Dr. Arjun Agarwal, Dr. Sanjib Biswas, Dr. Jyoti Bisht, Dr. Gaurav Vishal and Shubham Biswas

    Background: Mucoepidermoid carcinoma (MEC) is the most common malignant neoplasm of the major salivary glands, accounting for 15.5% of all cases, benign and malignant. Mucoepidermoid carcinoma is the most frequent primary salivary malignancy, followed by adenoid cystic and acinic cell carcinoma. Case report: This case corresponds 40 years-old male patient who reported to the outpatient department of RMCH Bareilly, UP with the chief complaints of painless swelling with pus discharge on the left preauricular region of the face since 2 years. The mass was associated with wound and pus discharge and lymphodenopathy. MRI neck reveals relatively well defined oval lobulated mass lesion involving the left parotid. Core biopsy of the lesion revealed impression of MEC. Outcome: Parotidectomy procedure was done involving both superficial and deep lobes taking care not to injure the facial nerve. The histological picture confirmed that the tumour was MEC of parotid gland. Discussion: MEC of the parotid gland clinically manifest as an asymptomatic swelling. A low and intermediate grade of tumors often undergoes primary surgical excision and a High-grade tumor includes surgical excision with wide margins followed by radiotherapy. Prognosis depends on three main factors: clinical stage, histological grade and treatment. Distant MEC metastases relate to a poor prognosis. The survival rate for patients with distant metastases is 2.3 - 2.6 years.

  41. Yogeswari, M. and Dr. Jayasankari, S.

    Introduction: Antenatal care is the systemic medical supervision of antenatal mother during pregnancy period. World Health Organization recommends a minimum of four antenatal visits, comprising interventions such as tetanus toxoid vaccination, screening and treatment for infections and identification of warning signs during pregnancy. In India the maternal mortality ratio has been maintained at a higher level since long. Statement of the problem: “A study to assess the effect of video assisted teaching programme on knowledge and attitude regarding antenatal care among antenatal mothers in primary health center, Kalapet, Puducherry”. Objectives of the study: 1. To assess the level of knowledge and attitude on antenatal care among antenatal mothers. 2. To assess the effect of Video Assisted Teaching Programme on knowledge and attitude regarding antenatal care among antenatal mothers. 3. To correlate the knowledge and attitude on antenatal care among antenatal mothers. 4. To determine the association between level of knowledge and attitude regarding antenatal care among antenatal mothers with selected socio demographic variables. Methodology: An evaluative approach with pre-experimental one group pre-test and post test design was used in the study. The study was conducted in primary health center, Kalapet, a rural area of Puducherry. Prior to data collection permission was obtained from Directorate of Health and Family Welfare Services for conducting the main study. 30 antenatal mothers who fulfill the inclusion criteria were selected by purposive sampling technique. The data was collected using structured interview schedule on knowledge regarding antenatal care and 5 point likert scale to assess the attitude regarding antenatal care. Results: In pre test 18(60%) had Inadequate knowledge, 12 (40%) had moderately adequate Knowledge and none of them had adequate knowledge. In post-test, 18 (60%) had moderately adequate Knowledge, 12(40%) had adequate knowledge and none of them had inadequate knowledge. In pre test 3(10%) had neutral attitude, 27 (90%) had desirable attitude. In Post-Test 30 (100.0%) had desirable attitude, none of them had neither undesirable nor neutral attitude. Video assisted teaching programme was effective in improving the level of knowledge (t= 20.924) and attitude (t=8.148) regarding antenatal care among antenatal mothers at p<0.001.There was weak correlation between knowledge and attitude ( r=0.143). There was a statistically significant association between level of knowledge with previous knowledge at p<0.05. There was no statistically significant association between level of attitude and socio demographic variables. Conclusion: The findings of the study revealed that there is a significant difference between the pre test and post test level of knowledge and attitude regarding Antenatal care among antenatal mothers at different time points of study period. Hence it is proved that video assisted teaching programme was effective in enhancing the level of knowledge and attitude of antenatal mothers regarding antenatal care. There is significant association between pre test level of knowledge and attitude on antenatal care with selected socio demographic variables.

  42. MALIK Koussoh Simone, COULIBALY Madikiny, BAYO Syntyche and KOUMI Marie Dorothée

    Background: Hypertensive disorders of pregnancy are public health problems. Women with Hypertensive disorders of pregnancy are five times more likely to have perinatal death compared with women who have no hypertensive disorders of pregnancy. Objectives: The aim of this review is to determine associated factors and describe maternal and fetal outcomes of hypertension disorders in pregnancy in africa south of the sahara. Methods: We did a comprehensive literature review using the databases Pub Med/Medline, and search engine google scholar. We selected sources of publications and conducted an analysis of articles in order to keep the most relevant ones concerning our problematic. The search consisted of a literature review of databases PubMed/ Medline and search engines Google scholar. Keywords in english were: hypertension, pregnancy, africa south of the sahara. Keywords in french were: hypertension artérielle, grossesse, afrique au sud du sahara. Mesh terms were: hypertension, pregnancy, africa south of the sahara. Results: Fifteen articles were selected. Prevalence of hypertensive disorders in pregnancy ranges from 1.2% to 18.25%. Several factors were associated with hypertension disorders in pregnancy. These factors included, age of women; parity, level of education, residence area, lifestyle. There are many maternal consequences including premature delivery, cesarean delivery, preeclampsia and eclampsia, postpartum hemorrhage, maternal death. Fetal outcomes are also dramatic, including preterm birth, stunting, low birth weight, poor APGAR, respiratory distress or perinatal death. Conclusion: This review shows that hypertensive disorders in pregnancy cause a high burden of morbidity mortality both in mothers as in their offspring.

  43. Dr. Vijeta Vyas, Dr. RaviKiran, N., Dr. Sameer Ahmed, Dr. Vatsala Singh and Dr. Kratika Baldua

    Gingival growths are one amongst the foremost frequently encountered lesions within the mouth. Most of those lesions aren't offensive, but some do have malignant potential. Gingival fibroma arises from the connective tissue or from the periodontal ligament. Peripheral ossifying fibroma (POF) is one amongst the infrequently occurring gingival lesion occurring frequently within the anterior maxilla with female predilection. This article describes a case report of 45 year old female patient with gingival enlargement in maxillary anterior region. The duration of disease was four years and was diagnosed as peripheral ossifying fibroma based on clinical, radiographic and histological features and was managed by surgical excision.

  44. Dr. Nandita Sood, Dr. Indu Dhiman, Dr. Neeru Bhagat, Dr. Ankur Sharma, Dr. Nitish Abrol and Dr. Harsh Sood

    Aim: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the correlation of the actual and effective symphysis with other craniofacial parameters to detect the direction of mandibular growth. Material and Methods: The sample for the study consisted of 120 patients (60 males and 60 females) with age of the subjects ranging from 18 to 30 years, having Class I skeletal and dental relations and full permanent dentition regardless the third molars. Two symphyseal measurements with eleven measurements for mandibular rotation were assessed using AutoCAD computer program. Statistical analysis: Descriptive statistics, Independent samples t-test and Pearson’s Correlation Coefficient were used to evaluate the correlation of the actual and effective symphysis with other craniofacial parameters, gender difference and the ethnic difference. Results: For both the genders and the total sample, the actual symphysis did not show any significant correlation with the facial heights and the mandibular rotation angles, whereas on the other hand, the effective symphysis showed significant positive correlations with Jarabak ratio and saddle angle, and significant negative correlations with SN-MP, PP-MP, FMA, and Sum of of posterior angles. Conclusion: Effective symphysis is a good predictor of the direction of mandibular rotation whereas the actual symphysis is a bad predictor. Also, actual symphysis exhibited ethnic differences when compared to the Iraqi population.

  45. Dr. Jyoti Bisht, Dr. Arjun Agarwal, Dr. Sunil, R. Panat, Dr. Mohit Biswas, Dr. Gaurav Vishal, Dr. Sushmita Panat, Dr. Swati Goley and Dr. Vaibhav Budakoti

    Background: Leukoplakia is the most common potential malignant disorder found in the oral cavity. There are several factors considered for its management such as habits, size, and site of lesion, type, clinical features, and histopathological features in order to prevent the malignant transformation of leukoplakia. Till date, many studies have been conducted, where only few have mentioned the correct management of Oral Leukoplakia (OL). Thus there is a need for a protocol in the non-surgical management of Oral Leukoplakia. So, the aim of this study was to assess the effectiveness of non-surgical treatment of oral leukoplakia (OL). Materials and Methods: Hundred Clinically and Histopathologically confirmed cases were included in the study. Cases were treated conservatively by using topical Clotrimazole 1% and capsule Lycorich for 10 days. Then patients were followed up for next 3 and 6 months. In this most common type of leukoplakic lesion, type of habit becoming the cause, size of lesion and amount of response to Non-Surgical treatment were assessed. Results: Most common type of Leukoplakia was Homogenous Leukoplakia (76%), majority of patients had smoking habit followed by combination of Alcohol and Smoking habit (30%); Tobacco chewing and Smoking habit (23%) and only Tobacco Chewing habit (7%). Responses after 3 months of treatment showed that only 30% of patient showed 50% response. Whereas after 6 months follow up- 28% patient showed complete clinical response (100%). Conclusion: Thus within limitations it can concluded that conservative treatment is an effective treatment modality and obtained a good clinical response in the regression of lesion.

  46. Alanoud Mohammed Alfaris, Al-Hejri , Yehya Mohammed Ali, Abdulmoein Salah Al-Harbi and Siham A. Habeeb and Al-Muairi, Khalid Amutairiy

    Introduction: WHO report that The number of people with diabetes mellitus has risen from 108 million in 1980 to 422 million in 2014.in KSA the prevalence of Diabetes mellitus was 14.4% Objectives: the study Aims to assess the effectiveness of diabetic health education on diabetes clinical outcome ( in term of Hemoglobin,A1C,Weight control and Blood pressure) ,among type 2 patients in Riyadh City capital of Kingdom , Saudi Arabia). Methods: This was comparative cross-sectional observational study deciding to choose two hospitals one with organized health education system embedded within the routine care of the outpatient clinic (University diabetic center) in King Abdul-Aziz university hospital, and the other with on demand health education and compare the out come of care in 200 patients from both hospitals. Result: The study proved that there were differences between the two groups in the University diabetic center scores. where patients had a better understating of diabetes and believed more in the importance of care to control and reduce the chances of having diabetes complications. Also the study showed that patients who received organized health education had a higher self-empowerment. Moreover, organized education will cover most of the topics about the disease. Participants from University diabetic center were more satisfied about their general health which can lead us to assume their health was controlled or improved over time. Conclusion: Health education showed an effect on patient knowledge and understanding of the disease. Believing in importance of care will also increase with health education. In addition, self-efficacy and empowerment will be more in patients who receive health education. But the results showed that having the information doesn't necessarily result in practice and behavior change, glycosylated hemoglobin, body mass index and blood pressure readings did not differ from both hospitals. Also patients' behaviors including diet and exercise are the same in both hospitals. However, future research is required due to the limitation of the study.

  47. Efstathios K. Metaxas, Konstantinos Tzelepis, Ioannis Stamatatos, Stavroula Amanetopoulou, Dimitrios Tsiftsis, Aristotelis K. Stefoudis, Damon Charalampides, Dimitrios Klapsakis, Dimitrios Paschalinos, Symeon Patsos, Lazaros Tsiatsios, Fragkiskos Tzagkara

    Background: To determine the importance of the scapula bone fractures upon the causes, sex, age groups, associated injuries, morbidity and mortality. Methods: In a 25 year period a retrospective study took place. One hundred and eight (108) patients diagnosed with scapula fracture in General Hospital of Nicaea-Piraeus Agios Panteleimon Thoracic and Orthopaedic Surgery Department. Results: Between the years 1995 to 2020(25years) 108 patients diagnosed with scapula bone fracture, 81 male (75%) and 27 female (25 %), aged 19-91 years mean age 34 years. Aetiologic factor: Traffic accident 81 (75%), fall from high 24 (22,22 %) and Gunshot injuries 3( 2,777%) patients. Associated injuries: Rib fractures 85, First and Second rib fractures 31, Sternal fractures 17, Flail chest 29, Pneumohaemothorax 81, Haemopericardium 2, Pneumomesopmeumonium 1, Lung Contusion 65, Diaphragmatic ruptures 3, Kidney injury-Nephrectomy 2, Haemoperitoneum 14, Head injuries 34, Vertebral fractures 37, Pelvis fractures 8, Upper extremities fractures 67, Lower extremities fractures 13.Surgical treatment of the scapula required 9 patients, all male. Mortality rate raised 3,703 %. Four patients all male and octogenarians. Conclusion: Most of the patients underwent chest drain insertion for Pneumohaemothorax. Otherwise conservative treatment for the majority of the patients, analgesic and anti-inflammatory medication, nebulizers, low molecular heparin, monitoring, physiotherapy and early mobilization. A simple chest radiography is standard for the diagnosis, but computer tomography is considered gold standard. Surgical treatment required approx. 1% of the population study. All for glenoid scapula fractures. Attention should be given to collaboration with other specialties in the hospital, like, general surgeons, neurosurgeons, orthopedics and anesthesiologists for the proper management when intervention or operation is required.

  48. Mohammed Alfageah and Saud Alzahrani

    Objective: To evaluate the level of knowledge of periodic health examination among teachers and, therefore, to assess the need to increase the knowledge of and training on PHE. Method: Cross-sectional, analytical study. Conducted throughout September 2019. The study involved 18 secondary schools, selected randomly from the 10 different educational sectors, in Makkah al-Mukarrama. Our total participants were 214 male teachers. Results: More than half of the participants (55.7%) had “weak” knowledge of PHE, 41.4%of the participants had no knowledge of PHE, and only 3.0% had average knowledge. Conclusion: More effort is needed to ensure that periodic health examination is practiced. There is a need to study the factors associated with the uptake of periodic health examination (PHE) among the study population.

  49. Uzma Parveen, Salva Fatima Heba, Safura Sultana, Aisha Begum, Rehab Rafi and Salwa Mehrin

    Background: Methotrexate is the most commonly used immunosuppressive agent used in the treatment of psoriasis owing to its cytoprotective and immunomodulatory effects. However, it is generally safe at lower doses but a cumulative dose has been reported with toxicity manifestations such as Acute Kidney Injury, Bone marrow suppression and pancytopenia. Dermal toxicity is a rare manifestation of methotrexate probably due to overdosing or a result of pharmacological idiosyncrasy. Case description: A 56-year-old male presented to the dermatology department with complaints of fluid filled lesions on both limbs gradually progressing on face, ears, oral cavity and on whole body. The cutaneous lesions aggravated together with fever with chills, generalized body pains and pedal edema. Skin Biopsy and clinical evidence confirmed methotrexate as an offending drug and was immediately withdrawn and managed accordingly. Discussion and Evaluation: A Comprehensive clinical, laboratory, histopathogical examination Validated methotrexate induced toxicity. Causality and severity assessment revealed as probable on Naranjo scale and hartwig severity assessment scale assesed as Death. Conclusion: In this case patient erroneously took a cumulative dose of methotrexate thereby producing multiple toxicity manifestations Early identification and prompt withdrawal of the drug is crucial for impeding further serious morbidity.

  50. Dr. Rohit Gupta, Dr. Indu Dhiman and Dr. Shipra Mahajan

    Introduction: Dental malocclusions are one of the most common oral health problems and are associated with difficulties in maintaining oral hygiene. Mouthwashes may affect the plaque formation and reduces the number of streptococcus mutan count. Aims and objectives: To evaluate the effect of alcoholic, non-alcoholic and organic mouthwash on the level of streptococcus mutans in the during the early phase of orthodontic treatment. Material and Methods: 120 patients aged between 12 -20 years who visited the department were selected and randomly allocated into four l groups. Microbial records and periodontal parameters obtained before bonding (T0), 1 week (T1), 2 week (T2), 3 week (T3), and 4 week (T4) after bonding and colonies were counted under Stereomicroscope and the results were expressed as colony forming units per milliliter and analysis was done using the SPSS (p<0.05). Conclusion: On comparison it was found that both organic mouthwash (Hiora) and non alcoholic mouthwash (Rexidin Plus) showed comparable clinical and microbiological results.

  51. Saranya Thangavel, Rashmi Hansdah, Kalaiarasi Raja and Sunil Kumar Saxena

    Fibromatosis colli of infancy of the sternocleidomastoid muscle is a benign neck mass in neonates and infants.It is a rare entity which needs early diagnosis and conservative management so that it can avoid unnecessary investigations and reduce parental anxiety.

  52. Hussein G. Bakheet and Hani H. Alnakhli

    Recent data has shown increasing rates of disorders among the working community. These health-related complications are considered to be amongst the leading causes of disability within modern office workers. Many of these disorders are commonly caused by improperly accommodated or designed workplaces. However, these related disorders have not yet received the required attention in the Saudi Arabian working community. The importance of this study surfaces around the challenges that might be faced during the implementation of Saudi vision's 2030. The study aims to detect and prevent office related health issues by investigating their associations with improper workstation ergonomics. This was conducted within the framework of studying the current situation of office ergonomics with focus on sitting postures and mental workload. Proper design and healthy practices of the workstation were then advertised to minimize disabilities. The study conducted two randomized crossover trials (within-subjects trials) consisting of twenty-four individuals. These trials hypothesized that there will be significant variations of the subjects' heart rates and blood pressures in accordance with different sitting postures and mental workload. After filtering and analyzing the collected data, sitting posture was found to have a statistically significant effect on both the heart rate, and mean arterial pressure; their averages were decreased after the intervention by 4.08bpm and 7.42mmHg, respectively. Also, the mental workload was found to have statistically significant effects on the studied vital signs, as the average heart rate, and mean arterial pressure of the subjects differenced by 4.25bpm and 3.14mmHg. In conclusion, raising the awareness of the population regarding the importance of workplace ergonomics is proposed; after highlighting the risks of awkward sitting postures and psychological comfort. It is worth mentioning that the appropriate employment of office ergonomics requires the cooperation of both; employees and employers. Only by this alliance, ergonomics will contribute in increasing productivity, maintenance of healthy individuals, and maximizing organizations profits.

  53. Konda, S. G., Nagare, S. S., Dhokale, N. T., Shaikh, B. M. and Chobe, S. S.

    A Simple and an efficient procedure for the synthesis of 2-cinnamoyl-benzo[g] indazoles are reported. A new series of 2-cinnamoyl- benzo[g] indazole derivatives were synthesized by the treatment of appropriate of 2-(Substitued arylidene)-1-tetralones with cinnamoyl hydrazide using catalytic amount of acetic acid in polyethylene glycol-400 as reaction solvent under mild reaction condition. The newly synthesized compounds were characterized by the spectral analysis. The advantage of this method is simple and efficient work up, shorter reaction time and use of inexpensive catalyst is reported.

  54. Dr. Anirudh Bhushan, Dr. Vipin Nain, Dr. Priti Singh and Dr. Rajiv Gupta

    Neurocysticercercosis is the most common parasitic infection of the central nervous system caused by ingestion of eggs of Taenia solium, the pork tapeworm.NCC presenting with psychiatricmanifestation is not uncommonand often causes diagnostic confusion.1Seizure is the most common presentation of the disease but it may present with features of raised ICP such as headache or even neuropsychiatric disorders suchas psychosis.2 We present a case report in which a patient of NCC presented initially with symptoms of acute and transient psychotic disorder followed by partial seizures.

  55. Daniel Vasquez Valverde, Daniela Duarte Núñez, Federico Cortés Bejarano and Jasmín Quesada Campos

    Ophthalmia neonatorum (ON), is a broad term that includes all forms of acute and mucopurulent eye infection in the first four weeks of life and is usually acquired by the newborn during passage through the infected birth canal. The spectrum of infectious pathogens that cause neonatal conjunctivitis differs in several parts of the world, due to differences in prenatal maternal care and use of prophylactic treatment to prevent infections in the pregnant mother and the newborn. The most common infectious causes of ON include Chlamydia trachomatis, Staphylococcus aureus, Staphylococcus epidermidis, Neisseria gonorrheae, other gram-negative bacteria and the herpes simplex virus; Chlamydia and Neisseria being the most common pathogens. Fortunately, in most cases, laboratory studies can identify the causative organism and, unlike other forms of conjunctivitis, this perinatal eye infection must be treated with systemic antibiotics to prevent systemic colonization of the organism. ON remains an important cause of eye morbidity, blindness and even death in underdeveloped countries. Routine prophylaxis with 1% silver nitrate solution has been discontinued in many developed countries for fear of the development of chemical conjunctivitis. Currently the recommended prophylaxis is 1cm of topical erythromycin at 0.5% ointment or 1% tetracycline in all newborns during the first hour of life.

  56. Gurveer Pandal, Hana Morrissey and Patrick Ball

    Background: Optimum treatment and prevention of mental illness appears a neglected area within healthcare, with continuous rise in diagnosed cases. Aim: The aim was to investigate whether social and lifestyle factors can be associated with the onset of depression, anxiety and stress symptoms amongst people 18 years and over. Methods: A self-completed questionnaire collected data on demographic characteristics, lifestyle habits, social factors and participants perceptions of experiencing depression, anxiety and stress symptoms. The demographics, lifestyle and social factors were then used to explore their association with reported depression, anxiety and stress symptoms. Results: Depression symptoms had a greater association with the level of alcohol consumption (100%, 88% and 55% in high, medium-and low-level drinkers). Smoking was more prevalent in participants reporting depressive symptoms (80%) when compared to non-smokers (68%). Low income was found to be associated with a high prevalence of depressive and stress symptoms (73% and 91%) and high income was found to associated with stress symptoms only (75%). Lack of companionship was reported by 89% of participants who experienced symptoms of depression. Conclusion: A positive correlation was found between alcohol consumption and depression and anxiety. In this study sample, smoking was associated with depression alone and not with anxiety or stress. Low income and depressive or stress symptoms association was significant, no strong association was found with anxiety. Stress was reported by high-income participants. Lack of companionship was reported by those who reported depressive symptoms more so than those reported anxiety and stress.

  57. Dr. Soma Datta

    Background: Mites of the family Tetranychidae are undoubtedly among the many destructive pests of different vegetables in many parts of the world. Since the degree of incidence of red spider mite changes with season, it is desirable to have a thorough understanding of the seasonal incidence of the mite. Methods: Seasonal incidence of Tetranychus cinnabarinus (Boisd.) on the local variety of Papaya (Carica papaya) was studied in 4 different localities of Agartala, Tripura( west) during February,2019-January2020. Result: The population was recorded on both sides of the leaf which was always more on the dorsal surface. The population density was highest during January, 2020 (l485.0/ 2X75cm.2 leaf surface area) and lowest (1.5/ 2X75cm.2 leaf surface area) during June, 2019 in all localities. During April-July number of egg, total immature and adult was very small in number. The biology of T.cinnabarinus was conducted under laboratory condition at room temperature and total time required for development from egg to adult emergence was 4.1-8.1 days. Conclusion: Study of the seasonal incidence of the phytophagus mite will be he helpful to the farmers of Tripura for successful management and growth of papaya.

  58. Pavitra Tandon, Rizvi, A. F., Prasanna K. Ghosh, Singh, K. P., Chauhan, D. K., Agrawal, B. P. and Niraj Kumar

    CORONA-19 cases in the world are approximately 20 lacs till April 17, 2020, while deaths reported so far is around 1.25 lacs; and there is no vaccine/no exact medicine. In India, the total cases till 17th April, are about 14000; and deaths reported are about 450. The humanity is facing a tough time in the whole globe; more than 200 countries are in the grip of the pandemic CORONA -19. Then, what’s to be done! The doctors are trying drugs like Hydroxychloroquine, HIV drugs, and so; but there is no respite. Then why not to use some other drugs/methods which are less expensive, easy to administer and having no side effect. Therefore, it becomes important to combat the tenacity of the SARS-CoV-2, by adopting alternative system of medicines and nutritional approaches. Earlier, some of the authors of the paper have discussed the concept of ‘Biogeogens’, to deal with any health issues, taking into account all the concerned factors holistically. Therefore, on the basis of extensive research and earlier evidences, an integrative and novel approach of utilizing the far infrared radiation, homeopathic medicine and nutraceuticals, has been suggested to prevent the spread and viral infectivity of SARS- CoV-2.

  59. Ibrahim Mu’awiyya Idris and Usman yahya

    The resonance effect likely exhibited by some non-immunogenic micro-environmental factors and its influence on tumor growth system modeled by correlated additive and multiplicative white noises is investigated. An analytic expression for the steady state distribution of the tumor growth system is obtained via the Fokker-Planck equation. Numerical results revealed that the resonance effect likely exhibited by some surrounding non-immunogenic micro-environmental factors within the tumor site may be one of the factors responsible for the double-edge effect of tumor micro-environment of either promoting or antagonizing tumor growth

  60. Dr. Anusuya Ramasamy, Mr. Gergito Kusse Duba and Mr. Addisu Mulugeta

    Stroke disease is a medical condition caused due to inadequate supply of blood to the brain cell that damages the cell and may result in death. In developing country like Ethiopia, the death of stroke patient increases from year to year due to the scarcity of specialists and health facilities. This lack of effort to address such a problem, this research study focuses to design and develop a prototype system by integrating data mining results with knowledge-based system that facilitate diagnosis and treatment for a patient and provides an advice and risk level for the patient. Mixed research design and an integrated knowledge acquisition method were used to acquire knowledge. Orange and WEKA tool were used as hybrid data mining tool to preprocess, analyze datasets and designing the prediction model. About six classification algorithms were comparatively analyzed and finally JRIP classification algorithm has been registered with the better accuracy of 94.16% under 10-fold cross-validation. Rule-based knowledge representation technique was used to represent knowledge in the knowledge base, SWI-Prolog was used to construct knowledge base, Java NetBeans was employed to design GUI for the KBS, JPL library was used as a middleware between knowledge base and designed GUI. Finally, after the system has scored 90% system performance and 89.9% user acceptance which is a promising result that achieves the objective of the study.

  61. Dr. Sana Mahmoud

    The sales of Textile Flooring’s Market are expected to decelerate in 2020 as COVID-19 pandemic takes its toll on the global market. On March 5, 2020 retailers' top priority has been the global spread of COVID-19 in recent weeks, which had a direct effect on the health and safety of their workers and customers. Those concerns early in the year steered many retailers, to close their stores within China and constrain employee travel. Several weeks later, the virus has reached the U.S and other countries outside China, with 93,000 cases tracked worldwide as of March 4, 2020 according to the World Organization. Many details about the disease, which has flu-like symptoms remain unknown, and health officials are still investigating how far and for how long it might spread. But as more cases of the disease have been reported globally, problems for the textile industry have materialized as factories closed and workers could not report to work. Orders were cancelled, and production stopped. This Research paper will investigate the crisis of COVID -19 and its influence on Textile Industry in 2020.

  62. Dr. Pravesh Kumari, Dr. Pushpa Nagar, Dr. Mahima Sharma and Dr. Munmun Yadav

    Introduction: Intrahepatic cholestasis of pregnancy (ICP) is a most common pregnancy-related liver disorder. It frequently develops in late pregnancy. It is associated with increased rates of maternal and foetal adverse outcomes including spontaneous preterm labour, foetal hypoxia, meconium-stained liquor and stillbirth. It is therefore essential to increase interest in knowledge of the disease and to find a safe medical treatment that improve foetal outcomes. Aims and Objectives: This study aims to determine the association between ICP with gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM). Material & Methods: It was a prospective observational comparative study conducted in the Department of OBG S.M.S. Medical college Jaipur from June 2018 to July 2019. Two groups with 30 patients in each group were included in this study. Cases were diagnosed by h/o pruritus at 24 weeks and above and controls were without h/o ICP. Both groups were subjected to DIPSI testing. Results were tabulated and statically analysed by using SPSS software. Results: ICP women were belonging to mean age group of 22.2 ± 1.85 years. Serum bile acid was found to be significantly higher in ICP group (35.97 ± 26.47) compared to control subjects (4.19 ± 0.84 µmol /L) with p <0.001. Mean DIPSI was higher in intra hepatic cholestasis cases (153.4 ± 44.6 mg/dl) as compared to controls (118.2 ± 40.9 mg/dl) and statistically significant (p=0.002). Conclusion: ICP is characterized by glucose intolerance and dyslipidaemia, consistent with the changes seen in the metabolic syndrome. GDM also occurs more commonly in pregnancies complicated by ICP. Given the growing evidence in support of an association between ICP and GDM, Further work is required to help clarify which metabolic pathways are altered in ICP in order to better promote both maternal and fetal well-being.

  63. Vincent Kouassi MOUROUFIE, Oleh KAM and Mairie Laure KOUASSI

    L’objectif de cet article vise à travers le profil environnemental des quartiersde Koumassi Campement et Boribana à cerner les risques sanitaires et leur effet sur les populations.L’étude s’appuie sur la démarche qualitative qui combine les recherches bibliographiques, l’observation et les entretiens avec les acteurs-clé du système (Populations, acteurs civils et acteurs étatiques). Pour l’analyse des données, les méthodes compréhensive et systémique ont été mobilisées. Au total, 68 personnes ont été interrogées dont 36 à Koumassi-campement (Koumassi) et 32 à Boribana (Attecoubé). Sur la base des 68 individus, un chef de village/quartier et un notable ont été interrogés par localité (4), deux représentants de l’association des jeunes et des femmes (4), 48 chefs de ménage dont 27 à Koumassi-campement et 21 à Boribana, ainsi que 12 représentants des institutions étatiques(District ; Mairie ; ministère de l’urbanisme ; ministère de la salubrité de l’environnement et du développement durable ; le ministère de la santé ;l’ONAD) ont été interrogés à l’aide de guide d’entretien. Le choix des12 représentants étatiques s’est fait sur le principe de deux (2) représentants par institutions. C’est-à-dire (2) représentants du District ; (2) représentants de la Mairie ; (2) représentants du ministère de l’urbanisme ; (2) représentants du ministère de la salubrité de l’environnement et du développement durable ; (2) représentants du ministère de la santé ; (2) représentants de l’ONAD. Les résultats de l’étude sont de trois ordres : D’abord, la perception de l’environnement par les populations, ensuite les comportements à risque des populations et enfin la vulnérabilité et la résilience de ces populations.

  64. Annie A. Parmis, Jade Barachiel D. Bantasan and Rose Marie S. Berdos

    This study was conducted to investigate the students’ euphemism in oral communication with regard to their conversational cursing, familiarity, views and attitudes. This study used the naturalistic approach using a research instrument first used by Jay (1992) and Vernon (2016). For this present study, the first set of respondents composed of 60 AB-English Language (AB-EL) students also answered another set of survey to elicit reasons why they curse and the dominant functions of cursing in their oral communication. Descriptive statistics was used to determine relationships among the variables and chi-square tests were run to investigate whether distributions of categorical variables differ from one another. Results showed that students curse moderately per day garnering a frequency of 41.67%. Most students use more Major curse words than their Weaker variants. To determine the reasons why students use curse words, this study used the NPS Theory of Cursing by Timothy Jay (2009). It consists of three interconnecting and interdependent areas: Neurological Control, Psychological Restraints, and Socio-cultural Restrictions. In the first area which is the neurological control, most students never considered Tourette syndrome and Novelty as reasons why they curse. Automacity (30%) gained an interesting positive response followed by Emotional Arousal (33.33%). Under Psychological Restraints, the students responded that Impulsivity (36.67%) is always the reason why they curse followed by Coping Skills (31.67%), then Moral Reasoning (15%) and Deviance (15%). Finally in the Socio-cultural Restrictions, findings revealed that students always curse because of Intimacy (40%) and Disgust (40%) followed by Privacy, Gender Role, and lastly, Formality. Results further showed that there is no significant relationship between students’ perception on the functions of cursing and their age, and that the students believe that firstly, cursing relieves pain and stress and secondly, cursing boosts confidence and makes communication comfortable. Ultimately, results showed that cursing is not a very serious matter to the students. Students just curse for some reasons other than making it a serious business for a more profound oral communication. The second set of respondents composed of 47 AB-English Language (AB-EL) students answered a self-report questionnaire on euphemism familiarity and views and attitudes toward euphemism. Results showed that students have distinct characteristics regarding the application of euphemistic terms, and that they have positive neutral views and attitudes toward euphemism regardless of their diverse familiarity of euphemistic terms. However, there is no statistically significant relationship between the students’ euphemism familiarity and their views and attitudes toward euphemism. Findings then revealed that euphemism could neutralize or lessen the harshness of curse words or offensive terms, thus lifting the strength of the offensive words to a lighter degree acceptable to any types of audiences and situations. To sum up, the outcomes of this research on euphemism and cursing offer a valuable means of establishing an understanding which explains the exploitation of euphemisms in the oral communication context.

  65. Maqsood Rezayee, Rahmatullah Ibrahimy and Gabriel Hoh Teck Ling

    A good residential layout is a sustainable neighborhood layout. This means that a good neighborhood is a community which is developed in such a way that it is well balanced between the environment, economic and social. In this research, the existing layout of two selected sites Mutiara Rini and Taman Sri Pulai in Johor Bahru Johor Malaysia have been discussed and compared with the principles of the sustainable neighborhood as suggested by the UN-Habitat. The main objective of this research is to discuss the good and bad site layouts in selected subject areas. To reach the aim of the research, different housing estates in Johor Bahru and Skudai area were taken into consideration as the subject sites for this project. However, Mutiara Rini and Taman Sri Pulai were selected as subject sites. Desk study about the general profile of Mutiara Rini and Taman Sri Pulai has been done before the site visit. Following this, field trip to Mutiara Rini and Taman Sri Pulai was carried out. Both sites have been observed to evaluate their site layout. However, the finding of this research indicates that the first subject site which is Mutiara Rini has good accessibility but poor public transport system. Furthermore, streets in Mutiara Rini are not safe for pedestrians and cyclists. However, there are limited mixed land-use and mixed-use buildings. However, majority of the land or building in Mutiara Rini is only limited to one usage, which is for residential purposes. The public spaces in Mutiara Rini are not fully connected and integrated. On the other hand, in contrast to Mutiara Rini, Taman Sri Pulai has good accessibility and public transport system. In Term of housing, Terraced houses are the only type of housing in Taman Sri Pulai. At the same time, most of them are single-story which is leading to low-density areas. Furthermore, in term of public amenities, adequate public facilities and amenities are neighboring Taman Sri Pulai.

  66. George Luiz Alves Santos, Glaucia Valente Valadares, Joélinton dos Santos Aranha, Jorge Luiz Lima da Silva, Sheilane da Silva Santos, and Thais de Rezende Bessa Guerra

    Objetivo: Descrever a aplicação de duas oficinas na modalidade de curso com a temática do Processo de Enfermagem, em ambiente hospitalar. Método: Relato de experiência sobre atividade educativa com enfermeiros e acadêmicos de enfermagem, realizada em duas oportunidades, nos anos de 2017 e 2018. Resultados: As atividades desenvolvidas permitiram desmistificar aspectos teórico-práticos da aplicação do processo de enfermagem. De igual modo, os ensino das diferenças conceituais entre Sistematização da Assistência de Enfermageme Processo de Enfermagem permitiram aos participantes compreender melhor os termos e sua aplicação, enfatizando-se que o primeiro termo relacionava-se à organização e à gestão do serviço de enfermagem, e o segundo à organização do cuidado, à prática assistencial e à documentação clínica de enfermagem. Conclusão: As atividades educativas possibilitaram verificar a aplicabilidade do processo de enfermagem em cenários reais de cuidado. Pela estratégia adotada, os alunos articularam conhecimentos teóricos ao fazer prático, desdobrando-se essas atividades em recurso didático-pedagógico, ao integrar teoria e prática.

  67. Berther Kute, Enose M.W. Simatwa and Rodah Adoyo Odhiambo

    Parents expect a safe learning environment for their children while in teachers’ custody, yet threats to student safety are increasing globally, and Kenya is no exception. In Kisumu County, incidents from floods, criminal activity, community conflicts, fires and strikes continue to be recorded in schools. Due to legal responsibility and their position as first responders in school emergency, teachers have a crucial role in ensuring student safety, yet little had been done to explore teacher preparedness. The objective of this study was to determine contribution of teacher practices in the provision of student safety in emergency incidents in public secondary schools in Kisumu County. The study established that teacher practices moderately contributed to student safety with overall mean rating of 2.96. The findings of this study are important to educational administrators, policy makers and planners in understanding how teacher practices contributes to management of students safety in emergency incidents in public secondary schools in Kisumu County and the way forward.

  68. Dr. Malini Majumdar

    Background: The coronavirus pandemic has thrown the corporate world into a tizzy due to the inevitable lockdown and associated challenges. All over the world, businesses and brands are suffering a downturn. In this uncertain time, consumers suffer from anxiety that eventually leads to decreased consumer confidence. Maintaining the confidence through overt and covert communication should be the call of the day. In India, companies are trying their best to maintain their brand image and reputation to boost up the level of confidence among the consumers. So far, advertisements that showcase the brands to be a useful tool in fighting the disease or something that can improve the well being of consumers have been highlighted. Companies have also committed their resources towards the societal marketing which can go a long way to maintain their reputation and image in the market. Objective: This study throws light on the endeavour of Indian brands in this regard and predicts a better future ahead. Methods: Secondary data have been analyzed, collected from different websites cited along the course of discussion. Results and Conclusion: It will not be an exaggeration to expect that consumers will remember the brands and companies that stood by them in time of crisis and fulfilled their social commitments. The confidence is expected to upsurge once the present situation is improved.

  69. Esay Solomon

    Currently Ethiopia is in an era of renaissances and struggling to over -come her poverty. For Ethiopia Taxation is a weapon that support this struggle for this to happen a fair tax system is needed. The goal of this study is to investigate fairness of taxation on category “A” tax payers found in Hawasssa city administration Tabor sub-city Revenue authority. The researcher distributed questionnaires to selected tax payers and tax officers. In addition the researcher used in- depth interview and Focus group discussion with management bodies and Tax payers respectively. The objective of this study is to investigate the determinants of tax fairness among category “A” tax payers of Hawassa City Administration, Tabor Sub city. To this end the study conducted a cross-sectional study on a sample of 286tax payers using multistage sampling technique. The study also employed a probit model to identify determinants of tax fairness. Accordingly, the probit regression result of tax fairness reveled that four variables namely attitude of tax payers, corruption, tax system and license of trade are significantly rated with tax fairness. The findings show that fairness of taxation is directly and positively determined by attitude of tax payers and trade license. In addition to that tax fairness is also affected but negatively and significantly by corruption and tax system. The study concluded that tax fairness can be created and maintained through developing positive attitude of taxation among tax payers, ensuring that all businesses should operate under proper trade license, strengthening the tax system and combating with corruption on the part of revenue authority and tax administration staff.

  70. Anuj Modgil, Prateek Rawat, Mamidi Nagendra Sai Nadh, Vanshika Saran, S. Prasannjeet, and Prof. G. Suman

    With the onset of technology, the world is shrinking at a phenomenal pace. What used to be a supply chain nightmare, now with interconnected solutions has become a globalized model of world integration in the form of economy, culture and infrastructure. This review article is a detailed understanding of how informational, communicational and transnational investment has impacted the local, regional and global economies.

  71. Meskat Kamal Molla and Moumita Sarkar

    The present study is conducted the impact of Kanyashree Prakalpa on academic performance of girl’s students in West Bengal. The Govt of West Bengal, Honourable Chief Minister Mamata Banerjee has announced a scheme names Kanyashree Prakalpa to improve the social status and life of a women. The main objectives of this study are to know the impact of Kanyashree Prakalpa on academic performance in the respect of location (urban &rural), economic status (APL& BPL). The data are collected from randomly selected 400 girl students from urban and rural colleges of North 24 Parganas division. The questionnaire was developed and standardized by the researcher with the help of research guide. The raw data are tabulated in MS-Ex cell 2010 and t-test, χ 2 was used with the help of SPSS. The findings of the study reveal that there are significant impact Kanyashree Prakalpa and academic performance in girls’ students.

  72. Dr. Ehab Mohammad Mustafa Injadat

    This paper presents an analysis of foreign exchange forward hedging and risk management applied in both conventional and Islamic financial markets. This paper compare the hedging mechanism and Islamic law perspective for both instruments based on data from different documents, books and websites to recognize distinguishing aspects of these two hedging instruments and the related risk protection. This study show that hedging and risk management mechanism and goals in these two foreign exchange forward instruments are actually not similar, foreign exchange forward is based on binding promise while the Islamic foreign exchange forward is based on the concept of dual non-binding and independent promise to avoid the Islamic law criticisms of conventional FX forward. However both instruments are slightly similar in their respective business activities and its risk protection efficiency in foreign exchange markets and international trade.

  73. Eduardo Martinez Martinez, Alba Lúcia Lopes Valente and Wagno Alcantara de Santana

    The COVID-19 is the most recently discover of the corona virus which causes respiratory infections consisting of two large scale pandemics MERS & SARS and found to be zoonotic in origin. The disease started from Wuhan´s local seafood market in China and infected 2,761 people. The 2019-nCoV virus isolated from the bronchoalveolar lavage fluid of critically ill patients and have shown it 96% identical to bat coronavirus and bearing same cell entry receptor angiotensin converting enzyme II (ACE2).Corona means crown in Latin and it look like a crown under a microscope. Corona virus causes an infectious disease where most infected people suffered from mild to moderate respiratory illness and recover without requiring special treatment. However, older people and those with underlying medical problems, develop serious illness. It can be prevented by washing the hands or using an alcohol-based to rub them and avoid touching the face. Outbreak is small but unusual, the epidemic is outbreak over a larger geographic area while pandemic spreads to multiple countries. China on 31 December 2019 first informed the world about COVID-19 and WHO declared on 11 March 2020 that COVID-19 can be characterized as a pandemic. Scientists suspected that corona virus originated in a bat and before passing to human hopped to another animal. Japan, USA, France, Australia, Germany, Italy and Spain reported their first case on 16,19,24,25,27,31 and 31 January 2020 respectively. In February new cases were reported by Iran, Pakistan, England on 19,26,28 respectively while in March cases seen in South Africa, Turkey on 5 and 10 respectively. WHO on 11 March 2020 assessed the outbreak as a pandemic. The spread of disease as a pandemic occurred due to movement of carriers outside China. Strict quarantine needed to prevent spread of disease.The code of ethics for social distancing should be defined and strictly implemented. Selling, buying and eating of wildlife animals should be internationally banned.

  74. Alejandro Córdova-Izquierdo, Adrian Emmanuel-Iglesias Reyes, María de Lourdes Juárez-Mosqueda, Juan Eulogio Guerra-Liera, Rubén Huerta-Crispín, Abel E. Villa-Mancera, Pedro Sánchez-Aparico, Armando Gómez-Vázquez and Raúl Sánchez-Sánchez

    Free radicals are unstable molecules that have an unpaired electron in their last orbital, which makes them highly unstable agents. In medicine it has been discovered that they play an important role in cell signaling and without them some cells such as leukocytes or sperm could not perform their biological functions. To protect itself from these oxidizing agents, the cell has a defense system based on antioxidants; However, when this balance is lost and oxidizing agents exceed the cellular antioxidant capacity, the cell enters oxidative stress, which affects cellular components such as proteins, nucleic acids, lipids, amino acids, carbohydrates, among others. In the case of spermatozoa, due to their high metabolic rate, they produce large quantities of Oxygen Reactive Species (ROS), decreasing sperm motility, alterations in cytoplasmic components, modifications in genetic material or sperm death. In this chapter a review is made of a brief history of how the toxicity of oxygen and free radicals was discovered, the oxidative stress in cells, the effect of oxidative stress in the cytoplasmic sperm membrane, in the spermatic mitochondria, in the spermatic acrosome , in the sperm DNA and in the fertility of the female and the male.

  75. Daniel Vasquez Valverde, Daniela Duarte Núñez and Emily Sanderson Chacón

    Infantile hypertrophic pyloric stenosis (IHPS) is a common surgical cause of vomiting in pediatric population. It usually occurs as an isolated condition or together with other congenital anomalies. There has been shown an association with genetic and environmental factors, younger maternal age, maternal smoking, bottle feeding, and erythromycin administration in the first two weeks of life. The patients typically present with projectile vomiting associated with symptoms of dehydration and acid-base abnormalities. On physical examination, an olive-like mass palpable in the right upper abdominal quadrant has decreased significantly over time, because of earlier diagnosis by imaging in ultrasound. Infantile hypertrophic pyloric stenosis is usually corrected through laparoscopic or open pyloromyotomy. However, preoperative preparation is essential to optimal outcome. Fortunately, the overall mortality after pyloromyotomy is less than 0.4% in most major centers and long-term sequels are rare.

  76. Dr. Navin Mishra, Dr. Isha Narang, Dr. Krishna Biswas, Dr. Dristi Kausal Dr. Priyankar Singh, Prof Dr. Sharma, A.K.

    In 21 st century endodontics regeneration of apical tissues and root elongation is possible in necrotic immature permanent teeth. The purpose of this case report is to add a novel technique in regenerative endodontic therapy by using curcumin impregnated collagen for revitalization of immature non vital tooth through blood clot. An 11year old boy with the history of trauma was diagnosed with the pulpal necrosis and symptomatic apical periodontitis in tooth #21. Intra oral periapical radiograph showed open apex with large periapical pathology. Access preparation and minimal instrumentation was done to remove necrotic debris under copious irrigation with 2.5% sodium hypochlorite. Triple antibiotic paste was packed in the canal for four weeks. During second visit, Triple antibiotic paste was removed and canal was dried and collagen impregnated with curcumin was placed with Buchanan Hand Plugger Size (#2) 2 mm beyond the confines of working length and after this procedure a sterile 23-gauge needle was placed at 2 mm beyond the working length. With sharp strokes, the needle was pushed past the confines of the canal into the periapical tissue to intentionally induce bleeding into the canal. Three millimeters of Mineral trioxide (MTA) Angelis was placed in cervical part of the root canal and permanent restoration with GIC and Composite was done. Clinical examination at 6 and 12 months revealed no sensitivity to percussion and palpation in tooth #21and it responded positively to both electric pulp and cold tests. Radiographic examination showed resolution of periapical rarefaction, further root development and apical closure of the tooth #21. On the basis of successful outcome of the present case it can be stated that curcumin impregnated collagen increases the healing kinetics and may serve as a scaffold for regeneration of necrotic immature teeth.

  77. Matthew Glover Addo, Samuel Agordzo and Kingsley Badu

    Background: Vegetables are known to provide enormous health benefits to man. Despite these, there is a great potential of microbial contamination. Objective: This study assessed the effect of increasing concentration of antimicrobial agents; vinegar, lemon juice and salt solution on the microbial load as well as their efficacy on the microbial isolates found on the lettuce sold in Ayeduase, a suburb of the Kumasi Metropolis, Ghana. Method: 10g of lettuce was pulsified with 90mls each of 0.3M, 0.5M, 0.7M, and 0.9M concentration of vinegar, lemon juice and salt solution. Serial dilution and colony counting were performed by pour plating on PCA (Plate Count Agar) and Coliform counts for each sample and concentration. Isolates were identified using standard biochemical methods. Results: The mean microbial load ranged from highest of 3.94×107CFU/100ml using 0.3M salt solution to the least 2.83×102CFU/100ml washing with 0.9M Apple Cedar vinegar. The total microbial counts significantly decreased (P<0.05) with increasing antimicrobial concentration and in comparison, with control (distilled water washing 1.57×108 CFU/100ml). Six different bacteria species and fungi species were isolated of which Escherichia coli and Salmonella were the most resistive towards the action of the antimicrobials with Enterococcus, Streptococcus and Staphylococcus being the most susceptible species. Fungi species proved fairly resistant to the activity of the antimicrobials. Conclusion: Increasing vinegar concentration has the tendency to reduce microbial loads on vegetables and hence its application is recommended.

  78. Ali Farhat, Dr. Ali Elhaj and Dr. Mohamad Abou Haidar

    Over the past few decades, particularly after the discovery of pharmacology, several realms in the field of medical research and practices have drawn the valid contribution of the use of cannabis for medicinal purposes. Research indicates that medical cannabis is useful in the treatment of nausea and vomiting associated with cancer chemotherapy, epilepsy, adult chronic pain treatment, and multiple sclerosis. Despite this significant result, the topic remains debatable in many countries, including Lebanon. In this paper, we focus on understanding the ability and willingness of different Lebanese community layers that have a direct or indirect impact on the legalization of cannabis use. Sensing the political and social constituent of the Lebanese community, it is inevitable to survey various categories, including Politicians of multiple sects, religious representatives, and doctors of different specialties, including hematology /oncology and neurology. Hence, a qualitative approach using a semi-structured interview used to explore the depth of participants’ understanding and perspectives on the topic in addition to the intangible factors such as social constructions, norms, socioeconomic status, gender roles, ethnicity, and religion. We find that a considerable percentage of the total categories (81%) support the legalization of cannabis for medical purposes, whereas (19%) either support with reservation or decline to position themselves in either category of opinion. Parliament representatives all advocate the medical use of cannabis with operant concerns on abuse and control; on the other hand, Religious category experience discrepancy in the perspective of the legislating cannabis as far as there is an alternative to it. (71% support the legalization while 29% express a significant concern). As for the physicians,75% uphold the legalization of cannabis for medical use and show a sincere will to prescribe for patients who are in medical need compared to 17% who don’t undergird cannabis use and 8% who declined to answer the question. The article concludes with a preposition on the possible model to govern the legalization of medical cannabis, which might be of interest to public policy specialists or further research in the field of medical cannabis.

  79. Ojgoosh Khulan and Jadamba Badrakh

    Mongolian educational reform’s most significant highlight has been the realization of the core concept of a student being “a subject that creates own knowledge”, not “an object or a tank to fill up with knowledge”. In alignment with this concept and as we renovate our education system, we look back to reflect as well as learn new concepts. Among them is realizing that a student is not just a “subject”, but “subject, unique on its own” and “a subject that creates its knowledge by its unique characteristics and differences”. This phenomenon is not only inherent to a new era, a new step, or a new wave of educational reformation of Mongolia, but just the beginning of a remarkable change to take place in the future. Our design and methodology followed the principle of the saying, “Look inside your home first before searching out from your neighbors”. Following this principle, we tried it at our home institution by offering sections of theory and experiment using differentiated instruction. This finding has led the thinking from the lowest to the highest administration of the educational system/ to correct the past mistakes and to begin implementation of differentiated teaching for the next generations adjusting to their unique characteristics. According to the findings, differentiated teaching has a positive impact on students’ learning and it increases their interests towards the lesson, and help develop 21st century skills.

  80. Latif Adéniyi Fagbemi, Evrard Karol Ekouedjen Yvette Onibon Doubogan, Gildas Farid Adamon, Stephen Junior Zannou-Tchoko and Laurent Jodoin

    In this paper, energy poverty is measured on households in Benin using Boardman's economic approach. The survey covered a sample of 640 households selected by simple random probability sampling. The households are mainly located in rural and peri-urban areas. The results indicate that out of all the households surveyed, 506 households or 79.06% are in energy poverty. The study also reveals that households living in energy poverty mainly use firewood (76.48%) followed by charcoal (18.18%) as a source of cooking energy. These sources are combined with inefficient or poorly efficient cooking stoves and poorly efficient and expensive lighting energy sources. In fact, the majority of these households use three-stone stoves (67.19%), followed by woodlouse stoves (16.40%). Dry cell flashlights (34.78%) are the main source of energy for lighting, followed by kerosene lamps (24.70%). All these factors combined with the high cost of improved households and low income justify the energy poverty status of households. Household members found to be energy poor report suffering from respiratory health problems (46.05%) and 50% of them suffer from visual health problems.

  81. Mohsin Iqbal, Hana Morrissey and Patrick Ball

    Introduction: Accommodation, age, gender, ethnic background, quality of education, and study time are some of the factors that educators believe influenced students’ academic achievement. Aim: This study aimed to investigate the factors that influenced student’s choice of accommodation, and whether these factors affected their academic performance. Methods and design: This was a questionnaire based study with pragmatic sample of minimum of 40 participants. Results: Out of 57 participants, six participants achieved a grade of >75%, with equal gender representation. There were four of participants lived with their parents, three travelled by own car to the University. Five participants had to pay for water and electricity and had personal space in their accommodation. However, four of them paid accommodation bills or rent, and four of participants felt they are influenced by the people they live with. Nine participants achieved the lowest grades<60%, six of them were female and seven were <25 years of age. six were in their third year of their studies. Five lived with their parents, two lived with their partner, and two lived alone. Five used public transport, and four used their car to travel to the University. Seven participants did not pay accommodation fees or rent, and 5 who felt influenced by the people they live with. Conclusion: The data showed that those participants living independently have higher grades however, these findings, there are possible other factors that affected the students’ academic performance e.g., socioeconomic background, student’s attitude towards study, self-efficacy and motivation, and study time management.

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