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December 2020

  1. Palanikumar, M.

    The study on Grafting compatibility of tomato (Solanum lycopersicum), brinjal (Solanum melongena) and chilli (Capsicum annum) through cleft graft method was carried out under the mist chamber conditions at college orchard, Department of Horticulture, Agricultural College and Research Institute, Madurai during 2019 - 2020 with the aim to identify the best grafting compatibility between the crops through cleft grafting method. 9 level of crossing among the crops viz., Tomato X Tomato, Tomato X Brinjal, Tomato X Chilli, Brinjal X Brinjal, Brinjal X Tomato, Brinjal X Chilli, Chilli X Chilli, Chilli X Brinjal and Chilli X Tomato were grafted with cleft grafting method. Tomato var. PKM-1, Chilli var.K-2 and Brinjal var.PKM-1 used for this study. These grafting of rootstocks and scions were done in polybags and kept under mist chamber for compatible graft union. The study was laid out in Randomized Block Design (CRD) with 9 treatments (crossing) and ten replications and analyzed statistically. The results revealed that the plants are compatible with the grafting through cleft grafting method viz., For Tomato x Chilli, survival rate (95.47%), days taken for graft union (10.40days), number of leaves (26.75), plant height (56.65cm), number of sprouts per grafted plant (4.80), shoot length of the plant (43.30cm), root length (52.67cm), fresh weight of roots (20.13g) and dry weight of roots (18.32g). For Brinjal x Tomato, survival rate (67.35%), days taken for graft union (11.20days), number of leaves (25.25), plant height (53.42cm), number of sprouts per grafted plant (2.35), shoot length of the plant (41.50cm), root length (49.87cm), fresh weight of roots (20.12g) and dry weight of roots (18.50g). For Chilli x Tomato, survival rate (77.35%), days taken for graft union (10.60days), number of leaves (24.35), plant height (55.87cm), number of sprouts per grafted plant (4.30), shoot length of the plant (43.90cm), root length (52.10cm), fresh weight of roots (19.89g) and dry weight of roots (17.40g) and this is the best method of grafting in tomato, brinjal and chilli for graft compatibility

  2. Mr. Abin Varghese

    Background: Scale development or tool development is an important area of interest in health research. Psychologically validated tools have made it possible to measure various variables which are not amenable for observation to get evaluated. Development and evaluation of the instrument should be carried out with absolute diligence, as the health measures evaluated through them becomes the basis for many health policies and program delivery. However, the novice researchers find it cumbersome to go through the stringent process in developing a tool which results in less efficient tools which are unable to capture the whole construct. Henceforth the current literature review was undertaken to contribute substantial information on tool development to the scientific world at large. Methods: A comprehensive search was conducted across different databases namely PUBMED, INDMED, Scopus, MEDLINE with the following MESH keywords; test construction, scale development, item analysis and instrument validation. Potential full-text articles were retrieved followed by a narrative synthesis of data from various articles. Results: A wide disparity was observed in the steps observed by different authors in the development of the tool. However, the general steps in the development of tool can be summarized as follows; gap identification, conceptualization, choice of the measurement method, development of measures, scale evaluation and refinement and validation. Conclusion: If a clinical or educational practice is to be enhanced or changed using findings derived from questionnaire/scale-based methods, the questionnaire must be sufficiently developed.

  3. Borkar, S.G

    Fungicides are major inputs in management of plant diseases in cultivated crop plants. Various pesticide companies manufacture the same technical fungicide with different brand name. However, the same technical fungicide of different companies has same efficacy on a particular plant pathogen/disease or otherwise, is not yet investigated. The aim of the present investigation, was to assess the variation in efficacy of seed protectant fungicides viz. Carbendazim, Captan, Metalaxyl+Mancozeb and Copper oxychloride of different companies in in vitro against chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.) wilt pathogen Fusarium oxysporum f.sp.ciceri (Padwick)Matuo & Sato, on elimination of seed borne microflora on chickpea seed and in in vivo against chickpea wilt disease. Under in vitro test, the fungicide carbendazim of Dhanuka, Zuari and BASF company was equally effective at various concentrations. The fungicide Metalxyl + Mancobez of UPL, Syngenta and Indofil at 0.05% concentration varied in its efficacy against the fungal pathogen. The fungicide Copper oxychloride of Indofil was most effective at 0 .1 %, followed by Rallis at 0.15 % while it was ineffective even at 0.2 % concentration for Zuari company. As a seed dresser fungicide, Metalxyl + Mancozeb of Syngenta, Indofil and UPL company at 1 % concentration eliminated the seed borne microflora on 100 %, 68.75 % and 43.75 % Cicer arietinum L. seeds respectively. The fungicide Carbendazim of Dhanuka, Zuari and BASF at 2 % concentration was equally effective as seed dresser. However, at 1 % concentration the fungicide carbendazim of Dhanuka company was more effective than that of other two companies. The fungicide Captan of Zuari and Rallis company was more effective than that of Indofil and Makthesian company at 2% concentration and thus varied in its efficacy as seed dresser among these companies. Under in vivo test, the results obtained for the control of chickpea wilt were similar to seed dresser fungicide Carbendazim and Captan, but the fungicide Metalxyl + Mancozeb was not at all effective as seed treatment to control the wilt disease. In conclusion, there was variation in the efficacy of the same fungicide of different companies in the inhibition of fungal growth of Fusarium oxysporum f.sp. ciceri (Padwick)Matuo & Sato,and the wilt disease caused by it. Therefore, the answer to the question does the efficacy of a fungicide varies with company brand name is in affirmation and have its implication on plant disease control.

  4. Ndongo DIOUF

    Au Sénégal, la tomate compte parmi les légumes les plus consommés et elle est pratiquée en systèmes irrigués. Cependant, malgré son importance, les rendements sont très faibles. La concurrence exercée par les adventices et la non maitrise des pratiques agricoles sont entre autres l’une des contraintes majeures à la production. Cette étude a été réalisée dans le but d’améliorer les rendements par une amélioration des pratiques agricoles. C’est dans cette optique que cette étude a été entreprise dans la forêt classée de Mbao, dans la zone de Niayes en 2020. Les résultats de cette étude montrent qu’une fertilisation avec une densité de plantation à 9 pieds par m2 peut significativement améliorer la croissance et le développement de tomate. Les rendements de tomate en association avec la laitue peuvent connaitre une baisse de plus de 30%. Sur la diversité floristique, les résultats ont montré que les adventices sont diversement réparties durant le cycle cultural de la tomate. La fertilisation augmente la densité des espèces telles que Boerhavia erecta et Dactyloctenium aegyptium

  5. AKOBE Apie Colette, AMANI Etché Mireille, ASSALE Fori Paul, FEA Isaac, MONDE Sylvain, AKA Kouamé, DIGBEHI Zéli Bruno

    Des analyses pétrophysiques des grès (roche-réservoir) d’âge crétacé de la marge d’Abidjan, ont été réalisées en vue de mettre en évidence leur potentialité énergétique. De ce fait, cette partie du bassin sédimentaire offshore (Abidjan-Adiaké) a été subdivisée en plusieurs blocs (X, A, B, C/E et D). Dix (10) et vingt-sept (27) puits ont été respectivement forés dans le Crétacé (Bloc X) en général et dans le Cénomanien (Blocs A, B, C et D). Les grès issus de ces forages sont soumis à des études pétrophysiques par l’analyse de leur porosité, indice de fluorescence, saturation en eau, perméabilité et Net / Gross. En outre, des tests Drill Stem Test (DST) de production ont été réalisés avec des analyses des logs composites dans les différents niveaux de grès pour montrer la présence d’hydrocarbure. Les paramètres pétrophysiques et les analyses de production des grès rencontrés dans les différents sondages montrent que les réservoirs d’hydrocarbure sont du Crétacé supérieur et inférieur. Les roche-réservoirs du Crétacé supérieur sont constituées de formations gréseuses d’âge Maestrichtien, Sénonien inférieur et Cénomanien. Ceux du Crétacé inférieur sont d’âge Albien supérieur. Ces grès sont des réservoirs d’huile, de gaz, de condensât et d’eau. L’analyse des paramètres géochimiques (les valeurs de carbone organique total (COT), d’indice d’hydrogène (IH) et de température maximale (Tmax) ont permis de caractériser les roches-mères. Ces valeurs définissent des roches-mères matures qui renferment des kérogènes de type II et III, producteurs d’huile et de gaz dans les différents niveaux de grès. Ces roches productrices de matières organiques générant les hydrocarbures sont d’âge Maestrichtien-campanien, Cénomanien inférieur, Turonien-Cénomanien et Albien. Les roche-couvertures (qui surmontent les niveaux de grès) sont constituées de niveaux d’argiles d’âge Paléocène, Maestrichtien et Cénomanien.

  6. Dr. Himanshu C. Panchal and Dr. Paritosh B. Solanki

    Introduction: The ultrasonic bone scalpel (UBS) is an ultrasonic device that cuts the bone without causing harm to the surrounding soft tissue and duramater. Such a type of selectivity of bone scalpel, particularly for bone destruction, makes the bone scalpel ideal for spine surgeries where there is the need to remove only bone adjacent to the duramater and neural structures, with the sparing of the duramater. Moreover, dural tear is the most common unintended complication of spinal surgeries nowadays. Materials and Methods: This is a prospective study of 100 patients operated for spinal decompression – cervical, thoracic, or lumbar – between January 2016 and June 2018 at BJ Medical College, Ahmedabad. Aim: To analyze the result of the use of UBS in spinal decompression over the conventional method of decompression, such as using the Kerrison Rongeur, high-speed burr drills, and conventional osteotome. Observation and results: Out of the 100 patients in our study, 48 patient had cervical, 14 patients had thoracic, and 38 patients had lumbar pathologies. There is significant reduction in duration of surgery and need for blood transfusion. We considered the oswestry disability index (ODI) scores to measure the clinical outcomes of using bone scalpel and conventional methods at the end of 1 year. The scores were significantly improved with both methods. We had two case of dural tear out of 54 in a patients operated with conventional mathod. No dural tear noted in 46 patient operated with UBS. No neurological worsening in any patients was present. Conclusion: The UBS is a unique surgical device that reduces heat production and decreases the chances of dural tear, which makes it a suitable instrument for different spinal surgeries in recent days.

  7. Betty Sarabia Alcocer, Baldemar Aké Canché, Lidia María Maas Ortegón, Román Pérez Balan, Carlos Armando Chan Keb, Rafael Manuel de Jesús Mex Álvarez, Patricia Margarita Garma Quen, Tomás Joel López Gutiérrez and Citlali del Rocío Gómez Acuña

    The strategies and institutional actions in the new educational model of the Autonomous University of Campeche(UAC), focused on the learning of the students and oriented to the continuous improvement of the academic performance are planned to reach the objectives and institutional goals. In this sense, the income profile of the students will allow the schools and faculties to have important information that allows them to know the academic and personal characteristics of the students who access their educational instances. In this way, being able to have a diagnosis that allows the report of the knowledge domain of new students, will allow the implementation of efficient academic interventions of resources and improve learning. The school trajectory is an information that aims to be a support that allows a first effort to build a diagnosis with such characteristics. In this way, the research work carried out in the Autonomous University of Campeche, systematizes the information derived from the results of the National Examination of Admission to Higher Education, EXANI II. On the other hand, there is the certainty that, based on the knowledge of these profiles, the professors and authorities of each school and faculty will be able to apply measures that contribute to improving the academic performance of recent students, since facilitate your journey from the beginning to the end of your careers.

  8. Rusi, S.

    Comparative Literature emphases on the study of literature from different cultures, nations and genres and explores relationship between literature and other forms of cultural expressions. African American Literature is the body of literature produced in the Unites States by the writers of African descent. Dalit literature is the form of literature written by Dalits about their life struggles and experiences. Dalit literature is often compared to African American literature relating to the issues such as racial segregation and injustice. The paper compares these literatures through the novels of Ntozake shange and Ifa Bayeza’s Some Sing, Some Sing and Bama’s Sangati. Some Sing, Some Cry leads to the epic saga, covering almost two hundred years and seven generations of Mayfield family, dealing with the struggles and troubles of black women in contemporary America. Sangati deals with dalit women’s lives and their hard work, where the women of dalit community have to do great labour in the field as well as home, she also portrays the real picture of dalit paraiyar women. The paper discusses in detail about the similarities from novels such as the struggle and hardship of African American women and Dalit women to survive among their society, taking up each tussle as an experience to succeed in their life. Women from both of these novels have learned to accept life wholeheartedly even in the midst of desperation and horror.

  9. Flores-Encarnación, M., Valentín-Aguilar I., Aguilar-Gutiérrez G.R., Martínez-Alvarado, K. and Cabrera-Maldonado, C.

    In the bacterial communication intervene different signaling molecules, which control different bacterial processes such as the synthesis of antibiotics, bioluminescence, biofilm development, sporulation, virulence. Most of these processes are decisive in bacterial pathogenesis. Inhibition of bacterial quorum sensing offer an alternative to control infections. These allow the bacterial strains that cause infections to become more susceptible to antimicrobial agents.

  10. Dr. A. Padmaja, Saravana and Dr. Sudha Rani, P.

    Introduction: Road accidents are one of the major causes of death, injury and disability in all over the world both in developed and developing countries. With a broad estimate, in every 1 min, 2 people are killed and 95 people are severely injured or permanently disabled in traffic accidents worldwide. Traffic accident related deaths and injuries result in not only substantial economic losses but also serious physical and mental sufferings. Developing countries are much more affected from traffic accidents than developed countries. According to the world health organization (WHO) statistics, 75% of deaths resulted from traffic accidents occurring in developing countries. Methodology: Quantative research approach was adopted to achieve the objectives of the study. Which was felt to be most appropriate for its practicability in real life situation. it has the advantages of practicability, feasibility and to a certain extent of for generalization. Research design was one group pre test post-test design. The study was conducted in selected villages of bangarupalem (m) Chittoor (dt). Population includes male and female students studying 9th and 10th class selected villages in bangarupalem (m) Chittoor(dt). Sample size consists of 60 school children 9male and female) under inclusion criteria. Non probability convenient sampling technique was adopted for the present study based on inclusion criteria. Results: • In pre-test knowledge levels regarding road traffic accidents 40(66.70%) school children have inadequate knowledge12 (20 %) of school children have moderately adequate knowledge only 8(13.30%) of school children have adequate knowledge. • In post- test knowledge levels regarding road traffic accidents43 (68.30%) school children have adequate knowledge o17 (28.30%) of school children have moderately adequate knowledge. • In pre -test there was significant association between knowledge on prevention of road traffic accidents age, occupation of mother occupation of father monthly family income educational status of mother and father gender area of residence family income per month <0.01 Level and how many times seen the accidents at p< 0.05evel • there was no significant association found between knowledge on prevention of road traffic accidents with the religion, source of information how many times seen the road traffic accidents. • In post-test here was significant association between knowledge on prevention of road traffic accidents with age of the school children educational status of mother, and gender at p< 0.01 and how many times seen the road traffic accidents family income per month at p<0.05 • In post -test there was no significant association was found between knowledge on prevention of road traffic accidents age of the school children religion educational status of father occupation of mother and father, family income per month place of residence how many times seen the road traffic accidents and source of information Conclusion; The study findings revealed that among 60 school children age group of 14-15 years majority of 40(66.70%) school children have inadequate knowledge12 (20 %) of school children have moderately adequate knowledge only 8(13.30%) of school children have adequate knowledge in pre-test. Based on this structure teaching programme was given on prevention of road traffic accidents which helped the school children to improve level of knowledge regarding road traffic accidents. After health education majority of school children 43 (68.30%) were had adequate knowledge o17 (28.30%) of school children have moderately adequate knowledge. It is responsibility of nursing professionals to educate the school children’s regarding prevention of road traffic accidents they can assist themselves and others.

  11. Ms. Shewli Hira

    Covid 19 brings out the already existing digital gap in societies across the world. Schools and colleges were brought face-to-face with new ed-technologies and new methods of assessment. Teachers were not prepared for presenting lectures on a virtual platform which requires different strategies and preparation. Administrators expected teachers to jumpstart education online, overlooking the time required for change. All of a sudden LMSes, such as Blackboard experienced tremendous load and the experience was bad due to poor net connection, low quality data packs and phone incompatibility. As every cloud has a silver lining, the teachers found solutions to improve learning and teaching, and engaged students successfully. The prediction that E-Learning is going to be the future mode of learning and teaching came true with all hiccups. Teachers were forced to re-look at their teaching strategies, re-write lessons plans. Unfortunately, it was a period of burn out – emotional and mental. The major challenges were experienced in maintaining attendance, delivering and listening to lectures in a smooth manner and participation in online classes without technical interruptions. Teachers are experts in their subjects but not technical experts. Neither all softwares are free, nor all people are habituated with different softwares which require constant updating. This discussion paper is based on the experiences and technical challenges faced by the female teachers and female students during the online classes across different nations.

  12. Ndongo DIOUF, Moustapha GUEYE, Birane DIENG, Jules DIOUF, Samba Laha KA, Fatou Kiné GUEYE, M.S MBAYE et K. NOBA

    Chrysanthemum Chrysanthemum (Chrysanthemum morifolium Ramat.) belongs to the family ‘Asteraceae’, origin is China and it’s also known as ‘Queen of the East’. In the study was conducted at Vanavarayar Institute of Agriculture, Manakkadavu, Pollachi. The experiment was laid out in randomized block design and nine treatments with replicated three times. In the result of the present study, organic, bio-fertilizer and organic manure with bio-fertilizer combination of T2, T6 &T7 treatments revealed that significantly increased the plant height, plant spread, number of branches, flower bud initiation, time taken for first flowering and days taken to 50 per cent flowering, flowering duration, weight of twenty fresh flowers and no. of flowers per plant and T1 is least performing treatment. Among the 9 treatments results showed that, T7 - VAM – 50g/plant +Vermicompost- 250g/plant was found to be the comparatively best treatment combination for good growth and flowering attributes in chrysanthemum cv. Poornima white.

  13. Dr. Sneha Gaonkar, Dr. Meena Aras, Dr. Vidya Chitre and Dr. Saurabh Kamat

    Loss of natural teeth could compromise the functional, esthetics and phonetics demand by the patients. Advancements in the oral implant procedures has created various treatment options available. Adequate bone support is essential prior to dental implant placement. Bone defect associated with lost teeth in anterior maxilla will affect both surgical placement of implant and subsequent prosthetic rehabilitation. Augmentation of bone defects can be carried out using autografts, particulate grafts or block grafts combined GBR to regenerate lost bone. This case report presents step by step procedure in which missing anterior tooth was restored with dental implant using hard tissue augmentation.

  14. Changaya Robinson Kweyu and Olanrewaju Isola Fatoki

    Foreign inflows contribute to the growth and development of countries. The financial sector plays intermediary roles between savings and investment in various economic units which spans across the selection investment projects and the final users of financial resources. Real estate investment performs a vital role in the economy of Kenya. Over the years, Kenya has experienced increased investments in the real estate sector which is attributed to the quest of owning houses by Kenyans. This study examined the effect of foreign inflow on real estate investment in Kenya. Specifically, it assessed the effect of diaspora remittance, foreign direct investments and portfolio management on real estate investment in Kenya. The study further evaluated the moderating effect of financial development on the relationship between foreign inflows and real estate investment in Kenya. The causal research design was used in the study. Mainly, the Autoregressive Distributed Lag bounds test and the Dynamic Ordinary Least Squares methods were employed. The findings revealed that Foreign Direct Investment and Portfolio Investment have significant negative effect on Real Estate investment in Kenya in the short run. Also, the interaction between Financial Development and Foreign Direct Investment was weakly significant. The study concluded that foreign inflows determine Real Estate Investment only in the short run in Kenya. In the long-run, their effects on Real Estate Investment wanes. The study also concludes that the moderating effect of Financial Development on the relationship between Foreign Inflows and Real Estate Investment in Kenya is feasible only through the Foreign Direct Investment channel. Therefore, the study recommends that the Government of Kenya looks inward for alternative funding options such as mortgage financing to achieve growth in the real estate sector. The foreign inflows have shown to influence real estate investment only in the short run.

  15. Doktorová Dominika, Horváthová Dominika and Masár Michal

    The aim of our research was to find a connection between human-to-human attachment and human-to-animal attachment, to compare groups of animal owners and non-owners in terms of human attachment, the connection of human-to-animal attachment and life satisfaction, and the comparison of animal owners with non-owners in terms of life satisfaction. We used the ECR scale to measure the human-to-human attachment, the PAQ questionnaire for the human-to-animal attachment, and the Fragebogen zur Lebenszufriedenheit (FLZ, Life Satisfaction Questionnaire) to measure life satisfaction. The research sample consisted of 240 participants, of which 130 were animal owners (dog or cat) and 110 participants, who did not own an animal. The results confirmed that there is a connection between human-to-human attachment and human-to-animal attachment, and between human-to-animal attachment and life satisfaction. There is also a difference between the group of animal owners and the group of non-owners in life satisfaction.

  16. Haider Muhammad Imran, Jintong Liu,Yang Wang, Abdul Sattar Ghaffari, Hafiz Muhammad Shoaib and Saeed Javed

    Background: During past two decades, China has modernized its education system and became a hub for international students. However, studying abroad comes with various challenges. Objectives: In this study, we have focused on mental health of international students in response of acculturation, and investigated the relationship of religious coping with stress, depression and anxiety. Methods: We have analyzed data of 397 international students attending three different universities in Jinan, China. Acculturative Stress Scale for International Students was used to determine the level of stress. Zung Self-Rating Depression Scale (SDS) and Zung Self-Rating Anxiety Scale (SDS) were used to assess level of depression and anxiety respectively. Religious coping activity was recorded by Brief RCOPE. Data was analyzed by using SPSS Version 21.Descriptive statistics, Pearson’s correlation, regression analysis, t-tests and ANOVA were conducted. Results: Our results indicated that Acculturative stress was positively associated to depression, anxiety and negative religious coping, whereas negatively correlated to positive religious coping. Furthermore, it is concluded that positive religious coping has negative impact on acculturative stress, depression and anxiety. We have also found that males students are more depressed than female students, whereas anxiety level is significantly high among female students which might be the outcome of acculturation. Analysis of variance between different religious groups of our participants indicates that level of acculturative stress, depression, anxiety and religious coping is different among different religions. Conclusion: Our study suggests that acculturative stress is one of main predictor of depression and anxiety among international students, and these psychological conditions can be influenced by religion. Religious commitment and activities should be taken into consideration while psychological assessment of foreigners living in China.

  17. Naga Vaishnavi, C.

    This paper intends to show case the results of a survey conducted among the students of architecture in India, to understand their perception of Architectural Pedagogy in Professional Practice. We are trying to understand the Rationale of Application of Theory Inputs in Architectural Practice. This survey shows the aspects that requires attention in the architectural education in student’s opinion.

  18. Dr. Arif Ismail, Dr. Asif Ismail, Dr. Mohammed Iqbal D.K. and Dr. Subramanya Shetty

    Gingival inflammation is often associated with the use of fixed orthodontic appliances which leads to elevated gingival inflammation level during orthodontic treatment. Aims and objectives of this study was to compare and evaluate the efficacy of two mouthwashes in reducing the bacterial activity. Non- alcoholic mouthwash (Colgate Plax Complete Care) and Alcoholic (Original Listerine) were tested in our study. Oral hygiene were evaluated using Loe and Silness gingival index, Silness and Loe plaque index and Muhlemann and Son sulcular bleeding index. Quantification of Streptococcus mutans from the saliva sample was taken from the orthodontic patients undergoing fixed orthodontic appliance. The study outcome indicated that Non-alcoholic mouthwash showed maximum efficacy in bringing about a reduction in bacterial activity.

  19. Mr. Yashwantrao Mitnasala, Mr. Harshal Pacharne, Mr. Kedar Pansare and Mr. Vrushabh Parmar

    In this research paper, we will be studying about the effects of use of magnetic water in concrete. It is observed in various tests that, magnetic water has augmented the properties of concrete. Methods that were adopted by researchers around the world to magnetize water will be discussed. Our topic of interest is data obtained for compressive strength, split tensile strength, flexural strength, and workability of concrete for various combinations of cementitious materials with concrete using magnetized water. We shall discuss about these tests that were conducted and their practical implications.

  20. Dr. Savitha Sathyaprasad, Dr. Nandan S. and Dr. Pavithra V Rao

    For a conventional caries treatment generally a high speed hand-piece is used to access the lesion and a low-speed hand-piece for the caries removal, this method is considered predominantly an invasive approach. Through this approach, along with the carious tooth structure there is unintentional removal of non-carious tooth structure. Approaches for the management of dental caries have changed dramatically in recent years, evolving from the traditional, largely restorative treatment approach to a preventive approach, non-invasion or minimal invasion1. In order to diminish the amount of destruction of the tooth substance, minimally invasive cavity designs and techniques like air abrasion, atraumatic restorative therapy, chemomechanical caries removal, and lasers have been tried. For a better comprehension on the caries process, the contemporary methods of management must be aimed towards prevention of the disease, managing the caries risk and detecting the carious lesions as early as possible in order to steer clear from invasive treatment, but, when indicated, use the least invasive methods1. Various approaches have been suggested for the non-invasive management of non-cavitated caries lesions, which are also known as initial or early caries lesions. These include the remineralisation of the lesion with fluoride2 and casein phosphopeptide amorphous calcium phosphate3, or the use of therapeutic sealants for occlusal lesions4. Additional to these, a non-invasive alternative treatment was proposed that was based on the experiments conducted by Robinson et al.5 on caries infiltration with resorcinol-formaldehyde resin. The aim of this review was to present the scientific basis, the principles of resin infiltration, resin infiltration technique and to discuss its inherent clinical applications in primary and permanent dentition.

  21. Subhankar Naha, Shreyasi Biswas and Pritam Ghosh

    Background: The entire world is now suffering from different crises for the COVID-19 pandemic. The education sector is one of the most tremendously affected sectors in this pandemic driven situation. India has millions of students at the school level which were affected by the shifting of the educational platform from offline to online. Objective: This study has attempted to analyze the accessibility status and gap in the quality of education in this pandemic situation. This study has been conducted from the perspective of secondary and higher secondary students of Kolkata and surroundings in terms of their spatial location and economic condition. Method: An online survey along with some restricted field survey and phone call interviews were conducted with a structured questionnaire. The random sampling method has been applied to a total of 423 students. Result: Study shows that there were major variations in accessibility among spatial locations of students. In terms of economic condition, it can be said that mainly very low income class and lower-income groups were having different problems in meeting basic requirements for online education thus their level of accessibility was very low in comparison to students of higher-income groups. A major portion of students mainly belonging to lower-income groups was completely detached from online education due to their economic constraints. Chi-square analysis has been also conducted to confirm the significant associations of accessibility status with spatial location and income classes. Conclusion: Strategies must be taken in order to fulfill the basic needs of the students to avail online education platform in terms of their location and economic condition irrespective of their vulnerable position. We have to make sure that basic education should be available to all through any platform and circumstances.

  22. Dr. Lalitha Indrani Malwenna

    Fertility is defined as the ability to conceive and bear children through normal sexual activity. According to estimates, a fertile woman can bear average 17 pregnancies from menarche to menopause while 10% of cohabiting couples have become sub fertile due to problems like malnutrition or disease, especially sexually transmitted infections. The world reached its one billion population around the year 1800 and 7 billion in 2011 with projections to reach 20 billion by 2100. Due to varying levels of fertility control and increase in death rates, population growth rate in the world has declined in 2-1.5 % per year during the past 30 years. An induced abortion averts about 0.4 births, while about 0.8 births are averted by using moderately effective contraceptives. Although the fertility rates are declining even across the developing world, the world’s population is growing faster due to increased number of sexually active females in the reproductive age, resulted from high fertility rates existed in the past. Almost 97% of this growth was in developing countries due to their high birth rates, high proportion of sexually active population and their less use of modern contraceptives. However, as a result of fast aging, death rate would exceed birth rate resulting negative population growth as seen in many of the developed countries. According to estimates of the World Health Organization in 2003, a woman dies every 8 minutes due to complications arising from unsafe abortions, resulting death in 68,000 women accounting for about 13% of maternal mortalities and 5 million with long-term health complications. Even by 2017, approximately 810 women died from preventable causes related to pregnancy and childbirth every day. Between 2000 and 2017, the Maternal Mortality Ratio (MMR, number of maternal deaths per 100,000 live births) dropped by about 38% worldwide. Out of all maternal deaths, 94% occur in low and middle-income countries. Young adolescents (ages 10-14) face a higher risk of complications and death as a result of pregnancy than other women in the same age category.

  23. Asalah Altwairqi, Hatim Alsuwat and Emad Alsuwat

    Although the Internet has played a significant role in our daily life, it has become a major threat. To meet this threat, we need to identify the most dangerous layer among the three layers of the Internet, which is the Dark Web. This paper focuses on the role of the dark web in some areas of cyberspace: cybercrime, cyber terrorism, cyber warfare, and cybersecurity

  24. Yamuna, G., Dr. Padmaja, A.

    The aim of the study was to assess the knowledge and prevention of upper respiratory tract infection among mothers of under five children at MCH center in tirupati. Objectives: • To assess the existing knowledge on prevention of hygienic health practices of under-five mothers on upper respiratory tractinfections. • To evaluate the effectiveness of structured teaching programme on upper respiratory tractinfections. • To associate the knowledge of under-five mothers regarding upper respiratory tract infection with selected demographic variables. Methodology: By using convenient sampling technique A quasi experimental single group pre-test and post-test design has been adopted. Fifty mothers of under five children were selected. and data collection was done by using a standardized and self-structured questionnaire. Results: Out of 50 mothers in pre-test 88(44%) had inadequate knowledge, 6(12%) had moderate knowledge and 0(0.0%) had adequate knowledge. In post-test 0(0.0%) had inadequate knowledge, 16(32%) had moderate knowledge and 68(34%) had adequate knowledge. Out of 50 mothers pre-test 10(20%) had inadequate knowledge on prevention, 38 (72%) had moderate knowledge on prevention and 2 (4%) had adequate knowledge on prevention. In post-test 0(0%) had inadequate knowledge on prevention, 13 (26%) had moderate knowledge on prevention, 37 (74%) had adequate knowledge on prevention. Out of 50 mothers total pre-test knowledge 19(38%), had inadequate knowledge on 29 (58%), had moderate knowledge on 2 (4%) had adequate knowledge on total pre-test. In post-test 0(0%) had inadequate knowledge on, 13(26%) had moderate knowledge on 37 (74%) had adequate knowledge on total pre-test knowledge. Conclusion: Knowledge and knowledge prevention were significant at p<0.01 level regarding upper respiratory tract infections, hence hypothesis is accepted.

  25. Rinsy, PV, Jayakumar, C, Raghavi, T. and Sajesh Menon

    Back pains in children are generally related to postural, traumatic or mechanical causes . Most children are fortunate to have a self limiting course. However paediatricians must have a high index of suspicion on unusual causes of back pain ,especially when the pain is disproportionate to history and clinical signs. We report a case of 5-year-old girl who presented with acute back pain following a trivial trauma. She was initially evaluated for tuberculosis spine, but soon diagnosed as Langerhans cell histiocytosis of spine and underwent surgery.

  26. Dr. Farwah Hasan, S., Dr. Puja Bansal and Dr. Deepak Bhargava

    Epidermoid cysts represent the most common cutaneous cysts. Epidermoid cysts are developmental, benign, cutaneous cysts which are commonly found on face followed by trunk and neck. They account for approximately 80% of follicular cysts of the skin. They are slow growing lesions and remain asymptomatic until or unless secondarily infected. They occasionally have tendency to develop into a malignancy. This article is to present a rare case of epidermoid cyst of the outer ear in a 30-year-old male patient. During clinical examination, a soft, cystic, globular, and non-tender swelling with restricted motility and well-defned margins was seen in the retroauricular region. Skin over the swelling was normal and not attached to it. The chosen treatment was total surgical removal. The histopathological findings confirmed the diagnosis of epidermoid cyst, characterized by presence of cyst cavity lined by cystic lining comprised of keratinized stratified squamous epithelium. Few sebaceous glands can also be seen. Revealing dense collagen fiber bundles interspersed with fibroblasts dense chronic inflammatory cells chiefly lymphocytes and plasma cells and endothelial lined blood vessels. Cystic lumen was filled with keratin. The proposed treatment was considered successful, as there was no recurrence.

  27. Shetti A. A. and Kaliwal, B. B.

    Imidacloprid (I-[(6-chloro-3-pyridinyl)-methyl]-N-nitro-2-imidazolidinimine), a chloronicotinyl insecticide is used widely to control biting and sucking insects. Present investigation was carried out to analyse the effect of imidacloprid on biochemical parameters like DNA, RNA, protein and glucose in soil isolate Bacillus weihenstephanensis. The study involving soil isolate Bacillus weihenstephanensis with molar concentrations of 10-3 to 10-7 of imidacloprid insecticide showed that there was an increase in the percent inhibition of DNA, RNA, protein and glucose, the inhibitory effect increased with an increase in the concentration of insecticide proving that the inhibitory effect is dose dependent. The present investigation indicates that imidacloprid reduced the DNA RNA, glucose and protein content which intern effects the growth of the Bacillus weihenstephanensis.

  28. Jagadeeshwara Chari T. and Rajashekhar, A.V.

    The present study based on the data for 5 years deals with the role of a minor reservoir in fish production and the influence of stocking densities on fish production. Nagulakunta, a minor reservoir with 10 ha of water spread is located in Vinjapally village of Siddipet District. The minor reservoir is treated as stocking and capture system for development of the fisheries. The overall major carp production is 465.88kg/ha/yr, and that of the rest being 56.25kg/ha/yr. The total fish production is 513.13kg/ha/yr. The major carp production increased significantly from 13.43 to 98.02%, and that of others decreased drastically from 86.57 to 1.98%. The major carp seed (20 - 40mm fry) alone was stocked in the reservoir with overall stocking rate of 5892 fry/ ha/ yr. The major carp production considerably increased with stocking and the maximum yield of carps was recorded at a stocking density of 8500 fry/ha/yr. It is concluded that Nagulakunta is productive reservoir in terms of fish production.

  29. Manila Bhatia, Surendra Singh, Saurabh Pagare, Bhumesh Kumar

    Chenopodium album (L.) of the family Chenopodiaceae distributed worldwide including India includes about 250 species. On the basis of these herbal characters, the Chenopodium plant is traditionally used as herbal medicine to cure various disorders like abdominal pains, eye disease, throat troubles, piles, diseases of the blood, heart and spleen and biliousness etc. The plant is a source of the variety of phyto-constituents like flavonoid as phenolic amide, saponin, cinnamic acid amide, alkaloid chinoalbicin, apocortinoid, xyloside, phenols and lignans, protein, carbohydrates, suberin, glucoside, flavin and traces amount of oil and sugars etc. The plant extracts from the different parts having different pharmacological activities such as antioxidant potential, antimicrobial, antipruriticlaxative, aphrodisiac action, antinociceptive, anthelmintic, antinutritional and functional potential for human diet etc. This review article reveals the comprehensive account of the cytomorphological, phytochemical constituents, ethnobotanical inputs and pharmacological activities including the immense medicinal and functional food potential of this plant.

  30. Dr. Muhammed Bilal and Dr. Senthil Murugappan

    Aim: The aim of this study was to determine the Efficiency and Effectiveness of Oral Health Manual designed for care givers of Special children. Methods: Caregivers at Sathya Special School, Pondicherry were selected. A total of 100 caregivers participated in this study out of which 93 participants took the pre-test and 89 took the post test. A 14 multiple choice question bank was designed to evaluate the knowledge amongst the care gives based on the specially designed copyrighted manual prepared with regards to oral hygiene maintenance. Results: The test reveals there was a significant raise for percentage of correct answer before and after with a increase of 10 percentages which was found to be statistically highly significant with P Value .000 Conclusion: It is evident that the knowledge of the caregivers of special children about the oral health practices and their attitude towards oral hygiene maintenance is better

  31. Lakpathi Bhukya

    Salivary gland calculi account for the most common disease of the salivary glands, and may range from tiny particles to several centimeters in length. Sialolithiasis (also termed salivary calculi, or salivary stones), is a condition where a calcified mass forms within a salivary gland1. The term is derived from the Greek words sialon (saliva) and lithos (stone), and the Latin -iasis meaning "process" or "morbid condition". Sialoliths are calcified organic matter that forms within the secretory system of the major salivary glands. The incidence of sailolith is 80% in sub mandibular gland, 4-10% in the parotid gland and 1-7% in the sublingual gland. Submandibular gland is the second largest salivary gland in human body2. Each submandibular gland weighs approximately 10-15.Submandibular gland excision is recommended in cases of substantial intra-glandular caliculli, which are inaccessible via a trans-oral approach and also, when multiple small calcified masses are present in the vertical and comma portions of Wharton’s duct. The present case report describes a safe and easy surgical technique in a patient, who had a painful swelling in the right submandibular region, giving a clinical evidence of submandibular gland stone. MRI examinations were done where the gland and sialolith dimensions were approximately 4 x 3.5cm and 0.8 x 0.6mmrespectively. As the sailolith was present in the center of gland,causing inflammatory changes so that the gland had to be removed in toto.

  32. Dr. Rawan Ismail Filfilan and Dr. Hisham Bashawri

    Background: Motor Vehicle Crash (MVC) is the second leading cause of morbidity and mortality in children. Therefore, it is essential to keep children protected in the car by practicing child passenger safety arrangements known as Child Restraint System (CRS). Objectives: To assess the level of adherence and determinants of practicing CRS in the vehicle among guardians of children. Subjects and Methods: Analytic cross-sectional study has been conducted among the guardians of children attending Kindergarten (KG) schools in the western sector of Makkah city, Saudi Arabia. A self-administered validated questionnaire was used for data collection. It consists of two sections: socio-demographic data and general information of the participants and apart assessed the practicing and the application of CRS. Results: The study included 342 guardians. The age of more than half of them (57%) ranged between 30 and 50 years and almost three-quarters (75.1%) of them were females. Always using the seat belt was mentioned by slightly more than half of the participants (52.4%). Almost half of the participants (49.4%) reported the current existence of the children's car seats. Adherence to the Child Restraint System in the Vehicle was reported by almost half of the participants (50.9%). The highest rate of adherence to the CRS in the Vehicle was observed among participants aged between 20 and 29 years (63.8%) whereas the lowest rate was observed among those aged over 50 years (39.2%), p=0.011. Regarding the marital status, single participants had the highest rate of adherence to the CRS (60%) whereas divorced participants had the lowest rate (20.8%), p=0.005. Postgraduate participants had a higher rate of adherence to the CRS compared to university or below university graduated (65.6% versus 47.1% and 50%, respectively), p=0.038. Participants whose income exceeded 20000 SR/month were more adherent to the CRS (60%) than those with lower income, p=0.046. Conclusion: Adherence of guardians to CRS in the vehicle was not enough in comparison to the level of adherence in the US which was around 65%, and further reconsideration is needed for the safety of children in vehicles in Makkah city.

  33. Murugesan, P. and Sathyamurthi, K.

    Multi Drug-Resistant Tuberculosis (MDR-TB) is a type of drug resistant TB. It defined as strains of Mycobacterium tuberculosis resistant to at least isoniazid and rifampicin, i.e., the two first-line anti-TB drugs. MDR-TB poses a major threat to public health worldwide, particularly in low-income countries and it represents a major obstacle towards successful TB control programme. The current long (24 months) and arduous treatment regimen uses powerful drugs with side-effects that include mental ill-health. It has a high loss to- follow-up (25%), higher case fatality and lower cure-rates than those with drug sensitive tuberculosis. Global TB strategy aims to end the global TB epidemic, to reduce TB deaths by 95% and to cut new cases by 90% by 2035, hence the management of MDR-TB is much more difficult than drug-susceptible TB. Aim & Objectives: To understand the psychosocial issues faced by MDR-TB patients and their wellbeing through published articles and conference reports to find out the social work intervention methods to strengthen the Programmatic Management of Drug-Resistant Tuberculosis (PMDT). Methods : Based on the pubMed for studies published from January 1995 to November 2018, with the terms: Tuberculosis, MDR TB, and Psychosocial problems / issues/challenges/ wellbeing. A total of 87 published articles were retrieved, of which 53 articles were chosen for full text review and presented in this review. Findings : This review has captured the psychosocial issues and wellbeing of MDR patients. Number of issues for their psycho social and economic issues due to long duration of treatment, high pill burden, drug adverse effects. Psychological disturbances (worries, fear, tension, denial, depression), social problems (disclosure issues, rejection, enacted stigma, perceived stigma, discrimination by family members, community, lack of social support) and economic problems (inability to go for work, work absenteeism, loss of income, borrowings) In addition, challenges they faced during treatment and further to lead normal life. Conclusion : The social workers strive to eliminate discrimination, to reduced Psycho-Social issues and to promote the drug adherence by using the Social Case Work and Group Work method for intervention among MDR TB patients. Social workers engage in direct practice with patients in such roles as counsellor, enabler, case manager, and advocate. It is recommended that the social worker will work as a bridge between TB patients and Health professionals for psychological intervention.

  34. COMPAORE Inoussa, SANOGO Souleymane, TANKOANO Boalidioa, TAMA Kouakou, NACRO B. Hassan and KABRE T. André

    The knowledge of the ichthyofauna remains an advantage and a privileged tool for a sustainable management of the fishery. The present study was carried out in three fisheries located in the upper basin of the Mouhoun River in Burkina Faso. The objective was to make a comparative study of the richness of the ichthyofauna present in the three fisheries during the rainy and dry seasons. Therefore, the sampling of fish was done on the basis of the daily catches of the fishermen. A total of 50 fishermen were selected, of which 30 in Samendeni, 10 in Balla and 10 in Bama.In all three fisheries 43 species distributed in 31 genera and 18 families were identified. The most representative families are:Cichlidae (66%), Osteoglossidae (9%), Claroteidae (5%), Mochokidae (4%) and Gymnarchidae (4%). The Samendeni fishery has the highest fish diversity followed by Balla and Bama with 34, 24 and 22 species respectively. The Kruskal Wally test shows that there is no significant difference (p-value=0.763) in terms of number of species between the dry and wet seasons. The p-values of the Chi-square test calculated give for the Shannon index 0.3608; Simpson's index 0.5577 and the Equitability index 0.5617 and show that there is no statistically significant difference in these indices between the two seasons. This study has shown that the upper Mouhoun basin contains a strong ichthyological diversity and that it is necessary to exploit it in a rational and sustainable way for the benefit of the communities.

  35. Hepsi Bai Joseph and Vinitha Ravindran

    Background: Perceived Organizational support would be influenced by various aspects of an employee’s treatment by the organization and would in turn, influence the employee’s interpretation of organizational motives underlying that treatment. Job satisfaction may get affected when the organizational climate becomes unhealthy at work place. How nurses perceive their organizational support and its impact on their job satisfaction to be explored as it may affects quality of patient care rendered and work life of nurses. Objectives: To assess the relationship between perceived organizational support and job satisfaction among nurses. Methods: A descriptive cross-sectional study was conducted among 40 nurses to assess the relationship between perceived organizational support and job satisfaction among nurses using perceived organizational support scale (POS) and Job Satisfaction survey in India. Results: The perceived organizational support score was 25.7± 3.8 and job satisfaction score was 136 ± 16.3. There was a significant positive co-relation between perceived organizational support and nurses job satisfaction (r = 0.24, p=0.04). Conclusion: Perceived organizational support is significantly associated with job satisfaction among nurses. Health care organizations should focus on strengthening the organizational support for nurses, henceforth the perception on organization could be positive and enhances nurse’s job satisfaction, reduce the intention to quit.

  36. Dr. Mahesh Dave, Dr. Lakhan Poswal, Dr. Kumawat, D.C., Dr. Heer Nath, Dr. Ramit Singh Pala and Dr. Abhishek Nyati

    Background: The entire world is struggling with a pandemic caused due to novel corona virus (Covid-19) and this pandemic is still not under control. The present study was aimed to know various demographic factors, clinical features, co-morbidities and complication of COVID-19 deaths as well to determine case fatality rate of our institute. Methodology: We analyzed, Demographic, clinical, co-morbidities, complication and case fatality rate of all 22 RT-PCR confirmed COVID-19 deaths that occurred at Dedicated COVID Hospital, a tertiary care centre, attached to RNT Medical college Udaipur Rajasthan, over a period of four month from 15th March 2020 to 22th July 2020.Result: We found that the maximum patients were from age group ≥ 60 years (68.2%) followed by 40 to 59 years (27.3%) and predominantly seen in male sex (77.3%). The major clinical feature was shortness of breath (100%), fever (86.4%) and cough (81.8%) The most common co-morbidities was diabetes (54.5 %) and hypertension (50%).The major cause of death was bilateral pneumonia with ARDS (100%), septicaemia (27.3%), and MODS (18.2%) and case fatality rate was 2.1%. Conclusion: At present case fatality rate of our institute was 2.10%. We recommend early active intervention and various newer modalities of treatment such as anti viral therapy, convalescent plasma therapy will be further reduced case fatality rate and hopefully we will be able to control and manage this present pandemic.

  37. Reshma Jain and R. Sao

    Freshwater fish biodiversity is not so broadly studied. There is very less experimental data on Freshwater fish resources of Charaimara. The study focus on the database of fishes in Charaimara. Fishes are the unique creature among animals. Contributing their role as food resources and is able to combat problem of malnutrition. Charaimara Pond is basically a tribal Place. This is the first study to catalogue species of fishes found in Charaimara. Charaimara situated in Chhattisgarh state. In Charaimara village of Jashpur district first time the culture of Pungaisius fishes are done. Total 26 species from different sampling station were recorded. Recorded fish species were classified in 5 order, 10 families and 15 Genera. Order Cypriniformes comprised of 4 families Cyprinidae, Bagridae, Saccobranchidae and Clariidae were found as a dominant group. The main fishes found are Catla-catla, Cirrhinus mrigla, Labeo rohita, Cyprinus carpio, Clarius batrachus and Oreochromis mossambicus.

  38. Dr. Ramesh Chandra, Dr. Soumya and Dr. Ankita Jakhar

    Background: The association of endometriosis with hyperprolactinemia is controversial. Objective: The present study aimed to determine the association of endometriosis with hyperprolactinemia in infertile women. Method: Women between age group 19-38 years who presented with chief complaint of infertility in the outpatient Department of Obstetric and Gynaecology at Sawai Maan Singh (SMS) Medical College and simultaneously underwent diagnostic laparoscopy were included in a cross sectional study. The presence of endometriosis was evaluated. To investigate the association of endometriosis with hyperprolactinemia, the patients whose infertility was not caused by endometriosis were included in the control group. Serum prolactin levels were measured in follicular phase in all females undergoing diagnostic laparoscopy for evaluation of infertility. The comparison of serum prolactin levels between the two groups was performed using unpaired t-test. Results: Prolactin levels were found to be significantly higher in the endometriosis group as compared to the control group (34.30±13.81 vs. 12.30±4.95 respectively). The results were statistically significant (p< 0.001). Conclusion: In the present study, hyperprolactinemia i.e. serum prolactin >20ng/ml was found to be associated with endometriosis. Hence, serum prolactin levels should be estimated in all patients who are suspected of endometriosis.

  39. Dr. Savitha Sathyaprasad, Dr. Mercy vinolia, T. and Dr. Krishnamoorthy, S.H.

    The expression “dental caries” is utilized to represent the outcomes, signs, symptoms, and side effects of a localized chemical disintegration of the tooth surface (enamel and dentin) caused by dental plaque and mediated by saliva1. Caries is considered as disease with high incidence among childhood chronic conditions, where it is also well-thought-out to cause harm on both population and individual well- being2,3. When comparing it with other common diseases, dental caries is five times as frequent as asthma and seven times as common as hay fever4. The American Academy of Pediatrics demonstrates that dental and oral infections keep on infecting children and, specifically, very young children. In primary teeth, dental caries is a preventable and reversible disease if treated in early stages, but when left untreated it will lead to pain, bacteremia, alteration in growth and development, premature tooth loss, speech disorder, increase in treatment costs, loss of confidence, and negatively affect successor permanent teeth. The definitions used previously to describe this bacterial disease were related to cause and the improper utilization of nursing bottle. These terms are used interchangeably: “Early childhood tooth decay”, “early childhood caries (ECC)”, “bottle caries”, “nursing caries”, “baby bottle tooth decay”, or “night bottle mouth”5,6. The expression “ECC” was proposed more than 20 years ago during a workshop supported by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) trying to scope the consideration upon the various issues, such as financial, sociopsychological, and behavioral, which contributes to the formation of caries at such initial years, instead of attributing its manifestation solely on feeding bottles7. This article explores the various means of preventive strategies, including anticipatory guidance and future approaches to prevent ECC, interprofessional education and practise also explores the implications of ECC epidemiology for evolving health service delivery and financing approaches

  40. Devika G., Sajitha Nair, Gayathri, S., Maniram Krishna and Jayakumar, C.

    In pyopericardium, pus accumulates in the pericardial space as a result of infection by pyogenic organisms, most common of which are Staphylococcus aureus and Mycobacterium tuberculosis. These patients are at risk of cardiac tamponade. Causes linked to pyopericardium are pneumonia, empyema, thoracic surgery and haematogenous spread through sepsis. Factors that can predispose to pericarditis include immunosuppression and previous pericardial inflammation and fibrosis. (1).We present a case of pyopericadium in a structurally normal heart which was initially suspected by cardiomegaly in the chest X ray which was taken while working up a male child with fever and cough of 2 weeks duration.

  41. Dr. Jegatheasan, S. and Dr. Lakshmi Narayanan, P.

    Introduction: Appendicectomy is one of the commonly performed surgeries in the emergency setup in our medical college (THANJAVUR MEDICAL COLLEGE). Aim of the Study: The study was conducted to know the effect of antibiotics in reducing surgical site infection and abscess formation after open appendicectomy.(1) Materials and Methods: A randomised controlled study was done in our medical college (THANJAVUR MEDICAL COLLEGE) between April 2019 and April 2020 in two groups. Group A received a single dose of postoperative antibiotic and group B received antibiotics for 3 days. Both groups received single dose preoperative antibiotic.(2) Results: Both groups were compared and there was no significant difference in rates of Surgical site infections between both groups. None of the patients developed intra-abdominal collection.(3) Conclusion: Single dose of postoperative antibiotic was sufficient in reducing surgical site infection after appendicectomy (5).

  42. Alkesh V.Godhane, Navneet Grewal, Dengeti Aswani Durga, Vinod B Kudupudi, Pragati Bramhe and Meenakshi Barai

    Objective: To calculate the mean free nasal airway space through specific measurements on lateral cephalogram and to correlate it with quantitative nasal air flow in nasal and oronasal breathers with three altered craniofacial morphological types. Methods: 90 subjects (45 males and 45 females) were divided into three groups:control group; Lip-incompetence group; long face group according to facial morphological criteria. They were again subdivided into three groups: Group I,II,III according to age groups. Each subject had undergone standard lateral cephalometric examination procedure and quantitative nasal air flow measurement using respiratory trnsducers. Linear and area measurement parameters were noted from lateral cephalometric tracings and different respiratory parameters were noted from respiratory cycle and compared. Results: There was significant correlation of Nasopharyngeal free airway space measured from Linear and Area measurements on a trapezoid on Lateral cephalometric tracings with different respiratory parameters used in this study. Conclusion: Ptm-ad2 should be routinely measured on lateral cephalogram to evaluate whether a patient suffers from obstruction of the nasal airway.

  43. Isabel Miras, Macarena García and Luis Arruza

    Renal vein thrombosis (RVT) affects 1.3-2.2/100,000 newborns. The classical presenting triad includes gross haematuria, thrombocytopenia and palpable abdominal mass. RVT can appear due to low-flow intrarenal circulation or umbilical vein catheterization. Perinatal factors like asphyxia, hypovolemia or shock and prothrombotic disorders have also been described as predisposing factors for spontaneous RVT. Although treatment is controversial, thrombolysis has been suggested for extensive cases with bilateral involvement. We present a case of a neonate with extensive bilateral renal vein and inferior cava vein thrombosis who was managed with heparin therapy.

  44. Muhammad Ishaq Porkas Lubis, Marshal and Doddy Prabisma Pohan

    Background: Diabetes Mellitus and obesity are increasing in the population undergoing Coronary Artery Bypass Graft, and these conditions are major factors in the development of Metabolic Syndrome. Metabolic syndrome is a group of factors that associated with an increased cardiovascular risk. The purpose of this study was to determine postoperative morbidity and mortality in patients with metabolic syndrome compared to patients with metabolic syndrome who undrewent Coronary Artery Bypass Grafting (CABG) surgery at H. Adam Malik General Hospital Medan. Patients and Methods: This study is an analytical study with a cross-sectional design, by taking secondary data from the medical records of patients who underwent CABG at H. Adam Malik General Hospital Medan, with total of 74 patients. Analysis of the data was using the Chi-Square test, which must be obtained p <0.05, the difference is statistically significant. Results: From 74 patients, we found statistically significant difference (p <0.05) on duration of intubation, and post-CABG surgery wound infection, there were longer postoperative CABG stay and intubation in the patient groupwith the metabolic syndrome and higher number of patient with post surgery wound infection in the group of patients with the metabolic syndrome compared to the group without the metabolic syndrome. Conclusion: Duration of stay, duration of intubation, and minimalizing of surgical wound infection, especially in patients with metabolic syndrome contributed in postoperative morbidity of CABGsurgery.

  45. Thais de R. Bessa-Guerra, Daniel A. da Silva, Emiliana B. Marques, Edalma S. e S. de Lucas, Patricia C. de Jesus, Larissa R. de Abreu, Sarah G. Jatobá, Renan S. Pereira, Adriana Lucia dos S. Bravo, Lays A. R. L. Rodrigues, Amanda R. de Abreu, Raynara Clá

    Nutritional psychiatry is a new area of research that seeks the relationship of nutrients in the brain axis and associated comorbidities. At the moment, there is an increasing discussion on the brain and heart axis seeking the understanding of the activity in reducing oxidative stress and mitochondrial respiratory chain, among the nutrients investigated is coenzyme Q10 (CoQ10). This important nutrient, which has a number of already established functions, has benefits in the treatment of psychiatric and heart disorders, it is believed to be the result of its antioxidant property and production of mitochondrial energy. However, there is a scarcity of studies on CoQ10 in the line of nutritional psychiatry, including there is still no consensus on the appropriate dosage or therapeutic plasmatic level of this nutrient. And this information is necessary both for the treatment of mitochondrial diseases and psychiatric and heart disorders. Therefore, this study seeks to describe the current knowledge about CoQ10 in the axis of nutritional psychiatry in the disordens brain and heart.

  46. Dan Călugăru, MD, PhD and Mihai Călugăru, MD, PhD

    The authors are commenting on the study entitled :“Spectral-domain OCT analysis of risk factors for macular atrophy development in the Harbor study for neovascular age-related macular degeneration” published by Sadda et al. in Ophthalmology 2020;127(10):1360-1370,which identified the baseline risk factors for macular atrophy development in patients with neovascular age-related macular degeneration treated with ranibizumab over 24 months of follow-up. The following baseline risk factors for macular atrophy were confirmed from prior analyses that used color fundus photography and fluorescein angiography data: absence of subretinal fluid, presence of intraretinal cysts, presence of Type 3 neovascularization, and presence of atrophy in the fellow eye. This analysis using Spectral-domain optical tomography data revealed new baseline risk factors for macular atrophy: higher central drusen volume, lower choroidal thickness, presence of nascent atrophy, presence of reticular pseudodrusen, and increased central foveal thickness. Ranibizumab treatment regimen and dose level were not found to be risk factors for macular atrophy development. However, the validation, extrapolation, and generalizability of the authors’ conclusions can be made only by statistical analyses including all the missing baseline potential risk factors referred by us in addition to the new risk factors identified in this study, which serve as putative biomarkers predicting the occurrence and progression of macular atrophy in neovascular age-related macular degeneration patients.

  47. Sonali Shah, Aashka Shah, Bansi Shingala, and Neha Desai

    Purpose: Age related macular degeneration (AMD) is the leading cause of blindness in the developed world. Its incidence is on the rise in developing nations as well. Formation of choroidal neovascular membrane(CNVM) is the major cause of vision loss in AMD. Purpose of this study is to study the progression of AMD and risk factors associated with development of CNVM in Indian population. Methods: 200 eyes of 100 patients of more than 55 years of age presenting to our out patient department with AMD were selected and were followed for a period of 2 years. Progression of disease into active CNVM and conditions predisposing to its formation were analysed. Results: Progression of AMD into neovascular form (CNVM) is faster in the elderly population. Approximately 13% of patients developed CNVM within 1 year of presentation. Patients with large drusens, RPE abnormalities, serous PED have an increased risk of developing CNVM. Our study showed that, serous PED was the strongest risk factor in development of CNVM. Conclusion: Incidence of CNVM in AMD patients is more as compared to that of western population. Serous PED followed by a presence of both large drusens and RPE (Retinal Pigment Epithelium) abnormalities combined, are the major risk factors for Indian population. Early identification of risk factors and determining the major risk factors for development of CNVM in Indian population can help in early diagnosis and early treatment resulting in a better visual outcome.

  48. Dr. Reema Kashiva, Dr. Prashant Potdar, Dr. Dileep Mane and Dr. Vijay Sing Patil

    Diabetes insipidus (DI) is well known entity, in which patient present with increased urinary frequency, increased thirst. Such symptoms may last for days to months before patient presents to doctor. Diabetes insipidus may be secondary pituitary tuberculosis, sub arachnoid hemorrhage, sarcoidosis or any other etiology. Usually diabetes insipidus secondary to some other reason last for few years. DI cases have been resolved after using desmopressin nasal spray for around 3 years, secondary to some reason in many studies. We present you a case of diabetes insipidus in a 27 year male patient post abdominal tuberculosis lasting and even continuing after 9 years of taking complete course of antitubercular treatment.

  49. Robby Tabitha Akinyi

    Kenya Sugar sub-sector accounts for 7.5% of the National GDP and 15% of the Agricultural GDP. These firms have been experiencing poor financial performance with an average after tax profit of -24% for the period 2010-2018. Some of these firms have faced frequent closures with a case of Miwani sugar firm being put under receivership back in the year 2000. However, a section of these firms have been thriving. The inconsistency in these sugar firm’s financial performance points out to the contribution of financial leverage as presumed by the trade-off and the theories of ROA and ROE. The purpose of this study was to determine financial leverage and financial performance relationship in sugar firms in Western Kenya. The study was anchored on the trade-off theory and the theories of ROA and ROE. The study used correlation research design. The target population was 8 sugar firms found in Western Kenya that were in operation during the study period. The firms were pooled for10 years resulting to 80 data points. The result show that financial leverage is a significant negative predictor of financial performance with (R2 =.1290, p=.0001) (coeff= -.0765) implying that12.9% of the variance in financial performance of sugar firms in Western Kenya was explained by financial leverage. The negative coefficient revealed that for every one unit increase in financial leverage, there was an ensuing drop in financial performance of these firms by 0.0765, an implication that most of the Kenyan sugar firm had incorporated borrowed funds in their financial structure beyond the optimal levels. The study concludes that financial leverage had a statistically significant negative effect on financial performance. The study recommends that sugar firms should reduce their leverage levels to optimal levels to enhance their financial performance. The findings are deemed to be of use to academia as a basis for further research in finance.

  50. Chioke, Stephen Chinedu, Umeokafor, Chibuike Chris and Mbamalu, Kingsley Uchenna

    South-East geopolitical zone in Nigeria comprises of Abia State, Anambra State, Ebonyi State, Enugu State and Imo State. Local governments in these States are maniacally demonized by several ugly ordeals, which include the problem of lack of autonomy in practical terms and absence of rural development. The remote cause of this problem is the undue and excess unjustifiable concentration of political power at the State level through the instrumentality of Nigeria’s grundnorm. The study thus examined whether LGAs in South-East geopolitical zone have contributed to the rural development of the areas that make up those local governments and why Local Government has not lived up to expectations despite its relative autonomy. Being a Survey research, it employed Development theory as its theoretical framework of analysis. The study reveals that LGAs in South-East geopolitical zone have no iota of autonomy in practical terms and as such have not contributed to the rural development of the areas that make up LGAs of South-East geopolitical zone. The study concluded that, if local governments in Nigeria enjoy autonomy (discretion) in practical terms than what is obtainable now, the gains of democracy in terms of rural development will be delivered to the rural dwellers here and there. It recommended that LGAs should be practically autonomous to meet the yearnings of the local people in the area of rural development/transformation.

  51. Philip Ho

    Biological waste water treatment is a decades-old biochemical technique. The treatment of waste water using a natural process has always been desirable. Phytoextraction is a green remediation technology used to treat polluted soils. This paper discusses the potential for copper phytoextraction to use vetiver, a hyperaccumulator plant, on a river barge. Experimental data were obtained in a research experiment in which many vetiver-filled styrofoam boxes were put in buckets filled with copper sulphate. The results of the experiment-which took place over a duration of 2 weeks-demonstrate that the vetiver set-up is more effective than the hydrophytes in copper absorption. The set-up is applicable to clean up metal contaminated lakes and rivers - for this example it will be applied to a copper contaminated pond near a mining site.

  52. Wang Qiang

    This paper discusses the scenery characteristics of two outstanding female fashion photographers. Born in Waterbury, Connecticut, Annie Leibovitz is a regular big-name photographer for Vanity Fair and the highest-paid photographer in the world. She has developed a keen interest in photography since she was young. She often took the window as the viewfinder, and the scenery outside the window was the photo created by her associations. In her high school years, she has developed a strong interest in art. When she was at the San Francisco Art Institute, she met Sasha Michelle, a teacher who had a profound influence on her art career. During this period, her photography skills have steadily improved. Annie is famous for her unique style of portrait photography, and in particular, her celebrity portraits enjoy great prestige in the circle of photography. As a renowned female commercial photographer in China, Chen Man takes photos of many celebrities with exaggerated modeling, resulting in strong visual impact. Chen Man has been fond of painting since she was young, and she was sent to study in the Children’s Palace when her mother found her talent in painting. Due to her mother’s strict attitude, she successfully gained the opportunity to study in the Photography Department of the Central Academy of Fine Arts. Involved in many fields during her studies, in a manner of speaking, she is a designer, a director and a painter, and also a promoter of traditional Oriental philosophy, which has played a great role in the promotion of her later aesthetic ideas in photography works. She skillfully combines “fashion” with “traditional Chinese philosophy”

  53. Dr. Savitha Sathyaprasad, Dr. Krishnamoorthy, S.H., Dr. Sahana S Naik

    A proper communication combined with a caring attitude develops sound rapport with any paediatric patient. Non-pharmacological behaviour management techniques enable paediatric dentists to successfully alleviate behavioural problems by matching their selection of techniques to that of the child’s style of interaction. On the other hand, few aggressive techniques applied in childhood have been implicated as being prominent factors in the behaviour of developed adult patients with dental phobias. The aim of instilling positive reinforcement is achieved by conventional methods but disruptiveness increases with increase in treatment time. Hence, to overcome this disadvantage newer non-threatening techniques were handled by the paediatric dentists, which provide long time reinforcement in younger children. This review will focus on enumerating the recent advances in non-pharmacological behaviour management techniques in children.

  54. Dr. Silvana Pashovska and Dr. Natasha Zdraveska

    The development and experience in the world so far have shown that small private agricultural cooperatives are economical only to a certain extent at the expense of high labor intensity. Practice shows that the small commodity-based economy cannot be competitive in the market and cannotappropriatelyapply the scientific - technical achievements in agriculture. The experience of developed countries shows that in all cases with such an agricultural system, consolidation of holdings begins, with disintegration and disappearance of a large number of small agricultural holdings and creation of holdings - cooperatives of rational size. However, it is also known that this path is long and difficult, and it usually takes place by buying the land from the owners of small and non-competitive holdings. The primary disadvantage of this path of consolidation is the time it takes to achieve and accomplish this long-lasting process, as well as the need to invest substantial funds that will limit the development opportunity and will not contribute to improving profitability in the short run. There is another way to form optimally large economies by means of lease, as the experience of some countries shows (Netherlands, Germany, France), and it is used in our conditions, however some experts assess this system as unfavorable, due to the termination of the connection between the land owner and its management. However, despite the previously elaborated problems, it is necessary to point out that there is clear unsustainability of holdings with a small property in Macedonia, and the only rational way to effectuate land property is through cooperatives created as a real opportunity to unite into a powerful force of a large economy with collective management.

  55. Dr. Manushri Sharma, Dr. Amardeep Pathak and Dr. Anurag Mehta

    Background: Currently world is facing a pandemic caused by novel corona virus (SARS –CoV2) which causes a highly contagious infection affecting most commonly lungs and results in an array of clinical symptoms ranging from asymptomatic state to acute respiratory distress syndrome and may even lead to multi organ dysfunction.The diagnostic modalities include Reverse transcriptase real time PCR (RTqPCR) which is gold standard method for diagnosis of the infection using oro-pharyngeal or nasopharyngeal swabs from the patients. Aim and Objectives: Evaluation of the performance of VITROS® Anti SARS CoV-2 antibody Assays (Total &IgG) in RT-PCR positive symptomatic COVID -19 patients.A correlation of time gap between RTqPCR/CB-NAT tests and positive serology test will be done for Total antibody. Materials and Method: Blood samples of COVID 19 confirmed patients (by RTqPCR) were tested for Anti SARS CoV2 Total (IgM, IgG&IgA) (ASCV2T). All these ASCV2T positive samples were further tested for Anti SARS CoV2 IgG (ASCV2G) antibodies using VITROS® 3600 immunodiagnostics system as per the manufacturer protocol. Results: A total of 67 patient samples were collected in the period of 02 months from June 2020 & July 2020. Out of these 67 patients 34 were positive and 33 were negative for COVID-19 infection by RTqPCR method. 28 of the 34 RTqPCR positive samples were reactive for total antibody test. As per statistical analysis, ASCV2T assay showed sensitivity 82.35%, specificity 100%, PPV 100%& NPV 84.62%. Conclusion: Serological assay show fair sensitivity (82.35%) & specificity (100%). Both RTqPCR& serological assay as a combination can be used as an important screening tool for COVID 19 infection. This can be further validated by Randomized controlled trails or meta-analysis with large number of sample size for longer duration follow-up.

  56. Ambaga, M., Tumen-Ulzii, A. and Buyantushig , T.

    Krebs cycle andthe membrane redoxy potential three state dependent 9 stepped full cycle of proton conductance, described by usare more similar each other in a closed loop figures, unlike glycolysis, the citric acid cycle is a closed loop: last step in the citric acid cycle regenerates oxaloacetate by oxidizing malate, meanwhile first step of Krebs cycle is a condensation step, combining the two - carbon acetyl group (from acetyl CoA) with a four - carbon oxaloacetate molecule forms a six - carbon molecule of citrate, which is used in the first step as proton, electron donators. Similar to Krebs cycle, the membrane redoxy potential three state dependent 9 stepped full cycle of proton conductance, described by us also have a closed loop figure. In the last ninth stage of the membrane redoxy potential three state dependent 9 stepped full cycle of proton conductance, proton combine with hemoglobin (generation of HbH), which promotes the release of oxygen from hemoglobin, oxygen diffusion to all cells conditioning the release of proton, electron from food substrates as proton, electron donators in the 1-stage of closed cycle, described by us, also proton released from hemoglobin promotes uptake of oxygen by hemoglobin, CO2 promotes the generation of free proton by mecchanism as H2CO3- = H+HCO3, carbonic anhydrase catalyzes the formation of CO2 from H2CO3 and CO2 diffuse out in the alveoli in the last stage of closed loop figured cycle of proton conductance.

  57. Dr. Mushtaq Chalkoo, Dr. Aabid Rasool Bhat, Dr. Imtiyaz ahmad Ganie, Dr. Tajamul samad and Dr. Mohammed Anyees Khanday

    Back Ground: Carcinoma stomach is one of the commonest malignancies seen in our Kashmiri population, due to excessive consumption of salt and pepper. It is considered as captain of the men of death. Over the period of time, different surgical modalities and their modifications have been devised by different surgeons, all across the globe. Thanks to Kitano who performed first laparoscopic Gastrectomy in 1994 and changed the scenario in the surgical management of carcinoma stomach. One of the presentations of gastric tumors is Gastric outlet obstruction which presents with biochemical and anatomicosurgical syndrome in these patients. We became interested to study the surgical outcome of laparoscopic hand sewn Roux En Y Gastrojejunostomy anastomosis in gastric outlet obstruction. The aims of the study were to assess the feasibility of the procedure and evaluate patients for Afferent Loop Syndrome post operatively. The other aims studied being time taken for anastomosis, total hospital stay, return of bowel sounds and post-operative complications. The conclusion of the study was Laparoscopic Roux En Y Gastrojejunostomy is effective in achieving quality of life and the chances of afferent loop syndrome are least with it.

  58. Dr. Divakara Naik, K.S.

    Research culture can be ascribed as values and ideas that researchers use to handle research related problems. It is the combination of all the activities, all the thinking, all the collaboration and cooperation carried out to promote the research in faculty members. Higher Education Commission is providing research funding for research projects and publications in renowned research journals. Higher Education Commission provides teachers with training courses on research and research incentives to those who attend these courses. These efforts are made for developing research culture in universities and teacher education institutions. This research paper deals with III criterion of NAAC out of the seven criteria. It is a research study of colleges of education teaching department in which the researcher studied all the six key aspects under the III criterion -research, consultancy and extension. This criterion seeks information on the policies, practices and outcomes of the institutions with reference to research, consultancy and extension. The reason to choose this criterion is that NAAC provides 35% of weightage to it, for colleges of education. It throws light on the efforts and strengths of colleges of education to promote a research culture. Its quality of research and extension work is known all over the nation which distinguishes it from the other institutions in the country and makes it an ideal symbol for the other teacher education institutions. The present research article falls under the purview of quantitative research and hence quantitative methods, such as data collection, analysis, comparison, tabulation and illustration, are used. Among 48 randomly selected colleges of education, I received replies from 19 colleges of education only, and the same data are taken for granted for analysis.

  59. Honorine Pegdwendé SAWADOGO

    The objective of this contribution is to update the debate on the informal economy by highlighting the important investment of women in this sector. Context: Urbanisation in Burkina Faso has not been accompanied by the development of the employment sector to meet the needs of urban dwellers. In order to cope with the imperatives of urban life, many urban dwellers have been forced to develop initiatives outside the norms of the formal economy. Among the actors investing in the informal economy, there are more women due to their low level of education and lack of training. Method: Based on a survey using a qualitative approach, interviews were conducted with 29 women entrepreneurs in the informal economy. The study reveals that women entrepreneurs are generally between 25 and 51 years old, often have a low level of education and the activities they carry out are small in scale. Eleven of them are heads of households, four of whom are widows. Two thirds of them have a very low level of education, limited to primary school without the primary school certificate. Results: The data significantly illustrate the place they occupy in this sector, in various activities. The survey also reveals the contribution of women's incomes to the survival of many urban households. It also revealed that the informal sector, beyond the traps it contains, is appreciated by some women because of its openness and above all its flexibility, which allows them to articulate their professional constraints with their domestic tasks and social obligations.

  60. Febrina Angraini Simamora, Hotma Royani Siregar and Arinil Hidayah

    Introduction: Long suffering from diabetes is often associated with complications such as neuropathy. Complications usually begin to arise after the client has suffered from DM for more than 10 years.Diabetes mellitus clients who have long been diagnosed with diabetes have a higher risk of developing diabetic ulcers.Blood sugar levels that are not controlled from time to time can lead to hyperglycemia, which can lead to complications associated with diabetic neuropathy in which diabetes mellitus patients will lose their sense of taste and are not aware of the appearance of injury.Foot exercise is an exercise for diabetics or non-sufferers to prevent injuries and help blood circulation in the legs. Foot exercises can help improve blood circulation and strengthen the small muscles of the legs and prevent foot deformities. Effective treatment will reduce the complication rate so that there are no further complications that can harm people with mellitus. The aim of this study was to identify the effect of diabetic foot exercise on neuropathy scores based on the length of time a client suffered from type 2 diabetes mellitus. Method: The research design used was a quasy experiment to identify the effect of diabetic foot exercise on neuropathy scores based on the length of time a client suffered from type 2 diabetes mellitus. This research was conducted at the Padangsidimpuan City Hospital. Population in this study was all of the type 2 diabetes mellitus clients in Padangsidimpuan City Hospital. The sampling technique used was consecutive sampling with a sample size of 16 people based on power analysis tables. The measuring instrument used is Diabetic Neuropaty Symptom (DNS), and data analysis was carried out using the Wilcoxon test. Results: Data analysis was carried that after a significant test using the Wilcoxon test on the comparison of neuropathy scores before and after diabetic foot exercise in the group with DM <6 years duration, there was a significant change with p value = 0.038 (p <0, 05) which means that there is an effect of diabetic foot exercise on the reduction of neuropathy in type 2 diabetes patients. Likewise with the neuropathy score before and after diabetic foot exercise in the group with a duration of DM> 6 years, there was a significant change with p value = 0.011 (p <0.05) which means that there is an effect of diabetic foot exercise on decreasing neuropathy in people with type 2 diabetes. Conclusions: Neuropathy scores in respondents decreased when compared between before and after diabetic foot exercises in both groups.This shows that there is an effect of diabetic foot exercise on reducing neuropathy in people with type 2 diabetes mellitus. In accordance with the results of the research obtained, it is hoped that all people with type 2 diabetes mellitus will always try to do physical exercise in the form of diabetic foot exercises to reduce the risk of neuropathy in people with type 2 diabetes mellitus.

  61. Utsab Deb

    After the “Spanish Flu” episode (1918-20), COVID-19 is another global scale pandemic to hit us. It has changed our lifestyle, occupations, mode of doing business and over, psyche and even the world order. Although COVID has a low mortality rate yet its transmission mode from human to human is highly effective and air-borne. With the arrival of the vaccine, nothing is going to change overnight and we should try our level best to cope up with the neo-normal world. In this article, four aspects which are most important for the functioning of an organization: economic leverage, leadership and technological modifications in functioning and governance are discussed in the light of the pandemic and the neo-normal world.

  62. Dr. Vandana Rathod, Parmar Himani, Naik Dhruvi and Patel Nidhi

    Background and Purpose: Participation restriction means lack of capability to participate in any activity or perform any activity. Participation restriction in older adults indicates lack of any older adult to perform any activity due to one or other problems whether physical or mental or social. This study enlists different reasons that influence participation restriction. Method: 27 different articles were searched about participation restrictions among elder adults and the factors that influenced the restriction. Out of these, 18 articles have been selected on basis of inclusion and exclusion criteria. All the articles showed different factors that affected the participation in elders. Stroke, impairment and many other factors that influence participation restriction and how the factors that correlate with each other in participation restriction. Result and Conclusion: Different studies have included different number of adults using different types of scales to assess the factors. The study’s result says that the factors assessed, affected the AL and PR of the adults.

  63. Sruthy Rajeev, Ajith R Pillai, Jayanth Jayarajan, Fawas Shaj and Pooja Madhavan

    Background and Objectives: The duration of orthodontic treatment is a major concern for patients. Many methods to accelerate tooth movement have been tested in the past, each having their own advantages and disadvantages. A non-invasive, more patient friendly method of accelerating tooth movement is the use of photobiomodulation. The aim of this study is to compare and evaluate the effect of Light emitting Diode and Low level laser therapy in accelerating orthodontic tooth movement. Materials and Methods: Thirty two patients undergoing fixed orthodontic therapy with Preadjusted edgewise appliance (MBT prescription) after extraction of all first premolars were considered for the study. Individual canine retraction was initiated with NiTi closed coil spring on all the quadrants. One side was randomly allocated for Low level laser irradiation and other for Light emitting diode irradiation. Irradiation was done on 0, 3rd, 7th and 14th day. Pretreatment impression is taken and a pretreatment model is made at the beginning of canine retraction and another impression is taken on the 30th day. Rate of tooth movement was compared using the treatment models. Results and Discussion: In this study, the LLLT group showed a significant increase in tooth movement of 1.54(+/-0.23) mm in the maxilla and 1.64(+/-0.26) mm in the mandible. LED irradiated group showed tooth movement of 0.49(+/-0.62) mm in the maxilla and 0.69(+/-0.30) mm in the mandible, which is within the range of normal orthodontic tooth movement. Conclusions: Low Intensity Laser Therapy is a non invasive, cost - effective method of accelerating orthodontic tooth movement. LED diode used in the present study was unable to bring about any change in the rate of tooth movement.

  64. Dr. Sheikh Zahid Nazir, Dr. Mohammad Mushtaq, Dr Mariya Qadir

    Background: Impaction of tooth is a retardation or halt in the normal process of eruption. After the third molar, maxillary canine is the most frequently impacted tooth in the dental arch. The treatment of impacted teeth has caught the imagination of many in dental profession. However, the orthodontic / surgical modality has achieved the most satisfactory result in long-term. Aims and objectives: This study was aimed to measure and compare the linear and angular measurements and to perform maxillomandibular asymmetry comparison in transverse dimensions on impaction side with contralateral non impacted side. Materials and Methods: A total sample of 30 subjects in different malocclusion groups with unilateral palatally impacted canines were included. The age groups 13–30 years were included with male and female subjects. The linear and angular parameters were measured and variation was studied and maxillomandibular asymmetry comparison was done on impaction side with contralateral non impacted side, mean values, SDs, and P values were calculated by applying descriptive statistics along with student’s independent t-test by using statistical software SPSS (version 20.0) and Microsoft Excel. The level of significance was set at p value < 0.05. Results: Descriptive statistical analysis was first done to find out the mean of each linear and angular parameter along with standard deviation. Then comparison was made between the impaction side with contralateral non impacted side by using student’s independent t-test. Statistically significant difference was found in nasal cavity width between two sides. The distance from the centre of the canine crowns to median sagittal plane and angulation of long axis of canine to Za-Za plane was also found statistically significant between two sides, and on doing the maxillomandibular comparison of asymmetry, no statistically significant difference was found. Conclusions: This study concluded that the distance of canines on the impaction side from mid sagittal plane are decreased and long axis of canines showed more obtuse angulation with respect to the selected plane and there was decreased nasal cavity width on impaction side when compared with contralateral non impacted side. No maxillomandibular asymmetry was present in subjects with unilateral palatal canine impaction.

  65. Dr. Sheikh Zahid Nazir and Dr. Mohammad Mushtaq

    Background: Most of the malocclusions that we often encounter are in sagittal direction, however most of the malocclusions that occur in sagittal dimensions are often accompanied by discrepancies in vertical dimensions. It is rare that we will find an anteroposterior discrepancy without the vertical dimension being affected. Numerous methods are available to diagnose the malocclusion in sagittal dimensions but there are considerably fewer methods available for vertical analysis. So multiple cephalometric analysis are used to diagnose vertical skeletal facial discrepancies associated with sagittal malocclusion. Aims and objectives: This study was aimed to identify and compare the various vertical cephalometric parameters that perform best for the identification of vertical skeletal pattern in different sagittal dysplasias. Materials and Methods: A total sample of 60 subjects with 20 subjects in each Class I, Class II and Class III skeletal groups were included. The age groups 18–30 years were included with male and female subjects. The vertical cephalometric parameters were measured and variation was studied and comparison was done in each group of sagittal dysplasia, and mean values, SDs, and P values were calculated by applying descriptive statistics along with Analysis of variance (ANOVA) for comparison among three skeletal groups by using Statistical software SPSS (version 20.0) and Microsoft Excel. The level of significance was set at p value < 0.05. Results: The descriptive statistical analysis was first done to find out the means of each parameter along with the standard deviation in each group whether increased or decreased from the mean average value. After that comparison was done for each parameter among the three groups to find out any statistically significant difference by using Analysis of variance (ANOVA) for intergroup comparison. On doing the intergroup comparison statistically significant difference was found in saddle angle amongst three groups with p value less < 0.026 which was considered statistically significant. Statistically significant differences were also found between symphyseal angle and symphyseal H/A with p value < 0.012 and < 0.006 respectively which was considered statistically significant, however statistically no significant differences were found in other parameters on doing intergroup comparison. Conclusions: Different parameters were used in this study to identify vertical disharmony in different sagittal classes. In skeletal class II subjects the condyle is posteriorly placed in glenoid fossa and mandible is retrognathic with respect to cranial base due to large saddle angle and articular angle and mandibular plane to true horizontal plane angulation shows vertical growth direction. Symphyseal angle is obtuse in class II subjects with wide and short symphysis in both class I and Class II subjects. In class III patients lower gonial angle is increased with vertical growth direction, there is increased ramal length and lower facial height from ANS to Gn is also increased. Vertical soft tissue parameters i.e.; (vertical lip: chin ratio) are within normal range in all the three classes.

  66. Naomi Katayama, Shoko Kondo4, Takafumi Nakada, Satofumi Sugimoto, Mariko Hiramatsu, Takashi Maruo, Maoki Nishio, Nobuaki Mukoyama, Tadao Yoshida, Masumi Kobayasi, Masaaki Teranisi, Michihiko Sone, Yasushi Fujimoto, Hironao Otake, Hirokazu Suzuki, Naoki Sa

    We have been conducting a questionnaire survery since 2009 to obtain basic data on swallowing function related to eating habits and exercise habits. In 2018, a self-administered questionnaire survey was conducted to ad questions about swallowing function during the health examination of residents of Yakumo Town, Hokkaido, Japan. As a result, 191 males and 261 females were obtained. There were 15 questions, and more than 80% of both males and females answered that there was no problem with each question. However, females were statistically significantly more problematic than males in five items (When eating or drinking, can food or drink come out of your nose?, Do you swallow well-chewed food several times as it passes through your throat?, Do you feel like a lump of food itch in your throat while eating?, Do you cough when swallowing solid foods?, Do you have difficulty breathing while eating?). However, more than 80-90% of females answered that there have no problem. Participants who lived independently and could walk to participate in the resident health checkup were aware of their problem of swallowing function. In the future, it will be necessary to investigate the relationship with eating habits and exercise habits.

  67. Naranjo Chávez Gladys, Núñez Milagros and María Olalla Garcia

    Fundamento En la actualidad la no aplicación de los principios de la mecánica corporal en el personal de enfermería son determinantes de lesiones musculo esqueléticas que cada vez son más frecuentes, determinan el ausentismo laboral, que afecta la economía de las empresas y de los sistemas de salud. El incumplimiento de estos principios limita la calidad de vida del personal de enfermería y la calidad de atención de los pacientes. Describir las lesiones osteomusculares más frecuentes en el personal de enfermería por la aplicación incorrecta de los principios de la mecánica corporal. Revisión sistemática de artículos científicos consultando las bases de datos scielo, Redalyc. Se revisaron los abstracts y en los casos necesarios los artículos completos, teniéndose en cuenta finalmente todos los artículos que incluían recomendaciones sobre medidas preventivas de lesiones osteomusculares. Los desórdenes de síntomas musculo esqueléticos por la no aplicación de la mecánica corporal son el resultado de posturas forzadas y movimientos repetitivos en los diferentes segmentos corporales y que son prevenibles, si se tiene en cuenta la aplicación de los principios de la mecánica corporal, la capacitación en forma continua y sobre todo el auto cuidado y la concientización del personal de enfermería en la atención al paciente.

  68. Naranjo Chávez Gladys, Núñez Milagros and María Olalla Garcia

    Objetivo: analizar la aplicación de los principios de la mecánica corporal (PMC) durante el trabajo que realiza el personal de enfermería del Hospital General Alfredo Noboa Montenegro de la Provincia de Bolívar en Guaranda-Ecuador. Material y Método: Se analizaron 124 personas y se recogió la información por duplicado. Se utilizaron 3 instrumentos: (1) Encuesta: recoge la información sobre las características sociales (edad, sexo, nivel de formación académica, cantidad de horas laborales, turnos laborales, antigüedad laboral y servicio en el cual labora); (2) Cuestionario: recoge el conocimiento sobre los PMC y (3) Guía de observación: evalúa la aplicación de estos principios durante el trabajo. Resultados: la edad promedio fue 42,20 ±9,33 años (24-64 años), predominaron las mujeres (91,94%), 69,35% eran Enfermera y 30,65% auxiliares de enfermería. El 33,72% realizaron maestría o especialización; 71,77% laboran 40 horas semanales y 89,52% cumplen turnos rotativos, la antigüedad laboral fue 14,75 ± 7,66 (1-59 años) y el pluriempleo fue 8,06%. El 78,23% mostró un conocimiento deficiente pero mayor en las auxiliares, sin diferencia significativa. El riesgo ergonómico fue alto (77,42%), aún mayor de manera significativa para enfermeras (p < 0,001). Hubo asociación significativa entre el conocimiento y riesgo ergonómico, a mayor desconocimiento de los principios mayor será riesgo ergonómico (P< 0,01). Conclusión: es necesario intervenir en este personal, para dar a conocer y utilizar los PMC y disminuir el riesgo ergonómico durante el trabajo.

  69. Dr. Boke Wambura

    This paper seeks to examine metaphorical references of disability in Kuria language, spoken in Kenya. Particularly to explore how language usage in relation to disability creates hierarchies in the society by positioning the disabled below the ‘normal’ non-disabled language users. The paper will make use of Critical Discourse Analysis (CDA) as its theoretical framework. Critical discourse analysis (CDA) is a form of analysis that seeks to explain how unequal power relationships can be established, reproduced and maintained in social and political contexts. It also clarifies elements of the marginalisation, exclusion and domination of some people by others through ideological processes, and the effect this can have on social relationships. CDA uncovers visible as well as hidden inequalities in social relationships by examining ways in which language works in specific discourses to perpetuate these inequalities. The paper makes use of primary data in form of metaphors and reference words. These were collected ethnographically through day to day interaction with the disabled and their families. Six families with members who are categorised as physically challenged were involved in the study. Interviewing and note taking were used as data collection instruments. Data was analysed thematically basing on CDA principles. The findings revealed that both male and female disabled persons are labelled negatively and referred to using demeaning metaphors. Physically challenged people are placed lowly as opposed to those who are viewed to be normal people in Kuria. The paper suggests that this view be challenged and demystified and disabled people be placed on the same lane as ‘normal’ ones. It further suggests that ways of challenging such discursive inequalities and ultimately realising a just and equitable society be sought for. This paper will be of importance to physical education teachers, human rights activists and organisations dealing with the physically challenged members of the society

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Oman
Dr. Meenakshi Malik
India
Aseel Hadi Hamzah
Iraq
Anam Bhatti
Malaysia
Md. Amir Hossain
Bangladesh
Ahmet İPEKÇİ
Turkey
Mirzadi Gohari
Iran