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May 2010

  1. Indira, P. and Ravi Mycin, T.

    Mycorrhizal fungi intimately associate with plant root forming a symbiotic relationship. The mycorrhizal symbiosis in effluent polluted soils was documented and the effect of dual inoculation with AM fungus on the host plant greengram (Vigna radiata L.) in pot culture experiments were investigated at six concentrations of tannery effluent viz., control, AM only. 50% effluent, 50% + AM, 100% effluent, 100%+AM. AM inoculated plants significantly increased in all morphological parameters. When compared with uninoculated plants the morphological parameters such as root length, shoot length, fresh weight and dry weight, root nodules and phosphorous content of greengram were increased in AM fungi inoculation soil. This study provides evidence for benefits of AM fungi protection of host plants and symbiosis could be a new approach increase in the effluent tolerance to legumes plants under effluent stress.

  2. Parthasarathy, S.

    Shock models it is usually assumed that the interarrival times between shocks are i.i.d random variables. In manpower model discussed here is assumed that there is loss of manpower to a random extent at every decision epoch at which revised policies regarding wages, incentives and targets are announced. When the cumulative loss of manpower on successive occasions crosses the threshold level, the breakdown of the organization occurs which in turn leads to recruitment. Here to discuss the model-1 is assumed that the interarrival times between successive decision epochs are not independent but correlated. However, the independence of the random amount of damages on successive decisions is not relaxed. In model-2 is assumed that the amount of depletion of manpower at every decision making epoch depends upon the interarrival time between the previous decision. For better understanding of the above model provided by the numerical illustration.

  3. Prabudoss, V. and Stella, D.

    The field experiment was conducted with three different level of nitrogen. Phosphorus and muriate of potash namely 50%, 75% and 100% and set treatment with Gluconacetobacter diazotrophicus and Soil application of AM Fungi were studied in randomized block design. In the present investigation significant improvements were observed in sugarcane germination percentage, cane height, cane girth, individual cane weight, milleable canes and cane yield. The highest growth parameters and yield noticed in treatment T9-50% NPK + G. diazotrophicus + AM fungi. The results also confirmed that the use of these microbes as biofertilizers would support and enhance sugar cane yield equivalent to or greater than yields supported by recommended inorganic N.P. and K fertilizers.

  4. Dhanapandian, S., Shanthi, M. and Manoharan, C.

    The present study aims to estimate the firing temperature and firing condition of the industrial clay bricks from three different regions namely Ramanathapuram, Madurai and Manamadurai in Tamilnadu State, India. The firing temperature of bricks were estimated by refiring the samples to four different temperatures from 600 to 900°C in steps of 100°C in air in an electric muffle furnace for 2 h and recording the corresponding FTIR spectrum. Firing conditions of bricks were inferred from the observation of appearance or disappearance of octahedral sheet structure of silicate and the characteristic absorption positions of the bands due to the presence of iron oxides. The results showed that bricks from Ramanathapuram, Madurai and Manamadurai were fired to a temperature of above 900, around 800 and 700°C respectively. In addition, room temperature Mossbauer measurements were carried out to confirm FTIR results. The development of strength and reduction in porosity of the above bricks were noticed at elevated temperatures due to enhanced vitrification.

  5. KRISHNAPPA, K., ANANDAN, A., MATHIVANAN, T., ELUMALAI, K and M. GOVINDARAJAN

    The present investigation revealed that the volatile oil obtained from Tagetes patula contained 10 compounds and they were tested against the fourth instar larvae of Spodoptera litura for their antifeedant activity by leaf disc bioassay. Among the compounds tested Terpinolene was the most effective feeding deterrent agent against Spodoptera litura in the laboratory condition. The mean area fed 100 ppm / cm2 and 500 ppm/cm2. The all compounds tested the antifeedant activity in both concentration appreciable value were recorded.

  6. ANANDAN, A, KRISHNAPPA, K., MATHIVANAN, T., ELUMALAI, K and M. GOVINDARAJAN

    The objective of the present study was to evaluate antifeedant, insecticidal, oviposition deterrent and ovicidal activity of different fractions obtained from the crude extracts of H. suaveolens (Lamiaceae) and M. corchorifolia (Sterculiaceae) against Spodoptera litura (Fab.) (Lepidoptera : Noctuidae), four fractions obtained from H. suaveolens, fraction III was found to inhibit the feeding ratio of the S. litura and it is apparent from the table. While in M. corchorifolia only three fractions have been obtained, among them fraction II was found to induced more feeding deterrent activity at 2000 ppm concentration. Ethylacetate extract of H. suaveolens yielded four fractions and diethylether extract of M. corchorifolia yielded five fractions. As per the data fraction III showed statistically significant ovicidal activity. It is also interesting to note that the same fraction was exerted strong ovipositional deterrent activity. Whereas, ethylacetate extract of M. corchorifolia yielded five fractions of which, fraction III showed increased ovicidal activity over the other fractions at higher concentration. Larvicidal activity obtained from the fraction II was significant than the other two fractions of the same extract. The larvicidal activity exhibited by the five fractions of diethyl ether extract of M. corchorifolia is shown in table 5. It is clear that fraction III at 1000 and 2000-ppm concentration was found to have increased activity than the other fractions.

  7. Pandiyan, P., Palanivel, R.M. and Sivasamy, R.

    A simple computational method (SCM) to analyze a class of (s,S) type inventory problem is developed. Under this (s, S) policy, (i) the number of units demanded where d = 1,2,... a (£ s) at successive demand epochs form a Markov chain (MC) with one step transition probability matrix (TPM) P and (ii) the replenishments are instantaneous. This method gives the algorithm for computation of stationary probabilities of inventory process, joint probability function of number of transitions and quantities of replenishments per cycle, conditional and unconditional average costs. Illustrative example for a few special cases are provided, which strengthen the applicability of the SCM to practical.

  8. Sabina Akhtar, Shafiq A Wani, M. Ashraf Bhat, N.A. Zeerak, S. Chalkoo, Haleema Ashraf, K.A. Bhat, Nawsheeba Wani, Ali Anwar, Shabir A. Wani and M. R. Mir

    The discovery of RNA interference (RNAi) in mid ninety’s added a new dimension in the regulation of gene expression by different types of RNA. It is a phenomenon in which double stranded RNA (dsRNA) is the initiating factor in post-transcriptional gene silencing. It is a process in which the introduction of a double stranded RNA (dsRNA) in the cells causes the specific degradation of an mRNA containing the same sequence. The double stranded RNA (dsRNA) and short interfering RNA (siRNAs) alone cannot degrade mRNA, but require the assistance of two enzymes namely Dicer and RNA induced silencing complex (RISC). Dicer was first discovered in Drosophila. It is a complex enzyme belonging to the RNase III family and has four different domains. RISC is the component of the RNAi machinery that uses siRNAs to track down and degrade the complementary mRNAs. It is diverse in its occurrence and applications. The double stranded RNA (dsRNA) has a direct role in inhibiting viral infection. It is potentially useful method to develop highly specific double stranded RNA (dsRNA) based gene silencing therapeutics (Shuey et al., 2002). This technology has practical applications in crop improvements such as in the production of potato virus Y (PVY) resistant potatoes (Smith et al., 2000). Modification of plant height via RNAi suppression of one of the gibberellin (GA) 20-oxidase (GA20ox) gene viz. OSGA20 Ox2 gene, in rice has been made possible (Feng et al., 2007). The field of RNA interference (RNAi) is moving at an impressive pace and generating exciting results. A better understanding of post-transcriptional gene silencing (PTGS) should allow a more efficient response to viral infection and the development of transgene/host associations that can override silencing to allow the expression of interested proteins.

  9. Markson, A. A., Amadioha, A. C., Wokocha, R. C., Omosun, G. and Madunagu, B. E.

    Tubers of white yam (Dioscorea rotundata Poir) obtained in three markets in Calabar, Cross River State, Nigeria, were found associated with seven microbial pathogens causing dry and wet rot of tissues. The pathogens included; Aspergillus niger, Penicillium expansum, Fusarium oxysporum, Botryodiplodia theobromae, Penicillium sclerotigenum, Fusarium moniliformes, and Rhizopus stolonifer. Of these A. niger, P. expansum, F. oxysporium and B. theobromae were highly pathogenic causing extensive tissue rot compared to the last three. Botryodiplodia theobromae effected an appreciable reduction in the amounts of nutrients in the head, middle and tail portions of yam tested within the five-week span of the experiment. One week after inoculation, there was a decline in the carbohydrate content from 34.80mg/100g dry weight in the control samples to 24.60mg, 25.10mg and 23.90mg in the head, middle and tail portions respectively. These values fell to 16.90 and 16.80mg/100g by the fifth week in the middle and tail portions respectively. Protein recorded a slight depreciation after one week of inoculation. This was followed by appreciable increment between week two and four (from 5.25mg/100g to 9.19mg/100g in the tail portion) and then a slight drop one week thereafter. The lipid content of the three portions tested recorded a steady decline throughout the period of the experiment. Amount of oxalate increased steadily in the inoculated tubers within the period of the experiment.

  10. Magdoleen G. Osman, and Mutasim M. Khalafalla

    The promotive effect of ethylene inhibitors, silver nitrate (AgNO3) and cobalt chloride (CoCl2) on in vitro shoot regeneration of tomato (Lycopersicon esculentumMill. cv. Omdurman) was investigated. Shoot development was induced on shoot tip explant cultured on MS (Murashige and Skoog, 1962) medium supplemented with kinetin (Kn) at 4.0 mg/l. Addition of CoCl2 and AgNO3 to the medium enhanced regeneration frequency as well as number of shoots obtained per explant. The best results (2.4 and 2.3) for the number of shoot per explant were obtained by using CoCl2 at 3.0 mg/L and AgNO3 at 5.0 mg/l, respectively. 100% of the in vitro induced shoots produced roots when cultured on half and full strength MS medium without growth regulators. The highest number of rooted micro shoots (22± 0.9) was obtained on half strength MS media agar-solidified and supplemented with 0.5 mg/l Naphthalene Acetic Acid (NAA). On the other hand, the longest root (7.4 ± 0.9 cm) was obtained on the same medium supplemented with 0.1 or 0.5 mg/l IBA. Rooted plants were hardened and 95% survived under greenhouse conditions.

  11. Seleiman, M.F., Ibrahim, M.E., Abdel-Aal, S.M. and Zahran,G.A.

    Seeding rate is an important factor can influence on yield and quality of bread wheat (Triticum aestivum L.). In the present study, we investigated the effect of different seeding rates on growth, yield components, grain and dough quality characteristics of the bread wheat cultivar Gemmeiza 9 grown in the Nile Delta, Egypt during two growing seasons. Four seeding rates were studied: 250 grains / m2, 300 grains / m2, 350 grains / m2 and 400 grains / m2 with four replications. Increasing seeding rates up to 350 or 400 grains / m2 increased grain, straw and biological yields and number of tillers and spikes per m2 but significantly decreased grain filling rate. Moreover, the highest seeding rate (400 grains / m2) gave the highest and best percentages of bran, protein and gluten as well as the highest dough in strength which assessed by both Farinograph and Extensograph. Water absorption percentage and dough stability time (measured by the Farinograph) and dough resistance to extension and proportional number (analyzed by the Extensograph) significantly increased while dough weakness and extensibility, respectively assessed by the Farinograph and Extensograph, decreased by increasing seeding rates from 250 to 400 grains / m2.

  12. Shabir H. Wani, N. B. Singh, H. Nanita Devi Rita Nongthombam and Hitesh K. Saini

    Most of the crop plants have large and complex genomes. Maize and wheat genomes have a size of 2300 Mb and 16500 Mb respectively. Until recently the sequencing of these complex genomes was considered intractable. But now the genome sequencing technology is undergoing a revolution with the commercialization of second generation technologies capable of sequencing millions of bases in a single run. In the coming years these technologies will further add to the available information regarding the genomes. The second generation sequencing technologies have already been commercialized and the third generations sequencing strategies will be available soon in the near future. Within no time the toughest genomes like that of wheat will be available for utilization in crop improvement. The resulting information about the genes and molecular markers will revolutionize the crop breeding program if this information is applied to our advanced genotyping methodologies.

  13. Damotharan, P., Arumugam, M., Vijayalakshmi, S. and Balasubramanian, T.

    Sea snakes are venomous elapid snakes which inhabit marine environments for most or all of their lives. They are found in warm coastal waters from the Indian Ocean to the Pacific. Most sea snakes are completely aquatic and have adapted to their environment in many ways, the most characteristic of which is a paddle-like tail that has increased their swimming ability. The aim of the present study is to assess the diversity, biology and ecology of sea snakes (Family: Hydrophiidae) occurring in the Parangipettai coastal region, Southeast coast of India. It revealed the presence of ten species included in five genera. There is no detailed study on above aspects of sea snakes of Parangipettai. Hence, the present study was undertaken in this coast.

  14. Omosun, G., Edeoga, H. O., Markson, A. A. and Madunagu, B. E

    Agricultural soils of oil producing states in Nigeria have been severely affected by oil exploration activities and there is need to restore such soils to a manageable level. Phytoremediation uses plants whose rhizospheres are able to accumulate heavy metals from the soil. In order to know the capacity of Mucuna species to grow in soils polluted with crude oil and assess their capability to accumulate heavy metals which are normal components of crude oil, a field experiment was carried out. This experiment was a factorial (3 x 5) arrangement in a completely randomized design. Factors and levels were three species of Mucuna (M. veracruz, M. jaspodea and M. ghana) and crude oil concentrations (volume/weight) in the soil (0 %, 1 %, 2 %, 3 %, and 4 %). Heavy metals (nickel, lead, copper and vanadium) concentrations of crude oil provoked soils were determined prior to planting and then 12 WAP. The three Mucuna species accumulated heavy metals in their vegetative parts. Nickel accumulated more in the roots, than in the leaves, while copper and lead were more concentrated in leaves of the three Mucuna species, the concentration of copper was higher (highest value of 87 mg/g). However, the highest percentage of heavy metals reduction in the contaminated soils was that of lead with a percentage of 47.37 % reduction in the soil. The uptake of these three heavy metals by the vegetative parts of these Mucuna species in response to oil pollution was discussed as a possible use in phytoremediation.

  15. Edeoga, H.O., Omosun, G. O. and ThankGod, L.I.

    The present study deals with the foliar characteristics of two varieties of C. annum (Danjarawa and Nsukka Yellow) and two of C. frutescens (Langalanga and Tatashi) common in Nigeria. Significant epidermal characteristics that could contribute to the taxonomy of the genus Capsicum have been revealed. These include the presence of stomata on the upper epidermis of C. annum varieties and the straight walled upper epidermis of C. annum var. Nsukka Yellow. Equally, important was the presence of a single mesogene cell in the two varieties of C. frutescens. The relevance of these observations has been discussed in relation to the taxonomy of these taxa.

  16. Sundaramurthy, N., Rajamannan, B. and Rajalakshmi, S.

    Densities (ρ), viscosities (η) and ultrasonic speeds (u), for solutions of (0.02, 0.04, 0.06, 0.08 and 0.10 M) L - Valine (Val), L - isoleucine (Ile) and L - Proline (Pro) in aqueous 1, 3 - dioxolane (10 % w/w) at 298.15, 303.15, 313.15 and 323.15K have been determined. These data have been used to calculate apparent molar volumes (φv), limiting apparent molar volume (φv°) and the slope (Sv), apparent molar compressibility (φk), limiting apparent molar compressibility (φk°) and the slope (Sk), Falkenhagen and Jones–Dole coefficients, A and B, respectively. These parameters were used to discuss the solute–solute and solute–solvent interactions and also the effect of cosolvent (1, 3 - dioxolone) on these interactions.

  17. Eltayb Abdellatef, Ilham A Gadir Hassan, Sayeda Omer El-Hiweris and Mutasim Mohamed Khalafalla

    The effects of plant growth regulators and explants on callus induction were investigated for the purpose of developing a protocol for callus induction of garden cress (L. sativum. L). Three explants namely, leaves, hypocotyls and roots obtained from 7 days -old in vitro germinated seedlings were cultured on MS medium supplemented with different concentrations of 2,4-dichloro-phenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D) and α-naphthalene acetic acid (NAA). The highest callus weight (2.13) gm was obtained when leaves explant was cultured on MS medium containing 2.0 mg/L 2,4-D. Addition of cytokinns Benzyl adenine (BA) and Thiadizuroun (TDZ) enhanced the callus weight as well as callus growth index. The maximum callus weight obtained when leaves explant cultured on MS media suplemented with 2.0 mg/L 2, 4-D in combination with 3.0 mg/L BA. This procedure can be advantageously of extraction of active ingredient as well as developing of in vitro regeneration protocol that can use in genetic improvement of this multipurpose medicinal plant.

  18. Markson, A. A., Omosun, G., Madunagu, B. E., Amadioha, A. C., Wokocha, R.

    Investigations on the anatomical aberrations and biochemical alterations of white yam incited by Botryodiplodia theobromae was carried out. Inoculated and uninoculated head, middle and tail portions of white yam were treated, sectioned weekly for five weeks and photomicrographs taken. The plates revealed massive cell wall macerations and depletion of starch grains in the three portions of yam assessed. Less damage was evident in the head portion especially after one week of infection compared with the middle and tail portions. However, there was general progressive tissue destruction and starch grains depletion with weeks. Inoculated and uninoculated yam samples were also analyzed for the carbohydrate content weekly for five weeks. Results showed that there was a reduction for carbohydrate with increase in weeks of infection. Values of 24.60 mg, 25.1 mg and 23.9 mg carbohydrate per 100 g of edible portion of white yam were recorded after one week of infection for the head, middle and tail portions respectively. About 16.90 mg and 16.80 mg carbohydrate per 100 g edible portion of white yam tuber were recorded in the fifth week compared with 20.10 mg and 20.09 mg recorded in the second week of infection in the middle and tail portions respectively. From the third week, there was no tangible reduction in the carbohydrate content especially in the head portion, though appreciable tissue maceration was evident from the photomicrograph sections, particularly, in the tail portions where there was total breakdown and collapse of cell wall boundaries.

  19. Hilal Ahmad, S.M. Razvi, M. Ashraf Bhat, S. Najeeb, Nawsheeba Wani, M. Habib, M.R. Mir and B.B. Gupta

    The present investigation was carried out during kharief- 2005 at the Research Farm, Division of Plant Breeding and Genetics, SKUAST-Jammu, Main Campus Chatha. The experimental material for the present investigation comprised of sixteen genotypes of rice (Oryza sativa L.) grown in a randomized block design with three replications. The study revealed that genotypes differed significantly among themselves for all the characters viz., morpho-physiological, biochemical, yield and yield attributing traits. A wide range of phenotypic variability was observed in most of the characters but was quite high for plant height, number of productivity tillers, harvest index, flag leaf area, crop growth rate (CGR) and net assimilation rate (NAR). The phenotypic and genotypic coefficients of variation revealed that there was good agreement between these two parameters. A number of characters such as flag leaf area, harvest index, grain yield, 1000 grain weight, peroxidase, leaf area duration (LAD) and -amylase showed high genotypic coefficient of variation as compared to others. Apart from showing high genetic variability plant traits viz., plant height, flag leaf area, 1000-grain weight, grain yield, days to 50% flowering, kernel density, biomass yield, number of productive tillers, harvest index, CGR, RGR, NAR, LAD, peroxidase and -amylase showed moderate to high heritability coupled with moderate to high genetics advance. Mahalonabis’s D2-statistic analysis revealed considerable amount of diversity in the material. Sixteen genotypes were grouped into six heterogenous clusters. Among these clusters, clusters B and cluster C had maximum number of genotypes (five each). The maximum average inter-cluster distance was recorded between cluster C and cluster F and minimum between cluster E and cluster F. Hence the selected material could be further utilized for future breeding programme

  20. M. Ashraf Bhat, M.R. Mir, N.A. Khan, N.A. Lone, K.A. Bhat, S.M. Razvi, H. Ashraf, Nawsheeba Wani, Rizwan Rashid, S. Hayat ,W.A. Payne, Sabina Akhtar, and S.A. Wani

    A phytohormone may be defined as an organic substance other than a nutrient, active in very minute amounts which is formed in certain parts of the plant and which is usually translocated to other sites, where it evokes specific biochemical, physiological and morphological responses. Hormones are effective at internal concentration of about 1 µM, where as other metabolites necessary for growth and development are usually present at concentration 1 to 50 µM. The most commonly used and best understood group of plant growth hormones consists of those which regulate the production of ethylene. Ethylene is the simplest olfin, which exists in the gaseous state under normal physiological conditions. It is colourless with ether like smell and is lighter than air. It is also highly flammable and more soluble in water than air O2 or N2. Ethylene is known to exert its effects by altering gene expression both at transcriptional and post transcriptional phases. Ethrel is versatile ethylene releasing agent have remarkable marketed value and registered for several crops. It is involved in a diverse array of cellular, developmental and stress-released processes in plants. Ethrel reduces the problem of pod shattering by restricting the flower and pod abortions. It also improves the crop by manipulating source/sink relationship at pod development stage. In this study a number of examples of the role played by ethrel in the growth and development of plants are described; plant height, leaf number, leaf area, leaf area index, dry weight, chlorophyll, photosynthesis, photosynthetic active radiation, nutrient uptake, seed yield, biological yield, harvest index, oil yield, amino acid content, protein content and fatty acid. So the present study indicates that the process of growth and development in addition to the yield of plants is significantly affected by the ethrel in both irrigated and non -irrigated conditions.

  21. Raut, K.S., Kachare, S.V., Pathan, T.S., Shinde, S.E., Dabhade, V.F. and Sonawane, D.L.

    The algae were used to assess the water quality of Nagapur and Chandapur dams. The pollution indicator genera and species of algae from each of three (3) stations of both dams were recorded, this was done with the help of palmer’s index of pollution indicator species of algae. For knowing the quality of water samples the total score of station were recorded greater than 15 indicator species were found which helped to know the high degree of organic pollution of dam. The genera observed at different stations of both dams, were 18 and 21 out of the 34 pollution indexed speices of palmer. The 18 genera were recorded at Nagapur dam and 21 genera at Chandapur dam.

  22. Thamarai, S.M., Kuppusamy, K. and Meyyappan, T

    In this paper, a test pattern compaction algorithms for simple combinational circuits is proposed. It generates test pattern and simulate faults. Fault diagnosis is an important part of failure analysis. The fault diagnosis procedure considered here selects a set of faults and a set of tests. It stores fault simulation results in a fault dictionary and compares dictionary entries against observed faulty behaviors. It adopts fault based test minimization for simple two stage combinational circuits. Proposed Algorithm minimizes the number of test cases based on the number of faults detected. The problem of finding faults and diagnosis consists of two sub problems. The first problem is the determination of possible list of faults. It may include all possible single faults and multiple faults that may occur in a circuit. The second sub problem is minimizing number of tests to be performed to cover all the faults. The job of the proposed algorithm is to find essential tests from all possible test cases. The algorithm is implemented and sample boolean expressions in sum of product forms for sample circuits are experimented. The results obtained are tabulated and plotted. The time and space complexity of the algorithm are measured. From the results, it is observed that the execution time of the algorithm is linear. It increases with the increase in the number of gates in the given circuit. Test reduction upto 99% is observed. The performance of the proposed algorithm is compared with adaptive scheduled fault detection method, and found to be better in terms of reduction in number of tests and processor time it consumes.

  23. Shabir, A. Wani, M.A. Bhat, G.N. Malik, Afifa S. Kamili, M.R. Mir, S.A. Bhat and Nawsheeba Wani, S.M. Razvi, Sabina Akhtar and K.A. Bhat

    Mulberry (genes Morus) a perennial tree or shrub in an economically important plant used for sericulture and is the sole food plant for the domesticated silkworm, Bombyx mori. Mulberry is widely distributed in Asia, Europe, North and South America and it is cultivated extensively in East, central and South Asia for silk production. Genetic characterization of germplasm resources is necessary for their effective management and efficient utilization, especially for species like mulberry in which the available germplsm exhibits rich phenotypic diversity with almost no information about its genetic base. Molecular markers are useful complements to morphological and phenological characters because they are plentiful, independent of tissue or environmental effects and allow accession identification in the early stages of development. Such techniques reveal polymorphisms at the DNA level and are very powerful tool for characterization and genetic diversity estimation. Many molecular markers such as RAPD, SSR, AFLP and SRAP have been successfully used in identification and genetic diversity analysis in mulberry.

  24. Asima Amin, S. M. Razvi, Z. A. Dar, Gul Zafar, M. Ashraf Bhat, M. R. Mir, Nawsheeba Wani and K. A. Bhat

    Marker is a tag which is conspicuous or apparent or which helps in identification of traits. There are three different types of markers viz., morphological, biochemical and molecular. Morphological markers have certain constraints i.e. narrow diversity, influenced by environment, problem with epistasis, pleiotropy, incomplete penetrance and variable expressivity. Biochemical markers reveal polymorphism of sequences of certain proteins. It has certain constraints like redundancy of genetic code, incomplete genomic coverage and also sensitive to environmental pressures. Molecular markers directly reveal the polymorphism at the level of DNA. These are tags that can be used to identify specific genes and locate them in relation to other genes.

  25. OGIDI, E. G. O., EKA, M. J., MADUNAGU, B. E. AND OMOSUN, G.

    Field experiment was conducted at the Michael Okpara University of Agriculture; Umudike Farm in 2002 and 2003 season with the aim of determining the association between characters of gamma ray irradiated cowpea varieties. Forage yield was found to be positively correlated with number of leaves per plant, number of pods per plant, leaf length, and fresh pod yield. Number of days to flowering, number of days to pod filling and number of days to physiological maturing and fresh pod yield were negatively correlated thus making simultaneous improvement of both traits difficult. Number of branches per plant, number of leaves per plant, plant height, number of pods per plant and number of seed per pod had a positive correlation with fresh pod yield and could be a possible basis for effective selection in cowpea production.

  26. Ramkumar, L., Thirunavukkarasu, P. Ramanathan, T and Malathi, L.

    .

  27. Kachare, S.V. ,Raut K.S. and Surywanshi S.R

    Based on survey in Marathwada the different visited places are Parli-Vaijnatth, Saradgaon, Mahur, Dahelitanda, Tuppa, Degloor, Nandurves, Loni, Kinwat etc. Author collected the traditional knowledge from local inhabitants modes of application of the medicinal plants and plant parts utilized by local inhabitants are given with their names.

  28. Ekaluo, U. B., Ikpeme, E. V., Udensi, O., Markson, A. A., Madunagu, B. E., Omosun, G. and Umana, E. J.

    The effects of aqueous leaf extract of neem on serum testosterone, follicle stimulating hormone (FSH), luteinizing hormone/interstitial cell stimulating hormone (LH/ICSH), estrogen and prolactin levels in male albino rats were studied. Rats treated with 50, 100 and 150 mg/kg body weight of neem extract intraperitoneally daily for 15 days showed very highly significant (P< 0.001) reduction effects on serum concentration of testosterone, FSH, LH/ICSH and prolactin when compared with their control counterparts. On the other hand, the aqueous leaf extract of neem had a very highly significantly (P<0.001) increasing effect on serum concentration of estradiol. There were dose-dependent effects of the aqueous leaf extract of neem on the serum concentration of the hormones. These observations suggest that the aqueous leaf extract of neem had strong anti-androgenic property and capability to disrupt hormonal functions. Hence, its indiscriminate use in malaria chemotherapy could increase the in risk of infertility in males.

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Dr. Ali Seidi
Iran
Dr. Achmad Choerudin
Indonesia
Dr Ashok Kumar Verma
India
Thi Mong Diep NGUYEN
France
Dr. Muhammad Akram
Pakistan
Dr. Imran Azad
Oman
Dr. Meenakshi Malik
India
Aseel Hadi Hamzah
Iraq
Anam Bhatti
Malaysia
Md. Amir Hossain
Bangladesh
Ahmet İPEKÇİ
Turkey
Mirzadi Gohari
Iran