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June 2010

  1. Shabir H. Wani, N. B. Singh, Hitesh K. Saini, L. Promin Devi, P. Monalisa

    Abiotic stresses like drought and high salinity are the most damaging factors to agricultural productivity worldwide. Functional genomics has played a key role in making plant breeding more efficient in development of crop varieties tolerant to biotic and abiotic stresses. Numerous genes and their products respond to these stresses at transcriptional and translational level. Discovery of these novel genes has been the main objective of all plant breeders. Although many drought responsive genes have been discovered, it is still of great importance to analyse drought-inducible genes and their expression in drought-tolerant crops. In addition to various molecular markers, Expressed Sequenced Tags (ESTs) are currently used as a fast and efficient method of profiling genes expressed in various tissues, cell types or developmental stages. The genes, thus, discovered will be utilized in their transfer to commercially important crops through marker assisted selection or transgenic breeding.

  2. Ravindranath H. Aladakatti , Mukhtar Ahmed R. Nazeer Ahamed and Mukhtar Ahmed G. Ghodesawar

    In the present study, an attempt has been made to assess whether the effect of benzene extract of Ocimum sanctum leaves on the spermatogenic pattern and ultrastructure changes in testis of albino rats. Wistar strain male albino rats were orally administered 250 mg/kg body weight of O.sanctum leaves followed by maintaining suitable controls for 48 days. Results indicate that spermatogenesis was arrested either at the primary spermatocytes or the spermatogonial stages. Damaged seminiferous tubules and abundance of vacuoles of varying size were observed. Total count and diameter of spermatogonia, spermatocytes, spermatids and Leydig cells were reduced. Ultrastructural analysis revealed that intercellular spaces primarily, though not exclusively in the Sertoli cell cytoplasm, degeneration started within the nucleus of spermatocytes and from acrosomal granule or Golgi complex of round spermatids. Bridges between Sertoli cells–spermatocytes or spermatids were disturbed and most of mitochondria of cytoplasm were hypertrophied. Within the cytoplasm degenerating spermatids were with less electron dense matrix and commencement of vacuolization. The results suggest that the effect of benzene extract of O.sanctum leaves on the rat testis may be due to curtailing of androgen supply within the testis through its antispermatogenic and antiandrogenic property.

  3. Hitomi Yoshida, Naoko Okumura, Yasuko Kitagishi, Naoki Shirafuji , Satoru Matsuda

    In order to facilitate genetic studies in mammalian cells, we developed a cost efficient lipid-mediated plasmid DNA transfection protocol utilizing food oil as a transfer-mediator. The intention was to create and/or improve a cheap and efficient method. Compared to the conventional transfection using commercially available lipofection-specimen, this procedure remarkably enhanced the delivery of a GFP reporter plasmid into HEK293 cells. Our technique of gene delivery is adaptable for large scale production since the costs of the reagent is two to three orders of magnitude cheaper than conventional commercial available reagents.

  4. Kachare S.V., Surywanshi S.R., Raut K.S.

    A survey was conducted in Nanded and Beed district, for the ethno medicinal plants. The paper documents were prepared from ethnomedicinal uses of wild plant species in Nanded and Beed District. The plants parts are most commonly used in treatment of various diseases are roots, leaves, whole plant bark and seeds. Inspite of vast scientific development in modern age man is looking towards traditional medicines. Due to ethno medicines many diseases are cured like jaundice, snakebite, scorpion bite, leucoderma liver and many more challenging, incurable diseases which are not cured by the modern medical science are cured by traditional medicines. This knowledge still exists in the villages. So interviews of traditional Jantas were taken, the details of plants collected, identified were noted. It is suggested that local forest management with Forest Department and NGOs needs to pay attention for Conservation of commercially important species, with sustainable harvesting methods. The cultivation and detailed assessment of the economically valuable medicinal plants is the demand of present day. Hence it is to be collected, preserved, protected and propagated for future generation.

  5. Ezeja Maxwell, I. and Omeh Yusuf, S

    This study evaluated the toxicological effects of raw and cooked Mucuna pruriens seeds using its effect on liver enzymes and serum bilirubin (total and conjugated) of white albino Wistar rats in the laboratory. Powdered raw and cooked M. pruriens seed meal were incorporated into the feed of rats at different percent (10,20 and 50%) inclusion levels for the test animals while normal feed was given to the negative control rats for 28 days after which blood samples were collected from each rat for serum analysis. The tests conducted were serum Aspartate Amino Transaminase (AST), Alanine Amino Transaminase (ALT), Alkaline Phosphatase (ALP), Total bilirubin (TB) and Conjugated Bilirubin (CB). The liver function tests revealed that the serum AST, ALT, ALP as well as the total and conjugated bilirubin were significantly (P<0.03) increased in the rats that were fed 10 and 20% raw Mucuna seed meal in the feed and also significantly (P<0.0001) increased in the rat fed with 50% raw Mucuna in the feed when compared to the negative control. Also the liver enzymes and serum bilirubin (total and conjugated) of the rats that received different percent (10,20 and 50%) inclusion levels of cooked M. pruriens seed in the feed were significantly (P<0.05) increased when compared to the negative control group. In all the experiments, the level of the liver enzymes and serum bilirubin increased with increase in the percent level of inclusion in the feed. In conclusion this study suggested that M. pruriens may have hepatotoxic potentials which may be dose dependent and may be reduced by cooking the seeds before incorporation into the feed.

  6. Ezeigbo, I. I. and Asuzu, I.U.

    The anti hyperglycemic potentials of seven medicinal plants used in Nsukka area of Enugu state, Nigeria namely Bridellia micrantha, Oxythinia Abyssinia, Ixora brachypoda, Gmelina aborrea, Terminalia catappa, Hymenocardia acida and Cassytha filiformis were investigated on alloxan induced diabetic mice. The oral LD50 of the methanolic extracts in mice were greater than 2000 mg/kg. Phytochemical analysis of the extract revealed the presence of high levels of alkaloids, tannins, flavonoids, glycosides and saponins. Extracts of the plants screened for anti-diabetic activity in mice significantly (p<0.01) reduced the fasting blood glucose levels in alloxan diabetic mice. The leaves of Bridellia micrantha reduced the blood glucose levels by about 57.8%, Cassaytha filiformis by 46.8%, Terminalia catappa by 59%, Oxythina abyssinia by 71.5%, Ixora brachypoda by 67.6% , Gmelina aborrea by 30.1% while Hymenocardia acida provoked the highest anti-diabetic activity (72%) which appeared comparable to the standard control, Glibenclamide (71.7%).

  7. Rylo Sona Janarthine, S., Eganathan, P. and Balasubramanian, T.

    An endophytic bacterium was isolated from the surface sterilized pneumatophores of mangrove plant Avicennia marina, Vellar estuary, south east coast of India. Using 16S rRNA sequencing the bacterium was identified as Bacillus cereus –SjAM16104 with similarity of 99% and sequence has been deposited under accession number GU930360. It grew optimally at 26ºC, pH 7 and 5% of salinity. The major fatty acids of B.cereus were anteiso-15:0 (40.55%), anteiso-17:0 (17.39%), iso-16:0 (8.95%), iso-15:0 (7.82%), iso-17: 0 (6.62%), 16: 0 (5.23 %) and fatty acids iso-14:0 (2.03%), anteiso-13:0 (1.87%) were detected in small amounts. Experiments were conducted to evaluate the efficacy of endophytic B.cereus in improving crop growth of Bacopa monnieri under in vitro condition. The growth rate of endophytic B.cereus treated explants were highly significant than the control explants.

  8. Basudev Mandal, Bidhan Chandra Patra and Bimal Kinkar Chand

    The present studies have emphasizes on the correction of soil and water quality of china clay mines with the help of organic and inorganic fertilizer and become transfer to like a productive pond. After successful transformation of china clay mines like a productive one, fingerling stages of Indian major carps were released to the mine water and the growth performance was observed with minute care. At the initial stage, mortality rate was high and after acclimation it slowed down. Monthly variation of growth, biochemical composition and nutritional quality were estimated and recorded. After one year culture period the remaining experimental fishes were harvested by cast net and distributed among the local people for tasting the organoleptic quality. They could not find any deviation of taste in between fish reared in china clay mines and in general Indian major carps. Protein and lipid content of experimental fishes (Protein percentage of Catla catla, Labeo rohita and Cirrhinus mrigala was 11.55, 13.04 and 11.02 respectively and the lipid percentage was 4.59, 3.94 and 4.34 respectively) were slightly lower than the fish culture in highly productive pond (Protein percentage of Catla catla, Labeo rohita and Cirrhinus mrigala was 12.83, 14.47 and 11.86 respectively and the lipid percentage was 4.71, 4.23 and 4.52 respectively). There are various factors causing variation of protein and lipid in fish flesh. The factors like food, temperature, size or age, season, maturity, environment etc. are reported to have influencing effect on protein or lipid concentration in fishes. Therefore, moderate deviation of protein and lipid quality does not markedly vary the demand, taste as well as the market value of fish. Statistical analysis of experimental results reveled that the taste, flavour and biochemical composition are highly significant.

  9. Uma, C. and Kalaiarasu, S.

    The competitive nodulation ability of a Bradyrhizobium strain is an important property, as strains must compete with other Bradyrhizobia in the rhizosphere for nodulation sites on the host plant. If inoculants strains are to succeed, they must have the ability of competitiveness as well as being effective in symbiosis. The establishment of effective nodulation of soybean plant can be enhanced by using effective and competitive strains of Bradyrhizobium. In the present study 30 isolates of Bradyrhizobium japonicum obtained from semiarid locations were compared for their N2 fixing efficiency based on IAA production, EPS production, nodulation, nodule ARA activity and nodule N content. The isolate obtained from Tiruchengodu SBJ-14 produced maximum of IAA, EPS and ARA activity and this isolate also recorded the highest number of 30.00 nodules plant-1 ARA activity of 215.00 n moles C2H4 formed h-1 g-1 and nodule nitrogen content of 7.44%.

  10. Hatti , A.D., Taware, S.D., Taware, A. S., Pangrikar, P.P., Chavan, A.M. and Mukadam, D.S.

    Aflatoxins, the most frequently studied mycotoxins, are produced by certain Aspergillus species/strains/isolates of fungi. The aflatoxin biosynthetic pathway studies have led to a number of discoveries. Several structural and their enzymes involved in the biosynthesis of aflatoxins have been discovered and purified. Aflatoxin production and contamination of agricultural crops are major causes of economic losses in agriculture. Thus, better methods of characterization/differentiation are required for both aflatoxigenic and non-aflatoxigenic isolates. Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR)-based, single sequence repeats (SSR) micro satellites analysis has been used successfully in the analysis of DNA relatedness of species of fungi, bacteria, plants and animals. SSR micro satellites analysis present in nuclear and organelles DNA can be used as molecular markers and has wide ranging applications in the field of genetics including kinship and population studies. These Inter simple sequence repeats (ISSR) represent genome region between micro satellite loci. Sequences amplified by ISSR-PCR can be used for delimiting species. Dendograms which evaluate the likeness between different isolates has also been used.

  11. Kharat P. S., Laxmi B. Ghoble, K. B. Shejule and Ghoble B. C

    The effect of lethal concentrations as 0.33 ppm, 0.26 ppm, 0.17 ppm and 0.09 ppm of tributyltin chloride on lipid content in ovary, hepatopancreas, gill and muscle of a freshwater prawn, Macrobrachium kistnensis for 24, 48, 72 and 96 hours respectively has been investigated. The result showed that TBTCl induces significant alteration in lipid metabolic profiles in ovary, hepatopancreas, gill and muscle after exposure to lethal concentration. The depletion in lipid content during exposure of different concentration of TBTCl might be due to its utilization in energy production by oxidation of lipids under the influence of lipase enzyme to derive fatty acids precursor for TCA cycle.

  12. Naoko Okumura, Hitomi Yoshida, Yuka Nagata, Yuri Nishimura, Yasuko Kitagishi and Satoru Matsuda

    When HEK293 cells were transfected with a plasmid containing CMV promoter driven human wild-type PRND gene, the doppel protein was diffusely observed at the cytoplasm as seen in cancer cells. The transfected cells incubated with proteasome inhibitor N-acetyl-leucinal- leucinal- norleucinal (ALLN), resulted in apparent accumulation of the doppel protein. Furthermore, an alpha helix domain of the doppel protein appeared to be coimmunoprecipitated with ubiquitin related HSP70 protein. These findings suggested that the cytosolic doppel protein chaperoned with HSP70 could be subjected to ubiquitin proteasome degradation system.

  13. Srinivasan, V. ., Sivaramakrishnan, H., Karthikeyan, B., Renugadevi, G., Balaji, T.S. and Vijayabaskar, S.

    A simple, economic, and time-efficient stability-indicating, reverse-phase ultra-performance liquid chromatographic (RP-UPLC) method has been developed for analysis of donepezil hydrochloride in the presence of both impurities and degradation products generated by forced degradation. When donepezil hydrochloride was subjected to acid hydrolytic, oxidative, base hydrolysis, photolytic, and thermal stress, degradation was observed after oxidative and base hydrolysis. The drug was found to be stable to other stress conditions. Successful chromatographic separation of the drug from impurities formed during synthesis and from degradation products formed under stress conditions was achieved on a Waters Acquity C18, 50 mm x 2.1mm, 1.7µ particle size column, UV detection 286nm and a gradient elution of trifluoro acetic acid, acetonitrile and methanol as mobile phase. The method was validated for specificity, precision, linearity, accuracy and robustness and can be used for quality control during manufacture and for assessment of the stability of samples of donepezil hydrochloride. To the best of our knowledge, a validated stability indicating UPLC method which separates all the eight impurities disclosed in this investigation has not been published elsewhere. Total elution time was about 8 min which allowed quantification of more than 100 samples per day.

  14. Hitomi Yoshida, Naoko Okumura, Yasuko Kitagishi, Yuka Nagata, Yuri Nishimura, Naoki Shirafuji, Satoru Matsuda

    We have developed an artificial dual promoter cassette system called APRICOT-1-2-3, in which a target gene specific sequence is inserted between inverted two short artificial promoters. A single step PCR protocol has been developed by using this system that allows the production of this cassette in a high throughput manner. Actually, easily prepared APRICOT-1-2-3 constructs induced effective protein expression-silencing for p38MAPK and JNK. The flexibility of this unique design system suggests that additional modification can also easily be introduced into this siRNA expression cassette to improve the convenience applying RNAi.

  15. Nazni, P. and Shalini, S.

    The present research was undertaken to determine the physical properties of batter, physio- chemical properties and organoleptic evaluation of the developed Idlis. Idlis were prepared from Rice and Black gram dhal incorporating Pearl millet. All the ingredients were collected from the local market. Three types of Idlis namely standard idli, mixed idli and pearl millet idli was prepared using different combinations of ingredients such as Rice (Parboiled), Black gram and Pearl millet. The developed products were analyzed for physical and chemical parameters and organoleptic evaluation. These scores were compared with standard. The developed millet Idlis were highly acceptable by the subjects and notable change in physical parameters of both millet incorporated batter and idli was observed when compared to the standard. Except carbohydrate remarkable increase was observed in the nutrients such as protein, fat, fibre, calcium and iron in the mixed and pearl millet Idlis compared to the standard Idlis.

  16. Bhuvanesh, N., Sundaram, SP. and Balachandar, D.

    Three samples of green algal isolates were collected and purified from Sivagangai, Tamil Nadu, India. The genomic DNA from the the isolates was isolated using CTAB method and 18S rRNA gene of each isolate was amplified using primers CV1 and CV2. The variation in the DNA sequence was detected through Restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis. The phylogenetic placement of three isolates was investigated using sequences of the nuclear small subunit 18S rRNA gene and the results revealed that the isolated algal strains viz., ALAK 1, ALAK 2 and ALAK 3, were very close to Actinistrum hanzschii, Clamydomonad sp. and Nannochloris sp. respectively.

  17. Mathivanan, K., Ramamuthy, V and Rajaram, R

    14 species of cyanobacteria belongs to 10 genera were isolated and identified from Athirampattinam coastal area of Tamil Nadu coast. Among this, Oscillatoria princeps and Lyngbya majuscula were the dominant group selected for the present study. The antimicrobial activity of Oscillatoria princeps and Lyngbya majuscula was maintained by using different solvents viz. ethanol, acetone, methanol and water. The Oscillatoria princeps and Lyngbya majuscula were tested against human pathogens like Staphylococcus aureus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Bacillus subtilis, Aspergillus niger and Candida albicans to know the antimicrobial activity. The present study shows maximum antimicrobial activity was reported in ethanol extracts of cyanobacterial species. The ethanol extract of Oscillatoria princeps showed maximum inhibition against all the human pathogens than Lyngbya majuscula. Similarly bacterial pathogens were showed maximum inhibition when compared to fungal pathogens.

  18. Kamalakannan, K., Kumaran, S., Balakrishnan, S., Thenmozhi, C., Sampathkumar, P*. and Balasubramanian, T.

    Glaucidae is a taxonomic family of colorful sea slugs (blue ocean slugs). This is the first report presenting the occurrence of G. atlanticus and G. marginata in Nagapattinam coastal area, Bay of Bengal coastal shore (South East coast of India). All these animals float on the surface of the ocean being carried by the currents and the winds. Both species of G. atlanticus and G. matginata are closely associated with other open ocean invertebrates such as the Portuguese-man-of-war (Physalia physalis), the wind-sailor (Velella velella) and Porpita porpita. The nematocysts of Physalia pass unharmed through the digestive system and are used as defense system in the papillae. Male animals having its reproductive part (penis) with large looped and hook structure.

  19. Santhosh Kumar, C., Ashok Prabu, V., Sampath Kumar, P. and Anantharaman, P.

    Parangipettai historically called Porto Novo is situated on the north bank of the mouth of the Vellar estuary (11° 29'50"N and 79° 46'24"E). Algal blooms (Cyanobacteria) were observed during the monsoon season (December) 2009 at Vellar estuary. Microcystis aeruginosa was determined as the bloom-forming species. Microcystis aeruginosa was counted as 37,600 colony/L and the Chlorophyll-a was measured as 18.61 μg/l. In this respect, Nutrient analysis (Nitrite, Nitrate, Phosphate, Silicate and Ammonia) were carried out.

  20. Minnady Muthulingam, Paulraj Dominic Savio, Thomas Sathanantha Seeli, Natarajan Indra and Subramanian Sethupathy

    This study was carried out to investigate the therapeutic role of the aqueous extract of Pleurotus florida (PF) on thioacetamide induced hepatotoxicity in rats. Thioacetamide at the dose of 600mg/kg body weight orally produced liver damage in rats as manifested by the significant rise in serum levels of aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), alkaline phosphatase (ALP), bilirubin, cholesterol and decreases the protein level compared with control. The body and liver weight of each animal was determined, to assess any possible weight gain or loss in experimental animals compared with control groups. Oral administration of aqueous extracts of P. florida (100, 200, 400mg/kg) and silymarin (25mg/kg) once daily for 28 days to thioacetamide treated rats shows lowered significantly where as protein level increased. It also shows a significant increase in body weight and decrease in liver weight. The extract alone treated rats did not adversely affect the serum biochemical estimation. Treatment with P. florida (100, 200, 400mg/kg) of the extract revealed a antihepatotoxic action compared with the rats that were administered thioacetamide alone. This study has shown that the aqueous extract of P. florida possesses antihepatotoxic property.

  21. Sudipta Roy and Debdulal Banerjee

    Antimicrobial compound producing endophytic bacteria were isolated from a medicinal plant Vinca rosea. One of the isolated endophytes produced potential antimicrobial activity against some selected human pathogenic bacteria and a yeast. Morphological and biochemical characterizations indicated that the isolate, strain Vrb 46 was similar with Bacillus coagulans. TLC analysis of concentrated culture filtrate revealed several UV active bands on silica gel plate. Fermented cell free broth was extracted with chloroform-methanol and antimicrobial activity was found in the organic fraction.

  22. Bhuvanesh, N., Sundaram, S. P. and Balachandar, D.

    Three green algal isolates (ALAK 1, ALAK 2 and ALAK 3) from fresh water lakes of Sivagangai district of Tamil Nadu were characterized for various biochemical properties such as chlorophyll, carotenoid, protein, lipid and hydrocarbon. The qualitative analysis of lipids extracted from these algal isolates revealed the feasibility for commercial exploitation of these algal species. The study also revealed ALAK 3 had high potential of biofuel production.

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