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Plagiarism Detection

IJCR is following an instant policy on rejection those received papers with plagiarism rate of more than 20%. So, All of authors and contributors must check their papers before submission to making assurance of following our anti-plagiarism policies.





January 2012

  1. Vishnuvarthanan, M., Rajesh Panda, Ilangovan, S. and Nayak, S.K.

    Optimization of cycle time in injection molding plays a vital role in manufacturing of plastic parts to improve the productivity of the process. At the same time it should not affect the quality of the final product. This paper describes the cycle time optimization of Hinge Locator – Guided support plastic part, through a repeated number of analysis which was carried out by Moldflow simulation software. The process parameters like cooling time, Injection time are optimized in which it contributes more in the cycle time. Experimental verification has been done with new optimized parameters in Injection molding machine. The results of the experiment showed a way to achieve the purpose of optimizing the injection molding machine in a sensible and cost efficient way.

  2. Kubakaddi Basavaraj and Dr. M.D. Krishna

    For a Corporation to be convicted of a crime, the prosecution must prove that one or more agents committed all elements of the crime. This is relativity easy to do if a crime has occurred in a small organization, but the structure of large organization can make prosecution difficult, particularly where mensrea is an element of the crime. Where evidence of multiple guilty agents exists, the defense can exploit this ambiguity to create reasonable doubt as to each agent.

  3. Prof. Dr. P. K. Srimani and Ramesh Hegde

    Comparison of facial expression was studied in this paper using several properties associated with the faces. Actually, as the facial expression changes, the curvatures developed on the face and the dimensions of the objects such as eyebrows, lips and the area of the mouth change. Naturally there exist changes in the intensity of the pixels corresponding to these objects. Therefore it was found that the natural eye could distinguish these sharp changes and understand the facial expressions accordingly. Comparison of Indian facial expressions with that of Japanese face expressions is carried out. We have taken face as one object and compared the facial expressions for five types of emotions in the case of Indian and Japanese faces. The percentage changes were computed with regard to certain parameters related to different expressions associated with the face and that of the neutral face of the same person. The experimental results predicted a definite change in every trail. These results can also be used as a tool to design intelligent systems which recognizes different objects in the given environment. The results are found to be of immense scientific interest.

  4. Somu Mageswari, Narayanan Nisha, John Santhosh Kumar and Kathavarayan Subramanian

    The monomer 4-benzyloxyphenylmethacrylate (4-BOPMA) was synthesized by reacting 4-benzyloxy phenol dissolved in methylethylketone (MEK) with mathacryloyl chloride in the presence of triethylamine. The homopolymer and various copolymers of 4-BOPMA with acrylonitrile (AN) were synthesized by the free radical polymerization in MEK at 70 ± 1oC in nitrogen atmosphere using benzoylperoxide as initiator. The homopolymer and copolymers were characterized by various spectral techniques like IR, 1H-NMR, 13C-NMR spectroscopic techniques. The molecular weights of the polymers were determined by gel permeation chromatography. The glass transition temperature of the polymers were determined by differential scanning calorimetry. The thermal stability of the polymers were performed by thermogravimetric analysis in inert atmosphere. The monomer reactivity ratios were determined using the conventional linearization methods such as Fineman – Ross (r1 = 0.5858, r2= 0.2263), Kelen Tüdös (r1 = 0.5726, r2 = 0.1517) and extended Kelen Tüdös (r1 = 0.5691, r2 = 0.1880).

  5. Krishnamoorthy, S., Gunasekaran, K. and Arumugam, K.

    The concept of conjugate k-normal (con-k-normal) matrices is introduced. Some basic results of con-k-normal, con-k-unitary are discussed.

  6. Mohamed Ali Emam

    Agricultural tractors generate noise pollution in the cabin and in open air. The demands for good sound comfort of the driver inside cabin and assistant driver in outside of these tractors are continuously growing. The main objective of this paper is to predict the noise levels surrounding the tractor operator and in open air by using Artificial Neural Networks (ANNs) and to compare the results against noise levels from collected data. The architecture of the network is used with the backpropagation algorithm - the multilayer feedforward networks. Another objective is to predict the tractor noise levels at various operating speeds and determine their influences on the surrounding noise. The use of a tractor may be avoided in the even its noise level exceeded safe levels. This can be actuated by a specific control system that selects the optimum speed generating safe noise levels.

  7. Prof. Dr. P.K. Srimani and Bhanu, K.N.

    The availability of CMOS cameras and microphones of cheaper costs have lead in processing multimedia information along with regular scalar information in wireless sensor networks. In collaborative in-network processing especially in the application layer of wireless multimedia sensor networks (WMSN) , there exists data redundancy problem while gathering the information by neighbouring nodes, which can be overcome by using data fusion and aggregation technologies. The present study concentrated in providing the state of the art in data fusion and aggregation technologies of WMSN.

  8. SrinivasanGuhan, Rethinasabapathy Muruganantham, and Dharmalingam Sangeetha

    Fuel cells are considered to be the promising alternatives to conventional power engines. In our investigation, we have synthesized blend membranes of sulfonated poly(ether ether ketone) (SPEEK) and poly(ether ethersulfone) (PEES) for electrochemical and especially Direct Methanol Fuel Cell applications (DMFC). The ion exchange capacity, water and alcohol absorption, durability were found to be promising for its application. When compared to SPEEK, since the methanol absorption is low, the methanol permeability was also found and it was suitable for applications in DMFC. The membranes were characterized by means of FT-IR, TGA, DMA, UTM, SEM and XRD. From the FT-IR studies, the sulfonic acid grouping of SPEEK was found to interact with PEES. TGA gave an idea about the thermal stability of the membrane. The membranes were stable up to 200°C which is very well suitable for DMFC. The Tg values were obtained from DMA. The UTM studies clearly revealed an appreciable mechanical behaviour. The tensile strength of the blend with 10% PEES exhibited the maximum tensile strength of 19.25 MPa. From the XRD studies, the crystalline nature was studied. The proton conductivity of the membranes was found to be in the order of 10-3 S/cm which is optimum for application in DMFC. The performances of the membrane-electrode assembly (MEA), in DMFC, using the blend membranes at room temperature and 60 °C were evaluated by single cell test and are found to be 350 and 590 mA/cm2, respectively.

  9. Muthukumar, C. and Dr. R. Gnanadevan

    In this study, an attempt has been made to study the level of self esteem of bereaved students affected by natural disaster. Self esteem scale standardized by Anne bett has been used to measure the level of Self esteem of bereaved students. This tool was administered to a purposive sample of 600 bereaved students affected by natural disaster studying in various schools situated in the coastal area of Nagappattinam and Cuddalore Districts of Tamilnadu. The survey method has been followed for the present study. The data collected was subjected to descriptive and differential analysis. The result of the analysis reveals that the Self esteem of bereaved students affected by natural disaster is high. It further reveals that the bereaved students residing at urban and rural area do not differ in their Self esteem. But no significant difference was observed between the sub-samples viz. male and female, students who have lost their parents and those who have lost their relatives due to natural disaster, students residing with their parents and the students residing with their guardians, students belong to joint family and nuclear family.

  10. Sharmila, V. and Kulasekara Perumal Pillai, S.

    The study was intended to find out the Knowledge of Global Warming among the college students in Madurai District, Tamil Nadu, India. Random Sampling Technique was used to compose a sample of 1168 college students Mean, Standard Deviation and ‘t’ value were calculated for the analysis of data. The result revealed that male and female students, rural and urban area students, arts and science group students exhibited significant difference but, nuclear and joint family students had no significant difference in respect of their Knowledge of Global Warming.

  11. Abd-El Kader FH , Osman WH. and Hafez RS

    Polymethylmethacrylate(PMMA) and Polyvinylacetate(PVAc) are inexpensive type of polymers that could potentially be of commercial interest. In this investigation they are used in conjunction with a traditional casting technique to produce films of different blend concentrations. Samples were subsequently subjected to Differential Thermal Analysis (DTA), Thermogravimetric Analysis (TGA) and UV/visible spectral analysis. Coats-Redfern relation was then used to calculate the kinetic parameters of the thermal decomposition. Optical parameters including the band edge and band tail energies were also determined for all blend system. The refractive index dispersion curves were simulated by both Cauchy and Single Effective Oscillator models. In addition, color parameters were investigated and calculated according to CIE system for pristine and γ-irradiated 75/25 wt/wt% PMMA/PVAc blend sample undoped and doped with malachite green.

  12. Y. Sujatha, P. Sunilkumar Reddy and Dr. K. Prahlada Rao

    It is well known fact that Small Scale Sector is influential in Socio Economic Growth of India, through it is influencing in lesser percentage, definitely playing its part in uniform wealth distribution among the Indian Public in Specific among the Skilled, semi skilled and unskilled labor working in the sector. If we observe the present sinerio in the performance of the SSI sector, it is well known fact that sickness of SSI units in the articles, papers, Studies, etc., it is observed that more emphasize was given in finding the reasons for sickness. As for as finding the solutions or suggestions, it has been discussed in only a consolidated manner rather than in point wise.

  13. Dilip. M. Raut, D. T. Mahajan, Vijay H. Masand, D. M. Sakharkar, P. S. Bodke, Ravikiran Allada, K.V.Pavan, Girish Deshpande, Durvas Patil and Avinash Patil

    In the envisaged study, heat induced crystalline to amorphous phase generation and amorphous content quantification in crystalline form of Pantoprazole sodium sesquihydrate drug substance was studied by different analytical techniques like variable temperature Powder X-Ray diffraction (VT-PXRD), Thermo gravimetric Analysis (TGA) and Gravimetric vapor sorption analyzer (GVS). Amorphous Pantoprazole Sodium is obtained by dehydrating Pantoprazole Sodium sesquihydrate. Amorphous and Crystalline contents are varied to obtain different concentrations of Amorphous in Crystalline phase. The slope of the vapor sorption curves of the samples found to be characteristic to the concentration of amorphous phase. Linearity with a good correlation has been established between concentration of amorphous phase and slope of the sorption curve, the same linear equation has been used for cross-predictions and the results are found to be satisfactory.

  14. Karim Golshanirad

    In Sassani ages, Because of governing Zartosht religion the society officially, all of rules were due to it, their children have rights rather than others and should obey the rules. Father and mother should look after their children, name them wee, learn them religion and behavior and so prepare them good jobs and at last help them marrying. Children must follow them and do parents s commands, so respect them, particularly in old ages. In this paper, I consider and analyze these relations.

  15. Aziz M.A, Amees.T. Aezum, S. Sheeraz Mahdi and Tahir Ali

    A field experiment was conducted at KVK, Srinagar during two consecutive kharif seasons of 2008-09 and 2009-10 to study the “Effect of Integrated Nutrient Management for Soybean (Glycine max L.) Under Temperate Conditions”. The experiment was laid out under 18 treatment combinations viz., three levels of recommended inorganic fertilizers (50, 75 and 100% RD), three levels of organic manures (control, FYM 10 t ha-1 and Dalweed 10 t ha-1) and two levels of biofertilizers (control and dual inoculation with Rhizobium + PSB) in randomised complete block design with three replications. Soil physical properties were enhanced by application of recommended inorganic fertilisers except for bulk density. Organic manures also enhanced the physical properties of the soil. Among organic, FYM (10 t ha-1) was found superior over Dalweed (10 t ha-1). Dual inoculation with Rhizobium + PSB also showed significantly superior results in improved soil physical properties over no-inoculation.

  16. Prof.Dr. P. K. Srimani and Mrs. Malini M. Patil

    In recent years, huge amount of data with regard to higher education system especially with regard to technical education system(TES) is available and queries related to Edu-DATA are of practical interest as SQL approach is insufficient and needs to be focused in a different way. The present study aims at developing a technique called Edu-MINING which converts raw data coming from educational institutions using data mining techniques into useful information. The discovered knowledge will have a great impact on the educational research and practices. Edu-MINING explores Edu-DATA, discovers new knowledge and suggests useful methods to improve the quality of education with regard to teaching and learning process. The study is carried out for the Edu-student-data set comprising of 3500 instances and fourteen attributes. A comprehensive study of the experimental analysis is presented and the results are found to be of immense practical interest. Finally, optimal classifiers are identified and excellent accuracy is achieved.

  17. Ravichandran, M., Murugesapandian, N., Sivakumaren, K.S. and Gopalakrishnan, S.

    The paper examines the various communication services and system based services which are used by the students who are pursuing engineering education in engineering colleges located in and around Chennai. The questionnaire method was adopted to collect data from the respondents. It is found from the study that majority of students are using e-mail service for communication and digital library service to collect information for their academic purposes. Further, it is found that the Bulletin Board and Inter library Loan (ILL) services were used by less numbers of students. It is recommended that the librarians and library staff should create awareness about the communication services such as discussion forum, bulletin board and system based services like information literacy, institutional repository and inter library loan. In this context the services mentioned above will help to maximize the usage of library resources, services and also to share among other users.

  18. Prapti N. Patel, Grace M. Mbagaya and Beatrice E. Imo

    The soaring food prices and new challenges of climate change pose a threat to the already existing food and nutrition insecurity in a number of developing countries, including Kenya. These have culminated in political unrest and food riots in some African countries like Mauritania, Morocco, Cameroon, Senegal and more recently Kenya. Over the years, Kenya has experienced environmental degradation due to urbanization, development and deforestation. This has contributed to climate change and food insecurity in some parts of the country. Currently, over ten million Kenyans suffer from chronic food insecurity and poor nutrition, and between two to four million people require emergency food assistance at any given time. Nearly 30 per cent of children are undernourished and micronutrient deficiencies are widespread. This has been compounded by the post-election violence experienced in the country at the beginning of 2008. Whereas the country has the capacity to mobilize its resources for the production of adequate food and surplus for export, this has remained elusive due to lack of concrete implementation of environment, agriculture and food nutrition policies. This paper reviews some of the current developments in the relationship between climate change, food security and the policy roles.

  19. Prapti N. Patel and Olwith, Morgan Obura

    Kenya is endowed with a wide variety of foods. However, there is need to fortify the locally available foods, especially for the vulnerable groups. Designing, creating and monitoring second generation products are prominent opportunities for biotechnology research which increasingly offer new and larger market sectors. This experimental research sought to enhance the deficient iron content in plain yoghurt by fortifying it with locally available ingredients (soya flour) and making use of fermenting action of live bacteria. The activity of live bacteria converts the lactose in the milk into lactic acid, which, because of its acidity, reacts causing the proteins in the milk to solidify. Soy is widely used for fortification of other foods, due to its high protein and iron content. This property was employed in the fortification of yoghurt. The findings of this research show how the nutritional and health value of home made plain yoghurt, by fortifying it with soya flour and culturing with starter containing probiotic bacteria, can be improved to increase specifically the protein and iron amounts in the yoghurt. Production of functional foods like probiotics should thus be encouraged, especially for food aid to deal with consequences of food insecurity like malnutrition.

  20. Rakesh Kumar Sharma

    Gender system comprises the socially-constructed expectations for male and female behaviour in every human society. It prescribes a division of labour and responsibilities between women and men and bestows different rights and obligations to them. Intentionally or unintentionally, inequality is established between the both sexes in autonomy, power, and well-being, which are mostly to the disadvantage of females. Terms such as female empowerment, gender roles, women’s freedom, and women’s status will be better analyzed if taken in the system context because it comprises the entire complex of roles, rights, and statuses that surround male and female in a given society. The impact of gender systems on demographic change is as important as the impact of demographic change on gender system. Over the years, many factors have altered the demographic structure of Himachal Pradesh. It has also influenced the gender system and in turn influenced by it. This paper tries to analyze the time series of gender data for understanding the determinants of change, and impacts of demographic change and gender system on each other. Spatio-temporal variations in sex-ratio in Himachal Pradesh not only point towards differences in geographical and economic conditions but also indicate towards existence of different gender system in every region. This makes a strong case for intervention strategy so as to influence the gender system and demographic change accordingly.

  21. Sembiyan, R and Visvanathan, G

    The study was intended to find out the social intelligence of college students in Cuddalore, Villupuram, Nagapattinam, Thanjore, vellore and Thiruvannamalai Districts of Tamil Nadu, India. Random Sampling Technique was used to compose a sample of 1050 college students Mean, Standard Deviation and t value were calculated for the analysis of data. The result revealed that the locality, type of family and type of colleges had no significant difference but, gender and type of institution exhibited significant difference in respect of their social intelligence of college students.

  22. Jaikumar, M.

    Milkfish (Chanos chanos) is one of the most important brackish water finfish species being cultured in Southeast Asia. Natural Chanos fry occur along the south east coast of India In fairly large numbers during the months of March-June and October-November. Its abundance, distribution and seasonal variation are discussed for their utilization in aquaculture. The collection of natural frys and nursery rearing in Chinnapalem near Pamban is given with a cost estimate. This Article covers the ecology of the milk fish frys and their mass scale migration from coral reef environment to mangrove mudflat is described.

  23. B. Umamaheshwari, N. Mahalakshmi, and R. Samuel Selvaraj

    In this Paper an attempt is made to establish possible correlation between annual global temperature increase and annual global Earthquake occurrences. The Temperature and seismic data is of duration between 1973 and 2010. This paper introduces the statistical analysis of spearman rank correlation technique to find the relation between increase of Annual global temperature and the annual global Earthquake occurrences. The rise of temperature is causing glaciers to melt thus releasing pressure on the earth below. The earth in turn is possibly rebounding causing earthquakes to occur. The spearman rank correlation coefficient was found to by 0.8363. This further indicates that annual rise in global temperature and earthquake occurrences have strong positive correlation between them.

  24. Vasanthi, R., Vanaraju, G. and Baskaran, R.

    The study area is one of the watersheds of Thoppaiyar River. Covering an area of lies between 11050’00’’N - 12002’00’’N latitude and 780 02’00’’E – 78018’00’’E Longitude In south of shervaroyan mountains northern part of the Salem district and Southern part of the Dharmapuri district. The study area is mainly covered by red soil and black cotton soil to the minor extent. The infiltration capacity is moderate to poor. The entire study area is occupied by the Precambrian crystalline rocks. The recent formation is marked by river alluvium and soil. Thoppaiyar upper basin is divided into twenty mini-watersheds. As a whole Thoppaiyar upper basin having five orders of stream. But the mini-watershed differs in the ordering system. The first order streams are numerous in the mini-watershed 1, 2 and 3. These are due to highly elevated portions of Shevaroy Mountains. Particularly in Lokur and Mulivi the drainage are in the slopes of Shevaroy Mountains. So the entire study area has been further divided into 20 mini-watersheds named mw1 to mw20. ranging in geographical area 269sqkm and has been taken up for prioritization based on morphometric analyzing using GIS and Remote sensing techniques. The drainage density varies between 1.15 and 10.92 indicating low drainage density. In the study area, the low drainage density indicates the region has highly permeable subsoil and thick vegetative cover. The elongation ratio vary from 0.6 to 1.0 over a wide variety of climatic and geologic types. Values close to 1.0 are typical of regions of very low relief, whereas values in the range 0.6 – 0.8 are usually associated with high relief and steep ground slope (Strahler, 1964). These values can be grouped into four categories namely (a) circular (>0.9), (b) oval (0.9 to 0.8), (c) Less elongated (<0.7). The Re of mini-watershed of the study area varies from 0.47 to 0.84. The circularity ratio (Rc) is influenced by the length and frequency of streams, geological structures, land use/land cover, climate, relief and slope of the basin. The circulatory ratio range between 0.28 to 0.61.The compound parameter values are calculated and the mini watershed with the lowest compound parameter is given the highest priority. The mini watershed has a minimum compound parameter value is likely to be subjected to maximum soil erosion and susceptible to natural hazards. Hence it should be provide with immediate soil conversion measures.

  25. Ahmad Shahrani

    Role accepting for students as young persons growing and developing their knowledge and understanding because of social aspect forming behavioral pattern needed to people should be studied and evaluated why studying and in first education would develop better equipped by a strong social behavior pattern placed for them spiritually and exhibiting applied Data of this research was collected between 5th grade of all schools in Shoushtar through pre and after -test questions. The samples were selected by Morgan table including educational and extra to be affected by educational process. The results should that averages of pre and after - test are close to each meaningful without any difference.

  26. Vatanparast Mahdi, Mousavi Seyed Mahmoud , Ebrahimpour Malihe and Kazemzadeh Fariba

    Human thought in crisis management focuses on prevention, preparedness and Check crisis in the fields of organizational crises and natural disaster. While significant studies in recent decades has been done on crisis management, but institutional crisis management has remained neglected. This article attempts to explain the kind of crisis that an institution encounters it exogenous. Creating mechanisms for establishing a dynamic equilibrium between institutions requires management especially public administration management that has responsibility to the prediction and prevention of such chronic crisis in the policy making level; because it has Social costs to deal with this crisis (after the occurrence) and Can not be expected to establish this balance on behalf of invisible hand mechanism.

  27. Dr. Preetha Menon

    The following article would affirm the fact that gratitude is the best attitude. Gratitude is a feeling, emotion or attitude in acknowledgment of a benefit that one has received or will receive. Religions and philosophies have long embraced gratitude as an indispensable manifestation of virtue, and as an integral component of health, wholeness, and well-being. Scientists are latecomers to the concept of gratitude. The systematic study of gratitude within psychology began only around the year 2000, possibly because psychology has traditionally been focused more on understanding distress rather than understanding positive emotions. However, with the advent of the positive psychology movement (Linley et al., 2006), gratitude has become a mainstream focus of psychological research (Wood, Joseph and Linley, 2007). Of all the areas studied in the relatively young field of positive psychology, gratitude has perhaps the widest body of research.

  28. Julius K. M’Ndegwa and S.M. Shitote

    This paper investigates the influence of molasses in reducing the plasticity of expansive clay soil. Plasticity tests of untreated soil and for soil treated with sugar cane molasses were carried out using standard procedures for testing soil for civil engineering purposes (BS1377:1990). Results showed that molasses reduced the plasticity index of the soil from an average of 39% for untreated soil to an average of 26% for treated soil at molasses content of 8% by weight of dry soil cured for 7 days. Observations of thin sections indicated that soil aggregations formed when 8% molasses content by weight of dry soil was added. However, the aggregations started to disintegrate when molasses content in the mixture exceeded 8%. This indicates that cane molasses reduced plasticity index through aggregation of soil particles and binding of the same by molasses. It was concluded that molasses could reduce the plasticity of expansive clay soil if molasses content in the soil did not exceed 8% by weight of dry soil.

  29. Velmurugan, K. and Balakrishnan, V.

    The study examines the relationship between the social adjustment and self concept of the higher secondary school students. This study correlates certain demographic variables in respect of social adjustment and self concept. Constructed by normative survey method using a random sample of 100 higher secondary students studying in Ariyalur distric was selected. Social Adjustment inventory standardized and self-concept inventory standardized. The level of social adjustment among the higher secondary school student is high. The level of self concept among the higher secondary school students is unstable. There is negligible correlation among the higher secondary school student social adjustment and self concept.

  30. Kumar, V, Sathiyaseelan, R and Vasanthakumar, J

    The study was conducted in two regions of U. T. of Puducherry namely Puducherry and Karaikal. The extension personnel of Puducherry Department of Agriculture were involved in technology transfer for the upliftment of farming community. The extension personnel from all the organizational positions (ADAs, JDAs, DDAs, AOs, AAOs, Field Men and Demonstration Assistants) engaged in transfer of technology were selected as respondents (115 Nos.). A well structured questionnaire consisting of various indices, tests and scales was prepared and used. The results revealed that majority of the respondents (63.48 per cent) were in medium information processing category. More than half of the extension personnel frequently discussed the received information with farmers and higher-ups for evaluating the information. Majority of extension personnel always stored the information on a record book. Only one-fourth of the respondents have sometimes transformed the information in the form of power point slides and written materials or handouts.

  31. Venkanna Bhanothu, Jane Theophilus, Roya Rozati and Srikanth, D., Boda Vijayalaxmi Bhima Banoth

    FGTB is usually a silent disease evidencing itself only when really looked for. It usually affects females of reproductive age group. Disruption of the IFN-gamma gene in mice infected with M. tuberculosis has resulted in exacerbation of disease, progressive and widespread tissue destruction and necrosis with numerous bacteria. Therefore, we proposed to distinguish the possible limitations of phenotypic methods and the possible association of IFN-γ gene polymorphism with Female genital tuberculosis. It is a prospective case-control study. A total of 206 patients were used for screening of female genital tuberculosis including 100 unaffected patients aged between 18 to 40 years. Surgically removed tissue was taken from both groups for laboratory examination, Laparoscopy/laparotomy, culture, X-ray including AFB using light microscopy following concentration, staining by Ziehl–Neelsen stain as well as culture and M. tuberculosis specific PCR, the diagnostic criteria by which tuberculosis was confirmed in order to distinguish Koch bacillus by three-time bacterioscopy of specimens for acid resistant bacteria. Mycobacterium tuberculosis has been detected in 88 (106, 83 %) FGTB patients by PCR method, by smear microscopy -acid fast bacilli (AFB+) in 19 (17.92%) patients and by culture in 35 (33.01%) patients. The histopathological investigation of specimens obtained by surgery gave positive in 52 (49.05%) of FGTB patients. This study on patients suspected of having female genital tuberculosis gives us an opportunity to update the investigative procedures by including the modern molecular methods like gene polymorphism studies. Distribution of IFN- γ genotypes between patients and controls has statistical disproportion. This study suggests that IFN-γ +874 T to A polymorphism have an etiological association with susceptibility of female genital tuberculosis. This study may help in timely detection of FGTB along with gene polymorphisms wherever applicable, in selection of satisfactory therapy and in anticipation of the further progression of the disease.

  32. Omendra Kumar Prajapati, Danish faraz, Satyam Rastogi, Rishi Bajpai and Pramod Kumar Pandey

    The Nitrogenase and Glutamine synthetase activities were investigated in free living and immobilized cells of Nostoc calcicola under copper stress conditions. The maximum Cu concentration in free and immobilized N. calcicola cells was 60µM at which the immobilized cells were characterized by faster rate of nitrogenase activity than free cells. Immobilization was also associated with increase in glutamine synthetase, suggesting that the immobilized cells maintain sufficient ATP pool to drive energy expensive process of nitrogen metabolism. Both the enzymes in immobilized cells were less sensitive to Cu and degree of inhibition was less marked as compared to the free living cells. The tolerance of immobilized cells in terms of all the activities studied over free cells concluded that immobilized cells are more resistant to Cu in respect to nitrogen metabolism and it can be used as an effective biofertilizer.

  33. Naveenkumar, K .J., Thippeswamy, B., Thirumalesh, B.V and Shivakumar P. Banakar

    To meet the challenges of generating sufficient and sustainable energy, a potentially viable alternative is to use cellulosic biomass for second-generation biofuel and bioenergy production. In the present study, Arecanut husk is cheap abundant lignocellulosic raw material in the agricultural waste; it is available as alternative feedstock for bioethanol production. The moisture content of the fresh raw material (68.39 ± 0.20 %). Arecanut husk raw material were collected and dried in the hot air oven at 800 C for 48hours. The dried arecanut husk raw materials were subjected by powdered sequentially using hammer mill, ball mill and flour mill to obtain fine sized particles. The particles were separated by using a range of graded sews. Then sieved the different particle size such as sample-A (0.28 ± 0.01 mm), sample-B (0.43 ± 0.02 mm), and sample-C (0.64 ± 0.01 mm). The chemical analysis of arecanut husk raw material was done by using pretreatment methods. In acid hydrolysis the more amount of reducing sugar was found in the sample-A (4.12 ± 0.02 mg/g), non-reducing sugar in the sample-B (0.37 ± 0.01 mg/g), Protein in the sample-C (5.95 ± 0.06 mg/g) and Carbohydrate in the sample-B (2.82 ± 0.01 mg/g) of Arecanut fiber. In alkaline hydrolysis the more amount of reducing sugar was found in the sample-A (1.6 ± 0.10 mg/g), non-reducing sugar in the sample-A (1.02 ± 0.03 mg/g), Protein in the sample-A (7.40 ± 0.15 mg/g) and Carbohydrate in the sample-B (2.43 ± 0.02 mg/g) of Arecanut fiber.

  34. Adrián J. Acuña, Graciela N. Pucci, Natalia L. Tonín, Cecilia Tiedemann, Oscar H. Pucci

    Rada Tilly city is located between Comodoro Rivadavia and Caleta Olivia cities. Both cities have oil industry activity and oil tankers sail in front of the beach on their way to the loading buoy. The aim of the work was to study the bacterial communities and their capacity to use hydrocarbons. We took samples from three different points in every season of the year, both sediment and seawater samples. Oligotrophic and hydrocarbon degrading bacteria counts were done, and the mineralization of diesel, kerosene, gasoline, oil and lubricant oil were carried out during 50 days. Bacterial communities were grown for 10 days on oligotrophic liquid media and media containing phenanthrene and hexadecane as contaminants and analyzed by methyl fatty acids (FAMEs) profiling. In addition, bacterial isolates obtained were identified by FAMEs. The results showed that the cultivable bacterial communities were similar in spring, summer and autumn and this was made up of Pseudoalteromonas, Rhodobacter, Aeromonas, Ochrobactrum, Photobacterium, Brevundimonas and Vibrio. In winter season, the bacterial communities changed and were made up of Micrococcus, Staphylococcus, Bacillus, Arthrobacter and Paenibacillus. The hydrocarbon mineralization was higher in sediment samples than in seawater samples. The best results were observed in summer. The best values were obtained from oil, diesel oil, kerosene and lubricant oil.

  35. Egbetokun O.A. , S. Ajijola, B.T. Omonona, and M.A. Omidele

    The agricultural sector is a major contributor to Nigeria Gross Domestic Product (GDP). However, the increasing incidence and spread of disease infections in rural Nigeria threatens the farming households’ efficiency and output. Therefore, this study examined the effects and relationship between farmers’ health and technical efficiency in Nigeria. Structured questionnaires were administered to one hundred and twenty (120) farmers using multistage random sampling technique. Data were collected on health status and production characteristics of the farmers and analyzed using the Maximum Likelihood Estimation Method of Stochastic Production Frontier model. The result of the effect of ill-health on technical efficiency of the farmers showed that land, labour, fertilizer and insecticides were positively related to output while seed was inversely related to output. The average technical efficiency of the farmer was 0.56, that is, the farmers still have 44 percent potential to be on the frontier. In the inefficiency model, adverse health, educational level, age, household size and farming experience have positive effects on inefficiency of the farmers. It could be concluded that it is possible to increase productivity through improvement on the stock of health status of the farmers. It is therefore, recommended that extension workers should work hand in hand with community health workers to improve general health conditions of the farmers by educating them on health tips through health talks and seminars. Also, Government should make the services of health workers available to the rural farmers in order to reduce incidence of diseases.

  36. Upadhyay, R. K.

    Plant latex is a mixture of various chemical constituents which protect plants from herbivorous insects. It contains many chemical substances such as acetogenins, flavonoids, triterpenes alkaloids, lectins, and proteins which show very high insecticidal potential. Latex also contains important other phytochemicals such as glycosides, alkaloids, steroids and resinous substances, tannins and saponins which show diverse biological activities. It also contains enzymatic proteins such as chitinases, proteases, peptidases, plasmins, papain, hevein, lectins and lipases which show enormous insecticidal activity against insects play a critical role in defense against herbivorous insects. Plant show high mortality, inhibit egg hatching and effect post embryonic developmental and survival of insects. Plant latex also showed very high toxicity in mollusks mainly fresh water snail, Lymnaea acuminata and Lymnaea columella. Plant latex possesses many more advantages over synthetic pesticides. It has better lethal potential than synthetic pesticides and has no side effect on environment because it is biodegradable. No doubt its chemical constituents can be used as a successful pesticide if isolated in pure form.

  37. G.N. Sheikh, Showkat Ahmad, Rajdeep Kudesia, MK Shrivastav

    Cytological character and protein profile of five accessions (IPL-406, IPL-81, DPL-62, DPL-15, and Sehore 74-3) of lentil (Lens culinaris) were estimated through polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and using cytological characters viz., mitotic index. The present protein profile revealed that experimental accession IPL-406(L-1) is very close to to the accession Sehore-74-3(L-5) and DPL-62(L-3) and DPL-15 (L-4) are more close at molecular level as compared to other accessions. The greatest similarity coefficient (36.3%) was observed between IPL-406 and Sehore-74-3, while lowest similarity (15%) was observed between IPL-406 and DPL-15.At protein profile level a total of 46 protein bands were obtained, 44 protein bands show polymorphism (95.6%) and rest 2 bands show monomorphism (4.3%). Present study has also revealed that the mitotic index was highest in IPL-81 accession (L-2) i.e., 26.71% meaning that the accession has high power of division. The accession IPL-81 show highest germination percentage in first 24th hour and this accession also has highest content of protein i.e., 29.5% than accessions estimated.

  38. Luaay abdulwahed and Hisham ahmed

    Used (11) computer with the hub switch 16 port and the type of linking computers star and cable UTP in LAN network and the establishment of four programs first program of the teacher and the second program of the student and the third program of the administration and the four program insert the questions and when the test was observed speed in the preparation of examinations and the cancel of the process of correcting exams and manually reduce the number of faculty observers and cancel the introduction of grades test scores manually and accuracy finite in the patch and the existence of multiple forms of questions.

  39. Belay Duguma

    The aim of this study was to investigate management system and productive and reproductive performance of crossbred dairy cows reared at Jimma College of Agriculture and Veterinary Medicine dairy farm. The main focus was on identification of reproductive and milk yield performance of crossbred dairy cows including age at first calving, calving-interval, days open, daily and total lactation milk yield, mortality, general management and major constraints to milk production. The study was based on data compiled for 10 years (1996-2005). A total of 63 records out of which 45 data records were used to evaluate reproductive performances. All considered performance traits (age at first calving, calving interval, days open till conception, daily and total lactation yield and lactation length) were analyzed. For the estimation of days open till conception, records with no service date were excluded. Results from the study show that average age at first calving, calving interval and days open till conception were 46.8±1.9, 15.6±0.6 and 6.65±0.11 months, respectively. The mean daily and lactation milk yield were 5.6±0.8 and 1748.9±228.9 litres per cow, respectively. The average lactation length was 302 days. The major sources of feed were natural pasture, green feed, hay, silage, commercial and on farm formulated concentrate, agro-industrial by-products and milling by-products. Cows are hand milked with twice milking frequency a day. Mortality rate of calves over ten years was 34.26%. The major constraints were feed shortage, disease and parasites, low milk yield of cows, lack of artificial insemination and lack of adequate budget. Prospects for improvement of the performance of the farm include improved management in terms of feeding, disease and parasite control, proper breeding management, improved genotypes and artificial insemination services, as well as allocation of adequate budget.

  40. Farhadi Abolfazl and Esmaeilzadeh Mahdi

    Statement of problem: Research For adolescents indicates that the patient's sex did influence anticipatory , and girls had higher pain intensity scores . Whether differences extent to children is less clear, and further studies in this area are needed .The aim of this study was to determined the effect of gender on the pain intensity. Materials and Methods: In this RCT , 50 children 2-6month of age were taken (25 girls and 25 boys).In girls group and boys group DPT Vaccine via IM injection are Performed .Data was collected using FLACC scale and were analyzed with wilcoxon signed rank test . Results: Result showed that not significantly difference between severity of Pain due to DPT Vaccine IM injection in girls group as compared with boys group (P>0/5). Conclusion: Finding of this study indicated that gender could not Play an Important role in severity of pain 2-6 age of month children.

  41. Dr. Ragini Mishra and Prashant Kumar

    Kala-azar i.e. Visceral Leishmaniasis has been found to be a big social problem among most of the population of Bihar. The cure of this disease is very costly and due to this, the death rate has been found to be very high especially among the poor population. The main objective of the field survey has been to determine the rate of endemicity in the affected areas and to know the special and general features of such areas regarding the geographical conditions, micro and macro environmental conditions. The types of people living including their life-styles, sanitation and socio-economic conditions have also been targeted as focus points during the field survey. KA cases and deaths have been observed to be closely related to the socio-economic conditions of the affected areas, its study and implementation may lead to fruitful method to control the Kala-azar epidemic.

  42. Vinod Prabhu, V. and Selvaraj Pandian, R.

    Urinary tract infection (UTI) is the leading cause of morbidity and health care expenditures in persons of all the ages. The long range consequences of ignoring UTI can leads to kidney failure, septicaemia, bacterial endocarditis, prostatitis and infertility. In this study the prevalence of UTI among Paliyar tribal group reveals Klebsiella pneumoniae (65%) as the predominant uropathogens isolated followed by Escherichia coli (55%), Psuodomonas aeruginosa (50%), Staphylococcus aureus (20%), Enterococcus faecalis (10%), Proteus mirabilis (5%) and Candida Sp (5%). The isolated uropathogens were subjected to antibiotic sensitive analysis. The epidemiological and haematological parameters such as age, pulse rate, blood pressure, haemoglobin level, PCV, MCV, MCHC, sugar in urine specimen were analysed. An extensive KAAP study was conducted by structured questionnaire and their knowledge, attitude, awareness and practices towards the urinary tract infection was recorded.

  43. Mithra, J. and R. Bashkaran

    Water pollution is one of the most important environmental problem faced by the World. Characterization of physio-chemical parameters of groundwater from 43 different locations nearby the small scale industries and rice mills in and around Thanjavur town have been carried out. A Laboratory study of Groundwater was carried out and the quality analysis has been made through Ph, Tds, EC, TH, TA (Hco3), Ca+2, Mg+2, Cl-, Na+, So4-2, No3--, K+, and Tubudity. The results were compared with standards prescribed by WHO and CPHEEO in order to find out the groundwater suitability for domestic and agricultural purposes which indicated that the mean value of studied parameters except EC (Electrical conductivity), TDS (Total dissolved solids), (Th) Total hardness, (Cl) Chloride, (Ta) Total alkalinity and (Na) sodium samples taken from the Bore well water, open well water and the surface water were within the permissible limit and the groundwater in few areas were not much suitable for domestic and agricultural purposes. Thus the objective of the study is to identify the quality of groundwater in the town and nearby area of Thanjavur town especially adjacent to the small scale industries where groundwater is used for domestic and agricultural purposes are discussed and also a systematic calculation of correlation coefficient has been calculated for water quality assessment.

  44. Mohammad Talebzadeh, Mohammad Alaleh and Mohammad Nasir

    In this thesis, a linear programming algorithm is developed for determining a measure of market concentration in congested transmission systems. The linear program uses the effects of the congestors on the system to de rate the line limits of each transmission line. The derated line limits allow for the congestor’s contribution to the system flows to be taken into account when examining the available market for additional buyers and sellers in the system. The linear program uses transmission line constraints with de rated line limits and generation constraints to calculate the maximum simultaneous interchange capability for a group of buyers and sellers on the system. The results of the linear program provide information regarding the maximum amount of power the buyers can import, as well as the amount of generation each seller can provide towards the simultaneous interchange. When only a few of the available sellers can participate in the maximum simultaneous interchange capability of the buyers, the market of available generation is referred to as concentrated. Each seller’s contribution, as determined by the simultaneous interchange capability algorithm, can be used in determining a Her find a hl-Hirschman index (HHI) of concentration for the market. The resulting HHI value can then be compared to government standards for HHI regarding market power in the electricity industry. Finally, sample applications of the maximum simultaneous interchange capability algorithm are examined. These examples are used to discuss the ramifications of congestion on the transmission system’s concentration and the usefulness of the de rated line limit solution method for determining market concentration.

  45. Shankar, C. and Dr.T.Thilagavathy

    An attempt was made to know the impact of power point presentation on teaching of drawing skill in zoology subject in students’ achievement. For that the investigator, randomly selected 50 students having equal metal ability and split-up into control group and experimental group. Traditional method of teaching of drawing skill was given to control group and Power point presentation method of teaching drawing skill was given to experimental group. A test was conducted for both the groups and subjected to statistical analysis like descriptive (Mean, S.D) and differential analysis (t-test). It shows that experimental group scored better than control group. The power point presentation method of teaching drawing skill is far better than traditional method of teaching drawing skill.

  46. Keny Silver J., Tum I.K. and Chirchir E.K.

    This quadratic response surface methodology focuses on finding the levels of some (coded) predictor variables x = (x1u, x2u, x3u)' that optimize the expected value of a response variable yu from natural levels. The experiment starts from some best guess or “control” combination of the predictor variables (usually coded to x = 0 for this case x1u=30, x2u=25 and x3u =40) and experiment is performed varying them in a region around this center point. We go further to construct a specific optimum second order rotatable design of three factors in thirty-two points. The achievement of this is done with estimation of the free parameters using calculus in an existing second order rotatable design of thirty-two points. Such a design permits a response surface to be fitted easily and provides spherical information contours besides the realizations of optimum combination of ingredients in Agriculture, horticulture and allied sciences which results in economic use of scarce resources in relevant production processes. The expected second order rotatable design model in three dimensions is available where the responses would then facilitate the estimation of the linear and quadratic coefficients. An example involving Phosphate (x1u), Nitrogen (x2u) and Potassium (x3u) is used to represent the three factors in the coded level and converted into natural levels.

  47. Aqueel Ahmad Pandith, Mudasir Hamid Malik and Dr. M.Y. Ganai

    The main purpose of this study was to know the self-concept and level of aspiration among various categories of physically challenged secondary school students. This study was descriptive in nature. For the measurement of self-concept Sagar and Sharma`s self-concept inventory (two dimensions ideal and real self) was administered and for level of aspiration, Mahesh Bhargava and M.A. Shah`s level of aspiration tool was administered. The sample for the study was 150 physically challenged secondary school students identified from 90 secondary schools of district Baramullah, Jammu and Kashmir by using purposive sampling technique. Mean, standard deviation and t-test were applied to measure and compare the self-concept (two dimensions) and level of aspiration of hearing impaired, visually impaired and crippled secondary school student5s of district Baramullah. The analysis of the data revealed that the different categories viz hearing impaired, visually impaired and crippled secondary school students do not differ on self-concept and level of aspiration. It indicates that all the three categories have same attitude, knowledge of themselves and evolution of their achievements.

  48. Vishal Gulati and Puneet Katyal

    This work proposes a representation scheme that uses CAD as a design tool for generating two-dimensional decorative patterns. The proposed scheme is hierarchical and represented as a tree with nodes corresponding to different shapes of pattern. In this work, decorative patterns are viewed as a set of shapes created at three hierarchical levels which are labeled as: Primitive, Motif, and Compound-motif. This CAD paradigm helps the designers/artists to manipulate a set of fundamental shapes (primitive, motif and compound-motif) by transformation rules and to arrange them into some definite order for generating a decorative pattern.

  49. C.P. Ukpaka

    In this paper investigation was conducted to examine the effect of substrate characteristics medium (heavier hydrocarbon mixture in a reservoir) on the improvement of Microbial Entrained Oil Recovery (MEOR) in Niger Delta Area of Nigeria. The effect of substrate concentrate (heavier hydrocarbon) was demonstrated upon the action of the following microorganism, pseudomonas sp streptococcus sp, escheerichia coli, chromobacterium, bacillus sp. flavobacterium and micrococcus. Results obtained illustrates high growth rate in order of magnitude pseudomonas > bacillus sp. > eschevichia coli > flavobacterium > streptococcus > micrococcus > chromobiacterium. The rate of gas, water lighter hydrocarbon, biomass production from the degradation of the heavier hydrocarbon can be attributed to the effectiveness of the microbial activity in each reactor as well as the physicochemical properties of the substance favour the process. The experimental results obtained showed that the increase in gas, water, lighter hydrocarbon and biomass concentration with increase in period of exposure. The mathematical model developed in this paper was used in the simulation of the microbial growth and substrate kinetics. As the rate of production of products increases with microbial the rate of substrate concentration (heavier hydrocarbon) decreases. The research demonstrate the useful of various microorganism in improving microbial entrained oil Recovery (MEOR) in Niger Delta area of Nigeria using a favourable environment and physicochemical conditions.

  50. Manimegalai, A. and Manikandan, T

    In plant produced phytotoxic allelopathic effect of Tectona grandis investigated on Vigna mungo and Vigna radiata, dried leaves of Tectona grandis were collected from coastal area of Cuddalore District..50g powder of teak leaf was soaked in distilled water and after 24hrs filtered with help of WhatmannNo.1 filter paper used to prepare extract .Using this stock solution various concentrations (5,10,25,50,75 and 100%) were prepared and sterilized 50 seeds of Vigna mungo and Vigna radiata were placed in sterilized petridishes .Five seedlings from each replicate were selected for recording the fresh weight on 15th day after sowing. Influenced allelopathic effect was observed in 5% concentration of extract treatment than control and in all other concentrations it shows gradual inhibitory effect on both crop seedlings.

  51. M. S. Shekhawat

    Methods were developed for cloning and large scale plantlet production of Garcinia cambogia L. from germplasm selected from East coast region of India. These explants were dressed and surface sterilized with help of 0.1 % HgCl2. Multiple shoots were induced by proliferation of axillary buds/meristems on Murashige and Skoog's (MS) medium incorporated with 2.0 mgl-1 6-Benzylaminopurine (BAP). Incorporation of higher amount of auxins in the culture medium caused callusing from the explants. The shoots of G. cambogia were further multiplied on MS medium supplemented with 1.0 mgl-1 Indole-3 acetic acid (IAA) + 0.5 mgl-1 each of BAP and Kinetin (Kn). On this medium healthy and sturdy shoots were produced. The in vitro generated shoots were rooted on half-strength MS medium containing 2.5 mgl-1 Indole-3 butyric acid (IBA). By this method 78% shoots were rooted. The in vitro rooted plantlets could be hardened and acclimatized in green house.

  52. Jenifer, U., Francina Cecilia, K. and Ravindhran, R

    Boerhaavia diffusa L. is a valuable medicinal plant indigenous to India commonly called Punarnava. Adventitious roots were initiated from the leaf explants on a media containing Murashige and Skoog media supplemented with various concentrations (0.25, 0.5, 1.0, 2.0 & 4.0 mg/L) of NAA and IBA. Maximum number of roots were obtained on MS media supplemented with 1.0 mg/L NAA, while profuse rooting was also found in media supplemented with 2.0 mg/L and 4.0 mg/L NAA. In vitro grown roots were transferred to liquid culture media containing NAA for root proliferation. The cultured roots were harvested after 40 days. Agrobacterium rhizogenes mediated transformation was carried out with in vivo leaf explants of B. diffusa. Hairy roots were obtained on a medium containing hormone free MS medium.

  53. Dr. Sreevalsan J Menon and S. Grace Sarala

    A study was undertaken as an attempt to understand the attitude of the Agricultural Officers toward computer mediated communication in farming sector. The study aimed at assessing the relationship between socio-psychological characteristics, attitude and computer use efficiency of Agricultural Officers of Akshaya (e literacy programme launched by Kerala Government in one of the backward districts, Malappuram) and non-akshaya introduced districts of Kerala. The sample comprised of ninety five Agricultural Officers from Malappuram and Trichur districts of Kerala. The Agricultural Officers were selected following stratified random sampling with proportionate allocation. Age had negative and significant relationship with computer use efficiency and attitude. Education had positive and significant relationship with computer use efficiency and attitude. Trainings undergone, knowledge, communication ability, creativity, innovativeness, achievement motivation and information source utilisation showed non significant relationship with computer use efficiency as well as with attitude. It was found that there was significant difference between age, trainings undergone, knowledge about computer mediated communication, innovativeness and achievement motivation of respondents in Malappuram and Trichur districts.

  54. M. S. Shekhawat

    A micropropagation method is described for Pithecellobium dulce Benth. using nodal explants. Multiple shoots were induced from axillary buds on Murashige and Skoog's (MS) agar-gelled medium containing different concentrations of 6-Benzylaminopurine (BAP) and Kinetin (Kn). Medium containing 3.0 mgl-1 BAP was the most effective for shoot induction .The cultures were amplified by passages on MS medium supplemented with 1.5 mgl-1 each of BAP and Kn +0.5 mgl-1 Indole-3 acetic acid (IAA). The micropropagated shoots were subsequently transferred for root formation on half-strength MS medium + 2.5 mgl-1 Indole-3 butyric acid (IBA) with 94% success rate. These plantlets were hardened in the greenhouse. The established protocol is suitable for true to type cloning of mature plants of P. dulce.

  55. Robert Selvam, D., Raja, M. and John Willam, S.

    The quantity and quality of the salivary total protein, albumin, and α-amylase was estimated among the 25 healthy people. The salivary components were estimated before and after coffee consumption. The albumin and α-amylase are decreased after coffee consumption but the total protein was increased after coffee consumption.

  56. Farhadi Abolfazl, Esmaeilzadeh Mahdi and Farhadi Sadegh

    Introduction: Intramuscular injection is an invasive and painful method for medication. Previous studies have indicated that tetracaine has ability to decrease pain via decreasing transmission and perception. The effect of local tetracaine severity of pain during DPT vaccine IM injection is not known. The aim of this study was to evaluate if topical Tetracaine reduce the pain of IM DPT injection compared to placebo. Materials and methods: In this RCT, 40 children were taken and divided into case and placebo group using a randomized Allocation sampling . In case group used from topical tetracaine gel %4, 30 second before DPT injection; in placebo group used from lubricant gel (placebo) before DPT injection. Data was collected using FLACC scale and were analyzed with wilcaxon signed rank test. Results: Results showed that tetracaine could not significantly decreased the severity of pain due to DPT vaccine IM injection in case group as compared with placebo group (p>0/05). Conclusion: Finding of this study indicated that topical tetracaine Application could not play an important role in decreasing of pain during DPT vaccine IM injection .Although it did lead to faster recovery time. However, more studies are needed to determine of effect of pain reduction strategies.





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