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Plagiarism Detection

IJCR is following an instant policy on rejection those received papers with plagiarism rate of more than 20%. So, All of authors and contributors must check their papers before submission to making assurance of following our anti-plagiarism policies.





May 2012

  1. Jatinderpal Singh

    The present paper describes the morphology and morphometry of Haemonchus contortus (Rudolphi, 1803) Cobb, 1898, a roundworm parasitizing sheep and goat. External morphology of male and female worms alongwith measurements of important body parts is studied. Cervical papillae, longitudinal cuticular ridges, buccal lancet, spicules, bursal rays, gubernaculum, excretory pore, genital openings of male and female worms, anal aperture and size of various body organs was analysed for morphometric characteristics.

  2. Daniel Jebaraj, M. Manjunath Hubballi, M. Selvaraj, R. Jagannathan and Srinivasan V. M.

    Nine fungicides at two different concentrations were tested for their efficacy in inhibiting growth of M. phaseolina through poisoned food technique. One effective concentration of all fungicides was tested under glass house and field conditions. Among all fungicides, carbendazim at 0.1 per cent was superior in arresting growth of test fungus under in vitro conditions. Further, the same fungicide reduced the disease incidence under glass house and field conditions apart from improving the biological parameters and yield.

  3. Sunzuma Gladys, Ndemo Zacharia, Zinyeka Gracious and Zezekwa Nicholas

    The aim of the study was to find out the factors that hinder the implementation of the student-centered methods in the teaching and learning of mathematics at secondary school level. The study was a descriptive survey, involving questionnaires and interviews with fifteen in service mathematics teachers. Descriptive data were mainly presented in form of tables, graphs and direct quotations from teacher. From the findings the constraints included examination assessment requirement, time factor, resources especially textbooks, language barrier, teachers’ subject matter content, and other minor ones such as the size of classes and the heavy planning involved. Teachers regarded the student-centered methods as useful and rewarding teaching and learning strategies. Teachers also showed that they are fully aware that their pupils get highly motivated by being involved in student-centered activities. It was therefore concluded that the implementation of student-centered methods in the teaching and learning of secondary school mathematics was far from being realized in the district under study.

  4. B. Sudhakar

    The present part of the study deals with how to knowledge of IPM (Integrated Pest Management) adopting cotton cultivators in an irrigated systems. Under irrigated condition, among cultural practices, more than 70 per cent of respondents had how to do knowledge about majority of IPM practices. Regarding mechanical practices majority (82%) of respondents had how to do knowledge of fixing light traps and 73 per cent and 65 per cent of the respondents had how to do knowledge of fixing sex pheromone and fixing yellow sticky traps. With regard to biological practices, 75 per cent of respondents had how to do knowledge of tying Trichogramma eggcards, followed by 65 per cent respondents of spraying neem oil. Among chemical practices, more than 60 per cent of respondents had how to do knowledge about spraying safe insecticides and spraying herbicide.

  5. Merkuz, A. and Getachew, A.

    A 2-year experiment was conducted at wilt sick plot infested with Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. ciceris at Adet research center in northwestern Ethiopia in order to assess efficacy of an integrated management strategy for Fusarium wilt of chickpea that combined the effect of varieties, sowing dates and seed bed preparation methods on fusaruim wilt on chickpea. Four varieties, i.e., JG-62 (susceptible check), Adet local (control), Marye and Shasho (both improved); three sowing dates at 15-day intervals, i.e., at Adet 12th Sept., (early), 27th Sept. (farmers') and 12th Oct. (late) and three seed bed preparation methods including flat bed, raised bed and ridge and furrow were used as treatments. Treatments were arranged in a factorial combination in a Randomized Complete Block Design in three replications. The number of seedlings emerged, dead plants due to wilt, soil temperature and soil moisture were recorded at 15-day intervals for each variety of chickpea. Data were analyzed using the SAS system for windows V8. Percent, Disease progress curve and AUDPC%/day was also computed. In the experiments the results indicated that the disease progress rate was significantly different among varieties and management practices and showed Shasho was the most resistant variety to wilt, followed by Marye. Among the sowing dates it was observed a reduction in the rate of epidemic development over time, a reduction of disease intensity, and the farmer sowing date exhibited relatively lower rate of mortality. AUDPC%/day value was higher on flat bed and ridge and furrow than on raised bed. Among the varieties lower AUDPC%/day value was recorded on Shasho followed by Marye in both seasons. The AUDPC%/day value was higher in early and late sowing dates than the farmers' sowing date. The results indicate the advantage of using cultural management as integrated as a sustainable and environmentally friendly option to control chickpea fusarium wilt disease and boost the production of chickpea. The importance of integrating existing cultural control practices, partially effective by themselves, with other control measures to achieve appropriate management of Fusarium wilt and increase of its productivity in chickpea in East African-type environments is demonstrated by the results of this study.

  6. Merkuz, A. and Getachew, A.

    Thirty-eight Trichoderma isolates were collected from fields grown with chickpea in six districts of Northwestern Ethiopia in 2007 and 2008 and purified. Some isolates were identified to be Trichoderma harzianum, T. koningii and T. pseudokoningii. In in vitro tests the effect of Trichoderma isolates on colony growth of Fusarium oxysporum f.sp. ciceris and effect of seed treatment with Trichoderma isolates against chickpea wilt in glass house were studied at Amhara Region Agricultural Institute. In glasshouse experiment the treatments were arranged in randomized complete block design in three replications. Data on colony diameter in vitro tests and seedling emergence, wilt incidence, fresh and dry shoot weight in the glass house experiment were collected and were analyzed using the SAS system for windows V8 in ANOVA. In the in vitro tests Trichoderma isolates showed differences in their colony growth and antagonistic potential. Sixteen isolates showed competition potential, seventeen mycoparasitic and five lysis effects on F. oxysporum f.sp. ciceris. In glasshouse experiment, five Trichoderma isolates, two of which had shown mycroparasitic effect, two competition effect and one lysis effect were tested as seed treatment on two chickpea varieties namely Adet local and Shasho against fusarium wilt as compared with untreated control. Significant differences were observed among the treatments in reducing wilt incidence on Adet local and Shasho varieties. However, Shasho showed low levels of disease incidence compared to the Adet local. Lower incidence was recorded on Adet local with Trichoderma isolate Tr6 (mycoparasitic ability) and for Shasho with Trichodrema isolate Tr5 (competition ability), respectively. Significant differences were recorded in fresh and dry weight of shoots in the Trichoderma treated Adet local over the control. Trichoderma isolates improved the plant growth also. Highest fresh and dry shoot weight of Adet local was recorded with the isolate Tr3 (competition ability) followed by Tr6 (mycoparasitic). Significant differences were also recorded in fresh and dry shoot weight in the Trichoderma treated Shasho variety over the control. However the highest record was for Tr6 (mycoparasitic) followed by Tr7(mycoparasitic). The result showed that the potential of Trichoderma in reducing wilt incidence, delaying disease onset. Our study revealed that biological control agents such as Trichoderma can be a useful component of integrated chickpea fusarium wilt management and further study is also important under field conditions.

  7. B. Selvaraj, R. Prabhakaran and R. S. Kumar

    The study area forms the part of the Southern Granulitic terrain of the peninsular India. It is represented by charnockites and gneisses. These terrain was found intersected by the younger mafic dykes commonly known as Black granites. The economic importance and its massive nature of the rock brought name and fame to the locality all over the world. Based on the nature of the trend these dyke bodies were characterized into three groups namely Group – I, Dykes having trends NW-SE, WNW-ESE and E-W. Group – II, Dykes having trends NNW-SSE, N-S and NNE-SSW. Group –III, Dykes having trends NE-SW. Based on mineralogical composition they can be classified into two types namely dolerite and gabbro. These bodies are medium to coarse grained in nature with fine grained border zone at the contact with the country rocks. These dyke bodies exhibits typical spheroidal weathering. The rocks are essentially composed of plagioclase, clinopyroxene and opaques. Olivine and micro perthite constitute the accessory mineral phases while minor biotite, amphibole and quartz rarely occur as secondary components. All the samples exhibit ophitic to sub ophitic intergrowth of plagioclase and pyroxene.

  8. T. Nageswara Rao, Dr. A. Ramesh., T. Parvathamma and E.G. Sreenivasula Reddy

    A highly selective matrix solid phase dispersion (MSPD) extraction purification method for the preconcentration of metsulfuron-methyl in goat tissues (liver, kidney, muscle and fat) was developed. A C18 sorbent based MSPD column was used for extraction of the analyte and extracted the metsulfuron-methyl residues from the sample using acidified ethyl acetate and methylene chloride mixture. The extracts were further purified by passing through the disposable silica mega bond –elut ® cartridges prior to quantification by HPLC on an Agilent Zorbax column (150mm length x 4.6mm id x 3.5µm). The HPLC detection was studied with UV detector at 246 nm. Acetonitrile and water (0.1% formic acid) 55:45 v/v was used as mobile phase at a flow rate of 0.7 ml min-1. The linearity of metsulfuron-methyl was observed over the concentration range 0.01 to 2 µg/mL and the regression coefficient (r) 0.9999. The mean recoveries of metsulfuron- methyl form tissues at 0.03 and 0.3 µg g-1 fortification levels were in the range of 86-97%.The limit of quantification and detection was established as 0.03 and 0.01 µg g-1 respectively. The proposed method was successfully applied for the determination of residues in goat liver, kidney, and muscle and fat samples.

  9. Talpur, A.D, Memon, A.J., Khan, M.I, Ikhwanuddin., M, M. Danish Daniel, M, and Abol-Munafi, A.B

    In aquaculture, probiotics can be considered a valid alternative to the use of antibiotics and in particular, in fish larviculture, to prevent high mortality owing to microbes and to improve survival rate. Many researchers reported promising results using a single beneficial bacterial strain in the culture of many finfish species. Therefore, L. salivarius isolated from the gut of female Portunus pelagicus and its influence on larviculture was examined. Four trial experiments were triplicate and designed in three different administrations of probiotic 1.0×106 cfu mL−1 (T-1), 5.0×106 cfu mL−1 (T-2) and 1.0×107 cfu mL−1 (T-3) and one control without any probiotic, and were added to rearing water every day. Addition of the probiotic (to first day hatch larvae) significantly increased survival rate (p<0.05) for all treatments over controls. Probiotic concentration 5.0×106 cfu mL−1 (T-2) did produce highest survival rate of larvae. The microbial load particularly Vibrio sp. was dominant in the control tanks than in experimental tanks. The added probiotic affected pH in treated groups and the less nitrogen contents were observed in the experimental tanks mainly due to the effect of probiotic. The specific activities of protease and amylase enzymes were significantly higher (p<0.05) in all treated groups over the control and highest were determined in treated group T-2. The highest concentration of probiotic did not increase the survival and the activity of the digestive enzymes. The results of present study suggest that that treatment with probiotics, L. salivarius, at a certain concentration as water additives could be used to improve survival rate and water quality, thereby convalescing digestive enzymes activity of P. pelagicus.

  10. Sarangarajan, V and Tamilenthi, S.

    This paper examines the good and poor performance of Retail Industry in India. Data used in this research paper are all secondary in nature. These Data are frequently inspected by Institute of Charted Accountants of India and Security Exchange Board of India. Six ratios are taken for comparison and ten companies are chosen using statistical techniques and comparisons are taken which are falling in the respective quartile ranges. Inter firm Comparisons is an effective tool to Compare and improve one’s own working. The author strongly suggested ITC Ltd to the Investor for obtaining more profit and also for long term capital gain.

  11. Ketcha Mbadcam, J., S. Dongmo and D. Dinka’a Ndaghu

    The adsorption of Ni (II) ions from aqueous solution on smectite from Sabga (Sa0) has been investigated. The influences of the initial concentration, Co, temperature, T °C, and contact time, t, on the adsorption performances have been experimentally verified by a batch method. These results have showed that the amount of Ni (II) ions adsorbed increases with increased contact time, t, and that equilibrium adsorption is reached in 15 minutes. The experimental results obtained are described by Langmuir, Freundlich and Dubinin-Kaganer-Radushkevich (D-K-R) isotherm models. The Langmuir adsorption isotherm described the adsorption data very well at all studied temperatures. The maximum adsorption capacity; Qo, determined from the Langmuir adsorption isotherm studies was found to be 6.68 mg/g at 328 °K. Pseudo-first order, pseudo-second order, the mass transfer, Elovich and the intraparticular diffusion kinetic models were used to describe the kinetic data obtained. The experimental data fitted well to the pseudo-second order kinetic model, which indicates that chemical adsorption is the rate-limiting step. Thermodynamic parameters, such as ∆G°, ∆H°, and ∆S° were also calculated using adsorption equilibrium constant obtained from the Langmuir isotherm studies. These results suggest that the adsorption of nickel (II) ions on smectite is a spontaneous and endothermic process.

  12. P. Subramanian, R. Prabhakaran, K. Babu, S. Chidambaram, R.S. Kumar, B. Selvaraj M.

    A study on geochemical characterization of ground water and its suitability for drinking and irrigation purposes was carried out in the Andimadam area of Perambalur district, Tamilnadu. Thirty Four groundwater samples were collected from bore wells and open wells during Pre and post monsoon seasons of 2008. The ground water samples have been analysed by various quality parameters such as pH, electrical conductivity (EC), Total dissolved solids (TDS). The water chemistry of various ions viz. Ca2+, Mg2+, Na+, K+, HCO3- , Cl–, SO4–, and PO4-.Calcium, Sodium, Chlorite and sulphate are the dominant ions in the groundwater chemistry. The chemical composition of groundwater is controlled by rock water interaction with The formations comprise conglomerates, grey shale’s, marl, calcarrious clays, gypseous clays, sandstones and fossiliferous limestone and alluvium deposits. The chemical quality was evaluated for drinking use following the guidelines of WHO (1984). Groundwater is potable except in some isolated pockets. The chemical relationships in Piper trilinear diagram suggest that the groundwater quality is characterized by alkali type. In USSL classification, majority of samples in ground water irrespective of season fall in C1S1 and C2S1 zone indicating medium to low salinity and low sodium hazard, satisfactory for plants having moderate salt tolerance on soils. All the groundwater samples except the few are suitable for domestic, agriculture as well as industrial purpose.

  13. Prof. Dr. P.K. Srimani and Smt. Nanditha Prasad

    Decision Tree classification algorithms have significant potential for land cover and land use mapping, few studies have already assessed the use of Decision Tree Classifiers. Decision Tree Classifiers have several advantages for remote sensing applications by virtue of their relatively simple, explicit, and intuitive classification structure. In this paper, the Standard Decision Tree algorithms used for Land Cover and Land Use mapping was evaluated and compared using satellite data. Here multi-spectral IRS-1D/LISS III image of Heggadadevanakote taluk was used as an experimental data. Classification rules were derived from the spectral image using J48, BFTree, REPTree and Simple Cart algorithms with the same set of training samples. Classification done by using these rules is known as knowledge based classification and the results of these classifiers were compared and evaluated based on True Positive, False Positive, Prediction Accuracy and Learning Time metrics. Among these, J48 performed the best in all aspects and had a Prediction accuracy of 97.34% and Kappa statistics of 0.9685. Further the Decision Tree classified image generated using the J48 algorithm based rules produced an overall accuracy of 87.11% and kappa of 0.8515.

  14. Florence Kanorio Kisirkoi and Kadenyi Misia Anne

    Education is the chief determinant of social, political and economic development of a country. Achievement of the Kenya Vision 2030 relies on teacher quality. Teacher quality is critical in determining quality of education of any country and research shows that good teaching matters. In countries like Israel, a teacher must be a holder of a post graduate degree and then train to teach in their area of interest. This paper seeks to answer the research question: Is Kenya developing teachers for the 21st century? The methodology employed was document analysis. Literature on what constitutes a profession was explored; teacher quality and teacher classroom practice in Kenya were reviewed. The findings revealed that the quality of teacher training is considered poor owing to low entry requirement into teacher training institutions, observed transmission approach in classroom teaching, and general perception about the teaching career. It was concluded that Kenya needs to enhance teacher quality. Teachers of all levels should hold at least a first degree and should have chosen teaching as their first choice. In addition, teacher training should be improved.

  15. Dr. Bhuputra Panda and Abhimanyu Singh Chauhan

    HIV/AIDS, since from the time of its first detection, has a medical issue with both social and legal dimensions attached to it. Paper highlighted few dimensions such as compulsory treatment and testing; drug dependents; protection of confidentiality and privacy of clients; right to seek treatment; right against discrimination at the work place; right to marry and right against disclosure to the spouse/sexual partner. In view of the existing socio-demographic barriers to effective prevention of HIV, and medical limitations in curing HIV-AIDS cases, paper also advocates the need of an inclusive legislation framework that could integrate all issues concerning HIV and AIDS.

  16. Prof. Dr. P. K. Srimani and Mrs. Kumudavalli M.V

    The recent challenges in computational biology are pertaining to Sequence Analysis and various tools related to it. Sequences are to be aligned before they are used for any other purpose like constructing the evolutionary or Phylogenetic trees. These trees predict the evolutionary relationship among various biological species or other entities based upon similarities and differences in their physical and/or genetic characteristics. The aligned sequences are helpful to know the unknown families from a known sequence structure and also for drug analysis. The present study aims at giving an insight about how to use the tools related to alignment and tree construction to study the evolutionary details of DNA and Protein sequences.

  17. T. Muthukumar, M. Sirajudeen, S. Tamilenthi

    The global financial crisis is an outcome of deep economic recession which generally refers to business cycle contraction and slowdown activity over a long period of time. It is a situation where macro indicator like gross domestic product, employment, capital utilization, household incomes and business profit fall and bankruptcies and unemployment rates are rise. Global Financial Crisis is among the greatest financial challenges to the world economy which is originated in United States of America. The global economic slowdown is unprecedented in scale and has severe implications on policy formulation among emerging market. Currently India has one of the largest Developing countries in the world. Strong economic growth in the last decade combined with a population of over a billion makes it one of the potentially largest markets in the future. This paper provides an overview of global financial crisis (GFC) and its impact on the Indian Economy.

  18. R.U. Pathan and S.V. Agarkar

    Cinnamamides has a great era of its applications in medicinal as well as pharmaceutical fields. Several cinnamamides were isolated from plants and many of them are prepared in laboratory by different routes. In the present study different cinnamamides were synthesized by convenient witting reaction pathway. And resulting products were screened for possible antimicrobial activities.

  19. Vijay S. Yeul and Sadhana S. Rayalu

    The present study reports the first time and novel synthetic methodology for halogenation & C-N bond formation reactions in the backbone of D-Glucose. The key steps include chlorination and amination of glucose. The synthesized products are designated as Glucose chloride & Synthesized Chitosan respectively. Synthesized Chitosan resembles with the unit structure of Chitosan i.e. Oligomeric Chitosan and it is water soluble. FTIR spectrum of D-Glucose the characteristic broad peak at 3350cm-1 for stretching of hydroxyl (–OH–) group has disappeared in halogenation reaction showing the substitution of chloride & having characteristic sharp peak at 3150cm-1 for stretching of Amine (–NH2–) group indicating replacement of chloride group with amine. The synthesis was completely characterized by FT-IR, C H N S analysis, 1H NMR, 13C NMR, DEPT 135 NMR, XRD and GC-MS.

  20. Ramkiran, B., Dr. Prashant Baredar and Dr. Anil Kumar

    Drinking water is the essential need for human beings, but most of the land mass is occupied by sea water which is salty in nature and contains lot of contaminants which must be purified in order for it to be consumable by living beings. There is huge scarcity for energy for purification of water and energy demands of human beings are ever increasing. In this scenario for day to day requirements energy is required for water purification, so powering a reverse osmosis system using renewable energy for producing fresh water is being considered as a viable option to meet such requirements. The techno economic evaluation of the small size reverse osmosis system has been presented in the following paper. All the renewable energies originate from Solar Energy, and the efficiency of Solar PV system is high when compared to other technologies, hence Solar PV technology in conjunction with reverse osmosis was considered the best option. In the present paper taking the climatic conditions of Bhopal in Central India, technical potential of such a project has been presented. HOMER software has been used to calculate the net present or Life cycle costs of the system and the comparison of all the costs has been presented. There is an additional advantage of using Renewable energy especially solar energy that the Carbon emissions can be reduced. Due to the increasing awareness among the countries to reduce the Carbon emissions, hence these technologies can earn carbon credits which are valuable assets for developing countries such as India. The results obtained clearly showed that even though the capital costs of a Solar PV system may be high but in the long run, it will give huge benefits. Due to the National Solar Mission, there is huge subsidies being provided for such systems, hence the entire future lies in harnessing these technologies.

  21. Arun, S. and Juliet Mercy, S.

    A joint design of sphere decoding and synchronization algorithms for multiple-input–multiple-output (MIMO) orthogonal frequency-division multiplexing (OFDM) systems with progressive parallel inter-carrier interference canceller (PPIC) based on factor graph based soft self-iterative equalization in wireless multipath channels for high speed wireless transmission is proposed. This algorithm can suppress inter-antenna interferences and cancel inter-carrier interferences iteratively and progressively. With a proper designed message passing schedule and random interleaver, the short cycle problem is solved. The proposed PPIC is superior to PIC both in computational complexity and system architecture. It is very suitable for VLSI implementation and it is a potential candidate for data detection/decoding in future high data rate, and high mobility, We consider the performance analysis and design optimization of low density parity check (LDPC) coded multipleinput- multiple-output (MIMO) orthogonal frequency-division multiplexing (OFDM) systems for high speed wireless transmission.

  22. Vijay Kumar, Anuj Tyagi and P. P. Pathak

    Many recent studies have indicated that non-ionizing electromagnetic fields have an adverse health effects on human beings. This study evaluated the effects of low frequency electromagnetic field (LF - EMF) which is radiated by CRT TV/PC screen on blood cell of human beings. The data of incident fields are estimated by the magnetic fields which have been experimentally observed by W.T Kaune et al., (2000) and penetrated electric field & current density inside the blood cells are calculated. The estimated data are compared with the safety guidelines of different international agencies like International Commission of Non Ionizing Radiation Protection (ICNIRP) and World Health Organization (WHO). It is found that 50 cm distance and 90 cm height of CRT TV/PC screen is harmful for the life of blood tissues.

  23. V. Pushpa Rani and D. Sudarsanam

    Breast cancer is a very heterogeneous disease that is characterized by a number of histopathological subtypes. The major histological types of breast cancer were estimated. The 180 samples were analysed. The majority of breast carcinomas fall into the category ductal carcinoma (39%) and Tubular Carcinoma (23%) followed, and by Infiltrating Lobular Carcinoma (9%), Medullary Carcinoma (8%), Inflammatory Carcinoma (8.5%) and Pagets (6%). The histopatholgical showed breast cancer are mostly ductal carcinoma and tubular carcinoma.

  24. Sarangarajan, V and Tamilenthi, S

    The service sector plays a vital role in an economy and in shaping its future. The economies of the world are now dominated by services, which account for nearly two-thirds of the GDP and employment. The aim of the study is to identity the mediating factor which influences the service quality in the hotel industry in Kerala. Primary data has been used in this research to collect the information from the respondents for that the author has framed the structured questionnaire, addition to the questionnaire, discussion with the guest and General Manager has been made. Structural equation modeling (SEM) analysis has employed to tests the hypotheses. In according the evaluation process used by guest to assess service quality the author concludes that service quality may be defined as the discrepancy between guests’ expectations and perceptions. If the expectations are met service quality is perceived to be satisfactory; if unmet, less than satisfactory; if exceeded, more than satisfactory. In this research the expectations of the guest are in the satisfactory level. The author concludes that the Responsiveness is a mediating factor which determines service Quality.

  25. Kiruthika Lakshmi, P., Srisudha, S. and Gunasekaran, P.

    Cyanobacteria belonging to Nostocales family are a highly diverse group in relation to form, function, and habitat. Current cyanobacterial systematics relies on the observation of flexible morphological characters. Accurate and reliable delineation of Nostoc sp. has not been possible by traditional methods. Phylogenetic studies of Nostoc sp. based on morphological and physiological observations have demonstrated the conflicts in identification and genetic relationships among the Nostocacean strains. Therefore, supplementary genetic information should be incorporated to give a polyphasic classification system for the order Nostocales. In the view of above, the current investigation on the molecular and phylogenetic characterization of three species of the genus Nostoc based on cpcB-IGS-cpcA locus of the phycocyanin operon was carried out. The phylogenetic position of these species within order Nostocales had been determined. The results indicated that genus Nostoc is heterogeneous. Analysis of the IGS region between cpcB and cpcA showed that Nostoc and Anabaena are distinct genera, while the taxonomic status of the genera is still unclear. These data indicated that additional analyses and revision of the taxonomic position of Anabaena, Anabaenopsis and Nostoc species within Nostocales are required.

  26. Y. Jayamma, Gopal M. Advirao and Laxmi S. Inamdar (Doddamani)

    In the past decades, the therapeutic use of anabolic androgenic steroids (AAS) has been overshadowed by illicit abuse of these drugs by athletes and non-athletes. Consequently AAS can have adverse effect like coronary heart diseases, reproductive and endocrine disturbances. The present investigation was undertaken to determine the efficacy of one of the AASs stanozolol on the maintenance of pregnancy in Swiss albino mice. Normal pregnant mice were assigned to three experimental groups. Two groups received stanozolol through sc. (0.5mg/kg bwt/day in 3% alcohol) from day 8 through 14 or 19 of pregnancy. Control animals received vehicle alone (3% alcohol). The results revealed that treatment of stanozolol is not able to maintain gestation to full term, resulting in partial fetal resorption with many placentomas, placental scars and no viable fetuses indicate the functional failure of corpus luteum. Histomorphology and differential follicular count revealed a noticeable decrease in secondary and antral follicles, increase in atretic follicles and an insignificant reduction in the number of corpora lutea in both treatment groups. It is concluded that stanozolol interrupts pregnancy and its effect may be mediated through reduction in the developing follicles and principally due to the deficiency of luteal hormones.

  27. Ruma Banerjee and Apurba Ratan Ghosh

    The river Damodar is subjected to a varying degree of pollution, caused by numerous outfalls of municipal and industrial effluents and by other activities. Clean water is essential to human survival as well as to the aquatic life. The study was conducted at twenty water quality monitoring stations in premonsoon, monsoon and postmonsoon seasons to assess the limnological characteristic of the river Damodar. Water pollution is one of the major problems in developing countries like India and the major river is subjected to various forms of pollution with regular decline in water quality. The life of aquatic organism depends directly on limnological characteristic of aquatic environment. The changes in limnological composition may leads to river water pollution. The seasonal data shows the range of a minimum concentration of most of the ionic particles in postmonsoon and a maximum concentration in premonsoon season, reflecting the concentrating effects. The major factors that decides the quality of the water in the study area is agricultural activities near the river downstream zone and also mining as well as industrial activities at the upstream zone of the river. The results of physicochemical parameters depict high mean values of alkalinity (304 mg/l), pH (8.3), sulphate (57.06 mg/l), phosphate (0.438 mg/l ), nitrate (2.69 mg/l). High values of alkalinity, hardness, COD and chlorides indicate the pollution of reverine ecosystem due to domestic waste, municipal sewage, industrial effluents, organic matter and agricultural runoff.

  28. Santosh Kumar S. R., Krishna V., Venkatesh, Pradeepa K., Gnanesh U.A., Girish kumar K.

    An in vitro protocol was developed for multiple shoot induction via indirect organogenesis from the mature stem explants of Caesalpinia bonduc (L.) Roxb (Caesalpinaceae), a scrambling woody liana and medicinal plant. Callus was initiated from stem explants 15 days after inoculation, when 2, 4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2, 4-D) was used alone at 0.25 to 3 mgL-1 on Murashige and Skoog (MS) medium. After 20-25 days on the same medium callus formation and shoot bud differentiation was noticed from the entire surface of explants .Callus induction was optimized at 2 mgL-1 2,4-D and 0. 2 mgL-1 6-benzyladenine (BA) in 96.66% of all explants. After culturing callus for 15 days on MS medium with 1-6 mgL-1 BA and 0.1–1 mgL-1 indole-3-butyric acid (IBA), small green protuberances formed over the entire surface of the callus which later developed into small shoots. 4 mgL-1 BA with 0.5 mgL-1 IBA was the optimal hormonal combination for multiple shoot organogenesis with a mean of 36.6 ± 1.17 shoots/explant and a mean shoot length of 7.09 ± 0.23 per callus-forming explant. Rooting of the small shoots was achieved on MS medium fortified with 0.2-2.0 mgL-1 IBA and optimized with 0.6 IBA mgL-1. Roots formed from the base of shoots after 3 weeks of culture and 80% of the regenerants could be acclimatized.

  29. Sankara Rao Karri and Pinaki Acharyya

    Okra or bhindi [ Abelmoschus esculentus (L.) Moench ] is an important Vegetable crop in the tropics and the subtropics. The Okra crop is very susceptible to white fly (Bemisia tabaci Genn.) transmitted yellow vein mosaic virus causing heavy losses by infecting at all the stages of plant growth. In India, occurrence of this disease was first reported by Kulkarni (1924) in Bombay province. It has been reported that when plants were infected within 20 days after germination, the losses can be up to 98 percent. Similarly, when plants were infected at 35 and 50 days after germination, the loss in yield was 83 and 49 percent respectively (Sastry and Singh, 1975). Infection of Y.V.M.V. under natural field conditions depends on the environmental parameters, crop characteristics and efficient vector population (Khan & Mukhopadhyay, 1986; Bhagabati and Goswami, 1992). Susceptibility of cultivars encourages its incidence in the field in presence of the active vectors. Considering it as one of the major constraints of Okra cultivation, it is essential to gather basic information to understand the nature of infection, source and gradual increase with the increase of plant age survival capacity of the virus and mode of spread among different varieties in a cropping season.

  30. Venkatesh, Krishna V., Girish Kumar K., Pradeepa K., Santosh Kumar S. R and Gnanesh A. U.

    Indirect organogenesis protocol was developed for high frequency shoot induction from leaf sheath disc callus of Musa paradisiaca cv. Puttabale (AB genome) an indigenous banana variety cultivated in Malnad region of the Western Ghats, Karnataka, India, which is known for its delicious taste and flavor but highly prone to disease and pests. The best callogenic frequency (97.5%) was observed on Murashige and Skoog (MS) basal nutrients augmented with 160 mg/l Adenine sulfate, 100 mg/l Tyrosine and growth regulators at the concentration of 4 mg/l 2, 4 Dichlorophenyloxy acetic acid (2, 4-D) and 1 mg/l 6-Furfurylaminopurine (Kn). High frequency of shoot bud organogenesis (22.80 ± 2.57) was observed at the concentration of 0.3 mg/l Thidiazuron (TDZ) and 4 mg/l 6-Benzylaminopurine (BAP). The multiple shoots developed into rooted plantlets on MS media fortified with 0.5 mg/l Naphthalene acetic acid (NAA) and 0.2% activated charcoal. The leaf calli regenerants were successfully acclimatized in the greenhouse and transformed to the farmland. Morphoagronomic evaluation of the regenerants in the farmyard showed elite characteristics in plant height, pseudostem perimeter, number of hands, number of total fingers and total weight of bunches than the in vivo plants.

  31. V. Duvin Harvi and D. Victor Arokia Doss

    In the present work, the hypolipidemic activity of the Apium graveolens and Cymbopogan flexuosus was evaluated. It showed significant decrease in the levels of serum Total cholesterol (TC), Triglycerides (TG), Low density lipoprotein (LDL), Very low density lipoprotein (VLDL) and significant increase in the level of High density lipoprotein (HDL) when administered orally for 28 days to streptozotocin induced hyperlipidemic rats at a dose of 200, 400, 600 mg/kg. As Apium graveolens and Cymbopogan flexuosus have hypolipidemic activity, these plants can be used as potential medicine for cardiovascular diseases.

  32. Dangwal, L.R., Tajinder Singh, Amandeep Singh and Antima Sharma

    The present communication pertains to the species composition, regeneration status and distribution pattern of woody plants along an altitudinal gradient in the forest of Nowshera block, District Rajouri (J&K). The whole area is divided into two sites (S1&S2) based on altitudes (S1 from 500-750 and S2 from 750-1000m asl).The study was carried out in Northern and Southern aspects of both the sites. A total of 41 woody plants were reported from the study area, out of which 29 were trees and 12 were shrubs. A comparatively higher number of trees and shrubs were reported from Northern aspect of both the sites as compared to Southern aspect. Pinus roxburghii was dominant among tree species in both the sites and aspects having an IVI which ranges from 93.17to 248.57 and Carissa spinarum among shrubs having IVI ranges from 94.10 to 162.13. The data shows heavy deforestation and overgrazing.

  33. Emily C. Cheshari Vincent Sudoi Ward J. Mavura John K. Wanyoko

    Kenya is a one of the major tea-producers of tea in the world .The tea is grown in the highland areas with adequate rainfall and low temperatures. The main tea-growing area is in the Kenyan Highlands, west and east of the Rift Valley, at altitudes between 1800M m. a. s. l. and 2400M m. a. s. l. Tea is a major foreign exchange earner, and the main source for 17 to 20 percent of Kenya's total export revenue. Pests are responsible for yield losses up to 30% in tea world wide. In Kenya pests especially mite pests cause appreciable losses especially during dry period. The most common pests include mite pests, weevils, aphids and mosquito bugs (Helopeltis sp.). A number of pesticides have been tested for their efficacy in controlling these pests. Any chemical used to control pests in tea should not contaminate the final product the made tea. Any residues in the product should comply with international standards on the Maximum residue Limits (MRLs). The current study was carried out in order to establish residue levels of Pyrethrins in fresh tea leaves, black tea and brewed tea after foliar application. The study monitored the decline of pesticide residues under normal harvest time intervals and also evaluated the effect of tea manufacturing process on the Pyrethrin residue levels in black tea. Tea samples were collected by picking two leaves and a bud at various pre-harvest intervals after application of the pesticide Pyagro 4%EC at maximum proposed application rates. Results show that the levels of the pesticide residues decreased with increase in the pre-harvest interval in days. The results reveal that residues found in samples collected on the first day after application contain the highest residue levels and those collected fourteen days after application contained the lowest residue levels. The processing and brewing of tea appear to lower the residues of Pyrethrins (Pyagro) significantly. The residue levels from the study are lower than the maximum residue levels (MRLs) allowed within the European Union. Therefore, if Pyagro 4% EC pesticide is used according to the established pattern for control of tea pests it will pose no risk to the consumers of tea.

  34. Kanchana Mala, P., Srisudha, S. and Gunasekaran, P.

    Sub-chronic exposure of Tilapia (Oreochromis mosambicus) to Anabeanopsis abijatae, a toxic cyanobacterium was investigated with emphasis on the biochemical indices and histopathology (liver and gill). A single dose of two different concentrations (100μg/kg and 200μg/kg) of extracted toxins were intraperitoneally injected in Tilapia. Serum biochemical assays with commercial kits (Liquid Gold reagents) indicated that the levels of glucose, cholesterol, bilirubin, triglycerides and the activities of alanine aminotransferase (ALT), alkaline phosphatase (ALP) and aspartate aminotransferase (AST) were significantly increased as compared to the control levels. Histopathology of liver revealed congestion of parenchymatic cells with hepatic necrosis and vacuolation of cartilage with inflammatory cell infiltration was observed in gills.

  35. Ajit Singh and J.S. Laura

    Physico-chemical properties and phytoplankton density was estimated in Tilyar Lake (28º 52’ 52.77” N and 76º 38’ 12.05” E.), Rohtak (Haryana) India. Different water quality parameters (pH, Temperature, DO, BOD, COD, Total Alkalinity, Total Hardness, Calcium Hardness, Magnesium Hardness, Acidity, CO2, TDS, TSS, Chloride, Total Kjeldal Nitrogen, Sulphate, phosphate, Net Primary Productivity and Phytoplankton Density) were estimated form January 2010 to December 2010 from three sampling stations sited in lake. The physico-chemical parameters have exhibited considerable variation during the study as pH (8.75-9.24), Temperature (13.50-32.67°C), DO (1.80-5.13), BOD (0.73-2.10), COD (18.47-62.67 mg/l), Total Alkalinity (85.33-106.67 mg/l), Total Hardness (84-104.67 mg/l), Calcium Harness (58.20-72.47 mg/l), Magnesium Hardness (5.69-8.94 mg/l), Acidity (1.80-6.67 mg/l), Free CO2 (0-3.93 mg/l), Chloride (10.37-20.87 mg/l), TDS (99.33-122.33 mg/l), TSS (28.67-60.67 mg/l), TKN (70.17-95 mg/l), Sulphate (0.95-1.55 mg/l), Phosphate (0.02-0.10 mg/l), Primary Productivity (2.13-3.70 mg/l) and Phytoplankton Density (36-68 mg/l). Due to low dissolved oxygen concentration and low primary productivity the ecological balance in the lake was observed very fragile. Statistically phytoplankton density was found significantly correlated with pH, magnesium hardness and total nitrogen (P= 0.05) and with total alkalinity, total hardness, calcium hardness, total dissolved solids and net primary productivity (P= 0.01).

  36. Bilal Ahmad Bhat and G. A. Bhat

    Survey of avifauna of Yusmarg forest in Budgam (J&K), India was conducted using Line transect method from May 2010 to May 2011. A total of 43 species belonging to 6 orders, 18 families and 31 genera were recorded. The spatial distribution, diversity, and abundance of birds were worked out. The diversity varied with season and maximum number of species were found during summer season when most of the birds migrated for breeding. Among bird species, adopted to diverse habitats in the forest were Corves macrorhynchos, Aridothres tristis tristis and Columba livia. Human related impacts such as grazing by livestock, clearing of bushes for fuel purposes and rampant deforestration of the Yusmarg forest were also studied.

  37. A.M. Jakkulwar and V. S. Wadhai

    Roots of Chlorophytum borivilianum (safed musli) were regenerated by taking explants from isolated field grow mature plants. Two types explants stem disc and shoot base were used in the micropropagation. This was achieved by culturing on MS solid medium with and without harmones. Both leaf base and tuber explants gave very poor response. MS medium containing 3mg/l NAA gave more number of roots. The root proliferation was observed on full strength of MS medium after inoculation with the increasing concentration (1 to 3 mg/ml) for Indole acetic acid (IAA) at 1mg/l and Napthaline acetic acid (NAA) at 3mg/l. Micropropagation is to be the effective method compared with other methods of multiplication. This protocol can be used to generate cost-effective protocol for large scale in vitro cultivation of safed musli.

  38. Mansour Rym, Ezzili Bechir, Mhenni Farouk

    Grape pomace, which is winery waste, has been studied and experimented to serve as sources for natural dyes in textile dyeing operations. The water: ethanol mixture of 90:10 (v/v) is used for extraction of anthocyanin at 40ºC from different Tunisian grape varieties. The anthocyanins amount varies from 100 mg to 3200 mg per kilogram of grape pomace variety. The extract has been used for dyeing wool fabrics. This study will tackle exhaustively the following points: the effects of some parameters such as temperature, pH, salt addition and the number of dyeing bath reuse, on wool dyeing with the grape pomace extract. Besides, tannic acid was used to improve dye fastness proprieties.

  39. Sinosh Skariyachan Navya Bharadwaj and Nisha Prakash

    The outbreak of shigellosis, caused by a gram negative enteric pathogen-Shigella sonnei, has become a serious issue worldwide. IpgB1 is one of the major proteins involved in type III secretary pathway of the bacteria which mimics the role of Rho-G in membrane ruffling and the simulation of Rac-1. This condition leads to shigellosis and IpgB1 act as a key virulent factor. The infection usually treated by antibiotics; however, most of the strains acquired multiple drug resistance. Hence, there is a demand for alternative therapeutic agents. Computer aided screening is a modern approach to design next generation medicines. But the 3D structure of the protein is not available in native form which is essential for structure based drug designing. Hence, a 3D model of IpgB1 was generated by homology modeling. The model was refined and validated by various bioinformatics tools. The Ramachandran plot of the model accounts for 92.9% of the modeled residues are in allowed region. The model was used as a probable drug target and the inhibitory properties of selected ligands were studied by molecular docking. The binding efficiencies of known drugs were compared against selected herbal compounds. Herbal leads such as Andrographolide, Cryptolepine and Esculetin (docking binding energy -8.15 kcal/mol, -7.15kcal/mol and -6.79 kcal/mol respectively) were identified as the best inhibitors with minimum binding energies and good pharmacological properties than known chemotherapeutic agents. Present study finds significant application to design novel therapeutics against IpgB1mediated shigellosis

  40. Okon, O. E., Arong, G. A., Gbonhinbor, J., Etim, S. E., and Umeche, N

    Pulmonary tuberculosis (TB) is a common deadly infectious disease caused by Mycobacteria mainly Mycobacterium tuberculosis. The human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) depletes the T-helper cells, reduces the patients immunity and subsequently exposes the patients to opportunistic infection like Tuberculosis. A total of 284 (152 males and 132 females) patients were randomly selected from the Infectious Disease Hospital, Calabar, Nigeria and examined for the prevalence of tuberculosis (TB) in association with Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) from June 2008 to December 2008 using Zeihl Neelson (ZN) acid fast bacilli method. The total percentage prevalence of TB reported was 114 (40.14%) and HIV only was 137 (48.24%) while a total of 77 (27.11%) prevalence was reported for both TB and HIV occurring concurrently. Prevalence was higher in 20 – 39 years age range than other age groups. Inspite of the concerted efforts in the control of HIV and TB by Government and Non-Governmental Agencies, the present study indicated that these infections are still very prevalent in Nigeria. However, since HIV predisposes victims to other infections like TB, it is pertinent that more efforts should be intensified in the control of HIV in Nigeria.

  41. Navodita G. Maurice1, Ashwani Kumar and P.W.Ramteke

    Food plays very indispensable role in the development of an organism as it provides energy to cart out daily activities. Ladybird beetles are commonly known as the Farmer’s Friends as they are known to feed on a wide variety of insect pests. According to their feeding habits they can be classified into different types viz., aphidophagous, feeding on aphids, coccidophagaous, feeding on coccids and phytophagous feeding on plants. Cheilomenes sexmaculata Fabricius and Coccinella septempunctata Linnaeus are the most popular aphidophagous ladybird beetles of the Indian region. Apart from feeding on aphids both of them are also known to feed upon psyllids, white flies, mealybugs, tingids, leaf and plant hoppers, mites and early instar lepidopteran larvae. Our study deals with the survival of C. sexmaculata and C. septempunctata on eight species of aphids as well as on honey and mealy bugs when provided as alternative foods under aphid scare conditions.

  42. Arong, G. A., Okon, O. E., Obhiokhenan, A. A., Esekhagbe, O. R, Okorafor, K. A. and Emevatha, O.

    Ticks infestation is highly significant in the provision of meat, milk and other animal products. The infestation rate and predilection sites of 50 each of cattles and dogs was studied in relation to age and sex between June and December, 2011. Boophilus decoloratus, Rhipicephalus annulatus, Rhipicephalus appendiculatus, Rhipicephalus sanguineus, Rhipicephalus microplus and Haemopysalis leachi were species of ticks identified. Although dogs and cattles were both infested, tick infestation was significantly higher (P<0.05) in cattles (74.3%) compared to dogs (25.66%). The dorminant species of ticks in cattles was Boophilus decoloratus (37.8%) while dogs had Rhipicephalus sanguineus (53.8%). Infestation in cattles was highest at the Groin (8.6 ± 0.31) and least on the face and neck regions (2.84 ± 0.026) while in dogs infestation was highest in the ears (2.96 ± 0.19) and least on the head, face and neck regions (1.24 ± 0.11). Prevalence of ticks infestation was highest in female cattles (59.1%) than in males (40.9%) and in dogs tick infestation was significantly (P<0.05) higher in the female dogs (60.2%) than in males (39.8%). Infestation was higher in younger dogs (58.8%) than in adult dogs (41.5%). The Findings of this study is important in planning the control strategy of ticks in Calabar.

  43. Maxime Machioud SANGARE; Jean Robert KLOTOE; Victorien DOUGNON; Jean-Marc ATEGBO; Anatole LALEYE; Patrick EDORH; Lauris FAH; Maximin SENOU; Frédéric LOKO; Karim Laye DRAMANE

    Gomphrena celosioides is a plant used in traditional medicine for treating liver diseases. Tetrachloride Carbon (CCl4) was used to induce liver toxicity on rats. This hepatotoxicity caused a significant rise in liver enzymes, bilirubin and liver cell damage. The different treatments with aqueous extract of Gomphrena celosioides (EAG) at a dose of 500 mg / kg of body weight (BW) and silymarin (SIL) recognized for its hepatotoxic properties at a dose of 300 mg / kg BW decreased levels of these parameters and repaired liver damage. Preventive treatment of animals with EAG and SIL have decreased the rate of serum transaminases, alkaline phosphatase and bilirubin with a yield of 65.06% for EAG and 78.34% for SIL about alanine amino transferase (ALT). Curative treatment of animals with EAG and SIL have a yield of 56.35% to 70.45% against the EAG to SIL about the ALT. Hepatoprotective activity of EAG is more protective than curative and is comparable to SIL’s activity. Possible mechanisms for this activity may be due to the action of antioxidants in flavonoids, present in the EAG.

  44. Pushpa Rani, V

    Hematology diagnostics is growing increasingly important as one of the most fundamental types of clinical testing. The haemotological parameters namely Mean corpuscular, Mean corpuscular haemoglobin, Mean corpuscular haemoglobin concentration, Haemotocrit, Haemoglobin, Red blood corpuscles, Red cell distribution, Erythrocytes and Monocyte are decreased when compare to control but Platelet, Mean platelet volume, Total white blood corpuscular and Lymphocyte count are decreased among the three groups of cancer patients. The present study confirmed a significant difference at 5% level (p-value > 0.01 & < 0.05) for the three age groups.

  45. Agbabiaka, L.A., Eke. L.O, Nwankwo. F. C. and Ojukannaiye A. S.

    A week study was conducted on the efficacy of brine pre-treatment on Clarias gariepinus smoked with Dialium guineensis using storage quality and nutrient assay as parameters. A total of 20 specimens of C. gariepinus with mean body weight of 475 + 25g were divided into two groups of ten; one group was immersed in 10% brine solution while the other group was unsalted. They were smoked with Dialium guineensis for 4 hours, withdrawn and kept at room temperature for one week. Proximate analyses of the two treatments revealed no significant difference (P > 0.05). There was an observed increase in values of all the nutrients in the salted smoked samples , similar trend was reported in organoleptic tests which also indicated that there were no significant differences (P > 0.05) among the sensory parameters such as texture, test, colour and flavor among the treatments.This experiment has shown that salt pre-treatment has little or no effect on nutrient assay but slightly improved the taste and flavor of the smoked products (P> 0.05).

  46. P.G.Sow, M. Coume, A. Gaye P. NDiaye and I .Traore

    Conflicting reports on levels of markers of iron metabolism in HIV infections necessitated the need to investigate the risks of iron mediated severity in HIV- 1 infected Senegalese patients. Eighty untreated HIV-1 positive clients and 50 sero-negative controls were recruited and their serum total iron, transferrin saturation, total iron binding capacity, CD4+ T lymphocytes, vitamin c, zinc and selenium were estimated. The CD+4 T lymphocytes counts in our test subjects were significantly lower than those of the controls while the serum iron, total iron binding capacity and transferrin saturation were significantly higher in tests than controls (P < 0.001). Furthermore, there were significant differences between the test and control groups in the three antioxidants studied vas vitamin C, zinc and selenium (p < 0.001). The CD4+ T cell count had a positive significant correlation with the levels of antioxidants; vitamin C, zinc and selenium, but a negative correlation with serum iron. We conclude that derangement in iron metabolism, in addition to causing oxidative stress, may have contributed to the depletion of CD4+ T cell population in our subjects. Metabolic acidosis and serum iron level should be addressed in the management of HIV-1 infection and antioxidant support instituted.





Rosane Cavalcante Fragoso, Brasil


Chief Scientific Officer and Head of a Research Group

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Luai Farhan Zghair
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