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April 2014

  1. Prof. Kameswara Rao Poranki and Dr. Abdulbaset Hasouneh

    It was found that the world wide annual expenditures for cosmetics is estimated at U.S.$18 billion, and many players in the field are competing aggressively to capture more market share. Hence, companies are interested to know about consumer’s preferences towards cosmetics so as to devise strategies to win over competition. The main purpose of this research paper is to investigate the influence of preferences on cosmetics buying behavior especially men's deodorants like the factors those influence the consumer choice and to identifies the most popular deodorant brand. Also to examine the level of awareness of brands available. We have conducted research to know the factors for retailers preferences also. Originality/value: This research paper brings out unique factors of consumer preferences towards deodorants in the Saudi Market, particularly in the Al Baha region. This research paper has reviewed suitable literature within a customized research to garner the preferences of both the consumers as well as the retailers. We have used two different questionnaires used in this market.

  2. Sindhu, Harish,Jyothi MP D’souza, Neevan D’souza and Vinitha Ramanath Pai

    Background: Coronary artery disease (CAD) patients scheduled for coronary artery bypass grafting (OPCABG) would represent the ideal situation to evaluate the potential injury induced by oxidative stress during ischemia and subsequent reperfusion. This study aims to compare markers of protein oxidation and antioxidants in serum of low risk and high risk patients, before and after undergoing OPCABG. Methods: CAD patients scheduled for OPCABG - Group I: low risk patients (n=50) with ejection fraction > 40%, and group II : high risk patients (n=50) ejection fraction < 40% were included in the study. The mean values of the pre-operative and 24 hours post-operative levels of serum protein oxidation markers (advanced oxidative protein products, protein carbonyl) and antidoxidant parameters (total thiols, total antioxidant activity, total protein and albumin) were compared using ANOVA. Results: In both groups, the post-operative levels of protein oxidation markers were significantly increased (pre-operative vs post-operative p<0.01), while the post-operative levels of the antioxidants parameters were significantly decreased (p <0.01) respectively. In each study group the post-operative levels of the protein oxidation markers were significantly higher than the pre-operative levels (low risk vs high risk group, pre-operative p<0.01, post operative p<0.01), with the antioxidants levels being significantly lower in the high risk group than in low risk group (low risk vs high risk group, pre-operative p<0.01, post operative p<0.01). Conclusion: In patients undergoing OPCABG, the post-operative alterations in oxidative stress and antioxidants is suggestive of a need for similar vigilant clinical observation in both low and high risk groups to prevent post-operative complications.

  3. Prakash Rathod, Nishikant Gujar, Ishwar Hosmani and Sachin D. M.

    Background: Patients with chronic abdominal pain can undergo numerous diagnostic tests with little change in their pain. This study was under taken to assess the efficacy of performing diagnostic and therapeutic laparoscopy in patients with chronic abdominal pain for longer than 3 months Methods: All patients undergoing laparoscopy for chronic abdominal pain were included in the study from Nov. 2008 to Oct. 2009. The patient’s demographic data, duration of pain, diagnostic studies, intraoperative findings, interventions and follow-up were determined. Results: A total of 25 patients (19 women and 6 men) with an average age of 34.64yrs underwent diagnostic laparoscopy for the evaluation and treatment of chronic abdominal pain. Average duration of pain was 32.96 weeks. Findings included abdominal Koch's in 9, appendicitis in 8, cholecystitis in 1, cirrhosis in1, ovarian cyst in 1, bilateral fimbrial cyst in 1 and 4 patients had no obvious pathology. 82.6% of patients had pain relief at the time of follow up. Conclusion: laparoscopy has a diagnostic and therapeutic role in patients with chronic pain abdomen.

  4. Shweta Subramaniam, Sandeep Kaushik, Ashish Kumar Choudhary, Anand Kumar Pushker, Ruchitra Gupta, Suresh Kumar

    Ex situ conservation, the protection of organism outside of their native habitats is an important strategy towards reaching the goal of biodiversity conservation. Amongst the various approaches of ex situ conservation botanical gardens hold an important position. With an inherent objectivity of conservation they are important ingredient of research and education. Since the mid-1970s public gardens world- wide has been active in the development of plant conservation programs often involving the cultivation and long-term maintenance of plants or populations of threatened species. Botanical gardens collectively exhibit an extremely diverse world flora. This article attempts to illustrate the importance of botanical gardens in the conservation of plant diversity along with the associated educational and research benefits, taking into account the flora of Botanical garden, situated at University of Delhi, Delhi, India.

  5. Shanthi, G. and Rajarajan, S.

    Dengue fever has become a global concern and can lead to a severe life threatening illness. The development of dengue vaccines is complicated by the antibody dependent enhancement effect. Thus the development of a plant based antiviral preparation promises a more potential alternative in combating dengue disease. The present study investigated the antiviral effects of standardized lyophilized aqueous, aqueous-ethanolic and ethanolic extracts of Azhadirachta indica and Quercus lusitanica on Dengue 1 & 3 strains in Vero cell line and compared with known antiviral drug Ribavirin. The antiviral activity of lyophilized aqueous extract of Azhadirachta indica showed better activity for Dengue 1 & 3 at a Maximum nontoxic dose concentration of 500µg/ml and the ethanolic extracts are partially inhibited at the concentration of 500µg/ml to dengue 1 but not in dengue 3. Whereas the aqueous-ethanolic extract of neem and three extracts of Quercus lusitanica did not show any inhibition on dengue 1 & 3. The antiviral activity of Ribavirin exhibited 15.6µg/ml & 7.5µg/ml for dengue 1 & 3 respectively. These data suggest that the lyophilized aqueous extracts of Azhadirachta indica possess the ability of inhibiting the activity of Dengue 1 & 3 by in vitro assays. This plant is worth to be further investigated and might be advantageous as an alternative drug for dengue treatment.

  6. Laskar, Kowser Alam, Das, Ajit Kumar and Dutta, Biman Kumar

    The present paper documents the wealth of medicinal plant species used by the Halam tribes of Karimganj district for various hepato-protective and other related disorders. A field study carried out by interviewing the traditional herbalists and several other elderly man and women. In the earlier days ethnic communities do not approaches of hepato-protective disorders. So they use some medicinal plants for the purpose of hepato-protective disorders are enumerated with their botanical name, family, vernacular name, parts used and their application has been provided in this paper.

  7. Seth, J. K., Sahoo, S. and Mitra, S.

    The isopod parasite, Nerocila phaeopleura (Crustacea, Isopoda, Cymothoidae), collected from the caudal region of the host Rastrelliger kanagurta (Teleostei, Perciformes, Scombridae), has been recorded for the first time from the Bay of Bengal, Odisha coast.

  8. Veeranna Gowda, Kalpana, G. V. and Ashwath, S. K.

    With the objective of selecting suitable parental breeds for silkworm breeding program, a total of twenty (10 oval and 10 dumb-bell) bivoltine silkworm genetic stocks maintained at CSR&TI, Mysore and CSGRC, Hosur were evaluated in three replications during three seasons of the year. Data was collected and assessed for twelve traits of economic importance, viz., fecundity, cocoon yield/10000 larvae by number and weight, cocoon weight, shell weight, cocoon shell ratio, filament length and size, raw silk percentage, renditta, neatness and boil-off loss through multiple trait evaluation index method. Significant variations among the breeds were observed and based on highest Evaluation Index values for 10 economic parameters, JPN8, CSR27, CSR17, S5 (oval) and S9, D13, CSR26, CSR16 (dumb-bell) were identified as potential breeds for future breeding program aiming at developing promising bivoltine breeds/hybrids for tropical conditions.

  9. Sangeetha, N., Thenmozhi, S. and Vijayalakshmi, P.

    The study was carryout to evaluate the incidence and multidrug resistant of Staphylococcus aureus in different milk samples. Staphylococcus aureus is a major problem of public health which causes a number of human and animal diseases. The main source of infection is contaminated milk. Totally 50 raw and pasteurized milk samples were collected from three different sources such as Goat milk (15), Buffollow milk (25), and pasteurized milk (10). In order to isolate and identify the Staphylococcus aureus from these samples. The collected milk samples were cultured on nutrient agar; the presumptive Staphylococcus colonies were sub-cultured on Mannitol Salt Agar (MSA) and confirmed by using standard Bacteriological methods. Antimicrobial susceptibility pattern of Staphylococcus aureus was done by Kirby-Bauer disk diffusion method using eight antimicrobials. The prevalence of S.aureus was found to be 25 (50%) out of the total samples examined. In addition, the prevalence of S.aureus was 5 (33.3%) from Goat milk, 16 (64%) from Buffalo milk and 4 (40%) from pasteurized milk. S.aureus was more likely to occur in buffalo milk that were poorly managed and treated frequently with antimicrobials. Thus, out of a total of 25 isolates, high resistance rate was observed primarily to Methicillin 25 (100%) followed by Erythromycin15 (60%), Amoxycillin12 (48%), Vancomycin12 (48%), Gentamycin 12 (48%), Tetracycline 11 (44%), Ciprofloxacin 11 (44%), and low level of resistance to Kanamycin 8 (32%). S.aureus became almost resistant to β-lactams and Erythromycin. The virulence characters of Staphylococcus aureus were characterized phenotypically. The rate of positiveness for Protease, Lipase, β-hemolysis, β-lactamase and Slime formation were 48%, 60%, 60%, 44%, 48%.In this study we concluded that the hygiene of milk is poor and resistant strains have contaminated the milk probably during the process of milking and transportation.

  10. Manal Abdalla Sayed Ahmed Gaheen and Entisar Abo Elghite Elhossiny Elkazeh

    Objective: to assess knowledge and attitude of women regarding toxoplasmosis during pregnancy in slums area and provide women the health measures to prevent toxoplasmosis before and during pregnancy. Design and Methods: The study was carried out at two health centers: The fourth healthy center at Tanta first sector, which served "Tal-Elhadadine neighborhood and Gambiat Al-Qurashi slums" and the sixth healthy center which served "Seger's slums at Tanta second sector" The subjects of the study consisted of 302 women attending the health care centers. The tools were used to collect data: The first, structured interview sheet concerning socio-demographic data and knowledge of women regarding toxoplasmosis. Second tool, it was comprise of items related to women attitude regarding toxoplasmosis infection during pregnancy. Third tool, brochure was developed including information needed for women about toxoplasmosis during pregnancy. Results: Of this study revealed that more than two thirds (69.54%) of the women had poor knowledge, nearly one fifth (20.53%) had moderate knowledge and (9.93%) of them had good knowledge regarding toxoplasmosis. The results also illustrated that the majority of the studied sample (84.11%) had positive attitude. A significant positive correlation was found between the total knowledge score and the total attitude score of women, which denote that women who had a better knowledge were holding more positive attitudes. Based on the results of this study; an educational program about toxoplasmosis infection and measures to prevent it should be designed in slums areas for all women during their reproductive age.

  11. Ratna Palit, Manas Ranjan Naik, Divya Agarwal, Karmajeet Rath, Sanjay Kumar, Chitta Ranjan Kar, Rabindranath Sahoo and Jyotsna Patnaik

    Production of erythropoietin (EPO) is an important function of kidney. As severity of renal disease progresses, EPO level decreases and consequently anaemia progresses. In 20 healthy controls with normal renal function the serum EPO level was 13.75±1.51mIU/ml. In another 20 patients of anaemia with normal renal function serum EPO level was very high- 436.75± 224.87mIU/ml. The EPO level was highest in patients of aplastic anaemia with normal renal function-: 791.7±53.37. In CKD stage V patients with severe degree of anaemia the serum EPO level was 16.97± 2.06mIU/ml. The slight high level from the control was not sufficient enough for the degree of anaemia. However during oxidative stress the EPO level in these patients was significantly higher than the EPO level in the stable state.

  12. Dr. Roopashree, R., Dr. Suman Tiwari, Dr. Padmavathi, G. and Dr. Varlakshmi, K. L.

    Background & Objectives: To study variations of the Anterior cerebral artery –anterior Communicating complex (ACA- ACoA complex). Anomalies of the ACA- ACoA like fenestrations and median trunk – Azygous ACA and Bihemispheric ACA are exceedingly very rare anomalies. Any variation in the vessels of anterior part of Circle of Willis influences the change in the hemodynamics of blood supply of frontal lobe. The awareness of this rare anatomical variant is important considering today advanced imaging modalities and give consideration to its potential serious complications with fellow clinicians. Method: The study variations of the Anterior Cerebral Artery (ACA) and Anterior Communicating Artery (ACoA) of the circle of Willis at the base of the brain were studied in 50 human brain specimens. Results: In the anterior part of the circle, complete absence, double ACoA and fenestrated ACoA was found in one case each 2%. The 'H' complex was seen more commonly in the ACoA - ACA complex found in 80%, ‘V’ shaped complex in 8%. Absence of A1 segment on the right side was seen in one case (2%) and hypoplasia of the A1 segment was seen in another case (2%). In one case (2%), both the A2 segments arose from contralateral ACA – Bihemispheric ACA. An Azygous anterior cerebral artery/ median trunk ACA was found in 6.66% of the cases.

  13. Ephraim-Emmanuel, Benson Chukwunweike, Ideede Victor, Dotimi, Doris Atibinye, Samuel Wagibote Rose and Baraka Bodeiwari

    Background: This research was aimed at determining the relationship between the oral hygiene practices and the oral hygiene status of students of the Bayelsa State College of Health Technology, Otuogidi, Ogbia – Town. Method: A cross-sectional survey was carried out among students of the Bayelsa State College of Health Technology. Data were collected through oral examination and closed-ended questionnaires assessing the oral hygiene practices of students. Results: Students presented mostly with a fair oral hygiene status, with mean Oral Hygiene Status (OHIs) of 1.98+1.20 S.D. Female students have better oral hygiene status than their male counterparts and toothbrush and toothpaste were the most commonly used oral hygiene aids. Regarding the frequency of brushing per day, 199 subjects (63.00%) clean their teeth twice or more than twice daily. Routine visits to the dental clinic was however treated lightly as only 27 subjects (8.4%) visited the dental clinic at least once a year, 47 (14.9%) only visited when they had a dental problem and 240 subjects (76.0%) had never visited the dental clinic. Our study ultimately revealed that oral hygiene status is dependent on the number of times the mouth is cleaned daily as well as the time of the day when the mouth is cleaned. Conclusion: The oral hygiene status of the students of the Bayelsa State College of Health Technology is fair and is dependent on their oral hygiene practices. It was however recommended that oral health education and awareness be improved not just among these students but to all Nigerians and the world at large.

  14. Dr. Sunita Malik and Dr. Gurdarshan Singh

    Background: Maxillofacial fractures are often associated with considerable long-standing functional, aesthetic and mental complications. Mandible is one of the most common facial fracture. As the numbers of cases are rising in recent years, the present study was aimed to describe Incidence, aetiology and pattern of mandibular fractures in Sonepat. Materials and methods: A prospective Medical institute based study of maxillofacial injury patients was carried out from September 2011 to February 2013 at newly started B.P.S Government Medical College for women, Khanpur kalan, Sonepat. Patients data including sexual category, age, cause, fracture site and pattern were collected and analyzed. Results: There were a total of 474 patients with 86 mandibular fractures. Males outnumbered females by a ratio of 2.9:1. Age range was 9 months to 72 years with the peak incidence occurring in the age group 18-34 years. Most injuries were caused by Road traffic accident (48.83 per cent), followed by assault (26.74 percent) and sport (13.95 per cent). Prominent site of mandibular fracture was Parasymphysis (27.90%) followed by Angle (24.41%) and body (18.60%). 30.23% of patients with mandible fractures were having multiple fracture sites. Also 10% of patients with mandible fracture had mid-facial fractures associated with it. Closed reduction was done in 13.6% of patients, Open reduction and internal fixation was performed in 46.4% of cases and 18.1% were managed conservatively. The mean duration of hospital stay was 10.14 ± 6.34 days. Conclusion: This study highlights the importance of Dental surgery in the management of maxillofacial injuries. Moreover there is a need to reinforce legislation and the total enforcement of existing laws to reduce maxillofacial injuries among children and adults.

  15. Tijani, Wakili Adelani, Oladeji Michael Oloyede, Imam Abubakar Ayinla, Olagunju Rosemary Omolara and Jimoh Ayo Awwau

    The effect of supplementing a regular diet with ascorbic acid on haematological indices was studied in teenage pregnant women attending antenatal clinics of three government hospitals in Ibadan, Nigeria. Informed consent was obtained from 45 subjects and this formed the sample for the study. The subjects were divided into two groups: experimental group consisting of 30 subjects and control which consisted of 15 subjects. Baseline records of four blood parameters were obtained from all the subjects before each member of the experimental group was given a daily dose of 100mg ascorbic acid supplement for four weeks. The initial records of the haemoglobin levels, haematocrit value, red blood cell count and Plasma Ascorbic concentration of the experimental subjects ranged between 6.4 to 19.6gl 100ml, 24% to 37%, 1.62 x 106 to 3.87 x 106/mm3 and 0.00mg/100ml to 1.47mg/100ml respectively. In the control subjects, these range between 10.0 to 19.2g/100ml, 25 to 38%, 2.63 x 106 to 4.37 x 106/mm3 and 0.05 to 1.46mg/100ml respectively also. The experimental group that was given a daily ascorbate load of 100mg above their normal dietary intake for four weeks period recorded a general increase in the blood parameters. The haemoglobin level, haematocrit, red blood cell count and plasma ascorbate levels rose from 7.1 to 20.0g/100ml, 30 to 39%, 2.14 to 4.22 x 106/mm3 and 0.20 to 2.06 mg/100ml respectively. The low levels were still recorded in the control group after 4 weeks study period and this ranged between 10.3 to 18.2g/100ml, 25 to 37%, 2.94 x 106 to 3.64x106/mm3 and 0.00mg/100 to 1.45mg/100ml in that order as well. The 4.8 x 106/mm3 which is the normal standard value of red blood cell and 40 - 47%, which is that of the haematocrit, were not met by all the subjects at the initial record. After 4 weeks of the supplementation (in the experimental subjects), these two values were still not met though there were some appreciable improvements. Generally, the data obtained from the study showed that ascorbate supplementation produced a positive haematological response in teenage pregnant women.

  16. Sadaf Alipour, Azin Saberi, Hadith Rastad and Ashraf Moini

    We retrospectively reviewed records of women attending our breast clinic to assess the association of benign breast disorders with education level and employment status. Overall, 229 cases consisting of those with breast pain, fibrocystic changes, or non-pathologic nipple discharge were compared with 217 controls. Benign breast disorders were non-significantly more frequent in employed than unemployed women but significantly more frequent in women with higher education. To our knowledge, no previous work has investigated the association of employment and education with benign breast disorders; we believe that this should be further studied in larger studies.

  17. Elena Bakri Ali and Abdel Rahim Mahmoud Muddathir

    Background: Blood groups play an important role in transfusion medicine. A blood group has many subtypes, but A1 and A2 are the main subtypes. The percentage of these subtypes was fluctuating in an approximate average of 80% for A1 and 20% for A2. This study conducted to measure the frequency of the subgroups A1 and A2 among Sudanese donors attending the Military hospital blood bank. Materials and methods: A total of 100 venous blood samples collected randomly from blood group A donors attending military hospital blood bank between September –October 2013. Red cells were tested against monoclonal IgM anti-A and Anti-B, while the sera was tested against A1, B and O cells. Results and conclusion: Among the analyzed one hundred blood samples, 74%were A1 and 26% were A2. Our results was likely similar to the results obtained by other researchers worldwide.

  18. Singh, G. P., Tripathi, A., Singh, S. K., Umesh Singh and Srivastava, M.

    Statistical Modelling is used in child mortality research since a long time in order to develop predictive models as well as to know the factors which affect the child mortality. There have been various socio-economic and biological variables identified from previous research which significantly effect child mortality, the role of these factors vary in case of child mortality in different ages of death of the child, so to find out such differences we classify the women according child mortality experience in four categories or levels i.e. Neo-natal mortality, Post neonatal mortality, toddler mortality and women who not experience child mortality in childhood period, further multinomial logistic regression model was applied to find out the effect of health care practises and social situation of mothers on various levels of child mortality. It was found that the colostrums feeding at birth protects from death at neonatal mortality and if a woman wants to have another child then the present child has risk to die in neonatal or post-neonatal period. The poor wealth index was came a risk factor for toddler mortality.

  19. Abdul Hussein M. AL-Faisal, Jawdat N. Gaaib, Nada Al-Alwan and Mohammed Ghanim

    Breast cancer is the most frequent carcinoma in females and the second most common cause of cancer related mortality in women. Early detection of breast cancer is widely reported to be one of the most effective ways leading to better prognosis and lower death rate. For marker discovery, the analysis of mRNA expression signatures in peripheral human blood has been widely used showing to be a promising technique. Cytokeratin-19 (CK 19) is a novel gene that was diagnosed as a highly specific marker for primary breast cancer. The aim of the present study is detecting the expression levels of the CK-19 gene mRNAs in the peripheral blood of breast cancer patients in comparison with benign and healthy controls as a tool for screening and diagnosis the early stage breast cancers, and estimating the diagnostic and prognostic values of these levels in association with tumor size and lymph node status. The marker was determined in peripheral blood (PB) of 55 patients with Invasive Ductal Carcinoma and samples from 20 healthy donors, and 10 women with newly diagnosed benign breast tumors were served as control group using reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). CK-19 was detected in 41(74.54%) peripheral blood of breast cancer patients while 14(25.46%) patients were CK 19-negative. CK-19 also detected in, 1(10%) of the benign tumors and 2(10%) of healthy individuals. It showed statistically significant relations with size of the tumor, and Lymph node involvement. On the other hand, it was statistically non-significant for age of breast cancer patients. The present study results suggest that CK-19 is a specific molecular marker for detection of breast cancer, discrimination between benign and malignant breast tumors, and it might be of value as a prognostic marker.

  20. Hind S. Jasim and Sajedah A. H. Khalil

    Objectives: Bladder cancer (BC) is one of the most widespread cancers distressing men and women and thus has a philosophical impact on health care. An extensive variability in the occurrence of BC reflects its multifactorial with polygenic etiology. Antioxidants play an essential role in protection of the cells from oxidative damage. Antioxidant defense can be affected in cancer. TNF-α is one of the major mediators of inflammation and has been linked to all steps involved in tumor genesis, including cellular transformation, promotion, survival, proliferation, invasion, angiogenesis, and metastasis. Tumor cells secrete their own TNF-α in anticrime manner which further enhance the expression of other growth factors such as transforming growth factor (TGF). The aim of this study was to evaluate the serum total antioxidant capacity, TNF-α, TGF-β levels in patients with bladder cancer. Methods: fifty patients with bladder cancer and 20 controls were enrolled in the study. Serum TAC, TNF-α, TGF-β levels were determined. Findings: Serum TAC, TNF-α and TGF-β were significantly elevated in BC over that of the control (p = 0.0001). Data analysis according to the grade of the disease show a significant difference among high grade, low grade & control groups with significant differences in TAC, TNF-α and TGF-β levels between high and low grade groups (p<0.001). Conclusion: Our results suggest that increased TNF-α and TGF-β with decreased antioxidant levels may be, in part, play a role in the pathogenesis of bladder cancer and may help in diagnosis, treatment and follow up of bladder cancer patients in the future.

  21. Dr. Radha, R.

    A study was conducted to evaluate the insecticidal action of hexane extracts of three locally available plants namely: Anisomeles malabarica, Vitex negundo and Murraya koenigii against the bean weevil Callosobruchus maculatus (F.) and maize weevil, Sitophilus zeamais) Motsch with response to the insect mortality. Results revealed that all test materials exhibited mortality action against bean weevil and maize weevil. Anisomeles malabarica extracts had greater mortality action against both the beans weevil (100%) and maize weevil (96.2%) after 24 h of treatment. Vitex negundo extracts were observed to have moderate mortality effect; bean weevil (92.3%) and maize weevil (74.6%) while Murraya koenigii had average mortality effect; bean weevil (48.7%) and maize weevil (54.1%) all with extract concentration of 10 g/100 ml (extract/solvent). The overall results showed that bean weevil was much more susceptible to all the extracts than maize weevil, having recorded the highest mortality rate.

  22. Ratnakar Parida and Ramesh C. Choudhury

    Mitoxantrone, a synthetic anthraquinone, is highly effective in the treatment of different cancers. But, the recorded correlation between its use and the development of secondary leukemia necessitated the study on its post-treated cytogenetic consequences. In the present study, all the three tested doses of mitoxantrone-induced chromosomal aberrations and micronuclei were significantly increased in mouse bone marrow cells, but the drug was not mitotoxic. It also enhanced the induction of lipid peroxide radicals. Its action on DNA leading to these cytogenotoxic consequences in noncancerous cells during chemotherapy is responsible for the induction of secondary leukemia in cancer survivors. Therefore, mitoxantrone is essentially be made target-specific.

  23. Bamini, B., Ganesan, S. and Mani, P.

    This investigation was carried out to isolate and identify the predominant microbial flora in milk product samples collected from different parts of the Tamil Nadu. A total of 30 samples were collected from Thanjavur, Trichy and Madurai, in sterile bottles and transported in a cool box at 4ºC for analysis. The samples were subjected to microbiological examination (total viable bacteria, Staphylococcus aureus, Salmonella sp., lactic acid bacteria and yeasts and moulds). The results showed the occurrence of coliform bacteria, S. aureus, lactic acid bacteria, yeasts and moulds in the samples, while Salmonella sp. was not detected. Coliform bacteria were not detected in samples collected from Madurai area, and detected in 30 and 20% of samples collected from Trichy and Thanjavur areas respectively. S. aureus was detected in 40, 60 and 20% of samples from Madurai, Trichy and Thanjavur respectively while yeasts and moulds were detected in 100, 90 and 90% of samples from Madurai, Trichy and Thanjavur areas, respectively .Lactic acid bacteria were detected in all samples under study.

  24. Nishikant Kawale, Anil Pawar, Popat Chavan and Anand Chvan

    This paper introduces a Dashboard Builder for easily build and customize Business Intelligence information dashboards. Dashboard Builder provide very intuitive environment for dynamically creating, rearranging, searching and exploring multiple visual data representation. In industry there is very less time to analyze and make decisions of the company. In highly mechanized world one has very little time to care about filling all the details and keeping a constant check on its dynamic changes. Thus there is a requirement of the system which helps us to maintain relationship with the data in the perfect way without wasting much time. Dashboard Builder for easily build and customize Business Intelligence information dashboards. Dashboard Builder provide very intuitive environment for dynamically creating, rearranging, searching and exploring multiple visual data representation.In industry there is very less time to analyze and make decisions of the company. In highly mechanized world one has very little time to care about filling all the details and keeping a constant check on its dynamic changes. Thus there is a requirement of the system which helps us to maintain relationship with the data in the perfect way without wasting much time.

  25. Meenatchi, B. and Renuga, V.

    Six imidazolium-based room temperature protic ionic liquids (PILs) have been synthesized by the process of proton transfer from hydroxy acids (Bronsted acids) to substituted imidazole (Bronsted base). The PILs were characterized by UV, Infrared and Nuclear Magnetic Resonance and GC-MS spectroscopes. Their anti-microbial activities were determined using the well-diffusion method. All six PILs were toxic to Ecoli streptomyces bacillus, while 2-methyl imidazolium lactate showed high anti-microbial activity against a wide range of human pathogens

  26. Ashok Kumar, D. and Rajendran, M.

    Air pollution is perhaps the commonest form of environmental degradation in urban and rural area of both developed and developing countries. In the environment there are many pollutants which have been observed during different studies regarding air pollution. Among all the pollutants, gaseous and particulate pollutants are more important. In this paper an attempt has been made to study the status and trend of sulphurdioxide (SO2), oxides of Nitrogen (NOx), particulate matter (PM10,&PM2.5), and the industrial area the specific pollutants Methyl Mercapten, Vinyl Chloride in State Industrial Promotion corporation Of Tamilnadu(SIPCOT) Cuddalore. The study has been carried out six months in six sampling station of SIPCOT for the above mentioned pollutants with the help of Tamilnadu Pollution Control Board Cuddalore. Each of Air pollutants are analyzed by using BIS & USEPA methods.

  27. Mr.Jaya Prakash Rath and Ms.Lopamudra Pattnaik

    There has been a tremendous change in the Banking industry in India during last few years particularly due to the introduction of globalization, deregulation, and rapid technological advancements. India has initiated liberalization which has opened the banking sector to provide better coverage to the Indian citizens and augment the flow of long term financial resources as the new strategy of banking business for some years; the scheduled commercial banks have adopted innovative banking practices. Innovative banking refers to using new techniques, new methods, new schemes and deposit mobilization, credit deployment and bank management. The most visible and perhaps the most revolutionary element of the virtual banking revolution is the cash machine or AUTOMATED TELLER MACHINE (ATM) As it is popularly known .the introduction of ATM service has come to change the entire gamut of the way the banking and financial services are operated in the world. ATMs are known for their speed and convenience giving 24 hrs accesses to bank customers to operate their bank account in the physical environment with the machine. An increase in the number of banks realized that doing sustainable business made the business sense. The rigorous domestic rivalry made the companies to search for their competitive advantage may be in the form of corporate social responsibility, strategic plan and pin point acts which enable the organization to fulfill its intended objectives

  28. Tripathi A. K.

    Ginger (Zingiber officinale Rose) is an herbaceous perennial. The crop is heavily suffered due to rhizome rot in the light soil of Bundelkhand region of Madhya Pradesh where ginger is grown as cash crop. Highest germination and minimum rhizome rot incidence and maximum yield of Ginger was recorded in Copper hydroxide which is at par with Trichoderma viride. Seed treatment followed by soil drenching by Mancozeb and Soil application Trichoderma viride with FYM suppressing the rhizome rot of Ginger at farmer’s field with higher yield in comparison to farmers practice.

  29. Sourav Das

    In every progressive economy there has been a steady shift of employment and investment from the essential primary activities…… to secondary activities to all kinds and to a still greater extent into tertiary production. In this paper an attempt has been made to analyze the changes in the structure of economy and sectoral transformation of occupational structure during last three decades in Jangipara C.D block of Hugli district of West Bengal. Emphasis also given to examine the nature of employment status and enumerate the pattern of employment among different social groups by religion, education and economic status. Present study reveals that though Jangipara C.D block is a rural block but its economy is changing in nature. As time progresses occupational structure shifts primary to secondary and tertiary sectors.

  30. Muvandimwe Emmanuel and Prof. Dr. J. Vijayalakshmi

    Community health workers (CHWs) are widely used to provide care for a broad range of health issues. The study is aimed to assess knowledge about health programs among community health workers. A sample of 240 health workers was randomly selected from health center at Ruhango district. Questionnaire method was used for data collection and analysis was done through frequency and percent. It has been observed from this study that majority of the health workers had possessed knowledge about timing of first ANC visit in first trimester (97%) and number of ANC visit required during pregnancy(83%),knowledge on providing counseling to women (>95%) on Intake of nutritive food ,proper rest, exercise ,checkup, etc during pregnancy. In this paper, an attempt has been made to assess the level of knowledge of community health workers, focusing on maternal health care and newborn health care

  31. Mahmoud Abu Samra and Mohammad Shuibat

    Higher educational institutions worldwide are committed to considering Total Quality Management (TQM) doctrine as a philosophy, management attitude, and work approach. As these universities recognize the direction of this concept and its scientific, educational, and economic benefits and returns, they compete in this field in the same way as economic institutions compete. Thus, TQM means exceptional and distinguished in having vision and confidence, and accomplishing high quality performance and results. Many individuals, institutions, societies and nations have recognized these achievements in distinction recently, as they have in the past. It is the ambition of everyone to be eminent. Some have achieved great success among their peers, while others have failed, accepting humble results. Palestinian universities are not far away from all of this. So, where are these universities from TQM? Have they really worked to achieve TQM in their spheres and for their graduates or are the principles of TQM not applicable to Palestinian universities? This study is trying to answer these issues in detail.

  32. Judith Callejas Hernández, Francisco Prieto García, Víctor Esteban Reyes Cruz, Yolanda Marmolejo Santillán, Erika Bustos Bustos

    The objectives were to optimize the EC process parameters using Taguchi methodology, evaluating the efficiency percentage removal of COD and phosphorus removal. The whey was analyzed in initial and final values de pH, COD and phosphate ions. We used a electrochemical reactor de 2 L, batch type and performed the experimental design optimization, fractional factorial random parameters, the type of L9(3)4, ie four variable at three levels. The results have allowed, working with aluminum anode and cathode iron, 8 hours, voltage 4.67 V, 57.6 recirculation flow Lh-1 and a distance of 1 cm between electrodes, achieve a 63% removal initial COD and a recovery above 83% phosphorus as phosphate.

  33. Sabah A. Salman, Zainab A. Al-Ramadhan, Nabeel A. Bakr and Zainab F. Nazal

    The electrical characteristics of polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) films doped with different concentrations (0, 1, 3, 5, 7 and 10 wt %) of CoCl2 salt powder were studied. The volumetric electrical conductivity σv for (PVA-CoCl2) films as a function of the concentration of CoCl2 salt at room temperature and the relationship of volumetric electrical conductivity σv for (PVA-CoCl2) films of different concentrations of CoCl2 salt with the temperature are calculated. The activation energy for (PVA-CoCl2) films of different concentrations of CoCl2 salt was calculated also and it is found that it decreases with increasing CoCl2 salt content. It is found that there are two transport mechanisms, giving rise to two activation energies (Ea1) and (Ea2). At higher temperatures range (343 – 373) K, the conduction mechanism is due to carriers excited into the extended states beyond the mobility edge and at lower temperatures range (303 – 333) K, the conduction mechanism is due to carriers excited into the localized states at the edge of the band.

  34. Yogesh Kapadi, Suchita Khobragade, Priya Bhujbal and Krupa Shaha

    Rogue devices are an increasingly dangerous reality in the insider threat problem domain. Industry, government, and academia need to be aware of this problem and promote state-of-the-art detection methods. Rogue access points, if undetected, can be an open door to sensitive information on the network. Many data raiders have taken advantage of the undetected rogue access points in enterprises to not only get free Internet access, but also to view confidential information. Most of the current solutions to detect rouge access points are not automated and are dependent on a specific wireless technology. In this paper, we present a rogue access point detection approach. The approach is an automated solution which can be installed on any router at the edge of a network. The main premise of our approach is to distinguish authorized WLAN hosts from unauthorized WLAN hosts connected to rogue access points by analyzing traffic characteristics at the edge of a network. Simulation results verify the effectiveness of our approach in detecting rogue access points in a heterogeneous network comprised of wireless and wired subnets. Rogue Access Point detection is a two step process starting with discovering the presence of an Access Point in the network and then proceeding to identify whether it is a rogue or not. This Methodology has the following outstanding properties: 1. It doesn’ t re quire any specialized hardw are ; 2. The proposed algorithm detects and completely eliminates the RAPs from network; 3. It provides a cost-effective solution. The proposed technique can block RAPs as well as remove them from the networks both in form of Unauthorized APs or as a Rogue clients Acting as APs. Key wo rd s: Rogue Access Point, Wireless LAN, Wireless Security, etc.

  35. Dr. Parveen Banu, K., Dr. Subramaniam V. and Pradeepa, P.

    Medical textiles constitute one of the most dynamic research fields characteristic of technical textiles and its range of applications. They represent structures designed and accomplished for a medical application (intrabody / extrabody, implantable/ non implantable), textiles used in biological systems to estimate, treat, increase or regenerate a tissue, organ or function of the body. Non implantable materials are used for external applications and may or may not contact with the skin. This includes wound care, bandages, plaster, pressure garments, orthopaedic belts etc. This paper discusses the role of bandages, types of bandages, wound care and wound care products.

  36. Abdul-Razak M. Mohamed and Najah A. Hussain

    An Index of Biotic Integrity (IBI) was used to assess the status of the fish assemblage of Huwazah marsh, Iraq from October 2005 to September 2006. IBI scores were calculated from 14 separate assemblage metrics based on the species richness, species composition and trophic guilds. After more than two years of restoration activities and improved water quality, the state of the fish community in Huwazah marsh was fair (IBI= 53.2%), and better than the other marshes after four years of restoration. The results revealed that no substantial improvements have been recorded during the late years of restoration, reflect that the environment is still fragile and need time to be recovering.

  37. Geeta

    Many plants accumulate organic osmolytes in response to the imposition of environmental stresses that cause cellular dehydration. Even though an adaptive involvement of these compounds in regulating osmotic adjustment and preventing subcellular structure from adverse conditions has vital role in stress physiology, the proof in favour of this proposition is largely correlative. Transgenic plants engineered to accumulate proline, mannitol, fructans, trehalose, glycine betaine or ononitol exhibit marginal enhancement in salt and/or drought tolerance. There is significant causative relationships which connects both osmolyte levels and stress tolerance, the complete osmolyte concentrations in these plants are improbable to mediate osmotic adjustment. Metabolic benefits of osmolyte accumulation may supplement the classically proved the roles of these compounds. In re-assessing the functional significance of compatible solute accumulation, it is suggested that proline and glycine betaine synthesis may buffer cellular redox potential. Instability in hexose sensing in transgenic plants which modify to produce trehalose, fructans or mannitol may be an important causative factor to the stress-tolerant phenotypes observed. Osmolyte transport between compartments of subcellular organs or different organs correspond to a bottleneck that confines stress tolerance at the whole-plant level is presently imprecise. None the less, if osmolyte metabolism interrupt on hexose or redox signalling, then it may be important in long-range signal transmission throughout the plant.

  38. Haleem Khan, A.A., Prof. Naseem and Prof. B. Vidya Vardhini

    A survey conducted by IMRB International for Colgate Palmolive India found that only 2.5% Indians visit a dentist at least once a year compared with 48% which is the global average. 67% of Indians have never gone for a dental check-up. Out of those that do finally seek treatment for their dental problems, 1 in 3 have to get tooth extractions as generally it is too late. Tooth decay (dental caries) is a disease of multifactorial etiology. The essential factors include: the appropriate number and species of bacteria, the type, quantity and frequency of consumption of fermentable carbohydrates, and susceptible tooth surfaces. The aim of this study was to determine the oral bacteria counts and their sensitivity to plant extracts. Swab samples were collected from male persons without smoking and pan or nut products chewing habit. From the bacterial isolates obtained Streptococci spp. were identified by using HiStrepTM identification kit and tested for antibiotic sensitivity (Ampicillin, Tetracycline, BenzylPencillin, Amoxycillin, and Erythromycin). Resistant species were tested against aqueous plant extracts of Punica grantum, Phyllanthus emblica, Terminalia catappa, Azadirachta indica, Mentha arvensis, Acacia nilotica. Plant extract concentrations were tested against Streptococci spp. The total bacteria counts enumerated from the swab samples were 50.8×108. 10 isolates of Streptococci spp. were found multidrug-resistant. MIC, MBC and statistical analysis (mean, SD) were analyzed. From our study we could prove that the multi drug resistant isolates oral bacteria were sensitive to the test plant extracts. Based on our findings the plant extracts possess good taste and aroma is better than antibiotics.

  39. Bernard Chemwei and Anthony Mang’oka Somba

    Cooperative learning has been proclaimed as an effective instructional approach in promoting language development in learners. However, its use in Kenyan schools is relatively uncommon. This seemingly is because many teachers are not prepared to implement cooperative learning principles in the classroom. This article reports the views of a group of teachers and students regarding the effectiveness of using of cooperative learning as a strategy to improve pupils’ ability to understand and interpret high school poetry. Form three students (N-199) in six secondary schools in Baringo district participated in the study. Six teachers of same sex taught the poetry content in the classes using either of the two approaches, namely 1) Cooperative learning and 2) the Conventional method. Selected students and teachers were interviewed and their views summarized. The qualitative data analysis methods of comparison were used. The results of the study indicate significant improvements in students’ understanding of and attitudes towards poetry. The learners saw Cooperative learning as helping them not only to develop appropriate responses to the given poems but also enabled them to enjoy poetry in general. The teachers’ version also indicates the potential of Cooperative learning in enhancing the learning of poetry. For instance the study revealed that apart from its positive influence on the students’ classroom interaction patterns, those in the cooperative learning groups learned poetry interpretation skills better than their counterparts in the conventional classrooms. The experience influenced the teachers’ belief about using group work to enhance poetry lessons.

  40. Kaveri Sable, Jyoti Mache, ManjushriSumbe and SonaliShirsath

    A considerable effort has been recently devoted to the development of database management systems (DBMS) which guarantee high assurance security and privacy. Organizations spend a significant amount of resources securing their servers and network perimeters. An important component of any strong security solution is represented by intrusion detection systems, able to detect anomalous behavior by applications and users. To date, however, there have been very few intrusion detection mechanisms specifically tailored to database systems. We have proposed a novel solution called Log mining approach. The approach we propose to intrusion detection is based on mining database traces stored in log files. In this Paper, we present a new technique for identifying malicious database transactions, are ideal for profiling data correlations for identifying malicious database activities. The result of the mining process is used to form user profiles that can model normal behavior and identify intruders.

  41. Tahseen H. Mubarak, Karim H. Hassan and Nisreen Zaidan Khalaf

    Barium ferrite nano particles was prepared by co-precipitation route using (ethanol/water) solutions of iron chloride FeCl3.6H2O and barium chloride BaCl2.2H2O with a Fe/Ba molar ratio of 15. the produced powder was dried at 80 ºC for 12 h and then calcined at various temperatures for 2 h. Nano particles of barium ferrite with particle size of about 30 and 70 nm were observed from SEM micrographs of the samples synthesized and calcined at 800˚C and 1000 ºC for 2 h, respectively.

  42. Rajkumar Gaikwad, Kedarnath Raywade, Prasad Guntuk, Dnyaneshwar Shinde

    The organization stores encrypted data on cloud and issues decryption keys to authorized users. Data owner issues decryption keys to authorized users. When user leaves organization, then he/she becomes unauthorized user for data access. When a user is left the organization, then data owner will issue re-encryption commands to the cloud to re-encrypt the data. So we prevent the left user from decrypting the data by using the old decryption key. And to generate new decryption keys to valid users only. So only authorized users can continue to access the data. By considering cloud architecture, such commands may not be received properly due to unreliable network communications. So we proposing a time based re-encryption scheme, which enables the cloud servers to automatically re-encrypt data based on their internal clocks of system. Within given time period users can access data, after timestamp they cannot access data.

  43. Dipmala Roka

    India’s nuclear policy has evolved gradually rather than dramatically, India became a nuclear weapon state after testing five nuclear device in 1998. The self-imposed restraint for 24 years, after having demonstrated nuclear capability in 1974, is unique in the world. Various factors influenced India’s pursuit of a nuclear development programme. Ultimately it was concern of national security that played the critical role in turning it to a military oriented project. In particular, security dilemma involving itself, China, and Pakistan. Based on in-depth historical process-tracing studies this paper is an attempt to explain changing contour of India’s nuclear policy and postures and analyses the factors that led it down the road to Pokhran I and II.

  44. Alsadig F. B. Gassoum, Mohamed A. Arbab, Sawsan A. H. Aldeaf, Walid A.H. Eldaif, Lamyaa A.M. Elhassan, Ahmed M. Elhassan and Imad M. Fadl-Elmula

    Background: Meningiomas predominantly benign tumors that may result from an adverse effect of cranial irradiation and trauma. They account for 20% of all primary intracranial neoplasm. The incidence is likely to be much higher, since many benign meningiomas do not produce symptoms. The p53 tumor suppressor is a key regulator of cell cycle progression, such that its inactivation promotes increased cell growth and tumor genesis. Objectives: The study design to characterize the p53 codon polymorphism in Sudanese memimgioma patients & to correlate the p53 genotype with biological characteristic of the tumor. Material and methods: The study was conducted at Al-Shaab Teaching Hospital at The National Center for Neurologic Sciences (NCNS) during the period September 2009 and March 2011. It includes cranial meningioma Sudanese patients that were diagnosed based on radiology and histology. 70 meningiomas’ tissue samples were taken for DNA extraction. The amplification was carried out using PCR. Results: The genotyping analysis of 70 cases for p53 alleles revealed Arg/Arg was reported in 70% of the cases (30) whereas Pro/Pro seen in 17 (24.3%) and Arg/Pro was reported in only 4 (5.7%)

  45. Serigne Moussa BADIANE, Seynabou LO, Aliou Amadou DIA, Awa Ba DIALLO, Ousmane Foly DIALLO and Oumar NDOYE

    Ultrasonography is an imaging modality which uses ultrasounds generated by a probe placed on the skin or in a natural cavity. The objective of this work is to assess the prevalence of microbial contamination of ultrasonography devices in Saint-Louis. The ultrasonography facilities of public health structures have been sampled. Thus for the gel, the probes and their storage, some scovels have been used then soaked in a broth of culture and incubated at 37°C. Concerning the environment two cans of Muller Hinton agar-agar have been exposed in each ultrasonography room during one hour before being incubated. Five health institutions have been gathered. One notices: Out of twelve superficial probes examined, two are infected with Staphylococcus saprophyticus. No endocavity probe was contaminated. Two out of seventh storages of probes were contaminated with Citrobacter spp. Two out of seventh bottles of gel in current use were contaminated with Staphylococcus saprophyticus and Enterobacter spp, two keyboards and screens were contaminated with stumps of Enterobacter spp among which one BLSE and Pseudomonas spp, two out of 14 cans of agar were contaminated. Some bleach for the disinfection of echographs and hydro- alcoholic gel for hand antisepsis were available in all the sites.

  46. Pankaj Kumar Pal, Arefin, M. B. and Nirmalya Banerjee

    Hygrophila schulli, a tropical herb belonging to the family Acanthaceae, is an important medicinal plant, primarily used as diuretic, haematinic and liver tonic. Present work deals with the strategies for the in vitro propagation of the species. Well developed compact calli were obtained when cotyledonary leaf and cotyledonary node explants were cultured in MS medium with 0.2 mg/l 2,4-D together with 0.2 mg/l BA. Subculture of the callus in the regeneration medium of MS supplemented with BA (1-2 mg/l) singly or in combination with NAA (0.1 mg/l) induced large number of embryoids in the form of green tubercles all over their surfaces. 1mg/l BA used singly yielded the best result. Embryoids were initially studied under a stereobinocular microscope and their bipolar nature was subsequently confirmed through scanning electron micrography. Excised embryoids grown in basal medium developed into vigorous plantlets bearing healthy shoots and well ramified roots. Hardening and acclimatization of the regenerants were acomplished following standard methodologies.

  47. Durugbo, Ernest Uzodimma, Ogundipe, Oluwatoyin Temitayo and Olowokudejo, James Dele

    Various species of Pteridophytes and Bryophytes abound in the Nigerian Neogene as revealed by palynomorph records. One of the commonest is Sphagnum species with spores which are normally with smooth exine (Stereisporites spp.), which are of three types. These appear to have evolved close to the Early Late Miocene much before those with varied sculptures hereby ascribed to Trilites which are concentrated in the Pliocene to Early Pleistocene. Their stratigraphic ranges revealed that these latter species evolved close to the Early Pliocene and may have possibly continued to the present time. Their acmes are in the P900 subzone, while the species with smooth sculptures continue into the Late Miocene and are mostly used as the P840/P830 boundary marker. These undescribed new taxa which consist of three species of Stereisporites, two species each of Camarozonosporites, Trilites, and a single species each of Echitriletes, Rugulatisporites, Selaginella, Triporoletes and Granulatisporites sp., are hereby highlighted. The result of this investigation will aid the refinement of the existing palynological zones of the Western Niger Delta and further improve paleovegetational and paleoecological inferences henceforth.

  48. Aleem, M. O., Alamu, L. O. and Babajide, P. A.

    A field experiment was carried out to investigate germination and early development of sesame (Sesamum indicum L.) as inhibited by selected common tree species (Azardiracta indica, Parkia biglobosa and Vitellaria paradoxa) over a period of 10 weeks. The experiment was laid out in Randomized Complete Block Design (RCBD) with three (3) replicates. Two seeds of studied arable crops were planted on beds 3m by 3m dimension at 90cm by 30cm under each tree species while the open space was used as control. Data were collected on germination, plant height, stem diameter, number of leaves, number of branches, root length, the above grand biomass and the below grand biomass and were subjected to statistical analysis using Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) while the significant mean were separated using Duncan's Multiple Range Test (DMRT) at 5% possibility level. Neem tree (Azardiracta indica), Locust tree (Parkia biglobosa), and shear butter tree (Vitellaria paradoxa) inhibited the germination and physiological development of sesame. The statistical germination value (56.67) observed in TNS and TLS was significantly (p < 0.05) lower than 60.00 (TSS) and 100 observed in the control. Since tropical farming system is commonly characterized by an agroforestry, where certain common tree species are unavoidably co-exist with certain arable crops, the significant of the present finding is that famers are to avoid planting of the studied crop on any farm land with these agro-forestry trees.

  49. Parveen M. and Aliya Mehraj

    The valley of Kashmir abounds in large number of fresh water bodies including lakes, rivers and springs which are contaminated with different kinds of pollutants resulting from increasing population, urbanization and also due to various other factors. The present study was done at 4 stations in the Dal Lake viz., Telbal Nallah, Hazratbal basin, Gagribal basin and Nigeen basin. The water samples collected during the study period from May, 2010 to April, 2011 showed that water temperature was almost same at all the stations. Transparency values were higher in winter. Water showed pH above 7.5 at all the stations throughout the working period. Alkalinity was also same at all stations. Chloride and conductivity were higher at site IV (Gagribal). Nitrogenous compounds like ammonia, nitrate were higher in the Gagribal basin. Total phosphorus also showed the similar trend.

  50. Mantyi-Ncube, B. and Dlamini, N.

    Swaziland’s high unemployment rate challenges its development and one coping strategy has been identified as the production of small and medium enterprises. With one third of Swaziland’s labour force unemployed in 2008, amongst them were the University of Swaziland (UNISWA) graduates from the Faculty of Agriculture (FOA). The problem of graduates’ unemployment led to the FOA’s introduction of entrepreneurship education so as to impart entrepreneurial personality, knowledge and skills in training its graduates. A descriptive survey research was conducted to determine the impact of the Entrepreneurship course on attitudes of Consumer Sciences (COS) graduates. The instrument with both close-ended and open-ended questions was validated and pilot-tested with a reliability coefficient of 0.788 obtained. Random selection and snowballing technique were used for sample selection of fifty 2010-2012 COS graduates. Study results showed that respondents had a positive attitude towards the Entrepreneurship course, although they felt there was a major need for improvement on the Entrepreneurial Project. The majority of respondents were not involved in business, which could probably be due to lack of determination and interest for business; and, perhaps failure of the Entrepreneurship course and Entrepreneurial Project to impart into the respondents those vital entrepreneurial skills and attributes during the training period. Recommendations are that a similar study be done with graduates from all departments of the Faculty of Agriculture for more conclusive findings.

  51. Sambhunath Dinda

    The Kolaghat Thermal Power Plant (K.T.P.P) is situated on the right bank of the river Rupnarayan in Purba Medinipur district, West Bengal, India. It is well connected with south-eastern Railway, NH- 6 and NH-41. This power plant was established during the sixth Five Years Plan period (1980-85). WBPDCL (West Bengal Power Development Corporation Limited) took the charge of this power plant since 1985. Presently its total power generating capacity is 1260MW, with six units, 210 MW each. K.T.P.P. generates around 7500-8000 metric tons of fly ash every day following the consumption of 18000 tons of coal (Source: KTPP office, 2009). The power plant has been failed miserable to meet the PM emission standard during last few years. So huge amount of fly ash particulate matter (PM) suspended in the air and finally deposited on the ground surface like, water body, vegetation, settlement, etc. It has changes the physico-chemical characteristics of the surrounding surface water. Present paper deals with the fluctuations of physico-chemical and microbial profile of pond water at different station around K.T.P.P.

  52. Kavitha, S., Anitha, M. and Vishwanath, H. L.

    CA 15.3 is a tumour marker useful in monitoring therapy and disease progression in metastatic breast cancer patients. Literature has shown that CA 15.3 levels are affected by liver diseases. This study was a case control study conducted to evaluate CA 15.3 levels in 30 cases of liver cirrhosis in Victoria Hospital attached to Bangalore Medical College and Research institute. There was a statistically significant increase in CA 15.3 levels in cirrhotic patients when compared to age and sex matched healthy controls. Neither cytolysis nor cholestasis, as measured by transaminases and bilirubin respectively, appeared to be related to the increase of the antigen in our patients. A poor metabolism of CA 15.3 due to liver insufficiency can play a role in the increase of this antigen in liver cirrhosis patients. We conclude that liver cirrhosis does not substantially limit the usefulness of this marker in patients with breast cancer as increase in CA 15.3 levels above the reference range was seen in only a small proportion of the patients.

  53. Dr. UshaSachidanandaAdiga

    Burn injuries are of major concern with respect to morbidity and mortality.It isthe leading cause of death among children worldwide. Burn damages cell membrane, causes loss of cell integrity and membrane permeability which brings major changes in serum electrolytes. Liver, kidney and pancreas are among the most vulnerable organs in burn trauma, markers of which help to assess the pattern and severity of injury. Hepatic changes are constantly reported in burns. This includes plasma proteins, acute phase reactants, various enzymes and coagulation factors. These parameters suggest the degree of severity, risk involved and prognosis. This is an effort to put all these hepatic markers together.

  54. Shrishailesh D. Mantur, Abhijit, C. and Vinod, S.

    Aim: Zinc deficiency is prevalent in children in developing countries and diarrhea is prevalent in worldwide. Supplemental zinc provides therapeutic benefits in diarrhea and prophylactic zinc supplementation reduces the diarrheal episodes and duration. Method: In this prospective study, we enrolled infants aged 6 to 11 months from urban slum areas. Total 28 slum areas were selected and we enrolled total 946 infants, these were randomly assigned as cases and control. Cases (473) received 20 mg of zinc orally every day for 2 weeks and rest 473 infants were assigned as controls. The primary outcome was the incidence and episodes of diarrhea. Results: In cases 382 (80%) infants had acute diarrhea and 452 (95%) in controls, whereas persistent diarrhea 35 (7%) in cases and 125 (26%) in controls. 48 (10%) infants of cases and 52 (11%) of controls had dysentery (p=1.007). Respiratory tract infection 122 (25%) in control and 48 (10%) in cases, whereas skin infection 34 (7%) in cases and 62 (13%) in controls. 15 (3%) infants of cases and 59 (12%) of controls had hospital admission. Conclusion: Present study highlights, prophylactic zinc supplementation for 2 weeks in infants aged between 6months to 11months has significantly reduced the incidence and duration of diarrhea during follow-up of 5 months and also reduced incidence of acute respiratory tract infections and skin infection.

  55. Hozeifa H. E. Abdalla and Mahdi H. A. Abdalla

    Cigarette smoking is one of the major health hazards, and it contributes significantly to cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. The aim of this study was to determine the effect of smoking and smoking cessation on fibrinogen level among Sudanese population. 150 adult men aged 19-54 years old were enrolled (50 cigarette smokers, 50 Ex-smokers and 50 non-smokers). Citrated blood samples were collected, plasma were separated and stored at -80 °C, and fibrinogen levels were measured by Clauss method. Fibrinogen levels were significantly higher among smokers group compared to non- smokers group (P<0.000) and smoking cessation group (p 0.000). Increase fibrinogen levels were significantly associated with the duration of cigarettes smoking (p value 0.000), and the number of cigarette smoked per day (p value 0.000). In conclusion, smoking potentially increases fibrinogen level. Our results suggest that the effect of smoking on fibrinogen level is reversible with smoking cessation. Increased fibrinogen level in the smokers is dose-dependent, that is directly associated with the smoking duration and frequency.

  56. Nazedah Ain Ibrahim, Mohamed Mansor Manan and Noorizan Abd Aziz

    Introduction: Neonatal sepsis currently causes 1.6 million deaths annually in developing countries and it is also the main reason for hospitalization in Neonatal Intensive Care Unit. Early onset sepsis still remains the significant risk factor for mortality and morbidity in neonatal period. Objectives: To describe the outcome of neonates treated with empiric antibiotic for suspected early onset sepsis (EOS). Methods: Records of neonatal patients at three Malaysian general hospitals admitted within 72 hours of life and prescribed with empirical antibiotic therapy for suspected EOS were retrospectively reviewed. Results: A total of 894 cases meet the inclusion criteria and divided into premature (<36 weeks) and term (≥37 weeks) neonates group. More than 80% of neonates had respiratory symptoms during admission. However, there were significant differences in diagnosis among premature and term neonates (p=0.001). 60% of suspected EOS cases were premature neonates (n=531) and they were mainly diagnosed for respiratory distress syndrome, congenital pneumonia and presumed sepsis. Majority were born to mothers exposed to antibiotic and steroid during pregnancy. Many of these mothers also had prolong rupture of membrane > 18 h (p>0.05). Premature neonates required longer hospital stay, higher ventilator support and higher surfactant administration (p<0.05). Term neonates (n=363) were mainly diagnosed with congenital pneumonia, presumed sepsis, meconium aspirate syndrome and hypoxic ischemic encephalopathy. These observation were consistent with the high incidence of meconium stained amniotic fluid, perinatal asphyxia and fit symptoms (p<0.05). Penicillin plus gentamicin regimen was the standard therapy started within 24 h of life and the mean treatment duration being less than 4 days. The observed successful rates for the three hospitals were between 89 - 95%. Conclusions: Majority of the neonates presented with respiratory symptoms and standard empiric antibiotic regimen prescribed showed good coverage for prevention of EOS.

  57. Hanan Balkhyoor and Hanan Al Kadi

    Background: Metabolic syndrome is a common health problem in the Saudi population and is a known cardiovascular risk. Most of the studies that were conducted to estimate the prevalence of the metabolic syndrome among Saudi population included subjects with a wide age range. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of the metabolic syndrome and its components in a group of apparently healthy and relatively young group of women. Subjects and Methods: This is a cross-sectional study that was conducted in the “Center of Excellence for Osteoporosis Research”, King Abdulaziz University, in Jeddah, Saudi Arabia, during the year 2011. Saudi women were enrolled for this study (n=205, age range 20-45 years). All recruited subjects were free of any chronic illnesses and not on any regular medications. “National Cholesterol Education Program (NCEP)- Adult Treatment Panel (ATP III) criteria” were used to identify women with the metabolic syndrome. Anthropometric measures were taken and blood pressure was measured in a standardized manner. Fasting blood samples were taken for various biochemical tests. Results: The prevalence of the metabolic syndrome in the study group was 7.8%, and the most common component was central obesity (46.3%). Reduced high density lipoprotein was the second most common component (29%). At least one component was present in 59% of the studied women. Conclusion and recommendation: The presence of the metabolic syndrome (8%) along with the high prevalence of central obesity in this young healthy group of women is quite alarming. Timely measures to reduce obesity in this group may reduce the incidence of future cardiometabolic disorders.

  58. Muna M. Ismael

    This investigation was designed to determine the effect of garlic juice on some kidney function parameters in layer chicken. Blood samples were collected via jugular vein from 20 animals before treatment with garlic juice for check urea, creatinine, uric acid, calcium ion, albumin and amylase in serum. The animals received garlic juice orally in dose (0.02ml/day) for 15 day and blood samples were collected for check the kidney function parameters which mentioned above. The result of this study revealed a significant decrease in all parameters which mentioned above with un significant decrease in serum urea concentration. These results may interpreted that garlic juice may increase glomeruler filtration rate GFR of nephrone and tubular secretion. The conclusion from this study that garlic juice increase kidney performance from the decrease in serum concentration of kidney function parameters.

  59. Hadiya Taruna Jivabhai, Vaghela Bhavika Kanubhai, Agravat Amit Hariharbhai, Dhruva Gauravi Animeshbhai and Vaghela Vikas Kanubhai

    Background: Malaria is one of the important public health problems in India by considering its prevalence, virulence and drug resistance. Aim: This study was undertaken to analyze and introspect the presentation of this disease in a tertiary referral centre. Methodology: This record-based descriptive retrospective study was conducted in a tertiary care level hospital -P.D.U. Government Hospital, Rajkot city, Gujarat, India from January 2011 to December 2013. The data were collected from the medical records department of the hospital and analyzed by using Microsoft excel. All the patients with fever as chief complain who had attended OPD of Medicine and patients admitted in ward, their blood samples were collected from Central laboratory & Pathology Department of hospital. Results: Out of a total of 187690 cases studied, 3957(2.10%) cases were positive for malaria. 2430(61.41%) cases were positive for Plasmodium vivax and 1526(38.56%) were positive for Plasmodium falciparum. The overall slide positivity rate (SPR), slide falciparum rate (SFR) and P.falciparum (PF) were 2.10%, 0.81 % and 38.57% respectively. Further analysis with month wise distribution of cases shows that malaria cases are more or less high in month of August, September and October. Conclusions: There is high prevalence of P. vivax as compare to P. falciparum infections. The maximum number of cases was reported in month of August to October which concludes that malaria has its peak incidence during rainy season. As year progresses there is gradual decrease in number of positive malarial cases concludes that awareness, availability of treatment, education &preventive measurements all of this help to decrease prevalence of malaria in Rajkot city.

  60. Manzoor A Mir Abdul Ralharbi Raidah Albaradie and Raid Saleem Albaradie

    Cerebral ischemia initiates a cascade of detrimental events including glutamate associated excitotoxicity, membrane lipid degradation, DNA damage, formation of reactive oxygen species and acute inflammation, which lead to the disruption of cellular homeostasis and structural damage of ischemic brain tissue. Inflammation is increasingly recognized to be the key element in pathological progression of ischemic stroke. Therefore, reducing oxidative stress and down regulating the inflammatory response are options that merit consideration as potential therapeutic targets for ischemic stroke. Consequently, agents capable of modulating both elements will constitute promising therapeutic solutions but as of now no such therapies have been translated to clinical application. Hence we hypothesized that contribution of oxidative and inflammatory response through TNF receptors in the course of ischemic cell death and its modulation by natural herbs may be of prime significance. Natural agent Gingko biloba extract (GBE) has been previously reported to be useful in the treatment of various cardiovascular diseases and neuronal degeneration. We used an in vitro murine model of ischemia (PC-12 cells exposed to oxygen–glucose deprivation[OGD]/reperfusion) and investigated the effects of this natural agent in neuroprotection and cell survival after ischemic injury.We observed that the treatment of cultures with GBE significantly increased cell viability and decreased NO generation in a dose-dependent manner. GBE (50 and 100 ug/ml) treatment of OGD exposed cellsmarkedly reduced the injury associated with increases in inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), and active caspase-3 protein expressions as well as the mRNA expression of TNF-a. This effect may be partially mediated by the inhibition of TNF-a activation, followed by the inhibition of inflammatory responses in PC12 cells. Therefore, GBE treatment may represent a novel approach for lowering the risk of or improving function in ischemia-reperfusion brain injury-related disorders.

  61. Dr. Radhika, P. M., Dr. Prathap, K. J., Dr. Shailaja Shetty and Dr. Anupama, K.

    Background: Manifestations of the occipital vertebrae in the region of anterior rim of foramen magnum, either in the midline and/or laterally are due to failure of segmentation of the proatlas. The proatlas is derived from the fourth occipital sclerotome. There is a broad spectrum of occipital vertebrae variations which includes: third occipital condyle (condylus tertius), basilar process, paracondylar process and prebasioccipital arch (hypocondylar arch). These manifestations, if present can cause brainstem myelopathy and lower cranial nerves palsy during first and second decades of life. Materials and Method: Two hundred dry adult human skulls of Indian origin were studied in the Department of Anatomy, M.S Ramaiah Medical College. The base of these skulls was observed for presence of remnants of occipital vertebrae. Results: Out of 200 skulls, 4 skulls showed remnants of occipital vertebrae (2%). Median occipital condyle was observed in one skull (0.5%), hypocondylar arch was observed in one skull (0.5%), bilateral basilar process in one skull (0.5%) and bilateral paracondylar process in one skull (0.5%). Conclusion: The knowledge of manifestations of occipital vertebrae is important for the radiologists during interpretation of radiographic images of the craniovertebral junction to make a distinctive diagnosis of its diseases and the neurosurgeons while doing skull base surgeries. An attempt has been made in the present study to throw light on the various manifestations of occipital vertebrae, its embryological and clinical significance.

  62. Agada, G. O. A., Abdullahi, I. O., Aminu, M., Odugbo, M., Chollom, S. C., Okeke, L. A. and Okwori, A. E. J.

    We conducted an investigative study to determine the prevalence and risk factors for Salmonella contamination of poultry farms in Jos, Plateau State, Nigeria. A standardized questionnaire was used to collate data on farm management practices, demographic characteristics, farm-handlers personal hygiene and clinical information from August, 2012 to April, 2013. Odds ratios were computed using bivariate analysis. Results revealed 10.9% prevalence of Salmonella species from the study using standard bacteriological methods. Farm previously contaminated by Salmonella (OR48.0; CI 95%2.40-958.0), presence of rodents (OR 11.25; CI 95% 1.19-106.13), movement from one pen to the other by farm-handlers (OR4.38; CI 95% 1.10-33.9), running and parking truck near the entrance to poultry farms (p < 0.05) and the use of untreated water (p < 0.05) were found to be independently associated with an increased risk of Salmonella infection in broiler and layer flocks. Furthermore, the results indicates that application of specific hygiene measures in the farm, such as washing of hands after tending the flocks, use of footbath disinfection when entering the poultry house, may significantly reduce the risk of Salmonella infection in chicken and farm-handlers. However, the use of antibiotics and vaccination against Salmonella were found to be protective.

  63. Opajobi, S. O., Kandakai-Olukemi, Y.T., Banwat, E. B., Chollom, S.C., and Egah, D.Z.

    Serological characterization of chicken salmonellae isolated from four thousand, six hundred and sixteen (N= 4,616) samples from 1,319 chickens was done between 2006 and 2011 with the live bird market in Jos, Plateau state as the study site. Sample breakdown consisted of crop tissues (n=1,319), poultry droppings (n=1,319), gizzard tissue (n=1,319) and oviducts (n=659). Standard methods for bacterial cultivation and phenotypic identification were adopted prior to serological typing of the isolates. 28 (0.006%) of the total samples yielded Salmonella serotypes. 15 were from improved breed of chickens while 13 were from local breeds. Eighteen (64.3%) of the 28 Salmonella isolates were from layers while 10 (35.7%) were from cockerels. Samples from oviduct accounted for the most isolates (10) while the crop tissue accounted for the least (3) isolates. Serological analysis of the 28 isolates showed that 3(10.7%) each were Enteritidis, Typhimurium and Bargny. They were closely followed by St. Paul with 2 (7.14%). The remaining serotypes had one isolate each, with 3 of them typed to serogroup level only (one group D and 2 group B). Findings from this study indicate that chicken salmonellosis is prevalent in Jos. Also, the occurrence of highly invasive and rare serotypes is of great economic and public health significance. Concerted effort must therefore be made to improve on preventive and curative measures against chicken salmonellosis and other zoonoses.

  64. Fúnmiláyọ̀ M. Adú (Mrs) and Reuben O. Ìkọ̀tún

    In this paper, we examine the use of racial stereotypes by one ethnic group against another in Nigeria and the data used were drawn from participant observation, recordings of spontaneous utterances and interviews with some travellers who returned from crisis-ridden places in Nigeria. We, however, focus on Hausa, Igbo and Yorùbá, the three major ethnic groups because the population of the three outnumbers the population of other ethnic groups and if the three are united, then, such unity will serve as a good reference point for other ethnic groups and the survival of the country can be assured. We argue that racial or language stereotypes are common occurrences in Nigeria and that the use by an ethnic or a sub-ethnic group against another cuts across nearly all ethnic and sub-ethnic groups in Nigeria. We show also that since independence, successive governments in Nigeria have been conscious of the need to promote unity, peace and oneness among the various ethnic and sub-ethnic groups in Nigeria but that much is still desired to promote the indices of oneness and that such indices include the removal of ethnic or sub-ethnic bias, quick resolution of conflicts if there are and national acceptance of Nigerians wherever they may be in any part of the country and to achieve these there should be emphasis on inter-marriage, appointments of non-indigenes into each of the states’ cabinet, review of the Nigerian constitution such that any Nigerian born in any state can be regarded as the indigene of the state among others. We conclude that racial stereotypes are just products of pride, self-esteem, self-deceit and self-ego and that from all sincerity are artificially created and the use should be discouraged by every well-meaning Nigerians so as to have a racism-free Nigeria.

  65. Vijayalakshmi, G., Anitha Subash and Shobana, A.

    The study was aimed at managing the vast amounts of wastes of the redfish Lutjanus sebea to isolate an industrially useful enzyme-protease. The visceral organ wastes of fish were collected, homogenized with Tris-HCl buffer and precipitated with varying concentrations of ammonium sulphate, acetone and ethanol and was then purified by dialysis and Sephadex G-100 column chromatography. The purification profile (the protein content, protease activity, specific activity, purification fold, and recovery %) were studied in the crude and partially purified samples. The results showed that the activity was maximum when precipitated with 40-60% ammonium sulphate, 100% acetone and 40% ethanol. The fractions with the highest specific activity were selected for further purification by dialysis and Sephadex G-100 column chromatography. The molecular weight of the isolated enzyme was determined by SDS-PAGE and Native PAGE and was to be found 27 kDa. The presence of protease was confirmed by zymography.

  66. ANENE, Afamdi, AFAM-ANENE, O. C., UKPABI, U. H. and ONUOHA Edith

    This paper aimed at evaluating the haematological responses of fingerlings of Clarias gariepinus fed experimental diets containing Gomphrena celosiodesleaf meal as plant protein source. Gomphrena celosiodes leaf meal was incorporated in diets at 0, 25, 50, 75 and 100% of experimental diets. All diets were iso-nitrogenous (41-42% Crude Protein). Fingerlings of Clarias gariepinus with initial mean weight of 10.15±1.54g were fed ad lib on allotted diets twice per day at 08.00 hrs and 18.00hrs for 60 days. The experiment was a complete randomized design (CRD). The results of fish fed test diets showed significant (p>0.05) differences with respect to RBC, WBC, MCH when compared with control. Results indicate a decreasing trend in Hb value of blood with increase in the quantity of Gomphrena celosiodes Leaf Meal (GCLM) in the diet. There were no significant different (p<0.05) in amongst all the diets with respect to Eosinophils, Basophils and MCHC. Blood sugar levels in fish fed on diets containing 75-100% GCLM was 72.73± 0.64 mg/dl and significantly lower (p>0.05) than fishes fed on 0-50% GCLM. The concentration of cholesterol in blood of fishes fed experimental diets decreased significantly (p>0.05) with increase in the quantity of GCLM in the diet. There was no significant difference (p>0.05) in creatinine, and total protein concentration amongst the various treatments. There were significant (p>0.05) increase in aspertate transaminase, alkaline phosphate and alanine transaminase concentrations in the blood of fishes among the treatment groups.

  67. Keerthana, K., Loganayaki, A., Meenakshi, S., Nandhini, A. and Dr. Mary Praveena, S.

    A new approach to tracking human subjects in video sequences. A parametric ellipsoid model in both detection and visual tracking is introduced. For detection, this is projected at static grid positions to find intersections between potential subject positions and foreground image data, as determined by mixture of Gaussian segmentation. For tracking, the ellipsoid is parameterized by position, velocity and height as part of the state vectors of a particle filter. As the subject moves, a 3-D appearance description using texture and color is learned progressively. This allows us to integrate observations from multiple cameras into the likelihood function. The texture and color signature can be used for effective tracking of subjects, with multiple object tracking accuracies on PETS benchmarks of greater than 90%. Further, we have combined this signature with spatial data association to achieve F-measures (combining recall and precision) rates of between 60% and 85% when handing off between cameras with non overlapping views, depending on the nature of the data sets. This measure is further improved by use of the bisection property of the Hungarian method for assignment of identities to subjects.

  68. Vela, T.

    The title compound LAM prepared by using AR-grade L-asparagine and NaCl. It is dissolved in de-ionized water to get NaOH and HCl and these two are used as solvents. Solubility of LAM can be determined by gravimetric method. Using slow evaporation technique (SET), the grown crystal can be obtained in 20 days. The crystallanity of the crystal can be confirmed by X-ray diffraction. The crystals, by X-ray (EDAX) confirm the composition of elements in the crystal. The structure can be determined from Single X-ray diffraction. It shows that it belongs to orthorhombic system with space group P212121. The various functional group associated with the crystal can be obtained from FTIR study. The NLO property can be confirmed by SHG test. It shows that, the grown crystal is 0.38 times that of KDP. The optional property of the grown crystal can obtained from UV-Visible transmittance study. The hardness of the grown crystal can be obtained from Vickers micro hardness test. The dielectric property and ac conductivity can be obtained from dielectric studies. From this activation energy can be obtained. An elementary analysis is carried out for the grown crystal by employing energy dispersive analysis.

  69. Padma Priya, K., Krishnan, J. and Malathi, R.

    A neuron is a cell that processes and transmits information through electrical and chemical signals. Dispensed with the neurotransmitter in chemical synapses, few synapses connect both the presynaptic and postsynaptic cells directly. Compared to chemical synapses, nerve impulse conduction by electrical synapses is faster. Nervous messages are mostly associated with an electrical change known as the action potential. An all active Fohlmeister – Coleman – Miller (FCM) model with five nonlinear ion channels was modeled for the neuron cell. The neuron cells are stimulated with a constant dc current and are also analyzed with a patterned biphase current stimulation with Inter Phase Gap.

  70. Padma Priya, K. and Krishnan, J. and Malathi, R.

    Vision is the complex information processing which relies on the neural processing of the retina. Light incident on the tissue layer of retina which is sensible to light, produces a series of electrical and chemical synapses which creates the nerve impulses. The light passing the pupil gets focused by the lens presents an inverted image to the photoreceptors called the rods and cones. Neural signals from the rods and cones are processed in the retinal ganglion cells (RGC) whose axons form the optic nerve. These nervous messages are mostly associated with an electrical change known as the action potential. An all active Fohlmeister – Coleman – Miller (FCM) model with five nonlinear ion channels is modelled for the RGC, with an intracellular resistance (Ra), a membrane mechanism in parallel with a membrane capacitance and also a gap junction conductance (G) in between the compartments. The simulations were done for the above mentioned FCM neuron model and are analysed by stimulating with a constant dc current and also with a patterned biphase current stimulation with Inter Phase Gap (IPG). The action potential of the designed RGCs and the electrotonic current flowing across the boundaries were figured out for different patterned stimulating current and gap junction conductances.

  71. Wanjala, Simon P. Omondi and Njehia, Bernard, K.

    Value chain components are known to be important factors that determine the extent of commercialization and productivity in the agricultural sector. This study sought to assess the level of commercialization and variables influencing milk production in Butula and Butere districts of Western Kenya. 400 smallholder dairy farms were surveyed using proportional stratified random sampling, while qualitative data was collected through six focus group discussions, five informal interviews with Ministry of livestock staff and Kenya dairy Board. Household commercialization index (HCI) was used to estimate the level of commercialization. To assess which predictors are important in milk production, a total of eleven variables - Fodder, dairy meal, research technologies, credit, group membership, artificial insemination, extension, returns, linkages with buyers, community attitude and policy were put into Pearson’s correlation with milk production. Seven variables had a positive and significant correlation (p<0.01). To evaluate their collective and individual effect, multiple regression analysis was carried out. Results of the HCI revealed that the input market participation index was 0.32, while the output HCI was 0.46. The overall HCI in the area was 0.39 meaning that dairy farms in the area had a moderate market orientation. Multiple regression model explained 63.9% of the variance in milk production while the collective effect of value chain variables was found to be significant (P<0.001). The most important predictors explaining the variations in milk production were Fodder, dairy meal, research technologies, credit, group membership, artificial insemination, returns, and policy. Fodder and dairy meal had stronger beta co efficients and together explained 51% of the variation in milk yield. The results obtained suggest that multiple regression analysis may provide a rigorous and quantitative tool in selecting important value chain variables ex ante in an upgrading strategy since it goes a step beyond current qualitative approaches.

  72. Etsegenet Kidane, Adem Mohammed and Yibeltal Nigussie

    Health is a basic Human right; hence one of the most important determinants of quality health service delivery is availability of essential drugs in public health facilities. Yet expenditure on health in general and that of drugs in particular in Africa are often lamented as being inadequate, inefficient, inequitable and unsustainable. This study examined deep across subject under the supply of Drugs and Medical Utensils in Public Hospitals. Drug Supply in Ethiopian Health sector conveyed as a very low rates. For those patients who visited public Hospitals (Mekelle and Quah), about 52.04% % were unhappy with the service delivery because drugs were not available and got medicine from private pharmacies with a higher price. Low income layer (66%) of the public hospital users in this study earn a salary below 120ETB moreover (28% are unemployed and 40% are students and farmers) in Mekelle and Quaha where the study was undertaken. They were exposed to unnecessary expenses to purchase drugs and medical utensils from the private pharmacies at high cost. On average private pharmacy price was greater than hospital price by 88.89% and this indicated that the service users were highly exploited by private pharmacy service suppliers and this was the result of low accessibility in public hospitals of the most demanded medicines and utensils.

  73. Etsegenet Kidane, Adem Mohammed and Yibeltal Nigussie

    The study tried to identify factors that affect the quality of garments’ marketing controllable variables and its possible impact on traders’ satisfaction. In order to address those issues, the researcher distributed questionnaires to marketing middlemen who were selling the company’s garment products and referred secondary data sources. The collected data and information were compiled and analyzed for possible indications of problem areas. It was found that the main marketing and sales factors that contributed to the low profit level are poor quality of garments, limited distribution outlets, limited promotional efforts and, inconsistency in product supply and deliver. It was finally recommended series of measures that the company should take in order to improve the current situation in terms of profit, market share, price competitiveness, and eventual customer satisfaction.

  74. Rakesh Kumar

    The study attempts to analyze the impact of advertising on consumer buying behaviour. Market provides a key to gain actual success only to those brands which match best to the current environment i.e." imperative" which can be delivered what are the people needs and they are ready to buy at the right time without any delay. The study, based on an analytical approach on a survey of 100 randomly selected consumers in Shimla city, examined the role played by advertising and media in influencing consumers buying behaviour for four selected washing products i.e Nirma, Tide, surf exel, and Rin. After analysis Results reveal that consumers are highly influenced by advertising in their preference for the brand. Out of these four detergents Surf Excel was the most popular and its advertisement could be easily recalled, remembered and understood by majority of respondents. Out of the media used for advertisement television was the most popular and effective method for promoting a particular brand. The major reasons for this preference are its attractive advertising policy and rich quality. But it was also seen that excess repetition of advertisements cause irritation in the minds of the consumer. The creative presentation and language of surf excel advertisements among selected washing product are successful to convey Message, Emotion, Value system regarding the product. The study clearly reveals that the advertisement has its impact on buying behaviour of consumers. Therefore, it is advisable to companies to emphasize their advertisement campaign not only to retain their market but to height it also.

  75. Dr. S. K. Singh Dr. Gyan Mukherjee and Chiranjib Mukherjee

    In this paper we introduce difference sets in algebra. We study their properties and prove some interesting results. We define a maximal difference set and show that a proper left difference set of an algebra with identity can be embedded in a maximal difference set. Then we prove difference set under homomorphism of one algebra to another. We also develop a difference set in context of a Banach algebra.

  76. Ong’unya Raphael Odhiambo, Aurah Cathrine Musalagani, Nabwire Joanne Lyanda and Songok Jepchirchir Ruth

    In Kenya, over 24 million plastic bags are used monthly, half of which end up in the solid waste mainstream. Plastic bags now constitute the biggest challenge to solid waste management in Nairobi, the capital city of Kenya. Nairobi is home to three million, three hundred people. They are ingested by livestock endangering their health and even causing death; they choke soils and are slow bio-degraders. The study therefore endeavoured to meet the following objectives: to determine the sources of plastic wastes in Nairobi City and; to determine the factors contributing to the problem of plastic bags waste. A sample of 380 respondents was drawn from the target population using non-probabilistic approach. The age of the participants ranged from 13-60 years. A questionnaire with both structured and unstructured items was used for data collection. Interviews and observations were also made to enrich information from the questionnaire. The instruments were piloted to determine their validity and reliability. The study established that: households contribute the bulk of the solid waste which included; plastic bottles, carton boxes, metals, glassware, and sharp objects with plastic bags waste forming the bulk of the total waste. Main sources of the waste included plastic industries, supermarkets, shops, hotels, and hospitals. Main factors that contribute to accumulation of plastic wastes included: lack of adherence to the guidelines on solid waste management by stakeholders in the city, failure of the City Council of Nairobi to address the problem of plastic bag waste due to weak policies, and industries and supermarkets that produce and release large volumes of plastic bags to the consumers. The study therefore recommended that: consumers to be educated on the health hazards that emanate from poor disposal of plastic wastes and the Kenya government to legislate sound laws on plastic waste management to strengthen the by-laws for effective reinforcement in the city solid waste management. The government should encourage the establishment of plastic waste recycling industries to assist in plastic waste management.

  77. Anindita Chowdhury, Selvaraj Kunjiappan, Chiranjib Bhattacharjee and Ranjana Chowdhury

    In recent years, the role of metal nanoparticles in medicine and biology has rapidly increased, due to ease of synthesis, surface functionalization and biocompatible unique properties. In this paper, extracellular biosynthesis of Silver nanoparticles (AgNaPs) using methanol extract of Cauliflower leaves (Brassica oleracea L.) has been attempted and achieved rapid formation of AgNaPs in a short duration. The resulting AgNaPs were analyzed using UV-visible spectroscopy, Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy, X-ray Diffraction, Scanning Electron Microscopy, High Resolution Transmission Electron Microscopy. The UV-visible spectrum showed a peak at 430nm corresponding to the Plasmon absorbance of the AgNaPs. FTIR spectra suggested the presence of biomolecules on the surface of the AgNaPs and XRD confirms the crystalline nature of the AgNaPs. The synthesized AgNaPs showed predominantly spherical structure and their sizes ranging from 20-70nm and 10-21nm under SEM and HRTEM observation respectively. The synthesized AgNaPs showed better antioxidant and efficiently inhibited various pathogenic organisms and reduced viability of the MDA-MB-231 and HeLa cells in a dose-dependent manner. This paper reported that the green chemistry approach for the synthesis of AgNaPs using methanol extract of cauliflower leaves would be a better alternative to the existing methods. The process may be helpful for the synthesis of plant based AgNaPs pharmaceutically useful drugs.

  78. Janaína Lima de Oliveira, Taiz Siqueira Pinto, Cybelle Pereira de Oliveira, Carolina Basseto Benato, Evandro Leite de Souza, José Pinto de Siqueira Júnior and Sávio Torres de Farias

    The widespread use of methicillin against bacterial infections, mainly in hospitals, led to the emergence of a resistance mechanism related to the presence and expression of the mecA gene, which encodes the protein PBP2a, resistant to penicillin/methicillin. Forty-two Staphylococcus aureus, previously isolated from Ricotta cheese sold in Brazil, were tested to antibiotic susceptibility and analyzed for the presence of mecA gene. Four isolates were resistant to oxacillin/methicillin, and to other antibiotics, including penicillin. Molecular characterization of the isolates revealed seven isolates carrying mecA gene. These results suggest that the resistance mechanism in these isolates is probably given by the expression of this gene, this may negatively regulated in isolates showed no resistance phenotype, since analysis showed that these genes do not have mutations that can explain the sensitive phenotype. Therefore, the food, particularly Ricotta cheese, are a potential way to spread strains of S. aureus carrying genes for resistance to antibiotics. Our results show that the presence of resistant strains in non-hospital environments merit special attention because the indiscriminate use of antibiotics by the population can lead to a positive selection of these strains, causing serious public health problems.

  79. Jalajakshi, S. and Vinutha, C.

    The morphology of spider Argiope anasuja (Thorell 1887) has been described by many authors. Its distribution is from India, Pakistan to Maldives. In the present study the sexual dimorphism, morphometry, structure of female epigynum and male pedipalp has been described. The morphometric analysis revealed that females are four times larger than males. This sexual size dimorphism has evolved due to differences in adult life style and also selection, which focuses on early maturity, as explained and quoted by many researchers.

  80. Thatchinamoorthy, C. and Rexlin Selvin

    The study was conducted during 2013 in Vasudevanallur block of Tirunelveli district in Tamil Nadu state to assess the profile characteristics of farmers growing SRI paddy. The study was conducted in Vasudevanallur block of Tirunelveli district in Tamil Nadu. A total of 120 respondents were selected, and interviewed using a well structured, pretested interview schedule. In addition to percentage analysis, cumulative frequency, correlation co-efficient and multiple regressions were the statistical tools employed. Majority of the respondents belonged to the old age category and were literates i.e., primary to secondary level of education. Majority of the respondents had agriculture as their secondary occupation and little more than half of the respondents belonged to low level of annual income group. Majority of the respondents had medium level of farming experience (25 years). Majority of the respondents had less than 2.5 acres of area under SRI cultivation. System of Rice Intensification farmers possessed medium level of social participation, scientific orientation, risk orientation, credit orientation, innovativeness, extension agency contact and economic motivation.

  81. Mustahson Farooq Fazili

    The study of reproductive parameters of little egret Egretta garzetta was carried out during breeding season of 2012 in Hokersar wetland, North- Kashmir and Kashmir arts emporium park Srinagar. Breeding parameters namely nest site, egg laying date, clutch and brood size, egg biometry and breeding success were examined. Breeding was initiated with selection of nesting sites. Nests were bowl shaped of dried willow twigs. Mean egg dimensions were 45.05±1.12mm×34.78 ±1.11mm. Mean egg weight was 27.44±0.93g and clutch size averaged 3.85 ± 0.59. Both sexes incubated the eggs with major role of females and incubation period averaged 23.15±1.21 days. Hatching was asynchronous and hatchlings were nidifugous. Hatching, fledging and nesting success calculated were 62.38%, 57.35% and 58.62% respectively. Main causes of low nesting success were predation, nest abandonment and faulty incubation.

  82. Mustahson Farooq Fazili

    The study was carried out in Lake Wular between 2007-2009 and in this paper an attempt is made to draw a relationship between the nesting success and average reed height and density at nest in Indian great reed warbler. A positive correlation was found between nesting success and reed height (r = 0.94) and nesting success and reed density (r =0.98). Earlier nests were more susceptible to predation than the later because early nests were located in relatively shorter and less dense vegetation than the later nests. The nesting success during early periods of breeding season was therefore far less in comparison to late periods because of high effect of predation in less dense vegetation.

  83. Zelalem Getahun Dessie

    CD4 counts are one of the factors used to measure disease progression in HIV-positive individuals. CD4 counts vary in individuals and across populations due to a variety of demographic, environmental, immunological and genetic factors that probably persist throughout the course of HIV infection. The purpose of this study is to examine factors affecting immunological recovery of a patient under ART treatment. A sample of 710 patients has been taken from a hospital record at Bahir-Dar Felege-Hiwot Referral Hospital, Bahir Dar, Ethiopia from June 2006 to August 2013. Kaplan-Meier estimation method and Cox regression model were applied. From the Kaplan-Meier, female patients, baseline CD4 count>200cell/µl, TB negative, total lymphocyte count≥1200 cell/mm3, and baseline weight≥60kg has contributed to a shortened time to immunological recovery at 5% significant level. From Cox regression model result, male patient (adjusted HR=0.535), lower CD4 count of ≤200cell/µl (adjusted HR=0.59), lower lymphocyte count of <1200 cells/mm3 (adjusted HR=0.59), patients who have severe anemia (adjusted HR=0.42) and lower baseline weight of <60kg (adjusted HR=0.964) were significantly associated to longer time to immunological recovery at 5% significant level. Negative tuberculosis Patients (adjusted HR=1.44) was significantly associated to shortened time to immunological recovery at 5% significant level. In conclusion, the findings of this study shows that sex, TB status, anemia status, baseline CD4 counts, baseline lymphocyte counts, and baseline weight are major factors related to immunological recovery of AIDS patient. I recommend that physicians need to be cautious about the baseline health status of a patient, as it may affect his/her time to immunological recovery.

  84. Er. Sujatha, S., Dr. Anitha, R., Dr. Selvan, P. and Er. Selvakumar, S.

    The modeling of the real time system with Static VAR Compensator (SVC) using ETAP software is presented in this paper. The system is analyzed under severe disturbance to study the transient behavior by simulating three phase to ground fault at particular bus. To enhance the transient stability of the system, SVC is inserted and tested to show the effect of the same on the transient stability under severe disturbance. The potential application of SVC on the improvement of voltage profile of the various buses and reduction in rotor angle oscillation of the generator is evaluated from the implementation results.

  85. Hassan Ali Durrani

    Used lubricating oil (ULO) is one of the anthropogenic pollutants, contains toxic substances, therefore its handling is very difficult. This hazardous oil needs proper abatement technologies extensively depend not only on the suitability of the technology but from the environment point of view. In this work, base on the life cycle, six management options were evaluated for ULO for their environmental impact point of view. Two of them based on the recycling treatment of ULO, i.e. acid clay and solvent extraction processes for the recovery of main product, the recycled used oil. The other four options based on the energy to generate from ULO are smaller boiler, vaporizing boiler, atomizing burner boiler and cement kiln, where as the emissions were characterized into four environmental impact categories: acidification potential, global warming potential, eutrophication potential and heavy metals. The high environmental load believe to be produced by acid clay treatment in terms of acidification where as the lowest environmental impact created in terms of global warming potential and heavy metals is the cement kiln because of the high temperature in cement kiln, that could has been rightly allowed for the complete combustion of organic compounds in ULO, and other heavy metal contaminants during the cement reaction captured in mortar.

  86. Dr. Kishore Kumar Das and Aftab Ara

    The notion of VUCA was introduced by the U.S. Army War College to describe the more volatile, uncertain, complex, and ambiguous, multilateral world which resulted from the end of the Cold War (Kinsinger and Walch, 2012). We are moving from a world of problems, which demands speed, analysis and uncertainty to solve, to a world of dilemmas, which demands patience, sense making and an engagement with uncertainty. ’VUCA’ is Volatile, Uncertain, Complex and Ambiguous are the characteristics of modern strategic dilemmas which requires a different orientation and a set of skills. Dilemmas span disciplines and frustrate attempts to craft elegant and final solutions. According to VUCA if we wait too long for a moment the moment may pass without our knowledge. It is the recognition that there can be many ways beyond hand-to-hand combat in the marketplace which robs a competitor of its advantage. Management’s version of the use of Special Forces is an effort to switch from a hierarchical into a modular form of organization. Thus, shifting of agency from executive committees to self-managed, multi-disciplinary teams. This is equivalent of the military’s use of allies and proxies is a tendency to form partnerships that verges on the indiscriminate .In this turbulent business environment HR managers must apply VUCA model as a framework to develop agile leaders. Our objective of studying Lenovo is to find the turbulent condition and find the leadership qualities needed to apply VUCA model. Our methodology of study was both by primary and secondary methods. Here we suggest strategic, complex critical-thinking skills which are required of business leaders who can counter volatility, uncertainty, complexity, and ambiguity with vision, understanding, clarity, and agility.

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