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September 2015

  1. Pierre Marie Tebeu, M.P.H., Kemfang Ngowa Jean Dupont, Noa Ndoua Claude, Michel Roger Ekono, Suzy Dorine Maninzou and Charles Henry Rochat

    Introduction: Many studies have reported the risk factors for obstetric fistula, but little is known on the causes particularly in Cameroon. Knowledge on the causes of obstetric fistula could help in preventing its occurrence. Objectives: The purpose of this study was to assess the causes of obstetric fistula. Methods: We conducted a cross-sectional descriptive study to identify the causes of obstetric fistula treated at the University Hospital of Yaoundé, Cameroon from January, 1, 2009 to September, 31, 2011. Results: During the study period, we identified, 58 obstetric fistula cases, genito-urinary fistula, 35 cases (60.3 %), recto-vaginal fistula 19 cases (32.8%) and mixed fistulas 4 cases (6,9%) respectively. The causes of genito-urinary obstetric fistulas were: ischemic necrosis after obstructed labor (62.7%), direct tear by poorly conducted cesarean delivery (25.7%), emergency hysterectomy (5.8%), forceps delivery 2.9% and direct tear during induced abortion (2.9%) respectively. All cases of mixed fistula were caused by ischemic necrosis due to obstructed labor. Among the 39 patients with genito-urinary fistulas, 7(17.9%) prevention was envisaged by the use of an indwelling catheter, this measure was not used for 30 (76.9%) cases and 2(5.1) could not remember whether any catheter was used. Conclusion: The most frequent causes of obstetric fistulas among patients treated at our institution were ischemic necrosis due to obstructed labor and direct tear complicating cesarean delivery that are all preventable.

  2. Nishat Afroz, Divya Rabindranath, Nida Shamim, Azka Anees Khan and Senthil, P.

    The simultaneous occurrence of renal cell carcinoma (RCC) and transitional cell carcinoma (TCC) in the same kidney is unusual. We report a 60-year-old man with ipsilateral synchronous renal adenocarcinoma and renal pelvic transitional cell carcinoma with severe hydronephrosis and a huge staghorn calculus in the ipsilateral kidney. The patient was admitted to the hospital because of right flank pain and hematuria which he had had for 4 months. X-ray and USG revealed a huge stone in the renal pelvis and hydronephrosis of the right kidney and IVP suggested a non-functional kidney. Right radical nephrectomy was done. A section of the specimen revealed a renal cell carcinoma located at the middleof right kidney and a papillary transitional cell carcinoma arising from the renal pelvis. This is a rare case of combined renal malignancies presenting in an atypical manner as hydronephrosis.

  3. Dr. Natasha Jaiswal, Dr. Dakshita Joy Sinha, Dr. Udai Pratap Singh and Dr. Shashi Prabha Tyagi

    Cold plasma is an emerging field with vast scope and incorporates broad interdisciplinary approach to the reader ranging from physics, chemistry, biology, and engineering. It has recently engaged medicine and dental hygiene in research. Apart from the basic plasma processes and the restrictions and requirements set by international health standards, the review focuses on plasma interaction with prokaryotic cells (bacteria), eukaryotic cells (mammalian cells), cell membranes, DNA etc. The role that Low Temperature Atmospheric Pressure Plasma (LTAPP) could play in the inactivation of pathogenic microorganisms might prove to be a new, faster, noncorrosive, more economical alternative, as well as support green healthcare. The PubMed database search revealed that the reference list for cold Plasma featured 1,17,000 articles in dentistry. A forward search was undertaken for the selected articles, author names and contemporary endodontic texts. A review is presented on the key developments in the arena of plasma medicine and dentistry so as to familiarize the modern dentists with the new advances in endodontic disinfection.

  4. Inchanalkar Sandeep, Rohan Patil, Prithviraj Jadhav and Singh Chamandeep

    A brain tumor associated with an arteriovenous malformation (AVM) is very rare. A 36 yr old female presented with two separate lesions, one in right front parietal (FP) and other in left FP area on MRI. The right side lesion was a tumor and the left side was an AVM. The right side lesion was removed first and was a meningioma, the left side lesion was an AVM and was observed. As it was Spetzler Martin grade - 4 without bleeding. We discuss the operative strategy in case of synchronous disease and review of literature.

  5. Priyanka Mukhopadhyay, Satyajit Sen, Gopal Mondal, Asesh Banerjee and Sibani Chakraborty

    Beedi binding profession occupies a prominent place in rural India. For the beedi industry West Bengal is one of the major hub in India. It has to bealso noted that this profession is an unorganized sector of labour which lacks in access to proper health care. Here we present a study which was carried out with 171 beedi workers from two different locations Hasnabad and Kankra of North 24 parganas in West Bengal. Most of the beedi workers were found to be suffering from tuberculosis (TB) and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), which are two important respiratory diseases. A positive association was observed between the respective diseases with beedi making profession. Thereby we recommend greater governmental support for the beedi workers’ healthcare and routine check up for prevention and cure of these two afore-mentioned diseases in particular.

  6. Mathialagan, P.

    A study was conducted at the Namakkal district in Tamil Nadu to understand the extent of participation of poultry farmers and their families in general management activities. A sample of 42 poultry farmers, 30 extension personnel, 30 technology developers were surveyed using an interview schedule and data were analysed using appropriate statistical tools. The results revealed that the major level of participation was from the family head followed by his wife and family members in housing management and decision making. In most of the activities requiring constant monitoring and supervision, and outside mobility in which role of head was more. Wife and others role were more in labour depended job.

  7. SimthembileNgambu, Masibonge Gxasheka and Thobela Louis Tyasi

    The main objective of this review is to investigate the information available on meat sensory evaluation and characteristics of meat. Meat sensory evaluation is a scientific discipline used in experimental design and statistical analysis to measure, analyse, and interpret meat responses that are perceived by senses of flavour, aroma, juiciness and tenderness. Meat sensory characteristics can be evaluated by objective methods, instrumental or sensorial with trained panels and by subjective methods, with a consumer panel. It is very important to evaluate the meat for consumption purposes.

  8. Dr. Cheena Singh and Dr. Parvathi Devi, M.

    The temporomandibular joint (TMJ) is one of the most complex joint in the body, the area where the mandible articulates with cranium. It is formed by the mandibular condyle fitting into mandibular fossa of the temporal bone. Separating these bones from direct articulation is the articulating disc which is composed of dens fibrous connective tissue. Functionally, the articulating disc serves as non ossified bone that permits the complex movements of the joint. Because the articulating disc functions as a third bone, the craniomandibular articulation is considered as compound joint. Disorders of this joint are called as temporomandibular joint disorder having typical signs and symptoms. Although there is various treatment modalities for treating this joint disorder which include conservative treatment modality and surgical treatment modality. This review article highlights the temporomandibular joint disorder and its various classification and treatment modality.

  9. Sandeep P. Inchanalkar, Abhay P. Chougule, Arun kumar deshmukh, Vinod L. Karagi, Chamandeep S. Kamboj and Ankush Sharma

    Squamous Cell Carcinoma (SCC) arises from an epithelial cell lineage, and depending on the site of occurrence can have variable presentation and prognosis. The mean age of presentation is typically in the sixth decade of life, twice as prevalent in men. Sunlight exposure for long periods can lead to SCC of the cutaneous variety. History and Clinical examination are diagnostic, but can be supplemented with a edge biopsy, CT and MRI. Management entails a variety of treatment modalities, ranging from Electrodessication, Mohs Micrographic Surgery, Wide Excision, Radiotherapy and Chemotherapy. We present a case of 45 year old female, with SCC involving the scalp, managed by Wide Local Excision with Split Thickness Skin Graft and Rotational Flap. Postoperative HPR Suggests adequate margins and patient is on a 6 monthly follow up schedule to rule out recurrence.

  10. Praveen Kumar Pandey

    Accessory ossicles most of the times found incidentally in the foot and they vary widely in their appearance, combinations and prevalence. Accessory ossicles are mostly asymptomatic but sometimes these may become symptomatic due to trauma, degeneration, inflammation, infection etc. Knowledge of their presence and variations is required among clinicians to prevent misinterpreting them as fractures—a common error. Os trigonum, os perineum and accessory navicular are the most commonly seen accessory ossicles in the foot. In review of literature, we didn’t find a single case with co-occurrence of os perineum and accessory navicluar in a foot which prompts us to report our case 35 years/male who found to have incidental finding of os peroneum and accessory navicular both in his right foot on radiographs after a fall on stairs.

  11. Dr. Ahmed Khattab, Dr. Dalia M. El-Lahoony, Dr. Rania El Zayat, Dr. Ibrahim Elmadbouh and Asmaa Sameeh Darweesh

    Adequate glycemic control before and during pregnancy is crucial to improving outcome of gestational and pre-gestational diabetes mellitus and may normalize birth weight (Waldemar, 2016). However, it is still a controversy whether intra-uterine exposure to maternal diabetes is a risk factor for changing hormone levels involved in the development of insulin resistance in these infants. This cross sectional study was conducted on 60 terms appropriate of gestational age (AGA) neonates (30 Infants of diabetic mothers and 30 infants of non diabetic mothers) delivered in Obstetrics and Gynecology Departments, at El Menofiya University Hospital and Shebin- Elkom Teaching Hospital, from September 2014 to Marsh 2015. This study revealed that serum Insulin, Leptin & Insulin resistance were higher in average birth weight IDM compared with controls with statistically highly significant differences (p ≤ 0.001). Infants with bad maternal diabetic control showed higher serum Insulin and Leptin levels than infants with fair maternal diabetic control. Thus interventions during pregnancy, aimed at a close monitoring of maternal blood glucose concentrations, are likely to have an impact not only on maternal and neonatal health, but also on the epidemic of T2DM and childhood obesity. Breast feeding and postnatal follow up of IDM weight gain may be essential to protect infants of diabetic mothers from these complications. We found that appropriate for gestational age (AGA) infants of diabetic mothers had higher cord serum insulin, leptin and insulin resistance index than those of non diabetic mothers which were directly correlated to maternal diabetic control as regard Hba1c levels.

  12. Dr. Aarthi Sundaresan, Dr. Ambica, R., Dr. Sathyanarayan, M.S., Dr. Nagarathnamma, T. and Dr. Vineetha K.R

    Trichosporon asahii belongs to class Basidiomycetes and is known to cause both superficial and deep seated infections of increasing morbidity and mortality in both immunocompetent and immunodeficient hosts. Urinary tract infections by this fungus though rare, have been reported earlier especially in association with indwelling medical devices.

  13. Col Sushil Kumar

    Inferior vena cava (IVC) is a composite vessel and the precise mode of development its post renal segment is somewhat uncertain. Because of the various transformations that occur during its development, variations do occur, but are not common. The common anomalies of abdominal part of IVC include absence of hepatic segment of IVC and a double IVC. An anomalous formation of the inferior most segment of the IVC is reported and discussed wherein the IVC was formed by the union of left common iliac vein and right external iliac vein at the level of S-1/S-2 vertebra. The right common iliac vein was absent.

  14. Gabriel Rosangkima and Ganesh Chandra Jagetia

    Croton caudatus Geisel is a traditional anticancer medicinal herb of the people of Mizoram, India. In the present study, the in vivo and in vitro anticancer potentials, antioxidant and analgesic properties of C. caudatus leaf extracts were evaluated. Phytochemical constituents of its methanol and aqueous extracts were also analyzed. Methanol (CC-Meth) and aqueous (CC-Aq) extracts exhibited potent anticancer activity in vivo (%ILS ̴ 92.5%) while in vitro cytotoxic activity was noted only with the aqueous extract. CC-Aq extract exhibited an IC50 value 28.36 µg/ml in vitro. The two extracts also significantly reduce acetic acid and formalin-induced pains in mice. The analgesic activity in both the first and second phases of formalin-induced pain test suggested that the extracts have both analgesic and anti-inflammatory properties. The aqueous extract showed significant DPPH and nitric oxide radical scavenging potentials. Results of preliminary phytochemical screening of aqueous extract of C. caudatus revealed the presence of alkaloids in larger amount and flavonoids, saponins, tannins and cardiac glycosides in lesser amount. The phytochemical constituents and antioxidant properties of the plant extract may be an important contributory factors involved in the anticancer and analgesic activities of aqueous extract of C. caudatus leaf.

  15. El Jakee, J., Samir, A., Al-Saify, S., Shimaa T. Omara and Hedaia, R.

    S. aureus produces extracellular protein toxins and virulence factors which contribute to the pathogenicity of the organism. The present work aimed to analysis the prevalence of enterotoxin producing S. aureus strains isolated from bovine and humans origin using reverse passive latex agglutination (RPLA) kit and PCR. A total of 25 S. aureus isolates out of 374 samples collected from cattle, buffaloes and human were identified, 20 from bovine and 5 from human. Using RPLA, 10 out of the 25 S. aureus isolates were found to be toxigenic with an incidence of 40%. They were distributed as enterotoxin C (50%), a (20%), A& B, A& C and enterotoxins A, B, C and D (10 % each). Using PCR 7 enterotoxigenic S. aureus isolates (28%) were detected. sea gene was detected in 2 isolates (28.6%), while sec, seb, sea & seb, sec & see and sea, sec, sed genes were detected in one isolate each (14.3% each). Analysis of the results obtained by RPLA and PCR for the productivity of classical enterotoxins A-D revealed approximately correlation between each other. It could be concluded that cows' and buffaloes' milk are of public health risk due to potent staphylococcal food poisoning strains.

  16. Muzzafar zaman, Aliya Shah, Akif Mutahar Shah, Mushtaq Ahmad Shah and Sufoora Bilquees

    Laparoscopic surgical procedures aim to minimize the trauma of the open conventional procedures. Advantages of laparoscopy include smaller incisional sites, lower risks of wound complications, reduced postoperative pain and complications, improved recovery, shorter hospital stays, more rapid return to normal activities, and significant cost savings. Endoscopic surgery also involves complications. Apart from entry complications of laparoscopy, hemodynamic and cardiorespiratory alterations cannot be under estimated and pose a significant risks especially in patients with pre existing cardiac and respiratory ailments. Risks are associated with Laparoscopic Surgery especially when extended periods of carbon dioxide insufflation are used, and especially with the patient in the steep head-down position. In such circumstances, adverse haemodynamic and respiratory effects are more prone to occur. Cardiorespiratory changes associated with laparoscopy include those associated with tilting the patient to facilitate instrumentation and surgical exposure, and pressure effects of the instilled gas into peritoneum. The operative technique requires inflating gas into the abdominal cavity to provide a surgical procedure. An intra-abdominal pressure (IAP) of 10-15 mmHg is used. Carbon dioxide (CO2) is commonly used because it does not support combustion, is cleared more rapidly than other gases, and is highly soluble in blood. However, the disadvantage of CO2 is that the absorption of CO2 can cause hypercapnia and respiratory acidosis.

  17. Akshatha Nayak, Dr. Mamatha Shivananda Pai and Mrs. Yashoda Satish

    A study was conducted to find the effectiveness of game based learning on knowledge of health promotion among primary school children of selected rural schools of Udupi Taluk Karnataka”. Objectives of the study were to find the effectiveness of game based learning on knowledge of health promotion, and also to find the association between knowledge on health promotion and the selected variables. Demographic proforma and structured knowledge questionnaire on health promotion were administered eighty primary school children selected using proportionate sampling technique. The findings of the study showed that majority 36(45.0%) children belonged to the age group of 10 years, 48(60%) were boys and 41(51.25%) children were in fifth standard. The mean post-test knowledge score in each area of knowledge in the experimental group was higher than the control group. Game based learning was an effective method increase the knowledge level of the higher primary school children. (t=13.77, p=0.001)

  18. Sunil Kharge, Dr.S.P.Dhonde, Dr.P.E.Jagtap, ,Dr.Nitin Nagane and Dr.G.J.Belvalkar

    The present study was planned to know the effect of mixed aqueous extract of piper nigrum & zingiberofficinale in high fat diet (HFD) induced hyperlipidemic albino rats. Phytochemical analysis was done separately on each aqueous extract. Alkaloids, saponins, tannins, phlobatanins, anthrax quinones, & cardenolides were found in both plants where as cardiac glycosides, steroids, &terpenoids were absent. Forty albino rats were randomly distributed into four groups (A-D) of ten albino rats each. All were fed with high fat diet (HFD) & water ad libitum. Group A was negative control group& Group D was positive control group and were not administered any extract. Whereas Group B & Group C were test groups, treated by mixed aqueous extract (P.Nigrum + Z.Officinale) at 400mg/kg.body weight & 800mg/kg.body weight respectively for forty-two days.The results showed that the treatment with mixed aqueous of ZO & PN at a dose of 800mg/kg body weight successfully reduced the elevated serum lipids more than the dose of 400mg/kg.body weight & that of simvastatin.These findings indicate that the mixed aqueous extract of ZO & PN can be used in hyperlipidaemia, a major cause of CVD. Thus, herbs PN & ZO may be useful in future as a leading compound for development of new drugs, after clinical trials.

  19. Igbeneghu, C., Olisekodiaka, J.M., Alabi, T., Adebayo, T.O., Adedokun, A.S., Odaibo, A.B.

    There are conflicting reports on the effect of ABO blood groups and/or haemoglobin variants on the prevalence of falciparum malaria. The present study examined the effect of ABO blood groups and/or haemoglobin variants on the prevalence of uncomplicated (mild) falciparum malaria in a hyperendemic area. A total of 486 malaria positive patients and 486 controls of age ≥16 years were screened for this study. Malaria parasite test, ABO blood group antigens test and haemoglobin genotype were carried out using standard laboratory techniques. There was no significant relationship between ABO blood groups and malaria (χ2 = 1.14, df = 3, p = 0.767). However, malaria varied significantly with hemoglobin variants (χ2 = 27.09, df = 5, p < 0.001). When combined, a significant association was only observed in the distributions of blood types A, B and O between AA and AS variants (χ2 = 7.931, df = 2, p = 0.019) in the malaria group. Proportion of malarial infection increases as follows: O+AS(0.345) < B+AS(0.424) < A+AS(0.468) < A+AA(0.489) < B+AA(0.55) < O+AA(0.568). While group O individuals who have HbAS genotype are the most resistant to malaria, group O who have HbAA are the most susceptible. This study shows that in this malaria hyperendemic area, mild falciparum malaria is influenced by haemoglobin genotype but not by ABO blood type.

  20. Dr. Mamatha Shivananda Pai, Dr. Vijaykumar, Dr. Santhosh Prabhu, P. and Dr. Sundeep, P.T

    The study was a descriptive analysis of the socio-demographic characteristics carried out at a paediatric surgical unit of Kasturba Hospital Manipal. Objective: The objective of the study is to describe the socio-demographic characteristics of the mothers of children admitted for surgery in the paediatric surgery ward. Methods: Participants of this study were 120 mothers selected using purposive sampling. Data were collected using a socio-demographic questionnaire and family support rating scale. Result: Mother’s age ranged from 19 to 42 years with mean of 27.23 years. The age of marriage for the girls is 18 years and by 35 years all women would have got married and has had one or two children. Most of the mothers had high family support were from lower socio economic status. Conclusion: Understanding the socio-demographic characteristics will help in communication with the mothers when their children are admitted in the hospital.

  21. Vidya, S. and Thiruneelakandan, G.

    Cancer is still a challenging diseases of human community mainly because of the inability of the modern medicine. We can state several reasons for the inability of modern medicine. The most challenging aspects are the development of resistance to the cytotoxic agents, side effects of the drugs used to treat cancer, the ability of cancer cells to behave like stem cells acquiring mesenchymal characteristics during metastasis. So our aim of the research is to formulate a natural drug, which acts as a potential anticancer agent without any side effects. The lactobacilli strains were isolated from the marine environment. The strains were sequenced for 16srRNA and compared with available data in NCBI. Among the strains isolated 7 of them proved to be new. The crude protein was isolated from the bacteria and treated as anticancer drug for in-vivo studies in tumour induced hamster models. Promising results were obtained; the drug decreased the tumor volume to a considerable amount and increased the life span of the animal model without any side effects when compared to the control models.

  22. Pramod Kumar Singh, Akash Rawat, Rakesh Kumar Dixit, Pradeep Kumar and Rajendra Nath

    Omega-3 fatty acids are potent antioxidants and exhibit a biological activities including neuroprotective, anti-oxidant, anti-apoptotic and anti-inflammatory properties, and have been suggested to be useful in treatment of several diseases. The present study has been undertaken to investigate the protective effect of omega-3 fatty acid (750mg/kg bwt.) against lead acetate (7.5mg/kg bwt.) induced impairment in neurotransmitters and neurobehavioral in wistar rats. The levels of dopamine (DA), nor-epinephrine (NE) and serotonin (5-HT) were evaluated in brain regions (cerebral cortex and cerebellum) of adult male wistar rats. The result showed that the administration of acute dose of lead acetate (7.5 mg/kg bwt.) induced a significant (P<0.05) decrease levels of DA, NE, and 5-HT in the brain region. Treatment of rats with omega-3 fatty acid produced an improvement in most of the studied parameters as well as the neurobehavioral features. In conclusion our data showed that dietary omega-3 fatty acid provide protection on lead-induced behavioral and neurological effects.

  23. Dr. Sanjoy Chowdhury, M.S., DNB, D. O., Dr. Pratik Bhosale and Dr. Hitesh Patel and Nilanjan Chowdhury

    Aim: Postoperative inflammation is a known contributory factor in posterior capsular opacification. Ocular inflammatory response was studied by measuring micro protein levels in aqueous. Method: Aqueous tap was done during needling for PCO in 25 secondary cataracts. Equal number of age and sex matched cataract surgical cases were taken as controls. Results: Aqueous micro protein level was found to be higher in "after cataract" cases. Conclusion: This inexpensive method to study ocular inflammatory response was found to be helpful in prevention of posterior capsular opacification by using NSAIDs in all cases of Grade 1 PCO.

  24. Harit Kasana, Lavanyam Pathania, Suchitra, Gunjan Sikarwar and Neeraj Malik

    BCG vaccine is an attenuated derivative of Mycobacterium bovis which is widely used as a vaccine against tuberculosis and conventional as well as molecular methods have been described as identification test for BCG vaccine. In present study, we compared the results obtained with Ziehl Neelsen staining and multiplex PCR (mPCR) methods for identification of different batches of BCG vaccine. We found that all the BCG vaccine batches tested showed specific amplified DNA band indicating that mPCR method may be used as a rapid and specific alternative method for the identification of BCG vaccine.

  25. Vinodkumar, M., Ravishankar, K., Aswinichand, P., Satyanarayana, V., Manoj, G. H. R. R. and Bharath Kumar, A.

    Introduction: Drug Use Evaluation (DUE) is a system of ongoing, systematic, criteria-based evaluation of drug use that will help ensure that medicines are used appropriately (at the individual patient level). Methodology: It was an Observational Descriptive Study. Drug Utilization data was obtained from the prescriptions of the patients attending cardiology outpatient department in Government General Hospital. The data was collected and Defined Daily Dose of frequently prescribed drugs and prescribing indicators were assessed. Results: Out of 569 patients, males and females were 287 and 282 respectively.51-60 years age group was commonly affected. Rural people were commonly affected than urban people. Hypertension was found to be major risk factor among the study participants. Coronary artery disease was the most commonly diagnosed disease. Clopidogrel, Atorvastatin, Isosorbide Dinitrate and Aspirin are most commonly prescribed. The average number of drugs per prescription was found to be 4.17. Percentage of drugs prescribed from National Essential Drugs list was 89.5% .The percentage of drugs prescribed by generic name was 72.8% Conclusion: The most commonly prescribed medications are Clopidogrel, Atorvastatin, Isosorbide Dinitrate and Aspirin. Polypharmacy was not observed. Percentage of drugs prescribed by Generic name should be improved.

  26. MadasamyBalamurugan, ArumugamSudha, MuruganRoopamala, JamunaraniSrirangaramasamy and JarasruthiMuruganantham

    Simulation exercise using cadavers to train bone marrow aspiration technique – second year undergraduate medical student’s perspective. Introduction: Simulation is “the imitation of the operation of a real-world process or system over time”. The main goal is to significantly reduce the margin of error in real life situations. Cadaver had been used to train psychomotor skills for medical students. We attempted to find out the student’s perspective of bone marrow aspiration training by simulation technique using cadavers to second year undergraduate medical students while teaching hematology. Methods: 127 students from second year MBBS with four faculties participated in this study. The students were divided into groups and facilitated by faculties. Bone marrow aspiration was done in cadavers from Anatomy department. A survey was taken through feedback. Results: All the students appreciated the facilitator for their encouragement, interaction and preparations (99.9%). 82.65% of the students appreciated the clarity, relevance and usefulness of the skills learned and 63.17% of the students felt the organization, facilities and atmosphere was good for learning. Discussion: Various studies in the past corroborated with our study results. Newer and better methods of embalming like Thiel embalming has emerged which makes the cadaver more real life-like. In developing countries like India, cadaver can be an economic alternative to other methods of simulation.

  27. Adla B. Hassan, Taysir Garadah, Diab E. Diab, Reginald P. Sequeira, Ahmed Jaradat, Azzeghaibi Saleh Nasser and Fathia Al Qurashi

    Objective: To investigate serum levels and relationship between tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α), interleukin-6 (IL-6), C-reactive protein (CRP), bone mineral density (BMD) and vitamin D in Bahraini sickle cell disease (SCD) patients compared to healthy controls. Methods: Seventy patients with SCD followed at department of hematology at Salmaniya Medical Complex and 70 sex-matched healthy controls were included prospectively in this study. Serum levels were measured using ELISA kits for cytokines and UPLC-MS for vitamin D. BMD was estimated using Dual Energy X-ray Absorptiometry (DEXA). Osteopenia (T score < -1>-2.5) and osteoporosis (≤ -2.5) were diagnosed as per WHO criteria. Results: SCD patients had increased serum levels of TNF-α (56.72 pg/ml; range 27.43-98.93) compared to controls (39.49 pg/ml; range 27.56-119.95; p<0.0001). Our patients had increased serum levels of IL-6 (49.5 pg/ml; range 12.27-101.81) compared to controls ( 30.08 pg/ml; range 4-275; p=0.002). While, 94% of patients had low vitamin D, only 6% had optimal levels. However, 58% of patiens had abnormal BMD and 42% had normal BMD. A positive correlation between vitamin D and TNF-α (r=0.333, p=0.005) and vitamin D and CRP (r=0.265, p=0.027) were found, but not between vitamin D and BMD. Conclusions: The presence of low-grade inflammation in Bahraini SCD patients in steady-state is suggested by increased levels of proinflammatory cytokines and CRP. The cytokines (TNF alpha and IL-6) serum levels were associated with hypovitaminosis D. Vitamin D and BMD tests should be offered to all SCD patients for early intervention, if indicated.

  28. Jaiswal Sagar B., Chirag Patel, Sanjay Soni, Rajanikant Machhi

    Background: The comminuted and/or long subtrochenteric femoral fractures are considered as a difficult fractures to treat. The objective of this study was to evaluate the success rate of dynamic condylar screw fixation for the treatment of these subtrochenteric fractures. Methods: Total 30 consecutive patients of age 21 to 60 years with subtrochenteric fractures were included in our study. The type of fractures were classified according to AO- classification system and the patients were assessed using the Harris hip score. Results: The cases were followed up from 9 to 15 months (mean 12 months). The time required to full weight bearing was 10 to 16 weeks (mean 14 weeks ). No cases were lost to follow up. There were no cases of non-union or infection. There were two cases of implant failure due to early weight bearing and osteoporosis. With the exception of 2 implant failure cases(6.67%) , all the cases in our study had excellent (55. 3%) to good (40.0%) functional outcome. The mean Harris hip score was 86. Conclusions: We came to the conclusion that dynamic condylar screw is valuable and practical method of fixation of subtrochenteric fractures. Minimum soft tissue damage, preservation of medial blood supply, and gentle manipulation of fracture fragments along with proper fixation techniques are of paramount importance to achieve good fracture healing and to avoid complications.

  29. Sarma, D. K., Boro, P. K., Borthakur, B., Sharma, M., Das Papyia and Kakati, P.

    The present paper reports the successful therapeutic management of one lumpy jaw in a Holstein Friesian crossbred cow and another suppurative abscess in the buccal cavity of a non descriptive heifer. The Lumpy jaw was treated successfully with intravenous injections of Lugol’s iodine (5%) @ 20 ml at every alternate day for 3 occasions. The second case of soft tissue abscess due to Actinomycosis was also recovered with Ceftriaxone Injections @ 20 mg/kg body weight, IV, daily for 5 days. Moreover, the abscess was excised, drained out and dressed with Povidon iodine daily for 3 days.

  30. Gudiseva Swetha, Poosarla Chandrasekhar, Ravi Teja Chitturi, Deepika, S. Kattapargi Kiran Kumar and Baddam Venkat Ramana Reddy

    Tele medicine is an emerging branch of medicine that eliminates the hurdle of sharing or transfer of data to distant places. Telemedicine uses electronic transmission of data and digital images to distant places for the purpose of diagnosis. There are numerous branches in telemedicine of which this article discusses in detail regarding telepathology. Telepathology is about the practice of pathology at a distance by pathologists. It is already being practiced in developed countries and is being started in developing countries especially India. This review mainly focuses on the types, uses, advantages, disadvantages and the future of telepathology in India and in the developing world.

  31. Vikas Kumar, Sheela Kumar and Sameekshya Acharya

    The use of platelet concentrate in dentistry is contemporary and revolutionary for the tissue regeneration. Platelet concentrate carries cells, growth factors and some cytokines which is becoming a valuable adjunct to promote natural healing in many procedures in periodontal surgery. This is the goal in periodontal regenerative surgery that is to achieve complete wound healing and regeneration of the periodontal unit. Platelet concentrate in the form of Platelet Rich Plasma (PRP) was first to be introduced and being extensively used for regeneration. Recent development of Platelet Rich Fibrin (PRF) by Choukroun revolutionaries its use in surgical procedure because of ease of preparation and increase amount of platelet with active growth factors available is more than PRP. It remains controversial because of its duration of growth factor release. Within last 2-3 years there are research being attempted to increase the amount of platelets in fibrin mesh by Shahram Ghannati et al. and increasing the fibrin polymerization to incorporate platelet for more duration by Mustafa Tunali et al. This article is being attempted to review past and present development of platelet concentrate and its effect in odontogenic cyst with bone graft.

  32. Deepti Dhurandher and Priyamvada Shrivastav

    The purpose of this research was to evaluate the role of diabetes management in relation to personality, self efficacy and gender. Diabetes management has been considered with respect to diet, exercise, glucose testing and medication. Diabetes mellitus especially type 2 is very fast growing disease and common in more developing countries. The total sample of the study consists of 80 (40 male and 40 female) medically diagnosed as a type 2 diabetes mellitus patients at different diabetes clinics of Raipur city of Chhattisgarh state, coming from 25 to 75 yrs age group. For diabetes management the summary of diabetes self care activities (SDSCA) by Toobert and Glasgow (1994) was utilized to evaluate self care practices of type 2 diabetes patients. To assess self efficacy and personality factor, diabetes empowerment scale and 16 PF questionnaires were used respectively. Regression analysis was computed to analyze data. It is observed that self efficacy and gender doesn’t play significant role in SDSCA total and self care behavior is equally given importance in both genders. Higher level of ego strength (factor C) and self discipline (factor Q3) were associated with higher level of self care behavior. Best predictors for diet are insecurity (factor O) and self discipline (factor Q3) was positively significant. Best predicators for exercise are warmth (factor A) and shrewdness (factor N) was negatively significant. Best predicator for glucose testing is impulsivity (factor F) was positively significant and best predictors for medication are intelligence (factor B), ego strength (factor C) and tension (factor Q4) was positively significant.

  33. Dr. Thaer Hameed Mohsin and Dr. Sattar Rasheed

    Trigeminal neuralgia (TN) or Tic Doloureux or prosopalgia is a neuropathic disorder of the trigeminal N that causes episodes of intense pain in the eye, lip, nose, head & jaw. TN usually develop after the age of 50 years, reported case patient with 28 years old female, complaining from severe lancinating intermittent pain, not relived by tegretol, caused by CPA arachnoids cyst which causes pressure on trigeminal ganglia in the pons, Treatment: tegretol 100mg 1x3 to relieve sever lanceting pain the pain is not response to the medication and finally we decided to do ARhizotomy or neurectomy to the trigeminal nerve ending put the patient refuse the treatment Discussion: Any case of TN which lacks the typical feature of idiopathic case must be imaged like: 1. Young age groups 2. Abnormal finding in the trigeminal nerve examination like sensory defecate 3. long lasting episodes of pain and associated other cranial nerve palsied in the CPA like the 8th,7th and 10th cranial nerve 4. TN not responding to the usual medical treatment and associated with any abnormal neurological findings in the examination Conclusion: The trigeminal neuralgia mostly occur in old age so any young patient with sign and symptom of TN, CT or an MRI is indicated to excluded brain abnormality or any pressure on the 5th cranial n or its ganglia

  34. Dr. Sayantani Endow Dutta, Dr. Dipa Barkataki and Dr. Hazarika, N. K.

    Cervical cancer is one of the most common cancers among women worldwide. Clinical observations and epidemiological studies on genital cancer have revealed an association with sexual behaviour thus motivating research into sexually transmitted agents which may be responsible for neoplasia. Herpes simplex virus-2 (HSV-2) infects the genital mucosa and establishes a lifelong latent infection in sensory ganglia. The observation that cervical carcinoma behaves like a venereally transmitted disease with a relatively long latency period has led to the suspicion that herpes simplex virus-2 might be its causative agent. In the present study, sera from 80 histopathologically diagnosed cases of carcinoma cervix were examined for IgG antibody by herpes simplex virus Type 2 recombinant Gg2 (IgG-ELISA) kit, manufactured by Nova Tec Immunodiagnostica, Gmbh, Germany. Among the 80 carcinoma cervix cases, 20% (16/80) were seropositive for herpes simplex virus-2 IgG antibody. Analysis according to histologic types of growth showed that all the positive cases were squamous cell carcinoma of cervix. None of the other types had antibodies to HSV-2.Serologic screening will help in early detection of high risk cases and help in prevention of carcinoma cervix.

  35. Dr. R. Alagar Samy

    Hemangioma may occur anywhere in the body though it is more common in the skin and subcutaneous tissues. It consists of multiple dilated venous channels. It is a spongy swelling and is usually present since birth. It does not show any tendency to involution. On the contrary it may become larger and more troublesome as the time goes on. The Subcutaneous cavernous Hemangioma are very rare benign tumors making up less than 1% of all haemangiomas (Goldberg et al., 2004). A case of eleven years old boy presented with swelling in the infraumbilical region of five years duration with pain for the past one month. On examination a non compressible, tender, warm swelling with out any cough impulse in the subcutaneous region. On Doppler study of a swelling showed thrombosed infra umbilical hemangioma. Then the patient underwent excision biopsy with uneventful post operative day. The histopathological report came as cavernous Hemangioma which is the rarest entity. The post operative period was uneventful and discharged on fourth post operative period. It is being presented for its rarity.

  36. Dr. R. Alagar Samy

    Patent urachus is a well-known pathological and clinical entity presenting usually in infancy or in the elderly (Burns et al., 2004). Urachal affections are rare. Their variable ways of presentation may represent a diagnostic challenge. Urachal sinuses are a rare type of these abnormalities (Nix et al., 1964). Omphalolith (Umbolith) is uncommon under normal circumstances. However in a deeply retracted umbilicus in an obese individual, accumulation of sebum and keratin may lead to the formation of a stone (Russel et al., 2004). This calculus may remain undiagnosed for many years until revealed by secondary infection or ulceration. We report a case of 45 year old male with urachal sinus as umbilical discharge. The diagnosis was suspected clinically and confirmed with ultrasonography and computed tomography scan. An initial broad spectrum antibiotic therapy followed by complete excision of the sinus and fibrous tract done. The postoperative course was uneventful. Histological examination did not reveal any sign of malignancy. The post operative period was uneventful and discharged on sixth post operative period. it is being presented for its rarity.

  37. Dr. R. Alagar Samy

    Phyllodes tumours are rare and account for 0.4% of all breast tumours (Dyer et al., 1966). The majority of them tend to be less than 5 cms in size with giant tumours larger than 10 cms being about 20% of these cases. They display a broad range of clinical and pathological behavior and are regarded as falling within the spectrum of fibroepithelial neoplasms. Surgery has been the primary modality of treatment. However the extent of resection and the role of adjuvant radiotherapy and chemotherapy are still controversial. The risk of recurrence is (4.7% - 30%) for benign phyllodes tumour and (30% - 65%) for borderline and malignant phyllodes tumour (Popescu et al., 1991). A 46 year old female presented with complaints of lump in the right breast for six months. No other associated symptoms. She had undergone surgery 15 years back for the large right breast lump. On examination a swelling of sized 4x3 cms occupied in the upper outer quardrant of right breast with individual mobility within the breast. All basic investigations were normal. The Preoperative biopsy were phyllodes tumour. Hence we did right excision biopsy of the lump with 1cm clearence which were consistent with benign phyllodes tumour. The post operative periods were uneventful and is on regular follow up. The case is being presented for its rarity.

  38. Lovelin Jerald, A. and Hema Prabha, P.

    Bio energy provides an irreversible mitigation benefit when it displaces fossil fuels. Mitigation benefits of afforestation or forest protection will be lost if deforestation occurs. Non-commercial energy sources, predominantly fuel wood, chips and dung cakes, contribute around 30% of the total primary energy consumed. The overall trend in the last decade in primary energy consumption for cooking in rural areas exhibits that the number of households using firewood as primary cooking fuel is increasing steadily, while there is no significant transition with regards to Liquefied Petroleum Gas (LPG). Bio fuels can include relatively familiar ones, such as ethanol made from sugar cane or diesel-like fuel made from soybean oil, to less familiar fuels such as dimethyl ether (DME) or Fischer-Tropsch liquids (FTL) made from lignocellulosic biomass or Ethanol produced from the fermentation of sugar by enzymes produced from specific varieties of yeast.

  39. Korade, S. T. and Deokule, S. S.

    Plants are always used as medicines from long time and there is also a need for studying nutritive value and antioxidant activity of these plants. The present study includes various factors for experimental work and it involves plant extracts preparation from both fresh and dried materials as per methods used and showed significant result for both nutritive values like moisture content, mineral elements, proteins, carbohydrates, reducing and non-reducing sugars. The antioxidant activities of plants like Total Phenols, Vitamin A, Vitamin C and Free radical scavenging activity is considered in this study. There is always a need for an accurate determination of antioxidant capacity as it is gaining importance in most of the areas like food industry, therefore several analytical methods and measuring systems have been developed.

  40. Bavar, M., Heidari Sharif Abad, H. and Gh. Noormohamadi

    In order to investigate effects of different nitrogen levels on yield and yield components of dry land wheat cultivars, an experiment was carried out at factorial in randomized complete blocks design with three replications at kohnekand agriculture research station in 2012-2013. The studied treatment was wheat cultivars in four levels including (Rasad, Sabalan, Cross Sabalan and Azar 2) and nitrogen fertilizer rate in four levels including (0, 25, 50 and 75 kg/ha). Results showed that cultivar and nitrogen effect was significant on yield and yield components. Azar 2 cultivar had the highest grain yield (2.1 ton/ha) and the lowest grain yield was produced for Sabalan equal to 1.2 ton/ha. With increase nitrogen application yield was increased but has not significant different between 50 and 75 kg N ha-1. As, in between yield components except number of spike per m2 other yield components had highest correlation with grain yield. Azar 2 cultivar was the most number of grain per spike and 1000 grain weight. Cross Sabalan cultivar was the maximum number of spike per m2. With increase of nitrogen use number of spike per m2 and number of grain per spike had increased but 1000 grain weight has non-significant on nitrogen fertilizer levels. As, harvest index and biological yield had increase with increase in grain yield.

  41. Anju Jacob and Elsamma Job

    India is the largest producer and exporter of spices in the world and is called as the ‘spice bowl of the world’. During 1960s, with 25 per cent share in world production and 20 per cent share in world export, India was the major producer and exporter of pepper in the world but unfortunately India is losing its comparative advantage in world pepper market. Since the early 2000s, Vietnam has emerged as the leading producer and exporter of pepper in the world market. Kerala accounts for more than 90 percent of the total area and production of pepper in India. The compound growth rate analysis revealed that there was a decrease in the growth rate of area, production and productivity of pepper in Kerala. The export value showed a growth rate of 19.68 percent during 2005-06 to 2013-14 and export quantity showed a negative growth rate of 2.87 during the same period. The incidence of pest and disease was found to be the major reason for the decrease in the production of pepper. The export quantity and value of pepper exemplified high instability whereas the instability in area, production and productivity of pepper were comparatively low. Other pepper producing countries like Vietnam, Srilanka etc. Are posing serious challenge to Indian pepper export in the international market. Appropriate measures should be taken to stabilize the prices in domestic and international markets. The supply of pepper should be regulated in order to prevent fall in price. As majority of pepper growing farmers are small and marginal farmers, incentives should be given to prevent them from shifting to other crops.

  42. Abdulkadir Abugrara Ali Bernawi, Nahla Babikir Ayed, Allaa Haider Mohammed Elhassan Ali and Eltahir Awad Gasim Khalil

    Human cystic hydatidosis due to Echinococcus granulosus larva is a serious public health problem in many parts of the world. The disease is highly endemic in Libya, previous studies concentrated on north-east, central and north-west areas of the country. This study determined sero-prevalence and exposure rates of Echinococcus granulosus infection in Southern Libya. This household community-based cross-sectional study was carried in Murzuk province in southern Libya during the period January 2004 to July 2005. Following informed consent, 1274 individuals from 25 villages were randomly recruited. Interviews, serologic screening and biochemical profiles were carried out. Demographic, clinical and laboratory data were collected, entered, checked and verified using the EpiInfo2004 software. Twenty nine individuals (29/1274; 2.3%) were sero-reactive, sero-prevalence rates were significantly variable among different areas [range 1.9% to 4.1%; p=0.0006]. Males were significantly more sero-reactive compared to females [p=0.008]. Individuals in the age group 7-50 years were more affected compared to other age groups (p=0.006). Sero-reactive individuals had serum urea, creatinine and bilirubin within reference ranges. AST, ALT and alkaline phosphatase liver enzymes were universally increased (p=0.0000). The exposure rate to Echinococcus granulosus was calculated as 6.8%. Echinococcus granulosus infection is prevalent in southern Libya with an exposure rate of 6.8%.

  43. Alfiya Bohra, Dheera Sanadhya and Akash Shukla

    The present work is focused on synthesis and characterization of Zinc oxide nanoparticles (ZnO NPs) to study its effects on two Brassica juncea cultivars stressed with different toxicity levels of Cadmium (Cd). ZnO NPs were synthesized by chemical precipitation method and characterized using X-Ray Diffraction (XRD), Field Emission Scanning Electron Microscope (FESEM) and Energy Dispersive Analysis of X-rays (EDX) techniques. Crystalline size was calculated from the XRD results using Scherer equation. In present study ZnO NPs suspension were used as priming agent for ameliorating Cadmium toxicity in B. juncea seeds under in vitro conditions. It was found that ZnO NPs treated seedlings displayed good growth characteristics over control and was able to overcome Cadmium toxicity in Brassica juncea , demonstrating a positive effect of the nanoparticles treatment.

  44. Patel, L. C., Konar, A. and Sarkar, A.

    A field experiment was carried out during kharif season of 2012 and 2013 to screen the brinjal genotypes against whitefly, Bemisia tabaci and aphid, Aphis gossypii. All the seven brinjal germplasms were infested by aleurodid with low to moderate damage to the crop. The peak incidence was recorded during August of both years of study. All the germplasms were more or less equally infested by this aleurodid, except chhuli makra and sada jhuri. In chhuli makra and sada jhuri, the infestation level of the aleurodid was quite lower than other germplasms and hence both the brinjal germplasm i.e. chhuli makra and sada jhuri can be termed as less susceptible / tolerant to this aleurodid. None of the brinjal germplasms showed complete resistance to aphid infestation. The germplasm chhuli makra and L-13 (sourava) were highly susceptible to aphid, while kalo jhuri, muktakeshi and sada jhuri were moderately susceptible but pata kanta and soyla were less susceptible or tolerant to aphid.

  45. Rama Krishna Rao, A. and Indumathi, N.

    A field experiment was done to evaluate the toxicity of certain insecticides with reference to number of sprays against predatory population of spiders and coccinellid beetles on mango. Azadirachtin (0.05%) was found to be safer to spider as well coccinellids i.e. Menochilus sexmaculatus and Coccinella septumpunctata. Endosulfan (0.07%) was relatively safe to coccinellid beetles followed by malathion (0.05%) and carbaryl (0.1%). Single spray was safe than two sprays and three sprays where as Cypermethrin (0.01%) showed distinct deleterious effect on spiders and coccinellid beetle population.

  46. Gberikon, G.M., Anaga, S.O. and Ogbonna, I.O.

    Investigations were carried out to ascertain the level of trace metals and physicochemical parameters of ground water inAjata and Gosa waste dumpsites in FCT Abuja. Samples were collected during wet season from ten wells and ten boreholes each in Ajata and Gosa. Samples were taken to the laboratory and were analysed using standard methods (APHA). Result of ANOVA revealed that there was no significant difference in trace metals found in wells with respect to season and location except nitrate. (p<0.05) also, there was no significant difference in trace metals foundin boreholes with respect to season and locations (p>0.05). Physicochemical parameters of most groundwater investigated in Ajata and Gosa fall within the guidelines recommended by (WHO) and (NSDWQ) of maximum acceptable standard for drinking water except total dissolved solids. Results oftrace metals and physicochemical analysis of groundwater in some areas in Ajata and Gosa was also found to exceed guidelines standards of (WHO) and (NSDWQ)as a result of compromised sanitary conditions and leachates from dumpsites waste. This can constitute serious public health issues. Government policies on waste disposal and management should be enacted and strictly enforced to avoid gross contaminations of groundwater.

  47. Tariku Negasa Sarda and Haile Ketema Assefa

    With the aim of evaluating the effects of agroforestry based conservation tillage (AFCT) on water infiltration and selected soil properties, two tillage types: Agroforestry based Conservation Tillage (AFCT) and Maize based Conventional Tillage (MCT) under three age categories (10, 20 and 30-years) were selected in Wonago District, Southern Ethiopia. A total of 48 composite soil samples (4 replication * 2 tillage types * 3 age categories * 2 soil depth layers: 0-20 cm and 20-40cm) were collected to analyse the soil organic carbon (SOC%) content of the soil together with soil textural fractions (%) and porosity (%). Additional undisturbed core samples were also collected to determine soil bulk density (g cm-3). Water infiltration capacity was measured in the field using double ring infiltrometer. From the three age categories, a total of 18 measurement points (3 replication * 2 tillage types * 3 age categories) were carried out for one full hour and changes in water levels were recorded at time increments of 1, 2, 5, 10, 15, 20, 30, 40 and 60 min for calculation of rate and cumulative water infiltration. The result showed that the soil textural fractions (sand, silt and clay) significantly varied (ρ<0.001, P<0.001 and P = 0.002, respectively) with age of land use management. Soil bulk density, Pt and SOC varied significantly with tillage types (ρ<0.001) and soil depth (ρ<0.001). Water infiltration (rate and cumulative) significantly varied (ρ< 0.001) with tillage types: higher in the AFCT than in the MCT. Lower soil bulk density and higher SOC were observed in the top 0-20 cm soil layer under the AFCT than in the MCT. Soil bulk density increased while Pt and SOC decreased with soil depth in both tillage types. Improvement in the water infiltration under AFCT was due to higher soil organic carbon (SOC) input and less soil disturbance. Thus, reducing the frequency of soil disturbance through application of agro forestry based conservation tillage would help to improve water infiltration capacity and other soil qualities.

  48. Esaïe Tsoata, Siméon Raphael Njock, Emmanuel Youmbi and Dieudonné Nwaga

    This experiment was conducted to evaluate tolerance of mycorrhizal or unmycorrhizal T. vogelii and V. subterranea subjected to drought stress at early growth phase, in a randomized blocks design; on sterilized substrate; with a mixture of selected fungi (AMF): Gigaspora margarita, Glomus hoi, Glomus intraradices and Scutellospora gregaria. Levels of drought stress were 90, 60, 30 and 15% of field capacity (FC) for control, mild, average and severe stress respectively with or without inoculation. Results indicated that mycorhization performed positive effect with r = 0.484 ** and r = 0.690 ** for T. vogelii and V. subterranea respectively on improvement of plants biomass of T. vogelii and V. subterranea. This increment was 3 % significant for T. vogelii at 90% of FC; 40, 22, 26 and 21 % for V. subterranea, for: 90, 60, 30 and 15% of FC respectively. Beside, results proved that mycorhization impaired the adverse effects of drought on growth at an early growth phase as compared to nonmycorrhizal plants. Inoculum used would be a useful, practical and effective material, for sustainable production of leguminous plants, especially herbaceous (V. subterranea) when water is scare or rainfall weak.

  49. Aradhana Irene Charan, Mohd. Khalid Siddique, Amit Alexander Charan and Syed Suaib Naushad

    The study was carried out at Sam Higginbottom Institute of Agriculture, Technology & Sciences, Allahabad. The aim of the study was to evaluate the physicochemical status of Yamuna water in relation to water pollution in Allahabad. In our study different analytical tests were done such as pH, Temperature, DO, COD, Alkanity, Chlorine, BOD, Total Bacterial count by SPC, TSS and TDS. The results were satisfactory according to the guidelines of Pollution Prevention and Abatement Handbook World Bank Group effectively from July 1998, in which all the standard readings are given.

  50. Dr. Madhumita Bhattacharjee

    Colour is a major factor for acceptability of any food item. Now – a – days every food item available in market is dumped with synthetic food dyes. These synthetic food dyes are very harmful for our and our children health. Food dyes may have immediate effect or they may be harmful in the long run on constant exposure. Tartrazine is a popular and commonly used yellow food dye. It is a permitted synthetic food dye in India. The present review is aimed to discuss the noxious role of Tartrazine as it is used in numerous food items available in the market. Tartrazine shows a number of adverse effects on human being. The present paper recommended the limited use of Tartrazine in food items to protect our health, especially our children.

  51. Benila Smily, J. M. and Sumithra, P.

    Aquaculture plays a vital role in many countries by offering better nutrition, higher income, foreign exchange and better employment opportunities. Aquatic ecosystems are affected by several health stressors that significantly deplete biodiversity. Fungal infection is an important economic and limiting factor in intensive fish production. Microbial quality of farmed fish is largely determined by the quality of water in which they are cultivated. Aquatic fungal diseases are more acute in cold water than in warm water culture and may be aggravated by the unfavourable conditions, i.e., over-crowding, malnutrition and unstable temperature. Therefore, a study was attempted to estimate the physio-chemical parameters of pond water and pathogenic fungi in different tissues of the cultured freshwater carps.

  52. Mr. Sammy Odari Namusonge, Elegwa Mukulu Ph.D. and Dr. Nteere Kirima, Ph.D.

    Collaborative Planning, Forecasting & Replenishment (CPFR) has of late been the holy grail of supply chain collaboration. Its role in achieving exemplary performance of supply chains has been widely documented. This study sought to find out the role of CPFR on hotel performance when the relationship was mediated by cooperative behaviour. A survey design was employed where proportionate stratified sampling was used to select 50 out of 57 town hotels. Data was collected through the use of questionnaires as well interview guides to the procurement\supply chain departments of these hotels. Logarithmic transformations were used in conjunction with multiple regression analysis to determine the relationship between CPFR, cooperative behaviour and hotel performance. With respect to CPFR, the study unsurprisingly concludes that this collaborative practice is statistically significant in predicting hotel performance. Hotels in the industry should implement this practice to better performance. Cooperative behaviour (trust and attitude) was found not to have a significant influence on hotel performance when it mediated the relationship. Therefore it can be deduced that CPFR on its own significantly improves operational performance. This performance is in most cases through the leveraging of information technologies such as internet based CPFR solutions, tracking and reporting of performance against indicators as well as liaison devices activated to align different supply network activities. Through quadrant analysis that is based on the BCG matrix, the study recommends that sales forecasting should be jointly done with key suppliers. This is a primary priority area that is most important but has scored low in terms of satisfaction. The hotels should invest in this as a priority in order to improve satisfaction with a higher level.

  53. Praveen, M., Anurag Uttam, G. and Madhusudhana, R.

    Cytoplasmic male sterility (CMS) is a genetic condition in which the male sterile plants are not able to set seeds on their own. Both cytoplasmic and nuclear genes interact to control male sterility. Restorer of fertility (Rf) genes restore male fertility on CMS plants. In the present study, we genetically mapped a fertility restoration locus using selective genotyping approach in a F2 population of 296A x PVK809 cross. The Rf locus was identified near to the SSR marker Xtxp304 on chromosome 2. Sorghum gene, Sobic.002G057000, a member of Pentatricopeptide (PPR) protein family was putatively identified as the candidate for fertility restoration in this cross.

  54. Sagarika Chakraborty, Arpita Mandal, Kinka Mondal and Santa Datta (De)

    Calcium is an integral component of bones and teeth. Being present in minute amounts, calcium is essential for maintaining several physiological functions. However, most Indians usually consume low-calcium diet. There is evidence of widespread osteoporosis, bone fractures, osteopenia, bone pain and reduced bone mass, particularly in post-menopausal women. Cauliflower green is a low-cost, calcium-rich (626mg/100g) leafy vegetable which can be dried by various methods but the calcium content varies as the processing method varies. In the present study, fresh cauliflower leaves were collected, washed, weighed and dried in five different ways namely sun-drying, shade-drying, microwave-drying, oven-drying and roasting methods and then grinded into powder and weighed again. All the drying methods produced good quality CLP but the total yields (15.12-20.76%) and calcium contents (578-762mg/100g of fresh leaves) of CLP samples varied as the processing method varies.Roasting is the best method for the preparation of CLP, considering all the advantages and disadvantages of five processing methods used. It is suggested that roasted CLP can be used as vegetable calcium supplement which can easily be incorporated into the many recipes commonly used in the day-to-day menu of the people. Regular consumption of CLP may be helpful for preventing and reducing the prevalence of calcium deficiency disorder.

  55. Mounica Duvvana and Jyothi Swaroopa

    The present strategy of rural development in India mainly focuses on poverty alleviation, better livelihood opportunities, provision of basic amenities and infrastructure facilities through innovative programmes of wage and self-employment. In this context sericulture is a better option because it is an agro based economic activity which provides immense scope for self- employment. It provides direct or indirect employment to about 7 million people in India. Andhra Pradesh endowed with 37,000 ha under mulberry crop and occupies 2nd position in the country in production of silk. The study area has about 315 acres under mulberry cultivation. The total beneficiaries are 5600 out of them 4100 are tribal in the district. In the district 45 per cent beneficiaries out of 100 adopted the sericulture as main occupation and rest 55 per cent as secondary occupation. The total monthly income obtained from all sources to the families involved in sericulture occupation is average Rs. 4500/- The total monthly expenditure is about Rs. 2550/-. Hence migration of people from rural to urban areas in search of jobs can be minimized. In view of the significance of the sericulture industry in providing entrepreneurial opportunities in the production process of silk and silk fabric and its value addition by the utilization of cocoons, an attempt was made to discuss the socio-economic study in the Industry.

  56. Akpan, H. D., Usoh, I. F. and Ewere, E. G.

    The effect of consumption of diets containing Vernonia amygdalina (VA) leaves on lipid profile of diabetic wistar rats was investigated. Fifty (50) female wistar rats were randomly distributed into five groups of ten rats each. Group 1 (normal control) was fed with normal rat feed; Group 2 (diabetic control) was also fed with normal rat feed; Groups 3 and 4 (diabetic, diet-treated) were fed with diets containing 5% and 7.5% Vernonia amygdalina (VA) leaves respectively; Group 5 (diabetic, insulin-treated) was fed with normal feed and treated with insulin. The study lasted for a period of 28 days. Results revealed that treatment with VA-containing diets caused significant (P<0.05) increase in serum concentration of high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDLC) when compared with the diabetic control. VA-containing diets, but not treatment with insulin significantly (P<0.05) reduced TC, TG, VLDLC, and LDLc. VA-containing diets also decreased atherogenic index (log (HDLc/TC) in the diet treated groups compared to the diabetic control. The VA-containing diets were more effective than insulin and showed no significant differences in all the lipid parameters when compared to those of the normal control. It could be concluded that diets containing Vernonia amygdalina leaves are antihyperlipidemic and antiatherogenic and i potential nutritional strategy against lipid abnormalities and cardiovascular diseases associated with diabetes mellitus.

  57. Swaroopa Rani, B.

    Parenting styles are defined as set of attitudes; beliefs and goals parents have and put into practice in their daily interactions with their children. Parents adopt many parenting styles, from quite strict to very permissive one. An attempt was made to investigate the association between parental use of disciplinary styles and behaviour problems among preschool children. The sample constituted 100 (50 boys and 50 girls) studying in three different preschool settings i.e. Laboratory nursery school, Anganwadi centres and Private schools in Tirupati town. The mothers (N=100) of these children and teachers (N=10) constituted the sub samples of the study. Data were collected by using stratified random sampling technique. Schedule for Parenting Style developed by investigator. Behaviour Problem Checklist developed (BPCL) by Anuradha and Bharathi (2000), was adapted to suit to preschool children and was used to assess the behaviour problems among preschool children. Results indicates that Children exhibit more behavior problems where Parents who use more authoritarian parenting style. Whereas parents used more democratic parenting style then children exhibit less behavioral problems. Parents follow higher permissive parenting style. Children from those families may exhibit more behavioral problems

  58. Shrikant B. Mane and Ashok M. Chavan

    The present investigation was performed during the season June 2013 to June 2014. In this investigation direct method of study were used, includes isolation and direct observations. During these investigation 16 dominant fungi was isolated. Comparative analysis was done as organic cotton field fungi and conventional cotton fungi field. Fungal pathogen of organic field is higher than that conventional cotton field. Total fungal population was higher in organic cotton fields with the age of cotton plant as compare to conventional cotton fields; While Pathogenic fungal population was higher in conventional cotton field as compare to organic one. Alternaria alternata, Alternaria macrospora., Aspergillus flavus, Aspergillus niger, Cercospora gossypina, Colletotrichum gossypii, Curvularia lunata, Drechslera tetramera, Helminthosporium gossypii, Penicillium notatum, Penicillium chrysogenum, Rhizoctonia solani, Stemphylium solani, Rhizopus oryzae,Trichoderma harzianum, Trichoderma viride were reported. It was reported that Alternaria, Penicillium and Aspergillus were the most common fungi observed in both the farming systems.

  59. Dr. Prabir Kumar Manna

    The Department of Women and Child Development within the Ministry of Human Resource Development initiated the Integrated Child Development Services (ICDS) in 1976 in India. Under the Integrated Child Development Services programme, anganwadi centres provide children with health, nutrition, and education services from birth to six years of age and a nutritional and health services to pregnant and breastfeeding mothers. Study was made in rural tea garden areas to find out the coverage status of Integrated Child Development Service facilities and one awareness package was formulated to improve the coverage levels. Study found that the good, poor and nil levels of knowledge and attitude in percentage of families of post-awareness group were significantly higher than the knowledge and attitude levels of pre-awareness group due to the effective role of awareness package. There were significant improvement in the coverage of DPT, polio and measles in the post-awareness group than the pre-awareness group. Awareness campaign noticeably increased the coverage of iron and folic acid (IFA) and tetanus toxoid (TT) in post-awareness group. The impact of awareness package was further established as it was successful to decrease the effects of socio-economic barriers in coverage levels of Integrated Child Development Service facilities.

  60. Parameshwari, S. and Nazni P.

    Flaxseed (Linum Usitatissimum) is generally cultivated for linen fiber or for oil from its seeds. Flaxseed is richest source of alpha-linolenic acid, lignans and other nutritional components. Diet is one of the most important factors that are necessary for the better health of an individual. Provision of diet for the maintenance of physical and mental health is a basic right of an individual and the outcome of factors related to diet on health has been matter of concern since ancient times. The incorporation of flaxseed into diet can help to have a superior taste in regularly consumed dishes. The reddish brown flaxseed grains have a pleasant flavour and taste resembling nuts and its utilization is simple in different products. Considering the above facts, this study was under taken with special interest in the development of omega 3 fatty acid enriched designer food. The aim of the study to optimize roasted linseed powder (RLSP) incorporated Chappathi food using Response Surface Methodology. In order to optimize the Chappathi, the optimum condition of wheat flour 80g and RLSP 20g respectively. Corresponding to these values of process variables, the values of CHO 67.61g, protein 17.71g, omega 3 fatty acid 63.57mg and overall acceptability 9. The overall desirability was 0.54 respectively.

  61. Anupama Kumari and Dr. Majumder, C. B.

    Various types of pollutants are present in wastewater discharges form coke industry, but cyanide and phenol are considered as most dangerous pollutants among all. Due to the utilization of natural sources, the phytoremediation is considered as a low cost method which utilizes natural sources. In the current research, Co-removal of cyanide and phenol from waste water was done by E. Crassipes (Water Hyacinth) and Zea Mays (Maize) plants with the application of the phytoremediation method. The toxicity measurement of cyanide and phenol to the plants was determined with the help of Normalized relative transpiration, Biomass growth, change in length of stem and root. The percentage removal of cyanide and phenol was determined at different concentration of cyanide and phenol.

  62. Abd El Fattah A. Mahmoud, Hany A. Shawky, Rabab S. Youssef, Tarek M. El-basheer and Hatem Kh. Mohamed

    Primary calibration method is used by relatively few laboratories such as national calibration laboratories and few large automotive, space or governmental organizations which work at high technological level. The National Metrology Institute of Egypt (NIS) has developed a pressure calibration system that used for calibration of pressure sensitivities. In this study, we estimate the uncertainty of unknown one inch condenser microphone using two known references one inch condenser microphones according to international standard. IEC 61094-2009 which gives more information's and details on the uncertainty calculations. In this method a wide frequency range with a high accuracy and repeatability were achieved.

  63. Qaiser Zaman, Khalid Mehmood Zia and Mohammad Zuber

    Present study was conducted to evaluate and compare the antimicrobial activity of Bougainvillea variegata leaves extract with Bougainvillea spectabillis leaves extract. Antibacterial activity of Methanolic and Ethanolic extract of these plant leaves were tested against Gram positive and Gram negative bacterial strains by observing the zone of inhibition. Antibacterial activity was done by disc diffusion method at a concentration of 500 µg/disc of the extract, using Ampicillin (Amp), Tetracycline (TE), Neomycin (N), Gentamycin (CN), Chloramphenicol (C), Ciprofloxacin (CIP), Erythromycin (E) as the standard. The bacterial strains used in the study were Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, Salmonella typhimurium, Enterococcus faecalis, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Bacillus subtillis and Listeria monocytogenes . Both Methanolic & Ethanolic extracts have shown activity against Gram positive and negative bacteria. Extracts were not effective against Enterococcus faecalis.

  64. Brindha, T. Malarvizhi, M. and Mallika, J.

    The inhibition action of Azadirachta indica gum was tested as corrosion inhibitor for mild steel in 1 mol L-1 HCl using weight loss and electrochemical techniques. Results show that the inhibition efficiency increases with decreasing temperature and increasing inhibitors concentration. The effect of temperature (303 - 328±1 K) on the inhibition of corrosion have also been studied. Corrosion kinetic parameters and thermodynamic adsorption parameters have been calculated and discussed in detail. The adsorption of this gum on the mild steel surface obeys Langmuir adsorption isotherm. The mechanism of inhibition process is established using FT-IR spectroscopy.

  65. Prathima, B. A., Dr. Sudha, P. N. and Dr. Suresh, P. M.

    The CNC machine tools are used to manufacture precision machined components. Generally the component profile & size to be achieved is programmed using NC Codes. Once the parts are produced, the operator will check whether the desired dimension is achieved or not. There are chances that due to the tool wear (predominantly) and other reasons like material non homogeneity, insufficient coolant supply etc. (less predominantly) the produced parts are out of specified tolerance zone. By chance if the operator miss to check and correct the wear offsets, then there are chances that the few components get rejected during series of production. Dimensional and Geometrical parameters measurement in CNC machine is primarily an open loop system. The checking is done by operator after completion of operation, which is not reliable. This is called OBQ (Operator based quality). The requirement of the industry is to switch from the OBQ to SBQ (System Based Quality). In the proposed work, an end to end solution from auto measurement to analysis using an embedded system and feedback to the CNC machine using communication protocols, thereby making Auto Inspection system for a closed loop manufacturing system will be developed.

  66. Dawodu, F. A. and Sodiya, E. F.

    This work investigated the corrosion behaviour of Jatrophacurcas (JC) crude leave extract on zinc metal in the presence of 1.50 MHydrochloric acid solution at 28oC by hydrogen evolution (Gasometric) method. The results revealed that JC effectively inhibited the induced corrosion of zinc in the HCl solution. Inhibition efficiency increases as in extract concentration increases with optimum efficiency at 50v/v%. Corrosion rate retarded with increase in extract concentration. Specific reaction constant and Half-life of metal in the media are 6.251726928 x10-8 and 0.110872913 x108 minutes respectively. Four adsorption isotherms were employed. Langmuir isotherm best explains the physical adsorption interface mechanism between the extract and its adsorbed layers formed on the zinc surface with a correlation coefficient (R2) of 0.990. Free energy of adsorption of - 5.87KJmol-1 indicated a spontaneous process of physical adsorption of the extract on the zinc surface. Surface morphology were studied with Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) and Electron dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX) which revealed the protection of the internal grains of the metal from dissolution into corrodent provided by the adsorbed film the extract.

  67. Moh. Ezeldin, Ali. M. Masaad and Abualreish, M. J. A.

    The main objective of this project was blending of aniline and toluene with local reformat gasoline, to enhance the octane number of reformat gasoline product from Khartoum refinery (Sudan). Reformat gasoline was tested according to American society for testing and materials(ASTM), Tests included distillation, sulfur content, density, vapor pressure, oxidation stability, cupper strip corrosion, gum existence, lead content, and octane number determination by Cooperative Fuels Research )CFR engine(. Previously tetra ethyl lead (TEL) and tetra methyl lead (TML) have been used to improve the fuels octane number, but they have negative effects on the environment, and have been banned internationally. The motor octane number (MON) of reformat gasoline used in this research was recorded (88.5) before additives. In order to enhance the ON of reformat gasoline, aniline and toluene were added to the reformat gasoline with different concentration (5, 10,% v/v). Octane number of blends was measured by CFR engine. The properties of reformat gasoline after all additions were improved to the limits assigned by ASTM and Khartoum refinery. Motor octane number (MON) was increased into the range of 1 - 7. Addition of 10% v/v aniline showed high value of MON, but addition of 5% v/v toluene showed lower value of MON.

  68. Vidyullatha, P. and Rajeswara Rao, D.

    The expression of ‘fuzzy’ alludes to the capacity of managing uncertain or obscure inputs. Rather than utilizing complex numerical mathematical statements, fuzzy logic utilizes linguistic depictions to characterize the relationship between the input data and the output activity. In engineering systems, fuzzy logic gives an advantageous and easy to understand front-end to create control projects, helping creators to focus on the functional objectives, not on the mathematics. In this paper the basic content about the way of fuzziness, fuzzy operations and fuzzy rules are performed.

  69. Dr. Vaddi Venkata Satanaryana, Dr. Shaik Dawood, A.K., Dr. Karthikeyan, R. and Naseeb Khan

    A study has been undertaken to investigate the quality of service rendered to airline passengers. The passengers who come to airport would report at the respective counters in the first stage with relevant documents and tickets. It is found that for each flight service three counters are opened and passengers are free to join any of the queues at counters. At those counters the passengers are issued with the boarding passes after verification of documents. In the second stage where immigration cum security pass activity is performed. The system is considered as two stages multiple channels Jackson Queuing model. Data have been recorded for several days at various times in each of the days and at various counters at the stages. The data have been analyzed and the arrival rate of passengers, service rate of passengers, waiting time in the queue system and length of system are computed. The quality control charts are drawn to depict the waiting time of the passengers in the queues before boarding the respective flights. The waiting time was exorbitantly high and hence optimized the serving system with the addition of optimum number of servers. With the proposed addition of optimum servers the total cost is optimized and the waiting time of passengers before boarding the respective flights is reduced greatly and improves the customer’s satisfaction.

  70. Shyamanta Chakraborty and Nripen Medhi

    An unsteady MHD flow of homogeneous fluid due to an exponentially decay line source placed between two axially symmetric infinite parallel disks is considered under the action of a transverse magnetic field. Considering axial symmetry within the system the expression for radial velocity, pressure and skin friction at the disks are obtained for small values for Reynolds number and at a large distance from the source. The influence of decay parameter, applied field and Reduced Reynolds number over the physical parameter of the problem are analyzed graphically followed by conclusions.

  71. Shrimant V. Rathod, Smita S. Giri and Sandip D. Maind

    Copper (II) complexes containing mixed ligands, Schiff bases (L1=(2-carboxyphenyl)-pyridine-2-ylethyleneamine; L2=5-Br-(2-carboxyphenyl)-pyridine-2-ylethyleneamine and L3=5-NO2-(2-carboxyphenyl)-pyridine-2-ylethyleneamine) and 1, 10-phenanthroline has been synthesized by conventional methods. These copper (II) complexes has been characterized by elemental analysis, molar conductance, magnetic moment, FT-IR, electronic spectra, ESR spectra, electrochemical analysis, flourescence spectra and thermal analysis. On the basis of these spectral studies, it is revealed that all the complexes exhibited 1:1 (metal:ligand) ratio with the coordination number 6. The antimicrobial analysis showed that copper (II) complexes containing mixed ligands, Schiff bases (L1, L2 and L3) and 1, 10-phenanthroline is more active than only ligands.

  72. Bright, A., Michlin Ruphina Maragatham, S., Malar Vizhi, I., Dr. Kalirajan, K., and Dr. Selvaraj, S.

    The inhibition effect of Pisonia grandis leaves extract on corrosion of copper in 1.0 N hydrochloric acid was investigated by mass loss measurements with various exposure time and temperature. The present investigation revealed that the percentage of inhibition efficiency is increased with increase of inhibitor concentration and decreased with rise in period of contact. In temperature studies, the observed results reflect that the percentage of inhibition efficiency is decreased with increase of temperature and it suggests that the mechanism follows physical adsorption. The thermodynamic parameters (viz; Ea, ΔH, ΔGads, ΔS) were evaluated for corrosion inhibition process which suggests that the adsorption is exothermic, spontaneous and physisorption. This inhibitor follows Langmuir adsorption isotherm. The protective layer formed on metal surface was analyzed by using spectroscopic studies viz; UV, FT-IR, XRD, SEM and EDX techniques.

  73. El-Sabagh, S. M., El-Naggar, A. Y., El Nady, M. M., Badr, I. H. A., Rashad, A. M., Ebiad M. A. and Abdullah, E. S.

    Bulk geochemical characteristics include, API gravity, sulfur content, metal contents (V and Ni), bulk composition (saturate, aromatic, polar NSO and asphaltene), normal alkanes and isoprenoids (detected from gas chromatography) were determined for the crude oil samples collected from northern, central and southern province of Gulf of Suez region. These characteristics are used to provide information about source organic matter input, depositional environment and maturation level. The obtained data indicate that these oils were derived from carbonate source rock contain aquatic (algal and bacterial) organic matter with minor terrigenous organic matter contribution that were deposited in marine environments under high reducing conditions and generated at different maturities.

  74. Sreenivasa Pisupati

    This paper describes “How to Optimize Testing” in software Engineering. With the growing constraints on the budgeting of the software, there is a huge need for reducing the effort spent on various activities in a Software Development Life Cycle (SDLC). Among all the activities in the SDLC, testing seems to an activity with huge scope for reducing the effort by using optimized testing techniques such as Risk based Testing Approach (RBT). By following Risk based Testing (RBT) Approach, effort spent on testing can be reduced by more than 40%.This approach ensures adequate test coverage with optimum test effort and cost. The testing efforts are prioritized towards executing test cases that have high probability of failure and the impact associated with these failures is high as well.

  75. Loganathan, A. and Kumar, K.

    The magnetic materials occupied great place in the development of modern data storage system. The present study stated the synthesis of soft magnetic Mg-Co ferrite particles in co-precipitation method. The synthesized ferrite was characterized with X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier Transform Infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy, SEM, and Vibrating Sample Magnetometry (VSM) analysis. The XRD and FTIR analysis revealed the formation of single phase spinel ferrites. The grain size of synthesized particle was in nano meter range with saturation magnetization of 21.129 emu/g at 12kOe. The dielectric analysis was carried out in different temperatures and found that the dielectric constant was increased with temperature.

  76. Yumnam, J. Y.

    Parkia timoriana (DC.) Merr. (Syn. P. roxburghii G. Don.), belongs to the family Mimosaceae, is a multipurpose tree and a delicious vegetable of Manipur. It shows wide variation in seed weight and seed size. The effect of seed weight and seed size on germination, seedling survival and growth were evaluated. Seeds were grouped into 3 classes each on weight (< 0.8 g, 0.8 - 1g and >1g classes) and size (diameter) (<12mm, 12-13mm and >13mm classes). The seedlings were allowed to grow and various parameters were collected for survival and growth studies. After a period of 6 months final growth parameters as well as above and below ground biomass were measured. It was found that seed germination, seedling survival rate, growth and biomass accumulation were better in seeds with weight >1g seeds among the seed weight classes; and in 12-13 mm seeds among the seed size (diameter) classes. Heavier seeds confer an advantage to their seedlings for survival and growth due to the presence of large reserve of nutritive substances. Better performance of medium size seeds probably constitutes an evolutionary trade-off between dispersal and establishment capabilities that is adaptive for most plants. Therefore, for large scale plantation of P. timoriana, heavier (>1g) and medium size (12-13 mm) seeds should be selected for better survival and growth.

  77. Boit Kipchirchir John

    Ainabkoi settlement scheme, like other million-acre schemes in Kenya, was started in 1960-1967, to settle people from all parts of Rift valley. The programme was supposed to implement planned socio-economic changes, and was expected to work according to set out guidelines. However, most of these guidelines were set along the colonial agenda for land in Kenya. This paper seeks to analyse the colonial context that informed the historical foundations of Ainabkoi Settlement Scheme in Eldoret East in the North Rift region of Kenya. The data collection methods employed in the study included oral interviews, secondary data and archival sources. The analysis of data was done using both qualitative and quantitative methods, and the findings were interpreted against the framework provided by Rural Development Approach. The study revealed that the colonial conquest of Kenya after 1895 not only established alien political domination, but it also created conditions conducive to the penetration of capitalism in a more fundamental and thoroughgoing manner than in the nineteenth century. Moreover, the Kenya land regulations of 1897 empowered the government to issue new rights over unoccupied land provided they would not be prejudicial to nature interests, but only by means of certificates of occupancy and only for a period of up to twenty one years, although this period was later extended. To encourage such settlement, however, it was necessary to offer better security of tenure for settlers. To this end, the government pursued a lenient land policy designating areas to be reserved for European settlement. Nevertheless, in setting aside land for European settlements, the colonial government ignored the indigenous land claims and rights. The land policies had great repercussion on African land tenure and settlement pattern and the development and organization of agriculture. Land relations following the displacement of pastoral and agricultural communities were accompanied by many problems of human adaptation. These included famine and livestock diseases and plagues. In the case of agricultural communities, displacement led to widespread landlessness and discontent among the rural peasantry. The establishment of fixed ethnic boundaries badly disturbed the equilibrium between patterns of land use and availability of land. The consequences were enormous, a very rapid deterioration of land due to fragmentation, overstocking and soil erosion.

  78. Firafis Haile

    The study was conducted in Dendi district of West Showa zone (Oromia), Ethiopia. This study intended to assess the problems and challenges that affect both institution and borrowers regarding loan repayment process. The survey was conducted in four purposively selected Kebele Associations which having the maximum number of borrowers by selecting 130 sample households through systematic random sampling technique after defaulters and non-defaulters stratification of the respondents. Out of 130 borrowers 50% were defaulter, and the remaining half were non-defaulters. Pre-tested structured interview schedule and other secondary sources were used to collect primary and secondary data respectively. Key informant interviews and Focus Group Discussions mainly helped to generate the necessary qualitative data. The collected data were analyzed by employing simple descriptive statistics. Which model was initially fitted with twelve variables, of which five were found to be statistically significant, and all did not exhibit the expected signs. These significant variables were: loan diversions, loan sizes, family size, number of dependent within and out household, availability of training, time laps between loan application and disbursement, business types, family sizes, supervision and advisory visit were highly important. The qualitative result revealed that the probability of default increase as the family sizes increases, lack of borrowers perception on repayment period, lack of availability of training, low business experience, lack of saving objective and one source of income. Dendi microfinance institutions had a number of internal and external challenges like shortage of loanable funds for further expansion, competition and improper interference of the third part. On the basis of the study findings, it is recommended that reducing family size through expanding family planning program, providing training to bring attitudinal changes, increasing borrower’s perception on repayment period through training, selecting experienced person in the business, increasing their business entrepreneurs’ skills through provision of different and improving internal and external challenges of the institutions.

  79. Bhuvaneswaran, C., Ganesh, A. and Nevedita, S.

    Groundwater is a natural resource of the earth that sustains and supports domestic, agricultural and industrial activities. Over half of the world’s population depends on groundwater for drinking water supplies. Its usage is increasing due to rapid population growth, high rate of urbanization, industrial growth and agricultural utilizations. This has resulted to rapid depletion of groundwater which leads to water stress and degradation of these resources. The situation is further worsened by inadequate information on groundwater resource which has been and is still a big obstacle to the proper management of these resources. Remote sensing and GIS techniques have emerged as very effective and reliable tools in the assessment, monitoring and conservation of groundwater resources. In the present paper, various groundwater potential zones for the assessment of groundwater availability in Uppar odai sub-watershed, Nandiyar, Cauvery Basin, Tamil Nadu have been delineated using remote sensing and GIS techniques. Survey of India toposheets and IRS-1C satellite imageries are used to prepare various thematic layers viz. lithology, slope, landuse/land cover, lineament, drainage, geomorphology, soil, and rainfall were transformed to raster data using feature to raster converter tool in ArcGIS 10.1. The raster maps of these factors are allocated a fixed score and weight computed from multi influencing factor (MIF) technique. Moreover, each weighted thematic layer is statistically computed to get the groundwater potential zones. The groundwater potential zones thus obtained were divided into four categories, viz., excellent, good, moderate and poor zones. The result depicts the groundwater potential zones in the study area and found to be helpful in better planning and management of groundwater resources.

  80. Neelam Saini, Krishna Khambra and Saroj S. Jeet Singh

    Phulkari is a rural tradition art of crafting embroidered odhni used by women in Punjab, literally meaning" flower work ". This was adapted for development of women’s kurti for enhancing their look and adding value. The study was conducted in Hisar city of Haryana state. A total of fifteen placements were made (three each for five kurtis) from selected designs. Out of fifteen placements most suitable five placements were selected by the experts for development of kurtis. These were various developed placements of selected designs. Selected designs were geometrical which were most preferred by experts on the basis of their appearance. Animal and floral designs were not preferred for further work. Then five products were developed. These were then assessed by experts as per appeal level of the developed designs and overall appearance.

  81. Anochie Uzoma. C, Osuji Christian Obinna, and Anumudu Charles, N.

    Gender equality is a key factor in contributing to the economic growth of a nation. The United Nations Population Fund believe that economic growth and social equality should go hand in hand, arguing that “gender inequality holds back growth of individuals, development of countries, and the evolution of societies, to the disadvantage of men and women”. The discrimination against women remains a common occurrence in today’s society and serves to hinder economic prosperity. The empowerment of women through such things as the promotion of women’s rights and an increase in the access of women to resources and education proves to be key to the advancement of economic development. Namely, gender equality in the work force and in social relationships are the two primary factors that instill economic growth. The influential role of gender equality on economic growth is most directly illustrated in the participation of women in the labor force. When women are not involved in the workforce, only part of the able workforce is being utilized and, thus, economic resources are wasted. Gender equality allows for an increase in women in the working sector, thereby leading to an expansion of the labor force and an increase in economic productivity. Figure 1 illustrates the increasing contribution of women to the gross domestic product (GDP) as well as to the economic growth of specific countries proving that an increase in female participation in the workforce undoubtedly will create economic growth.

  82. Anochie Uzoma. C, Osuji Christian Obinna, and Anumudu Charles, N.

    Gender equality is a key factor in contributing to the economic growth of a nation. The United Nations Population Fund believe that economic growth and social equality should go hand in hand, arguing that “gender inequality holds back growth of individuals, development of countries, and the evolution of societies, to the disadvantage of men and women”. The discrimination against women remains a common occurrence in today’s society and serves to hinder economic prosperity. The empowerment of women through such things as the promotion of women’s rights and an increase in the access of women to resources and education proves to be key to the advancement of economic development. Namely, gender equality in the work force and in social relationships are the two primary factors that instill economic growth. The influential role of gender equality on economic growth is most directly illustrated in the participation of women in the labor force. When women are not involved in the workforce, only part of the able workforce is being utilized and, thus, economic resources are wasted. Gender equality allows for an increase in women in the working sector, thereby leading to an expansion of the labor force and an increase in economic productivity. Figure 1 illustrates the increasing contribution of women to the gross domestic product (GDP) as well as to the economic growth of specific countries proving that an increase in female participation in the workforce undoubtedly will create economic growth.

  83. Mohd Amirul Amirul Hussain, Mohd Yazid Mohd Yunos, Nangkula Utaberta, Nor Atiah Ismail and Sumarni Ismail

    A human activity constitutes the physical, cultural and perceptual attributes of townscapes that creates social phenomenon and sense of place. However, human activities in historic waterfront were facing alteration which resulted to place declining and placelessness. This paper discusses the roles of human activities setting that characterized the cultural & heritage waterfront identity of those three waterfronts namely as of Venice waterfront, Amsterdam waterfront and Marsaxlokk waterfront. A case study method was conducted by some evidence such as photo observation, and study on documents analysis and other resources related to collect society’ cultural experiences. Result indicated that human activities generated from routine activity, sociocultural, and economic vitality contributed to identity of the cultural & heritage waterfront. This outcome can be helpful for the developer, policy makers and master planner to facilitate in documenting the role of human activities setting in cultural & heritage waterfront, as well to examine the meaning of human activities setting that emphasize the sense of place and social phenomenon.

  84. Mithra, J. and Bhaskaran, R.

    The paper presented to study of the Physico-chemical Parameters of Cuddalore District, Tamilnadu. Yearly-wise changes in physical and chemical. Parameters such as pH, EC, TDS, Hco3 , F, Cl₂, SO₄, NO⁻₃, Na⁺, K⁺, Ca²⁺ and Mg²⁺ were analysed for a periods of year from 2009 – 2013. All Parameters were exceeds the permissible limit except Ca and SAR

  85. Mohd Amirul Hussain, Mohd Yazid Mohd Yonos, Nangkula Utaberta, Nor Atiah Ismail, Noor Fazamimah Mohd Ariffin and Sumarni Ismail

    Image character of a waterfront was predisposed most by the history of the places. Hence, landscape elements also a part of history of place that influence the image of waterfront. In order to sustain the city’s images and character, preservation on the visibility of water features as a landmark is important. Recently, the new commercial development which growth surrounds the historical landmark in cultural and heritage waterfront, have indubitable affect to the visibility at those areas. This paper investigated the types of water features and function for cultural & historical waterfront that influence the identity of place. Thus this paper discusses the roles of water features that characterized the cultural and heritage waterfront identity of Melaka waterfront. A case study method was conducted involving site observation and questionnaire survey to collect residents ‘cultural experiences. Result indicated that water features are used to decorate waterfront and townscapes besides that it’s also practical to honor persons or occasions, such as entertainment and leisure times .This finding will be useful for architect, designers, and planners as their strategy in developing a commercial area especially within a sensitive area in the heritage site.

  86. Dr. Suresh Sharma

    This paper primarily focuses upon the repercussions of Janani Shishu Suraksha Karyakram (JSSK) scheme on the out of pocket expenditure incurred by the beneficiaries. This paper examines the pattern of spending by the beneficiaries on various components of JSSK at aggregated and disaggregated levels that is analyzing the expenditure incurred on diet, diagnosis, transportation and medicines separately and collectively on maternal and child health. The primary survey conducted across various districts of Delhi unveils that beneficiaries are still incurring huge costs on health and the larger share of the expenditure is on diagnosis mainly because of infrastructure bottlenecks. Diagnosis was followed by medicine which is because of lack of timely availability of drugs. The scheme also guaranteed free transportation services to the beneficiaries but due to lack of ambulances and narrow inaccessible lands beneficiaries were still incurring costs on transportation. Diet also constituted an important part of the health care scheme but provision of raw food items like eggs breads etc defeated this component of the scheme as well. Thus this paper shows the presence of various infrastructure and other bottlenecks which are defeating the ultimate aim of the scheme that is to reduce the out-of-pocket expenditure of the beneficiaries.

  87. Dejene Bayissa Mirkane and Bekele Tassew

    Adoption of full extension package is seen as a key driver to increase agricultural production in Ethiopia. However, there is lack of empirical evidence on the adoption of full extension package on teff by farmers. A study was conducted in Dendi district, Ethiopia. The data for the study were generated by employing both qualitative and quantitative data collection methods. Semi-structured interview schedule was used to collect primary data from the respondents. To generate qualitative data, focus group discussion and key informant interview were employed. Binary logistic model was used to analyze the factors influencing full package adoption on improved teff technology among sampled farmers. The results of binary logit model indicated that educational level, total livestock owned, frequency of training, and knowledge level were found to have positive and significant influence on the adoption of full extension package of improved teff technology while land size, input price and total social participation were found to have negative and significant influence on the same. In conclusion, it is imperative to improve farmers’ access to information and extension advices and credit services to increase the adoption. Moreover, attention has to be given to create suitable and modern teff line sowing equipment. Hence, development interventions should give emphasis on improvement of such factors to increase adoption of full extension package on improved teff technology.

  88. Sangya Rathore and Kiran, U. V.

    Meditation is a mind body practice. The desired purpose of each meditation technique is to channel our awareness into a more positive by totally transforming one’s state of mind. To meditate is to turn inwards, to concentrate on the inner self. Meditation allows all this activity to settle down, and often results in the mind becoming more peaceful, calm and focused. In essence, meditation allows the awareness to become rejuvenated. Hence the present study was taken up to study the impact of meditation on self esteem of college going students. The study was carried out in Lucknow on the college going students from various institutions using multistage random sampling technique. A total of 120 college going students were selected from various institutions. Rosenberg scale by was used (Rosenberg 1965) to the assess the self esteem. Research revealed that meditation has significant impact on self esteem of college going students. The multifaceted stress of college going students with responsibilities at various areas may be the reason for their weaker mental health. Proper appropriation and meditation may be the best remedies for the improvement among college going students.

  89. John M. Momanyi, Catherine Simiyu and Jackson Too

    The purpose of this study was to determine the contribution of academic motivation and gender to academic performance among secondary school students attending day schools within Nakuru municipality. The study was based on the Self-Determination Theory by Ryan and Deci which explains two main components of human motivation; (a) humans are motivated to maintain an optimal level of stimulation, and (b) humans have basic needs for competence and personal causation or self-determination. The theory indicates that when these needs are met for the students, they will be intrinsically motivated and will actively engage in learning. The study utilised a mixed approach and adapted the ex-post facto design. The target population comprised all Form Two and Form Four students in the seventeen secondary schools in Nakuru municipality from which seven day schools were sampled using the stratified random sampling technique. The sample was made up of 489 students. Data was collected using a students’ questionnaire. The academic performance scores were obtained from the school records for two terms. Cronbach's alpha was used to estimate reliability and expert judgment technique was used to determine validity. The major statistical methods used in this study were: Pearson’s r, analysis of variance (ANOVA), and Tukey’s HSD post hoc test. The level of significance used for statistical tests was .05. The data was analyzed using Statistical Package of Social Science (SPSS). Descriptive statistics, means, frequencies, percentages and standard deviations were used for data presentation and to explain the variables in this study. The findings of this study indicated that there was a positive relationship between academic motivation and academic performance. Gender was found to strongly contribute to the learners’ academic performance. These findings will assist teachers, school administrators and other stake holders to engage in interventions in school and at home, that can improve the quality of learning and hence boost the students’ academic performance and to boost academic motivation.

  90. Neha Bansal

    Sustainable Development needs a new dimension in the present world of modernization. With Smart cities, smart development and smart growth which are a new concept in today’s time; the relative dimension and definition of sustainability change. The need for smart cities and development have in-fact emerged due to the need for sustainable development in light of disadvantages of rapid urbanization, increasing disasters and climate change. The rapid urbanization and growing number of megacities, cause great ecological, economical and social problems and risks across the globe leading to serious issues like climate change, disasters, and environmental degradation. Cities place tremendous strains on natural resources and the environment. Despite being faced with urbanization such a large scale, as never experienced before, emerging cities do have advantages. Cities are engines of economic growth and advance technology; Cities represented two-thirds of global energy consumption in 2006 and this proportion is expected to grow to almost three-quarters by the year 2030. If properly planned and guided, urban development will lead to the evolution of smart cities with eight smart features, including Smart Economy, Smart Buildings, Smart Mobility, Smart Energy, Smart Information Communication and Technology, Smart Planning, Smart Citizen and Smart Governance. This paper discussed the some of the most prominent smart development techniques being used across the world, for sustainable development. The development of smart cities, smart transportation, low carbon electricity ecosystem and smart grid Technology are few of the revolutionalizing technologies which is trying to bring a boost of energy efficiently and is a major step towards sustainable development. This paper discussed these in brief.

  91. Margaret J. Kebeney-Cheluget

    Visiting days in boarding schools have become a phenomenon in Kenya. Each school has its own policies on the management of the whole event, relating to who visits to what is brought to students during visiting days. These policies are often flouted resulting in indiscipline. The purpose of the study was to investigate the effects of visiting days on student discipline in girls’ boarding secondary schools of Uasin Gishu County. The target population comprised all the 92 secondary schools with an approximate population of 12,273 students. Out of these, 6079 were girls. All the Form Three girls in the schools were 850. Thirty (30) Form Three girls from each school were selected using lottery technique; yielding 210 girls. For schools, purposive and stratified sampling was used to yield seven girls’ only boarding secondary schools comprising: 1 national, 2 provincial, 2 district and 2 private secondary schools. The 7 head teachers automatically qualified once their schools were selected. The 2 Guiding and Counselling teachers in each school were selected purposively. The entire sample size consisted of 7 schools, 210 students, 7 head teachers and 14 guiding and counselling teachers; totalling 231. Data collection utilized mainly the questionnaire, augmented by interviews and documentary analysis. Analysis was done using qualitative computer software with matrix output capabilities (SPSS and Excel). Results were presented and interpreted using suitable simple tables, charts, graphs and prose. The study revealed that mothers were the main visitors to schools during visiting days, with foodstuff being the major items brought. There was also no uniform system used in managing visiting days as each school was to come up with their own devices. However, lapses in enforcement compromised discipline management. The study recommends to the MOEST to streamline and regulate visiting days; as well as determine the extent of parental involvement when children are in boarding schools.

  92. Shekhawat, M. S., Ranawat M. S. and Ranawat P. S.

    Coarsely crystallized, semi precious green and yellow varieties of apatites are occurring in talcosic ultramafic rocks of the Jharol area. XRD data shows that the green variety is hydroxyl-chlorapatite while, the yellow variety is a fluor apatite. Fluid inclusion studies carried out on these apatite samples reveal that majority of primary inclusions in hydroxyl-chlorapatite are H2O-CO2 type while, the fluorapatite contains biphase aqueous inclusions without visible CO2 suggesting that the metamorphic fluids were C-O-H type in southern part and aqueous type with low salinity in northern part of the area. Microthermometric data coupled with stable mineral phases (or metamorphic index minerals) confirm that steatitisation of ultramafic rocks took place at about 400º-490 ºC temperature and 2 to 3 kb pressure with metamorphic gradient increasing from north to south in the area.

  93. SamreenHeena Khan, Fulekar, M. H. and Bhawana Pathak

    In recent years, nano-based photocatalyst has shown a great potential as a low-cost, green chemical based and sustainable waste water treatment technology. Development of materials for photo oxidation and photocatalysis has followed an evolutionary pathway from usual bulk metals and semiconductors to colloidal materialsand, recently, to nanosized materials. Nanosized materials, whose electronic properties are size-tunable, enable the application of a larger range of semiconductors as a potential material for photocatalytic processes in the fieldof environmental remediation. The continuous worsening environmental pollution and energy shortages have raised awareness of a potential global crisis. For the sustainable development of the ecologicalsociety, the development of pollution-free and green chemistry based technologies for environmental remediation is an urgent need. Among the wide variety of green earth and renewable energy projects underway, nano-photocatalysis has emerged as one of the most promising new technology because it represents an easy way to utilize the energy of either natural sunlight or artificial internal illumination, and is available abundantly everywhere. Nano-photocatalysis is a rapidly expanding technology for the removal as well as the mineralization of toxicants from the waste in order to environmental clean-up and sustainable development. The ability of this advanced oxidation technology has been extensively demonstrated to remove persistent organic compounds, toxicants, pesticides and dye effluents from the waste water. This paper reviews the recent R&D progresses of semiconductor nano-photocatalyst, mechanism, affects, present and future prospectus of photo oxidation processes for waste water treatment.

  94. Soumik Halder and Debojyoti Ganguly

    India’s art and handicrafts is asset of visual expression, communication and its technical process, portraying the religious, cultural, and social signs of different region. Due to its aesthetics and functional values the craft of the Indian cultures are valued. From the near past to the present time, turned wood lacquer craft in Budhni has thrived to be one of them. In this research work, the turned wood lacquer craft of Budhni including its process and infrastructure is studied. The type of wood, method of turning, lacquering and its finishing are studied in details. Total 60 no of artisans are interviewed for collecting the information.

  95. Dr. Indrani Mukherjee

    The main objective of present paper is to identify and fill up the research gaps in terms of conceptual aspects and methods of research work on Fluvial Morphology and Socio-Economic Environment in the East-Central part of lower deltaic Bengal. This work will provide a proper idea to develop the method of study to the scholars studying on almost similar type of problems. For achieving the target the author has reviewed the previous literatures thoroughly. The literature survey has been attempted on all most all the main aspects of the research work. There is a lack of holistic approach in the studies conducted so far in the present study area. An appraisal of the riverine environment and society needs to be done in a comprehensive manner to facilitate proper planning and management of resources and for using them in a sustainable manner.

  96. La Ode Muharam

    This study was conducted to find solutions on problems that occur in the stage of interaction between students on Haluoleo University campus where in the past five years is often hit by riots, demonstrations, protests, and even dissension among the group of students who violate the ethical and social norms then tend to violate law and human rights. The research objective is to improve social intelligence of student of Haluoleo University through cooperative learning. It is a learning method developed by Robert E. Slavin to foster a collaborative partnership through cooperative groups consists of 4 to 5 students aimed improving cooperation between students of the different-different social background, ethnicity, religion, and culture to be merged into one cooperative groups to learn together, help each other to achieve mutual success. There are five core activity types in STAD cooperative learning, namely the percentage of lecturers, learning in teams or groups, quizzes, personal values and rewards to the best groups. Method is this study is design in the form of action research of John Elliot model with qualitative approach in collaborating with the lecturers of Civics of Haluoleo University. The material action is democracy and human rights. The results showed that the type STAD cooperative learning with the democracy and human rights learning materials can consistently improve student social intelligence.

  97. Susan Komen Koech, Dr. Ronald Bonuke and Prof. Micheal Korir

    The banking industry globally has evolved over the years owing to a number of factors that include but are not limited to technological advances, customer tastes and preferences, more dynamic segmentation of products and services, competition which from not only traditional banks but also mobile companies and micro finance institutions. The customers have also become more demanding and informed hence the banks have to put in place strategies that will lead to having more loyal customers. This must be informed by clear understanding of customer needs and the nature of businesses in society today. The aim of this paper is to assess the moderating effect of perceived customer value on the relationship between relationship quality and customer loyalty based on a study of various commercial banks in Kenya. The study was grounded on three theories; the commitment and trust theory, relationship marketing theory and social exchange theory. The study adopted a positivist approach because of the use of quantitative data. The study further utilized explanatory research design. A questionnaire was used to collect data from a sample of 309 bank customers in major cities and towns in Kenya. Correlation analysis was used to establish the relationship among the variables. Multiple and moderated regression analysis was used to test the hypotheses at α=.05 level of significance. Model effect size was measured using R-square. The findings of the study indicated that perceived customer value moderated the relationship between communication and customer loyalty; further perceived customer value moderated the relationship between conflict handling and customer loyalty while the relationship between commitment and customer loyalty was not moderated by perceived customer value. The study recommends that bank managers should put more emphasis on relationship quality by improving the relationship commitment, regularly communicating with customers, and resolving conflicts promptly whenever they arise.

  98. Maigari, Ahmad Kabir, Liman, Samira Bello, Musa, Amina Muhammad, Sani, Amina, Jarmai, Kabiru Yakubu, Abubakar, Salamatu, Jega, Zainab Hassan, Abubakar, Ahmed Tijjani, Salawu, Mohammed Jatto and Galadima, Umar Sunusi

    The study assesses mixed occurrence of trypanosomes in trade cattle brought for slaughter at Kano Abattoir, Northwestern Nigeria. Standard trypanosome detection methods were used to screen blood samples collected from 242 cattle of different breeds and sexes. Overall infection rates of 1.24% was obtained. Infection rates in cows (3.17%; p<0.05) exceeded that of bulls (0.56%; p<0.05) with White Fulani cows having the highest infection rates (5.13%; p<0.05) followed by White Fulani bulls (1.08%; p<0.05) while no trypanosomal infection was detected in all the Sokoto Gudali cattle examined. Mean packed cell volume (PCV) of non-infected cattle (33±0.2; p<0.05) appears higher than the mean PCV of infected cattle (24±0.3; p<0.05). Prevalence due to Trypanosoma vivax was higher (0.83%; p<0.05) than the one encountered as a result of mixed infection due to T. congolense and T. vivax (0.41%; p<0.05). Conclusively, the result shows mixed occurrence of T. congolense and T. vivax in trade cattle examined. We therefore recommend further comprehensive survey to determine more accurately the current status of Animal trypanosomosis in trade cattle at Kano Abattoir.

  99. Sri Sukanta Saha

    The present paper aims to focus on: whether firms of the Zari and Embroidery industry, an important informal localized industry in West Bengal, are leap-frogging. To access the issue, the analysis is based on how small firms of the industry get access to new economic knowledge production, i.e. innovation. The issue is crucial since this particular industry is characterized by the dominance of production units of small firms of the industry who are agglomerated in specific spatial clusters in particular geographical horizon throughout the state. Several factors account for specific location of these informal industrial production units. The present study is specifically confined to a particular factor, namely innovation. The small informal firms of the industry cannot execute their innovation due to lack of fund. The present study is, therefore, confined to explore: how small firms of the Zari and Embroidery industry access to new economic knowledge production thereby ensure their survival in the competitive market and contribute to industrial growth. To reveal this, the present study selects two specific sites of the industry in West Bengal, Panchla (Howrah) and Arambagh (Hooghly). The selection of the sites has been based upon existence of small informal clustered production units in specific spaces and incorporation of their high growth potential and large employment opportunities. The micro-level field studies, sampling design and data analysis procedure of the study are based upon standard model approach to accept spatial heterogeneity within the frame of the study.

  100. Nirosha, C.

    India capital market has provide a various investment opportunities to the investors, for helping them to invest in various industries and to get the profitable return. Through this various financial products, mutual fund ensure the minimum risks and maximum return to the investors, in the Indian capital market Growth and developments of various mutual funds products has show to be one of the most catalytic instruments in make a momentous investment growth in the capital market. In this con mutual funds text, close monitoring and evaluation of mutual funds has become essential. Therefore, choosing profitable mutual funds for investment is a very important question. This study, basically, deals with the equity mutual funds that are offered for investment by the various fund houses in India, This study mainly focused on the performance of selected equity diversified mutual fund schemes in terms of risk- return relationship. The main objectives of this research work is to analysis performance of selected mutual fund schemes through the statistical parameters such as alpha ,beta, standard deviation, r-squared, Sharpe ratio. The findings of this research study will be help full to investors for his to take future investment decisions.

  101. Raghuveer Naidu, K.

    The present paper examines the quality of Groundwater in the Study Area of Kalyandurg, Brahmasamudram and Setturu Mandals of Anantapur district of A.P, India. The water quality analysis helps to know the suitability of water for different uses domestic, Agricultural and Industrial suitability of water for various purposes may be studied through important parameters like TDS (Total Dissolved Solids), pH, Chloride (Cl), Calcium (Ca), Magnesium (Mg), and TH (Total Hardness) and Fluoride contents of the water are the parameters by which water quality is here assessed for 2000 and 2012. For this study groundwater quality samples collected from Groundwater Department for different locations in the study area. The study has found that the pH Value in the study area are found in the range between 7.1 to 8.28 and 8.04 to 8.7 in pre and post Monsoon period of 2000, at the same way for 2012 pH range between 7.1 to 7.38 and 7.55 to 7.97, TDS (Total Dissolved Solids) values range between 367.36 to 651.52 Mg/L, and 395.52 to 666.24 Mg/L for 2000, 673.28 to 1256.32 Mg/L and 520.32 to1173.12 Mg/L for pre and post monsoon period of 2011, Chloride (Cl) range between 32 to 56 and 70 to 150 Mg/L in 2000, 100 to 350 and 50 to 300 Mg/L in pre and post monsoon period of 2011, Calcium(Ca) range between 32 to 56 Mg/L and 16 to 40 Mg/L in 2000, 24 to 48 Mg/L and 32 to 64 Mg/L in pre and post monsoon period of 2011, Magnesium (Mg) range between 5 to 49 and 19 to 44 Mg/L in 2000, 39 to 126 and 34 to 78 Mg/L in pre and post monsoon period of 2011 and Total Hardness (TH) values range between 100.6 to 321.6 and 138.2 to 260.5 Mg/L in 2000 and 220.5 to 638.5 and 219.9 to 421.0 Mg/L in pre and post monsoon period of 2011.

  102. Dr. V. M. Das

    To understand spin and other properties of microparticles, we have to understand Basic Building Blocks of the universe (Fig. 1) (mass – B.B.B Bit or B-Bit) and Information s (Code PcPs) and Divine Mechanics Unit (CCP, Code PcPs and CP). Spin is acquired and unconditioned property of mass part of basic Building blocks and it is (type of spin) by virtue of Atomic genes part of reality. Hence it is not affected by outer stimuli and it has appeared during creation of fermions and bosons and it ends with destruction of these particle after destruction of the universe. Spin motion is due to inherent property of motion in all direction and in all type of property of mass of Yin part of Basic building blocks. During spin creation of fermions and bosons, there is one more force i.e. fifth natural force comes into play that holds primary fermions and primary bosons together to form secondary fermions and secondary bosons. Spin property of bosons shows that mass property of Yin B.B.B is not a dead part reality of God particles rather it could connect itself with mind part of realty to follow all orders made by CCP- like directions and magnitude of spin and rest all particle’s behaviors. That is how mind and body (mass) work together at the level of B.B.Bs. If Spin of particles collapses the entire universe effects (structural effects, physical effects, chemical effects and spectral effects) would be collapsed.

  103. Kumar, K., Krishnamurthy, S., Kolandasamy, K., Vadivelan, Saravanan, S., Kumarasamy, P. and Muthukumaravel, K.

    The Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV) infection leaves a considerable proportion of children with life long sequelae of one or other form. Besides high case fatality rate, the Japanese encephalitis - epidemics, result in variable frequency of sequelae like mental impairment, severe emotional instability, personality changes and paralysis. A retrospective study had been undertaken to analyse different forms of sequelae among 49 partly recovered JE- cases in Perambalur, a Japanese encephalitis - prone district of Tamilnadu from 1990 through 1999. Motor sequelae, behavioural sequelae, intellectual sequelae and other neurological sequelae were the major forms of sequelae observed. Speech disorder was a striking clinical sequelae (69.4%) recorded in this study. Ataxia was found in 40.8% of cases. Attention deficit (36.7%) and memory deficit (36.7%) were the other two major types of sequelae among the study subjects. Limb paralysis was found among 34.7% of the sequelae patients. This study gives an approximate sequelae rates and stresses the need for regular follow up and due attention to the Japanese encephalitis sequelae cases, as the morbidity exists over a considerable period, though the recovery of sequelae progresses with time.

  104. Rajinder Singh, Abdul Ghani, Aamir Hakak, Sandeep Singh, Bhishan Singh, Kanav Padha and Khalid Muzafar

    Introduction: The traditional view is that tourniquets are contraindicated during amputation surgery with peripheral vascular disease because they might cause damage to arteries in the thigh that are already diseased. Seeing encouraging results from studies done by some researchers we hypothesized that use of a pneumatic tourniquet might improve the outcome following transtibial amputation, without compromising wound healing in a population of elderly patients with peripheral vascular disease. Materials and methods: Fifty patients were chosen for this study who had non-reconstructible peripheral vascular disease and they were randomised to either tourniquet or no tourniquet (control). Blood loss, fall in haemoglobin, transfusion requirements, wound healing, breakdown and revision were recorded. Results: The mean intra-operative blood loss was 5oo ml (range 300–750) in the control group and the median blood loss was 500ml. The mean blood loss was 252 ml (range 150- 500) in the tourniquet group and the median blood loss was 200 ml (p <0.0001). Mean preoperative haemoglobin was 9.09 gm/dL in the tourniquet group versus 9.15 gm/dL in the non tourniquet control group. The mean postoperative haemoglobin fall was 0.63 gm/dl (6.9%) in the tourniquet group and 1.08 gm/dl (11.08%) in the non- tourniquet group (p =0.0001). The mean postoperative hemoglobin in control group was 7.76 gm/dl and in tourniquet was 8.46 gm/dl .One patient (4%) was transfused with one unit of blood in the tourniquet group. In the non-tourniquet group (control group), however, 10 patients (40%) needed a blood transfusion (p=0.03).Two patients (8%) in tourniquet group had wound breakdown which was managed by debridement and secondary closure. Four patients (16%) in control group had wound breakdown. Three pateints (12%) in tourniquet group required revision amputation compared with 5 patients (20%) in control group. Conclusion: Our results show that the use of an tourniquet during below knee transtibial amputation in ischemic limbs significantly reduces intra-operative blood loss, reduces fall in post operative hemoglobin and reduces the need for transfusion without major complications.

  105. Dr. Bhati Balgopal Singh, Dr. Choudhary Devika and Dr. Choudhary Sandhya Kuamari

    Aim: To study the obstetrical and perinatal outcome and usefulness of umbilical artery Doppler velocimetry and AFI in oligohydramnnios at or beyond 34 weeks of gestation. Methods: This comparative randomized prospective study conducted among 150 pregnant women at 34 weeks to 42 weeks of gestation.AFI was measured by 4 quadrant technique and umbilical artery Doppler velocimetry done in cases with AFI5 cm and the results were statistically analyzed and compared. Results: In control group mean AFI was 11.74 cm and in study group it was 4.18cm.Among control group LSCS was 46%, in group 1and 2, 74% and 56% respectively. Occurrence of non reactive NST was more in oligohydramnios i.e. group 1 and 2 (42% & 28%) compared to 24% in control group. NICU admission were more in group 1 (58%) compared to group 2 (38%) and control group 22%. Conclusion: AFI 5 CM after 34 weeks of gestation is an an indicator of poor perinatal outcome and umbilical artery Doppler velocimetry is helpful in identification of high risk cases and reduced perinatal morbidity and mortality.

  106. Amit Mohan Varshney, Neha Shukla, Arvind Kr Shukla, Sartaj Ahmad, Bhawna Pant and Pawan Parashar

    Background: Menstruation is normal physiological phenomenon occurring in woman. Adolescence is a phase of growth when large number of physical and psychological changes occur. Menarche is a significant milestone in the transitory developmental journey of an adolescent. Poor personal hygiene and defective menstrual management practices give rise to repeated reproductive tract infections (RTIs), which are otherwise preventable. Menstrual practices are still shrouded by taboos and socio-cultural restrictions. Thus adolescent girls remain ignorant of the scientific facts and hygiene practices which sometimes result into adverse health consequences. This study was undertaken with the following objectives. (1). To access menstrual hygiene and practices of urban adolescent girls. (2). To find out menstrual disorders experienced by adolescent girls. Materials and Methods: A community-based cross-sectional study was conducted in UHTC, a field practice area under the Dept of Community Medicine Subharti Medical College, Meerut, from August to September 2014. A structured questionnaire was used to collect data from the sampled respondents. The collected data was entered in Microsoft excel sheet and appropriate statistical tests were applied by using SPSS 21 version. Results: The total numbers of girls were 375. Maximum number of girls being >13 years 312(83.2%) age group. Fathers and mothers of the respondents had almost equal level of education i.e. intermediate passed (37.3%) and (34.6 %) respectively, maximum (66.6%) were from middle socioeconomic status The mean age of menarche of the respondents has been observed as 12.5 years. Mother (63%) was found to be the main source of information for girls. (91.2%) girls use only napkin (readymade sanitary pads) during menses while, (1.3%) girls use only cloths. 364 (97.1%) Bath during menses, 294(78.4%) washed of their genital, 305(81.33%) wearing stained clothes, (76.8%) taboo during menses and 51(13.6%) avoid their school. Conclusion: Knowledge was better but taking into account the health implications and prevailing socio-cultural and economic factors, there is need for a continuous, school education programme. The girls should be educated about the process and significance of menstruation, use of proper pads and its proper disposal. There is a need for improving access to sanitary pads and advanced provision of it.

  107. Sangle Varsha, A., Bijjaragi Shobha, C., Holani Anuja, Shah Nishat, Biradar Ashwini and Ghule Hrishikesh

    Background: Mucocele is one of the most common benign soft tissue tumor present in the oral cavity. Histologically, there are of two types – one is extravasation and second one is retention type but the majority are extravasation type. Aims: The objective is to determine various factors related to mucocele such as role of trauma due, recurrence, duration, and to find out whether there is any role of psychological stress which initiates trauma like lip or cheek biting. Materials and Methods: 76 cases of mucocele diagnosed at the Department of the Oral Pathology, 2008 and 2013 were reviewed. The clinical data were recorded and histopathologic diagnosis was made. Statistical Analysis Used: Data analysis tool, Microsoft Office Excel 2007. Results: A diagnosis of mucocele was established in 76 cases with male predominance. The peak age of occurrence was between 2nd and 3rd decade. The extravasation type (80.26%) was more common than the retention type (19.73%). The most common affected site was lower lip (36.84%). The maximum numbers of mucoceles were asymptomatic (61.84%), and with normal appearing oral mucosa color was seen in (61.84%) compared to bluish coloration. It was also observed that most of the Mucoceles had diameter ranging from 5 to 10 mm. The most common causative factor for the mucocele was trauma 31(40.79%) with (14.47%) recurrence cases. Conclusion: We conclude that there was male predominance and they were more affected in 2nd and 3rd decade. The lateral side of lower labial mucosa was the commonest site and the trauma due to teeth or lip biting was the major etiological factor for the occurrence of the mucocele.

  108. Dr. Hansa Thakkar, Dr. Hetal Chhatbar and Dr. Rohit Dureja

    Capillary hemangioma is a common vascular lesion occurring in 1-2% in infants, predilection for girls. It presents as superficial cutaneous lesion, subcutaneous lesion or deep orbital tumour. A 1.5 year female child presented with sudden swelling of Right eye upper eyelid since ten days. No systemic complains. A purplish mass was seen over the right upper eyelid with conjunctival chemosis. On ultrasound and ultrasound biomicroscopy 21.13*21.48 mm vascular mass with hemorrhagic cyst was noted. On CT scan 2.7*2.0 cm well defined slightly hyper dense mass with fluid field level s/o hemangioma. Drainage of the mass was done and sent for analysis and supplemented by injection triamcinolone. Mass has regressed and patient is satisfied. Hence have reported a vascular tumour of upper eyelid. Early diagnosis and treatment plays a great role in this condition.

  109. Yakubu, H., Barje, P. P. and Iyeghe-Erakpotobor, G. T. and Shoyombo, A.

    Data from 558 Friesian-Bunaji crossbreds were used for this study. Season and period of calving significantly (p<0.05) influenced 305-day first lactation milk yield while calf parity number significantly (p<0.05) influenced first milk yield at 2, 4, 6, 8 and 10 months. First lactation yield of crossbreds did not follow a particular trend but was better in animals calved in the late wet season (982.41kg) followed by early dry season (950.45kg) and least in the early wet season (868.19kg). Subsequent 305-day milk yield was highest (951.91kg) in Period 2006 – 2010 and least (425.17kg) in period 1986 – 1990. It is concluded that crossbreds from the 2nd calf parity, calved in the late wet season have an optimum 305-day first lactation yield subsequently.

  110. Dahikar, P. M.

    Recently, the synthesis of 2-hydroxybenzoinoxime, 2-hydroxy-benzoinhydrazone, 2-hydroxybenzoinphenylhydrazone and 2-hydroxybenzoin-semicarbazone with hydroxylamine hydrochloride, hydrazine hydrate, phenyl hydrazine and semicarbazide hydrochloride in presence of aqueous sodium hydroxide in DMF-water (80%) medium respectively. Similarly, furoinoxime, furoinhydrazone, furoinphenylhydrazone, furoinsemicarbazone were synthesized by the interactions of furoinbenzoin with hydroxylamine hydrochloride, hydrazine hydrate, phenyl hydrazine and semicarbazide hydrochloride in presence of aqueous sodium hydroxide in DMF-water (80%) medium respectively. The synthesis of 2-hydroxybenzoin and furoinbenzoin were carried out by the known literature method. The structure of all the synthesized compounds were justified on the basis of chemical characteristics, elemental and I.R. and NMR spectral analysis.

  111. Bandna Kumari, Renuka Chauhan, Ritu P. Naihar and Ponnamma R. Singh

    All hospitalized patients specially those who are critically ill are susceptible to have Nosocomial Infection. Aim: To conduct a detailed study of various types of nosocomial infections, related factors and control measures for the purpose of preparing a descriptive report on evidence of nosocomial infections in critically ill patients. Setting and Design: Critical Care Areas through quantitative research approach and non interventional descriptive research design was used for the present study based on Chain of Infection Model (Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 2005). Material and Method: A Structured Checklist and Nosocomial Infection Assessment Proforma was developed and used to collect data from purposively selected sample of sixty critically ill patients who became febrile after 48 hours of hospital admission. The collected data was organized, tabulated and analyzed and interpreted using descriptive and inferential statistics to assess Nosocomial Infection evidence. Results: Findings of the study revealed that maximum number of patients i.e. 32 (53.33%) had fever with one manifestation. Culture/serology report was positive in 26 CIP. Acinetobacter baumannii was the found in 12 (46.15%) patients. Most of the patients had only one type of NI, 26 (63.42%) developed respiratory tract infection followed by those with other localized/wound infection 15 (36.59%) then urinary tract 5 (12.19%) and GI tract 2 (4.88%). Measures for control of NI according to structure and process standards were not met. Item analysis revealed several deficits in control measures. Conclusion: Majority of the Critically ill patients do have manifestations of Nosocomial Infections, supporting the assumption. Therefore, descriptive report was prepared and planned to be shared with local TNAI member and Infection control team

  112. Ayesha Siddique, Sonia Haider, Hina Mahmood, Qurrat-ul-ain Leghari, Sara Mukhtar, Maimoona Nasreen and Gohar Wajid

    Introduction: John Flavell in mid-1970s defined Metacognition as thinking about one’s own thinking and its regulation. Then in 1985 he further explained that one’s metacognitive base comprises what one has learned through various cognitive experiences. Over the past four decades, a considerable amount of work has been done in this field with quite a lot of literature published on the construct of Metacognition. No study has yet been done on evaluation of Metacognition levels among undergraduate medical students in Pakistan. Aim: The objectives of this study are to: Identify the Metacognition levels of undergraduate medical students in Pakistan;demonstrate the effect of Metacognition levels on academic performance; demonstrate difference in Metacognition levels in 1st year and 2nd year MBBS students with A levels and FSc background and finally to demonstrate the effect of gender on Metacognitive levels. Methods: A cross sectional study was conducted on 186 undergraduate MBBS (first year and second year) students of UCMD, Lahore. A structured Metacognitive Awareness Inventory (MAI) tool was used. Results: The results indicate that medical students have high metacognitive levels. Students having better Metacognition have shown significantly better academic performance as compared to those having low Metacognition levels. There is a significant impact of background of study and male gender on Metacognition levels but academic performance is not effected by these two factors. No significant difference was found in Metacognition levels of 1st and 2nd year students due to a small age gap in selected sample population.

  113. Vivek Sharma, Janardhan Singh, Ashok Chauhan, Yashpal Verma

    Ionising radiations are one of the dominant external factor that exert deleterious effect on human life. The biological effects of the radiation cause damages to DNAs, lipids and proteins. Exposure to high amounts of ionizing radiation causes damage to the hematopoietic, gastrointestinal or central nervous systems. There is a dose dependent effect of radiation on human body. Radiation injury refers to the acute or delayed consequences of exposure of a small part of the body to high doses of ionizing radiation resulting in severe burns acutely whereas long-term injury may affect various organs like eyes resulting in formation of cataract and lung involvement resulting in pneumonia . Damage to the DNA results due to ionizing radiation is the most important factor in cell death. It is followed by altered cell division, depletion of stem cells, organ system dysfunction. The ever increasing use of natural compounds for improving health has tremendously increased in modern times. Hence, there is an urgent need to prevent harmful effects secondary to ionizing radiations. This adverse effect of ionizing radiations on biological systems can be minimized by use of natural radioprotective agents which includes phytochemicals, plants and various herbal preparations of different plant origin.

  114. Bambang Wasito Tjipto, Aris Widodo, Basuki Purnomo and WIBI Riawan

    Introduction: Ganoderma Lucidum was reported contained several active components biologically, such as polysaccharides, triterpenes, sterols, proteins, peptides, amino acids, adenosine, oleic acid, vitamins and minerals. Vitamins were contained among B1, B2, C, niacin, and biotin. While the mineral content included potassium, fofor, calcium, magnesium, copper, germanium and some other makroelemen which totaled more than 200 active elements. Late Onset Hypogonadism (LOH) was a syndrome of physical abilities decline, sexual or psychological abilities associated with decreased testosterone in the blood. By middle age of 45-59 years of age the decline of bodily functions was started, including the decline of reproduction function and hormones such as testosterone, which was known as the aging process. With increasing life expectancy then so did the number of elderly in the future, the result will be increasing problems of the elderly. Objective: This study aimed to analyze the effect of Glucan extract Ganoderma lucidum Polysaccharide Peptide (PSP) in decoction way, in 21 days compared with Glucan of ethanol extract of G lucidum Glucan Polysaccharide Peptide (PSP), and control. On how was apoptotic of leidig cell of 18 months male rattus norvegicus testes happened, whether through the pathway of caspase 8 (extrinsic) or through the pathway of caspase 9 (intrinsic). Methods: To determine how was apoptotic of leidig cell of 18 months male R norvegicus testes happened, it used CCTV incaged inside the cage made of acrylic for 21 days. caspase 8, caspase 9, Mn SOD and apoptotic was examined using immuno histochemistry. Results: At the studies of caspase 9, there was a meaningful difference to the mean in the control with mean of 7,78  2,438a on the water extract with mean of 4,89  2,472b, and the ethanol extract with mean 2,56  1,333c. with p = 0.000, ( <0.001) There was a decrease in the mean value of caspase 8 significantly in the ethanol extract is 3,56  2,455c, the water extract is 7,56  1,424b, meanwhile in control is 14,00  2,598a. It turned out that all the groups A, B, C each had an average of caspase 8 of rat testes Leidiq cells that different significantly with p=0.000, ( <0.0001). In apoptosis test on testicular Leidiq cells immunohistochemically, there was a decrease of apoptotic in the given of ethanol extract with a mean is 2,78  1,202c, compared to water extract / decoction with mean 5,22  1,302b, and control the mean apoptotic is 9,78  1,716a in average. It turned out that all the groups A, B, C each had different rat testis Leidiq cell apoptotic average significantly with p = 0.000, ( <0.0001).

  115. Mithuna, K. V., Veeranna, K.C., Wilfred Ruban, S., Ramachandra, B., Appannavar, M. M. and Suranagi, M. D.

    Sixty buffaloes were selected for an on-farm study to elucidate the effect of pre-partum supplementation on body condition score of dam, milk production, birth weight and growth rate of calf among local buffaloes reared under mixed farming system in Bidar district, Karnataka, India. Supplementation was done for 90 days till parturition using concentrate feed of known composition. Results revealed that pre-partum supplementation had a significant (P ≤ 0.01) effect on body condition score of dam before and at the end of 3rd month of lactation and calf birth weight (27.75±0.39, 27.33±0.40, 28±0.44 vs. 24.33±0.56), Whereas, no effect was observed on calf growth rate/ average daily gain. Milk yield was significantly (P ≤ 0.01) higher in dam supplemented (4.45 ± 0.20, 4.62 ± 0.20, 4.90 ± 0.20) compared to non supplemented groups (3.50 ± 0.20). However, no significant difference was observed in the milk constituents like milk fat, solid not fat and total solids.

  116. Madhura Yogesh Bedekar, Dr. Deepa Sanjeev Nair and Dr. Meena Jitendra Agrawal

    Back ground: Petrol, also known as gasoline, is used as a fuel in internal combustion engines, also used as a thinner and industrial solvent. Ingredients in the petrol have got a deleterious effect on hemopoietic cells .Various studies suggested toxic effect of petrol fumes on RBC and WBC. Present study is an attempt to establish the toxic effect of long term exposure to petrol fumes on platelet count. Material and Methods: Our study group consisted of 30 apparently healthy male volunteers, aged between 25-45 years, working as petrol pump attendants in Pune city (India) for more than 5 years. Control group consisted of healthy adults aged between 25-45 years with no history of exposure to petrol fumes. 5 ml of venous blood was collected from the peripheral vein and platelet count was determined. Data was analyzed statistically using student’s‘t ‘test. Result: We observed a statistically significant reduction in the platelet count in the test group compared to control group. Conclusion: Decrease in the platelet count observed in our study could be due to toxic effect of ingredients in the petrol such as benzene on hemopoietic cells of bone marrow.

  117. Haytham Farid Elsherbiny

    Objective: This studyis aimed to estimate the rate of schistosomiasis mansoni among basic school children in Kafr Elsheikh governorate (Kafr Elsheikh district) to determine the magnitude of the problem for prevention and control programs. Background: The study area was in Kafr Elsheikh Governorate, uppermost part of the Nile Delta 120 - 210 km north of Cairo. Kafr Elsheikh district is a model for rural Egypt depending on the water of the Nile for its agricultural output. Kafr Elsheikh Governorate has the highest schistosomiasis prevalence in Egypt. Patients and methods: In this study, a multistage random sample of one thousand children at school age (6-15 years) was selected randomly from three primary and three preparatory schools in the study area Kafr Elsheikh district. Data was collected about name, age and sex. General examination was done for them, urine and stool samples were collected for microscopic examination for schistosomiasis. Weight, height, body mass index, hemoglobin and IQ assessment were done for positive cases only. Results: The rate of schistosomiasis between children in Kafr El Sheikh District is 0.4%. All positive cases were Schistosoma mansoni. A highly significant positive correlation between male sex and increasing the prevalence of schistosomiasis (-P value =0.02-). Positive correlation between primary school age and rural residence and increasing the prevalence of schistosomiasis (-P value= 0.03-) for primary school age and (-P value = 0.04-) for rural residence. 100% of the positive cases were male, within primary school age and with rural residence. Conclusion: The rate of schistosomiasis between children in Kafr Elsheikh Governorate, Kafr Elsheikh district is high rising an alarm that schitosomiasis remains one of the most public health problems between children in rural Egypt. There was predominance of Schistosoma mansoni, males-, primary school age group and rural residence among positive cases.

  118. Dr. Prabhawati.M.Jadhav, Dr. Pallavi.A.Khale and Dr. Ramya Premchandran

    Epulis is a clinical term used to describe a localised growth on gingiva. A vast variety of epulis can be classified based on histopathological examination, like fibrous hyperplasia, peripheral ossifying fibroma, pyogenic granuloma/ peripheral giant cell granuloma. Fibrous epulis is a tumour- like lesion of the gingiva caused by local irritation in the interdental papilla. This is a unique case report of a fibrousepulis in the maxillary region attaining a large size in a year’s time in a 75- year old male.

  119. Dr. B. Chandra Sekhar and Dr. B. Trimurthulu

    Ocular trauma is a major cause of visual impairment in all parts of the world. In India the incidence varies between 5% and 10% where as it is 10% to 15% in western world. Eyeball penetration is effected by wide range of objects, Work related injuries; in rural sector penetrating injuries from vegetative materials is common. Rapid advancement in ophthalmic micro surgical techniques and instrumentation has altered management profile and outcome of penetrating injuries Materials and Methods: The present study comprises 72 cases of penetrating eye injury patients attending Government General Hospital, Guntur, Andhra Pradesh during last three years. Results: In the present study males (68%) are double the time more vulnerable to sustain injuries than females (32%). Non occupational injuries (70.83%) are above 2.5 times more common when compared to occupational injuries (29.17%). Commonest object involved in causing penetrating injuries is stone (22.22%) Most common ocular structure involved is cornea (66.67%), followed by Iris (33.33%); Conclusions: In conclusion the incidence of eye trauma is fairly frequent in this region and constitutes a major health problem. Efforts to prevent ocular injury should particularly be directed towards improving safety measures at work places, Improvement in the domestic habits such as chopping and gathering wood, agricultural work would prevent farm related injuries. The importance of seeking professional medical help soon after injury and the danger in delaying treatment should be stressed.

  120. Dr. Seervi, K. L., Dr. Khatri, P. K., Dr. Parihar, R. S., Dr.Saroj Meena, Dr. ArchanaBora and Dr. Vinod Maurya

    Fungal-infection in the burn patient is a leading cause of morbidity and mortality known to cause many deaths remains one of the most challenging concerns for the burn treating team. This study was conducted at the tertiary care level to determine frequency of wound infections by fungus in burn patients and antimycotic resistance pattern of isolates. One hundred & fifty patients of all age groups were included in the study. Samples were collected from the burn wounds & processed microbiologically. Fungi were found to cause burn wound infection in 40 out of 150 cases (26.67%) with predominant Candida non-albicans spp. 24 cases.-60%, Moulds 12 cases- 30% & C.albicans 4 cases- 10 % among total fungal isolates. 75% Moulds were resistant to fluconazole& itroconazole, while 100% were resistant to clotrimazole. 50% candida albicans were resistant to Fluconazole& Itraconazole while 75% were resistant to clotrimazole. Among Candida non- albicans 75% were resistant to fluconazole, Itraconazole & clotrimazole. Voriconazole is still responding well in 85-90% cases due to its broad spectrum & replaced as first line therapy. This study identified clinicoepidemiological profile of burn wound infections by fungus in Western Rajasthan & concluded that a proper care of burn wound that predispose to fungal invasion, early diagnosis & appropriate treatment may helps in reduction of infection rates & decrease in morbidity & mortality rate.

  121. Sakshi, S., Satyanarayan, K., Jagadeeswary, V., Yathiraj, S., Rajeshwari, Y. B. and Ansar kamran

    Pet owners should be well aware of the fundamentals of management like deworming and vaccination schedules, frequency of ear cleaning, grooming practice, various infectious diseases that affect pets and regarding regular health checkups. Awareness on these scientific practices to maintain health of the pet dogs immensely contribute to the welfare of both pets as well as their owners, hence the present study was carried out to know various health care management practices of pet dogs carried out by pet dog owners of Bengaluru district of Karnataka through multistage random sampling technique. Majority of the respondents carried out regular deworming (60%) and vaccination (62.09%). More than half (51.25%) of the owners took general precautions for sick dogs. Cent per cent of the respondents took their dogs for a regular walk/exercise and majority (84.58%) of the owners expressed that their dogs suffered from previous illness. Since, majority of the respondents had not practiced health care management practices like regular grooming, regular health check-up, isolation practices, there is a dire need to create sufficient awareness with respect to health care management practices among dog owners.

  122. Kannan Eagappan, Sasikala Sasikumar and Jayalakshmi Sajeev

    Presently the whole world is hoping to make “FOOD IS THY MEDICINE” come true. People look out for healthy but functional foods for the management or prevention of disorders. Healthy foods may be developed with medicinal herbs, in order to make its consumption palatable and frequently consumable. In the present study, it has been embarked to venture in developing common South Indian rice based recipes incorporated with Tribulus terrestris (an aphrodisiac herb) fruit powder and to evaluate them organoleptically by using 9 point hedonic scale. Though different colour rice are available, in this study white rice (Oryza Sativa) is used. Tribulus terrestris fruit powder has been documented to treat various disorders namely urinary tract infections, sexual dysfunction, diabetes, lead toxicity, etc. In this trial, Tribulus terrestris fruit powder has been incorporated at the rate of 10g, 20g and 30g. However, in comparison with the standard recipes, 10g Tribulus terrestris fruit powder added recipes were found to be competent and acceptable. Particularly, Adai recipe had the highest organoleptic score than the standard recipe. Similarly, 20g of Tribulus terrestris fruit powder added Kolukattai scored higher than 10g recipe but relatively lesser than the standard recipe. However, on the whole in all the recipes particularly Idly, Dosa, Puttu, Upma and Idiyappam addition of 10g of Tribulus terrestris fruit powder made it comparable with the standard recipes and were highly acceptable. Thus the present study appreciably recommends aggressive inclusion and utilization of Tribulus terrestris fruit powder in the Indian recipes in order to alleviate the toxicity and complications that might occur due to the lead pollution as India is widely vulnerable to this heavy metal pollution.

  123. Tejal Vedak, Vaishali Ganwir, Arun Shah, Charles Pinto, Vikram Lele, Alka Subramanyam, Hina Shah and Sudha Deo

    Background: Despite much research,there are currently no established blood-based biomarkers for dementia.The aim of the present study was to assess the circulatory biochemical parameters and their association with cognitive markers in serum of patients with Dementia and Mild Cognitive Impairment (MCI) and compare with elderly age-matched controls. Materials & Methods: The study population consisted of patients with Dementia (Group A, n = 32), Mild Cognitive Impairment (Group B, n = 28), and elderly age-matched Controls (Group C, n = 30). All the participants were subjected to psychological assessment, anthropometric measurements and serum biochemical estimations like blood sugar, lipid profile, lipoproteins, and thyroid profile. Results: We observed significantly reduced levels of Total Cholesterol, High Density Lipoprotein-Cholesterol, Apolipoprotein B and total T4 in serum of Dementia patients compared to elderly age-matched controls (p < 0.05). While decreased Apolipoprotein A1 levels were found in serum of Dementia and MCI patients compared to elderly age-matched controls (p < 0.01). Finally, a positive correlation of Apolipoprotein A1 and total T4 levels with markers of cognitive impairment was observed in Dementia and MCI patients. Conclusion: Our findings suggest the importance of serum lipids, lipoproteins and thyroid hormones in cognitive impairment in patients with Dementia and MCI.

  124. Dr. R. Alagar Samy

    Marjolin's ulcer is defined as a malignant, ulcerating neoplasm occurring in cicatricial tissue, and is thought to be more aggressive than the other more common varieties of skin cancers. Butterworths Medical Dictionary (MacNalty, 1965) now defines Marjolin's ulcer as any cancer arising in association with a chronic sinus, ulcer or scar. Cases of squamous cell carcinoma arising in the abdominal wall from a scar (non burn scar) are extremely rare (Fleming et al., 1990). Was conducted a literature review and was found two case report, this being the third report in the literature (Franke and Chung, 2010; García et al., 2006). A 40 years old female admitted with complaints of an ulceoproliferative growth of left lower abdominal wall of two months duration. The ulcer was a non traumatic and non burn type. On examination there was a 4x3 cms ulcer proliferative growth of left lower abdominal wall with everted edges, indurated base and floor covered with necrotic tissue with bleeding on touch. On biochemical investigation and imaging found to be normal. We did the wide local excision with 2 cms margin clearance in 3 dimensional aspect. The post op periods were uneventful with the HPE report of well differentiated squamous cell carcinoma. The patient is on follow up. it is being presented for its rarity.

  125. Ms. Aditi Acharya and Gupta, O. P.

    With growing significance of social responsibility of business, companies worldwide have relented to embrace the notion of workforce diversity for providing equal opportunities of growth for people irrespective of their gender, race, religion ethnicity etc. The study examined gender diversity policies of 20 U.S. companies by dividing them into two groups, of which first group of companies were led by female corporate leaders & second group never had any female leaders since their inception. The findings highlighted the fact that the first group has taken up more initiatives to fortify the skills of female employees & guide them on the path of their career progress. Also, though the second group of companies seemed to be open in accepting & assisting the female talent, the policies of first group of companies prioritized gender diversity across all levels of the organization, even at the topmost position.

  126. Dr. Precilla Catherine, A. and Dr. Vinodha, R.

    Obesity is becoming a major public health problem with severe health and economic implications. The aim of this study is to find the influence of obesity on lung function by comparing the lung volumes in normal weight, overweight and obese subjects by using Body Mass Index - as a measure of overall adiposity and to find whether the effect of BMI on lung volumes varies between obese males and females. Pulmonary function parameters including FVC, FEV1, PEFR, ERV, FEV1/ FVC ratio & MVV were measured using computerized spirometer in 103 subjects aged between 20 and 45 years recruited from the vicinity of Thanjavur Medical College. Of these 45 had normal BMI, 29 were overweight and 29 were obese. 54 were males and 49 were females. The present study found significant negative association of BMI with the lung volumes in both obese subjects and in overweight subjects. It was also found that BMI influences pulmonary function to different extent in males and females

  127. Priya Madan Yabaji, Dr. Aruna Shankar kumar and Dr. Kanjaksha Ghosh

    This article reviews the prevalence of and factors associated with HCV infection in Indian population. Total 109 different studies were included in this study. Literature search was done by using keywords ‘hepatitis C virus prevalence in India’, ‘HCV and India’, ‘hepatitis and India’ through electronic databases like Pubmed, Google Scholar. Blood donors constituted the largest data of 15,61,371 individuals. The frequency was highest in injecting drug users i.e. 51.22 % (95% CI: 50.80 – 51.64). The frequency in multitransfused thalassemics and haemophiliac cases was 22.78 % (95% CI: 22.00– 23.55) and 14.38 %( 95% CI: 13.21 – 15.55) respectively. The frequency in pregnant women was 1.07% (95% CI: 0.983 - 1.017). The frequency due to sexual transmission and haemodialyis was 5.82% (95% CI: 5.646 - 5.994) and 4.73% (95% CI: 4.33 – 5.13) respectively. The serofrequency in communities and hospital –based population was 8.03% (95% CI: 7.75 – 8.30) and 0.45% (95% CI : 0.43 – 0.47) respectively. The frequency in liver disease patients was 19.71 (95% CI: 19.24 – 20.18).This study reviewed HCV seroprevalence among different groups from India which would help to identify high prevalence areas and to introduce the most effective measures to prevent its further transmission and the necessary awareness of this silent epidemic.

  128. Dr. Suchitra, R., Dr. Nissi Vinuthna, K., Dr. Shyamala Devi, Dr. Shantha Bai, K. and Dr. Shamshad Begum

    Aims and Objectives: To determine the safety and efficacy of low dose, single loading dose and standard Pritchard regimen of magnesium sulphate in treatment of Antepartum Eclampsia. To compare maternal and perinatal outcome in above three regimen groups. Methodology: The present study is a prospective study conducted in the department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology at Government General Hospital, Ananthapuramu, during the period of July, 2014 – June, 2015 after obtaining clearance from Hospital Ethical Committee. Results: The three groups were compared in terms of safety and efficacy of treatment, serum magnesium level, magnesium delivery interval, maternal and perinatal outcome. Low dose regimen groups have prevented seizures effectively in 93.4% cases. MgSO4 toxicity was found less in the low dose groups. In group A 83.3% cases, in group B 80% cases and in Group C 76.7% cases were delivered vaginally and caesarean section was done for fetal and obstetric indications in 16.7% cases in Group A, 20% in group B and 23.3% in Group C which did not differ much in the three groups. There was no maternal morbidity or mortality in this study. The Perinatal mortality was 50% in group A, 35.4% in group B and 29% in group C. Conclusion: The present study provides further strong support for the routine use of magnesium sulphate for Eclampsia. As long as there is adequate urinary output, clinical monitoring appears to be sufficient with no difference in maternal outcome.

  129. Samuel Embiza Tadesse

    The purpose of this study was to analysis of the challenges and problems of teachers’ assessment and evaluation. The main focus of this study was to investigate the extent of utilizing the assessment and evaluation and its implementation. Four high schools in Adigrat town were selected. Of the respective total population size of the study group, 4 principals, 60 teachers and 200 students as sample size were taken. The data for analysis were collected from students, teachers and school principals in each high school using structured interview and instrument. Prior to the data collection, a pilot study was made to see the reliability and face validity of the instrument for students and teachers, found to be 0.77 and 0.89 in Cronbach alpha respectively. After having the intended data, one sample t-test statistics was employed on the data. Both qualitative and quantitative data analysis has accomplished in identifying major and distinct challenges and problems including large class size, shortage of resources, inadequate knowledge of teachers, students’ poor educational background, inadequate supervision of school principals and other concerned bodies. The study came up with the conclusion of the applications of various assessment and evaluation methods in high schools were inadequate.

  130. Md. Harun-Ur- Rashid, Shahanaz Parveen and Md. Shahidur Rashid Bhuiyan

    An experiment was carried out with 40 oleiferous Brassica species to categorize them under different species considering the morphological attributes and to find out the best genotypes of B. juncea for the future hybridization program. The genotypes showed wide variation for morphological characteristics and thus were categorized under three cultivated species- B. rapa, B. napus and B. juncea. In B. juncea, number of primary branches/plant, length of siliqua, number of seeds/siliqua, number of siliquae/plant, 1000 seed weight and days to maturity showed low genotypic and phenotypic coefficient of variation. High heritability coupled with high genetic advance and genetic advance in the percentage of mean was recorded for the character of number of secondary branches/plant. Correlation coefficient revealed that yield/plant had significant positive association with number of primary branches/plant, number of secondary branches/plant, days to 50% flowering, days to maturity and number of siliquae/plant. Path analysis revealed that number of primary branches/plant, number of secondary branches/plant, days to 50% flowering, days to maturity and number of siliquae/plant demonstrated positive direct effect and plant height, length of siliqua, number of seeds/siliqua and 1000 seed weight showed negative direct effect on yield/plant. Considering the genetic status and other agronomic performances 02 materials viz. BD-9069 and BD-9088 could be used as superior parents for mustard and rape improvement programme in future.

  131. Seile Yohannes, Zebib Asrat, Zergi Asfaw, Temesgen Kumara, Workalem Getaneh, Tsehaynesh Ayene and Tarikua Hadero

    Background: It has been identified that the ABO blood group system is controlled by a 2 loci gene system: locus ABO and locus H (FUT1), while Dermatoglyphics have been shown to be polygenic multi-factorial traits. Recent advances in genetic analysis have found a multitude of links between these two traits, but conclusive deductions are still pending. The current study was a cross-sectional study aimed at expounding Dermatoglyphics in different ABO blood types among a sex matched sample of 300 Ethiopian students from Jigjiga University, Ethiopia. Results: The analysis revealed that there lies a significant association between fingerprint patterns and Dermatoglyphics (χ2, p<0.00001). Pair-wise comparisons revealed higher loop frequencies for the A blood type relative to the B (OR= 1.52) and AB (OR= 1.96) blood types, lower loop counts in O relative to B (OR= 0.55) and AB (OR= 0.42) individuals, elevated whorl counts in A relative to B (OR= 1.72) and AB (OR=2.14) blood types, lower whorl counts in B (OR= 0.52) and AB blood types (OR= 0.42) relative to the O blood group, while none of the pair-wise comparisons revealed significant differences for the arch pattern. Further studies involving higher sample sizes and a thorough meta-analysis of the so far published findings are pivotal in order to come to conclusive deductions.

  132. Mendes Sarah Vailanka, Kabita Nayak and Sheeba, E.

    The study was carried out to check the anticancer activity of the plant Swertia chirata. The anticancer activity was studied on HCT 116 and Calu 6 cell lines by MTT assay using the methanol extract of leaves and stem of the plant separately at a concentration ranging from 10-320 µg/ml. It showed that methanol extracts of both leaves and stem exhibited anticancer activity on HCT 116 cell lines in which the methanol extract of leaves exhibited more anticancer activity compared to stem. It was observed that the stem exhibited anticancer activity at higher concentrations whereas, no effect was observed against Calu 6 cell line.

  133. Geetha. Saramanda, Biragi Reddy, T. and Syam Kumar Bariki

    Drinking water quality is directly related to health. The worlds thirst for water is likely to become one 21st century. In order to evaluate the existing status and trends of different water quality parameters, Spring and Well water samples was collected in Chowdupalli Panchayat, Chinthpalli Mandal, Visakhapatnam district, Andhra Pradesh, India. The physic-chemical parameters include pH, Turbidity, Electric Conductivity (EC), Total Alkalinity, Total Dissolved Solids (TDS), Total Hardness (TH), Calcium, Magnesium, Chloride, Fluoride, Sulphates, Phosphate, Nitrite, Dissolved oxygen (DO), and Biological Oxygen Demand (BOD) tested. The results compared with the drinking water standards of BIS and WHO. It was found that some parameters were higher than the prescribed limits while other parameters were lower than the limits. The results showed that, the water in this area is not safe and needed treatment before it is consumed

  134. Bayarlkhagva Damdin, Odbayar Tumendemberel, Bayarmaa Gunaajav, Munkhjargal Bayarlkhagva, Oyuntsetseg Dashzeveg and Munkhbileg, E.

    Euroasian wild boar (Sus scrofa) is widely distributed throughout Southern Europe, Asia, and North Africa in Scrub, forest, and arid environments. Even though wild boars are biologically and genetically well-studied worldwide, so far no genetic studies have been conducted in Mongolia. Two subspecies of wild boars including Sus scrofa nigripis and Sus scrofa raddeanus are known in Mongolia based on their morphological differences. Then we needed to test genetic differentiation between those subspecies and compare geographically close populations in Mongolia using mitochondrial DNA complete cytochrome b gene. We also retrieved sequences of wild boars in the neighboring countries from Genbank to do phylogenetic relationships. Wild boars’ tissue samples were collected from ten provinces throughout the distribution regions of wild boars in Mongolia. In result of the research, Sus scrofa nigripis showed a significant genetic difference as a subspecies. In conclusion, this research proven that there are two subspecies of wild boars in Mongolia according to the mtDNA data. Although our data can be enough to provide that Sus scrofa nigripis fits with the criteria of Evolutionary Significant Unit (ESU), in future big sample size based on non-invasive sampling method from those populations will be useful to identify the further questions.

  135. Raghadsharqi Luaibi Alrazn and Senthil Kumar, R.

    Gingivitis is caused by substances derived from microbial plaque accumulating at or near the gingival sulcus; all other suspected local and systemic etiologic factors either enhance plaque accumulation or retention, or enhance the susceptibility of the gingival tissue to microbial attack. Porphyromonasgingivalis (formerly Bacteroides gingivalis) is an anaerobic, asaccharolytic, gram-negative coccobacillus that is frequently a component of the flora of subgingival lesions of adult patients with periodontitis. The organism is often present in the oral cavities of periodontally healthy children and adolescents, but, because it occurs in densities below the detectable limit of anaerobic culturing (<1% of the total flora) it is not routinely recovered from such individuals. Hence sensitive and sophisticated methods of detection from the biological samples need to be employed. The genetic diversity of bacteria were analyzed based on RAPD analysis and ARDRA based fingerprinting. Based on the RAPD pattern all the bacteria are belonged to the different species or strains. PCR analysis of the 16S rDNA region also revealed that the strains are from the Gingavilis species. We carried out DNA fingerprinting profile using ARDRA, for the identification and classification of Gingavilis isolates. Traditional PCR was initially used for the detection of bacteria.

  136. Dr. Venkatramalingam, K. and Senthil Manickam, J.

    Feeding habit of the fish is very difference in the form of carnivorous, herbivorous and omnivorous and also there is a large diversity in their feeding patterns. Very young fish prefer to have eat from live feed due to their mouth size and the immaturity of the digestive system, otherwise they do not take the food will have starvation. The nutritional status of feed in fishes is important in determining the ability of fish to resist various diseases. Therefore, there is a clear need for a proper diet to improve the health and to prevent the outbreaks of disease. Presentstudy consisted of five dietary treatments in triplicate groups. The mrigal fingerlings fed with 100% of Pelleted feed (T1), 50% of Pelleted feed and 50% of Chironomous (T2), 100% of Chironomous (T3), 100% of Tubifex (T4), 50% of Pelleted feed and 50% of Tubifex (T5).Growth measurement such as weight and length of cirrhinusmrigala fingerlings were recorded indivually. At the end of 30 days experimental period specific growth rate, food conversion ratio, food conversion efficiency, Average daily weight of fingerlings fed with different experimental diets were calculated. Cirrhinusmrigala fingerlings attained significantly higher body weight (1.47&1.39) in T4 and T5 fed groups. The highest length gain was found to be 0.8mm in treatment T4¬ fed with mixed experimental diet. This was significantly higher than the rest of the treatments. The highest percent length gain was 70 in the fish fed with live feed diets. The positive effect of feeding of Cirrhinusmrigala fingerlings with live food was found in this present work.

  137. Rajaram, V., Jyothna, B., Manivannan, S. and Somashekar, D.

    The invasive yellow crazy ant, Anoplolepis gracilipes is commonly found in gardens and forests of tropical and subtropical locations. These ants are a problematic pest in both urban and rural environment because of their extreme foraging behavior. The control of these insect pests is by using synthetic pesticides. The use of plant derived compounds is now gaining importance, as they are found to be safe to the environment. The use of non-edible oil seeds of Jatropha curcas containing phorbol esters has been considered as a potential source of biopesticide. The present study evaluates the potential insecticidal activity of Jatropha seed oil and extracts from seed cake on A. gracilipes. The Jatropha seed oil (25, 50 and 100%), Jatropha seed cake (2, 4 and 6 g), Jatropha seed cake cold water extract and hot water extract (5, 10 and 20%) were evaluated for insecticidal activity by studying the mortality rates of the adult workers of A. gracilipes. The bioassay studies indicated that, 100% mortality was observed using Jatropha seed oil at 50 and 100% concentrations. The hot water and cold water extracts of Jatropha seed cake at 5, 10 and 20% levels exhibited increase in mortality with increasing concentrations and exposures. However, the ants were susceptible to the hot water extract than the cold water seed cake extract after 9 h exposure.

  138. Laureen M. Houllou, Diogo C. B. A. Torres, Maria J. L. Medeiros, Patrícia V. P. Dantas, Andrezza B. Soares, Robson A. de Souza, Paloma de F. Cavalcante and Mariana C. de M. Sobral

    Ratoon stunting disease (RSD) is a pathology caused by Leifsoniaxyli subsp. Xyli bacterium, one of the major diseases affecting sugarcane world production. The accurate diagnosis of the disease presents some difficulties, because once noticeable, not always the symptoms are specific. Therefore, diagnostic tests should include reliable methods that ensure the health report with high sensibility, even in the asymptomatic stages of the disease in plants, such as PCR. The present study aimed to evaluate in vitro shoot tips of sugarcane by PCR-specific technique. Sugarcane plants (RB92579) with 8-11 months old were used as a source of explants (stem cuttings). After in vitro establishment, shoots were cut approximately 3 cm long and they were subjected to an electrotherapy treatment (electric currents of 20 mA and 30 mA for 15 minutes). The plant DNA material was submitted to the PCR assays with specific primers for Lxx. The PCR technique manifested itself as capable method for detection of Lxx with sensibility even in in vitro plants. Through this method was possible identify samples previously submitted to electrotherapy which did not PCR presented amplification using specific primers for Lxx. As so, PCR can be used to analyze in vitro shoot tips of sugarcane.

  139. Nyambati, G. K., Lagat, Z. O., Maranga, R. O. and Ozwara, H.

    This study was conducted to evaluate the toxicity and activity of Rubia cordifolia, Harrizonia abyssinica, Leucas Calistochys Olive and Sanchus schwein furthii against Plasmodium berghei. Approximately 1x105-1x106 of parasitized erythrocytes with Plasmodium berghei, were inoculated into 7 week old naïve BALB/c mice. On the fourth day, these mice were treated with four plant extracts dispensed using the following dosage; 25mg/kg of body weight, 50mg/kg of body weight, and 100mg/kg of body weight twice daily for 4 days. The negative control group received equal dosage of normal saline. Results showed that Rubia cordifolia and Sanchus schwein furthii had higher anti-plasmodial activity against P. berghei parasites with values of 82.4 % (p = 0.001) and 78.6% (p = 0.003). All the mice treated with the above extracts survived up to day 15 just as the controls. The percentage parasitaemia reduction in mice treated with extracts of Harrizonia abyssinica and Leucas Calistochys also showed values of 65.1% (p=0.011) and 59.1% (p=0.04) respectively. LD50 doses of <10mg/kg were observed. Harrizonia abyssinica and Leucas Calistochys Olive had moderate parasite suppressive effects with LD50 doses ranging between 10mg/kg and 100mg/kg. The aqueous extracts of Rubia cordifolia, and Sanchus schwein furthii were more efficacious with highest parasitaemia suppression on Plasmodium berghei

  140. Shetti, A.A. and Kaliwal, B.B.

    Imidacloprid is a neonicotinoid compound, which is a neuro-active insecticide. The over use of this pesticide requires higher awareness about this pesticide. Present investigation was carried out to analyze the effect of imidacloprid on metabolic enzymes amylase, protease and phosphatase in soil isolates Escherichia coli and Brevundimonas Sp. MJ 15 Study on effect of exposure of 10-7 to 10–3 Molar concentrations of imidacloprid for a period of 24, 48, 72 and 96 hrs on three antioxidant enzymes Catalase Peroxidase and superoxide dismutase showed that there was an increase in the activity of all the three enzymes significant increase was observed for doses (10-3-10-7) of imidacloprid. The enzyme activity increased with an increase in the concentration of insecticide at lower doses proving that the inhibitory effect is dose dependent. The present investigation indicates that imidacloprid induces the significant increase in activity of antioxidant enzymes in the soil isolates. This proves that imidacloprid induces oxidative stress in bacterial isolates.

  141. Tejbir Singh

    Thirty-four genotypes of soybean were evaluated under eight diverse environments to know the nature and magnitude of genotype x environment interaction and stability in performance for seed yield and eleven other characters. It was observed that G X E (linear) component was significant for all the characters except days to maturity, number of seeds/pod, harvest index, 100 seed weight and oil content, whereas pooled deviation, a non-linear component, was significant for days to 50% flowering, days to maturity, 100 seed weight, oil content and protein content. The results indicated that both linear and non-linear component of g x e interaction were responsible for the differences in the stability of genotypes observed. Among the 34 genotypes, six genotypes namely PK 416, VLS 47, Pb 1, PS 1042, CO 2 and PK 564 were found to be stable for seed yield and also for biological yield and days to 50% flowering. Further, two genotypes Alankar and PK 471 were found stable under favourable environments having high mean seed yield, b>1 and non-significant deviation from regression.

  142. Sharma, R. K., Sudha V Gopinath, Prasad, J. P., Ali Md. Daud, Soni, G. R. and Singh Surinder

    The objective of the present study was to explore possibility of using reconstituted British Reference Standard (BRP) (Catalogue No. Y0000488) beyond its recommended shelf life for studying molecular size distribution in human normal intravenous immunoglobulin so as to reduce wastage, expenses and minimize the dependency on such BRP. Though the initial HPLC test results revealed that BRP after reconstitution retains required relative retention time of dimer and monomer up to 309 and 374 days when stored at 2-8oC and -10ºC respectively whereas leaflet of instruction for BRP recommends its use, after reconstitution, maximum up to 14 days when storing at 4oC but without freezing. Present study suggests that BRP of molecular size after reconstitution and stored properly may be used beyond the recommended shelf life of 14 days and till the required relative retention time of dimer and monomer is retained by BRP.

  143. Swapan Kr Ghosh and Subhankar Banerjee

    A destructive anthracnose disease of Rauvolfia serpentina L. Benth. Ex Kurz. is found in West Bengal. It’s causal organism was isolated and phenotypically identified as Colletotrichum gloeosporoides. Once in a week survey for two consecutive years of 2013 and 2014 in ten places of 24 Parganas (N) district, West Bengal establishes the presence of disease in all ten places. PDI was recorded by monitoring it’s cultivation at 4 selected areas in and adjoining North 24 Parganas, West Bengal for the same time period. Maximum PDI (66.66%-89.90%) was during September and minimum (17.64-39.20 %) was recorded during December – January in all four studied areas. There was only few reports of anthracnose diseases on Rauvolfia serpentina but also this is the first approach to the study of disease intensity of anthracnose disease of Rauvolfia serpentina in this state. So our work is an entirely new one in this regard.

  144. Lavkush Kumar Brahman, Ramesh Chandra and Hari Narayan Khare

    Background: Malaria and other mosquito vector born diseases prevalent globally. In India, village people often have no or limited hospital facility at their places. Further due to the lack of proper knowledge, local village people have to rely on traditional medicines for treatment of the disease. Ethnomedicinal plants and animals commonly used by tribal people to cure malaria and other fever, in the Meikal hill region of Amarkantak were surveyed and documented. Method: The present investigation is based on a survey of local medicines in and around Amarkantak region and their documentation. Result: The study revealed that plants like Van Adarak- zingiber zerumbet (L.) Zingiberceae, kalmegh- Andrographispaniculata Acanthaceae, Vanjira- Centratherum Asteraceae, Sudarsan- Crinum asiaticum Amarryllidaceae, Asplenium nidus L. and some special fish species and fish oil are used in the form of decoction, powder, paste and juice for the control of Malaria and other diseases by tribal people. These formulations were found to be effective and needing further scientific validation. Conclusion: Traditional tribal medicines that are used by the tribal peoples for the treatment of malaria fever and other fever is very effective. Their fore, it is very necessary that is made documentation of tribal medicines for the generation of new medicine that may be possible to control new communicable & vector born diseases like malaria, swine flu, bird flu, etc.

  145. Raghavendra S. Kulkarni and Vinayak S. Barad

    The present study was carried out to find out the changes induced by one of the type of stress conditions such as heavy metal copper sulfate, It is discharged into freshwater environments in large concentrations as an industrial effluent and severely affect the freshwater fauna, especially fishes. The serum electrolyte changes in the fish, Notopterus notopterus was investigated after copper sulfate exposure at sub lethal concentration. The significant changes were observed in the serum electrolytes, sodium values were found higher, potassium values were lower and calcium values were higher in the fish exposed to copper sulfate. The changes in the environmental factors such as pollutants cause stress to the fish which may bring disturbance in the blood parameters effecting the survival of fish.

  146. Dr. Yamunadevi Puraikalan and Dr. Sabitha, N.

    The present study was conducted to prepare the sunflower seed fortified cookies as influenced by different levels of sunflower seed powder. Sunflower seed fortified cookies were prepared by fortifying sunflower seed powder in different levels to the cookies flour, whereas cookies prepared out of without adding sunflower seed powder were kept as control. The colour and texture profile analysis of the sunflower seed incorporated cookies and control cookies without the incorporation of sunflower seed were analysized. The instrumental results in the present study shows that the L, a, b values of 20 proportions were much similar to that of control cookies among the three proportions. The Texture Profile Analysis (TPA) of the cookies revealed that as the increased level of sunflower seed resulted in increased force.

  147. De, L. C., Rao, A. N., Rajeevan, P. K., Promila Pathak and Singh, D. R.

    There are about 25,000 species of orchids estimated to occur in the world. In India, about 1350 species belonging to 186 genera represent approximately 5.98% of the world orchid flora and 6.83% of the flowering plants in India. The Eastern Himalayas and North Eastern, North West Himalayas, Peninsular India and Andaman & Nicobar Islands are the major orchid regions of India. Some orchid species like Dendrobiumnobile, Eulophiacampestris, Orchislatifolia, Vanda roxburghii and Vanda tessellate have been documented for their medicinal value. Phytochemically, orchids have been reported to contain alkaloids, triterpen¬oids, flavonoids and stilbenoids. Ashtavarga, a group of eight medicinal plants, is a vital part of Ayurvedic formulations like Chyvanprasha and four of these plants viz,Riddhi, Vriddhi, Jivaka and Rishbhaka belong to the family Orchidaceae. In the present study, medicinal parts and properties of more than 30 orchid species and importance of a number of aromatic orchids have been reviewed.

  148. Nithya, R., Esaivani, C., Vasanthi, K., Bharathi, R., Senthilkumari Muthusamy, and Chairman, K.

    This study reports the results of vermicomposting with Eudrilus eugeniae of Parthenium hysterophorus mixed with cow dung in different ratios (25%, 50% and 75%) in a 9 weeks experiment. In all the treatments, a decrease in pH, OC total and C: N ratio, but increase in EC, Ntotal, P aval, Ca total, K total and heavy metals was recorded. The cocoons production and earthworm biomass increased as vermicomposting progressed. The results indicated that parthenium can be a raw material for vermicomposting if mix with cow dung in appropriate quantity.

  149. Kumari Kshama Awasthi, Haridasan, K., Nandini, D. and Rita Singh

    Stereospermum tetragonum DC. is a medicinal plant belonging to family Bignoniaceae. S. tetragonum is an important medicinal plant; therefore, it’s planting and conservation has been recommended to prevent its extinction. In the present study we estimated the pod length and width, the number of seeds per pod, and number of seeds per kilograms of seeds using a descriptive analysis and the Analysis of Variance. We specified and estimated a regression model to study the relationship between the number of seeds per pod (dependent variable) and the pod length (independent variable). The estimated average pod length, pod width, seed number per pod, weight of 100 seeds (gm)and number of seeds per kilograms of seeds are 32.5±2.2, 4.0±0.2, 27±3, 1.08±0.02 and 92403±1535, respectively. With a 1% increase in average pod length, the average seed number per pod is estimated to increase by 0.9%.The results of this study will be useful for a yield improvement program of the plant, planning a sowing program, and in calculating the seed prices.

  150. Pangrikar Prashant, P.

    Most of the species of Aspergillus are dominant and play vital role in the biodeterioration of fruits. Fungal organisms plays significant role in infection, altering quality and longevity of fruits during the storage. The present investigation is an attempt to screen aflatoxin from. Aspergillus flavus isolates, isolated from different citrus spp. Different isolates of Aspergillus flavus were isolated from Orange (Citrus aurantium), Lemon (Citrus aurantifolia) and Mosambi (Citrus sinensis). These isolates were grown on liquid SMKY medium. By using TLC the cultural filtrate produced by these isolates were screened for Aflatoxin production. About 75% of Aspergillus flavus isolates were found to produce aflatoxin, out which 95% isolates produces aflatoxin (B1), 30% isolates produces B1 and B2, 10% isolates produces B1 and G1 aflatoxin.

  151. Gowdhami, T., Rajalakshmi, A. K. and Sugumar, N.

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the Ethanol extract leaf from Jasminum sambac Linn. Qualitative analysis of showed the presence of alkaloids, carbohydrates, flavonoids, tannins, phenol, steroids, terpenoids and glycosides. Absence of leaves extracts protein, mucilage, saponins, fats and fixed oils. This work deals with the phytochemical screening and GC-MS, FT-IR studies of the Ethanol extract. The highest peak area of (40.87%) was obtained by 7-Tetradecenal, (Z) - (C14H26O) at retention time of (18.959) and the lowest peak area of (0.16%) was obtained by Phenol, 3, 5-bis (1,1-dimethylethyl)- (C14H22O) at retention time of (12.294). The FT-IR spectroscope studies shows different characteristic peak values of many functional groups in the extract. FT-IR analysis of leaf extract confirmed the presence of amide, alcohol, phenol, alkane, carboxylic acid, aldehyde, ketone, alkene, primary amine, aromatic esters, alkyl halide, and aliphatic amine compounds. This study summarizing the information about the phytochemical constituent’s presence in ethanolic leaf extracts and these constituents may be responsible for pharmacological activites.

  152. Raj Laxmi, Sandeep Arya, Aisha Sultana and Sanjay Das

    The water of river Yamuna caters to diverse needs for the survival of the people. With rapid expansion of industrialization and urbanization the quality of the river is severely affected due to indiscriminate discharge of untreated industrial sludge and some extent to mixing of domestic wastewater with free flowing obnoxious effluents containing multi-level heavy metals, pesticides residue, disinfectants and their byproducts contaminants from the drains into the river which are badly affecting river’s overall ecology. Due to the absence of proper disposal facilities for effluents which directly disposed off onto surrounding land, surface water and even groundwater along the bank of river Yamuna through drains without recommended treatment. As a result of this, hazardous chemicals and metal ions will seep into the groundwater and devastate the water quality across huge areas, and finally leads to serious effects on the health, and the harvest, of the river Yamuna. Hence, the broad concept of healthy river Yamuna ecosystem and lack of proper management needs the research work to assess the concentration level of industrial effluents, distribution and enrichment of contaminated heavy metals which shows their bio-toxic impacts on biodiversity and also highlighted the deterioration of water quality of river Yamuna.

  153. Swapan Kr Ghosh and Pradip Kr Sur

    The use of plants to cure human diseases has been coming from ancient cultures, medicine practitioners used the extracts from plant to soothe and relieve aches and pains. Medicinal plants, and plant products are known to ‘Ayurveda’ in India since long times. In the very beginnings of Botany, doctors in both Europe and America researched herbs in their quest to cure diseases. Many of the plants that were discovered by ancient civilizations are still in use today. About three quarters of the world populations relies mainly on plants and plant extracts for health cure. It is true that many species of flora and fauna exhibit medicinal properties but amongst the most talked about are Sanjeevani ("restores life") and Bishalyakarani ("arrow remover"). In the Ramayana epic, the Hanuman went to search these magical plants in Dunagiri by getting advice of Sushena. Since beginning of human culture, people have been talking about the magical effects of these plants. Now scientists are searching these two plants in Himalayan mountains for the medical benefits in human society and they should be studied thoroughly.

  154. Dr. Shete Smita, Dr. Khiste Jayashree, Dr. Pandit, G. A., Dr. Swati Jindal and Dr. Vidiya Gurude

    The aim of this study is to review the histological types of thyroid lesions, their sex variation and mean age of presentation as well as toupdate available literature on prevalence of the common thyroid lesions. This study analyse the data from September 2008 to October 2013. Total 127 specimens of thyroid were studied. Non-neoplastic lesions (99 cases-78%) were more common than neoplastic lesions (28 cases- 22%). The most common entity was goiter (87.87%) amongst non-neoplastic lesions. Follicular adenoma was the most common benign lesion (14 cases-15%) and papillary carcinoma was the most common malignant lesion (9 cases- 32.15%). Common age incidence was 3rd to 5th decade of life with female predominance (F:M:8:1).

  155. Dr. Anurita Sharma

    A fern gametophyte is a small, photosynthetic organism capable of normal development in culture. It has usually both the sex organs leading to the belief that self-fertilization is probably the rule. But this would lead to great deal of homozygosity and consequently little morphological variation. But it is generally found that ferns exhibit a lot of morphological and cytological variation which is due to cross fertilization. The present study is an attempt to investigate the reasons for these variations by studying the gametophytic generation in Dryopteris caroli-hopei Fraser.-Jenk., D. chrysocoma (Christ) and D. cochleata (Buch.-Ham. ex D.Don). Ripe spores of these species were raised on ½ Knop’s nutrient medium and their growth was studied. It was noticed that in a population of gametophytes some were fast growing and some were slow growing. The slow growing gametophytes usually remain only male throughout the life.

  156. Jayaprakashvel, M. Primiya, R. Karthigeyan, C. P. and Jaffar Hussain, A.

    Microorganisms have become increasingly important as producer of industrial enzymes and antibiotics. Due to their diversity in their biochemcial properties and growth characteristics, they are much suitable for environmental applications and genetic manipulations. Hence, attempts are being made to isolate and characterize bacteria from less explored ecosystems so as to have diverse cultural and biochemical characteristics. Coastal sand dunes are one such relatively unexplored marine ecosystem. The plants surviving in these harsh environmental systems may harbor diverse and new beneficial bacteria in their rhizosphere. Hence, in the present study, a total of 40 different bacteria were isolated from seven different rhizosphere samples of coastal sand dune plants along the East Coast of Tamil Nadu, in Bay of Bengal India. Among the samples maximum numbers of bacterial colonies were observed in the rhizosphere of Spinifex sp. that were collected from Kanathur, Chennai. The bacterial colonies were found to be in various shapes such as rhizoidal, irregular, and circular. Some colonies were found be mucoidal in nature. The results for the biochemical characterization showed that all the bacteria were rod shaped and most of them were gram positive. Out of 40, 35 strains produced catalase and 17 produced oxidase positive results. Majority of them were actively motile bacteria. A total of 13 strains were found to be fluorescent pseudomonads as they exhibited fluorescence in King’s B Medium. The screening for their useful bioactivities showed that the bacterial strains were efficient for producing different enzymes such as the tannase, lipase, amylase and protease which can be used for industrial applications. Hence, the study is significant in finding morphologically, culturally and biochemically diverse rhizobacteria capable of producing industrially important enzymes from a less explored marine ecosystem.

  157. IgnaceKindo and S. John Britto

    An Ethnobotanical survey was conducted in 5 villages of the Balrampur district of Chhattisgarh, India, during the year 2014. Along with field study, personal interview was held with 15 people in each village 10 men and 5 women.Plant specimens were, collected thrice namely monsoon, winter and summer.Following taxonomic procedure the specimens were duly pressed processed. Among the specimens collected 50 plant species belonging to 37 families were much used by Korakutribe for various ailments. The method of drug preparation, drug administration were also recorded during the survey and interview. The results of the study revealed that Korakutribes have rich knowledge of medicinal plants and continue the use of plants for various ailments.

  158. Dr. Anurita Sharma

    The present work aims to focus on the study of fern reproductive biology by raising the gametophyte population in the laboratory conditions and studying the form, sexuality, gametangial sequence, duration and percentage of male, female and bisexual gametophytes.

  159. Vidyagauri Lele

    The graft copolymers of granular maize starch with two vinyl monomers namely- acrylamide and methacrylamide were synthesized using ceric ammonium nitrate. Gravimetric estimation was used to calculate percent grafting. While acid hydrolysis and infra-red spectroscopy was used to confirm the grafting. Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) is the right technique to study the surface morphology of starch spherulites as their size ranges between 3 and 100 µm. The study of SEM photographs of pure granular maize starch granules and starch-graft-acrylamide and starch-graft-methacrylamide was carried out at different magnification. It was observed that surface morphology of starch changes on grafting with these monomers and is easily distinguishable from that of pure starch. In case of starch-graft-acrylamide, although the granules remained almost separate from each other, their shape changed from spherical to polyhedric. The SEM photographs of starch-graft-methacrylamide, revealed that the grafted polymer formed a thin layer on the surface of starch granules and most of the granules were joined through the surface layer of grafted polymer. SEM studies can thus be used not only to confirm grafting onto starch spherulites but if method is properly standardized can be used to characterize the graft polymer.

  160. Subavathy, P., Thilaga, R.D. and Shibana, C.

    Among marine invertebrates, mollusc is one of the potential source of bioactive substances. The number of natural products isolated from marine organisms increases rapidly and now exceeds. The antimicrobial research is geared towards the discovery and development of novel antibacterial and antifungal agents. In the present study a total of 4 extracts from Cypraea arabica was assayed for its antimicrobial activity against ten bacterial and six fungal pathogens. Among all the four fractions fraction 3 (Benzene : Methanol) showed maximum level of inhibition zone 18mm against Salmonella typhi. The results of maximum inhibitory concentration revealed that among the concentrations, 100mg/ml concentration showed maximum activity and 1mg/ml concentration showed minimum activity. Crude methanol extract showed only negligible activity whereas column fractionated extracts showed significant antifungal activities. F3 fraction of Cypraea arabica developed maximum zone of inhibition (14mm) against Candida albicans.

  161. Srinivasu, K. and Murali Mohan, M.

    This paper delineated the indigenous knowledge system of fishing communities of Visakhapatnam district. The present study is undertaken to bring out the present status of fishing communities inhabiting the Visakhapatnam district and their techno-cultural adaptations. In addition to this, housing types, demographic profiles, economic aspects of the fishing communities have been described in detail.

  162. Nkwocha, A. C., Ekeke, I. C., Kamalu, C. I. O., Dadet, W. P. and Obinokwara, U. M.

    Cassava particulates obtained from dewatered and unfermented cassava mash were garified using hot air dryer at different temperatures namely; 80oC, 90oC, 100oC, 110oC, and 120oC respectively, until constant weight. The study revealed that increased temperature resulted in reduced garification time. It was observed that garification time was longest at 80oC and shortest at 120oC. Five thin-layer drying models namely Lewis, Page, logarithmic, Fick’s law and modified Fick’s law models were used for modelling the change in moisture profile of the particulates with respect to time at the different temperatures. The fit quality of the models were compared in terms of statistical parameters - coefficient of determination (R2), adjusted R2, root mean square error (RMSE), and sum of square errors (SSE). Page and modified Fick’s law models exhibited higher R2 and lower RMSE and SSE values, and were found to be better models describing the garification characteristics of unfermented cassava mash.

  163. Nkwocha, A. C., Kamalu, C. I. O., Dadet, W. P., Uzondu, F. N. and Ogbonna, O. C.

    The effects of drying condition on the drying behaviour of pepper (C. annum) and the applicability of three thin-layer drying models namely; Page, logarithmic and Flick’s law, to predict the drying behaviour of pepper were studied. The experiments were conducted in a constant temperature hot air drying oven. Three temperatures (50, 60, and 700 C) were studied. Drying air temperature was found to be the main factor affecting the drying kinetics of pepper; raising the drying temperature from 500C to 700 dramatically reduced the drying times. Higher equilibrium moisture contents were obtained at lower temperatures. Furthermore, drying was observed only in the falling rate period, and comparison among drying models was made using statistical analysis to select the best fitting model for the drying curves. Among the three tested models, Page model was found to be superior to the other models in terms of fitting performance, in fitting the experimental data, providing the highest coefficient of determination (R2) value -0.9944, and the lowest root mean square error (RMSE) value - 0.03032.

  164. Shamita Murmu, Jha, S. K. and Burnwal, A. P.

    This paper deals with application of fuzzy set theory in turning of hard-faced components as various parameters such as cutting speed, feed rate, depth of cut are not defined precisely. Decision maker may use the weighted compensatory operator to model the hardfacing problem and a better solution may be obtained.

  165. Ugah, J.O. and Ugwu, G. E.

    Component-based software engineering approach to software development employs the techniques of selecting reliable and reusable software components and assembling them within appropriate software architecture to form a robust software system. This approach is unique because it brings about designs that make a clear separation between the stable parts of the system from the specification of their composition. The rising need of software in 21st century is indeed of a great concern. In view of the increase in demand for software, software engineers need a proactive and pragmatic approach that will handle the situation on ground. Although object oriented approach helped in giving birth to software that reflect the object of the problem domain, the approach does not necessarily produce software architectures that can easily adapt to the changing requirements of users in this 21st century. In component-based software engineering, the software team will first establish requirements for the system to be built, the architectural design is made and detailed design omitted instead the team examines requirements to determine what subset is directly amenable to composition rather than construction. Component-based software engineering would help software developers to build high-quality, reliable and easily maintainable software that meets user’s requirements. It will also bring about significant reduction in the development cost and time since developers can quickly assemble such systems from a set of reusable software components rather than build everything from the scratch. Furthermore, it will lead to designs that will be easily adapted to meet the changing needs of users.

  166. Gaurav Kumar Meena

    Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplexing (OFDM) faces the Peak-to-Average Power Ratio (PAPR) problem that is a main disadvantage in multicarrier transmission system. Here in this paper an attempt is made to improve the spectrum efficiency (SE), and energy efficiency (EE) in orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (OFDM) systems, Simulation results show that the OFDM system with PAPR reduction could achieve higher SE and EE than that of the system without PAPR reduction with CCDF.

  167. Umeokwonna, N. S. Ekpunobi, A. J. and Ekwo, P. I.

    Nickel cobalt oxide nanofilms were grown by electrodepositing method using heptahydrated nickel tetraoxosulphate (VI) salt as source of nickel ion, Citric acid as oxidizing agent, hexahydrated cobalt chloride salt as source of cobalt ion, and Sodium hydroxide as pH adjuster. The deposition voltage was varied from 8.5V to 14.5V in intervals of 1.5V. Results of the study show that the films exhibit low absorbance and low reflectance in all the regions of electromagnetic spectrum; and high transmittance in the regions. The optical properties viz, absorbance, reflectance, refractive index, extinction coefficient, are directly proportional to the deposition voltage while percentage transmittance is inversely proportional.

  168. Alessandro Borges de Sousa Oliveira, João Nildo de Souza Vianna and Paulo de Tarso de Alexandria Cruz

    By turbocharging the SI-engine, one is able to reduce the specific fuel consumption as well as the emission of certain pollutants without power losses (Vianna et al., 1989). In order to determine the causes for these reductions, measurements of pressure, temperature and velocity inside the combustion chamber of an 1.3l petrol engine have been carried out. A piezoelectric pressure transducer, a constant current and a constant temperature anemometers have been employed respectively. As compared to the normally aspirated engine, the turbocharger brings about higher pressure, temperature and turbulent intensity along the whole scope of analysis. The mixing process and consequently the quality of the burning of the fuel are improved

  169. Prithvi Raj Singh, Saxena, A. K. and Tiwari, C. M.

    In the present work, the study of length of solar cycle 22-24 has been presented in relation to the solar activity, cosmic ray intensity, interplanetary magnetic field and geomagnetic activity. We have studied the solar activity trends of sunspot number (SSN), geomagnetic activity amplitude planetary A-index (Ap), cosmic ray intensity (CRI) and interplanetary magnetic field (IMF) during solar cycles 22, 23 and 24 (till Dec.2014). We have studied the relation among simultaneous variations in cosmic ray intensity (Moscow NM), SSN, Ap and IMF during solar cycles 22, 23 & 24, and found the correlation coefficient. We then compared the relations between those obtained for the two previous solar cycles. We have observed certain peculiar features in cosmic ray modulation during the solar cycles 22-24. The focus of our study was to investigate whether this range is associated with a secular pattern in the length of the solar cycles 22,23 and 24 (SSN, CRI, gamogenetic activity and IMF) in the analysis of the long-term behaviour of the Sun. We have analysed archival data of SIG parameters from 1986 - 2014.

  170. Neha Patil and Gajendra Singh Chandel

    Communication congestion is one of the major issues of networks. Congestion degrades the performance of Transmission Control Protocol (TCP). To make run the network smoothly and efficiently several points should be kept in mind and the very important characteristic on which network performance is based is Congestion control techniques which play very important role. To control congestion and improve the performance of TCP, several methods are devised and some more needed. The total incoming traffic to a particular router or node go beyond the outgoing bandwidth means incoming packets traffic is more than the outgoing link. As result congestion occurs which degrades the performance of the network in the form of packet loss and also transmission delay occur. Hence TCP/IP uses the procedure of congestion control and avoidance to check the status of congestion. The previous techniques take into account by marking the packets which has to be dropped which are in the buffer. The conventional techniques rely on some kind of feedback by identifying status of the network and take appropriate action for. Therefore, the TCP congestion control technique can be handled and represented as a closed loop scheme which is based on feedback. By using control approach it has been exposed that although planned technique execute moderately, conventional control techniques similar to proportional control in the AQM controller can enhance the system responsiveness. In this paper a scheme is advised to control the congestion of TCP by differentiating Non-congestion loss and packet reordering upon the expirations of retransmission timeouts.

  171. Ujjal Tewary, Kalyan KumarRay and SudiptoGhosh

    Modeling and simulation techniques are able to throw new insights in the science and mechanics of materials. Predictability of fracture and failure are becoming more certain and these are now compared with experimental observation. In this work, the authors have investigated the fracture behavior of a single crystal alpha-iron having a mode-I edge crack. Using small-scale Molecular Dynamics Simulation (MDS) and proper choice of interatomic potential and boundary conditions, the authors have shown agreement in the prediction of crack initiation and propagation using Griffith fracture criteria, and crack instability condition from material’s fracture resistance in the atomic scale. The simulation shows that the crack does not initiate or propagate until the stress intensity value reaches the stress intensity factor equivalent to Griffith fracture stress for the material. The fracture resistance and crack opening displacement (COD) were measured using the simulated results, similar to that of continuum fracture mechanics. The point of initiation of stable and unstable crack was delineated using the principle of plane stress fracture toughness testing. The results indicated inelastic deformation in the early stage of the application of load when crack propagates.

  172. Entesar A. Hassan, Salem E. Zayed and Amani S. Abdellah

    Acid catalysed rection of 3,3 dimercapto-1-(1-methyl-1-H- pyrrol-2-yl)prop-2-en-1-one (2) with malononitrile was achieved to produce diamino thiapyrane thione derivative (8). Reactions of (2) with some amines e.g. hydroxylamine HCl in different molar ratios and different reaction conditions were explored, and with guanidine sulphate, in basic mediums, e.g. morpholine and sodium methoxide to produce 2-amino-6-(1-methyl-1H-pyrrol-2-yl)-4-morpholin-4-yl-4,5-dihydropyrimidine-4-thiol (11) and ethoxy pyrimidine derivative (12). While reaction of (2) with cyclopentadi- ene, and maleic anhydride, the adducts (6) and (7) were obtained. Also 5-(1-methyl-1H-pyrrol-2-yl)-[1,2]dithiol-3-thione (3); was btained from the reaction of (2) with P2S5. Reaction of (3) with 1,4-quinone; 2,3-dichloronaphthoquinone and formylating reagent yielded the adducts (16), (17) and 4-formyl-1,2-dithiol 3-thione (15). On screening the synthesized compounds against some microorganisms (1:10000), a reasonable activity was observed.

  173. Hitesh Panchal, Ritesh Patankar and Kerolin Shah

    Internet is a Global system of interconnected servers and computers that uses standard protocols to link millions of devices worldwide using different technologies. Mainly, Servers are computers that stores large amount of information whose purpose is to serve the information needed by connected computers. The devices in internet are linked through broad array of electronics, wireless and optical fiber networking technologies. Most common types of internet connections are Dial-up, cable, DSL/ADSL, Wireless broadband (Wi-fi, Wi-Max etc.), Mobile broadband, fiber optic, Satellite broadband etc. This article demonstrates a Comparative study of recent internet access technologies for choosing best internet access method as per our requirement. In last net neutrality is discussed.

  174. Mrinali Tikare

    In the healthcare industry, a medical doctor has to play a significantly key professional role. The entire focus is on saving the life of patients with the help of his professional acumen, experience, and educational proficiency. Doctors are committed ‘lifetime 24x7’ to their profession as well as to their attached hospital and patients. The present study focuses on organizational commitment with reference to the marital status of the doctors/physicians/surgeons. The data have been collected from eight cities, comprising of four zones of India. The study uses a stratified sampling method in which 138 Doctors from 32 hospitals has responded. This study uses the well-known instrument - ACN scale developed by Allen and Meyer (1997). The results indicated that there are similarities between married and unmarried doctors for all the variables of the commitment. Marital status becomes irrelevant when doctors discharge their duties.

  175. Derera Ketema Teressa

    Natural resource management and documentation of indigenous knowledge as a means to ensure sustainable development is becoming both national and global agenda. The main purpose of the study is to examine the mediating role of indigenous Oromo Gada system in commons management of natural resources. In this study, this particular information gap is interrogated by systematically reviewing various literatures on the critical role of Gada system in institutionalization of natural resource management from a wealthy available literature. It is a meticulous conceptual analysis. The study revealed that Gada system played a significant role for the coexistence of peace, solidarity and unity among Oromo people towards democratization of nature conservation via development of different natural resource management institutions and by enacting different rules and regulations under the Oromo democratic institution: Gada system.

  176. Dr. Lavanya Rekha Bahadur

    More and more Indians are eating out. This creates a massive opportunity for the 100 billion dollar food-services industry. Also, working women find it easier to eat out. The study observes that cuisine, ambience, location and cost are major criteria’s for deciding a restaurant. Also, families have started getting more health conscious and so a large number of them choose to eat healthy. Mumbaikars are also getting experimentative with food due to the growing international exposure.

  177. Toyeb Yasine Ebrahim and Waju Beyene Salgedo

    Background: Immunization remains one of the most important public health interventions and cost effective strategy to reduce both morbidity and mortality in children. World health organization estimated that if global immunization coverage rises to 90%, vaccines would prevent an additional two million deaths a year among children under five years. Nevertheless, global immunization coverage is still low, leading to two million deaths annually from vaccine preventable diseases. Assessment of immunization coverage provides evidences to evaluate progress in achieving programme objectives and in improving service delivery. Methods: A community based Cross sectional study was conducted in Tehulederie district North East Ethiopia from February 1 to 15, 2012. Multistage sampling technique was used to select study participants. Seven villages were selected by simple random sampling method. The sample size was allocated to the selected villages proportionally to population size. Logistic regression model was used to identify factors associated with full immunization coverage of children. Ethical clearance was obtained from college of Health sciences’ Ethical clearance committee, Jimma University. Results: All the villages were staffed with two Health Extension workers with ratio of 1:2591and 1:5180 population in rural and urban residences respectively. Five hundred fifty seven (87.2%) of the respondents were geographically accessible to the service and 96.8% of them accepted the service. 83.1% of children were fully immunized whereas 14.7% and 2.2% of the children were partially immunized and never vaccinated respectively. In the multivariate logistic regression analysis, children in rural areas were 8 times more likely to be fully immunized than children in urban residence (AOR= 8.01 95% CI: 3.78- 16.99) and children who had access for the service were 8 times more likely to be fully immunized than children who had no access for the service [AOR= 8.24 95% CI: 4.66- 14.59). Conclusions: Physical access to immunization was nearer to the national standards. The trend showed that the immunization coverage was tending to lower in later doses. Thus, it was recommended that attention should be given to awareness of mothers to complete doses in order to achieve full protection for their children.

  178. Elizabeta Imeraj

    Human society is familiar with the phenomenon of human trafficking and exploitation in various forms throughout the ages. When it comes to trafficking are often used to define as "modern slavery". Therefore, in a historical perspective on the analysis must take this phenomenon since ancient Greek society, to move to the Romans in the Middle Ages and to proceed further, to date, times in which people are subjected to forms various physical and sexual slavery. Each stage represents the human trafficking phenomenon in conformity with its time and needs. In developed countries, especially rich people come to buy women in legally and illegally. Until a few years, the largest number of women purchased in this way ensured by Asia and Latin America. But recently, this phenomenon is encountered in making post-communist societies and females sold to be those who come from the former socialist countries of Eastern Europe, including Albania. In these cases, the mutual establishment of contact, rather achieved through advertisements published in various magazines, and in recent years with new technological developments have occurred, these contacts are realized through the Internet.

  179. Samson Mengesha Tume, Waju Beyene Salgedo and Fikru Tafese Jaleta

    Background: Satisfaction is one of the meaningful indicators of patient experience of health care Services. Asking patients what they think about the care and treatment they have received is an important step towards improving the quality of care, and to ensuring that local health services are meeting patients’ needs. Methods: Institutional based cross sectional study was conducted from September to October 2013 in Mettu Rural district, Ilubabor Zone, Oromia region, Southwest Ethiopia. A total of 390 subjects were involved in the study. Data was collected using structured questionnaire and analyzed by SPSS for windows version 16.0.Statistical test to analyze the data. Results: The questionnaire was administered to a total of 396 patients with 98.5% response rate. Out of the participants, 47.9% were male and 31.8% of respondents were in the age group of 35-44 years old, 31.8% of clients were unable to read and write and 71.3% were occupationally farmers. The finding of the study showed that the overall level of client satisfaction level with the OPD rendered at four growing health centers was 57.9%. Satisfaction was reported to be highest for amenities variable (71.3%) and lowest for provider characteristics (63%) related to courtesy and respect for respondents. Furthermore, satisfaction with the health care rendered at OPD was found to have significant association with accessing prescribed drugs and patients’ waiting time. Conclusions: This study showed that clients’ satisfaction level lower in the study health centers when compared to other similar studies in the country. Lack of drugs and supplies, poor information provision, long waiting time, poor cleanliness, lack of privacy, lack of necessary equipment and lack of water and electricity were found to be major causes of dissatisfaction. Therefore, the concerned body district Health Office, all the Health Center staffs should consider these service areas in order to improve customer satisfaction.

  180. Dr. Stan O. Ibor, James B. Effiong and Ethel A. Mendie

    The government of Cross River State acquired about 280 hectares of land between 1973 and 1983. The land was surveyed and laid into a total of 274 plots distributed to applicants for residential, commercial, industrial users. Other uses include office and warehouse development. These allocations were analyzed using rental values, premium charges and development charges as prescribed by the CRS of Nigeria Gazette No. 6, Vol. 36 of 8th March, 2003. The aim of the analysis was to test a number of propositions usually supported by land economist that the structure of land values vary spatially in a city in accordance with site use potentials, and to investigate whether or not there is a significant relationship between land values and several commonly assumed characteristics of land use. The result obtained confirm that spatial variations in land values bear a close relationship to the land use configuration of the city, that as the pattern of land values change in time, land use patterns also change; and that land values generally influenced the intensity of land use in a city. The study also confirmed the view expressed in several texts that land resources can usually earn a higher return when used for commercial or industrial purposes than for any other type of use (Barlow, 1958). The paper concluded that it is not sufficient to view land use and land values in a city only from the perspective of general economic theory, that there are social as well as other factors that influence land use and land values.

  181. Aditya Mahato and Avijeet Rana

    Background: Fitness may be divided in three areas physical, mental and social fitness .In physical fitness flexibility is one of the very important component. Ground flexibility may increase the level of performance and low level of flexibility may produce injury proneness. The aim of the study was to compare three major joints flexibility of cricket, basket and football players. Method: 30 male university level players 10 from each sports (cricket, basketball and football) were selected conveniently for this study. For flexibility of the shoulder, trunk and lower back and ankle joint were chosen in this study for data analysis Mean, SD, ANOVA and ‘T’ test were adopted. Results: Footballers were higher in shoulder, trunk and lower back flexibility whereas cricketers were better in ankle flexibility. Flexibility of different joints very sports to sports due to the use of different joints may. Conclusion: It may be from this study footballers level of flexibility were better than basketball and cricket players. To measure the flexibility more sophisticated accurate instruments were recommended for future study.

  182. Dr. Ismail Yildirim

    Estimating the outstanding claims and funding appropriate reserves are among the most important obligations of insurance companies in order to compensate any possible damages. Outstanding claim reserves are calculated with potential estimations based on the historical data obtained from an insurance company. The estimation of outstanding claim payments is significant with regards to maintaining the financial balance of insurance companies. Literature covers several reserve methods and Chain Ladder method is the most commonly used and recognized method among them. This study aims to estimate the outstanding claim reserves using the Chain Ladder method on the claims payments of insurance companies operating in Turkey for a period between 2009 and 2014.

  183. Dr. Sampreety Gogoi

    Introduction: Early childhood education aims at total child development, in a learning environment that is joyful, child centered, playful and activity based. It is expected to provide necessary maturational and experimental readiness to the child for meeting the demands of primary school curriculum. He needs an understanding adult in the form of his teacher to help him to help himself to explore manually and verbally, and to learn the lesson of life from both people and objects. Objectives: To assess the method of administration of teaching learning material for young children. Material and methods: For the present study, 100 numbers of Government Lower Primary School and Senior Basic School where there is provision for early childhood care and education were selected. The Schools were from both the urban areas and the rural areas of Golaghat District of Assam. From the list 20 numbers of schools from each of the five blocks were selected randomly. In this way 100 numbers of Government Schools having Early Childhood Care and Education (Ka-Sreni Schools) were selected. Results: Most of the schools do not have sufficient teaching learning materials for early childhood care and education and the teacher have not received any special training regarding preparation and use of teaching learning materials effectively for making the learning environment more easy and joyful. The teachers strongly felt that, the use of teaching learning materials in the classroom interaction make the environment more joyful

  184. Adebayo, O. F., Akinyemi, S. A. and Ojo, A. O.

    The palynological study of the northern section of the Anambra basin at Odagbo, southern part of the Benue River was carried out. The coal, silty shale and shaly siltstones were analyzed using standard palynological procedure to enrich the palynological data, date and determine the environment of deposition of the deposits. The heterolithic shales and siltstones yielded some well preserved palynomorphs consisting of 81 angiospermous pollen and 64 pteridophytic spores. Recovered angiosperms include among others Monocolpites, Echitriporites, Psilatricolporites and Psilatricolpites while Laevigatosporites, monolete and trilete spores constitute the spores. The coal seam underlying the sedimentary sequence is barren of sporomorphs. The monocolpates and tricolporates/tricolpates which dominate the taxa constitute 33% and 23% respectively. The association of Zlivisporis blanensis, Longapertites marginatus, Mauritiidites lehmani, Proteacidites spp., Retidiporites magdalenensis and Periretisyncolpites spp. enabled the assignment of Late Maastrichtian age to the deposits. The dominance of palmae flora suggests a tropical to subtropical climate and the recovered assemblage is interpreted as indicative of a warm and humid climate. The geochemical indices such as Th/Cr, Cr/Th, Th/Co and Cr/Ni ratios suggest that these shales were derived from felsic source rocks. The shale units exhibits different degrees of trace-element enrichment, with the approximate order of enrichment relative to an average shale being Y > Zr > Co> Mo > Pb > U>Ba > Cu > Ni > Zn > V > Sr. In addition, based on previously established thresholds, V/Cr, Ni/Co, Cu/Zn, U/Th and V/Sc ratios indicate that these shales were deposited under oxic environment. Besides, the ratio of V (Ni + V) in coal seam and associated shale sequence suggest suboxic to anoxic environment of deposition.

  185. Timothy Kinoti M’Ngaruthi, Mwenda Mukuthuria and John M. Kobia

    This study was, in a broader sense, intended to identify the many political, social and economic changes that the continent of Africa has undergone since independence. Among the significant changes witnessed are those of its political leaders. This study analyzed the various traits and actions of Africa’s contemporary political leaders as portrayed by Kiswahili poets. The objective of this study was to evaluate the changes that the contemporary African politician has undergone since the attainment of multiparty democracy according to Swahili poets. The study was guided by Post-colonial Theory which is associated with the works of Edward W. Said, Gayatri Chakravorty Spivak and Homi K. Bhabha. Data was collected from selected anthologies of Kiswahili poems using purposive sampling method. Qualitative analysis of the selected poems was done guided by the research objective. The findings of the study revealed that although the African continent has made remarkable steps in enhancing democracy, a good number of its political leaders, whom were credited for championing multiparty democracy, have turned out to be tormentors of the very people they had sworn to protect.

  186. Lydia Kanake Kobiah, Dr. Mercy Wanja Njagi, Dr. Hillary Kipngeno Barchok and Prof. John M. Kobia

    Educational literature, theory, and reform trends have long promoted putting teachers in a central role in curricular design. The longevity of the discourse for meaningful and sustained teacher involvement in curriculum development reflects the failure of such involvement to become common practice in secondary schools in Kenya. This article attempt to investigate teachers’ participation in selection and organization of curriculum content and its impact on curriculum implementation in Kenya. The study was conducted in Meru and Nairobi Counties, Kenya. The target population was 3146 secondary school teachers comprising of 1781 males and 1365 females. Stratified random sampling was used to draw the participating schools and teachers. A sample of 342 teachers participated in the study. A questionnaire for teachers and an interview schedule for Principals were employed in data collection. Data was analyzed by use descriptive and inferential statistics. The findings indicated that teachers’ participation in selection and organization of curriculum content had a positive relationship with effective implementation of secondary school curriculum in Kenya. The study findings also reveal that curriculum development is largely centrally-controlled due to the top-down models of curriculum development employed by Kenya Institute of curriculum development. The study recommends a shift of decision-making from the centre to the periphery which will cause a change in teachers' and administrators' roles, involving them in greater decision making regarding the total curriculum development and implementation. Teachers should be empowered through training and new curriculum orientations for effective participation in curriculum development and implementation.

  187. Ranajit Chakraborty and Rahuldeb Das

    The objective of this study was to examine the behaviour of volatility in the Indian commodity market after the introduction of derivative trading in the national level commodity exchanges. Researchers around the world revealed the behaviour of volatility in different commodity markets, but none of them studied the Indian commodity market extensively in this aspect. From 2004 to 2012, this 9 year period was chosen as the period of study. The agricultural commodity index MCXAGRI, some of the agricultural commodities, namely Barley, Chickpea, Chilli, Cumin, Maize, Mustard Seed, Pepper and some non-agricultural commodities namely Brent Crude Oil and Gold were involved in the analysis of volatility. Using entropy as a measure of volatility, it was observed that for most of the commodities spot and futures prices volatility behave in a similar manner. However, there were exceptions for some commodities. No trend of volatility was observed for most of the commodities in Indian market. Additionally, with few exceptions, the difference between average volatility of the spot and futures prices was insignificant. Furthermore, patterns of change of volatility over the quarters was similar in the spot and the futures markets.

  188. Lakshmanan, K., Anbalagan, R. and Yadev, A.K.

    The Vishnugad - Pipalkoti hydel scheme, a run-off-the-river scheme envisages the construction of a 65m high concrete gravity dam across the river Alakananda, about 1km downstream of Vishnugad near the Helong village to divert water through a 8m diameter horse shoe shaped Head Race Tunnel over a length of 13.4 km to an underground power house for generating 444MW of power near the Hat village. The project is located in Lesser Himalayan terrain, which is characterized by complicated geological setting. The rocks exposed in the project area include dolomites, slates, quartzites and chlorite schists of Pipalkoti Formation of Garhwal Group. The rocks are traversed by many types of structural discontinuities. The bedding traces seen at places in quartzites are nearly parallel to foliations. In addition, two prominent sets of joint are observed in the rocks. The intersection of these discontinuities may result in a number of stable or unstable rock wedges depending upon their orientation with respect to tunnel alignment. The terrain shows evidences of large scale thermal activities in the area as evidenced by the presence of a few thermal springs. Some of the important problems likely to be faced during the construction of the Power Tunnel are discussed. The rock mass properties were derived using RMR and Q System in order to predict rock load and support requirements.

  189. Selami Yüksek, Erkal Arslanoğlu, Mehmet Şirin Güler , Vedat Ayan and Malik Beyleroğlu

    Aim: The purpose of this study is to examine the effects of 14-week training and tennis programme on physical and physiological profiles of boys aged 8 to 12 years. Method: The experimental group consisted of 14 healthy boys. The average age, body mass index (BMI), height and weight are 9,9±1,2 years, 17,9±3,5 kg/m2, 138,7±8,1cm and 34,4±10,3 kg respectively. Exercise sessions were carried out for 2 hours per week (Saturday and Sunday) over a 14-week period. Permission to conduct the study was obtained from parents, the medical committee and the Kafkas University Sarıkamış School of Physical Education and Sports. Some physical and physiological tests were measured. Hand grip strength, 20 m speed, balance, coordination, flexibility, anaerobic power, aerobic power, 30 s push-up, 30 s sit up, horizontal jump and pull-up tests were applied to subjects. The measurements were taken in resting condition before and after the 14-week exercise programme. Within the scope of the training programmes, there were 20 minutes of warm-up and gymnastics; 20 minutes of aerobic step to music to improve coordination and rhythmic skills; 20 minutes of educational games, including various types of sports (basketball, football, volleyball, handball); and finally, 60 minutes of basic tennis training. Each week, these activities were conducted in different ways to prevent them from becoming routine.Evaluation of the obtained data, SPSS for Windows 11.0 software with paired-samples t test was used for intra-group statistics. All measured parameters performed at the level of 0.01 and 0.05. Findings: As a results of the analysis, there were significant differences between pre-post tests of all measured parameters at the end of the study. Result: Consequently, 14 weeks regular training and mini tennis acivities has positive effect on physical and physiological developments of boys aged 8 to 12 years.

  190. Anju Adhikari

    The current paper examines the legislations and policies with respect to persons with disabilities. It traces the recognition of component of sexuality and reproductive and sexual rights of persons with disabilities in various legislations and policies pertaining to them. The paper is based on review of secondary sources of data comprising Constitution, Persons with Disabilities Act, 1995 Mental Health Act, 1987, The National Trust Act 1999, Rehabilitation Council of India Act 1992, National Policy for Persons with Disabilities and United Nations Convention on the Rights of Person with Disabilities. Review of the available legislations and policy indicates the absence of component of sexuality in available legislation and policies pertaining to persons with disabilities. It talks about the need for explicitly incorporating sexual and reproduction rights of person with disabilities in the various legislations and policies.

  191. Mima Bam

    Jhum cultivation, which is also known as shifting cultivation, is the primitive form of soil utilization. The main characteristics are rotation of fields rather than crops, clearing by means of fire, absence of manure, use of human labour only and employment of dibble sticks or hoe. After two or three years the fields are abandoned, the cultivators shift to another clearing, leaving the old one for natural recuperation. This explains the use of the term ‘shifting cultivation’. The intervening period for which a Jhum land is abandoned is known as the Jhum-cycle. Jhum cultivation is a kind of subsistence cultivation. It is an age old system of agriculture among the different tribes of Arunachal Pradesh. The Galo tribe progress to full use of the ecological and environmental conditions to their advantage. The integral nature of their socio-cultural life is thus woven around Jhum which is not merely an agricultural activity, but a way of life. This paper is an attempt to understand the Jhum cultivation practice followed by the Galo people of Arunachal Pradesh. An attempt has made to discuss the various activities that are involved in the Jhum cultivation. The present paper has also thrown light on the traditional calendar including months and all the Jhum activities that is done in all the months.

  192. Rigam Kaye

    Higher Education has become the backbone of economic success in our rapidly developing countries. The higher Education is firmly entrenched in the wider social network and is reciprocally to other social institutions and has influence on all other elements, shaping the quality of society. There has been enormous expansion in the number of colleges and universities. However, in the state of Arunachal Pradesh several colleges, innumerable government as well as private degree colleges, B.Ed colleges have been established, the huge institutional growth turns bleak when the question of quality is raised. The present paper tries to analyze the strengths, weakness and opportunities associated with bettering our educational system in hopes of having a pre-developed workforce for the 21st century and beyond.

  193. Anjali Rathaur and Prof Sunita Mishra

    The present study was conducted to assess the relationship of specific satisfaction in biogerontology and social gerontological and medical gerontology .The study is based upon sample of 120 elderly (60 nuclear family and 60 joint family) and the age rang 60-80 year. and used the social support scale measuring over life satisfaction and support the family members. The study revealed that majority of elderly had low social support and those which nuclear family elderly reported for low joint family having higher social support the finding financial, health, social and personal domain. The result revealed that significant in nuclear family was highly significant. The test was applied to check difference social support of elderly people in nuclear family and joint family .The ANOVA method used to check the difference.

  194. Jyotsana Maurya and Dr. Kiran, U. V.

    Electronic-culture is new. It is emerging as a transnational and global phenomenon; not confined to geographical boundaries. E-culture is both technological and a social development. E-culture is increasingly perceived as a new digital media culture or digitalization of culture. The present study focuses on impact of e-culture on loneliness among elderly. The study was carried out in lucknow. Multistage sampling technique was fallowed in the present study. The sample for this study comprised of 120 elderly individuals (60 females and 60 males respectively) from urban and semi-urban areas. E-culture Inventory: developed by patel and ranjendran (2005) Revised University of California at Los Angles (UCLA) Loneliness Scale. The samples of this study were personally and individually contacted and data was obtained through face-to face interview. The present study reveals that e-culture is positively and significantly related to life-satisfaction is negatively and significantly related to e-culture among the elderly.Half of the respondents reported that they felt lonely sometimes or more often. Women, widows/ers living alone were more prone to report loneliness.

  195. Ezdini Sihem

    In developed as in developing countries, the study of the impact of the development of the agricultural insurance on the agricultural performance is of a big utility as far as this study allows to pull measures of economic policies which allow to promote the agricultural insurance and the strategies allowing the country to pull the profits of the development of the agricultural insurance. We show the existence or not the causality between the agricultural performance and the development of the agricultural insurance and this by resorting to an econometric approach which defines itself as follows: by proceeding by a study of the stationarity of the series to determine their order integration. In the second stage, we test the existence of a relation of cointegration between the used variables. Afterward by specifying the parameters of the model, we make the tests of causality, decomposition of the variance and the tests of the distribution of residues. The Granger causality test was then used to make the various tests in Argentina. We found interesting results in this connection which reflect the state of the agricultural insurance and the implications of its use to allow the preservation of the agricultural performance. Besides, we showed in term of causality the implications of the application of the agricultural modalities of risk management on the agricultural performance. By applying all of the tests, we show the existence of a causality between the agricultural performance and the development of the agricultural insurance which is measured by the penetration in the agricultural insurance. And this causality is valid for Argentina between 2000-2012. It’s a unidirectional causality which remains true in the short and long term so we can adopt the model estimated for projected effects. In this result is added a causality which puts in relation the action of the State by direct helps granted to the insurants in the form of subsidies of the premiums of agricultural insurance and their effects on the agricultural performance.

  196. Ezdini Sihem

    This article tries to show the existence of the causality between the agricultural performance and the development of the agricultural insurance and this by resorting to an econometric approach using Granger Causality Test. This econometric analysis is made over the period 2000-2012 for one of the European country to know, France. We found interesting results in this connection which reflect the state of the agricultural insurance and the implications of its use to allow the preservation of the agricultural performance. Besides, we showed in term of causality the implications of the application of the agricultural modalities of risk management on the agricultural performance. By applying all of the tests, we show the existence of a causality between the agricultural performance and the development of the agricultural insurance which is measured by the penetration in the agricultural insurance. And this causality is valid in France between 2000-2012. We find a unidirectional causality between the development of agricultural insurance and agricultural performance, a causality which remains true in the short and long term so we can adopt the model estimated for projected effects. In this result is added a causality which puts in relation the action of the State by direct helps granted to the insurants in the form of subsidies of the premiums of agricultural insurance and their effects on the agricultural performance. For these causalities, are added other relations appropriate to every country or for two countries together.

  197. Ezdini Sihem

    In developed as in developing countries, the study of the impact of the development of the agricultural insurance on the agricultural performance is of a big utility as far as this study allows to pull measures of economic policies which allow to promote the agricultural insurance and the strategies allowing the country to pull the profits of the development of the agricultural insurance. We show the existence or not of the causality between the agricultural performance and the development of the agricultural insurance and this by resorting to an econometric approach which defines itself as follows: by proceeding by a study of the stationarity of the series to determine their order integration. In the second stage, we test the existence of a relation of cointegration between the used variables. Afterward by specifying the parameters of the model, we make the tests of causality, decomposition of the variance and the tests of the distribution of residues. The VAR model was then used to make the various tests in China over the period 2000-2012. We found interesting results in this connection which reflect the state of the agricultural insurance and the implications of its use to allow the preservation of the agricultural performance. Besides, we showed in term of causality the implications of the application of the agricultural modalities of risk management on the agricultural performance. By applying all of the tests, we show the existence of a causality between the agricultural performance and the development of the agricultural insurance which is measured by the penetration in the agricultural insurance. And this unidirectional causality is valid for the China between 2000-2012. A causality which remains true in the short and long term, so the model can be adopted for estimating projected effects. In this result is added a causality which puts in relation the action of the State by direct helps granted to the insurants in the form of subsidies of the premiums of agricultural insurance and their effects on the agricultural performance. In these causalities, are added other relations appropriate to a country.

  198. Ezdini Sihem

    This article tries to show the existence of the causality between the agricultural productivity and the development of the agricultural insurance and this by resorting to an econometric approach using Granger Causality Test. This econometric analysis is made over the period 2000-2012 for one of the American country to know the United States. We found interesting results in this connection which reflect the state of the agricultural insurance and the implications of its use to allow the preservation of the agricultural performance. Besides, we showed in term of causality the implications of the application of the agricultural modalities of risk management on the agricultural productivity. In United States as in the developed countries, the agricultural insurance acquires a big importance as far as it is used for a long time as one management tool of the agricultural risks. Through our econometric analysis, we try to show the existence or not of a causality between the agricultural productivity and the development of the agricultural insurance in the United States during period 2000-2012. To be made, we shall test the existence of a relation of cointegration between the variables which are used and we shall proceed by a study of the stationarity of the series to determine their orders of integration. By applying Granger causality test, we show the existence of an unidirectional causality between the development of the agricultural insurance and the agricultural productivity in the United States and we also identify the existence of an unidirectional causality enter the development of the agricultural insurance premiums to United States and the agricultural productivity enters the period 2000-2012. These two results confirm our working hypothesis which stipulates the existence of causality between the development of the agricultural insurance and the agricultural productivity in the United States.

  199. Dr. Awa Shukla

    “You can tell the condition of the nation by looking at the status of women.” Jawaharlal Nehru. Atrocities and discrimination are the two major problems, which the Indian women face in the present day society. The emancipation of women is not a simple matter. It requires the attitudinal change of the husband, other family members and society as a whole to the women. The first and foremost priority should be given to the education of the women. The struggle for gender justice will be slow, strenuous and protracted. Education attainment and economic participation are the key constituents in ensuring the empowerment of women. Women should be allowed to work and should be provided enough safety and support to work. True empowerment will be reached only when women take part actively in the decision making process of our country. Mainstreaming women’s empowerment is central to human development.

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