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April 2016

  1. Sureshkumar, R., Karuppaiah, P., Rajkumar, M. and Sendhilnathan, R.

    Studies on “Effect of organic and inorganic inputs on flowering and yield characters of bitter gourd (momordica charantia l.) ecotype ‘mithipagal’ in the rice fallow of cauvery delta region” was undertaken with the organic and inorganic nutrients along with biofertilizers and panchakavya foliar spray. Three different organic manures in different levels such as FYM (12.5, 25 and 37.5 t ha-1), vermicompost (1.25, 2.5 and 3.75 t ha-1) and pressmud (12.5, 25 and 37.5 t ha-1) along with the three levels of inorganic nutrients viz., 100 per cent recommended dose of fertilizers (60:30:30 kg NPK ha-1), 75 per cent (45:22.5:22.5 kg ha-1) and 50 per cent (30:15:15 kg NPK ha-1) and biofertilizers like Azospirillum and Phosphobacteria each @ 2 kg ha-1 along with the foliar application of panchakavya @ 3% at two different schedule viz., two spray on 30 and 60 DAS), and three spray on 25, 50 and 75 DAS) were studied in eleven treatment combinations including a control. This experiment was carried out in randomized block design with three replications. The treatment combination of (T6) [75% RDF (45:22.5:22.5 kg NPK ha-1) + vermicompost @ 2.5 t ha-1 + biofertilizers (Azospirillum + Phosphobacteria each at 2 kg ha-1) + panchakavya @ 3% foliar spray on 30 and 60 DAS)] recorded the highest values in the flowering and yield attributes.The minimum days to first male and female flowering, fruit harvestable maturity and the maximum number of female flowers plant-1and the highes values in number of fruits plant-1, fruit length(cm), fruit diameter(cm), fruit weight(gm) fruit yield plant-1 (1.38 kg) were registered with the treatment (T6) which was followed by T9.

  2. Soumi Samuel, Rajendra Prasad, B., Shilpa Chopra and Suchetha Kumari

    Orofacial clefting is a significant birth defect involving improper fusion of palatal shelves and/or the nasal process. Clefting is complex and known to have multifactorial risk factors. Aim of the study is to find out the association of age and socioeconomic status of the parents. Highest frequency of clefts were found in subjects with mother’s age between 25-29 years, which was significant (p=0.002). Highest frequency of orofacial were found to be more in subjects with father’s age between 30-34years which was significant (p= 0.046).

  3. Dr. Deepti Shrivastava and Dr Priyakshi Chaudhry

    Aims and objectives: (1) To assess awareness. (2) To assess utilization. (3) To identify gap between awareness and utilization. Materials and method: The present cross sectional study was carried out in rural area of central India from April 2015 to august 2015. 2000 antenatal women and those who had delivered within past one year of attending the OPD of dept of obgy, acharya vinobha behave rural hospital were included. Inclusion criteria 1) Antenatal women in 3 rd trimester. 2) Patient who have delivered within one year in our hospital as a booked, registered, unbooked cases. Data were obtained by the following method- A) through oral questionnaire method by interviewing the mothers for assessing their knowledge in relation to reproductive and child care services. B) semi structured questionnaire and their labour events were analysed to assess the utilization of services Results: In our study 2000 women were enrolled after getting written, informed consent.48% patients were under the age group of 20-25years, 43% cases belonged to the age group of 25-30years and 9% were above 30 years of age. 56.5% of women had received primary education, while 32.8% had received education till middle school, 7.2% had received education till high school and only 3.5% patients were graduate. Maximum patient’s i.e 38% belonged to class 3 socio economic group according to prasad classification. 50.9% patients lived in joint family. After assessing the knowledge about the services 17.15% patients had never heard about the service, 72.1% has some idea and 10.75% were fully aware. Source of information about the services was mainly through asha, anm workers 72%, neighbors and friends contributed to 16%, television 8% and newspaper 4%. 53.35% patients visited the hospital only twice for antenatal checkup, 41% patients visited thrice,31.2% visited more than four times and 5.65% visited only once. 56.3% patients had received health services through some or the other source, 31% cases had knowledge about jsy and only 31% knew about cash assistance provided, knowledge about registration during pregnancy was not known to many only 23% knew about it. Timing about 1st anc visit was known to 16.05%, timing about 2 nd visit was known to 63% as they were instructed during 1 st visit about when to visit next, 42.15% cases knew about 3rd visit. Knowledge about the first time of injection tt was to only 18.3%, and timing about 2 nd was known to 42%. 60% patients knew that they had to take iron, calcium and folic acid tablets during pregnancy and were available in the nearby health centers for free of cost. 21% cases knew about the tests to be done during pregnancy. 16% patients only knew about the importance of weight gain during pregnancy and its monitoring but only 8.9% patients knew what should be the ideal weight gain. Only 42% cases knew about the timing of therir post natal check up as they were instructed during discharge, 38% cases knew about the complications during post partum period.54% cases knew that they had to take additional calories during lactational period but how much was not known to many. 41% patients knew essential components of newborn care, only 37% patients knew the duration of exclusive breast feeding. 48.5% patients had availed the facility of family planning. Conclusion: In Maharashtra although Government is putting lot of effort for institutional delivery and good number of women were aware about maternal and child care health services, but still there is need to formulate strategies to fill this gap from awareness to utilization.

  4. Precious Barnes, Heckle Abban, Du-Bois Asante, Emmanuel Effah and Emmanuel Eli

    Introduction: Vernonia amygdalina belongs to the family Asterecae. Vernonia amygdalinacontains active components or phytochemicals that can lead to liver regenerations in hepatotoxicity in hepatoxicity. Aim: The aim of this study isto assess the chemotherapeutic and hepatoprotective effect of leaf extract of Vernonia amygdalinain rats. Method: A total number of 15 albino rats were fed on standard diet and divided into three groups. Rats of the firstgroup were injected intraperitioneally with paraffin oil and tap water (control). Rats of the second and third groups were intraperitioneally injected with CCL4, standard diet and tap water. The third group was treated with the leaf extract of Vernonia amygdalina. Blood and liver samples were collected for biochemical and histopathological analysis. Results: Phytochemicals such as flavonoids, tannins were contained in the leaf extract of the plant. Levels of alanine ALT, GGT and AST were highest in the CCL4 treated group with a mean and standard deviation of AST (88.25±14.22), ALT (89.25±8.99) and GGT (91.75±6.32) respectively as compared to the control and CCL4 treated groups. Histopathologically, a greater amount of mononuclear cell infiltration, necrotic and few fibroblasts were observed in the liver of CCL4 treated groups whiles liver regeneration was observed in the third group. Conclusion: The results showed that the leaves of Vernonia amygdalina possessed hepatoprotective abilities.

  5. Elsharif Ahmed Bazie, Moataz Mohamed Alhasan Ali, Abazar Mahmoud IsmailL, Tarig babiker Eljak, Alnazir Frha Yousif, Ethar Ahmed Awad and Nahid Khalid Mohamed

    Anemia is the common nutritional problem worldwide, recent studies showed that young adults specially females are at increased risk of anemia. The BMI has been used by the WHO as the standard for recording obesity statistics since the early 1980s. We studied 376 students, males were 178 students (47.3%) and females were 198 (52.7%). Students with normal Hb were 353 students (93.9%) and low Hb in 23 students (6.1%). Students with normal weight were 255 students (67.8%), underweight in 74 students (19.7%), over weight in 44 students(11.7%) and obesity in 3 students (0.8%). In Elimam Elmahadi university underweight students also had low Hb and more studies were need to evaluate the etiology of low Hb.

  6. Dr. Ambica, R., Dr. Karthik, R. Dr. Nagarathnamma, T.

    Introduction: Neonatal septicemia is the leading cause of neonatal mortality and morbidity in India.The bacteriological profile of neonatal septicemia has changed from time to time and from place to place over the years Objective: Isolation and identification of pathogens responsible for neonatal septicemia from the blood with their antibiotic susceptibility pattern. Materials and methods: Blood samples from clinically suspected neonatal septicemic cases were subjected to aerobic culture and isolates obtained were tested for antibiotic susceptibility pattern as per CLSI guidelines from September 2012 to August 2013 Results: Out of 1129 blood samples studied, 263 (23.29%) were blood culture positive. 161 (61.2%) were males.182 (69.3%) were preterm. Early onset septicemia was seen in 60.9% of cases. Gram negative organisms were predominant in 154 (58.5%), Gram positive organisms in 75 (28.5%), of cases. Klebsiella species and Escherichia coli were isolated in 50 % and 14.8% of cases respectively. MRSA was the major gram positive bacteria with 48 (64%). 22 (8.3%) were Candida isolates confirmed by repeat culture, 21(95.4%) were non albicans Candida species. Majority of gram negative isolates were susceptible to ceftazidime, piperacillin tazobactum and Gram positive isolates showed high resistance to Penicillin, erythromycin, ciprofloxacin. 51 (66.1%) and 32(41.6%) of Klebsiella isolates showed ESBL and MBL production respectively, majority of which were from early onset septicemia. Conclusion: In view of the changing spectrum of the causative agents of neonatal septicemia and their antibiotic susceptibility patterns from time to time, periodic review of cases to assess any changing trends in the infecting organisms and their antimicrobial susceptibility is important.

  7. Dr. Nabeel Mushtaque Ahmed, Dr. Vinay Pandey and Dr. Ashish Srivastava

    Tuberculous radiculomyelitis (TBRM) is a complication of tuberculous meningitis (TBM), which has been reported rarely in the modern medical literature. We describe a case of TBRM that developed in an human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)–infected patient, despite prompt antituberculous treatment. The most common symptoms are subacute paraparesis, radicular pain, bladder disturbance, and subsequent paralysis. CSF evaluation usually shows an active inflammatory response with a very high protein level. MRI and CT scan are critical for diagnosis, revealing loculation and obliteration of the subarachnoid space along with linear intradural enhancement. As in other forms of paradoxical reactions to antituberculous treatment, there is evidence that steroid treatment might have a beneficial effect.

  8. Roseane M. Evangelista Oliveira, Sára Maria Chalfoun, Raphael, E. Orlandi, Patrícia de F. Pereira Goulart, Maria Emília de S.G. Pimenta, and 1Carlos J.Pimenta

    In the present study had as an objective to study the effects of the consumption of caffeinated and decaffeinated coffee on human health. Forty-eight healthy adult individuals were selected, who were appraised at the begining and the the end of the research through clinical exams (glucose, lipidic profile, uric acid levels, complete blood count, thyroid hormones and routine urine) and its characteristics as a functional food. The individuals were separated in twelve groups by age, physical activity (active and sedentary) and the type of drink consumed (caffeinated and decaffeinated coffee) and guided as to how to prepare the drink and the daily amount to be consumed during the six months. After collection of all data, they were submitted to the statistical analysis through the Scott-Knott test and Student t test at the level of 5% of probability, using the SISVAR program. From the results, a significant reduction was observed in the total cholesterol levels HDLc and LDLc, uric acid, platelets and hematocrits and an increase in the leucocytes, independent of coffee type consumed, age group and physical activity. The consumption of caffeinated as well as decaffeinated coffee promoted improvements or did not interfere in the appraised factors, evidencing that the caffeine is not the component responsible for the alterations. Therefore, the results show that coffee presents characteristics that suggests its effect as a functional food, possibly attributed the other components of the drink.

  9. Umezurike, B. C., Ogwo, E. U., Akhimen, M. O., Ijioma, S. N. and UMA-KALU, I. B.

    The prevalence of hypertension amongst adults in Umunneochi Local Government Area (LGA) of Abia State, Nigeria, predisposing factors and its relationship with age and gender was studied. The research design adopted was a cross-sectional descriptive study, in which one thousand and three (1003) adults comprising of 286 males and 717 females, aged 30 years and above, who presented themselves for a free medical outreach, were screened for the prevalence of hypertension. The study period was between January and December, 2013. Data collected were ages in years, sex and blood pressure values. Diagnosis of hypertension was based on the blood pressure threshold of 140/90 mmHg, set by the International Society of Hypertension. Hence, Individuals whose resting blood pressure values were above 140/90 mmHg, were considered hypertensive. Oral interviews bordering on lifestyle, culture and diets were also used to generate data on the predominant risk factors in the study area. Results obtained indicated that out of the 1003 persons involved in the study, 608 (60.62%) were found to be hypertensive and comprised of 183 (63.98%) males and 425 (59.27%) females. Rise in prevalence rate was also found to increase with age, attaining peak values at ages 60-69. Dietary predisposing factors identified included high salt intake, saturated fat, carbohydrates and junk foods while lifestyle factors included tobacco, alcohol, stress and poverty. We hereby conclude that the prevalence rate of hypertension in Umunneochi Local Government Area of Abia State, Nigeria is high and calls for urgent attention to avoid reaching a pandemic state.

  10. Seham Shehata Ibrahim and Shereen Ahmed A Qalawa

    Introduction: Gestational Diabetes Mellitus (GDM) has well recognised adverse health implications for the mother and her newborn that are both short and long term. Obesity is a significant risk factor for developing GDM and the prevalence of obesity is increasing globally. Aim: to evaluate the effectiveness of applying instructional scheme for pregnant women on their knowledge, attitude and clinical implications. Subject and Methods: quasi-expermintal research design with convenience random sampling was used which calculated 60 pregnant women in the first trimester using three tools. Results: The results indicates a statistically significance differences in post and follow-up implementation of instructional scheme phase comparing to pre instructional scheme phase in total knowledge, attitude, and clinical implications. Conclusion & Recommendations: there are a remarkable increase and improvement of the pregnant women 's level of knowledge and acquiring the ultimate positive and noticeable improvement in the attitude and their clinical implications ,and there are obvious needs for instructional scheme offered on simple media to pregnant women to prevent occurrence of gestational diabetes mellitus. Within this context, there is a great demand for strategies and programs that take into consideration all the social, financial, and psychological contexts.

  11. Mohammad Ali, Shola Parvej Alam, Saurabh Kumar, Anupam, Ranjit Kumar and Arun Kumar

    Background: The pH of our blood is tightly regulated by a complex system of buffers which remains at work consistently to maintain the pH range from 7.35 to 7.45 that is slightly more alkaline than pure water. Blood needs to maintain a pH of 7.35 to 7.45 for cells to function properly and all of the proteins that work in our body has to maintain a specific geometric shape to function. The three-dimensional shapes of the proteins in our body are affected by the tiniest changes in the pH of body fluids. Thus present study has been undertaken to evaluate any change in blood pH of cancer patients. Materials and Methods: Blood samples of 200 individuals were taken for the study which was divided into 3 groups. Group A- 40 individuals without cancer, Group B - 70 cancer patients prior treatment and Group C - 70 cancer patients during treatment. pH meter was used for assay. Results: There was no significant statistical difference (p>0.05) observed in all groups as compared to normal during the period of the study. Conclusion: This study showed that blood pH does not alter in cancer patients prior treatment and during treatment, hence consumption of acidic or alkaline food and even cancer chemotherapy are not responsible for making any change in blood pH of an individual.

  12. Dr. Kuber Tyagi, Dr. Ravi prakash sm, Dr. Vinod Kumar Tyagi, Dr. Sumeet Shah, Dr. Bellona Thiyam, Dr. Marilia Marceliano-Alves and Dr. Sankalp Verma

    Aims & objectives: The aim of the present study is to evaluate the prevalence of styloid process and its correlation with serum calcium levels. The objectives are to evaluate the prevalence of clinical symptoms of elongated styloid process; prevalence of history of trauma to head and neck region and tonsillectomy of elongated styloid process; prevalence of elongated styloid process in age group, male and female and right and left; prevalence of pattern of calcification of stylohyoid complex; evaluate the relationship between body weight, height and elongated styloid process. Materials & methods: Digital panoramic radiographs of 500 patients in age group of 40-89 years were taken. Serum calcium estimation of all these patients was done. All the measurements and findings were compared and statistically analysed. Results: The statistical data revealed that, majority of subjects were males aged 40-49 years. Out of total 500 subjects, 41 had elongated styloid process. The incidence of elongated styloid process ranged from 0% to 28.6% in different age groups. The proportion of males with elongated styloid process (19.7%) was higher as compared to those of females (14.9%). Pattern E was most common. Mean body weight as well as mean height of subjects with elongated styloid process was observed to be significantly higher as compared to those having normal styloid process. Serum calcium levels were significantly higher (p<0.001) in subjects having styloid process as compared to subjects having normal styloid process. Conclusion: With increasing age, there was an increase in proportion of subjects with elongated styloid process, more common in males with bilateral involvement. Pattern E was the commonest pattern followed by pattern L. A very poor correlation between length of styloid process and serum calcium levels was observed signifying that serum calcium levels were not dependent on the length of styloid process.

  13. Nigora Tukhtaeva, Marif Karimov, Iskandar Mavlyanov, Maria Sibirkina and Bekhzod Abdullaev

    Aim: The aim of the study was to assess mucosal microflora of the stomach of patients with RA according to the degree of disease activity. Materials and Methods: We analyzed 159 people aged 19 to 83 years. Among the patients, mostly women were 128 and men were 31. The ratio of women to men - 4.13:1. The mean of age is 55+0.86 years of all patients. RA was diagnosed in all cases by using the criteria of the American College of Rheumatology. In this study we used for determining RA that routine clinical and radiographic examination, microbiological examination of feces and urine, endoscopy (used machine company "Olympus") of stomach and duodenum with biopsy of the mucosa; it was carried out a microbiological study of the stomach and gastric juice biopsies of mucosa. Results: In the study of biopsy results showed that RA patients’ microflora of stomach insulated Peptostreptococci – 78.5% patients; Streptococci, Staphylococci and Bacillus – 28.5% patients; Escherichia coli and yeast-like fungi of the genus Candida – 21.4%; Clebsiella, Pseudomonas, Enterococci – 8.3% patients in number of cultures from 103 to 3.6x107lg CFU/ml and the combination of microorganisms are from 1 to 7. Escherichia coli were inoculated in an amount of 4.1x107lg CFU/ml; Streptococci – 3.6x107lg CFU/ml; Clebsiella and Pseudomonades – 106lg CFU/ml; Peptostreptococci – 7.6x103lg CFU/ml; staphylococci – 6x103lg CFU/ml; Candida – 1.7x103lg CFU/ml; Enterococci – 103lg CFU/ml. Conclusion: In patients with RA are marked dysbiotic changes in the stomach. The severity of dysbiosis is directly dependent on the activity of joint pathology.

  14. Ricardo R. Guerra, Arthur C. L. Luna, Raul A. Siqueira, Millena O. Firmino, Cintia Cleub, Monalisa V. S. F. Guerra and Tarsila A. Cavalcante

    Taxonomic Guerra R.R., Luna A.S.L., Siqueira R.A., Firmino M.O., Cleub C., Guerra M.V.S.F. and Cavalcanti T.A. 2016. [Body condition evaluation, external biometrics measurements and morphology of digestive tube of red-cowled cardinals (Paroaria dominicana Linnaeus, 1758) of wild life apprehended in Paraíba, Brazil: releasing projects subsidies.] Paroaria dominicana is a bird belonging to the Passeriforme order. Because of its song and color qualities is one of the main targets of wild animal trafficking in Brazil. This study aimed to evaluate the external and organ biometry of the digestive tube, as well as the histological aspects of this system and the body condition of specimens from apprehensions made by the Wild Animal Screening Center, in order to provide subsidies for taxonomic classification, clinical, nutritional and species preservation management, as well as for releasing projects. It were carried out body condition evaluation, external biometrics measurements and tube digestive morphological analysis of 20 P. dominicana apprehended in Paraíba, Brazil. The seized specimens presented unfavorable body conditions, which were related with loss of feathers; the visceral topography and histology of the digestive system was consistent with those of other birds, but the external and internal biometry presented differences. The results demonstrated that body condition analysis of seized animals is an important tool that should be considered in evaluations at Screening Centers, in order to achieve a better nutritional and/or clinical management before releasing projects, thus increasing the project success. The results will provide input for taxonomic classification, as well as corroborate further clinical, nutritional, preservationist and release project studies.

  15. Dr. Prerna Kukreti, Dr. Jugal Kishore and Dr. Pankaj Kumar

    Mental health problems impose sizeable public health burden across the world and contribute to the huge economic burden at the Individual, community and national level. Serious mental illnesses like schizophrenia and bipolar disorder are disabling conditions, which have their onset in early adulthood leads to sub-optimal productivity. Also unlike other medical illnesses, severe and protracted mental illnesses pose more indirect burden that is way beyond the scope of existing government provided free health services. But still in developing countries like India, budget for the mental disorders gets thwarted underneath the huge burden of communicable diseases which appear of paramount importance in mortality census. There is need of nationwide burden assessment studies and effective health policy planning to be tuned in accordance with the available evidence of huge economic burden of mental disorders.

  16. Okai Isaac, Arko-Boham Benjamin and Shao Shujuan

    Gaining insights into the possible functional aspects of relatively unknown genes to tumor genesis may help uncover new cancer biomarkers. Jakmip1, connected to autism spectrum disorders, is relatively new protein that we first demonstrated its ability to activate Wnt/beta catenin pathway and induce increased cervical carcinoma cell proliferation. In this report, we examined the impact of exogenous supplementation of Jakmip1 expression in lung adenocarcinoma. Cells over expressed for Jakmip1and their controls were assayed for their in vitro proliferation potential in CCK-8 and clonogenic assays, before they were implanted subcutaneously in nude mice to monitor tumor growth. Here, we present that up regulation of Jakmip1 increases cell proliferation and induce larger tumor development in xenografts. The acquisition of pro-proliferation prowess following Jakmip1 higher expression paralleled the protein expression of beta catenin and cyclin D1. Collectively, our data avidly suggest that upregulated Jakmip1 wields the potential to promote cancer growth and may be relevant to lung tumorigenesis.

  17. Nisha Kanabar

    Background: Obesity is a multi-factorial disease that develops from the interaction between genotype and the environment. It is a major public health problem resulting in serious social, physical and psychological damage. The prevalence of obesity and overweight among children is rising to alarming levels in developed and developing countries including Gandhinagar city. Objectives: 1) To assess obesity among primary school male children aged 10- 12 years in Gujarat, gandhinagar city. 2) To recognize different sociodemographic data in obese and non obese children. 3) To assess feeding, feeding habits and physical activity as risk factors ofobesity of the study population. 4) To verify relations between BMI and the studied parameters. Sample size: It comprises all male obese children (n=100 and BMI ≥ 23kg/m2) from different classes of the primary schools in the Gandhinagar City. A total of 100 normal weight control male children (BMI=15-20kg/m2) are selected from the same classes. Controls and cases were matched in age and socioeconomic conditions. Universe: All Primary School Male Children Aged 10-12 Years in Gandhinagar city. Materials and Methods: This case control study comprised 96 obese children (BMI ≥23 kg/m2) and 96 non-obese children (BMI 15-20 kg/m2).Controls and cases were matched in age and socioeconomic conditions. Questionnaire interview was applied. BMI for children was calculated by a computer graphs program specially design to this purpose. Sex, age (years and months), height (in maters) and weight (in kilograms) were introduce into the program. Then by one click on calculate button, the BMI was automatically calculated. Data were analyzed using SPSS version 18.0. Results: The prevalence of obesity among primary school male children aged 10-12 years in Gandhinagar city was 4.3%. Average body mass index of obese children (cases) was 25.8±2.7 whereas that of control children was 17.4±1.0. Family history, eating >3 meals/day, eating while watching television and lack of physical activity in terms of doing exercise and playing football were foundto of be factors that affect the obesity among the children.

  18. Clara Rafael Silva Xavier, Lucas de Faria Barros Medeiros, Artur Dantas Freire, Thiago Emanuel Véras Lemos, Amália Cínthia Meneses Rêgo and rami Araújo-Filho

    The presence of ectopic thyroid tissue is a rare entity. The non-gland migration occurs in the early stages of embryogenesis to your normal cervical location. Thus, the ectopic tissue lodges in general in the path of the thyroglossal duct, in the middle line of the neck. The most common location is in the lingual zone, being called a lingual thyroid. This, in most cases will be asymptomatic. However, it is able to manifest itself with symptoms of dysphagia, dysphonia, obstruction of upper airways or hemorrhage at any moment between childhood and adulthood. We present a rare case of lingual thyroid in a man of 43 years, when hormonal tests were normal, however scintigraphy confirmed the diagnosis associated with surgical pathology, which revealed nodular goiter hyperplastic ectopic in association with lymphocytic thyroiditis type Hashimoto's thyroiditis. This article is a review of this disease, targeting mainly the conduct, still very controversial in world literature.

  19. Alejandro Córdova-Izquierdo, Adrían Emmanuel Iglesias Reyes, Claudio Gustavo Ruiz Lang, Juan Eulogio Guerra Liera, Jorge Fabio Inzunza Castro, Edmundo Abel Villa Mancera, Maximino Méndez Mendoza, Ruben Huerta Crispín, Ma de Lourdes Juárez Mosqueda, Armand

    Because of the undeniable advances in genetic and nutrition, dairy industry can produce great amount of milk per cow per year more efficiently nowadays. However, these improvements may be overshadowed by the emergence of problems regarding low reproductive performance of animals. Both in its clinical and subclinical forms, mastitis is linked to stressin dairy cattle, and such association undermines their reproductive performance. Livestock producers should give preferential attention to the task of improving the environmental conditions and management of their production units, since such conditions are largely responsible of animal health detriment, and affect the incidence of reproductive disorders, increasing significantly production costs of dairy industry.

  20. Aysu Türkmen Karaağaç and Füsun Güzelmeriç

    Hospital acquired infections, nosocomial pneumonia(NP) being the second most common, is the major cause of morbidity and mortality in children undergoing cardiovascular surgeries. In this retrospective study, the data of 875 children, 1/12 to 16 years of age, who underwent cardiovascular surgery between January,2014-February,2016 in Kartal Koşuyolu Research and Training Hospital were detected. 281(168 males, 113 females) of them, mechanically ventilated longer than 3 days postoperatively, were included in the study. NP was diagnosed in 41 of them (14.5%) according to the Center for Disease Control(CDC) criteria. ETA cultures were obtained regularly. The isolated pathogens were Klebsiella Pneumonia(29.2%), Pseudomonas Aeruginosa(24.3%), Stenotrophomonas Maltophilia(21.9%), Acinetobacter Baumannii(17.3%) and Candida Albicans(7.3%). The overall mortality was 28.8%(81/281) and the mortality due to NP was 14.8%(12/81). There was a statistically significant relationship between the age, duration of mechanic ventilation, reintubation and NP. (p<0.05) However, the correlation between the gender, use of antacids, accompanying abnormalities, nasogastric feeding and the ETA positivity was nonsignificant. (p>0.05) Assessment of responsible pathogens via routine ETA cultures and determining the risk factors of NP will help us promote our infection control measures to decrease the postoperative morbidity and mortality rates. Moreover, these findings may form a base for further studies in other pediatric cardiovascular surgery intensive care units(PCVS-ICU).

  21. Syed Mushtaq Ahmad Shah, Sheikh Imran Farooq, Hanief Mohamed Dar and Varun Dogra

    Introduction Functional dyspepsia is a common public health problem. Pathophysiology of non ulcer dyspepsia includes several possible mechanisms. Aims and objective to know the prevalence of Helicobacter pylori in non ulcer dyspepsia/ Functional dyspepsia patients through histopathological examination and rapid urease test of biopsy. Material and methods Patients with symptoms suggestive of dyspepsia and normal ultrasound findings were subjected to upper gastrointestinal endoscopy. 100 Patients having normal gastric mucosa or having features of gastritis without erosions were included in the study and subjected to biopsy from body and antrum of stomach which was studied for Helicobacter pylori by histopathological examination of specimen, rapid urease test to check for urease activity of Helicobacter pylori by using a using rapid urease test kit and was also inoculated into the medium and kept at room temperature to look for the colour change from yellow to pink. Results By histopathological examination 44 patients were positive for H. pylori and 56 were negative for H. pylori. while by rapid urease test 40 patients were positive and 60 were negative. Three patients were positive by rapid urease test alone, seven patients were positive by histopathology alone and thirty seven patients were positive by both tests. Final result was considered positive if either histopathology for H. pylori was positive or rapid urease test was positive or both were positive.. Overall 47 patients were positive for H. pylori and 53 patients were negative for H. pylori, so percentage of H. pylori positive patients was 47%. Conclusion Non-ulcer dyspepsia is a common problem encountered in clinical practice with an estimated incidence of 2-3 times more common than peptic ulcer disease. Although significant number of cases were infected with H pylori, but it cannot be concluded that H pylori is significant cause of non ulcer dyspepsia unless control group is included. Infectivity rate with H pylori was more in ulcer like subgroup were the predominant symptom is pain compared to other subgroups. So It can be concluded that non ulcer dyspeptic patients, where predominant symptom is pain, can be benefited more with H pylori eradication treatment.

  22. Dr. Kallol Bhattacharjee, Dr. Dwijen Das, Dr. Tirthankar Roy, Dr. Giridhari Kar and Dr. Prithwiraj Bhattacharjee

    Background: Tubercular Meningitis is an important life threatening manifestation of extra pulmonary tuberculosis. It is quite common in the developing countries and can influence the socio economic status as most of the cases occur in the working age group. Aims and Objectives: To study: 1. The clinico-pathological profile of patients with tubercular meningitis. 2. To assess the role of hyponatremia in relation to its incidence, impact and prognosis in tubercular meningitis. Materials and Methods: One year single centered observational study including 45 cases of tubercular meningitis in a tertiary care teaching hospital in north eastern India. Diagnosis of tubercular meningitis was based on CSF findings as per standard protocol. Serum sodium was estimated on presentation and repeated based on the clinical status and a value < 135 mmol/L was diagnosed as hyponatremia. Results and Observations: A male preponderance with a mean age of 31.97 years was observed with a peak in the age group of 21 – 30 years. The average duration of symptoms was 3 weeks and fever, headache, nausea, vomiting, seizures, altered consciousness and neurological deficits mostly cranial nerve palsies are the usual presenting features. Clear to turbid fluid, elevated protein, decreased glucose, increased ADA activity, lymphocytic pleocytosis were salient features in CSF which also showed AFB in few samples and positive PCR for Mycobacterium tuberculosis DNA in a substantial number of cases. Hyponatremia, seen in 46.6% of cases had a bearing on the clinical severity but was statistically insignificant in relation to mortality. Death was observed in 13.33% of total cases, 83.33% of which had hyponatremia. Conclusion: The study concluded with the inference that hyponatremia may be an important prognostic indicator in relation to the severity of tubercular meningitis.

  23. Dr. Khaled Abdallah Khader

    Introduction: simulation can mimic real clinical situation and physiologic response of a patient. So it helps students to practice in a controlled environment and improved learning experience. The purpose of this study was to examine extent of using simulation in nursing education and its effect on students’ knowledge, skills, confidence, anxiety and critical thinking. Methodology: A post-test control group, quazi-experimental design was used to study 58 second-year students selected conveniently from nursing faculty. The control and intervention group received the same theoretical materials and lab training. The intervention group additionally trained on high-fidelity simulation. A questionnaire was developed by researcher to measure variables of study. Nursing skills were measured by standard checklists. Results: the t test showed a statistically significant difference (p < 0.05) between the experimental and the control group in knowledge, critical thinking, and skills related to the part of clinical training included in the simulation sessions. In addition, the results indicated a statistically significant difference (p < 0.05) in level of anxiety, self confidence and communication between the experimental group and the control group. Discussion: the results of the current study is consistent with the results of many previous studies. Most studies showed that simulation has a positive effect on improving knowledge, skills and competency. Further studies are required with all year levels of nursing program. In addition, educator's competencies and other nursing skills are recommended to be included in the future studies.

  24. Gurpinder Kaur, Manoj Kumar Katual, Anshu, Sukhwinder Singh, Jaspreet Saini, Sukhmeet Singh Kamal and Harikumar, S. L.

    Frozen Addicts are one of the leading causes of death. The World Health Organization (WHO) lists 126 central nervous system disorders. Although the cause of frozen addict are unknown, each year approximately 1,90,000 people in the United States and 10,000 people in Canada will be diagnosed with a primary symptoms. Frozen addicts are the number two cause of disability in men age 40 and older. Only 31 percent of males and 30 percent of females survive/recover five to fifteen years following the diagnosis of primary symptoms. Enhancing the quality of life of people with frozen addict requires access to quality specialty care, clinical trials, follow-up care and rehabilitative services. Although genes that are linked to monogenic forms of Parkin’s disease a and other closely related neurodegenerative diseases are, at first glance, not related to a coo man cause , recent genetic, pathologic and molecular studies have strengthened the evidence that there is probably more “cross talk” between the different pathway, on several levels, then previously appreciated. These finding support the existence of common pathogenic mechanisms, protein aggregiation, mitochondrial dysfunction or oxidative stress, which had been suspected as major culprits of neurode generation for many years. This review tries to demonstrate that during routine office visits, neurologist failed to identify the presence of depression, anxiety, and fatigue more than half of the time failed to recognize sleep disturbance in 40% of patients. Awareness of likelihood under recognition of behavioral symptoms in PD should generate approaches to diagnostic accuracy and facilitate timely therapeutic interventions.

  25. Dr. Mohamed Ramadan Abdallah and Dr. Ahmed H. Al-Salem

    Background: The management of long gap esophageal atresia/tracheo-esophageal fistula (EA/TEF) continue to challenge pediatric surgeons and although there were several advances in its management, none of the available options is ideal. Patient and Methods: This is a retrospective chart review of 42 patients with long gap esophageal atresia treated over a 20 years period. The review included age at diagnosis, sex, type of esophageal atresia, associated anomalies and most importantly the methods of repair and their outcomes. Results: Out of 42 patients with long gap EA with or without TEF, 23 patients were treated by primary repair of their native esophagus, 15 had esophageal substitution and 4 died before any definitive treatment was performed. Conclusions: The management of long gap esophageal atresia is challenging and every attempt should be made to preserve the native esophagus. During The second half of the study period we adopted a more conservative approach with the aim of avoiding esophageal replacement using primary repair under severe tension or delayed primary repair after a period of observation. Although this approach is associated with a high incidence of esophageal stricture, we found it to be a better alternative to esophageal replacement in patients with long gap esophageal atresia.

  26. Dr. Mohamed Ramadan Abdallah and Dr. Ahmed H. Al-Salem

    Backgrounds: Children continue to swallow foreign bodies (FBs), some of which are bizarre but coins continue to be the most common. This review presents our experience with 62 swallowed FBs outlining aspects of diagnosis and management. Patients and Methods: The medical records of all children with the diagnosis of swallowed FB were retrospectively reviewed for age, type of the swallowed FB, diagnosis and management. Results: During a 7-year period, from June 2008 to July 2015, a total of 62 children with swallowed FBs were treated. Their age ranged from 8 months to 10 years (mean 5.2 years). There were 38 males and 24 females. All were healthy with no prior medical problems except one who had primary repair of esophageal atresia during neonatal period. A variety of FBs were swallowed but coins were the commonest representing 71% of cases. Twenty seven FBs (43.5%) required either endoscopic or surgical removal (21 esophageal and 6 intestinal). The remaining 35 (56.5%) passed spontaneously. Conclusions: Swallowing of FBs by children continues to be a common medical problem. Coins remain the commonest object to be swallowed. Impacted esophageal FBs require prompt removal.Watchful waiting is preferred to deal with swallowed FBs once they passed beyond the esophagus, but early recognitison and management of any complication is necessary.

  27. Robinson-Bassey, G. C., Frank, Maureen, D. and Enuma, Nwachukwu, E.

    This is a descriptive study to determine the factors associated with teenage pregnancy in Ogbeukwu Community in Ndoni Town of Rivers State. A sample of 300 students drawn from the target population of over 1197 female students attending the community secondary school, using sampling technique. Data was collected with a self structured questionnaire. Validity and reliability of the instrument were ensured. Data was analyzed using descriptive and inferential statistics. Findings revealed that peer pressure, early marriage, low economic status, poor sex education among others were all factors influencing the incidence of teenage pregnancy; the respondents have a good knowledge of the consequences but poor knowledge of preventive measures against teenage pregnancy. Chi-square test of hypothesis revealed a significant relationship between the age of the respondents and their knowledge of preventive measures against teenage pregnancy with a calculated chi square value (X2cal) of 22.098 at a degree of freedom of 2, therefore the null hypothesis was accepted. It has been recommended that more enlightenment campaigns be carried out via the mass media, youth groups and counseling sessions should be created in order to create more awareness, thus reducing teenage pregnancy.

  28. Salma Amr Aboul Gheit, Sybel Mokhtar Moussa, Sahar Shafik karam, Nehal Adel Leheta and MahaAdlyAbd El Motie

    Introduction: MTA has been recommended primarily as a root end filling material, but it has also been used in pulp capping, pulpotomy, apical barrier formation in teeth with open apexes, repair of root perforations, and root canal filling. Objectives: This study is designed to evaluate the biocompatibility and bone healing of MM-MTA in comparison to MTA. Materials and Methods: This study was conducted on 30 rats by making osteotomies on both sides of the mandibles of the rats. Fifteen rats were sacrificed after one week to evaluate the short term inflammatory response and bone healing and the other fifteen were sacrificed after three weeks to evaluate the long term inflammatory response and bone healing. Specimens were collected for histopathological examination under light microscope and histomorphometric examination. Results: Grey ProRoot MTA showed significantly lower inflammatory reaction than MM-MTA, and no statistical significant difference was recorded between the two materials in the histomorphometric analysis. Conclusions: MM-MTA and Grey ProRoot MTA showed comparable biocompatibility when evaluated in vivo. Although the results are supportive for the Grey ProRoot MTA showing more biocompatibility compared to MM-MTA, both materials are considered to be equivalent in the ability of the formation of bone.

  29. Bharath Kumar Reddy, C., Amaravathi, M. and Jyosthna Reddy, S.

    The study focused on clinical and therapeutic aspects of Peste – des – Petitis Ruminants (PPR) in sheep. The sheep were presented with the clinical history of dullness, depression, severe oculo-nasal discharge and diarrhoea. Oral cavity revealed erosive and necrotic lesions on gum and tongue along with bran like fibrin deposits. Clinically affected sheep were treated with broad spectrum antibiotics like Inj. Enrofloxacin @ 3.5 mg/kg b. wt along with Inj. Meloxicam @ 0.5 mg/kg b. wt and other oral supportive therapy for three days.

  30. Dr. John Paul, F. U. and Dr. Ramachandran, K.

    The purpose of the study was to determine the impact of austere winter on psychomotor performance of expedition members who stayed for prolonged duration in Antarctica. Twenty-four volunteers (scientific and technical support personnel) from winter-over team of Indian Antarctic Expedition served as participants. The performance on psychomotor tasks namely hand steadiness, two-hand coordination, and finger dexterity were evaluated at pre and post winter session in Antarctica. A mixed group factorial ANOVA revealed that there was a significant decrease in error for hand steadiness and two-hand coordination, and decline in time (seconds) for finger dexterity at post-winter session when performance was compared against pre-winter session. However, no significant difference was found between scientific and technical support personnel in performance on psychomotor tasks.

  31. Dr. Muzafar Ahmad Bhat, Dr. Khan Rafiya, N., Dr. Suhail Majid Jan, Dr. Mufeed Ahmad Bhat, Dr. Amir Beig and Dr. Roobal behal

    Aims: This parallel-group, multi-centre, double-blind, randomized-controlled clinical trial was undertaken to compare the clinical outcomes of coronally advanced flap (CAF) alone or in combination with a connective tissue graft (CAF+CTG) in single Miller Class I and II gingival recessions. Material and Methods: 80 patients were enrolled with one recession each. Coronally advanced flap (CAF) alone surgery was performed in 30 patients; 30 sites randomly received a graft under the CAF. Measurements were taken by blind and calibrated examiners. Outcome measures included recession reduction, complete root coverage (CRC) and side effects. Results: No differences were noted in the intra-operative and post-operative patient related variables between the two groups. Surgical time was significantly shorter in the CAF group. Recession reduction was not statistically different between the two groups; even though test group showed a tendency towards improved outcomes in sites treated with CAF+CTG (adjusted difference 0.33mm. statistically Significant results of PD, KT and CAL were observed after CAF+CTG (≤ p = 0.0033). Conclusion: Both treatments were effective in providing a significant reduction of the baseline recession and with only limited intra-operative and post-operative morbidity and side effects. Adjunctive application of a CTG under a CAF increased the probability of achieving decrease PD, increase KT and CAL Miller Class I and II defects. Conflict of interest: No conflict of interest declared by any of the Authors.

  32. Jitendra Sharma and Manharleen Kaur

    Aim: The purpose of this study was to compare the lower extremity static & dynamic balance and core stability performance in three different types of strength athletes. Material and Method: For the purpose of the present study, sixty (N=60) strength athletes, comprising of Wrestlers (n1 =20); Weightlifters (n2=20); Bodybuilders (n3=20)] subjects between the age group of 18-25 years (Mean ± SD: Age 20.53 ± 1.57 years, height 165.98 ± 3.52 cm, body mass 57.60 ± 3.77 kg, leg length 87.51±2.03) were selected. Stork balance test, Y - balance test were used to assess static and dynamic balance of the dominant leg respectively. Modified beiring sorensen and prone plank test were used to measure core stability performance. Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) test was used to determine the intra group differences in the lower extremity static & dynamic balance and core stability performance among the three groups of strength athletes. When a significant difference among the groups was observed, a pair-wise comparison of the groups was done by using the LSD post-hoc test to identify direction and significant differences between the groups. To test the hypothesis, the level of significance was set at 0.05. All the subjects, after having been informed about the objective and protocol of the study, gave informed consent and volunteered to participate in this study. Results: Significant differences were observed in static balance, dynamic balance and core stability among strength athletes of three groups (p≤0.05). Thus, when LSD Post-Hoc test was applied to study the direction and significance of differences between the paired adjusted final means for static balance, dynamic balance and core stability, the wrestlers were found to be significantly different when compared with its counterparts. It has been observed that wrestlers had demonstrated significantly better dynamic balance whereas weightlifters and bodybuilders had demonstrated superior static balance and core stability than wrestlers. However, when different sub-variables of dynamic balance i.e. anterior, posteromedial and posterolateral balance were compared, the results revealed insignificant differences in the anterior balance among strength athletes of three groups. But, posteromedial and posterolateral balance was superior in wrestlers than the weightlifters and bodybuilders. This study concludes that the female wrestlers have lower static balance performance and core stability performance as compared to weightlifters and bodybuilders whereas they have superior dynamic balance among the three groups.

  33. Anni Diankreo Taboko, E., Li Xiao, H., Selotlegeng, L. and Ainemukama, J. L.

    Stroke occurrence, mortality, and prevalence fluctuate generally among distinctive districts in China, and the quantity of patients who died from stroke is three times more than those who died from coronary heart disease. This study was carried out retrospectively with patients’ data, collected from the hospital database for a period of one year and structured questionnaire, using purposive sampling. Of all the risk factors associated with stroke, hypertension was the most prevalent accounting for 66.14%, of which 54.8% were male and 45.3% female. The other risk factors weren’t as prevalent with alcohol consumption accounting for 42.5%, smoking 43.3%, diabetes mellitus 29.1%, heart disease (coronary heart disease, ischemic heart disease) 38.58%, atrial fibrillation 5.5%, and 8.6% had had an episode of Transient Ischemic Attack. In China, the increase rate of hypertension and stroke related deaths shows a need for improvement in health care from the hospitals, as well as individuals. Stroke can serve as an alarm to underlying factors, and physiotherapy can help implement better behavioral interventions.

  34. Gulnar Dara Sethna, Sandeep Singh, Rajesh Prabhakar Gaikwad, Akshaya Bhupesh Banodkar and Nilofar Badshah Attar

    The development of soft tissue air emphysema after dental treatment is an infrequently reported sequel. It may be caused due to inadvertent introduction of air into soft tissues during procedures using high speed, air driven hand-pieces or air–water syringes. However with scattered case reports and reviews in dental, surgical, anaesthetic and dermatologic literature, it appears to be under reported and rare. Orbital emphysema due to dental treatment is even a rarer entity with very few documented cases in literature. A case of subcutaneous orbital emphysema following routine metal crown removal is presented to illustrate the typical presentation, differential diagnosis, management and prevention of this uncommon condition.

  35. Vaittianadane Ganessane

    Purpose of study: Pulmonary rehabilitation often incorporates self-management strategies to promote treatment adherence and this approach has been advocated for bronchiectasis. There is limited evidence for the effects of pulmonary rehabilitation in silicosis so there is the need for physiotherapist to know the effect of pulmonary rehabilitation in silicosis. There are many option for clinical therapist to treat silicosis, as this condition associated with many impairments. Wide varieties of approach are available to treat such a condition. Pulmonary Rehabilitation is comprehensive intervention based on a thorough patient assessment followed by patient tailored therapies. So there is need for the therapist to know better treatment option for patient with silicosis. As a research, purpose, there are many article which shows significant improvement in COPD patients by PR. but, only few studies are supporting the same effect in non-COPD condition . So, there is the need of the study to check whether the same benefit can be obtained by PR in silicosis patients. Methods: Out of 60 patients, only 48 patients were selected based on inclusion and exclusion criteria and divided equally into two groups. Outcome Measures: PFT (FVC, FEV1/ FVC), MODIFIED MEDICAL REASERCH DYSPNEA SCALE. Procedure: Pulmonary rehabilitation for 45 min/ a day for 4 days/ a week for 4 week.was designed according to American Thoracic Society/European Respiratory Society Statement JUNE 2013. The data were analysed useing t-test. Conclusion: This study concludes that a supervised pulmonary rehabilitation program of 4 weeks duration have improved functional capacity of lungs and dyspnea. in patients with silicosis.

  36. Nkemjika Stanley, O., Taherisefat Mona, West Bernadette and Tokede Oluwatosin

    It is undeniable that violence has a huge impact on the mental and behavioral aspect of the general growth and development of a child into adulthood. Considering the high level of violence in Newark, New Jersey in 2012, we decided to understand the level of childhood exposure to violence and its role to present day violence. Using a sample of youths who has had exposure to some form of violent acts, we conducted a study to depict if there was any form of violence exposure during their childhood formative years. This was achieved using a survey analysis completed by participants and the survey contained questions on different forms of violence and their roles in the act. We concluded that early exposure of a child to any form of violence is contributory to the general attributes and behavior of the child as a youth/ teenager/ adult.

  37. Priya, S. R. and Dr. Lalitha Ramaswamy

    Cookies have become one of the most desirable snacks for both youth and elderly people. Maida is rich in carbohydrate and poor in protein and fiber. It is essential to have healthy alternative to maida and coconut flour being rich in fiber and protein is ideal to replace maida in cookies. The present study was framed in that direction to formulate a value added cookie using coconut flour (CF), coconut sugar (CS) and virgin coconut oil (VCO). Experimental cookie (EC) were prepared with 20% CF:80% maida, 30% CS:20% cane sugar and 30% VCO:20 % butter and compared against standard cookie (SC) made with maida, cane sugar and butter. The cookies were stored in airtight containers for a period of 56 days. Sensory evaluation was carried out on 0th day and periodically every week upto 56th day. Selected nutrients were analysed by standardized procedures on 0th day and 56th day. Incorporation of coconut products in the preparation of cookies received optimum sensory quality characteristics. Lauric acid, being a unique fatty acid present only in coconut was 8.3 ± 0.10g in EC while it was 0.42 ± 0.02g in SC. EC were found to be rich in all the nutrients on comparison with SC and can be promoted to use as a therapeutic food suitable for supplementing the diets of malnourished children and patients with metabolic diseases.

  38. Dr. Karthikeya Patil, Dr. Mahima, V. G., Dr. Saikrishna, D. and Dr. Deepika Keshari

    Nasolabial cyst is an uncommon, soft tissue cyst of non-odontogenic origin found in the maxillofacial region. It presents as a slowly enlarging, asymptomatic swelling in the nasolabial region. Being a soft tissue cyst, it cannot be appreciated radiographically. We present a case of nasolabial cyst in a 60 year old female patient who reported to us with a swelling in the left nasolabial region. Iodine contrast agent was injected into the cyst followed by a series of images to evaluate the entire extent of the lesion. This paper highlights the importance of use of radiographic contrast agent in the diagnosis of this rare lesion. A brief review of literature with emphasis on the conventional radiographic and computed tomography findings is presented.

  39. Merenu, I. A., Uwakwe, K. A., Diwe, K. C., Duru, C. B., Iwu, A. C., Emerole, C. O., Chineke, H. N. and Oluoha, R. U.

    Background: The disease burden from measles, a vaccine preventable disease remains high despite decades of interventions by World Health Organization, Nigeria and other agencies. Objective: To assess the prevalence and pattern of childhood measles among children presenting at Imo State University Teaching Hospital, Orlu, Imo State. Design: Retrospective descriptive. Methods: A retrospective descriptive study of children who had measles infection in Imo state university teaching hospital within the given time frame (June 2009 - June 2014). Data was abstracted from the hospital records using a proforma, and analysed with SPSS at a statistical significance level of 0.05. Results: Within the study period, 12,216 patients attended the paediatrics clinic. Of these, 115(0.9%) were diagnosed with measles infection. The peak age was in infancy 30 (26.1%). Of the total infants 15(50%) were less than 9 months of age. The age group 37-42 months had the lowest frequency 9(7 7%). Males, 80(69.6%) were statistically significantly more than females 35(30.4%) giving a female : male ratio of 1:2.3 with a P value is < 0.0001,Chi-square statistic (with Yates correction) = 33.670, Odds ratio= 5.224, 95% Confidence Interval: 2.979 to 9.164. most of the patients 112(97.4%) were Ibos. Rural dwellers 108(94%)were statistically significantly more affected than urban dwellers7(6%). Most of the parents of these children 50(43.5%) were farmers; 28(24.5%) were housewives. 60(52.1%) of these parents had only primary school education while 15(13.3%) had junior secondary and 15(13%) had no formal education. 109(94.8%) were Christians. All the 115 patients presented with both skin rash and fever; 100(87%) presented with cough; 52 (45.2%) presented with poor appetite and 30(26%) presented with weight loss. Complications from the measles infection were bronchopneumonia 40(34,8%), otitis media 32(28%), protein-energy malnutrition 25(21.7%), tonsillitis 15(13%) and blindness 3(2.6%). Majority 77(67.0%) had not received measles vaccine while 38(33%) had received the vaccine. The major reason given for failure to receive the vaccine was that the mother forgot 28(36.4%), child not due for immunization 21(27.3%), no vaccine at the health centre 14(18.2%) while 14(18.2%) had no excuses. The children who died were aged 5months, 7months, 8months, 14 months and 24months respectively with a female to male ratio of 1:2.5. None of the dead children had received the measles vaccines before the onset of the illness. All of them had complications which included bronchopneumonia 5(100%), otitis media 5(100%) and encephalitis 4 (80%). Complications occurred more in the malnourished and the unvaccinated. Of the 80 children who were admitted, there was a case fatality rate of 6.3%. Mortality was associated with bronchopneumonia, otitis media, encephalitis and age under 2years. Conclusion: Measles remains a burden in our environment affecting mostly infants, the unvaccinated, rural dwellers, and children whose parents were of low educational and socio – economic status.

  40. Dr. Jyotsna Sharma, Dr. Krishnamurthy, Dr. K. Kanthamani, Dr. Preeti biradar, Dr. Snehalata and Dr. Dilip kumar

    Purpose: 1) To analyze the clinical pattern - type of trauma, risk factors, circumstances, time gap between injury and presentation. 2) To assess the final visual outcomes Methods: A total 250 patients of all age group with ocular trauma were included in the study. All patients fulfilling the inclusion criteria underwent ocular examination after taking informed consent. In all cases a detailed demographic history was taken including address their literacy status, occupation and financial status, cause of injury, and nature of circumstance. The ocular examination including visual acuity, slit lamp examination, a dilated fundus examination with direct ophthalmoscope and indirect examination with 90D lens was carried out. Cases had undergone a B scan to evaluate posterior segment. An Intra ocular tension was measured in all patients. Results: Age –wise analysis showed that ¼ th (24.4%) of patients were in age group between 21-30 years and males outnumbered females by ratio of 3.6:1. RE was involved (48%), 117 cases LE was involved (46.8%). Both eyes were involved in 13 cases(5.2%).It was observed that highest incidence of blunt injuries was among students 91(36.4%) followed by business 38(15.2%) and manual labour 22 (8.8%) industrialist 16 (6.4%). Eyelid injuries are majority of the times associated with either closed or combined globe injuries hence accounting to 84.8% in present study. Conclusion: Road traffic accidents under the influence of alcohol was the most common cause of ocular trauma. Most common object causing ocular trauma was foreign body and stone. Visual acuity at time of presentation and final outcome varied significantly. These patients can be educated about safety measures to prevent ocular trauma and its consequences and to undergo treatment at the earliest to prevent permanent blindness.

  41. Merenu, I. A., Diwe, K. C., Uwakwe, K. A., Duru, C.B., Iwu, A. C., 3Emerole, C. O. and Chineke, H. N.

    Background: In sub-Saharan Africa, serodiscordance is a growing source of HIV-transmissions. A Serodiscordant relationship, also known as magnetic or mixed-status, is one in which one partner is infected by HIV and the other is not. This contrasts with seroconcordant relationships, in which both partners are of the same HIV status. Research involving serodiscordant couples would offer insights into how the virus is passed and how individuals who are HIV positive may be able to reduce the risk of passing the virus to their partner. Objective: This study aims to determine the prevalence of HIV serodiscordance among couples attending HIV clinics in Imo State. Design: Retrospective Methods: A four year retrospective descriptive study. With the aid of a pro forma, relevant data were extracted from the clinic folders of HIV couples from the two major HIV clinics in Imo State i.e. Imo State University Teaching Hospital and Holy Rosary Hospital Emekukwu. Results: A total of 630 couples were studied out of whom 228 were HIV serodiscordant. Our study shows that the prevalence of HIV serodiscordance from 2009 to 2012, among the couples was 36.19%. Majority of HIV positive partners in serodiscondant relationships were women. The mean age of the affected patients was 40.5 years with majority of them being rural dwellers, traders and of low educational background. Mean duration of diagnosis was 3years. Conclusion and recommendations: Early partner testing and notification can avert seroconversion, hence properly designed and mainstreamed interventions that target serodiscordant couples are essential.

  42. Raed H. Qaddourah, Sonia Bourguiba-Hachemi, Maryam Marzouq, Abdel Halim Salem, Hamdi Jarjanazi, Miral Mashhour, Wassim F. Raslan, and Dahmani Fathallah, M.

    The Epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) expression is controlled by a polymorphic CA simple sequence repeat 1 [CA-SSR1] in intron one, and two single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the promoter region (-216 G/T,-191C/A). We investigated the EGFR cell surface expression level and analyzed these genomic markers in six types of adenocarcinoma in Arabian patients. The highest expression of EGFR was observed in lung (93%) and bladder (95%) cancers. The CA-SSR1 long allele (OR=1.641, 95% CI 1.01-2.66, p=0.044) and the SNP-191C/A A allele (OR=3.87, 95% CI 1.51-9.87, p=0.004) were significantly associated with lung adenocarcinoma (LA). Haplotype analysis revealed three haplotypes within EGFR gene were significantly associated with lung and bladder cancer risk. However, after Bonferroni correction only haplotype SSR1L/-216G/-191A remained significantly associated with increased lung cancer risk (OR=4.652, 95% CI 1.47-14.71, p=0.012). This is the first observation of a significant association between genetic markers influencing EGFR expression level and the risk of developing lung cancers in Arabs. Furthermore, the molecular event that favors the selection of the long SSR1 allele in Arab lung cancer patients seems to be different from the somatic mutation that favors the selection of the short allele in the East Asian lung cancer patients.

  43. Dr. Mounika Reddy Chitikela, Dr. Aruna, S. N. and Dr. Mudanur, S. R.

    Fusion of the two Mullerian ducts and establishment of vaginal canal are completed between 10th and 17th week of intra-uterine development. There is presence of double uterine bodies with two separate cervices and often a double or septate vagina. Women with congenital malformations of uterus usually have higher incidence of complications during pregnancy and delivery. Pregnancy in such a uterus causes various complications like spontaneous abortions, preterm labour, abnormal presentation and increased incidence of caesarean delivery. In case of single pregnancy in uterus Didelphys, literature shows the right uterus having pregnancy predominantly. We report a rare case of uterine Didelphys with pregnancy in left horn diagnosed in her second pregnancy.

  44. Dr. Naveen Kumar, B., Dr. SaraswathiGopal and Dr. B. G. HarshaVardhan

    Background: The Temporomandibular joint (TMJ) is one of the most complex joints in the human body and is the area in which the mandible articulate with the cranium. Conventionally, the most commonly used radiographic methods for the evaluation of osseous changes of the TMJ include transcranial projection, transpharyngealprojection, tomography and panoramic radiography. With the introduction of Computed Tomography (CT), the osseous components of the TMJ can be viewed three dimensionally. Unfortunately, most CT units are large and expensive, and are not readily available to dentists. Cone Beam CT (CBCT) is a newly developed technique and because of its comparatively lower radiation dose and higher spatial resolution, it has been widely accepted and used for different diagnostic tasks in oral and maxillofacial region. Recent Studies have revealed that the CBCT is a reliable alternative to multislice CT for the assessment of the TMJ space and osseous changes. AIM: The aim of this study is to evaluate osseous changes and the range of motion of TMJ in Temporomandibular disorder using CBCT. Materials and Methods: A prospective cross sectional study has been conducted at Department of Oral Medicine and Radiology, private Dental Institution, Chennai. The study population will consist of 50 subjects (100TMJs) from 18-60 years of age. Using 3D reconstruction CBCT (ProMax 3D Machine), images obtained in both maximum intercuspation and maximum mouth opening position. Results: The Adjusted Logistic Regression model, age and gender showed no statistically significant association with the presence of bone changes. The Pearson X2 test showed that there was a statistically significant association with the presence of bone change in relation to condylar mobility of the Right TMJ (Right side p = 0.009; Left side p = 0.811). The results of the McNemar test showed that the proportions of TMJ bone changes showed no significant differences between the sides (p = 1.000). The range of motion proved to be increased demonstrating hypermobility in 35 patients in the right TMJs and 37 patients in the left TMJs. Hypomobility was seen in 4 Right TMJs and 2 Left TMJs. Conclusion: There is a high prevalence of degenerative bone alteration in TMJs, which is more frequent in women and mostly located in the condyle. The prevalence of degenerative bone changes occur at the young age group. There is significant correlation between condylar mobility and the presence of degenerative bony changes in TMJs.

  45. Uzma Nazir, Narayana Prasad, P., Tarun Rana and Ish Kumar Sharma

    Background: Uvulo-glosso-pharyngeal dimensions and size and position of associated structures are integral part of Orthodontic treatment planning. Since decades various authors have assessed airway dimensions by different methods and implied the results in diagnosis and treatment planning. Aims & objectives: The aim of this study was to investigate the uvulo-pharyngeal dimensions and position of hyoid bone in subjects with different anteroposterior jaw relationships. Method: Cephalometric radiographs of 30 subjects (age 15-25 years of Uttrakhand ethnic origin) were divided into three Groups accorging to ANB and Wits appraisal. Group 1, Skeletal Class I (ANB 1-4 and Wits Appraisal -1 to 0) Group 2, Skeletal Class II (ANB >4 and Wits Appraisal >1) & Group 3, Skeletal Class III (ANB <1 and Wits Appraisal < -1.5). Statistical analysis was undertaken using one-way ANOVA to evaluate the mean and standard deviation in the three Groups and Post hoc Tukey test was done to compare the variables between the three Groups. Results: On an average, upper airway width was decreased in Group 2 and increased in Group 3 (p=0.028). Lower airway was increased in Group 3 (p=o.005). Velopharyngeal airway was decreased in Group 2 and increased in Group 3(p=0.042).Thickness of soft palate was increased in Group 3(p= 0.0.13). Hyoid bone was positioned poaterioinferiorly in Group 2 and Anterosuperiorly in Group 3(p=0.002).In conclusion, uvulo-pharyngeal airway and position of hyoid bone are affected by anteroposterior skeletal patterns in Uttrakhand population despite of its multiethenicity.

  46. Hassan, A. A., Mogda K. Mansour, Noha H. Oraby and Aliaa A. E. Mohamed

    Chemical synthesis of silver nanoparticles (Ag-NPs) and evaluation of their antimicrobial potential against some fungal and bacterial causes of diseases in buffaloes were investigated. A total of 75 animal cases of dairy buffaloes were selected from a private farm at Giza governorates in which animals suffered from diarrhea, mastitis and respiratory symptoms. Seventy five samples (25from each of nasal swabs, pharyngeal swabs from dairy buffaloes with respiratory disorders, fecal swabs of diarrheic animals and milk samples of mastitis animals). The main bacterial isolates were Staphylococcus aureus, Sreptococcus spp, Salmonella spp., Escherichia coli, Ps.aeruginosa and Klebsiella spp. The species of Staphylococcus are considered the most predominant isolates from different samples of buffaloes that suffered from respiratory disorders, diarrhea or mastitis at rates of incidence of (32%, 12 % and 36%) respectively. While, S.typhimurium was recovered from diarrheic buffaloes at incidence rate of 8% .On the other hand, the most predominant members of Aspergillus species in samples were A.flavus (60%), A. fumigates (54.6%), A.niger (53.3%), followed by A. ochraceus (41.3%). While, C.albicans was isolated at the rates of (41.33%) and was recovered from 68%, 40% and 16% of samples of buffaloes with mastitis, diarrhea and respiratory disorders respectively. The silver nanoparticles was synthesized by chemical method and the sizes and morphology of Ag-NPs were characterized by visual inspection; in a UV-visible spectrophotometer and scanning by transmission electron microscope (TEM) and scanning electron microscope (SEM) for detection of their particle size and the purity of the prepared powder. The antimicrobial potential of prepared Ag-NPs against C.albicans, A.flavus, S.aureas and Salmonella sp. was concentration dependent, when the concentrations of Ag-NPs increased up to 300 ug/ml, the optical density of treated spore suspension were decreased till reach 100% transmittance and clear medium. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of Ag-NPs for C.albican, A.flavus, Salmonella sp., S.aureas sp. was (250-, 300,300 and 250ug/ml), respectively. Whereas, the results of combination between AgNPs and traditional antibioticrevealed that the requirement of lower concentrations from both to obtain the antimicrobial effects (200, 150, 200 and 200ug/ml) for C.albican, A.flavus, Salmonella sp., S.aureas sp., respectively. The treated fungal and bacterial cells were subjected to SEM, the damage and rupture of their cell wall was detected or membrane damage and some pits and adhered to respiratory sequence of cytoplasm that had been caused leakage in inter cellular components and finally cell death. Therefore, the synergistic, combination therapy of Ag-NPs with other traditional antibiotics drugs was urgently required to decrease the used concentration of nanoparticles, overcome the microbial resistant to traditional antibiotics and resulted more efficient antimicrobial activity for the treatment of human and animal diseases.

  47. Dr. Shete S. S., Dr. Pandit G. A., Dr. Gahlaut N., Dr. Namdhari, B. H. and Dr. Kokate, P. S.

    The present retrospective study was performed over a period of seven years from July 2008 to June 2015. Total number of 357 complete autopsies were included. The study group comprised the cases from all ages and both sexes among which 183 (51.26%) were males and 174 (48.74%) were females. Nutmeg appearance (34 cases, 9.52%) was the most common gross finding. Circulatory disorders (CVC/ acute sinusoidal congestion) in 44 cases (26.33%), steatosis in 51 cases (14.29%) and hepatitis in 41 (11.49%) cases were found. The most common cause of cirrhosis among 23 (6.44%) cirrhotics were alcoholism in 11(47.83%), post viral cirrhosis in 6 (26.09%) and 3 (13.04%) cases of biliary cirrhosis followed by 2 cases (8.70%) of cardiac cirrhosis and 1 case(4.35%) of Indian childhood cirrhosis. Tuberculosis involving liver was noted in 10 (2.80%) cases and pyogenic abscess in 6 (1.68%) cases. Various primary and metastatic neoplasms were found in 7 cases. Among these 5 (71.43%) cases belong to secondary neoplasms constituting one case (20%) of hematolymphoid malignancy and 4 cases (80%) from solid organ malignancy. Among the primary neoplasms we found a single case (50%) each of hepatocellular carcinoma and intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma.

  48. Jerra Vidya Sagar

    Diabetes mellitus is a chronic metabolic disorder of impaired carbohydrates, fat and protein metabolism. It is characterized by hyperglycemia expressed as abnormal glucose value, which is due to insulin deficiency and/or insulin resistance which results in decrease utilization of carbohydrate and excessive glycogenolysis and gluconeogenesis from amino acid by fatty acids. A single dose of Alloxan monohydrate (120 mg/kg, i.p.) was used to induce diabetes mellitus. Diabetes was confirmed by the elevated blood glucose levels determined at 72 hrs. Animals with blood glucose level more than 250 mg/dl were considered as diabetes. Plant extract at the dose of 200 and 400 mg/kg of ethanol extract and the standard drug glibenclamide 1 mg/kg, were administered as single dose per day orally to diabetes induced rats for a period of 21 days were studied on blood glucose. In the diabetic rats, all the two doses of plant extract produced a significant reduction in blood glucose levels.

  49. Nisrin M El-Saadouni, Mahmoud Barakat, Mohammed Hashim E. Elamin, Mahmoud Awara and Hamdy F Moselhy

    A basic view of medicine holds that if discrepant symptoms can be explained by one disease instead of two or more, it is likely there is only one disease. The scientific justification for bipolar disorder (BD) and schizophrenia (SZ) as distinctive disorders has been questioned. The diagnosis of schizophrenia rests upon the presupposition that the diagnostic symptoms are disease specific. They are not, since patients with severe mood disorders can demonstrate any or all of the schizophrenic symptoms. Furthermore, there is consistent evidence that genes contribute to the etiology of psychosis. Recent findings from genetic studies provide evidence for an overlap in genetic susceptibility across the traditional psychosis categories. Candidate genes show strong associations with component symptom complexes, such as psychosis, that are not projected directly onto Kraepelinian disease entities. In this paper we will review the literature that describes the possible relationships between bipolar disorder and schizophrenia.

  50. Dr. Parvatagouda Channappagoudra, Dr. Ranjit Nath and Dr. Neeraj Pandit

    Introduction: Contrast induced nephropathy (CIN) is one of the major complications of coronary intervention and has been correlated with mortality. CIN is responsible for approximately 11% of all iatrogenic renal insufficiency and is the third most common cause of hospital-acquired renal failure after decreased renal perfusion and nephrotoxic drugs. CIN is traditionally defined as an increase in serum creatinine of either 0.5 mg/dl or 25% from baseline within 72 h of exposure. The association of increase in serum creatinine with short- and long-term adverse clinical outcomes is well established. Objectives: To find out occurrence of contrast induced nephropathy in patients undergoing primary PCI and its relation with duration of symptoms and contrast volume. Materials and Methods: This was a hospital based prospective observational study conducted at a tertiary care hospital, including 140 patients undergoing primary PCI. Results: Majority of patients were males (74.28%). Mean patient age was 53.32±11.97 years. Smoking (45.71%), hypertension (36.42%), diabetes mellitus (28.57%), and Dyslipidemia (22.85%) were the main risk factors. Most patients presented between 3 to 6 hours of index event (44.28%). Twenty nine patients (20.71%) developed CIN. The mean contrast volume used in CIN group was significantly higher than non CIN group. Conclusion: Contrast induced nephropathy occurs frequently in patients undergoing primary PCI. There is no correlation between duration of symptoms at presentation and CIN. The volume of contrast used during procedure is a good predictor of development of CIN.

  51. Bashir Ahmad Shah, Fowzia Farzana, Gousia Nisa, Gh.Mohd.Bhat, Mohd.Saleem Itoo and Javed Ahmad Khan

    The present study was conducted to study the effect of graded doses of Sodium fluoride on the microanatomy of Pancreas in Albino Rats over different periods of time. Sixty male adult albino rats taken from the animal house of Govt. medical College Srinagar were divided randomly into four groups of 15 animals each. Animals of the first three groups were given fluorinated water in various concentrations to drink and fourth group served as the control group getting plain tap water to drink. Animals from each group were sacrificed and examined after 30, 60, and 90 days of therapy and gross and microscopic changes recorded. It was observed that fluorides induce dose and duration dependent microscopic changes in pancreatic tissue ranging from mild edema to gross necrosis. Fluoride ions are known to affect the bones and teeth of human beings for a pretty long time now. On the one hand presence of fluoride ions in drinking water is essential for the normal development of the various organ systems of the body, particularly skeletal system and teeth. But presence of Fluoride ions in food and drinking water has increased worldwide resulting in toxic effects on various tissues particularly the skeletal system and teeth. However it is now a well known fact that the toxic effects of a substance cannot be limited to a particular system only and the present study was focused on dose and duration related effects of fluorides on Pancreas.

  52. Menicagli, R., Duca, M., Rancoita, P. M. V. and Arizzi, C. E

    Back Ground and Objectives: The most recent genetic research have identified key genes that may be promoting the formation of tumors of the oral cavity and larynx, regardless of external factors such as smoking and HPV. The aim of this paper is to verify whether the importance of the genetic factor is very dependent on the parameters affecting the oral defenses drop, mostly on mucins. Study Material: Was conducting a review for 2015-2016 year with databases PUB MED, GENE, and HOME Genetic References, using key word and key stream "oral and laryngeal cancer genetic in 2015 and 20216 year to identify potential genes involved. The data were compared with the most recent review that also takes into account the two most important external causes smoking and HPV. According to a previous our study, have been identified, but also the incidence of other factors regarding the onset of oral cancer and larynx. The applicability and verification of these results even after a posterior effective bibliographic update has been tested on a sample of thirty laryngectomees patients, through the administration of a questionnaire Results and Discussion: even if with some differences the type and the number of genes involved, are broadly similar to those identified in a recent review. Statistical analysis of the results obtained by processing the questionnaire, confirmed that the l smoke autoimmune disorders and certain environmental conditions and lifestyles, can inactivate and/or deprive the Mucinic Fraction. To observe that the proportion of patients with laryngeal cancer presenting an autoimmune disease is higher than the contro group (0.012 with Fisher Exact test) and also versus to general population given in Italian (36% vs 1%) with p value < 0.001, with a test of proportions. Also during those same PCs smoking and the presence of an autoimmune disease are twonot associated risk factors (p = 0.1211 with fisher's exact test). Among all autoimmune conditions, according very recent epidemiological studies, diabetes, in the sample of laryngectomized patients is higher tha the control group, but with p value =0.195. The results also that xerostomia is in larynctomees group a sign very important were the p-value is 0.012 with large influence in men ,p-value = 0.054 indicate Conclusions and Proposals: The etiology of cancer of the oral cavity and larynx is multifactorial. and seem to depend for different geographical areas, from food use/abuse, sexual mores and lifestyles and also by the increase in diabetes. The crucial protective function of mucins that altered in various carcinomas resulting in hyper expression, provides the original idea for a proposal to fight the tumor. You could use an oncogenic virus "attenuated" improved in capsid with the enzyme neuroaminidase, to delete the links-sialic acid mucin. Interrupting hyperespressivity and consequently the process of angiogenesis, facilitating their entry into cells and the tumor suppressor p53, engineered viral DNA may then suppress carcinogenesis

  53. Dr. Chirag Ramanlal Patel, Dr. Ankur Garg, Dr. Parth Shah and Dr. Shashank M.

    Background- As an anesthetic adjuvant, nalbuphine and dexmedetomidine have been shown to provide good perioperative hemodynamic stability with decrease in the intraoperative inhalational agents requirement and also provides adequate postoperative analgesia. Methods- 60 adult patients of ASA grade I and II were randomly divided into 2 groups of 30 each. Group A received Inj. Nalbuphine 0.3mg/kg i.v.and Group B received Inj. Dexmedetomidine 1 mcg/kg i.v. over 10 minutes, given prior to induction. All patients were observed for baseline pulse rate, SBP and DBP. Thereafter haemoynamic parameters were noted at different time intervals. The RE(response entropy) and SE(state entropy) was maintained between 40 and 60 and also the concentration of sevoflurane required to maintain adequate depth was noted.Postoperative analgesia was assessed by VAS score. Results- Intraoperatively there was no significant difference in the heart rate, SBP and DBP of patients of both the groups (p- value >0.05). But there was a transient rise in SBP and DBP and fall in heart rate in Group B immediately after administration of study drug. (p- value <0.05). The requirement of sevoflurane concentration was significantly less in Group A as compared to Group B intraoperatively (p>0.05). The mean duration of first rescue analgesia after surgery was 5hours 45 minutes in Group A whereas 2hours 15min in Group B. Conclusion- Both the drugs as an adjuvant to general an aesthesia attenuate stress response to various noxious stimuli and maintain hemodynamic stability throughout the surgery and decrease the requirement of inhalational agent. Nalbuphine provides better analgesia and reduces requirement of postoperative analgesia as compared to dexmedetomidine. Thus, nalbuphine is more advantageous adjuvant to general anaesthesia.

  54. Dr. Nabeel Abdul Vahid and Dr. Manjunath, M.K.

    Introduction: The purpose of the study was to evaluate and compare the fracture resistance of everX posterior (Fibre Reinforced Composite, GC), SDR(Bulk Fill Flowable composite, DENTSPLY), Tetric® N-Ceram Bulk Fill (Ivoclar Vivadent) and Filtek™ Z350 XT (3M ESPE) on maxillary first premolars with class II Mesio- Occluso-Distal(MOD)cavities using an instron machine and to evaluate the mode of failure /fracture using stereomicroscope at 10x after staining. Method and Materials: 60 non carious human maxillary first premolars divided into 6 groups ,out of which 2 control groups of 6 teeth each and 4 experimental groups of 12 teeth each were subjected to axial compression test to evaluate the resistance to fracture using an Instron 3382(USA).Group I consisted of intact teeth (positive control), Group II consisted of prepared but un-restored teeth (negative control),Group III consisted of MOD cavities restored with Tetric® N-Ceram Bulk Fill,Group IV consisted of MOD cavities restored with Filtek™ Z350 XT,Group V consisted of MOD cavities restored with everX posterior and Group VI consisted of MOD cavity restored with SDR. After restoration the teeth were stored at 370 C for 24 hours and then thermo cycled for 500 cycles at temperatures of 50C and 550 C Results: Statistical analysis revealed that Group V showed the maximum mean load to fracture however there was no significant difference between Group I, Group III and Group VI. Group IV showed the least mean load to fracture. Mode of failure analysis showed more of Cohesive type of failure on tooth structure for Group V, whereas group III, IV and VI showed more of Mixed type of failure. Conclusion: everX posterior along with occlusal lining using a universal composite can be a material of choice for restoration of large class II cavities and exhibited more cohesive failure. Tetric® N-Ceram Bulk fill and SDR also showed good results of fracture resistance however showed more of Mixed type of failure. Filtek z350xt showed least fracture resistance and more Mixed failure

  55. Dr. Saikat Sau

    Introduction: Lipomas are the most common benign soft tissue tumors and appear in any part of the body. They typically consist of mature adipose tissue. Osteolipoma is an extremely rare histologic variant of lipoma that contains mature lamellar bone within the tumor and osteolipoma independent of bone tissue are very rare. We report a case of histologically confirmed osteolipoma independent of bone located in the leg. Case presentation: A 30-year-old female presented with a progressively enlarging, painless mass which approximately 5 cm × 8 cm over the posteromedial aspect of her left leg. Plain films, Computerized Tomography, Magnetic Resonance Imaging and ultrasound guided needle biopsy were performed. Given the benign imaging characteristics and fine needle aspiration, an excisional biopsy was undertaken. No recurrence was observed after 12 months follow up. Conclusion: Although ossifying lipomas are very rare, it is important to keep them in mind when a lesion with adipose tissue in combination with ossification is encountered.

  56. Prabhakar Singh, Pallavi Indurkar, Amita Singh, Roshani Shrivastava, Bhupendra Raj and Arun Kumar Shrivastava

    Aims and Objectives: The aim of study is to determine the frequency and prescribing pattern of antihypertensive drugs in Out Patient Department of a tertiary care hospital and to identify whether the pattern of prescribing is appropriate in accordance with national and international guidelines for pharmacotherapy of hypertension. Methods: This is a prescription-based survey; the prescriptions were collected randomly from OPDs of SGM Hospital in form of Xerox copy after taking the consent, the total 3587 prescriptions were analyzed. Results: In the 3587 prescriptions total 8144 drugs were prescribed; of these only 4.19% (342) drugs were belonging to cardiovascular groups. Amongst the cardiovascular drugs 94.73% (324) were belongs to antihypertensive and 5.26% were to anti-CHF (drugs) groups. 91.35% drugs were prescribed as monotherapy and 8.64% as combination therapy. The CCBs (Amlodipine 83.47%) were the most frequently prescribed (35.49%) antihypertensive followed by ACEIs 25% (Enalapril 60.49%), β-blockers 13.27% (Atenolol 69.76%), AT1 antagonist or ARBs 9.25% (Losartan 80.0%), combination therapy 8.64% (AT+AM = LO+HCTZ 46.42%) and diuretics 8.33% (Hydrochlorothiazide 55.55% 27). However over all prescribing frequency amongst antihypertensive drugs were as follow; Amlodipine (29.63%) ≥ Enalapril (15.12%) ≥ Ramipril (9.87%) ≥ Atenolol ≥ (9.25%) ≥ Losartan (7.40%) hydrochlorothiazide ≥ (4.63%) ≥ Es-amlodipine (4.32%) ≥ AT+AM (4.01%)= LO+HCTZ (4.01%) ≥ Frusemide (3.70%) ≥ Candesartan (1.85%) ≥ Metoprolol (1.54%) and others. Conclusions: Most of antihypertensive in this study were prescribed as monotherapy. CCBs; Amlodipine was most frequently prescribed antihypertensive followed by Enalapril ≥ Ramipril ≥ Atenolol ≥ and Losartan, in combination therapy AT+AM and LO+HCTZ were equally prescribed. The pattern of this study were appears to be in accordance with the national and international guidelines.

  57. Dr. Atul Desai and Dr. Kavita Desai

    Sickle Cell Anaemia is a genetic blood disorder caused by abnormal hemoglobin that damages and deforms red blood cells. The abnormal red cells break down, causing anemia, and obstruct blood vessels, leading to recurrent episodes of sever pain and multiorgan ischemic damage. The Indian System of Medicine Ayurveda has valuable information about herbs and mineral for human uses. T-AYU-HM™ is an extract of eight Indian origin herbal plants and three purified minerals. In laboratory studies it strongly inhibits sickling of red cells in patients with sickle cell diseases and it has been shown in initial clinical evaluation in state of Gujarat, India. Preparations and standardizations are as FDA standard. The Antisickling activity of T-AYU-HM™ was evaluated in vitro using Emmel test. The poly Herbo-Mineral formulations exhibited attractive antisickling activity, thus, supporting the claims of the traditional healers and suggesting a possible correlation between the chemical composition of Herbo-Mineral and its uses in traditional medicine.

  58. Sridhar Lakshmana Sastry, Manjunath Cholenahally Nanjappa, Prabhavathi Bhat, Dattatreya P. V. Rao, Rajiv Ananthakrishna, Satvik C. M. and Veeresh Patil

    Free floating thrombus in the right heart is a medical emergency and is referred to as ‘Thrombus in transit’. The condition is underdiagnosed and transthoracic echocardiography is a good diagnostic tool to detect it. In our patient who had free floating thrombus in right heart with pulmonary embolism was treated with thrombolysis and made a good recovery.

  59. Elsayed A. M. Shokr, Ayman T. Altalla, Eid F Alshamari, Fahad L. Alharbii, Muqbil S Alshamari, Ahmed K. Albakawi and Jawaher A. Alhwish

    Ageing is associated with an increasing prevalence of hypertension, atherosclerotic vascular diseases, reduced insulin sensitivity and non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (NIDDM). It has been suggested that hyperinsulinaemia/insulin resistance and/or hyperglycaemia could play a role in determining and/or exacerbating the hypertension and vascular disease associated with diabetes mellitus and ageing. The effect of aging on blood glucose showed that high significant increase on blood glucose with increasing aging. Also, there were significant increases in blood elements (Na, K, Cl and Ca) in the population that increase in aging than young one. On the other hand there were a significant increase on blood urea, creatinine and uric acid in the population that increase in aging than young one. The liver enzymes AST, ALT and ALP were a significant increase in blood of human in the population that increases in aging than young one. Concerning lipid profile, we noted that variety induced high significant variation of different lipid parameters in the population that increase in aging than young one. The effect of aging on blood glucose showed that only the variety Tamesrit had a significative increase on blood glucose. Results generally showed that increase in aging were always high significant increase in their blood elements Na, K, Cl and Ca. Also, there is high significant increase in liver functions and kidney functions in the population that increase in aging than young one and high significant variation of different lipid parameters in the population that increase in aging than young one. We suggest that ionic disturbance might be the missing link responsible for the frequent clinical coexistence of hypertension, atherosclerosis and metabolic disorders. Ageing cells may become more vulnerable to ion disturbances, leading to possible elevation of intracellular free calcium and concurrent magnesium depletion. The “ionic hypothesis” of ageing supposes that an alteration in the cellular mechanisms which maintain the homeostasis of cytosolic calcium concentrations may play a key role in the ageing process, and that a sustained accumulation of cellular calcium and/or the depletion of cellular magnesium may also provide the final common pathway for many ageing-associated diseases, including hypertension and NIDDM.

  60. Elsayed A. M. Shokr, Abdullah E. Alshamari, Khalaf F Alaql, Huwayt A. Alshamari, Khalid T. Alshamari, Meshari F. Alshamari, Ahmed A. Alomaim, Abdullah F. Alsunaitan and Badr F. Alshamari

    The present work was conducted at the diabetic and hypertention patients that have thyroid disorder. Fifty- diabetic and hypertention patients that have thyroid disorder from three hospitals in Hail, KSA were consecutively selected. Diabetic patients have a higher prevalence of thyroid disorders than the general population, this may influence diabetic management. In this study, we investigated thyroid hormone levels in diabetic and hypertention patients. The subjects in all groups were above 60 years of age. The concentration of thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH), free triiodothyronine (T3) and thyroxine (T4) were evaluated using a Microparticle Enzyme Immunoassay (MEIA) procedure. Patients with type 2 diabetes had significantly lower serum T3 levels (p=0.000). There were no significant differences observed in serum T4 (p=0.339) and TSH (p=0.216) levels between the all subjects. All the diabetic patients had high fasting blood glucose levels. The effect of diabetic and hypertention patients that have thyroid disorder on blood glucose showed that high significant increase on blood glucose with increasing aging. On the other hand there were a significant increase on fasting blood glucose in the population that increase in aging than young one. The liver enzymes AST, ALT and ALP were a significant increase in blood of human in the population that increases in aging and diabetic and hypertention patients that have thyroid disorder than young one. Concerning lipid profile, we noted that variety induced high significant variation of different lipid parameters in the population that increase in aging and diabetic and hypertention patients that have thyroid disorder. Results generally showed that increase in aging and diabetic and hypertention patients that have thyroid disorder were always high significant increase in their blood glucose and fasting blood glucose. Also, there is high significant increase in liver functions in the population that increase in aging and diabetic and hypertention patients that have thyroid disorder than young one and high significant variation of different lipid parameters in the population that increase in aging and diabetic and hypertention patients that have thyroid disorder than young one. We conclude that T3 levels were altered in the diabetic and hypertention patients that have thyroid disorder.

  61. Elsayed A. M. Shokr, Ibrahim G. Alreshidi, Anwar O. Alrasheedi, Salman D. Alenezi, Fahad L. Alharbi, Mohammed A. Alsahli, Khalid O. Alshammari, Njoud M. Alenezi and A. Rayian

    The intake of dates being the most important source in hail populations. These dates have been studied their effects on human health in this area. The dates have been used by humans for thousands of years. Although several adverse health effects of dates have been known for a long time. A strong relationship between intake of dates and its effect on blood elements, glucose and lipid in population of hail, kSA has been identified in this study. The effect of dates on blood glucose showed that no significant increase on blood glucose. Also, there were no significant increase in blood elements (na, k, cl and ca) in the population of hail that consume dates. On the other hand there were a significant increase on blood urea, creatinine and uric acid. The liver enzymes ast, alt and alp were a significant decrease in blood of human that consume the dates. Concerning lipid profile, we noted that variety induced no significant variation of different lipid parameters while the variety reduced the ldlc level (bad cholesterol), thus improving the lipid profile. The effect of dates on blood glucose showed that only the variety Tamesrit had a significative decrease on blood glucose. Results generally showed that dates intake by the population of hail were always no significant increase in their blood elements Na, K, Cl and Ca. Also, there is no significant variation in liver functions and kidney functions in this population and no significant variation of different lipid parameters while the variety reduced the LDLc level (bad cholesterol), thus improving the lipid profile in the population of human being in Hail, KSA.

  62. Dr. Surendar Singh Bava, Dr. Sandeep Sonone, Dr. Pradip nemade, Dr. Aditya Dahapute, Dr Suresh, S. and Dr. Siddharth Virani

    We compared a minimally invasive surgical technique to the conventional (open approach) surgical technique used in fixation of hip fractures with the dynamic hip screw (dhs) device. We tested following outcome measures: duration of surgery, mean difference of pre- and postoperative haemoglobin levels, post operative vas score and bony union . The minimally invasive dhs technique had significantly shorter duration of surgery and length of hospital stay. There was also less blood loss in the minimally invasive dhs technique. The minimally invasive dhs technique produces better outcome measures in the operating time, length of hospital stay, and blood loss compared to the conventional approach while maintaining equal fixation stability

  63. Sridhar Lakshmana Sastry, Prem Krishna Anandan, Manjunath Cholenahally Nanjappa, Prabhavathi Bhat, Dattatreya P. V. Rao, Rajiv Ananthakrishna and Satvik, C. M.

    Background: Acute glycometabolic derangement in non-diabetic patients with acute myocardial infarction (AMI) has been reported with discrepant prognostic results. The aim of the present study was to assess the prognostic impact of glycated haemoglobin (HbA1c) levels, reflecting long-term glycometabolic disturbance, in a population of patients without known diabetes mellitus. Methods: We examined 300 consecutive prospective patients diagnosed with AMI and unknown diabetes mellitus. We analysed metabolic function as a stratified variable using three groups of patients according to HbA1c: Group 1 (< 5.5%): 111 patients (37%); Group 2 (5.5 to 6.4%): 168patients (56%); Group 3 (>6.4%): 21 patients (7%). Association between HbA1c groups and classic cardiovascular risk factor and in-hospital outcomes were assessed through univariate and multivariate analysis. Results: In-hospital mortality was 5% (16/300 patients). Higher HbA1c was associated with poor glycometabolic control, older patients, obesity, hypertension, Killip’s class>1, increased heart rate, initial bundle branch block, atrial fibrillation and higher mortality during follow-up. In a multivariate adjusted risk, in-hospital mortality was associated with age (odds ratio (OR)= 1.056; 1–1.1; p=0.006), Killip’s class>1 (OR=2.4; 1–6.1; p=0.05) and HbA1c (OR=1.5; 1.15–1.9; p=0.002). Hypertension (OR=0.39; 0.18–0.87; p=0.022) and angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors (OR=0.28; 0.12– 0.69; p=0.005) were protective factors. Conclusions: HbA1c is an important risk marker in the absence of a history of diabetes mellitus in patients with AMI. The optimal management strategy in these patients may contribute to decreased in-hospital mortality.

  64. Abhishek Ranjan, Dr. Bhagyalakshmi, A., Dr. Shivalinga, B. M. and Dr. Nitin, V. M.

    Introduction: Anchorage has been the most important factor of consideration which determines the treatment success and result of orthodontic treatment. Preserving anchorage during retraction has been a challenge for orthodontist with conventional mechanics. Objective: The study was undertaken to evaluate the effectiveness of orthodontic mini-implants in providing anchorage for the closure of premolar extraction. To evaluate the success rate, positional stability, clinical effectiveness of mini-implants and patient experiences with the implants with the help of a questionnaire. Materials and Methods: 15 patients between the age group of 15-25 years were selected who had a treatment protocol for extraction of first upper and lower premolars and had maximum anchorage requirement. The mini-implant of 1.3 mm in diameter and 8 mm in length were placed in the interdental region in the buccal alveolus between the second premolar and the first molar in each quadrant of maxilla and mandible, and were loaded with Ni-Ti coil spring. Primary and secondary outcomes of implants placement was checked. Results: The success rate of the immediately loaded OMIs in the study was 83.33%with a higher success rate on left side. Pain and peri-implantitis was the only complication observed. Avoidance of the headgear during the treatment was one of the most important motivating factor for patients to opt for OMIs during the study. Conclusion: Orthodontic mini-implants can be used as an excellent source of anchorage. OMIs were very well accepted by the patient as an alternative to headgear for anchorage augmentation.

  65. Dr. Muzafar Ahmad Bhat, Dr. Khan Rafiya N., Dr. Suhail Majid Jan, Dr. Mudasir Ahmad Bhat, Dr. Shuja Hussain and Dr. Roobal behal

    Background and Aims: A high number of patients with periodontitis may have undiagnosed diabetes. It is possible that gingival crevicular blood from routine periodontal probing may be a source of blood for glucose measurements. The purpose of the study was to evaluate whether the blood oozing from the gingival crevice during routine examination could be used for determining glucose levels. Materials and Methods: 100 patients with periodontitis and positive bleeding on probing were chosen. Blood samples of two sites were analyzed using a glucose self-monitoring device. In 50 diabetic and 50 non-diabetic patients, after testing fasting plasma glucose (FPG), glucose levels in gingival crevicular blood (GCB), and capillary fingerstick blood (FSB) samples were analyzed using the same device. Results: The patient’s blood glucose values ranged from 69.5-235.8 mg/dl. The comparison between Gingival Crevicular blood, Fingerstick blood and Intravenous blood showed a very strong correlation with a r value of 0.99(P < 0.001). Interpretations and Conclusions: The data from this study has shown that GCB collected during intraoral examination is an excellent source of blood for glucometric analysis.

  66. Dr. Arpit Bansal, Dr. Ashwani Kumar Bansal and Dr. Vandana Bansal

    Common bile duct injury is rare and chalanging in blunt trauma. It occurs only in 0.5% cases under going laparotomy for acute trauma. We present a case of blunt abdominal trauma of common biliary duct injury with portal vain avulsion. We discuss its review, clinical presentation, diagnosis, and management of this case. Now in the age of advancement in radiology as well as other diagnostic tool it will be managed.

  67. Pratima Pokhrel, Prem Kumar Neopanay, Sadhana Chingtham, Jessica Majaw and Vanlalrengpuii

    The practices of breastfeeding and weaning prevailing in the community plays an important role in determining the health of a child. The present study was conducted to assess the knowledge on weaning practices amongst the women in reproductive age working in Assam down town University, Assam, India, irrespective of their qualifications, income levels and the marital status. The total 75 respondents comprised of teachers (39), support staff (14) and cleaners (22). They were randomly selected and interviewed using pre-structured questionnaire. Results indicated that maximum number of women (60%) had the opinion that weaning should be started only at the completion of 6 months of age and (44%) of them stated that breastfeeding should be continued till the infant reaches two years of age along with complementary feedings. It was learned that 59% of the respondents were in favour of incorporating infant formulas like cerelacs, lactogen, along with cereal-pulse mix and milk based recipes. Knowledge of women on expressed breast milk and human milk banks were found to be limited, with 69% and 81% respectively. The positive point noted from the study was that a low percentage (23%) of the respondents had some food taboos but not to the extent that would result in adopting unhealthy food habits and may cause total abstinence from certain foods. It was revealed that the women would limit inclusion of certain foods (citrus, spicy, bitter) till the baby gets accustomed to it.

  68. Walton Wider, Ferlis BullareBahari, Mazni Mustapha and Murnizam Hj. Halik

    This research aimed to investigate the measurement of the Inventory of Dimensions of Emerging Adulthood (IDEA). The IDEA consisted of 28 items that were used to assess five experiences of emerging adulthood (Identity Exploration, Negativity/Instability, Feeling “In-Between”, Experimentation/Possibilities, Self-Focus). Statistical technique using Exploratory Factor Analyses (EFA) was conducted by using the IBM Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS) Version 21.0, followed by Confirmatory Factor Analyses (CFA) via Structural Equation Modelling (SEM) to confirm the measurement model. EFA results revealed three factors and CFA results confirmed the correlations between the three factors (Identity Exploration/Feeling “in-between”, Negativity/Instability, Experimentation/Possibilities) were all significant, respectively. The new Malay version of IDEA (M-IDEA) has only three subscales with a total of 10 items. This study contributes to the emerging adulthood literatures by adapting the IDEA into a non-western culture - Malaysia.

  69. Azmy Kh. Dagga, Mohamed H. Abdel Aziz, Abdelraouf A. Elmanama, Mervat Al-Sharif, Alaa Al jubb and Mahmoud W. El Hindi

    Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) is a ubiquitous Gram-positive, rod-shaped and sporulating bacterium that has been isolated worldwide from a great diversity of ecosystems including soil, water, dead insects, dust from silos. It makes proteins that are toxic to immature insects (larvae). In current study Bt was isolated from different agricultural and non-agricultural soils for different locations in Gaza strip. The effect of different parameters on biomass yield production such as pH, temperature and incubation time discuss. Present study show the optimum conditions of pH, temperature and incubation time, for growth as well as biomass production, and was obtained at pH 7.0, 30°C, 24 hours respectively. Morevore, compare between the Btg (isolated from Gaza soil) and Bti (refferance strain) the growth and yield of biomass production was similar.

  70. Gajanand Verma, Brajesh Mahawar, Devendra Vijayvagiya and Sharma, D. K.

    Background: ‘Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder,’ a type of anxiety disorder is a potentially disabling condition that can persist through out a person’s life and causes variable degree of distress to patients. Objective: To assess gender difference in symptomatology of Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder (OCD). Setting and Design: Cross-sectional at department of psychiatry in tertiary heath care center. Methods and Material: The study included 100 patients attending psychiatric OPD and admitted patients in psychiatric ward, at tertiary care center of Rajasthan, India who were clinically screened for obsessive compulsive symptoms. The patients, suggestive of suffering from OCD, were thoroughly evaluated for the diagnosis by using ICD-10 criteria for the OCD. All the participants were subjected to Yale-Brown obsessive compulsive scale (Y-BOCS) for assessing the phenomenology and severity of OCD. Statistical analysis used: Commercially available software SPSS version 17. Results: The present study clearly revealed that 58% patients were males who had significantly earlier age at onset of OCD and were less likely to be married. They presented with significantly more aggression obsessions and checking compulsion, where as 42% patients were female and presented with significantly more contamination obsessions and cleaning compulsions. Conclusion: This study reveals that patients with OCD suffer over a long period of time, spend a lot of time on their obsessions and compulsions impairing their social and occupational functioning.

  71. Dr. Vaibhav Joshi, Dr. Varun Suhag, Dr. Jainendra Kumar, Dr. Nidhi Bhatia and Dr. Shalini Gupta

    There is an increasing fixed prosthetic and esthetic demand for full arch oral rehabilitation and it requires precise treatment planning. Replacement of teeth should overcome the patient’s functions like mastication, phonetics and esthetics. Earlier conventional dentures were considered better option to replace multiple missing teeth in an arch till full arch implant supported fixed rehabilitation became popular in dentistry for better patient acceptance and esthetics. In this case series multidisciplinary treatment planning of oral maxillary and mandibular implant supported rehabilitation is described to optimize prosthetic success and patient satisfaction. Patients having faulty fixed partial prosthesis (FPD) in upper and lower jaws were successfully treated with implant supported fixed prosthesis and patient’s functional and esthetic demands were achieved.

  72. Dr. Prashanth Eshwar, Dr. Sreenivasa Raju, Dr. Ravishankar and Dr. Rumpa Banerjee

    Objective: To assess the uterine size in relation to the parity and caesarean section delivery as revealed by transabdominal ultrasound. Methods: This was a cross-sectional study in which 50 women with vaginal delivery and caesarean section deliveries were examined by transabdominal sonography. The uterus was assessed by measuring the length, anteroposterior and transverse diameter of the uterus. Morphologic findings were recorded. The effect of the parity, number of caesarean sections on the uterine size were evaluated. The gynaecological symptoms were also recorded. Results: The maximum dimensions of the uterus in length, anteroposterior and transverse diameter was 11.5cm, 5.6cm and 4.8cm respectively in a multiparous women (parity -3) who had undergone one vaginal and two caesarean section deliveries. The minimum dimensions of the uterus in length, anteroposterior and transverse diameter was 7.6cm, 3.5cm and 3.3cm respectively in a multiparous women (parity -2)who had who had undergone one vaginal and one caesarean section delivery. Most often uterus position was anteverted. Positive correlation was seen between the length of the uterus and the parity status. There is no significant correlation in between the length of the uterus and post caesarean. However the maximum size of the uterus obtained in this study was seen in case of multiparous (Parity 3) women with two caesarean deliveries who had no gynaecological symptoms. Conclusions: The size of the uterus in a multiparous woman as assessed by transabdominal sonography revealed significant increase in the size with increasing parity. The multiparous women with multiple caesarean section deliveries woman who had developed bulkiness of the uterus had no gynaecological symptoms. This bulkiness of the uterus in multiparous women who had undergone multiple caesarean deliveries with no gynaecological symptoms is to be considered normal and hysterectomy should be avoided in these cases.

  73. Dr. Sreenivasa Raju, Dr. Skandesh, Dr. Prashanth Eshwar and Dr. Rumpa Banerjee

    Case report: We report a rare case of dilated cardiomyopathy in an 18-year-old girl who was later diagnosed to have Takayasu arteritis using doppler and computed tomography and subsequently treated by immunosuppressant therapy with prednisolone and methotrexate. Discussion: Takayasu arteritis is a large vessel vasculitis in which the inflammatory process involves aorta and major branches. The cause is largely unknown. Dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM) is, however, reported to be seen in only 5-6% of cases of Takayasu arteritis (Jameson et al., 2012). Ultrasonography with doppler, computed tomography and Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) can be used for the early diagnosis of the disease. Conclusion: In a case of dilated cardiomyopathy in young female screening for systemic vasculitis should be done as timely initiation of immunosuppressant therapy can reduce the development of other complications of Takayasu arteritis.

  74. Shweta Dwivedi and Dharmveer Sharma

    Preeclampsia is a hypertensive disorder and is one of the most leading cause for maternal and fetal mortality in developing countries. Objective: To evaluate the levels of free fatty acid and lipid-peroxidation levels in pre-eclampsia. Methods: This study was carried out in 100 patients with pre-eclampsia and 100 healthy pregnant women (control group) during the third trimester of pregnancy. The serum free fatty acid was determined by Estimation of serum free fatty acids by NEFA C diagnostic kit (wako pure chemicals. Richmond VA). Lipid-peroxidation was determined by utley’s method. Results: In the present study the level of free-fatty acid and MDA level are significantly increased in pre-eclamptic pregnancy compared with normal pregnancy Conclusion: Higher level of Free-fatty acid and lipid-peroxidation in serum is a marker of oxidative stress which play important role in the etiopathaogenesis of preeclampsia in pregnancy.

  75. Addo, M. G., Acheampong, I. A. and Akanwariwiak, W. G.

    A total of 384 swab samples were taken from beef, knives, wooden boards, weighing scales, shop floor as well as workers hands to assess the microbial quality of raw beef and its environmental equipment as well as the concentration of heavy metals in cattle hides available at retail outlets in the Tarkwa Municipality. Averagely 2.55±0.27 (log10 cfu/cm²), 2.06±0.22 (log10 cfu/cm²), and 1.57±0.17 (log10 cfu/cm²) of total viable count (TVC), total coliform count (TCC) and total Staphylococcal Counts (TSC) were recorded respectively samples from the retail outlets. There was significant microbial growth difference (p < 0.05) across the various retail sale environments. Microbial loads in the fresh swab sample (TVC: 1.36±0.21 (log10 cfu/cm²), TCC: 1.10±0.16 (log10 cfu/cm²), TSC: 0.87±0.13 (log10 cfu/cm²), were significantly lower (p < 0.05) than the delayed swab samples at 3.74±0.37 (log10 cfu/cm²), 3.02±0.30 (log10 cfu/cm²) and 2.28±0.24 (log10 cfu/cm²) respectively. Microorganisms isolated from beef and the surrounding environment included Staphylococcus spp., Salmonella, Streptococcus spp., Escherichia coli. Enterobacter spp and Klebsiella spp. The average concentrations of all heavy metal contents in hides recorded were lower than the maximum permissible limit except for Lead (Pb). The results showed that the type of processing method had a significant effect on the levels of heavy metal content recorded in hide. Although there were no significant difference (p > 0.05), hide processed with scrap tyre recorded the highest level of heavy metal concentration compared to fire wood-singed.

  76. Moumita Sinha, Aditya Kar and Mitashree Mitra

    Cheiloscopy is the forensic investigation technique that deals with identification of humans based on lip traces. Lip prints are the normal lines and furrows in the form of wrinkles and grooves present in the zone of transition of the human lip between the inner labial mucosa and outer skin, the study of which is known as Cheiloscopy. In the forensic investigation mouth has immense potential for the evidences. Lip prints and palatal rugae are unique to an individual. The present study is an attempt to determine the pattern of lip prints and evaluate its uniqueness in a sample of Chhattisgarh population and also their association with gender and age. In the present work, examination of the pattern of the print in the four quadrants of the lip revealed that no individual had a single type of lip print and no two or more persons had similar features of lip grooves. From the results of the present study it can be shown that lip print patterns in all 101 subjects were distinct and none of the patterns were identical. This finding was in concordance with results obtained in the studies conducted earlier. No significant association were observed which supports that lip print patterns keeps changing during an individual's lifetime and confirms the permanence of lip prints. Lip prints are also capable for individual identification in criminal investigation. In future, studies on samples from different geographical regions and ethnic races will help to determine the geographical origin and probable race of questioned lip prints. Thus, it can be said that lip prints do have potential for use as corroboratory evidence in criminal investigations.

  77. Shagoon Tabin, Azra. N. Kamili and Gupta, R. C.

    Rheum spiciforme (polygonaceae) is one of most known medicinal plant and is found on high altitudes of Gurez valley (3000m to 5000m). It is of high demand due to its medicinal value and has become endangered due over exploitation. Rheum spiciforme being a medicinal plant of immense importance with large pharmacological applications and it has been used as an ingredient of many herbal formulations, which are used for the cure of various ailments, in particular the regulation of blood pressure, fatty liver, hepatitis, fever and cancer. Tissue culture protocol was developed as a mode of the conservation. The phytohormones used for micropropagation were 6-benzyl amino purine, Kinetin, Indole - 3 acetic acid, Napthalene Acetic Acid , Indole 3-butyric acid, 2,4 –dichlorophenoxyacetic acid, Zeatin, Thidiazuron (BAP, Kn, IAA,NAA,IBA,2,4-D, Z,IAA and TDZ) which showed good results. Different parts (seeds, leaves, shoots and rhizomes) of Rheum spiciforme were used for invitro purposes. The complete germination and plantlet formation was obtained from seeds as explants (shooting/rooting) when cultured on Murashige and Skoog (MS) medium supplemented with different concentrations and combination of auxins and cytokinins.

  78. Addisu Asefa, Girma Mengesha and Yosef Mamo

    Ecological bioindicators are a species or group of species whose ecological attributes (e.g. presence/absence, abundance, etc) readily reflect the abiotic or biotic state of an ecosystem. Although the interest in using of bioindicators as a simple and cost-effective tool in ecological monitoring has been increasing worldwide, their inappropriate selection and application have put under question their utility as a conservation tool. In this study, using a priori defined suitability criteria, we explored whether reliable ecological bioindicators can be identified within the avifauna associated with savannah woodland and gallery forests habitats in the Abijata-Shalla Lakes National Park (ASLNP), Ethiopia, and tested the reliability of using them for effective monitoring of future changes in tree structure within the national park. We counted birds along 10 transects established in each of the disturbed and undisturbed sites of two vegetation types (savanna woodland and gallery forest), and recorded data on tree abundance and cover. For the undisturbed sites of the two vegetation types, we identified two types of bioindicators: characteristic (i.e. species with strong habitat specificity) and detector (species that span a range of ecological states). Of the total 86 species recorded across the study sites, one characteristic and three detector species for the savanna woodland, and three characteristic species and one detector species for the gallery forest were identified. However, only the characteristic bioindicator species showed significant difference in abundance between the two land use types in each vegetation type; thus were regarded as reliable potential bioindicators. Further, the abundance of these characteristic bioindicator species showed strong and significant positive correlations with both tree abundance and cover in each vegetation type. We conclude that bird species selected as characteristic bioindicators can potentially be used for effectively monitoring of future changes in tree abundance and cover in the undisturbed sites of the ASLNP. We also suggest that ecological bioindicators selected following the procedures we used will have valuable potential application in the monitoring of habitat integrity.

  79. M’bo Kacou Antoine Alban, Elain Apshara, S., Hebbar, K. B., Ananda, K. S., Tahi G. Mathias and Aké Sévérin

    Cocoa (Theobroma cacao L.) is continuously being exposed to frequent fluctuations in weather conditions during its crop cycle. Plants in general, adapt to these varying weather conditions by adopting different methods with morpho- physiological traits and with secondary metabolites. Biochemical constituents of cocoa leaves of different genotypes were studied in relation to two watering regimes represented by normal irrigation (100% of field capacity) and hydric deficit stress (20% of field capacity) conditions. Concentrations of leaf epicuticular wax, total soluble sugars, free amino acids, proline and proteinsshowed high genotypic variability due to the implementation of the watering regimes. Leaf epicuticular wax, cytosolic total soluble sugar and proline contents increased during hydric deficit stress whereas, cytosolic free amino acid and protein contents decreased during 20% FC level. The pattern of accumulation of these biochemical constituents varied among cocoa genotypesby the influence of hydric stress. Cocoa genotypes VTLCP-26, VTLCP-27, VTLCP-25, VTLCH-4 and VTLCP-22 with more accumulation of these compounds exhibited wider adaptability. The results indicated possible role of biochemical compounds in cultivar adaptability to hydric deficit stress, which can be exploited for screening of cocoa germplasm for drought.

  80. Juliana Ribeiro do Carmo, Carlos José Pimenta, Marinez Moraes de Oliveira, Roseane Maria Evangelista Oliveira, Raphael E. Orlandi and Maria Emília de S. Gomes Pimenta

    The fish acid silage is an age old organic matter preservation technique, elaborated starting from whole fish or their parts, to which acids are added. The objective of this research was to produce and characterize acid silage from tilapia filleting residues elaborated with organic acids during 28 days of storage. For such, three acid silage types were elaborated from residues of tilapia filleting using 5% v/p of formic, acetic and propionic organic acids. The moisture and ethereal extract variables increased in relation to the initial ensilage time. In compensation, the protein and ash content underwent a decrease. The extracted oils of the silage remained stable during the experiment, peroxide formation not being detected. Due to the high preservation efficiency, the three acids (formic, acetic and propionic) are suitable in the elaboration of fish acid silage.

  81. Vidya V. Anawal, Narayanaswamy, P. and Suresh. D. Ekabote

    An experiment was conducted during 2014-15 at Hiriyur, Chitradurga district to study the response of various plant growth regulators at different concentrations namely, NAA (40, 50, 60 ppm) and GA3 (40, 50, 60 ppm) on fruit set and yield of pomegranate cv. Bhagwa. The results indicated that NAA 40 ppm was found effective in increasing number of fruits per tree (62.44), fruit length (8.66 cm), fruit diameter (8.71 cm), fruit weight (262.23 g), fruit volume (255.44 ml), TSS (16.76˚B), total sugars (15.58 %), reducing sugars (13.83 %), non-reducing sugars(1.75 %) against control.

  82. Sandeep Meshram, Mohnish Pichhode and Kumar Nikhil

    Soil carbon sequestration is the process of storing carbon underground to curb the accumulation of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere. Although the earth naturally stores carbon in forest, oceans, and soil, these carbon sinks are unable to excessive and increasing amount of carbon dioxide humans continue to emit. As a result, researchers have begun to explore ways of enhancing the absorption of natural carbon sinks, as well as ways to artificially store carbon dioxide underground. This experiment was conducted to study the carbon sequestered by teak trees within the 5km radius of Malanjkhand Copper Mine, Malanjhkhand, District- Balaghat, (M.P.), India. Malanjkhand referred to as MCP (Malanjkhand Copper Project) is an open- pit copper mine in India. This was compared with the carbon sequestered by teak trees situated nearby mining and forest areas. The results and findings reveals that there are inherent problems associated with a development of copper project and due to copper mining some of the trees sequestered less carbon comparison to forest area. The teak trees underneath soil situated nearby copper mine having poor health than the soil taken underneath teak trees situated at forest area.

  83. Varsha Aglawe and Mubashir Azam Mir

    The hyalohyphomycosis are a group of diseases caused by filamentous fungi that are present in tissues as hyaline septate hyphae. Paecilomyces species cause various infections which are refered to as paecilomycosis. Here we report 2 cases of systemic mycosis in which Paecilomyces variotii was isolated from peripheral blood sample of 38 year old male and 42 year old female. Patient was diagnosed as infected hepatitis and post operative case of arm amputation and diabetic. The direct microscopic observation of the blood sample revealed many thin septate, branched mycelium. 5-Fluorocytosine was found to be the best effective drug.

  84. Dr. Asha V. Pillai, Aswathy, K. K., Preethy, T. T. and Renisha, Mannambeth

    Unscientific use of chemicals in agriculture leads to several health hazards and environmental problems. To protect our crops and the environment we have to follow sustainable and eco-friendly agriculture, which minimizes the use of harmful and energy intensive inputs and adopts use of organic manures and bio fertilizers. Among the several methods of eco friendly agriculture, liquid nutrition occupies an important position. Foliar nutrition with organic compounds in vegetables is especially important as they provide quality foods, which are very important for providing health security to people. India has vast potential of organic resources and the extract prepared from these resources can be effectively utilized to sustain yield, improve physical, chemical and biological properties of soil and to maintain soil health. Commonly used liquid manures are compost tea, vermiwash, biogas slurry and cow’s urine along with the extracts of oil cakes like groundnut cake, poultry manure and neem cake. Several studies were conducted on the nutrient content of common organic liquid manures. Biogas slurry, the common by product of biogas has a nutrient content of 0.5-1.0 % N; 0.5-0.8 % P and 0.6-1.5 % K (Dhobighat et al., 1991). The nutrient content of cow’s urine was reported to be 0.9-1.2% N, 0.2-0.5% P and 0.5-1% K (Bertram, 1999). Vermiwash contains 0.5% N, 0.39% P and 0.46% K (Jasmine, 1999). Compost tea is rich in soluble nutrients, but the tea collected during early stages of composting may contain pathogens (Diver, 2002). As per the reports of Ingham (2003), the nutrient content of compost tea is 0.5-0.75% N, 0.25-0.5% P and 0.5-0.75% K.

  85. Sivani Saravanamuttu, Jayakumar, A., Rebecca, V., Amirtha, V. and Sudarsanam Dorairaj

    India has witnessed an unprecedented growth of wireless technology. This has lead to people living in close proximity to mobile phone base stations in densely populated metros. The aim of the study was to resort to a questionnaire-based survey of people (n=200) living around base stations in an urban and a rural locality in the state of Tamil Nadu, India. It was found that 49% of urban people lived around 6 or more base stations whereas it was less than 3 for 66% of the rural people (p<0.001); 76% of the rural people lived between 50-300 m of the base station, whereas 43% of the urban people lived within 50 to <10 m (p<0.001); 31% of the urban people were found facing the antenna, whereas 41% of the rural people were found living beneath the antenna of the base station (p<0.001); and 95% of the urban people used their mobile phones >20 minutes/day, whereas, it was 7% for the rural people (p<0.001). The rural people reported more non-specific symptoms (fatigue, difficulty sleeping, feelings of discomfort, difficulty in concentration, poor short-term memory, depression) when compared to the urban people. On the contrary, the urban people had more medical complications (gastrointestinal, ophthalmic, respiratory, endocrine, cardiovascular) than the rural people. Presence of electrical transformers was evident in the urban locality and very high-tension power lines in the rural locality. The authors concluded that constant monitoring of rising indoor and outdoor radiofrequency electromagnetic fields in India is essential under the prevailing conditions.

  86. Lakshmi, C. M.

    Banana is one of the widely used fruit though out the world and it is grown almost in all seasons and places, so in the present study fungal species were isolated from banana fields and banana plantation dumping yards for cellulase which can be used for the bioconversion of banana plantation waste generated after the recovery of fruits. Samples of soil and leaf were obtained from villages of Nanjangud and Bannur villages the fungal isolated were tested to find their ability to produce cellulase( which can degrade cellulose, which is a homopolymer made of glucose units linked by β1, 4 glycosidic bonds) Out of 35 fungal colonies7 showed cellulytic activity and three fungal strains noticed to show maximum zone of hydrolysis of carboxyl-methyl cellulose and cellulase produced by the fungi were determined by carboxy methyl cellulose assay. Maximum cellulase production was obtained after 72 hr of incubation at 37°C in Czapek-Dox broth supplemented with 1% carboxymethyl cellulose medium and the pH was adjusted to 4.5-5.0. Fungal studies indicated Aspergillus and Curvularia and Fusarium were more frequent fungal strains found and banana fields and banaba plantation dumping yards. The purpose of the current study was to screen potential cellulytic fungi from the Banana fields in order to study the use of them for the bioconversion of the banana wastes into usable form.

  87. Poongodi, T and Dr. Nazeema, T. H.

    The current investigation was carried out to study the preliminary phytochemical screening, GC-MS and In vitro cytotoxicity assay of leaf extract of Averrhoa carambola. Phytochemical screening revealed the presence of active plant metabolites like alkaloids, glycosides, phenol, tannins, flavonoids, protein and diterpenes. It was further continued to identify 10 different compounds of medicinal use in the Averrhoa carambola by GC-MS analysis. The study also investigated about the Invitro cytotoxic nature of Averrhoa carambola leaves in breast cancer cell line (MCF-7) using MTT assay. IC50 value was found to be 170.326 µg/ml.

  88. Dr. Nagaraj Parisara, Narayana, J. and Puttaiah, E.T.

    Studies were conducted to determine the occurrence and abundance of Blue-Greens in relation to physico-chemical characteristics of Konandur pond in Thirthahalli taluk, Karnataka. A total of 14 species of Blue-Greens belonging to 10 genera were recorded of which Gleocapsa consists of 3 species followed by Nostoc and Oscillatoria with 2 species. The physico-chemical parameters were analyzed as per standard methods. The study revealed that, pond water was not much polluted. In the light of standard of water quality recommended by BIS, the pond water should be used for human consumption and cooking after proper treatment.

  89. Sahu, P., Gaherwal, S., Aziz, R. U. and Manwani, K.

    The present study was concerned with haematological estimation of infected goat with ticks were done in Mhow region (M.P.). Haematological values were altered in infected goats as compare to control goats. The present study was conducted in three seasons rainy summer and winter. Total 30 goats were included for present study. In all three season RBC, Hb, Neutrophiles, basophiles, Lymphocytes, Platelets, PCV, MCV and MCH value was decreased as compared to control value at 0, 7 and 21 days. WBC, Eosinophiles and Monocytes value was increased as compared to control value at 0 days and decreased at 7 and 21 days.

  90. Kirti Bomala, Geetha Saramanda, Byragi Reddy. T and Jyothi Kaparapu

    A study on indoor and outdoor air microbiological contamination in various rooms of public places such as RTC Complex, Government School and College building (Government degree college for women) in Visakhapatnam city, India. Investigations were conducted in the period 2014-2015. Air samples were taken twice a day, in the morning and in the afternoon. In all of the tested places a multiple growth of bacteria and significant increase of mould spores were observed in afternoons. The predominant bacteria and moulds isolated from investigated air samples were: Staphylococcus sp., Micrococcus sp., Aspergillus sp., Penicillium sp., Rhizopus sp., Cladosporium sp. and Alternaria sp. Among these microbes the presence of pathogenic and strongly allergenic microorganisms was detected. The results seem to suggest that the concentrations of bioaerosols identified in the studied areas in the afternoon were higher than the values established in the morning for the indoor background – the concentrations of both bacteria and fungal aerosol were higher in the afternoon. The air in the school principal’s room and college laboratory were considered the least contaminated with microbial aerosol due to the specific features of the rooms.

  91. Rabinovich, Galina Yurievna and Mitrofanov, Yuri Ivanovich

    Cultivation of spring grain crops in the Non-Chernozem Area of the Russian Federation is based on flat plowing. Moreover, flat plowing on sod-podzol drainage soils is done to the whole topsoil depth. However, ridged plowing (in the system of autumn plowing) provides a shorter time and higher quality of fieldwork, faster and more even spring soil drying up to its tilth, creates favorable conditions for biological events therein. This paper presents results of studies conducted in All-Russian Research Institute of Reclaimed Lands that suggest an effect of autumn ridged plowing on the crop-producing power of spring fodder-grain crops, soil microorganisms, soil nitrogen turnover in conditions of draining. Field tests for the ridged plowing studies were carried out on two cereals: oats and barley. Our experiments showed that the ridged plowing – without any additional expenditures – raised the productivity of the spring cereals by 16.9-17.5 % compared to the ordinary plowing. The ridged plowing provided more favorable conditions for soil nitrogen transformations, enhanced nitrification, improved nitrogen nutrition for the plants, promoted a total increase in the number of soil microorganisms including actinomycetes, autochthonous and nitrogen assimilating ones – but simultaneously lowered the number of the microscopic fungi, vascular wilt causing microorganisms and denitrifiers.

  92. Mominul Haque Rabin, Md. Abdur Razzaque, Sheikh Shawkat Zamil, Kh. Ashraf-Uz-Zaman, Md. Abubakar Siddik and Shahidul Islam

    An experiment was conducted at the farm of Sher-e-Bangla Agricultural University, Dhaka-1207 during the Aman season from July to December, 2013 to find out the influence of foliar application of urea along with magic growth spray on the growth parameters of Aman rice. The one factorial experiment was laid out in a RCBD design with three replications. The treatments were : different nitrogen doses and application methods [T0=N0 (No nitrogen applied), T1=N00+10% (Urea was applied only 10% of the recommended dose (RD) with magic growth as foliar spray), T2=N50+5% (50% Urea was applied as top dressing and 5% Urea was applied with magic growth as foliar spray), T3=N50+10% (50% Urea was applied as top dressing and 10% Urea was applied with magic growth as foliar spray), T4=N75+5% (75% Urea was applied as top dressing and 5% Urea was applied with magic growth as foliar spray), T5=N75+10% (75% Urea was applied as top dressing and 10% Urea was applied with magic growth as foliar spray), T6=N100 (100% of RD of N applied as Urea topdressing), T7=N100+10% (100% Urea was applied as top dressing and 10% Urea was applied with magic growth as foliar spray)]. The 75% Urea top dressing and 10% Urea with magic growth as foliar application gave higher results in most of the growth parameters. In case of plant height, number of tillers, number of leaves, effective tillers hill-1 results were maximum and minimum in non-effective tillers hill-1 with75% Urea top dressing and 10% Urea with magic growth as foliar spray. Moreover, 75% Urea top dressing and 10% Urea of the recommended dose with magic growth as foliar spray increased all the growth attributes with a saving of 15% of the recommended nitrogen fertilizer compared to recommended practice.

  93. Sherene, T., Ramasamy, K. and Jayakumar, D.

    Post Methanated Distillery effluent (PMDE) contains all nutrients and organic matter and used in agriculture as a source of plant nutrients and irrigation water. The effect of different levels of PMDE application on carbon and nitrogen dynamics was examined through a laboratory incubation experiment. Application of different levels of PMDE had significant influence on soil organic carbon and nitrogen in soil. Both the NH4-N and NO3-N fractions markedly increased with increase in the levels of PMDE up to 40m3/ha. Results showed that PMDE application not only adds mineral N (NH4-N and NO3-N) to soil, but also promotes the mineralization of soil organic N, thus resulting in large amounts of NH4-N and NO3-N in soil.

  94. Dr. Osayande Eric Iyobo and Dr. John Egharevba

    The study examined the choice of students and teachers in regard to the use of teaching styles for effective teaching environmental health courses. This study investigated the relationship between the independent variables of students’ and teachers’ perceptions and the choice requirements necessary for the validation and development of dependent variables of the teaching method of environmental health. The descriptive survey design was adopted for the study. The population of the study consisted of health and physical education, geography, biology and agricultural science teachers and students in selected secondary schools in Edo State. The sampling method used was the multi-stage sampling technique which was employed to select 1000 participants for the study. The instrument used for the study was a questionnaire. The data collected were subjected to statistical analysis using Pearson Product Moment correlation, Spearman correlation coefficient for two independent sample mean, the Scheffe post hoc test. They were used to test the null hypotheses formulated to solve the problem of the study at 0.05 alpha level of significance. Results of the study revealed a significant relationship between students and teachers perceptions towards the teaching method used in environmental health with a calculated mean of 1.7631, standard deviation .58504 and rho value of .507 (P<0.05). Based on the findings, it is recommended that the teachers should use adequate and effective teaching method to bring about effective understanding of the content of environmental health course

  95. Monica Atieno Olala, Christopher Obel Gor (Dr) and Adrian Wekulo Mukhebi (Prof)

    Food security is a major global concern. It has insidious effects on the health and development of young children and consequently, adults. The paper assesses the food security status and its key determinants for the rural households of the high rainfall zone (HRZ) of Murang’a, semi–arid lands (SALs) of Kitui and arid lands (ALs) of Isiolo in Kenya. A three stage sampling technique was used for respondents (384) selection. Data collected were: demographics, livelihood strategies, food security and livelihood assets. Descriptive and Inferential Statistical methods and descriptive Content Analysis were used. Inferential statistics analytical methods were: ANOVA, PMC, T-test and regression. Overall food insecurity was 48%, but this varied across the agro–ecological zones, with the most affected being the SALs of Kitui at 81% to ALs of Isiolo at 75%. The most food secure was the HRZ of Murang’a at 77%. Food security was significantly different [F (2, 381) = 41.01, P<0.05] across the agro–ecological zones. Livelihood assets accounted for 37.2% (R2=0.372) of the variability in household food security in the study areas. Specifically, livelihood assets accounted for 28.9%, 37.6% and 42.5% of the variation in household food security in the ALs of Isiolo, SALs of Kitui and HRZ of Murang’a respectively. The overall main determinants for household food security were: natural [t(384)= 9.364, p=.000], physical [t(384)=3.523, P=.000] and financial [t(384)=3.120, P<0.05] capitals. The main determinants for the specific agro–ecological zones were: HRZ of Murang’a; natural [t(228)=8.412, p=.012], physical [(228) =3.778, P=.000] and financial [t(228) =2.784, P=0.002] capitals, SALs of Kitui; financial [t(100) =7.67, P=.000], natural [t(100) = 10.294, P<0.05], social [t(100)=3.42, P<.05] capitals and ALs–Isiolo; natural [t(56)=3.626, P=.000], financial [t(56) = 2.798, P<0.05] and human [t(56) =3.181, P<0.05] capitals. Contextualization of interventions on the determinants found to have significant on food security is necessary in addressing the perennial food insecurity in the study areas. Policies that facilitate food to be within reach and affordable at all times are worth promoting for improved security.

  96. Akanksha Kaushal and Rajkumar Rampal

    The present study has been carried out to assess the attitudinal response of the residents of Jammu city towards Traffic noise. The study area was divided into three sites: Site I (Crossings on the main highway), Site II (Crossings on the main roads connecting the highway) and Site III (Crossings with light vehicular traffic). A total of 300 respondents (150 males and 150 females) at each site were interviewed using questionnaire. The compilation of survey data of 900 respondents of study area revealed that all the respondents ranked Traffic noise as major source of noise in Jammu city. Gender wise differences in attitudinal response of all the respondents towards the traffic noise was found to be insignificant (p>0.05).

  97. Mohd. Saleem Itoo, Dr. Suhail Ahmad Gilkar, Omer Bashir Itoo, Bashir Ahmad Shah, Gh. Mohd Bhat and Fahmida Akhter

    Bilateral Pulmonary agenesis is a rare congenital anomaly of lungs with a definite embryological basis and diverse Clinical presentations ranging from asymptomatic cases to very severe disease incompatible with extra uterine life. Depending upon the developmental stage of lungs at which the insult occurs, the pulmonary agenesis is classified as bilateral complete, unilateral and lobar agenesis. Diagnosis of this anomaly is possible during early intrauterine life but it may remain silent to be detected at Autopsy. Bilateral lobar agenesis a rare and benign variant of this rare anomaly which we are reporting for the first time in the history of 65 years old Post Graduate department of Anatomy at Government Medical College Srinagar. The present study was carried out during routine dissection for teaching cadaveric Anatomy and simultaneously recording observations.60 lungs from 30formalin preserved Indian cadavers were dissected out and observations regarding the number of lobes in each lung were recorded. In one of the Cadavers we found that right lung had two lobes (upper and lower) and only one fissure (oblique) whereas left lung was single lobed with no fissure. These anomalous lungs were associated with absence of left kidney. No other associated anomalies like tracheal, esophageal, diaphragmatic and cardiovascular anomalies were reported in this case. The sound knowledge of isolated Lobar agenesis is very important in Maternal and child health, Neonatology, Cardiology, chest Medicine, Radio diagnosis and Anesthesiology for early diagnosis and appropriate management of this rare anomaly and its associations which otherwise remain undiagnosed to be detected at autopsy either because of their benign nature or as a consequence of their severity.

  98. Likhija K. K., Sivaprasath, P. and Nalini Padmanabhan, M.

    A naturally occurring hemagglutinin molecule detected in the hemolymph of black clam Villoritta cyprinoides was able to agglutinated various mammalian erythrocytes. Reduction of activity was obtained when the animals were treated with Cd and Pb. As the hemocyte play a vital role in the innate immunity, this findings strongly confirmed that the heavy metals such as Cd and Pb affects the immune function of V. cyprinoides.

  99. Najoua MOUDEN, Rachid BENKIRANE, Amina OUAZZANI TOUHAMI and Allal DOUIRA

    Strawberry plants of Venicia variety severely affected by collapse which has leads to their total drying were brought by a farmer in the laboratory in spring 2011 from Dlalha village (Gharb-Loukkos, Northwestern Morocco). The ignorance of the causes of this decline required a mycological laboratory analysis based on the identification of fungi colonizing samples and calculating the infection percentages for different vegetative organs. The highest isolation proportions reaching 50% and 38.4% were recorded respectively by Botrytis cinerea and Alternaria alternata on strawberries, 30 and 55.5% on strawberry leaves, increasing to 56.4% and 65% on stems also hosting Fusarium oxysporum isolated with a frequency of 30.4% and Fusarium sp. (13.4%). On the aerial parts, 8 fungal species were poorly represented and whose contamination percentages ranging from 4.35% to 11.1%. Isolations made from the crown and roots allowed detection of Macrophomina phaseolina, F. oxysporum, Rhizoctonia solani whose proportions vary from 28.6% to 52.6%, 38% to 42.1% and 42.8% to 47.36%. However, weaker frequencies of isolation were assigned to Cylindrocarpon desctrutans, Pythium sp. and Phytophthora sp. not exceeding 10.53% and 5.26% respectively. These telluric agents were accompanied by Aspergillus nidulans (19.05%), Trichoderma sp. (4.76%) and Cuninghamella sp. (9.52%).

  100. Marina Todor Stojanova, Hristina Poposka and Monika Stojanova

    The effect of foliar fertilizing on the yield and the chemical composition of kernels from texas almond cultivar in Valandovo region in the period from 2012 to 2013 was determined. The experiment was set in four variants and three repetitions. The variants were: Control (untreated); NPK+Ever green со Me (55% organic matter, 2% w/w Mg, 2% w/w Fe, 2% w/w Zn, 2% w/w Mn, 0.5 % w/w Cu, 0.5% w/w B); NPK+Biolinfa (34% organic matter 3% N, 5.80% K2O) and NPK+Oligomix (1.20% B, 0.10% Cu, 4% Fe, 1.50% Mn, 0.10% Mo, 2% Zn). The distance of fruit planting was 4.5 m row by row and 3.5 m in the rows. In each variant and repetition were included 20 plants, and total in all experiment were involved 240. Three foliar treatments were applied with given above fertilizers at a concentration of 0.4%. In the end of the November, soil fertilizing with the fertilizer Polyfeed NPK 11-44-11 in quantity amount of 450 kg/ha was done. Before setting up the experiment, soil agrochemical analyses were made, and was concluded good fertility with nitrogen, medium fertility with phosphorus and potassium. The foliar fertilizing has a positive influence on the yield and the chemical composition of almond kernels. The highest average content of almond fruit yield (2699 kg ha-1) and the highest average almond kernels yield (1333.50 kg ha-1) was determined in the variant treated with fertilizer NPK+Ever green with Me (55% organic matter, 2%w/w Mg, 2%w/w Fe, 2%w/w Zn, 2% w/w Mn, 0.5 %w/w Cu, 0.5 %w/w B). The lowest almond fruits yield (1841 kg ha-1) and the lowest almond kernels yield (857.25 kg ha-1) was determined in the control variant. The highest average content of nitrogen (3.80%), phosphorus (1.15%), potassium (1.17%) and oils (59,30%) was determined in the kernels from variant NPK+Ever green со Me (55% organic matter, 2% w/w Mg, 2% w/w Fe, 2% w/w Zn, 2% w/w Mn, 0.5 % w/w Cu, 0.5% w/w B). The highest average content of calcium (0.93%) and magnesium (0.40%) were determined in the kernels from variant NPK+Oligomix (1.20% B, 0.10% Cu, 4% Fe, 1.50% Mn, 0.10% Mo, 2% Zn).

  101. Gayathri, V., Anandhapriya, V., Keerthiga, R. and Nasrin Fathima, M.

    Vegetable compost was prepared using vegetable wastes. Later, the prepared compost was used to grow plants such as tomato, french beans and lady’s finger and the germination and growth studies were carried out. French beans showed a higher germination percentage of 80%. Tomato and lady’s finger showed a germination percentage of 70% and 50% respectively. The growth parameters namely shoot length, root length and leaf diameter was studied after 15 days and 25 days of growth of the plants. The study showed a higher growth rate in vegetable compost treated plants than control plants.

  102. Sekar, P., Kalpana, S., Ganga, S., George John, Kannadasan, N. and Krishnamoorthy, R.

    The present work monitors the growth parameter and cocoon production in Bombyx mori fed on V1 mulberry leaves fortified with the putative probiotic bacterial, Lactobacillus casei. The growth of (length and weight) the bacteria supplemented silkworms of the all instars (II-V) increased significantly over the control animals. The maximum body length (55mm) observed was in the probiotic supplemented worms of the IV instar, while the control worms at IV instar could attain only 46mm. The body weight of probiont supplemented II instar larvae showed a three-fold increase (689mg) compared to the normally fed larvae (205mg). In the fifth instar larvae, the probiotic supplemented group recorded a very high body weight (3550.0mg) than the control group (2946.0mg). Weight of the cocoons from worms reared on probiotic bacteria was higher than that of the silkworms fed on mulberry leaves alone.

  103. DJELLE OPELY Patrice-Aime

    The goal of this article is to show that the attention is not only one question of capacity or aptitude, but that it supposes the development, at the pupil, of active mental strategies. Methodology will use pupils of the different levels (5th, 4th and 3rd). We are given to measure the attention of the pupils to the course at the time of their oral participation, of the investment, the concentration and the cognitive motivation. The results show that the attention would be a competence which is worked, develops and which about is not only given intangible. The attention of the pupil is defined as a flexible activity mentally but also concretely like a stage to be crossed from the point of view of experimental models.

  104. Gayathri, V. and Pukendran, S.

    The blue-green algal flora of Government Arts College campus was studied. In the study, different blue-green algal forms were observed and they were identified. The present work is just an initiative to identify the different blue-green algal forms present in the ponds. These forms could be further isolated and cultured for use as biofertilizer.

  105. Durgam, S., Dekhane, S. S., Mangave, B. D. and Patel, D. J.

    A field experiment was conducted during the rainy (kharif) season of 2012, to study the performance of different paddy varieties in Narainpur area of Chhattisgargh. Six different paddy varieties were evaluated viz., Bamleshwari, M.T.U. 1010, H.M.T., Pusa Basmati, Dubraj and M.T.U. 1001 for growth and yield parameters. All varieties performed good under Narainpur condition. Among different varieties MTU 1010 recorded highest plant height (138.1 cm), no. of tillers per plant (13.8), maximum panicle length (27.3 cm), no. of seeds/panicle (306.6) and grain yield (25.61 q/ha) followed by Bamleshwari.

  106. Kouamé NGUESSAN

    This work aims at analyzing the knowledge to be taught related to the energy concept in le manual entitled Physique (Collection AREX, Les classiques africains). The didactical and epistemological analyses of the concerned chapters made on the basis of the whole grid of teaching taking into account all the teaching aspects of the concept has proven that the aids used in the manual and taught of the students are not only less significant and less representative but also they might be the sources of learning difficulties.

  107. Hemant D. Chandore, Rupesh S. Manekar and Pradeep B. Bhor

    Indian gooseberry or Aonla (Emblica officinalis Gaertn.) is richest source of Vitmain C in dry land groups of India. These aonla is propagated by seed but because of its hard seed coat and dormancy period it is difficult to germinate all seeds. Hence the research is carried out to standardize proper plant growth regulators for seed treatments to study out plant growth characters like seedling height, diameter of stem, and number of leaves. Result showed that seed treatments with GA3 200 ppm on seedling growth parameters like seedling height, diameter of stem and number of leaves after 30, 60, 90, 120, 150, 180 days of sowing gives highest result than Thiourea and Ethrel.

  108. Ha Thi Hoa, Chong-Ho Wang, Chun-Li Wang and Nguyen Van Tam

    The study was conducted to compare the effects of different bag opening methods on the growth, yield, and nutritional composition of oyster mushrooms Pleurotus ostreatus (PO) and Pleurotus cystidiosus (PC). Bag opening methods were used including (1) removing ring and cotton plug, (2) opening at the top and bottom of culture bags, (3) opening some site around culture bags, (4) de-plastic culture bag. The culture bag after taking of cotton plug (no removing ring) was used as control. This result obtained showed that different bag opening methods had significant effect on mushroom yield, biological efficiency (BE), and no effect on nutritional composition of mushroom PO and PC. Bag opened with larger surface induced rapidly dried substrate and reducing the number of flushes and total harvesting period. However, it induced increasing the number of effective fruiting bodies of both oyster mushrooms, the yield at the first three flushes of mushroom PO and at the first flush of mushroom PC, except de- plastic culture bag. No removing ring was the best method to get the highest yield (204.3 g/bag) and BE (40.80%) of mushroom PC while removing ring was identified as the best method for cultivation of mushroom PO with the highest yield (298.5 g/bag) and BE (59.62%). Opening at the top and bottom and opening some sites around culture bag were suitable opening methods for mushroom PO to reduce the total harvesting period and increase mushroom weight per flush while total yield and PE were not different with control condition.

  109. Devid Kardong, Munmi Puzari and Jyotish Sonowal

    Freshwater molluscs have great environmental significance but seem to receive less attention of biologists in the North-eastern region of India. The diversity and distribution pattern of freshwater mollusc population in Maguri ‘beel’ (Assamese: Lake) of upper Brahmaputra basin in Assam, India was assessed for two consecutive years (2014–15). A total of 26 species belonging to nine families were recorded. The families Viviparidae followed by Thiaridae and Unionidae were found to be the dominant families whereas representatives of the families Pleuroceridae and Ampullariidae were rare. Analysis of diversity indices indicated a diverse mollusc population dominated by few species, heterogeneously distributed in the study area. The assessment on the conservation status of the mollusc population revealed most of the recorded species to be in the least concerned (LC) category with unknown (UN) population trends as per the IUCN Red list status (3.1). However five species were dominant (D), three frequent (F), 16 infrequent (IF) and two rare (R) at the local context. The record of Sphaerium austeni (Prashad, 1921) which is found to be a near threatened species at global context is a key example in the assessment of local status. While overharvesting and predation pressure on fish and mollusc population are identified as the key threats to the wetland.

  110. Poonam Sangwan and Rajesh Dhankhar

    Response surface methodology (RSM) is a powerful and efficient mathematical approach widely applied in the optimization of process parameters. Box-Behnken design was applied to elucidate the process parameters that significantly affect cellulase production. The experiment established the optimum conditions of incubation time (5.5 days), temperature (32.50C), pH (5.5), spore suspension (1.75ml) for solid state fermentation that led to the maximum production of cellulase at a level of 86.34 IU/gds. Good correlation was observed between the actual and predicted results indicated that the present model was applicable to production of cellulase enzyme efficiently.

  111. Raju Neerati and Venkaiah Yanamala

    The present study was carried out to investigate the effect of physostigmine (a carbamate pesticide) on the electrophoretic patterns of esterase activity in parotoid gland secretion and its extract of common Indian toad Bufo melanostictus (Schneider). The patterns of the esterases were examined on 7.5% of polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (PAGE) stained with α- napthyl acetate. The parotoid gland secretion and its extract were exposed to the toxicant physostigmine and the variations were observed on the activity of esterase banding patterns at different time intervals i.e., 4 hours, 8hours, and 12 hours. The findings that the parotoid gland extract showed homology in esterase bands with more intensity compared to than the parotoid gland secretion.

  112. Séka Yapoga Jean, YapoOssey Bernard, Yapi DopéArmelCyrille and Kouamé Kouamé Victor

    The study aims to investigate the removal of heavy metals, such as lead (Pb), cadmium (Cd), chromium (Cr), copper (Cu) and zinc (Zn) from contaminated soils using Jatropha curcas and Vetiveria zizanioides plant species. Soil samplings from the 0-20 cm depth were taken from two agricultural plots (Attécoubé and Cocody) in Abidjan, Côte d’Ivoire. The two plants species were planted in pots (25x25cm) containing 10 kg of soils. Samples were removed from pots for analysis, following 3, 6 and 9 months of growth. Physical and chemical characteristics of soil, such as: texture, cation exchanges capacity, pH, organic matter and heavy metals contents were measured before and after plant growth. Soil samples were air-dried and sieved through a 2-mm sieve according to NF X31-412. Samples were digested according to references methods used for the studies of marine pollution (UNEP). Metals were determined by atomic absorption spectrophotometer (AAS) and a Perkin Elmer 3000DV Inductively Coupled Plasma- Atomic Emission Spectrometer (ICP-AES). Results show that Vetiveria zizanioides and Jatropha curcas were effective heavy metal accumulators, making them useful in the phytoremediation of polluted soils by heavy metals. The accumulation of Pb, Cd, Cr, Cu and Zn in Jatropha curcas roots was found to be higher than those in leaves. However, in the case of Vetiveria zizanioides, Cu and Zn accumulated more in plant leaves than in roots. The results of this study clearly revealed that Vetiveria zizanioides was more effective than Jatropha curcas in reducing soil pollution by heavy metals.

  113. Anita Joshi and Anil Kumar Yadava

    Various changes in the Himalayan Forests are appearing in their structure, density, composition and regeneration due to biotic pressure on them namely; uncontrolled lopping and felling of trees for fuel wood, fodder and grazing these biotic pressures play an important role in forest community dynamics and regulate the regeneration ability of a species. The study area is located between 29º22´ and 29º23´ N latitude and 79º 26´ and 79º 28´E longitude between 1800-2300 m elevations in Uttrakhand Himalaya. The present study was conducted in four different sites namely, undisturbed, highly disturbed, moderately disturbed and less disturbed sites in Nainital catchment this chapter mainly concerned with three major forms of activities that have affected the vegetation composition of Western Himalayan oak, grazing, fuel wood and fodder collection.

  114. Chungkham Helini Devi, Renuka Nameirakpam and Premila Chanu, O.

    Curcuma caesia, a member of Zingiberaceae family, is a unique perennial aromatic plants distributed in South and Southeast Asia. The most important components of turmeric are curcuminoids which chemically related to its principal ingredient of curcumin. The detailed studies using curcumin include antioxidative, anti inflammatory, anti carcinogenic, anti viral and anti infectious activities, wound healing and detoxifying properties. Plant tissue culture is an appropriate tool for conserving the rare and endangered Curcuma spp. Morphogenetic changes were observed in Curcuma caesia explants in the MS media supplemented with different concentrations of PGRs. Kinetin 1 and 2 mg/l and combination of BAP 1mg/l and Kinetin 1mg/l exhibited a better response.

  115. Majumder, R., Guha, P. and Mandal, A. K.

    Physiological and biochemical changes occurring in seed during ageing are the significant parameters for reviewing the quality of seed. The rate at which the process of ageing takes place depends on the ability of the seed to resist the deteriorative changes and to act with their protective mechanism. The present study was conducted to judge the efficacy of eco-friendly non-toxic dry dressing and wet treatment on the germinability and membrane integrity of stored freshly harvested field pea (cv. Rachna) seeds. The seeds treated with red chilli powder @ 1g/kg of seed and amla fruit powder @ 2 g/kg of seed showed significant improvement on germinability than the untreated control after subsequent ageing. The ageing of seed accelerates the rate of lipid per oxidation, increases leaching of free amino acid and results in decline of total soluble seed protein banding pattern. Physio-biochemical studies revealed that the seeds treated with red chilli powder @ 1g/kg of seed and amla fruit powder @ 2 gm/kg of seed showed lower leaching of free amino acid, lower lipid per oxide formation and more number of peptide bands over control reflecting higher membrane integrity of the dry treated seeds than the untreated seeds under subsequent storage which indicate seed invigoration treatments improved the seed quality by maintaining higher germinability under adverse storage conditions. However, based on the above results, pre-storage dry treatments with red chilli powder and amla fruit powder may be suggested for the maintenance of vigour and viability of field pea seeds.

  116. Alan Mario Zuffo, Joacir Mario Zuffo Júnior, Rezânio Martins Carvalho, Adaniel Sousa dos Santos, João Batista da Silva Oliveira, Everton Vinicius Zambiazzi, 1Scheila Roberta Guilherme and Aline Sousa dos Santos

    The baru has a sexual propagation with a low germination index. Thus, the aim of the present study was to evaluate dormancy breaking methods on baru seeds in order to get information to improve the baru seeds germination, even after the pericarp extraction. The experiment was carried out at the Biology Laboratory of the Mato Grosso State University using a completely randomized experimental design with eight seed dormancy breaking treatments: control; immersion on water at room temperature for 12, 24 and 48 hours; temperatures of 40oC during 3 and 6 hours; mechanical scarification with a nº 80 sand paper; 2-minute boil. The seeds were extracted with a hammer. For each treatment the seeds were placed on a moistened paper towel, rolled up and placed in a perforated plastic trayon a countertop in a protected environment under normal conditions of temperature, photoperiod and air relative humidity. At 4 and 10 days after seeding, the germination percentage and the germination speed index were evaluated. The maximum germination percentage was achieved just with the extraction of the pericarp that involves the seed. For the earlier and uniform germination the immersion on water at room temperature for 48 hours or the scarification in a nº 80 mechanical sander is recommended. The baru dormancy is only due to the tegument hardness and after the seed extraction, no dormancy was observed.

  117. Nandita Jena, Vani, K. P., Praveen Rao, V. and Siva Sankar, A.

    Response of quality protein maize hybrid (HQPM-1) to various N and P levels was studied at College Farm, College of Agriculture, Rajendranagar, Hyderabad during kharif 2012. Trail with four nitrogen levels (0, 120, 180 and 240 kg N ha-1), four phosphorus levels (0, 60, 80 and 100 kg P2O5 ha-1) was laid out in randomized block design in three replications with a plot size of 6m × 5m at spacing of 60 × 20 cm. Results showed that each incremental effect of nitrogen and phosphorus fertilizers significantly increased the yield (grain and stover) of HQPM-1 over control. Among four levels of nitrogen, application of 240 kg N ha-1 gave maximum plant height (212.75 cm), LAI (3.89), dry matter production (13432 kg ha-1), cob length (17.50 cm), grain yield (6383 kg ha-1), protein content (11.35 %), net returns (46954 ha-1) and B: C ratio (2.97) followed by 180, 120 kg N ha-1and control. Similarly, out of four levels of phosphorus highest dose i.e. 100 kg P2O5 ha-1 resulted in taller plants (185.95 cm), high LAI (3.17), dry matter production (10572 kg ha-1), cob length (16.25 cm), grain yield (5010 kg ha-1), protein content (11.06 %) net returns (30996 ha-1) and B: C ratio (2.22) followed by lower levels of phosphorus. Hence, QPM obtained good results at 240 kg N ha-1 and 100 kg P2O5 ha-1.

  118. Abhijit, H.U., Aruna, K.B., Malammanavar, S.G. and Udupa, E.S.K.

    Kuvempu University Campus exactly located in the part of buffer zone of Bhadra wildlife Sanctuary, Karnataka. Fourty five species of wild grasses belongs to 32 genera and nine tribes were documented in the present study. Tribe Andropogoneae, consisted of 17 species of 11 genera, followed by Paniceae 12 species of 10 genera and seven species of three genera. The genus Eragrostis has highest species (05), followed by Dichanthium and Ischaemum have three species each. Grasses are fast vanishing sensitive plants from their natural habitats. So, there is urgent need of studies and scientifically catalogue of grass flora of regional, national and global level, before they are destroyed.

  119. Subashini, G., Bhuvaneswari, S., Chitradevi, K. and Kanmani, N.

    Plastic is considered an individual gift of modern science and technology to mankind. Nowadays, plastics and synthetic polymers are mainly produced from petro chemical elements, which do not decompose, thus resulting in the environmental pollution. Bacterial plastic is usually defined as an exciting new area of research, where naturally synthesized bacterial polymer, such as the lipid storage material PHB is being used as raw materials for plastic based packaging materials. Poly-β-hydroxybutyrates (PHBs) are one such biopolymer, which are commonly found in soil and synthesized by a broad range of bacteria, during the limitation of nitrogen, calcium, magnesium, iron or essential vitamins. The present investigation includes isolation and identification of marine Bacillus sp. from seawater and screening of media components for maximum production of Poly-β-hydroxybutyrates. Twenty Bacillus sp. was isolated from seawater. Among 20 isolates, nine showed the maximum Sudan black absorption, which indicated the highest production of Poly-β-hydroxybutyrates. Among nine isolates, 3 isolates were selected best isolates for the maximum production of poly-β-hydroxybutyrates, 2 isolates are B. Subtilis and one isolate identified as B. Cereus. The highest PHB production was observed at pH 8 by all three isolates, at 40°C for B. subtilis and 35°C for B.cereus. Glucose was found to be sole carbon source for the production of PHB by B. subtilis. Maltose was found best carbon source for the maximum production of PHB for B. cereus. The maximum amount of PHB production in ammonium sulphate for B. subtilisand and yeast extract for B. cereus. B. subtilis isolates were produced the maximum PHB at 3% salinity while B. cereus was produced at 2% salinity. Poly-β-hydroxybutyrateis biodegradable plastics. So definitely they can support quality lifespan of all living creatures including human being due to non-pollution environment.

  120. Rajeev Kumar, Rajendra G. Sonkawade, Madhavi Tripathi, Anshul Sharma, Nishikant A. Damle and Chandrasekhar Bal

    Objective: The use of whole body 18F-FDG investigation is now rapidly growing. Unlike in radiology, patients in Nuclear medicine are a source of radiation themselves, since F-18 in 18F-FDG is a Positron emitter. The aim of this study is to measure the amount of radiation dose received by nuclear medicine physicians and staff during injection Methods: As per clinical protocol, the patients are supposed to have minimum period of 4 hours prior to the study. Whole body 18F-FDG PET/CT scans were performed in 35 patients for various indications. The radiation dose from the patients was measured using the portable radiation survey meter, during injection. Results: The maximum radiation exposure during FDG injection was 40 mR/hr to the nuclear medicine physician. The minimum radiation exposure during FDG injection was 6.63 mR/hr to the nuclear medicine physician. This was a pediatric patient and the total activity for this patient was 2.2 mCi. The average radiation exposure during FDG injection was 20.91 mR/hr to the nuclear medicine physician. The maximum radiation exposure after water push was 20 mR/hr to the nuclear medicine physician. The minimum radiation exposure after water push was 3.38 mR/hr. The average radiation exposure after water push was 7.87 mR/hr to the nuclear medicine physician. Conclusion: The exposure rate at surface of Patients is very high of 18F-FDG injected patients. Therefore the person administering the dose to patient should avoid standing very close to the patient. Also the half life of 18F is very less i.e. 109.7 minutes; therefore, exposure rate falls rapidly with the passage of time. So the exposure to staff and Nuclear medicine Physicians are very low

  121. Hiralal Jana and Debabrata Basu

    India is to sustain 16 per cent of the world’s population on 2.4 percent of the global land area. It has to feed its burgeoning population using 3 percent and 5 percent of global farm land and water resources. Hence, its dependence on aquatic resources for production of additional food is obvious and shall become more and more obligatory. Fisheries are playing a key role in the changing profile of Indian economic growth. Presently, the fish cultivation is under grasp of many problems. Therefore, the present study was conducted to identify the various problems faced by fishermen in their farming and the suggestions provided by them to mitigate those. The study was undertaken in Moyna block of East Midnapur district of West Bengal. The study revealed that fishermen of the study area faced the major problems, those were-(1) No option to lift ground water (100%) (2) Lack of good road condition (100%) (3) Transportation cost is very high (100%) (4) Adulterated fish feed (100%) (5) Price of fish feed is very high (100%) (6) Scarcity of water at summer season (100%) (7) Flood problem (100%) (8) Maintain the fish pond bund is a problem (100%) and (9) Market price of fish is less (88%). The main suggestions provided by the fishermen were-(1) Govt. should allow to set up mini-tube well for fish cultivation (90%) (2) Widen metal road is needed, permit to run heavy vehicle and water transport system should be activated by renovating canal (100%) (3) Govt. should have strict supervision to control the quality of fish feed (100%) (4) Integrated measures are to be taken to prevent soil erosion from pond bund (100%) (5) If govt. is able to provide fish feed, it will be good for fishermen (100%) (6) there should be provision of getting suitable river water (100%) and (7) proper drainage system should be developed by the govt. (100%). Therefore, the extension agencies, public or private are working in the study area will consider these problems heartily and will try to find out the possible ways to remove those problems according to their level best.

  122. Sial, P., Tarai, R. K., Sethy, B. K. and Behera S. K.

    An investigation was carried out for popularization of organic turmeric cultivation through frontline demonstrations in Koraput district of Odisha in India during 2013-14 under National Horticulture Mission. An average yield of 124.8 q / ha was obtained under organic cultivation of turmeric in contrast to average yield of 142.8 q / ha from inorganic plots (farmers practice) during Kharif’2013. The average cost of production of turmeric per hectare was found to be Rs. 191560 and Rs. 179600 from organic and inorganic field respectively. The average gross return per hectare from FLD (organic) and inorganic field (Farmers Practice)was recorded as Rs. 374400 and Rs.285600respectively.However, the average net return/ ha of organic turmeric in different FLD plots was obtained as Rs. 185840 in contrast to Rs.106000 in different farmers field under inorganic cultivation. The Cost : Benefit ratio was found to be 1: 1.95 in Organic turmeric and 1:1.59 in Inorganic turmeric. Organic turmeric growers were highly satisfied with their organic production and higher economic return. High cost : benefit ratio also advocated the economic viability of the demonstration and motivated the farmers towards adoption of interventions demonstrated.

  123. Ajithamol, A., Michael Babu, M., Saraswathy, S. and Venkadesh, B.

    Water samples were collected from the six stations of Manakudy estuary. During the present investigation of bacterial species presented in the water samples of estuary were Zobellia russellii, Pseudomonas tolaasii, Staphylococcus sp., Helicobacter sp., Escherichia sp., Paracoccus sp., Proteus sp., Maraxella sp, Halmonas sp., Aquasalimonas sp., Neisseria sp. and Marinobacter sp. The dominant bacterial strain Zobellia russellii were finally identified by 16S rRNA sequence analysis The objective of the study of microbial diversity in the estuarine environment is the vital beginning to estimate the major compartment of biodiversity and effective causes of human interferences.

  124. Ajithamol, A., Venkadesh, B., Michael Babu, M. and Saraswathy, S.

    Seasonal variation of nutrients like nitrogen, phosphorus, potassium of the sediment were studied in six stations. The study was conducted at monthly once during the morning time interval from May 2011 to April 2012. The pH (8.71) of the soil remains alkaline in nature throughout the study period. Nitrogen (82.67mg100g) in station 4, phosphorus 21.08 (mg/100g) in station 6 and potassium in station 4 21.08 (mg/100g). Sediment nutrients brings numerous pollutants and play an important role in the remobilization of contaminations in aquatic system between water and sediments. Nutrients becomes maximum ranges in the freshwater flow of riverine sides because of more plantations and agricultural wastages. The nutrients of sediments in the six stations were subjected to two way Anova found that they were not significant. The ecosystem of Manakudy estuary adversely effected by nutrient pollution.

  125. Kudrya, V. and Sytnikov, V.

    In the work are considering promising areas of systems design electronic products. A wide range of different research directions in this area are combined into meaningful channel modeling electronic devices and the monolithic integrated circuits. Integration of mathematical physics, electrodynamics, the theory of electrical circuits, systems engineering, integral equations and matrix theory allowed a systematic way to build physical and mathematical models of high-frequency, including nanotechnology electronics. Mathematical models allow circuit (topological) analysis considering structural (morphological) properties the object of design. Under this type of system model can solve the problem of electromagnetic, thermal, radiation and informational compatibility of computer systems and their components.

  126. Vikram R Patil and Gaikwad, R.R.

    The kinetics of Ag+ catalysed oxidation of Acetamide by N-bromoparatoluensulphonamide (BAT) as a oxidant is used. In aquous medium the reaction was carried out. Results from the study shows reaction was found to be of first order with respect to BAT and Acetamide. The specific rate of the reaction increases with an increase in BAT concentration as well as amide concentration, The specific rate is not affected by the addition of allyl acetate, Sodium chloride, PTS and by changing pH. The reaction rate remains constant and at the end the rate of reaction found to be first order. On the basis of these kinetic results, a possible reaction mechanism is proposed and an attempt has also been made to formulate a reaction scheme.

  127. Piyatilake, I. T. S. and Perera, S. S. N.

    Air pollution is one of the most serious environmental problems in urban areas due to rapid development and starting of new industries. This salient hazard affects the human health and economy of the country. Mathematical models can be considered as one approach to identify the controlling measures of air pollution. These models consist of parameters which fluctuate with respect to external factors such as climate. Hence it is significant to recognize the dynamic behavior of air pollution model with respect to parameters. The two dimensional advection-diffusion equation is used to simulate the pollutant concentrations. Sensitivity equations are derived considering the variation of pollutant concentration with respect to parameters. Model equation and the sensitivity system are solved simultaneously using finite difference approximation. According to the study, the variation of pollutant concentration with respect to the parameters wind velocity and the diffusion coefficient are significant. When the velocity of wind doubled, it reduces the concentration of the pollutant in the ground level. But this pollutant air deposited in the highest places of the domain. These results reveal that considering different climatic periods and different zones, model parameters get dissimilar values. Hence, modifying air quality model season wise and area wise is important.

  128. Deepika Madan, Jyoti and Kuldeep Vats

    Wireless mobile ad-hoc networks are characterized as networks without any physical connections. In these networks there is no fixed topology due to the mobility of nodes, interference, multipath propagation and path loss. Hence a dynamic routing protocol is needed for these networks to function properly. Many Routing protocols have been developed for accomplishing this task. The purpose of this paper is to study, understand, analyze and discuss mobile ad-hoc routing protocol DSR (Bouke, 2011) which is a on demand protocol. Considering the No. of hops, Traffic sent, Traffic received, route discovery time, Delay, throughput and network load in DSR routing protocol, it is evaluated and analyzed over different data rates (Bapuji and Sharma, 2011).

  129. EL-Samanoudy, M. A., Ghorab A. A. E. and Yahia. S. El-Masry

    This paper presents experimental and CFD investigations for the performance of a specially designed S-Shaped Helical Horizontal Axis Wind Turbine (SHAWT). The study was carried out for single blade (two buckets)& double blades (four buckets) turbines with three different twist angles; namely (90, 120 & 180 degrees). The turbines were fabricated from wood with 0.6m diameter, 0.7mlength and 2cm thickness. Experiments were performed using 0.64m2 wind tunnel cross section area at a constant wind speed of 8.5 m/sec. Experiments were performed to figure out the turbine performance for the several considered designs. Computational fluid dynamics model (CFD) was developed for the single blade 90 degree twist angle turbine to study the velocity and pressure contours. This aims at comparing the results with the obtained experimentally ones for the verification of the selected model. Several results were obtained for the selected designs. It was found that, within the tested range, the double blade turbine having a twisted angle of 120 degrees had the highest performance compared with the other configurations. The obtained Power Coefficient (Cp) was 0.12 at Tip Speed Ratio (TSR) of 0.52. All of the obtained results were compared with other investigators and a fair agreement was found.

  130. Sumit Kumar Jha, Vikas Kumar Singh, Shrutee Katara and Morbale, J. S.

    This document deals with the concept of a wireless charging and power transmission for the portable devices. The proposed concept is based on the wireless power transmission by means of microwave radiations using the “Rectenna”.

  131. Rathinavelu, A. and Venkateswaran, V.

    The present study was aimed at investigating the adsorption behaviour of Cd(II) ions onto Fire Clay+TiO2 Nanocomposite (NC) and Fire Clay (FC). The effects of several parameters such as adsorbent dose, contact time, initial concentration, pH & temperature had been studied. The adsorption followed pseudo second order, Elovich and intra particle diffusion models. The adsorption of Cd (II) was found to be maximum in the pH range 6.5-10. The data on the adsorption on both clay and nanocomposite fitted well with Langmuir, Freundlich, D-R isotherms and fairly well with Temkin model. The thermodynamic parameters G0, H0, S0 have also been evaluated. Adsorptions on both adsorbents were found to be exothermic and chemisorptive in nature. The nanocomposite exhibited a better removal efficiency for divalent Cd than the clay.

  132. Dr. Mishra, P.K. and Mansingh, A.K.

    In this paper we have estimate bounds of the number of level crossings of the random algebraic polynomials where are dependent random variables assuming real values only and following the normal distribution with mean zero and joint density function . There exists an integer n0 and a set E of measure at most such that, for each n>n0 and all not belonging to E, the equations (1.1) satisfying the condition (1.2), have at most roots where α and A are constants.

  133. Dr. Mishra, P. K. and Mansingh, A. K.

    The asymptotic estimates of the expected number of real zeros of the polynomial where gj(j=1,2,…..n) is a sequence of independent normally distributed random variables is such a number. To achieve the result we first present a general formula for the covariance of the number of real zeros of any normal process, e(t), occurring in any two disjoint intervals. A formula for the variance of the number of real zeros of e(t) follows from this result.

  134. Belesti Melesse Asress and Dr. Tibebe Beshah

    Recent technological advancements have led to a flood of data from various domains over the past few decades. Big Data incorporates large volume of structured, semi-structured, and unstructured data, which is beyond the processing capabilities of traditional databases. In addition to its huge volume, Big Data is commonly unstructured and requires more real-time analysis. On the other hand, the processing and analysis of Big Data plays a central role in decision making, forecasting, business analysis, product development, customer experience, and loyalty. Hence, organizations dealing with Big Data and analytics need to manage the challenges and opportunities related to datasets they have. The IT industry has responded by providing Big Data tools and technologies as well as approaches. However, many of the existing approaches and technologies experience noted limitations. In this paper, attempt has been made to examine the distinctive features of Big Data along the lines of the 3Vs (variety, volume, and velocity) using literature review and provide an understanding of the Big Data processing approaches. Furthermore, Various Big Data analytics frameworks that deal with Big Data analysis workloads were also investigated and analyzed against set of criteria. Finally, analysis and discussions of existing Big Data analytics frameworks along with a way forward approach is presented.

  135. Hanna, R. N., Mustafa, A. M., Zefaan, H. and Sameh M. Metwalley

    In the present paper an experimental research was carried out on a laboratory two cylinder, four-stroke, direct injection diesel engine, designed mainly to run on diesel fuel and converted with minor modifications to run on CNG-Diesel dual fuel mode. The aim is to analyze the emission characteristics of pure diesel first and then CNG-Diesel dual fuel mode. The measurements were recorded at CNG substitution rates of 10%, 20% and 30% and varying the load from 1.5 to rated load of 9kW in steps of 1.5. The results reveal that, there is drastic reduction in CO, CO2, HC, NO and smoke in the exhaust of dual fuel engine at all loads and for 10%, 20% and 30% CNG substitution rates. From the positive results obtained in this experimental research, it can be concluded that it is a promising technology for achieving controlling on emissions in conventional compression ignition engines with minor engine modifications, thus great saving the human and plant life from the hazardous effects of exhaust gas pollutants from the conventional diesel engines.

  136. Aswathi, K. K., Preethy, T. T., Dr. Asha, V. Pillai and Mannambeth Renisha Jayarajan

    In India, tospoviruses are arising as serious pathogens and affecting the cultivation of variety of crops. Five Tospovirus species, viz., Groundnut bud necrosis virus (GBNV) (Reddy et al., 1992) and Groundnut yellow spot virus (GYSV) (Satyanarayana et al., 1998) from groundnut, Watermelon bud necrosis virus (WBNV) from watermelon (Singh and Krishnareddy, 1996), Iris yellow spot virus (IYSV) from onion (Ravi et al., 2005) and Capsicum chlorosis virus (CaCV) from tomato (Kunkalikar et al., 2007) have been identified on the basis of host range, vector specificity, serological properties and amino acid sequence identity of NP gene. Among them bud necrosis disease has emerged as a serious threat to watermelon and groundnut cultivation in India.

  137. Edward M. Kiunisala

    This paper is concerned with a mathematical solution to the 8 × 8 Lights Out Problem, a modification of an originally 5 × 5 electronic one-person puzzle game played on a rectangular lattice of lamps which can be turned on and off. A move consists of flipping a "switch" inside one of the squares, thereby toggling the on/off state of this and all four vertically and horizontally adjacent squares. Starting from a randomly chosen light pattern, the aim is to turn all the lamps off. The researcher describes the mechanics of the game and the solution to it from two different perspectives, (the first as a curious puzzle fan, and the second as a mathematician), with the end intention of presenting a result of entertaining mathematical research and to share it with anyone who is interested in it.

  138. Manimara, G., Rajesh Kanna, S. K. and Selvanathan, K.

    Extruded longitudinal double-skinned aluminium body plates with integrated stiffeners are recently used for manufacturing in automobile industry like front rails and railway carriages. Theses extrusions provide light and heavy rigid structures. However, since it is not feasible to produce large parts by extrusion, these plates need to be connected, mostly by welding techniques. The crashworthiness performance of laser welded columns is evaluated using finite element (FE) analysis. This is very important in automobiles, since more attention is being paid to crashworthiness of the structures in recent years. The analysis method is based on the Super folding Element (SE) concept, which originates from experimentally observed folding patterns of crushed shell elements. The FE model is used to predict accurately the progressive axial collapse of the lased welded columns and impact strength is greatly improved by laser welding technique.

  139. Kanagasabai Kanagalakshmi, Shanmugasamy Ponmuthumariammal and Arumugasamy Vanangamudi

    A series of 6,8-dibromoflavones were synthesized by the Mannich base condensation reaction of arylaldehyde with a new compound 1,3-bis(3,5-dibromo-4-alkoxy-2-hydroxyphenyl)-but-3-en-1-one obtained during the reaction of bromine with 4-alkoxy-5-bromo-2-hydroxyacetophenone. All the synthesized 6,8-dibromoflavones were screened for antioxidant and anticancer activities. Among the eight compounds, 6b possess highest antioxidant activity and compound 6b, 6c, 6d possesses anticancer activity.

  140. Singh, H. S., Rohitash Singh Shekhawat, Neha Sengwa and Rohitash Kumar

    The solution of the Boltzmann Transport equation for thermal conductivity is very difficult. In a large number of books the method given is very tedious. So Now , We have calculated a simple solution of the Boltzmann Transport equation for thermal conductivity assuming relaxation time is independent of temperature.

  141. Abhishek Karale, Vishakha Jadhav, Akshata Jadhav, Bhakti Kulkarni and Prof. Gauri Bhagat

    Load balancing is the mechanism of distributing workload among multiple, servers or other large scale infrastructure. This mechanism mainly depends on large scale hardware-based and network-based infrastructure. Load Balancing is a concept differs from classical cloud processing and classical functioning of load balancing which includes implementation of multiple cloud servers to perform this mechanism. This concept can be used for large scale as an economy efficient as unique load balancing technique. As a day to day competitive world only the concept of user interface is no longer completely enough. The concepts like low cost and less available loyalty may result in shifting of many multiple applications to service level management to bring more such concept to information technology environment.

  142. Pavleen S Bali, Prof. (Dr.) A K Raghav, Manoj Pandey, Shuvam Gupta, Harivansh, K., Ankur Siwach, Yash Narula, Rahul Verma, Deepak Jataywal and Sandeep Singh

    In this paper, we describe a representation for spatial information, called the stochastic map, and associated procedures for building it, reading information from it, and revising it incrementally as new information is obtained. The map contains the estimates of relationships among objects in the map, and their uncertainties, given all the available information. The procedures provide a general solution to the problem of estimating uncertain relative spatial relationships and trajectory description. The estimates are probabilistic in nature, an advance over the previous, very conservative, worst-case approaches to the problem. Finally, the procedures are developed in the context of state-estimation and filtering theory, which provides a solid basis for numerous extensions. Traditionally, the dynamic model, i.e., the equations of motion, of a robotic system is derived from Euler–Lagrange (EL) or Newton–Euler (NE) equations. The EL equations begin with a set of generally independent generalized coordinates, whereas the NE equations are based on the Cartesian coordinates. The NE equations consider various forces and moments on the free body diagram of each link of the robotic system at hand, and, hence, require the calculation of the constrained forces and moments that eventually do not participate in the motion of the coupled system. Hence, the principle of elimination of constraint forces has been proposed in the literature. One such methodology is based on the Decoupled Natural Orthogonal Complement (DeNOC) matrices, reported elsewhere. It is shown in this paper that one can also begin with the EL equations of motion based on the kinetic and potential energies of the system, and use the DeNOC matrices to obtain the independent equations of motion. The advantage of the proposed approach is that a computationally more efficient forward dynamics algorithm for the serial robots having slender rods is obtained, which is numerically stable. The typical six-degree-of-freedom PUMA robot is considered here to illustrate the advantages of the proposed algorithm. Moreover obstacle avoidance, motion planning and dynamic simulation comes in the trajectory generation part. Spatial description and trajectory generation work simultaneously for the proper functioning of the robot. Joint-space trajectory generation is in common usage in robotics to provide smooth, continuous motion from one set of n joint angles to another, for instance for moving between two distinct Cartesian poses for which the inverse pose solution has yielded two distinct sets of n joint angles. The joint-space trajectory generation occurs at runtime for all n joints independently but simultaneously.

  143. Hiral Rameshbhai Patel and Raviraj Chauhan

    Decomposition and Reconstruction Method provide directional information in decomposition levels and contain unique information at different resolution. The idea behind the concept of image fusion is to improve the image content by fusing two images like MRI and CT images to provide useful and precise information for doctor for their clinical treatment in one image. Discrete Ripplet Transform is a higher directionality and localization of the transform such edges. Discrete Wavelet Transform suffer from discontinuity of the image. So, use combination of DWT and DRT method has better image than DWT. So in future the ripplet transform can solve the discontinuity in the image. So for improving the image the combination of DWT and DRT can be use.

  144. Barman, N.

    In present scenario, due to the anthropogenic activities, environmental degradation increase in an alarming rate. In order to achieve acceptable level of environmental sustainability, the citizens must be empowered with essential knowledge. Educational institutions are the places where contact of the society is more. Therefore it is necessary to study environmental awareness level among the student community. Present study attempts to know the awareness level against environmental pollution among the secondary students. Data were collected using questionnaire randomly from 997 students. Data were analyzed by mean, SD and z-test. This study revealed that students are aware about the environmental pollution. But male are more aware than female. The private school, English medium and urban student are more aware than Government school, Assamese medium and rural student respectively. Compulsory environmental education at all level in the education system may most appropriate strategy towards environmental protection leading to decrease pollution in society.

  145. Sharvin Pingulkar, Haroondeep Singh Sandhu and Vivek Kataruka

    This Car-To-Car Communication is a vital information module for driving comfort and safety. It changes the role of automobiles from mere objects used for transportation to smart vehicles capable to talk to each other through wireless communication. The goal is to develop new functionalities for cars and trucks offering driver information system (DIS). Necessary interaction between the driver and automated systems shall be enabled by advanced sensors, cooperative vehicle technologies and adaptive strategies. In this paper we present the potential of future car-to-car and car-to-environment communication systems, introduce the major research challenges in this field, and provide a selection of current research results.

  146. Math, M. C. and Shiva Niranjan, N.

    The performance and emission characteristic tests have been carried out on a single cylinder direct injection diesel engine running under constant speed and variable loads. In the first part, the engine tests have been conducted with used cooking oil methyl ester (B100) and their blends with conventional diesel oil in the proportions of 20:80 (B20), 40:60 (B40), 60:40 (B60), and 80:20 (B80). In the second part, the engine tests have been conducted with blends of conventional diesel oil, used cooking oil methyl ester (UCOME), and diethyl ether in the proportions of 76:20:4 (BD20), 52:40:8 (BD40), 28:60:12(BD60), 4: 80:16 (BD80) and 0:83.33:16.67(BD100). A series of tests have been conducted for each of test fuel. The engine is allowed to run at constant speed at 1500RPM, but at different loads (0.4, 4, 6, 8 and 10kg). The performance and emission characteristics of blends are analyzed and compared with conventional diesel oil. The experimental results obtained for UCOME are comparable with conventional diesel oil with the increase in engine performance and reduction in engine exhaust emissions.

  147. Dr. Qamarul Arafeen, Mr. Najamul Arifeen and Shamim Ahmed, M. S.

    Cell phones have been widely used since their invention in the early 21st century as they have provided lot of comforts and ease for its users across the globe. However, for the past few years, these tiny devices are used by criminal organizations to carry out certain heinous criminal activities. For this purpose, a new discipline named as Digital Forensics was initiated in various institutes not only in Pakistan but also worldwide. This research paper describes the process of locating the criminals via cell phone forensics while specially focusing on the detailed description of this procedure. It also provides a brief introduction and overview of the discipline of mobile phone forensics.

  148. Husam H. Hajjar, Mahomud A. Taha, Ph.D. and Waleed H. Khushefati, Ph.D.

    The kingdom of Saudi Arabia is one of the largest developing counties at the current time. Currently, a huge public construction work is running in the kingdom. It was observed that many of public construction projects are exposed to extensive delays especially in public universities construction projects. These delays will affect greatly the educational sector through: 1) Loss of benefits for all stakeholders, 2) Decrease of quality due to rapid execution in construction to recover the delayed time, 3) Delay of the start of related projects, and 4) Increase of claims and disputes between project parties. The main objectives of this research is to identify the main delay causes in public universities construction projects and to develop a fuzzy system to estimate the expected percentage of delay in the construction of public universities projects. This system will enable project owner and contractor to estimate the percentage of delay based on assumed construction related circumstances. The proposed system is implemented using MATLAB software. The research methodology will include identification of the most critical causes of delays through literature review and by conducting Delphi Technique with the help of a selected panel of domain experts. The main concept of Delphi technique is to achieve an agreement in different opinion of experts that will facilitate the determination of critical causes. Twelve critical causes of delay were identified. Those critical causes are used as input variables for the fuzzy system. Each critical cause will be identified in the form of membership functions. The relations between the critical causes are built by using a set of if then Rule. The proposed systemis validated using 14 actual cases collected from king Abdulaziz University and Taibah University projects. The validation results were satisfactory.

  149. Ajin Sundar, S. and Joseph John, N.

    Zinc oxide and manganese added zinc oxide nanoparticles were synthesized by wet chemical technique. Highly stable pure and 0.5 weight percentage manganese doped Zinc Oxide nanoparticles have been prepared at room temperature. Characterization was carried out by FTIR, XRD, SEM, EDX and UV visible studies. The chemical composition of the products was characterized by FTIR spectroscopy. The detailed structural properties were examined using X-ray diffraction pattern which revealed that the synthesized nanoparticles are well crystalline and possessing wurtzite hexagonal phase. The SEM images of the samples clearly revealed the decrease in grain and porosity size with increasing concentration of Mn. The EDX results shown the presence of Zn, O and Mn.

  150. Dr. C. M. Jadhao

    Radio Resource Management refers to a group of mechanisms that are collectively responsible for efficiently utilizing a Radio Access Technology to provide services with an acceptable level of QoS. RRM mechanisms contains Power Control, Handover Control, Packet Scheduling or Congestion Control, and Admission Control. Radio Resource Management new strategies are implemented independently in each RAT. RRM strategies is suitable for the heterogeneous network, because each RRM strategy only considers that situation of one particular RAT. CRRM strategy is also known as Multi-access RRM (MRRM) has been proposed. In this paper focus on JCAC algorithm has been presented. Considering four different simulation results are obtained and compared. Result show joint management of radio resources and bandwidth adaptation reduce call blocking or dropping probability in heterogeneous cellular networks

  151. Suresh, K. K., Lakshmipriya, R. and Umamaheswari, S.

    This paper proposes a new procedure for designing of Skip-lot Sampling Plan of type SkSP-R with Multiple Deferred Sampling Plan as reference plan indexed through acceptable and limiting quality levels. The proposed plan is economically more advantageous to make decision on the submitted lot and also inspection of product producing in continuous stream towards resampling techniques. The illustrations are provided for various combinations of parameters involved in SkSP-R with MDS (0,2) as reference plan.

  152. Larisang

    In health or hospital facilities is of great concern. The facilities and amenities such as a bed patient infusion device either in the inpatient or outpatient in space. In this study, infusion devices is the focus of this research is the design of Infusion pole. The design of a portable infusion bag must follow the concept of ergonomics design tool. In using such a product, the user will always be looking for a more practical both in use and in storage, because these things will greatly ease the burden on the user to use it. Along with the development of a product will always have innovation in accordance with the needs of its users. Due to the success of the industry in the face of competition is determined by the success in designing and developing products that conform to the desires of consumers and the speed of the industry to adapt / respond to changes in consumer desires. Infusion pole is one of the medical devices that are used to enter into the patient's body fluids. This research aims to design and develop Column Infusion ergonomic backpack shape according to the patient's needs. Design using the model of the human body such anthropometry shoulder height, shoulder width, abdominal circle and circle data. Anthropometry patient data retrieval to design a portable pole conducted at Hospital Budi Kemuliaan by taking 50 patient data on anthropometric data in accordance with the design of the pole. Based on the data processing takes into account the patient's body anthropometry it creates a portable infusion bag with size according to the patient data obtained , the considerable standard deviation , mean and percentile . Obtained high bag size of 47.04 cm, a width of 33.96 cm bag, circle bag fastener width of 84.3 cm and a bag in a chest binder of 27.84 cm. Portable infusion backpack designed to match the needs of people who are following the design model of the human body measurements (anthropometry). Backpacks infusion can be taken by patients without assistance from other parties and reduce the occurrence of infusion pole fallen or falling, when the patient walks.

  153. Anirudh and Dr. Puneeta Ajmera

    Cryogenics is defined as the study of the production and behavior of an object at extremely low temperatures below -150°C and -240°F. This paper is about cryonics and it is very important to understand the difference between Cryonics and Cryogenics. So, as mentioned above Cryogenics is related to the study of materials at very low temperatures. But on the other hand cryonics deals with the keeping of a human body at extremely low temperatures. The idea of cryonics was first proposed in 1962. The Cryonic procedures start immediately after the heart failure of a person who has asked for cryopreservation of his corpse. However, it is illegal to perform cryonics on a person who is alive and that would be regarded as a murder or suicide. Cryonics can preserve a human body for a long time till some revival technique is developed in future. But there’s only one technology available to us today which can help in resurrection of a person who is legally dead in future. This is the Nanotechnology that can make it possible. But how can it be achieved by nanotechnology, that is discussed in this paper.

  154. Rohokale, P. G., Bodade, A. B., Sapkal, R. S., Sapkal, V. S. and Chaudhari, G. N.

    Double-perovskite materials of composition Sr2Mg1−xCoxCrO6−δ (SMCCO, x = 0 to 0.7) were evaluated as potential SOFC anode materials. Their lattice structures, electrical and ionic conductivity, and electrochemical performance were investigated to study the effect of Co content. SMCCO also showed good chemical compatibility at temperatures below 1000 °C. Both the electronic and ionic conductivity increased with increasing Co doping. To investigate the effect of Co doping on the conduction properties of SMCCO, we performed first-principle calculations. From these results, we found that the weak Co−O bond is considered to be responsible for the enhanced ionic conductivity of SMCCO materials. The substitution of Co was also found to increase the sinterability of SMCCO, resulting in a decrease in the polarization resistance of the SMCCO electrode. Single-cell tests indicated the potential ability of the Co-doped SMCO to be used as SOFC anodes.

  155. Omnia A.A. El-Shamy, Abdullah S. Al-Ayed and Hala M. Abo-Dief

    The inhibition efficiency of Schiff base namely 2-[(2-Hydroxyphenyl)methylene] hydrazine carbothioamide, (ShB), on corrosion behavior of 304 stainless steel induced by sulfate reducing bacteria (SBR) in formation water was studied using weight loss measurements. The temperature effect on the corrosion behavior was studied at 30, 45, 65 ºC. Adsorption of ShB onto stainless steel surface was found to obey Langmuir adsorption isotherm. Schiff base- nano nickel nanocomposites were prepared with different weight ratio and used for coating the stainless steel surface. The electrochemical impedance measurements were used to identify the corrosion attitude of the coated stainless steel surfaces. The morphology of the coated stainless steel surfaces after immersion were investigated using scan electron microscope (SEM).

  156. Debora Portella Biz, Eduardo José de Arruda, Reginaldo Brito da Costa Augustus Caeser Franke Portella and Gessiel Newton Scheidt

    This study aimed thermal evaluation (TG/DTG and DSC), mineral elements quantification by atomic absorption and caffeine content of native progenies of grass mate (Ilex paraguariensis St.), in order to complement the genetic evaluation of these progenies at field to allow the selection of more productive ones for sustainable exploitation of natural resources by the indigenous community. The thermogravimetric analysis (TG/DTG) corresponds to the mass thermal decomposition process, which began at 150°C and had a sharp peak in exothermic reaction of 450°C at the end of the process. The curves (DSC) have similar thermal behavior in the process of thermal decomposition that varies in temperature range of 150°C to 450°C. All progenies have an initial mass loss of around 10%, due to the water removal and other volatile compounds. The analysis of minerals performed by the atomic absorption spectrophotometry did not show significant differences between the examined elements (Na, Mn, Zn, Cu, Ca, Fe, Mg, and K), however the progeny number 7 presented significative mean values of potassium (± 2681.23), and it is observed, also, similarity between the blocks. The concentration of caffeine content varied in the range of 6.566 mg/g to 13.630 mg/g, with emphasis on blocks 1 and 4, there was no significant deviation among treatments and calculated R value was 0.9945 between 0.002 to 0.007 mg/g, which increases the energetic potential of plant material. So, grass mate represents an alternative of employment and income to the indigenous community.

  157. Nigade, A. S., Deepanshu Verma, Brajesh Kumar Pandey and Pranjal Srivastav

    The research paper presented here is based on automatic fan speed controller that automatically adjusts the fan's speed according to ambient temperature of the surroundings. The temperature flow controlled fan is an automated fan, controlled by a temperature sensor, using fully hardware design. The heart of this project consists of the temperature sensor circuit which senses the change in the ambient temperature of the surroundings. As the signal sensed by the temperature sensor is very weak in amplitude and strength. Therefore we use amplifier to increase the strength of the signal so that the signal is able to drive the output section, in this case a fan. Here pulse width modulation is use in this case. When heat is applied to the temperature sensor, this will determine the fan automatically increasing or decreasing in speed according to the four speed levels of a normal fan that are set to different temperature ranges of a room. It can be used in cooling electronics devices, where the fan speed needs to increase if here dissipation increases.

  158. Ladke, L. S., Jaiswal, V. K. and Hiwarkar, R. A.

    The present paper deals with the study of vacuum solution of Bianchi-type-I model in the metric version of theory of gravity. Using the special form of deceleration parameter, we find the solution of Einstein’s field equation. The function is also evaluated for the model and the physical properties of this model have been discussed.

  159. Muddebihal, M. H. and Abdul Gaffar

    For any (p ,q) graph G, the vertices and blocks of a graph are called its members. The line block graph Lb(G) of a graph G as the graph whose set of vertices is the union of the set of edges and blocks of G and in which two vertices are adjacent if and only if the corresponding edges of G are adjacent or the corresponding members are incident. The regular number of Lb(G) is the minimum number of subsets into which the edge set of Lb(G) should be partitioned so that the subgraph induced by each subset is regular and is denoted by r_Lb(G). In this paper some results on r_Lb(G) were obtained and expressed in terms of elements of G.

    Mathematics Subject Classification number: 05C69, 05C70

  160. Kartharinal Punithavathy, I., Vijayalakshmi, S. and Johnson Jeyakumar, S.

    Nitrogen dioxide (NO2) is an important atmospheric compound because of its link to ozone destruction in the stratosphere and its role as an ozone precursor in the troposphere. Availability of NO2 data over a period of one year (October 2013 – September 2014) has been utilized to assess the NO2 concentration levels over Karaikal, a rural coastal region along the south eastern coast of India. The diurnal and seasonal pattern of NO2 values over the study period has also been analyzed. The daytime and nighttime NO2 concentration pattern is found to follow the global pattern.

  161. Sharma V. D. and Rangari A. N.

    The methods of integral transforms are very efficient to solve and research differential and integral equations of mathematical physics. These methods consist in the integration of an equation with some weight function of two arguments that often results in the simplification of a given initial problem. The main condition for the application of an integral transform is the validity of the inversion theorem which allows one to find an unknown function knowing its image. The aim of the present paper is to provide the generalization of Fourier-Laplace transform in the distributional sense and giving inversion theorem for the distributional Fourier-Laplace transform.

  162. Abdal-Kareem M. A. Dawagreh

    Removal of acetic acid from wastewater has been investigated using adsorbents based on Jordanian natural zeolite (JNZ-1, JNZ -2, JNZ -3 JNZ-4) or (JNZ1-4) .The effects of acetic acid concentration, adsorbents dosage, contact time, temperature, were studied in batch experiment. The removal is most effective with activated (Jordanian natural zeolite). A maximum removal of around 41.82 was achieved under the conditions of the experiments.

  163. Yadav, R. L. and Kalola, A. D.

    The analysis of growth is usually used in economic studies to find out the trend of a particular variable over a period of time and used for making policy decisions. The growth in the area, production and productivity of sorghum and bajra crops in middle Gujarat zone was estimated using different linear, nonlinear and time series (ARIMA) models. The compound growth rates, instability indices and shift in area during last five, five year plan periods also worked out in the study. For a period of 53 years, time-series data from 1960-61 to 2012-13 on area, production and productivity of sorghum and bajra crops for middle Gujarat zone were collected from Directorate of Agriculture, Gujarat state, Gandhinagar. In case of polynomial models, exponential and linear model was found fitted for the productivity trends of sorghum and bajra crop, respectively. In case of ARIMA models, ARIMA (0,1,1) was evolved as the best fitted trend functions for productivity trends of both the crops. None of the model was found fitted for the trends in area and production of sorghum as well as bajra crop. Productivity of sorghum was witnessed of technological and varietal improvement as it had positive and significant growth rate of 5.93% per annum with decreasing area (-7.96% per annum) and production (-3.17% per annum). The area of bajra crop also have negative growth rate of -1.83% per annum, but the production had positive growth rate of 2.80% due to improvement in productivity by 4.95% per annum.

  164. Abdal-Kareem M.A. Dawagreh, Mohammad R. Abdallah, Qasaimeh, Nada M. Al-Ananzeh, Hussam E Alkhasawneh and Mohammad Hailat

    In this work the potential of zeolites for lead ions adsorption from industrial aqueous solutions was studied. This was done by using batch sorption experiments, where zeolites made in direct contact with the contaminant under study until equilibrium is attained. Effects of different parameters on the sorption process were examined, such as sorbent concentration, contact time and PH. Lead ions uptake increases with increasing the initial concentration of the zeolites. The equilibrium data were well represented by Freundlich isotherm model. Also, an increase in the PH was found to enhance the removal of these ions. The volcanic Tuff which also called "zeolites" is a locally available material that can be utilized of the removal of contaminants, such as heavy metals, from wastewater streams. Its availability and cheapness make it a good candidate among other sorbents in the adsorption science. In Jordan, zeolites are found in the following locations: zeolitic tuffs are located at Jabal Aritayn (30km NE of Azraq), Tlul Al-shahba (20km E of Al safawi), Tal-Rimah (35km NE of Al Mafraq) and other small deposits in the South Jordan (Tell Burma, Tell Juhaira and Wadi El-Hisa) and in Central Jordan (Makawer, Al-Zara, Wadi Heidan and Wadi Al-Walah). Phillipsite, chabazite and faujasite are the most abundant zeolite minerals found in the Jordanian zeolitic tuff. The zeolite content in these tuffs varies from (20% to 50%). processing routes, zeolite concentrates with grades up to 90% were achieved. The objective of this work is to study the possibility of the use of zeolites for the removal of heavy metals from industrial aqueous solution. The uptake capacity of zeolites and the effect of different parameters on the adsorption process, such as the PH, and concentrations, will be considered.

  165. Aruna Devi, T. and Dr. Sudhamani

    In today’s business organizations the running logs of a business process has information about its executed and generated activity in the information system. In many situations a workflow model of business processes is developed, and it becomes vital to know if such a model is actually being followed by analyzing the existing activity logs. The event logs keep record of information like who does what and when. The workflow mining is used for knowledge management and decision-making support. The logs in the information system are extracted then analyzed and applied to improve the efficiencies of the business process execution. One of the techniques used to accomplish the process improvement is called process mining. Presently, process mining is a current research area to analyze the process in organization or industries. Process mining aims to fill the gap between Business Process Management and Work Flow Management. The challenge is to turn rapids of event data into valuable insights related to process performance and compliance. Process mining output can be used to identify and understand holdups, incompetence, deviations and risks. In the changing environment the business world has to adjust their business process. Many tools are available to generate process models like ProM and Disco. This paper focuses on the task behavior, workflow analysis and business process mining in any organization.

  166. Pritha, K. and Nivethitha, M.

    Cloud Computing is a service that allows users to store data on offsite storage system managed by third-party and is accessible by a web service API. Data access control is an effective way to ensure the data security in the cloud. The Protection of data integrity and privacy has become one of the issue in cloud computing. The Private auditing technique is achieved by the emergence of the Regenerating code. Regenerating code provide lower bandwidth and fault tolerance. This method requires data owners to stay online and handle auditing. In the proposed paper, we present a public auditing scheme for the regenerating-code based cloud storage. This method solves the regeneration problem in the absence of data owners. The users ask the Third Party Auditor (TPA) to check the integrity of the data. Moreover to preserve data privacy, the data’s are encrypted using AES algorithm. Thus our scheme is highly secure and can be feasibly integrated into the regenerating code based cloud storage. The MD5 technique is efficiently used in order to protect the data.

  167. Dr. Prakash Kanade, Dr. Annasaheb Bhujbal, Dr. J. N. Daruwale and Dr. Pradnya P. Sabade

    Since the evolution of life women has been placed on extreme worship place due to her ability of ”Janani”. Thats why Acharya Manu has quoted that for the happiness of human society, proper care and respect is given to the women. The preparation of motherhood starts with puberty and ends with menopause. Raktapradar indicates the excessive and irregular P V bleeding during menses and intermenstrual period. Female reproductive system has a great importance and any diseases related to this system will seriously affect woman’s health & happiness and also proves to be of great discomfort. So many preparation have been mentioned in our text for treatment of Asrigdhar. All this medication have certain common fundamental principles. These are pittakapha shamak, garbhashaya balya & vatanuloman, samprapti vighatana & effective control & cure in Asrigdhara are the main aims with which drug is selected. The present study is aimed for the comparative study of Indrayava churna & Nagkeshar churna as haemostatic action in raktapradar w.s.r to Menorrhagia. The clinical trial was carried out in two groups as, • Group A :- Indrayava churna (6gm B.D.) with sharkara & Jal. • Group B :- Nagkeshar churna (6gm B.D.) with ghrut. The results obtained were encouraging and they shows the efficacy of indrayav churna over nagkeshar churna

  168. Dr. Vivekanandan, S. and Sehaj Sharma

    Oral cancer is the sixth most common cancer globally and most reported cancer in India with fourteen deaths in an hour on a yearly basis. Oral cancers can be cured with early detection but the biggest hindrances are lack of awareness, cost of tests and the immense workload of the cyto-pathologist leading to delay and errors in the detection process. An effective, semi-automated system described in this paper has made an attempt towards mitigating the above mentioned issues by combining techniques like Papanicolaou (Pap) smear, image processing and neural networks. The primary concern and objective of the system developers is to help cure the menace of oral cancer that is plaguing India and the world. This system is perhaps one of the first successful attempts at semi-automating the process.

  169. Girma Negirew, Tekle Ferede and Demelash Mengistu

    This study investigated the practice of teaching vocabulary through communicative approach among Grade 9 English language teachers of nine secondary schools in Jimma Town and its surroundings. It also aimed at investigating teachers’ perception of CLT principles, instructional techniques and classroom activities. The major obstacles that affected the implementation of CLT during vocabulary instruction were also studied. To this effect, 617(10%) sample students and 51 English language teachers were chosen to fill out questionnaire. Two teachers from two high schools were also observed while teaching. Frequencies and percentages were used in analyzing quantitative data, while qualitative method was used to analyze qualitatively collected data. The findings of the study revealed that the majority of the teachers positively perceive the worth of most of the CLT principles to teach vocabulary communicatively. However, in relation to the actual vocabulary instruction, they appeared to spend much of their time in presenting the meanings and forms of words in isolation. It was also found out that teachers overused the lecture method in teaching vocabulary instead of teaching new words communicatively. They also unduly emphasized the dictionary definitions of words. Based on the findings, it is recommended that English language teachers teach vocabulary communicatively in adherence to CLT principles and through appropriate techniques that incorporate meaningful activities.

  170. Dr. Mukund Sarda

    In the competing interests of unwed mothers, putative father and the child regarding guardianship, the interests of the child is conclusive and gets primacy over the interests, since the parent's interest relates only to the legal obligation towards the child. The law as contained in Sec 7 of the Guardians and Wards Act to declare mother as the sole guardian of her child, subject to notice being given to putative father and mother's refusal to name the father resulted in the rejection of claim to guardianship. However, the disclosure of the name of the father might lead to several difficulties in safeguarding the future welfare of the child, if putative father is already married to another woman. The interest of the minor is subservient to the rights of the child, more so in the case of parent who forsakes his / her duties and responsibilities for the well-being of the child. The need for divorcing religion from law has become a necessary imperative in the interpretation of law by the courts and emphasis being legislative intent and existing case-laws. In this context, the unwed Christian mother requires a status on par with Hindu counter-part. Any decision by the court on the issue of guardianship never acquires finality, more so when any interested party, interested in the welfare of the child can question the decision, when the child's future is in peril. The child has the right to know his paternity as the universal declaration of Human rights and the convention on the rights of the child provides. Thus, it may be a sufficient to safeguard the rights of the child, if the mother gives the name of the putative father in a sealed cover to be opened when a controversy arises on the issue. The duty of the State is to issue a birth certificate to the mother of the child without insisting for disclosure of father's name.

  171. Dr. Okonga Wabuyabo, B. M.

    Little research has been done to establish the level of success of Coca cola Company in recycling and reusing their glass bottles. This paper attempts to establish retail managers’ perception of the company’s self acclaimed success. Retail managers of supermarkets in the CBD of Nairobi, Kenya were considered for the study. Data was collected through questionnaires and analyzed using descriptive statistics and correlation analysis were used to analyze the data. The study found out the company attained relative success although.

  172. Munialo, M., Odongo, B., Mosoti, E. and Midega, E.

    Guided by Joyce Epstein’s model of parental involvement in academics, a case study of Nyangoma School for the hearing impaired in Bondo Sub County Kenya was undertaken to establish how parental participation contributed to improved academic performance of the hearing impaired learners. Informants interviews with 19 participants composed of parents of the hearing impaired were carried out. From the study, it was found that though faced by several challenges, parents of the hearing impaired do participate in their children’s education and this contributes to improved academic performance. It is recommended that further studies on factors affecting parental participation be carried out. Moreover, guidelines and policies to enhance parental participation in the learning of the hearing impaired need to be institutionalized.

  173. Paisan Suwannoi, Akkharadet Neelayothin, Pataraphorn Arunmala, Nikanchala Lonlua, Akchatree Suksen and Suphachai Subhakicco

    This research aims to study the behavior which reflects the creative leadership of elementary school principals. Comparing and analyzingcreative leadership behavior bygenders, work experiencesand levels of education. The survey methodology was applied. The population sample is primary school principals in KhonKaenPrimary Educational Service Area Office. The results showed that (1) the behavior of elementary school principals inKhonKaen Primary Educational Service Area Office reflects the creative leadership is in a high extent. (2) With different genders, work experiences and levels of education, the creative leadership of elementary school principals in KhonKaen Primary Educational Service Area Office reflects that there is no different.

  174. Attalah Mohamed, Alatawi, Mohd Zuri Ghani and Aswati Hamzah

    This article discuss the use of TRIZ theory and its adaptation to MTRIZ, which focuses on developing critical thinking abilities and problem solving . In addition, this article discuss the motives for designing MTRIZ designing, principles, tools, goals, target group, and the activities, and expected outcomes of MTRIZ.

  175. Belay Mengstie

    Businesses are living in a world of stiff competition. To be successful in this competition, considering customer relationship is a requisite, and organizations need to investigate more on the determinants of relationship marketing. The objective of the research is to assess determinants of relationship marketing on overall relationship quality of Ethio telecom. To achieve this objective the researcher employed descriptive statistics. Study population for the study was customers who are living in Bahirdar city and customers who come to Bahirdar during the study period. Questionnaire and interview were used as data collection tools. The result of the study shows that Communication has got highest value on relationship marketing of Ethio telecom followed by trust, commitment. However, only about half of the customers are happy with ET conflict handling. Descriptive results show that ET relationship quality is good where as organizational ability in conflict handling is poor.

  176. Said Ali El-Quliti

    Humans coexist with extreme events all the time, only when the intensity of the event becomes greater than a certain level there is a resulting disaster. Small earthquakes occur all of the time with no adverse effects. Only large earthquakes cause disasters. Statistical analysis reveals that larger events occur less frequently than small events. In a year, we would have many values for the events; the annual maximum is the greatest of those values. Within an annual series, only the largest value per year is allowed, even if an additional significant peak occurred. As the magnitude of a hazardous increases, the frequency of occurrence (how often a given magnitude is equaled or exceeded) decreases. Thus, major disasters result from a small number of large events that rarely occur. A plot of recurrence intervals versus associated magnitudes produces a group of points that also approximates a straight line on semi-logarithmic paper. Historical data are analyzed to gain an understanding of an event past behavior and to provide guidance on expected future. The extreme event analysis is concerned with the distribution of annual maximum values at a given site. These events are given a rank in a descending order. The Weibull equation is used for estimating the annual frequency, the return period or recurrence interval, the percentage probability for each event, and the annual exceedence probability. The probability of a certain-magnitude earthquake occurring in the region during any period can be also calculated. Past records of earthquakes at the Western region of the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (Medina and surrounding area) for years 1921 G- 2010G are used to predict future conditions concerning the annual frequency, the return period, the percentage probability for each event, and the probability of a certain-magnitude earthquake occurring in the region during any period.

  177. Dr. Anjan Kumar, M.J.

    The research study explored that Rapid pace of growth is unquestionably necessary for substantial poverty reduction, but for this growth to be sustainable in the long run, it should be broad-based across sectors and CSR policy functions as a self-regulatory mechanism whereby a business monitors and ensures its active compliance with the spirit of the law, ethical standards and national or international norms objectives are to analyze the challenges and prospects of Inclusive growth of Indian economy and to Study the Corporate Social Responsibility of Domestic corporation in India. Finding of the study is Inclusive growth is necessary for sustainable development and equitable distribution of wealth and prosperity. a) 2% of the average net profits, (b) Any income arising therefrom, (c) Surplus arising out of . CSR activities. vii. In case the company fails to expend 2% of its Net Profits on CSR.

  178. Jenalyn G. De Guzman and Ernie C. Cerado

    The Philippines’ Local Government Code of 1991promulgatedtheSpecial Education Fund (SEF) for local government units(e.g. municipalities, cities, and provinces) to help public schools in their areas. This study explored and linked the local support, through SEF, and basic education performance in Lambayong, Sultan Kudarat, for the period, 2009 to 2013. As standard of the Department of Education, performance was measured through the indices of quality, access and efficiency. Results revealed that the establishment of extension classes received the largest support, while, sports activities got the least. Funding supports were relatively increasing annually except in 2011 when calamity hit significant parts of the locality. Quality-wise, the uptrend in NAT MPS emerged very promising, but, the steady decline in pupil-textbook ratio was rather alarming. With the exception of completion rate, access to school showed desirable proportions in graduation, participation, and gross enrolment. Cohort survival was low indicative of schools’ inefficiency, while drop-out rate was regarded acceptable as it is relatively lower than the national average. Indeed, the funding support from the local government was statistically related to the basic education performance in the districts.

  179. Ndondo Shepherd and Masocha Gerald

    Tourism is one of the fastest growing industries worldwide. As a result of the labour intensive nature of this industry, school children also provide essential services in this service industry. The purpose of this study was to get the stakeholders’ views on how tourism affects pupils’ academic performance at Mosi-oa-Tunya High School in Victoria Falls. A sample of thirty-four respondents was purposively selected from Mosi-oa-Tunya High School community. This sample included ten Ordinary level pupils, ten Advanced level pupils, six teachers with one teacher per form selected from form one to six, five parents/ guardians and three workers employed in the tourism industry. The questionnaire was used to collect data from pupils and the interviews were used for teachers, parents and workers in the tourism industry. The research explored the positive and negative effects of tourism towards the academic performance of secondary school pupils at Ordinary and Advanced levels. The research identified positive factors like employment opportunities, income generation, attachment vacancies and cultural exchange. The negative effects that were observed include absenteeism from school, lack of concentration as a result of long working hours, drug abuse, school drop-outs and prostitution. The study recommends provision of guidance and counseling to pupils, working with employers in tourism to discourage child labour and engagement of non-governmental organizations for the provision of reproductive health to pupils.

  180. Dubba Vijay Kumar and Ramadass, G.

    The present investigation consist of vertical magnetic investigations in the Osmania University Campus (780 31ʹ 00ʺ E longitude to 780 32ʹ 26ʺ E longitude and 170 23ʹ 45ʺ N latitude to 170 25ʹ 42ʺ N latitude) is situated in an area of approximately 6.58 sq kilometers (1627.32 acres) in a granitic terrain. Taking 20m station interval along the traverses trending Six traverses (FF1, II1, NN1, OO1, QQ1, and RR1) were approximately in E-W direction and remaining three traverses (AA1, BB1, and CC1) were approximately in N-S direction were carried out for structural configuration of the region. Qualitative analysis of vertical magnetic data using gradient techniques of coefficient of variation has been performed to anticipate the subsurface structures and assemblages of groundwater aquifer zones and derive several lineaments and magnetic linear features (Magentic Highs and Lows) suggesting the presence of vrious geological lineaments. From coefficent of variation map eight non permeable zones (A,B,C,D,E,F,G,H) and five (1,2,3,4,5) permeable zones were identified which compare with the borehole data showing as groudnwater occurrence and aquifer magnetic characters of the study region.

  181. Divya and Shalini Agarwal

    Postural discomfort is common in workers who work in Bank sector. A exploratory research design was used to assess the postural discomfort among bank workers. The aim of the study was to identify risk factors among bank employers causing postural discomfort. The sample size of the study was 120 and sample was collected through random sampling through interview schedule along with standardized scale. It was observed that the risk factors causing postural discomfort reported by government bank respondents was high in comparison to private bank respondents. Most of the government and private bank both workers were affected by prolonged sitting.

  182. Yasir Abbas Saeed Abbas (Ph.D) and Minas Abdel Moutalib Elamin

    The study focuses on understanding generational differences in the workplace in Sudanese private sector. Specifically, the study attempts evaluation of the generational differences in the workforce and how manger can manage these differences. This is in addition to evaluation of the distinct characteristics of the employees from older workforce and digital generation in the private sector in Sudan. The study adopts qualitative approach for the data collection and analysis, primary data was collected by interviews. The main findings reveal that, there are some differences between the two generations regarding their attitudes, values, perceptions and expectations, digital workforce tend to show higher expectations regarding career and life advancement rather than old generation. The older generation appeared to be slightly more satisfied with their jobs rather than the digital generation. Accordingly leader and manager should attempt to manage and reduces the gap/conflict between the two generations, they must try to enhance communication channel between the two in order to enhance their ability to understand each other and correct the misperception toward each other.

  183. Kumara Swamy, D. R. and Dr. Rajeshwari, N. Kenchappanavar

    The research study aimed at identifying the impact of remedial training on arithmetic ability, and self esteem of academic poor performers. For this purpose 100 high school students were selected from Bangalore district. An objective of this program is to investigate the effect of remedial training programme on academic poor performers so as to recommend possible actions to be carried out for improvement. The relevant information is collected by interviewing students, school teachers, parents, and from the school records. Findings show that most of the students belong to low-middle socio economic condition. Implemented remedial training program proved to be effective with an increase from 61.05 to 205.6 and 24.3 to 69.9 in mean scores of students on arithmetic and self esteem respectively. Arithmetic t = 36.7 significant at 0.001 level and self esteem t = 32.1 significant at 0.001 level. The results of post tests after remedial training intervention showed that students made more progress in arithmetic ability. In addition, the remedial intervention strengthened self esteem than textbook based class. There were significant differences with regard to academic performance in pre and post remedial training. Children scored higher in post test arithmetic and self esteem as compared to pre test. This finding further indicates that remedial training intervention has a positive impact on students’ arithmetic ability and self esteem.

  184. Mandeep Kaur

    In a country like India importance of agriculture is not likely to decline due to different aspects of food security and employment to rural poor. Emphasis of different five year plans is on self-sufficiency and self reliance in agricultural production and efforts have also resulted in sustainable increase in production and productivity. Measurement of sustainability has becoming a challenge for the corporations seeking to evaluate their efficiency and effectiveness. Different state corporations play important role in the development of agricultural sector. This research studies the performance of MARKFED and its impact on the agricultural sustainability. The present study is based on secondary data only and has undertaken different aspects of agricultural sustainability with special reference to MARKFED

  185. BuzuayewHailu, EyobNega and HabtamuAtlaw

    The issue of villagization program in pastoral area now has wide currency all over the world and in Ethiopia as well, especially on those attempts to reduce poverty and provide basic social services for pastoralists. This paper tried to explore the challenges and prospects of villagization program in Afar National Regional State. Out of nine woredas, six of them were selected purposely in this study. Purposive sampling was also utilized to select participants. The primary data were generated using in-depth interview, focus group discussion, ethnographic conversations, field observation and questionnaires. The study found out that the implementation level of the program varied across years and woredas. The total implementation plan of the program in the last three years was below expected. Provision of basic social services remained inadequate in some villagizationcenters. Lack of awareness creation, inadequate implementation capacity, lack of clean water and lack and/or delay of farmland distribution were the main challenges contributed to the under-implementation of the program. Thus, provision of basic social services, strengthening community participation and ensuring pastoralists’ land ownership deed are highly required for the betterment of the villagization program.

  186. Herine Akumu Ouma Mboya, Dr. Benson Charles Odongo and Dr. Charles Makori Omoke

    Educating learners with Emotional and Behavioural Difficulties presents both challenges and prospects. Despite sensitization, training and capacity building to teachers on Special Needs Education in general and on Emotional and Behavioural Difficulties, this special group of learners still face educational challenges in inclusive schools due to their deviant behaviours thus jeopardizing their learning. The purpose of his study was to examine the challenges and prospects in educating learners with EBD in inclusive schools, Madiany division, Siaya County Kenya. The objective of the study was to examine the challenges the EBD learners face in accessing the general curriculum in inclusive schools. The study was informed by B. F. Skinner’s behavioural theory of reinforcement and adopted concurrent triangulation and descriptive survey designs. It targeted 570 teachers where 102 teachers were sampled using simple random sampling and cluster sampling and 15 head teachers were sampled using purposive sampling. The study used questionnaires to collect data from teacher and interview schedules to collect data from the head teachers. Qualitative data was analyzed thematically while quantitative data was analyzed using descriptive statistics including frequency counts, measures of central tendencies and percentages. The findings of the study were presented in tables and narratives. The study found out that truancy, impulsivity, Attention Deficit and Hyperactivity Disorders (ADHD) lack of trained personnel, large class sizes and the system of education in Kenya are among the challenges that were faced by the EBD learners. It also found out that teachers have mixed attitude towards the EBD learners. The study recommended that there should be constant capacity building to teachers on special needs education and that the Teachers’ Service commission should employ at least one trained special needs education teacher in every school for quality and professional management of the EBD learners.

  187. Susheel Kumar

    During the Late Cretaceous times the Narmada Basin in the Central India and Cauvery Basin in South India received a thick pile of marine sediments as a result of the global Cenomanian marine Transgression. It is believed that Tethyan sea became narrower facilitating the formation of Indian ocean as a result the large part of the Indian Plate especially Kachchh, Narmada and Cauvery basin inundated. The Late Cretaceous sediments of Narmada Basin is popularly known as Bagh Beds which ranges in age from Cenomanian to Coniacian. In the Cauvery Basin Late Cretaceous sediments are known as Trichinopoly Beds and range in age from Middle Aptian to Maastrichtian. The Turonian sediments of Narmada Basin is grouped as Nodular Limestone Formation and in Trichinopoly region Maruvattar and Paravay formations. Both of these have more or less similar history, although affected by fluctuating sea levels, rate of local subsidence and rate of sedimentation resulting in different lithological framework. An attempt has been made to use Turonian bivalves of the two sub-basin to give further ascertain of the views of the faunal synochronisation in these parts of Narmada and Cauvery basins. The common bivalve divides in both these regions during Turonian those are Modilous (Modilus) typicus, Acesta obliquistriata, Plicatula numidica, Pinna laticostata, Plicatula batnensis, Astarte similis, Opis concentricus, Cardium (Protocardia) hillanum, Mytiloides labiatus, Protocardia pondicherriensis, Pycnodonte(phygraea) vesicularis, Lopha(Actinostreon) diluviana, Agerostrea ungulate etc. This may imply that an eastern area of sea could have inundated the lower Narmada Basin and further extended up to Cauvery Basin during Turonian time.

  188. Mugambi Allan, Mwenda Mukuthuria and John Kobia, M.

    This study investigated the types of lexical errors made during Kiswahili news bulletin transmission in Kenya. The sample of the study consisted of 37 news items recorded from the 7 o clock news and transmitted through the studio within a period of one year. The results showed six different categories of errors which included: pluralization of non plural forms, code mixing, tautology, acronyms, confusion of homophones and partial homophones and translation the implication of the study for news broadcasting in Kenya is highlighted and recommendations are suggested.

  189. Pompy Malakar and Juliana Sarmah

    The present study was conducted to assess the existing knowledge of ASHA workers of NRHM regarding health of women and children along with some socio-personal characteristics. One hundred and fifty-five ASHA workers from three Block Primary Health Centres of Jorhat district, Assam were selected as the respondents for the present study. A structured interview schedule was prepared to study the socio-personal profile of the respondents, and knowledge of the respondents on women and children’s health. Findings revealed that 45.16 per cent respondents belonged to age group of 31-40 years. A large majority of the respondents (76.77%) were married followed by unmarried with 12.90 per cent and widow 10.32 per cent. Only 2.22 per cent respondent from Kakojan BPHC was Graduate. A large majority of the respondents that is 70.32 per cent belonged to nuclear family. Majority of the respondents that is 41.29 per cent were from small family (upto 4 members). Regarding mass media exposure high percentage of respondents (65.81%) had medium level of exposure to mass media. Majority of the respondents (54.84%) covered population below 1000. A large majority of the respondents that is 83.23 per cent had medium level of knowledge on women’s health and 80.00 per cent respondents had medium level of knowledge on children’s health. There was positive significant relationship between level of knowledge on women’s health with selected independent variables such as size of the family and mass media exposure. There was highly positive significant relationship between level of knowledge on children’s health with educational qualification.

  190. Muzafar Ahmad Wani and Shamim Ahmad ShahandSajad N Dar

    Tourist destinations in the Indian Trans-Himalayan region of Ladakh are facing acute solid waste management problem which gets aggravates particularly in peak tourist season in the summer. On account of the mass flow of tourist to the region, an enormous quantity of garbage and other waste material are being produced from the restaurants daily. Kargil town located at the junction where roads from Leh, Srinagar and Zanskar meet. Therefore acts as a halt point and serves food to tourists who visit Ladakh as a result enormous quantity of waste is generated. Therefore in order to estimate the magnitude of spatiotemporal trends in solid waste generation in the restaurant industry of the town, Direct Waste Analysis Method was used and 10% representative sample was selected through random sampling technique. The result shows that restaurants in the town generate about 0.630 per day in summer season and daily waste generation is only 0.062 Metric Tonnes in the winter season. The result has shown that there is significant variation in quantity waste with regarding the space and time. The data set generated through this pilot study could be indispensable for envisaging an integrated solid waste management plan for restaurant industry of the town.

  191. Nahjiah Ahmad

    The purpose of this study is to develop an instrument for measuring the reading, writing, and counting abilities of elementary school beginner students. Henceforth be used by teachers in measuring reading, writing, and counting. Reading, writing, and counting are the basic ingredients for elementary school students to be mastered to be able to commence the learning process up to a higher grade. In order to increase the interest in reading, writing and counting, it is required to build a standardized instrument to measure the ability to read, write and count. Ability instruments to read, write and count to 900 students tested consisted of 300 first graders, 300 second grade students and 300 students in grade III.This research was conducted on students at ten elementary schools in the district Matraman. Instruments that have been tested validated using Corrected Item Total CorrelationAnalisys and calculation of reliability. Reliability of the measuring instrument reading, writing and counting have an index α ≥ 0.50, so that each instrument is reliable.

  192. Syed Zeeshan Zahoor, Mir Ijtiba Younis, Dr. Ishtiaq Hussain Qureshi and Dr. Rafi Ahmad Khan

    Due to the unprecedented growth of internet, a booming trend in the marketing arena (Social Media Marketing) has been revisited in this research paper. Social media marketing has attracted the attention of the industry as well as researchers due to its enormous reach and acceptance throughout the length and breadth of globe. The attempt of this research paper shall be to analyze the impact of social media marketing on brand equity.

  193. Hussein-Elhakim Al Issa and Rosli Mahmood

    This empirical study examines the effects of emotional intelligence on transformational leadership and its importance in higher education institutions. Multivariate analysis in partial least square modelling was used to test the hypotheses and examine the relationship between emotional intelligence and transformational leadership in academic leaders. Data was collected from 333 academic leaders from all faculties of 18 public universities in Peninsular Malaysia. Findings suggest that three out of the four emotional intelligence dimensions are statistically related to transformational leadership. Numerous studies reported a positive relationship between these constructs but methodology concerns could have possibly compromised findings, such as common method variance, and smaller sample sizes, relatively lower variable reliability, single organizational research, and lack of control for related factors. This study adds to the growing literature examining emotional intelligence and transformational leadership but in a non-western setting and by using a larger sample among other steps to avoid methodological issues.

  194. Getachew Abeshu and Tsehay Baissa

    Issues of professional roles have been overlooked in developing countries, including Ethiopia. Due to this fact, the present study was undertaken to investigate the integrative positions and capabilities of parents and professionals in relation to the education policy statements of children with disabilities. The subjects of this study were purposefully selected from eight schools (six high schools & two colleges); experts of zone Education Office and Bureau. The instruments employed to collect data were interview, FGD and observations. The finding of the study disclosed that there was role confusion among professionals concerning their areas of expertise. Professionals were reluctant or have poor awareness concerning education of students/children with disabilities. Certified professionals were misplaced and most assigned experts were unfamiliar to the field. Lack of specific policy and laws that states responsibilities of teachers at school level were not communicated to institutions and offices that in turn hampers the education of these children. Special education teachers were regarded as the only responsible professionals in the education of children with disabilities in all areas. Hence, there is a need for a clear communication of available education guide at MoE that uncover the integrative roles and responsibilities of professionals in the education including their participation in curriculum planning, educational decision making, and placement of children with disabilities in the regions/country. Empowering, training and counseling parents, conducting further researches on the educational intervention were some suggested ways to further assist education of children/students with disabilities.

  195. Abhishek, G. and Dr. C. B. Senthilkumar

    In the present scenario, training is becoming one of the most important human resource & organizational development function for many corporate industries. Many training programs are formulated for 1 day & even goes up to 3-6 days. In the fast corporate world, employees find it difficult to manage to attend the training program. In order to resolve the issue, there are lot of popular online tools available for the professionals who can sit at their place where ever they are & attend the session. This is also called as virtual learning.

  196. Dr. Vasu, M. S.

    Ethiopia that is located in Northeastern part of Africa, has an estimated population of more than 75 million inhabitants, of which a 50% population of approximately below poverty line, Ethiopia had an estimated Gross Domestic Product(GDP) per capita in 2015 of US$ 597 (International Monetary Fund (IMF) - World Economic Outlook April 2014). Over 80% of the Ethiopian population lives in rural areas and 45% of the population lives below the official poverty line. Microfinance Institutions (MFIs) in the country are contributing to poverty reduction by providing loans and to mobilizing savings from low-income segments of the population. The objective of this paper is mainly to study the role and performance of Microfinance Institutions during the period of 2004-2014. In this study, the researcher purely used secondary data mainly from annual reports of National Bank of Ethiopia and other sources. This paper ensured some of the problems facing most of the MFIs in general and finally put forwarded possible suggestions.

  197. Judith Mwenje

    Pentecostal churches in Zimbabwe are growing at a fast rate and growth strategies are of paramount importance. A number of strategies are employed by individual churches at a different rate. The rate at which a certain strategy is used determines the growth of the church in terms of numerical growth, financial growth and spiritual growth. The main growth strategy that Pentecostal churches in Zimbabwe use is that of evangelism. healing and care ministry are also employed as major growth strategies after evangelism. Church planting amongst Pentecostal churches in Zimbabwe is a result of mostly evangelism outreaches. Numerical growth is witnessed in most of the Pentecostal churches. This consists of the youth, adults and the elderly with the youth usually being the majority. This aspect is shown in their evangelistic strategies which are done consistently throughout the year. Some of the church members, especially the new comers are ferried to church using church vehicles and/or buses. A number of people are attracted to the church through evangelistic outreaches which are dynamic and filled with action. There is also numerical growth due to the other growth strategies that emanate from special Sundays. It can be concluded that these special Sundays assist Pentecostal churches in continually attracting old and new members to church.

  198. Amin Zaigi Ngharen and Christiana Enubi Akogwu

    Nigeria has experienced a spiraled rise in income, increased inequality and poverty levels in the last couple of years. It was not surprising that Nigeria missed the 2015 Millennium Development Goals (MDG) poverty target by a wide margin. Available statistics from recent surveys by the Nigerian Bureau of Statistics indicates that about 70% of Nigerians live in poverty. This is in spite of the insistence by publicists who keep shouting that the economy is growing. This paper agrees that the economy is growing only that it is doing so in reverse gear. The paper reviews poverty alleviation strategies of the past that were poorly targeted and concentrated more on tricycles, hair palming and sewing machines and why they failed to reduce poverty. The paper therefore suggests that a realistic, poverty reduction strategy should target the youths and do so anchoring on inclusive, redistributive nature using microfinance loans.

  199. Dr. Nihat Uyangör, Dr. Hasan Hüseyin ŞAHAN, Sıtkı Atıcı and Specialist Caner Börekc

    This survey research intends to describe the relation between educational philosophies and teacher competencies. The sample of the research comprises 489 teacher candidates studying at Necatibey University Faculty of Education and 494 teachers working in Karesi and Altıeylül provinces of Balıkesir during the 2014-2015 academic year. The data was collected through “Preferences for Educational Philosophies Scale” and “Teacher Competence Scale”. Mann Whitney U-Test and Spearman Brown Rank Correlation Test were used in data analysis. The results revealed that progressivism and re-constructionism philosophies, which are based on contemporary approach to education, are preferred to essentialism and perennialism philosophies, which advocate more traditional approaches. As regards educational philosophies and teacher competencies according to the gender variable, a significant difference was found to exist in favor of female participants in progressivism and re-constructionism, and in favor of male participants in essentialism and perennialism. The study also revealed higher teacher competency mean ranks for women than for men. It was concluded that teachers and teacher candidates who show orientation towards progressivism and re-constructionism philosophies have higher levels of competency self-perception, and those who show orientation towards essentialism and perennialism philosophies have low levels of competency self-perception.

  200. Nadia Ali Muhammad Ali Charania and Bonnie M. Hagerty

    Background and objectives: Major Depressive Disorder (MDD) is a recurrent, chronic, and debilitating mental illness which demands daily management using self-management strategies (SMS). Much of the literature on self-management is derived from research focused on Western culture. Less is known about how people self-manage their MDD in other cultures. Hence, a qualitative study was designed to understand how women in Pakistan self-manage their recurrent MDD. The aim of this paper is to describe a set of findings pertinent to the role of religion/spirituality in Pakistani women’s experiences with recurrent depression and their use of religious/spiritual SMS that were extracted from results of a larger study. Population: A purposive sample of 10 Pakistani women living in Karachi, Pakistan and seeking treatment for MDD from the psychiatric outpatient clinic at a private tertiary care hospital in Karachi were included in the study. Methods: A qualitative, descriptive study was conducted using the data from a total of 27 interviews. ATLAS.ti was used to organize, manage, and qualitatively and thematically code and analyze the transcribed interview data. Results: Three major themes emerged from the data. The first theme was the experience of depression. The women’s experience of depression was integrated with their individual religion/spirituality. They all shared a polarized perspective, i.e. depression as positive as well as painful. The second theme was strategy selection. Women unanimously reported that faith in God, family and social network structure, and broader cultural practices influenced their selection of religious/spiritual focused strategies. The third theme was religious/spiritual SMS. Women identified (a) having faith in God, and (b) ways of connecting with God as their religious/spiritual focused strategies. Having faith in God was not only viewed as an influencing factor but also as a strategy. Women shared four ways through which they connected with God (i) performing prayers, (ii) reciting the holy Qur’an, (iii) talking to God, and (iv) performing a Pilgrimage. Interpretation and Conclusions: Religion and spirituality are the critical lenses through which Pakistani women understand their illness and make decisions about how to manage their MDD. Since self-management occurs within a socio-cultural context, it is imperative for nurses to understand not only the religious and spiritual perspectives but also socio-cultural perspectives to facilitate and support women’s efforts to self-manage their MDD.

  201. Hamide Çakır and Özge Cengiz

    Language is the fundamental means of instruction and learning. When children start formal schooling, they face new linguistic demands like grammatical metaphor. Grammatical metaphor, in particular nominalization, is a lexico-grammatical process which plays a central part in the construction of knowledge in the 'langauge of schooling' (Schleppgrell, 2004). In order to be successful in school, the student is expected to organize knowledge through grammatical metaphor, a notion frequently dealt within Systemic Functional Linguistics. This study takes the perspective of Systemic Functional Linguistics to explore the ideational grammatical metaphor in the form of nominalization in the classroom discourse. In nominalization, “any element or group of elements is made to function as a nominal group in the clause” (Halliday, 1994, p. 41). Within this framework, the aim of this cross-sectional study is to determine the frequency and types of nominalization in the Turkish classroom. To examine the level of academic language accessible to students, 8 teachers teaching Turkish to both 6th and 7th grades were video-recorded in their classes with their students. These recordings have been fully transcribed verbatim into scripts and analyzed in term of nominalization use. The findings of our research revealed slight differences in the use of nominalization in the 6th and 7th grades, and hence these differences were statistically not significant. This study can have some implications for developing children’s literacy in that an understanding of these literacy-oriented constructions will enable educators and caregivers to recognize the importance of making use of a wide range of linguistic expressions.

  202. Dr. Vinay Kumar Gunwant, Mr. Manoj Singh Rawat and Mrs. Meenakshi

    Spices in India is popularly known as Masale. The history and culture of Indian spices is probably as old as human civilization itself. The Vedas, the Bible and the Quran are all replete with references - direct or indirect - to Indian spices. The earliest literary record in India on spices is the Rig Veda (around 6000 BC), and the other three Vedas - Yajur, Sama and Atharva. Spices constitute an important group of agricultural commodities, which are virtually indispensable in the culinary art. They can be primarily defined as farm products used in various forms viz; fresh, ripe, dried, broken, powdered etc. Out of the 109 spices listed by the ISO, India produces as many as 75 in its various agro climatic regions. India accounts for about 45% (2, 50,000tons) of the global spice exports, though exports constitute only some 8% of the estimated annual production. Over all, spices are grown in some 2.9 million hectares in the country (ISB 2014). Spice production in India, as much of the agriculture in the country, is undertaken in millions of tiny holdings and determine the livelihood of large number of the rural population. Productivity of spices is highest in Uttarakhand (7.21MT/ha) against national average of 1.8 MT/ha (State Horticulture Mission Govt. of Uttarakhand, 2014-15).

  203. Seid Ebrahim Muhamed

    This research paper examines the politics of ethnicity and ethnic federalism in the era of globalization. In this globalization era, the quest for identity and states design for adopting the dynamism are the central tasks of states. After the demise of the Derge regime the FDRE government adopted ethnic based federalism as a response to ethnic diversity and former centralized systems of administration. Hence, the federal polity experiment neither it disintegrated the political community and nor it reduces the occurrence of ethnic conflicts in the country.

  204. UiliamHahn Biegelmeyer, Cassiano Bridi, Eduardo Luiz Cardoso, Maria Emilia Camargo, Paulo Fernando Pinto Barcellos, Tania Craco and Ademar Galelli

    This article is a result of a research realized at the Diocese of Caxias do Sul to verify the existence of the charismatic leadership in the behavior of the priests that conducts this Diocese. The information was obtained by a semi-structured questionnaire applied with twenty two closed questions and an opened one. There was inclusive an interview with the parish priest of the Diocese, where he explained the manner how the church organizes itself. At the end of the research, it was obtained the existence of the charismatic leadership at this Diocese and it could also be seen in which of the priests segment it is more expressive.

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