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July 2017

  1. Aniruddh Menon, Dr. Dhanraj, M, and Dr. Preetham Prasad Nittala

    Aim: To evaluate knowledge and awareness of the dental practitioners regarding zirconia implants. Objective: To assess knowledge and awareness of the dental practitioners regarding zirconia implants. Background: Dental ceramics is one of the most preferred materials in modern fixed prosthodontics. As a material in dental medicine, zirconia was introduced in the 1970s when different types of coverage for dental implants were investigated. The first use of zirconia oxide was with small amounts of aluminium oxide, in glass- infiltration ceramics. This was further led to the development of CAD/CAM technology. Reason for study: This review is to help increase the awareness of the possible advantages and uses of zirconia in prosthodontics and to help increase advancements in the field to help improve the quality and functioning for patient satisfaction. Materials and methods: A questionnaire consisting of 14 questions, to evaluate knowledge and awareness of the dental practitioners regarding zirconia implants was prepared. This was circulated to the 90 practitioners and the responses were collected. Results: The responses for the 14 questions are represented as 14 pie charts, which were prepared using applications like survey plant and excel. The overall result showed that dentists were well aware of zirconia implants in dentistry. Conclusion: from this study we could conclude that practitioners have good awareness of zirconia and its uses in prosthodontics. To improve the awareness of the population that isn't aware of this more camps, seminars and educational programmes can be organised.

  2. Mithun, K. Dr. Naveen Shamnur, Dr. Gopalkrishna, B. R., Dr. Ashith, M. V. Dr. Deesha Kumari and Dr. Valerie Anithra Pereira

    Background: Assessment of skeletal maturity and dental development is a common clinical practice in many health professions, especially for growth modification in orthodontics and dentofacial orthopedics and for age estimation in forensic sciences. Generally, dental development can be assessed by phase of tooth eruption or stage of tooth calcification, with the latter being more reliable. An assessment of skeletal development is commonly done using hand-wrist radiographs and lateral cephalograms. Aim: To evaluate the relationships between the stages of mandibular second molar calcification and skeletal maturity, and to evaluate whether second molar calcification stages can be used as a reliable diagnostic tool to determine skeletal maturity. Materials and Methods: Panoramic radiograph and lateral cephalometric radiographs of 200 subjects was analysed. Tooth calcification was rated according to the Demirjian Index, in which one of eight stages of calcification (A to H) was assigned to the tooth. Evaluation of Cervical Vertebrae Maturity on Lateral Cephalogram CVMI was done according to Hassel and Farman. Results: A highly significant association was found between DI and CVMI. DI stage E corresponded to stage 2 of CVMI (pre–peak of pubertal growth spurt) and DI stages F corresponded to stages 3 CVMI (peak of pubertal growth spurt). DI stage G and H was associated with stages 4, 5 and 6 of CVMI (end of pubertal growth spurt). Conclusion: There exists a highly positive correlation between DI of mandibular 2nd molars and CVMI, Stage F of DI with the root length equal to or greater than the crown height, corresponds to stage 3 of CVMI indicating the start of peak in mandibular growth which would be appropriate time to plan for functional appliances. Stage G and H of DI with partially to completely closed apex corresponding to CVMI 4, 5 and 6 indicates that peak of mandibular growth has already occurred and suggests insignificant/no remaining growth.

  3. Eric, U. E., 2Okoye, F.B.C. and Owajaniro, M. G.

    Tunkabein drink is the local name for a locally prepared alcoholic beverage made up of alcohol (ogogoro) and Phyllantusamarus. In some of the Ijaw Communities, especially Amassoma, Bayelsa State of Nigeria. Twenty four(24) adult wistar rats of both sexes weighing 171g-250g were used for the study. They were assigned to four experimental groups of six rats each;group A(high dose group), groupB (low dose roup), group C(alcohol group) and group D(control group).The rats were sacrificed at the 15th and 22ndday.Histological result of the liver reveals that animals in group A showed extension of the portal tract into the parenchyma of the tissue with the infiltration of inflammatory cells,group B showed inflammatory cell and slight presence of Mallory bodies, group C showed dilated sinusoid and numerous Mallory bodies while group D showed normal liver tissue. Histological result of the stomach reveal that animal in group A show gastritis and superficial erosion, while group B show cysticaly dilated gastric gland with edematous stroma, group C showed distorted gastric architecture and slightly atrophic gland, however group D show normal histology of the stomach. The varying degree of damage done to the liver and stomach is due to the masking effect of thevarious concentration of alcohol over Phyllantusamarus (hepatoprotective and gastroprotective). Tunkabein is both hepatoxic and gastrotoxic and thus chronic consumption should be avoided.

  4. Nazile ERTURK, Senay KURTURLUS, Alev SUZEN and Munevver HOSGOR

    Ingestion of the corrosive substances can cause serious, even fatal, injuries in the children. There are several approaches in the treatment of the patients with esophageal injuries, including early esophagoscopy. The aim of this study was to evaluate the endoscopic findings retrospectively and correlate them with clinical progress in children ingested caustic substances, as well as to investigate whether the early esophagoscopy is necessary. In thise retrospective cohort study the patients were divided into two groups: G1-patients underwent esophagoscopy and G2- patients did not undergo esophagoscopy. We obtained 103 patients (68 male (66 %) and 35 female (34 %)) with a median age 41 months (range: 4-144 months; Mean age: 41.07 ± 31.24 months). Sixty-six children (64%; Age: 42.7 ± 29.3 months) indicated as G1 underwent early esophagoscopy (within 12-24 h postingestion), whereas 37 patients indicated as G2 did not undergo esophagoscopy (36 %; Age: 38.1 7 ± 34.1 months). In G1, two patients (3.03 %) the endoscopic findings were identified as grade IIa and IIb. On the other hand, in G2 one patient (2.70 %) was observed with stricture requiring repeated dilatation. In both groups, stricture prevalence was found similar. Among the patients, 73 of them (70.9 %) were inspected with oral burns, whereas 30 patients (29.1 %) were not showed any oral burns. No relation between the esophagoscopy findings and stricture development was observed (Pearson Chi-Square test, 2(1) = 0.01, p=0.924). No relation was determined between the stricture development and the presence of oral burns (Pearson Chi-Square test, 2(1) = 0.03, p=0.871). In our study, the prevalence of the stricture development was identified similar in both groups. As the incidence of the stricture development is regardless of esophagoscopy findings. Therefore, our results suggest that early esophagoscopy is not necessary for the caustic ingested pediatrics.

  5. Isamme N. AlFayyad and Pendo Ntinika

    Background: the purpose of the informed consent document in clinical trials is to inform research participants about the nature of a clinical trial, its risks, benefits, underlying procedures, and alternative treatments. Objective: to assess the quality of the information provided in informed consent document during clinical trials. Methods: A cross-sectional retrospective study was performed at our institution. In total, 55 informed consent document that accompanied research proposals submitted to the institutional review board from January 2012 to August 2016 were reviewed. Descriptive and inferential statistical analyses were performed to assess overall mean compliance. Results: overall compliance with the essential elements of the informed consent document was 90.8%. The elements of unforeseeable risk, termination of a subject’s participation by the investigator, and disclosure of new findings during the study were highly related to the source of the study (p < 0.001, 0.002, and 0.003, respectively). Conclusion: the results indicate high-quality information in the reviewed informed consent document and a high compliance rate with International Conference on Harmonization-Good Clinical Practice guidelines and Saudi law.

  6. Dr. N. Juniorsundresh and Dr. S. Narendran Emertus

    Introduction: Appendicitis is the most common abdominal surgical emergency. The cause of acute appendicitis is unknown but is probably multifactorial; luminal obstruction and dietary and familial factors have all been suggested. Appendicectomy is the treatment of choice and is increasingly done as a laparoscopic procedure. Objective of this study is to evaluate the white blood cells (WBCS) and neutrophils. But the use of this value in the diagnosis of appendicitis is unclear. Methods: It was a prospective, observational study. The study was conducted at RMMCH, Chidambaram for a period of one year i.e., from November 2009 to 2010. Data were collected by using data collection forms and analyzed the diagnostic values by using proper statistical tools. Results: White blood cells and neutrophils count was high in patients with inflamed and complicated appendix than normal appendix and in complicated than inflamed appendix. The males were significantly more affected than females. The WBC count in normal appendix patients was 10.46±6.56, in inflamed appendix patients was 14.03±4.18 and in complicated appendix patients was 15.10±5.12. The neutrophil count in normal appendix patients was 8.12±5.67, in inflamed appendix patients was 9.93±3.87 and in complicated patients was 12.6±4.37. Conclusion: The White blood cells and Neutrophils count should not be used for the diagnosis of appendicitis. Clinical data playsa major role in the diagnosis of appendicitis.

  7. Bäcker, H., Maniglio, M., Schwinghammer, A., Attinger, M. C. and Krause, F.

    Hallux valgus is a frequent disease in the population. Several different surgical procedures exist. One of these techniques is the Lapidus procedure which is performed in 5 to 10% of all hallux surgeries. Indications are recurrent hallux valgus, lisfranc arthritis, intermetatarsal angle greater than 15° and hypermobility of the first ray. One of the disadvantages are high complication rate and a long postoperative rehabilitation period. Therefore the correct indication for this rather demanding procedure is important. We want to present information about the clinical examination of hallux valgus, indication for the Lapidus procedure and how it is performed at our center.

  8. Werissaw Haileselassie,Mirgissa Kaba, Mahlet ArayaSellasie, Tefera Mulugeta, and Wajana Lako Labisso

    Background: Despite all its critical roles in cancer detection, directing therapeutic approaches and patient management, the state of pathology service in Ethiopia and factors affecting its role are not documented. Objective: This study intends to explore the challenges and opportunities of cancer diagnosis in Ethiopia. Methods: The study was conducted at the Black Lion Specialized Hospital (BLSH), Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. Purposive sampling technique was used to identify pathologists to participate in the study. A qualitative method using semi-structured interview guide question was employed to address the problem. A total of 16 pathologists were involved in the study. Interview was audio-taped following permission secured from each participant. Data was analyzed using thematic analysis. Result: The finding of the study shows that personal provider level challenges and lack of equipment and supplies affect pathology service provision at BLSH. Negative attitude of patients towards diagnostic procedure, inadequate training of the professionals, shortage of skilled human power are personal level challenges affecting pathology service provision. On the other hand, lack of quality reagents and equipment, poor maintenance efficiency, weak logistic system for delivery of specimens and poor ICT services ware the other major bottle-necks hindering cancer diagnostic services in Ethiopia. The initiative to operationalized tele-pathology was identified as a major opportunity to improve cancer diagnostic services. Conclusion: Improvement of the pathology service requires all stakeholders (the experts, authorities, and the community) to work together to up-lift the pathology service from its sub-standardized status in Ethiopia. The department has to be dedicated to look the opportunities through the challenges-by developing SOPs, digital documentation and initiating sub-specialty programs.

  9. Kiptanui Chebii, Stephen Biwott Tanui, Dominic Alwala and Finson Bargoria

    Thyroid masses are common surgical presentations with a worldwide prevalence of 4–7% in the general adult population. The vast majority of adult thyroid nodules are benign neoplasm’s, however, less than 10% are malignant, which makes it important to screen the nodules in order to offer appropriate surgery and avoid unnecessary surgery for benign nodules. It is preferred to operate only on those patients with suspicion of malignancy, while strict patient follow-up is necessary in dealing with benign cases. Fine needle aspiration cytology (FNAC) is known to play a pivotal role in the screening and management of thyroid swellings. This study was carried out at theMoi Teaching and Referral Hospital its objective was to assess FNAC patterns of thyroid masses and compare its findings with corresponding histological findings to find out if FNAC can be relied upon in evaluating thyroid in order to establish a basis of whether or not to incorporate its findings in the management of these masses pre-operatively. This was a retrospective study where FNAC and corresponding histological evaluation findings of 118 patients aged 17-88 years who had a pre-operative FNAC and subsequently a thyroid resection for definitive histological diagnosis between January 2007 and December 2014 were accessed from the archives of MTRH and compared for concordance and discordance. Of the 118 FNAC, 17 (14.40%) were inadequate to make a diagnosis, 14(11.86%) were suspicious for malignancy, and 78 (66.1%) were benign while 9 (7.62%) were malignant. The benign cases consisted predominantly of colloid goiter (54.54%) whereas the malignant ones consisted predominantly of papillary carcinomas (5.08%). The concordance, false positive and false negative rates were 90.80%, 3.44% and 5.74% respectively. The accuracy, sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value and negative predictive values of FNAC were 90.80%, 54.54%, 96.05%, 66.66% and 94.58% respectively. There was a significant agreement between the two tests (p= 0.34). FNAC of thyroid is accurate and has a low rate of false-negatives and false-positives diagnoses hence can be adopted and relied upon in evaluating thyroid nodules pre-operatively. Use of FNAC reduces the rate of unnecessary surgeries, the cost of health care and the risks associated with surgeries, resulting in better outcome of patient’s care.

  10. Kalitha Parveen, P., Kandasamy Prabakar and John Pote Wembonyama

    In this study, antioxidant potential of the aqueous extract of the leaves of Blepharis maderaspatensis (L) Hyne Ex Roth was evaluated by means of 1, 1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) scavenging assay, metal reducing power and total antioxidant capacity. The aqueous extract showed considerable actions in every antioxidant assays compared to the citation antioxidant ascorbic acid in a dose dependent manner. In DPPH scavenging assay the IC50 value of the extract was found to be 41.34μg/ml while the IC50 value of the reference standard ascorbic acid was 69.82 μg/ml. There is an increased total antioxidant activity was also found in a dose dependent manner. Besides, Blepharis maderaspatensis leaf extract showed strong metal reducing power. This result implies that Blepharis maderaspatensis leaf extract may act as a chemo preventive agent, and the antioxidant properties acts as efficient defense from free radicals.

  11. Dr. Someshwari S. Salunkhe, Dr. Manjushri Waingade, Dr. Daya K. Jangam and Dr. Namrata Khandare

    Objectives: To evaluate prevalence and location of retromolar canals and juxta-apical radiolucency using mandibular scans of cone beam computed tomography. Methods: An observational study was carried out on 70 CBCT scans to evaluate the prevalence and location of Retromolar canals and juxta-apical radiolucency on axial and coronal sections and also the number and type of retromolar canals. Assessment of Juxta-apical radiolucency was made in relation to third molar root to find out its location. Results: The prevalence of RMC and JAR was found to be 67.14% and 45.71% respectively. Unilaterally 30% (n=21) and bilaterally 37.1% (n=26) scans showed presence of RMC. Unilaterally 20% (n=14) and bilaterally 25.7% (n=18) scans showed presence of JAR. There was statistically non-significant difference seen between retromolar canal and juxta-apical radiolucency when compared with age and gender. Type A canal was most prevalent (25%) followed by type B (7.8%) and type C (5.7%). Conclusion: Retromolar canals and juxta-apical radiolucency must be taken in to considerations before any surgical procedures in retromolar region to avoid the post-operative complications. CBCT can be a best diagnostic tool for analysis of such anatomic variations.

  12. Dr. Abis Amir, Dr. Shantipriya Reddy, Dr. Prasad, M.G.S. and Dr. Vimal S.K.

    Aim: the present study was done to compare the efficacy of beta tricalcium phosphate bone graft plug (SYBOGRAF-T)R along with PRF membrane for purpose of post extraction socket preservation. Materials and methods: this was a randomized controlled trial done in total of 34 sites with class II extraction sockets in 33 patients. In Test group, beta tricalcium phosphate bone graft plug along with PRF membrane was used whereas Control group consisted of extraction alone sites. Results: Test group sites showed significant reduction in bone loss after extraction and socket preservation when compared with extraction alone sites. Conclusion: Results of this study indicate that alveolar bone resorption following tooth extraction may be prevented or reduced by the use of β-TCP plug (SYBOGRAF-T)R with PRF membrane.

  13. Dr. Reema Kashiva, Dr. Dileep Mane, Dr. Dattatraya Patil and Dr. Namdeo Jagtap

    A 48years old female known case of hypertension and ischemic heart disease with post percutaneous coronary angioplasty (PTCA)status to left anterior descending (LAD) and right coronary artery (RCA), was admitted to our hospital with history ofsevere breathlessness, chest pain, bilateral lower limb swelling - on and off since last 2-3 years. Initial investigation depicted moderate to severe pericardial effusion, for which she was treated with anti-tubercular drugs. Initial symptomatic relief was achieved with antikoch’s treatment. But, few months later she experienced same complaints with rapid progression. Which on investigation shown to have massive pericardial effusion. This was further investigated and found to have ruptured RCA stent communicating with pericardial cavity and positive antinuclear antibody test (ANA) test. She was treated with pericardiactomy and improved.

  14. Dr. Niharika Jain, Dr. Hema Udawat and Dr. Namrata Agarwal

    Background: Tuberculosis is very common health problem in developing countries. TB generally does not involve myocardium. Only 1-2% cases of tuberculosis involve heart and mostly its pericardium, myocardial tuberculosis is far rare. We describe a case of myocardial tuberculosis on post-mortem examination Case presentation: Patient was a known case of pulmonary tuberculosis but unaware of other system involvement. We describe the clinical presentation, outcome of case and review the literature on myocardial tuberculosis. Conclusion: Involvement of myocardium in tuberculosis is rare. However it should be suspected in all patients of TB elsewhere in body as it can cause sudden cardiac death and early recognition can prevent it.

  15. Amartha Jomon, Angel Stephen, Bidhula, B., Jissa Thomas, Reeba Babu, Teena S Babu and Mrs. Sheeja, S.

    Developing countries carry a heavy burden of water related diseases, the heaviest being of the diarrheal diseases in preschoolers. The aim of the study to assess the knowledge and attitude regarding prevention of water borne diseases among mothers of preschoolers. A descriptive observational study was conducted in 2016 in kollam community area The criteria for the evaluation was mothers of preschoolers, from the total population of mothers, from that 2% mother had adequate knowledge, 52% had moderately adequate knowledge and 46% had inadequate knowledge and 50% mothers had positive attitude, 50% had negative attitude regarding prevention of water borne diseases. The findings suggest that a high frequency of mothers had poor knowledge regarding prevention of water borne diseases.

  16. Pritesh Kisanlal Agrawal, Dr. Chandrakant S Shete, Dr. Ajas A. Gogri and Dr. Varun R. Kunte

    Background: Maxillary midline diastema (MMD) is a common problem patient report to a dental clinic. It has both aesthetic and psychological role on patient’s personality. Various treatment options are available for treatment of MMD. Correct cause should be diagnosed and proper treatment should be rendered accordingly. Case discussion: The present article reports the case of a maxillary midline diastema closure in a healthy dentition by an interdisciplinary approach. Orthodontic space redistribution of the midline diastema was done followed by restoration with ceramic laminates. Conclusion: A combined orthodontic and prosthetic interdisciplinary approach resulted in excellent outcome in this case.

  17. Deepak Passi,Deepika Singhal , Lokesh Chandra, Mansi Atri, Tarun Kumar Singh Jyoti Goyal, Shiwani Bhardwaj and Aanchal Sahni

    Publishing research articles has become an integral part of a authors/ researcher’s professional life. Publications are mandatory for faculty in institutions along with working or teaching experience. Medical council recommends indexed publications for being faculty in medical institutions. So authors are giving preferences to quality journals with respect to Pubmed Indexing or high Impact Factor. Some journals are highly rated indexed but have low impact factor while some journal have high impact factor but are not high rated index services. It is still a dilemma and difficult decision wheather to select the journal having high Indexation services or having high Impact Factor for publication. This review have discussed the various aspects of indexing body i.e pubmed/Medline and impact factor Journal Citation Reports (JCR) and Thomson Reuters (TR). It is desirable to publish research work in with journals indexed in highly rated indexing bodies also having high Impact Factor, however it is advisable to go for quality evaluation and peer-review publication processes.

  18. Kenneth Blum, Amanda L.C. Chen, Edward J. Modestino, Jennifer Neary, Rajendra D. Badgaiyan, Eric Braverman, Thomas J.H. Chen, David Siwicki, Lyle Fried, Bruce Steinberg, Thomas McLaughlin, David Baron and Mark S. Gold

    Mood disorders including major depressive disorder (MDD) are one of the most important causes of disability for human health and the second leading source of disease burden, going beyond cardiovascular diseases, dementia, lung cancer, and diabetes. The comorbidity of depression and substance use disorder (SUD) has been well-established. While there are over 6,000 studies on genes and depression, a definitive human gene map of depression still eludes the field of psychiatric genetics. Certainly, GWAS and candidate approaches are on-going and hold out promise for the future. It is our contention that one approach involves the induction of true "dopamine homeostasis" easier said than done. In this treatise, we are suggesting a novel therapeutic modality that includes DNA genotyping based on a Genetic Addiction Risk Score (GARS) test and concomitant alteration of a Pro-dopamine Regulator (KB220) contents linked to personalized polymorphisms observed in the genes across the brain reward circuitry in the prefrontal cortex and mesolimbic systems.

  19. Dr. Manjita M. Parab, Dr. Meena A. Aras, Dr. Viidya Chitre, Dr. Praveen Rajagopal and Dr. Kathleen D'souza

    Statement of Problem: One of the most common causes of failure of any metal ceramic restoration is the delamination of the veneering ceramic. This may be attributed to failure at the junction of metal and ceramic. To evaluate factors affecting the core veneer bond strength of metal ceramic restorations through a review of previously published articles. Materials and methods: A thorough search was made in Pubmed and Google Search and articles collected were reviewed with respect to various factors affecting the core veneer bond strength of metal ceramic restorations. Results: Most of the studies done were in vitro. Of all the factors evaluated, surface treatments were found to have a significant effect on the bond strength. Conclusion: Metal ceramic compatibility, types of metal alloys, types of ceramic, various pretreatment methods, etc affects the bond strength of metal ceramic restoration. The effect of each of these variables should be properly understood and applied in the given clinical situation for predictable results.

  20. Krishnaveni Narayanan, Bharathidasan, M. and Srikumar, N.

    A 7 years old male Labrador Retriever was presented with the history of fast growing enlarged abdominal swelling near the inguinal region for 6 months. On clinical examination, right testis was descended and a mass located near left inguinal region was movable and non-painful. Abdominal plain radiography revealed soft tissue mass on the inguinal region. No metastasis on thorax radiography. Haematology and serum biochemistry values were within the normal range. Fine needle aspiration biopsy confirmed the presence of Sertoli cell tumor in the cryptorchid testis. Surgical excision of the unilateral testicular tumor and the normal descended testis was performed under general anaesthesia. Histopathology of the excised testicular tumor has pale eosinophilic cytoplasm, abundant fibrous tissue stroma and less prominent tubular structure.

  21. Yusuf Abisowo Oshodi, Adetokunbo Olusegun Fabamwo and Oluwarotimi Ireti Akinola

    Background: Pregnancy is a time of considerable maternal adaptation during which the range of normal laboratory values for commonly requested clinical investigations is wider and even more arbitrary than in the non-pregnant state. Although, pregnancy specific values are becoming available due to increased awareness of the obstetrician for their need, the available reference values are mainly based on healthy Caucasians. There is a dearth of information on the reference values for haematological indices particularly in relation to the trimesters of pregnancy and in the puerperium. Objectives: To determine the reference values for various haematological indices in trimesters of pregnancy and puerperium healthy pregnant and puerperal subjects compared to non-pregnant women Methods: A cross-sectional prospective study involving 422 subjects carried out over a six-month period. Healthy pregnant, puerperal and non-pregnant subjects recruited for the study and grouped into six. Each subjects had her socio-demographic data and anthropometry documented and haematological indices determined by automated analysis using the Coulter counter method. The results were subjected to statistical analysis using 95% confidence intervals. Results: The results from this study showed that the difference in the mean haematocrit values in pregnancy was statistically significant between the first and second trimesters (P=0.026) and also between the second and third trimesters (P=0.007). The mean RBC count also showed a significant difference between the first and second trimesters (P=0.032). Other red cell indices (MCV, MCH and MCHC) showed no statistically significant difference in between trimesters. The difference in the mean WBC count values was equally significant between the first and second trimester (P=0.023). A similar significant difference was observed in the mean platelet count between the first and third trimesters (P=0.002). Conclusion: The lowest red cell parameters (haematocrit, haemoglobin concentration and RBC count) were recorded in the second trimester and there were varying statistically significant differences in the mean haematocrit, haemoglobin concentration, RBC, WBC and platelet values during the trimesters of pregnancy and the puerperium.

  22. Dr. Isha Kaur Bagga, Dr. Pratik Jain, Dr. Amit Patel, Dr. Nagori Hidayat and Dr. Parikh Abhishekh Vijaykumar

    Background: Maxillary extractions are considered as very complicated followed with many complications. The major reasons for complication are improper dosage and choice of anesthesia. Thus, this study was conducted to find the efficacy of different percentage of anesthesia for comparing the clinical, anesthetic efficacy and post-operative complications of 4% articaine, 0.5% bupivacaine and 2% lignocaine in maxillaryextractions. Materials and Methods: Conduction of study was done in Department of Oral and maxillofacial surgery, on 100 systematically health subjects (18–75 years) who required multiple extractions in maxillary arch. Patients were labeled into three different groups (2%lignocaine, 4% articaine, 0.5% bupivacaine using the split mouth technique. Results: The results showcased that time of onset of action were significantly faster in case of 4% articaine when comparison was made to 0.5% bupivacaine and 2% lignocaine. Conclusion: Articaine usage with 4% have being proved to have better potency and efficacy in terms of onset of action with lower pain scores comparison but lignocaine still remained the gold standard local anesthetic agent in Dental practice due to its quick onset, less time of anesthesia and cost effectiveness when compared articaine and bupivacaine. Whereas bupivacaine has been proved to be more efficient in pain control and remained concentrated for majorprocedures.

  23. Chandranath Mukhopadhyay, Pramod Kumar Sharma, Souvik Chatterjee, Kanishka Samanta and Jay Kumar

    Intrauterine contraceptive device (IUCD) is a very cheap and commonly used method of contraception, but it is not without complications. Migration of the device is the most serious and morbid of them all. In this report, we present a very rare case where the devicehad migrated outside the uterus and caused recto-vesical fistula. The case was successfully managed endoscopically.

  24. Dr. Shirish Toshniwal, Dr. Swarnima Saxena and Dr. Hetal Sarvaiya

    Introduction: Accurate estimation of fetal weight is of paramount importance in the management of labor and delivery. High rate of perinatal mortality in developing countries makes estimation of fetal weight (EFW) antenatally pivotal to obstetricians. Objective: This is a prospective study of 200 antenatal women of third trimester with a singleton pregnancy with reliable date/dating scan, with no fetal anomalies, undergoing obstetric scan at term. EFW was estimated by clinical method using Johnson’s formula, Hadlock’s formula & Dare’s formula compared with the actual birth weight. Results: There is significant difference between actual birth weight & Johnson’s method (p value 0.001) and between actual birth weight & Hadlock’s method (p value 0.001) while there is no significant difference between actual birth weight & Dare’s method (p 0.464) Conclusion: The assessment of fetal weight using Dare’s formula is more accurate for predicting birth weight at term which is easy and cost-effective.

  25. Rupsa Banerjee and Bratati Banerjee

    Introduction: Computer Vision Syndrome (CVS) is a condition resulting from long hours of computer use, in which a person experiences one or more eye and/or musculoskeletal symptoms. A high prevalence of CVS has been seen worldwide including India. The present study was conducted to assess the prevalence of CVS among medical and engineering professionals and find out the factors related to computer use which may be associated with it. Methods: A total of 108 medical and 100 engineering professionals were included in the study. Information regarding computer use and presence of symptoms suggestive of CS was obtained through administration of an online questionnaire. Results: The prevalence of CVS was found to be 82.68% among the study participants. It was greater in engineering (92%) as compared to medical (74.07%) professionals, the difference being statistically significant (p<0.05). Presence of symptoms was significantly higher in those who used computer for 4 hours or more per day, among those who viewed the computer at a distance less than 15 inches and those who worked in the absence of overhead light at their work station. Conclusion: CVS was found to be highly prevalent among both medical and engineering professionals in India.

  26. Dr. Hukam Singh

    Objective: The aim of the present study and work is to determine the ear diseases pattern, etiological factor, type and severity of hearing loss in rural community by manual pure tone audiometry. We have also made efforts for the early detection and treatment of hearing loss by surgical correction, rehabilitation and referred to higher center for cochlear implantation. Introduction: More than 360 million people have disabling hearing loss in worldwide and its 5.3% of the world population. More than 63 million people are suffering from auditory impairment in India as per WHO. This is an estimated prevalence of 6.3% in Indian population. India is a developing country. It is ridden with illiteracy, poverty and sociopolitical problem. Chronic suppurative otitis media (CSOM) is one of the most common ear diseases in South East Asia having a prevalence of 5.2% in the general population but in India is 4.75%. Chronic Suppurative Otitis Media (CSOM) is one of the most common childhood infectious diseases worldwide. It is most common causes of hearing impairment. It is estimated that there are 31 million new cases of CSOM per year in worldwide. Hearing is essential for the development of language, speech and cognitive skills. The neurological development of hearing abilities requires an acoustic stimulation in the first two year of life. The different methods are available for assessment of hearing loss in different age group likes behavioral observation audiometry (BOA), conditioning techniques, pure tone audiometry (PTA), speech audiometry, impedance audiometry, otoacoustic emissions (OAE) and brainstem evoked response audiometry (BERA)/ auditory brainstem response(ABR). Material and Methods: The prospective study was conducted from January 2011 to January 2012, which included 1144 patients in Gold fields Institute of Medical Sciences, Faridabad, Haryana. Those patients who were presenting with diminished hearing loss and ear symptoms were enrolled in study. The complete Clinical examination, Otoscopic, tuning forks test, and radiological evaluation were done in all patients. Hearing assessments were done by manual pure tone audiometry for all patients. Those patients who suffered from wax, otomycosis, furnculosis,suspicious malignancy of external and middle ear are excluded from study. All patients were managed by medical, surgical, suction and cleaning, reassurances and referred to cochlear implanted center. Nature and prevention of ear diseases were explained to all patients in rural community. Results: All patients (1144) had ear diseases and 68 (5.94%) patients were found having normal hearing. Male (719) patients suffered more hearing loss than female patients (425) 62.85% and 37.15%respectively. Ear diseases and hearing loss involved commonly in bilateral ear (53.49%). The youngest group consisted two hundred ninety eight patients (26%) between twenty one to thirty years of age. Interventions: A total 1144 patients between the age of 6 years to 94 years were self reported hearing difficulty assess by manual pure tone audiometer (arphi model ). Hearing assessment measured by Audiometer in different frequency at 250, 500, 1000, 2000, 4000, and 8000Hz. Conclusion: Our study revealed that 94% patients had hearing impairment of self reported hearing loss. Conductive type of hearing loss is the most common type of hearing impairment in rural community and it’s about 64% (736) which is treatable if the pattern of diseases and degree of hearing loss is evaluated early. Chronic Otitis Media is the most common cause of hearing impairment. Conductive type of hearing loss is the most common type of hearing impairment and it’s about 64% (736).Chronic Otitis Media (more than 57%) is one of the most common disease found in our study.

  27. Dr. Nusrat Bhat, Dr. Kavita Srivastava and Dr. Sanjay Lalwani

    Introduction: Limited data are available for the effectiveness of the antiepileptic drugs in children in daily clinical practice. The AED chosen for initial therapy should be one that is highly effective for the particular seizure type or syndrome and that is safe and well tolerated. The present prospective study was designed to investigate the interaction among efficacy, tolerability, and overall effectiveness of the first antiepileptic drug in children with newly diagnosed epilepsy. Method: Out of 149 children in which (64 females and 85 males) who received valproate 56 (n = 37.6%), Oxcarbazepine 70(n = 47%), levetir-acetam 8(n = 5.4%), carbamazepine 8 (n= 5.4%), 5(n = 3.4%) received phenobarbitone monotherapy as the first-line treatment, were enrolled in the study. Seizure control and the occurrence of adverse events were assessed at 3 months and 6 months respectively. We demonstrated the outcome of epilepsy in relation to several demographic (age and gender), pharmacological and clinical aspects. Results: Overall 110 (73.8%) were seizure free at 3 months and 130(87.2%) were seizure free at 6 months respectively. Out of which 101(67.78%) patients had focal epilepsy and 17(11.40%) had generalized epilepsy and 31(20.8%) had unclassified epilepsy. The majority of seizure free patients required only moderate daily dose of the antiepileptic drug. Valproate and Carbamazepine (the most commonly prescribed antiepileptic drugs). The reasons for treatment failures were lack of seizure control and intolerable adverse events in some patients. Conclusion: In conclusion, the majority of patients with newly diagnosed Epilepsy become seizure free with the first line anti epileptic drugs (Oxcarbazepine/ carbamazepine) for focal epilepsy and valproate for generalised epilepsy) in our daily clinical practice. Oxcarbazepine and valproate treatment is effective, safe and well tolerable in our children with newly diagnosed epilepsy.

  28. Beverley Themudo and Annapoorna, B. M.

    Title of the article: Effect of Toothbrush Mouthrinse Cycling on the Surface Roughness and Microhardness of Nanohybrid Composite Resin and Giomer (Fluoride releasing Nanohybrid Composite Resin) – An In Vitro Study Context: Giomer technology offers the advantage of anti-cariogenic property to resin restorations but fluoride release could possibly affect the surface roughness and microhardness. Tooth brushing and mouthrinsing have been known to increase surface roughness and decrease microhardness of resin restoratives and this effect has not been investigated on giomers. Aim: To evaluate and compare the surface roughness and microhardness of nanohybrid composite resin and fluoride releasing nanohybrid composite resin when subjected to simulated 1 year toothbrushing and mouthwashes of varying alcohol concentrations. Methods and Materials: 50 specimens of nanohybrid resin composite and 50 specimens of Giomer resin were divided into 5 sub- groups as follows: No Toothbrushing and No Mouthrinsing, Toothbrushing and No Mouthrinsing, Toothbrushing and Mouthrinsing with mouthwash containing 21.6% alcohol, Toothbrushing and Mouthrinsing with mouthwash containing 11.6% alcohol, Toothbrushing and Mouthrinsing with herbal mouthwash containing 0% alcohol. TMC was done over 8 weeks, simulating 1year usage of toothbrushing and mouthrinsing. All specimens were subjected to Surface Roughness and Microhardness Tests. Statistical analysis: Mean and standard deviation, One way/Two way ANOVA, t-test, Pearsons' correlation Results: There was increase in surface roughness after brushing giomer group. Mouthwashes in addition to toothbrushing didn't affect the surface roughness. Microhardness increased on brushing but dropped after using alcohol containing mouthrinses. Herbal mouthwashes had no deleterious effect on hardness. Conclusion: Toothbrushing in association with different types of mouthrinses, did not increase surface roughness of either material. Alcohol containing mouthrinses decreased the microhardness of regular nanohybrid composite and giomer. Herbal mouthwash without alcohol did not affect microhardness. Regular nanohybrid composite showed lesser decrease in hardness and increases in roughness and will thus perform better as a surface layer of restorations.

  29. Aparna Rao

    Context: The key to esthetic and biologic integrity of restorations for a long term, lies in the finishing and polishing, which is the most often neglected procedure.Various finishing and polishing systems are available in the market, however, the polishing regimen for the newer nano-based composites have not been adequately investigated. Aims: The purpose of this current study is to evaluate and compare the effect of two different polishing systems (Diamond Impregnated Compomaster and Aluminium oxide discs Super Snap Xtreme) on the surface roughness and micro hardness of a nanofill(Filtek Z 350 XT )and a nanohybrid composite resin(Filtek Z 250 XT). Methods and Material: A total of 60 composite discs of which, 30 specimens of each restorative material , were fabricated (8 mm in diameter and 2 mm in thickness). The respective finishing and polishing procedures were carried out and all the specimens were subjected to Surface roughnesss measurement using a Profilometer and micro hardness measurement using a Vickers Micro hardness testing Machine. Statistical analysis used: Means and Standard Deviation (Descriptive), one and two way ANOVA, Independent Sample t test, Pearson's correlation co efficient. Results: The nanofill Z350 XT and Super Snap Xtreme aluminium oxide discs showed least roughness values and Nanohybrid composite specimens had a higher microhardness value. Conclusions: Z350 XT showed least roughness values overall in comparison.For both nanohybrid and nanofill composites resins, the multistep polishing system-aluminium oxide discs (Supersnap Xtreme Shofu Inc.) provided significantly lower surface roughness .Nanohybrid composite specimens had a higher microhardness value when compared with nanofill specimens.

  30. Harsh Joshi, Munjal Pandya, Janki Pandya and Jayun Joshi

    Introduction: Oligohydramnios occurs in about 1% to 5% of pregnancies. It has been associated with variety of fetal and maternal morbidity and mortality. The objective of this study was to compare the pregnancy outcome in cases with oligohydramnios in comparison to normal pregnancy. Materials and methods: This prospective observational study was carried out in Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology. Women attending antenatal clinical or labor room with or without oligohydramnios were included in the study in cases (oligohydramnios) and controls (without oligohydramnios). The data was recorded and analyzed in predefined manner in both the groups. Statistical analysis like frequency, chi-square test and relative risk was found to compare both the groups. Results: During the period of one year, 205 cases and 205 controls were enrolled in the study. At 37-39 weeks and 40-42 weeks of gestational age, significant higher numbers of patients were seen in case group. The most common co-morbidity is PIH (20.97%) . Relative risk of abnormal Doppler (6.001) and cesarean section (1.477) is higher in case group. Following parameters were statistically significant like weight of baby (<2 kg), and NICU admission (p value <0.05). Women with oligohydramnios are associated with abnormal Doppler, more incidence induced labor, NICU admission and APGAR score >7 Higher incidence of operative delivery is seen in patients having associated PIH, IUGR and MSL. most common cause of LSCS in cases and controls was PIH (38(18.6%)) . Conclusion: Women with oligohydramnios are associated with abnormal Doppler, more incidence induced labor, NICU admission and APGAR score <7.

  31. Dr. Sujatha S Reddy, Dr. Pushpanjali Sharma, Dr. N. Rakesh, Dr Yashoda Devi, B. K., Dr. Shwetha, V., Dr. Pavan kumar, T., Dr. Priyadharshini, R. and Dr. Rizwana Azmi, S.

    Context: Introduction: Bifid condyle is a rare anatomical variation of the mandibular condyle. This condition is considered to be developmentally formed with some exceptions of traumatic origin been reported. In most of the cases it is an incidental finding, and this condition is most often not associated with any clinical signs and symptoms. The present study was conducted to evaluate the various characteristics of bifid mandibular condyle (BMC) pattern. Materials and Methods: A retrospective study was carried out in the Department of Oral Medicine and Radiology in the year 2016. In the present study 8100 Cone beam computed tomography (CBCT) images were evaluated for the presence of bifid mandibular condyle in the axial, coronal and sagittal sections. Results: Bifid condyle was detected in 14 images. 11(78.57%) patients had unilateral bifid condyle and 3(21.42%) patients presented with bilateral bifid condyle. The bifid condyles in all the 14 patients were oriented mediolaterally. In cases where there was unilateral presentation, right side (54.54%) of the condyle was more commonly involved than left side (45.45%). The mean depth of the bifurcation groove was found to be 2.69 mm. Conclusions: In most of the reported cases bifid mandibular condyle is not associated with any clinical signs and symptoms making it an incidental finding. Initial screening for the presence of bifid mandibular condyle can be performed by panoramic radiograph, but CBCT images can reveal morphological changes and the exact orientation of the condylar heads. The diagnosis of a bilobed condyle usually relies on radiological findings rather than clinical findings.

  32. Dr. Anamika Sharma and Dr. Vineeta Singal

    Introduction: Furcation defects occur when bifurcation or tri-furcation of multi-rooted teeth are involved as a result of periodontal disease. The extent and configuration of the defect determines the prognosis and treatment planning. Aim and Objective: Aim of the study is to quantify and analyse the prevalence and characteristics of furcation involvement (FI) and also to plan the possible treatment modality. Materials and Methods: The study included 100 systemically healthy subjects between 30 - 60 years, selected randomly from population within Swami Vivekanand Subharti University, Meerut, of which 42 were females and 58 males. After ethical clearance and obtaining consent from subjects, UNC-15 probe and calibrated Naber’s furcation probe was used to clinically detect the configuration of FI based on the Glickman’s classification. Data obtained was statistically analysed and results arrived at. Result: Total of 57 subjects had furcation involvement out of which, subjects between 30-40 years especially males had maximum furcation involved teeth. A total of 370 molars were examined of which 247 had furcation involvement while 123 were unaffected. Mandibular molars showed a higher prevalence rate as compared to maxillary molars, 21.05% vs 14.03%, with right quadrant being more afflicted. Conclusion: Most common etiologic factors were low income group, brushing once/day and using tooth powder. Grade-II FI being most common and Grade-IV being the least. Non-surgical periodontal treatment was planned for all the cases with second stage surgery to be carried out in 68.42%.

  33. Masitha Dewi Sari, Delfi, Bobby Sitepu

    Objective: Biochemical evidence suggests that oxidative mechanisms play a major role in the etiology and pathogenesis in damage of lens proteins is involved in the genesis of senile cataract and the degenerative manifestations of diabetes such as diabetic cataract. This damage decreases the antioxidant capacity results in oxidative damage Material and Methods: A prospective, analytical observational with cross sectional study was conducted at the Adam Malik Hospital from July 2016 to January 2017 after approved by the Ethics Committee for Health Research Sumatera Utara University School of Medicine. Fourty one diabetic cataract patients and fourty one non diabetic cataract patients of match age and gender were included in this study prospectively. Nucleus lens of malondialdehyde (MDA) and gluthathion peroxidase (GPx) who underwent cataract surgery were obtained to detect. Results: MDA levels in diabetic cataract ranges from 1.35 to 6.4 nmol/l, with a mean deviation of 2.48 ± 0.98 nmol/l, whereas MDA levels in non-diabetic cataract ranged from 0.52 to 2.62 nmol/l with a mean of 1.45 ± 0.47 nmol/l.GPx levels in diabetic cataract ranges from 1,77 to 15,66U/L, with a mean deviation of 5,82 ± 2,40U/L, whereas GPx levels in non-diabetic cataract ranged from 7,02 to 18,41U/L with a mean deviation of 9,52 ± 2,44μm/g. These results shows a significant differences MDA level and GPx level in diabetic caratact patients compare to non diabetic cataract patients.(p<0,05). MDA level and GPx level with the duration of Diabetes Mellitus showed significantly differences(p<0,05) Conclusion: Malondialdehyde and gluthathione peroxidase activities showed a decrement of antioxidant capacity in diabetic cataract that suggesting the implication of antioxidant enzymes in the genesis of diabetic cataract. Assays of malondialdehyde and gluthathione peroxidase activities could provide a marker to identify individuals predisposed to diabetic cataract

  34. Dr. Dollar, Dr. Jagvinder Singh Mann, Dr. Daminder Singh Gumber, Dr. Navjot Singh Khurana, Dr. Keteoulelhou Vizo and Dr. Ashok Suman

    This study was aimed for determining the working length of the tooth in the presence of various commonly used irrigating solutions in the endodontics. Three irrigating solutions were taken namely - 3% sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl),2% chlorhexidine and Glyde (EDTA + Carbamide peroxide).a total of 90 teeth were selected which were divided into 3 equal groups according to the irrigating solutions. Then working lengths were obtained with the help of ROOT ZX II for the respective groups and were compared with the actual lengths. Statistical analysis were done and it was observed that there was significant difference between the groups and within the measurements of sodium hypochlorite group (Group I)

  35. Dr. Abhishek Shrivastava, Dr. Supriya Sharma and Dr. Arun Kumar Shrivastava

    Introduction: The primary objective was to prevent delayed chemo induced nausea and vomiting (CINV). The primary efficacy end point was complete Response (CR) and improving quality of life (QOL). Material and Methods: This is a prospective, observational study conducted on 45 previously untreated histopathologically-proven patients of ductal carcinoma of Breast from January to December 2015. In this study the patients were selected based on our inclusion criteria and each cohort was composed of 15 breast carcinoma diagnosed patients, each cohort receiving Oral Ondansetron 4 mg TDS(cohort 1) ; Oral Granisetron 1 mg BD(cohort 2) ;Oral Palonosetron 0.5 mg OD(cohort 3)and after standard protocol based chemotherapy from day 3 to day 7 post chemotherapy for the prevention of Delayed CINV. and were asked to keep a vomiting diary ,interviewed on telephone and on next follow up visit and then results were graded according to the response obtained by each individual. Patients with history of allergy to 5HT-3antagonists, any associated medical condition causing nausea/vomiting were excluded. Results: A total 165 patients were included in the study, In Palonosetron Cohort 98% patients of H&N have CR and 33% in Cx in Cisplatin based chemotherapy and 64%in Anthracyclin based chemotherapy in Breast Cancer patients. Granisetron Cohort; H& N 53%, Cx 22%. Breast 84%. Ondensetron Cohort; H&N 29%, Cx 13 % Breast 57%. Conclusion: This study shows that oral Palonosetron is better than other oral 5HT-3 antagonists to prevent delayed CINV and thereby improving QOL in patients on chemotherapy.

  36. Dr. Jibran Amin, Dr. Lateef Ahmad Wani, Dr. Suhail Farooq, Dr. Baba Iqbal Khaliq and Dr. Farzana Manzoor

    Aim: To study histopathological pattern of skin adnexal neoplasms. Materials and Methods: The study was conducted in the Department of Pathology, Govt. Medical College and Associated Hospitals Srinagar for a period of 2 years. It was partly a retrospective study and partly prospective. Histopathological examination was done on H&E stained slides and corroborated with special stains wherever required. Results: A total of 92 cases of appendageal tumors were studied. 87 were benign and 5 were malignant with male to female ratio of 1.05:1. Tumors with Follicular differentiation comprised the maximum number of cases followed by tumors with sebaceous differentiation and sweat gland differentiation. The maximum numbers of benign cases were observed in 10-19 years of age group. All malignant tumors were found above 50years of age. Mean age of presentation of adnexal tumors was 31.7 years. Head and neck was the most common site. Conclusions: Skin adnexal tumors are a relatively rare group of tumors with considerable clinical and histological overlap. In our study, hair follicle tumors were the commonest group which is a different finding from the other studies where sweat gland tumors were common.

  37. Dr. VinodKumar, B.P.

    The management of recurrent dislocation of shoulder extends from the anterior scarification procedure of Hippocrates to the joint reconstruction. Here we used 2 tendons, excluding pectoralis minor, from the conjoint tendon of the shoulder and tunneled it through the upper 2/3rd and lower1/3rd junction of subscapularis muscle which is attached to the coracoids process itself. The procedure showed awarding outcomes.

  38. Ademilson Coneglian, Niliane Pereira Campos, Aécio Dantas de Sousa Júnior, Carlos Roberto Sette Júnior, Anderson Rodrigo da Silva and Ismael Martins Pereira

    This study was carried out in order to identify and characterize the transition region between juvenile and mature wood of Pinus caribeae var. hondurensis with 40 years of age, with diameter class around 30-35 cm, from the plantations of the Fazenda Vale do Rio Grande located at the municipality of Catalão, state of Goiás, Brazil. The regions of juvenile and mature wood were characterized by anatomical studies - length of axial tracheids using discs obtained at the DAP trees, following the recommendations of the International Association of Wood Anatomists. The tracheids lengths were obtained from a diagnosis and image analysis equipment. A total of five slides were prepared for every 5 mm in the radial direction, and the lengths of six tracheids were measured per slide. The juvenile wood region is defined from the pith to the first 50mm radius, whereas the mature zone comprises from 80 mm to the bark, corresponding from the 9th to 17th growth rings, respectively. There was an increasing pattern of tracheids length variation from the pith, followed by a region with stabilization of the value and, finally, a slight increase.

  39. Anandhakalyani, M., Dr. N. Ganapathy and Dr. P. Padmavathi

    Objectives: Evaluate the effectiveness of taichi chuan and mindfulness meditation on stress and quality of sleep among high school students of kanyakumari district. Methods: True experimental design was adopted. Simple random sampling technique was used to select the sample. Totally 80 samples, out of which 40 were experimental group I and 40 were experimental group II. Taichi Chuan was taught for experimental group I and Mindfulness Meditation was taught for experimental group II for weeks. The data were gathered and analyzed by descriptive and inferential statistical method. Results: In experimental group I, 55% were having no stress and 45% were having mild stress, whereas in experimental group II, 35% were having no stress and 65% were having mild stress. In quality of sleep, experimental group I, 65% were having good quality of sleep and 35% were having fair quality of sleep, whereas in experimental group II, 95% were having good quality of sleep and 5% have fair quality of sleep. The overall mean score (11.28± 6.47) which is 28. 19% in experimental group I whereas in experimental group II the mean score (10.78 ± 0.37) which is 26.94%. Paired t test value was 3.26 and 2.65 in both the groups. It seems that Tai Chi Chuan and Mindfulness Meditation were most effective in reducing non academic stress than academic stress among High school children. The Chi-Square test result shows that there is no significant association between high school children with demographic variables. Further research is required to determine the effectiveness of taichi chuan and mindfulness meditation with large samples and to identify their underlying mechanism.

  40. Dr. Shubha Ranjan Dutta, Dr. Deepak Passi, Dr. Laxman Malkunje, Dr. Manisha Devi, Dr. Sameer Gupta and Dr. Yoshi panwar

    The extensive use of antibiotics since they were discovered has lead many bacterial species of human and animal origin to develop innumerable mechanisms that provide them resistant to some antibiotics and in a few cases to nearly all of them. There are numerous significant pathogens that are resistant to many antibiotic classes, and these multidrug resistant (MDR) organisms cause infections that are restricting treatment options and as a result compromising effective therapy. Thus, the emergence of antibiotic resistant bacteria population is a pertinent field of study in medical practice as well as in evolutionary and molecular biology. In recent times, the greatest challenge to the effective treatment of infectious disease, in the field of medicine, is the ability of all pathogens, without exception, to develop mechanisms for resistance to the action of antimicrobial drugs. Due to advancement in automation, clinical epidemiological research, and molecular biology, our wisdom of resistance has expanded at a confusing rate in recent years. Anyhow, antimicrobial resistance remains a significant medical, financial, and social issue. In this review we showcase some recent data and literature on molecular mechanisms of antibiotic resistance.

  41. Sujata Hiran, Sanjay Dwivedi and Sunil Kumar

    Warfarin induced skin necrosis (WISN) is a rare, unusual, unpredictable dermatological complication of anticoagulant therapy. As anticoagulation is a component of major therapy in many chronic illnesses, the recognition of this condition is crucial for prompt management of morbidity and mortality associated with this condition. We report a case of 25 year old woman who received warfarin for cerebrovenous thrombosis without proper overlap of Heparin resulting in WISN.

  42. Mohammed Mohammed Al-Akmar and Nabil Ahmed Al-Rabeei

    Background: It seems that the nurse is an important contact who provides care, information, and support, and also coordinates the patients’ care before and after surgery, which may reducing the patients’ feelings of insecurity and fear. Aim: to assess the performance level of nurses working in the general surgical wards at selected hospitals in Yemen about psycho-social interventions for pre and post-operative patients and find out the association factors between demographic characteristics and performance. Methods: A descriptive cross-sectional study was carried out in surgical wards of 6 hospitals in Sana’a city, Yemen. A self-administered questionnaire including 45 pre-postoperative psychosocial interventions was distributed to all general abdominal surgical nurses and collected between December 2014 and February 2015. The results were entered, analyzed and tabulated using the Statistical Package for Social Sciences Version 19. Results: Out of 130 nurses, 88.2% of respondents had a moderate level of performance on pre-postoperative psychosocial interventions. Concerning each sub-dimension, the psychosocial, communication and spiritual performance were at a moderate level also, information provision performance was at moderate level and psycho-education were at low level. It is indicated that problems lacked performance regarding PSI in general and particular on psycho-education area among surgical nurses in Yemen. Yemeni surgical nurses were shown to be associated with better performance scores regarding psychosocial. Surgical nurses working in army and non-teaching hospitals were shown to be associated with better performance scores regarding psycho-education. Conclusion: Performance of pre postoperative PSI is moderate level among nurses working in surgical wards.

  43. Dr. M. N. Padmini, Dr. Nishat Sidiqha, Dr. Rahul S Thalanany, Dr. Priya Manimegalan, Dr. H. C. Ramakrishna and Dr. Bharati D. Deo

    Infection control has been one of the major concerns in the field of dentistry since decades. The dentist and his office personnel are at a great risk of contracting wide range of infections like HIV, hepatitis B, herpes, tuberculosis, respiratory diseases such as pharyngitis etc., as they are exposed to bacteria in the blood and saliva in patients routinely. There are various methods of sterilization which are commonly used like, hot air oven, autoclave, cold sterilization, etc. Orthodontists are more prone to cuts, abrasions, and puncture wounds from sharp edges of orthodontic wires, pliers and orthodontic appliances. These cuts serve as portal of entry for the bacteria which can enter the body and cause infections. In this article we have attempted to provide a brief overlook on methods of sterilization and infection control in orthodontics which can be practiced to prevent the spread of infections.

  44. Ashlesha Jambure, Dhananjay Bhale and Deepali Vaishanv

    Objective: The aim of the study was to assess effect various lecture delivery techniques such as using chalk board, lectures using power point presentation (PPT) and the lectures using transparencies and over head projector (TOHP) on teaching learning process. The first year MBBS students were asked to assess the effect of three biochemistry lectures given by above three different lecture delivery methods by filling in a questionnaire. After each lecture we compared effect of lectures delivered by different methods by objective test. Observation: One hundred and fifty students were subject of this study. The results of the study showed that students mostly preferred power point teaching. As far as the student’s performance is concerned the impact of power point teaching was much more than traditional Chalkboard and lectures using transparency and overhead projector (OHP) which is evaluated by objective test.. Conclusion: We found that power point presentations had made a positive impact on various aspects of their learning in biochemistry than OHP and blackboard method. We conclude that this teaching method is very useful than conventional lecture-based teaching in the biochemistry curriculum.

  45. Mamatha, V., Muralidharan, S., Ranjani Shamsundar and Seena Thomas

    Dengue is one of the most important mosquito borne viral infections of man. Dengue epidemics have taken a significant economic and health toll. The study was aimed to look at the utility of dengue NS1 (non structural protein 1) antigen as an early marker of dengue infection. The study group included 300 clinically suspected cases of dengue presenting within the first week of fever. Patients’ serum sample was subjected to ELISA for NS1 Ag, IgM Ab and IgG Ab. Of the study group, 36.33% and 44.33% of cases were positive by NS1 Ag test and IgM Ab test respectively; when both the tests were combined together, the detection rate increased to 61.33%, which was statistically significant (p=0.04). In the first 3 days of fever, a higher number of cases were positive for NS1 Ag only. By day 4, a combination of NS1 Ag and IgM Ab gave a positivity of 29.31%. Day 5 onwards, a higher number of cases were positive for IgM Ab only. The results show that NS1 Ag is a very useful tool in the diagnosis of dengue infection especially in the first 3 days of fever even before IgM Ab becomes detectable; when used in combination with IgM Ab assay, the diagnostic algorithm significantly improves on a single serum sample.

  46. Bhuvaneswari Devi, C., Indravathi, G. and Kiran Kumari, K.

    Oxidative stress is an essential biomarker in cell survival and death. Oxygen related radicals have a strong ability to cause long-term or even permanent damage to cellular components, particularly within the mitochondrial electron transport system (ETS). The present study addressed the effect of Manganese (Mn) on oxidative system in the cardiac tissue of rat. One month and three months old rats were exposed to Mn intraperitoneally at a concentration of low dose (2.5mg/kg body weight) and high dose (5mg/kg body weight) for a period of three weeks. A separate batch of low dose and high dose of Mn exposed rats received Vitamin-E intraperitoneally for a week. In this study, we assessed the biochemical end points indicative of oxidative stress and TCA cycle enzymes in mitochondrial fraction of cardiac tissue in rats at the age of two months and four months. We measured the activity levels of Mn-superoxide dismutase (Mn-SOD), Cu/Zn-superoxide dismutase (Cu/Zn-SOD), glutathione peroxidase (GPx), catalase (CAT), glutathione dehydrogenase(GDH), succinate dehydrogenase (SDH) and isocitrate dehydrogenase (ICDH) which were decreased, whereas the lipid peroxidation (LP), glutathione-s-transferase (GST) showed significant increase in Mn exposed rats over control rats in a dose-dependent manner. The exposure to Vitamin-E, however, to low and high dose of Mn showed recovery which was observed in the increased activities of Mn-SOD, Cu/Zn-SOD, GPX, CAT, GDH, SDH, ICDH. Similarly, decreased levels of LP and GST were observed. The results may suggest that Mn-induced functional deficits in the oxidative enzymes of cardiac tissue and recovery through Vitamin E. As an antioxidant, Vitamin-E acts as a peroxyl radical scavenger, preventing the propagation of free radicals in tissues, by reacting with them and form a tocopheryl radical, which will then be reduced by a hydrogen donor and thus return to its reduced state. As it is incorporated into cell membranes, which protects them from oxidative damage. Thus Vitamin-E lesser the Mn burden in the cardiac tissue of rat as an effective chelating agent by decreasing the oxidative stress.

  47. Dr. Dayakar, M. M., Dr. Prakash Pai and Dr. Vintu Vijayan

    Drug induced gingival enlargement, a common adverse drug reaction in patients treated with anticonvulsants, calcium channel blockers and immunosuppressant. The management requires a proper understanding of case and a multidisciplinary approach including medical, surgical and supportive care. Here, we are discussing a case report of drug induced gingival enlargement in a patient undergoing antiepileptic drug and antihypertensive drug. The treatment options included substitution of drug, measures to improve oral hygiene and gingivectomy.

  48. Haifaa Al-damri, Razan Al-humaid, Sara Al-shehri and Samaa Al-otaibi

    Introduction and Objective: Down syndrome is a genetic disorder of chromosome 21 that is characterized by physical and mental disability. The incidence of Down Syndrome in Saudi Arabia is estimated to be 1 in 500, which is higher than the world average. Many studies have been done around the world to compare the DMF Index and OHI between the children with Down Syndrome and the normal children. No such study has been conducted in KSA therefore the aim of this study was to compare the DMF Index and the Oral Hygiene Index between the children with Down Syndrome and normal children with no Down Syndrome in Riyadh, KSA. Materials and Methods: It was a cross-sectional, observational clinical study with a sample size of 200 subjects. Our control group was composed of 100 Normal Children who were randomly selected and examined at an elementary public school in Riyadh. The other 100 subjects were Down Syndrome children. These subjects were examined at DSCA center, Saudi center for down syndrome, and Saut society in Riyadh. Oral examination done by using regular examination instruments on regular chair. The indexes used in this study: Decayed-Missing-Filled Index (DMFT) Oral hygiene index (OHI) Results: All data was analyzed by Excel software using the student’s t-test There was no statistically significant difference between any of the parameters in the control and study group. The results were calculated at 95% confidence level (P value = 0.05) After comparison the values were: D= 0.059, M=0.090, F=0.65, and OHI=0.098. Conclusion: No statistically significant difference was observed in the DMF index or OHI between the Down syndrome subjects and the normal subjects in the control group.

  49. Dr. Shweta S Hugar, Dr. Rishi Bhimani, Dr. Neelamma Shetti and Dr. Renuka Metgud

    The main goal of Periodontal regeneration is the treatment of teeth affected by periodontitis. Periodontal regeneration is quite challenging to the dentist especially when it is in the furcation area and in intra bony defects. Furcation-involvement is an extension of inflammation into the: bi or trifurcation region of multirooted teeth. Several treatment modalities have been proposed based on the grade of furcation involvement and intra bony defects. This paper presents a case series of an endodontically, treated tooth with a furcation involvement and intra bony defects with the help of surgical intervention, including the guided tissue regeneration (GTR) membrane and bone graft materials. This combined treatment resulted in a healthy periodontium, with radiographic evidence of alveolar bone gain at 3 months follow up.

  50. Dr. Madeleine Garner, Mr. Kamil Naidoo, Umar J Wali and Glen Husada

    In the UK, abdominal wall hernias of all types have a prevalence of 1.7% in patients of any age and 4% in those aged over 45 years. Despite the established gold standard of repair with prosthetic mesh, there are instances where a mesh is not used. It is therefore prudent that operation notes and discharge summaries contain information on the use (or indeed, absence) of prosthetic mesh, to aid diagnosis in the event of any subsequent complications and to guide further management. This retrospective study aims to review the documentation with a view to establishing current reporting practice. Method: All patients who underwent elective open abdominal wall hernia repair (incisional, umbilical/paraumbilical and inguinal), in a London district general hospital, from January 2016 to January 2017 were included in the study. Results: 53 cases meeting the inclusion criteria were identified with 2 cases excluded. All cases contained explicit operative documentation regarding prosthetic mesh (48 mesh repairs and 3 repairs without mesh.) Only 64.7% (n=33) discharge summaries contained explicit information on whether on not mesh was used. Conclusion: This study has found that there is sufficient documentation in operation notes, but a lack of mesh information in discharge summaries. The authors therefore recommend the operative surgeon guides junior staff on the information required on discharge summaries.

  51. Ana Maria Soto González

    Objective: To make a bibliographical investigation of the published literature on the subject of clown as a tool of spiritual care for the humanization of health. Method: Different databases were reviewed and various published works on the subject were analyzed and relevant aspects were synthesized in order to identify coincidences and discrepancies. Results: The different studies and authors coincide in pointing out that laughter and humor through clown art have benefits in the physical, social, psychological and spiritual dimensions of patients, family caregivers and health personnel, promoting noetic resources of self-denial as well as of self-transcendence that allow the confrontation of the experience of the disease in the context of health services in a humanizing and humanized way. Conclusions: Laughter and humor through clown art is a way of caring for the human being in its different dimensions, especially the spiritual one, it is also a valuable resource of low cost and access that humanizes the service and allows to see the reality of pain and human suffering in another way.

  52. Carolina Carvajal-Villalba and Luz-Adriana Suarez-Jaramillo

    Objective: To know the perception that health staff has towards safety culture of the patient in institutions of the center of Valle. Methods: The survey on patient safety culture validated by Agency for Health Care Research and Quality was carried out to 436 people of the following occupations: doctors, nurses and nursing assistants of 18 health institutions of the municipalities of the center of Valle del Cauca. Findings and conclusion: The dimensions with the greatest number of positive answers were organizational learning/continuous improvement, teamwork inside units and the management support in pursuit of patient safety with80%, 75 % and 75% respectively. On the contrary, the dimension non-punitive answer to errors with 32.2% and the staffing with 34% were the worst rated. It was evidenced organizational learning/continuous improvement, teamwork inside units and the management support in pursuit of patient safety as strengths, and non-punitive answer to errors as well as staffing as improvement opportunities.

  53. Dr. Sharaz Shaik, Dr. Mallikarjuna murthy, H.B., Dr. Muhammad Farhan Khan, Dr. Samiyah Hazazi, Dr. Thrya Salehh Gadah and Dr. Muhammad Irfan Majeed

    Purpose: The aim of the study was to investigate the influence of various depths of reduction of the abutment tooth on the fracture resistance of monolithic zirconia bridge in vitro, with the null hypothesis that the depth of tooth preparation of the abutment has no statistical influence on the fracture resistance of the monolithic zirconia bridge Materials and Methods: Abutment Tooth preparation is done on phantom teeth no 45 and 47 with the below mentioned depths. Casts are made from the impressions and 5 bridges for each group are manufactured using CAD/CAM. All the 15 bridges are cemented on respective metal dies using glass inomer cement and tested on an Instron testing machine for fracture resistance. The results are tabulated and statistically analyzed. Results: The statistical analysis (ANOVA) of this research showed that there is significant difference between mean resistance scores among the three groups. Furthermore, LSD post hoc test revealed that the mean resistance score for group 3 is significantly higher than both group 1 and 2. There was no statistically significant difference in resistance scores between group 1 and group 2. Conclusion: Within the limitations of this study, the following conclusions can be drawn: 1. The depth of tooth preparation of the abutment has significant influence on the fracture resistance of monolithic zirconia crowns and bridges, with 2mm occlusal reduction displaying the best possible fracture resistance strengths. 2. The monolithic zirconia bridge made over the tooth preparation of the abutment with 0.5mm of reduction circumferentially, showed a significantly lower fracture resistance and might exhibit fractures during mastication. 3. The monolithic zirconia bridge made over the tooth preparation with 1mm of occlusal reduction of the abutment performed slightly better than that of 0.5mm reduction but is still significantly weaker than that of 2mm occlusal reduction.

  54. Lashanda B. Brumfield, Ham Benghuzzi and Elgenaid Hamadain

    The growing consumer demand for complementary and alternative therapies (CAM) in health care has had an effect on all health professionals. The discipline of nursing is rooted in many holistic processes but the role of providing such services has not been fully defined, including the state of Mississippi. Nurses are the members of the healthcare team who often initiate such a conversation with patients about CAM. For a starting point, we took a look at the state of Mississippi nurses and their feelings on CAM instruction in school curriculia or during professional continued education programs. This was a proactive descriptive quantitative study, with a sample size of 116 participants representing 16 higher education institutions. The survey was conducted during the Mississippi Nurses Association’s Annual Meetings & Conventions. The findings of this study demonstrated that overall 80% of nurses felt that their higher education institution did not provide adequate education on CAM. Fifty three percent reported actually taking some course that cover a component of CAM, suggesting that 95.6% feeling that the physician should be the one to communcate to patients about CAM use. Our findings highlighted the fact that Mississippi nurses feel unprepared in CAM education when communicating with their patients. Our findings also highlighted the associations between Mississippi nurses “feeling comfortable talking to their patients about CAM” and nurses attending a higher education institution within the state of Mississippi, with a P=0.857 (Chi Square). This study shine light on the need of higher education institutions to revisit nursing school’s study curricula to fit the continuously changing healthcare system and the popularity of CAM among patients.

  55. Aadil Ashraf, Touseef ahmad Mir, Irfan Gul, Gazzanfar Ali and Javed Khan

    Background: The interest in cardiac conduction system has focused primarily on its role as a predictor of mortality and coexistent cardiovascular diseases particularly hospitalized patients. Objectives: The study was undertaken to study the pattern of cardiac conduction defects in a tertiary care hospital. Methodology: The study was conducted from 1st March 2012 to 31st august 2013 and included cases >20yrs of age presenting to OPD or admitted in SMHS hospital and showing some form of cardiac conduction defect on a standard 12 lead ECG. A total of 1710 cases were studied. A thorough medical history and meticulous physical examination was done and appropriate statistical methods applied to derive the results. Results: Of the 1710 cases, 990(57.9%) were males and 720(42.1%) were females. Most of cases were seen in the age group of 70-79yrs (25.7%). The various cardiac conduction defects in decreasing order of frequency were: LBBB 501 (29.2%), LAHB 431 (25.2%), RBBB 308 (18.01%), Bifascicular block 173(10.1%), Complete Heart Block 104(6.08%), 2nd degree heart block 91(5.32), Trifascicular Block 48(2.8%), 1st degree Heart block 34(1.99%), SI SII SIII Syndrome 13(0.76%) and LPHB 7(0.4%). Conclusion: LBBB is the most common conduction defect in a hospitalized setting. The cardiac conduction defects increase with advancing age and a close follow up on patients cardiac status should be maintained as they are linked with significant morbidity and mortality.

  56. Betty Sarabia Alcocer, Betty Mónica Velázquez Sarabia, Luis Alberto Núñez Oreza, Graciella Rosado Vila, Paulino Tamay Segovia, Selene Blum Domínguez, María Eugenia López Caamal, María Concepción Ruíz de Chávez Figueroa, Norvin José Hernández Domínguez,

    Objective: To determine the number of cases of mild, severe preeclampsia and eclampsia. Materials and Methods: A retrospective, cross-sectional, observational and descriptive study was carried out, including all pregnant patients as of week 20 of gestation and puerperal women. Pregnant women were selected from 20 weeks of gestation or postpartum women who had blood pressure equal to or greater than 140/90 mm Hg in two doses with a difference of 6 hrs. Between each one after resting or an elevation of 30 mm Hg systolic number and 15 mm Hg the diastolic with respect to its usual TA in the same way in two shots. Results: Thirty-two (67.74%) had mild preeclampsia, 17 (27.42%) had severe preeclampsia and three (4.84%) had eclampsia. The age subgroup with the highest incidence of mild and severe preeclampsia was 15 to 19 years for eclampsia of children under 15 years. Two patients who had severe preeclampsia during the postpartum period, most of the pregnant women were 40 weeks' gestation when they were diagnosed with preeclampsia. Conclusion: During the two years, 62 cases were reported at the Hecelchakan Health Center, Campeche.

  57. Joseph A. Balogun, Adetoyeje Y. Oyeyemi and Adetutu O. Balogun

    This exploratory study was designed to ascertain whether the existing physiotherapy programs in Nigeria have the infrastructures and institutional support needed to initiate an entry-level Doctor of Physiotherapy (DPT) program. A secondary objective was to evaluate whether the level of readiness to implement the program is influenced by the regional location of the university and the year of debut of the existing baccalaureate degree programs. The Heads of Department of Physiotherapy programs that have produced physiotherapists (N=7) completed a questionnaire that sought information on (1) program demographic characteristics, human/physical/financial resources, instrumentation, library subscriptions and institutional support available; and (2) thirty specific contents currently taught in the undergraduate curriculum. The respondents unanimously (100%) indicated that they have an adequate number of qualified clinicians (not lecturers) to supervise students in the hospital/private clinic and community settings. On the other hand, only 29% of the respondents indicated that their programs have adequate state of the art physiotherapy equipment, a current subscription to physiotherapy journals, and adequate research laboratories; only 43% of the respondents felt they are currently adequately funded to operate their program effectively. The respondents also unanimously indicated that 56% of the “gold” standard DPT curriculum contents are taught in the baccalaureate degree program. Paradoxically, only 14% of the respondents indicated that women’s health, EKG interpretation, autism, nutrition and differential physiotherapy diagnosis are currently taught in the undergraduate program. In addition, only 29% of the respondents indicated that laser biostimulation therapy, private practice and home health, direct access and independent practice are currently taught. The vast majority (71%) of the programs surveyed indicated interest in starting a DPT program within 1 to 5 years. Nnamdi Azikiwe University and the University of Lagos are the two top institutions primed to implement the DPT program. The University of Nigeria at Nsukka is the least prepared institution. The result of the Shapiro-Wilk test revealed that the program demographic and readiness outcome data monitored in this study were neither skewed nor kurtotic. The Levene's test also confirmed the population variances to be equal. The independent student t-test revealed that the location of the academic programs (Northern vs Southern States) and the year of debut of the baccalaureate program (First and Second generations) did not significantly (p>.05) impact the entry-level DPT readiness outcomes.

  58. Shimaa S. Ahmed, Ola H. Zyaan and Mohamed A. Abdou

    Agriculturists in developing countries are suffering from many diseases caused by tick infestations that reduce the productivity of their livestock. To diminish these losses, natural products (eco-friendly) for ectoparasite control with lower chance of improvement of resistance are required. This study aimed to examine the effect of different concentrations (0.5, 1.5, 2.5, and 4%) of Allium sativum (Garlic) extract on the viability of eggs laid by Argaspersicus females and their ovaries’ development. It was found that the number of eggs laid by treated females were significantly(P<0.05) decreased than those laid by normal females. There is a significant inverse relationship between the treatment concentration of garlic extract and the percentage of hatched eggs. Applying different concentrations (100, 200, 400, 500, and 600 ppm) of garlic extract on the eggs resulted in the percentage of unhatched eggs increasing significantly as garlic concentrations also increased.The average diameters of oocytes in treated females were decreased by 61% from the normal oocytes’ average diameter, and the ovary appeared studded with previtellogenic primary oocytes. Histological changes observed in the treated ovaries include: the presence of vacuolization; alteration of oocyte morphology, which changed from rounded to elongate; disorganization of the yolk granules; and deformation of the chorion. These results demonstrate that garlic extract affected A. persicus oogenesis by interfering with the formation of yolk granules and egg shells. Our results suggest that garlicextract causes partial blockage of the vitellogenesis and other aspects of oogenesis as indicated by disrupted synthesis of yolk protein in the newly formed oocytes.

  59. Dr. Abis Amir, Dr. Shantipriya Reddy, Dr. Prasad, Dr. Nirjhar Bhowmik and Dr. Vimal, S.K.

    Root coverage procedures are routinely performed for the treatment of clinically exposed root surfaces of the tooth. The primary aim behind these mucogingival procedures is to place the gingival margin on or as close to cemento-enamel junction as possible. Various biomaterials such as amnion membrane and PRF membrane have been used for purpose of guided tissue regeneration. Both the biomaterials consist of various growth factors and have positive effect on wound healing. In the present case report we have discussed two cases, each treated using coronally advanced flap with either amnion membrane or PRF membrane.

  60. Ballal, B. B., Sulagna Das, Atithi Jagdale, Chitra Sharma, Divya Chandrasekharan, Swapnil Dhobale, Renuka Ballal and Bodhankar, M. G.

    Human clinical trials were conducted for the assessment of effect of selected potential biological immunomodulators on ‘Absolute CD4’ count of 32 HIV reactive patients. Following clearance of ‘Institutional Ethics Committee’, effect of blended formulations of Chlorophylum borivilianum, Withania somnifera, Wagatia spicata Dalz., Picrorrhiza kurroa, Spilanthes paniculata Wall. ex. DC.were studied over the period of eleven months in each participant. Readings of ‘Absolute CD4’ counts were recorded using ‘Flow Cytometry’. Statistical analysis was carried out using ‘Split Plot’ analysis (Mixed Design Test) followed by ‘Bartlett’s test for Sphericity’ and ‘Levene’s test for homogenecity of variance’. At the end of phase – II clinical trials, statistically significant rise in the ‘Absolute CD4’ count was noted.

  61. Keon-Cheol Lee

    Purpose: To investigate how heat shock protein (HSP) expression, especially inducible HSP 70, is related to the infertility of dioxin-induced testicular toxicity by animal study Materials and Methods: Four week old 30 male Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into 10 groups. Group I, II, III received TCDD(2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin) 40μg intraperitoneally and were sacrificed 12hr, 24hr, 48hr later respectively. Group IV, V, VI received vehicle as control group and were sacrificed at the same time. Group VII, VIII received TCDD at 5 weeks of age and were sacrificed 1 week, 4 week later respectively. Group IX, X received vehicle as control group and were sacrificed at the same time. All extracted testes were examined with light microscopy, western blot and immunofluorescence for HSP 70, HSP 90 and inducible HSP 70 and apoptosis stain with TUNEL method. Results: On light microscopy, only group VIII showed significant difference between study and control group. Group VIII and group X showed body weight 139.7gm, 275gm, testis weight 2.17gm, 3.67gm, seminiferous tubule diameter 252μm, 281μm, Johnson score 8.8, 10.0 points, injured tubule ratio 0.131, 0.024 respectively (p<0.01). In western blot and immunofluorescence, inducible HSP 70 was expressed in the group I, II, III, VII, VIII and the intensity increased with time, but in the control group, no expression for inducible HSP 70 was seen. Total HSP 70 was expressed in all study and control groups. On apoptosis stain, intensity peak was noticed at 12hr and decreased after then. HSP 90 was expressed in all study and control groups as well Conclusions: The expression of inducible HSP 70 in the TCDD injured rat testis increased with time and on immunofluorescence stain, the expression site was spermatocytes. Apoptosis appeared initially but decreased after 12hrs. HSP90 and total HSP 70 expression was not changed by TCDD.

  62. Dr. Anant Raghav Sharma, Dr. Shristhi Sharma, Dr. Shanti Prasad Maurya, Dr. Sonali Chhabria and Dr. Rajrani Sharma

    The present study was undertaken to assess plasma C-reactive protein levels in pregnant women with and without periodontal disease. The study was designed as a prospective cohort study involving a sample size of 45 pregnant subjects in the age of 20-40 were selected from RavindraNath Tagore Medical College and hospital with gestational age of 2-12 weeks divided into 3 groups : Control group (15 healthy non pregnant female without periodontitis; group A; study group – 15 pregnant females with periodontitis – group B) study group (15 pregnant patients without periodontitis) Group C. Periodontal disease activity was recorded at baseline for all groups using month mirror and UNC-15 periodontal probe and Russell's Index was recorded. Samples were taken for estimation of C-reactive protein levels from all groups at 2-12 weeks of gestation. CRP levels were determined using latex-agglutination-test. The results revealed a statistically significant increase in the levels of CRP in pregnant women with periodontitis. As the value of RPI increased, as increase in CRP levels also was observed. The conclusion that can be drawn from this study is "Periodontal disease in pregnant women is associated with increased CRP levels in early pregnancy. The present study provides ground work data regarding the correlation of plasma – CRP levels in pregnant women, with and without periodontal disease. Further longitudinal studies are still required to establish the exact association between elevated CRP levels in pregnancy with periodontal disease.

  63. Dr. Shristhi Sharma, Dr. Anant Raghav Sharma, Dr. Shanti Prasad Maurya and Dr. Sonali Chhabria

    Reattachment of tooth fragment of anterior teeth is easy to practice and economic method that has the potential to assume the incisal strength during tooth functioning. The method ensures increased wearing steadiness and thus creates better function. This clinical case report tries to throw light on certain aspects of the reattachment technique used on fractured teeth. The clinical and radiographic examination revealed a complicated oblique crown fracture that was treated by doing RCT and reinforcing with a prefabricated fibrepost. The fractured segment was then accurately placed on the tooth, later post in the canal was cemented. Tooth jewellery was used to camouflage fracture line and also to enhance the esthetics. The clinical results appear to be positive and they show that this technique is easy to perform and standardize, inexpensive and that it allows both functional and aesthetic benefits.

  64. Dr. Savitha Sathyaprasad, Dr. Dhanya, K.B., Dr. Krishnamoorthy, S. H. and Dr. Jerry George

    Early childhood caries (ECC) has gained popularity due to increased prevalence rate (54%) worldwide. The main cause is believed to be improper feeding habits even though it is multi-factorial. Aim: To evaluate if frequent carbohydrate snacking in between meals and poor oral hygiene is equally contributing to aetiology of ECC in 3-6 year old children attending preschools in Sullia, Karnataka. Methods: In this questionnaire study, two sets of questionnaire were distributed, one to rule out children with history of consumption of milk based food and other to collect data on consumption of carbohydrate food frequency & timing of feeding and their oral hygiene. Children without history of consumption of milk based food was taken as sample population (266). Clinical examination was carried out to categorize children into two groups; case (133 children with ECC) and control (133 children without ECC). Data were collected and statistically analyzed. Result: It showed that, children who snacks in between meals showed risk of having ECC 8 times more than that of children who snacks with meals; The children who brushes once daily showed risk of having ECC 3.4 times more than that of children who brushes twice daily. The correlation between the consumption of carbohydrate food without the use of milk based food and their oral hygiene habit with ECC were found to be extremely statistically significant at P value < 0.0001 level. Conclusion: Increased frequency of highly fermentable carbohydrate was equally contributing to ECC in pre-schoolers of 3-6 years in a group of India population.

  65. Dr. Shristhi Sharma, Dr. Anant Raghav Sharma, Dr. Shanti Prasad Maurya, Dr. Sonali Chhabria and Dr. Rajrani Sharma

    The intracoronal bleaching procedure is largely used because it is efficient, simple and economic. Indications for internal bleaching are discoloration of pulpal origin, dentin stains, and stains not amenable to extra-coronal bleaching. Contraindications to internal bleaching are superficial enamel stains, defective enamel formation, severe dentin loss, presence of caries and discolored composites. Most bleaching agents are oxidizers that act on organic structures of the hard tissues and degrade them into smaller molecules that are lighter in color such as CO2, O2 and H2O. Comman materials which were used earlier are glass ionomer cement, amalgam, zinc phosphate cement, IRM, zinc polycarboxylate cement, silicate cements. Materials which were used in the study were MTA, Biodentine and SDR composite material as an intraorifice barrier in walking bleach technique. Placement of a barrier like Biodentine over the gutta-percha certainly enhances the seal, prevents the leakage of the bleaching materials and is an esthetic option for intraorifice barrier unlike MTA and SDR composite as use of Biodentine does not cause discoloration. This study was performed in in-vitro conditions, hence long term in-vivo studies are required to check for sealing ability of Biodentine before routine clinical usage.

  66. Haranath Reddy, K., Sunil Kumar, M., Charitha Devi, M. and Sai Gopal, D.V.R.

    Aspergillus awamori is an efficient producer of many hydrolytic enzymes, has not been exploited commercially and for enzyme production. Cellulases, Xylanases and laccases thought to be of great significance for several industries namely paper, pharmaceuticals, food, feed etc. in addition to better utilization of lignocellulosic biomass. The present investigation was aimed to produce several extracellular enzymes by Aspergillus awamori and the Molecular characterization of the isolate by18S rRNA sequencing. Commercially available agricultural waste solid substrates were used as cellulosic substrates for enzyme production. Experiments were conducted to optimize the production of lignocellulases. The maximum enzyme activity was achieved on 6th day of incubation at 30O c temperature with the pH 6.0 and by using Lactose 1% w/v as Carbon Source, tryptone, yeast extract 1% w/v as Nitrogen Source. The present study reveals that the cellulolytic properties of Aspergillus awamori tested and optimized culture conditions maximizing lignocellulolytic enzymes production.

  67. Dr. Preeti Awari and Dr. Vatsalaswamy, P.

    The sural nerve is formed by joining of the medial sural cutaneous nerve, branch of tibial nerve and lateral sural cutaneous nerve, branch of common peroneal nerve. It innervates the skin on posterolateral surface of leg and a variable area of the skin on the dorsum of the foot laterally. Clinicians use the nerve quite frequently to do nerve conduction studies, nerve grafting and also for nerve biopsy. We are describing many variations in the formation and course of the sural nerve such as : variability in location of formation of sural nerve, either in upper third, in middle third or in lower third of leg. Also in few specimens the medial sural cutaneous nerve continued as sural nerve on the dorsum of the foot. In some legs the medial sural cutaneous nerve was passing through the gastrocnemius muscle. Becoming familiar with these variations in sural nerve can be of great help to the clinicians while doing nerve conduction studies and to the plastic/ reconstructive surgeons for minimizing the complications that may occur at the time of surgery.

  68. María Eugenia Vélez Arias

    Maternal morbidity is an indicator related to the pregnant woman mortality and the epidemiological monitoring of Extreme Maternal Morbidity and studies related to their associated factors is one of the strategies implemented to improve maternal health and achieve a reduction in the maternal mortality rate. In the present study, we aimed to determine the prevalence of demographic, social, environmental and cultural factors associated with maternal morbidity in a group of pregnant women during an academic practice of UCEVA Nursing students. The Methodology applied during the academic practice of pregnant woman care subject in the nursing program in the Central Unit of the Valle del Cauca, Tuluá 2014, 11 pregnant women were included, they were given a structured survey based on the Familiogram, Ecomap, Apgar and NANDA instruments. Regarding the results, the pregnant women group, included in the study, consisted of pregnant women with an average age of 17 years old, with low level of education, between 1 and 2 socio-economic level, 55% of this group was multi-pregnancy, 73% started their prenatal control in the second quarter. In the family background, hypertension, diabetes and preeclampsia were found. The external factors found were marked, in strict order, by the presence of cats, mosquitoes, rodents and dogs. Within the recorded data, 27% of the patients presented pediculosis. The familiogram study showed that most of the families were large and single-parent family. The morbidity causes found were 55% urinary tract infections followed by vaginitis and gestational syphilis. According to the above, it is concluded that although the sample size is small, it was possible to demonstrate that it is necessary an early detection and preventive and intervention strategies about the factors associated with maternal morbidity according to our population.

  69. Dr. Srishti Yadav and Dr. Anita Khokhar

    Aim: The aim of the study was to assess the health literacy of school going adolescents regarding Hypertension, and to assess the improvement in knowledge after Information Education and Communication (IEC) activity. Methodology: It was a school based-interventional study conducted in the year 2016. A list of all schools located in Najafgarh area which is the field practice area of VMMC and SJH was prepared and the two schools were selected by simple random method of sampling. A pre-tested, semi-structured, self-administered questionnaire was used given to a total of 120 students of classes 6th, 7th and 8th from each school for baseline and post – intervention data. Intervention was given in the form of posters and pamphlets in school 1 and by didactic lectures in school 2. Post – intervention data were collected at 2 weeks and at 3 months after the intervention. Data were analysed using licensed SPSS 21.0 software and Chi Square test was used to find the association between the dependent and independent variables. Results: Before the intervention, from school 1, 81.7% of the students had heard of hypertension and from school 2, 83.0% students had heard of hypertension. A total of 6.7% students in school 1 and 2.5% students in school 2 knew normal blood pressure value. A total of 22.5% students in school 1 and 39.2% students in school 2 knew blood pressure increases in hypertension. Similarly a total of 67.3% students in school 1and 63.3% students in school 2 knew hypertension is preventable. There was a significantly higher proportion of students with satisfactory level of knowledge of hypertension after 2 weeks and 3 months of intervention in both the schools.

  70. Ayelech Wari Gemeda and Dr. Sillas Cheru

    The study investigated the major educational problems of the hearing impaired and strategies used for tackling them. The study was conducted in Mekanisa School for the Deaf (Addis Ababa) and Hermata Primary School (Jimma). The selection of subjects was based on availability sampling method. The methods used to gather information from respondents were interviews, questionnaire, focus group discussion and classroom observation checklist. The major educational problems identified in the study were that the teachers were either insufficiently trained or not trained at all, the curricula were incompatible with the capacity of hearing impaired, teachers have low command in total communication, hearing impaired students lack parental support and instructional materials, educational authorities were indifferent to the education of hearing impaired students, and the students lack interest in academic subjects. A statistically significant difference was observed between moderately and profoundly hearing impaired students in mathematics achievement (t=8.456) and in average academic achievement (t=10.158) identified in this study. The researcher of this study invites the concerned authorities of the Ministry of Education and teachers to take the necessary measure as much as possible in order to solve the major problems of the hearing impaired students of the study sites. In addition, parents should be given training to make a follow up support for their hearing impaired children. If the major problems of the hearing impaired students are solved, they could contribute their share in building the tomorrow’s industrialized Ethiopia.

  71. Ameya Thorat, Pooja Darakh, Priyanka Thorat and Abdul Aziz

    Aesthetic concerns have led to an increasing importance in seeking dental treatment, with the purpose of achieving perfect smile. Maxillary labial frenum is capable of creating a diastema and recession, affecting aesthetics. The management of such abberantfrenum can be accompalished by frenectomy. The aim of this case report is to compare between conventional classical technique of frenectomy and frenectomy by laser. The results concluded that laser frenectomy was better than conventional classical frenectomy as it has advantages like no scarring of tissue, bloodless surgical field,no need for suturing because healing is by second intention and postoperative pain and swelling are less intense or even absent.

  72. Madrigal-Redondo, G., Vargas-Zuñiga, R., Chavarría-Rojas, M., Sibaja-Rodriguez, S. and Chaves-Noguera, S.

    The study of different strategies to improve the stability and bioavailability of bioactive components has increased in the last decades. One of the mechanisms that has acquired great relevance is to formulate using liposomal vesicles. Liposomes are structures that enhance the absorption, stability and transport of active compounds, which is reflected by an increase in the bioactivity of the encapsulated molecules. The guarana extract has proven to be rich in methylxanthines and phenolic compounds. These metabolites are associatedto a wide variety of pharmacological properties, and exert a stimulating effect. For this reason, it has become popular in nutritional products. In this workit was characterized physicochemically a nutritional product based on guarana, vitamins and folic acid. In this product the active components were encapsulated in liposomal vesicles, which were analyzed to know their structure, size (diameter) and membrane thickness. Results and analysis indicate that liposomes are multivesicular and multilamellar structures. This structural conformation is related to a greater stability of the vesicles, which represents a favorable aspect for the formulation. On the other hand, the data obtained from the physicochemical characterization can be used as part of the quality control performed on the formulation. Additionally, they represent a starting point for improvements and optimization of this nutritional product.

  73. Raj Subash, C., Das Surya, N., Patnaik, K., Panda Subhasree, M. and Praharaj, K.

    The peripheral ameloblastoma (PA) is a rare, benign, extraosseous odontogenic soft tissue tumour that is confined to the gingiva or alveolar mucosa. The PA presents the same histological characteristics of intraosseous ameloblastoma, although it is less aggressive than this classical subtype. A 47-year-old non-smoker male patient reported to Department of Periodontics, SCB Dental College and Hospital, Cuttack with an asymptomatic lesion on the buccal gingiva of the canine-premolar-molar right mandibular region growing slowly for the last 1 year. Thorough clinical examination was carried out. Incisional biopsy, histopathological and radiographic investigation with CBCT was done for the lesion followed by excision of the lesion. In this report we present a clinical case of PA of the in the right mandibular gingiva, highlighting the importance of histological examination to the diagnosis.

  74. Ambaga, M. and Tumen-Ulzii, A.

    The reaction medium of “Donators + membrane - redox potentials three - state line system + O2 + АDP + Pi + H+ + nH + membrane space = (ATP + heat energy) + H2O + nH + matrix + CO2” are the places, where have been occurred the following four more important processes as : • Maintaining of clockwise normal flow of electrons and protons with duration of 4-5 second of every cycle • Temporarily stop of clockwise normal flow of electrons and protons • Complete stop of clockwise normal flow of electrons and protons • Antispiral-like evolutionary back steps from second evolution late time equation of flow of electrons and protons to early evolution first time equation with provocation of pathological process as cancer. According to philosophical principle, all biological process in our planet during last 4 billion years had been developed by the spiral – like evolution steps by transition from simple regulation to more complex regulation as from glycolysis related ATP synthesis, based in the flow of electrons and protons without participation of membrane - redox potentials three - state line system and oxygen to Krebs cycle, proton gradient related ATP synthesis, based in the flow of electrons and protons with oxygen participation using membrane - redox potentials three - state line system. But the notion relating to antispiral-like evolutionary back steps from second late evolution time equation to early evolution time first equation of flow of electrons and protons with provocation of cancer process have been connected with the transition of regulations from more complex regulation to simple regulation based equation as from Krebs cycle dependent, proton gradient based ATP synthesis functioned owing to the flow of electrons and protons with oxygen participation, using membrane - redox potentials three - state line system to early form of glycolysis related ATP synthesis, based in the flow of electrons and protons without participation of membrane - redox potentials three - state line system and oxygen. Temporarily stop of clockwise normal flow of electrons and protons with duration of 4 - 5 second of every cycle means that under influence of many pathological factors have been caused the partial blockage of electron and proton conductance within the full 9 stepped cycle of proton conductance inside human body proposed by M.Ambaga, which have included such well known metabolic pathways as glycolysis, Krebs cycle, betta oxidation of fatty acids, aminoacid oxidation.

  75. Dr. Mithali Jage and Dr. Sunanda Mahajan

    Background: Erythroderma is extreme state of skin irritation involving more than 90 percent of skin surface area having many underlying causes. Aim: 1. To check for epidemiological factors in erythroderma. 2.To study clinical features of erythroderma. 3. To identify the aetiology of erythroderma. 4. To describe the complications of erythroderma Materials and Methods: This study was performed at the department of dermatology in a tertiary care hospital of Western India. We studied 31 cases of erythroderma for epidemiology, clinical features, clinical course and complications. Clinico-pathological correlation was done for aetiology of erythroderma. Statistical method used: student t test unpaired and chi square test Results: The mean age of onset was 43.99 years with a male to female ratio of 2.1:1. The clinical features found were redness, scaling, pruritus, fever, chills, lymphadenopathy and edema. On clinicopathological correlation the most common aetiology found was psoriasis vulgaris, (35.48%). This was followed by drug (included both drug induced erythroderma and DRESS syndrome) (22.5%). Remaining cases belonged to dermatitis (16.12%) (Contact dermatitis (two), photoallergic dermatitis (three)), and 6.45% (n=2) patients belonged to each of pemphigus foliaceus, NBIE, paraneoplastic dermatomyositis and generalised pustular psoriasis. Complications like hypoproteinemia (45.16%), electrolyte imbalance (45.16%), temperature dysregulation (22.5%) and secondary infection (32.25%) were observed. Limitations: Follow up of cases was not studied to know the long term sequel. Conclusion: Clinical features were identical irrespective of aetiology. Detailed clinic-pathological examination helps to establish the aetiology of erythroderma. Monitoring of vitals and biochemical parameters is essential for early diagnosis of complications and its management.

  76. Dr. Sartaj Hassan Shah, Sriram Rajan and Syed Humaira Tabassum

    Objective • To evaluate role of T2*cartilage mapping in early detection of chondral lesions before they are detected on conventional morphologic sequences(fat saturated proton density sequence) • To compare T2* Cartilage mapping with routine MR sequences (FSPD ) Materials and Methods: This prospective study was done on 100 cases who underwent MRI knee,in which FSPD images were compared with the T2* maps. A Pilot study of 10 normal (young asymptomatic)subjects was done initially to define range and mean of normal values and artifacts. A sub study of 15 cases was also done comparing FSPD images, T2* maps with arthroscopy, to determine relative accuracy of either technique against the gold standard of arthroscopy. Clinical history of patients was taken before examination. MRI was performed with a Siemens AvantoMagnetom 1.5 TESLA MR scanner with dedicated phased-array receive-only knee coils. The patient was placed in the supine position with the knee placed within knee coil in neutral position. MR images were systematically obtained without administration of contrast material. Results: The range of normal T2* values determined from pilot study on normal subjects was 20-26.60 Msec. The mean T2* value of patellar and trochlear cartilage was found to be 24.30 + 3.8msec and this value was taken as reference normal T2* value. On comparison of corresponding T2* map and FSPD images in patellar and trochlear quadrants, overall complete match of chondral lesions was found in 65.30% of quadrants, no match was found in 30.50% of quadrants, partial match was found in 3.80% of quadrants, partial match reverse was found in 0.20 % of quadrants and no match reverse was found in 0.20% of quadrants. Conclusion: T2*cartilage mapping is sensitive to early cartilage changes and even changes not visible in high resolution MRI might be detectable with quantitative T2* cartilage mapping. It is more beneficial for detection of early chondral lesions/ changes in region of trochlear groove, lateral trochlear facet and patellar ridge areas where early lesions are more likely to be missed on conventional morphological sequences. T2* images were also found to be useful in the detection of early lesions in the mid third medial trochlear facet and upper third lateral patellar facet.

  77. Juliet Tharani, Deepa S. Nair and Karthika, S.

    Prevention of disease is one of the most important goals in child care. For this reason a national effort is being made towards improving the immunization of all the children. Migrant laborers themselves avail the curative care but they fall outside the coverage of preventive care largely due to their movement of work caused by uncertainty of employment. The immunization status of migrant children is poorly understood, as they have less access to health care services. The researcher felt that assessing the knowledge on immunization and teaching them on the importance of immunization would bring about a positive attitudinal change among the migrant mothers to immunize their children regularly. Objectives: To assess the knowledge and effectiveness of planned teaching programme regarding Knowledge on immunization. To determine the association of pre and post test level of knowledge with the selected demographic variables among migrant mothers. Research design: Experimental, one group pretest- post test design. Sample size: The participants were 60 from selected Construction Sites at Bangalore Urban. Sampling method: A purposive sampling technique was used. Data collection tool: Structured interview schedule was used to collect the data. Results: Major findings showed that 55.0% were between 20-23 years of age, 38.3% had only one child, 45% of children belonged to the ages below 1 year, 91.7% had no formal education, 68.3% of migrant mothers speak Kannada. 71.7% of them had inadequate knowledge, whereas 28.3% of them had moderate knowledge while 0% of them had adequate knowledge. There is a significant increase in the post test knowledge scores (76.9%) among migrant mothers after administering planned teaching programme on immunization. There is a significant association between knowledge scores and selected demographic variables such as age group, age of children, educational status and frequency of migration

  78. Khulood Sami Hussein

    Introduction: thyroid disorders are common in pregnancy and have been linked to adverse maternal and fetal outcomes. Symptoms of thyroid disorders are sometimes mistaken for those of normal pregnancy, and so often go unnoticed. This study investigates the prevalence of thyroid dysfunction in pregnant women in a tertiary care hospital. Subjects and Methods: This was a cross sectional study conducted at the largest tertiary care hospital in Jeddah, Saudi Arabia enrolling 154 first trimester pregnant Saudi women attending the Obstetrics and Gynecology clinic at King Abdulaziz University Hospital, from October to April 2015. Measurements of serum thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) were taken as part of the routine antenatal blood tests. Results: The prevalence of hypothyroidism was 40.25% (n=62) and hyperthyroidism 0.6% (n=1) using the cutoff TSH level based on the guidelines of the American Thyroid Association for the diagnosis and management of thyroid disease during pregnancy. Conclusion: Prevalence of hypothyroidism was found to be high in our study and hence, antenatal thyroid screening should be judiciously offered. Routine testing with serum TSH is a sufficient and cost effective screening tool.

  79. Dr. Bharath, N., Dr. Arrvind Vikram, Dr. Saravanan and Dr. Thillainayagam, S.

    Despite the development of endodontic therapy, adverse complications can arise during treatment resulting in a questionable prognosis. Perforation is one such complication associated during the operative stages of endodontic treatment, particularly with failure to observe the anatomic variations of different tooth types. Various materials have been suggested and used to repair root canal perforations, including calcium hydroxide, silver amalgam, mineral trioxide aggregate (MTA), and glass ionomer cement. This report describes the clinical management of a mandibular molar in which periapical radiography showed satisfactory canal obturation, but with a lateral perforation present at the floor level. Initial treatment involved sealing of the perforated area with resin-modified glass ionomer cement, followed by completion of root canal retreatment and canal sealing with composite-resin followed by reconstruction with metal ceramic crown. There was favourable clinical and radiographic progression at 3months and 6 year follow-up. We thus conclude that tooth longevity can be prolonged even in the presence of a perforation.

  80. Dr. Sumana Saha and Dr. Ajoy Bhakat

    Tinospora cordifolia is one of the most important among the commonly used herbs in ayurveda. It is a versatile herb having multidimensional use. Ayurvedic Nighantus are clearly mentioned tinospora cordifolia (Guduchi) in details with specific synonyms and therapeutic indications. In vrihattrayee the description of guduchi is present. In this study we try to assemble all the information about guduchi mentioned in ayurvedic nighantus and other text.

  81. Dr. Namrata N. Chavan

    Introduction: Teaching and learning is a two way method; but some traditional teaching methods are not sufficient enough to help students understand better. So there is a need for innovation as well as integrated teaching. Aims and objectives: The study was aimed to find out the performance of the students of first M.B.B.S. in routine demonstration classes without books and with open books and to find out difference in performance between the open book method and traditional method. Material and Method: The study was conducted with a strength of 100 students; with group of 50 students as study group and remaining 50 as a control group. Students of study group was introduced first to traditional method and then to open book method. After completion of study a surprise test was conducted. Later analysis and data collection was done and results were documented. Observations: There were 44% male and 56% female students present in study group. Of these 98% found the method very interesting and 2% denied. Using this method interaction between students and teacher was more; agreed by 98%. 84% students strongly felt that this new method was good. Students felt that this method helps for better understanding of subject (70%), was easier for conduction (20%) and well organized (10%). Conclusion: As the curriculum of medical education is too vast; teaching in a proper and innovative way is a necessity.

  82. Dr. Dave Ankita, Dr. Lodaya Rahul, Dr. Patel Alok, Dr. Shah Preetam, Dr. Bhat Chetan and Dr. Kunte Sanket

    Aim: To determine the antimicrobial efficacy, compressive strength and diametral tensile strength of GIC IX, GIC IX with 1% chlorhexidine and GIC IX with 1% cetrimide Materials and Method: GIC IX was mixed with chlorhexidine and cetrimide powder to produce experimental GIC’s. 10 samples of each of the three groups were prepared for each parameter. Antimicrobial efficacy was evaluated against S.mutans by measuring the zone of inhibition on day 0, 7 and 30 days on blood agar. Compressive and diametral tensile strength were calculated using the universal testing machine after 1hr of setting. Results: Experimental GIC’s had reduced physical properties when compared to GIC. The antimicrobial efficacy was highly improved with the addition of antimicrobials. 1% chlorhexidine produced the best results out of the two experimental GIC’s. Conclusion: GIC containing 1% Chlorhexidine can be alternatively used for pediatric restorations to provide enhanced anticariogenicity.

  83. Dr. Savitha Sathyaprasad, Dr. Jerry George, Dr. Krishnamoorthy, S. H. and Dr. Dhanya, K. B.

    Early childhood caries (ECC), because of its ubiquitous nature and stubborn resistance to resolution, remains as one of the most common disease affecting very young children in today’s era. Aim: To evaluate the awareness among mothers about various factors responsible for the causation of ECC. Methods: A questionnaire based survey was conducted on 200 mothers of children aged 1 to 6 years residing in Sullia, Karnataka. A structured questionnaire was given to each mother in the language they could read and those who were not able to read, were explained. Then the information collected were recorded and values were statistically analyzed. Results: The mean age of the mothers participating in this study was 35 years.60% of the participants had education till university level,48% of the participants were aware of the fact that sleeping with milk bottle or juice causes ECC and further analysis of this study showed that participant awareness for the causes of ECC are in the following order: Prolonged breast feeding (52%), nutritional deficiency (40%), smoking during pregnancy(25%), iron deficiency anemia (21%), preterm birth and low birth weight(20%), Conclusion: Hence it was concluded that the mothers are moderately aware of the factors that are responsible for causing ECC.

  84. Kumari, M. J., Jeyagowri, M. and Jagdish, S.

    Background: Diabetic foot ulcers are sores or wounds on the foot and are often a strong indicator of advanced diabetes. Local application of citric acid is most effective in the treatment of various wounds, including wounds for which there are no alternative options available. Objective: The study objective to compare the effect of wound healing and cost of dressing solution between citric acid and conventional method of dressing among the patients with diabetic foot ulcer in a tertiary hospital in India. Methods: Totally, 120 Patients with diabetic foot ulcer were recruited for the study. The researcher had chosen the first sixty patients for conventional method of dressing after that next sixty patients allotted for 3% citric acid dressing. The pre assessment was carried out before applied dressing the wound status was assessed on 1st day and post assessment was done on 8th day, 15th day and 22nd day for both groups. The clinical data were gathered by using the interview method in regional language and some clinical data collected from patients’ case sheet. For assessing the wound, the Modified Bates Jensen’s Wound Assessment tool was used. Results: The wound healing status was much better among the patients who received citric acid dressing than patients who received conventional dressing that was 53 patients in the citric acid dressing and 26 patients in the conventional dressing group had mild level wound - almost double the time. The significant ‘p’ value inferred that the difference in improvement in wound healing status among the patients in the citric acid dressing and conventional dressing groups after the intervention was statistically significant (p<0.0001). Conclusion: The health care providers used citric acid solution for dressing it will reduce the cost of dressing and reduce economic burden to the patient.

  85. Mrs. Aneesha Mohan, Dr. Kumari, M.J. and Dr. Sadishkumar Kamalanathan

    Hypothyroidism is one of the most common non-communicable diseases world-wide. In spite of having an economic therapy and simple medication schedule for the treatment of hypothyroidism, the patients still do not comply with the therapy. Aim was to assess the pattern of medication adherence among the patients with hypothyroidism. Materials and methods: Data were collected from 162 subjects through patient interviews and case records. Adherence to treatment was determined based on the 4-item Morisky Medication Adherence questionnaire. A questionnaire with likely determinants of adherence was administered for all the patients and responses recorded. Results: The mean age of the subjects under the study was 39.6 years. Majority (93.2%) of the subjects were females. The average duration of hypothyroidism among the subjects was 5.73 years. The distribution showed a mean TSH level of12.94 mIU/L. The mean knowledge score of the population was found to be 10.69 out of the total score of 15. Among the 162 patients with hypothyroidism, 38.27% had high adherence, 43.83% had medium adherence and 29 patients had low adherence to levothyroxine. Age was the only socio-demographic variable that was found to be associated with adherence level. Serum TSH levels were found to be significantly elevated in patients with low adherence. Subjects in the high and medium adherence groups had significantly higher knowledge scores when compared to the subjects in low adherence group. Factors such as lifestyle, patient-doctor relationship and health care system related factors were found to be associated with the level of adherence. Conclusion: It was found that only 38.27% of the patients hadgood adherence to therapy. Along with the age and serum TSH values, knowledge regarding hypothyroidism and attitude towards therapy are important factors associated with adherence.

  86. Anjali Krishna, K., Dr. Vetriselvi, P. and Dr. Nishad Plakkal

    Background and Objective: Swaddling is a traditional practice of covering an infant in a blanket in a particular fashion. It is known to improve the physiological parameters. Paladai feeding is a common procedure in NICU. Paladai feeds are time consuming and are associated with desaturation episodes. The aim of the present study is to assess the effect of swaddling on bradycardia, desaturation and apnea during paladai feeding among very low birth weight infants. Materials and Methods: A cross over design with simple random sampling technique was used to select 58 very low birth weight infants who fulfilled the inclusion criteria. Infants were randomized to receive either swaddling or conventional technique of intervention during paladai feeding. Episodes of desaturation, bradycardia and apnea were calculated with the help of pulse oxymeter. Parameters like volume of feed, duration of feed were also recorded. A period of 24 hours was maintained as wash out period. The next day the infants were crossed over, infants in the swaddled group were non swaddled during paladai feeding and infants in non swaddling group were swaddled during paladai feeding and the same parameters were monitored and recorded. For analyzing the data, descriptive statistics (frequency, percentage, median, mean and standard deviation) and inferential statistics (McNemar test, and Wilcoxon signed rank test) were used. All the statistical analyses were carried out at 5% level of significance and p value < 0.001 was considered as significant. Results: Comparison of episodes of desaturation showed that the mean saturation episodes in swaddled and non-swaddled group were 0.90(1.518) and 1.66(1.763) respectively and the difference in the group were statistically significant (p<0.001). Comparison of Mean episodes of bradycardia among swaddled and non-swaddled group were 0.07(0.256) and 0.22(0.650) respectively. The difference was not statistically significant as a few episodes of bradycardia were found in both groups but swaddled infants had fewer episodes of bradycardia during paladai feeding. No apneic episodes were noted in both the groups during the study. Comparison of mean duration of feeding in swaddled and non-swaddled groups were 3.79(1.587) and 4.81(2.180) respectively and the difference was statistically significant (p<0.001). The study showed that paladai feeds were associated with desaturation and bradycardia and swaddled infants were found to have fewer episodes of desaturation, bradycardia and reduced duration of feeding. Conclusion: The study concluded that swaddling is an effective intervention in reducing the episodes of desaturation and bradycardia during paladai feeding. Also swaddled infants were found to take lesser time duration for paladai feeding.

  87. Kalaivani Kaliappan and Vetriselvi, P.

    The essential criterion of neonatal intensive care unit is prevention of pain among preterm and term neonates. Evidences suggested that a painful procedure at early life affects the neuro developmental outcome in their future. Though it is a minor procedure like heel prick or changing diaper, neonates perceive it, as a painful procedure. Neonatal pain management is an important nursing care aspect while they care the babies in intensive care units. Some pain relieving measures like kangaroo mother care, facilitated tucking, music therapy are available, it is under used. The current study was carried out to assess the effect of nesting on pain during heel stick procedure among term neonates, JIPMER, Puducherry. Methods: This is a prospective clinical trial study. The target population of the study was the term neonates who undergo two times heel prick procedure either in post natal ward or neonatal intensive care unit of WCH, JIPMER, Puducherry. All the available term neonates who got admitted in post natal ward and neonatal intensive care unit of WCH during the study period were the study population. Seventy three term neonates who fulfilled the inclusion and exclusion criteria were participated in this study. The pain was assessed by using standardized tool- Neonatal Infant Pain Scale (NIPS). For analyzing the data, descriptive statistics (frequency, percentage, median and inter quartile range) and inferential statistics (wilcoxson signed rank sum test, Fishers exact test) were used. All the statistical analyses were carried out at 5% level of significance. Results: Among 73 term neonates, during heel prick without nesting, 39(53.4%) of term neonates had severe pain, 3(4.1%) had mild to moderate pain and 31(42.5%) of term neonates had no to mild pain. During heel prick with nesting, majority of term neonates 39(53.4%) had no to mild pain and only 2(2.7%) of term neonates had mild to moderate pain remaining 32(43.8%) of neonates had severe pain. The pain score median (inter quartile range) of neonates without nesting was 6(2, 7) where as with nesting it was 2(1,6).Though the percentage of neonates without nesting who had severe pain 39(53.4%) had been decreased to 32(43.8%) with nesting, the statistical significance was p>0.05.There was no association between level of pain with selected demographic variables such as gender & birth weight. Conclusion: The present study revealed that all the neonates who undergone heel stick procedure had pain. Though nesting provided comfort to the baby by reducing pain during heel prick, there was no statistical significance. There is no significant association between the level of pain and the selected demographic variables. Hence many studies should be conducted in future to find a method to relieve pain among neonates during painful procedures.

  88. Srishti Singh, Meenakshi Kalhan, Anuj Jangra, Nitika Sharma, Malik, J. S. and Srijan Singh

    Introduction: The continuous increase in population is a serious global concern. Control over fertility is very important not only because of its far-reaching implications on prosperity and overall growth of the nation, but also because of its impact on the freedom of young women to lead life of their own choice. Objective: To assess the family planning practices among married rural women. Material and Methods: The present study was community based cross-sectional study conducted in rural area of Haryana from September 2015 to August 2016 among 500 currently married women (18-49 years). Results: 54.6% of the participants were using contraceptives among which female sterilization was the commonest. Health worker/AWW (49.8%) were the commonest motivator. The commonest reason for not using contraception was desire to get pregnant (28.2%) and not considering it necessary (15%). Conclusion: Though there is sufficient awareness regarding contraception but its usage still continues to be low. Extended efforts are required to make people understand the importance of contraception to achieve greater prosperity.

  89. Nemichandra, S. C., Prajwala, H. V., Harsha, S. and Narayanappa, D.

    Introduction: Febrile seizures is the most common type of seizure in infancy and childhood. Its pathogenesis is still ambiguous. Changes in serum levels of trace elements have been proposed to underlie febrile seizures. Aim: To determine implication of serum magnesium and zinc levels in the pathogenesis of febrile seizures. Method: This prospective, analytical, case control study was carried out from October 2015 to September 2016 on 164 pediatric population aged between 6 months to 5 years admitted in JSS hospital, Mysuru. 82 cases of febrile convulsions and 82 age matched controls (with fever and no convulsions) were taken for the study. Serum magnesium levels were estimated by Xydiyl blue method and serum Zinc by calorimetric method in fully automated chemistry analyzer. Data was statistically analyzed using independent t- test and Chi- square test. SPSS version 21.0 is used for all calculations Results: Mean serum zinc levels were 8.93± 2.01 µmol/Land 12.74±3.47 in cases and controls respectively. Mean serum magnesium levels in cases and controls were 2.13± 0.46 mg/dl and 2.61± 0.54 respectively. Both the differences were statistically significant. Conclusion: Our study infers that deficiency of trace elements may be significantly related to the risk of febrile seizures in children.

  90. Dr. Manish K., Dr. Harsha S., Dr. Keshava B. S. and Dr. Nandish S. Manoli

    All patients who were admitted in our hospital with history of seizures in the postpartum period (within 6 weeks after delivery) were included in the study to ascertain the cause of seizures and their outcome, and women with prior history of epilepsy were excluded from this study. Among 95 patients recruited, primipara women (67 patients) had high risk of seizures. Women between the age group of 21-25 years constituted a large number of patients in this study (44.26%). Seizure occurrence was more on the first day following delivery (69.47%). Imaging of the patients showed posterior reversible encephalopathy syndrome (PRES) as the most common cause of seizure (35.57%), second most common cause was cerebral venous thrombosis (CVT) (31.57%). Eclampsia was the third among the list (29.47%). 3 patients had intracerebral haemorrhage (3.15%). Eclampsia patients had normal imaging with high blood pressure, high (+++) urine albumin and deranged haematological values. Women with PRES and eclampsia had good outcome with no mortality. While patients of CVT had a mortality of 10% in our study. Conclusion: In this hospital based study, PRES was the most common cause of seizure in postpartum women (35.57%), followed by CVT (31.57%) and eclampsia (29.47%). Patients of PRES had good outcome and patients of CVT had higher mortality.

  91. Mohd Iqbal dar, Adil Pervaiz Shah, Perveez Ahmad Malik and Nazir ahmaddar

    Rectal prolapse was one of the earliest surgical problems recognized by the medical profession, yet many facts of its aetiology and treatment remain controversial. Prolapse of the rectum vexes patients with misery it causes to them. The presenting complaints may be related to the prolapsed itself or to the disturbance of anal incontinence that frequently accompanies. The study comprised of patients admitted for elective surgery for full thickness rectal prolapse. 30 patients were taken for laparoscopic posterior mesh rectopexy after clinical evaluation and ethical clearance. The study was done to assess the outcome of laparoscopic posterior mesh rectopexy with reference to; operative time, post-operative pain, return of bowel function, hospital stay, complications, functional outcome assessed by improvement in constipation, incontinence and straining, conversion to open and mortality. Most common age group in our study was 61-70 years. In a total of 30 patients ,26 were females and 4 were males; ratio of male: female being 1:6.The operative time was calculated from placement of 1st port till the procedure was finished; range of operating time was 91-140 minutes with mean of 118.67±9.82 minutes. Post-operative return of bowel function was calculated on the basis of passage of flatus after surgery. The mean duration of ileus after surgery were 27.4±1.54 hours ranging from 25 to 30 hours. Postoperative pain was quantified using visual analogue scale score (VAS score). From our study, we conclude that laparoscopic posterior mesh rectopexy for complete rectal prolapse has good functional results, low recurrence rates and has proved to be a feasible and safe procedure as supported by the literature.

  92. Kapil Sharma, Sheena Taneja, DPS Sudan, Sharma, B.B., Wadhwa, T.C. Monica Sharma and Birendra Kumar Yadav

    Background: Situs Inversus Totalis is a congenital positional anomaly characterized by transposition of thoracic and abdominal organs which is mirror image of normal anatomical position.The exact etio-pathogenesis is unclear and inheritance reported is autosomal recessive and X-linked inheritance. It is usually associated with syndromes such as Kartagener syndrome or Primary Cilliary Dyskinesia (PCD). Case Presentation: We present a case of 25 years old male patient having symptoms of cough, loss of appetite, generalized weakness for 5 months. Plain X-ray Chest, sputum microscopy and Contrast Enhanced Computed Tomography (CECT) thorax and abdomen were done and he was diagnosed as Pulmonary and Abdominal Tuberculosis inSitus Inversus Totalis. Conclusion: Detailed systemic examination is mandatory in cases of Situs Inversus Totalis for correct diagnosis. Contrast Enhanced Computed Tomography (CECT) thorax and abdomen are important investigations for further appropriate management.

  93. Dr. Md. Mazibor Rahman, Dr. Md. Mahfuzul Hoque, Dr. Taisir Shahriar and Dr. Sadia Afrin

    Endoscopic ultrasound (EUS) has become well established as a diagnostic modality in gastrointestinal cancer staging. It offers high-resolution imaging and fine-needle biopsy, which is essential in tumor and nodal staging of gastrointestinal cancers. In the recent decade, however, many therapeutic applications of EUS have become possible. Currently, interventional EUS endoscopy involves celiac plexus neurolysis, pseudocyst drainage, and intratumoral fine-needle injection therapy for inoperable pancreatic malignancy. Emerging techniques include the accurate endoscopic delivery of radioactive beads to localize tumor therapy as well as other therapies, such as radiofrequency ablation or cryotherapy. Diagnostic and therapeutic access to the biliary tree and pancreatic duct is increasingly being used successfully in failed endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP) procedures. This review discusses these procedures and several evolving future applications, including vascular access and EUS guided enteral anastomosis.

  94. Dr. Nilesh Rathi, Dr. Manoj Chandak and Dr. Manohar Bhat

    Objective: Recurrent caries is the one of the commonest reason for the failure of restoration. The microgap created at the tooth restoration interface lead to the formation of secondary caries. Cavity disinfection, chelation or fluoridation of the smear of the cavity did not prevent caries formation. Study Design: Five galvanic burs and sintered burs each are selected and cleaned with absolute alcohol. The elemental compositions of the burswere assessed by energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy. Scanning electron microscope was used to examine the changes of the burs before and after preparation of tooth. Result: EDS of the galvanic burs (G) (Matrix) detected the presence of Nickel ions in the range of the 69.94 to 75.09 atomic%, carbon from 20.21 to 97.53 atomic % and oxygen from 1.38 to 6.31 atomic % in all the burs. The EDS of sintered burs (Matrix) copper ion concentration ranged from 27.58 to 46.21 atomic % with the mean concentration of 36.17±3.28 SD Conclusion: The copper ions and the nickel ions were the major constituents of the binder of the sintered and galvanic burs respectively

  95. Jih-Yuan Chen

    With the increasing critical thinking (CT) and reflection of baccalaureate nursing students for nursing practice, faculty members are incorporated it into their curriculum and clinical judgment and recognize it as an essential component and outcome of education. Yet, there is little consensus on the meaning and application of CT in nursing. The purpose of this paper is to define the evolution of critical thinking and reflection; describe characteristics of critical thinkers, approaches to teaching CT skills in the classroom and clinical practice; identify strategies to teach critical thinking skills, assessment of critical thinking methods and available tools, validity and reliability issues, and identify strategies to evaluate critical thinking skills based on reviewing articles from PubMed and CINAHL. The complexities of teaching these skills, educators need to evaluate the impact of education process and design, and continue to develop and implement curriculum. Intervention studies should be designed to investigate educational approaches.

  96. Aldrin Vas, Dr. Elsa Sanatombi Devi and Dr. Sudha Vidyasagar

    Background: Diabetes, one of the dangerous non communicable diseases. Management of type 2 diabetes becomes difficult with poor knowledge regarding disease condition. This review will focus on role of knowledge of people with type 2 diabetes in the management of their disease condition. Aim: To review the knowledge of people with type 2 diabetes about their disease and its management. Methods: EBSCO discovery service was used to conduct a comprehensive literature search to identify all relevant articles published in English language from January, 2000 to December, 2016. Through EBSCO discovery services the following electronic databases were searched: Science Direct, CINAHL Plus with Full Text, MEDLINE, Academic OneFile, Scopus® and Access Medicine. Of the 13,605 studies retrieved in the initial search, 33 studies were retained for the final review. Results: Of 33 studies, majority of the studies shown that people with type 2 diabetes has poor to moderate level of knowledge. Even though few studies demonstrated good level of knowledge in people with type 2 diabetes intervention focused on converting knowledge into practice is required. Conclusion: Future research activities are needed to be focused on improving knowledge regarding diabetes and its management in people with type 2 diabetes and interventions to translate those knowledge into practice will be the key in diabetes management.

  97. Boussir, H., El kasimi, A., El ouafi, N. and Ismaili, N.

    Still’s disease is a subset of juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA) that usually presents with intermittent fever, rash, and arthritis. It represents 10–20% of all the cases of JIA. This disorder may be called adult-onset Still’s disease when it occurs in patients over the age of 16. Extra-articular flares can occur several years after disease onset (Javier Alberto Cavallasca et al., 2010). We report a case of adult Still’s disease with myocarditis after several years of being in remission. A 22-year-old man with history of systemic juvenile arthritis in remission since age 15 was admitted in hospital with 7 days history of fever, odynophagia, and arthralgias. Chest X-ray and cardiac ultrasound showed cardiac enlargement and impairement in ejection fraction. A cardiac MRI revealed acute myocarditis. He was treated with high dose of methylprednisolone with improvement of his general condition and cardiac parameters.

  98. Meenakumari, N.

    A balanced diet is important for everybody Health. Carbohydrate, Protein, and fats were a source for providing energy to human beings, vitamins were very tiny but play a vital role in maintaining the equilibrium of all functions in our body. An Experimental study was done among 100 HIV infected women to estimate an impact of dietary supplements of vitamin E on immune system parameters. Women were selected randomly using lottery method. Data was collected through structured Questionnaire and CD4 Count was recorded. After Pretest 100 ml of freshly prepared almond milk were given to drink twice/week for 12 weeks, follow up was done. At end of 6 months, again CD4 count was assessed. The study findings explored that dietary supplementation of Vitamin E has a significant impact on improving CD4 Count in HIV infected women.

  99. Surendra Darivemula, Durga Prasad Palla, Chandra Sekhar, C., Anitha, K. P. Shakeer Kahn, P.

    Introduction: During adolescence, hormonal changes lead to onset of puberty, sudden and rapid physical growth, and development of secondary sexual characteristics. They could engage in wrong activities such as smoking, substance abuse, consumption of alcohol, and unprotected sex. Methodology: A community based cross sectional study was conducted in the rural field practice area. The objective of the study was to assess the knowledge, awareness and practices about STI/RTIs among adolescent girls. All the mid and late adolescents were included. A pretested semi structured questionnaire was used for data collection. Sample size 240 was selected for the study. The participants were selected by house to house visit. The results were shown in frequency and proportions. Results: Out of 240 participants 104 were mid and 136 belong to late adolescent age group. The most common self reported RTI was white discharge per vaginum 58 (24.1%) among them almost half of them didn’t took any treatment. More than half of them didn’t know the complications of RTIs. Regarding to the awareness of HIV/AIDS more than 80% of them heard about HIV/AIDS. More than 60% of them said that the route of transmission is by sexually and one third from mother to child transmission. Majority of them got to know about HIV/AIDS via television 104 (43.3%); and 69 (28.8%) of them heard in the school from teacher Conclusion: There is a need to educate adolescent girls about STI/RTI as most of them ignore it as they cannot discuss freely even with family members. In such circumstances the role of adolescent friendly health clinics playing vital role needs to be reinforced.

  100. Shabnam Jahan, Mayur Kaushik, Amit Wadhawan and Dr. Nitin Tomar

    The requisites to long term success of dental implant are good quality bone and healthy gingiva. One of the long term risk with regard to dental implant is crestal bone loss around the implantresulting in peri-implantitis. Many techniques have been used to reduce the crestal bone loss around implants. One of the techniques used to prevent crestal bone loss includes the use of biological mediators. One group of such bone metabolism mediators is bisphosphonate. Bisphosphonates are antiresorptive drugs that act on osteoclasts and maintain bone density and strength by inhibiting osteoclast activity. In this present case report the local application of bisphosphonate was done to prevent crestalbone loss around the dental implant.

  101. Kalvizhi, E. B., Charanya, D., Sasirekha, B., Megalaa, N. and Kanmani, R.

    Oral sub mucous fibrosis is a chronic, progressive, and irreversible disease of unknown aetiology. Oral submucous fibrosis (SMF) is a potentially malignant disease caused by chewing of areca nut and is associated with both significant morbidity and an increased risk for malignancy. The habit has a major social and cultural role in communities throughout the Indian subcontinent which explains the high prevalence of SMF in people of Indian subcontinent and South Asian ethnicity . Epidemiological studies have identified a variety of oral mucosal lesions and conditions in association with betel quid and tobacco use. It is a heterogeneous disease with complex molecular abnormalities with a malignant transformation rate ranging from 3-19%.

  102. Dr. Arrvind Vikram, Dr. Rajamani Indira and Dr. N. Bharath

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of routine and newer endodontic irrigants on Candida albicans biofilm colonization in Young and Old human root canal dentin. Eighty intact mandibular premolars were used in this study and divided based on Age into two groups. Forty teeth were from young subjects (Group I) and the remaining 40 from old subjects (Group II). Dentin disc samples of 4mm were prepared from each tooth, standardized using gates glidden drill #2 and autoclaved for sterility. The forty samples each in the young and old group were divided into 4 subgroups with various irrigation protocols. The experimental irrigants were: A) 17% EDTA +5.25% NaOCl, B) 100% Octenisept, C) 17% EDTA +5.25% NaOCl + 1% Clotrimazole and D) Phosphate buffer saline. After the irrigation the experimental samples were inoculated with C.albicans and incubated for 72hrs. Out of the 10 samples in each subgroup, 8 samples were analyzed by the Colony forming unit method and 2 samples were analyzed by the Confocal laser scanning microscope. In the CFU method, aliquots from the experimental samples were plated on Sabouraud dextrose agar plates and the colony forming units were counted as a measure of antifungal activity. In the CLSM method, fungal viability was demonstrated using special dyes SYTO 9 and Propidium iodide. The results showed that Octenisept was the most effective irrigant against C.albicans followed by addition of 1% Clotrimazole to 17% EDTA+5.25% NaOCl in both age groups. The other irrigant subgroups were less effective in both age groups. The results of this study also indicates that higher amount of fungi are found in old root dentin as demonstrated by the CFU method and confirmed by the CLSM method.

  103. Kapil Sharma, Sheena Taneja, DPS Sudan, Monica Sharma, Tarachand Wadhwa and Birendre Kumar Yadav

    Background & Objectives: Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD) is prone to acute exacerbations which may lead to enhanced morbidity and mortality. By compromising health status, mood disorders may lead to an increased risk of hospitalization and re-hospitalization. Information on the time course and recovery from COPD exacerbation is important in standardizing the length of treatment, in planning appropriate follow up and decreasing loss of working days of the patient. Material and Methods: It was a prospective study (observational) which included all patients of depressive symptoms with acute exacerbation of COPD (e-COPD) admitted to the Department of Pulmonary Medicine, SGT Medical College, Gurgaon, over a period of 9 months. Results: In this study we observed the mean length of stay (LOS) of patients with AECOPD was 9.08±4.76 days .There was no significant difference in the length of stay between patients of different age groups. The LOS varied significantly between different GOLD stages. The patient who had a history of admission for twice or more in the past 1 year or had a mortality have a greater mean LOS as compared to patient with just one or no hospitalization in the past. Conclusion: The patient who had a history of admission for twice or more in the past 1year had a greater mean LOS as compared to patient with just one or no hospitalization in the past.

  104. Dr. Mahesh Kumar, Dr. Shravani Deolia, Dr. Sangita Totade, Dr. Kumar Gaurav Chhabra, Dr. Chaya Chhabra and Dr. Shailesh Nagpure

    Background: Pharmacovigilance deals with the detection, assessment, understanding and prevention of adverse effects, particularly long term and short-term adverse effect of medicines. Objectives: To assess knowledge, attitude and Practice among health professionals about Pharmacovigilance and barriers towards reporting adverse drug reactions. Material & Methods: It was a cross-sectional, questionnaire based survey. The participants were Under Graduates, Interns & post graduates pursuing their courses in dental & medical field. The assessment regarding knowledge, attitude and practice was done by questionnaire having 23, 8 & 8 items respectively. Five point Likert scale was used to evaluate attitude and practice. 07 questions for under reporting the adverse drug reactions, with an option to tick multiple options were also included. Demographic data of the participants was also collected. Unpaired’t’ test was used to assess the statistical differences. Results: A total of 397 out of 605 Study subjects responded in medical, and similarly 203 out of 283 in dentistry. Among medical and dental subjects 9% and 36.4% have never heard the term pharmacovigilance. Overall 3% and 5.4% had taken special training in pharmacovigilance, respectively. The mean knowledge, attitude and practices scores were higher in medical compared to dental professions but only mean practices scores was found statistically significant. Conclusion: The underreporting of ADRs was due to lack of knowledge and poor practice. Even though the attitude was good but still it has to improve among dental students by appropriate curriculum changes and continuing education programs in medical students.

  105. Dr. Sampada Lonkar, Dr. Chetan Bhat, Dr. Alok Patel, Dr. Rahul Lodaya, Dr. Sanket Kunte and Dr. Laxmi Lakade

    Objectives: To evaluate the effect of exposure to various children’s beverages on the colour stability of different aesthetic restorative material commonly used in pediatric dentistry. Materials and Methods: 30 cylindrical disks of resin modified glass ionomer cement and composite resin were prepared respectively using moulds. 15 samples each group were immersed in one of the two solutions respectively for 7 hours at 370C temperature and then in artificial saliva for 17 hours at 37°C to simulate to oral environment. Specimens were subjected to spectrophotometric analysis before and after exposure to drinks using CIE-lab system then data was subjected to statistical analysis. Results: The study revealed both the staining solutions have statistically significant effect on colour stability of Composite resin and RMGIC. On comparing the material composite resin is more resistant to discolouration than RMGIC while orange juice is more aggressive colour stimulant on composite while cola has more ability to discolour RMGIC. Conclusion: The ability of staining solutions to discolour the restorative materials can affect the clinical choice of the restorative material to be used for the patient and could be related to dietary habits.

  106. Boussir, H., Berrajaa, M., El meghraoui, H., Ismaili, N., Bazid Z. and El ouafi, N.

    Cardiac abscesses and aorto-cavitary fistulas are rare and serious complications of infective endocarditis (IE). They can be complicated by high degree cardiac conduction abnormalities and by haemodynamic consequences which can be life-threatening. We report here the rare case of a young patient of 27 years who presented in a table of septic shock associated with a complete atrioventricular block (AVB), making it possible to make the diagnosis of infective endocarditis to Enterococcus Cloacae, which is a germ exceptionally responsible of infective endocarditis and known multiresistant; Complicated with abscess of the Valsalva sinus, which is extended to the interventricular septum and fistulized both in the aortic lumen and in the right ventricle. The patient has unusually well evolved under amoxicillin and gentamycin associated with surgical treatment. Conduction abnormalities and aorto-right ventricular fistulas testify to the severity and extent of the lesions of abscessed infective endocarditis. Mortality is high in this context.

  107. Suseela, M., Gokul, K., Jayantha Rao, K. and Jacob Doss, P.

    Pyrethroids are synthetic chemical analogues of pyrethrins, which are naturally occurring insecticidal compounds produced in the flowers of chrysanthemums (Chrysanthemum cinerariaefolium). Lambda-cyhalothrin is a pyrethroid insecticide. Insecticidal products containing pyrethroids have been widely used to control insect pests in agriculture, public health, and homes and gardens. With regard to effectiveness and toxicity, this compound appears to be the first-choice insecticide used than organochlorines, organophosphates and carbamates. It is highly used in the cotton plantation, in vegetable production and to control a wide range of insect pests in a variety of crops. The present study is aimed to evaluate the effect of Lambda cyhalothrin on biochemical parameters such as Total Proteins, FAA, Protease, GDH, Ammonia and Urea in selected tissues Intestine and Testis. To assess the effect of Lambda-cyhalothrin, mice were gavaged orally for 10, 20 and 30 consecutive days with sub lethal doses of Lambda (1/5th of LD50 4.8 mg/kg bw). This caused significant decrease in total proteins and increase in FAA, protease, glutamate dehydrogenase, ammonia and urea in Intestine and Testis when compared to the controls.

  108. Gokul, K., Suseela, M., Jayantha Rao, K. and Jacob Doss, P.

    Pesticides are widely used in most sectors of the agricultural production to prevent or reduce losses by pests and thus can improve yield as well as quality of the produce, even in terms of cosmetic appeal, which is often important to consumers. Oxidative stress by increased production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) has been implicated in the toxicity of various pesticides. The present study was designed to investigate the induction of oxidative stress by Lambda cyhalothrin; a Type II pyrethroid in mice Intestine and Testis. Animals were divided into four equal groups; the first group used as control while groups 2, 3 and 4 were treated with sub lethal dose of Lambda cyhalothrin (4.8 mg/kg bw). Mice were daily administered with their respective doses for 30 days by gavage. Repeated oral administration of Lambda cyhalothrin was found to reduce the activities of the antioxidant enzymes such as superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT) and level of reduced glutathione peroxidase (GPX) and glutathione reductase GR. Intestine and Testis injury was confirmed by the histological changes. In conclusion, the oral sub-acute toxicity studies of Lambda revealed that this pyrethroid is of risk in albino mice.

  109. Tswanya, M. N., Olaniyi, J. O. and Onyenekwe, P. C.

    Field experiment was conducted at the Teaching and Research Farm, Ladoke Akintola University of Technology, Ogbomoso and Niger State College of Agriculture, Mokwa, in 2013 cropping season to examine the effects of mineral fertilizers on fruit yield and nutritional qualities of tomato variety. The experiment had twenty seven fertilizer treatments namely: nitrogen (0, 30 and 60 in kg N ha-1), phosphorus (0, 25 and 50 kg P2O5 ha 1) potassium (0, 16.5 and 33 kg K2O ha-1) and their combinations, replicated three times. Treatment without fertilizer served as control. The experiment was laid out in Randomized Complete Block Design (RCBD). Data were collected on plant height, number of flowers, number of fruits and total fruit yield. The determination of fruit phytochemical contents at full ripening, 6 fruit samples were randomly selected per plot and analysed for nutritional qualities such as crude Protein, Carotene, Iron, Phosphorus, Potassium, Calcium, Lycopene, Magnesium, Vitamin C contents. Data was analysed using analysis of variance (ANOVA) SAS package and treatment means compared using Duncan multiple range test at 5 % probability level. External input of mineral fertilizer improved tomato yield and nutritional quality of tomato. Application of 60 kg N ha-1 + 50 kg P2O5 ha-1 + 33 kg K2O ha-1 gave the highest fruit yield (27.81 t ha-1) while control plot had the least (9.96 t ha-1). Nutritional qualities (Lycopene, phosphorus, potassium) were best at fertilizer rates of 60 kg N ha-1 + 50 kg P2O5 ha-1 + 33 kg K2O ha-1. In conclusion, external input of mineral fertilizer is necessary to improve tomato yield and nutritional quality. Plants fertilized with 60 kg N ha-1 + 50 kg P2O5 ha-1 + 33 kg K2O ha-1 responded better than other rates and therefore can be recommended for farmers to increase crop production within the study areas.

  110. Mehmet Levent OZDUVEN, Berrin OKUYUCU, Selma BÜYÜKKILIÇ BEYZİ and Yusuf KONCA

    This study was implemented to determine the effect of lactic acid bacterial inoculants as silage additives on fermentation, aerobic stability, and in vitro organic matter digestibility of sunflower silages. Lalsil®Dry (Lallemand, France), containing water soluble Lactobacillus buchneri, Pediococcus acidilactici with cellulase and hemicellulase enzymes, was chosen as bacterial inoculants. The inoculants were applied to silages at the rates of 5, 10 and 20 mg kg−1 fresh weight levels. After the treatment, chopped whole crop sunflower was ensiled in 1.0-L special vacuum bags. The bags were stored at 25±2 °C under laboratory conditions. Three bags from each group were sampled for chemical and microbiological analysis on the 90th day after ensiling. At the end of the ensiling period, all silages were subjected to an aerobic stability test for five days. In addition, in vitro organic matter digestibility of all silages was determined. The results showed that lactic acid bacterial inoculants enhanced the characteristics of fermentation and decreased acid detergent fiber and acid detergent lignin contents of sunflower silages. When compared to the control group, the aerobic stability was found to get improved in Lalsil treatments, as indicated by reduced pH value, carbon dioxide production and yeast populations. Treated silage groups appeared with higher in vitro organic matter digestibility than the control group.

  111. Sachin Vinodbhai Parmer, Anurag Borthakur, Vikas Yadav and Ravikanth, K.

    A total of 22 cows, out of which 10 cows were in late gestation and the remaining 12 cows with a history of retained placenta and abnormal lochial discharge, were selected for the purpose of study. The 10 cows in late gestation were placed in the control group. Group T0 (n=10) was kept as control and not given any treatment. Group T1 (n=6) was treated with Exapar bolus at the rate of 4 boli/day for 3 days. Group T2 (n=6) was treated with AV/UTB/26 at the rate of 2 boli/day for 3. Parameters viz. type of parturition, nature of lochial discharge, placental condition, time required for expulsion of placenta were evaluated. Results revealed that there was significant decrease in the cases of distocia and retention of placenta (ROP) in the Exapar bolus treated group as compared to control. The time required for involution was also significantly less in the Exapar bolus treated group. Thus, it can be inferred that Exapar is highly efficacious in the treatment of retention of placenta.

  112. Saravanya, K. S. and Dr. S. Kavitha

    Uses of natural Fibers have gained importance in the recent years due to the Eco-friendly nature Recycling the existing natural resources and increasing the comprehensive development of agricultural waste have become the imperative in the development of green fiber and eco-textiles. In this paper, the author reviewed the development of the natural fiber from Palmyra sprout.

  113. Sharmin, S., Golam Sarwer, David Rintu Das, Abdul Halim and Mahmudur Rahman

    The present study was conducted based on field survey method in six districts of Rajshahi division during the year of 2015-16. The study revealed that eels are harvested by using baited traps, long line hook, hands, frog and handmade tools from different natural water bodies. October to December is the peak season for harvesting although freshwater eels are available round the year. Daily harvesting rate depends on season ranging from 2.0-3.5 kg/collector. Annual production by eel collectors of different district in study areas were found as: Bogra: 9.39 mt, Sirajgonj: 6.50 mt, Pabna: 6.30 mt, Natore: 5.40 mt, Rajshahi: 4.30 mt and Noagaon: 7.20 mt. Highest productions were obtained from Bogra district (9.39 mt) and it is 24.03% of the total production. The market chain from collector to consumers passes through a number of intermediaries like local Bepary, Agents, Arotddar, Exporters and Buyers. Aluminum containers, plastic drums, bamboo baskets with polythene covers are commonly used for keeping fresh water eel alive during the transport. Generally two grading system is involved for marketing of eel in Bangladesh. Eel of Bangladesh are exported to many countries of Europe, Asia and Middle East. From the study it was found that, 40 beparies monthly export total: 35.9 mt, 12 arotders: 26.7 mt and 18 exporters: 93.6 mt respectively. It was found that exporters export their eels to different countries mainly China (75%).

  114. Dr. Amith Sharma, Dr. Ganapathirao, Dr. ChandrakanthHalli and Dr. Vijay Biradar

    Present time is the era of changing food, sedentary lifestyle and mental stress, all these factors disturbs the digestive system resulting into many diseases. Among them Arshas are quite common in the society. Management of Arsha through surgical procedure has become notorious due to post-operative pain associated with many more complications. And surgery is not possible in cases like extremes of age, surgically unfit persons, pregnancy etc. So, t his study was conducted to evaluate the effectiveness of peelu taila varti with indigenous drugs in abhyantara arshas.For the present study, 30 diagnosed patients of abhyantara Arshas were selected and divided into two equal groups. In trial group, patients were treated with peelu taila varti and control group patients were treated with kaseesadi taila varti for 10 days and assessment was made on 3rd, 5th, 10th & 15th day during treatment. The patients were assessed on the basis of subjective and objective parameters before treatment, during and at the end of the treatment. There was one follow up after 1 month. The treatment with peelu taila varti have shown effective results during and post follow up of treatment in reducing signs and symptoms. After the total course of intervention the data obtained towards the results indicated that peelu taila varti was effective than kaseesadi taila varti in the management of abhyantara arshas.

  115. Ariel Santivañez Aguilar, Atalita Francis Cardoso, Roberta Camargos de Oliveira, José Magno Queiroz Luz and Regina Maria Quintão Lana

    Potatoes tend to have relatively short production cycle and high yield per area, hence they demand the presence of readily available nutrients in soil solution. Each potato cultivar has specific characteristics of its development. The objective of this study was to verify foliar contents and to establish Diagnosis and Recommendation Integrated System (DRIS) indices for the Cupid potato cultivar with the use of organo-mineral fertilizer. The experiment was conducted in Perdizes city, Minas Gerais, during the rainy season of 2014/2015. The experimental design had randomized blocks with factorial arrangement of 4 doses and 2 fertilization managements + control treatment (conventional mineral dose) with 3 repetitions. The organo-mineral fertilizer doses were 25, 50, 75 and 100% of a mineral dose, which were: 600 kg ha-1of potassium sulfate, 850 kg ha-1of phosphate monoammonium, and 300 kg ha-1 of ammonium sulphate. The management of fertilization consisted of either performing or nottop dressing 19 days after planting (DAP) with hilling. After 36 days, leaf samples were collected from each plot for foliar analysis. At the end of the experiments, the tubers were collected to calculate the productivity of the useful area on the plots. The order of insufficiency can be established using DRIS in the high productivity group through the following sequence: Fe>S>K>Mn>Cu>Zn>B> Mg>N>P>Ca, and the order of insufficiency in the low productivity group through the following sequence: Mn>P>N>Mg>Fe>Cu>Zn>S>K>B>Ca. On the basis of DRIS, the treatment with the dose of 75% and top dressing showed the best nutritional balance in the production of potato cv. Cupid.

  116. Md. Abdul Halim, Debashis Kumar Mondal, Abu Rayhan, Sharmin, S. and Sonia Sku

    The present study was conducted to observe the fish biodiversity in Sherudangabeel under Mithapukurupazilla, Rangpur, Bangladesh during the period from January to March 2017. A definite structured questionnaire had used to collect the important data from 50randomly selected both temporary and permanent fishermen from the study areas. The present study had found46 species of fish from the Sherudangabeel. Among the recorded 46 species; four species were highly endangered (8.70%), twenty eight species common (60.87%), seven species locally extinct (15.22%) and seven species were rare (15.22%) respectively. Miscellaneous (23.91%) were the most dominant group followed by Catfishes (15.22%), Carps (15.22%), Barbs and Minnows (17.39%), Perches (8.70%), Snakeheads (8.70%), Eels (6.52%) and Clupeids (4.34%) respectively. In the study area species are classified into four types such as endanger (12.77%), vulnerable (6.38%), near threat (6.38%) and least concern (74.47%). This study will be very helpful to indicate areas of high fish biodiversity and to make fish sanctuary to reduce the loss of fish biodiversity in the Sherudangabeel.

  117. Mohamad M. Abou Auda, Abboud Y. El Kichaoui and Saleh M. Awaja

    Air pollution is a major problem facing by the scientists internationally, particularly in industrial areas of the developing countries. Different studies related to air pollution, have been carried out at several areas of the world, but this is the first investigation, which examined the air pollution tolerance index of some natural plant species in Palestine. Identification of plant species for their tolerance or sensitivity range to air pollutants is significant because the tolerant plant species can used for controlling air pollution in industrial locations. Furthermore, the sensitive plant species can used as biological indicators for air pollution. Therefore, in the present study air pollution tolerance index (APTI) was estimated for different plant species inhabiting six locations namely Hamooda, Abosaphea, Mansoer, Spong, Medicine factory and Al show a station of the industrial area of BeitHanoun, Gaza Strip, Palestine. Samples of leaves of 23 plant species were selected from the six sites of the industrial area. The plant species Solanum elaeagnifolium cav., Malva parviflora L, Polygonum equisetiforme Sm., Marrubium vulgare L., Verbascum sinuatum L. were recorded at all sites of the study area. The four biochemical and physiological factors, relative water content, ascorbic acid content, total leaf chlorophyll, and leaf extract pH were used to evaluate the air pollution tolerance index (APTI) values of plant species. The results revealed a more credible result could be achieved when utilizing the above-mentioned four parameters than those of a single biochemical parameter. Based on APTI, Polygonum equisetiforme was found, at all locations of the study area, to be more tolerant compared to the remaining plant species, followed by Nicotiana glauca, Solanum elaeagnifolium and Silybum marianum successively considered as the most tolerant plant species in the study area. Lower APTI values were found with other plant species suchas Marrubium vulgare followed by Marticaria recutita and then Chenopodium vulvaria, which are considered as the most sensitive plant species. In conclusion, the air pollution tolerance index (APTI) values of the 23 studied plant species are less than 16, therefore all plant species are considered as sensitive to air pollutants and can be used as biological indicator for further monitoring of air quality.

  118. Jaime Wilfrido Aldaz Cárdenas, Rigoberto Fimia Duarte, Juan Ramón García Díaz, Jenny Janeth Segura Ochoa, Nancy Guadalupe Aldaz Cárdenas and Jorge Jagger Segura Ochoa

    The objective was to know the behavior of the canine Parvovirosis (PVC) in mongrel dogs infected naturally by variants of PVC; for that reason, 2814 mongrel canines were used, beginning from retrospective data obtained among the years 2007-2010 in the Veterinary Hospital "Canine and Felines" of the city of Guaranda, Bolivar Province, Ecuador. The diagnosis of the illness was carried out by means of the application of the functional invariant of the clinical method and the use of the quick test Anigen (BIONOTE, seagu-dong Hwaseong-if, Gyeonggi-do, Korea). It was determined the occurrence of positive cases and the incidence of the PVC during the mentioned period, according to the procedures described by Thrusfield. The enzootic channels were built or of habitual behavior of the illness for the territory in the year 2011, starting from the series of time obtained among the years 2007-2010, by means of the method of the average of geometric mean of the rates of incidence, with the use of the program EPIDAT 3.1. To conclude, that the main epidemic indexes of the PVC will have the same behavior for the year 2011 and they can be modeled and predicted with high level of precision, whenever these can be expressed like a series of time.

  119. Rafat Khan and Asha Agarwal

    In the present study, albino rats of both the sexes were exposed to nitrogen dioxide gas (50ppm) for one hour per day for 15 and 30 days. Albino rats of both the sexes of equal size and weight (150-200g) were kept in standard laboratory conditions and grouped in three sets (A, B and C) containing twelve rats each. Control set (A) was unexposed, experimental set (B) was exposed to nitrogen dioxide gas (50ppm) and experimental set (C) was exposed to nitrogen dioxide gas (50ppm) along with supplementation of vitamin C (5mg/rat)and E (2.5mg/rat) for one hour per day for 15 and 30 days. Total leukocyte counts increases significantly after nitrogen dioxide gas inhalation in both the sexes of albind rat of albino rat, due to irritant effect of toxic gas and airway inflammation which induces Leukocytosis. Supplementation of antioxidants vitamin C and E plays a protective role in attenuating the toxic effect of NO2 gas in both the sexes of albino rat due to antioxidant defense mechanism to a greater extent.

  120. Serkan YILDIRIM, Cumali OZKAN, Ozlem ORUNC KILINC, Pınar TANRITANIR EKICI, Mustafa OZBEK and Omer Faruk KELES

    The material of this study was consisted of a major flamingo brought to the animal hospital on June, 2013 with complaints of weakness, anorexia and diarrhoea. During the clinical examination, animal died and later autopsy was performed. Macroscopically; sanguineous exudates in abdominal cavity, hyperaemic intestinal serosa with thickened and smooth loops were observed. In the epithelium, erosions and ulcerations were observed. In addition to these macroscopical findings, adult parasites were observed in the intestinal lumen. After autopsy, tissue samples were acquired in 10% formalin solution and intestinal content were sent to laboratory for histopathological examination. Hyperaemia on the intestinal serosa and enteritis characterized with oedema and haemorrhage were determined according to the histopathological examination. Villous atrophy in the intestinal epithelium was determined as a result of necrosis, erosion and ulceration. After parasitological examination, adult form and eggs of Phoenicolepsis nakurensis were observed. As this is the first case reported in our country and this parasite may be an important reason for death caused by enteritis in flamingos; it is concluded that taking this parasite into consideration will be beneficial.

  121. Sahar A.A., Malik Al-Saadi, Sabeh D. Alutbi and Zainab J. Madhi

    The leaves of Solanum tuberosum has been studied in plants cultivated both in vitro and ex vitro under illuminated growth chamber conditions during acclamation period, as well as conventionally plants in natural conditions. These conditions induce anatomical alterations, the results showed that number of stomata in the acclimatization plants greater than in the conventionally plants. The results showed that similarity plantlets producing from tuber in vitro with field plants in some anatomical characteristic. There are two types of stomatal types in plantlets producing from explant, while found five types in plantlets produced from tuber and field plants. As well as the results showed that palisade and spongy layers had greater air space within it and the cells of these leaves were irregular shape. In contrast, the anatomy of leaves under plantlets produced from tuber and conventionally plants were noticed reduce air space between cells and the cells more arrangement. In plantlets produced from explantmidrib contains continuous layer of palisade layer which losing in other treatments.

  122. María Eugenia Buitrago-González, SandraSantacoloma-Londoño and Luis Carlos Villegas-Méndez

    Sustainable consumption (SC) is considered as an important aspect for the development and environmental care for Colombia and other countries around the world. However, some limitations in terms of research and knowledge on SC (Ministerio de Ambiente, 2010) are presented at a national level, as well as at a regional and local level as there is a little information about the issue (UCEVA- CVC, 2013), and it is required to delve into the knowledge and state of art of SC (Cruz G. Javier, 2014). It is evidenced the need for an analysis on SC in Colombia which addresses conceptual aspects and investigative trends in the issue and contributing to strengthen its research. This study explores the way to contribute to the research strengthening on SC at a national and local level in order to advance in the pursuit of innovation and the dissemination of sustainable consumption patterns (Ministerio de Ambiente, 2010). At the same, time it seeks that the Environmental Engineering program of UCEVA guide its research processes on SC in a coherent manner with what is conceptually established and use methodological tools consistent with the issue. This led to theoretical analysis in which main concepts are established in SC and procedures to deal with its study and interdisciplinary. Also, important aspects in order to advance in the study of the matter were set up, among them, education for SC and research trends in SC at a national level that cover different sectors such as business, education and social ones.

  123. Luis Carlos Villegas Méndez, María Eugenia Buitrago González, Sandra Santacoloma Londoño and Alexandra Naranjo Peñaranda

    The objective of the study was to determine the effect of post consumption products and residues on human health and the environment, as defined by the Ministry of Environment and Sustainable Development of Colombia. We inquired about post-consumption residues known worldwide initially, contextualizing the inquiry at the national and regional level. The chemical, physical and / or biological composition of post-consumer waste was obtained from documental information collected on post-consumer waste described by MADS: pesticides, medicines, lead acid batteries, batteries and accumulators, tires, light bulbs and computers And / or peripherals. Except for exceptions (drugs), heavy metals are the substances with the greatest impact on human health and the environment; They are: Arsenic (As), Cadmium (Cd), Cobalt (Co), Chromium (Cr), Copper, Mercury (Hg), Nickel (Ni), Lead (Pb), Tin (Sn) and Zinc Zn). The affectations and diseases that waste and post-consumer products generate in the human being, and the detriment and pollution that these cause to the environment were communicated to the community through the realization of the "Seventh Integral Seminar on Environmental Engineering" held on 27 Of October of 2016 in the facilities of the UCEVA; Interactive workshops were also held with students of the Environmental Engineering program of the UCEVA; Is currently working in network with the Universidad Nacional in Production and Sustainable Consumption. Among the heavy metals, mercury, lead, cadmium, nickel and zinc are the most important in terms of health effects. Some intermediate elements such as arsenic and aluminum, which are very relevant from the toxicological point of view, are usually studied together with heavy metals.

  124. Séka K., Kouamé A. C., Assiri K. P., Kra K. D. and Toualy M. N. Y.

    Okra is an important food for many populations in Côte d'Ivoire. However, viral diseases are a real threat to this crop. The general objective is to generate scientific knowledge to protect okra production. Phytosanitary surveys were carried out two weeks after planting at the Ahoué (Ayaman-Abidjan) experimental site and until harvest. The incidence and severity of symptoms were observed. The effect of the viral disease on yield was also determined by comparing the different agronomic parameters between 50 apparently healthy and infected plants. These plants were previously labeled after the results of the PCR assays with the universal primers directed against okra-infecting Begomovirus (Cotton Leaf Curl Gezira Virus (CLCuGV) and Okra Yellow Crinkle Virus (OYCrV) but also simple symptoms (Mosaic, crinkle, leaf curl, leaf discoloration and vein brightening), but complex symptoms have also been observed. The incidence of viral diseases ranges from 50% to 80% throughout The highest yields, 4 on the scale of 1 to 5, were recorded in the complex symptoms of mosaic + crinkle + leaf curl, yield losses by 48.93% were due to Okra viral disease. The use of resistant or tolerant varieties combined with appropriate farming techniques to control effectively the viral disease.

  125. Amit Kumar Verma and Ashok Kumar Singh

    Vorticella stalk contractility is a non-Newtonian type movement exhibiting positive DNFB (Sanger’s reagent or 1-fluoro-2,4-dinitrobenzene) sensitivity when in acidic medium. This brings 25 to 30% change in contraction frequency with 0.5 to 1 fold variation in electrochemical gradients. Positive effect towards protonation supports the protoosmotic conduction (Verma AK and Singh AK, 2017) and pin-points towards reactivation of binding sites of Sfi1p and Cdc31p binding ryanodine receptors. In vitro applications of spasmin protein through controlled activation sites of functional terminal domains of amino acid residues and getting aligned with binding receptor sites indicates about its possible multiple applications.

  126. Gebremichael Gebretsadik Weidengus

    Background: Intestinal parasitic infection is one of the major and serious medical and public health problems in developing countries including Ethiopia. Children being major victims, therefore effective prevention and control of intestinal parasitic infections require the identification of local risk factors, particularly among school children. The aim of this study was to assess the prevalence of intestinal parasitic infections and associated risk factors among Homesha District school children, Northwest Ethiopia. Method: School based cross sectional study was conducted from March-June 2015.A total of 395 school children as study subjects were selected from four primary schools by using simple random sampling technique. Data were gathered through direct interview by using a pretested questionnaire. This data collection technique involve teachers to get correct answer in the case of lower age students. The collected stool specimens were examined microscopically for the presence of eggs, cysts and trophozoites of intestinal parasites using direct saline smear and formol-ether concentration methods. Data entry and analysis was done using SPSS version 20.Chi-square (χ2) test and crude odd ratio were calculated to verify and measure the possible association between IPIs and potential risk factors. Result: The overall prevalence of intestinal parasite in the present study was 160/395 (35.44 %), for at least one intestinal parasite. The prevalence rate was 66 (31.88%) for male and 74 (39.36%) for female. The prevalence of intestinal parasites was high in age group of 6-9 years compared to other age groups. Of the nine species of intestinal parasites identified, the most prevalent were E. histolytica/dispar 56 (14.17%) followed by G. lamblia 50 (12.65%) and Hook worm 27 (10.12%).In this study the most significantly associated risk factors for the occurrence of intestinal parasitic infections were hand washing habit, eating unwashed/undercooked vegetables, waste disposal habit, shoe wearing habit and practice of figure nail trimming (P<0.05). The risk factors were also associated with increased prevalence. Conclusion: Intestinal parasites were prevalent in varying magnitude among the schoolchildren. And they are public health problem. The prevalence of infections were higher for protozoa compared to helminths. Therefore, the District health office in collaboration with schools community and other stake holders should work to take measures including education on personal hygiene and environmental sanitation to reduce the prevalence of intestinal parasitic infections.

  127. Gebremichael Gebretsadik, Asmamaw Abat and Tigabu Hailu

    Schistosomiasis is one of the major medical and public health problems in developing countries including Ethiopia. The objective of this study was to assess the establishment of transmission, prevalence and associated risk factors of S.mansoni infection among school children of Diza area, Northwest Ethiopia. School based cross sectional study was conducted from March-April 2016. A total of 260 school children were selected using simple random sampling technique and were screened for S. mansoni using Kato Katz technique. Data related to potential risk factors were gathered through direct interview by using a pretested structured questionnaire. Malacological survey was also carried out to identify snail intermediate hosts. Data entry and analysis was done using SPSS version 20. Bivariate and multivariate logistic regression analysis was done to examine the association between S. mansoni infection and various risk factors (P-value < 0.5).The overall prevalence of S. mansoni was 27.3% (71) with mean intensity of infection, 264 eggs per gram of feces. More than half (66.20%) had moderate infection intensity. The collected snails were identified as Biomphalariapfeifferi. A significant association was found between S. mansoniinfection and time taken to cover the distance between home and river, swimming habit, practice of river crossing, knowledge about schistosomiasis and its vector (P<0.05). Schistosoma mansoni infection still remains a public health problem in the study area. Therefore, the district health office in collaboration with schools community and other stake holders should work to take measures including mass drug administration, promoting health education and behavioral changes in children towards schistosomiasis.

  128. Aminah, Abdullah and Muliaty

    The aim of research : (1) to verify the cropsyst plant model of experimental data in the field of soybean plants and (2) to predict planting time and potential yield soybean plant with the use of cropsyst model. This research is divided into several stages: (1) first calibration stage which is conducted in field from April until September 2016. (2) application models stage, where the data obtained from calibration in field will be included in cropsyst models. The required data models is climate data, ground data/soil data, also crop genetic data. The relationship between the obtained result in field with simulation cropsyst model indicated by Efficiency Index (EF) which the value is 0,784. This is showing that cropsyst model well used. From the calculation result RRMSE which the value is 2,351%. This is showing that comparative fault prediction results from simulation with result obtained in the field is 2,351%. Conclusion has obtained that prediction of soybean planting time cropsyst based models that have been made valid for use. and the appropriate planting time for planting soybeans mainly on rain-fed land is at the end of the rainy season, in which the above study first planting time (Mei 1, 2016) which gives the highest production, because at that time there was still some rain. Tanggamus varieties more resistant to slow planting time because the percentage decrease in the yield of each decade is lower than the average of all varieties.

  129. Prashant Kumar, Sharma, K.B., Amit Kumar and Sarfaraz Ali

    Owing to different chromosomal number and physiogenetic make up of various species of genus Antheraea (tasar silk insects) creates vital ground for variations in their behavioural breeding manifestations in both seed crop and commercial crop season. Various biological performances of these species were investigated which depended on environmental condition like climatic factors, habitat differentiation alongwith dietary variations in artificial laboratory conditions. The results showed coupling behaviour in four different Antheraea species (Antheraea mylitta, Antheraea proylei, Antheraea pernyi, Antheraea roylei) in such conditions on different mating media. Highest coupling breeding percentage in isolated condition of 72% and 78% while higher group coupling percentage of 77% and 82% in A. mylitta in seed crop and commercial crop season, respectively have been observed. Further A. mylitta shows its supremacy of coupling percentage under different mating media over A. proylei, A. pernyi and A. roylei in both seed and commercial crop season. Following relative order of coupling percentage for given tasar silk insects in maintaining the order of coupling manifestations observed from our investigation is: Antheraea mylitta < Antheraea proylei < Antheraea pernyi < Antheraea roylei

  130. Aswathy S. Nair, Thyigeshwari, S. and Muthumanickam, D.

    The DTPA extractable cationic micronutrient and some important soil physic-chemical properties were investigated in two ecosystem of Ramanathapuram district of Tamil Nadu using GPS technique. Considering the critical limits of soil micronutrients, all soil associations were not adequately supplied with DTPA extractable micronutrients in both ecosystems. Irrespective of land use, the DTPA extractable cationic micronutrients were positively related with organic carbon content and negatively related to calcium carbonate content. The soils under rainfed condition possessed lesser values of all the nutrient availability than irrigated soil environment. Deficient soil samples were found in all the blocks, for Fe, Zn, Cu and B in district and none of the samples from all the blocks had deficient in range of Mn except Nainarkovil block

  131. Naresh, N., Santha Lakshmi Prasad, M. and Prasad, R.D.

    Sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) is one of the important oilseed crops in the world and it ranks third in the area of cultivation after groundnut, mustard and rapeseed. Thirty isolates of Alternaria alternata causing leaf blight disease of sunflower during rabi season were collected from different conventional sunflower growing areas of India. All the isolates produced light brown obpyriform to ovate to obclavate conidia, which varied in the size (length, width and septa).Based on the variation in pigmentation, color of aerial mycelium the isolates were categorized into five types. Thirty isolates were studied for length, width of conidia and clustering was performed using the Unweighted Pair Group Mean Average which showed 3 major groups. Group I consisted of 16 isolates; Group II includes 12 isolates and Group III contains 2 isolates. Genetic variability and phylogenetic relationships among the collected isolates were studied by employing the Inter Simple Sequence Repeats (ISSR) markers. Thirty two ISSR primers were used to study the genetic relationship among the 30 isolates of A. alternata, out of these twelve primers were selected as polymorphic based on their banding pattern. The genomic DNA isolated from A. alternata isolates a total of 185 bands were amplified with 12 ISSR primers among which 142 bands were showing polymorphism (76%). The maximum genetic similarity observed with ISSR was 0.98 % between A a1 and A a16, while the lowest genetic similarity of 0.22 % was observed between Aa1 and Aa5. Based on the literature cited, this was the first report on morphological and genetic analysis (ISSR analysis) of A. alternata isolates from different sunflower cultivating areas of India.

  132. Rajesh Kumar Kar, Tapash Kumar Mishra, Banshidhar Pradhan, Satya Ranjan Das and Ritu Kumari Pandey

    Genetic variability and divergence were studied for yield and yield related traits in fifty one elite low land rice cultures, selected on the basis of their tolerance to situations like submergence and stagnant flooding. The experimental materials possessed considerable amount of variability for all the traits. Majority of the traits showed smaller difference between phenotypic coefficient of variation and genotypic coefficient of variation. Both GCV and PCV were high for number of fertile grains / panicle, 100-grain weight, harvest index, grain yield / plant and plot yield while, high heritability with moderate to high genetic gain for days to 50 % flowering, plant height, number of fertile grains / panicle, 100-grain weight, harvest index and plot yield indicating the presence of additive gene effect. The test genotypes were grouped into twelve clusters, where Cluster I and Cluster II were the largest accommodating ten genotypes. Maxim minter-cluster distance was noticed between the clusters VIII and XI, which could be used for recombination breeding to throw some transgressive segregants for varietal improvement. Days to 50 % flowering and plant height contributed maximum to genetic diversity.

  133. Anitha, R., Manorama, K., Hemamalini, C. H. and Sreedhar, M.

    Rice (Oryza sativa) grain quality is determined by its physical and physicochemical properties. Physical properties include kernel size, shape, milling recovery, degree of milling and grain appearance (Cruz & Khush, 2000). Physical quality has a great importance in commercial rice production as it highly influences the final output as well as the consumer demand which directly contribute to the economic profitability of the grower and miller. The L/B ratio of rice varieties Anjana (JGL-11118) and Pradhyumna (JGL-17004) were 3.62 ± 0.16 mm and 3.37 ± 0.12 mm. These varieties are classified as short slender grains. Volume expansion was taken as the ratio between volume of cooked rice and initial volume of raw rice. V.E. values of Anjana (JGL-11118) and Pradhyumna (JGL-17004) varieties were 2.7 cm and 2.5 cm. Elongation ratios of Anjana (JGL-11118) and Pradhyumna (JGL-17004) rice varieties are 1.45 and 1.48, therefore they have desirable elongation ratios. Elongation ratio is an important parameter for cooked rice. Rice that expands lengthwise gives a finer appearance while that which expands girthwise gives a coarser appearance on cooking (Dipti et al., 2004). An elongation ratio of less than 1.3 is not desirable (Dipti et al., 2004).

  134. Gifole Gidago and Fanuel Laekemariam

    Teff (Eragrostis tef) is one of the most important traditional staple cereal crop grown in Ethiopia extensively under various climatic and soil conditions. On farm experiments aimed at evaluating productivity of teff in response to NP fertilizers and identifying the most suitable NP rates for production of teff were conducted at farmer’s field at Edo Kebele, Duguna Fango Woreda, Wolaita Zone, Southern Ethiopia in the main rainy seasons of 2012 and 2013. Four levels of nitrogen (0, 23, 46, and 69 kg ha-1) and phosphorous (0, 10, 20, and 30 kg ha-1) were used to evaluate productivity of teff under participatory approach by using Farmers' Research and Extension Group (FRG). Teff variety DZ-Cr-37 was used for the experiment in a factorial Randomized Complete Block Design (RCBD) with three replications. Application of nitrogen (N) and phosphorous (P) fertilizers had very highly influenced total biomass, grain and straw yields of teff but the effect of N and P interaction was not significant on these parameters. Highest net benefit was obtained with application of 23 kg ha-1 followed by 46 kg ha-1 after which the net benefit declined. Similarly, highest net benefit was obtained from the application of 10 kg P ha-1. Farmers’ evaluation result also indicated that most of the participating farmers preferred application of 23 kg N ha-1 and 10 kg P ha-1. Therefore, application of 23 kg N ha-1 and 10 kg P ha-1 is recommended for production of teff at Edo.

  135. Maria Teresa Vilela Nogueira Abdo and Rinaldo César De Paula

    This experiment studied the efficiency of the electrical conductivity test to evaluate the vigor of Croton floribundus seeds. Seven seed lots were evaluated with seedlings emergency and electrical conductivity tests. In the electrical conductivity test, measurements were taken with 25 and 50 seeds samples after 02, 04, 06, 12, 24, 48, 72 and 96 hours of soaking in 75 ml of deionized water at 25 °C. With four replications subjected to analysis of variance in a completely randomized design in split plot wherethe two quantities of seeds represented the plots and the eight periods of soaking represented the subplots. Data from number of seeds were compared by Tukey test at 5% and for the periods of soaking by polynomial regression. The results indicated that the electrical conductivity test is efficient to separate the lots of capixingui seed and the most effective time period was 96 hours soaking at 75 ml with 25 or 50 seeds at 25 ° C corroborating the results the germination test although they could be already separated with 48 h soaking for 25 seeds samples and 24 hours soaking for 50 seeds samples.

  136. Sunita Jhariya and Dr. Aruna Jain

    Field experiment was carried out at the farmer’s field at village Raghogarh, Dist. Guna of Madhya Pradesh to evaluate the effect of vermicompost, biofertilizers and inorganic fertilizers on the biochemical compounds (chlorophyll, carbohydrate and protein) of Coriander (Coriandrum sativum L.). Coriander was grown with 8 different combinations of fertilizers using vermicompost, biofertilizers (Azotobacter and Phosphate Solubilizing Bacteria sp. Pseudomonas strata) and chemical fertilizers (NPK) including one control treatment. The results indicated that the chlorophyll, carbohydrate and protein content of coriander were significantly higher in T7 treatment compared to other treatments and control at different growth stages. Thus it can be concluded that combined use of different fertilizers is the best option to coriander for better quality crop production.

  137. Neha Rawat and Jyoti Chaudhary

    There is a variety of cooking oils from plant and animal origin which are used in the various parts of India, depending upon the region and availability. For example, people in south and west prefer groundnut oil, coconut oil etc, while those in east and north use mustard/rapeseed oil. Hence, edible oils play a crucial role in cooking and thus it is important to choose them wisely for maintaining a good health. The choices and using the cooking oil is influenced by the attitude, knowledge and perception of people towards cooking oil. In the present study “Assessing the knowledge of people towards cooking oils in Modinagar (Ghaziabad) U.P.” an approach is made to collect information regarding people’s knowledge regarding cooking oils. For assessing the knowledge of people, a questionnaire cum interview method was administered on the total of number of 50 randomly selected female respondents between the age group of 20-60 yrs residing in Modinagar, Ghaziabad (UP). From the findings it can be said that people do not have adequate knowledge regarding the cooking oils, their usage, storing, purchasing etc.

  138. Shiva Kumar, D., Srikantaswamy, S., Abhilash, M. R. and Smitha, N.

    The role of aquaculture in world food production is increasing very fast, contributing with more than 40% for the total production of aquatic organisms. The general approach in modern aquaculture resembles much that of industrial agriculture and husbandry, with large energy subsidies and the usage of many chemicals in, predominantly, monoculture systems, with a large ecological footprint. In spite of the large body of regulation available worldwide, there are important ecologic, economic and social impacts in many countries as a result of aquaculture. In some cases, the anticipation of these impacts by local populations represents a negative feedback for aquaculture development. In the present work, a review of those impacts is presented, followed by a discussion of the carrying capacity concept, then by presenting some approaches and methods that may help planning aquaculture developments including the Drives Pressures States Impacts Responses framework, modeling and Decision Support Systems and, finally, by a synthesis of aquaculture related legislation worldwide. In the 21st century the fresh water scarcity increased very rapidly due to the urbanization and industrialization process. In these conditions the urban wastewater plays an important role in the water usage criteria. In this aspect, in all the major cities, wastewater treatment plants have been constructed to treat the urban wastewater in view of decreasing the water scarcity. The presence of nutrients in the wastewater is considered as beneficial to agricultural and aquaculture practices. The contaminants present in the wastewater pose health risks directly to agricultural and aquaculture system and indirectly to the consumers as the long term application of the wastewater may result in the accumulation of toxic elements in fishes. In this way the heavy metals will circulate among the food chain and food web to cause adverse effects on human health as well as on soil health. In the present study an attempt has been made to study the characteristics of urban wastewater at wastewater treatment plant of Mysuru city, also heavy metal concentration was studied in fishes and wastewater.

  139. Lemiya, K. M. and Pradeep, A.K.

    The circumscription and delimitation of Ammannia L., Rotala L. and Nesaea Comm. ex Kunth. have long been confused due to their similar vegetative morphology, floral and seed structure and shared habitats. The delimitation of these genera based on traditional morphological characters was found to be perplexing. Various characters have been used in describing and delimiting species of these three closely related genera, but little attention has been drawn to the leaf cuticular features and stomatal complex. Present study deals with both qualitative and quantitative characterization of stomata of four species of Ammannia, two species of Nesaea and thirteen species of Rotala from South India. Except some variations such as relative distribution percentage of stomata in abaxial and adaxial surface, other significant epidermal characteristics that could contribute to the taxonomy of these three genera have been revealed. Characters such as relative distribution percentage of stomatal index, stomatal and epidermal cell size, presence or absence of some unique type of stomata were observed to play a key role in species delimitation. Hypostomatic leaves were reported here for the first time for R.occultiflora and R. densiflora. A key for the identification of South Indian taxa based on cuticular features are also provided.

  140. Shiva Kumar, D., Srikantaswamy, S., Abhilash, M.R. and Smitha, N.

    An understanding of the principles of operation of capture and culture fisheries helps to throw light on the definition of aquaculture. The expressions capture and culture fisheries are self-explanatory. In the former, one reaps the aquatic harvest without having to sow, whereas, in the latter, one has to sow the seed, nurse it, tend it, rear it and harvest it when it grows to marketable size. Culture fisheries are usually carried out in small water bodies which can be manipulated, pre-prepared for stocking; which are often manured and/or fertilized before, during and after stacking; and/or where fish are fed from extraneous sources. The principles of management of capture and culture fisheries are very different from each other. In the case of capture fisheries one has to attempt to harvest maximum sustainable yield by regulating fishing effort and mesh after taking into account parameters of population dynamics such as rates of recruitment, natural and fishing mortalities, fish growth and size at which recruitment occurs. Management of capture fisheries requires knowledge of the dynamics of the fish populations under exploitation. For effective aquaculture, one has to gain familiarity and control water quality to enhance its biological productivity; one has to understand fish nutrition so as to be able to formulate nutritionally balanced fish diet; one has to delve deep into fish genetics so as to be able to evolve new varieties and strains which bestow commercial advantages to the product in terms of superior growth rate, nutritive value, bonelesness, taste, odour etc.; one has to prevent incidence of fish infections and diseases through prophylatics and therapeutics.

  141. Prathiksha and Ramachandra Naik, K.

    Pre-treatment is an essential step before processing of food materials. Many researchers have investigated the effect of different pre treatments on various fruits, vegetables and other foods for drying. In the present investigation, different pre-treatments were studied on different quality parameters of the chips and flour. The highest recovery of chips (22.20 %) and flour (22.60 %) was recorded in T7 (blanched slices soaked in 0.1% citric acid) and T8 (blanched pieces soaked in 0.5% sodium metabisulphite) respectively. Further the treatment T8 also recorded other beneficial characters like low moisture content (13.97), water activity (0.24), non-enzymatic browning (0.103). However, the treatment T4 (unblanched slices soaked in 0.5% sodium metabisulphite) had given beneficial results on sensory scores for texture (7.33) and overall acceptance (8.00) with chips and good quality parameters like color and appearance (8.92), taste and flavor (7.93) and overall acceptability (8.25) with floor. Hence the treatment T8 and T4 were proved to be the best ones for preparing chips and flour respectively.

  142. Sabareeshwari, V., Baskar, M. and Balasubramaniam, P.

    Five pedons were evaluated for their suitability to red gram on the basis of variation in physiography, parent materials, and soil nutrients in Ponnaniyar basin soils of Tiruchirapalli, Tamil Nadu. The pedons were developed by non calcareous gneiss with feldspar (P1), granite and feldspar intermingled in pedon 2, weathered gneiss (P3), weathered quartz and felspatic gneiss (P4) and gneiss with lime parent materials (P5) and classified as Vertisol (P3, P5), Inceptisol (P1, P2) and Alfisol (P4). In general, sand, silt and clay contents ranged from 16.00 to 71.55, 8.95 to 49.50 and 12.35 to 55.25% in different horizons, respectively. The soils were calcareous and moderately alkaline to strongly alkaline in reaction. The organic carbon ranged from 0.13 to 0.39 g kg-1 and cation exchange capacity from 16.23 to 19.91 cmol(p+)kg-1 soil. The soils were low, medium and high in available N, P and K respectively. All five pedons are moderately suitable (S1) for red gram cultivation, except Eliyattur series, it showed temporarily not suitable (N1) category.

  143. Emy Surendran

    Introduction: Endometriosis is one of the most common benign gynecological diseases characterized by the implantation and growth of viable endometrial tissue outside the uterine cavity. The exact prevalence of endometriosis is not known but estimates range from 10-15% within the women of reproductive age group. Women with endometriosis are usually confronted with one or both of the two major problems-Endometriosis associated pain and infertility. Pain includes dysmenorrhea, Dyspareunia, Dyschezia and non menstrual pelvic pain with a significant effect on various aspects of women’s life including their social and sexual relationships, work and study. Objectives: The present work is an attempt to understand endometriosis through Ayurvedic concepts. Material and Methods: Ayurveda classics, text books of gynecology, and internet publications were consulted and reviewed for carrying out the present work. Conclusion: Endometriosis cannot be correlated to any single disease of Ayurveda. It can be considered as a syndrome complex of Vataja yonivyapaths based on the clinical presentation .The treatment can be formulated by following the treatment principles of Yonivyapath, Gulma, Granthi, Arthava dushti, Pradara etc. This type of interpretation may help to formulate an effective ayurvedic treatment modality that can efficiently reduce the lesions with limited side effects and no interference with the patient’s menstrual physiology and fertility.

  144. Emy Surendran

    Introduction: Endometriosis is one of the most common benign gynecological diseases characterized by the implantation and growth of viable endometrial tissue outside the uterine cavity. The exact prevalence of endometriosis is not known but estimates range from 10-15% within the women of reproductive age group. Women with endometriosis are usually confronted with one or both of the two major problems-Endometriosis associated pain and infertility. Pain includes dysmenorrhea, Dyspareunia, Dyschezia and non menstrual pelvic pain with a significant effect on various aspects of women’s life including their social and sexual relationships, work and study. Objectives: The present work is an attempt to understand endometriosis through Ayurvedic concepts. Material and Methods: Ayurveda classics, text books of gynecology, and internet publications were consulted and reviewed for carrying out the present work. Conclusion: Endometriosis cannot be correlated to any single disease of Ayurveda. It can be considered as a syndrome complex of Vataja yonivyapaths based on the clinical presentation .The treatment can be formulated by following the treatment principles of Yonivyapath, Gulma, Granthi, Arthava dushti, Pradara etc. This type of interpretation may help to formulate an effective ayurvedic treatment modality that can efficiently reduce the lesions with limited side effects and no interference with the patient’s menstrual physiology and fertility.

  145. Usha, S. and Karpagam, S.

    The present study involves the phytochemical evaluation and antibacterial activity from leaf and callus extracts of Eupatorium triplinerve (Asteraceae). Phytochemical screening in various extracts such as aqueous, ethanol, chloroform, acetone and petroleum ether of leaf and callus reveals the presence of tannins, saponins, phenols, flavonoids, cardiac glycosides, terpenoids, alkaloids and steroids. The leaf and callus extracts were quantitatively evaluated for tannin content with tannic acid as standard. The optimum yield of tannins was found in ethanol extract of callus was 7.82 ± 0.3 mg tannic acid Equivalents (TAE) / g) followed by ethanol extract of leaf was 6.71± 0.3mg tannic acid Equivalents (TAE) / g). Different concentrations of ethanolic extracts in leaf and callus were tested for the anti-bacterial activity against Bacillus subtilis, Bacillus cereus, Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli and Pseudomonas aeruginosa using agar disc diffusion technique. The ethanolic callus extract shows maximum zone of inhibition in Bacillus cereus followed by Pseudomonas aeruginosa. It was concluded that the powerful antibacterial effect was attributed to the greater amount of tannin compounds in the ethanolic callus extracts of Eupatorium triplinerve.

  146. Khoushika Raajshree, R. and Brindha Durairaj

    Green synthesis of metal oxide nanoparticles from seaweed extract is a promising alternative to the traditional method of chemical synthesis. In this paper, we report the synthesis of nanostructured zinc oxide particles by a biological method. Highly stable and spherical zinc oxide nanoparticles (ZnO-NP’s) are produced by zinc acetate utilizing the biocomponents of crude extract of Turbinaria conoides. Formation of ZnO-NP’s has been confirmed by UV-Vis absorption spectroscopy, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), X-ray diffraction (XRD), zeta potential study and Scanning Electron Microscope with the Energy Dispersive X-ray studies (EDX). The ZnO-NP’s from Turbinaria conoides are expected to have applications in pharmaceutics, biomedical, cosmetic industries, biotechnology, sensors, medical, catalysis, optical device, coatings, drug delivery and water remediation. This new eco-friendly approach to synthesis is a novel, cheap and convenient technique suitable for large-scale commercial production.

  147. Manoj Kumar Panda and Acharya, U.R.

    Chromium (Cr) is a hexavalent compound and a transitional metal used in different industries has been associated with reproductive abnormalities in male Swiss mice. Testicular dysfunctions, production of morphologically abnormal sperms, decreased sperm count, derangement of spermatogonial cells in the seminiferous tubules are the parameters of study in chromium induced Swiss mice. In the present study, an attempt has been undertaken to demonstrate whether chromium ions can traverse from the mother to the foetus and neonatal pups during gestation and lactation phases. Hence, female Swiss mice were administered with chromic acid (0.001%) through drinking water for 6 weeks from onset of pregnancy up to the end of lactation. Male pups were separately reared and 8 weeks of age the male mice were sacrificed and the testes were subjected to histological and biochemical analyses. Morphometric indices of the Cr-treated male mice indicated significant decrease in body and testes weight as compared to untreated controls. A sharp increase in lipid peroxidation potential indicated the generation of ROS due to Cr-catalysis and causes significant decline in antioxidant enzymes of the testes like peroxidation and catalase and non-enzymatic antioxidant vitamin C. As a result, these enzymes could not protect the testes from oxidative assault. The study demonstrates that maternal exposure to chromic acid during pre and neonatal stages impires spermatogenesis of male pups. Moreover, natural antioxidant system of the testes fails to protect the testes from oxidative assault resulting in impairment of spermatogenesis.

  148. Kyriafinis, G., Stagiopoulos, P., Aidona, S., Politis, D., Aleksić, V. and Constantinidis, I.

    In most cases Cochlear Implant users are subject to post-surgical treatment that not only calibrates and adjusts via mapping functions the acoustic characteristics of the recipient’s hearing, but also applies linguistic course treatments designed to reverse the physical or mental debilitating effects of severe hearing loss. Usually Cochlear Implant users attend stringent Special Education courses to regain normal schooling access. During this process, distinguishing features of oral and aural communication are promoted. This research extrapolates the learning aptitude tests, like storytelling, to the sphere of singing and music comprehension in general. It aims to evince how neurophysiological processes in oral and aural communication are affected by mental representations and how the observation of meaningful signals can reveal musical contours that link social or musical intelligence attributes with performance shapes.

  149. NJIPOUAKOUYOU Samuel, AOUDOU DOUA Sylvain and GALMAI Orozi

    The soil water reserve in N’djaména and surroundings is investigated using data onpluviometry and reference evapotranspiration for the period from 1980 to 2007. Monthly averages and standard deviations calculated for each year show that the soil of this area was under a permanent deficit of water. The driest year was 2001 with the highest average deficit of -155.8 mm/month compare to the year 1994 with a minimal amount of -105.6 mm/month. The analysis of its time tendency shows that from year to year that deficit was becoming deeper and deeper. Modeling this tendency brought to a decreasing linear relationship between time t and the soil water reserve WR. Simulation indicates a good fitness of the obtained model. The monthly averages and corresponding standard deviations computed from data in the considered month during the whole period indicate that March is the driest month with a deficit of -220.9 mm/month compare to July with a minimal amount of -7.2 mm/month. Standard deviations indicate that soil water reserve has a high time variability. Monthly and daily soil water requirements were estimated based on the obtained results.

  150. Fori Emmanuel, Harrison O. Idakwo and Silas Stephen Neji

    As the use of digital techniques for transmitting and storing images are increasing, it becomes very important issue that how to protect the confidentiality, integrity and authenticity of images over the open network is not toiled with. There are various techniques which are discovered from time to time to encrypt and decrypt images to make them more secure during transmission. This paper reviewed 28 research papers dealing with wide-range of image encryption and decryption techniques that are combined to give a better algorithm. Those encryption techniques are studied and analysed to promote the performance of the encryption methods. Everyday new techniques are evolving hence fast and secure conventional encryption techniques work with high security rate. Each of the new techniques is unique in its own way and this makes it suitable for many applications. The results of the simulations showed that every algorithm has advantages and disadvantages. But the combined techniques are generally faster and the security level is high. Therefore, it is recommended that more complex algorithm should be used to provide high speed and security in cryptosystem and modified versions of various algorithms should also be used to increase the security level.

  151. Eun-Ji Jo, Yong-Gyun Jin, Wan-Su Hyeon, Hyun-Goo Han, Seon-Ung Min and Woon-Ho Yeo

    Although the consumption of fossil fuels is rapidly increasing, the development of other energy sources to replace fossil fuels is still insufficient. In this situation, marine reclamation of organic wastes is banned, and research on the fuel conversion using organic wastes is being actively carried out. Among them, fuelization using sewage sludge is progressing, but high water content and biodegradability of sewage sludge are a problem of conversion to fuel. So a method of mixing biomass is used. In this study, the biodegradability was measured according to the mixing ratio of sewage sludge and sawdust using AT4 test. As the ratio of sewage sludge in the mixture increased, the biodegradability of sewage sludge was increased up to 49.35 g O2/kg DM considering the biodegradability of sawdust. When the sewage sludge was more than 70%, the biodegradability of the mixture exceeded raw sample (54.67 g O2/ kg DM).

  152. Wan-Su Hyeon, Yong-GyunJin, Eun-Ji Jo, Hyun-Goo Han, Seon-Ung Min and Woon-Ho Yeo

    This study was performed to reduce greenhouse gas by producing the bio solid fuel with sewage sludge as the main material. However, the sewage sludge has a high moisture content, so the energy cost of the drying process is considerable, and the calorific value is 3000 ~ 4000kcal / kg, which is low value to replace fossil fuels. In order to improve these problems and to secure competitiveness against fossil fuels, bio - solid fuel was prepared by mixing sewage sludge and biomass, and then the mixing ratio was optimized. This study suggests a method to reduce the number of experiments and to optimize the composition of bio solid fuel by using mixture design which is one of the design of experiment (DOE). As a result, the moisture content was reduced by about 20% and the calorific value of about 1000 kcal / kg could be improved.

  153. Dr. Kalaiarasi, K. and Geethanjali, P.

    In a fuzzy graph, the arcs are mainly classified in to α, β and δ. In this paper, some arc sequences in fuzzy graphs are introduced, whose concept are based on the classification of arcs. Besides complete in fuzzy graphs, regular in fuzzy graph are obtained. It is shown that α -arc sequence of a complete is a zero-one sequence, δ-arc sequence of a regular fuzzy graph is a zero sequence.

  154. Vidyashri C. Halakerimath and Shivagangamma B. Danappagoudra

    Advertising is the key for building, creating and sustaining brands. Advertisements play a major role in persuading, informing and reminding both potential and existing customers towards making a brand decision. It plays a vital role in shaping dreams and aspirations and helps customer take conscious product and brand decisions. Television advertising is the most memorable and easily digested formats around us. Unlike other strategies, television commercials have a variety of tools to call upon to gain a viewer’s attention, such as video, animation, graphics, voice, sound effects and music. Confidence is the factor for success of television advertising. No other medium projects the same amount of confidence as television advertising. With view of this point the study was conducted to know the opinion of teenagers, adults and adolescents about the impact of television advertisements. The study was conducted in and around Hubli-Dharwad and selection of respondents was through random sampling method. The total sample size was 50. The result indicated general information of the respondents indicated that cent percent of the respondents were belongs to 18 to 20 year age group. Majority (64.00%) of the respondents were male. The overall opinion index of the respondents to the extent of 57.20 and opinion of the respondents was non- significant relationship with age, gender, course studying of the respondents and parental occupation of the respondent.

  155. Muradov, M.M., Guseinova, I.G., Murshudlu, N.A. and Agayev, A.A

    The results of investigations of the side conversions of methanol in the conditions of alkylation of 2-methylphenol by methyl alcohol in the presence of the catalyst PdCaY are presented. It has been shown that the main product of the side conversion of alcohol – dimethyl ether is also able to develop the methylation reaction of o-cresol with average rate.

  156. Charfadine Nimane MAHAMAT, Stéphane RAYNAUD and Youssouf MANDIANG

    In three-dimensional metrology. Three-dimensional measuring means the means have been widely multiplied in recent years, in metrology laboratories, in production workshops, with the evolution of technology in general, the software associated with these machines are multiplied and allow to obtain the results of measurements with different methods. In this paper we carried out a series of measurements of ten (10) identical parts on a numerically controlled three dimensional measuring machine. To do this we carry out computer-aided design, three-dimensional of the type of parts, in three-dimensional design software, for the manufacture of parts subject to experimentation. The least-squares method is applied for the evaluation of the geometrical specifications of the parts. A measurement repeatability procedure was carried out in order to overcome the influences of the operator in the measurement results. We define the parameters allowing to estimating the uncertainties of measurements or of the capacity to measure numerically controlled three-dimensional machine. After several studies and experiments, we have found it is important to estimate the capability of its three-dimensional digital control means. Our article series up a pragmatic approach to estimating the uncertainties of measurement results or the numerically controlled three dimensional machine-to-machine capability. In a simple tool for three dimensional controllers. From the results obtained from the software associated with the three-dimensional measuring machine. The approach makes it possible to estimate the uncertainties or the capability of numerically controlled three-dimensional measuring machines.

  157. Manjusha B. Kothawade and Balraj, A.

    FBX dosimeter is mainly based on the determination of the radiation dose from the chemical changes produced in an irradiated medium, which can be measured by Spectrophotometer or Colorimeter, for which adequate FBX solution is required for measuring the optical density (OD). In present study, we measured the entrance and exit dose in the carcinoma patient’s body surface during the radiation therapy using FBX dosimeter. These findings were compared with computerized treatment planning system.

  158. Rajiv Gajbhiye, Dr. Hari Kumar Naidu and Pratik Ghutke

    In this Paper we have studied the PLC and VFD, its operation which can be used along with the Induction Motor and can control the parameters of it for Automation in industries. The overall scheme and system of implementing V/f control has been presented. One of the basic requirements of this scheme is the PWM Inverter system. In this, PWM Inverters have been modelled and their outputs are fed to the Induction Motor drives system. The uncontrolled singl like transient and steady state response of the Induction Motor has been obtained and analyzed. The speed of the motor is controlled by varying the frequency through triggering the VFD i.e. PWM technique. Thus it causes the output voltage of the VFD according to its turn on time i.e switching time. The inverter converts DC power to AC power at the required frequency and define amplitude. By this the variable frequency is set by VFD and the motor speed can be changed to the required speed. The entire control system is switched by using PLC system. Thus the main Aim of this paper is the monitoring, operating speed control of motor based on VFD and programmable logic controller, and SCADA system is also developed which shows the parameters of IM on the GUI Application based Software.

  159. Cinder Dianne Luza – Tabiolo and Glenfiddich J. Daymiel

    The present status of Dipolog Bay was assessed at three selected sites and two substations (nearshore and offshore). The physico – chemical and biological characteristics of seawater were determined from the water samples of the three stations from March to May 2016. Data on total coliforms, fecal coliforms, heterotrophic plate count, total suspended solids, nitrates, phosphates, as well as the physico-chemical parameters such as dissolved oxygen, salinity, pH and temperature were collected and analyzed. The results showed that some of the physico-chemical and biological parameters were significantly correlated with each other with higher values and may attribute to the wastes or effluents that come from household sewage, industrial and agricultural activities. The presence of pollution-tolerant coliforms indicate that Dipolog Bay is deteriorating and does not fit for human utilization thus requires proper treatment and soothing measures. Moreover, Dipolog Bay does not qualify for Class coastal water criteria suitable for fishing, commercial purposes and tourist zones, and for Class recreational water class 1 (areas for bathing, swimming, skin diving, boating, etc.) based from the DENR standards.

  160. Aaishah Zabir Patel and Abdul Rahman M Saleh

    This review was undertaken as preparatory work to provide the background and scientific rationale for a laboratory study on TheraCal. A review of the literature was performed by using electronic and hand-searching methods for the chemical and physical properties. More clinical studies will be necessary. Gaps in the research field for TheraCal include the topics solubility, setting mechanism, microhardness, and bond strength.

  161. Bhavna Joshi

    Chemical phases of iron in large number of the Ayurvedic bhasma are investigated through Mössbauer Spectroscopy. Iron is found in oxide form as Fe2O3 or Fe3O4 or both in all the bhasma studied here irrespective of their nature their mode of preparation. The size distribution of iron particles is different for different bhasma. It is known that iron oxide is toxic to human body and it is also not easily absorbed in it. Mössbauer studies point to iron oxide being present in these bhasma and thus not safe for human consumption.

  162. Selection of an orbit for communication satellite based on inclination and eccentricity

    The work mainly deals with the design of a geostationary orbit for a communication satellite. The mission and requirements are determined by the ∆V budget calculation been done for four different cases and obtained the low ∆V total which will be more efficient for the fuel consumption. Six Keplerian Orbital elements and orbital perturbations for the low earth parking orbit and finally attained geostationary orbit is been calculated theoretically and shown. Further using GMAT software, the simulation of the geostationary orbit is attained and various analysis (Iterations, Differential corrector, Report and Ephemeris files, Graphs) are done based on the altitude of the orbit. In this paper a brief introduction is given for communication satellites and its importance and detailed study about various orbits which helps in obtaining a result of choosing a suitable orbit based on eccentricity and inclination classifications. Detailed explanation is given for the chosen orbit for communication satellite.

  163. Ramya Preethi, S.

    From the previous discussions of the paper we studied various orbit types under inclination and eccentricity classifications and chosen to work on GEO based on two major ideas (i) fuel consumption and (ii) building a constellation in GEO. To obtain a desired geostationary orbit, we need to calculate its ∆V budget, keplerian orbital elements and orbital perturbations. In this paper, ∆Vcalculation will be done four different cases and obtain a low ∆V total, which is more efficient for less fuel consumption. In this paper four major cases are assumed and made calculations based on it and obtained low ∆V total. Apart from this also described about the need and importance of ∆V Budget in a launching. Most importantly to build an orbit for a communication satellite we need to place a satellite. For that the GSLV F04 of MK.II series is chosen.

  164. Ramya Preethi, S.

    3/4th of the research work has been done based on selecting an orbit for a communication satellite, delta-V calculation to obtain a low delta-V total for fuel consumption, building required impulsive burns to attain the orbit by the satellite and six keplerian orbital elements to describe the satellite’s position and direction in the previous discussions of my paper. In this paper orbital perturbations calculation will be done for various disturbances which affect the satellite’s mission. Usually geosynchronous launch vehicle is used to spot the satellite in its particular position. GSLV–F04 of MK.II series is chosen for its perigee and apogee distance because with these values delta-V can be calculated. And along with orbital perturbations, satellites under various environments are also been explained theoretically. Rather than this, general and special perturbations are described briefly to attain perturbations are caused by the changes in the orbital elements and in the velocities, position and acceleration of a satellite.

  165. Ramya Preethi, S.

    Required calculations like delta-V budget, orbital elements and perturbations had been done for designing a geostationary orbit for a communication satellite in previous parts of my paper. Now designing, simulating and analysing GEO will be done here. To attain the orbit we need to set a differential corrector, create a required mission sequence to build impulsive burns which plays an important role to obtain a hohmann transfer. Then the three dimensionalorbital views, ground station, eclipse locator and contact locator are made. Report, ephemeris and XY plots are obtained to find out the exact position of the satellite from the different views from space and it can also show the values from the launching epoch till the mission life ends. All these works are completed and explained in a detailed manner with the help of GMAT software and a little introduction about this software is also described below. Various outputs like report and ephemeris file, eclipse and contact locator, simulation of GEO orbit, ground track plot and graphs had been obtained and explained in a cleared manner.

  166. Ramya Preethi, S.

    After the detailed study about orbits, GEO is chosen based on developments to be done in the inclination and eccentricity. Hohmann transfer is needed to attain the GEO, so delta-V calculation is carried out for four different cases and proved the lower delta-V total. To extend further, calculations for orbital elements and perturbations to be done, to analysis the satellite’s position in its respective orbit. By determining these values, they can be entered in the software and orbit design will be optimized. In this paper, theoretical calculation for orbital elements, brief explanation of orbital man oeuvres and how to determine it will be studied. And calculation for six keplerian orbital elements for both LEO and GEO will also be carried out. The importance of epoch both in practical and software cases are explained in a detailed manner. The three dimensional trajectories which will be useful to locate the satellite’s position and direction are described in the manner how the software works on it.

  167. Shubhangi R. Kotkar and Balbhim N. Bansode

    Authorized system authentication is very sensitive and important task of today’s s high technology system. Here in this paper we have proposed a lip movement biometric authentication system in which different phases of operation have explained. Also the attack points are explained. The system will securing authentication.

  168. Nguyen Hai Quang

    This study aims to determine the impact of price indexes and Gross Domestic Product (GDP) index on trends in the use of domestic air transport in Vietnam. From the theoretical base, the article has developed a model of research and analysis the data of these elements over a 15-year period from 2002 to 2016. Research results show that the GDP index and transport price index of alternative modes have a positive impact on the trend of using domestic air transport service in Vietnam, but price index of air transport has a negative impact. In particular, the level of its impact in air cargo transport is quite low due to the proportion of air cargo transport in cargo transport modes is still low. While domestic passenger transport is strongly influenced by the air passenger transport price index and the passenger transport price index of alternative modes of transport due to the proportion of passenger in modes of transport is quite high. However the impact of GDP index is relatively low. These findings are an important basis for planning transport policy in Vietnam through transport pricing policies.

  169. Vanajaa, V.R. and Dr. Kathirvel, C.

    This is a review paper which focuses on the different energy storage devices based renewable power generation systems. The renewable energy systems are progressively being accepted because these are environmental friendly and freely available. These energy systems can play an important role in remote places where power is not viable to be transported from long distances. On the other hand, tapping the renewable energy from the natural sources such as sun and wind has its own demerits. Due to varying weather conditions, the renewable energy systems are not able to satisfy the load demand. To enhance the power accessibility and supply of the reliable power to the load, the battery energy storage devices are essential in off-grid applications. This paper is intended to review the types of energy storage devices with effective Maximum Power Point Tracking controller and control strategies for optimizing the performance of the system.

  170. Alireza Ghanbari, Mehdi Haghshenas and Hassan Chaharmahali

    The current study is aimed at investigation of effective factors on successful implementation of knowledge management in Iranian public banks and its impact on job satisfaction of these employees. The increasing growth of knowledge and skills in information technology, globalization and competitive environment of the banking industry environment, as well as the rapid changes in this area have made it necessary to better organize and manage well-known and hidden organizational knowledge. Human resources management in all organizations should provide a bed for the management of knowledge in which the acquisition of information and knowledge and its sharing throughout the organization is institutionalized and a platform for increasing employee satisfaction is made. Therefore, the move towards the full realization of the knowledge management system has always been on the agenda of organizations, especially for the financial institutions. The tasks of human resources management in learning organizations are based on the attraction and maintenance of knowledge employees. The present study aimed to investigate the effect of knowledge management establishment on job satisfaction of employees. The statistical population of this study included employees who were aware of knowledge management. Using t-student test, it was found that the average of employees' opinions about the effect of knowledge management establishment on employee's job satisfaction is high, so all four research hypotheses were confirmed. The results showed that employees with a mean of 4.11 in Likert's 5-point scale believed that job satisfaction would increase if knowledge management was established.

  171. Jaya Thakur and Dr. Lakshmi Sivaramakrishnan

    Urbanisation has become a rapid socio-economic phenomena in the twenty first century. Urbanism, or way of life of urban dwellers is the process which shapes the urban structure. Economic activities are a major part of this way of life, of which consumer behavior is a major part. It influences the urban scenario and environment in more than one way. The present study tries to assess the changing character of consumer behaviour in a peripheral municipality of Kolkata Metropolitan Area, Baidyabati, situated almost forty kilometers away from Kolkata. The study is based on data collected by primary survey and analysis of those data by qualitative and quantitative methods. The study shows how relationship between commodity and consumer has changed over the year and use and throw mentality has taken grip of a part of consumer psyche. It also shades light on how these factor, joined with a garbage management system that is trying hard to take care of more than it’s capacity, creates a problem for the environment of this urban area and tries to find a way for it’s sustainable development.

  172. Chinese martial arts: a look from the complexity of the subject

    Approaching philosophy is synonymous with recognizing the epistemological path of any culture, and of course, it represents the ways to mobilize pedagogically the worldviews of people. What is intended to achieve is a connection chosen and adapted from those moments and "fables" that have influenced and formed the worldview of the Eastern people, especially the Chinese people. Being this way, it is not an act of erudition, the talent will consist in demonstrating a selective judgment and a scriptural style that can shed light on the proposal. In forging this writing, it has tried to highlight what can be considered vital and timely, without ignoring that there is always more to write. In the same way, it is very important to emphasize that in the last decades a current of thought in particular has been taking force that little by little floods the different academic scenarios of the world, its main representative is the great thinker Edgar Morin; his innovative concepts - synergistic, inclusive, and hopeful - mobilize this article. The Complex thought, with its possibilities always open, it harmoniously welcomes the intention to define the Subject from the Eastern philosophy, represented in our closest environment by the martial arts. This scriptural act seeks to shed some light on popular concepts and influenced about what to practice martial arts means, and beyond, to show an educational possibility of the emergent modern subject and possible in our context. Obviously, an article is deficient for such a colossal task, that is why a concise explanation will be shown here, which will be based on Kun'g Tse (Confucius), hoping to continue in other scenarios by expanding the proposal. Here the ideal is not try to show an ocean of knowledge with centimeters of depth, on the contrary, it is intended to travel only an archipelago, but with the caution that must be taken.

  173. Mustafa Can Koç

    The purpose of this study is to investigate the relationship between self-esteem and life quality of physically handicapped individuals. Population of this study consisted of physically handicapped individuals who receive treatment at different rehabilitation centers of Istanbul province, and sample consisted of 172 volunteer participants who were selected randomly. Personal information form to determine demographical characteristics of participants prepared by researcher, self-esteem scale to determine self-esteem levels of participants developed by Rosenberg (1965) and adapted to Turkish by Çuhadaroğlu (1986) Life Quality Scale translated in Turkish by Aksungur (2009) were used in study. The data obtained were recorded in SPSS 23.0 Package Program. In accordnce with the purpose of researcher, it was determined that this study was a non-parametric study. In this direction Mann Whitney U test, Kruskall Wallis and Speaman correlation analysis were applied. As a result, according to gender; a significant difference was determined in self-esteem levels of physically handicapped individuals and also a significant difference was found in life quality according to ages and participation in sports status. In addition a positive relationship was determined between self-esteem and life quality levels of physically handicapped individuals.

  174. Rahayu Johari, Kamisah Osman, Mohd Azmi Mat Yusoff and Juhaida Abdul Aziz

    The curriculum is important in providing quality human capital to meet the challenges of the 21st century. A systematic evaluation needs to be done to obtain information and data relating to curriculum implementation in schools. Hence, the researcher used the Tyler Assessment Model (1950) to evaluate the implementation of Primary School Standard Curriculum or known as Kurikulum Standard Sekolah Rendah (KSSR) of the subject World of Science and Technology (WST). Based on Tyler's Model, the four aspects of the evaluation are: objective, content, method, and assessment. The design of the study used an evaluation study of a mixed method known as an explanatory sequential design that has two phases of data collection i.e. quantitative data followed by qualitative data. A sample of the study consisted of 345 WST subject teachers and 12 interviewed respondents. A set of questionnaire was built and the value of Cronbach Alpha for the entire questionnaire ranged from 0.770 to 0.790. The descriptive statistical analysis is used to identify the level of understanding and skill of the teachers on the objective, content, method and evaluation aspects in implementing the WST curriculum learning standard. Overall, the findings showed that the level of understanding and skill of the teachers on objective constructs, content, methodology, and assessment are at high level. Regression analysis using the Stepwise method revealed four independent variables namely selection of content, Information and Communications Technology (ICT) Content Standards, curriculum goals and content appropriateness correlated and influenced the level of teachers teaching skills and methods in implementing Year Two WST curriculum Learning Standard. The assessment results provide input on the strengths or weaknesses found in each component of the assessment. Regular support, monitoring, and training should be taken into account to ensure that the curriculum has been developed and implemented successfully.

  175. Sunday Oseiweh OGBEIDE and Florence Modupe FAPOHUNDA

    This study examined cash less policy and the financial performance of banks in Nigeria. Time series data for the period 2007 to 2016 for five variables representing about fifty (50) annual observations was generated from the Central Bank of Nigeria Economic Reports and Nigeria Deposit Insurance Corporation Annual Reports. The study used Augmented Dickey Fuller test to determine the stationary state of the variables. It also employs the descriptive statistics and panel least squares multiple regression method to analyze the data generated. The empirical findings revealed that cash less policy largely determined the financial performance of banks in the Nigerian banking sector as indicated by the coefficient of determination. The volume of Automated Teller Machine (ATMVL) and Point of Sales (POSVL) were found to increased banks financial performance though not statistically significant. Web based Technique volume and bank size were negative and not statistically significant on the financial performance of banks. The study there recommends that more ATM centers/ outlets should be opened by banks through the influence of the Central Bank of Nigeria in order to enhance the success of the cash less policy. Point of Sales should be encouraged in business transactions by investors, the government and the general public at large in Nigeria as this would further deepen the penetration of the cashless policy.

  176. Xuan Thang Nguyen, Duy Ket Nguyen, Thi Hanh Pham, Minh Thanh Vu and Hoang Phuong Vo

    Effects of phenyl vinyl ketone (PVK) inhibitor on electrochemical behavior of Pb-3%Sb alloy electrode have been studied by linear sweep voltammetry (LSV), cyclic voltammetry (CV) and Tafel polarization measurements. The alloy surface morphology after discharge/charge reactions was studied by using scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Results show that PVK additive may strongly suppress hydrogen evolution even at a low concentration of 20μL.L-1 and reduce the rate of corrosion reaction which occurs on negative electrode grids of the lead- acid battery. The value of inhibition efficiency of PVK additive for corrosion of negative electrode grids is 40.89% to 83.26% with PVK concentrations of 20 to 280μL.L-1. The presence of PVK in electrolyte solution significantly impedes the conversion reactions of negative grid material and makes them more reversible. The effect of PVK additve on conversion coefficients of negative electrode grids is maintained after hundred of CV cycles. The addition of PVK changed surface morphology of alloy electrode. The formed PbSO4 and porous Pb crystals are smaller in size and more compact. The results showed that PVK additieve is promising for use as suitable additives for lead- acid batteries.

  177. Dr. Monday, U Agbonkpolo

    The paper is a theoretical study on the problem of inconsistency and prospect in measurement and evaluation of students’ performance in the foundation lying of nation building. The paper extolled the role of accurate measurement and evaluation of students’ performance in quality (or safety) assurance in nation building. Clarifying the role of measurement and evaluation in nation building was not farfetched since the concept of ‘building’ is synonymous with construction whose key element is measurement. The task of ‘construction’ is the responsibility of skilled workers who are trained through the process of education. The inputs and outputs in the training system go through measurement and evaluation process. The outcome of the process forms the basis for making accurate decisions and policies for training the manpower which is strategic to nation building. And above all, measurement and evaluation report forms the basis of selecting prospective workers in different capacities. The marking of essay test is a significant aspect of measurement and evaluation in education and the focus of this study. The study thus periscopes the search for marking method in literature, that would yield improved measurement and evaluation of students’ performance in essay tests. Giving all the merits and demerits of the different methods, the conclusion of this paper is that the segmented method of marking essay test with the requirement of pre marking training session for examiners and legible examinees’ handwriting has the best comparative advantage. This would improve the accuracy of students’ grade, which will in turn, make the decisions in education and recruitment exercises in the various establishments enhance the effectiveness in the building of the nation’s institutions.

  178. Mohd Tahir Amin Khan

    Indian Literature in English might as yet appear as a conundrum. India is of course, India, and English the language of England. English in India still reflects the stereotypical colonial hangover. But without resorting to such platitudes like English being an international language, and writing in English in India being one major way of getting noticed overseas etc, I might state that there is as yet little need for pleading the case for the existence and flourishing of Indian writings in English. But in festivals like this one where we are celebrating poetry from India under several sections like women’s writing and Dalit Writing and writing in the regional languages, how do we envisage the situation of the writer in English? A fish out of water? Or a sore thumb? Barring the specific curio aspect of the language the experience of the Indian writer can unarguably be evidenced through this chunk of the Indian literary spectrum this usually gets noticed in the west but sometimes for the wrong reasons. It is my argument in the following that the Indian writer in English is not a species apart but very much an integral part of the Indian literary scene. There is this feeling that writing in English from India is substandard and middle class, barring of course a few exceptional cases. This might be true primarily because the language itself is currently in use in living situations only among the educated upper middle class. the working class do not have easy access to this nor do they require it, and in the case of the upper class there is virtually very little self-reflexivity nor commitment to the literary.

  179. Razia Fathima, L. A.

    Advertisement is the promotional activity for marketing a commodity. In the present day world of mass production and distribution, advertising serves as the powerful tool in the marketing machinery. It is only through proper advertising a new product can be introduced in the market. Advertising to children is the act of marketing or advertising products or services defined by national legislation and advertising standards. It is often a subject of debate, relating to the alleged influence on children consumption. Laws concerning such advertisements have largely evolved in recent years. In most countries, advertising for children is framed by a mix of legislation and advertising self regulation. In this paper we try to focus on the advertisement factors that influence the purchase decision of the children.

  180. Saraswati Biswas

    Higher Education in India had a long glorious historical past. After the advent of British the aim and objectives of higher education in India was to produce English knowing Indians for doing the subordinate government service and clerical jobs. Higher education was an elitist in character. After independence the Indian higher education system has undergone many important changes. Now it is available to the masses. Higher education in India has expended quantitatively not qualitatively. In spite of different achievements, the higher education in India is facing very severe strains and stresses. Poor quality of higher education creates unemployment among the youths. Unionization and Poor remuneration has become a major problem for the Indian education system. It fails to attract best of the brains in teaching profession. Invasion on the university autonomy and financing of higher education are very acute problems in India. Governments, both at the centre and in the states, are showing an increasing reluctance to support higher education. It became a non-merit subject. Imbalance funding has encouraged many private agency to establish colleges in the professional areas of studies. The globalization helps growing numbers of Indian students seeking admission in the abroad. While the number coming to India has been stagnant. The research work in the country in any field is far from satisfactory. Recent trend in the country shows that most of the Indian students prefer subjects related to Engineering and Business over Humanities subjects. So total reengineering is required to raise the level of higher education in India.

  181. Dr. Thomas Joseph and Jincy Joseph

    The Philosophy of non violence is very important in the 21st century, because today we live in a violent world. Everywhere there is a mood of restlessness and a desire for change. It is absolutely true that violence can never solve problems or bring peace to the world. It is the law of our species as violence is the law of brute. But non – violence is a guarantee and is most efficacious virtue. If we apply the ideas and ideals of non violence in our day to day life we can establish the kingdom of God on earth. The present study intends to understand Gandhian contribution of Non violence.

  182. López V Juan D., Uribe Andrés, Vélez Francisco, Lagos José, Gómez Liliana and López Francisco

    Technological Platform of meeting between supply and demand that can be used by any user from his cellphone (even if it is low range) and is complemented by other technologies such as USSD and SMS, with the idea of increasing the number of people who use the technology aiming to look for machinery needs, employment, news, agricultural alerts, etc. Case study research in Ranchers Cooperative of Valle del Cauca - Colombia.

  183. Dr. Sanjay Kumar

    The paper Right Implication of Unique identification Number tries to put the current UID project of India into a perspective to evaluate the set of issues and concerns, as pointed by various entrepreneur and try to understand the degree of criticality of those arguments. In this light, the areas of concerns around the UID project in India are also being pointed out. Given the largest IT project in any globally, the topic is of immense significance besides being timely and the discussion can provide encouragement to a series of research activities in the areas of public policy, information systems planning and execution as well as appreciating the risks that get associated with such large initiatives. This paper also tries to put the current UID project of India into a perspective to evaluate the set of issues and concerns, as pointed by various stakeholders and try to understand the degree of critically of those arguments, typically in a style of bringing up the perspectives presented. In this light, the areas of concerns around the UID project in India are also being pointed, with reference to information that already exists in the public domain. Given the largest IT project in any government globally, the topic is of immense significance besides being timely and the discussion can provide exhortation to a series of research activities in the areas of public policy, information systems planning and execution as well as appreciating the risks that get associated with such large initiatives.

  184. Dr. Mukund Sarda and Dr. Bhagyashri Deshpande

    The research article covers the issues regarding BCCI’s amenability to the High Court’s writ jurisdiction were a crucial question for the court to decide. The most important issue to determine in this regard is whether the BCCI comes within the definition of ‘State’ under Art 12 of the Constitution.

  185. Mitra Ara

    A Comparison of the Ancient Zoroastrian Flood Saga and the Story of Noah in the Book of Genesis concerns the myth as related to Noah in the Book of Genesis, which originated in the ancient Near East. Commonalities among Noah's Ark and ancient Sumerian and Babylonian flood stories include a chosen hero, godly wrath, and flood warnings, instructions to build a mechanism to survive the flood, gathering of animal and human lives, survival, and repopulation. This article contextualizes and compares overlapping features of Mesopotamian, affirming the ancient Zoroastrian flood myth as an important part of the myth's overall, cross-cultural universality.

  186. Lakshmi, G., Senthil, J., Indhira, K., and Anand, P.H.

    Land is becoming a scarce resource due to population growth and industrialization Techniques and methods of using satellite imageries as data sources have been developed and successfully applied for land use classification and change detection in various environments. This study attempted to expose the impact of changes in land use/land cover of Thanjavur Taluk, Tamil Nadu. The relationship between Land Use Changes and its trend is analysed. The land cover and land use study was conducted by mapping LANDSAT data of three different four years (1981, 1991, 2001, 2011) with the help of ERDAS and ArcGIS. The result of the work shows a rapid growth in settlement at the cost of decrease in agriculture area.

  187. Mohamed A. Mohamoud-Barawani

    This paper is going to analyze and light on the political, economic, and trade cooperation between Somaliland and Ethiopia, the paper explores how Somaliland and Ethiopia’s bilateral relations to be sustained to the existing political context based on the status of de jure concept of statehood and de facto statehood Ethiopia and Somaliland respectively .The paper will also attempt to find out the political and trade implications encountered by both parts in their performance of diplomacy, security and economic relations. Despite that Somaliland is unrecognized state, it is notable to highlight that the prolonged sustained de factor status had led political maturity of Somaliland over the period, which de facto state sustaining its display for more than two decades and half created an international customary law in the eyes of international community, which Somaliland has proved its competence to contribute security interests of its neighboring states, regional and international and because of this, Somaliland is gaining political legitimacy and becoming an important hub of trade cooperation because of its geopolitical strategic location in the Horn of Africa and Gulf of Aden. Somaliland has also demonstrated the capacity and capability to enter bilateral and multilateral deals and there are many regional states and wider international community members who are dedicated to promote the democratic credentials and peacefulness in Somaliland, in the meantime, Ethiopia is second largest population in Africa, fastest economic growing and diplomatic home of the African Union.

  188. Anju Joshi and Neeta Pande

    The indigenous people of Kumaun region of Uttarakhand, (India) have always played a significant role in conserving the biodiversity. Traditional and cultural forms of biodiversity conservation practices still exist among these societies, such as sacred groves, sacred species and sacred landscapes. The indigenous people have developed their norms and rules through myths and folklores which prove that they are aware of significance of forest and biodiversity in their life. This folklores prevent the destruction of sacred and important flora. The present study reveals the role of Johari Shauka (Bhotia indigenous group) residing in Johar valley (Munsiyari) Pithoragarh district of Kumaun in conservation of the biodiversity in and around localities of their natural habitat.

  189. Dr. Kasturi Bhagat

    The aim of this paper is to explore the current statutory law on the matter of custody and analyze the conditions under which the custody can be handed over under various personal law. Furthermore, the judicial response to this issue is evaluated through the help of various decided case laws. In addition to that this paper intends to provide an insight to judiciary's response to the principle of best interest of the child in the realm of deciding the matter of custody.

  190. Awham M. Hameed, Rasha R. Rawdhan and Shakir A. Al-Mishhadani

    The effect of Polyethylene glycol (PEG) and Polyacrylamide (PAA) addition, on the properties of the ordinary cement and mortar, such as setting time, flow-ability, compressive, and tensile strength has been studied by adding 1,3,5,7wt% additive of PEG400 and (PEG/PAA) by weight of cement. Flexural strength has been determined using center point bending system. Bulk density and water absorption of resulting products was tested. The plain mortar specimens were prepared from Portland cement and the other specimens from the mixing of fly ash with cement together, which were cured by conventional method (water based-curing). Self-curing mortar was performed by adding Polyethylene glycol alone and the binary polymer blend (Polyethylene glycol/ polyacrylamide) with different weight ratios (1,3,5,7)% by weight of cement. Results indicate that the self-curing method under work has positive effect on the workability and strength of the mortar specimens. Mortar specimens cured by self-curing method exhibited higher efficiency in decreasing bulk density. It is found that the performance of self-curing is better than that of water-based curing. The data developed in this study indicates that the self-curing could be utilized in situations where curing with water is difficult. However, between the two investigated curing methods, self-curing mortar recorded better mechanical properties than the water-based curing mortar.

  191. Dr (Mrs.) Suparna Deshmukh

    Study of coordination compounds of heavy metal ions is of special interest since past due to their growing applications in science and technology. Complexation behavior of Triphenyl-Methane Dyes viz. Chrome Azurol-S,CAS; and Pyrocatechol Violet PCV, in the presence and absence of surfactant Cetyl Trimethyl Ammonium Bromide has been found to form stable water soluble pink colored complexes. CTAB have shown to increase sensitivity of the color reactions of these complexes with greater solubility and higher stability. The addition of some heavy metal ions such as Cu(II), Ni(II), Cd(II), Hg(II), and Pb(II), to these sensitized modified reagents resulted in the formation of intense, stable colored complexes. The composition of the complexes of metal ions under study remains same in both dyes CAS and PCV as 1:1, both in the absence and presence of CTAB except in case of Cd(II). In case of Cd(II) with CAS it is 1:1 and it changes as 1:2 in presence of CTAB. Dissociation constants pK values of dye- surfactant modified reagents has been calculated. Various analytical parameters including rate of color formation, effect of temperature and stability of color formation, range of adherence to Beers Law, Molar Extinction constants, Sensitivity, were studied for all systems in absence as well as in presence of CTAB.A simple, rapid, highly sensitized stable method has been proposed. Precision and Accuracy of the method suggested for microdetermination of metal ions was determined which shown suggested methods are both precise and accurate.

  192. Lija, P.G.

    This paper present the use of electronic information resources by students in sahrdaya college of engineering and technology, kodakara. Relevant literature of the electronic information resources and its use in various categories of users has been reviewed. The study examined the types of electronic information resources used by the research scholars, the frequency of use, the purpose of use of electronic information resources, the level of satisfaction in electronic resources and barriers faced by the students while accessing the same. Updates, easy accessibility, and ease of use are the major factors which attract most of the users towards e-resources.

  193. An efficient error detection and correction technique for memories using mldd

    Memory is an important component of an embedded system. Memory testing is very complex. Large error rates are occurring because of technology scaling and also due to higher integration densities. Soft errors are considered as one of the problems with respect to the memories. This paper focuses on the design of an efficient system, that detects and corrects the error. Hence, the number of cycles required to detect and correct the error is also less. EG-LDPC codes, that is, Euclidean Geometry Low Density Parity Check codes are used here. Previous method like Majority Logic Decoding requires more number of cycles for detection and correction of error. But, this paper deals about Majority Logic Detector/Decoder (MLDD) technique wherein error detection and correction takes place in less number of cycles. Hence, the speed of operation can be increased, power consumption can be reduced and also area required for this technique is very less.

  194. Pandichelvi, V. and Sivakamasundari, P.

    In this communication, we establish the general formula for -Fibonacci sequence. Also, we prove some theorems using the recurrence relation for -Fibonacci sequence and the properties of the matrices.

  195. Supriya, Sushma Goel and Pradeep Chandra Pant

    In developing countries the energy problems are both widespread and serious. Lack of access to sufficient and sustainable supplies of energy impacts around 90% of the population of many developing countries. People are compelled to live without regular and good quality electricity supply. The rural population remains dependent on fuels such as animal dung, crop residues, fuel wood and charcoal to cook their daily meals. Without efficient, clean energy, people are undermined in their efforts to engage effectively in productive activities and improve their quality of life (Barnes and Floor, 1996). India is home to the largest rural population in the world with approx. 68.84% of the total population residing in rural areas (Census, 2011). In order to contribute to the overall development in India, access to modern energy and cleaner fuel for rural households is important. There is a need to bridge the access gap by expanding energy systems to meet the energy requirements of the fast growing population and mitigate the threat of climate change. The best possible solution to the energy poverty challenges lies in the shift towards sustainable energy technologies. In the present scenario, the uncontrollable increase in use of non-renewable energies such as fossil fuel, oil, natural gas has led to fluctuation of demand and supply. This negative energy balance for decades has forced India to purchase energy from other countries to fulfill the needs of the entire country. Hence, energy access is an important component of poverty alleviation and an indispensable element of sustainable human development. Government of India has initiated numerous development programmes, focusing on providing sustainable energy solutions to rural communities often deprived of clean and uninterrupted energy supply for their daily energy requirements. The study entitled ‘Renewable Energy Options among Rural Households’ was conducted in Haryana and Himachal Pradesh states. The outcomes of the study provide a roadmap for future programmes promoting the use of clean, efficient and modern energy technologies, to be implemented more effectively. Findings would further benefit the primary and secondary key stakeholders involved in research and development, formulation of policies and regulations, promoting sale and purchase and provide financial assistance to future energy programmes meant to popularize the use of Renewable Energy Technologies.

  196. Sayantani Ghosh and Samir Kumar Bandyopadhyay

    The usual reason to annotate data (i.e. add metadata to it) is to simplify access to it. This is one of the key ideas behind the semantic web. The metadata added to documents or images allow for more effective searches. In the case of images, if they are completely described by a textual annotation, then many image searches can be done effectively by text search techniques.In this paper the different approaches of annotation of images are discussed.

  197. Dr. Jyoti Syal

    To R. K. Narayan was born on 10th August, 1906 in Madras in a working class south Indian family. R.K. Narayan is widely considered to be one of India's greatest English language novelists. The most attractive feature of Narayan's personality is that he is a pure Indian both in spirit and thought, despite his preference for English language over his mother tongue for the expression of his creative urge. Deeply rooted in religion and family, he is understandably indiffrent to literary fashions of the West. All his works take place in the village of Malgudi, the typical Indian village. In The Man Eater of Malgudi, published in 1961, R.K.Narayan makes a conscious use of mythical technique. He goes to the ancient myths and legends, juxtaposes them with the facets of modern life and in this way brings out the similarities and contrasts between the past and the present. The novel presents a clear use of Narayan's experiment with the form of fiction, 'experiment in the employment of the Ravana and Bhasmasur myth'. It is clear that Narayan's employment of the Ravana and Bhasmasura myth in this novel is exlpicit. Narayan's concern with myth is related to the creation of Vasu as a constant human phenomenon, as a form of evil present in every human society, especially in urban developing societies like that of Malgudi. Vasu is modern equivalent of Ravana. The reference of the Ramayana is related to the myth of Ravana in a complex way. The present research is an attempt to prove that the use of myth, suggested and gathered up in bits here and there, is important for one valid reason. Even the simpler realities of life, however bold and uninteresting, they may appear to less discerning eyes, shows that eternity looks through the common place and meager chunks of life.

  198. Joo-Eun Lee

    Neuroscientists in recent years are describing a lot of the complex structure of the brain and also the mechanisms of learning and memory in the brain by using the recently developed technology. Therefore, the researcher attempts to make a leap into an approach for a better foreign language learning by investigating the concept of brain plasticity first and followed by considering the relationship between language acquisition and learning period as well as foreign language proficiency in this paper. Also, the researcher would like to contemplate about how to engrave plasticity on the academic world and how to make best use of it.

  199. Dr. Ajab Singh

    Despite the progressively expansion of global trade in services in developing economies today, with share of 31 percent in global exports and 38.7 percent in global imports of commercial services in the year 2015, and with 9.8 percent and 10.4 percent overall mean growth in exports and imports of commercial services in the span of 10 years (i.e. 2006 to 2015), whereas in the same span overall mean growth in exports and imports of commercial services in developed economies were 5.4 percent and 4.7 percent. Developing economies are more behind to developed economies in global trade of services in terms of percentage, having 66.8 percent and 58.2 percent share in world exports and imports of commercial services, in the year 2015. Participation of developing economies in exports of commercial services continues to lag behind in services of higher-skilled, such as charges for the use of intellectual property n. i. e., insurance and pension services and financial services, research and development, professional and management consulting services, and technical, trade-related and other business services. It remains challenges to these economies. This paper examines the participation of developing economies in world trade of commercial services, with a view to knowing both the challenges and achievements of several services in developing economies. Using UNCTAD Handbook of Statistics, UNCTAD Stat., latest trade trends jointly produced by WTO and UNCTAD according to BPM6 presentation and WTO’s statistical publication, We first highlight the developing economies at a glance. Second, highlights the share of developing economies in world trade of commercial services, structure of developing and developed economies’ exports of commercial services and comparison between them to investigate several parameters being world trade in commercial services of developing economies may go ahead in escaped global services. Finally, to analyze the developing economies’ global trade of commercial services.

  200. Ms. Lisa Elango and Dr. Clayton Michael Fonceca

    Knowledge Management is considered to be the most important aspect for a company to gain a competitive advantage in today’s global scenario. Most IT companies in India provide solutions to companies all over the world for their work-related problems (Kumaraswamy, 2005). While knowledge management has become an apparent factor in companies, implementing knowledge management, its sustainability, process and initiatives are yet to be critically analyzed within context of the Indian IT firms. The study was undertaken to analyze the effectiveness of Knowledge Management practices in one of the Top IT Organizations of Tamil Nadu, India. The present study consisted of 102 employees as Team Leads across various departments in the Organization. The census method was applied and all the 102 respondents were selected for the study. The researcher adopted the descriptive design to describe the degree of importance given by the organization towards the practice of Knowledge Management, its implementation of elements and the Initiatives taken by the Human Recourses towards Knowledge Management. Standardized tools were adopted and the reliability was reestablished to fit the organization. The results of the study demonstrate that Knowledge though depicted at only a moderate level is still a key resource in today’s market. Many researchers argue that it is the key resource to create a competitive advantage. Still it differs itself from ordinary resources.

  201. Dr. Neeta A. Nagori

    In today’s Global Era, people focus too much on changing fashion trends and adopt new styles, colors, patterns, techniques, outfits and accessories. In this changing era, innovation of braiding techniques in garments can enhance the look of the outfits as well as bring something new in the society. Till today braiding is more significant to produce technical textiles and household textiles rather than fashion garments. So a study on “Braiding – Advancement in the world of Garment Designing” was conducted. In this study, braids were used in garment designing by three styles: Flat braid, hanging style and patch work style. 100% of the respondents like the concept of braiding.

  202. Hashim Sabo Bello and Muhammed Kabir Ibrahim

    The study was carried out in Bauchi metropolis of Nigeria to appraise work behavior in business organizations. The research assessed some selected petroleum service stations with strong view to analyze the industrial psychology of making business managers/owners know and apply the appropriate techniques to keep employees at their best, as not too many Nigerians give their all to Jobs where they only enjoy paid benefits. The study also aimed at determining the best performance which calls for special approach by managers/owners to get workers working, money alone cannot deliver this goal, manager must seek out additional inputs that will. Structured interview and observation were used in systematic data collection (from selected petroleum service stations) through the cluster sampling technique. The overall results support the culture of showing gratitude for work done in organization to have significant positive impact on the business success, longevity, profitability and growth. The study recommended that business managers/owners must continually make gratitude part of their organizational culture which bond friendship smoothens and sweetens relationship and determines the longevity of social interactions leading to business success in the small and medium enterprises (SMEs). The paper also recommended that small and medium enterprise operators must developed and adopt scientific and rational business management strategies that will aid and increase their understanding of motivational tips and their applicability to business enterprise in order to facilitate motivational planning and predictions on the most significant factors that affects business survival.

  203. Mudit Bohara, A.

    In our society, the analgesic care and quality of life issues in patients with fatal illnesses like advanced cancer and AIDS have become an important concern for clinicians. Similar to this concern has arisen another controversial issue-euthanasia or “mercy –killing” of terminally ill patients. Proponents of physician-assisted suicide (PAS) feel that an individual's right to independence automatically entitles him to choose a painless death. The opponents feel that a physician's role in the death of an individual violates the central precept of the medical profession. Moreover, undiagnosed sadness and possibility of social ‘coercion’ in people asking for euthanasia put a further question mark on the ethical principles underlying such an act. These concerns have led to strict guidelines for implementing PAS. Evaluation of the mental state of the person consenting to PAS becomes mandatory and here, the role of the psychiatrist becomes essential. Although considered illegal in our country, PAS has several advocates in the form of voluntary organizations like “death with dignity” foundation. This has got a stimulus in the recent Hon’ble Supreme Court of India Judgment in the ArunaShaunbag case. What remains to be seen is how long it takes before this sensitive issue rattles the Indian legislature.

  204. Sirilius Seran

    This research uses quantitative approach, intended to know : 1) a direct relationship between education and unemployment with the poverty of population, and 2) an indirect relationship between education and unemployment with the poverty through the economic growth of the population. The data were obtained from the Central Bureau of Statistics (time series) year 2000-2015 as the source of data. By using a path analysis tool, it is proved that education decreases the poverty of the population, as shown by the path coefficient value of -0.238. The value of the path coefficient between unemployment and poverty population is at 0,559, meaning that the higher the unemployment, the poorer the population is. The relationship between education and unemployment to economic growth is shown by path coefficient value respectively at 0,631 and -0,270. Meanwhile the economic growth directly reduces the poverty of population as indicated by the path coefficient value of -0,590. All forms of relationships, either directly or indirectly are significant at the alpha level of 0,05.

  205. Astuti

    School culture is a life attitude that is realized by the view of life by values that have become the nature, habits and driving forces that entrenched in the life of a group of society / organization, which is reflected in the behavior, beliefs, ideals, opinions and actions Tangible as work or work. The concept of school organizational culture will ultimately affect the school climate. Therefore, improving the quality and quality of education in schools should always be accompanied by the development of a conducive school culture and climate by applying the basic values as the principle of school life.

  206. Dr. Danesh Dinyar Chinoy

    Background: Work related low back pain is one of the most expensive disorders among the worldwide working population. This condition was highly prevalent that approximately 85% staff at WSU having back pain was brought on by prolonged sitting. With the rapid growth of modern technology, sitting has now become the most common posture in today’s work- place. Idea of using motor control learning approach provides the optimal control and coordination of the spine. The McKenzie evaluation uses repeated movements and sustained positions. Therefore high quality randomized clinical trial was required to compare the effectiveness of these treatments for work related low back pain. Objectives: To compare the effectiveness of motor control exercises and McKenzie exercises in reducing pain and disability in work related low back pain at WSU. Method: The study included 40 subjects with work related low back pain due to prolonged sitting. They were randomly allocated into two groups (Group A and Group B). Group A was treated with motor control exercises and group B was treated with McKenzie exercises for 4 weeks. Results: Both the groups have shown statically significant improvement in vas with p <0.0001 and ODI with p < 0.0001. When the comparison was done after the 4 weeks, the percentage of improvement in group A was much higher than Group B. Conclusion: The study concluded that motor control exercises have shown statically and clinically significant improvement in reducing pain and disability when compared to McKenzie exercises among work related low back pain in Wolaita sodo university staff.

  207. Ajay Kr Singh, Chumila Thinley Bhutia, Raj Mehrotra, Madhu Mati Goel, Malti Kumari, Mala Sagar and Madhu Kumar

    Background: Thyroid cancer is the most common endocrine malignancy. The galectin-3 is a member of the beta-galectoside family that play an important role in cellular growth, differentiation and malignant transformation in various organs including thyroid. Aim: To evaluate immunohistochemical expression of galectin-3 in neoplastic and non-neoplastic thyroid lesions and correlated with histopathology. Materials and Methods: In this observational study we evaluated gal-3 expression in spectrum of 67 histopathological diagnosed sample including as follows: 30 PTC (included 9 classical variant, 18 follicular, 02 solid variant, 01 micropapillary), 10 FTC, 14 benign neoplasm (including follicular adenoma and hurthle cell adenoma) and 13 non neoplastic (includes hyperplasia and inflammatory lesions) cases. To rule out subjective differences during IHC, a 3- observe evaluation method was used. Statistical analysis: The statistical analysis was done using SPSS (statistical package for social sciences) version 15.0 statistical analysis software. Results: Galectin-3 expression was significantly higher in malignant thyroid neoplasm as compared to benign neoplasms (p<0.0001). Maximum number of malignant cases were aged between 41 to 50 years and majority of subjects were females. For scoring, it was observed that as compared to non-neoplastic, neoplastic lesions had higher scores (p=0.012). Conclusion: The Gal-3 to be used as adjunct for aiding thyroid cancer diagnosis.

  208. Mohammed M. Thafarani, Dr. Abulrhman Mohammed Salim, Hssan A. Suwaydi, Noor M. Kharazi, Attah Ahwas, Hafiz Syed, Osama A. Harbi, Ali Shubaili, Hussain Y. Rayani and Seham A. Habeeb

    Background: Bronchial asthma is one of the most common chronic diseases among children, which has a high prevalence in Saudi Arabia. The assessment of knowledge about asthma among schoolteachers is important to provide early diagnosis for students who suspected to have bronchial asthma. Objectives: To assess the knowledge of teachers working at primary schools about bronchial asthma among school students. Subjects and methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted among a random representative sample of primary school teachers in Sabya city, Saudi Arabia. Multstage sampling technique was adopted. A structured self-distribution questionnaire was applied to collect the study data. Results: with response rate91.2% of study population 393 responded .All were Saudis half of them (50.6%) were males. 42.7% of them their age ranged between 40 and 49 yearsMajority of the teachers knew that parental smoking may make the child`s asthma worse (85.7%) and children with asthma have abnormally sensitive air passages in their lungs (85.5%). However, only 18.8% of them could recognize that coughing, wheezing and shortness of breathing are the three main symptoms of asthma. Only 11% of teachers knew that Ventolin doesn`t damage the heart and 13.8% could recognize all the asthma triggers. Majority of teachers did not know the possible reason for failure of a medicine to relieve the symptoms of an acute attach of asthma (95.2%) as well as the ways that can prevent attacks of asthma during exercise (86.5%). The highest level of knowledge was concerning general knowledge subscale (47.5%) the lowest was concerning acute attack recognition, triggers, and management (18.8%). The overall Newcastle asthma knowledge score was 31.9%). Teachers with personal or family history of asthma were more knowledgeable. Conclusion: The knowledge of primary school teachers in Sabya city regarding bronchial asthma among children is overall suboptimal, particularly regarding recognition, triggers, and management of acute attack of asthma. Frequent false myths and beliefs were identified among them.

  209. Supriya

    Diabetes mellitus a concern for public health. Diabetes mellitus is increasingly becoming a prime chronic threat and burden around the globe. Unhealthy diet due to lack of awareness in health care leads to increase in the prevalence of diabetes. Along with medical nutrition therapy, nutrition education play a vital role in the management of diabetes mellitus. Periodically follow-up is also essential to maintain sugar level and hence will reduce the incidences of diabetes mellitus.

  210. Maria Grazia Caprio, Igino Simonetti, Luca Tarotto, Piero Trovato, Ciro Gabriele Mainolfi, Barbara Salvatore and Leonardo Pace

    The aim of our study was to assess contrast enhanced multi-detector CT (CE-MDCT), FDG-PET and FDG-PET/CT accuracy in loco-regional staging of colorectal cancer. Methods: Eighteen (10 M, 8 F; aged 41-77 years) patients with histologically proven colorectal adenocarcinoma were enrolled. All patients underwent surgical resection within ten days of diagnostic assessment. CE-MDCT, FDG-PET and FDG-PET/CT were reviewed without knowledge of the results of histology. For each primary lesion a 3 point scale for characterization (1=benign, 2=indefinite, 3=malignant) and localization (1=uncertain, 2=probable, 3=certain) was used for FDG-PET and FDG-PET/CT. Sensitivity, specificity and accuracy were assessed for T staging for CE-MDCT and for N staging for CE-MDCT, FDG-PET and FDG-PET/CT. Results: 19 adenocarcinomas were identified at surgery (one patients had two synchronous lesions). Both CE-MDCT and FDG-PET/CT correctly identified and localized all lesions, while FDG-PEt alone identified all lesions, but only 14 of them (74%) were correctly localized. T stage was correctly identified by CE-MDCT in 17/19 lesions (90%). CE-MDCT correctly staged N parameter in 12/19 lesions (63%). On the other hand, FDG-PET correctly staged N parameter in 11/19 (58%) lesions, while FDG-PET/CT correctly staged N parameter in 16/19 (84%, p<0.05 vs PET) lesions. Overall, FDG-PET/CT showed higher sensitivity than FDG-PET and higher specificity than CE-MDCT in evaluating lymph-node involvement (p<0.05). Conclusion: These data suggest that fused FDG-PET/CT increases the accuracy of FDG-PET in localization of primary lesion and of both MDCT and FDG-PET in loco-regional N staging in patients with colon-rectal cancer.

  211. Dr. Upendra Hoshing, Dr. Suvarna Patil, Dr. Ruchika Gupta and Dr. Kishor Kapgate

    Aim: To present two cases of mandibular second molars with a single root and single canal which was diagnosed and treated successfully. The variability of root canal morphology of multirooted teeth represents a continuous challenge to endodontic diagnosis and therapeutics. Variations of root canal systems may not be only in the form of extra canals. Clinicians should be aware that there is a possibility of the existence of lesser numbers of roots and root canals than that encountered with normal root canal anatomy. Mandibular molars with single roots and single canals are one of the variations encountered. These teeth with large single canals pose a challenge in thorough debridement of the root canal necessitating the use of adjunctive aids. This case report present two rare cases of mandibular second molars with a single root and a single root canal, which was managed successfully using the Self Adjusting file system and thermoplasticized gutta percha under surgical operating microscope.

  212. Ana Filipa Ramos, César Fonseca and Adriana Henriques

    Aim: To identify the fundamental long-term care needs of the elderly, with dependence on self-care. Materials and Methods: A search was carried out at the EBSCO (CINAHL, MEDLINE, British Nursing Index), Scielo, LILACS, Open Access Scientific Repository in Portugal and Repository of the National Continuous Care Network, using PCC method (Scoping Review). Retrospectively until 2010, from which 17 articles were extracted. Results: Functional, cognitive and emotional capacity emerge as variables of the competence for self-care. The competence for self-care is influenced by the sociodemographic characteristics and by several determinants: pressure ulcers, polypharmacy, falls and fractures, pain, nutritional status / hydration, respiration, recent hospitalization, behavioral change, depression and states of psychological imbalance, psychotropics, sphincter continence, catheterization / intubation, physical restraint / mechanical restraint, health literacy, infections and polypathology, which interact with each other. Conclusion: Fundamental care needs in a long-term context have different domains: physical, psychological, financial, supportive, educational and psychosocial. The identification of needs has the potential to contribute to the development of long-term care, with impact on planning, performance and quality of nursing intervention.

  213. Dr. Grishmi Niswade, Dr. Mitul Mishra, Dr. Girish Bhutada, Dr. Jasmeet Chandhok, Dr. Deepika Chandhok and Dr. Arihant Bathiya

    Periodontal disease is a chronic inflammatory disease which leads to destruction of the attachment apparatus and supporting structures of the teeth. The ultimate goal of periodontal therapy is to not only arrest the progression of periodontal disease but also to establish a functional dentition by regenerating the lost tissues. Conventional periodontal flap surgery provides access to the root surfaces for proper debridement of infected tissues and plaque and calculus from the subgingival root surfaces. However, these procedures bid partial potential for periodontal regeneration. Recently, newer procedures have been proposed for attempting complete periodontal regeneration. This article reviews all the materials available for regeneration in periodontal therapy.

  214. Maldonado Ramírez Mario Alberto, Reyes Flores Ricardo, Isassi Hernández Hilda and Azuara Flores Enith E.

    The aim of the study was to compare the comfort that patients experience during the application of local anesthetics with the conventional technique vs technical anesthesia controlled by computer, among children from 4 to 10 years old with different needs regarding dental treatment, the results did not show differences in the comfort and acceptance between both techniques

  215. Islam, S., Seetahal-Maraj, P., Dan, D. and Naraynsingh, V.

    Introduction: The most significant cause of morbidity and mortality after pancreatic resection, either for malignancy or certain benign disorders, is the development of pancreatic leak and pancreatic fistula. Fistula formation is multifactorial and is often influenced by patient-specific anatomic features of the pancreas and operative techniques at the time of resection.Various strategies have been employed to decrease its incidence including pharmacologic manipulation, and modifications and refinements in surgical technique. Methods: A broad PubMed and Cochrane database search was conducted, on pancreatic fistula, post-operative fistula, and the various techniques in management. Conclusions: It is clear that early recognition of pancreatic fistula (PF) and prompt institution of appropriate treatment is the cornerstone in the prevention of potentially devastating consequences. While there are multiple surgical techniques and novel therapies, none have proven to be the gold standard thus far.

  216. Maria Laura Iezzi, Gaia Varriale, Nunzia Torge, Stefania Lasorella, Luca Zagaroli and Alberto Verrotti

    Objective: To evaluate the efficacy of a new therapeutic approach in adolescents with Polycystic Ovary Syndrome (PCOS), based on Alternative Insulin Sensitizers as Inositol and α-Lipoic Acid, natural antioxidant, at the dose, twice daily. Design: Retrospective study. Setting: University of L’Aquila, San Salvatore Hospital, Pediatric Department Patients: 26 female adolescents (mean age 14.7 ± 1.9) Intervention: Therapeutic approach with inositol and alpha-lipoic acid for 6 months Main outcome measures: Anthropometric data were assessed both at baseline time (time 0) and after therapeutic intervention (time 1) together with oral glucose tolerance test, luteinizing hormone releasing hormone stimulation test and hormonal profile. Results: After a six-months treatment, the patients showed a reduction in body weight and BMI(24.25 ± 5.21 vs 23.54 ± 4.97, p 0,01), significant improvement of Testosterone (0.60 ± 0.37 vs 0.45 ± 0.19, p 0,03), Triglycerides (75.07 ± 24.84 vs 64.61 ± 30.05, p 0,008) and serum basal luteinizing hormone (LH) concentration (5.24 ± 2.96 vs 4.34 ± 2.60), as well as augmented insulin sensitivity (HOMA-IR 2.41 ± 1.71 vs 1.67 ± 2.05, p 0,03).We also found a positive correlation between the decrease of LH levels and Testosterone levels, DHEAS, D4-Androstenedione and Total Cholesterol. Moreover all adolescents showed hirsutism and acne reduction and the menstrual cycle regularisation. Conclusion: In adolescents with PCOS, treatment based on Alternative Insulin Sensitizers as Inositol and α-Lipoic Acid represents the most suitable choice both for clinical evidence of efficacy and for the absence of side effects.

  217. Sarika Palepu, Priyamadhaba Behera and Rishab Gupta

    Alcohol use is common worldwide. Although used as a pleasurable substance, it has been associated with both acute and chronic diseases. Alcoholic hepatitis is a major life-threatening illness caused by chronic alcohol intake. Corticosteroids remain the mainstay of treatment in severe alcoholic hepatitis. Pentoxiphylline is used as an alternative drug where corticosteroids are contraindicated. In this review, we attempted to evaluate the largest multi-centric trial, “STOPAH”, which focused on possible treatment modalities for severe alcoholic hepatitis. This trial used a factorial design to evaluate the efficacy of corticosteroid and pentoxiphylline in alcoholic hepatitis management. In this article, the STOPAH trial is summarised in the first section, followed by comments which enumerates strengths, limitations and utility of trial results.

  218. Dr. DNSV Ramesh, Dr. Sweta.kattimani, Dr. Thriveni, R., Dr. Amit Byatnal, Dr. Saba.Nasreen and Dr. Wajihashereen

    Background: Sella turcica and cervical vertebrae are recognized on lateral cephalometric radiographs and routinely traced for cephalometric analysis. Aim: The purpose of present study was to measure the size and describe the morphology of sellaturcica and cervical vertebrae maturation indicator in different skeletal ages. Materials and Methods: Lateral cephalometric radiographs of 200 subjects of which 100 males and 100 females in age group of 10-30 years included in the study. Linear dimensions which include length, depth and anteroposterior diameter are measured and shape of sella turcica and cervical vertebrae maturation was analysed in different skeletal age groups. ANOVA and unpaired-T test were used for statistical analysis. Results: In the present study, the different morphological shape of sella turcica seen are normal (upper contour of anterior wall of sella turcica appears to be perpendicular to floor) 49.3% followed by oblique anterior wall 20.7%,double contour of floor 18.7%, sella turcica bridge 6.7%, irregular dorsum sella 3.3%, pyramidal shape 1.3%. There was difference in the linear measurements of depth, and anterio-posterior diameter in each age group which increased as age increased and the difference was statistically significant with Pvalue < 0.05. Cervical vertebrae maturation indicator (CVMI) showed highly statistical significant difference for males and females. Conclusion: The most common shape of sella turcica in the study population was normal shape. There was gradual increase in the size of sella turcica as age advances. Cervical vertebrae maturation indicator showed that females mature at an early age as compared to males. Chronological age shows significant difference in comparison to skeletal age.

  219. Dr. Sujatha, B. K. and Dr. Pooja Pathak

    The use of a helicopter as a primary response vehicle for the ambulance service is presented. A brief analysis of the activities of the air ambulance is described and an appraisal of its effects on the overall performance of the service is given. Emphasis is given to patient acceptability and also to the flexibility of the helicopter in terms of its response to different situations. In conclusion, The air ambulance, as part of an integrated ambulance service, is an effective provider of good pre-hospital care.

  220. Ajay Kr Singh, Chumila Thinley Bhutia, Raj Mehrotra, Madhu Mati Goel, Malti Kumari, Mala Sagar and Madhu Kumar

    Background: Thyroid cancer is the most common endocrine malignancy. The galectin-3 is a member of the beta-galectoside family that play an important role in cellular growth, differentiation and malignant transformation in various organs including thyroid. Aim: To evaluate immunohistochemical expression of galectin-3 in neoplastic and non-neoplastic thyroid lesions and correlated with histopathology. Materials and Methods: In this observational study we evaluated gal-3 expression in spectrum of 67 histopathological diagnosed sample including as follows: 30 PTC (included 9 classical variant, 18 follicular, 02 solid variant, 01 micropapillary), 10 FTC, 14 benign neoplasm (including follicular adenoma and hurthle cell adenoma) and 13 non neoplastic (includes hyperplasia and inflammatory lesions) cases. To rule out subjective differences during IHC, a 3- observe evaluation method was used. Statistical analysis: The statistical analysis was done using SPSS (statistical package for social sciences) version 15.0 statistical analysis software. Results: Galectin-3 expression was significantly higher in malignant thyroid neoplasm as compared to benign neoplasms (p<0.0001). Maximum number of malignant cases were aged between 41 to 50 years and majority of subjects were females. For scoring, it was observed that as compared to non-neoplastic, neoplastic lesions had higher scores (p=0.012). Conclusion: The Gal-3 to be used as adjunct for aiding thyroid cancer diagnosis.

  221. Dr. Arun Kumar Gupta, Dr. Amit Kalra, Dr. Gaurav Jasoria, Dr. Arpit Srivastava, Dr.(Maj) Ankur Matta, Dr. Ashish Jain, Dr. Saurabh Parihar and Dr. Diksha Maheswari

    Arch form is highly individualized. During orthodontic treatment patients original arch form should not be affect the equilibrium between bone, dental structure and muscular structure Dental arch width and form are important factors for determining the success and stability of orthodontic treatment. One goal of orthodontic treatment is to create a dental arch form that establishes a stable relationship with the underlying basal bone.

  222. Ranjana Mohan and Mohan Gundappa

    A rare case of iatrogenic root perforation with corresponding gingival defect in esthetic zone was reported by 21 year old boy. Cervical root perforation of a maxillary left central incisor was associated with the defect in the attached gingiva with the history of incomplete root canal treatment. The tooth was retreated, perforation was sealed and gingival defect was corrected improving the esthetics of a patient. A multidisciplinary management to seal off the unusual iatrogenic root perforation by using resin ionomer cement successfully by a restorative dentist, negotiating & obturating a root canal skillfully by an endodontist, management of a gingival defect by periodontist was undertaken to achieve the promising results. Collaborative effort by these specialties significantly enhanced the aesthetics of a patient.

  223. Ramniwas M. Kumawat, Priyanka S.Kadoo, Vishal D. Solanke, Neeta Bokade, Pradeep Yadav and Axita Dedhia

    Introduction: Identification of humans is a prime requisite for certification of death, for personal, social and legal reasons in forensic sciences. Palatal rugae considered as an important tool in individual’s identification when other methods are not feasible or available. Objectives: To analyze the various palatal rugae patterns among adult central Indian population and to evaluate for any differences that could be related to gender identification in central Indian population. Material and method: Total 300 individuals (150 males and 150 females) were selected from rural and urban areas ranging in age from 17-25 years and evaluated for different rugae patterns by using Thomas and Kotze classification. Results: The total number and pattern of rugae were not significantly associated with gender. Whereas significant difference in rugae length was linked in both gender. According to length, the primary type of rugae was dominant and according to shape circular patterns of rugae were the most common, in both males and females. Conclusion: Our findings concluded that the palatal rugae patterns of an individual are uniquely structured and specific, when compared to other populations reported in the literature. Palatal rugae patterns are definitely associated with regional variation and can aid as an additional tool in various forensic identification procedures.

  224. Dr. Shimpa Sharma and Dr. Indumathi Soumsundaram

    Objective: We aim to study the clinical and metabolic profile with prevalence and clinic-pathological correlates of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) in routine health check-up. Method: After ethical clearance, general population presenting for preventive health check-up over a 4-month period was studied. Influence of alcohol was excluded by history and De Ritis ratio. Anthropometric, metabolic parameters and ultrasonography of liver were noted and data was analysed using SPSS 20.0. Results: Of 412 subjects, 13.6% were diabetic, 22.8% pre-diabetic and 63.6% (n=262) were non-diabetic. One-way ANOVA showed significantly more subjects were either overweight (43%) or obese (38%). On ultrasonography, 143 patients had fatty liver disease majority being males. Subjects with NAFLD had significantly higher levels of BMI, cholesterol, LDL, triglycerides, VLDL, fasting and postprandial blood sugars and lower levels of HDL (all p<0.01). Partial correlation of age (p>.05), gender (p=.000), BMI (p=.000), cholesterol (p=.004), triglycerides (p>.05), HDL (p>.05), atherogenic dyslipidemia (p=.000) and diabetic status (p=.002) with NAFLD revealed several significant correlations controlling for the other factors. Multinomial regression analysis was performed. Conclusions: Dyslipidemia, diabetes and NAFLD are present in asymptomatic general population. Males and persons with high BMI, atherogenic dyslipidemia and diabetes or prediabetes have greater odds of having hepatic steatosis. Association of atherogenic dyslipidemia with NAFLD provides both a clinical marker and therapeutic target for NAFLD. Significant partial correlations with NAFLD reflect the role of insulin resistance in its pathogenesis.

  225. Dr. Pinaki Mukhopadhyay, Dr. Vasudha, Dr. Shankar Prasad Saha and Dr. Nirendra Mohan Biswas

    Introduction: Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is a critical and rapidly growing global health problem. Uremia is considered to be the second leading cause of frequent metabolic neuropathy. Neurological complications occur in almost all patients with severe CKD, potentially affecting all levels of the nervous system, from the CNS through to the PNS. Peripheral neuropathy manifests in almost all such patients, leading to weakness and disability. Aims and Objectives: To evaluate the changes of Nerve Conduction Velocity in different potassium Value in Chronic Kidney Disease stage 5 and to establish any causal relationship of potassium level with neuropathy in ESRD Patient. Methodology: Patient admitted with CKD-5 (on Hemodialysis/Not on Hemodialysis) with symptoms of tingling, numbness or feature suggestive of peripheral neuropathy will be randomly selected accordingly inclusion criteria. All epidemiological and clinical data will be recorded. Everybody will be tested for basic investigations including electrolytes in addition to potassium and NCV study. Patients will be divided into three groups- Normokalemic, hypokalemic (potassium<3.5) and hyperkalemic (potassium>5.5). The patients with positive changes of NCV will be tested for any causal relationship with potassium value. Results: A positive and a highly significant correlation between the level of potassium and neuropathic features in an ESRD patient. A positive association is seen between the NCV changes, mainly axonopathy and demyelination (in long standing cases) and raised potassium levels in ESRD patients. A positive association is seen between potassium level and the stage of neuropathy. Conclusion: The present study supports the fact that abnormalities in serum potassium constitute a transient homeostatic disturbance which if persistent can lead to more permanent damage to neurons leading to irreversible neuropathy. As far as axons are concerned, regular monitoring and strict control of potassium in the normal range goes very far in the delayed progression of peripheral neuropathy.

  226. Bulus, J., Shuai’bu, A. R. J., Dabe, F., Iyaoromi, O. O., Salihu, D., Jublick, M., Lenka, N. M., Gyede, S. G. and Joel, A. D.

    Background: Human immune-deficiency virus (HIV) infection continues to be an important risk factor for the development of central nervous system opportunistic infections (OI) especially cryptococcal meningitis which is an AIDS defining illness. Cryptococcal meningitisis an important contributing factor to morbidity and mortality in HIV infected individuals. It is a life threatening disease with a 100% case fatality in the absence of an appropriate treatment regimen. In high income countries, advances in diagnosis and anti-retroviral (ARV) options, availability of recommended antifungals and monitoring has reduced markedly the mortality and morbidity associated with cryptococcal meningitis when compared to morbidity and mortality indices in low income countries. In this case, a 40year old newly diagnosed retroviral disease patient presented with a two weeks history of recurrent headache, projectile vomiting and neck stiffness. She had an associated history of blurring of vision, gradual weakness of the right upper and lower limbs. She was afebrile, not pale or icteric. She had marked neck stiffness. The power on the left upper and lower limbs was 4/5 and 3/5 on the right upper and lower limbs. Her baseline CD4 was 34cells/mm3. Serum Cryptococcal antigen (CrAg) screening and baseline viral load were not done. The cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) Indian ink staining showed yeast cells of cryptococcal neoformans>30cells per high power field. The CSF chemistry and hematology were normal. She was managed as a case of cryptococcal meningitis. She was admitted and commenced on intravenous fluconazole 1.2g daily, tablets cotrimoxazole 960mg daily. She however became progressively restless, lapsed into coma and died on the fifth day on admission. The challenges of managing cryptococcal meningitis in resource poor settings are a cascade of events ranging from late patient presentation, challenges with early diagnosis using modern test kits, cost and availability of recommended anti-fungal as well as monitoring of side-effects. Others are government policies where health sector funding is low and lack of health insurance schemes targeted at lowering cost of care for the low income earners and the disadvantaged in the society.

  227. Dr. Manoj Upadhyay, Dr. Rahul Puri Goswami, Dr. Sakshi Malik, Dr. Ashish Vyas and Dr. Manish Sharma

    Introduction: Leukoplakia has evolved as a clinic-pathologic concept over many years, with the current clinical term being established worldwide. Insightful of the biology of leukoplakia is the concept of cellular atypia and epithelial dysplasia. It is the most common potential premaliganant lesion and has high incidence of conversion into malignant lesion. Various noninvasive methods were studied to demonstrate metabolic changes in oral pathological condition. Lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) enzyme is found in various cells in our body. Salivary LDH is similar to that found in oral epithelium & serum. Conversion of a normal tissue into a premalignant lesion result in an alteration in glycolytic pathway causes variation in LDH level. Therefore this study was carried out to determine changes in salivary LDH level of individual with normal and to compare it with patient of different grades oral dysplasia. Method: Sixty patients reported to Department of Oral Medicine & Radiology at Vyas Dental College & Hospital were enrolled into study of which 15 patients with for each grade of dysplasia and 15 healthy controls were taken. Unstimulated saliva measuring 1ml was collected from each of the patient by spit method. The collected sample was centrifuged & evaluated for LDH level using Vitros 250 autoanalyzer. The data obtained were subjected to statistical analysis. Result: Salivary LDH level was higher in different grades of dysplasia patients when compared to healthy control group. Conclusion: Salivary LDH estimation can prove to be a valuable substitute as a biochemical marker as it is simple noninvasive and easily accepted by the patient.

  228. Séraphin Ahoui, Montcho Adrien Hodonou, Jacques Vigan, Salako Alexandre Allode, Bio Tamou Sambo, 1Boris Gogan, Romaric Tobome, Allassane Boukary and Gambastiani Priuli

    Background: Urinary excretory obstruction causes obstructive acute kidney injury (AKIOb) which is a real public health problem. Objective: To study the frequency of AKI Ob, the clinical, therapeutic and the outcome aspects and the recovery of renal function at the Hospital of Saint John of God Tanguiéta. Patients and methods: This was a retrospective, descriptive and analytical study covering a period from July 1st2011 to June 30st 2016. The study involved 75 cases collected at the Tanguiéta district hospital. All AKI cases treated and monitored in the hospital during the study period and meeting our diagnostic criteria were included. The pertubation of renal function evolving in acute mode the identification of the objectivized obstacle On ultrasound by dilatation of the pyelocalicious cavities were the main diagnostic criterion. Results: Of the 608 cases of acute renal failure recorded during the study period, 84 were obstructive, with a frequency of 13.81%, but 75 cases meet our inclusions criteria. The mean age of the patients was 51.95 ± 19.69 years. The sex ratio was 4.77. Mean serum creatinine was 17.80 mg / L. The first two aetiologies were prostatic hypertrophy 33 cases (44%) and lithiasis 23 cases (30.67%). The average time elapsed between the diuresis anomaly and the bypass was 24.91 days. Thirteen cases (17.33%) of death were recorded. Factors influencing the recovery of renal function after removal of the obstacle were: delay before derivatization (p = 0.002), persistence of oliguria (p = 0.02), importance of renal failure (P = 0.0001), surgical management (p = 0.005). Conclusion: Acute obstructive renal failure is frequent and severe. The best treatment is prevention, which involves the early diagnosis and treatment of aetiologies.

  229. AnbuPriya, M., P. Ponmathi and Prof. V. P. R. Sivakumar

    Introduction: Interstitial cystitis is an odd, chronic and progressive disease of the lower urinary tract distinguished by urinary urgency, frequency and chronic pelvic pain in the absence of previous aetiology and poorly understood pathogenesis. It is well established that dysfunctional pelvic floor muscles contribute significantly to the symptom of Interstitial cystitis. Objective: To determine the efficacy of pelvic floor myofascial trigger release in female patients with Interstitial cystitis and pelvic pain. Methods: The study was performed and conducted among female patients with Interstitial cystitis who attended urology department at SRM Hospital. Female patients who demonstrated pelvic floor tenderness on physical examination are recruited. The outcome measures include PUF(Pelvic Pain, Urgency and Frequency) Questionnaire for disease symptom and bother score, VAS (Visual Analogue Scale) for pain and MOS(Modified Oxford Scale) for pelvic floor muscle tenderness measurement. Results: Within group analysis and between groups analysis was performed using paired t-test and student t-test. A total of 30 female patients were systematically allotted into two groups (experimental and control) who had similar baseline values. Pain, tenderness, urgency and frequency symptom score decreased in both the groups over a 4 week period of treatment and was also significantly different between the groups (p=0.000). Conclusion: Myofascial trigger release therapy along with conventional medical therapy has better effect in reduction of symptom (Pain, tenderness, urgency and frequency) than conventional medical therapy alone among female patients with interstitial cystitis and pelvic pain.

  230. Shailja Chatterjee, S. G. Damle and Nageshwar Iyer

    Introduction: Dental caries is an infectious, transmissible bacterial disease. Although, its modes of transmission include bacterial transfer in between individuals, its transmissibility has been variably reported much less within biological family units. The purpose of this study was to assess Mutans Streptococcal transmissibility from biological parents to child. Methods: A total of 57 families (comprising of parents and a child) were selected after screening all pediatric subjects visiting the hospital. Age-matched criteria as per WHO index groups were selected: a) Families of children with primary dentition (≤ 6 years) and b) Families of children with permanent dentition (12-16 years). Dental plaque was collected and MS colonies isolated and later on subjected to polymerase chain reaction using gtfB. Data obtained was subjected to descriptive statistics and Chi-Square test. Results: It was observed that positive correlation (2 bp) was obtained between father-child and mother-child pairs in families of children with carious primary dentitions while no such correlation was obtained among nondetectable caries affecting families of children with permanent dentition. Contrasting results were obtained for noncarious permanent dentitions families which revealed a positive correlation and vice versa. Conclusion: There was a opposite and different band expression in both dentitions as well as carious states reflecting variations in MS transmissible strains.

  231. Deepak Passi, Deepika Singhal, Mahinder Singh, Vijay Mishra, Yoshi Panwar and Aanchal Sahni

    The odontogenic keratocyst (OKC) is a dilemmatic odontogenic developmental cyst of oral and maxillofacial region which has gained very special attention since last two decades. It has characteristic histopathological and clinical features but still the cyst is very special due to its aggressive behavior and high recurrence rate. Many prior attempts have been made to classify these cysts from 1887 to finally WHO 2017. Previously classified under developmental odontogenic cyst of jaw by WHO in 1971 & 1992, OKC has been reclassified and renamed as keratocystic odontogenic tumor (KCOT) in the WHO classifications of head and neck tumors in 2005 due to its aggressive behavior, high recurrence rates and specific histological characterstics. But recently WHO classification of Head and Neck pathology (2017) re-classified KCOT back into the cystic category. Despite of many classifications and nomenclature, unfortunately, clinicians are still facing difficulties in understanding the true nature, identification and management of OKC. An attempt is hereby made to review various aspects of OKC with emphasis on recent nomenclature, recurrence, molecular aspects, and management of OKC.

  232. Ashwini, N. S. and Venkateshu, K. V.

    Synostosis or osseous union of any 2 adjacent bones can involve any part of the body. Synostosis between radius and ulna can take two forms, congenital and post-traumatic. Proximal Radioulnar Synostosis is a very rare congenital anomaly and most cases are sporadic, congenital and less often post-traumatic, bilateral in 60% and more common in males. It is often part of syndromes such as Crouzon, Apert's and Poland's,4p- syndrome, Williams syndrome, acrofacial dysostosis, Antley- Bixler syndrome, Genito- patellar syndrome, Greig Cephalo- polysyndactyly syndrome, hereditary multiple osteochondromas (hereditary multiple exostoses), limb-body wall complex, and Nievergelt syndrome. Although the exact etiology is not clear, it has been documented that there is a genetic basis for the failure of differentiation between the radius and ulna. We came across such rare specimen of bilateral proximal radioulnar synostosis in Department of Anatomy, Sri Devaraj Urs Medical College, Kolar, Karnataka.The specimen was incidentally obtained from disarticulated upper limbs of a male cadaver aged 70yrs which were buried under the soil to obtain bones for study purpose. The procured bone specimen of proximal radioulnar synostosis was cleaned and later relevant segmental measurements were taken.The rarity of this condition often leads to the delayed clinical diagnosis. The rationale for surgery is dictated more by individual functional limitations rather than on absolute forearm position.

  233. Kanav Mahajan, Preeti Jamwal and Mohinder Singh Chib

    Osteosynthesis with open reduction technique in comminuted fracture has several disadvantages like increase rate of non-union, soft tissue problem, infection and implant failure. These problems may be overcome by percutaneous bridge plating technique which preserve the vascularity and soft tissue attachment of fracture fragments. Materials and Methods: Twenty-five patients were involve in this study. All of twenty-five patients with closed comminuted diaphyseal fractures of femur (n-10) and tibia (n-15) were operated on using the principle indirect reduction and biological fixation with bridge plate under image intensifier. Partial and full weight bearing were allowed according to clinical and radiological union. Results: Most regained excellent range of motion of knee and ankle. Mean time of radiological union was 20.12 weeks. Two patients had superficial skin problem which healed with local wound care. One patient had non union which was healed by bone grafting. In this study excellent result was seen in 18 cases, good in five and fair in two patients. Conclusion: Our study indicates that minimally invasive bridge plating is an effective alternative for treatment of comminuted diaphyseal fracture of long bones. These complex fractures give complete recovery of normal limb function at an early stage with less complication.

  234. Deepak Passi, Deepika Singhal, Dhruv Kacker, Ritu Gupta, Mahinder Singh and Prateek Agarwal

    Aim: The aim of this study is to compare the feasibility, advantages, disadvantages and complications in mandibular fractures treatment using 3-D non locking miniplate and 2-D non locking miniplates. Materials and Methods: This study involves of 40 patients divided into two groups I & II (20 each) treated with ORIF using 2mm locking miniplates and 3-D plate respectively. Results: Mean duration of surgery (minutes) was 22.4±2.75 for group I and 13.8±1.93 for group II. One patient in group I showed slight wound dehiscence. Two patients in group I and one patient in Group II had slight occlusal discrepancy which was corrected by coronoplasty and elastic traction. One patient in group I and two in group II, showed lip paraesthesia. Other clinical parameters like pain, swelling, trismus, wound healing, infection, malunion were statistically insignificant. Conclusion: 3D miniplate system is a better and easier method for fixation of mandibular fractures, compared with the locking miniplate. The 3D miniplate system provides good stability in most cases and operative time is shorter. But it cannot be used in fractures involving mental nerve and oblique fractures. Short sample size and short term follow were our limitations.

  235. Vandana Pathak, Shakti Dhar Pathak, Swati Namdev, Akta Rasania and Rajshree Bhati

    Introduction: Appendicitis is one of the commonest surgical emergency and appendectomy is the most common surgery. Histopathological examination of appendectomy specimens is must to confirm the diagnosis and also to report unusual findings and to detect incidental neoplasms at the earliest possible Aims and Objectives: To study the proportion of various lesions in resected specimens of appendix and to emphasize the need of histopathological examination. Material and Methods: A retrospective study including 761 appendectomy specimens over a time period of 2 yrs from October 2014 to September 2016 was conducted. Result: In our study, males are more as compared to females with sex ratio of 2.23:1. Maximum number of cases belong to age group 20-30 followed by 10-20 years. Most common finding is the inflammatory lesions accounting to 91.06%. Negative appendicectomy and incidental appendicectomy rates are 4.73% and 3.67% respectively. 10 cases (1.31%) showed benign and malignant neoplasm. Carcinoid is the most common malignancy (0.52%). Conclusion: This study showed a marked variations in morphological spectrum and also some incidental neoplastic and rare lesions hence emphasizing the need of histopathological examination.

  236. Abdul Ghani, Sumeet S Charak, Bias Dev, Khalid Muzzaffer And Suhail Bhat

    Background: Ipsilateral intertrochancteric ractures with fracture of shaft of femur are rare injuries. They warrant special diagnostic and therapeutic considerations. The aim was to study the results of operative treatment of ipsilateral intertrochanchteric and shaft femur fractures with dynamic hip screw (DHS) and retrograde nailing (DFN). Emphasis was posed on long- term functional outcome, especially daily activities. Material and Methods: 8 patients (6 male and 2 female) with ipsilateral intertrochancteric and shaft of femur fractures were treated with vari¬ous fixation devices. Functional outcome was assessed using the Friedman and Wyman classification. Results: All the 8 intertrochancteric fractures united in a mean duration of 3 months. Of the femoral shaft fractures 6 united in a mean of 8.5 months, 2 non unions. One patient developed superficial infection, which resolved with debridement and antibiotic treatment. Functional results were good in 4 patients, fair in 2 and poor in 2. Conclusion: Early diagnosis of all injuries and operative treatment are important to improve the functional outcome in ipsilateral intertrochancteric and shaft fractures. Basically, each technique has individual advantages and disadvantages, and all are technically demand¬ing. Most important factor determines the outcome is the anatomical reduction and stable internal fixation of both fractures.

  237. Dileepan, S., Khokhar, A. and Ranga, S.

    Background: Pulmonary Tuberculosis (TB) is commonly associated with reversible peripheral blood abnormalities. Anemia is associated with more severe forms of TB and poorer TB outcomes, including deaths. Objectives: To determine the hematological profile among newly diagnosed tuberculosis patients. Methods: The prospective study was conducted among 200 newly diagnosed pulmonary TB patients at DOTS centre, Najafgarh, New Delhi between 2015-16.Blood sample was collected to measure Hemoglobin at the start and the end of Intensive Phase(IP) of anti-tuberculosis treatment. Data was entered and analysed in MS-Excel. Results: Anemia was found in 151 (75.5%) and 99 (49.5%) of the study participants at the start and the endof Intensive phase respectively. Most common type of anemia was Normocytic anemia. Conclusions: It is recommended that the universal screening for anemia at the time of diagnosis of tuberculosis should be done to improve the treatment outcome.

  238. Dr. Subin Samson, Dr. Abhinay Sorake, Dr. Rudhima Suneja, Dr. Chaithra, Dr. Farhan Nadeem, Dr. Marilyn George and Dr. K Sindhuja

    Orthodontic treatment is a long and a complex procedure. During an orthodontic tooth movement, certain mechanical, chemical and cellular events takes place in teeth and its surrounding tissues allowing structural changes that cause orthodontic tooth movement. There is an increase in number of adult patients seeking orthodontic treatment in last three decades. Esthetics being their primary concern and secondary being short treatment period. So accelerating tooth movement is gaining more importance in orthodontic practice and many studies are being done. A brief review is discussed in this article.

  239. Dr. Namrata Ramesh, Dr. Sharath Kumar Shetty and Dr. Mahesh Kumar, Y.

    Purpose: This paper aims to study the role of five variables in the susceptibility to orthodontically induced root resorption in order to obtain an integrative model to predict the occurrence of this complication following fixed appliance therapy. Materials and Methods: Pre and post treatment records of 34 patients treated with MBT 0.022 slot appliances for a minimum of one year were studied. Root resorption was measured in the four maxillary and mandibular incisors using pre and post treatment orthopantomograms and lateral cephalograms. Statistical analysis was done to assess the role of five variables in the susceptibility of orthodontically induced root resorption Results: Among the variables studied; gender, treatment duration, age and alveolar bone thickness significantly contributed to orthodontically induced root resorption. Conclusion: Among the variables studied that are potential contributors for orthodontically induced root resorption, four variables associated with root resorption were identified.

  240. Shailaja Daral, Richa Kapoor and Jugal Kishore

    Introduction: Poor quality of infant and young child feeding practices are the major cause of malnutrition among the under – 5 children of any society. The composite index of anthropometric failure (CIAF) is a recent, and relatively robust criterion because it envisages all the parameters for estimation of nutritional status of a child. Objectives: To determine anthropometric failure and its socio-demographic determinants among under – 5 children registered at Anganwadi centres. Methods: A cross-sectional study was done among all the children aged 6 months – 5 years registered in all the seven Anganwadi centres of Aliganj, Delhi. Anthropometric measurements were done for all study participants using standard tools. Results: A total of 206 children aged 6 months – 5 years participated in the study. Anthropometric failure was seen (using the CIAF criteria) in 119 (57.8%) study participants. The most common form of anthropometric failure was stunting with underweight. On bivariate analysis, it was found that lower education status of mother, and lower socio-economic status were significantly associated with anthropometric failure in the study participants, though on multivariate logistic regression analysis only lower socio-economic status was associated with anthropometric failure. Conclusion: Anthropometric failure is common among under – 5 children and requires promotion and adoption of correct infant and young child feeding practices.

  241. Sumeet Sharma, Ravishankar Yalavarthy, Thirumal Rao Devarakarda, Vijay Kanth Kattamuri and Pradeep Koka

    The concept of preventive prosthodontics deals with the preservation of remaining teeth and decreasing the rate of existing alveolar bone resorption. It also highlights the importance of any procedure that can delay or eliminate future prosthodontic problems. In fabrication of complete denture the rules of preventive prosthodontics were violated as the remaining teeth were extracted and the rate of bone resorption is not declined. In an order to achieve measures of preventive prosthodontics telescopic dentures are an effective treatment modality. Double crowns system used in this type of prosthesis provides retention, stability and support with preservation of remaining teeth. Retention offered by these double crown systems is higher when compared with conventional clasp system as these double crowns are retained by friction between the two crowns. The following case report utilizes this concept of Tensofriction between the double crowns for rehabilitation of worn out dentition.

  242. Dr. Arunkumar, C., Dr. Srinivasan, V., Dr. Balaji, N. and Dr. Indumathi, G.

    Background: Oral Carcinoma is the 6th most common carcinoma worldwide and Radiotherapy is the one among the treatment option. Oral care is the most important option to combat complication due to radiation, in oral cancer. Sodium bicarbonate mouth rinse is better than normal saline in relieving side effects. Aim: To compare the effects of sodium bicarbonate and normal saline in reducing radiation induced side effects Methods: A total of 73 patients undergoing radiation for head and neck cancer were selected. Among them, 36 patients (Including 19 males and 17 Females) were allowed to gargle with normal saline and remaining 37 patient (Including 20 Males and 17 Females) were given sodium bi carbonate for mouth gargles. They were looked for radiation induced side effects in 2 weeks period and 4week period. The data were recorded and analyzed. Results: Results were analysed with spss version 16 software and statistical test used: chi square and fisher exact test Conclusion: Sodium bicorbonate mouthwash during radiation therapy for oral cancer is better than saline mouthwash in reducing severity of radiation induced mucositis.

  243. Dr. Amrita Singh, Dr. Neelam Roy and Dr. Pallavi Boro

    Introduction: Development is the process by which each child evolves from helpless infancy to independent adulthood Developmental delay if detected during early years of life can be prevented from causing further damage. Methods: A community based cross sectional study was conducted in Aliganj, urban field practice area of Vardhmann Mahavir Medical College, Delhi. A pretested, semi-structured questionnaire was used for data collection, growth was assessed using WHO growth charts and Developmental delay was assessed by Ages and Stages Questionnaire, 3rd edition (ASQ-3). Data was entered into excel and analysis was done in SPSS. Results: Out of 210 children studied, 50 (23.8%) children were underweight, 46 (21.9%) were stunted and 37 (17.6%) children were wasted and 10 (4.8%) had developmental delay. Illilterate father (p value 0.012), low birth weight child (p value= 0.001), place of delivery ( p value = 0.049) underweight (p value =0.001), stunting ( p value =0.003) and wasting (0.003) were found to be significantly associated with developmental delay. Conclusion: Developmental delay is associated with underweight stunting and wasting among children

  244. Dr. Kanav Mahajan, Dr. Mohinder Singh Chib and Dr. Sanjeev Gupta

    Vacuum Assisted Closure Vacuum assisted closure (VAC) is a relatively new technology with applications in a variety of difficult to manage acute and chronic wounds. It is known by many pseudonyms—TNP (topical negative pressure) SPD (sub-atmospheric pressure) VST (vacuum sealing technique) and SSS (sealed surface wound suction)

  245. Akhila Vaidyanathan and Madhavi Sathe

    Non-communicable diseases (NCDs), also known as chronic diseases, are not passed from one person to another. The NCDs include cardiovascular diseases (like heart attacks and stroke), cancers, chronic respiratory diseases (such as chronic obstructed pulmonary disease and asthma), diabetes etc. The objective of the present study was to compare the prevalence of NCDs focusing mainly on Diabetes Mellitus (DM) and Cardio-Vascular Diseases (CVD)/Hypertension (HTN) in High Socio-Economic Groups (HSEG), Middle Socio-Economic Groups (MSEG) and Low Socio-Economic Groups (LSEG) staying in Mumbai. A total of 14 municipal wards in Mumbai Metropolitan Region were selected by simple random sampling method. A questionnaire was used to collect information on the general background of the families, and incidence of non-communicable diseases in the families. 100 families from each SEG were selected by snowball sampling from 14 Mumbai Metropolitan wards. The results showed that the prevalence of DM was 14% in HSEG as compared to 11% in MSEG and 9% in LSEG. CVD/HTN prevalence was 10% in MSEG and comparatively lower in LSEG and HSEG. It was concluded that the prevalence of NCDs were slightly lower in LSEG compared to other two SEG.

  246. Priyam Velani, Preetam Shah, Laxmi Lakade, Alok Patel, Chetan Bhat and Shweta Chaudhary

    Introduction: Endodontic success relates to the ‘endodontic triad’ composed of instrumentation, disinfection and obturation, which are interwoven. Intricacies of the root canals in the primary teeth make it impossible for instrumentation alone to reach the finer, more tortuous aspects of the anatomy. Moreover, endodontic infections are polymicrobial in nature with a predominance of stubborn anaerobic organisms like E-Faecalis which further complicates the outcome. Irrigation thus permits efficient removal of the residual tissue and the microbial load. Although sodium hypochlorite remains a well accepted choice for irrigation, it possesses certain disadvantages like burning of surrounding tissues, damage to the permanent tooth follicles, tissue necrosis and chemical burns. Hence newer products with lesser disadvantages and potent antimicrobial activity like propolis are slowly gaining popularity in the pediatric population. Aim: The present study was undertaken to determine and compare the efficacy of sodium hypoclorite and propolis against E-Faecalis present in the infected root canals of the primary teeth. Materials and Methods: The selected teeth with dento-alveolar abscess were divided into two groups randomly. In Group A -11% Ethanolic extract of propolis and in Group B - 3% sodium hypochlorite were used as the irrigating solutions. The bacterial samples were collected both pre- and post-irrigation and were cultured. Results: A mean reduction of 85.2% and 92.2% in the microbial load was observed with propolis and sodium hypochlorite, respectively. The difference was found to be statistically insignificant. Conclusion: The present study puts forth the use of propolis as an effective root canal irrigant in pediatric patients with anti-microbial efficacy comparable to sodium hypochlorite. Additional research with propolis will further help in improving its properties and establishing it as a potent irrigant.

  247. Dr. Wakpanjar Mayur, M., Dr. Katge Farhin, Dr. Vamsi Krishna, C. and Dr. Shivasharan Pooja

    Aim: Comparing Cone Beam Computed Tomography and clearing technique in human primary molars for detection of accessory canals. Materials and Methods: 100 extracted human primary molars constituting of maxillary and mandibular molars were collected. The study compared number of accessory canals using Cone Beam Computed Tomography and clearing technique in primary molars. The accessory canals were observed in furcation area; coronal one-third, middle one-third and apical one-third of root canals. Results: Although, the clearing technique showed more number of accessory canals as compared to CBCT technique, the difference was statistical significant insignificant. Conclusion: The clearing technique is nondestructive and more accurate but the main disadvantage of this method is that it cannot be used in vivo. Hence Cone Beam Computed Tomography which is clinically feasible can be considered over the clearing technique for detection of accessory canals.

  248. Dr. Indu Dhiman and Dr. Priyanka Dhiman

    Treatment of Class II malocclusion continues to be a great challenge that orthodontists face in day to day clinical practice. In order to succeed, it is very important to have the most effective tool. One of the latest evolution in Class II correctors is the PowerScope which is manufactured by American Orthodontics in conjunction with Dr. Andy Hayes. This intermaxillary Class II corrector appliance was developed to address the critical needs of the orthodontist, including patient comfort and acceptance, extensive range of motion, and simple installation. PowerScope provides one of the best non extraction treatment options for non-compliant patients.The appliance is a wire-to-wire installation with attachments placed mesial to the first molar in the maxillary arch and distal to the canine of the mandibular arch. So the objective of this article is to review the details about PowerScope which is the latest innovation in the non compliant class II Correctors.

  249. Ravishankar Periyasamy, Krithika Chandrashekar, Preethi Nandagopal, Nivedha Avoodaiappan and Mutum Sangeeta Devi

    Dental caries is a progressive microbial damage to teeth that affects 95% of the population. There is currently no highly sensitive and specific clinical means for detection of dental caries at its early stage. Detection of early caries in enamel would be of significance since it is possible to reverse the process of decay therapeutically at this stage. Caries diagnosis continues to be a challenging task for dental practioners. Hence, the purpose of the present article is to review the various methods of diagnosing dental caries.

  250. Bidyut Mandal, Anish Bandyopadhyay, Pratyusha Mukherjee, Abhishek Basu, Avik Maji and Prof S.K.Sikdar

    Introduction: Prior to diagnosis lymphoma patients often have multiple primary care consultations, resulting in diagnostic delay. They are less likely to be referred urgently to hospital and often present in advanced stage or land up in emergency. This is a dismal picture for an otherwise curable disease. There is a paucity of studies in Indian context examining this diagnostic delay. We retrospectively examined this diagnostic delay and clarify its impact on clinical stage and outcome in our institution. Objectives: To estimate mean diagnostic delay of presentation and to find impact of diagnostic delay on stage of disease presentation, treatment outcome & Progression free survival. Material and Methods: We have analysed histopathlogically confirmed 250 lymphoma patients, excluding extra nodal presentations, in a retrospective single institutional epidemiological study. Follow up time is Date of treatment completion to date of last contact, local recurrence, distant metastasis or death. Statistical analysis was done by bivariate analysis using IBM SPSS software v.23 Results: Mean diagnostic delay is 302 days, including delay in tertiary care of 60days.56%patients had CR,6%PR ,28% SD. Simple correlation between PFS & Range of diagnostic delay(R=.488). The lesser the primary care delay, better is the treatment response (p 0.00). Beyond a delay of 300 days, patients presented with advanced stage. Conclusions: In developing country like India delayed presentation due to diagnostic delay is taking a toll on treatment outcome. More evidence is needed as well as interventions to reduce time to diagnosis such as public education campaign and GP decision making aids.

  251. Dr. Ponnanna, A. A., Dr. Dhanya Rajan, Dr. Nitesh Rai, Dr. R. R. K. Jingade, Dr. Jagadeesh, K. N. and Dr. Swetha Srikari, I. N.

    Dental implants have become a treatment option for the replacement of missing teeth. The ideology of osseointegration has rapidly led to the use of dental implants over the years. New technologies are emerging and have been readily accepted into dentistry. There is a need for high accuracy in treatment planning and surgical procedures to obtain a high success rate in implant treatment as implant complications mainly occur due to improper diagnosis, treatment planning and execution of surgical procedures. This can be achieved by the use of CAD-CAM technology, 3D planning software, image guided surgical template and computer aided surgery. The surgical template is a guide used to assist in proper surgical placement and angulation of dental implants. The main objective of the surgical template is to direct the implant drilling system and to provide an accurate placement of the implant according to the virtual plan. In patients where a sufficient number of teeth are present surgical stent can be reoriented with the help of the teeth. CBCT tracing of soft tissue on mandibular ridges seems difficult due to the overlap of adjacent structures. This problem is addressed by using glass bead markings which are well visible on the CBCT.

  252. Saxena, A., Khokhar, A., Gupta, D. and Mate, C. K.

    Background: TB continues to be a public health problem in India despite the government-run nationwide control programme. Till now the focus has been on adult TB, be it preventive or curative, with very little thrust on paediatric TB. Children are particularly vulnerable to severe disease and death following infection, and children with latent infections become reservoirs for future transmission following disease reactivation in adulthood, thus contributing to future epidemics. Research on understanding of paediatric TB is urgently needed. This paper attempts to study the epidemiology, prevention and treatment of paediatric Tuberculosis. Objective: To study the socio-demographic profile, pattern of TB, treatment completion rate and associated factors amongst paediatric TB patients from a DOTS centre of South Delhi Material and Methods: 5 year record based from 2011-2016 (June). DOTS centre located at a Public sector hospital of South Delhi. Data acquired from New Delhi Municipal Corporation (N.D.M.C) Chest Clinic, ShahidBhagatSingh Marg, New Delhi. Paediatric age group taken as 0-14 years as described in the Revised National Tuberculosis Control Program (RNTCP). Data entered and analysed in Microsoft Excel spreadsheets. Results: Out of the total number of patients enrolled in the same time period (5 years) 8.62 % of the patient load was of paediatric TB. Total paediatric patients in 5years were 153, out of which 42 (27.45 %) were males and 111 (72.55 %) were females. Out of the 153 cases, 143 were treated as Category I patients while only 10 were treated as Category II patients. Out of the 10 Cat II patients, 1 patient was due to failure of treatment by Cat I, 1 was due to relapse, and the rest were default/ other reasons. 51 (33.33 %) cases were of Pulmonary TB while 102 (66.67 %) cases were of Extra-pulmonary TB. Treatment completion rate was 98.69 % (151 cases) with 1 case defaulting on treatment (0.65 %) and 1 case being transferred out (0.65 %). Among the patients who completed the treatment (151), 149 patients were reported as treatment completed/cured (98.67 %), while 2 cases (1.32 %) ended up with Multi-drug Resistant (MDR) TB. For patients not reporting for treatment/collection of medicines on the scheduled date, phone calls were made to the patient-provided phone number for a response, failing which, a house visit was done by the health worker to ensure minimum number of defaulters. INH prophylaxis was given to children less than 6 years of age, who were close contacts of the patients. However, no data was available regarding the same. Conclusion: Treatment completion rates are high under RNTCP (98.69 %) but follow up action for defaulters and INH prophylaxis for less than 6 year old close contacts of patients with Cat 1 TB leaves a lot of scope for improvement.

  253. Degife Asefa and Gifole Gidago

    Haricot bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) is the most widely distributed and has the broadest range of genetic resources. In Ethiopia, the yield of haricot bean is extremely low mainly due to nitrogen deficiency and also little information is available regarding diversity of rhizobia nodulating haricot bean. Hence, this study was conducted to isolate and characterize of Rhizobium Species phenotypically and biochemically from Root Nodules of Haricot bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) at Arba Minch, Southern Ethiopia to know their diversity, efficiency of infectivity and effectiveness using haricot bean variety Omo-90. The results of the study revealed that isolates were able to form nodules on the roots of the haricot bean variety. The colony morphology of isolates was found to be viscous in consistency, round in shape and watery translucent pigmentation. The cells were also found to be gram negative and cocci in shape. The biochemical test revealed that the bacterial isolates were positive to catalase test. The result of this project activity is believed to provide information for isolating efficient nitrogen fixing strains of rhizobium species from Arba Minch and it also have some contribution for the effort being made in using leguminous plants to increase soil fertility as a substitutes for commercial fertilizers, which are costly and not environmentally friendly. However, to come with sound conclusion, the study should be repeated.

  254. Feleke Eriso

    A genome is an organism’s complete set of genetic material that contains all information needed to build and maintain/perpetuate that organism as well as to allow it to grow and develop. In every kind of living-thing the set of inheritable structural and functional differences from other living-things is caused only by the difference in the genome. Genome is the transformer of nutritive substances from one form into another among all living-things. The Cell Theory was identified false. Genome is the unit of both structure and function in all living-things. A living-thing is not yet defined until the emergence of this paper and it is globally stated to be a difficult task to develop the definition of living-things. As Toole G and Toole S have put & felt it, “it is strange to define that biology is the study of living-things and then to admit that we do not know what a living-thing is!!”. Now, this paper imparts that a living-thing is defined as the product of reaction of its genome and its nutritive substances in its compatible environment. Biological viruses are certainly living-things. This is a giant and exceptional revolutionary advance in the history of both pure & applied biological sciences.

  255. Jasbir Bagga, Eanguwar Srinivas Reddy, Chavan, V. B. and Rathor, O. S.

    The present paper deals with an addition of new taxa of flowering plant to the flora of Palamu division of Jharkhand State. Updated information on nomenclature, correct description and locality is provided. This is a new distributional record for this area.

  256. Dr. Rachana Singh and Mr. VipulVerma

    Nanoparticles have attracted the scientific research in modern day since nanotechnology is advancing day by day. Nanoparticles especially silver metal has been used in medicine and other fields since ancient time. Today with advancement in science, its applications are increasing and thus researches are being carried out to find out best methods of silver nanoparticle production. Various chemical, physical and biological synthetic methods have been developed to obtainsilver nanoparticles of various shapes and sizes, including laser ablation, gamma irradiation, electron irradiation, chemical reduction, photochemical methods, etc. The biosynthesis of nanoparticles speciallysilver nanoparticles is emerging at the intersection of nanotechnology and biotechnology. It has received increasing attention due to agrowing need to develop environmentally sustainable technologies in material synthesis. In biological synthetic methods, it was shown that the silver nanoparticles produced by plants are more stable in comparison with those produced by other organisms. Plants (especially plant extracts) are able to reduce silver ions faster than fungi or bacteria. Accordingly, these environmental friendly biological systems are considered as nanofactories. It must be pointed out that many such microorganisms are biologically poisonous to humans and care must be taken in their choice for production of nanoparticles. Thus it becomes important to identify non pathogenic species of microorganism which may perform optimally but with least hazard to health or environment.

  257. Rauf, A. J., Iheanacho, A. C., Ojo, P. O. and Ocholi, A.

    This study was conducted to assess and analyze the prospects and challenges involved in contractual rice seed multiplication programme for seed companies in Benue state, Nigeria. Specifically, the study examined the profitability and constraints of the seed farmers. Purposive and random sampling were used to select 68 rice outgrowers/ contract farmers. Data was collected on farm management systems, production information including cost and return figures and lastly constraints faced by the respondents. Gross margin analysis and the likert scale model were the tools used in achieving the objectives. The results showed that the farmers had a gross margin of N97866.47 per hectare. The net return on investment was 0.52. High cost of labour, unfavourable buy-back prices and delay in buy-back by seed companies were the biggest constraints faced by the rice seed contract farmers. It was recommended that efforts should be made to support smallholder rice farmers to access affordable handy technologies for their rice growing operations, and legislations should be made, aimed at protecting smallholder contract farmers especially from breach of buy-back process (time, price and logistics) from the contracting seed companies.

  258. Anatolii Pavlenko

    The development of new technologies, such as wind turbines or antennas, such as mobile telephony induce new forms of pollution that spread through soil faults and can have a negative impact on the health of humans and animals. Realy there are an invisible hazards in the wireless age associated with mobile phones, monitors of personal computers, base stations for mobile phones, geopathic zones, high-voltage power lines and others. These problems are real and it is logical to think that the recent and large-scale multiplication of antennas and wind turbines with their earthing in pathogenic zones induce fields which modify the natural equilibrium of the soil and have effects on the biosphere. In the article we share our experience which led us to understand the link between some of these installations and the disorders observed in humans or animals and then to propose ways to correct the situation. All representations are confirmed experimentally and are as far as possible illustrated.. The article does not intend to result in any mathematical formula, because, according to the author's deep conviction, the analysis of any mechanism of phenomena and processes must begin with the drawing of their visual image. At this stage it is established that mathematical logic yields to the living logic of nature. Device for detecting the state of ''physical vacuum'' is proposed.

  259. Dr. Nouratan Singh, Neeraj Singh, Reeba Rachel Joseph, Anil Kumar Gautam and Dr. Neeraj Tandan

    Introduction: A study on Evaluation of methodology and comparative study between Spin saline tube using without AHG, with AHG and Gel card technique for blood cross- matching on the basis of efficacy, sensitivity and specificity was undertaken on approximately 500 samples processed in Blood Bank of U.P. University of Medical Sciences, Hospital, Saifai, Etawah, India. Material and Methods: Most commonly Spin saline tube method are used widely in blood banks. A new technique of cross matching is introduced as AHG gel card. In this study we used Matrix gel card method based on indirect coombs test (ICT) for cross match and tube method including Spin saline tube method with AHG and without AHG. Result: five hundred samples are taken for the study and out of this 490 samples are compatible using Spin saline tube method without coombs reagent, 10 sample shows incompatibility, whereas in Spin saline method by using coombs reagent shows 99.2% compatibility, 06 samples show false positive and 04 samples show true positive of previously result. As per findings specificity and sensitivity is 100% of gel card and tube test using AHG, whereas Spin saline tube test specificity is 98.8 %. Spin saline tube method at room temperature, shows 98% compatibility due to 06- sample false positive and 04 sample true positive, whereas Spin saline tube with coombs reagent at 370C, shows 99.2% compatibility due to 496 sample were found compatible and 04 sample true positive. In matrix gel card also shows 99.2% compatibility. Conclusion: The usage of Matrix Gel card in Blood Bank for cross match is easy to performed with recorded test result and more sensitive and specific then Spin saline tube method whereas indirect coombs tube test is also sensitive and specific but more time consuming as compare to Gel card but cannot recorded result and more time consuming than Spin saline and gel card method.

  260. Elif Yüksel Türkboylari

    Heating costs of greenhouse production are the costs incurred for increasing the temperature inside the greenhouse on cold days and nights, as required by the plants produced in the greenhouse. Heating costs of a protected cultivation has a high rate, namely 60 to 70 %, in production costs. Therefore, it is very important to calculate temperature requirements of greenhouses accurately for reducing production costs. In this study, a different method has been used to calculate temperature requirements of the greenhouse. Generally, calculation of temperature requirement is based on the difference between the lowest average exterior temperature on that region and optimum temperature required for plants. In other words, the calculation of temperature requirement is based on the assumption that the entire day is at the lowest average exterior temperature. According to this calculation, the temperature requirements of the greenhouse seem higher. Since the plants do not photosynthesize at night, the temperature inside the greenhouse should be lower at night and higher in the daytime. This study made separate calculations based on nighttime and daytime hours for determining temperature requirements of high tunnel. These calculated values were multiplied with nighttime – daytime hour rates to determine the average daily temperature requirement of the high tunnel. This method was used to determine heating requirements of a plastic high tunnel under climatic conditions of Tekirdağ province, based on months that plants require heating, for nighttime – daytime hours separately. As a result of this study, the temperature saving in January, which has the highest heating requirement, increased up to 25,7 %; 48,0 % in November, 36,0 % in December, 29,5 % in February, 33,4 % in March and 52,2 % in April.

  261. Sharanappa Jangandi, Chaitra B. Negalur, Narayan, J. and Lakshman, H. C.

    The interaction with AM Fungi, Rhizobium and Rock phosphate application has been studied on very good number of plants. Studies were undertaken on Mirabilis jalapa Linn. (Four ‘O’ clock plant) with inoculation of Rhizophagus fasciculatus (AM fungus) and Rhizobium leguminasarum with four levels of rock phosphate in which 30mg/kg soil with mycorrhiza and rhizobium influenced significantly an increased plant height, root length, biomass yield with nitrogen and phosphorus uptake in both shoot and root. However, the spore number was higher among the only mycorrhiza inoculated plants compared to the control or noninoculated plants. Use of rock phosphate application with bioinoculants to Mirabilis jalapa Linn. have been discussed. There was an increase root shoot ratio in controlled plants over the bioinoculated plants with rock phosphate application.

  262. Algohary, S. and Aly, A. I. M.

    Modern society uses massive amounts of energy. Energy usage rises as population and development increase, and energy production and use often have an impact on biodiversity, land uses and natural resources. For the reduction of direct harm to the world biodiversity, the best energy options are those that use the least amount of land and fresh water, minimize pollution, restrict habitat fragmentation, and have a low risk of accidents that have large and lasting regional impacts on natural areas. Most of the present energy demand in the world is met by fossil fuels and nuclear power plants. A small amount is only met by renewable energy technologies such as the wind, solar, biomass, geothermal etc. There will soon be a time when our plant will face a severe fuel shortage. So, different countries are working now in hybrid energy systems which can integrate different sources of energies such as nuclear and renewable energy systems to meet their needs. On the other hand, electrical power plants are covering and consuming massive land of the urban and rural areas specially the renewable energy. In Egypt, land resources are limited and finite. In the last years, the government has allocated thousands of square meters for energy power plants especially renewable energy. On the other hand, there are a lot of pressure on governmental lands which needs to serve other development activities such as industry, housing, agriculture. According to different studies, nuclear power and renewable energy are forecasted to be the world's fastest-growing energy sources from 2012 to 2040. Newer trends to use hybrid nuclear renewable energy systems are introduced in different countries. This trend aims at using the land of the power plants more efficiently and also using the different sources of energy for continuous loads by economic way. So, a new call for efficient land use planning in Egypt is needed which can be based on hybrid nuclear and renewable energy systems. This paper discusses the different challenges which are facing the hybrid nuclear and renewable energy systems and their different types. It describes the current strategy for power generation in Egypt with emphasis on introducing a new proposal for efficient land use planning for power plants in Egypt which can depend on nuclear renewable hybrid energy power plants. It concludes that land use urban planning in Egypt should look differently for its future strategy for the existing and future allocation of lands for electrical power plants. Also, it conclude that a proposal for El Dabaa site may be considered to introduce another renewable energy such as solar PV in the site beside the nuclear power plant.

  263. Dipimani Saikia, Kachari, A. and Hazarika, P.

    A study was undergone to explore the soil beneficial microorganisms in rhizosphere soils of Garcinia lanceifolia (D.Don) Roxb. Rhizosphere soil samples were collected from ten different villages of Jorhat, Nagaon, Golaghat, Sivasagar and Dima Hasao districts, Assam. Beneficial microorganisms in rhizosphere soils of Garcinia lanceifolia were cultured, isolated and identified during 2016-17. The study exposed that Garcinia lanceifolia has Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) association in roots. Average root colonization of the plant species was recorded for 63.4 with a range of 50- 96 per cent depending on the place of collection. AMF spores were isolated from rhizosphere soils and identified tentatively up to the genus. AM fungi, nitrogen-fixing bacteria, phosphate solubilizing microorganism (PSM) and plant growth promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) have been reported as useful for sustaining soil health and plant survival. Twenty-one (21) types of AMF spores were isolated from Garcinia lanceifolia rhizosphere soils belongs to eight (8) genus of 5 families of Glomeromycota i.e. Glomus, Acaulospora, Diversispora, Steptoglomus, Funneliformis, Rhizophagus, Entrophospora, and Gigaspora. Apart from arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi some other beneficial bacteria such as Fluorescent Pseudomonas and Bacillus spp were isolated from different culture media and identified. Some PSM, phytostimulator and decomposer microfungi such as Penicillium, Aspergillus, Trichoderma, Mucor etc were also isolated from rhizosphere soils of the plant species.

  264. Amal Debnath, Chiranjit Paul, Sarat Kumar Yadev and Bimal Debnath

    An experiment was conducted to understand the growth inhibitory effects of aqueous extracts obtain from Murraya paniculata (L.) Jack and Alamanda cathartica L. (Ornamental plants) on four agricultural crops of Tripura, India. The test was conducted in sterilized Petri dishes with a photoperiod of 24 hours and an average temperature of 22±2°C. The effect of different concentrations of both the leaf extracts were recorded and compared with control (i.e., distil water). Result showed different concentrations of aqueous leaf extracts caused inhibitory effect on germination, root &shoot elongation and dry biomass of receptor crops. Bioassays also indicated that the inhibitory effect was proportional to the concentrations of the extracts and higher concentration had the stronger inhibitory effect in both the species. These kinds of concentrations dependent response of the receptor plants suggested that the leaf extracts of the both species might contain allelochemical(s).

  265. Heena Attri, Jamwal, B. S., Amardeep Kour and Ashwani Kumar

    An investigation entitled “Heterosis manifestation of MAGIC lines over the prevalent lines of chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.)” was carried out with 40 genotypes, in F4 derived F5 MAGIC lines, consisting of eight parents. ICC-4958, ICCV-10, JAKI-9218, JG-11, JG-130, JG-16, ICCV-97105, ICCV-00108 during rabi 2012-13 and 2013-14.The observations were recorded for quantitative traits namely, days to 50% flowering, days to maturity, plant height (cm), pods per plant, primary branches, secondary branches, pod length (cm), seed yield (g), 100 seed weight (g),seeds per pod, root length (cm), root weight-fresh and dry (g), relative water content of leaf and partitioning coefficient to roots, stem, leaves and pods. The information was derived on mean performance, range, phenotypic and genotypic coefficient of variation, heritability, genetic advance and heterosis. The highly significant variability was found amongst genotypes. For most of the characters the range in the mean performance was quite wide. The phenotypic and genotypic coefficients of variation were found high in F5 generation. Seed yield and pod per plant exhibited very high heritability. Also high (plant height, 100 seed weight and secondary branches) to very high (seed yield and pod per plant) genetic advance was recorded. Root length and relative water content of leaf showed very high heritability and genetic advance, too. High heterosis was exhibited in characters like primary branches, secondary branches, pods per plant, grain yield, root length, partitioning coefficient to pods and relative water content.

  266. Minnady Muthulingam

    India is the largest producer of medicinal plants. The medicinal plants have very important role in the health of human beings as well as animals. Herbal drugs have gained importance and popularity in recent years because of their safety, efficacy and cost effectiveness. The Indian Traditional Medicine like Ayurveda, Siddha and Unani are predominantly based on the use of plant materials. The usage of medicinal plants for primary health care needs by millions of people in developing world is still occupying a prominent position. The aqueous extract of Caralluma attenuata leaves was investigated for its antioxidant and lipid peroxidative efficacy on antituberculosis drug rifampicin (1 g/kg) induced liver damage in male albino wistar rats. Antioxidant and lipid peroxidative activity was measured by using biochemical parameters such as superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), reduced glutathione (GSH), glutathione reductase (GR), glutathione-s-transferase (GST) and TBARS in liver. Oral administration of the aqueous leaf extract of Caralluma attenuata at the doses of (125, 250 and 500 mg/kg) to rifampicin treated rats produced significant antihepatotoxic effect by decreasing the level of TBARS and enhance the levels of antioxidant activity in liver. The effects aqueous leaf extract of Caralluma attenuata were comparable to standard drug silymarin. These results suggest that aqueous leaf extract of Caralluma attenuata have potential therapeutic value in the treatment of liver diseases, probably by its antioxidative efficacy in liver.

  267. Adil Iqbal, Rahul Das and Tapash Dasgupta

    Selfed progenies derived from diverse populations were evaluated in two seasons at Agricultural Experimental Farm, University of Calcutta, Baruipur, West Bengal, India to investigate the correlation of seed iron (Fe) and zinc (Zn) content with seed yield and component traits in sesame. Significant genetic variability among the progenies was observed for Fe, Zn seed yield and other component traits. Significant and positive correlation was observed between Fe and Zn. Seed yield was significantly correlated positively with plant height, capsule no/plant and 1000 seed wt. While Fe content in seed was negatively associated with capsule length. The PCA revealed that seed yield per plant had a strong relation with capsules per plant and plant height suggesting the need for more emphasis on these components for increasing the seed yield in sesame. Zinc and iron also had a strong relationship but there are no significant relationship with seed yield per plant and micronutrients.

  268. Sabita Dahal, Nimesh Chamling, Anjana Pradhan, Suraj Subba, Meena Tamang and Dorjee Chewang Bhutia

    Rapid Biodiversity Survey of Kyongnosla Alpine Sanctuary (3000 - 4200m) records an occurrence of 151 floral species, of which, population assessment of 71 species was done. There were only three trees species recorded from the sub-alpine area of the sanctuary, namely Abies densa, Acer pectinatum and Betula utilis out of which Acer pectinatum and Betula utilis were found rare in the area. Some high valued and globally threatened medicinal plants of the Himalayas including seven species of Aconitums were recorded namely Aconitum violaceum, A.novoluridum, A.palmatum, A.disectum, A.ferox, A.spicatum and A.laciniatum, of which A.novoluridum, A.violaceum and A.laciniatum were re-discovered after more than a century after the monographic work of Stapf during 1905 on Aconites of India, which was based on the collections made by earlier worker (Hooker, 1854). Some other threatened medicinal plants species such as Neopicrorhiza scrophularia, Gymnadenia orchidis, Fritillaria cirrhosa, Sassurea gossipiphora, Sassurea obvallata, Rheum nobile, Allium prattii, Sinopodophyllum hexandrum, polygonatum singalilense, Valeriana jatamansii, V.hardwickii, Veratrilla baillonii, Gentiana elwesii, etc. were recorded from the area with very less number of population, for which immediate conservation measures are recommended. Apart from floral species, an inventory of faunal species was done which records an occurrence of 9 mammalian species and 20 bird species through direct and indirect evidences.

  269. Chaudhary, A. P., Parmar, D. J., Muniya, S. D. and Darji, V. B.

    The present study was conducted with sixty three diverse genotypes of rice (Oryza sativa L.) at Main Rice Research Station (MRRS), Nawagam, Gujarat during kharif season of 2011 to assess the relationship and selection index among yield and yield attributing characters. Total six characters were used for construction of selection indices i.e. Grain yield per plant, plant height, panicle length, number of productive tillers per plant, 1000 grain weight and harvest index. Two different weight methods were used for this study like simple correlation coefficients and path coefficients (Direct effects). The analysis of variance revealed that the presence of considerable amount of variation among the test of genotypes for all the characters. The simple correlation study revealed that harvest index, number of productive tillers per plant and 1000 grain weight had positive and highly significant correlation with grain yield per plant. The path analysis results showed that number of productive tillers per plant had the highest direct effect on grain yield per plant followed by 1000 grain weight, harvest index, panicle length and plant height. Results of selection indices showed that a progressive increase in the efficiency of selection was observed with the inclusion of additional character in the selection index. Selection index (I123456) which was combinations of grain yield per plant, plant height, panicle length, number of productive tillers per plant, 1000 grain weight and harvest index had highest per cent relative efficiency (PRE) among all the indices including rice grain yield per plant for simple correlation coefficients and path coefficients weight method. Looking to simplicity, selection index (I256) which was combinations of plant height, 1000 grain weight and harvest index showed highest PRE and it was suggested to use for selection of genotypes for rice grain improvement without grain yield per plant.

  270. Sudhakara Reddy, M., Udaykiran, V., Sivasankar, R., Muniya Naik, M. and Subahan, M.

    The present investigation was aimed at evaluating the ethanol extract of leaves of Leucas aspera has been found to possess antibacterial activity and Anti-inflammatory Activity, Cyclooxygenase (COX), also called Prostaglandin H Synthase or (PGHS) is a bifunctional enzyme exhibiting both cyclooxygenase and peroxidase activities. COX-2 products are responsible for modulating dynamic processes such as inflammation. COX-2 is the true molecular target for developing anti-inflammatory and analgesic agents. Pathogen free, Wistar strain albino rats were used in the present study, In order to study the anti-inflammatory activity of four extracts of Leucas aspera viz., petroleum ether, chloroform, ethanol, water extracts .whereas the purified fraction F5 of ethanol extract were screened for their in vivo COX-2 enzyme inhibition assay, And the purified fraction (F5) of ethanol extract it is essential to carry out the COX enzyme inhibition assay. The fraction F5 of ethanol extract of L. aspera has shown significant COX-2 enzyme inhibition activity. The chemical molecule present in the fraction F5 is responsible for the inhibition of COX-2 enzyme present in the blood plasma of experimental rats. The present study reveals that ethanolic extract of leucas aspera spreng showed significant anti-inflammatory activity and COX- II enzyme inhibition studies.

  271. Girimalleshwar Bagari and Pulikeshi M. Biradar

    The present study was undertaken to analyse the quality of compost and vermicompost produced by the action of epigeic earthworm, E.eugeniae out of different organic wastes such as Lawn Grass Waste (LGW), Cotton Residue Waste (CRW), Ashoka Tree Waste (ATW), Parthenium Waste (PW) and Cattle Manure (CM) as standard food for earthworms. The physico-chemical parameters of both compost and vermicompost have been analysed by standard specified methods so as to check the role of the earthworm, E. eugeniae in biodegradation of different organic wastes and recycling of plant nutrients. Results revealed that there is a wide variation in physico-chemical parameters of both composts and vermicomposts. A significant reduction in Organic Carbon (OC) have been observed in vermicompost than in the compost of all organic wastes may be due to usage of Carbon (C) for the building up of body of the worms during their growth. There is an increasing level of physico-chemical parameters such as pH, EC, both macro nutrients (N, P, K, S, Ca and Mg) and micro nutrients (Cu, Zn, Fe and Mn) in vermicompost when compared to compost in all organic wastes. This may be because of more biodegradation process by the action of earthworm and mineralization of degraded organic wastes by the action of saprophytic microorganisms present in the gut of earthworm, E.eugeniae.

  272. Hemant S. Bedekar and Subhash S. Deokule

    The two bamboo species namely Dendrocalamus stocksii Roxb. And Munrochloa ritchiei are reported as endemic to Western Ghats. The occurrence of both the species have been reported vaguely in Maharashtra, India. The places of occurrence with detailed geographical and GPS locations are provided. This is reported first time with details for both the species in Northern Western Ghats (Sahyadri).

  273. Eswari, B. and Kamala, K.

    Histological examination of rat testis treated with RNase A and drug metosartan by staining with eosin Y has proven to be one of the challenging things because it reveals the exact histology associated with it. Treatment of testis with RNase has resulted in necrosis of tissue, where as with metosartan, leydig and sertoli cells are wiped off. However treatment of tissue with both RNase and drug has resulted in inter linkage of sperms and loss of clear demarcation as cells when observed under compound microscope.

  274. Ashwini, S., Pratap, G. K. and Manjula Shantaram

    Gracilaria corticata, a red seaweed collected from Surathkal beach, Karnataka India was studied for the estimation of Carbon, Hydrogen and Nitrogen using CHN analyzer whose percentage was found to be 36 ±0.64%, 6.47 ±0.09% and 4.99± 0.055 respectively. The mineral content Na and K of G.corticata was found to be12.84mg and 5.34mg respectively. The values of elements such as Zn, Fe, Cu, Cr, Pb and Ni were determined spectrometer and their concentration was found to be 12.06±0.004, 4.88±0.15, 4.77 ±0.01, 6.69±0.002, 0.193±0.001 and 0.088±0.004 in ppm respectively. The pigments such as chlorophyll a, chlorophyll b, and Phycobilins were also estimated. The protein content of extracts was determined out of which methanol extract showed higher value of 23.35 ± 0.21% dry weight (dw) and lowest was with water extract of G. corticata (14.23± 0.01% dw). Also the extract of G. corticata was subjected to determine the carbohydrate content in which water extract was to be highest (6.47±0.3) % dw followed by ethanol (4.91±0.03) % dw, while the lowest carbohydrate value was found in chloroform extract (2.1 ± 0.03) % dw.

  275. Aparna, M. B. and Yusuf, A.

    Azolla anabaena azollae is a symbiotic association between the aquatic fern Azolla and nitrogen fixing cyanobacteria anabaena azollae, by the exchange of carbon and nitrogen between them. The nitrogen fixed by the cyanobacterium is converted into ammonium and is transported via ammonium transporters. AMT1family of ammonium transporters are high affinity transporters hence are quick to respond under very low levels of nitrogen supply.AMT1 will be the best AMT to be studied under nitrogen limiting growth conditions. Putative AMT1 sequence was cloned from the symbiotic Azolla-Anabaena using reverse transcription PCR and phylogenetic analysis was conducted with the nearly similar sequences using BLAST. The amplified putativeAMT1sequence from the cDNA of Azolla anabaena azollae was sequenced and the sequence was submitted to NCBI. Multiple sequence alignment was performed using ClustalW and the Maximum Likelihood and Neighbour Joining tree was developed using Tamura-Nei model of MEGA 6.0.The reliability of each branch was tested by bootstrap analysis with 1,000 replications. In the phylogenetic analysis, AMT1of Azolla anabaena azollae showed a close similarity with Azolla caroliniana AMT1.The transmembrane AMT1 protein structure was predicted with Raptorx structure prediction program.

  276. Amlyne G. Momin and Damodar Singh, Y.

    A study was conducted during the period from August, 2015 to April, 2016 to survey the occurrence of viral diseases in chicken in and around Shillong, Meghalaya, to study the pathology and finally to diagnose them by using common molecular techniques. A total of 370 dead and sick birds were collected from different organized and unorganized poultry farms in and around Shillong, Meghalaya. Of these, 109 cases (i.e. 29.46%) were diagnosed as viral diseases. The diseases were diagnosed based on clinical history, clinical signs/symptoms prior to death, gross lesions observed on post-mortem examination, histopathology and laboratory detection of viral genomes. Among the diseases, Newcastle disease (ND) was found in 15.14%, followed by infectious bursal disease (IBD) in 12.97% and fowl pox (FP) in 1.81%, respectively. Age-wise analysis showed that the maximum number of cases were recorded in the age group of 3-6 weeks (33.03%), followed by 6-9 weeks (28.44%), 9-12 weeks (17.43%), 1-3 weeks (14.68%) and above 12 weeks (6.42%) age groups of chicken. The present study suggests that some important viral diseases are occurring in chicken population in and around Shillong, Meghalaya with higher incidence in 3-6 weeks age groups.

  277. Latha, R., Mujeera Fathima and Ganesan, S.

    Acacia torta stem bark extracts are a focus of study in ethno pharmacology due to its reported antimicrobial activity against a wide range of pathogenic microbes. In this study, ethanolic extract (80%) of Acacia torta leaf extracts were studied for in vitro antimicrobial activity against two gram positive bacteria (Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus subtilis), two gram negative bacteria (Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa), two fungal strains (Candida albicans, Aspergillus niger) by agar well diffusion method. The sample showed its highest inhibitory activity against Bacillus subtilis, followed by Staphylococcus aureus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Escherichia coli. Aspergillus niger showed resistance to lower concentrations of the plant extract, whereas, higher concentrations of the extract showed significant zones of inhibition against fungi.

  278. Sandra Santacoloma-Londoño, María Eugenia Buitrago-González and Luis Carlos Villegas-Méndez

    This research studies biotransformation of chromium (Cr) in the tanneries sewage, combining phytoremediation (with zizanioides) ad later Earthworm composting (with Eisenia foetida) from Vetiver roots with Cr content. The study started by the implementation of phytoremediation in subsurface flow wetland where tanneries sewage flows and it was possible to absorb an initial concentration of 3818mg. kg-1 of CR in the sewage to 3735 mg. kg-1of Cr in the Vetiver roots. After that, an Earthworm composting was implemented in six beds, with three replicas in each one, in which different quantities of Vetiver roots were added with Cr to the Earthworm composting and the half of them were also added nourishment. Measurements were carried out on days 7, 14, 21 and 28 of dependent variables such as mortality, length, weight, diameter, presence of juveniles and cocoons. In this part of the essay, it was found that Eisenia foetida tolerates Cr concentrations and its bioconcentration factor was between 0.143 and 0.274. Furthermore, the acute toxicity was determined CL50, and the chronic toxicity NOEC, NOEC, confidence limits upper and lower to 95% for the concentration values and Cr. As for the decreasing of Cr in the Earthworm composting, 70.9% was found for the best trial. Finally, a model of mortality behavior was determined according to the Cr concentration with correlation of 0.999 and R-squared that explains 99.8% of the mortality variations.

  279. Yu Xiao and Bassim Abbassi

    This work investigates the effect of different chloride-based deicers (NaCl, MgCl2, CaCl2, and calcium magnesium chloride (CMC)) on mobilization of lead in saturated soil. Batch experiments were carried out on lead contaminated bentonite at room and refrigerated temperature. The results showed that NaCl and CMC have the least impact on mobilization of lead. The highest mobilization was found by CaCl2 application. The first order desorption coefficient (kt) was calculated for all deicers types based on 48 hr batch experiments. CaCl2 was found to exhibit the highest kt value (0.4 hr-1). The highest mean kt value was also found for CaCl2 (0.05 hr-1), a value that is 25 % greater than that for CMC. The statistical analysis of the data using R-Studio software indicated that the concentration of deicer is the major influencing factor on mobilization of lead from soil, whereas, deicer type and temperature has lesser effect.

  280. Reshma Shah

    This paper depicts the removal of fluorine from drinking water accomplished by different adsorbents and techniques. In the human system this fluoride has a dual personality, a destructive effect (greater than 1.5 ppm – dental & skeletal fluorosis) and a beneficial effect (upto1.0ppm – carries prevention and health promotion). WHO (World Health organization) recommends that maximum fluorine content in drinking water should be up to 1.5 ppm in India. Large population in India suffers from dental and skeletal flourosis due to high fluoride concentration. The study reveals at what extent the low cost adsorbents and separation techniques are beneficial for the defluoridation of water.

  281. CONTE, M. J. and ROŞCA, I. C.

    This publication follows, recent works (Conte M., Rosca et al., 2017) on the correlations between the consequences of the relationship of Newton and the black body surfaces emittances of the objects. The consideration of these photonic energy irradiated by the surfaces in space suggests the presence of mini black holes at the zero resulting potential between two masses in quantum gravity EVTD2. Taking into account the products of the considered body’s emittances it was possible, by copying the relationship of Newton, to show that the gravity force can be defined only by using the product of black bodies’ temperatures Te to power fourth divided by the square of their distances. Verifications by calculi using solar system data and from works (Conte and Rosca et al., 2017; Conte and Rosca, 2015) shows the accuracy of this new gravity approach where the masses are no more considered.

  282. Sandhya Singh and Prof. Dolley Shukla

    the complexity of an image tells many aspects of the image content and is an important factor in the selection of source material for testing various image processing methods. Databases of pictures or videos explained with subjective evaluations constitute basic ground truth for preparing, testing, what's more, benchmarking calculations for target quality appraisal. We propose a few criteria for quantitative correlations of source substance, test conditions, and subjective evaluations, which are utilized as the reason for the resulting investigations and dialog. This paper presents various metrics used for image and video complexity analysis. For this we have utilized image and video compression method

  283. Modupe Elizabeth Ojewumi, Benjamen Eluagwule, Ayodeji A. Ayoola, Ajibola Temitope Ogunbiyi, John Adeoye, Moses EterighoEmetere and Olufunmilayo O. Joseph

    The termiticidal properties of acetone, ethanol and aqueous extract of African locust beans (P. biglobosa) seed were investigated on Isoptera: Rhinotermitidae and Termitidae. Mineral compositions of the raw and boiled seeds were evaluated and heavy metals such as cadmium, cobalt, lead, nickel and copper were only detected in raw seeds, which show that heavy metals were leached out of the seeds during boiling process. Extracts from the raw seeds exhibited varying degree of termiticidal activity, while extracts from the boiled seed had no effect on the termites. The aqueous, ethanol and acetone extracts of boiled African locust bean seed had no effect on termite, while extracts of raw seeds affected them. The aqueous extract of raw seeds exhibited concentration dependent termiticidal activity. However the acetone extracts were more active than the aqueous and ethanol extracts. Termites died within 20 min of exposure to paper pad treated with concentration of 5 g mL−1 of ethanol and acetone extracts. The heavy metals found in the samples were in safe levels compared to regular or synthetic termiticides. Hence, the extract of African locust bean seeds have termiticidal effects and can be effectively used to control termite infestation instead of the toxic and environmentally unfriendly chemicals. The optimization process shows that the increased application time (0 to 34 s) is safer to detect any health hazard on human (if any) while the survival chances for termites decrease by 400%.

  284. Valdir Jr. Cordeiro Rocha and Marcus Vinicius Carvalho Guelpeli

    This article presents the automatic text summarizer PragmaSUM, which is independent from the language and knowledge domain of the source text, based on the Cassiopeia algorithm, which uses Luhn’s distribution and Zipf’s Law to select words in the text used for classifying sentences and generating the summary. A corpus is created for tests in Portuguese, composed of scientific articles from 10 different knowledge domains, for evaluating summaries generated by BLMSumm, GistSumm and PragmaSUM summarizers. Performance was observed using Recall, Precision and F-Measure metrics present in the assessment tool ROUGE. The end of the article presents the results of the summary assessment generated by the summarizers and PragmaSUM by employing two forms of summarization: with keywords for classifying sentences in the source text without using these words and by comparing summarizers. It was observed that using keywords in automatic text summarization allows for personalization of the summary according to the users’ needs by fetching sentences that really correspond to their interest domain.

  285. Ramakrishna, V., Ashwani, D., Durga, M. N. V., Vamsikrishna, D. and Ramkumar, T.

    The noise levels are increasing beyond the permissible limits at many cities due to rapid urbanization and its related activities. Increased noise levels beyond limits result in reduced work efficiency, loss of hearing, annoyance, psychological impacts. Increased traffic in all the cities is becoming the major source of noise pollution. The ambient and traffic noise levels are studied in and around Vijayawada. Sampling is done for 10 hrs from 7am-9am, 10 am-12 noon, 1pm-3 pm, 4pm-6 pm, 7 pm-9 pm. Ambient noise levels are beyond the permissible limits at the urban locations sampled based on Lavg, L10, L50, L90, Leq, NPL, NC parameters. Traffic flow is measured at four locations representing residential, commercial, industrial, and silent zones. Simultaneously, sound levels are collected and analyzed based on traffic flow, Lavg, L10, L50, L90, Leq, TNI, NC parameters. It is noted that, high noise levels are recorded at high traffic flows. The 2-and 3-wheelers are contributing to 69% of vehicular flow at the sampling locations.

  286. Solomon Zerihun

    Laser is an acronym which stands for light amplification by stimulated emission of radiation. It is widely used in medicine, agriculture, military, security, laboratories and research activities. From different types of lasers; gas laser is commonly used of which nitrogen laser is emerging. Nitrogen molecules are the most abundant molecules in the earth's atmosphere, constituting 78.08%. Electron collisions with molecular nitrogen continue to receive interest due to their importance in gaseous discharge processes, such as those involved in nitrogen lasers. Nitrogen lasers are capable of producing very high power short pulses of ultraviolet light at a wavelength of 337.1nm. They have a wide range of applications in dye laser pumping, lidar (remote sensing), fast speed photography, atomic and lifetime spectroscopy, medical and biological research, etc. Compared to other gas lasers, nitrogen lasers are very cheap and easy to construct. Sometimes call us “home built lasers" for multiple comparative advantages.

  287. Anies Mathew Nellikunnel

    The quality of performance and the impact of an organization very much depend on the nature of its personnel (Saarni, C., 2000). It is increasingly being accepted in elite circles that the success of that organization hinges on the level of Emotional Intelligence possessed by its activists. (Rani, Usha., D.P.J.Reddy., & M.V.S.Reddy.(2004), Parker, J.D.D., (2010) and Palmer, F., Donaldson and Stough, (2002). Kafetsios, K (2010) studied socio-economic impact of Self Help Groups and found that the overall impact of Self Help Group was significant both on social and economic spheres of the house hold. The main aim of the study is to understand and measure the level of Emotional Intelligence of the SHG members from Arakuzha Grama Panchayat in Muvattupuzha Block in Ernakulam District of Kerala. Descriptive Research design will be the best suitable one and hence the author has used this research design for the present study, out of a total of 150 SHGs, 350 members were selected based on the criteria. Using simple random sampling method, 65 persons were selected finally. The major findings of the study is more than 37 percent of the members are having High Emotional Intelligence Score. Nearly One Third has Low Emotional Intelligence score and it is obvious from the Karl Pearson's Correlation Matrix table that the 'r' values are positive and significant. These findings clearly explains that when the age of SHG members, Family Income of them, Years of Membership of them, and their education levels are increasing then their level of Emotional Intelligence is also increasing significantly (p<.05 level). The level of their Emotional Intelligence came into the lime light. The result is highly empowering. The SHGs can use the unmistakable finding to modulate to their image and operations. This will be immensely useful to fully realize their goals in a stunningly successful manner. This scientific assessment will further refurnish their status as a socio-economic development agency.

  288. Türker Biyikli and Kubilay CİMEN

    The aim of this study is to compare the basic motoric characteristics of children aged between 6 and12 after 24 weeks of educational games. 430 students who study in the 1st stage of primary education voluntarily participated in the study by attending to the study 6 hours a week regularly. Features such as balance, vertical jump, flexibility, reaction time and claw force are measured which are among the basic motoric characteristics that are chosen by physical measurements from the volunteers participating in the study. The population of the study consists of students studying in TuncayArtun Primary School, Kıraç Primary School, ÜmraniyeBirlik Primary School, SüleymanÇelebi Primary School and RagıpKutmangil Primary School which are all active in İstanbul, and the sample of the study consists of 430 students determined by random sampling. Although, after the statistical processes, it is determined that there was a significant statistical discrepancy between the pretests and posttests of vertical jump, balance and right-left claw force; it is determined that there was no significant statistical discrepancy between the pretest and posttest measurements of flexibility. The acquired data were saved to IBMM SPSS 22 packaged software. As a statistical process Wilcoxon analysis was carried out for the comparison of the data which showed nonparametric distribution. Consequently, it is thought that the acquirement and development of motor skills and a healthy physical development which are among the main goals of educational games, depend both on educational games applied regularly in a week and on the qualified physical education teachers who will make these games applied.

  289. Sunita Rath and Dr. Debi Prasad Mishra

    The objective of the study is to examine the internal and external factors influencing the consumer buying behavior in the washing machine segment of FMCD sector. This study covered the area of Cuttack and Bhubaneswar selecting about 200 respondents from different retail malls/retail outlets of the electronic products. All the respondents replied to the questionnaire given to them completely. The questionnaire consists of two parts:the first part deals with the personal data of the respondents and the second part had questions regarding the selected variables affecting the buying behavior of the respondents. The data so collected had been analyzed by using SPSS software package. The descriptive statistics and the chi-square test were applied to examine the significant relationship between the satisfaction level and the demographic factors. The result shows that the demographic factors do not have significant impact on the satisfaction level of the consumers.

  290. Anat Raviv

    Leraning by Doing a research project aimed at identifying the impact of approaches based on learning in an online training program. A questionnaire, operationalizing four learning modes and the implementation of those methods, was used to solicit responses from teachers in different teaching frames 3 times during the study. The modes explored some learning models such as: independent learning, instrumental learning, interactive learning, and collaborative learning. The results point a significant change in teacher's abilities and teaching skills during the program and 6 months after it. This model of teachers training is based on the requirements of teaching in the 21 century.

  291. Yohannes Bisa Biramo, Bereket Merkine G/Silase and Hailu Chare Koyra

    The purpose of this study was to determine the relationship established between parental involvement in children schooling and children’s academic achievement at alternative basic education and regular primary first cycle schools in Hamer Woreda. This study also investigated differences on the degree of involvement of parents and academic achievement of children in ABE and RPFC schools. To this end, parental involvement having two categories (high and low) was made based on the response of parents using the measure of parental involvement. Additionally, teacher made achievement tests were used to determine the academic achievement of children. The study followed quantitative approach to see the relationship and difference between variables. A sample of 60 children and their parents (totally 120) were selected using stratified and systematic random sampling techniques from the schools. Data were gathered using structured interview. A structured interview was made with parents/guardians. In an attempt to look for the degree of parental involvement in education of children, the study revealed that there is high (50%) and low (50%) parental involvement in children’s schooling both in ABE and RPFC schools. Accordingly, the result of analysis showed that there is a positive relationship between parental involvement and children’s academic achievement. It was also found significant difference between parental involvement and children’s academic achievement (t= 2.224, p< 0.05). Also there exists a significant differences in the parental involvement of ABE and RPFC school children (t= -5.784, p<0.05). RPFC school children enjoy more parental involvement than their counterparts in the ABE centers. Besides, there exists a significant difference in the academic achievement of ABE and RPFC schools children (t= -3.604, p<0.05). RPFC children scored better than their ABE center counterparts in academic achievement. Finally, based on the findings, it is recommended that a comprehensive and more targeted intervention programs has to be designed and implemented quickly.

  292. Jajati Keshari Samanatasinghar and Prof (Dr.) Madhusudan Dash

    Both the Supreme Court & High Courts are courts of record. As courts of record they are endowed with the inherent power to punish for contempt of itself or other subordinate courts. The said power to punish contempt is a special jurisdiction which is inherent in a court of record & the same cannot be curtailed, controlled or restricted by any other statute.

  293. Gopal Sinha

    Tragedy deals with the serious aspects of life as comedy deals with the cheerful and lighter mood. It is essentially a tale of suffering ending in death (Tragic end) of the main characters of the play according to Aristotle. Tragedy is the representation of an action, which is serious complete in itself, and of a certain length. It is expressed in speech made beautiful in different ways in different parts of the play; it is acted not narrated; and by exciting pity and fear gives a healthy relief to such emotions”. Shakespearean Tragedy conforms with this definition of Aristotle but it violates the principle of Greek philosopher in one important respect; its action is not all serious; its seriousness is often relieved by the comic. In this respect Shakespeare was but holding a ‘mirror to life’ in which joy and serious, tears and smiles, frequently alternate. He was thus a greater artist than the other dramatists who blindly followed Aristotle.

  294. Victor Rodriguez Lizano

    The evolution of terms of trade in agriculture has been widely discussed in the research agenda, nonetheless, there is no observable unique path in the agriculture sector. This research addresses the evolution of coffee´s terms of trade in traditional coffee growing Costa Rica and Columbia by comparing coffee export prices and crude oil import prices during a 10-year span. Terms of trade are estimated and analyzed. Fairtrade certification as well as private and national strategies to increase the value and differentiation of coffee in the international market are offered as possible reasons for differences in terms of trade for the two countries.

  295. Michael Hembrom, Ganesh Prusty and Shresth Tayal

    Mass movement is a major problem in mountainous regions of India. Mass movements cause road blockage, causality and property loss which affects the economic development of that region. The use of Remote Sensing and Geographical Informatics System (GIS) can be highly useful for prediction of mass movement in vulnerable regions and it is also time and cost effective. This information can be used by natural hazard planners and decision makers for proper management of mass movement related hazards. In this paper a comparison between Uttrakhand and Sikkim state of India is studied in terms of its vulnerability for mass movement using the Analytical Hierarchy Process (AHP). Parameters which trigger the occurrence of mass movement such as rainfall, slope angle, aspect, geology, landuse landcover (LULC), proximity to drainage and road network was considered in this study. The results show that Analytical Hierarchy Process (AHP) is a good tool for remote prediction of mass movement. In this study Sikkim shows more vulnerability for mass movement then Uttrakhand.

  296. Senbetie Toma, Tekle Leza and Sundaraa Rajan, D.

    Natural resource conservation draws the attention of many development oriented organizations as the problem extended to the available and most productive lands since its implication in food production is adverse. In this context, the adoption of Sustainable Land Management practices is quite crucial to increase agricultural productivity, ensure food security and improve the livelihoods of smallholder farmers in many parts of the world, especially in developing nations, including Ethiopia. A number of soil and water conservation methods were introduced to combat land degradation but adoption of these practices remains below expectations. Therefore, the main objective of this study was the socio-economic, institutional, psychological and biophysical factors that influence adoption of SLM practices among smallholder farmers in Boloso Sore District of Wolaita zone, Ethiopia. Employing multi-stage sampling technique 200 households were interviewed to gather data. Primary quantitative data were collected using interview schedule through face-to-face interview whereas qualitative data were collected through key informant interview and focus group discussion. Descriptive, inferential and econometric analyses were carried out. The computed independent T-test for the mean income difference was statistically highly significance between adopters and non-adopters, suggesting that adopters were in better-off position to improve their livelihood. From the 17 explanatory variables entered into the model, 10 variables were found to be statistically significant in determining adoption of SLM Practices by farmers in the study area at less than 1, 5 to 10% probability levels. These are education level of the household head, , perception of land degradation problems, land tenure certification, credit service access, frequency of development agent contact, member in community organization,Participation in government awareness programand livestock ownership significantly positively affect adoption of land management practices while distance to market, land to labour ratio affects it negatively at less 10% probability levels. Overall results from this study show that Planners should formulate appropriate programs considering the farmers interest, capacity, and limitation in promoting improved soil conservation technology for greater acceptance and the adoption of SLMPs can also be enhanced by increasing farmers’ literacy level and encouraging them to participate more in community based organizations.

  297. Jan-Erik Lane

    Time is running out, as the Keeling curve measuring carbon dioxide continues its relentless rise (Earth CO2). We stand now close to 410ppm CO2:s. The upcoming COP23 in Bonn, sponsored by Fiji, must outline how its COP21 objectives are to be promoted, fulfilled and implemented. Only a massive replacement of fossil fuels and wood coal by solar power, together with wind power and atomic power, can save mankind from the threat of global warming. This paper presents a tentative estimation of what is involved with regard to the fulfilment of COP21’s GOAL II, using a model calculation of solar power parks of Ouarzazate size.

  298. Llerena, Francisco, Muñoz, Diego, Robles, María Concepción, Grijota, Francisco Javier, Alves, Javier, Barrientos, Gema and Maynar, Marcos

    In the last few years, progress in the biomedical evaluation of athletes has caused scientists to consider numerous factors that can be modified by intense physical activity, and at the same time influence in an important way the sportsmen's power output. An increasing emphasis has been placed on the role of macro and trace metals in human health and disease. The aim of the present study was to compare two macroelements Mg and P and the trace elements As, B, Cs, Li, Mg, P, Rb, Sn and Sr in urine samples in middle distance runners with the corresponding levels in referent sedentary subjects matched by age, sex, and geographic area. Twenty-one Spanish national middle distance runners were recruited before the start of their training period. Male students from the Sport Sciences Faculty of Extremadura University, who had not been regularly or systematically performing physical exercise volunteered for this study and constituted the control group. Mg, P, As, B, Cs, Li, Rb, Sr and Sn analysis of urine was performed by ICP-MS. Element analysis concentrations, expressed in μg/g creatinine were: Mg (44,92±36,8vs. 111,30±91,32, p ≤ 0.01); Sn (0,67±0,92 vs. 2,49±3,29, p≤ 0.05), were lower in athletes urine; Cs (5,05 ± 2,65vs. 3,20±1,60,p ≤ 0.01) in athletes urine have higher than the sedentary group. The results showed that there were not statistically differences between urinary concentrations in both groups of As, B, Li, P, Rb and Sr. We can conclude that the population in Extremadurahasnoab normal levels of these metals. But athletes have some modifications to the elimination of some of these metalsthat could be related to possible adaptation stophysical activity.

  299. Sajwan, K. S., Sushil Khanduri and Bhupendra Bhaisora

    In recent times extreme rainfall events as cloudbursts are dominant phenomenon trigger large scale mass movement and flash floods in the Himalayan region. Cloudburst is a natural and common phenomenon in the Himalaya, especially in Garhwal and Kumaon region of Uttarakhand. Cloudburst and associated disaster affect thousands of people every year and cause loss of life, property, livelihood, infrastructure and environment. Slope failure incidences took place at many places in Pithoragarh district on 1st July 2016 amid heavy rainfall. According to District Emergency Operation Centre (DEOC) and local persons, 160 mm rainfall recorded within 4 - 5 hours in Didihat area. Bastari, Naulra (Kumalgaon) and Didihat were amongst the worst affected regions. Total 160 families of 15 villages with Didihat town are affected in Thal, Munsiyari and Didihat tehsils of Pithoragarh district, 24 persons were killed in this incidence. Due to torrential rainfall Thal - Munsiyari road was cut-off and dozens of vehicles remained stranded on both sides. Since the area is tectonically active, heavy localized precipitation and anthropogenic activities play a major role in triggering landslides and flash floods. Changing pattern of rainfall that it makes heavy localized precipitation or cloudburst all the more common in this region is a cause of concern for the state government, meteorologists and other researchers. The present study focuses on some significant aspect of cloudburst and associated hazards in Uttarakhand Himalaya.

  300. Ajay Deep

    Hindu scriptures say that every human being is born into five important debts that are Deva Rin, Rishi Rin, PitraRin, NriRin, BhutaRin and one has to repay these Karmic Debts to follow the path of DHARM in their lifetime. The thoughts of Vedic literature are important and worthy for corporate sector and businessman in the modern context on the subject of ethics and social responsibility, because they tell us that CSR is not a charity and philanthropy but our Duty/Dharma to follow. The debt theory cautions the corporate that they need to be indebted in their life time. Most of the businessman/industrialist are differing from the Noble prize winner Milton Friedman’s view on CSR that a company should have no "social responsibility" to the public or society because its only concern is to increase profits for itself and for its shareholders and the thought of as we take so much from the environment around us, a moral obligation remains to repay to the society what is growing at the pace. That is the reason, businesspersons like, Azim Premji, Rakesh Jhunjhunwala, Shiv Nadaretc giving substantial amount of their personal wealth for society. It has been very well understood by Government that they alone will not be able to succeed in its endeavor to uplift the downtrodden society, hence Indian Parliament passed the legendary bill making CSR mandatory for companies. Review of literature on CSR provides a gap of not understanding the CSR from the perspectives of Vedic theory of Debt which inspire to give back to society as a part of one’s duty not the charity or philanthropy. This paper makes an attempt to understand and elaborate how five debts theory of Hindu Scriptures is relevant to CSR and tries to provide an insight of various Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR) initiatives taken by Maharatna company GAIL (India) Ltd in conformance of the CSR regulations.

  301. Ariom, T. O., Iroha, I. R., Moses, I. B., Nwuzo, A. C., Afiukwa, F. N., Iroha, C. S. and Ugbo, E. N.

    This study was aimed at isolating and molecularly characterizing Staphylococcus aureus exhibiting methicillin and vancomycin-resistance traits from clinical and community samples in Abakaliki, South Eastern Nigeria. Exactly 303 clinical samples from wounds, pus, urine, HVS (high vaginal swab), ear swabs, sputum and semen of hospital patients; and 406 community samples (nasal and ear swabs) were obtained for this study. Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) and vancomycin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (VRSA) isolates were detected using Kirby-Bauer disc diffusion method. Multiplex PCR was used to detect mecA, SCCmec, and PVL genes in the HA-MRSA and CA-MRSA isolates. A total of 84 (27.7 %) and 120 (29.5 %) Staphylococcus aureus isolates were obtained from the clinical and community samples respectively using standard microbiological techniques. Results showed that MRSA and VRSA were highly prevalent in wound samples and less prevalent in HVS, pus and sputum samples while none was observed in semen samples. The MRSA and VRSA isolates exhibited high resistance to nitrofurantoin, tetracycline, penicillin, clindamycin, sulphamethoxazole and ceftazidime. Gentamycin was the most effective antibiotic against the MRSA and VRSA isolates obtained from hospitals samples while ciprofloxacin was the most effective against MRSA and VRSA isolates obtained from community samples. Our study has shown that mecA and SCCmec IVa genes are present in the HA-MRSA and CA-MRSA isolates from our study area. In contrast, PVL genes were detected only in CA-MRSA. The high resistance of the clinical and community isolates to most of the antibiotics used in this study shows that such antibiotics are now ineffective in treating people with MRSA and VRSA infections. This situation is very worrisome and could result in grave public health problem if not quickly addressed. Therefore, it is pertinent to closely monitor MRSA and VRSA emerging from Abakaliki, Nigeria.

  302. Rajalaxmi, V., Senthilnathan, C. V., Mohan Kumar, G. and KalaiSuruthi, C.

    Objective of the study: The purpose of study is to compare the effects of strengthening the quadriceps combined with strengthening of hip muscles (hamstring, adductors, abductors, extensors) in unilateral OA knee. To compare the gender difference in the rehabilitation protocol of OA knee. Background of the study: Quadriceps weakness is one of the most common and disabling impairments seen in individuals with knee osteoarthritis. Sufficient quadriceps and hip muscles strengthening in both isometric and dynamic strengthening are essential for undertaking basic activities of daily living. Strengthening of the leg muscles in OA patient will help them to have a better balance and stance during the gait cycle. Methodology: 40 subjects were included based on the inclusion criteria out of 60 volunteers, 20(A) male and 20(B) female were randomly assigned to two equal groups10 in each (A1, A2, B1, B2). A1 and B1 will receive the quadriceps strengthening along with SWD. A2 and B2 will receive the quadriceps strengthening & hip muscles strengthening along with SWD. Pre and post test were done using WOMAC scale. Result: On comparing the mean values of all the four groups quadriceps and hip muscle strengthening, shows significant reduction in the post –test mean but(sub Group A2 in Group A) shows (47.59) lower mean value is more effective than other three groups at p≤0.005.Hence null hypothesis rejected and alternate hypothesis accepted. Conclusion: The study showed that there is significant difference in the post test values of quadriceps strengthening along with hip muscles strengthening more for males than females in OA patients of six week study. Group A sub division A2 showed more significant difference than the group B. Hence alternate hypothesis is accepted.

  303. Ayhan Kaydu, Ebru Tarıkçı Kılıç, Erhan Gökçek, Yakup Aksoy, Cem Kıvılcım Kaçar, Ömer Fatih Şahin and Mehmet Salim Akdemir

    We aimed to present a 24 years old male patient that had similarities with intracranial hypotension accompanied headache, syncope attacks, persistent and prolonged hypotension (both ortostatic and supine position) after spinal anesthesia for varicosele operation, relieved by epidural blood patch on twentieth day. The cerebrospinal fluid leakage has to be kept in mind after prolonged, persistent hypotension with headache and syncope attacks.

  304. Dr. Vidhi Bharat Patel, Dr. Vishwajeet Kale, Dr. Girish Suragimath, Dr. Keshava Abbaya, Dr. Siddhartha Varma and Dr. Sameer Anil Zope

    Introduction: Gingival Probing to assess gingivitis during routine periodontal examination will induce bleeding from the gingival sulcus which can be used to determine the blood glucose level. Objective: To assess gingival crevicular blood glucose levels from inflamed site and non-inflamed periodontal sites and compare it with venous blood glucose and capillary blood glucose levels to check its usefulness as a diagnostic tool. Methodology: According to inclusion and exclusion criteria 100 subjects reporting to the outpatient section of Department Of Periodontology, School of Dental Sciences, KIMSDU, Karad, were enrolled in the study. For all the participants three blood samples were collected for glucose level estimation namely gingival crevicular blood (GCB), finger capillary blood (FCB) expressed by the finger prick method and the Venous blood (VB. For Group A patients (N=50) GCB sample was collected from inflamed gingival units and for Group B patients (N=50) GCB sample was collected from non-inf1amed gingival units. The blood glucose level of the GCB and FCB samples then was evaluated by using glucometer and VB glucose level was estimated by using calorimetric method. Result: GCB Glucose level Values (91%) are closer to the VB Glucose level values as compared to the FCB glucose levels (74%). For group A participants, correlations between VB and GCB glucose readings were high (92%) as compared to the Group B (86%). Conclusion: Within the limitations of this study it can be concluded that gingival crevicular blood can be used for the screening the blood glucose levels And blood glucose levels of the GCB are quite comparable to gold standard laboratory venous blood glucose levels than that of the routinely done finger capillary blood glucose levels. It can also be concluded that inflamed gingival site is preferable over non-inflamed gingival site for screening blood glucose levels during routine dental check-up.

  305. Sharma, P., Pathania, K., *Rana, U. B. and Gupta, K. B.

    Background: Off late there have been a gradual decline in instrumental delivery and a rise in cesarean births. This may reflect a perception of the practitioner that caesarean section has less morbidity. However this has not been supported by evidence. Instrumental delivery could potentially reduce not only the risks associated with caesarean delivery but reduce the cost of obstetric care. Aims and Objectives: The present study was aimed at to compare short term maternal and neonatal outcome of operative vaginal delivery and spontaneous vaginal delivery. Material and Method: The present study was conducted on 256 subjects admitted in labour ward of tertiary care teaching institute KNH Shimla. Subjects were divided in two groups. Group-I included subjects who underwent operative vaginal delivery, either forceps or ventouse and Group-II included subjects who underwent spontaneous vaginal delivery. The Maternal outcome measures were extension of episiotomy, 3rd or 4th degree perineal tears, cervical tears, multiple vaginal lacerations and vulval haematomas, post partum hemorrhage. Neonatal outcome measures were APGAR at 1and 5 minute, any injuries, admission to neonatal intensive care unit. Statistical measures: Results were analyzed with Chi square and Student’t test and odd ratios and confidence intervals were calculated using SPSS v16 and open epi softwares. Results: Maternal complications, extension of episiotomy (X2 5.69 P value 0.01 OR 2), multiple vaginal lacerations (X2 5.48 P value 0.01 OR 5.32 ,cervical tears, post partum hemorrhage were significantly more in group-I. APGAR less than 7 at five minute was observed in 2.3% in group-I and 0.79% in group-II. Neonatal injuries, scalp abrasion, facial bruises, cephalhematoma were significantly more in group-I (p < 0.05). Conclusion: Operative vaginal delivery appears to cause more complications in neonates and mothers, but most of these complications were minor in nature. The experienced operator can anticipate many satisfying occasions when the forceps and ventouse may solve some of his/her perplexing problems. Obstetrician must, therefore, make every effort to retain these skills, to modify and improve them in every possible way.

  306. Junior Sundresh, N. and Dr. Narendran, S.

    Background: Acute pancreatitis refers to an acute inflammatory process of the pancreas with a variable clinical course. It is a serious disease with high morbidity and mortality rates. So early identification of clinically severe acute pancreatitis (AP) is critical for the triage and treatment of patients. The aim of this study was to compare the accuracy of various scoring systems for predicting the severity of AP on admission. Methods: The study was prospectively carried out on 50 patients attending the surgical emergency ward with clinical features of Acute Pancreatitis in our instititution. They were evaluated clinically and subjected to laboratory and radiological investigations as per the designed Performa. Ranson’s criteria, Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation (APACHE)-II, and bedside index for severity in acute pancreatitis (BISAP) scores, and computed tomography severity index (CTSI) of all patients were calculated. The predictive accuracy of each scoring system was measured by the area under the receiver-operating curve (AUC). Results: From a total of 50 patients included in the study, 32 were diagnosed with mild to moderately severe acute pancreatitis and 18 with severe pancreatitis and two patients with severe pancreatitis died during the hospital stay. The study reveals that when CTSI ≥ 3 was selected for prediction of severe AP, sensitivity and specificity were 55.9% and 63.8%, respectively and BISAP score of more than 2 has sensitivity 86% and specificity 69% and the sensitivity and specificity of Ranson’s score was 95% and 44.3% respectively. APACHE-II score is the more effective scoring tool than the other scoring systems, although no statistically significant pair-wise differences were observed between APACHE-II and other scoring systems. Conclusion: The various scoring systems to evaluate the severity of acute pancreatitis included in the study showed similar predictive accuracy. Hence unique models are required to achieve further improvement of prognostic accuracy in acute pancreatitis.

  307. Srikanth Bitra

    Chyle is a mixture of lymph from interstitial fluid and emulsified fat from intestinal lacteals. A substantial drainage of chyle can result in severe nutritional, metabolic, hemodynamic and immunologic derangement. Hence, this article is an attempt to overview the details of: (1) Anatomy of the lymphatic duct; (2) Diagnosis of the chyleleak; and (3) Management of the chyle leakage to prevent the possible complications.

  308. Ashank Mishra, Mahesh Kumar, M. and Vaddavalli Vijaya

    Aim of the study: The purpose of the study is to assess the awareness of applications of lasers in dentistry among dental undergraduate students. Materials and Methods: This is a subjective questionnaire study including 100 dental undergraduate students of Sri Sai College of Dental Surgery, Vikarabad. A questionnaire of 10 closed ended questions pertaining to awareness of lasers in dental undergraduate students will be given and data obtained will be analysed. Results: Most of the respondents (72%) did not have enough knowledge about dental lasers. In general, majority of them had insufficient knowledge about dental lasers in various disciplines of dentistry. Conclusion: Undergraduates students should be provided with appropriate hours for laser dental education supported by practical evidences and experiences.

  309. Shreya Sehgal, Chetan Mehta, Juhi Patel and Nandakishore Patil

    Aim: To evaluate the hemodynamics of portal vein in patients with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) with help of Doppler sonography. Materials and Methods: In a prospective case-control study carried out in the Department of Radio-diagnosis SSG hospital, Vadodara between April 2016 to November 2016 on an outpatient basis, 100 subjects with previous 4-6 hours of fasting were assessed by senior radiologists with many years of experience in the field of abdominal sonography and Doppler on a Mylab-40 ultrasound machineusing a low frequency, 3-5 MHz convex transducer. They were examined with help of Gray-scale and Doppler (color and spectral wave) sonography for evaluating the hemodynamics of the main portal vein. These subjects were divided into 2 groups of test (64 subjects with various grades of fatty infiltration of liver) and control (36 healthy subjects) based on presence or absence of fatty infiltration of the liver. The test group was further divided into 3 subgroups (group 1, 2 and 3) on the basis of the degree of fatty infiltration of the liver assessed on the gray-scale images. The fatty infitration of the liver was assessed on Gray-scale images by comparing its echogenicity with that of the right renal cortex and was graded as mild moderate and severe. The portal vein pulsatility index (VPI) and time-averaged mean flow velocity (MFV) were calculated for each subject. VPI was calculated as (peak maximum velocity - peak minimum velocity) /peak maximum velocity). Results: VPI and MFV values were, respectively, 0.32 +/- 0.06 and 16.8 +/- 2.6 cm/second in the control group, 0.27 +/- 0.07 and 14.2 +/- 2.2 cm/second in the group with grade 1 fatty infiltration, 0.22 +/- 0.06 and 12.2 +/- 1.8 cm/second in the group with grade 2 fatty infiltration, and 0.18 +/- 0.04 and 10.8 +/- 1.5 cm/second in the group with grade 3 fatty infiltration. There was a negative inverse correlation between the grade of fatty infiltration and both VPI (f - 55.3, p <0.001) and MFV (f - 43.9, p <0.001). Conclusion: The pulsatility index and the mean flow velocity decreases as the degree of fatty infiltration increases indicating that fatty infiltration leads to impedance to blood flow in the hepatic parenchyma and can later cause changes of chronic hepatitis and cirrhosis. The exact pathology of liver cirrhosis is incompletely understood. However, few suggest it may be due to increasing fibrosis consequent to increased lipid deposition.

  310. Umbeli, T. M. D., Kunna, A., Salah Ismail, Sarah A M Musaad, Afaq Abdelaziz, Murwan, I. O. and Tabark M A Salih

    Background: labour is a physiological and emotional process for which a woman needs to be accompanied by someone she trusts. Objectives: To assess pregnant women’s views regarding the importance of social support during labour and their preferences of companions at OMH 2015 Methods: A descriptive, hospital-based, cross-sectional study conducted at OMH during 2015. All pregnant women attending antenatal care clinics who were booked for vaginal delivery were included in the study after an informed consent. Data was collected by trained registrars; recorded information included socio-demographic parameters, woman’s views on the importance of social support during labour (SSL), preference for companionship and whether they would like their supporters to attend childbirth. Those with previous childbirth were asked about their experience on labour or having SSL given to them by medical or nursing staff. All were asked about their need for formal education about labour and childbirth during the antenatal visits. Results: Out of 2348 women included in this study, 1995(85.0%), would like their companions to be present during childbirth particularly; educated (PV= 0.001), urban residents (PV= 0.0001), nulliparous (PV= 0.0001) and younger age clients (PV= 0.0001). The preferred companion was the mother 1091 (54.7%) followed by sisters 559 (28.0%), husband 305 (15.3%) and other relatives 40 (2.0%). Refusal of companion was mainly due to socio-cultural reasons, particularly among elder multiparous less educated women. Most (98.5%) of participants would like to have education during antenatal care visits. Among women with previous experience of delivery 979(95.0%) rated the care providers during labour as poor social supporters. Conclusions: Most of pregnant women appreciated the importance of SSL and would like to have a companion, mainly by mothers and sisters, and they would like to have formal education about labour and childbirth. There is a need for change in health policies and practice and strengthening providers’ practice towards social support.

  311. Ayimy Sebastian, Katherine Shelda Jose, Saritha Peter, Sonia, K. G., Stephy John and Mrs.Feby Fulgen

    The researchers took initiative to know about the knowledge and service satisfaction about the health services provided by Bishop Benziger Community Health Centre. Objectives: To assess the knowledge regarding Community Health Services provided by Bishop Benziger Community Health Centre, Pallithottam; To assess the service satisfaction about the health services provided by Bishop Benziger Community Health Centre, To determine the association between knowledge about Community Health Services provided by Bishop Benziger Community Health Centre and selected socio demographic variables. The research design for the present study was a descriptive research design. A structured questionnaire was prepared to assess the level of knowledge regarding Community Health Services rendered by Bishop Benziger Community Health Centre and satisfactory rating scale were developed by the researchers for assessing the service satisfaction among families residing at Pallithottam, Kollam district. The study was conducted in 9 nagars of Pallithottam area of Kollam district. Stratified random sampling was adopted. The 9 nagars were divided into 9 strata and proportionally (4%) from each nagar, samples were selected by using lot method. Sample size was 61.The study also found that 30 families had (49%) average knowledge, 31 familes (51%) had good knowledge. Services like home visit and awareness classes had 100% satisfaction, B.P Clinic (98.4%), Approach of the beneficiaries towards the medical officer (98.4%), safe environmental programme (95.1%), quality of medicine (96.72%), availability of medicine (93.44%) had above 90% of service satisfaction. The study concluded that most of the services provided by the Bishop Benziger Community Health Centre is beneficial to the nagars There is significant association between the socio demographic variables like Age and Gender, good knowledge and high level of service satisfaction among home visit and awareness classes.

  312. Ihab B Abdalrahman, Dr. Ahmed Mohammed Ahmed Abd Allah Abusalab, AsmaNizar Mohammed Osman Abdallah, Safa Ahmed Hassan Hamid, Mohammed M Alkhalifa and Abdelmoneim E M Kheir

    Introduction: Emergency Medicine EM is experiencing significant growth in graduate medical education. In undergraduate programs emergency medicine-related competencies in medical school curricula may lack uniformity and standardization. In developing countries like Sudan, teaching EM faces many challenges including lack of standardized curricula, well designed learning methods and scarcity of faculty with EM background. Introduction of boot camp training during career transition period may enhance trainees’ clinical skills, knowledge, and confidence. Methods: Eight days boot camp was designed to enhance the skills of final year medical student. The camp was divided into two sets of tour days. The first four days for didactic and scenario based classroom teaching. The other four days were organized in skills lab. Training was designed to improve the skills related to immediate life support for adult and pediatrics, trauma management and ECG workshop. Participants were surveyed before and after the boot camp by self-administered questionnaire. Results: The total number of the students was82. Rate of response to questions was variable, ranging from 74-93.3%. Responses to pretest were less than post-test. Tow third of the participant were female. Age ranged from 22.6-27, with the mean age of 23.4. Among the 25 items surveyed, students reported statistically significant improvement in competency in all items. Conclusion: Boot camp training significantly improved the skills of the final years medical students as measured by self-reported competency. Designing boot camp is a challenging process and requirres measurring baseline status and future benchmarks.

  313. Dr. Amit Kumar, Dr. V. N. Jha and Dr. Nimisha

    Consumption of Rohu fish (Labeorohita) is very common in India especially in North East parts, in North Bihar. People have belief that eating of gallbladder of raw Rohu fish helps in cure of joint pain, asthma and also blood sugar. But this may cause, renal failure, liver failure or multiorgan dysfunction and this misconception may cost their lives.

  314. Dr. Kristel Liza Wilson and Dr. Jayaprakash Alva

    Introduction: India has recorded a death rate of 7.3 / 1000 individuals in the year 2016. From the multicentric study done on 5,478 ITU admissions, mortality was 59% of which 25% of patient in SIRS with organ dysfunction of which 52.77% were due to sepsis. With such high prevalence, it becomes important to point our focus on early and aggressive measures to reverse sepsis. In a country like India, decision on type and extent of intervention is greatly affected by the financial aspect. Hence, it is important to prognosticate the patient early in order to make treatment decisions. Lactate is one such parameter which denotes sepsis, so we would like to study if serial lactate levels could help prognosticate. Aims and Objective: 1. To measure the lactate levels at the time of presentation and 24 hrs and determine the better predictor of mortality. 2. To compare lactate clearance between survivors and non-survivors. Methodology: It was a prospective observational study. 40 subjects who were in sepsis or septic shock were included in the study and lactate levels were measured at 0hrs and 24 hrs and the lactate clearance was also calculated. Results: Initial lactate levels correlated best to mortality (p-0.003) whereas serial lactate and lactate clearance did not show any positive predictive value. An initial lactate levels of 1.45 could be taken as a cut off for predicting poor mortality and it showed 75% sensitivity and 65% specificity. Discussion: When compared to other studies, certain studies showed near equal correlation of both initial lactate as well as lactate clearance to mortality whereas some other studies showed more correlation between lactate clearance and mortality. Though all our patients received standard care offered to a patient in sepsis but the degree of intervention varied from person to person due to a major concern of financial constraints by relatives. Conclusion: Since initial lactate levels showed good predictability in mortality prediction , it could be used as a parameter to assess prognosis at the initial phase of presentation and thereby determine the extent of intervention to be implemented at the golden hours.

  315. Dr. Sapna Jyoti, Dr. Shreya Banerjee, Dr. Jaya Naidu, Dr. Pavanalakshmi, G. P. and Dr. Kirthana Satish

    Radicular cyst associated with primary teeth is a rare condition. This report presents a case of radicular cyst associated with primary tooth which had deep carious lesion involving the pulp and untreated for long duration. The treatment of the cystic lesion consisted of extraction of the involved tooth and enucleation of the cyst.

  316. Dr. Ekta Rani and Dr. Vishal Mehrolia

    Background: An epidermal inclusion cyst refers to a cyst that results from the proliferation and implantation of epidermal elements within a circumscribed space in the dermis. Such cysts can occur anywhere in the body, although they are more common in head and neck region, trunk and extremities. The occurrence of EIC in breast is very rare. Case: We report a case of large sized epidermal inclusion cyst of breast mimicking fibroadenoma in a 30 years old female. Result: This was diagnosed as EIC on FNAC and confirmed on histopathology. Conclusion: EIC should be considered a differential diagnosis in breast lump.

  317. Nesrin Al Harthy, Kavita, M. S., MilfiOnazi, Mohammed Al Mutairi, Wijdan Al Johi, Arwa Badakhan and Somaya Alijedeba

    Background: The increased use of high energy radiations for diagnostic purposes is linked to many benefits and oncological risks among children. Parents and clinicians are the ones who primarily decide the treatment regimen for the pediatric patients. Because of unawareness, the parents insist the clinicians order radio imaging leading to unnecessary exposure of children to high energy radiations. The study was conducted as there is a paucity of information regarding parental awareness on the exposure of children to high energy radiations. Aims: To find out the effect of parental awareness on the preventable exposure of children to high energy radiations. Settings and Design: This population-based cohort study was conducted on 208 parents of children who presented to the OP or ED for any medical reason in a Tertiary Care Teaching Hospital in Riyadh, KSA. Methods and Material: Tool by Kathy et al., 2013, with prior written permission to reproduce, was modified to suit the study population was used to assess the parental awareness about the post-exposure risk of radiation to children. Statistical analysis used: Data was analyzed using SPSS and relevant statistical tests were conducted. Results: Majority of the parents (> 90 percent) was unaware of the consequences of unnecessarily exposing their children to high energy radiations and unnecessarily insists for radiographs. A Large proportion of the parents were unwilling to go for radiological examinations if they were informed about the risks. Conclusions: Parent's awareness about the post-exposure risks significantly influences the decision for radio imaging.

  318. Dr. Supriya Singh, Dr. Rohit Singh, Dr. Md Asad Iqubal, Dr. Jazib Nazeer, Dr. Ravindra Kumar Prasad and Dr. Altaf Ashraf

    Aims and Objectives: Based on the radiographic evaluation of the pulp cavity width of the maxillary central incisors the age of the patients belonging to the age group of 15 – 50 years was estimated, those attending the Department of Oral Medicine and Radiology, Patna dental college and hospital, patna-4, based. Materials and Methods: The study group comprised of 240 subjects. Intraoral periapical radiographs of the maxillary central incisors were taken for all subjects, using the conventional paralleling angle technique and the pulp cavity width was measured at the cervical and middle third using a digital vernier caliper. The data obtained was subjected to correlation and regression analysis. Results: A negative linear relationship was obtained between the age and pulp cavity width (cervical third, r = -0.459 and middle third, r = -0.704). Cubic regression analysis was done and the regression formulae were obtained. A mean difference of 0.1 years was obtained between the estimated age and real age, indicating the reliability of the derived formula. Conclusion: It can be concluded that the width of the pulp cavity of maxillary central incisors are reliable for estimation of age.

  319. Dr. Rohit Singh, Dr. Supriya Singh, Dr. Md Asad Iqubal, Dr. Ravindra Kumar Prasad and Dr. Jazib Nazeer

    Introduction: The importance of saliva for oral health is well known. Diabetes mellitus affects the salivary gland functioning and thus alters the salivary constituents. For many years the question of the presence of glucose in saliva has been a subject of debate and only few people found correlation between serum glucose and salivary glucose in diabetics. Hence, the purpose of this study was to estimate and correlate salivary glucose concentration and serum glucose concentration in diabetics and healthy controls. Materials and Methods: 120 newly diagnosed diabetic patients and 120 control subjects were included in the study. Blood and saliva samples from both the groups were collected at least two hours after the breakfast. The samples were centrifuged and subjected to glucose analysis. For experimental group, the samples were collected again after the control of diabetes mellitus. The statistical comparisons were performed using paired and unpaired t-test. Results: A highly significant correlation was found between salivary glucose and serum glucose before the treatment and also after the control of diabetes. The correlation between salivary glucose and serum glucose was also highly significant in controls. it has an added advantage of being non-invasive procedure with no need of special equipments and with fewer compliance problems as compared with collection of blood.

  320. Hitav Someshwar, Dr. Deepak Anap and Dr. Sushil Kachewar

    Background: Osteoarthritis is the most common arthritis in humans, and knee OA is a major cause of chronic disability. There are no treatments that change the natural course of OA. Aims: To study age wise and gender wise prevalence of varus-valgus deformity in patients with osteoarthritis of knee. Method & Materials: Ethical clearance from IEC was obtained. In this retrospective study, 214 radiographs of subjects in the age range of 50-65years, both genders without history fracture or other severe arthritic condition were assessed on the PACS software. The radiographs were graded according to kellgren and lawerence classification & all 4 grades of OA knee were included. A long axis of femur and tibia were drawn and the angle formed by the two lines was measured.. The values were recorded as varus (lesser than 1800) or valgus (greater than 1800) and presented based on the grade-wise, age groups-wise & gender-wise distribution. Statistical analysis was done and presented. Results: Knee alignment was measured in 214 radiographs, within the age group 50-65 years. The mean of the angulations was found to be 173.190(±4.25). The mean of tibiofemroal angle in different grades of osteoarthritis was gr. 1(n=96) 175.530(±3.37), gr. 2(n=83)172.530(±3.59), gr.3(n=31) 167.930(±2.28), gr.4(n=4)166.920(±2.08).Varus-valgus prevalence being varus=197 (92.05%) valgus=17(7.94%). The prevalence of deformity and angulations is greater in females (173.54) as compared to males (172.74) Conclusion: In this study we can conclude that there is greater prevalence of varus deformity in osteoarthritis of knee and the amount of deformity tends to increase with an increase in the severity of osteoarthritis. The prevalence of deformity and angulations is greater in female as compared to male.

  321. Alvarado Ibarra Martha, Ortiz Zepeda Maricela, Álvarez Vera José Luis, Mena Zepeda Verónica, Espitia Ríos María Eugenia, Jiménez Alvarado Rosa María and López Hernández Manuel

    Introduction: Despitetheincreasingknowledgeabout acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL), the outcome for patients over 40 years of age is not good since they are generally too vulnerable to the toxicity caused by the chemotherapeutic protocols of the “pediatric type”. This group of patients usually tolerates less intensive protocols, but efficacy is diminished in terms of Survival Free of Leukemia. Objective: To determine the therapeutic results using a local, intensive protocol (LAL10), in patients with Phneg ALL that are older than 40 and are in a condition to receive intensive chemotherapy, treated in the hematology Service of the Centro MédicoNacional “20 de Noviembre” (National Medical Center) in Mexico City. Patients and Methods: From 2001 to 2015 an intensive chemotherapy program, with curative intent and designated as LAL10, was implemented in a High Specialization Center in Mexico City. The program was directed toward patients older than 40 with a de novo diagnosis of ALL, without an upper age limit. Patients were evaluated after the first dose of chemotherapy. Patients with previous use of anti-cancer agents or Ph+ were excluded. Those who abandoned treatment or went on to HPCT were eliminated. Results: Eighty-four patients who were in a condition to receive intensive chemotherapywere included. Medium age was 48 years with 26 patients older than 50 (31%). Female patients predominated. The frequency of complete remission was 74 (88%) and 10 patients were refractory. The most frequent event was relapse, constituting 47.6% of cases: 35 in bone marrow, 3 in skin and 2 in central nervous system. The probability for Leukemia-Free Survival to five years was 0.21 with a median of 14 months. The probability of Event-Free Survival was 0.17 with a median of 10 months. There were 32 deaths, 20 of which followed relapse or treatment failure and the other 12 happened between induction and up to the ninth month; the mode was 1 month. There were 7 deaths during induction. Causes of death were infection (24) and hemorrhage (8). The probability of OS at five years was 0.39 with a median of 25 months. Conclusion: In our experience, relapse was the most frequent event. Although this is not radically different from that observed in other studies on Phneg patients at comparable ages, these results are not considered to be satisfactory, especially when compared to results observed with the AYA group or in those younger than 15. Among the different protocols, chemotherapy usually includes the same drugs, although with different doses, and administration times and methods, but there is no indication of decisive beneficial changes.

  322. Mr. Rajnish Ranjan Prasad and Mr. Sunil Thomas Jacob

    Use of ICT is changing the way health services are delivered. It also has tremendous role to play in strengthening management and monitoring of health services. Rajasthan is India’s geographically largest state and the state lags the country on most of the socio-economic & health related indicators. One of the key challenge faced in terms of ensuring proper functioning of health facilities was lack of proper monitoring and supportive supervision mechanism. The monitoring visits by district officials were few and also there was lack of mechanism to follow-up on the gaps identified during the visit. Hence, to strengthen the monitoring of primary health care facilities, facilitate data driven decision making and ensure timely solution of gaps identified, a mobile application along with accompanied website was developed. The mobile application was used by around 3000 officials for monitoring of more than 15,000 primary health facilities in the State. In a year, more than 70,000 visits were undertaken using this application and it has facilitated systematic collection of the data & provided facility for addressing the gaps & monitoring the improvement. It was a cost effective & efficient way for strengthening primary health care services and highlights tremendous potential of mobile in strengthening management of health services.

  323. Dr. Valerie Anithra Pereira, Dr. Amit Walvekar, Dr. B. S. Jagadish Pai, Dr. Patricia Malini Pereira and Dr. Mithun, K.

    Epigenetics is the study of the mitotically and meiotically heritable changes in the gene function that cannot be explained by changes in the DNA sequence. Epigenetics means "above" or "on top of" genetics. It means the external change or tempering of the DNA that turn genes "on" or "off." These modifications are brought on by several external or environmental factors like diet, stress, smoking, infections etc. They do not change the DNA sequence, but instead, they affect how cells "read" genes. As the quote by Dr Oz goes "Your genetics load the gun. Your lifestyle pulls the trigger." Studies have demonstrated that epigenetic alterations contribute to a number of diseases like cancer, metabolic and autoimmune disorders. An understanding of the epigenetic mechanisms helps to develop novel therapeutic aids which target the specific epigenetic sites. This article aims to review the effects of Epigenetics in Periodontology.

  324. Dr. Kusuma, N., Dr. Beeregowda, Y. C. and Dr.Challa Harisha

    Metachromatic leukodystrophy (MLD) is an in heritedneurometabolic disease caused by deficiency of enzyme arylsulfatase A resulting in deficiency of sulfatide degradation. The responsible gene is arylsulfatase A(ARSA) gene. Sulfatide accumulation in myelin-producing cells causes progressive destruction of white matter (leukodystrophy) throughout the nervous system, including in the brain and spinal cord (the central nervous system) and the nerves connecting the brain and spinal cord to muscles and sensory cells that detect sensations such as touch, pain, heat, and sound (the peripheral nervous system). A pathological hallmark of MLD is demyelination and neurodegeneration. In people with metachromatic leukodystrophy, white matter damage causes progressive deterioration of intellectual functions and motor skills. We report a case of the lateinfantile MLD that was diagnosed by means of clinical history and typical MRI of brain findings.

  325. Dámaso Fernández-Ginés, F., Sergio García-Muñoz, Borja Franco-Sandar, Francisco Sierra-García, Juan Miguel Expósito-López and Ignacio Rodríguez-García

    Ertapenem is beta-lactam-type antibiotic with an exceptionally broad spectrum of activity, demonstrating broad-spectrum antimicrobial activity against many Gram-positive and -negative aerobes and anaerobes and is resistant to nearly all beta-lactamases. Ertapenem mixed with lidocaine can be administered intramuscularly, of great value as an outpatient antimicrobial therapy. However, the stability of this mixture has never been studied over time. The objective of this study was to evaluate the stability of 1g of ertapenem diluted in a 1% aqueous solution of lidocaine hydrochloride in a total volume of 3,2 mL stored in polyethylene syringes at 4ºC and -20ºC. Each preparation was analyzed using nuclear magnetic resonance method at the following time points: 0, 11 and 28 days. Dilutions were also observed for changes in appearance was tested at each time point. Syringes stored at -20ºC did not lead to any observable decomposition byproducts at least on day 11. Nevertheless, conservation at 4ºC for 11 days led to observed degradation byproducts in the solution.

  326. Narinder Sharma, Mohinder Singh Chib and Anita Sharma

    It is seen that while treating fractures surgically using plating one of the challenge is to measure exact screw size to fix the fracture. Various modalities are being practiced like use of depth gauge, (Williams and Roaf, 1973) fluoroscopic guidance and clinical experience. Our study shows that among all methods used, there is one more method that we are using since 3 years (2014—2017) has much more reliability and also no need of any external appliance to depend upon. The method named by us as drill bit method proved to be very much reliable in assesessing exact screw length.

  327. Narinder Sharma, Mohinder Singh Chib and Anita Sharma

    Tibia fracture constitutes one of major orthopedic burden. Among all tibia fractures closed fractures constitutes more than >50% cases. The study is done to assess the results of treatment of tibia fracture without c-arm radiation exposure. The idea is to overcome the slowly eroding disease of DEPENDENCY ON C-ARM. Methods: The study involves prospective analysis of 136 patients with 150 tibia fractures with age between 18 to 60 treated between May 2016 to may 2017. The study includes only extra-articular and closed type of injury with fracture pattern varying from transverse to comminute in appearance. The study is mainly based on intraoperative reference markers of reduction being Tibia Shin, plumb line fron tibial tuberosity to 2nd metatarsal, and relative position of foot in respect to leg. The postoperative analysis was done in all patients radiologically and functionally. Results: About 150 cases are being studied with closed interlocking nailing done in 120 case and biological plating with MIPPO in 30 cases. Postoperative acceptability in our study include <5 degree valgus/varus/rotational deformity. Among 120 cases with nailing done, 114 patients are managed well with 6 cases shows failure of technique with not able to perform locking of nail without use of c-arm due to excessive hammering of nail and subsequent rotation of nail. Among all 114 case the postoperative results are within the acceptability criteria planned. Among 30 cases with proximal and distal extra-articular tibia fracture and Biological plating attempted using MIPPO technique performed well with no failure seen in any respect and all following the acceptability criteria planned as per study. Conclusion: The study shows that with the use of reference markers like Tibia Shin, plumb line fron tibial tuberosity to 2nd metatarsal, and relative position of foot in respect to leg. Reduction can be achieved in majority of cases within acceptable range. The technique has much role in centres with limited facilities of intraoperative radiography as the study is being also conducted in place where there is nonavailability of c-arm on emergency basis.

  328. Dr. Queentaj Baruah, Dr. Vijay Kumar Thumpala, Dr. Shalini Singh, Dr. Kaveri Baruah, Dr. Rahul VC Tiwari and Dr. Heena Dixit

    Molars and premolars are the most helpless teeth to caries assault. The high helplessness of these teeth to caries is straightforwardly identified with morphology of their occlusal surface that counteracts both concoction cleaning by salivation and mechanical cleaning by toothbrush. Pit and fissure are in this manner the most inclined ranges to caries and need extraordinary assurance to counteract carious sores. Fluoride is the main substance component utilized for caries anticipation. Truth be told, it supports the remineralisation of introductory injuries, keeps the generation of polysaccharides basic for the advancement and sustainment of bacterial plaque, and the retention of salivary glycoprotein. Fluoride additionally fortifies finish, making it less vulnerable to caries.

  329. Adesh Kakade, Rutika Lalwani, Sheetal Badnaware, Anitha Santosh, Sayali Mali and Rajiv Desai

    The rationale of pediatric endodontics is to preserve a primary tooth in the arch till its permanent counterpart replaces it. A thorough knowledge of the internal anatomy of primary teeth is essential for complete debridement and efficacious endodontic treatment of these teeth. Undetected or missed root canals can leave dormant bacteria in the root canal, thus hampering the success of pulpectomy. Very few studies in literature describe the comprehensive anatomy of primary maxillary central incisors. Existing literature describes the root canal anatomy of these teeth as a single, round, oval or triangular root canal. Variations in the root canals of the primary maxillary central incisors have not been reported. Our case report illustrates a unique case of primary maxillary central incisors with bifurcated root canals and its subsequent endodontic treatment.

  330. Ashvin R Kankotiya and Adeesh P Jain

    Background: Laparoscopic Cholecystectomy (LC) has become the gold standard for treatment of benign Gall Bladder disease. Laparoscopy provides many benefits over conventional open procedures including faster recovery time, shorter hospital stay, less pain, and in some cases, fewer complications. Post Operative pain management has an important role in preventing the postoperative morbidity and its consequences. This study is designed to evaluate the effect of intraperitoneal instillation of bupivacaine with hydrocortisone in comparison to bupivacaine alone for pain relief following laparoscopic Cholecystectomy. Aim and Objectives: To compare the effect of intraperitoneal instillation of bupivacaine with Hydrocortisone versus Bupivacaine alone for post-operative analgesia in laparoscopic Cholecystectomy. Methods: This study includes Laparoscopic Cholecystectomy conducted in the department of General Surgery at the Sir Sayajirao General Hospital & Medical College Baroda during a period of 12 months from January 2015 to December 2015. The patients were randomized into two groups by envelop method. Assessment of the pain was done & its intensity was recorded on VAS (visual Analogue scale) after 0hrs, 6hrs, 12hrs & 24hrs of surgery. Results: Total 50 patients were studied. Each group contain 25 patients. Bupivacaine with hydrocortisone instillation shows significant reduction in VAS Score at 6hr, 12 hr and 24hr (2.40, 3.28 and 4.00) as compare to bupivacaine alone (3.24, 4.28 and 5.04) and it is statistically significant as p value is <0.05 (0.0039,0.0026 and 0.0046) While reduction in VAS Score at o hr (1.08 and 1.48) is not statistically significant as p value is > 0.05 (0.3950). Conclusion: Intraperitoneal preoperative pre-emptive instillation of hydrocortisone with bupivacaine in laparoscopic Cholecystectomy significantly reduce post operative pain at 6 hr, 12 hr and 24hr but not at 0 hr, in comparison to bupivacaine alone.

  331. Dr. Mohammad Shafi Dar and Dr. Shazya Gul

    This is the first ever-detailed study of tongue diseases in Kashmir population, where the tongue conditions found in 80 patients (9.2%) of 865 consecutive patients screened. Both sexes were affected almost equally and only 6 patients were aware of their tongue disease. 10 patients had one or more systemic illness, 8 of them was on regular medications. Fissured tongue was the most prevalent condition, as it has been found in 38 (47.5%) patients, depapillated tongue in 19(23.75%) patients and geographic tongue in 13 (16.25%) patients, other disease conditions were found in a lesser number of patients. Fourteen patients had painful tongue conditions; other complaints included halitosis, speech interferences or swallowing difficulties. Fortunately, most tongue conditions can easily be diagnosed on clinical grounds by any experienced clinician, hence, the histopathological examination and other investigations are needed in only few cases. There is a wide variation in the prevalence of most of tongue diseases worldwide due to the lack of uniformity in criteria of the studies. Thus, more studies are needed in this regard.

  332. Mimoza Canga and Vito Malagnino

    The purpose of the study is to follow the caries development for a two year period and to evaluate the dental sealants as a successful option in the treatment of occlusive cavities. Materials and Methods: Our study is experimental and is conducted on children 6-11 year old. We included 144 children, where 72 of them were the group of treatment with sealants and 72 were treated with composite. The caries lesions were checked with radiography every six months for a two year period. Results: The group treated with sealants with 72 children had 188 treated teeth and 100 untreated teeth, from which in treated children we noticed caries on 34 teeth and from 100 untreated teeth we noticed caries in 60 teeth. In the first group of children 32.7% of the children presented caries. In the second group of filling with composite 116 were filled with composite and 172 did not. In the subgroup of untreated children 74 children did not present caries. In the second group, the children treated with composite 25.7% presented caries and 79% of untreated children presented caries. Conclusions: We cannot conclude that sealant treatment is higher in number than composite treatment. In the future it is worthwhile to go further in this study, however, as the initial treatment for prophylaxis compared with non treatment; we can say that sealant treatment reduces by half the presence of caries.

  333. Dr. Rosy Lekharu, Kajal Parmar and Dr. Ramesh Pradhan

    Iron deficiency anemia (IDA) can be suspected when there is decreased haemoglobin level for age and sex; microcytic hypochromic erythrocyte morphology and reduced red cell indices ie., PCV, MCV, MCH & MCHC. Confirmation is done by biochemical tests such as serum ferritin, serum iron, percentage saturation of transferrin and serum total iron binding capacity. Serum ferritin is the single best laboratory test for the diagnosis of iron deficiency. A low serum ferritin (<15ug/L), in addition to a low hemoglobin or hematocrit, confirms the diagnosis of iron deficiency anemia. The concentration of transferrin is often estimated by measuring the total iron binding capacity. In this study, 80 patients with anemia were evaluated clinically, hematologically and biochemically for the diagnosis of IDA. It has been found that diagnosis provisionally made by clinical signs and symptoms and further confirmed by hematological picture can be supplemented by studying the degree of alteration of biochemical parameters which can act as a guide to deciding the duration and dosage of therapy, monitor improvement in signs and symptoms and prevent complications arising due to anemia.

  334. Dr. Uday Pratap Singh, Dr. Amol Jagdale, Dr. Shopnil Prasla and Dr. Saurav Mittal

    Epidermoid cysts are among the rare benign tumors contributing to only 0.3% to 1.8% of all intracranial tumors. This tumour is located most commonly in the region of cerebellopontine angle cistern, the parasellar region, and diploic space being the rarest location. In this case report of a4yr old female child who had history of epidermal cyst located in left parietal bone for which she was operated twice and recurrence of the cyst occurred again with sinus tract formation between two layer of the skull. We present pre-operative and postoperative radiological presentation, clinic-pathological correlation and surgical outcome. During 8 months of follow-up, the patient remained in good condition without recurrence and complications.

  335. Kumari Sandhya and Camellia Chanda

    A study was performed on nutrient foramen of metacarpal bones; it included a total of 161 bones of unknown sex and age. The objective was to examine the topography and morphology of nutrient foramen. Nutrient foramen were identified macroscopically and with the help of magnifying glass. It’s location in relation to the surface of the bone was examined. The total length of the bone and distance of foramen from the base of metacarpal bone was measured for calculation of foramen index. All the first second and third metacarpal bones showed single foramen whereas 18.75% fourth metacarpals and 9.38% fifth metacarpal bones showed absent foramen also. In majority of first and second metacarpals foramen were located on medial side of palmer surface whereas in case of third fourth and fifth metacarpal bones it was located on lateral side of palmer surface. Mean value of foramen index of 1st, 2nd, 3rd, 4th and 5th metacarpal bones were found respectively as 54.85, 45.84, 41.00, 42.63 and 44.33. An idea of foramen index of metacarpal bones can help surgeons in planning reconstruction surgery on hand.

  336. Rashmi Ravi Aiyar, Namrata Omprakash Bajaj, Richa Pankaj Mehta, Nirja Mamania and Gabriela Fernandes

    Dental plaque is a structurally- and functionally-organized biofilm that is formed in an ordered way and has a diverse microbial composition that, in health, remains relatively stable over time (microbial homeostasis). The predominant species from diseased sites are different from those found in healthy sites, although the putative pathogens can often be detected in low numbers at normal sites. In dental plaque, there is a shift toward community dominance by acidogenic and acid tolerating species such as Streptococcus mutans and lactobacilli, although other species with relevant traits may be involved. Strategies to control plaque could include inhibition of biofilm initiation by various chemical and natural substances. In this study, various products both natural and commercial were used to evaluate its ability to control plaque formation. Essential oils such as Eugenol, Eucalyptus, Thyme, Peppermint, Cinnamon have been well known since centuries for their anti-microbial, anti-inflammatory properties and have been used to prevent and cure dental plaque formation. Along with traditional use of essential oils, recent trends of commercial mouth rinses such as Listerine, Colgate Plax, Chlorhexidine etc have also been used widely for prevention of dental plaque prevention. The diet we consume also plays a major role in the formation of dental plaque, different kinds of food that we consume daily contribute differently to plaque formation, previous reports suggest that cranberry juice, pomegranate juice have the ability to eradicate dental plaque. Hence in this study, the activity of pomegranate juice was also assessed for inhibition of plaque.

  337. Dr. Ranganath Rao K Jingade, Dr. Sruthi Ravindra, Dr. Ponnanna, A. A., Dr. Nitesh Rai, Dr. Muralidhar and Dr. Subhabrata Maithi

    A major area of concern for rehabilitating a patient with a distal extension removable partial denture lies with unequal distribution of forces acting on both the teeth and the tissues. Implant placed at the end of the distal extension removable partial denture has been reviewed in past as one of the successful as well as convenient treatment modalities for solving such problems. This case report deals with a similar situation in which a 62 year old patient with a kennedy’s class II modification was treated with an implant supported partial denture to successfully restore his masticatory ability and provide him with comfort.

  338. Bidyut Mandal, Abhishek Basu, Anish Bandyopadhyay, Avik Maji, Pratyusha Mukherjee and Prof. S. K. Sikdar

    Objectives: The primary objective of our study is to evaluate the effect of Hemi Body Irradiation and Focal Radiotherapy with Zoledronate on pain management in patients with extensive bone metastases after completion of definitive treatment. The secondary objective is to evaluate the toxicities and Skeletal Related Events eg. fracture. Material and Methods: We have analyzed the difference in pain reduction comparing two groups of patients in a prospective non randomised study . The first group comprised of 10 patients treated with Hemibody Irradiation (HBI), the second one included 14 patients treated with focal radiotherapy and zoledronic acid, 4mg iv, 4 weekly (RT + ZA). In both groups single fraction radiation of 8Gy (UHBI = 6Gy) was given & followed up for 3 months .All patients were assessed before, during and after treatment with a questionnaire that rated the grade of pain, type of analgesic therapy and patient’s performance status. Response assessment was done using Visual analogue scale, percentage of pain relief and total score reduction on a scale of 0 - 20. Acute & chronic haematological and GI toxicities were assessed as per standard guidelines. Statistical analysis was done by Chi square test & Mann-Whitney U test. Results: Long term pain score & total score reduction was more in (RT + ZA) arm (P =0.002 & 0.001) with less toxicity (P=0.002) and SRE.(P=0.324) Conclusions Focal RT with ZA showed better result on long term pain management and may be preferred in cancer patients with longer median survival. As our sample size was small, study with larger sample size is warranted.

  339. Dr. Siya Dukle, Dr. Alok Patel, Dr. Laxmi Lakade, Dr. Preetam Shah, Dr. Rahul Lodaya and Dr. Chetan Bhat

    The purpose of this study was to compare the efficacy of Cacao bean husk extract mouthrinse with the addition of xylitol, with chlorhexidine mouthrinse as antiplaque agents in children. Forty children between 8-12 years of age were chosen from a residential school and randomly allocated into two groups. Group A was given 0.1% Cacao Bean Husk Extract Mouthrinse to be used twice daily for 1 month while Group B was given 0.12% Chlorhexidine Mouthrinse to be used twice daily for 1 month. This study confirms that Cacao Bean Husk Extract mouthrinse with the addition of xylitol, was equally effective as the chlorhexidine mouthrinse in reducing the Strep Mutans counts in saliva and reducing the plaque scores in children.

  340. Apoorva Gupta and Dr. Archana Singh

    Clothing has always played a central role in the evolution of human culture by being at the forefront of both technological and artistic developments. A mosquito repellent helps prevent and control the outbreak of mosquito-borne diseases such as malaria, dengue fever. Most plants contain compounds that they use in preventing attack from phytophagous insects. Thus, special products like mosquito repellents for combating mosquitoes are required. The present study was an endeavor in this direction, where attempt has been made to collect, the information on natural mosquito repellent and to standardize the research is mainly carried out for the development of anti mosquito finished cotton fabric using Marigold flower petals extract. A series of experiment were conducted to optimize the of Marigold flower petals, concentration of Marigold flower (Calendula offcinalis) petals extract, concentration of mordant and dyeing time on the basis of optical density and mosquito repellency test. After that padded and cured samples with Marigold flower petals were more methanol for different time and tested for wash durability and mosquito repellency test and its 95 percent mosquito repellency.

  341. Bharathajothi, P. and Jegatheesan, M.

    Traditional medicine and ethnobotanical information play an important role in scientific research, particularly when the literature and field work data have been properly evaluated. An ethnobotanical survey was conducted to document the ethnodermatological plants which are used by the Paliyar Tribes in Puliangudi forest area, Sivakiri Taluk, Tirunelveli District, Tamil Nadu Southern India. In the present study, 32 species of angiosperm plants and 22 families which are being potentially used by the tribals are documented. The aim of the study was to document the indigenous knowledge of Paliyar tribals of medicinal plants. The study on medicinal plants were conducted between June 2015 to December 2016 in Puliangudi forest area and documented traditional medicinal plants for skin diseases used by the Paliyar tribals. The best represented families were Euphorbiaceae and Fabaceae. The leaves were the most frequently used plant parts (75%) followed by root (10%), whole plant (10%) and tuber (5%).

  342. Dr. Shashikala, K., Dr. Usha Ramachandra and Dr. Jeena Johns

    Background: Acute appendicitis is the most common abdominal surgical emergency and remains challenging diagnosis inspite of imaging techniques and acute inflammatory markers (TLC, Neutrophils). Aims: The aim of the study is to prove the significance of inflammatory markers (TLC and Neutrophil Count) and correlation with histopathology in diagnosing acute appendicitis. Secondly to interpret how these investigations can be used effectively to improve the diagnosis, decision making and hence reduce negative appendicectomies. Materials and methods: The study was conducted in the department of pathology and surgery. The clinical history of all the patients was taken. There was no gender discrimination and the age group included 15-50yrs. The clinical details diagnosing acute appendicitis with inflammatory markers (TLC, Neutrophil count) was correlated with histopathology sections of appendicectomies. Results: In the present study Out of 250 patients, 182 were males and 68 were females with male to female ratio were 3.1: 1.70% of acute appendicitis were in the 2nd & 3rd decade and frequent symptom was pain in the right iliac fossa, with tenderness. Total Leukocyte Count was > 11000/mm3 in 63% of patients and < 11000/mm3 in 37% patients. Neutrophil Count was > 75% in 56% and < 75% in 44% of patients. Conclusions: Simple laboratory investigations of Total Leucocyte Count and Neutrophil Count effectively improve the decision making of acute appendicitis and hence reduce negative appendicectomies.

  343. Basavaraj B. Goundadkar and Katti Pancharatna

    Many chemicals present in the environment have the potential to intervene the endocrine system of the inhabitant organisms causing alterations in their physiology and behavior. In the present study, we made an attempt to compare and evaluate the effects of long-term (75 days) exposure to different environmental estrogenic chemicals (EECs) individually and in combinations on the morphological (body size and mass, pigmentation) and behavioral (feeding activity and sensitivity) aspects of adult zebrafish in the laboratory. Adult (wild) zebrafish (n = 12) procured locally were acclimated to laboratory conditions (temperature: 26 ± 1oC, and photoperiod:11.30 L:12.30 D hrs) for two weeks and exposed semi statically to (i) Ethinyl estradiol-EE2 (3 ng/L) (ii) Diethylstibestrol-DES (3 ng/L) (iii) Atrazine-ATR (3 µg/L) (iv) Bisphenol A-BPA (3µg/L) (v) EE2+ATR (vi) EE2 + BPA (vii) DES + ATR (viii) DES + BPA (ix) EE2 + ATR + BPA (x) DES + ATR + BPA. Fish exposed to Estradiol 17β (3ng/L) served as positive controls and those exposed to conditioned water alone, as negative controls. All the concentrations of EEC used in the experiment were lower than environmentally recorded levels for the respective chemical. Our observations reveal that (i) the rate of mortality was greater in chemical exposed fish especially in those exposed to combination of EEC (ii) fish exposed to combinations of EEC exhibited increased feeding rate and variations in response to external stimuli/sensitivity (iii) in fish exposed to atrazine (individually and in combination with other EEC) pigmentation was greater while it was lesser in those exposed to BPA as compared to controls. Thus, there was a variation in the intensity of effects manifested by a chemical individually and those when exposed in combination with other chemicals. Therefore, effects of EEC on aquatic organisms potentiated in presence of other chemicals which is very relevant in evaluating the impact of water contaminants EEC on aquatic organisms in natural aquatic system.

  344. Airy Sanjeev and Venkata Satish Kumar Mattaparthi

    Parkinson's disease is related to the aggregation of α-synuclein but the effect of single-point mutations (A53T, E46K and A30P) on the early events of aggregation remains elusive. The effect of structural heterogeneity of α-synuclein mutants in promoting the dimerization is critical. From the conformational dynamics of monomers of α-synuclein (WT and mutants), we noticed mutants to display beta structures and more intra-molecular contacts. We also studied inter-molecular interactions promoting the dimerization. We observed lesser number of inter-molecular interactions in the homo-dimer of WT than the mutants. The interactions demonstrated here may be used to design potential inhibitors to inhibit dimerization.

  345. Minnady Muthulingam

    Tuberculosis is one of the most common diseases in India and has attained epidemic proportions. With 3.4 million cases, India carries more than 20% of the world’s TB burden. However TB is not just a public health problem but also a socioeconomic challenge. Rifampicin is an antituberculosis drug effectively cures tuberculosis unfortunately liver get damage. The present study was undertaken to scientifically prove the traditional use of the plant, Caralluma attenuata aqueous extract against liver disorders. The ameliorative potential of aqueous Caralluma attenuata on liver damage was evaluated by rifampicin induced hepatotoxicity in rats. Male albino Wistar rats were orally treated with aqueous Caralluma attenuata (125, 250 and 500 mg/kg body weight) or silymarin (25 mg/kg) daily to rifampicin (1 g/kg, one day only) treated rats. Rifampicin induced liver damage and significantly increased the activities of alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alkaline phosphatase (ALP), Gamaglutamyl transpeptidase (GGT), Lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) and bilirubin and decreased the levels of protein in serum as compared with control group. Treatment with aqueous Caralluma attenuata or silymarin could significantly decrease the ALT, AST, ALP, GGT and bilirubin whereas protein level in serum was increased when compared with rifampicin alone treated rats. The result revealed that aqueous extracts of Caralluma attenuata could be useful in ameliorating antituberculosis drug rifampicin induced liver injury.

  346. Nishat U. Shaikh and Ashok M. Chavan

    Fruits make important diet for human beings. The high concentration of various sugars, minerals, vitamins and amino acids also provide a good platform for the successful growth and survival of various parasitic and saprophytic forms of fungi. Fruits are highly perishable and maintain an active metabolism during the storage phase. During post harvest period diseases can affect the quality of fruits. Post harvest deterioration of fruits may take place in any stages. Penicillium is a diverse genus occurring worldwide and its species play important roles as decomposers of organic materials and cause destructive rolls in the food industry where they produce a wide range of mycotoxins. Other species are considered enzyme factories or are common indoor air allergens. In the present study, an investigation was carried out to study the Penicillium sps. from Citrus fruits. Samples were plated on potato dextrose agar (PDA) medium and incubated at 26± 20C. Resulting growth screened microscopically for Penicillium sps. Twenty eight different isolates belonging to 6 species was isolated and identified from lemon, orange and citrus fruits. Penicillium camemberti, P. italicum, P. expansum, P. digitatum, P. glaucum and P. citrinum were isolated from all the citrus fruits.

  347. Dr. Romi Singh

    Fungal spores can cause a range of health problems in humans such as respiratory diseases and mycotoxicoses. In order to estimate air contamination by fungal spores, air monitoring was conducted in some houses which were air conditioned. Sedimentation plate method was used for the detection of viable fungal spores. In this study, 10 species were trapped, isolated and identified. From five houses total ten fungal colonies were observed and identified and the rest which are not identified were kept as unidentified fungi. Cladosprium (16.56%) Aspergillus niger (15.38%) and Aspergillus fumigatus (14.20%) Penicillium (12.42%) were the dominant fungal species in the present experimental study than the other rest form of fungi.

  348. Jeetendra Ahirwar and Antara Banerjee

    In this study an experiment is conducted to determine the properties of M40 concrete such as compressive strength, split tensile strength etc. after which a chemical called aluminium powder is introduced to enhance these properties. This powder is used in different percentages in the concrete. Khangar, a coarse aggregate is also used in making of concrete. Impact test is performed to determine the exact percentage of khangar to be used. Casting of cubes and cylinders of the concrete with Aluminium powder and Khangar individually is performed to determine the above mentioned properties. A mixture of aluminium powder, khangar and super plasticizer which is an admixture is also used to cast cube and cylinder. Finally, it leads to the conclusion that addition of aluminium powder individually results in enhancement of the properties of M40 concrete while the addition of khangar individually and the mixture of aluminium powder plus khangar results in depreciation of the properties of M40 concrete.

  349. Ibrahim Yuosif .I. Abad Alrhman and Abdul Aziz .B. M. Hamed

    In this paper we presented an analysis of Lagrange and Hamilton formulas. with Three Almost Complex Structures. We have reached important results in differential geometry that can be applied in theoretical physics.

  350. Mahesh, S. M. and Ravi Chandra, S.

    The main objective of this work is to analyse the situation and behavior of M30 grade concrete with proportion 1:1.6:2.6 with 0.45 w/c. Here cement is partially replaced by 5%, 10%, 15% of alccofine by weight of cement also addition of coir fibre in percentage of 0.5%, 1%, 1.5% by weight of cement is used to produce M30 grade concrete. Aspect ratio (l/d) of coir fibre used is 125. Compression strength test, flexural strength test and split tensile strength tests are conducted according to guidelines of BIS. The tests were compared with the normal concrete. Due to addition of coir fibre and alccofine compression strength, tensile strength, and flexural strengths are increased. The high results were obtained at a percentage of 10% of alccofine with 1% of coir fibre.

  351. Rawat, K.S. and Sandeep Chauhan

    Tachibana (1967) have studied on the Bochner Curvature tensor. Singh (1971-72) studied on Kaehlerian recurrent and Ricci-recurrent space of second order. Negi and Rawat (1999) studied some bi-recurrent and bi-symmetric properties in a Kaehlerian space. Further, Rawat, Kumar and Uniyal (2012) studied some bi-recurrent and bi-symmetric properties in hyperbolically Kaehlerian space. In the present paper, we have been studied Hyperbolically Sasakian recurrent and symmetric space of second order. Several theorems also have been established and proved therein.

  352. Claudiany S. Leite Lima, Danielle C. Barros, Davi T. Reis, Denis S. Passos, Naiane G. Silva, Pedro G. B. Bonfim, Vanessa M. Mattje, Gessiel Newton Sheidt and Augustus Caeser Franke Portella

    In order to obtain the optimization of a given experiment, we need to carry out a triage, using either full or fractional factorial planning. These are statistical procedures that seek to minimize the work required. This eliminates the variables called factors, which are not significant in the experiment. Factorial planning basically consists of carrying out a survey of the factors of the proposed experiment and evaluating the effects they exert on each other and on the final result. The Response Surface Methodology (RSM) consists of a collection of mathematical and statistical techniques based on the fit of a polynomial equation to the experimental data, which should describe the behavior of a dataset in order to make statistical predictions. The objective of the present work is to synthesize the theoretical and practical knowledge of the methodology of Factorial Planning and RSM as statistical tools for evaluation and optimization of parameters involved in an experimental scientific research project.

  353. Parag Hirulkar, Dipak Raut, Ashok Shinde, Anjali Jagtap and Smita Kadam

    Stock market process is fully uncertainty affected by many factor so that's anyone cannot predict stock market future to solve this problem construct the model which is gather all information from historical data, analyze data according stock that predict stock market future hence stock market prediction is important extraction in finance and business. Examines the theory and practice of real time analysis techniques for prediction of stock price trend by using a transformed data set in ordinal data format. The original pre transformed data source contains data of heterogeneous data types used for handling of currency values and financial ratios. The data formats in currency values and financial ratios provide a process for computation of stock prices. The transformed data set contains only a standardized ordinal data type which provides a process to measure rankings of stock price trends. The outcomes of both processes are examined and appraised. The primary design is based on time series analysis from machine learning software. This project focuses on using univariate time series forecasting methods for the stock market index, Standard Poor's 500 (abbreviated commonly as SP 500, which is the notation used in this project) emphasizing on Box-Jenkins Autoregressive Integrated Moving Average (ARIMA) modelling. Time series analysis was through using R and R studio to both predict and visualize predictions. Along with the interactivity of plotly through the ggplot2 package we were able to create stunning visuals that help in understanding which time series forecasting method is most appropriate for time series analysis.

  354. Prof. Sagar M. Gawande, Anuja A Mane and Niharika S Belwalkar

    Water of good quality is essential to human life and water of acceptable quality is essential for agricultural, industrial, domestic and commercial uses. Industries produces large amount of wastewater which is needs to be treated before dispose of. The presence of Phosphate in aquatic environment has a direct threat on public health.Wastewater contains phosphate which causes eutrofication. Adsorption is the process of accumulating substances that are in solution on a suitable surface. The carbon is used to remove a portion of the remaining dissolved organic matter, residual amounts of inorganic compounds such as nitrogen, sulfides and heavy metals. Water hyacinth (Eichhornia crassipes), has large growth rate in wastewater due to nutrients present in it causes its extremely rapid proliferation and congest growth, presenting serious challenges in navigation, irrigation, and power generation. However, the same plant having ability to absorb and concentrate many toxic metals from aquatic environments. This experiment used water hyacinth as a activated carbon for the removal of phosphate from the wastewater in Pune region. This project work has been patented.

  355. Peter Kovacic and Ratnasamy Somanathan

    In addition to oxidative stress, several other mechanistic factors are involved with aging, namely, electron transfer, reactive oxygen species, and reactive nitrogen species. Evidence for beneficial effects of antioxidants provides support for the deleterious role of oxidative stress. Certain organs are importantly involved, such as heart, brain (Alzheimer’s disease, dementia and Parkinson’s disease), mitochondria, lung and prostate. Cancer is a significant contributing factor. Other aspects addressed are stem cells, protein oxidation, and telomeres.

  356. Nitin Choubey

    This papers present a floor layout optimization system with Genetic algorithms. Efficient market floor layour management is required for better customes satisfaction and increased visibility of the product. It can be achieved through propoer allocation of the shelves on shop floor. The paper also compares the results for layout optimization for different sizes with the on varying population size.

  357. Jirm Elle Benno and Lydia Cheruto Kipkoech

    Participation of women in the managerial position of public primary school has been reported to be low. Participation of women in administrative position may give women direct access to decision making and provide substantive role model for female students/pupils. It opens up a world of opportunities to women especially in this era of equal representation of gender. The Study adopted a naturalistic and survey design; it targets the Head teachers, teachers, school management committees and sponsors in the district. Document analysis was used to assess the number of male and female teachers, the number of female teachers in management position in the district. Data was analyzed using descriptive statistics and presented in tables and graphs and charts using frequencies, percentages and degrees. Qualitative data was presented using narrative report. The result and the findings of this study reveals that socio-cultural beliefs and values, female teacher self-perception, are some of the major challenges facing female teachers participation in management position. The study has also recommended concrete measure such as adult and continuing education to promote lifelong learning.

  358. Jyoti Shugani and Ar. Shailja Soni

    As the field of sustainable design grows and matures, the relevance of acoustics in architecture is paramount, generally subjected to attributes of human comfort and sustainability. With the general faith being instated into the saying, “Quality is more important than Quantity of any built space”, noise abatement is the major issues of sustainable design of built environment focussing the same; because one of the criteria for establishment of indoor and outdoor spaces of good quality is the abatement of noise pollution. Due to bad planning and fastest growth of the city, noise exposure is also rising in the developing countries. But still, acoustics are an aspect of design that has been scarcely ever discussed when the design works well, but they can be a major source of annoyance or worse when there are problems. Since, acoustic comfort is paramount in all kind of environment we live, in that, the major concerns remain to be the low cost and sustainable acoustic design which is influenced by its materials. Poor acoustical conditions can cause unhealthy environment while good acoustics increase the overall comfort level of a space. The aim of this research paper is to present the various essential aspects & attributes of sustainable materials which can be used in the acoustical treatment, with the brief description of the types of materials which absorb and reflect sound, low carbon and natural materials for acoustic treatment with varieties of low-cost materials and also methods to compare the amount of sound insulation from different materials.

  359. Dr. Shereen N. Abu Ghazaleh and Dr. Hassan Sami Alabady

    Green building contract varies from traditional building contract in various perspectives. This paper aims to show the most important contractual suggestions to be considered by the owner to achieve its goal, that include: achievement of Green Certification, determination of pre-contracting requirements, avoidance of warranty limits provided by traditional constructions legislations, assignment of advisor, contracting with Experts. It concludes that the owner shall take into consideration the different nature of green building contract and address the most important contractual suggestion to achieve best results and avoid liability.

  360. Jamal S. Shrair

    The external energy supply to the sun is overwhelmingly obvious even before space probes (Voyagers and IBEX) have detected it. The sunspot cycle, the surface temperature, the reverse temperature gradient and the existence of the corona in itself, are some of the outstanding evidence that point to the external energy supply that our star receives. In fact, all the basic features of the Sun are in complete disagreements (or in direct contradictions) with the concepts of the Standard Solar Model (SSM). In physical reality our star is not an isolated celestial body, but rather it is linked permanently to the Universe- not only to our galaxy-since magnetic fields are permanently present in the building blocks of matter. Furthermore, the Sun-like all stars- is not a self-sufficient entity, but it is externally powered by inducing current from high energy particles (cosmic rays). And yes, its radiated energy is the result of nuclear fusion, except that this nuclear fusion is a consequence of another primary process. In other words, the process of nuclear fusion-not thermonuclear fusion- is generated in the sun as a result of interactions between the sun's layers and the external energy source which is transported by complex galactic magnetic fields. More importantly, the sun converts energy to mass, not the other way around. Nonetheless, those theoretical physicists who established and developed the concepts of the SSM had simplified it by ignoring the roles of magnetic fields and rotation. They assumed that the sun is spherically symmetric and neutral object. Based on real solar physics, the Sun is an overall positively charged celestial object, where interaction of magnetic fields and rotation have the dominant roles on the solar surface, over the corona and in the solar interior. In addition to that, the physical mechanism of the Heliosphere is completely governed by magnetic fields interactions. Nevertheless, the high energy cosmic particles that power the sun are modulated by the Heliospheric Current Sheet (HCS) and the Solar Polar Fields (SPF). The increasing phase of the external energy supply is during solar minimum while the decreasing one is during solar maximum.

  361. Anji Reddy Nalamalapu

    Hydrocephalus (HCP) is a congenital or acquired health condition that affects a little over 1 in 1000 births in the United States and is one of the most common "birth defects," afflicting more than 10,000 babies globally each year. A student with this health condition falls under the Other Health Impaired disability category of Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA). The (IDEA) is a law passed to provide education to children with disabilities around the country. Students with this disorder benefit from rehabilitation therapy and educational programs. Receiving treatment from an integrated team of medical professionals, rehabilitation specialists, and educational experts is critical to helping students with Hydrocephalus lead healthy lives with few limitations. Consequently, educators who provide intervention services and work in close collaboration with interdisciplinary teams need to know the best possible information about this condition. This paper provides a brief description of Hydrocephalus, an outline of problems that adversely affect the performance of students with Hydrocephalus and suggest a verity of intervention techniques for teachers and rehabilitation professionals consider.

  362. Naveen Kumar, T. G. and Dr. Binoy, T. A.

    This paper is an attempt to explore the significance of tourism economy for the development of India. Tourism is the integral part of Indian culture and tradition. Tourism industry is the vigorous triennial action and a multibillion industry in India. The potential and performance of Indian tourism industry needs an indicator in terms of its economic magnitudes. It also consider the effects of tourism economic growth in India, major players to the economic growth, Role of Indian tourism industry in GDP, contribution of Indian tourism industry in foreign exchange, FDI and employment generation. Tourism is the world’s largest and fast growing labour intensive industry in the nation with gigantic potentials for its further expansion and diversification. Tourism as a service industry plays a pivotal role for the nation’s economic development. While tourism is no universal elixir, the development of tourism can play a much more significant role in the future than it does at present. Analysis of the economic effects of tourism based on a comparison of the nation’s shows that mobilising the demand and supply chain for tourism services has extremely beneficial effects on employment and the current balance of payments. The nations have a major responsibility to promote the economic role of tourism, towards both themselves and the entire international community, especially to under develop and developing countries.

  363. Aashish Jain

    The performance evaluation of private sector mutual funds is carried out through risk-return analysis, Treyner’s ratio, Sharpe’s ratio & Jensen’s measures. The data used in the study is daily closing NAV’s for the period of 1st April 2014 to 31st March 2017. This paper consists of three private sponsored mutual funds schemes. The result of performance evaluation suggest that out of three schemes namely DSP black rock, Reliance focus large cap fund & Kotak select focus fund and among these KOTAK select focus fund is the best performer.

  364. Subhankar Patra and Dr. Jitendra Shukla

    Coastal environment plays a vital role in a nation’s economy by virtue of their resources, productive habitats and rich biodiversity. The coastal belt is about 14km length from the Orissa border to Jaldha mouja, situated in the district of Purba Medinipur of West Bengal, India, and it is well known as Digha coast. The coast is doubly vulnerable today on one hand, it is facing unprecedented pressures because of tourism and urban development; on the other hand, it is threatened by climate change related devastation from growing intensities of cyclonic storms to sea surges and eventual sea level rise. Frequent embankment failures, submergence and flooding, beach erosion and siltation at jetties and navigational channels, cyclones and storm surges are all making this area increasingly vulnerable. The present paper attempts to highlight the various coastal issues of Digha coast, West Bengal.

  365. Nister Kujur and Shailendra Kumar

    In present era our societies suffering with many processes like globalization, modernization, industrialization, urbanization, etc. all of these processes are co-related with each other. And all of these processes make many changes in societies some are positive, and some are negative. Positive changes called development, and negatives are social problems. Same Results find out in industrialization because of industries. We got much material culture, which makes our life so comfortable and easy but in another side, industry was a major factor of displacement, pollution, slums, etc. Generally, all four components for industry are easily available in forest area that’s why the forest is the first choice of an industrialist. And other side forest areas are residences of various tribal groups so, tribal groups are directly affected by establishment of industry as well as displacement also. Raigarh district of Chhattisgarh has 14 large and small industries of iron, coal, etc. These industries make huge displacement in these areas and tribal groups Total 61 villages, and 1406 families are affected by displacement. Total 1044.436-acre land capture by industrialist for industries and flats of an employee. Present study conduct in 31 affected tribal families of 31villages. The present study shows affected families are leaving their traditional agricultural works because they can’t understand the nature of new land structure and because of this, they are in economic trouble. In study area, there are 67.7 percent family’s primary occupations was agriculture and after displacement, there are only 9.7 percent families engage in agricultural work. There are some other problems also finding out in this study, which are related to fundamental needs. According to affected families, new residences have many fundamental problems, which are provided by government and industrialists. There are no electricity, no regular drinking water resources, satisfied roads and transports are no available, etc.

  366. Andrea Improta

    The Campania Region is the second Italian, on a par with Tuscany and Veneto, by number of UNESCO World Heritage Sites. The recognized world cultural heritage sites in Campania are: the Royal Palace of Caserta with the Park, the Carolino Aqueduct and the complex of San Leucio and the monumental complex of Santa Sofia in Benevento, the historic center of Naples, the archaeological areas of Pompeii, Herculaneum and Torre Annunziata and the Amalfi Coast, the National Park of Cilento and Vallo di Diano with the archaeological site of Paestum and Velia, Roscigno Vecchia and the Charterhouse of Padula. This narration is part of a wider research on the theme of World Heritage Sites in the Campania region and the relationship between cultural and natural aspects, including architecture and the environment. Italy is the country to hold the largest number of sites included in the list of World Heritage Sites (49 sites), followed by China (45 sites) and Spain (44 sites).

  367. Shashiraj, U. and Dr. Binoy, T. A.

    There are many major forms of tourism activities are prevailing in India. These are cultural tourism, rural tourism, ecotourism, adventure tourism, religious or pilgrimage tourism, beach tourism, MICE tourism etc. However, India could able to leave its footprint in one of the most specialized form of tourism, i. e. Medical Tourism. It is form of tourism commonly referring to the travel of people to another country for the purpose of obtaining medical treatment in that country. Today, India is one of the fastest growing medical tourism destinations in the world. Medical tourism in the 21st century has grown rapidly and became one of the most astonishing niches tourism markets in the world. The objective of the paper is to identify analyze major the healthcare centres or facilities available in Karnataka and their potentials to grow as famous medical tourism destination. The article covers various medicinal practices prevailing in Karnataka along with their ethnicity. The paper also brings out the perceived benefits to the indigenous community and to the area from the medical tourism growth in the region. The careful observations, consensus and discussion with the academicians and employees of few of the service providers revealed the realistic state of affairs in terms of ecotourism business. Medical tourism occurs when consumers elect to travel across international borders with the intention to receiving some form of medical treatments. However, the varieties of medical treatments available in rural areas of the state such as yoga and meditation, naturopathy, ayurveda etc are not visited regularly by the foreign tourists. Thus, it becomes difficult to consider such destinations under medical tourism. It required hard niche marketing approach towards promoting these ethnic medicinal treatments.

  368. Monal V. Ingawale, Mukesh Tiwary and Dr. Kale, S.C.

    Polysaccharides produced by microorganisms are utilized for a variety of purposes, including the use in cosmetics and as food additives. More recently, polysaccharides have been exploited by the medical and pharmaceutical industries. The production and synthesis of these compounds is costly and time consuming. In the present work isolation of Aureobasidium pullulan was done from soil sample. The production of pullulan was done by using complex nitrogen medium with different concentration of soyabean oil. Pullulan yield was determined and optimum soyabean oil concentration in the growth medium for pullulan production was determined

  369. Dr. Shalini Yadava and Ms Rupam Priya

    Since the image of science presented in classrooms is by and large limited to textbooks, there is need for balanced representation of all aspects of science in these. The messages contained in a text influence how the users perceive the subject (primarily students but also teachers).A textbook, which emphasizes scientific facts, explanation of concepts and principles would probably “tell” the reader that science is a neatly organized body of knowledge. If the text contains questions and activities that require the user to solve, he / she may think of science as an investigative process. A textbook, which describes how scientists work and traces the historical developments of scientific ideas, is likely to imply that science, is a human endeavor. In today’s world, science, technology and society in textbooks would indicate to students the relevance of science; its positive and negative effects and the influence science and society have on each other. In India, the textbook still remains an important tool in classroom transactions associated with the teaching and learning of science. The present study is thus an attempt to gauge the perception of teachers towards NCERT textbooks of Science at upper primary stage.





Rosane Cavalcante Fragoso, Brasil


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Luai Farhan Zghair
Hasan Ali Abed Al-Zu’bi
Fredrick OJIJA
Firuza M. Tursunkhodjaeva
Faraz Ahmed Farooqi
Saudi Arabia
Eric Randy Reyes Politud
Elsadig Gasoom FadelAlla Elbashir
Eapen, Asha Sarah
United State
Dr.Arun Kumar A
Dr. Zafar Iqbal
Dr. Ruchika Khanna
Dr. Recep TAS
Dr. Rasha Ali Eldeeb
Dr. Pralhad Kanhaiyalal Rahangdale
Dr. Nicolas Padilla- Raygoza
Dr. Mustafa Y. G. Younis
Dr. Muhammad shoaib Ahmedani
Saudi Arabia
United State
Dr. Lim Gee Nee
Dr. Jatinder Pal Singh Chawla
Dr. Devendra kumar Gupta
Dr. Ali Seidi
Dr. Achmad Choerudin
Dr Ashok Kumar Verma
Thi Mong Diep NGUYEN
Dr. Muhammad Akram
Dr. Imran Azad
Dr. Meenakshi Malik
Aseel Hadi Hamzah
Anam Bhatti
Md. Amir Hossain
Mirzadi Gohari