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Bone graft materials used for regeneration of resorbed residual ridge- a review

Author: 
Bommareddy Radha Geethika, Kalyan Chakravarthy, A., Veerendra Prasad Budige, Ramavarapu Avinash, Bhanu Chander, V. and Satya Sri, L.
Subject Area: 
Health Sciences
Abstract: 

Bone grafting replaces a patient's missing bone with both natural and artificial materials. Biocompatibility, bioresorbability, structural stability, availability, ease of handling, and cost are all factors to consider when choosing an augmentation material for grafting. Osseointegrative ability refers to the graft's ability to integrate and bond with the host. There is currently no complete bone substitute that meets the requirements for biocompatibility, bioabsorption, and volume maintenance. The bioabsorbability of leftover bone substitutes and the volume maintenance of the augmented tissue are inversely related over time. An allograft is a type of human tissue obtained from someone other than the recipient of the graft. Fresh or frozen bone, FDBA, DFDBA, and cortico-cancellous bone allografts are the three types of bone allografts available. The mineral to organic matrix ratio of hydroxyapatite (HA) is similar to that of human bone. The granular form is sterile and ready to use in periodontal and other bony defects treatment, as well as bone maintenance. Cancellous bone is resorbable, and new bone will gradually replace it. Alloplastic grafts can be made with bioactive glass or hydroxyapatite. When calcium sulphate deteriorates, it loses a lot of its mechanical properties, making it a risky choice for load bearing applications. To supplement residual alveolar ridges, porous tricalcium phosphate ceramic could be used. In apical resection areas, cystic defects, extraction sockets, and alveoli, bioactive glass particles with a narrow size range promote osteogenesis. Synthetic polymers, like natural polymers, are resorbed by the body. PRF is a fibrin matrix that traps and releases platelet cytokines, growth factors, and cells over time. PRP has been shown to help with periodontal and oral surgery outcomes. PRP may aid the body's natural wound-healing mechanisms when used in dentistry.

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