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November 2014

  1. Mervet Hosny Shalaby, Amal Ibrahim Sabra, Sabah Abo Elfetoh Mohamed

    Stigmatized individuals have been found to face a variety of social and emotional consequences, including social withdrawal, loss of productivity, lowered self-esteem, and increased levels of negative affect. Stigmatization is now recognized as perhaps the central issue facing all who are attempting to understand, prevent, and treat mental illness. This study aimed to assess the extent of self-stigma level among psychiatric patients and investigate the role of self-stigma on self-esteem and attitude toward seeking professional help among psychiatric patients. This study followed a descriptive co relational design. The present study was conducted at two setting: psychiatric inpatient wards at "Tanta Mental Health Hospital", as well as in The Psychiatric Inpatient Ward of "Tanta University Hospital.The target population, a convenience sample of 85 psychiatric inpatients were recruited at inpatient psychiatric wards . Three tools were used to collect data for the study, Internalized Stigma of Mental Illness Scale, Rosenberg Self Esteem Scale and Attitudes Toward Seeking Professional Psychological Help Scale. Results of the study indicated that 70% of studied patients have problematic internalized stigma, patients reported moderate to severe level and self- stigma played a detrimental role in undermining self-esteem, attitude toward seeking professional psychological help among studied subjects in which patients whose higher score in internalizes self -stigma were more likely to have lower Self-Esteem and have tendency toward negative Attitudes toward Seeking Professional psychological Help. The study recommended that there is an urgent need to develop anti-stigma campaigns dealing with mental illness.

  2. Venkatesh, H. A., Maitri Chaudhary, Mrinal S. Pillai and Dr. Pankaj Kumar Mohanty

    Tremendous improvement in the neonatal care has led to the reduction in the mortality and morbidity of babies born below 30 weeks of gestation. Evidence based management, Expertise in the newborn care and the exponential growth of equipments have led are mark able role in the survival of tinysick babies. Most of NICUs depend upon urine output, capillary refilling time, blood gas analysis in judging baby hemodynamic ally, however sensitivity and specificity of these parameters are reasonably less. Hence longitudinal assessment of baby’s physiology is very crucial for the better acute and long term outcome. In this direction functional echocardiography has been evolved as an added entity to physical examination in the care of sick babies. Hence systematic serial studies in the NICU by f ECHO by neonatologist is very crucial and need of the hour.1

  3. Dr. Sonal P. Karpe, Dr. Sanjith Saseedharan and Dr. Manisha Sahu

    Central Line Associated Blood Stream Infection (CLABSI) contributes to a small but significant cause of inpatient morbidity. Globally evidence based approaches are practiced to target a zero CLABSI rate. A prospective study was conducted in our hospital over a period of two years. The incidence of CLABSI was studied per 1000 central lines days for initial 5 months. This was followed by phase wise introduction of the CLABSI reduction program. When all the three interventions implemented the CLABSI rates were sustained at zero over duration of 7 months. Thus the strict implementation of Central Line bundle, Infection Control Team and Staff Education are the corner stones of safe and aseptic precautions being followed and adhered to for bringing down not just the CLABSI but also other hospital acquired infections.

  4. Fatemeh Montazer, Zhila Torabizadeh and Somayeh Sheidaie

    Giant cell glioblastoma is an infrequent, accounting for about 5% of all glioblastoma mean age of presentation is about 40 years old. This tumor characterized by a predominance of bizarre multinucleated giant cells. It has deserved a separate category in the World Health Organization classification of grade Ⅳtumor

  5. Mrinal S. Pillai, Maitri Choudhary, and Venkateh, H. A.,

    The clinical assessment of circulatory adequacy has been shown to be inaccurate in term and preterm infants (Tibby et al., 1997 and Osborn et al., 2004). Functional echocardiography, by treating Neonatologists, gives noninvasive insight into the hemodynamic status of patients quantitatively and helps in guiding treatment strategies accordingly. In this article, we will elaborate case scenarios where functional echocardiography decisively helped in the management of patients.

  6. Haghgoo, R., Ahmadvand, M., Farajianzadeh H. and Shayegh, F.

    Aim: The purpose of this study was to investigate the success rate of PDL injection in primary maxillary molars anesthesia. Materials and Methods: This study was performed using a sequential double blind randomized trial design. In this study 82 children aged3–7years old who required pulpotomy, restoration, SSC and extraction on their primary maxillary molars were selected. The teeth of these children were anesthetized with periodontal injection and the dental treatments were performed on each patient. Signs of discomfort, including hand and body tension and eye movement, verbal complaint and crying (SEM scale), were evaluated by a dental assistant who was blinded to the treatment allocation of the patients. Results: Results of this study showed that during treatment 76.09% of child patients had verbal compliant, 4.87% of cases cried and no patient had body and eye movements. The success rate of PDL injection was 92.47%. Conclusion: Results showed that periodontal ligament injection can be used as an alternative to infiltration in maxillary primary molars.

  7. Qazi Danish, Taseem A. Mokhdomi, Shoiab Bukhari, Azra Shah, Raies A. Qadri

    Background: VEGFR-2 is a critical molecule for tumor angiogenesis and a target for assessment of anti-angiogenic therapy. Although, its expression and functionality has been correlated in various cancers, not many studies are available in the context of lung cancer. Patients and Methods: In this study, the expression of VEGFR-2 was analyzed in clinically relevant tissue samples of Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer (NSCLC) patients (n=108, surgically resected archival tumor samples) with histopathologically confirmed Squamous Cell Carcinoma (SCC) sub-type and compared with appropriate controls. Expression of endogenous level of VEGFR-2 was assessed by Western blotting and densitometry. Results: Clinicopathological data suggested that the incidence of SCC in local population with respect to age, sex, tumor stage and histology was typical and consistent with reported global incidence of NSCLC. We observed differential expression of VEGFR-2 based on the staging of tumors. Poorly differentiated SCC samples show higher expression of VEGFR-2, expression levels of VEGFR-2 in moderately differentiated SCC were comparable while expression was lower in well differentiated SCC samples when compared to their available respective controls. Further corroborating this observation, external control samples (non-tumor patient samples) expressed VEGFR-2 levels comparable to patient tissue controls in turn pointing to a possible stage-based prognostic significance for SCC. Conclusion: Our results highlight a strong correlation of VEGFR-2 expression, with late stage SCC compared to early stage SCC. Thus, VEGFR-2 may be actively involved in late progression of SCC, which constitutes a major chunk of NSCLC and may also have prognostic and therapeutic relevance.

  8. Onuigbo, H. N., Nwobodo, N. N. and Onuigbo, I. B.

    Barbiturates are hypnotic (sleep-inducing) drugs and notable drugs of abuse. They are extremely useful in clinical practice and are commonly prescribed as treatment for a variety of conditions. Barbiturates are known hepatic enzyme inducers and have significant stimulatory effects on the cytochrome P450 enzyme family. This study was aimed at evaluating the degree of cytochrome P450 enzyme family stimulation in a standard prescribed treatment regimen with a view to ascertaining changes in hepatic mitochondrial protein as an indicator of the drug adverse effect. Parenteral formulation of the drug was administered to the experimental rats in a simple randomized study after 7days of adequate acclamatization. The control animals received placebo treatment. All the animals were sacrificed after completing treatment. Protein status of each animal was assayed in the mitochondrial fraction of the liver while the stimulatory capacity of the drug was assayed in the microsomal fraction. Results revealed that mean protein status of the experimental animals did not differ significantly compared with the control animals (p>0.05). However, there was a statistically significant difference (p<0.05) on the activity of the cytochrome P450 enzyme family between the test and control animals. Hence, the need for a large scale study involving human subjects considering the widespread use of the drug in clinical medicine.

  9. Raval Kashyap and Srinivasa, U.

    A simple, accurate and precise High Performance Liquid Chromatographic (HPLC) method has been developed for simultaneous determination of Pioglitazone and Alogliptin in bulk and dosage form. The method has been validated as per the guidelines of ICH. The separation is achieved on BDS hypersil C18, 250mm × 4.6mm, 5µ (particle size) column with flow rate 1.0 mL per minute in isocratic mode using Buffer pH 3.5: Methanol (70:30) as mobile phase. Column oven temperature is maintained at 25°C and observations are recorded at 271 nm. The linearity range was found to be in the range of 3.75-18.75μg/ml for Pioglitazone and 6.25-31.25 μg/ml for Alogliptin. Correlation co-efficient for calibration curve of Pioglitazone and Alogliptin was found to be 0.9997 and 0.9993 respectively. The method is simple, accurate, reproducible and short and can be used for simultaneous analysis of Pioglitazone and Pioglitazone.

  10. Mohammed Aldai Hammad, Mohammed Ahmed Abdalla and Esam Mohamed AbdulRaheem

    Study Design and Objective: this was a descriptive cross-sectional study aimed to estimate the prevalence of HIV infection among Sudanese pregnant women at Omdurman Military Hospital. Methods: the Immuno Chromatographic Test (ICT) and the Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA) were used to detect the specific HIV Antigens and antibodies in the serum of 100 asymptomatic pregnant women attended the hospital. Results: only one woman (1%) showed positive result of HIV on both ICT and ELISA. Conclusions: ELISA is more specific than ICT forconfirming the diagnosis of HIV.

  11. Dr. Chaudhari Nilesh H.

    Introduction: Arterial Doppler abnormalities, at the level of umbilical artery (UA) & middle cerebral artery (MCA), confirm the presence of hypoxemia in the growth restricted fetus & present early warning signs.Intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) is associated with an increased risk of perinatal mortality, morbidity. Purpose: The purpose of this study is to study role of abnormal umbilical artery & middle cerebral artery flow velocity waveforms in predicting adverse perinatal outcome in intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR). Materials and Methods: Study of 50 suspected IUGR fetuses between 30 to 41 weeks of gestation using high resolution ultrasound machines. The Doppler studies of UA and MCA’s were performed and results were analysed. Results and Conclusion: In perinatal outcomes, the incidence of low Apgar score, NICU admissions and perinatal mortality was higher in abnormal umbilical artery S/D ratio group and abnormal middle cerebral artery S/D ratio.Hence abnormalities in the Umbilical artery flow velocity waveform should encourage closer fetal surveillance as fetal compromise seems to be very likely in this scenario.

  12. Ruqia Asna Rabah, Dr. Tanmay Bhat, Dr. Shakeel Ahmed Khan, Dr. M. M. Baig, Dr. Khudsiya Fatima and Dr. M. N. Baig

    Background: Left ventricular hypertrophy {LVH} has been repeatedly shown to be associated with a marked increase in cardiovascular risk. The ECG evidence of LVH is present only in 50% of patients with anatomic LVH. ECG may be entirely normal in around 15% patients with severe LVH. Echocardiography can show LVH in almost 100% of patients. Obective: The purpose of this study is to determine the sensitivity of ECG in diagnosis of left ventricular hypertrophy by its correlation with echocardiography studies of left ventricular mass in hypertensive patients. Materials and Methods: The study was carried out on 130 patients attending the hospital with systemic hypertension diagnosed by JNC VII criteria and managed at B.L.D.E A’s Shri B.M Patil Medical College and Hospital. 12 lead ECG and Echo cardiograph examination for assessment of left ventricular function and mass was done using M mode and 2D echocardiography. Left ventricular mass was calculated in each case using the Devereux Formula. LV Mass=1.04 [{IVS (d)+ LVID (D)+ LVPWT (d)}3]- [LVID (d)]3- 13.6gms where 1.04 is the specific gravity of cardiac muscle. Comparison was done with a control group of 100 patients. The correlation of ECG data and echocardiograph findings in relation to LV mass was carried out is each case. Observations: In all the patients in study group ECG evidence of LVH was calculated by Sokolow-Lyon criteria and Romhilt-Estes scoring systems. LVH by Sokolow-Lyon criteria was present in 29 patients (22.31%), and LVH was absent in 101 patients (77.69%), but echocardiograph showed LVH in all 130 patients. Observed LVH by Rhomhilt-Estes scorings system was present in 38 patients (29.23%) and absent in 92 patients (70.77%). But echo cardiograph showed LVH in all 130 patients. The mean left ventricular mass calculated was 179.07+36.62gms in males and 103.78+15.84gms in females in study group. Control group had 112.84+ 5.88gms in males and 73.36+ 9.41gms in females. There was significant increase in the left ventricular mass in study group when compared to control group. The sensitivity of Sokolow-Lyon was 22.30% and the sensitivity of Romhilt Estes point scoring system was 29.23%. Sensitivity of echo in detecting LVH in hypertensive patients was 100%. Conclusion: It is concluded in our study that echocardiography is highly reliable and sensitive compared to electrocardiogram in the assessment of LVH in these patients.

  13. Anibor Ese, Edjomariegwe Odiri and Ajayi Abayomi

    The objective of this study is to determine the distribution of genetic and morphological traits among the Binis, an ethnic group in the Southern part of Nigeria. Genetic and morphological traits studied include blood group and rhesus factor, tongue rolling and tongue folding, widows peak, facial dimple, earwax type, earlobe attachment and tooth occlusion pattern. A total of 250 Binis between the age of 15 and 44 (male and female) were used for this research. Data was collected by physical observation and examination. The result showed that no significant gender difference exist in the distribution of morphogenetic traits except for tongue folding. Findings from the study will be useful in clinical practice, emergency cases and in forensic medicine.

  14. Swatantra Bahadur Singh, Shweta Singh, Alok Tiwari and Shiv Shanker Pandey

    Five Indian brands (coded as A, B, C, D, E) of 10 mg cetirizine hydrochloride (CTZ) tablets were evaluated for various in-vitro parameters, i.e. size and shape, uniformity of weight, hardness, friability, disintegration time and dissolution profile. The hardness of all the brands was found to be in the range of 4.2-4.4 kg, while friability was less than 1 %. The disintegration time of all brands were found to be in the range of 52 sec to 9 min 21 sec. All brands comply with the I.P weight variation tests while brands A, B, C, D and E comply with the I.P dissolution test. Formulation additives in the tablet, physical form of the drug used in the tablet and manufacturing process vary from manufacturer to manufacturer, responsible for the variation in the observed dissolution profiles. The main purpose of the study was to minimize health risk factors while maximizing the safety of the people of Lucknow to maintain and improve their health. The study is concerned to investigate and compare the physicochemical equivalence and efficacy of different brands of tablets containing Cetirizine prepared by various pharmaceutical industries under different trade names.

  15. Al-Samarrae, S. H. and Anas A. Humadi

    Group of animal consist of 300 Awassi ewes, 32 rams and 322 off spring were typed for blood potassium and hemoglobin , HK gene frequencies for ewes, rams, and lambs were of the order of 0.89, 0.93 and 0.88, respectively; for the HbB gene the corresponding frequencies were related 0.98, 1.00 and 0.99, respectively. B HK (High potassium, Hb type B) ewes showed a significantly higher lambing percentage, fleece weight, fiber diameter, fleece wax percentage and alkali solubility percentage, 98.5%, 20kg, 29.6µ, 2.2% and 7.6% corresponding with related 95.5%, 1.8kg, 28.6µ, 1.8% and 7.1% of B LK type respectively. B LK (Low potassium, Hb type B) ewes produced significantly more female lambs while B LK lambs, compared with B HK ones, had significantly higher birth and weaning weights. The association between B HK types and fitness was proposed as the explanation of the high gene frequency of this type.

  16. Dr. Mohsin ul rasool, Dr. Parveen Shah, Dr. Irfan khan, Dr. Sajad hamid, Dr. Imran khan and Dr. Qazi Najeeb

    Aim: The present study is undertaken to see the distribution of various benign thyroid lesions by free hand guided FNAC in a study population in northern India and compare the same with ultrasound- guided FNAC. Introduction: Clinical examination, although very accurate in most cases of thyroid lesion, is inadequate in some areas especially, in staging and in detecting the multi-nodularity of the gland. Materials and Methods: The study was conducted in the Postgraduate Department of Pathology of a teaching hospital for a period of 1 year. It was a prospective hospital based Study. In each case, a brief clinical history and physical examination along with evaluation of relevant investigation was carried out. Patient were explained about whole of the procedure & the consent for the procedure was taken in all patients. FNAC of thyroid gland was done ,by both Free hand guided and ultrasound guided and the results were correlated using SPSS 11.5 software. Observation: Out of the 139 patients, 87 shows non- neoplastic lesions . In free hand FNAC Colloid goitre was the most common accounting for 49 cases (54.44%), followed by Lymphocytic thyroiditis 12(13.33%), Hashimoto's thyroiditis 7(7.78%), Autoimmune thyroiditis 11 (12.22%) and Thyroglossal cyst 2 (2.2% ).On the other hand,ultrasound guided FNAC showed 87 non- neoplastic lesions, Colloid goitre was the most common accounting for 51 cases (67.61%), followed by Lymphocytic thyroiditis 13 (9.35%), Hashimato thyroiditis 8 (9.86%), Autoimmune thyroiditis 13(9.35%) and Thyroglossal cyst 2 (1.43%). Age of the patients ranged from 18-70yrs with maximum number 16 (31.37%) in the age group of 31-40. Majority of the patients of colloid goitre were female accounting for 12 out of 13 and only one case was male. Cytological diagnosis of Comparison of Non neoplastic lesions results both by USG guided FNAC and Free Hand FNAC shows difference of 3 cases in colloid goitre,1 case in lymphocytic thyroiditis,1 case in Hashimato’s Thyroiditis, 2 cases each of Thyroglossal cyst. Number of unsatisfactory smears were 9 and 3 in free and USG guided FNAC respectively. In USG guided FNAC, Sensitivity was 96.96%, Specificity was 93.3%. Positive predictive value was 96.96%, Negative predictive value was 93.33% and Diagnostic accuracy was 95%.In Free Hand FNAC, Sensitivity was90.0%, Specificity was 80.0%. Positive predictive value was 90.0 %, Negative predictive value was 80% and Diagnostic accuracy was 86.66 Conclusion: The statistical significance of USG-guided FNAC as: Sensitivity 96.96%, Specificity 93.3%, Positive predictive value 96.96%,negative predictive vale 93.33%,diagnostic accuracy 95%.The statistical significance of Free-guided FNAC as: Sensitivity 90%, specificity 80%, positive predictive value 90%, negative predictive vale 80%, diagnostic accuracy 86.66%. The statistical significance shows Ultrasound guided-FNAC had a significantly higher rate of diagnostic accuracy compared to palpable FNAC

  17. Dr. G. P. Singh, Mayank Srivastava and Arunabh Tripathi

    Objective: This study tries to find out the relationship of various socio-demographic variables with self perception of health (SPH) and morbidity load among the geriatric population of eastern Uttar Pradesh, India. Methods: The study is based on a specially designed sample survey of 800 elderly people taken from two different setups of society that is from urban and rural. Results: It was found that variables significantly associated with SPH were also significantly associated with morbidity load in both the type of localities, results show that gender, age, educational status, marital status, wealth index and type of family are significant determinants of either SPH or morbidity load. Conclusion: The elderly respondents who perceived their health as good were mostly free from any kind of morbidity, while those who perceived their health as poor were mostly suffering from multiple morbidities.

  18. Motta, R. G., Azollini, F., Pachaly, J. R, Paes, A. C. and Ribeiro, M. G.

    Clostridia are uncommon causes of pleuropneumonia in wildlife In human and domestic animals, different Clostridia species may affect pulmonary structures causing a necrotizing and hemorrhagic pneumonia with involvement of the pleura. In livestock, most cases are associated with sudden changes of diet, iatrogenic lesionscaused by invasive procedures such as thoracentesis or thoracotomy, or traumatic percutaneous introduction of the microorganism. The clinical course of pleuropneumonia by clostridia infections may be very variable, although usually are associated with hyperacute or acute course and high mortality. The present report describes an uncommon case of necrotizing pneumonia and sepsis caused by Clostridium perfringens in Cervus timorensis with hyperacute fatal course, highlighting clinical, epidemiological, microbiological, and histopathological aspects.t

  19. Sandhya Rani, N., Narasimha Rao, Y., Bhanuchander, K., Srilakshmi, Y., Mahalakshmi, K., Sivalakshmi, B. and Prasanthi, B

    The present study is aimed at investigating the antiulcer effects of Crossandra infundibuliformis flowers methanol extract against aspirin induced ulcer in albino rats. Anti-ulcer activity was evaluated by measuring the ulcer index and percentage of ulcer incidence. The standard drug and the extract at 200mg/kg has shown almost similar action as that of ranitidine should be replaced with- the standard drug and the extract at 400mg/kg has shown almost similar action as that of ranitidine.

  20. Meena Shivraj, Singh V. B, Meena B. L, Singh Kusum, Meena Neelam, Sharma Dayal, Beniwal Sanjay

    Introduction: Nutrition is an important factor contributing to health and functional ability. There is definite evidence that malnutrition is more common in geriatric population but it is underestimated in diagnostic and therapeutic procedures. Objective: The present study was carried out to assess nutritional status in elderly population aged ≥65 years. Material and Methods: It was a cross sectional study of 500 elderly subjects of age ≥65 years (63% subjects from urban and 37% subjects from rural area). Nutritional status assessment was done by using 18 items (30 points) Mini nutritional assessment (MNA) scale. Results: Present study revealed that 11.6% elderly were malnourished while 46% were at risk of malnutrition and only 42.4% were well nourished. Malnutrition and risk of malnutrition was more common in rural 104 (52.21%) , 47 (25.41%) than urban 126 (40%), 11 (3.49%) respectively. malnutrition according to literacy status as Illiterate, literature, primary, middle, secondary, college and professional was 26.03%, 8.47%, 0%,6.15%, 3.89%, 2.06% and 0% respectively. Prevalence of malnutrition according to financial status, self dependent and depend on others was 6.85% and 17.48% respectively. Prevalence of malnutrition in relation to BMI <19, 19-23, >23kg/m2 was 49 (47.11%), 9 (9.67%), 0 (0%) respectively. Conclusion: Nutritional status declines further as the age advances. Nutritional status of our urban elderly was better than nutritional status of rural elderly. Illiteracy depended on other by financial status and low BMI worsen the nutritional status significantly in elderly, Nutritional evaluation should be a part of clinical assessment of elderly.

  21. Kamal Eldin Ahmed Abdelsalam

    This study was carried to determine the concentration of serum estrogen in women with breast cancer using enzyme linked immunosorbent assay. Among 150 breast cancer female patients and 80 healthy females (control), venous blood samples were collected sera were separated to be used in estrogen measurements. The results showed that developing breast cancer decreased the estrogen level significantly less than the control. The age grouping showed significant effects on estrogen levels, in which women below 20 years and those above 50years showed the least levels while women in 30-39 years showed the highest levels. The estrogen level in women with breast cancer was decreased by increasing the number of pregnancy showing the minimum level in those with pregnancy of more than 5 times and the maxim level in those who were not get pregnant. Some other disorders associated with breast cancer made significant changes in estrogen level. The diabetes mellitus lowering the level significantly, hypertension increasing the level significantly, but those with no history showed highest level (significantly).

  22. Meena Shivraj, Sharda Meenaxi, Soni Anil, Nigam Harish and Singh Anuraj

    Scrub typhus is being increasingly reported in India. It should be considered in the differential diagnosis of patients with acute febrile illness, including malaria, enteric and dengue fever. We report five cases of scrub typhus presenting as acute viral illness in month of September 2014 in our hospital. A thorough knowledge of the clinical features of scrub typhus including its complications and its varied presentations is important for providing early appropriate life saving empiric treatment for patients.

  23. Dr. SyedaAzra Tasneem, Dr. Shrilakhmi, B., DrLubna Quaiser, Dr. Muhammad Kazim Ali

    Background and objectives: Fetal distress in labor is a common occurrence and is of great concern for both patient and the obstetrician. An evaluation to predict early in course of labor, which fetus is at risk of developing distress could aid in management of labor. In current practice volume of amniotic fluid is measured non-invasively by USG. The present study was conducted with the objective of assessing the relation of amniotic fluid index and course of labor. Methodology: The present study was conducted on 200 pregnant women admitted for labor and delivery. All patients were subjected to ultrasound examination and AFI was determined by four quadrant techniques and divided into 3 groups depending on the value of AFI. Results: 20% of women were in oligohydramnios group, 21% in borderline group and 59% in normal group. Thick meconium stained liquor was seen in 45% of oligohydramnios group, 14.2% in borderline group and 10.16% in normal group. 40 women in group I 30% had normal delivery, 12.5% instrumental and 57.5% cesarean delivery. In the 42 women in group II, 61.9% had normal delivery, 14.2% instrumental and 23.8% cesarean. Among the 118 women in group III 87.2% had normal delivery, 7.6% instrumental and 5.08% cesarean. Interpretation and conclusion: Incidence of cesarean delivery for fetal distress was 52.5% among oligohydramnios group in our study, a finding that is similar to most studies. As there are adverse outcomes in patients with borderline and low AFI values, there should be a close observation and antepartum surveillance for pregnant females. Intrapartum assessment of AFI supplements antepartum fetal assessment. AFI when used as an “admission test” in intrapartumperiod can categorize the fetuses into “high risk” and “low risk” depending on their susceptibility to fetal distress.

  24. James Outa, Nzula Kitaka and Julius Kipkemboi

    Lake Naivasha faces the challenge of nutrient enrichment and persistent floating aquatic macrophytes. The study aimed to determine seasonal changes in water quality and biomass of water hyacinth in Lake Naivasha. The changes in water hyacinth phytomass and values of physico-chemical parameters were measured fortnightly from September 2011 to January 2012 in three sites within the lake; Malewa River inlet, off wastewater treatment plant (WWT) - both with water hyacinth and an open water site. Sites with hyacinth mats had significantly low dissolved oxygen concentrations, low pH values, high concentration of total phosphorous (TP) and turbidity. TP increased seven fold while NH4-N and NO3-N increased at least thrice during the rainy season (November and December 2011) in Malewa and WWT sites. The highest hyacinth phytomass density (98 plants/m2) was recorded at the Malewa site in January. Live biomass of hyacinth changed form 13.2 tons/ha in September to 33.6 and 25 tons/ha at the WWT and Malewa sites respectively in January. Senesced biomass increased during the dry period (September and October 2011). In conclusion, increase in water hyacinth growth coincided with the period of significantly high nutrient concentrations in the lake during and soon after the rainy season.

  25. Ishan Ullah Khan, Widhi Dubey and Vedprakash Gupta

    It is believed that coriander originated from around the Mediterranean. Coriander (Coriandrum sativum L.) is an annual herb and, according to the climatic conditions, is cultivated as a summer or winter annual crop. At flowering, the glabrous plant can reach heights between 0.20 and 1.40 m. India has the prime position in the cultivation and production of coriander: The main coriander growing states in India are Andhra Pradesh, Rajasthan, Madhya Pradesh, Karnataka, Tamil Nadu and Uttar Pradesh. Rajasthan ranks first in coriander production which is mainly concentrated in Kota division. In addition to India, coriander is also cultivated in Morocco, Rumania, France, Spain, Italy, the Netherlands, Myanmar, Pakistan, Turkey, Mexico, Argentina and, to some extent, in the UK and the USA.

  26. Sabrina Naz, Nargis Mushfaqua, Sadia Afrin and Shah Md. Golam Gousul Azam

    The present work intended to study the potentiality of Azolla as a bio-fertilizer and as fish feed in a paddy cum fish culture unit. Results of three years study clearly showed in all replicatio and combination best performance was achieved in T3 (Azolla incorporation before and 50 days after transplanting). Puntius gonionotus (Thaiputi) and Oreochromis niloticus (Tilapia) both obtained their highest values of average weight and length in case of T3. The highest value of absolute growth and relative growth were always found in T3. Highest yield of Thaiputi and Tilapia were recorded in T3. Maximum total yield 6533 kg/ha, 7774 kg/ha and 8213 kg/ha were obtained from T3 after 360 days in 1st, 2nd and 3rd year. Straw yield due to T2 and T3 were significantly higher than T1 treated plot (T1-5026.5, 5337.5, 6097.5 kg/ha) and the highest straw yield was obtained from T3 treated plot in 1st and 2nd year (T3- 7196.3, 6105 and 7622.5 kg/ha) and T2 in 3rd year (T2 –600.95, 548 and 885.75kg/ha). Grain yield of BR-2 variety significantly varied (T1-4462.5, 4745, 4510 and T2- 5120, 5600, 5882.5 kg/ha). The highest grain yield of BR-2 variety (5405 kg/ha, 5970 kg/ha, 6379 kg/ha) was obtained with the treatment of T3.

  27. Dr. Mukesh Kumar Napit

    Damoh is a industrial city. High values of TDS, TH, chloride, alkalinity, calcium and magnesium were found in most of the groundwater samples of surrounding areas and effluent out -let samples of cement effluent treatment plant due to cement industries of damoh and improper treatment of cement effluent treatment plants. Though the CETPs are treating the effluent, the sonar and kopra rivers and the surrounding ground water quality gets deteriorated. This review critically analyses water pollution problems in Damoh, Madhya Pradesh, India.

  28. Nagarathna, N. M. and Krishnappa, M.

    Lakkavalli range forest is dry deciduous forest comes under bhadra wild life sanctuary. Rhizosphere soil samples were collected from Sida acuta and Centella asiatica and analyzed for diversity. Fungal species were enumerated by serial dilution method. Thirty six fungal species belonging to twenty one genera were recorded. Among these, 36 fungal species belonging to 21 genera from Sida acuta and 29 fungal species belonging to 17 genera from Centella asiatica soils and two non sporulating fungi were recorded from both soils. Among these, Aspergillus was the dominant in both soils followed by Penicillium and Trichoderma species. Occurrence of soil fungal diversity also depends on the season due to fluctuation in climate. Maximum fungal isolate were isolated during Nov to Dec 2009 minimum in Feb 2010. Soil pH, soil moisture and acidic condition of soil and vegetation type also influence on the fungal diversity.

  29. MOCHE Karine, DJIETO LORDON Champlain, MELIE FEYEM Marie Noel, TADU Zéphirin, NANA Paul Alain, FOKAM Zéphyrin, BRICHEUX Geneviève and WOIN Noé

    The performances of four lines of the NERICA variety and two varieties of the Oryzasativa species were evaluated by considering parameters such as the number of panicle per rice plant, the number of primary branches of the panicles, panicle length, the plant height, the number of grains and empty balls per panicle. It appears that O. sativa from Japan has a number of empty balls less than NERICA’s varieties from Africa. We also noted that O. sativa has the highest number of panicles per rice plant (a mean of 14.05 ± 6.14). However, the number of grains per panicle NERICA’s varieties was very high (a mean of 164 ± 38.82) and therefore they shows more attractive characters than Orysa sativa lines. The differences were statistically significant above all the parameters considered in both African and Japan rice studied. A significant correlation that was negative has been observed between the number of panicles per rice plant and the number of primary branches per panicle within the NERICA 9 variety (P <0.05). The correlation was highly significant and positive (P <0.001) between the number of primary branches per panicle and the number of grain per panicle. These results suggest another demonstration of the hybrid vigor of NERICA varieties.

  30. Dr. Sarika Manhas

    The present study was conducted to establish connectivity between marital adjustment and attitude towards women among married males of Kathua District. The sample comprised of 140 males (70 from joint families and 70 from nuclear families) in the age group of 30-40 years selected through random and purposive sampling technique. The objectives of the study were to assess level of marital adjustment of sample males; assess their attitude towards women; assess the interrelationship between the attitude held by the sample men towards women and their marital adjustment. The tools used for data collection were standardized Marital Adjustment Questionnaire and Attitude towards Women scale. Results reveal that majority of the sample males had ‘good’ to ‘very good’ marital adjustment. These men were usually satisfied with their marriage and had healthy relationship with their respective spouse. More husbands held moderate attitude towards women and usually acknowledged the role of women at home and outside. These men mostly favoured modern views towards women. There was no significant difference in the marital adjustment and attitude towards women among males of joint and nuclear families. Overall, for the sample males no significant correlation exists between their marital adjustment and attitude towards women. This trend of insignificant correlation between the two dimensions was found in joint families but in nuclear families and for men in 30-35 years age group this relationship was significant. Educational qualification of husbands is a significantly influencing factor for both Marital Adjustment as well as Attitude towards Women. Sex of the child / offspring is also a significant determining factor especially for Marital Adjustment of many sample males.

  31. Ponmani, S. and Udayasoorian, C.

    Major enzyme activities of vermicompost of papermill sludge by earthworm species Eudrilus eugeniae and its simple compost were assessed across different periods in relation to their respective initiative substrates. In this experiment, the vermibed was prepared from different raw material viz., Mixed Liquor Suspended Solids (MLSS) and Leaf Litter (LL) were mixed with Cow Dung (CD) mixed with different ratios. All vermibeds expressed a significant increase in enzyme activities. Overall, the maximum value of enzyme activities was received in CD + MLSS + LL in 1:1:2 ratios. Further, these differences in overall enzyme activity agree with the variation found in extracellular enzyme activity suggesting certain dependence on substrate availability.

  32. Arul Sheeba Rani, M. and Mary Josephine, R.

    India is urbanizing at a very fast pace. The enhancement of urban green spaces or urban green forests is one of the ways, which has the potential to mitigate the adverse effects of urbanization economic or environmental costs. Tress provide various benefits associated with air, water quality, building energy conservation, cooler air temperatures, reductions in ultraviolet radiation and many other environmental and social benefits. Trees have played an important role in human settlements throughout history. Natural forests with their complete canopy cover, large leaf areas and permeable soils handle rain water effectively through interception and infiltration, returning water to ground water and the atmosphere and protecting water quality in surface waterways. In the present study five trees were selected from the college campus and the physical parameters of the tree canopy soil were analysed and compared with the soil profile.

  33. Disha Jain and Dr. Jakir Hussain

    In India, urban water bodies commonly become cesspools due to lack of sanitation facilities. Delhi is continually urbanizing at a rapid pace that has affected the condition of water bodies. Hauz khas is an area which is located in South Delhi and the lake inside it is 700 year old. The pH in zone 2 was 9.6 and in zone 3 was 9.7 which showed the lake water is not suitable for irrigation, fish culture, outdoor bathing. It is very clear that the sewage effluent is the major source of nutrients in the lake and it was concluded that the current situation is not sustainable. The pH in two zones found maximum permissible limit. Turbidity also found maximum in all zone it may affect the ability of fish gills to absorb dissolved oxygen. Whereas, remaining parameters like ammonia, fluoride, chloride, total hardness, nitrate and boron all these parameters found within the limit as per IS: 2296: 1992 except DO and BOD. DO level in zone 3 and 4 was 9.45 mg/L and 7.93mg/L it showed the presence of high algal growth. BOD ranged from 10 to 64.9 mg/L. As results showed that the two zones of lake i.e. zone 3 and zone 4 is not suitable for bathing, irrigation purposes. Also, it is not suitable for aquatic life.

  34. Omar Elahcene

    Solids transport is a complex phenomenon; the intensity of this phenomenon varies greatly with the general environment: geology, degree of rock alteration, hydrology, vegetation, climate, etc. The extent of the phenomenon is out of proportion in semi-arid areas or areas with temperate climates. Algeria is one of the countries most affected by this phenomenon and its consequences. To enable a rapid response to demands from engineers for the quantification of bed load transport at the outlet of a catchment area, a simple tool easy to implement has been developed. The principle adopted is based on hydrometric data from gauging stations, seasonal and annual analyses have defined an appropriate method for estimating the sediment yield. This work presents a study of the sediment transport in the Wadi Ebda watershed. In order to understand the sedimentation dynamic in the watershed, an analysis is based on instantaneous flow data and the concentration of suspended sediments transported in the stream. The results obtained were quite satisfactory because the correlation coefficients of the model Qs= f (Ql) are between77% and 84%. This method once refined can be generalized to all the watersheds of northern Algeria. In addition, the results show that the annual average of specific degradation is about 809 t km-2 year-1. This value is comparable to those found in other regions with similar hydrologic regimes.

  35. Dr. D. Uma Maheswara Rao

    The High Altitude and Tribal area is situated in Eastern Ghats of Andhra Pradesh, which are a series of broken hills and ridges raising up to an altitude of 50 to 1680 m above mean sea level. There are 33 scheduled tribes inhabited in the area and the major groups are being savara, bhagata, jatapu, valmiki, konda dora, koya, kondu etc. This study presents a list of Indigenous Technical Knowledge (ITKs) of the tribal farmers adopted in their farm operations. The study gives a strategy for higher adoption of ITKs and their blended technologies.

  36. Vikraman Nair, G., Joseph John, Ragi P. R. and Anil Kumar, N.

    Trichoderma asperellum is a fungus belongs to the order Hypocreales and used as bio-control agent in the management of various microbial diseases affecting agriculture crops. The colonies of Trichoderma asperellum is commonly isolated from soil which forms its natural environment. T. asperelllum has versatile nutrient requirements and different carbon sources could be used for its growth. In the present study two tuber crop varieties belong to Dioscorea alata, a medicinal herb (Stevia rebaudiana) and cashew apple have been tested for their efficacy to support the growth of this fungus. It was found that the medium prepared out of Dioscorea alata (Yam Dextrose Agar- YDA-1) supports the growth of T. asperullum by 2.75±0.5x109 cfu/ml, YDA-2 which was prepared from another variety of yam provides the growth of T. asperellum by 4±1.63X109cfu/ml, Stevia medium gave 3.75±0.95x109 cfu/ml growth of T. asperellum and cashew apple supported the growth of T.asperellum by 3±0.18X109 cfu/ml. Commonly using culture medium for the production of Trichoderma is Potato Dextrose medium which provides 2±0.81x109cfu/ml. From these studies it is obvious that Stevia medium, Yam Dextrose medium and Cashew apple medium can be used as the food source for the growth of T. asperellum. Through this endeavor three new cost effective media were developed which can be used as nutrient provider for the mass multiplication of T. asperellum which leads to significant reduction in the cost of bio control product.

  37. Arvind Sharma, Meena Bakshi, Vandna Krishna and Vinod Ram

    An ever increasing demand of uniform medicinal plants based medicines warrants their mass propagation through plant tissue culture strategy. Tissue culture technology is potent and has opened extensive areas of research for biodiversity conservation. Tissue culture protocols have been developed for a wide range of medicinal plants, which includes endangered, rare and threatened plant species, Bacopa monnieri L. is in among these. We studied the effects of various treatment of growth regulators with MS medium on shoot and root induction from auxiliary bud of Bacopa monnieri L., collected from Forest Research Institute and Biotechnology Nursery, Prem Nagar, Dehradun. Growth hormones at different combinations brought out remarkable variations in shoot and root induction, respective length and their survivability. Maximum shoot length, % survivability and minimum days for bud induction were observed in BAP 0.40mg/l, with MS medium, whereas maximum root length % survivability and minimum days taken for root induction were observed in 0.4 mg/l IAA with MS medium.

  38. Kannappan, T. and Amutha, C.

    An attempt was made to study the meiobenthic community composition, density, richness, evenness and diversity of Manakudy estuary, south west coast of India, during February 2010 to January 2012. Thirty seven (37) species were identified in the present investigation. Foraminiferans are dominated group of all over the estuary and represented by Ammonia beccarii, Lagena semistriata, Rosalina globularis, Eponides repandus and Globigerinoides sp., The second dominated population group of nematodes was represented by Daptonema conicum, Desmoscolex sp., Halalaimus sp., Theristus sp. and Viscosia sp. Third dominated harpacticoids copepods population was represented by Euterpina acutifrons, Macrosetella sp. and Microsetella sp., Ostrocodes population was represented by Cypridina sp. and Cyprideis sp. Abundance of foraminiferans is concentrated at station I, II, III and IV. Organic pollution indicator Daptonema conicum fairly dominated at station I, II and III. The maximum abundance of meio benthic organisms recorded from station III and minimum at the station IV.

  39. Raad A. Al-Tamimi and Abdullah M. Alaswd

    This work was conducted to assess chemical composition of deep wells water, in Al-Bewanees region, south of Libya, to clarify its suitability for drinking and domestic uses. Obtained results indicate that all studied samples have been neutral to very slightly acid pH, within the optimum range for drinking water. Most samples had high salt content. Sodium was the dominant cation in the entire samples, and its concentrations in most samples were above than the upper critical limit suggested by WHO and Libyan guidelines for drinking water. Potassium was found in high concentrations, presenting second cation, followed by calcium then magnesium, which was the lowest. Sulphate was the dominant anion in all samples, except one which showed chloride dominancy. Trace ions and phosphate were found in low concentrations. Ammonium and nitrate were undetectable. Only one sample showed high hardness, while the rest were soft. Langlier index values suggest that some samples have potential for corrosion. Apart from samples No.5 and 12 which can be used after correction of calcium and magnesium concentrations, the rest were unsuitable for drinking and household uses.

  40. Sujana, G. and Harinatha Reddy, A.

    The code has two classes, the first one named Dynamic Programming.cs and the second named Cell. cs. I will discuss the details of Dynamic Programming.cs class in the following lines because it describes the main idea of my article. The first class contains three methods that describe the steps of dynamic programming algorithm. The first method is named Intialization_Step, this method prepares the matrix a(i,j) that holds the similarity between arbitrary prefixes of the two sequences. The algorithm starts with shorter prefixes and uses previously computed results to solve the problem for larger prefixes. The second method named Get_Maxcomputes the value of the cell (j,i) by the Equation 1. The third method is named Traceback_Step. This method will produce the alignment by traversing the cell matrix (N-1,M-1) back towards the initial entry of the cell matrix (1,1).

  41. Jemma Hermelin Jesy Diaz., Thilaga, R.D. and Mary Baptista Janet, S.

    Anticancer activity of crude and partially purified fractionated ink of S.pharaonis (cuttlefish) was evaluated on HepG2 cancer cell line. Different concentration (125µg, 250µg and500µg) of crude and fractionated ink were prepared and the cell viability was measured using MTT assay. Crude ink exhibit significant cytotoxic activity at all concentration. Cytotoxicity increases as the concentration of the sample increases from 125µg to 500µg. Maximum toxicity of 64% was observed at 500µg/ml concentration and IC 50 value obtained at a concentration of 125µg. Anticancer analysis of protein fractionated ink showed potent cytotoxic activity against Hep G2 liver cell line and the toxicity ranged between 56%- 74%. Analysis of fractionated ink resulted in cell death at a concentration of <125. Results indicate that the extracts had a dose dependent inhibitory effect on the growth of the HepG2 liver cell line and the toxicity was higher in the protein fractionated ink of cuttlefish when compared with crude ink. Therefore proteins of cuttlefish ink can be targeted for therapies.

  42. Folorunso and Abayomi Ezekiel

    Foliar epidermal characters and petiole anatomy of four underutilized Annona species in Nigeria were studied to facilitate identification of this novel source of fruits and also to bring the awareness of Annona fruits to the populace. Annona species being multipurpose trees have high nutritional value as a food and are sources of medicinal and industrial products. Petiole anatomy of the Annona species was undertaken using Light Microscope (LM), the foliar micromorphological study of the species of Annona was undertaken using Light Microscope (LM) and Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM). More anatomical characters which are of taxonomic value include smooth cuticular membrane, epidermal cells polygonal and occasionally isodiametric, stomatal cells paracytic, stomatal cells hypostomatic, guard cell shape elliptic and presence of peristomatal rim in all the Annona species. The nature of the anticlinal wall, cuticular wax granules, stomatal pore visibility, petiole outline, type of vascular bundle and crystal type are the notable endomorphological characters that provided useful specific distinctions.

  43. Meena Deswal and Laura, J.S.

    The seeds were raised in earthen pots lined with polyethylene bags and filled with washed river sand. Thirty days after sowing (DAS), the plants were treated with 3mM and 6mM Cd2+ solution. Sampling of plants was done at 7-8 days intervals starting from 30 DAS of the crop till its maturity. Major morphological changes that occurred in cadmium treatment plants were: Early yellowing of leaves and their subsequent abscission, browning and bending of stem, swelling at the base of stem, increase in secondary branches, early flowering, smaller leaves per plant, fewer pods, fever seeds per pod and smaller seeds. Plant height, leaf area, and dry weight also decreased in Cd2+ treated plants and were concentration dependent. The effect of Cd2+ was more pronounced during the vegetative phase. Dry matter accumulation was severely affected under cadmium treatment, control plants accumulated dry matter at much faster rate during the vegetative phase, 53.2%, the corresponding values for cadmium treatments were much less i.e. 34.6% and 29.5% for 3mM Cd2+ and 6mM Cd2+ respectively. Dry matter Harvest Index (HI) were reduced at higher cadmium concentration (6mM Cd2+), however plants treated with 3mM Cd2+ exhibit a higher HI than the control. Cd2+ accumulation was more at 6mM Cd2+ however it was not proportional to concentration, as Cd2+ content per plant organ was comparable in 3mM and 6mm treated plants, but Cd2+ content per unit dry weight was higher in 6mM Cd2+ treated plants. Seeds accumulated 26-40 ug Cd g-1 dry weight.

  44. Ausama Abed Alkadhum Alajeely, Rubina Lawrence, Ebenezer Jeyakumar and Navodita G. Maurice

    252 blood samples collected from patients of different localities of Allahabad region were found to be positive for typhoid fever when tested by Widal test. The causative agentSalmonella species were cultured from the blood samples and then were identified by using standard procedures. The isolates were identified as S. typhi, S. paratyphiA, S. typhimurium and S. bongori. Age, socio-economic status and seasonal variations were identified as significant risk factors associated with incidence of Salmonella infection. Blood samples were collected from both males and females belonging to the age groups from ˂1 to 50 years where the infection rate of typhoid fever was found to be higher among children. Socio-economic strata showed difference in incidence of Salmonella species with the low category showed highest number of isolates. Peak period of typhoid fever was found in June while a lower peak was noted in the month of November.

  45. Vinoth, A. and Ramachandra Prabu, S.

    The present study deals with the various fishing gears adopted for fishery purpose used by the Pulicat marine fishermen during the period of May 2013-April 2014. During the study time, five different kinds of gears were observed and dominant catch were caught using the purse seine net and Gill net, that means 90 % of the total catch were caught by these nets and Others fishing gears contribute only few percent of the total catch. The highest catch recorded during the period of August and September.

  46. Kiruthiga, N. and Sathish Sekar, D.

    Cancer is a leading cause of deaths in developing as well as developed countries. Four most frequent serious cancers identified are lung, breast, colorectal and stomach. The currently available chemotherapy agents have drawbacks like sever side effect, poor solubility and non-specificity. In the present study, the anticancer activity of ethanol extracts of Anisochilus carnosus was checked against lung cancer A549 cell lines. The ethanol extract of Anisochilus carnosus showed dose dependent response against the human lung cancer A549 cells. Furthermore, the ethanol extract Anisochilus carnosus induced apoptotic cell death in the A549 lung cancer cells through generation of enhanced reactive oxygen species and altered mitochondrial membrane potential. Moreover, the isolated ethanol extract of Anisochilus carnosus steroid active compounds stigmasterol and β-sitosterol was docked with Bcl-2 protein. The steroid active compound stigmasterol and β-sitosterol displays high affinity to Bcl-2 protein. In conclusion, the ethanol extract of Anisochilus carnosus could be a novel anticancer agent.

  47. Vasanta Bhanu, K., Satyanarayana Reddy, P. and Satyanarayana, J.

    Experiments were conducted to assess the antibiosis mechanism of resistance viz., nymphal survival, development period, growth index, fecundity and hatchability of brown planthopper (BPH), Nilaparvata lugens on some selected resistant rice cultures. The rice cultures viz., WGL II 218-5-1, Ptb 33 and RGL 7001 recorded significantly lowest per cent of nymphal survival than susceptible check, TN1. Significantly prolonged development period of BPH nymphs was observed in rice culture MTU IJ 206-7-4-1, MTU PLA 99-1-3-1-2, WGL II 218-5-1 and resistant check, Ptb 33 than susceptible check, TN1. All the tested rice cultures registered 1.31 to 6.37 time’s lower growth index than the susceptible check TN1. Growth index was significantly lowest in the rice cultures viz., WGL II 218-5-1, Ptb 33 and RGL 7001. Fecundity was significantly lowest on MTU IJ 206-7-4-1 and MTU 1075. The per cent hatchability of eggs was significantly lowest in MTU PLA 99-1-3-1-2.

  48. Choubey, B. K., Srinivasa Murthy, K., Jalali, S. K. and Venkatesan, T.

    The In vitro studies were carried out at 26+1oC and 65% to determine the optimum host-parasitoid ratio for the diamondback moth, Plutella xylostella and its endolarval parasitoid Cotesia vestalis. A single female of C, vestalis has the potential to parasitise 100 larvae effectively with 80.0 to 86.0 % parasitism, during an average female longevity of 12.9 days. The mean adult emergence was 88.56%, Mass production of the parasitoid would therefore be more effective with a host parasitoid ratio of 100 larvae : 1 female parasitoid. Field evaluation of the ratio would determine the dosage for inundative releases of the parasitoid for effective suppression of Plutella xylostella.

  49. Guru Prasad, G. R., Naik, M. K., Sudha, S., Hari Kishan Sudini and Chennappa, G.

    A total of 13 Aspergillus isolates were collected from different regions of North Eastern parts of Karnataka. Thirteen isolates varied in radial growth from 80-85 mm. Eight isolates produced sclerotia with minimum number (26 cm-2) produced by AF4 isolate and maximum number (119 cm-2) by AF13. They were inoculated on ripened chilli fruits using pin-prick method. Thirteen isolates varied in aflatoxin production from 99.96 to 1639.10 µg/kg as determined by ELISA. AF10 isolate produced maximum potency of 1639.80 µg/kg followed by AF3 with 1195.80 µg/kg and the least production of 99.96 µg/kg was noticed in AF13. All the 13 isolates were amplified for ITS region and were sequenced. Identity of the isolates was confirmed with sequences of NCBI data base of Aspergillus flavus. Further, aflatoxin producing biosynthetic genes were amplified by using two specific primers set AFL and FLA and were confirmed as aflatoxin producing isolates of A. flavus.

  50. Tamal Mondal and Dali Majumder

    Medicinal plants are associated with the local heritage all over the World. These plants are used as traditional medicines for human healthcare. This practice is very common among the local peoples of Bangaon Subdivision, North 24 Paraganas District of West Bengal. Ethno-botanical study as well as taxonomic documentation of medicinal plants now a days are very important tool for the protection of intellectual property right (IPR).In this field survey, information was collected from traditional practitioners of that area and documentation was made from this. It is found that 31 plants belonging to 26 families and their herbal preparation are used as potent medicine to treat various disease and disorders of common peoples.

  51. Mohammed Suad Ibrahim, Haider Hasan Rgb, Ziadoon Fawzi Mukhlif and Santhi Rekha

    Most of drugs designed to act on the target gp-120 which is the surface part of the envelope glycoprotein (Env) of HIV_1. The HIV_1 inter to the cell by temporary interaction between the viral exterior glycoprotein GP120 and human CD4 receptor. Binding to CD4 stimulate the start of a cascade of conformational changes in gp120 and gp41 that lead to the fusion of the viral with the host cell membrane. Three gp120s and gp41s combine in a trimer of heterodimers to form the envelope spike, which mediates attachment to and entry into the host cell. The binding of ligand to many cell surface receptors leads to intracellular signaling molecules termed as second messengers. Stimulation of some GPCRs and other cell-surface receptors leads to activation of secondary messengers. Blocking the CD 4 receptor access to GP 120 of HIV_1 halts Antigen presentation process at crucial step in those cell lines (CD4+/T Helper) .Attempts are made to control this. Here in this project an SCFV fragment was studied for its ability to block CD4 receptor in such a way that gp120 (HIV_1) could not get access to CD 4 receptor.

  52. Rimzhim Gogoi and Umesh, C. Goswami

    The Fulton’s condition factor (K) and relative condition factor (Kn) of the cyprinid Amblypharyngodon mola collected from the culture ponds of Jorhat district, Assam was studied during July 2010 to June 2012. The study was carried out in relation to various length groups and different months of the year. The regression coefficient ‘b’ computed from the length-weight data of 260 females and 310 males was 2.846 for male and 3.286 for female. The values of ‘K’ fluctuated between a minimum of 0.824 and maximum of 1.039 for males, while for females, the values were between 0.879 to 1.184. On the other hand, the ‘Kn’ values showed variation between 1.315 to 1.943 in male and 1.642 to 3.473 in females. The high average ‘Kn’ values and ‘K’ values recorded for all the months indicated good condition of the fish.

  53. Niels Alvaro Menezes, Deepshikha Seth and Srushti Vasuki

    Objective: The objective of the study was to identify novel lead compounds active against Interleukin-17 pathway that could reduce the effect of Rheumatoid Arthritis. Methods: Work was done on the IL17 (PDB ID: 4HR9) protein. Protein minimization and active site prediction was carried out using CHARMm algorithm on Discovery Studio. Compounds from plant and animal sources having immunosuppressant, anti-TNF and anti-inflammatory properties as well as standard drugs active against Rheumatoid Arthritis were identified. ADMET studies were done. Protein-Ligand Docking was done using Lead IT. The best results were chosen based on their e-values. Results: Probable drugs effective against Rheumatoid Arthritis were identified from various plant and animal sources based on lowest e-value and compared with the FDA approved standard drugs. Conclusion: The use of various natural compounds as probable drugs could reduce the effects of Rheumatoid Arthritis. QSAR and molecular dynamics can be done on the best compounds chosen as probably drugs and further experimental analysis can be carried out.

  54. Nagendra, K., Akshay Kumar R. and Ramachandran, H. D.

    The current research is to investigate the antioxidant activity of different doses of Garcina Indica against gamma irradiation oxidative damage in the liver tissue with caused single dose of 6Gy. The Malondialdehyde (MDA), Cu,Zn-superoxide dismutase (Cu,Zn-SOD) and selenium-dependent glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) are currently considered to be basic markers of oxidative stress. MDA is one of the end-products of the peroxidation of membrane lipids, whereas enzymes Cu,Zn-SOD and GSH-Px belong to the natural antioxidants. The mice were divided into five group with twenty mice each, the group one was with 5mg/kg and group two with 10mg/kg of Garcina Indica extract, and the third group was injected with an isotonic Nacl solution, the fourth group was injected only with Garcina Indica and the fifth was observed as control. Following with a time span of 30 minutes, 6Gy total body irradiation was given to groups one to three in a single dose. The activities were measured in all groups for MDA, SOD and GSH-Px, total body irradiation results in increase in the liver tissue MDA levels and a decrease of SOD and GSH-Px activities and it shows that liver tissue MDA levels in irradiated mice that were pre treated with Garcina Indica were decreased significantly, where SOD and GSH-Px activities were significantly increased. Thus the reported result suggests that Garcina Indica administration prior to irradiation may prevent liver damage by irradiation.

  55. Anitha, T. and Mary Josephine, R.

    Green leafy vegetables are valuable in maintaining alkaline reserve in the body is valued mainly for their high vitamin, dietary fiber and mineral contents. Dry leaf extract of Sesbania grandiflora (L.) Pers was evaluated for mineral compositions like potassium, phosphorus, calcium, magnesium, iron and sodium. The mineral compositions obtained suggests that the leaves as a cheap source of minerals and can be incorporated into human diet to meet their recommended daily allowances.

  56. Asma, M. and Lingakumar, K.

    Salicylic acid (SA) is a growth regulator that promotes growth of plants under stress and non stress conditions. The present study was conducted to determine the effect of foliar applications of salicylic acid (SA) on enzyme activity of Vigna mungo (L.) Hepper. SA was applied at five different concentrations (50ppm, 100ppm, 150ppm, 200ppm 250ppm) during the growth period of 15 days old Vigna seedling. Activities of antioxidant enzymes such as catalase (CAT), nitrate reductase activity (NRA), peroxidase (POD) polyphenoloxidase (PPO) and superoxide dismutase (SOD) were determined in the fresh leaves obtained from 15days old seedlings. Foliar applied SA caused a significant increase in leaf SOD and POD activity. However, leaf CAT activity was decreased with all SA treated plants compare to control plants.

  57. Mohture, V. M. and Kalkar, S. A.

    An outdoor survey of air borne fungal spores was conducted at two different sites at Nagpur, India viz., semiurban (site I) and urban (site II), during February 2006 to January 2007 using Rotorod air sampler. Aeromycoflora was observed throughout the year but their percentage of occurrence varies due to meteorological factors. A total of 56 fungal types were recorded from a total catch of 65,480 spores/m3 of air from site I. The percentage of taxonomic groups of fungi was Ascomycotina (1.71%), Basidiomycotina (8.16%) and Deuteromycotina (90.13%). Among them, Cladosporium (34.21%) was the most dominant fungal type followed by Alternaria (20.25%), Nigrospora (12.87%), Aspergilli (6.96%), Curvularia (5.74%) and Smuts (4.98%).While from site II, 46 fungal types were recorded from total 34,720 spores/m3. Four major groups namely Mastigomycotina (0.27%), Basidiomycotina (12.23%), Ascomycotina (1.99%), Deuteromycotina (85.51%) were observed. The major fungal types in the order of dominance were Cladosporium (33.15%), Alternaria (21.36%), Nigrospora (8.90%), Smuts (8.89%), Aspergilli (6.13%) and Curvularia (4.95%). The occurrence of fungal spores was correlated with climatic conditions. An attempt was made to forecast atmospheric fungal concentration in the study area.

  58. Kakkalameli, S. B. and Taranath, T. C.

    The experiments were conducted to study the morphological and biochemical responses of Salvinia molesta Mitchell to different concentrations of Chromium exposed for 12 days. The data on Morphological and Biochemical parameters were recorded at the interval of 4 days. Test plant showed visible symptoms such as chlorosis and withering of roots at higher concentrations of Chromium however, the normal growth was observed at lower concentration of 0.25 and 0.50 ppm. Total chlorophyll, carbohydrate and protein content increased at lower concentration and decreased at higher concentration compared to control. Proline accumulation in test plants and directly proportional to the concentration of Chromium which was due to the stress induced by Chromium. The toxicity of Chromium was found to be directly proportional to its concentration and duration of exposure.

  59. Mahesh Anand Goudar, Jayadevappa, H., Mahadevan, K.M., Shastry, R. A. and Sayeswara, H. A.

    Habenaria intermedia D.Don. (Orchidaceae) is commonly known as Vrddhi in Indian system of medicine. The purpose of the study was to assess the effects ethyl acetate and ethynolic extracts of tubers of Habenaria intermedia against Carbon tetrachloride (CCl4, 0.7 ml/kg.p.o. in liquid paraffin 1:1, i.p.) induced hepatotoxicity in rats. The hepatoprotecitve effect of extracts was evaluated by the assay of liver function and biochemical parameters such as SGOT, SGPT, SALP, serum bilirubin and cholesterol. Ethyl acetate and ethanol extracts (100 and 200 mg/kg p.o) exhibited significant (p<0.001), hepatoprotecitve activity by restoration of increased levels of serum bilrubin, cholesterol and enzymes in CCl4 induced hepatotoxic animals compared to the normal and the standard drug Silymarin treated groups. Histopathlogical studies of liver sections of animals treated with extract showed regeneration of hepatocyts, absence of necrosis and fatty infiltration, which further give evidence for the hepatoprotecitve activity.

  60. Kumarran, R. P. and Kathiresan, K.

    Occurrence of pseudo-stalked barnacle in spinner dolphin and bottlenose dolphin from Chennai is reported here. Earlier report on the host bottlenose dolphin is revised in the light of present taxonomy. This is the first report of spinner dolphins as host in the Northern Indian Ocean and further studies are required to use them as natural biological tags for identifying wild cetaceans.

  61. Keshav Thakur, Er Pooja Gupta and Dr.Kuldip Pahwa

    In today’s world all the imaging data or information is processed and stored in a digital form. The digital imaging used in many applications like forensic imaging, medical imaging and computer graphics etc. The image is first captured by the hardware and then converted into digital form and stored in memory device. The digital images are represented and stored in the form of square pixel. The square pixel image is formed by using the average of square area of smaller square pixel. Another form to digitize an image is hexagonal pixel. The hexagonal pixel structure is preferred over the square pixel structure, due to its advantages like angular resolution, higher quantization error and less aliasing effect. In this paper, firstly picture quality of image using hexagonal pixel structure is reviewed. Another contribution in this paper is comparison between various edge detection techniques on square pixel structure, hexagonal pixel structure and enhanced hexagonal pixel structure using Gaussian filter. The experimental result shows that the image edge detection significantly reduces the amount of data and filters out useless information.

  62. Bushra. K.H. Al-Maiyaly

    Cadmium oxide (CdO) thin films have been deposited on glass substrate at R.T (300 K) by thermal oxidation with exist air. All samples were exposed to Gamma –Ray (γ – rays) source type (Cs 137) with energy (0.611MeV) for different irradiation time (2, 4 and 6) hours. In this study determines the effect of irradiation by (γ – rays) at different time on the structural, optical properties of as deposited films. X-ray techniques were used to characterize structural properties which indicate the formation of polycrystalline cubic CdO phase with preferential orientation along (111) plane. However, intensity of all peaks increases after irradiation which indicates that the crystallinity increases with increasing irradiation time. The transmission and absorptions spectrum of the films as a function of wavelengths in the range (300-1100) nm were used to study the optical properties before and after irradiation. The optical constants such as absorption coefficient, refractive index, extinction coefficient, real and imaginary parts of the dielectric constant and the electrical conductivity were investigated and calculated.

  63. Kalyani Patil and Vijay Patil

    In this paper, DIS technique is demonstrated. DIS is projected to stably eliminate the nonessential shaking phenomena in the image sequences captured by cameras without the influence caused by moving object in the image or intentional motion. Local Motion Vector estimation method is used Sum Of absolute difference (SAD) technique. Local motion vectors (LMV) of an image sequence are calculated. Image sequence of LMV is used for DIS Method, which is based on the Hilbert–Huang transform (HHT) is projected. The HHT has been successfully employed in applications for disaggregating signals into smaller portions with specific features (e.g., biomedical applications). For DIS, local motion vectors of an image sequence are measured, and they are controlled by the HHT in order to express both signals. The original signal is divided into a number of waveforms, called intrinsic mode functions (IMFs), using the process of empirical mode decomposition. Hilbert transform is useful to each IMF so that the energy content could be chosen. The real Signal is divided into a number of waveforms, called intrinsic mode functions (IMFs), using the process of empirical mode decomposition.

  64. Amir F.Dawood, AL-Niaimi, Sura M.Mirza and Sehar K.Sadoon

    Pure and Cr2O3 –doped polyvinyl alcohol (Cr2O3 –PVA) composite films with different Cr2O3 concentrations were prepared by solution cast technique. FTIR spectra comparison shows that the Cr2O3 molecules are interstitially distributed among polyvinyl alcohol chains, i.e., there is no chemical bonding between the Cr2O3 and polymer at the specified conditions of the research. The optical properties (absorption, transmission, refraction index, extinction coefficient, real and imaginary parts of the dielectric constant) for the samples are investigated at room temperature in wave length range of (190- 1100) nm. The optical band gap (Eg) for allowed direct transition decrease with increase the concentration of Cr2O3 from 5.53 eV for pure PVA to 4.72,2.62 and 2.38 eV for 5%,10%,and 15% respectively.

  65. Canmlkurbey, B., Akça, B. and Erzeneoğlu, S. Z.

    Measurements have been made to identify modification of the γ-ray transmission factors of various construction materials according to percentage increasing concentration of borax and Kestelek boron waste by using a narrow-beam-geometry at 59.5 keV. Photons passed through different samples were detected with a very sensitive Si(Li) detector. We have made to investigate experimental results and these results discussed in this paper.

  66. Monika Saini and Ashish Kumar

    The main concentration of this paper is to suggestmodified exponential type unbiased ratio and product estimators using auxiliary attribute in simple random sampling. A comparative analysis of efficiency is carried out between suggested and existing estimators theoretically as well as numerically.

  67. Syed Suaib Naushad, Alok Milton Lall and Amit Alexander Charan

    This research established the presence of toxic metals in the river fauna for a follow up study to determine how the human and aquatic lives have been affected by accumulation of metals. All of their sewage - over 1.3 billion liters per day - goes directly into the Ganga and Yamuna river, along with thousands of animal carcasses, mainly cattle (Bharadwaj et al., 2011).The objectives of this paper were to illustrate the distribution and levels of sediment contamination by heavy metals in the Allahabad city, and to compare recent data with those collected during the early 2001. The metals As, Cd, Ni, Cu, Fe, Pb, Co, Ni and Zn were chosen because of their abundance and toxic effects in the environment of highly industrialized and urbanized areas. The pollutants, which do not remain in water column or solution, could be absorbed rapidly by particulate matters and thereby they also could escape any detection by water monitoring schemes (Meiggs, 1980). Some heavy metals like Cd, Cu, Fe, Ni and Pb were determined in water. Four reaches of the river from Yamuna (river-km 1112) upstream from Sangam to Arail Ghat (river-km 851) downstream from the Allahabad. The total mean value were in the order of Fe > Co > Ni> Cu >Pb. The metal concentrations (mean ± standard deviation (SD) in μg/g dry weight) were Fe, 42.03 ± 1.11; Cu, 5.82 ± 0.21; and Pb, 0.44 ± 0.02.

  68. Pavan Kumar, G .V. S. R. and Rama Krishna, K.

    Seasonal variation in the physico chemical parameters, water quality assessment using WQI method, irrigation water quality assessment and heavy metal analysis was reported in the present paper by the authors. The work is carried out for the water samples collected from Denkada anicut of Vizianagaram district of Andhra Pradesh, India. The samples were collected and analyzed for eleven different seasons such as August 2010, December 2010, April 2011, August 2011, December 2011, April 2012, August 2012, December 2012, April 2013, August 2013 and December 2013. All the physico- chemical parameters analyzed were compared with IS: 10500 standards and found to be well within the values prescribed. It was found that the quality of the water samples was rated as excellent with respect to the water quality index (WQI) calculations. The parameters such as SAR, RSC, %Na and Mg hazard were also found to well within the prescribed standard values. Inferring that the water is suitable and rated as Good for irrigation and agricultural purpose. From the ICP analysis report it was found that except Si all other metals analyzed were below detection limits.

  69. Alfind Paul Frit Arulraj, Deepalakshmi Kanagarajan, Prithivikumaran Natarajan and Jeyakumaran Natarajan

    The lead thin films were deposited onto amorphous glass substrate using a vacuum thermal deposition technique by varying annealing time to study its oxidation behaviour. The XRD pattern clearly exhibited the phase changes in accordance with the annealing time and reaches the menopause of PbO at a maximum annealing time. The surface morphology, particle size and uniformity of the films were ascribed from SEM micrograms. The change in surface morphology or topography with the function of oxidation time was observed from amplitude and functional parameters. The optical UV-Vis spectra showed that the directly allowed transitions band gap values were decreased due to the rise of annealing time. The functional groups were analysed by using FT-IR techniques.

  70. Mrs. Kavitha, S. and Dr. Hanumanthappa, M.

    Sign Language Recognition System is one of the most growing researches today. Many new Techniques are having been developed recently in the field of Sign Language Recognition. This system becomes popular because it is only one of the efficient way through which the deaf and dumb people can convey their message to other people. The main aim of this paper is to present a survey of the various techniques used for image mining techniques for the Indian Sign Language Recognition given by different researchers.

  71. Mrs. Kavitha, S. and Dr. Hanumanthappa, M.

    Sign Language Recognition System is one of the most growing researches today. Many new Techniques are having been developed recently in the field of Sign Language Recognition. This system becomes popular because it is only one of the efficient way through which the deaf and dumb people can convey their message to other people. The main aim of this paper is to present a survey of the various techniques used for image mining techniques for the Indian Sign Language Recognition like Histogram equlization, Neural Networks, RGB color Segmentation techniques etc., given by different researchers.

  72. Viriri Piason, Makurudze, S., Chufama, M. and Anna Mangezi

    The aim of the study was to explore how sports sponsorship impact on building company image. Benefits such as creating long lasting relationships with the stakeholders as well as the community and building company image are also discussed. Challenges of sports sponsoring are also considered such as inappropriate image conveyed by sports entities as well as ambush marketing. The last objective of the study assessed attitudes of spectators towards the sponsorship .In carrying out the study, the researcher used a descriptive research design with 150 respondents who were grouped as 70 management and 80 spectators chosen at a football match. Management were selected using judgmental sampling technique and spectators were selected using systematic sampling. Primary and secondary data were used. Conclusions were based on results from questionnaires and interviews. Findings of the research confirm that sponsorship objectives vary depending on the sponsored entity and these include enhancing brand image, increasing market share , sales growth and also to generate visibility and publicity. The results indicate that sports sponsorship can be used as a tool for building brand image of a company. The researcher recommends companies to use sports sponsorship as it has a positive impact on building company image as well as increasing sales and encouraging loyalty from customers thereby increasing purchasing intention. Companies are also recommended to select a sports entity that best suits their products and services.

  73. Oluwole Samuel Akintoye and Adeoye, Jelili Adewale

    Interrogative construction in Yoruba has been widely discussed by the scholars of Yoruba. Our observation is that though the structures of interrogative construction in Yoruba language and Èkìtì dialect are identical. The only area of difference is that question markers in interrogative construction in Èkìtì are fewer than what we have in Yoruba language. This paper examines the mechanism for derivation of interrogative construction in Èkìti dialect. It also claims that interrogative marker is not completely absent in the dialects of Yoruba. Considering what operates in Èkìtì dialect of Yoruba.

  74. Koyel Sam

    Today the cities and towns of developing countries are experiencing a rapid population growth, In India, currently 31.18% of population (census of India, 2011) lives in urban centers, while in the next 15 years it is projected around 35%, and this indicates the alarming rate of population growth of urban centers. One of the important features of population growth in in urban area in India is dualism - urban population growth at macro level is decelerating but in class I cities it is growing. The alarming rate of population growth of urban centers when proceeds towards saturation, a population engulf took place towards its adjoining areas. Due to huge influx of rural to urban migration, unorganized urban sprawl has occurred around the cities and towns. The Present study an attempt to focus on spatio-temporal dynamics of population growth in Barddhaman Planing Area (BPA), under which class-I growing urban center Barddhaman is delineated. To address the 80 year change of population both in absolute and relative terms, absolute growth rate and system component growth of population has been analyzed. Finally this work concludes with future trends of population growth with suggestions for sustainable planning.

  75. Hajeeran Beevi. N., Sivakumar. S. and Vasanthi, R.

    The Effects of Industrial Effluents in Ground Water – Tiruchirappalli Corporation. The Tiruchirappalli Corporation in Tiruchirappalli district of Tamil Nadu was chosen as the study area. Tiruchirappalli is one of the special grade municipal corporation towns of TamilNadu. It is the first biggest town in Tiruchirappalli district with a population above 24 lakhs (27, 18, 366, and 2011). The software Like Arc GIS are used to demarcate the Effects of Industrial Effluents In Ground Water Tiruchirappalli Corporation. Tiruchirappalli town is located in the central part of Tamil Nadu State in India. It is bounded by Thanjavur, Pudukkottai and Perambalur Districts of TamilNadu. It is situated 10˚0N to 11˚30’ North latitude and 77˚45’E to 78˚50’ East longititude. It is located about 325 kilometers away from Chennai. Tiruchirappalli is situated on the banks of the River Cauvery. In the present study the pollution status of chosen villages are in the following decreasing order. Tiruvalarchipatti > Sempattu > Kundur > Ayanpatti> Ayanputhoor > Mathur. However, ground water quality of Tiruvalarchipatti has been severely affected. Among the parameters tested the levels of TA, TH, CL, TDS, are highly varying.

  76. Alemu Leta, Mohammed Adem, Dessalegn Beyene and Habtamu Worku

    The World Trade Organization (WTO) has played a great role in the development of international trade in agriculture. Before its establishment, trade in agriculture has been distorted and not liberalized. Nonetheless, due to the effect of the Uruguay Round Agreement on Agriculture (AOA), trade in agriculture has been fully liberalized. However, despite its establishment, one could observe several drawbacks in fully realizing the benefits from being part of it. This is particularly seen with developing countries which have been caught between the need for developing their agricultural base on the one hand and unable to secure the benefits from their membership on the other hand. The main objective of this article is, therefore, to examine the implications of WTO for the agricultural sector of developing countries with reference to Nepal and Uganda. To reach the objective of this article, secondary data review has been carried out. The study has been analyzed based on the principles of agreement on agriculture under WTO such as market access, domestic support (subsidies) and export subsidies. When the WTO AOA was agreed by member states, it was widely assumed that trade liberalization in agriculture would contribute to growth, better income and economic development. However, the evidence from the experiences of Nepal and Uganda does not support this argument.

  77. Abraham Gebregiorgis Berhe, Mohammed Seid Ali and Asmamaw Getie Mihret

    The intent of the study was to assess the external auditors view towards the role of internal audit function on financial reporting quality and transparency in Ethiopia. From the total of 63 private audit firms in Ethiopia, registered in Federal Office of Auditor General as of 2013, 12 audit firms located in Addis Ababa were selected purposively based on their grade. 140 Self administered questionnaires were distributed to employees (auditors) in the selected audit firms. To analyze the collected data, descriptive data analysis method was employed. The findings of the study revealed that based on the external auditors’ view, internal audit function has considerable effect on financial reporting quality by detecting fraud and insuring integrity and reliability of financial statements. Furthermore, auditors believe that the internal audit function improves transparency in organizations.

  78. Mohammed Adem, Habtamu Worku, Dessalegn Beyene and Alemu Leta

    Ethiopian agriculture is characterized by traditional and subsistence peasant farming whose access to modern technology and basic education is very limited. However,aagricultural technology is a means through which agricultural efficiency, productivity and production improvement can be made to fight against hunger and poverty. It is also noted these agricultural technology can be dissiminatd through exxpandin agricultural extension program.Therefore, the objective of this is to identified the main factos that hindes households to partcipate in the agriculyural extension program in Sekota,Ethiopia. Three stages sampling were used in which both non-random sampling and random sampling procedures was followed to select 252 respondents. The major output of the study indicates that agricultural extension program partcipation of the household was significantly influenced by dependancy ratio,household heades age,education level, remitance income, media access, social institution partcipation, land holding, livestock holding, and tabia distance from the woreda market.

  79. Hassiba STAMBOULI-MEZIANE, HASNAOUI Okkacha and Mohamed BOUAZZA

    Objects: This study is devoted to the analysis of the vegetation of the coastal dunes of the region of Tlemcen. Results were obtained on these in general, including the phytosociological and topographic aspect. Methods: is to choose stations of the coastline of the region of Tlemcen from Rechgoune Beach until Marsat Ben M'hidi which determine vegetation of coastal psammophytes These Results: allowed us to individualize different phytosociological classes (Cakiletea maritimae, Ammophiletea) for species with the beach, (Therobrachypodietea, Quercetea ilicis) in bright dune and fixed dune. The class of the Cakiletea maritimae and Ammophiletea include species of the embryonic dunes. The Therobrachypodietea class includes vivid dune species. Quercetea ilicis class brings together the most advanced dune species and more fixed. Using the phytosociological and phytodynamiques data, we were able to understand the evolution of this vegetation and its diversity. Conclusion: establish a mapping test different of course with their floristic cortege coastal dunes and highlight the different phytosociological units.

  80. Mohammed Seid Ali, Abraham Gebregiorgis Berhe and Asmamaw Getie Mihret

    There is a need to create a strong competitive small and medium enterprise sector that is able to play a leading role in the development process. Business strategy is one of important components that lead to economic growth and competition. In order to design and implement successful business strategy, small and medium enterprises need to have proper accounting system to generate appropriate information. Therefore, the objective of this research is to assess views’ of authorized accountants towards accounting practices of small and medium enterprises in Regional state of Tigray, Ethiopia. There were 158 authorized accountants registered in the National Regional State of Tigray the Office of the Auditor General as of October, 2014. 50 authorized accountants were selected purposely based on their availability and self administered questionnaires were distributed to them, and 34 questionnaires were returned. Quantitative and qualitative data analysis methods were used to analyze the collected data from respondents. The study found that accounting practices of small and medium enterprises is at low level. Small and medium enterprises keep accounting record mainly for tax purpose and for support to access credit from banks.

  81. Dr. Vijayakumar, A. and Anie, N. C.

    User satisfaction in libraries depend on the availability of resources, reliability and precision of information provided, speed of services, completeness of information, ability and attitude of the staff. It is a very difficult task to measure the quality of a service. However, libraries conduct periodical surveys to find out the efficacy and plausibility of the resources and services and to deduce the cases of user frustration. The information generated from these surveys are utilized as a blue print for planning new services. This study is such an attempt conducted in Sree Sankaracharya University of Sanskrit, Kalady. The data for the study was collected from users by means of questionnaires. The level of satisfaction was assessed through 5 point Lickert Scale and in the analysis these scores were measured and tabulated as mean score and total score.

  82. Mihirlal Roy, Sibani Saha and Manidip Roy

    Due to agro-climatic suitability of Tripura, a north-eastern state of India, rubber plantation is being promoted. Till 2012, 5.2 per cent of its geographical area has come under rubber monoculture. In spite of socio-economic positive impacts, there are controversies on growing expansion of rubber monoculture among the populace of Tripura, mainly from the perspective of ecology. Based on the available literature of the studies carried out in different places of the globe as well as in Tripura, these aspects have been reviewed in this paper.

  83. Asmamaw Getie Mihret, Mohammed Seid Ali, Abraham Gebregiorgis Berhe

    Government needs to be accountable in its use of public money and in providing effective, efficient, and economical service delivery. In such a desire of government in sectors financial management, internal audit plays a valuable role by providing both assurance and consulting service. Despite the fact, there are factors that affect the internal audits role in the public financial management. This study attempted to analyze internal audit function’s role in the public financial management by using a case study design. Data were collected from both primary and secondary sources. The primary data were collected by interview with the internal audit director, where as secondary data were collected from rules and procedural manuals and audit reports of the function. The collected data were analyzed following qualitative approach. The findings of the study revealed that the internal audit function has limited quality. Furthermore, there is no audit committee and reporting is to the president. This might arguably affect its independence and objectivity and make the function’s contribution for public financial management limited.

  84. Sunil Kumar Roy

    Banks globally have experienced complex and enormous challenges related to their customer relationship since the economic crisis. How can banks create higher customer satisfaction and loyalty”? “Global banking survey- a new era of customer satisfaction” had a shocking finding. Indian customers’ are generally leaving their main banks because of poor services though in general there remains a high level of satisfaction with banks. Finding further says that 50% of the customers deciding to move their main banks did so because of general levels of service quality. The above finding became the stimuli for present study. The present study revolves around the Customer Relationship Management in banking industry and factors that may influence the CRM solutions & its implementation in banking industry. The findings & outcome of the present study will be beneficial for the banking industry in avoiding the CRM implementation failure. The purpose of this paper is to identify the independent variables & to investigate likely influence of these independent variables on the CRM in banking industry

  85. Alper Çakmak

    This paper is set out to explore the image of the Turk via the fundamental historical, socio-political and ethnical premises prevailing in one of the most well known pieces of English literature, Shakespeare’s Othello. It is set out to examine the image of the Turk and Turkish material culture in Shakespeare’s play set against a specific, controversial and often violent historical background. The dominating factor during the Renaissance and Reformation was the dichotomy of Catholic Church and Protestants. The unfolding of this “domestic” religious dichotomy, not only revealed the tensions within Christianity but also the conflicts between Christianity and what is known as Islam. It forms the “perception” on the one hand, of the catalytic Figure in Islamic history – the Prophet and in Christianity- the Savior or the Messiah Jesus Christ on the other. It is not a coincidence that the history of emotions is the motive in these simplistic perceptions. All these created images and perceptions can be delved into through a deep analysis which is the anchor while teaching a piece of English Literature to the learners who have not breathed within the philosophy of Eurocentrism.

  86. Dr. Simon Nderitu

    The rate at which electronic media was growing in scope and purposes of its use, its levels, communication genres, types of spaces and impact on human relations was an area of interest to postmodern researchers in various disciplines. The study sought to investigate how various aspects of church life, identity and mission are being influenced by use of electronic media. Since it is a global shift in means, scope and control of content in communication, the church cannot ignore it. The selected churches in Kiambu County emerged out of need to investigate the church leaders’ opinions on the impact the use of electronic media had upon their churches. A total population of sixty eight (68) church leaders in an International leadership summit participated in the study. Regarding the use and misuse of electronic media on selected ministries and influence on traditional relationships, the participants scored 63% on negative use and 37% on positive use. The main recommendation was that the church leaders engage in lifelong scholarship on emerging media technologies regarding their use and misuse in order to guide their members on how to live godly in the emerging digital continent.

  87. Tesfu Asmachew Mesfin

    Nowadays, across the globe in general and Ethiopia in particular, public structures (Governmental vacancies) are on saturation point beyond which they can’t carry new staffs. Alternatively, the government of Ethiopia is largely emphasizing on the self-employment and encouragement of citizens by establishing small and micro enterprise agencies across the country. On top of this, the government has started praising individuals or unions who come up with new business ideas, new markets, new products etc. On the other hand, individuals, specifically university graduates, are interested to be employed by the public sectors. Therefore, this study was targeting at assessing the willingness of students to start own business by emphasizing the students’ attitudinal characteristics towards self-employment and the entrepreneurial education. To collect relevant data, 200 third year (graduating class) students were selected from five departments under the college of business and economics. A mixture of probabilistic and non-probabilistic sampling technique was employed. Two data collection instrument, structured questionnaire and focus group discussion, were used. The major findings of the paper were; students whose parents are self employed and have higher education level shows more tendencies towards self employment than others. Plus to this, it was found that the university learning process contributes very little to the self-employment notion. The society’s attitude towards self-employment is still at its lowest level. High risk and shortage of start-up capital were also mentioned as the perceived barriers to establish own business. But, government commitment and facilitation for the advancement of small and micro enterprises was mentioned among the top opportunities to set a venture.

  88. Premalatha, K. and Dr. Nedunchezhian, V. R.

    A sound and profitable banking sector is better able to withstand negative shocks and contributes to the stability of the financial system (Athanasoglou et al., 2005). The sound banking system enhances the growth of the economy and with stand the growth of the country. The present study aims to study about the performance efficiency of Indian public sector banks, among nineteen public sector banks twelve Indian public sector banks has been selected for the analysis it is based on the weight age of Input and Output weight of the banks. Different types of banks are efficiently differing from each other and they have the different efficiency level and to know where the banks stand will be identified in this paper. The result of the Data envelopment analysis and Cross efficiency result shows that Oriental bank of commerce is performed well in most of the years followed by united bank of Indian Bank and Indian Overseas bank. The results are based on the traditional cross efficiency matrix.

  89. Dr. Sathiya Narayanan, G., Dr. Sunil Kumar, B., Dr. Prakash, M. and Dr. Anandan, R.

    In vitro evaluation was carried out to study the effect of various herbal leaf extract seed hardening treatments on seed quality of sesame. The sesame seeds were soaked at 4, 6, 8, 10 and 12 hours of duration at 5, 10, 15 and 20 % concentrations of aqueous leaf extract of chicory, aswagantha, ocimum and sarpagandha plants. The study revealed that, the 20% concentration with 4 hours of all herbal extracts showed high increase in seed germination and vigour index. Best treatment from each herbal hardened seeds was confirmed in confirmative trials of laboratory with three different vigour lots of sesame. Significant activity was also observed in 20 % chicory leaf extract hardened with 4 hours of treatment, when compared to other treatments and control, which have recorded higher germination percentage in all the vigour lots (93 % in high vigour, 84 % in medium vigour and 73 % in low vigour seeds) and lower Electrical conductivity (0.075 dSm-1 in high vigour, 0.089 dSm-1 in medium vigour and 0.095 dSm-1 in low vigour seeds). But control recorded lower germination (81 % in high vigour, 67 % in medium vigour and 55 % in low vigour lots) and higher electrical conductivity (0.093 dSm-1 in high vigour, 0.124 dSm-1 in medium vigour, 0.146 dSm-1 in low vigour seeds).

  90. Dr. Chittibabu, B.

    The purpose of the study was to evaluate the relationship between hand grip strength with hand anthropometric measurements in university male handball players. One hundred and forty four (144) male handball players, selected from south west zone inter university handball tournament for the year 2010- 2011, organized by S.R.T.M. University, Nanded, Maharastra. In this study data was collected from teams who reached quarterfinals and Annamalai university team. These selected subjects, who practice handball regularly and take part in competition and their age range between 18 to 28 years. The variables selected in this study were hand anthropometric measurements (hand width, hand length, hand shape index) and hand grip strength. Vernier caliper, Gulick tape, measuring scale and Grip dynamometer was used for data collection. Pearson correlation coefficient test revealed that right hand grip strength showed significant relationship with weight, hand width, hand length and shape index. However left hand grip strength showed significant relationship with weight, hand width and hand length (p < 0.05). It is concluded that right hand grip strength showed positive correlation with hand anthropometric measurements than left.

  91. Hind S. Jasim Sajedah A. H.Khalil and Mohammed S. Kamal

    Bladder cancer (BC) is one of the most widespread cancers distressing men and women and thus has a philosophical impact on health care. Free radicals lead to lipid peroxidation which is destructive in nature and has been suggested to play a role in cancers. Aims and Objectives: To determine the role oxidative stress and level of antioxidants in bladder cancer (BC) by estimation the expression of Hexanoyl-ysine (HEL) as lipid peroxidation marker in cancerous tissue of bladder and total antioxidants capacity (TAC)in serum of bladder cancer. Material and Methods: In present study 50 patients with bladder cancer, 18 non –cancer subjects as control aged between (31-85) years were enrolled. The diagnosis of patients was confirmed by a pathologist in the hospital referred to above according to WHO/ISUP grading system (MacLennan et al., 2007). Serum was analyzed for total antioxidants capacity (TAC) using ELISA, tissue was analyzed for expression of lipid peroxidation marker (HEL) using immunohis to chemistry ( IHC). Results: Serum TAC levels were significantly lower (P<0.0001) in bladder cancer patients as compared to control. The finding of IHC showed a highly significant difference (p< 0.0001) in the mean of immunore activity score of HEL when compared to that of controls. Conclusion: Increased levels of lipid peroxidation product (HEL) and depletion of total antioxidants capacity in patients with bladder cancer may suggest that oxidative stress plays a key role in the genesis of bladder cancer.

  92. Dr. Adesola Adefemi Muritala

    During constant-load exercise of moderate intensity, pulmonary O2 uptake (VO2) is characterized by two temporal response components. The first occurs during the transit delay from the exercising limbs and is mediated predominantly by increased pulmonary blood flow. Thereafter, this response is supplemented by the influence of increased O2 extraction, causing VO2 to increase mono-exponentially to its steady state, with a time constant that does not vary appreciably with work rate, at this intensity. At work rates that engender a lactic acidosis, however, an additional slow phase of VO2 is superimposed upon the underlying kinetics: this is of delayed onset and prolongs the time to steady state over the range within which the increases in blood lactate and [H+] stabilize or ever decrease (heavy exercise). At higher work rates (severe exercise), a steady state is unattainable, with the VO2 trajectory resulting in VO2 max progressively earlier the higher the work rate: it is therefore a fundamental determinant of exercise tolerance. Although the kinetic features of this slow VO2 component (other than its delay) remain tobe determined, current evidence suggests that it is manifest predominantly in the exercising limbs, with the recruitment profile and metabolic features of fast-twitch fiber activation being the major contributor.

  93. Tabidi, M. H., Mustafa, E. A. and Ahmed, A. A.

    Data on biosecurity measures were gathered from Ministry of Agriculture and Animal Resources (MAAR), Khartoum State, Sudan with the objective to evaluate biosecurity status in poultry industry in Khartoum state. The data referred to one year work executed by the veterinary authorities during 2013 with the objective of measuring biosecurity level for registration purposes. The data were organized in twelve biosecurity variables prior analysis. The total number of farms visited was 59 of which 16, 33 and 10 were characterized as traditional, modern and semi modern production systems, respectively. The results showed that modern and semi modern farms are located at Khartoum and Bahri provinces and that the percent of broiler farms (69.5%) was found to be greater than that of layers farms (30.5%). Broiler industry is dominated by modern and semi modern systems. The survey results indicated that there was an overall low frequency of adoption of biosecurity measures (P = 0.01) by the poultry growers in semi modern and traditional systems. However, biosecurity measures were higher in modern production system although the compliance with biosecurity measures was not uniform among all farms in this system (P = 0.01). The results also found that poultry farmers have laid more consideration on those biosecurity measures targeting dead birds' disposal, veterinary supervision and vaccination variables.

  94. Shreedhar S Khatavakar, Chandrakanthmadival and Rakesh, P.

    Mesenteric teratomas are very rare tumors arising from totipotent primordial cells which displays a mixture of tissues of tridermal or bidermal origin. Teratomas are usually found in saccrococcygeal area (47.2%), in the gonads (31.6), and less frequently in other sites like neck, mediastinum, retroperitonium, cranial cavity, nasopharynx and upper jaw.1Teratomas in GIT and associated organs like stomach and pancreas are very rare and there are only occasional case report on mesenteric teratoma.

  95. Dr. Souvagini Acharya and Nilamadhab Prusty

    A dermoid cyst is the most common of the teratomatous lesions in the head and neck region, approximately 7% of all dermoids occurring in this region. (Som et al., 2003; Taylor and Erich, 1967) Histologically, it contains two germ cell layers and skin appendages (e.g., hair follicles and sebaceous glands). An epidermoid cyst is less common in the neck than a dermoid cyst and is comprised solely of ectoderm. Dermoid/epidermoid cysts are frequently midline in location, typically arising either in the floor of mouth deep to the mylohyoid muscles or in the suprasternal notch. They may also occur in the orbit, nasal, and oral cavities. Dermoid cyst of the parotid gland is extremely rare, and due to this and absence of pathognomonic findings, it is often difficult to diagnose preoperatively. It must be differentiated from malignant tumours and other cystic lesions. Dermoid cysts usually recur after simple excision, so it is mandatory to excise it completely with a parotidectomy. This case presents a case report of parotid dermoid cyst with a brief review of literature.

  96. Ngure Lucy Njeri, Aggrey, Sindabi, M. and Teresia Njonge

    Secondary school students in Kenyan schools experience many problems which they are unable to handle on their own and most of them are reluctant to seeek counselling. This necessitated this study’s whose title was ‘a comparative study of factors influencing guidance and counselling help-seeking behaviour among public secondary school students in Nyeri and Nairobi counties, Kenya’. Some of the factors influencing counselling help seeking behaviour among secondary school students are student’s attitudes towards counselling and students’ gender. The purpose of this study therefore was to find out if the same factors influence counselling help seeking behaviour, among public secondary school students in Nyeri and Nairobi counties and also if the identified factors differ in the two counties. The study employed ex-post-facto causal comparative research design. Stratified random sampling procedure was used to select schools and students who participated in the study. The respondents of the study were 387 students from 20 public secondary schools from the sampled schools selected using stratified sampling method. Data was collected through administration of a questionnaire for students in the sampled schools. In data analysis, the t-test was used in testing hypotheses at 0.05 level of significance. The study findings showed that, Nairobi County secondary school students had a more negative attitude towards guidance and counselling than those in Nyeri County. Further findings were that there was no significant gender difference in attitudes towards guidance and counselling help-seeking behaviour and students sought guidance and counselling from teacher counsellors. This study therefore recommends that, students to be enlightened on availability of guidance and counselling services in order to utilize them in prevention and solving problems before they go out of hand.

  97. Simin Torabinejad, Sayed Mohammad Owji, Leila Malekmakan, Ebrahim Ahmad and Arghavan Daneshian

    In variable types of glomerular kidney diseases, evaluation of kidney biopsies by electron, light and IF microscopy is essential for diagnosis confirmation and management planning. Since electron microscopic evaluation of all specimens is not economically cost-beneficial, there should be an evaluation of how necessary is performing it for each type of glomerular disease. We gathered and analyzed pathologic reports from electron and light microscopy of 985 cases of renal biopsies with variable glomerular diseases during years 2000-2010. Analysis of results was done using SPSS software. The p-value < 0.05 considered to significance. We discovered that only in MCD and alport nephrology there is no significant difference between the group in which electron microscopy provided valuable additional information and the group that consisted of cases in which electron microscopy did not add any useful information to light microscopy. Since electron microscopy is an expensive process to be performed routinely for evaluation and diagnosis of kidney diseases, it should be wisely selected for diagnosis of those disorders that need to be evaluated by electron microscopy.

  98. Vimalraj, P. G. and Jayathangaraj, M. G.

    Many conservation measures aim the control of poaching and new threats to wildlife in India; but on the other hand, many infectious diseases and clinical problems taking upper hand in many of the wild animals are always given less significance than they actually deserve. Considering all these, in order to add more essence to the conservation biology, the present work may act as a tool for successful conservation in India. Water samples from Mudumalai Wildlife Sanctuary, Anamalai Wildlife Sanctuary and forest divisions of Sathyamangalam-Erode regions were collected in a 250 ml sterile, clear air tight container and sealed using parafilm and tests were carried out in the laboratory. Results obtained on 24 and 48 hours incubation at 37οc were compiled. The present research paper communicates the evidence of coliforms in the water samples collected from the Free-Raging Wildlife regions of Tamilnadu state during dry seasons of February- June, 2010.

  99. Chris Felshia Sailas Gnanadoss, Yazhmozhi Anbarasu, Kavitha Varadharajan, Asit Baran Mandal, Sekaran Ganesan and Gnanamani Arumugam

    The present study emphasizes the phenol hyper tolerance and subsequent degradation behavior of a soil microbial isolate belongs to Bacillus genera. The bacterial species was isolated from tannery wastewater contaminated soil. Amongst the seven different bacterial isolate (MCG 01, 02, 03, 04, 05, 06 and 07), the isolate MCG 03 was selected and used to assess the phenol degradation efficacy at concentrations 500, 1000, 1500 and 2000 ppm. Isolate MCG 03 degrade 1000 ppm phenol within 24 h. Substrate inhibition was realized only at concentration >2000 ppm. The optimum experimental conditions determined were; pH 6.5; temperature 30°C, agitation 150 rpm. The growth kinetics studies revealed that the best fit with a Haldane model with specific growth rate, 0.01 µmax h-1andinhibition constant, KI 629.588 mg L-1 with R2 value of 0.991 compared to Edward model. It has been found that phenol degradation was effected through catechol dioxygenase enzyme system as evidenced through SDS- PAGE electrophoresis and zymogram techniques. Scanning Electron Micrograph displays increase in rod length of MCG 03 at higher concentration of phenol. In conclusion, the strain MCG 03 tolerates at 2000 ppm phenol concentration and suggested the suitability of this strain for bioremediation process.

  100. Sukhbir Lal Khokra, Sonakshi Seth and Shama S. Garg

    Estimation of pharmacotherapeutic potential, possible molecular mechanism of action, toxic/side effects and interaction with drug-metabolizing enzymes was achieved by computational studies. Computer assisted drug designing involves all computational techniques to discover, design and optimize biologically active compounds with desired structure features for putative use as drug. The Molecular Docking studies of 2-substituted-6(4-methylphenyl)-4,5-dihydropyridazin-3(2H)-ones and 3-substituted-6(4-methylphenyl)-4,5-dihydropyridazin-3(2H)-ones and pyridazine substituted triazin was carried out using Molegro Virtual Docker for determination of anti-inflammatory activity using (PDB ID: 6COX) and analgesic activity using (PDB ID: 1CX2). The novel derivatives obtained were subjected to docking against the selected proteins and the potent derivatives of pyridazinone were finally selected on the basis of Mol Dock score values. The in-silico docking results showed that compound XIV i.e. N-(4-(2-imino, 3,4,8,9-tetrahydro-2H-pyridazin [1,6-α][1,3,5 triazin-7-yl)phenyl)-methanesulfonamide exhibited relatively comparable binding affinity with highest Mol Dock Score value of -125.066 and formed four H-Bonds comparable to standard compound having Mol Dock Score of -86.155 on docking with (PDB ID: 6COX) and possessed highest Anti-inflammatory activity. The compound XVII i.e. 2-(4-benzylphenyl)-3,4,7,8-tetrahydropyrimdo[1,6-b]pyridazine-6-imine exhibited highest binding affinity with Mol Dock Score value of -103.947 and formed four hydrogen bonds comparable to standard compound value having Mol Dock Score -119.837 with (PDB ID: 1CX2) and possessed highest Analgesic activity. Some other compounds which showed better results are compounds XII, XVI, XIII, VIII with anti-inflammatory activity and compounds XX, XXIII, XI, VIII with analgesic activity. The SAR studies shows that the compounds XIII and compounds VIII showed good mol dock score bearing pyridazinone as central /basic moiety having sulphate group substituttion on sixth position while the compounds II and III having pyridazinone as central moiety but having hydrazine hydrate substitution on fifth position having poor docking results for anti-inflammatory and analgesic. Thus, pyridazinone-based compounds represent potential lead compounds for further development of selective COX inhibitors.

  101. Dr. Tazkira Begum, Dr. Wasima Jahan, Profesor and Dr. Syed Md Ibrahim Kabir

    Normal pregnancy is characterized by profound changes in almost every organ system to accommodate the demands of the fetoplacental unit. It also associated with changes in all aspects of haemostasis, including increase in concentrations of most clotting factors, decreasing concentrations of some of the natural anticoagulants and diminishing fibrinolytic activity. So present study aimed at to study the platelet functions that is study the platelet count and bleeding time (Dacei et al., 1994) in pregnancy and puerperium according to parity in comparison to that of non pregnant of same age group. Here we found that the platelet count decreases and bleeding time increases in normal pregnancy possibly due to increased destruction and haemodilution with a maximal decrease in the third trimester than that of non pregnant. But immediately after delivery there is an increase in platelet count but the bleeding time decreases than that of non pregnant. In our study, difference in the study parameters are found in primi and multipara. So at the time of delivery post partum haemorrhage is common and after delivery that is during puerperium thromboembolism is a common complication. To minimize the complication, protocol should be there to evaluate the platelet functions during pregnancy and puerperium.

  102. Samira E. Elmezayen, Dr. Latifa M. Fouda, Dr. Abdel Raouf, Dr. Hanan Abo E. Ebrahim and Dr. Waleed A. El agawy

    Hepatitis C virus (HCV) stands as one of the most important etiologies of chronic liver disease and is an emerging infection in the world. Egypt has the largest burden of HCV infection in the world. Aim: - To identify effect of an educational program on hepatitis C patients treated with interferon and their family caregivers. Materials and Method: A quazi experimental study design was used in this study. This study was carried out in the outpatient clinic at Al-Mahalla educational liver hospital. Purposive number of 50 HCV patients (numbers of cases in 6 months) and 50 of their family caregivers attending the previous setting were included in the study. Three tools were used in this study interview sheet, health profile sheet and SF36 HRQoL. Results: the result of this study showed that before implementation of the program the studied patients and their family caregivers' hade low scores of knowledge and practices furthermore, the studied patients also had poor life style behaviors and poor quality of life. After implementation of the program there was a significant improvement in the total knowledge and total practices score of the studied patients and their family caregiver's pre, immediate, and three months post program intervention. P (<0.001). There was a significant improvement in the dietary habits practices, activity of daily living and quality of life of the studied HCV patients. Conclusion: it can be concluded that the education program was effective and improved the level of HCV patients and their family care givers knowledge and practices toward management of HCV. And improve patient quality of life. Recommendation this study recommended that, an educational program should be planned and offered at regular basis to all patients and their caregivers to improve their knowledge, practices and quality of life.

  103. Ali Bal and Necmettin Karasu

    Objective: Onychocryptosis (Ingrown nail) is an important disease for community life. Various medical and surgical methods are utilized abouth treatment. There is no option for radical treatment which both reduce to recurrence or diminish and which is ideal abouth cosmetic aspect. In our study, for the treatment of ingrown nail we aimed to apply a new surgical method that both reduced the recurrence or diminish and success better result cosmetically. Methods: The results of 26 patients, who applied to Malatya State Hospital, the Cosmetic/ Plastic Surgery Polyclinic between the dates, April 2012- April 2013 with complaints of pain and gleet in the 1st toe and / or deformation in the nail, and whom we operated on through the new technique in our clinic which is support to nail bed without excision, were evaluated. The patients were followed and evaluated 20th day, and in the 3rd, 6th and 12th months. Results: we retrospectively analyzed the results of those 26 patients we had operated on. 20 of these patients suffered from ingrown nail in a single toe, while 6 of them suffered from the same in two of their toes. After operation, in these patients that we had operated on ingrown nails complaint was resolved and no relapse was observed. Conclusion: It seems that this new technique has a very low incidence of relapse and better cosmetic result, which can be achieved by correcting the angle of nail without extirpation of nail tissue

  104. Ali BAL and Adile Ferda DAĞLI

    Objective: Concession and endothelial defect caused skin flap failure by thrombus. Our study aimed to support flap survive by an anticoagulant agent. Materials and Methods: On this study was used 14 Wistar Albino female rats who are separated control (n=7) and ticagrelor (n=7) groups. Dorsal skin flaps were elevated and sutured same incision area. Ticagrelor was infused 20 mg/kg before 24 hour and 10 mg/kg after operation, each 12 hour, 10 days. % 0.9 NaCl infused for control group. After 10 days, flaps were evaluated topographicly and histochemicaly. Results: Flap survival rate on control group % 62,84(43,40-69,83) and on ticagrelor group % 66,77(57,88-72,68) evaluated. Histopathologycal flap necrosis determined 1/3 distal and proximal parts were same but, central 1/3 part of flap on ticagrelor group has less necrosis than control group. That difference was supported statistical (p<0.05). Conclusion: Conclusion of study; Ticagrelor would increase flap viability and we could use ticagrelor as an alternative drug for flap survive.

  105. Thaer Hameed Mohsin

    Tetanus adisease caused by infection by an aerobic bacteria called closteridum tetanae its present mainly in the soil and growth in anaerobic field, in this literature A case of tetanus is described in a 43 years old Male in AL-kindy educated hospital, Baghdad, Iraq. The initial presentation was Trismus and dysphagia following a tongue laceration by grossly carious tooth, Subsequently he developed muscular spasm which led to the diagnosis of tetanus. This paper discusses the general management of tetanus

  106. Majumder, M. I., MASI Harun, Ahmed, T., Uddin, M. and Maoula, S. M.

    The consequences of aging involve the risk of osteoporosis, leading to an impaired quality of life in the elderly patient, especially post menopausal women. Osteoporosis is the leading cause of morbidity and mortality in postmenopausal women. Aim of this study was to see mandibular bone changes in post menopausal osteoporotic patient after treatment with Zoledronic acid. 150 postmenopausal osteoporotic patients were selected and divided into two groups: first group was freshly diagnosed osteoporotic patients and second group one year after treatment with Zoledronic acid. All patients were evaluated by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA), orthopantomograph (OPG) and radiovesiograph (RVG). Significant improvement of mandibular alveolar bone occurred in treated group measured by RVG. 83% and 84% of mandibular cortical index were eroded (C2&C3) in osteoporosis and treated osteoporosis respectively. Horizontal bone resorptions of mandibular alveolar bone were less in treated group vs non-treated group (88% and 97 %). The vertical bone resorptions were not significantly different in treated and non treated group (12% and 3%). In post menupousal osteoporotic patients, treatment with Zoledronic acid (Bisphosphonate) significantly improved mandibular alveolar bone in parameter of pixel intensity determines by RVG and cortical index by OPG. Post menopausal osteoporosis patient had eroded mandibular cortex.

  107. Vamsi K. Inampudi, Jay Kumar, S., Ruby K. Koshy, Yogesh Patel and Sujitha, P. J.

    Barringtonia acutangula Linn (B.actangula) commonly known as Indian oak is an indigenous medicinal plant which is found throughout India. The objectives of present study are to evaluate the effects of ethanolic and aqueous extracts of B.actangula Linn bark on anti-oxidant and anti-inflammatory properties. The B.actangula bark extracts were prepared by using soxhlet with ethanol and successive aqueous extract was prepared using same marc. The extracts were subjected for phytochemical analysis to identify different phytoconstituents. Acute toxicity study of extracts was carried according to OECD guidelines 423. With the extracts (500mg/kg) anti-oxidant activity property and anti-inflammatory activity was carried out. Antioxidant models such as, ethanol induced oxidative stress in rats and histamine induced oxidative stress in guinea pigs for the estimation of SOD, MDA. Acute and chronic studies of anti-inflammation models like Carrageenan induced paw edema and cotton wool granuloma models were carried out by using extracts of B.acutangula. A significant pharmacological activities of B .acutangula Linn extracts was observed in the present investigation may be due to synergistic potentiative action of its phytoconstituents since, they contain a diverse array of active principles which are able to target multiple mechanisms involved in the pathophysiology of anti-inflammation activities.

  108. Al-Samarrae, S. H.

    This study was conducted to indicate the association among blood potassium types and level,and with white blood cells count and hemoglobin percentage.Group of animal consist of 200 Awassi sheep, 40 Arabi sheep and 59 karrdi sheep, were typed for blood potassium concentration. The results revealed the fallowing :- 1- Potassium level of Awassi, Arabi and Karadi sheep blood showed a bimodal distribution, the low potassium (LK) and the high potassium (HK). 2- Awassi sheep (HK) had significantly higher WBCs count,5133, than that in LK Awassi sheep, 4814/ml. 3-No significant differences was conducted in WBCs count among the three breed of sheep. 4- Haemoglobin percentage showed significantly differences in Awassi and Karadi (HK) sheep (10.97 and 10.34%) compared with LK sheep (10.24 and 7.6%) respectively. 5- Significant differences were shown in haemoglobin percentages among Awassi, Arabi and Karadi sheep these values were 10.84, 9.28 and 10.15% respectively.

  109. Anjos Elson Gomez, Vethiga, B., Vijaya Lakshmi, A. and Kirubha Shangari, I.

    Diabetes is one of the major diseases affecting people all over the world irrespective of the age group. It is mainly classified into 2 types: type 1 and type 2. In type 1 diabetes insulin is not secreted by the pancreas, whereas in type 2 diabetes the cells fail to use the insulin that has been secreted. This proposed stimulator is for type-1 diabetes. It will have a sensor which senses the blood glucose level. In case of high level of glucose the trigger circuit is activated that will stimulate the pancreas to secrete insulin into blood. A timer attached will control the time for which the stimulation has to be given. This whole circuitry is powered by battery. All these set up can be placed in a case similar to the pacemaker. This procedure needs a surgery for the implant and eradicates the continuous injection of insulin to the patient. Thus whenever the blood glucose level goes higher than a preset value, the sensor senses immediately and stimulates the pancreas to secrete insulin and have sufficient adaptability to various metabolic needs due to stress, illness, and exercise and food habits. Thus the normal glucose level in blood is maintained.

  110. Dr. Rajeshwari, K. G., Dr. Sumana M. N., Dr. Raghavendra Rao, M., Dr. Madhuri Kulkarni, and Dr. Ranjitha Shankare Gowda

    Introduction: Enteric fever is an important public health problem in developing countries like India. Antibiotics are still the main stay in the treatment of enteric fever, but enteric fever Salmonellae have developed drug resistance and this has further hampered the process of reducing the mortality and morbidity associated with this disease. Materials and Methods: Phenotypically and serologically confirmed enteric fever Salmonellae were subjected for antimicrobial susceptibility testing by Kirby Bauer disc diffusion testing. Results: 8.77% of samples received for blood culture yielded the growth of enteric fever Salmonellae, 31 S.Paratyphi A and 25 S.Typhi were isolated. S.Paratyphi A isolates are on the rise. Male to female ratio was 3:1, more commonly isolated in the first 3 decades. Seasonal variation was observed with majority of them isolated between July to September. Mean time for positive blood culture was 3-5 days.83.3% of the isolates were resistant to Nalidixic acid. Conclusion: Enteric fever continues to be a major public health problem around Mysore. During monsoon months the number of Enteric fever cases increases. Young adults are more commonly susceptible. The Enteric fever Salmonellae in this region have regained susceptibility to Ampicillin, Trimethoprim/Sulfmethoxazole and Chloramphenicol indicating the disappearance of MDR cases. Ciprofloxacin resistance is not very common in this region. Nalidixic acid is not a good screening test for detection of quinolone resistance.

  111. Dr. Ashwini C. Appaji, Dr. Sundaresh, D. C., Dr. Shakuntala, G. and Dr. Ajoy, S. M.

    Introduction: Medical education aims at training of health related professionals predominantly in cognitive, psychomotor and attitude domains. The psychomotor domain is important and needs good infrastructure and resources to deliver skilled professionals to the community. Our experience on the cadavers as a resource for the surgical skill development of the health professionals and its impact on the student learning has been a successful journey. Material and Methods: Data was collected regarding the age, gender, time of death, time to mortuary, time to cold storage, number of procedures done, number of times thawed to explain the utility, advantages and disadvantages of cadavers in surgical skill training. Results: The main mode of preservation of the cadavers used for surgical skill training is cold storage at -20◦ C. The advantage of frozen cadavers for skills training is the organoleptic properties being maintained as in a living human except for the dynamic circulation. The cadavers are being used for continued professional development of all surgical specialities Allograft tissue of cadaveric origin is a very useful asset in the armamentarium of the present day surgeons. Conclusion: The frozen cadavers have proven to be useful for psychomotor skill training. Surgical skill training centers need to be developed at all medical colleges to cater to the needs of our medical graduate students in terms of patient safety and competencies.

  112. Shailaja, B., Mandal, S. K. and Ipsita Mishra

    Thirteen important species of mealy bugs occurring in India. It has been proved that some mealy bugs are important plant disease vectors. Management of mealy bugs using chemical pesticides is often difficult, but these pests can be managed well by biological control using predatory coccinellids like. Cryptolaemus montrouzieri, Scymnus coccivora and Brumoides suturalis have been proved as a effective mealy bug predators. Besides these, others like Nephus regularis, Brumoides lineatus, Chilomenes sexmaculata, Coccinella septempunctata, Hyperaspis maindroni are kown to feed o mealybugs. Role of other predatory insects like the chrysopids Chrysoperla carnea and Mallada boninensis, anthocorids Anthocoris muraleedharani and Blaptostethus pallescens lycaenid predator, Spalgis epius and cecidomyiids, Diadiplosis koebelei and Triommata coccidivora have also been described. It has been reported that, apart from predators, thirteen species of parasitoids also play important role in suppressing the mealy bug population. The role of entomopathogenic fungi like Metarrhizium anisopliae, Verticillium lecanii, Beauveria bassiana and Fusarium pallidoroseum and entomopathogenic nematodes like Heterorhabditis indica, Heterorhabditis baujardi, Heterorhabditis bacteriophora, Heterorhabditis zealandica, Steinernema abbasi and Steinernema yirgalemense in suppressing the mealy bugs population has to studied further for their effective use in IPM programme.

  113. Ved P. Kumar, Ankita Rajpoot, Surendra P. Goyal and Dhyanendra Kumar

    Illegal hunting is one of the major threats to wildlife flora and fauna. In present study, we identified five cases of suspected wildlife poaching by using the molecular techniques. Mitochondrial cytochrome b (Cyt-b) and 12S ribosomal rRNA (12S rRNA) genes identified five wild species, Chinkara (Gazella bennetti), Peafowl (Pavo cristatus), Musk deer (Moschus chrysogaster), Black bear (Selenarctos thibetanus) and Tiger (Panthera tigris). In India, poaching and hunting is a illegal offense, and based on this evidence, the accused were found guilty and punished. The genetic analysis used in this investigative study was suitable to diagnose the species killed and solve these criminal investigations. Molecular DNA forensic techniques can provide an important tool that enables local law enforcement agencies to apprehend illegal poachers

  114. Sarath Chandran, R. and Sajid, K.

    Lamprogrammus exutus (legless cuskeel) is a deep sea fish and analyzed the proximate composition of fish meat, protein concentrate and silage. Our studies reveals that the Legless cuskeel meat consists variety of nutrients such as 9 essential and 5 non-essential amino acids, 7 saturated and 21 unsaturated fatty acids, sodium, potassium, calcium ions etc. Both fish protein concentrate and fish silage are also containing 8 essential and 5 non-essential amino acids. So this deep sea fish is completely useful. On the basis of the analysis of nutrient profile, Meat and fish protein concentrate is better for human beings. And silage is good as an animal feed.

  115. Baishakhi Biswas, Nurul Absar and Abul Manchur, M. D.

    The microbiological quality of 4 types of chicken sandwich samples were collected from different well known shops of Chittagong City Corporation, Bangladesh which were used as test samples to isolate and identify the associate contaminated bacteria. The isolated bacteria were identified following the standard bacteriological methods: morphology, gram staining and biochemical tests. Three types of bacteria were identified and characterized by differents tests as Lactobacillus delbrueckii, Salmonella bongori and Yersinia pestis. The results of microbiological assessment in the laboratory and the corresponding questions that asked to the food handlers and food servers also suggested that the microbial safety of the investigated fast foods depends not only on the environmental conditions but also on the personnel hygiene. These results also indicate poor microbiological quality of the meat-based ready-to-eat fast food items sold in the First Food Shops. For the first time we reported the microbiological safety by identifying the microorganisms usually contaminated the chicken sandwiches available in the four renowned shops of the Chittagong.

  116. Dr. Haitham Ahmed Najim and Dr. Sawsan Issa Habeeb

    A Case-control study was carried out to determine the frequency of Helicobacter Pylori (H. pylori) infection by H. pylori stool Ag test in malnourished children and it's relation to some selected variables. Sixty seven malnourished infants and children who have been admitted to nutritional rehabilitation center (NRC) in Basra General Hospital were regarded as cases and one hundred thirty nine healthy children who have visited primary health center, were regarded as control, their age ranged from 2 – 36 months over the period from the first of February till the end of September 2012. A special questionnaire was designed for the purpose of the study, information included: age, sex, presenting symptoms, past history, feeding history, and history of treatment with antibiotics. Measurements of weight and length by standard procedure done for all infants and children recruited in the study. Anthropometric data (weight and length) are applied to appropriate charts according to CDC/WHO charts. The study revealed a significantly higher percentage of positive H. pylori stool Ag in malnourished patients than control group (35.8%, 10.8%) respectively, p < 0.0001. In addition higher frequency of positive H. pylori stool Ag was found in patients with severe malnutrition than moderate malnutrition (54.2%, 45.8%) respectively but statistically not significant result p > 0.05. Regarding the sex of studied children although females have higher percentage of positive H. pylori stool Ag in both malnourished and healthy children (66.7%, 60%) respectively, but the difference statistically in not significant p>0.05. Positive H. pylori stool were found in higher frequency in malnourished patients older than 12 months (54.2%) compared to infants (45.8%) but in the control group there is a higher frequency of positive H. pylori stool in infants younger than 12 months (60%) compare to children older than 12 months (40%) and statistically not significant p > 0.05. Malnourished and control group who were not breast fed have higher frequency of positive H. pylori stool (70.8%, 73.3%) respectively than those with history of breast feeding (29.2%, 26.7%) respectively and statistically not significant p > 0.05. But absence of breast feeding is significantly associated with H. pylori infection in malnourished patients and control p < 0.05. Gastrointestinal symptoms were common presenting symptoms in malnourished patients 67.2%, with significant association with positive H. pylori stool Ag p > well as more than (56%) of malnourished patients with history of recurrent diarrhea have positive H. pylori stool Ag. Diarrhea is significantly associated with H. pylori infection in malnourished children. So detection of H. pylori infection by simple H. pylori stool Ag test allows early diagnosis and treatment to counteract its effect on growth of infants and children.

  117. Marvin Osei Bosompem, Eric Appiah Agyapong and Samuel Fosu Gyasi

    Access to safe drinking water a major challenge affecting many countries in the world especially developing countries. The main objective of this study was to assess the quality of water supplied by Appiadu community water system; in Appiadu, a suburb in the Kumasi metropolis, Ghana. Parameters analysed included pH, temperature, electrical conductivity, total dissolved solids, turbidity, total hardness, total coliform, faecal coliform, faecal enterococci, total viable count, Escherichia coli and salmonella. In this study, a total of 60 water samples were collected from the main reservoir (tank) and 5 households in Appiadu from April to June, 2013. Assessment of the microbiological properties of the water samples showed that the mean figures for total coliform, faecal coliform, total viable count and faecal enterococci exceeded the permissible limits of the World Health Organization/Ghana Standard Authority for drinking water. E. coli and Salmonella were however absent in all the samples. The study also showed that the concentrations of all physico-chemical parameters in the drinking water samples were within the permissible limits of the WHO)/GSA. The presence of indicator organism in the water samples was an indication of a possible faecal contamination, which could pose a public health risk for consumers.

  118. Neeru Sharma, Dr. Anupa Sharma, Neha Sharma

    The present study was done to assess the relationship between parental information seeking and adolescent disclosure about peers. The sample for the study comprised of 60 adolescents, 30 boys and 30 girls, in the age group of 15-18 years and either of their parents. The tool used for data collection was ‘Right to know Inventory’ by B.B. Brown and M.J.Lohr (2005) which was used for both adolescents and their parents. Results showed no significant sex differences among adolescents on ‘Right to know Inventory’ whereas t-scores indicated significant sex difference among parents on the aspect of ‘Activity with Friends’. Results of ‘Right to Know Inventory’ show that there is no significant sex difference in perception of adolescents about their peer relations in aspects of ‘Activity with friends’, ‘Features of relationship’, Negative peer characteristics’ and ‘Positive peer characteristics’. Regarding peer relations significant sex difference were found among parents on the aspect of ‘Activities with friends’ whereas other indicators did not show any statistical differences about peer relations of their adolescents. A positive relationship was found between parents’ information seeking about peer interactions and adolescents’ disclosure of this information in Jammu From the present study it can be concluded that there is no difference of opinion among parents and adolescents regarding peer relations.

  119. Hula Y. Fadhil

    Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) is one of the most common causes of lower respiratory tract infection in the developing world. Viral culture had low sensitivity for viral detection from PCR method lead to reduction in viral identification. In Iraq, little data are available for RSV detection, previous studies restricted on cell line culture and ELISA techniques. Hence, the current study aimed to investigate RSV-RNA in respiratory secretion with RT-PCR assay. One hundred children under 5 years with flu-like illness and negatively for influenza virus A and B types were tested for RSV.The real-time and conventional RT-PCR detection of RSV RNA were reported in 19% and 6%, respectively.The significant observed of RSV infection in children less than two years old. Moreover,the severity of disease was a significant increase in viral quantity from other RSV infection with mild disease.Sensitivity of conventional RT-PCR has not detected the positive cases in 68.4% of RSV infections at real-time RT-PCR assay in which the increasing of viral load were significant compared with those positive detectable in conventional RT-PCR. This study concludes a using multiplex PCR is important for diagnosis of RSV along with influenza virus, addition to human rhinovirus and the human met pneumonia virus as a potential infection of influenza like-illness which occur in the second most common cold pathogen.

  120. Awolala O. David and Ewuola O. Samuel

    The paper provides an outlook on the development of the contributory workers’ retirement pension scheme in Nigeria. Insights were presented into the emergence of pay-as-you-earn retirement benefits scheme, a condition in which final entitlements were based on length of service and terminal emoluments. The payment of pension and gratuities to retiring workforce financed by the government at the outset becomes a burden because there were no fiscal considerations consequent on inadequate management and administration of pension funds for both public and private employees. The new contributory pension scheme tends to uplift pension fund management in Nigeria with obvious benefits for employers, employees, government and the society. The Pension Reform Act 2004 mitigates those risks which can hinder the pension industry's operations as stipulated in the Act for smooth operations of the Pension Fund Administrators.

  121. Padmavathi, C. and Saradha Ramadas, V.

    The Adivasis (original inhabitants) is the collective name used for the many tribal peoples of India. The number of main Scheduled Castes has increased from 1221 to 1241 and the number of main Scheduled Tribes from 664 to 705 during the last decade. The term ‘tribe’ means a group of people who have lived at a particular place from time immemorial. India is home to a large number of tribes with population of about 84.4 million. Tamil Nadu constitutes one percent of total India’s tribal population. One of the largest tribes in Tamil Nadu is Irular, they are Dravidian tribe found in the states of Tamil Nadu, Kerala, Andhra (Chittoor) and Karnataka. The word ‘Irular’ derived from Tamil word called “Irul” which means ‘darkness’. ‘Irular’ means those who are in darkness. Curly hair and dark complexion is their prominent feature. Now there are only 23,116 Irula households in Tamil Nadu (Census, 2011). The maximum tribe settlements are found at the foot hills of Tholampalayam Panchayat of Karamadai block which is 51 kilometres away from Coimbatore and at an altitude of 372 meters above mean sea level were selected for the study. To study the socio-economic profile out of 19 tribal settlements 12 tribal settlements which are easy to reach and convenience were selected. Among the 12 tribal settlements all the 705 tribal families with a total population of 2665 from Tholampalayam Panchayat, Karamadai Block, Coimbatore district of Tamil Nadu State were selected. The socio-economic profile of 705 families of Irula tribes were collected using a well framed interview schedule. The details related to age and gender, religion, type of family, size of the family, educational status of the family members, occupational status of the families, monthly income, basic amenities and facilities available for the selected tribal families, mean monthly expenditure pattern and on kitchen garden, vaccination, medical facility and hygiene were studied. The sex ratio is 950 female / 1000 males, out of 705 tribal families 88 percent were Hindus and only nine percent were Christians and three percent were Muslims. Joint family were of 11 percent and 89 percent were nuclear family. Medium size family with 4-6 members were of 51 percent. Literacy level is low and majority of the respondents adopted farming and labour as their occupation.

  122. Abhishek Dubey, Akhilesh Tiwari, Pandey, R. L. and Amita Dubey

    Rajmash (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) commonly known as frenchbean is mainly the crop of hilly region and grown in northern states of India, its introduction to plain will improvised the socioeconomic condition of the farmers, as it is rich source of protein, calcium and phosphorous, also this crop has good commercial and as well as export value. In the present study Rajmash variety ‘HUR-137’ was sown at seed rate of 120 kg ha-1 for two consecutive year in rabi season under the treatment dose of 0 and 5 t ha-1 Farm yard manure (FYM) to evaluate its effect on seed yield and seed attributes by following randomized block design (factorial) and replicated thrice. 5 t FYM ha-1 shown significant increase in seed yield 1067 kg ha-1 as compared to 834 kg ha-1 along with increased number of pods plant-1 , number of seeds plant,-1 number of seeds pod-1 , pod weight plant-1, seed weight plant-1, 100-seed weight (g), seed setting index, stover yield (kg ha-1) against the 0 t FYM ha-1. The productivity rating index of 5t FYM ha-1 remained statistically superior to 0 t FYM ha.-1

  123. Qurratulane Bari and Nagendra Bhardwaj

    Different native bacterial strains were isolated from the dye effluent and were acclimatized and screened for the degradation experiments against five commonly used dyes viz. Methyl Red, Methyl Orange, Erichrome Black, Crystal Violet and Malachite Green. RGL and MRL values for these bacterial strains against the dyes were evaluated by keeping them on solid culture media or Dye Modified Media (DMM). The relative decolorization potential of bacterial strains was determined by growing them in liquid media and its modifications. From the screening experiments several bacterial isolate strains emerged as ‘Degrader strains’ that possess a good deal as they displayed good values of MRL and RGL against various dyes in DMM. It was found that these degrader strains were Nocardia spp. and E. coli that displayed a good deal of decolorization against all the dyes tested. Best results were obtained for Nocardia spp. followed by E. coli against all the tested dyes. Most accessible dyes for decolorization by these bacterial strains were Erichrome Black and Methyl Orange. Nocardia spp. displayed a maximum decolorization percentage of 54% against Methyl Orange and 51% against Methyl Red dye.

  124. Biplab Bagchi and Debdulal Banerjee

    An woody lianas- Bauhinia vahlii, collected from 3 localities during rainy season was studied for screening of endophytic fungal diversity. Aerial tissues (leaf, petiole and stem) were selected for endophytic isolation. A total of 150 tissue segments out of 225 were infested with fungi and 153endophytic fungi were isolated. Average colonization frequency (CF%) was 66.66% and petioles of the climber were colonized by a great number of endophytic fungi i.e. 82.66%. CF% is maximum in the plant collected from Belpahari, it is 78.66% and minimum in the plant of Godapiasal, it was 54.66%. A total of 10 fungal genera with few unknown genera and few sterile fungi were isolated. Highest Shannon-Wiener index (2.067) was shown in the plant of Godapiasaland with highest Simpson’s diversity (0.85). It indicates great species specificity. Fungi of Dothidiomycetes were maximum (38.81%).

  125. Hermiz, H. N., Al-Khatib, T. R., Amin, Sh. M., Ahmed, A. M. and Hamad, D. A.

    Body weights at birth (BWT), 1(WT1M), 2(WT2M), 3(WT3M), 4(WT4M), 5(WT5M) and 6(WT6M) months of age for 110 Shami kids born at Shami Breeding Station/ Qushtapa during Sep. 2011- Mar. 2012 were utilized. Overall means of BWT, WT1M, WT2M, WT3M, WT4M, WT5M and WT6M were 4.05, 8.38, 13.28, 16.72, 19.77, 23.61 and 26.34 kg, respectively. Results revealed that age of doe had a significant effect on BWT, WT2M, and WT6M. Season of kidding affects BWT and WT4M significantly (P<0.01). The effects of sex of lamb and weight of doe at kidding on all studied traits were not significant. Effect of type of birth was significant (P<0.01) on BWT only. Regressions of WT1M, WT2M, WT3M, WT4M, WT5M and WT6M on BWT, WT1M, WT2M, WT3M, WT4M and WT5M were all significant (P<0.01) and being 1.219, 0.854, 0.988, 1.034, 1.164 and 0.994 kg/kg, respectively. Repeatability estimates for BWT, WT1M, WT2M, WT3M, WT4M, WT5M and WT6M were 0.61, 0.55, 0.54, 0.53, 0.47, 0.42 and 0.44, respectively. The corresponding estimates of heritability were 0.49, 0.44, 0.43, 0.38, 0.28, 0.25 and 0.25, respectively. Genetic correlations between studied traits were positive and ranged between 0.36 (BWT with WT6M) and 0.76 (WT4M with WT5M). Most of the phenotypic correlations between body weights were higher than genetic correlation and ranged between 0.48 and 0.90. It was concluded that estimated genetic parameters for the studied traits were relatively high; therefore, there is a possibility to improve the traits by selection.

  126. Shweta, N. and Illa Patel

    Commiphora wightii is an endangered medicinal plant which has been collected from North Gujarat. Callus and different plant parts have been screened for secondary metabolites like phenol, tannin, flavanoid and saponin during the growth seasons in the month of Oct- Nov and March-April.

  127. Manisha Mohapatra and Uday Chand Basak

    Operculina turpethum is a Red-Listed (vulnerable category) medicinal plant distributed sporadically in Odisha. Propagation of ‘tihudi’ through seeds suffer from the problems like poor seed viabil¬ity, low percentage of germination. As an alternative, it can be mass propagated through vine-nodal cuttings. The cuttings were treated with two types of auxin combinations along with control. Maximum rooting, growth and development were influenced by the treatment T1- NAA (3000 ppm) + IBA (2000 ppm). The nodal cuttings with single node plus single leaf (C1) was found to be the best for vegetative propagation where the major outcomes like rooting percentage (79.91±1.08), root number (7.00±1.56), root length (10.61±1.63 cm), new flushes (3.00±0.94), survivability percentage (81.48±0.01) were obtained. Through utilization of this technique, mass production of quality planting materials of this valuable but vulnerable medicinal plant can be achieved.

  128. Amartya Deb, Pablo Bora Jayashankar M. and Ramakrishna, S.

    A holistic approach aimed at unraveling and exploring the possible eco-sustainable utilities of limnetic ecosystems has been suggested. Practices that are in various levels of applicability cum experimentation in the developed countries are envisioned, some being highly successful in promoting the socio-economic status of the local population. India with ample potential perennial limentic ecosystems and massive demand driven dependence of its human population on natural resources can adopt such methods with suitable modulations to derive benefits from such ecosystems.

  129. Juan P. Agudera, Jr.

    A field trial on Nutrient Manager Program For Rice was conducted at New Ilocos, Magsaysay, Davao del Sur, Philippines to determine its influence on the agronomic characteristics of PSBRc72H rice variety, severity of bacterial blight disease, its yield and yield components, and the total added benefit (TAB). The study was carried out in Randomized Complete Block Design (RCBD) replicated three times. The treatments were as follows: T1 – NPK application based on soil test results, T2 – NPK application based on NM given fertilizer guide (all synthetic fertilizer), T3 – NPK application based on NM given fertilizer guide (synthetic + Organic fertilizer) and T4 –Farmers’ practice. Results showed no significant difference on the yield. This was attributed to no significant difference on the number of productive tillers/hill and number of filled grains/ panicle; parameters that highly influenced yield. The severity (%) of bacterial blight disease was enhanced by the greater amount of Nitrogen applied at booting stage. A total added benefit of PhP5, 681.40 was obtained using Nutrient Manager Fertilizer guide applied 100% synthetic fertilizer and only PhP3, 306.00 was obtained to plots applied in combination with organic fertilizer. Based on the results, it is recommended that the questionnaire must be filled up honestly by the rice farmer for the program solely depends on it in generating fertilizer application guide. Besides, field monitoring of the crop stand before the second or third fertilizer application must be done to decide whether increase or decrease the specified amount of fertilizer recommended by the NM fertilizer program, and no two scheduled fertilizer application be applied once for it enhances disease severity.

  130. Nima, P. and Ganesan, V.

    This report presents differential potentialities of pod broth of Indigofera linifolia in fabricating silver and gold nanoparticles. The biomolecules present in the pod broth induced the reduction of silver and gold ions from silver nitrate and gold chloride respectively, which resulted in the formation of very stable respective nanoparticles. The UV- Visible (UV-Vis) spectroscopic analysis reveals that the Surface Plasmon Resonance (SPR) vibrations have λ max at 455 and 535nm. These λ max values correspond to the formation of silver and gold nanoparticles respectively. Fourier Transform Infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopic analysis explains that biomolecules in the pod broth are responsible as capping agents for the synthesis and stabilization of silver and gold nanoparticles. X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis shows the particle nature and size. Energy Dispersive X-Ray (EDX) analysis and Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) confirm the significant presence of elemental silver and gold nanoparticles in respective reaction media.

  131. Karan Singh Lodhi, Vinit Kumar and Jamshed Zaidi

    In Indian context, rapid urbanization and industrialization, intensive agriculture, and growing demands for energy during the last few decades has affected the physicochemical parameters and biological attributes of the ground and surface water. Hamirpur district comes under semi arid region, so the surface water is main source of water in this region. The variations in selected physico-chemical factors were investigated for one year to determine the water quality of Birma River, Hamirpur district, Uttar Pradesh, for drinking, irrigation and fish production. Five stations were chosen on the river to reflect the effect of human activities, lacustrine and lotic habitats. Temperature, pH, conductivity, total dissolved solids, dissolved oxygen, nitrate, phosphate, chemical oxygen demand, total alkalinity, total hardness, sulphate, were analyzed monthly between July 2011 and June 2012 using standard methods and procedures APHA-2005. After compare from water quality standard we find that Birma River is unpolluted up stream while as downstream it is polluted and may not be used for domestic purpose without treatment but may used for irrigation. Themain source of pollution is the sewage disposal and agricultural runoff from the catchments areas and need to be proper treatment before uses.

  132. Jose Lincy, J. and Joel Gnanadoss, J.

    Five different white rot fungi were isolated and screened for laccase production. The white rot fungus LCJ262 was found to exhibit high activity of laccase and was identified as Agaricus sp. according to the morphological characteristics. The culture parameters influencing the production of laccase by Agaricus sp. LCJ262 were optimized using one factor at a time method. Initially, five different basal media were tested and one best medium was selected for laccase production. Sucrose (20 g/L) and yeast extract (20 g/L) were the best carbon and nitrogen source, respectively for laccase production. Additional supplementation of 0.6 mM of copper sulphate and 0.2 mM of ferulic acid proved to be the best inducers for laccase production. An improved laccase production was also obtained with the addition of 0.2 g/L of powdered paddy straw (natural inducer) in the medium. An initial medium pH of 6.0, inoculum size of 5 g/L and shaking condition also augmented laccase production in Agaricus sp LCJ262. Isoenzyme determination of extracellular laccase from Agaricus sp. LCJ262 showed single laccase isoform.

  133. Usharani, R. and Lakshmi, U. K.

    Over the last few years consumers’ interest in health and functional foods has increased considerably in industrialized countries thus offering an opportunity for agro-food sector to add value to agricultural commodities. Functional food is any fresh or processed food claimed to have a health-promoting or disease-preventing property beyond the basic function of supply of nutrients. Functional foods offer potential health benefits that could enhance the well-being of consumers and reduce the economic and social costs of treating non-communicable diseases. Today the world appears to be increasingly interested in the health benefits of foods and have begun to look beyond their basic nutritional benefits to disease prevention and health enhancement. Traditional systems of medicine owe their significance to the bioactive components that have their origin in plant sources and most of them were associated with routine food habits. Functional foods include amla, carrot, oats, fatty fish, soy, tomatoes, nuts, grape juice, greens, milk, almond, walnuts, blue berries etc. Functional foods arose as nutritional science evolved from indentifying and correcting nutritional deficiencies. It promotes optimum health and reduces the risk of chronic diseases. Foods like bengal gram dhal, black gram, carrot, tomato, cauliflower leaves, amla, flax seed and soya were selected for the formulation of health mixes for supplementation. Pepper, cumin seeds, red chillies and salt were added to improve the taste and acceptability of food mixes. The present research was planned to formulae and prepare health mixes based on functional foods, study the acceptability, nutrient content, shelf life and cost to know their economic viability.

  134. Monika Arora, Divya Kilam, Amit C Kharkwal and Ajit Varma

    Piriformospora indica is an axenically cultivable fungus that colonizes with the roots of mono and dicotyledonous plants. Colonized plants in response show enhancement in growth, yield and value addition. The fungus is normally grown on large variety of complex and synthetic media. As the readily available synthetic media are expensive, there is a need to find an alternative medium for mass production of P. indica. The need arises as a cheaper and cost effective medium will bring down the production cost and make it commercially competitive. In the present study, we examined the impact of cheaply available local material “Jaggery” on the growth of fungus and also checked its viability towards economically important plants. The data presented here suggests that maximum fungal biomass, radial growth and spore yield were recorded on Jaggery medium as compared with commonly used Hill-Kaefer medium that was used as control. Plants inoculated with biomass of fungus grown on Jaggery medium showed increase in shoot and root length, fresh and dry weight, photosynthetic pigments and phosphorus content. Our findings thus suggest that cheap locally available Jaggery can be used as an alternative media in place of Hill-Kaefer for the commercial production of P. indica.

  135. Machendiranathan, M., Senthilnathan, L., Ranith, R., Saravanakumar, A., Thangaradjou, T., Ramana, I. V., Choudhry, S. B. and Sasamal, S. K.

    The presence of corallivore Acanthaster planci is most threatening to the coral reef ecosystems and worldwide most of the reports state that its aggressive feeding behavior degrades the life forms of coral reefs in the last few decades. However, its selective feeding behavior is only on Pavona sp. which indirectly helps to recover the long-lived massive forms of Porites sp. in the Lakshadweep atoll, Kavaratti lagoon corals. Benthic survey results reveal the reason behind this selective feeding by Acanthaster planci on Pavono sp. because of the single species (Pavona sp.) domination occuring via competitive interactions among the coral colonies. Observations clearly show that the higher competitive interactions (26.8%) among corals results in higher mortality (53.5%) of corals by the Acanthaster planci. The predation compensate the loss of species diversity due to dominating competitive interactions in the coral reef ecosystem, which is evidenced by the predation prey mediation analysis and the results indicate that the recovery level of Porites sp. against Pavona sp. is 0.785. This selective predation regulates the coral reef ecosystem as a balanced one by the crown of thorn starfish Acanthaster planci in Kavaratti lagoon corals.

  136. Josephine Jenitta, X. and Joel Gnanadoss, J.

    Protease production by Penicillium citrinum LCJ222 was studied using the six different basal media. Among them, Medium 6 proved to be the best for protease production. Nutritional factors such as carbon, nitrogen, chemical and natural inducer sources were optimized using the selected medium. The protease production was high when lactose was used as a carbon source and yeast extract as the nitrogen source. Among the inducers, natural inducers enhanced maximum protease production when compared to the chemical inducers. Maximum protease activity was observed with black gram husk followed by red gram husk as natural inducers. In the case of chemical inducers, casein served as the best inducer while other chemical inducers inhibited the growth and protease activity. The culture medium with a pH of 9 maximized the production of protease.

  137. Dr. Rekha Battalwar, Ms. Tosha Khule and Ms. Sainor Momin

    There are physiological, psycho - social changes which are the characteristics of aging in elderly and also dietary factors that influence their nutritional status. A cross sectional study using purposive sampling method with 190 elderly (90 institutionalized and 100 non - institutionalized) above 60 years of age including both men and women was conducted in Mumbai, India. Tool used was interview schedule, anthropometric measurements and a three day 24 hrs diet recall. Non-institutional males and females had significantly higher weight, BMI, waist and hip circumference, and had significantly lower energy, protein and fat intakes. Females had significantly higher fat intake as compared to males. Significantly higher percentage of non-institutional had impaired glucose tolerance (χ2=46.558), osteoarthritis, back pain, used denture, complained of soft gums, higher prevalence of blood pressure as compared to institutional elderly (p<0.05). There was no significant difference in prevalence of diabetes (χ2=0.627). On the other hand, significantly higher number of institutional elderly had renal disease (χ2=16.367), presence of oedema (χ2=17.675), osteoporosis, used sticks, suffered from gastro-intestinal disorders (constipation) and parkinson’s disease as compared to non-institutional elderly (p<0.05). The prevalence of illness was significantly higher in Institutional elderly except for diabetes, blood pressure and osteoarthritis.

  138. Kamakshi, G. and Sumithra Bai, A. M.

    Ornamentantal fish culture is an important small scale industry of any country which depends on the fresh water available at that area. Dumping of organic and inorganic waste into the ecosystem affects the water bodies and the ground water extensively to a considerable level. This study outlines the effect of zinc sulphate on the muscle biochemical constituents of Poecilia sphenops resulting in weight loss. Results are discussed with the available literature.

  139. Ramalakshmi, P., Subramanian, N. and Saravanan, R.

    Coleus amboinicus is a commonly available medicinal herb in India. Ethanolic extract of Coleus amboinicus leaves were used for study of antimicrobial activity. The antimicrobial activity was evaluated against six bacterial strains with four different concentrations by detecting minimum inhibitory concentration and zone of inhibition. The highest antibacterial activity was observed in Salmonella typhi at a concentration of 1000µg/ml. The lowest antibacterial activity was observed in Staphylococcus aureus at a concentration of 250µg/ml of ethanolic extract of Coleus amboinicus leaf extract.

  140. Umakant Chanshetti

    The Green Chemistry revolution is providing an enormous number of challenges to those who practice chemistry in industry, education and research. With these challenges however, there are an equal number of opportunities to discover and apply new chemistry, to improve the economics of chemical manufacturing. Green chemistry is a philosophy and study of the design of products or substances that will not involve materials harmful to the environment. It is a modern science of chemistry that deals with the application of environmentally friendly chemical compounds in the various areas of our life such as industrial uses and many others. This area of chemistry had been developed by the need to avoid chemical hazards that organic and inorganic compounds had on the body of humans and animals. Chemistry plays a pivotal role in determining the quality of modern life. The chemicals industry and other related industries supply us with a huge variety of essential products, from plastics to pharmaceuticals. However, these industries have the potential to seriously damage our environment. Green chemistry therefore serves to promote the design and efficient use of environmentally benign chemicals and chemical processes. All these will be discussed in this article.

  141. Monika Kumari and Sanchika Bajpai

    With the expansion of computer networks, security has become a important issue for computer systems. The threat from attackers and criminal enterprises has grown with the expansion of Internet, therefore, intrusion detection systems have become a core component of computer network due to such threats. In this paper, we present framework integrated with neural network to build an effective intrusion detection system. In paper ANN and Naives Bayes strategies are used to detect the attacks in the system by using dynamic data or real time data. Naives Bayes is used to predict the attacks in the system. In prediction it has to specify that attacks is good or bad. After prediction the data is send to ANN which define the types of attacks are present in system. The systems are compared with existing approaches of intrusion detection which either uses neural network or based on layered framework.

  142. EdidiongOkon, Mohammed NasirKajama, HabibaShehu, Ngozi Nwogu and Edward Gobina

    This work presentsgas transport properties through inorganic ceramic membrane. The characterization of the pore size distribution and the specific surface area of the porous ceramic membrane were carried out using Liquid Nitrogen adsorption at the temperatureof 77K.Both modified and unmodified inorganic porous ceramic membranes were used for the analysis for the purpose of comparison. The surface area of the unmodified and modified membrane was determined using Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET) isotherm, whereas the pore diameter of both membranes was determined using Barrette-Joyner-Halenda (BJH) curve. The adsorption/desorption curve for the modified membrane showed a type IV/V isotherm, characteristic of a mesoporous structure whereas the specific area of the unmodified ceramic membrane represents a type III isotherm indicating a microporous structure. The examination of the surface morphology of the silica membrane was also analysed using scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Single gases used for the analysis include: Argon (Ar), helium (He), nitrogen (N2) and carbon dioxide (CO2). The gas permeance decreases with respect to gauge pressure (bar) at 393 K in the order of the gas molecular weight i.e CO2>Ar>N2>He indicating Knudsen mechanism.

  143. Dr. Mahima Rakheja, Dr. Arunima Chauhan, Dr. Vasudeva Guddattu and Dr. Monica Charlotte Solomon

    Background: Oral Squamous Cell Carcinoma (OSCC) holds poor prognosis, mainly due to its delayed detection. Computer aided image analysis can serve as a useful adjunct to routine histological diagnosis for early diagnosis and efficient treatment planning. Aim: To quantitate the nuclear and cellular morphological features in advancing grades OSCC to establish a reliable adjunct for diagnostic and prognostic purposes. Material and Methods: 105 OSCC tissue sections, graded according to WHO grading system as well differentiated OSCCs (n=35), moderately differentiated OSCCs (n=35), poorly differentiated OSCCs (n=35) selected. 6 morph metrical parameters assessed using “image J 1.34 software”, Namely the Nuclear Area (NA), Cell Area (CA), Nuclear to Cell Area Ratio (NA/CA), nuclear perimeter (NP), Cell Perimeter (CP) and nuclear to cell perimeter ratio (NP/CP). The data was statistically analysed. Results: Nuclear area, cell area, nuclear perimeter and cell perimeter showed statistically significant alterations. Follow up analysis revealed nuclear area and cell area to be higher in the recurrent cases than the non recurrent ones Conclusion: Nuclear and cellular features show significant alterations in tumor cells during the advancement of OSCC which hold diagnostic and prognostic importance.

  144. Entesar A. Hassan, Ahmed M. Abo-Bakr and Ragab F. Fandy

    The study reported in this review involved a detailed survey about the chemistry of 1,3-cyclohexandione and its derivatives, which considered versatile reagents for synthesis of different derivatives. Due to its active dicarbonyl groups and the methylene moiety at C2 possesses a high activity. The hydroxyl groups (enol form) react prior to the methylene at C2 with electrophilic reagents and that favorite synthesis of different heterocyclic products.

  145. Sabah A. Salman, Nabeel A. Bakr and Mohammed H. Mahmood

    Pure polymer (polyvinyl alcohol (PVA)) films were prepared by using casting technique. The films were doped with Ni(CH3COO)₂ salt at different concentrations (2, 4, 6, 8 and 10) wt% to investigate the effect of doping on some optical properties of the prepared films. The absorption and transmission spectra have been recorded in the wavelength range (190-1100) nm. The experimental results for (PVA-Ni(CH3COO)₂) films show that the electronic transition is allowed indirect transition, and the energy gap decreases within increasing the filler content. The absorption coefficient, refractive index, extinction coefficient and real and imaginary parts of dielectric constant are calculated and it is found that all these optical parameters are increased with increasing the filler content.

  146. Nabeel A. Bakr, Sabah A. Salman and Ahmed M.Shano

    In this work,NiO thin films at different molarities (0.05M, 0.1M, 0.15M and 0.2M)have been successfully deposited on glass substrates by chemical spray pyrolysis (CSP) technique at substrate temperature of (400 oC) and thickness of about 300 nm. The structural and optical properties of these films have been investigated using XRD, AFM, and UV-Visible spectroscopy. The XRD results showed that all films are polycrystalline in nature with cubic structure and preferred orientation along (111) plane. The crystallite size was calculated using Scherrer formula and it is found that the molarity 0.1M has maximum crystallite size (51.16nm). AFM images showed homogenous and smooth NiO thin films and the average grain size estimated from the AFM granularity report confirms the XRD results. The absorbance and transmittance spectra have been recorded in the wavelength range of (300-900) nm in order to study the optical properties.The optical energy gap for allowed direct electronic transition was calculated using Tauc equation. It is found that the band gap decreases when the molarity increases and the band gap values range between 3.71 eV and 3.59 eV for the preparedNiO thin films at different molarities. The Urbach energy increases as the molarity increases and the Urbach energy values range between 299 meV and 343 meV.The optical constants including (absorption coefficient, real and imaginary parts of dielectric constant) were also calculated as a function of photon energy. Refractive index and extinction coefficient for NiO thin films were estimated as a function of wavelength.

  147. Kaleem A. Quraishi and Parvez M. Khan

    In this paper, we have designed three new algorithms for the solutions of improper integrals which can't be solved by means of Newton-Cotes closed integration formulae (Trapezoidal rule, Simpson's 1/3 rule, Simpson's 3/8 rule, Boole's rule and Weddle's rule). The results presented here are presumably new.

  148. Dr. Rana Afif Majed, Majid H. Abdulmajeed, Hind B. Al-Atrakchy, Slafa I. Ibrahem and Eng. Mohanad M. Sadeq

    This work involves study the effect of cigarettes smoking yields on the corrosion behavior of amalgam in artificial saliva at pH = 6.2 and 37oC using potentiodynamic measurements at scan rate 3 mV.sec-1 by saturation the saliva with smoking yields of 3, 6, 9, 12 and 15 cigarettes. The corrosion parameters indicate than corrosion potential value shifts to active direction with increasing the saturation of cigarettes smoking yields. Corrosion current density became higher after saturated with 3, 6, and 9 cigarettes yields, i.e. increases in corrosion rate due to increasing of heat and decreasing of pH to 5.51, while after continuously saturated with 12 and 15 cigarettes yields the corrosion current density decreases due to adsorption of some molecules from composition of cigarettes smoking such as poly aromatic hydrocarbons and amines on amalgam surface leading to behave as inhibitor to make a barrier between amalgam and saliva as shown from FTIR spectra of cigarette compositions and for adsorption film on amalgam surface. While the microstructure investigation indicate that the corrosion will increase after remove the formed film by cleaning the teeth or by eating and drinking, e.i. the smoking increase the corrosion of amalgam even after long period time of exposure to smoking yields.

  149. Malathi, M., Rayar, S. L. and Selvarajan, P.

    Undoped and glycine-doped L-alanine cadmium chloride (LACC) crystals were grown by slow evaporation technique. Solubility was measured for the samples at different temperatures from 30 oC to 50 oC. Nucleation kinetic studies were performed at different supersaturation ratio to understand the nucleation processes that are taking place in the aqueous solutions of the samples. XRD studies have been carried out to identify the crystal structure. UV-visible transmittance and microhardness were measured to find the suitability of the grown crystals for device fabrication. SHG efficiency and laser damage threshold (LDT) values were determined for the samples and the results are discussed in the paper.

  150. Sabah A. Salman, Ziad T. Khodair and Rusul K. Ismail

    Zinc Ferrite (ZnFe2O4) thin films have been deposited by chemical spray pyrolysis method on glass substrates at temperature of (400 ºC) using Zinc Nitrate and Ferric Nitrate as Zinc and Iron sources respectively. The effect of thickness change (200, 300, 400 and 500) nm on the optical properties for all prepared films was studied. The optical properties for all the films were studied by recording the transmittance and absorbance spectrum in the range of (300-900) nm. The results showed that the energy band gap for allowed direct electronic transition varies from 3.10 to 2.60 eV with the increasing of films thickness. The optical constants (absorption coefficient, refractive index, extinction coefficient, real and imaginary parts of dielectric constant and optical conductivity) as a function of photon energy, for all prepared films were calculated.

  151. Salwa Mrayyan

    This suggested method is applicable to all problems that can be integrated by Engineering students are required to know too much math, they also need to master methods of computing integrations analytically, i.e., integrating by parts. Integrating by parts using the (shortcut) or tabular integration makes integration clear, neat, and accurate. The method has been known for a long time; however no one seems to give it its true value. In this research, the researcher introduced the method after doing the needed modifications so it may be applicable for all math problems which can be integrated by parts. From the experience of teaching calculus and other advanced math courses, the researcher found out that student who used (TIBP)method were more accurate and faster in the exams if compared with those who used the traditional method, Integration by parts is important to all scientists and engineers as well as to mathematicians. Comparing integration by parts using the traditional method is considered to be long, misleading, and sometimes hard for average and good students, especially if it had negative signs and fractions. The tabular integration technique is suggested as an alternative method to ease solving problems and to allow one to perform successive integration by parts on integrals of the parts, and it also can be used to prove some theorems such as Taylor Formula, Residue Theorem for Meromorphic Functions and, Laplace Transformation theorem, as well as evaluating the integral of the product of three functions This method is fast, feasible, and applicable, it strengthens students’ confidence in their work.

  152. Marco Regolini

    Despite decades of studies and researches, morphologists have no good ideas to propose a theoretical model explaining anisotropy andbilateral symmetryof Metazoa development: the main problem consists in the transition from a linear (1D) genetic code to spatial (3D)cells and tissuesorganization. Here,a simple metazoan developing systemis attentively reviewed, sea urchin pluteus skeleton formation. During this process chemical gradients (morphogens) do not show the geometrical propertiesfor programming and controlling anisotropy, bilateral symmetry and 3D orientation necessary to solve the topological problems of developing tissues in Metazoa: it is possible to conclude that, by a topological point of view, without an intrinsic cellular spherical (3D) reference system (the centrosome, with its orthogonal enantiomorphouscentrioles) capable of driving the orientation and positioning of receptors, junctions, cell division planes and extracellular matrix fibers, developmental programs cannot be performed.

  153. Edoun Marcel, Ndibi Mbozo’o, Gnepie Nicolas and Kuitche Alexis

    This work concerns the study of the essential thermal parameters needed to design a furnace for the melting of plastic wastes namely: the melting point of the plastics, times of melting and kneading of the mixture and useful heat. A smelter of mark MASAT with maximum operating temperature of 950°C was used for the melting of the plastics. To determine the time taken for plastic wastes to melt, kneading time of the sand/plastic mixture and the best ratio for a perfect mixture, we carried out tests with the ratios of sand/plastic of 80/20; 75/25; 70/30; 65/35; 60/40; 55/45 and 50/50 with a total mass of the mixture being 800g. The analysis of the results shows that for a good kneading of the mixture, it is necessary that sand should be preheated to at least 200 °C before introducing it into the furnace. This step modifies the protocol suggested by Athanase in 2011.The optimal melting temperature of the PET is 250C.The kneading time decreases with an increase in the quantity of plastic in the mixture whereas the residence time is proportional to the increase in the quantity of plastic in the mixture. For a ratio of 50/50, the residence time is 3324 s and 2843 s respectively for non-preheated sand and preheated.

  154. Parhusip and Hartini

    Nutritional values of MOCORIN (Modification Of Bisi 2 Variety Yellow Corn (Zea Mays L.) - Rice Bran Flour) are studied based on the used mass, i.e. carbohydrate and protein. Optimal protein in MOCORIN is studied due to the observed carbohydate and mass from 5 types of data which are mixtures of yellow corn and rice bran. There are 5 types proportion used in the observation. The proportions of rice bran are 0% (only yellow corn), 12.5%,25%,37.5%, 50% respectively . The purpose of the research is to determine best proportion with maximum protein leading to optimization problem. By assuming protein follows a biharmonic function, the function is possible to be convex or concave. Therefore one cannot have only maximum value of protein. Hessian matrix and convexity properties are used and the result shows that 37.5% of rice bran is the best proportion.

  155. Isabel Escobosa Garía, Khaled M. Bali, Adolfo Pérez Márquez and Jesús Román Calleros

    Synthetic polymers are admixtures with high water retention capacity addition to improving the efficiency in the use of water. The three main groups of polymers, co-polymers of starch, polyvinyl alcohols and polyacrylamides. The principal goal of this study was to evaluate the use of potassium polyacrylate on water retention capacity and efficiency in the use of water in clay soils. Data comes from the experimental field of the Institute of Agricultural Sciences of the Autonomous University of Baja California. To evaluate the polymers were selected two specific points, soil samples were taken (0-30 and 30-60 cm) deep, were tested in laboratory (n = 144) determinations: Percent saturation (% Sat), electrical conductivity (EC), the potential of hydrogen (pH) and total dissolved solids (TSS). Data were analyzed from the structure of a completely randomized design in 4 x 3 factorial arrangement; 4 treatments 0, 5, 10 and 15 parts per million (ppm) and potassium polyacrylate; To save water treatment 10 and 15 ppm potassium polyacrylate recommended. It is important to mention that's a start working in the Valley of Mexicali applied to prevent erosion of potassium polyacrylate and packet loss foods as well as water-saving irrigation; suggestion for producers is to work with universities to find solutions to the problems that exist as we know it, optimization of irrigation water and soil loss.

  156. Dr. Tekeste Berhanu Lakew, Dr. Muthyalu Meniga and Azmera Gebru

    Performance measurement is defined as the process of quantifying efficiency and effectiveness. Effectiveness is compliance with customer requirements, and efficiency is how the organization’s resources are used to achieve customers’ satisfaction levels. Financial performance deals with measuring the results of the firm’s policies and operations in monetary terms. These results are reflected in the firm's return on investment, return on assets, value added, etc. The main purpose of this research is to study the financial performance of Multi-Purpose cooperative unions in Tigray Region. Eight unions are selected based on continuous auditing of the targeted unions’. The study considered three years’ auditing report with regard to quantitative data analysis using financial analysis tools, such as liquidity ratios, leverage, profitability ratio, trend analysis of balance sheet and income statement for the period of 2008 to 2011. The result of financial performance analysis illustrated that the financial position of the unions has not maintained satisfactory level of performance. The study results indicate that the borrowing power of the unions and the profitability of the unions are lower than the average. The Asset utilization of the unions is not satisfactory and the unions have to sale additional share capital and unproductive fixed asset to increase their own capital. To improve their efficiency and in order to gain enough profit the unions must decrease administrative and operating expenses.

  157. Chandar, V. and Edwin Prabakaran, T.

    Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA), a non-parametric method, is used in this study to empirically measure the relative efficiency of major States in India, where the States are the Decision Making Units (or DMUs). The linear programming technique is employed to rank the 15 major states considered as DMUs in this study. Principal Component Analysis (PCA) is also applied to reduce the data structure and then the same linear programming (LP) technique is applied to the single reduced input and single reduced output. The states are ranked based on the result obtained by the analysis of reduced data and those rankings are compared with the rankings obtained by the analysis of original data. The results of this study showed that the ranking of States based on original data and the ranking of States based on reduced data vary considerably, which indicates that there may exists some inputs and/or outputs, though having less variance, can alter the rankings because of their high sensitivity, when processed using LP technique.

  158. Dr. Revathy, B. and Mrs. SanthiSalomi, R,

    Consumers’ buying behaviour and the resulting purchase decision are strongly influenced by cultural, social, personal and psychological characteristics. An understanding of the influence of these factors is essential for marketers in order to develop suitable marketing mixes to appeal to the target customer. One of the indicators of the strength of a brand in the hearts and minds of customers is brand preference. Brand preference represents which brands are preferred under assumptions of equality in price and availability. Buying Behaviour is the decision process and acts of people involved in buying and using products. The article examines the influence of socio economic variables on Consumers’ buyer behavior and on their brand preference towards home appliances.

  159. Dr. J. R. Bassey

    This article analyses the legal impact of colonial treaties on Africa with particular reference to the Anglo-German Treaty of 1913 by which the British ceded Bakassi to Germany. In 2002, the World Court delivered judgment in the Cameroon v. Nigeria case ceding the disputed Bakassi Peninsula to Cameroon. The Court relied heavily on the Anglo- German Agreement of 11 March 1913 to reach its decision. Since that judgment was delivered there has been controversy generated by Nigerian legal luminaries, scholars and public commentators. The legality of the Agreement entered into between Great Britain and Germany during colonial rule has been put to question. The judgment, though being implemented, is still under severe intellectual attack. The chief aims of this article are to find out the legal impact of the Agreement and the reasons the Court relied on it so heavily to reach its decision. This study is a legal history. It adopts a descriptive analysis method to interrogate relevant sources of information about the treaty. The article reveals that the Court relied on the Agreement based on a number of reasons. These included Britain’s right to cede Bakassi to Germany in 1913; lack of protest by Nigeria against the Anglo-German treaty during or after colonial rule; Nigeria’s acquiescence in the Agreement. The Nigerian legal team over- relied on effectivities or historical consolidation, but the Court held that Cameroon had a valid conventional title, which prevails over any effectivities or historical consolidation.

  160. Njoroge, Margaret Wanjiku and Njoroge, Mary Mukami

    Despite urban refugees constituting more than half of the world’s refugees, not so much attention has been paid to their mental wellbeing. Refugees face many challenges in their country, during flight and settlement as asylum seekers. In spite of facing such difficulties many refugee people demonstrate enormous strength and resilience that facilitates their mental wellbeing as they process the trauma experienced. The purpose of this study was to investigate aspects of resilience amongst Congolese urban refugee women in Kenya. The study applied ex-post facto correlational research design. The sample comprised of 64 Congolese refugee women in Kitengela and Rongai urban setups. Data was collected using a resilience scale, social support scale and self appraisal scale. Data was analyzed using descriptive and inferential statistics with the aid of the Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS) for Windows Version 17. The study found that majority of the refugee women had high resilience and this had an effect in dealing with their traumatic experiences. Additionally, internal resources (self efficacy and self esteem), and social support has had a positive effect on refugee’s resilience.

  161. Amuthan, S.

    Agriculture has always been the backbone of the Indian economy and despite concerted industrialisation in the seven decades; agriculture still occupies a place of pride. About 67 per cent of the work-force work in agriculture and more than 75 per cent live on it in villages. After the liberalization the primary sector has been diminishing and it impact the people has transform to formal sectors. The present study has focused on agrarian crisis and former suicide its impact to increases of migration in India

  162. Ms. Komala, G.

    Venture capital investment is an important component of financial capital. The geographic concentration by both venture capital firms and venture capital financed companies in six top cities- Bangalore, Mumbai, Delhi, Chennai, Hyderabad and Gurgaon. The reason is based on the success rate of venture capital backed investments in an area, concentration on high-technology industry, industrial specialization, technological competencies, and product specialization. The object of this paper is to study the geographical concentration of venture capital investments in India. The data is collected from Venture Intelligence for the period 1998 to 2012 and also analyzed for the period of 15 years by using the tools and techniques of descriptive statistics and ANOVA. The result shows that the amount and number of investments of venture capitalist are different across the metros due to location decision. Geographical location is also significant related to venture capital investment. With the analysis of the data is shows that alternative hypothesis is accepted that is both number of investments and amount of investments are not same across the metros.

  163. Minaxi Setia and Dalbir Singh

    In today’s scenario Banking sector have emerged as most employment generating industry and contributing a large portion in Indian economy. This article enlightened the banking activity which thrives on the strength of human power. The success of an organization depends upon several factors but the most essential factor that affects the organization performance is its employee. Human resources play a vital role in achieving an innovative and high-quality product/ service and to fulfil the Vision and mission of that organization. The present study is an attempt to examine and analyse the impact of human resource management practices on job satisfaction of bank employees. Besides the fact, that Banks are emerging as the highest job generating agency, the banking sector is also facing employee retention problem. As retention is directly related to job satisfaction, which is to be monitored by the HR department. This study identified that the HRM practices like Workforce planning, Recruitment, Promotion, Transfers, Training and development, Performance Appraisal, Team Work and Compensation has significant impact on job satisfaction.

  164. Susmita Bhowmick and Dr. Lakshmi Sivaramakrishnan

    An important aspect of demography in the world is the uneven pattern of distribution within a system. The concept of population change or population growth is often used to predict the change in number of inhabitants in a particular territory within a particular time. Almost each and every developing country has experienced this change of population and this is very true in case of India also. Being a part of the developing world, West Bengal one of the most populous states of India, is no exception in this regard. The declining trend of mortality, fertility, and also the 1971 partition has added to the agony of population growth. In addition, the process of industrialization and urbanization in different pockets of West Bengal shows the changing attitude of demographic expression and this changing attitude would help to widen the view point of the geographers to establish the fact of decentralization. So, the present investigations try to unfold the spatial distribution of population and also spot the light on the changing nature of demographic pattern by recognizing the spot height of demographic relief in the geographical territory of the Haora district.

  165. Manoharan Pillai, P. M. and Dr. Vijayakumar, A.

    Technology forms one of the key enables for the implementation of knowledge, services and applications. Many of the commonly available approaches to knowledge would be rendered in effective in the absence of technology. The innovation and knowledge creation emphasis the creation of new knowledge through basic and applied research development. E-publishing is helpful in producing documents containing texts, graphics, still or motion pictures, audio, tables, numeric, equations, etc. all of these will the assistance at a data processing system. It may involve the products and services which may be distributed and used without ever appearing in printed form. It may be carried out as a primary commercial concern (eg. Newspapers, Books, Magazines) or as a vital components of other organized process such as administration, research, education. At present the World Wide Web provides the most visible and fast expanding environment for these activities. Electronic information handling is a broad and flexible concept with plenty of degrees of freedom, adapted to the fluid and living nature of today’s information material. It encompasses data collection, analysis, dissemination, and so on, as well as publishing. The emergence of the electronic medium is currently best represented by the World Wide Web. The WWW is based on hyper text and hyper media. The explosion of electronic documents is however without bringing is new questions, new challenges and new problems that will have to be faced especially on the ethical, legal and educational levels, without forgetting the security nor the fragility of the material delivered on the electronic medium. It must be clear that, wishing to maintain at all costs compatibility between post scripts, PDF and HTML (something that is repeatedly in publishing ventures) would prevent taking advantage of the hyper textual structure, sound, motion, applets and whatever may come next, available on the electronic medium.

  166. Noah Kimeli Kurgat, Noah KimeliKurgat (MA.RS), Dr. Simon Nderitu and Prof. Paul Kyalo

    The study focused on assessment of Christian devotional practices and economic development in Kapsabet Division, Nandi County. The objectives were to investigate the effect of the Christian Devotional practices, examine the contribution of Christian Devotional practices and establish the level of awareness of economic values that the Christians have on the members of different denominations on economic development in Kapsabet Division, Nandi County. The study employed descriptive survey design. It targeted 300 participants and the sampling size was 30% of the targeted population which makes it 90 participants. The main research instruments were the questionnaires and interview schedule. The research findings was analysed and presented inform of tables. From the findings: Christian devotional practices have improved economic development. It has led to nurturing of talents leading to acquisition of goods and services, selling of recorded Christian music have facilitated distribution and consumption of goods and services. It has also led to moulding of leaders who become supervisors in economic activities and led to acting in Christian Movies hence earning income. The level of awareness of the economic values that the Christians have on the members of different denominations in Kapsabet Division is: Christian teachings enable members to engage in business activities despite denominational barriers. Through conferences and crusades held anywhere and door to door evangelism, co-existence amongst citizens is enhanced which is beneficial for economic growth. Bible study leads to the bible study materials printed and sold. Many bibles are also sold, leading to economic development

  167. Damodar Renati and Partha Saradhi Nama, Raghavendra Rao P.V.G. and Yengade Ratnadeep

    Regulatory Affairs is the profession which act as a liaison between the Pharmaceutical Industries and Regulatory Authorities. In this Regulatory Affairs Publishing of submissions to the Regulatory Authority is playing crucial role. In this article, I have done analysis on European Regulatory Agency and the types of submissions used for the publishing of documents and finally the role of eCTD in Submissions. We can conclude that eCTD is becoming mandatory for all the countries in Europe mad also all other countries in future.

  168. Ali A. Shareef, Asaad M.R. Al-Taee and Anwar Abdulwahab Maki

    The present study aims to isolation, identification and characterization of heavy metal resistant bacteria from six rivers in Basra governorate-Iraq, during October and November, 2013. Three species of Bacillus (B. licheniformis, B. badius and B. megaterium) were isolated on the basis of morphological and biochemical tests and selected based on high levels of heavy metal (lead, copper, cadmium and nickel) resistance. The concentrations of dissolved heavy metals (Pb, Cu, Cd and Ni) in rivers were determined. The minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) of isolates against Pb, Cu, Cd and Ni, was determined in solid media after 72 h incubation. All isolates were resistant to Pb (2000-2800 mg L-), Cu (200-550 mg L-), Cd (200-400 mg L-) and Ni (300-400 mg L-). In this work we have used living biomass of B. licheniformis, B. badius and B. megaterium to removal of heavy metal ions at different concentrations (25, 50,100) mg L- from aqueous metal solutions. The best concentration to removal was 25 mg L-after 72 h at 120 rpm. % removal efficiency of B. licheniformis was 33.6 for Cd, for B.megateriumwas 28.14 for Pb and for B. badius was 53.1%, 34.46% for CU and Ni respectively.

  169. Raghuveer Naidu, K., Nagaraja. Ravoori and Ramanaiah, Y. V.

    The present paper examines the Behavioral approach of the farming community in the study area of Kalyandurg, Brahmasamudram and Setturu mandals of Anantapur district, AP. For understanding of the Behavioral Approach of the farming community in the study area, I have been selected 99 farmers from three mandals of the study area and analyzed various Socio-Economic characteristics of the farming community along with their awareness on land and water use practices. In this regard, from 99 samples of the farmers I have analyzed mandal wise age, Educational status, size of the family, number of family members engaged in Agriculture, Land holding sizes of the sample farmers, Water management through various sources of irrigation, source of irrigation for Agriculture in the study area, Area under single crop in the sample mandals, Problems encountered in Agro-Biological factors of production, Awareness of the farming community on land management practices, change cropping pattern to use less water with more irrigation, Awareness of the farming community on the benefits of changing the cropping pattern and awareness on water harvesting methods. The farming community is facing the problems of low yield, uneven rainfall attack of diseased and poor land and water management practices in the drought prone area of Anantapur district in Rayalaseema Region in Andhra Pradesh.

  170. Miss. Suneet Walia

    Performance has always been a decisive element to construe an employee’s worth in an organization. Researchers have given varied stand points as to how to extract the best performance from the individual employees up keeping the organizational objectives. However, most of the researchers focused on the organizations appraisal system in order to affect efficient performance. The responsibility to generate desired performance is shouldered by none. As employees have their own set of excuses of dependency on organizational resources and management find itself entangled in the cob-web of organizational complexities. An extensive study was done surfing through various research articles, which revealed that either the leader of the organization or the recruitment procedure is put forth on trial whenever an organization experiences a mismatch of desired and actual performance. In this research article, the middle level manager is viewed to shoulder the responsibility for generating appropriate performance keeping in mind the available organizational resources, skills, knowledge and organizational objectives. Secondly, an Operative model “Manager Accelerator Model” is devised by me enabling the manager to set the right flow of the work process, making right decision and thus ensuring efficient performance. Further the article gives an overview as to why and how the performance of the individual employees is affected.

  171. Abhisek Mishra

    Axiomatically speaking poverty means the state of insufficiency of income, education and health care, free access to the food and shelter, social status, self esteem and self actualisation. Admittedly, since independence India has been fighting with this chronic social evil. Of all these, the unemployment of the Nation stands as a Himalayan barrier in the line of social and economic growth of the country. A growing economy means that economy which aptly eliminates poverty and capable of generating employment. The Govt. of India in the 11th Five Year Plan, to meet the above exigency has introduced a new concept of economic growth i.e. inclusive growth which means, growth of economy through equitable distribution of resources by providing benefits to the every parts of the society being coupled with productive employment. This paper briefly focuses on the various anti poverty schemes introduced by the Govt. Of India at the same breath it highlights on the salient features of the updated anti-poverty program introduced by the Govt of India in the name of National Rural Livelihood Mission (NRLM). Furthermore, by using chi-square test it concludes that irrigation facility has an effect on the progress of NRLM in Sonepur district of Western Odisha.

  172. Ms. Reshma

    Social-networking sites have taken the world by a storm leading to nothing less than a revolution. A lot of concerns have been voiced about social networking sites taking over in our lives. However, one major issue that has been overlooked is the changing mind-set of the youth due to the social networking sites. This paper is focused to find out the answer whether the social networking sites are boon or bane for today’s society. No doubt these SNS provides employment, marketing, personal growth, sharing of information but the most prevalent danger through often involves online predators or individuals. These SNS has great impact on youth of India. One can easily see the entry gate of these social networking sites but it is unable to find exit for these SNS. One side these sites provide to communicate with our dear ones on the other side it creates platform for many cyber-crimes. The study analyzed the data from 60 respondents. In this study we focused on the positive as well as negative impact of these social networking sites on students of M.D.U., Rohtak.





Rosane Cavalcante Fragoso, Brasil


Chief Scientific Officer and Head of a Research Group

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Luai Farhan Zghair
Hasan Ali Abed Al-Zu’bi
Fredrick OJIJA
Firuza M. Tursunkhodjaeva
Faraz Ahmed Farooqi
Saudi Arabia
Eric Randy Reyes Politud
Elsadig Gasoom FadelAlla Elbashir
Eapen, Asha Sarah
United State
Dr.Arun Kumar A
Dr. Zafar Iqbal
Dr. Ruchika Khanna
Dr. Recep TAS
Dr. Rasha Ali Eldeeb
Dr. Pralhad Kanhaiyalal Rahangdale
Dr. Nicolas Padilla- Raygoza
Dr. Mustafa Y. G. Younis
Dr. Muhammad shoaib Ahmedani
Saudi Arabia
United State
Dr. Lim Gee Nee
Dr. Jatinder Pal Singh Chawla
Dr. Devendra kumar Gupta
Dr. Ali Seidi
Dr. Achmad Choerudin
Dr Ashok Kumar Verma
Thi Mong Diep NGUYEN
Dr. Muhammad Akram
Dr. Imran Azad
Dr. Meenakshi Malik
Aseel Hadi Hamzah
Anam Bhatti
Md. Amir Hossain
Mirzadi Gohari