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Plagiarism Detection

IJCR is following an instant policy on rejection those received papers with plagiarism rate of more than 20%. So, All of authors and contributors must check their papers before submission to making assurance of following our anti-plagiarism policies.

November 2014

Stigmatized individuals have been found to face a variety of social and emotional consequences, including social withdrawal, loss of productivity, lowered self-esteem, and increased levels of negative affect. Stigmatization is now recognized as perhaps the central issue facing all who are attempting to understand, prevent, and treat mental illness. This study aimed to assess the extent of self-stigma level among psychiatric patients and investigate the role of self-stigma on self-esteem and attitude toward seeking professional help among psychiatric patients.

Tremendous improvement in the neonatal care has led to the reduction in the mortality and morbidity of babies born below 30 weeks of gestation. Evidence based management, Expertise in the newborn care and the exponential growth of equipments have led are mark able role in the survival of tinysick babies. Most of NICUs depend upon urine output, capillary refilling time, blood gas analysis in judging baby hemodynamic ally, however sensitivity and specificity of these parameters are reasonably less.

Central Line Associated Blood Stream Infection (CLABSI) contributes to a small but significant cause of inpatient morbidity. Globally evidence based approaches are practiced to target a zero CLABSI rate. A prospective study was conducted in our hospital over a period of two years. The incidence of CLABSI was studied per 1000 central lines days for initial 5 months. This was followed by phase wise introduction of the CLABSI reduction program. When all the three interventions implemented the CLABSI rates were sustained at zero over duration of 7 months.

Giant cell glioblastoma is an infrequent, accounting for about 5% of all glioblastoma mean age of presentation is about 40 years old. This tumor characterized by a predominance of bizarre multinucleated giant cells. It has deserved a separate category in the World Health Organization classification of grade Ⅳtumor

The clinical assessment of circulatory adequacy has been shown to be inaccurate in term and preterm infants (Tibby et al., 1997 and Osborn et al., 2004). Functional echocardiography, by treating Neonatologists, gives noninvasive insight into the hemodynamic status of patients quantitatively and helps in guiding treatment strategies accordingly. In this article, we will elaborate case scenarios where functional echocardiography decisively helped in the management of patients.

Aim: The purpose of this study was to investigate the success rate of PDL injection in primary maxillary molars anesthesia. Materials and Methods: This study was performed using a sequential double blind randomized trial design. In this study 82 children aged3–7years old who required pulpotomy, restoration, SSC and extraction on their primary maxillary molars were selected. The teeth of these children were anesthetized with periodontal injection and the dental treatments were performed on each patient.

Background: VEGFR-2 is a critical molecule for tumor angiogenesis and a target for assessment of anti-angiogenic therapy. Although, its expression and functionality has been correlated in various cancers, not many studies are available in the context of lung cancer. Patients and Methods: In this study, the expression of VEGFR-2 was analyzed in clinically relevant tissue samples of Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer (NSCLC) patients (n=108, surgically resected archival tumor samples) with histopathologically confirmed Squamous Cell Carcinoma (SCC) sub-type and compared with appropriate controls.

Barbiturates are hypnotic (sleep-inducing) drugs and notable drugs of abuse. They are extremely useful in clinical practice and are commonly prescribed as treatment for a variety of conditions. Barbiturates are known hepatic enzyme inducers and have significant stimulatory effects on the cytochrome P450 enzyme family. This study was aimed at evaluating the degree of cytochrome P450 enzyme family stimulation in a standard prescribed treatment regimen with a view to ascertaining changes in hepatic mitochondrial protein as an indicator of the drug adverse effect.

A simple, accurate and precise High Performance Liquid Chromatographic (HPLC) method has been developed for simultaneous determination of Pioglitazone and Alogliptin in bulk and dosage form. The method has been validated as per the guidelines of ICH. The separation is achieved on BDS hypersil C18, 250mm × 4.6mm, 5µ (particle size) column with flow rate 1.0 mL per minute in isocratic mode using Buffer pH 3.5: Methanol (70:30) as mobile phase. Column oven temperature is maintained at 25°C and observations are recorded at 271 nm.

Study Design and Objective: this was a descriptive cross-sectional study aimed to estimate the prevalence of HIV infection among Sudanese pregnant women at Omdurman Military Hospital. Methods: the Immuno Chromatographic Test (ICT) and the Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA) were used to detect the specific HIV Antigens and antibodies in the serum of 100 asymptomatic pregnant women attended the hospital. Results: only one woman (1%) showed positive result of HIV on both ICT and ELISA. Conclusions: ELISA is more specific than ICT forconfirming the diagnosis of HIV.

Introduction: Arterial Doppler abnormalities, at the level of umbilical artery (UA) & middle cerebral artery (MCA), confirm the presence of hypoxemia in the growth restricted fetus & present early warning signs.Intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) is associated with an increased risk of perinatal mortality, morbidity. Purpose: The purpose of this study is to study role of abnormal umbilical artery & middle cerebral artery flow velocity waveforms in predicting adverse perinatal outcome in intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR).

Background: Left ventricular hypertrophy {LVH} has been repeatedly shown to be associated with a marked increase in cardiovascular risk. The ECG evidence of LVH is present only in 50% of patients with anatomic LVH. ECG may be entirely normal in around 15% patients with severe LVH. Echocardiography can show LVH in almost 100% of patients. Obective: The purpose of this study is to determine the sensitivity of ECG in diagnosis of left ventricular hypertrophy by its correlation with echocardiography studies of left ventricular mass in hypertensive patients.

The objective of this study is to determine the distribution of genetic and morphological traits among the Binis, an ethnic group in the Southern part of Nigeria. Genetic and morphological traits studied include blood group and rhesus factor, tongue rolling and tongue folding, widows peak, facial dimple, earwax type, earlobe attachment and tooth occlusion pattern. A total of 250 Binis between the age of 15 and 44 (male and female) were used for this research. Data was collected by physical observation and examination.

Five Indian brands (coded as A, B, C, D, E) of 10 mg cetirizine hydrochloride (CTZ) tablets were evaluated for various in-vitro parameters, i.e. size and shape, uniformity of weight, hardness, friability, disintegration time and dissolution profile. The hardness of all the brands was found to be in the range of 4.2-4.4 kg, while friability was less than 1 %. The disintegration time of all brands were found to be in the range of 52 sec to 9 min 21 sec. All brands comply with the I.P weight variation tests while brands A, B, C, D and E comply with the I.P dissolution test.

Group of animal consist of 300 Awassi ewes, 32 rams and 322 off spring were typed for blood potassium and hemoglobin , HK gene frequencies for ewes, rams, and lambs were of the order of 0.89, 0.93 and 0.88, respectively; for the HbB gene the corresponding frequencies were related 0.98, 1.00 and 0.99, respectively.

Aim: The present study is undertaken to see the distribution of various benign thyroid lesions by free hand guided FNAC in a study population in northern India and compare the same with ultrasound- guided FNAC. Introduction: Clinical examination, although very accurate in most cases of thyroid lesion, is inadequate in some areas especially, in staging and in detecting the multi-nodularity of the gland. Materials and Methods: The study was conducted in the Postgraduate Department of Pathology of a teaching hospital for a period of 1 year. It was a prospective hospital based Study.

Objective: This study tries to find out the relationship of various socio-demographic variables with self perception of health (SPH) and morbidity load among the geriatric population of eastern Uttar Pradesh, India. Methods: The study is based on a specially designed sample survey of 800 elderly people taken from two different setups of society that is from urban and rural.

Clostridia are uncommon causes of pleuropneumonia in wildlife In human and domestic animals, different Clostridia species may affect pulmonary structures causing a necrotizing and hemorrhagic pneumonia with involvement of the pleura. In livestock, most cases are associated with sudden changes of diet, iatrogenic lesionscaused by invasive procedures such as thoracentesis or thoracotomy, or traumatic percutaneous introduction of the microorganism.

The present study is aimed at investigating the antiulcer effects of Crossandra infundibuliformis flowers methanol extract against aspirin induced ulcer in albino rats. Anti-ulcer activity was evaluated by measuring the ulcer index and percentage of ulcer incidence. The standard drug and the extract at 200mg/kg has shown almost similar action as that of ranitidine should be replaced with- the standard drug and the extract at 400mg/kg has shown almost similar action as that of ranitidine.

Introduction: Nutrition is an important factor contributing to health and functional ability. There is definite evidence that malnutrition is more common in geriatric population but it is underestimated in diagnostic and therapeutic procedures. Objective: The present study was carried out to assess nutritional status in elderly population aged ≥65 years. Material and Methods: It was a cross sectional study of 500 elderly subjects of age ≥65 years (63% subjects from urban and 37% subjects from rural area).

This study was carried to determine the concentration of serum estrogen in women with breast cancer using enzyme linked immunosorbent assay. Among 150 breast cancer female patients and 80 healthy females (control), venous blood samples were collected sera were separated to be used in estrogen measurements. The results showed that developing breast cancer decreased the estrogen level significantly less than the control.

Scrub typhus is being increasingly reported in India. It should be considered in the differential diagnosis of patients with acute febrile illness, including malaria, enteric and dengue fever. We report five cases of scrub typhus presenting as acute viral illness in month of September 2014 in our hospital. A thorough knowledge of the clinical features of scrub typhus including its complications and its varied presentations is important for providing early appropriate life saving empiric treatment for patients.

Background and objectives: Fetal distress in labor is a common occurrence and is of great concern for both patient and the obstetrician. An evaluation to predict early in course of labor, which fetus is at risk of developing distress could aid in management of labor. In current practice volume of amniotic fluid is measured non-invasively by USG. The present study was conducted with the objective of assessing the relation of amniotic fluid index and course of labor. Methodology: The present study was conducted on 200 pregnant women admitted for labor and delivery.

Lake Naivasha faces the challenge of nutrient enrichment and persistent floating aquatic macrophytes. The study aimed to determine seasonal changes in water quality and biomass of water hyacinth in Lake Naivasha. The changes in water hyacinth phytomass and values of physico-chemical parameters were measured fortnightly from September 2011 to January 2012 in three sites within the lake; Malewa River inlet, off wastewater treatment plant (WWT) - both with water hyacinth and an open water site.

It is believed that coriander originated from around the Mediterranean. Coriander (Coriandrum sativum L.) is an annual herb and, according to the climatic conditions, is cultivated as a summer or winter annual crop. At flowering, the glabrous plant can reach heights between 0.20 and 1.40 m. India has the prime position in the cultivation and production of coriander: The main coriander growing states in India are Andhra Pradesh, Rajasthan, Madhya Pradesh, Karnataka, Tamil Nadu and Uttar Pradesh. Rajasthan ranks first in coriander production which is mainly concentrated in Kota division.

The present work intended to study the potentiality of Azolla as a bio-fertilizer and as fish feed in a paddy cum fish culture unit. Results of three years study clearly showed in all replicatio and combination best performance was achieved in T3 (Azolla incorporation before and 50 days after transplanting). Puntius gonionotus (Thaiputi) and Oreochromis niloticus (Tilapia) both obtained their highest values of average weight and length in case of T3. The highest value of absolute growth and relative growth were always found in T3. Highest yield of Thaiputi and Tilapia were recorded in T3.

Damoh is a industrial city. High values of TDS, TH, chloride, alkalinity, calcium and magnesium were found in most of the groundwater samples of surrounding areas and effluent out -let samples of cement effluent treatment plant due to cement industries of damoh and improper treatment of cement effluent treatment plants. Though the CETPs are treating the effluent, the sonar and kopra rivers and the surrounding ground water quality gets deteriorated. This review critically analyses water pollution problems in Damoh, Madhya Pradesh, India.

Lakkavalli range forest is dry deciduous forest comes under bhadra wild life sanctuary. Rhizosphere soil samples were collected from Sida acuta and Centella asiatica and analyzed for diversity. Fungal species were enumerated by serial dilution method. Thirty six fungal species belonging to twenty one genera were recorded. Among these, 36 fungal species belonging to 21 genera from Sida acuta and 29 fungal species belonging to 17 genera from Centella asiatica soils and two non sporulating fungi were recorded from both soils.

The performances of four lines of the NERICA variety and two varieties of the Oryzasativa species were evaluated by considering parameters such as the number of panicle per rice plant, the number of primary branches of the panicles, panicle length, the plant height, the number of grains and empty balls per panicle. It appears that O. sativa from Japan has a number of empty balls less than NERICA’s varieties from Africa. We also noted that O. sativa has the highest number of panicles per rice plant (a mean of 14.05 ± 6.14).

The present study was conducted to establish connectivity between marital adjustment and attitude towards women among married males of Kathua District. The sample comprised of 140 males (70 from joint families and 70 from nuclear families) in the age group of 30-40 years selected through random and purposive sampling technique. The objectives of the study were to assess level of marital adjustment of sample males; assess their attitude towards women; assess the interrelationship between the attitude held by the sample men towards women and their marital adjustment.

Major enzyme activities of vermicompost of papermill sludge by earthworm species Eudrilus eugeniae and its simple compost were assessed across different periods in relation to their respective initiative substrates. In this experiment, the vermibed was prepared from different raw material viz., Mixed Liquor Suspended Solids (MLSS) and Leaf Litter (LL) were mixed with Cow Dung (CD) mixed with different ratios. All vermibeds expressed a significant increase in enzyme activities. Overall, the maximum value of enzyme activities was received in CD + MLSS + LL in 1:1:2 ratios.

India is urbanizing at a very fast pace. The enhancement of urban green spaces or urban green forests is one of the ways, which has the potential to mitigate the adverse effects of urbanization economic or environmental costs. Tress provide various benefits associated with air, water quality, building energy conservation, cooler air temperatures, reductions in ultraviolet radiation and many other environmental and social benefits. Trees have played an important role in human settlements throughout history.

In India, urban water bodies commonly become cesspools due to lack of sanitation facilities. Delhi is continually urbanizing at a rapid pace that has affected the condition of water bodies. Hauz khas is an area which is located in South Delhi and the lake inside it is 700 year old. The pH in zone 2 was 9.6 and in zone 3 was 9.7 which showed the lake water is not suitable for irrigation, fish culture, outdoor bathing. It is very clear that the sewage effluent is the major source of nutrients in the lake and it was concluded that the current situation is not sustainable.

Solids transport is a complex phenomenon; the intensity of this phenomenon varies greatly with the general environment: geology, degree of rock alteration, hydrology, vegetation, climate, etc. The extent of the phenomenon is out of proportion in semi-arid areas or areas with temperate climates. Algeria is one of the countries most affected by this phenomenon and its consequences. To enable a rapid response to demands from engineers for the quantification of bed load transport at the outlet of a catchment area, a simple tool easy to implement has been developed.

The High Altitude and Tribal area is situated in Eastern Ghats of Andhra Pradesh, which are a series of broken hills and ridges raising up to an altitude of 50 to 1680 m above mean sea level. There are 33 scheduled tribes inhabited in the area and the major groups are being savara, bhagata, jatapu, valmiki, konda dora, koya, kondu etc. This study presents a list of Indigenous Technical Knowledge (ITKs) of the tribal farmers adopted in their farm operations. The study gives a strategy for higher adoption of ITKs and their blended technologies.

Trichoderma asperellum is a fungus belongs to the order Hypocreales and used as bio-control agent in the management of various microbial diseases affecting agriculture crops. The colonies of Trichoderma asperellum is commonly isolated from soil which forms its natural environment. T. asperelllum has versatile nutrient requirements and different carbon sources could be used for its growth. In the present study two tuber crop varieties belong to Dioscorea alata, a medicinal herb (Stevia rebaudiana) and cashew apple have been tested for their efficacy to support the growth of this fungus.

An ever increasing demand of uniform medicinal plants based medicines warrants their mass propagation through plant tissue culture strategy. Tissue culture technology is potent and has opened extensive areas of research for biodiversity conservation. Tissue culture protocols have been developed for a wide range of medicinal plants, which includes endangered, rare and threatened plant species, Bacopa monnieri L. is in among these.

An attempt was made to study the meiobenthic community composition, density, richness, evenness and diversity of Manakudy estuary, south west coast of India, during February 2010 to January 2012. Thirty seven (37) species were identified in the present investigation. Foraminiferans are dominated group of all over the estuary and represented by Ammonia beccarii, Lagena semistriata, Rosalina globularis, Eponides repandus and Globigerinoides sp., The second dominated population group of nematodes was represented by Daptonema conicum, Desmoscolex sp., Halalaimus sp., Theristus sp.

This work was conducted to assess chemical composition of deep wells water, in Al-Bewanees region, south of Libya, to clarify its suitability for drinking and domestic uses. Obtained results indicate that all studied samples have been neutral to very slightly acid pH, within the optimum range for drinking water. Most samples had high salt content. Sodium was the dominant cation in the entire samples, and its concentrations in most samples were above than the upper critical limit suggested by WHO and Libyan guidelines for drinking water.

The code has two classes, the first one named Dynamic Programming.cs and the second named Cell. cs. I will discuss the details of Dynamic Programming.cs class in the following lines because it describes the main idea of my article. The first class contains three methods that describe the steps of dynamic programming algorithm. The first method is named Intialization_Step, this method prepares the matrix a(i,j) that holds the similarity between arbitrary prefixes of the two sequences.

Anticancer activity of crude and partially purified fractionated ink of S.pharaonis (cuttlefish) was evaluated on HepG2 cancer cell line. Different concentration (125µg, 250µg and500µg) of crude and fractionated ink were prepared and the cell viability was measured using MTT assay. Crude ink exhibit significant cytotoxic activity at all concentration. Cytotoxicity increases as the concentration of the sample increases from 125µg to 500µg. Maximum toxicity of 64% was observed at 500µg/ml concentration and IC 50 value obtained at a concentration of 125µg.

Foliar epidermal characters and petiole anatomy of four underutilized Annona species in Nigeria were studied to facilitate identification of this novel source of fruits and also to bring the awareness of Annona fruits to the populace. Annona species being multipurpose trees have high nutritional value as a food and are sources of medicinal and industrial products. Petiole anatomy of the Annona species was undertaken using Light Microscope (LM), the foliar micromorphological study of the species of Annona was undertaken using Light Microscope (LM) and Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM).

The seeds were raised in earthen pots lined with polyethylene bags and filled with washed river sand. Thirty days after sowing (DAS), the plants were treated with 3mM and 6mM Cd2+ solution. Sampling of plants was done at 7-8 days intervals starting from 30 DAS of the crop till its maturity.

252 blood samples collected from patients of different localities of Allahabad region were found to be positive for typhoid fever when tested by Widal test. The causative agentSalmonella species were cultured from the blood samples and then were identified by using standard procedures. The isolates were identified as S. typhi, S. paratyphiA, S. typhimurium and S. bongori. Age, socio-economic status and seasonal variations were identified as significant risk factors associated with incidence of Salmonella infection.

The present study deals with the various fishing gears adopted for fishery purpose used by the Pulicat marine fishermen during the period of May 2013-April 2014. During the study time, five different kinds of gears were observed and dominant catch were caught using the purse seine net and Gill net, that means 90 % of the total catch were caught by these nets and Others fishing gears contribute only few percent of the total catch. The highest catch recorded during the period of August and September.

Cancer is a leading cause of deaths in developing as well as developed countries. Four most frequent serious cancers identified are lung, breast, colorectal and stomach. The currently available chemotherapy agents have drawbacks like sever side effect, poor solubility and non-specificity. In the present study, the anticancer activity of ethanol extracts of Anisochilus carnosus was checked against lung cancer A549 cell lines. The ethanol extract of Anisochilus carnosus showed dose dependent response against the human lung cancer A549 cells.

Experiments were conducted to assess the antibiosis mechanism of resistance viz., nymphal survival, development period, growth index, fecundity and hatchability of brown planthopper (BPH), Nilaparvata lugens on some selected resistant rice cultures. The rice cultures viz., WGL II 218-5-1, Ptb 33 and RGL 7001 recorded significantly lowest per cent of nymphal survival than susceptible check, TN1. Significantly prolonged development period of BPH nymphs was observed in rice culture MTU IJ 206-7-4-1, MTU PLA 99-1-3-1-2, WGL II 218-5-1 and resistant check, Ptb 33 than susceptible check, TN1.

The In vitro studies were carried out at 26+1oC and 65% to determine the optimum host-parasitoid ratio for the diamondback moth, Plutella xylostella and its endolarval parasitoid Cotesia vestalis. A single female of C, vestalis has the potential to parasitise 100 larvae effectively with 80.0 to 86.0 % parasitism, during an average female longevity of 12.9 days. The mean adult emergence was 88.56%, Mass production of the parasitoid would therefore be more effective with a host parasitoid ratio of 100 larvae : 1 female parasitoid.

A total of 13 Aspergillus isolates were collected from different regions of North Eastern parts of Karnataka. Thirteen isolates varied in radial growth from 80-85 mm. Eight isolates produced sclerotia with minimum number (26 cm-2) produced by AF4 isolate and maximum number (119 cm-2) by AF13. They were inoculated on ripened chilli fruits using pin-prick method. Thirteen isolates varied in aflatoxin production from 99.96 to 1639.10 µg/kg as determined by ELISA.

Medicinal plants are associated with the local heritage all over the World. These plants are used as traditional medicines for human healthcare. This practice is very common among the local peoples of Bangaon Subdivision, North 24 Paraganas District of West Bengal. Ethno-botanical study as well as taxonomic documentation of medicinal plants now a days are very important tool for the protection of intellectual property right (IPR).In this field survey, information was collected from traditional practitioners of that area and documentation was made from this.

Most of drugs designed to act on the target gp-120 which is the surface part of the envelope glycoprotein (Env) of HIV_1. The HIV_1 inter to the cell by temporary interaction between the viral exterior glycoprotein GP120 and human CD4 receptor. Binding to CD4 stimulate the start of a cascade of conformational changes in gp120 and gp41 that lead to the fusion of the viral with the host cell membrane. Three gp120s and gp41s combine in a trimer of heterodimers to form the envelope spike, which mediates attachment to and entry into the host cell.

The Fulton’s condition factor (K) and relative condition factor (Kn) of the cyprinid Amblypharyngodon mola collected from the culture ponds of Jorhat district, Assam was studied during July 2010 to June 2012. The study was carried out in relation to various length groups and different months of the year. The regression coefficient ‘b’ computed from the length-weight data of 260 females and 310 males was 2.846 for male and 3.286 for female. The values of ‘K’ fluctuated between a minimum of 0.824 and maximum of 1.039 for males, while for females, the values were between 0.879 to 1.184.

Objective: The objective of the study was to identify novel lead compounds active against Interleukin-17 pathway that could reduce the effect of Rheumatoid Arthritis. Methods: Work was done on the IL17 (PDB ID: 4HR9) protein. Protein minimization and active site prediction was carried out using CHARMm algorithm on Discovery Studio. Compounds from plant and animal sources having immunosuppressant, anti-TNF and anti-inflammatory properties as well as standard drugs active against Rheumatoid Arthritis were identified. ADMET studies were done. Protein-Ligand Docking was done using Lead IT.

The current research is to investigate the antioxidant activity of different doses of Garcina Indica against gamma irradiation oxidative damage in the liver tissue with caused single dose of 6Gy. The Malondialdehyde (MDA), Cu,Zn-superoxide dismutase (Cu,Zn-SOD) and selenium-dependent glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) are currently considered to be basic markers of oxidative stress. MDA is one of the end-products of the peroxidation of membrane lipids, whereas enzymes Cu,Zn-SOD and GSH-Px belong to the natural antioxidants.

Green leafy vegetables are valuable in maintaining alkaline reserve in the body is valued mainly for their high vitamin, dietary fiber and mineral contents. Dry leaf extract of Sesbania grandiflora (L.) Pers was evaluated for mineral compositions like potassium, phosphorus, calcium, magnesium, iron and sodium. The mineral compositions obtained suggests that the leaves as a cheap source of minerals and can be incorporated into human diet to meet their recommended daily allowances.

Salicylic acid (SA) is a growth regulator that promotes growth of plants under stress and non stress conditions. The present study was conducted to determine the effect of foliar applications of salicylic acid (SA) on enzyme activity of Vigna mungo (L.) Hepper. SA was applied at five different concentrations (50ppm, 100ppm, 150ppm, 200ppm 250ppm) during the growth period of 15 days old Vigna seedling.

An outdoor survey of air borne fungal spores was conducted at two different sites at Nagpur, India viz., semiurban (site I) and urban (site II), during February 2006 to January 2007 using Rotorod air sampler. Aeromycoflora was observed throughout the year but their percentage of occurrence varies due to meteorological factors. A total of 56 fungal types were recorded from a total catch of 65,480 spores/m3 of air from site I. The percentage of taxonomic groups of fungi was Ascomycotina (1.71%), Basidiomycotina (8.16%) and Deuteromycotina (90.13%).

The experiments were conducted to study the morphological and biochemical responses of Salvinia molesta Mitchell to different concentrations of Chromium exposed for 12 days. The data on Morphological and Biochemical parameters were recorded at the interval of 4 days. Test plant showed visible symptoms such as chlorosis and withering of roots at higher concentrations of Chromium however, the normal growth was observed at lower concentration of 0.25 and 0.50 ppm.

Habenaria intermedia D.Don. (Orchidaceae) is commonly known as Vrddhi in Indian system of medicine. The purpose of the study was to assess the effects ethyl acetate and ethynolic extracts of tubers of Habenaria intermedia against Carbon tetrachloride (CCl4, 0.7 ml/kg.p.o. in liquid paraffin 1:1, i.p.) induced hepatotoxicity in rats. The hepatoprotecitve effect of extracts was evaluated by the assay of liver function and biochemical parameters such as SGOT, SGPT, SALP, serum bilirubin and cholesterol.

Occurrence of pseudo-stalked barnacle in spinner dolphin and bottlenose dolphin from Chennai is reported here. Earlier report on the host bottlenose dolphin is revised in the light of present taxonomy. This is the first report of spinner dolphins as host in the Northern Indian Ocean and further studies are required to use them as natural biological tags for identifying wild cetaceans.

In today’s world all the imaging data or information is processed and stored in a digital form. The digital imaging used in many applications like forensic imaging, medical imaging and computer graphics etc. The image is first captured by the hardware and then converted into digital form and stored in memory device. The digital images are represented and stored in the form of square pixel. The square pixel image is formed by using the average of square area of smaller square pixel. Another form to digitize an image is hexagonal pixel.

Cadmium oxide (CdO) thin films have been deposited on glass substrate at R.T (300 K) by thermal oxidation with exist air. All samples were exposed to Gamma –Ray (γ – rays) source type (Cs 137) with energy (0.611MeV) for different irradiation time (2, 4 and 6) hours. In this study determines the effect of irradiation by (γ – rays) at different time on the structural, optical properties of as deposited films. X-ray techniques were used to characterize structural properties which indicate the formation of polycrystalline cubic CdO phase with preferential orientation along (111) plane.

In this paper, DIS technique is demonstrated. DIS is projected to stably eliminate the nonessential shaking phenomena in the image sequences captured by cameras without the influence caused by moving object in the image or intentional motion. Local Motion Vector estimation method is used Sum Of absolute difference (SAD) technique. Local motion vectors (LMV) of an image sequence are calculated. Image sequence of LMV is used for DIS Method, which is based on the Hilbert–Huang transform (HHT) is projected.

Pure and Cr2O3 –doped polyvinyl alcohol (Cr2O3 –PVA) composite films with different Cr2O3 concentrations were prepared by solution cast technique. FTIR spectra comparison shows that the Cr2O3 molecules are interstitially distributed among polyvinyl alcohol chains, i.e., there is no chemical bonding between the Cr2O3 and polymer at the specified conditions of the research.

Measurements have been made to identify modification of the γ-ray transmission factors of various construction materials according to percentage increasing concentration of borax and Kestelek boron waste by using a narrow-beam-geometry at 59.5 keV. Photons passed through different samples were detected with a very sensitive Si(Li) detector. We have made to investigate experimental results and these results discussed in this paper.

The main concentration of this paper is to suggestmodified exponential type unbiased ratio and product estimators using auxiliary attribute in simple random sampling. A comparative analysis of efficiency is carried out between suggested and existing estimators theoretically as well as numerically.

This research established the presence of toxic metals in the river fauna for a follow up study to determine how the human and aquatic lives have been affected by accumulation of metals. All of their sewage - over 1.3 billion liters per day - goes directly into the Ganga and Yamuna river, along with thousands of animal carcasses, mainly cattle (Bharadwaj et al., 2011).The objectives of this paper were to illustrate the distribution and levels of sediment contamination by heavy metals in the Allahabad city, and to compare recent data with those collected during the early 2001.

Seasonal variation in the physico chemical parameters, water quality assessment using WQI method, irrigation water quality assessment and heavy metal analysis was reported in the present paper by the authors. The work is carried out for the water samples collected from Denkada anicut of Vizianagaram district of Andhra Pradesh, India. The samples were collected and analyzed for eleven different seasons such as August 2010, December 2010, April 2011, August 2011, December 2011, April 2012, August 2012, December 2012, April 2013, August 2013 and December 2013.

The lead thin films were deposited onto amorphous glass substrate using a vacuum thermal deposition technique by varying annealing time to study its oxidation behaviour. The XRD pattern clearly exhibited the phase changes in accordance with the annealing time and reaches the menopause of PbO at a maximum annealing time. The surface morphology, particle size and uniformity of the films were ascribed from SEM micrograms. The change in surface morphology or topography with the function of oxidation time was observed from amplitude and functional parameters.

Sign Language Recognition System is one of the most growing researches today. Many new Techniques are having been developed recently in the field of Sign Language Recognition. This system becomes popular because it is only one of the efficient way through which the deaf and dumb people can convey their message to other people. The main aim of this paper is to present a survey of the various techniques used for image mining techniques for the Indian Sign Language Recognition given by different researchers.

Sign Language Recognition System is one of the most growing researches today. Many new Techniques are having been developed recently in the field of Sign Language Recognition. This system becomes popular because it is only one of the efficient way through which the deaf and dumb people can convey their message to other people.

The aim of the study was to explore how sports sponsorship impact on building company image. Benefits such as creating long lasting relationships with the stakeholders as well as the community and building company image are also discussed. Challenges of sports sponsoring are also considered such as inappropriate image conveyed by sports entities as well as ambush marketing.

Interrogative construction in Yoruba has been widely discussed by the scholars of Yoruba. Our observation is that though the structures of interrogative construction in Yoruba language and Èkìtì dialect are identical. The only area of difference is that question markers in interrogative construction in Èkìtì are fewer than what we have in Yoruba language. This paper examines the mechanism for derivation of interrogative construction in Èkìti dialect. It also claims that interrogative marker is not completely absent in the dialects of Yoruba.

Today the cities and towns of developing countries are experiencing a rapid population growth, In India, currently 31.18% of population (census of India, 2011) lives in urban centers, while in the next 15 years it is projected around 35%, and this indicates the alarming rate of population growth of urban centers. One of the important features of population growth in in urban area in India is dualism - urban population growth at macro level is decelerating but in class I cities it is growing.

The Effects of Industrial Effluents in Ground Water – Tiruchirappalli Corporation. The Tiruchirappalli Corporation in Tiruchirappalli district of Tamil Nadu was chosen as the study area. Tiruchirappalli is one of the special grade municipal corporation towns of TamilNadu. It is the first biggest town in Tiruchirappalli district with a population above 24 lakhs (27, 18, 366, and 2011). The software Like Arc GIS are used to demarcate the Effects of Industrial Effluents In Ground Water Tiruchirappalli Corporation.

The World Trade Organization (WTO) has played a great role in the development of international trade in agriculture. Before its establishment, trade in agriculture has been distorted and not liberalized. Nonetheless, due to the effect of the Uruguay Round Agreement on Agriculture (AOA), trade in agriculture has been fully liberalized. However, despite its establishment, one could observe several drawbacks in fully realizing the benefits from being part of it.

The intent of the study was to assess the external auditors view towards the role of internal audit function on financial reporting quality and transparency in Ethiopia. From the total of 63 private audit firms in Ethiopia, registered in Federal Office of Auditor General as of 2013, 12 audit firms located in Addis Ababa were selected purposively based on their grade. 140 Self administered questionnaires were distributed to employees (auditors) in the selected audit firms. To analyze the collected data, descriptive data analysis method was employed.

Ethiopian agriculture is characterized by traditional and subsistence peasant farming whose access to modern technology and basic education is very limited. However,aagricultural technology is a means through which agricultural efficiency, productivity and production improvement can be made to fight against hunger and poverty.

Objects: This study is devoted to the analysis of the vegetation of the coastal dunes of the region of Tlemcen. Results were obtained on these in general, including the phytosociological and topographic aspect. Methods: is to choose stations of the coastline of the region of Tlemcen from Rechgoune Beach until Marsat Ben M'hidi which determine vegetation of coastal psammophytes These Results: allowed us to individualize different phytosociological classes (Cakiletea maritimae, Ammophiletea) for species with the beach, (Therobrachypodietea, Quercetea ilicis) in bright dune and fixed dune.

There is a need to create a strong competitive small and medium enterprise sector that is able to play a leading role in the development process. Business strategy is one of important components that lead to economic growth and competition. In order to design and implement successful business strategy, small and medium enterprises need to have proper accounting system to generate appropriate information. Therefore, the objective of this research is to assess views’ of authorized accountants towards accounting practices of small and medium enterprises in Regional state of Tigray, Ethiopia.

User satisfaction in libraries depend on the availability of resources, reliability and precision of information provided, speed of services, completeness of information, ability and attitude of the staff. It is a very difficult task to measure the quality of a service. However, libraries conduct periodical surveys to find out the efficacy and plausibility of the resources and services and to deduce the cases of user frustration. The information generated from these surveys are utilized as a blue print for planning new services.

Due to agro-climatic suitability of Tripura, a north-eastern state of India, rubber plantation is being promoted. Till 2012, 5.2 per cent of its geographical area has come under rubber monoculture. In spite of socio-economic positive impacts, there are controversies on growing expansion of rubber monoculture among the populace of Tripura, mainly from the perspective of ecology. Based on the available literature of the studies carried out in different places of the globe as well as in Tripura, these aspects have been reviewed in this paper.

Government needs to be accountable in its use of public money and in providing effective, efficient, and economical service delivery. In such a desire of government in sectors financial management, internal audit plays a valuable role by providing both assurance and consulting service. Despite the fact, there are factors that affect the internal audits role in the public financial management. This study attempted to analyze internal audit function’s role in the public financial management by using a case study design. Data were collected from both primary and secondary sources.

Banks globally have experienced complex and enormous challenges related to their customer relationship since the economic crisis. How can banks create higher customer satisfaction and loyalty”? “Global banking survey- a new era of customer satisfaction” had a shocking finding. Indian customers’ are generally leaving their main banks because of poor services though in general there remains a high level of satisfaction with banks. Finding further says that 50% of the customers deciding to move their main banks did so because of general levels of service quality.

This paper is set out to explore the image of the Turk via the fundamental historical, socio-political and ethnical premises prevailing in one of the most well known pieces of English literature, Shakespeare’s Othello. It is set out to examine the image of the Turk and Turkish material culture in Shakespeare’s play set against a specific, controversial and often violent historical background. The dominating factor during the Renaissance and Reformation was the dichotomy of Catholic Church and Protestants.

The rate at which electronic media was growing in scope and purposes of its use, its levels, communication genres, types of spaces and impact on human relations was an area of interest to postmodern researchers in various disciplines. The study sought to investigate how various aspects of church life, identity and mission are being influenced by use of electronic media. Since it is a global shift in means, scope and control of content in communication, the church cannot ignore it.

Nowadays, across the globe in general and Ethiopia in particular, public structures (Governmental vacancies) are on saturation point beyond which they can’t carry new staffs. Alternatively, the government of Ethiopia is largely emphasizing on the self-employment and encouragement of citizens by establishing small and micro enterprise agencies across the country. On top of this, the government has started praising individuals or unions who come up with new business ideas, new markets, new products etc.

A sound and profitable banking sector is better able to withstand negative shocks and contributes to the stability of the financial system (Athanasoglou et al., 2005). The sound banking system enhances the growth of the economy and with stand the growth of the country. The present study aims to study about the performance efficiency of Indian public sector banks, among nineteen public sector banks twelve Indian public sector banks has been selected for the analysis it is based on the weight age of Input and Output weight of the banks.

In vitro evaluation was carried out to study the effect of various herbal leaf extract seed hardening treatments on seed quality of sesame. The sesame seeds were soaked at 4, 6, 8, 10 and 12 hours of duration at 5, 10, 15 and 20 % concentrations of aqueous leaf extract of chicory, aswagantha, ocimum and sarpagandha plants. The study revealed that, the 20% concentration with 4 hours of all herbal extracts showed high increase in seed germination and vigour index.

The purpose of the study was to evaluate the relationship between hand grip strength with hand anthropometric measurements in university male handball players. One hundred and forty four (144) male handball players, selected from south west zone inter university handball tournament for the year 2010- 2011, organized by S.R.T.M. University, Nanded, Maharastra. In this study data was collected from teams who reached quarterfinals and Annamalai university team. These selected subjects, who practice handball regularly and take part in competition and their age range between 18 to 28 years.

Bladder cancer (BC) is one of the most widespread cancers distressing men and women and thus has a philosophical impact on health care. Free radicals lead to lipid peroxidation which is destructive in nature and has been suggested to play a role in cancers. Aims and Objectives: To determine the role oxidative stress and level of antioxidants in bladder cancer (BC) by estimation the expression of Hexanoyl-ysine (HEL) as lipid peroxidation marker in cancerous tissue of bladder and total antioxidants capacity (TAC)in serum of bladder cancer.

During constant-load exercise of moderate intensity, pulmonary O2 uptake (VO2) is characterized by two temporal response components. The first occurs during the transit delay from the exercising limbs and is mediated predominantly by increased pulmonary blood flow. Thereafter, this response is supplemented by the influence of increased O2 extraction, causing VO2 to increase mono-exponentially to its steady state, with a time constant that does not vary appreciably with work rate, at this intensity.

Data on biosecurity measures were gathered from Ministry of Agriculture and Animal Resources (MAAR), Khartoum State, Sudan with the objective to evaluate biosecurity status in poultry industry in Khartoum state. The data referred to one year work executed by the veterinary authorities during 2013 with the objective of measuring biosecurity level for registration purposes. The data were organized in twelve biosecurity variables prior analysis.

Mesenteric teratomas are very rare tumors arising from totipotent primordial cells which displays a mixture of tissues of tridermal or bidermal origin. Teratomas are usually found in saccrococcygeal area (47.2%), in the gonads (31.6), and less frequently in other sites like neck, mediastinum, retroperitonium, cranial cavity, nasopharynx and upper jaw.1Teratomas in GIT and associated organs like stomach and pancreas are very rare and there are only occasional case report on mesenteric teratoma.

A dermoid cyst is the most common of the teratomatous lesions in the head and neck region, approximately 7% of all dermoids occurring in this region. (Som et al., 2003; Taylor and Erich, 1967) Histologically, it contains two germ cell layers and skin appendages (e.g., hair follicles and sebaceous glands). An epidermoid cyst is less common in the neck than a dermoid cyst and is comprised solely of ectoderm. Dermoid/epidermoid cysts are frequently midline in location, typically arising either in the floor of mouth deep to the mylohyoid muscles or in the suprasternal notch.

Secondary school students in Kenyan schools experience many problems which they are unable to handle on their own and most of them are reluctant to seeek counselling. This necessitated this study’s whose title was ‘a comparative study of factors influencing guidance and counselling help-seeking behaviour among public secondary school students in Nyeri and Nairobi counties, Kenya’. Some of the factors influencing counselling help seeking behaviour among secondary school students are student’s attitudes towards counselling and students’ gender.

In variable types of glomerular kidney diseases, evaluation of kidney biopsies by electron, light and IF microscopy is essential for diagnosis confirmation and management planning. Since electron microscopic evaluation of all specimens is not economically cost-beneficial, there should be an evaluation of how necessary is performing it for each type of glomerular disease. We gathered and analyzed pathologic reports from electron and light microscopy of 985 cases of renal biopsies with variable glomerular diseases during years 2000-2010. Analysis of results was done using SPSS software.

Many conservation measures aim the control of poaching and new threats to wildlife in India; but on the other hand, many infectious diseases and clinical problems taking upper hand in many of the wild animals are always given less significance than they actually deserve. Considering all these, in order to add more essence to the conservation biology, the present work may act as a tool for successful conservation in India.

The present study emphasizes the phenol hyper tolerance and subsequent degradation behavior of a soil microbial isolate belongs to Bacillus genera. The bacterial species was isolated from tannery wastewater contaminated soil. Amongst the seven different bacterial isolate (MCG 01, 02, 03, 04, 05, 06 and 07), the isolate MCG 03 was selected and used to assess the phenol degradation efficacy at concentrations 500, 1000, 1500 and 2000 ppm. Isolate MCG 03 degrade 1000 ppm phenol within 24 h. Substrate inhibition was realized only at concentration >2000 ppm.

Estimation of pharmacotherapeutic potential, possible molecular mechanism of action, toxic/side effects and interaction with drug-metabolizing enzymes was achieved by computational studies. Computer assisted drug designing involves all computational techniques to discover, design and optimize biologically active compounds with desired structure features for putative use as drug.

Normal pregnancy is characterized by profound changes in almost every organ system to accommodate the demands of the fetoplacental unit. It also associated with changes in all aspects of haemostasis, including increase in concentrations of most clotting factors, decreasing concentrations of some of the natural anticoagulants and diminishing fibrinolytic activity.

Hepatitis C virus (HCV) stands as one of the most important etiologies of chronic liver disease and is an emerging infection in the world. Egypt has the largest burden of HCV infection in the world. Aim: - To identify effect of an educational program on hepatitis C patients treated with interferon and their family caregivers. Materials and Method: A quazi experimental study design was used in this study. This study was carried out in the outpatient clinic at Al-Mahalla educational liver hospital.

Objective: Onychocryptosis (Ingrown nail) is an important disease for community life. Various medical and surgical methods are utilized abouth treatment. There is no option for radical treatment which both reduce to recurrence or diminish and which is ideal abouth cosmetic aspect. In our study, for the treatment of ingrown nail we aimed to apply a new surgical method that both reduced the recurrence or diminish and success better result cosmetically.

Objective: Concession and endothelial defect caused skin flap failure by thrombus. Our study aimed to support flap survive by an anticoagulant agent. Materials and Methods: On this study was used 14 Wistar Albino female rats who are separated control (n=7) and ticagrelor (n=7) groups. Dorsal skin flaps were elevated and sutured same incision area. Ticagrelor was infused 20 mg/kg before 24 hour and 10 mg/kg after operation, each 12 hour, 10 days. % 0.9 NaCl infused for control group. After 10 days, flaps were evaluated topographicly and histochemicaly.

Tetanus adisease caused by infection by an aerobic bacteria called closteridum tetanae its present mainly in the soil and growth in anaerobic field, in this literature A case of tetanus is described in a 43 years old Male in AL-kindy educated hospital, Baghdad, Iraq. The initial presentation was Trismus and dysphagia following a tongue laceration by grossly carious tooth, Subsequently he developed muscular spasm which led to the diagnosis of tetanus. This paper discusses the general management of tetanus

The consequences of aging involve the risk of osteoporosis, leading to an impaired quality of life in the elderly patient, especially post menopausal women. Osteoporosis is the leading cause of morbidity and mortality in postmenopausal women. Aim of this study was to see mandibular bone changes in post menopausal osteoporotic patient after treatment with Zoledronic acid. 150 postmenopausal osteoporotic patients were selected and divided into two groups: first group was freshly diagnosed osteoporotic patients and second group one year after treatment with Zoledronic acid.

Barringtonia acutangula Linn (B.actangula) commonly known as Indian oak is an indigenous medicinal plant which is found throughout India. The objectives of present study are to evaluate the effects of ethanolic and aqueous extracts of B.actangula Linn bark on anti-oxidant and anti-inflammatory properties. The B.actangula bark extracts were prepared by using soxhlet with ethanol and successive aqueous extract was prepared using same marc. The extracts were subjected for phytochemical analysis to identify different phytoconstituents.

This study was conducted to indicate the association among blood potassium types and level,and with white blood cells count and hemoglobin percentage.Group of animal consist of 200 Awassi sheep, 40 Arabi sheep and 59 karrdi sheep, were typed for blood potassium concentration. The results revealed the fallowing :- 1- Potassium level of Awassi, Arabi and Karadi sheep blood showed a bimodal distribution, the low potassium (LK) and the high potassium (HK). 2- Awassi sheep (HK) had significantly higher WBCs count,5133, than that in LK Awassi sheep, 4814/ml.

Diabetes is one of the major diseases affecting people all over the world irrespective of the age group. It is mainly classified into 2 types: type 1 and type 2. In type 1 diabetes insulin is not secreted by the pancreas, whereas in type 2 diabetes the cells fail to use the insulin that has been secreted. This proposed stimulator is for type-1 diabetes. It will have a sensor which senses the blood glucose level. In case of high level of glucose the trigger circuit is activated that will stimulate the pancreas to secrete insulin into blood.

Introduction: Enteric fever is an important public health problem in developing countries like India. Antibiotics are still the main stay in the treatment of enteric fever, but enteric fever Salmonellae have developed drug resistance and this has further hampered the process of reducing the mortality and morbidity associated with this disease. Materials and Methods: Phenotypically and serologically confirmed enteric fever Salmonellae were subjected for antimicrobial susceptibility testing by Kirby Bauer disc diffusion testing.

Introduction: Medical education aims at training of health related professionals predominantly in cognitive, psychomotor and attitude domains. The psychomotor domain is important and needs good infrastructure and resources to deliver skilled professionals to the community. Our experience on the cadavers as a resource for the surgical skill development of the health professionals and its impact on the student learning has been a successful journey.

Thirteen important species of mealy bugs occurring in India. It has been proved that some mealy bugs are important plant disease vectors. Management of mealy bugs using chemical pesticides is often difficult, but these pests can be managed well by biological control using predatory coccinellids like. Cryptolaemus montrouzieri, Scymnus coccivora and Brumoides suturalis have been proved as a effective mealy bug predators. Besides these, others like Nephus regularis, Brumoides lineatus, Chilomenes sexmaculata, Coccinella septempunctata, Hyperaspis maindroni are kown to feed o mealybugs.

Illegal hunting is one of the major threats to wildlife flora and fauna. In present study, we identified five cases of suspected wildlife poaching by using the molecular techniques. Mitochondrial cytochrome b (Cyt-b) and 12S ribosomal rRNA (12S rRNA) genes identified five wild species, Chinkara (Gazella bennetti), Peafowl (Pavo cristatus), Musk deer (Moschus chrysogaster), Black bear (Selenarctos thibetanus) and Tiger (Panthera tigris). In India, poaching and hunting is a illegal offense, and based on this evidence, the accused were found guilty and punished.

Lamprogrammus exutus (legless cuskeel) is a deep sea fish and analyzed the proximate composition of fish meat, protein concentrate and silage. Our studies reveals that the Legless cuskeel meat consists variety of nutrients such as 9 essential and 5 non-essential amino acids, 7 saturated and 21 unsaturated fatty acids, sodium, potassium, calcium ions etc. Both fish protein concentrate and fish silage are also containing 8 essential and 5 non-essential amino acids. So this deep sea fish is completely useful.

The microbiological quality of 4 types of chicken sandwich samples were collected from different well known shops of Chittagong City Corporation, Bangladesh which were used as test samples to isolate and identify the associate contaminated bacteria. The isolated bacteria were identified following the standard bacteriological methods: morphology, gram staining and biochemical tests. Three types of bacteria were identified and characterized by differents tests as Lactobacillus delbrueckii, Salmonella bongori and Yersinia pestis.

A Case-control study was carried out to determine the frequency of Helicobacter Pylori (H. pylori) infection by H. pylori stool Ag test in malnourished children and it's relation to some selected variables. Sixty seven malnourished infants and children who have been admitted to nutritional rehabilitation center (NRC) in Basra General Hospital were regarded as cases and one hundred thirty nine healthy children who have visited primary health center, were regarded as control, their age ranged from 2 – 36 months over the period from the first of February till the end of September 2012.

Access to safe drinking water a major challenge affecting many countries in the world especially developing countries. The main objective of this study was to assess the quality of water supplied by Appiadu community water system; in Appiadu, a suburb in the Kumasi metropolis, Ghana. Parameters analysed included pH, temperature, electrical conductivity, total dissolved solids, turbidity, total hardness, total coliform, faecal coliform, faecal enterococci, total viable count, Escherichia coli and salmonella.

The present study was done to assess the relationship between parental information seeking and adolescent disclosure about peers. The sample for the study comprised of 60 adolescents, 30 boys and 30 girls, in the age group of 15-18 years and either of their parents. The tool used for data collection was ‘Right to know Inventory’ by B.B. Brown and M.J.Lohr (2005) which was used for both adolescents and their parents.

Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) is one of the most common causes of lower respiratory tract infection in the developing world. Viral culture had low sensitivity for viral detection from PCR method lead to reduction in viral identification. In Iraq, little data are available for RSV detection, previous studies restricted on cell line culture and ELISA techniques. Hence, the current study aimed to investigate RSV-RNA in respiratory secretion with RT-PCR assay.

The paper provides an outlook on the development of the contributory workers’ retirement pension scheme in Nigeria. Insights were presented into the emergence of pay-as-you-earn retirement benefits scheme, a condition in which final entitlements were based on length of service and terminal emoluments. The payment of pension and gratuities to retiring workforce financed by the government at the outset becomes a burden because there were no fiscal considerations consequent on inadequate management and administration of pension funds for both public and private employees.

The Adivasis (original inhabitants) is the collective name used for the many tribal peoples of India. The number of main Scheduled Castes has increased from 1221 to 1241 and the number of main Scheduled Tribes from 664 to 705 during the last decade. The term ‘tribe’ means a group of people who have lived at a particular place from time immemorial. India is home to a large number of tribes with population of about 84.4 million. Tamil Nadu constitutes one percent of total India’s tribal population.

Rajmash (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) commonly known as frenchbean is mainly the crop of hilly region and grown in northern states of India, its introduction to plain will improvised the socioeconomic condition of the farmers, as it is rich source of protein, calcium and phosphorous, also this crop has good commercial and as well as export value.

Different native bacterial strains were isolated from the dye effluent and were acclimatized and screened for the degradation experiments against five commonly used dyes viz. Methyl Red, Methyl Orange, Erichrome Black, Crystal Violet and Malachite Green. RGL and MRL values for these bacterial strains against the dyes were evaluated by keeping them on solid culture media or Dye Modified Media (DMM). The relative decolorization potential of bacterial strains was determined by growing them in liquid media and its modifications.

An woody lianas- Bauhinia vahlii, collected from 3 localities during rainy season was studied for screening of endophytic fungal diversity. Aerial tissues (leaf, petiole and stem) were selected for endophytic isolation. A total of 150 tissue segments out of 225 were infested with fungi and 153endophytic fungi were isolated. Average colonization frequency (CF%) was 66.66% and petioles of the climber were colonized by a great number of endophytic fungi i.e. 82.66%. CF% is maximum in the plant collected from Belpahari, it is 78.66% and minimum in the plant of Godapiasal, it was 54.66%.

Body weights at birth (BWT), 1(WT1M), 2(WT2M), 3(WT3M), 4(WT4M), 5(WT5M) and 6(WT6M) months of age for 110 Shami kids born at Shami Breeding Station/ Qushtapa during Sep. 2011- Mar. 2012 were utilized. Overall means of BWT, WT1M, WT2M, WT3M, WT4M, WT5M and WT6M were 4.05, 8.38, 13.28, 16.72, 19.77, 23.61 and 26.34 kg, respectively. Results revealed that age of doe had a significant effect on BWT, WT2M, and WT6M. Season of kidding affects BWT and WT4M significantly (P<0.01). The effects of sex of lamb and weight of doe at kidding on all studied traits were not significant.

Commiphora wightii is an endangered medicinal plant which has been collected from North Gujarat. Callus and different plant parts have been screened for secondary metabolites like phenol, tannin, flavanoid and saponin during the growth seasons in the month of Oct- Nov and March-April.

Operculina turpethum is a Red-Listed (vulnerable category) medicinal plant distributed sporadically in Odisha. Propagation of ‘tihudi’ through seeds suffer from the problems like poor seed viabil¬ity, low percentage of germination. As an alternative, it can be mass propagated through vine-nodal cuttings. The cuttings were treated with two types of auxin combinations along with control. Maximum rooting, growth and development were influenced by the treatment T1- NAA (3000 ppm) + IBA (2000 ppm).

A holistic approach aimed at unraveling and exploring the possible eco-sustainable utilities of limnetic ecosystems has been suggested. Practices that are in various levels of applicability cum experimentation in the developed countries are envisioned, some being highly successful in promoting the socio-economic status of the local population. India with ample potential perennial limentic ecosystems and massive demand driven dependence of its human population on natural resources can adopt such methods with suitable modulations to derive benefits from such ecosystems.

A field trial on Nutrient Manager Program For Rice was conducted at New Ilocos, Magsaysay, Davao del Sur, Philippines to determine its influence on the agronomic characteristics of PSBRc72H rice variety, severity of bacterial blight disease, its yield and yield components, and the total added benefit (TAB). The study was carried out in Randomized Complete Block Design (RCBD) replicated three times.

This report presents differential potentialities of pod broth of Indigofera linifolia in fabricating silver and gold nanoparticles. The biomolecules present in the pod broth induced the reduction of silver and gold ions from silver nitrate and gold chloride respectively, which resulted in the formation of very stable respective nanoparticles. The UV- Visible (UV-Vis) spectroscopic analysis reveals that the Surface Plasmon Resonance (SPR) vibrations have λ max at 455 and 535nm. These λ max values correspond to the formation of silver and gold nanoparticles respectively.

In Indian context, rapid urbanization and industrialization, intensive agriculture, and growing demands for energy during the last few decades has affected the physicochemical parameters and biological attributes of the ground and surface water. Hamirpur district comes under semi arid region, so the surface water is main source of water in this region. The variations in selected physico-chemical factors were investigated for one year to determine the water quality of Birma River, Hamirpur district, Uttar Pradesh, for drinking, irrigation and fish production.

Five different white rot fungi were isolated and screened for laccase production. The white rot fungus LCJ262 was found to exhibit high activity of laccase and was identified as Agaricus sp. according to the morphological characteristics. The culture parameters influencing the production of laccase by Agaricus sp. LCJ262 were optimized using one factor at a time method. Initially, five different basal media were tested and one best medium was selected for laccase production.

Over the last few years consumers’ interest in health and functional foods has increased considerably in industrialized countries thus offering an opportunity for agro-food sector to add value to agricultural commodities. Functional food is any fresh or processed food claimed to have a health-promoting or disease-preventing property beyond the basic function of supply of nutrients. Functional foods offer potential health benefits that could enhance the well-being of consumers and reduce the economic and social costs of treating non-communicable diseases.

Piriformospora indica is an axenically cultivable fungus that colonizes with the roots of mono and dicotyledonous plants. Colonized plants in response show enhancement in growth, yield and value addition. The fungus is normally grown on large variety of complex and synthetic media. As the readily available synthetic media are expensive, there is a need to find an alternative medium for mass production of P. indica. The need arises as a cheaper and cost effective medium will bring down the production cost and make it commercially competitive.

The presence of corallivore Acanthaster planci is most threatening to the coral reef ecosystems and worldwide most of the reports state that its aggressive feeding behavior degrades the life forms of coral reefs in the last few decades. However, its selective feeding behavior is only on Pavona sp. which indirectly helps to recover the long-lived massive forms of Porites sp. in the Lakshadweep atoll, Kavaratti lagoon corals. Benthic survey results reveal the reason behind this selective feeding by Acanthaster planci on Pavono sp.

Protease production by Penicillium citrinum LCJ222 was studied using the six different basal media. Among them, Medium 6 proved to be the best for protease production. Nutritional factors such as carbon, nitrogen, chemical and natural inducer sources were optimized using the selected medium. The protease production was high when lactose was used as a carbon source and yeast extract as the nitrogen source. Among the inducers, natural inducers enhanced maximum protease production when compared to the chemical inducers.

There are physiological, psycho - social changes which are the characteristics of aging in elderly and also dietary factors that influence their nutritional status. A cross sectional study using purposive sampling method with 190 elderly (90 institutionalized and 100 non - institutionalized) above 60 years of age including both men and women was conducted in Mumbai, India. Tool used was interview schedule, anthropometric measurements and a three day 24 hrs diet recall.

Ornamentantal fish culture is an important small scale industry of any country which depends on the fresh water available at that area. Dumping of organic and inorganic waste into the ecosystem affects the water bodies and the ground water extensively to a considerable level. This study outlines the effect of zinc sulphate on the muscle biochemical constituents of Poecilia sphenops resulting in weight loss. Results are discussed with the available literature.

Coleus amboinicus is a commonly available medicinal herb in India. Ethanolic extract of Coleus amboinicus leaves were used for study of antimicrobial activity. The antimicrobial activity was evaluated against six bacterial strains with four different concentrations by detecting minimum inhibitory concentration and zone of inhibition. The highest antibacterial activity was observed in Salmonella typhi at a concentration of 1000µg/ml.

The Green Chemistry revolution is providing an enormous number of challenges to those who practice chemistry in industry, education and research. With these challenges however, there are an equal number of opportunities to discover and apply new chemistry, to improve the economics of chemical manufacturing. Green chemistry is a philosophy and study of the design of products or substances that will not involve materials harmful to the environment.

With the expansion of computer networks, security has become a important issue for computer systems. The threat from attackers and criminal enterprises has grown with the expansion of Internet, therefore, intrusion detection systems have become a core component of computer network due to such threats. In this paper, we present framework integrated with neural network to build an effective intrusion detection system. In paper ANN and Naives Bayes strategies are used to detect the attacks in the system by using dynamic data or real time data.

This work presentsgas transport properties through inorganic ceramic membrane. The characterization of the pore size distribution and the specific surface area of the porous ceramic membrane were carried out using Liquid Nitrogen adsorption at the temperatureof 77K.Both modified and unmodified inorganic porous ceramic membranes were used for the analysis for the purpose of comparison.

Background: Oral Squamous Cell Carcinoma (OSCC) holds poor prognosis, mainly due to its delayed detection. Computer aided image analysis can serve as a useful adjunct to routine histological diagnosis for early diagnosis and efficient treatment planning. Aim: To quantitate the nuclear and cellular morphological features in advancing grades OSCC to establish a reliable adjunct for diagnostic and prognostic purposes.

The study reported in this review involved a detailed survey about the chemistry of 1,3-cyclohexandione and its derivatives, which considered versatile reagents for synthesis of different derivatives. Due to its active dicarbonyl groups and the methylene moiety at C2 possesses a high activity. The hydroxyl groups (enol form) react prior to the methylene at C2 with electrophilic reagents and that favorite synthesis of different heterocyclic products.

Pure polymer (polyvinyl alcohol (PVA)) films were prepared by using casting technique. The films were doped with Ni(CH3COO)₂ salt at different concentrations (2, 4, 6, 8 and 10) wt% to investigate the effect of doping on some optical properties of the prepared films. The absorption and transmission spectra have been recorded in the wavelength range (190-1100) nm. The experimental results for (PVA-Ni(CH3COO)₂) films show that the electronic transition is allowed indirect transition, and the energy gap decreases within increasing the filler content.

In this work,NiO thin films at different molarities (0.05M, 0.1M, 0.15M and 0.2M)have been successfully deposited on glass substrates by chemical spray pyrolysis (CSP) technique at substrate temperature of (400 oC) and thickness of about 300 nm. The structural and optical properties of these films have been investigated using XRD, AFM, and UV-Visible spectroscopy. The XRD results showed that all films are polycrystalline in nature with cubic structure and preferred orientation along (111) plane.

In this paper, we have designed three new algorithms for the solutions of improper integrals which can't be solved by means of Newton-Cotes closed integration formulae (Trapezoidal rule, Simpson's 1/3 rule, Simpson's 3/8 rule, Boole's rule and Weddle's rule). The results presented here are presumably new.

This work involves study the effect of cigarettes smoking yields on the corrosion behavior of amalgam in artificial saliva at pH = 6.2 and 37oC using potentiodynamic measurements at scan rate 3 mV.sec-1 by saturation the saliva with smoking yields of 3, 6, 9, 12 and 15 cigarettes. The corrosion parameters indicate than corrosion potential value shifts to active direction with increasing the saturation of cigarettes smoking yields. Corrosion current density became higher after saturated with 3, 6, and 9 cigarettes yields, i.e.

Undoped and glycine-doped L-alanine cadmium chloride (LACC) crystals were grown by slow evaporation technique. Solubility was measured for the samples at different temperatures from 30 oC to 50 oC. Nucleation kinetic studies were performed at different supersaturation ratio to understand the nucleation processes that are taking place in the aqueous solutions of the samples. XRD studies have been carried out to identify the crystal structure. UV-visible transmittance and microhardness were measured to find the suitability of the grown crystals for device fabrication.

Zinc Ferrite (ZnFe2O4) thin films have been deposited by chemical spray pyrolysis method on glass substrates at temperature of (400 ºC) using Zinc Nitrate and Ferric Nitrate as Zinc and Iron sources respectively. The effect of thickness change (200, 300, 400 and 500) nm on the optical properties for all prepared films was studied. The optical properties for all the films were studied by recording the transmittance and absorbance spectrum in the range of (300-900) nm.

This suggested method is applicable to all problems that can be integrated by Engineering students are required to know too much math, they also need to master methods of computing integrations analytically, i.e., integrating by parts. Integrating by parts using the (shortcut) or tabular integration makes integration clear, neat, and accurate. The method has been known for a long time; however no one seems to give it its true value.

Despite decades of studies and researches, morphologists have no good ideas to propose a theoretical model explaining anisotropy andbilateral symmetryof Metazoa development: the main problem consists in the transition from a linear (1D) genetic code to spatial (3D)cells and tissuesorganization. Here,a simple metazoan developing systemis attentively reviewed, sea urchin pluteus skeleton formation.

This work concerns the study of the essential thermal parameters needed to design a furnace for the melting of plastic wastes namely: the melting point of the plastics, times of melting and kneading of the mixture and useful heat. A smelter of mark MASAT with maximum operating temperature of 950°C was used for the melting of the plastics.

Nutritional values of MOCORIN (Modification Of Bisi 2 Variety Yellow Corn (Zea Mays L.) - Rice Bran Flour) are studied based on the used mass, i.e. carbohydrate and protein. Optimal protein in MOCORIN is studied due to the observed carbohydate and mass from 5 types of data which are mixtures of yellow corn and rice bran. There are 5 types proportion used in the observation. The proportions of rice bran are 0% (only yellow corn), 12.5%,25%,37.5%, 50% respectively . The purpose of the research is to determine best proportion with maximum protein leading to optimization problem.

Synthetic polymers are admixtures with high water retention capacity addition to improving the efficiency in the use of water. The three main groups of polymers, co-polymers of starch, polyvinyl alcohols and polyacrylamides. The principal goal of this study was to evaluate the use of potassium polyacrylate on water retention capacity and efficiency in the use of water in clay soils. Data comes from the experimental field of the Institute of Agricultural Sciences of the Autonomous University of Baja California.

Performance measurement is defined as the process of quantifying efficiency and effectiveness. Effectiveness is compliance with customer requirements, and efficiency is how the organization’s resources are used to achieve customers’ satisfaction levels. Financial performance deals with measuring the results of the firm’s policies and operations in monetary terms. These results are reflected in the firm's return on investment, return on assets, value added, etc. The main purpose of this research is to study the financial performance of Multi-Purpose cooperative unions in Tigray Region.

Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA), a non-parametric method, is used in this study to empirically measure the relative efficiency of major States in India, where the States are the Decision Making Units (or DMUs). The linear programming technique is employed to rank the 15 major states considered as DMUs in this study. Principal Component Analysis (PCA) is also applied to reduce the data structure and then the same linear programming (LP) technique is applied to the single reduced input and single reduced output.

Consumers’ buying behaviour and the resulting purchase decision are strongly influenced by cultural, social, personal and psychological characteristics. An understanding of the influence of these factors is essential for marketers in order to develop suitable marketing mixes to appeal to the target customer. One of the indicators of the strength of a brand in the hearts and minds of customers is brand preference. Brand preference represents which brands are preferred under assumptions of equality in price and availability.

This article analyses the legal impact of colonial treaties on Africa with particular reference to the Anglo-German Treaty of 1913 by which the British ceded Bakassi to Germany. In 2002, the World Court delivered judgment in the Cameroon v. Nigeria case ceding the disputed Bakassi Peninsula to Cameroon. The Court relied heavily on the Anglo- German Agreement of 11 March 1913 to reach its decision. Since that judgment was delivered there has been controversy generated by Nigerian legal luminaries, scholars and public commentators.

Despite urban refugees constituting more than half of the world’s refugees, not so much attention has been paid to their mental wellbeing. Refugees face many challenges in their country, during flight and settlement as asylum seekers. In spite of facing such difficulties many refugee people demonstrate enormous strength and resilience that facilitates their mental wellbeing as they process the trauma experienced. The purpose of this study was to investigate aspects of resilience amongst Congolese urban refugee women in Kenya. The study applied ex-post facto correlational research design.

Agriculture has always been the backbone of the Indian economy and despite concerted industrialisation in the seven decades; agriculture still occupies a place of pride. About 67 per cent of the work-force work in agriculture and more than 75 per cent live on it in villages. After the liberalization the primary sector has been diminishing and it impact the people has transform to formal sectors. The present study has focused on agrarian crisis and former suicide its impact to increases of migration in India

Venture capital investment is an important component of financial capital. The geographic concentration by both venture capital firms and venture capital financed companies in six top cities- Bangalore, Mumbai, Delhi, Chennai, Hyderabad and Gurgaon. The reason is based on the success rate of venture capital backed investments in an area, concentration on high-technology industry, industrial specialization, technological competencies, and product specialization. The object of this paper is to study the geographical concentration of venture capital investments in India.

In today’s scenario Banking sector have emerged as most employment generating industry and contributing a large portion in Indian economy. This article enlightened the banking activity which thrives on the strength of human power. The success of an organization depends upon several factors but the most essential factor that affects the organization performance is its employee. Human resources play a vital role in achieving an innovative and high-quality product/ service and to fulfil the Vision and mission of that organization.

An important aspect of demography in the world is the uneven pattern of distribution within a system. The concept of population change or population growth is often used to predict the change in number of inhabitants in a particular territory within a particular time. Almost each and every developing country has experienced this change of population and this is very true in case of India also. Being a part of the developing world, West Bengal one of the most populous states of India, is no exception in this regard.

Technology forms one of the key enables for the implementation of knowledge, services and applications. Many of the commonly available approaches to knowledge would be rendered in effective in the absence of technology. The innovation and knowledge creation emphasis the creation of new knowledge through basic and applied research development. E-publishing is helpful in producing documents containing texts, graphics, still or motion pictures, audio, tables, numeric, equations, etc. all of these will the assistance at a data processing system.

The study focused on assessment of Christian devotional practices and economic development in Kapsabet Division, Nandi County. The objectives were to investigate the effect of the Christian Devotional practices, examine the contribution of Christian Devotional practices and establish the level of awareness of economic values that the Christians have on the members of different denominations on economic development in Kapsabet Division, Nandi County. The study employed descriptive survey design.

Regulatory Affairs is the profession which act as a liaison between the Pharmaceutical Industries and Regulatory Authorities. In this Regulatory Affairs Publishing of submissions to the Regulatory Authority is playing crucial role. In this article, I have done analysis on European Regulatory Agency and the types of submissions used for the publishing of documents and finally the role of eCTD in Submissions. We can conclude that eCTD is becoming mandatory for all the countries in Europe mad also all other countries in future.

The present study aims to isolation, identification and characterization of heavy metal resistant bacteria from six rivers in Basra governorate-Iraq, during October and November, 2013. Three species of Bacillus (B. licheniformis, B. badius and B. megaterium) were isolated on the basis of morphological and biochemical tests and selected based on high levels of heavy metal (lead, copper, cadmium and nickel) resistance. The concentrations of dissolved heavy metals (Pb, Cu, Cd and Ni) in rivers were determined.

The present paper examines the Behavioral approach of the farming community in the study area of Kalyandurg, Brahmasamudram and Setturu mandals of Anantapur district, AP. For understanding of the Behavioral Approach of the farming community in the study area, I have been selected 99 farmers from three mandals of the study area and analyzed various Socio-Economic characteristics of the farming community along with their awareness on land and water use practices.

Performance has always been a decisive element to construe an employee’s worth in an organization. Researchers have given varied stand points as to how to extract the best performance from the individual employees up keeping the organizational objectives. However, most of the researchers focused on the organizations appraisal system in order to affect efficient performance. The responsibility to generate desired performance is shouldered by none.

Axiomatically speaking poverty means the state of insufficiency of income, education and health care, free access to the food and shelter, social status, self esteem and self actualisation. Admittedly, since independence India has been fighting with this chronic social evil. Of all these, the unemployment of the Nation stands as a Himalayan barrier in the line of social and economic growth of the country. A growing economy means that economy which aptly eliminates poverty and capable of generating employment. The Govt.

Social-networking sites have taken the world by a storm leading to nothing less than a revolution. A lot of concerns have been voiced about social networking sites taking over in our lives. However, one major issue that has been overlooked is the changing mind-set of the youth due to the social networking sites. This paper is focused to find out the answer whether the social networking sites are boon or bane for today’s society.





Rosane Cavalcante Fragoso, Brasil


Chief Scientific Officer and Head of a Research Group

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