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August 2015

  1. Sneka, P., Arun Kumar, Nachammai, S. M. and Anbu N. Aravazhi

    Hyper immunoglobulin (Ig) E syndrome is a rare complex immunoregulatory disorder characterized by hyperglobulinemia, recurrent bacterial infections and chronic eczematous dermatitis. The onset of this syndrome may occur at any time from early childhood onwards, and may include eosinophilia and osteoarticular and dental abnormalities. The mortality in untreated patients three years after diagnosis can be high as 75%. Cardiac involvement is the most common cause of increased morbidity and mortality. Early diagnosis of this condition and starting appropriate therapy is of paramount importance in establishing a diagnosis and decreasing the morbidity and mortality associated with this condition.

  2. Selvakumar, M. and Srinivasan, R.

    Leishmaniases are one of the neglected tropical diseases in several countries. In India, recently, cutaneous leishmaniasis cases were recorded from the tribal settlements of Western Ghats, Thiruvananthapuram district, Kerala. To provide a rational framework for selecting an appropriate insecticide for implementing intervention measure, susceptibility of sand flies of this region to DDT and Deltamenthrin was assessed. A total of 720 sandflies, comprising Phlebotomus argentipes (70.6%), Sergentomyia bagdhadis (14.4%), Se. zeylonica (8.2%), P. sintoni (3.6%) and Se. babu (3.2%) were exposed for susceptibility. The corrected mortality for field collected P. argentipes population with DDT as well as Deltamenthrin at diagnostic concentrations was 100% after 24 hr of exposure. P. argentipes and other sand flies were found to be susceptibility to both DDT and Deltamenthrin. Hence, DDT, which is the cheapest insecticide, is one of the options that could be effectively used as residual spraying to prevent further transmission, in the new CL focus.

  3. Chrostina, B. C., Namrata Devulkar and Uma Kole

    The study was conducted using descriptive survey design. The research variable was knowledge regarding prevention of motor vehicle accidents among male students of selected degree college, while the demographic variables were Age, Education status of the student, Sources of information, Years of experience in riding motorized two-wheeler, Education status of the Father, Education status of the Mother and Family income. The study was conducted on 100 male degree students of Krapanidi Degree College, Chikkabellandur, Bangalore; using Purposive Sampling Technique. The instruments used for data collection was structured knowledge questionnaire. The data obtained was tabulated and analyzed in terms of objectives of the study using descriptive and inferential statistics. The findings on assessment of knowledge regarding shows that the maximum mean knowledge score obtained by the subjects was 19.02 with a mean percentage of 59.44% (S.D-3.266) in the aspect of prevention of motor vehicle accidents where as the minimum mean knowledge score obtained by subjects was 1.72 with a mean percentage of 57.33% (S.D- 0.668) in the aspect of effects of motor vehicle accidents. Obesity & its consequences showed that 69 (57.5%) adolescent had average knowledge and 30 (25%) had poor knowledge.

  4. Krishna Prabha, V. and Prajith, T. R.

    Nutrition is the fundamental pillar of human life span. Proper nutritional care during adolescence helps to promote and maintain their overall development. In India, Iron deficiency anaemia is a significant health problem. Traditional cereals like wheat, ragi, and bajra are contain good sources of energy, protein, fibre, B-complex vitamins, calcium, iron and appreciable amount of tryptophan and lysine. Cauliflower leaves are very rich source of iron and significant source of calcium, vitamin C. It is cheapest, locally available and it has high beneficial for the anaemic adolescence and pregnant women. But lack of awareness, this wonderful leaves was not properly used by the community. So this cauliflower leaves were used for this study with the incorporation of wheat and traditional millets like bajra and ragi. The Organoleptic evaluation was conducted by the standard rating scales. The nutrient analysis were analysed by the standard procedures. According to the Organoleptic evaluation the T1 got maximum score than others. In nutrient analysis the experimental samples shows the high value than control. The Vitamin C content was lost during drying and cooking. But cauliflower leaves contains significant amount of Vitamin C. Furthermore the supplementation of this wonderful leaves helps to prevent the anaemia in future generation. As a nutritionist we have to create the awareness about the locally available nutritious foods to the public sector.

  5. Anitha, R.

    Aim: To evaluate the effectiveness of Self instructional Module on selected aspects of Universal precautions among registered nurses in selected hospital, Trichy. Methods and Materials: A preexperimental with one group pretest post test design was used for this study. The study was conducted in Dr. G.Viswanathan hospital, Trichy. Samples of 60 registered nurses were selected on the basis of inclusion criteria by using convenience sampling technique. Selected registered nurses knowledge level was assessed by structured questionnaire and practice was assessed by observational check list. After the pretest, Self Instructional Module regarding selected aspects of Universal Precautions was given to the selected samples. Post test was done after 7 days. Data was analyzed by using descriptive and inferential statistics. Results: The study result reveals that Self Instructional Module had significant effectiveness (at P < 0.05) on improving the nurse’s knowledge and practice regarding selected aspects of Universal Precautions. This result also shows that there was no significant association between the post test knowledge and practice with selected demographic variables. Conclusion: The result from this study concluded that Self Instructional Module was effective on improving knowledge and practice regarding selected aspects of Universal Precautions among registered nurses. So Universal Precaution can be practiced in hospitals, to help Health workers and Para medical workers to cope with the strange environment and to promote healthy life.

  6. Drapkina, O., Zyatenkova, E. and Ivashkin, V.

    Currently, the routine clinical practice does not include the measurement of glomerular filtration rate (GFR) in patients with the absence of risk factors for Chronic Kidney Disease (CKD). However, recent studies have shown that in patients with nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) it is necessary to estimate GFR, even in the absence of classic risk factors for CKD. Early detection of kidney damage in patients with CHF and NAFLD will help to titrate the correct dose of drugs, avoiding chemical overdose. Materials and Methods: The study included 77 patients with CHF. In all patients, the diagnosis of heart failure was confirmed by measuring the quality NT-pro BNP. The severity of the clinical manifestations of heart failure and the functional status of patients were assessed. All patients underwent clinical and biochemical blood tests, ECG, ultrasound of the liver. Size of the heart chambers, wall thickness of the myocardium and epicardial fat were evaluated by the echocardiography. In all patients GFR, CKD-EPI were calculated, staging of CKD was performed, Fatty Liver Index and NAFLD fibrosis score evaluated. Results: More than half (68%) of the patients with CHF had C 2 stage of CKD, 6% of patients had a C1 stage; 13% - C 3a, 9% - C 3b, 4% - C4 stage CKD. The average value of GFR was 65,4 ± 14,4 ml / min / 1.73 m2. Statistical analysis revealed that with the increase of HF functional class stage of CKD also increase (p = 0,0027). The severity of CKD increases with the level of plasma glucose (p = 0.0022). In addition, it was found that the stage of CKD correlate with increase in the size of the right atrium (p = 0.044). In assessing the biological age of the vessel wall with the help of apparatus "Angioscan" it was revealed that the larger stage of CKD, the higher biological age of the vessel wall in patients with chronic heart failure (p = 0.0027). It was also found that the more severe damage to the kidneys in patients with CHF, the higher level of fibrosis marker PIIINP infarction (p = 0.047). According to FLI, 40% of patients are likely to have hepatic steatosis, in 34% of patients the data for the presence of hepatic steatosis is not obtained, 26% of patients took an intermediate value. According to the NFS, 26% of patients had a high likelihood of liver fibrosis, 9% of patients did not have, 65% of patients are in the "gray zone". The analysis of the correlations revealed that with increasing values of NFS reduced GFR increases CKD stage (p = 0.049). Conclusions: Patients with heart failure and concomitant diseases of the liver and kidneys are in need of more intensive treatment with compulsory inclusion of drugs which reduce the process of fibrosis and remodeling of the vascular wall and have protective properties in relation to the liver and kidneys.

  7. Soniya Singh, Shivani Negi, Pooja Dhiman, Anvinder Kaur, Beena Kashyap, Poonam Rayal, Sunita Negi, Yamini Amoli and Dipti Sorte

    Nursing is an art and science that develop competency for practicing the profession, Attitude is hypothetical construct that represent the degree of like and dislike for an individual. Attitude plays a principal role in guiding human behavior toward achieving goals, awareness of its consequences and effective processing of complex information about living environment. This study aimed to assess the attitude of nursing students towards patient care. Approach was Both Quantitative & Qualitative research; the sampling was done through simple random sampling which was done lottery method and the data collection done through a modified 2 point likert scale in form of questionnaire. The total subject participants was 60 [N=60]. The data for the study is collected in the Himalayan College of Nursing, SRHU. Results shows that Out of 60 subject participant 85% [51] were given their favorability answer towards agree and 15% [9] were given disagree in the area of personal likings. Out of 60 subject participant 95% [57] were given their favorability answer towards agree and 5% [3] were given disagree in the area of professional activity. Out of 60 subject participant 93% [56] were given their favorability answer towards agree and 7% [4] were given disagree in the area of working environment physical/emotional. Over all out of 60 subject participants 91% [55] were given their favorability answer towards agree and 9% [5] were given their favorability answer towards disagree study concluded that there are three areas that is personal likings, professional activity, and working environment physical/emotional, determines the attitude of the nursing students regarding Patient care, shows that the most of nursing students have positive Attitude and very few students had less positive attitude towards Patient care. It means that our future scenario of patient care is bright and hopeful in care.

  8. Dr. B. Ananda Rama Rao, Dr. G. V. Ramana Reddy and Dr. A. Sudhir

    Diabetic Foot Ulcers (DFU) are therapeutic challenge to the surgeon. While many dressing options and materials are in vogue, Collagen sponge dressins standout as a reasonably good choice in accelerating the healing of DFU. In this study collagen sponge dressings were tried in 25 patients against control with conventional dressings in equal number of patients. Average age is 58 years with majority falling between 39 to 78 years. Males were three times more. Mean ulcer size is14.1 and 15.6 cms2 in test and control groups respectively; duration being 60.5 days. At the end of 12 weeks ulcers treated with collagen sponge healed in 53.9 days against 69.1 in control group i.e. 22% reduction (P=<0.0001). The number of dressings required are also decreased in collagen group 6.3vs8.8 (P-<0.0001).

  9. Dr. Muzzafar Zaman, Dr. Kunal Chowdhary and Dr. Aliya Shah

    A minimally invasive procedure has many advantages for the patients, health care system and society. Over the past 50 years, many techniques, technologies and guidelines have been introduced to eliminate the risks associated with laparoscopic entry. The laparoscopic entry techniques and technologies reviewed include the classic pneumoperitoneum (Veress/trocar), the open technique (Hasson), the direct trocar insertion, the use of disposable shielded trocars, radially expanding trocars and visual entry systems. It is an evidence based fact that minimal access surgery is superior to conventional open surgery. No single technique or instrument has been proved to eliminate laparoscopic entry associated injury. Proper evaluation, supported by surgical skills and good knowledge of the technology and instrumentation is the keystone to safe access and prevention of complications during laparoscopic surgery. We are reviewing the complications associated with laparoscopic surgery.

  10. Dr. Meena Mirdha and Dr. Mishra, A. K.

    Hypertension is the most important risk factor for cardiovascular disease. Which can lead to renal, cardiac and vascular disease, stroke and death. The study was to correlate the effect of walking and relaxation exercise on controlling hypertension. 60 hypertensive patients both males and females aged 30-65years participated in the study and secondary hypertension was excluded. Anti-hypertensive medication history, height, weight, BMI, systolic blood pressure & diastolic blood pressure examinations were taken. Subjects were divided into two groups, control and study group. Subjects in study group were taught relaxation exercises and asked to do regular walking for 6-7 days in a week and in control group no intervention was assigned. Walking & relaxation exercises produced a significant decrease in SBP, DBP with a P value of <0.01. No significant changes were observed in the control group. We concluded that walking and relaxation exercises are effective for decreasing the blood pressure in essential hypertension.

  11. Dr. Shende Krushnadev, Dr. Nikhil Urunkar, Dr. Vinay Chavan, Dr. Mayur V. Shiralkar and Dr. Hridaynath Lad

    Aim: To compare the efficacy of Sharkara Yukt Narikel Jala Nasya and Goghrit Nasya in Ardhavbhedak Objective: 1. To study the efficacy of Sharkara Yukt Narikel Jala Nasya in Ardhavbhedak. 2. To study the efficacy of Goghrit Nasya in Ardhavbhedak. 3. To compare the efficacy of Sharkara Yukt Narikel Jala Nasya and Goghrit Nasya in Ardhavbhedak. 4. To assess the disease according to etiological factors as per Ayurveda and modern text. 5. To assess the efficacy of these two drugs in view of symptoms of patient Methods: Comparative Study After complete examination all the patients was randomly divided into two groups I. Group A In this group 30 patients were treated with Sharkara Yukt Narikel Jala Nasya. II. Group B In this group 30 patients were treated with Goghrit Nasya. Assessment Criteria: Subjective Parameters: 1. Ardh Shirovedana (Unilateral Headache) Distribution of pain in Ardhavbhedak. 5 sites where pain is present are mentioned in Ayurvedic text. They are manya, bhru, shankha, akshi and lalat. The presence of pain in each site will be given a particular score and thus total score before treatment will be noted. Similarly, after treatment depending upon presence of pain in number of sites, total score will be calculated. 2. Prakashasahatva (photophobia) 3. Bhrama (vertigo) 4. Shiropatateev (Lightheadness) 5. Phonophobia 6. Nausea 2) Objective Parameters: 1. Severity of headache, 2. Frequency of headache, 3. Duration of headache Duration: Total 28 days. Nasya was given for 7 days followed by a gap of 7 days. Two such sitting was given to all the patients. Results: Comparing all the symptoms before and after treatment Goghrita Nasya is better than the Efficacy of Sharkara Yukt Narikel Jala Nasya in the treatment of Ardhavbhedak Statistical Analysis: The Statistical Analysis reveals that In Ardhavbhedak the percentage wise efficacy of treatment with Goghrit Nasya is better than the efficacy of treatment with Sharkara Yukt Narikel Jala Nasya. Conclusion: Final conclusion is the percentage wise efficacy of Goghrit Nasya in Ardhavbhedak is better than that of efficacy of Sharkara Yukt Narikel Jala Nasya and its proven very much beneficial to reduce the intensity of symptoms on the statistical analysis

  12. Dr. Gayatri, A., Dr. Senthil Kumari, K. R. and Dr. Rasheeda, A.

    Introduction: Diabetes mellitus comprises a group of common metabolic disorders that share the phenotype of hyperglycemia. The metabolic dysregulation associated with DM causes secondary pathophysiologic changes in multiple organ systems that impose a tremendous burden on the individual. Amongst the electrolytes, magnesium merits special attention. Micronutrients have been investigated as potential, preventive and therapeutic agents for type 2 diabetes mellitus and their complications. The aim of the study is to evaluate serum magnesium and HbA1c levels in type-2 diabetes. Materials and Methods: This case control study was carried out in the Department of Diabetology, Kilpauk Medical College, for a period of 1 year for 60 type 2 diabetic patients without complications. For comparison, 30 age and sex matched apparently healthy non diabetic subjects were also studied. Serum magnesium estimation was done by Colorimetric method with Chlorophosphonazo III and HbA1c was done by high performance liquid chromatography in a standard laboratory. Results: Serum magnesium levels were lower in patients with diabetics when compared with controls with significant p value. On comparing HbA1c levels with serum magnesium it is inferred that as the HbA1c level increases, serum magnesium decreases. Conclusion: Magnesium depletion has a negative impact on glucose homeostasis and insulin sensitivity in diabetic patients as well as may increase risk of secondary complications. So it is prudent to monitor magnesium routinely in this patient population and treat the condition whenever possible, it is frequently over looked and undertreated.

  13. Ali M. El-Shafie and Manar M. El-Khodry

    Objective: Hypertension is a disease which has a lot of complication as end organ damage, left ventricular hypertrophy and retinal damage so it is very important to diagnose it early and treat it to minimize its complication. Data Summary: Data Sources: medical text books, medical journals, medical websites which have updated research Study selection: Systematic reviews that addressed Hypertension & studies that addressed impact of it on different organs and role of physician in prevention and management. Data Extraction: Special search was done at midline with key words (Hypertension) in the title of papers; extraction was made, including assessment of etiology and factors affecting and importance of early treatment to prevent complication Data synthesis: The main result of the review. Each study was reviewed independently , obtained data is rebuilt in new language according to the need of the researcher and arranged in topics through the article. Conclusions: Hypertension is a significant global health issue and a major risk factor for atherosclerosis, leading to the development of cardiovascular diseases. Common etiology in any age group is reno vascular and renal parenchmal diseases, It is essential that education and counseling must then be provided to the family and not just the child so as to enhance motivation and compliance with the proposed treatment strategy.

  14. Kunjan Udani, Chirag Vaja, Radha Verma, Kiran Gaikwad and Mugdha Kowli

    A rare occurrence, isolated tubercular epididymo-orchitis poses a diagnostic and therapeutic challenge. A 45-year old male presented with a right scrotal swelling since 5 months which, based on physical examination and ultrasonographic findings, was suggestive of a right hydrocele. Operative findings during the transvaginal hydrocele repair revealed dense adhesions with granulomatous necrosis and therefore, prompted us to perform a right-sided orchidectomy. Histopathological study thereafter revealed features of tuberculous epididymo-orchitis. Hence, it is imperative to consider a differential diagnosis of tuberculous epididymo-orchitis in a case of scrotal swelling in a country like India where tuberculosis is known to be endemic.

  15. Joosiri, A., Seubsing, W., Padchasuwan, N., Chavengkun, W., Kootanavanichpong, N., Norkaew, J., Ponphimai, S., Kaewpitoon, S. J. and Kaewpitoon, N.

    Diarrhoea is a major public health problem in the developing countries of Latin America, Africa, Asia, and parts of the Middle East, included Thailand. Prevention and control are need required. Therefore, this cross-sectional study aimed to assess the knowledge, attitude, and practice (KAP) regarding diarrhoeal disease among rural villagers in Nonghuawaen village, Kham Thale So district, Nakhon Ratchasima Province, Thailand. The 113 samples were purposive selected included head or represent of household, during January and April 2015. A predesigned KAP questionnaire was utilized to collect the data from them included socio-demographic characteristics, KAP. The results revealed that most of the represents, they were 26-35 years old, female, primary school, and agriculture. The self-reported prevalence of diarrhea was 16.8% during the last year prior to the survey. 67.30% of represents had received information regarding diarrhoeal disease. Of 44.2% represents had a fair level of knowledge regarding diarrhoeal disease, causes of disease, sign and symptom, and prevention and control (xˉ=10.1, S.D.=6.24). Of represents, 75.2% had a moderate attitude regarding diarrhoeal prevention and control (xˉ=2.21, S.D.=0.45). Of represents, 61.9% had a good practice regarding diarrhoeal prevention and control (xˉ=2.61, S.D.=0.49). Chi-square testing indicated that gender (female; X2=1.02), age group (26-35 and 36-45 year old; X2=1.01), education (Senior high school; X2=1.24, High vocational certificate; X2=1.22) and occupation (Government officer; X2=1.31), were significantly associated with diarrhoeal disease (p-value<0.05). This finding shows a moderate knowledge, and fair attitude on diarrhoeal disease, therefore, health education is need required in this areas.

  16. Dr. Hitali Majethia, Dr. Mugdha Kowli, Dr. Radha Verma, Dr. Kiran Gaikwad and Dr. Chirag Vaja

    Cysticercosis is an infection caused by larval form of pork tapeworm Taenia solium. Cysticercosis affects variety of tissues-rare being isolated intramuscular involvement. Involvement of the biceps brachii muscle is rarer with only three such cases reported. We present a case of isolated cysticercosis of biceps brachii in a 30 year old female who presented with swelling over the left arm lateral aspect above the elbow.

  17. Dr. Vinodha, R., Dr. Precilla Catherine, A., Dr. Arrthy, S. and Dr. Bobby, D.

    Introduction: Ocular dominance may be especially important in sports which require aim, such as archery, darts or shooting and it is an important consideration in predicting patient satisfaction with monovision correction in cataract surgery, refractive surgery and contact lens wear. The present study was therefore conducted to determine the ocular dominance. Materials and Methods: 41 normal healthy subjects, 17 male and 24 female were participated in this study. All were aged between 17 to 21 .Subjects with corneal opacity, squint, color blindness, those on miotic and mydriatic drugs and those with other neuromuscular disorders were excluded. Ocular dominance was first tested by Miles test and then to confirm the eye dominance VEPs (Visual Evoked Potential) were performed by checker board pattern reversal stimuli system. Results: In this study Miles test revealed that, out of the 17males, 15 were right eye dominant and 2 were left eye dominant. Out of the 24 females, 15 were right eye dominant and 9 were left eye dominant, and the results were confirmed by VEP analysis. It was found that P100 Latency obtained by stimulating the dominant eye was significantly shorter with a P value of 0.0017 and Amplitude greater with a significant P value of 0.0001 compared to the non dominant eye. Conclusion: The results of this study demonstrate that eye dominance occurs in individuals. It may be beneficial in monovision correction of certain ophthalmic surgeries like, cataract surgery, refractive surgery and in contact lens wear and also useful in sports which require aim, such as archery, darts or shooting.

  18. Hari Charan Sarangsa and Santosh Kumar Sahu

    The Prune Belly Syndrome (PBS) is characterized by the triad of deficient abdominal wall musculature, undescended testes and urinary tract anomalies. PBS may be also associated with other urological and non urological condition. The exact etiology is not known and neither the best treatment. Many infants are still born or die within first few weeks of life from severe kidney or lung problems, or due to combined congenital anomalies. The present case is a dead male fetus of 31 weeks pregnancy delivered to Anatomy department due to presence of gross congenital anomalies.

  19. Ibanga Eyo Ekong

    A comparative interventional study was conducted over a four month period in 2 urban and 2 rural secondary schools in Akwa Ibom State. Multistage sampling method was used to select 600 girls. Data was analyzed using the SPSS version 20.0. Chi – Square test and Multiple Logistic regression were used to analyze the data and level of significance was set at p<0.05. Results revealed that the mean age for attainment of menarche among urban respondents was 12.7 ± 1.15 years, with the mean age for attainment of menarche being 13 ± 1.24 years among the rural adolescents [t = 2.9; p= 0.002]. It was also observed that a sizeable proportion, (21.6%) of girls in the rural areas stayed away from school due to menstrual pains while 15.7% did so in the urban areas and more respondent indulged in self- medication (51.6% rural and 47.2% urban) rather than seeing a doctor for menstrual health problems (3.3% rural and 8% urban). Experience at the health clinic was found to be significantly associated with health seeking behaviour in the urban (OR = 0.09, C.I = 0.028-0.0279, p<0.001) while proximity showed a statistically significant association with the health seeking behaviour among the rural school girls(OR = 0.34, C.I = 0.116-0.992, p<0.001).

  20. Dr. Jayanthi, M. and Dr. Vinodha, R.

    Hypothyroidism is a syndrome characterized by the clinical and biochemical manifestation of thyroid hormone deficiency. The present study was undertaken to examine the functional integrity of visual pathway. Visual evoked potential is a non invasive tool to assess the integrity of visual pathway. Forty patients (17- 64yearsold, mean 37.7) with biochemical evidence of hypothyroidism, with thyroxine less than 4µg/dl and thyrotropin above 4.5 m IU/L including both gender were taken as a study group and compared with control group who were normal subjects and age and sex matched. Informed consent was obtained. Experimental protocol was approved by ethical committee. Both study and control groups were subjected to physical examination and laboratory investigations including triiodothyronine, thyroxine, and thyrotropin. VEP recording was done by using four channel digital polygraph. The results were statistically analyzed using student‘t’ test. P < 0.05 was accepted as significant. P 100 latency of VEP was prolonged in study group compared to control group and the differences was statistically significant. The result of present study shows significant prolongation of P100 latency of VEP suggestive of central nervous involvement in hypothyroidism.

  21. Sheetal Chandrashekar, N. and Veena Umesh, B.

    Cognitive assessment is a formal assessment of a child’s abilities in a range of areas, such as verbal and non-verbal skills, memory and speed of processing. A Child may be assessed for concerns about their school performance or for any specific disorders. Birth weight is associated with cognition and educational attainment across the full birth weight range in the normal population. The objective of this study was to assess the effect of birth weight on cognition, as well as the effect of catch up growth on cognition among term born small for gestational age (SGA) children at 5 to 6 years of age. Seventy one healthy children, of whom forty four appropriate for gestational age (AGA), twenty one SGA and six large for gestational age (LGA) born, were selected from different private schools. Data on birth weight, obstetric history and parental demographic factors were obtained from parents of the children. NIMHANS neuropsychological battery for children was used to assess motor speed, attention, memory, speech and visuospatial function. Children born LGA performed poorer in tests of attention, and memory where the difference was statistically significant (P=0.002), while those born SGA scored lower in tests for speech when compared to children born AGA (P=0.002). Among term born SGA children, those who did not have a catch up growth, had significantly lower scores for motor speed of left hand (P=0.037), speech (P=0.038), and memory i.e reverse digit span (0.004) and picture recall (0.042). This study showed that children born LGA performed poor in tests of memory and attention while those born SGA scored low in tests of speech.

  22. Neelakandan, M.

    In this investigation the percentage of root colonization and spore density of Vesicular Arbuscular Mycorrhizae in dominant vegetation of eighteen salt marsh plants and physic-chemical parameters of rhizophere soil were studied at South East Coast of Tamilnadu, India. Among the eighteen plants, three salt marsh plants namely, Agiceras nicutaum L., Salicornia virginica L and Salicornia brachiata L showed AM fungi root colonization and spore density richness. From the three study sites of coastal area, the ten species of AM fungi were noticed in rhizosphere soil and root of salt marsh plants, which are belonging to four genera viz., Glomus, Acaulospora, Gigaspora and Scutellospora.

  23. Alrashidi Mohammed, Shahwan-Akl, Lina Jones, Linda Katherine and James Jennifer

    Background: The prevalence of overweight and obesity among children are a major public health concern internationally. Recognition of overweight and obesity status is an important step to prevent unhealthy weight. This study was designed to assess the prevalence and to explore the perceptions of children and their parents towards overweight and obesity in children. Methods: A cross-sectional study approach was utilized surveying 635 children aged 11 to 14 years (males and females) in 12 randomly selected public schools in Kuwait. Trained nurses performed measurements of children’s height and weight to determine their Body Mass Index.Valid questionnaire were used to assess children and their parent perception of child’s weight. Results: One quarter of the surveyed children 25.5% (N = 162) were overweight. Over one third of the participants 36.5% (N = 232) were classified as obese. The nurses’ measurements did not coincide with the children’s perceptions but were better aligned with parents’ perceptions of overweight and obesity. Conclusion: The results indicated that there is high prevalence of overweight and obesity among Kuwaiti children. Furthermore, both the children and their parents underestimate the child weight status. Health education programs are highly recommended.

  24. Hameed Fathima, K. and Harish, V. S.

    Immediate implants are good choice of treatment in order to prevent unfavourable residual alveolar bone changes after extraction in areas where bone quality is favourable for immediate implant placement. Mandibular anterior region predominantly presents with D1 type dense bone but also has greater risk of bony deformation due to various factors like periodontal diseases, aberrant frenal attachments and malocclusion. In most of the cases the labial cortical plate of the mandibular anterior region is either very thin or even lost completely leading to phenomenon called bony dehiscence. The present case report is on implant placement in a freshly extracted socket and correction of bony dehiscence encountered during implant placement with guided bone regeneration technique.

  25. Dr. Ananda Rama Rao, B., Dr. Siddartha Reddy, M. and Dr. Vinay Kumar

    Internal hernia may be either congenital or acquired. Its incidence has been reported to be 1-2%. Herniation may be persistent or intermittent. Internal hernia is a rare cause of small bowel obstruction with a reported incidence of 0.2-0.9%. The most common type is paraduodenal. Less common types include mesocolic hernia, which occurs following abdominal surgery. We report a case of mesocolic hernia in a young patient, which presented as intestinal obstruction leading to perforation without any prior abdominal surgeries.

  26. Dr. Eshan Awasthi, Dr. Akhilesh Belchandan, Dr. Sunita Shrivastav and Dr. Ranjeet Kamble

    Angle’s Class III malocclusion is a dental discrepancy in a sagittal view that may appear or not with an important skeletal discrepancy. Facial esthetics may be affected by this skeletal discrepancy and it is one of the most common complaints of patients who seek orthodontic treatment. Class III treatment, in adults, may be done by compensatory tooth movement, in simple cases, or through an association between orthodontics and orthognathic surgery, in more severe cases. This article describes an adult male patient with skeletal and dental Class III malocclusion. The severity of the malocclusion was within the camouflage limits so this approach for treatment was decided. Upper arch was constricted and a bilateral posterior cross bite was seen. Upper arch was expanded using NiTi expander. Class III elastics were used to attain optimum overjet, Class I molar and canine relationship. At the end of the treatment full intercuspation was achieved, profile of the patient improved with positive overjet and overbite.

  27. Kavitha Kannaiyan, Poongothai, G. K., Latha Ragunathan, Nirmala Jaget and Sethumadhavan Kuthalaramalingam

    Background: Vulvovaginal Candidiasis (VVC) is an extremely common infection in women of all strata of society. In order to colonize, infect and evade host defense mechanisms, Candida possesses a repertoir of virulence attributes which includes adhesion factors, phenotypic switching and extra cellular lipolytic and proteolytic activity. VVC can be caused by both Candidia albicans and nonalbicans Candida (NAC). However identification is laborious and intricate by traditional methods in rural laboratories. Aim: Study was performed to evaluate the performance of a chromogenic medium for identification of Candida and also to study their virulence properties like phospholipase, proteinase, hemolysin and biofilm production. Methods: A total of 40 Candida isolates from VVC was processed by both conventional and CHROM agar. These isolates were further tested for virulence factors such as phospholipase, proteinase, haemolysin and biofilm. Results: There was 100% agreement in identification of isolates by conventional and chromogenic medium. The isolates demonstrated phospholipase activity in 52.5%, caseinase in 50%, haemolysin in 25% and biofilm in 100%. Conclusion: Data suggested CHROM agar could be used in rural settings. Our study showed that capacity of all Candida spp to fabricate biofilm reveals the pathogenic potential of the isolates.

  28. Dr. Nandimath, V. A., Dr. Ukarande, A. R. and Dr. Chaithra, S.

    Introduction: Childhood tuberculosis traditionally had a lower priority than adult tuberculosis (TB) within National Tuberculosis Programmes (NTP's), because it is largely non-infectious; cases have been thought to be few, and assumption that effective control of adult TB could prevent childhood TB. In many countries with high TB incidence, however; childhood TB (i.e. TB among population aged less than 15 years) constitutes a significant proportion (approximately 11-14%) of TB case load and under 5 mortality. However there is limited information of the basic demographic, clinical characteristics and programme defined outcomes of these children with TB. Present study is carried out at city tuberculosis center, solapur with purpose to find out treatment outcome in children with tuberculosis treated under short course chemotherapy. Aim and Objectives: To assess the outcome of intermittent short course chemotherapy in pediatric tuberculosis. To identify risk factors for non-compliance during intensive phase and continuation phase of DOTS. Material and Methods: A descriptive longitudinal study conducted on all paediatric (1-15 years) patients registered for tuberculosis treatment in city tuberculosis center solapur during 1st November 2010 to 31st December 2012. Results: Out of total 93 paediatric patients registered for treatment, 36.56% were between 1- 5 years of age. Male & female patients were distributed in almost equal proportion. Acid fast bacilli i.e. mycobacterium detected in 10.75% of patients. 84.95% patients were completed the DOTS treatment, while 3.22% were defaulter and outcome in 1.05% was treatment failure. Conclusion: Treatment completion rate in children with tuberculosis treated with DOTS is significantly high.

  29. Amar Nagesh Kumar, Uppala Satyanarayana, Jupalle Nagaiah Naidu, Krishnan Ramalingam, Medabalmi Anitha

    Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is the most common endocrine disorder of the women in reproductive age group. Accumulating evidences from the recent studies indicate that vitamin D receptor (VDR) genetic variants may influence the development of insulin resistance and so related to the pathogenesis of polycystic ovary syndrome. The aim of the present study was to determine the VDR BsmI gene variant in intron 8 (A/G) (rs1544410) in normal controls, obese PCOS women and non obese PCOS women in India. A total of 225 women aged between 19-36 years participated in the study. The subjects were divided into three groups as obese PCOS women, non obese PCOS women and healthy controls and each group consists of 75 participants. Genotypes of VDR gene in intron 8 (A/G) with BsmI restriction enzyme were determined using the PCR-RFLP method. There was no statistical difference in genotype of AA, GA and GG between PCOS women and control women (p value >0.05). Our study suggests that there was no significant association of BsmI genotypes with both obese and non obese PCOS women.

  30. Dr. Kunal Dwijen Roy, Dr. Bibhas Das Gupta, Dr. Rishi Aggarwal and Dr. Pradip Nemade

    A study was carried out at a tertiary care centre to analyze the radiological outcome in young patients who had sustained a transcervical neck femur fracture and were treated with closed reduction and internal fixation. The demographic and radiological data of 40 such patients operated between June 2012 and December 2013 was studied retrospectively. Patients were classified on the basis of Displacement of fracture and Acceptability of Osteosynthesis. The effect of these two determinants on union and final radiological outcome of the patient and various complications were analyzed. A total of 26 patients (65%) had acceptable Osteosynthesis whereas 14 (35%) had unacceptable osteosynthesis. 27 patients showed union at 6 months or less, 7 patients at 9 months and 1 patient at 12 months. Nonunion occurred in 5 patients. Mean time to union was 4.96 months. A very strong correlation was found between linear collapse and varus collapse at 12 months. 40% of patients (16 out of 40) were operated within 12 hours of injury, 42% between 12 to 24 hours and a further 18% were operated after 24 hours of injury. No relation was found between Injury-Surgery interval and time to union.

  31. Dr. Umeek Jeelani, Dr. Ulfat Ara Wani, Dr. ShahiJahan, Dr. Shabirkhanday, Dr. HinaJeelani and Dr. Basharat Ara Wani

    Introduction: The aim of the study was to evaluate the efficacy of functional endoscopic sinus surgery (FESS) in modifying patient’s symptom profile and to also confirm that FESS is the modality of treatment in patients with refractory CRS. Design: Prospective study. Methodology: 50 patients with symptoms of CRS were included in the study and subjected to FESS. Patients were assessed for CRS symptoms preoperatively and postoperatively using grading symptoms. Results: Leading symptom of CRS was nasal obstruction followed by headache, facial pressure and postnasal drip and other minor symptoms. After a postoperative follow up of 6 months there was improvement in the symptoms. All minor symptoms had 100% improvement. Nasal obstruction responded best, next followed by facial pain and headaches and PND (All symptoms P-value <0.001). An overall improvement of 86.66% was recorded. Conclusion: The restriction of quality of life in patients with CRS is mainly caused by these symptoms, which can be improved in excellent fashion by FESS in majority of the patients.

  32. Dr. Sheema Sheikh, Dr. Humaira Bashir, Dr. Arshi Beg and Dr. Farzana Zargar

    from benign to malignant conditions. Fine Needle Aspiration Cytology has emerged as an easy, quick, cost effective, minimally invasive and safe technique, with high sensitivity and specificity, in the evaluation of lymphadenopathy. The present study was done with the aim of studying the pattern of various lymph node diseases present in Head and neck region. It was an observational study conducted in the department of pathology Government Medical College, Srinagar from 1st July 2013 to June 2015. A total of 711 cases were studied during this period out of which 82.3% cases were benign and 17.7% cases were diagnosed as malignant. Patients ranged from 2 months to 90 years in age with male to female ratio of 1.2:1. Non specific reactive hyperplasia was the most common diagnosis (66.9%) followed by metastatic tumours (13.2%), Chronic granulomatous lymphadenitis (10%), tuberculosis (6.5%) and Lymphomas (4.5%). Benign causes of lymphadenopathy were found more commonly in younger age groups whereas malignant especially metastatic infiltration was found in older age groups. The underlying causes of lymphadenopathy were varied, Fine Needle aspiration cytology was a useful first line investigating tool in arriving at a diagnosis.

  33. Jadhav, P. B., 2Padhiar, B. V., Ahlawat, T. R. and Chavan, S. M.

    .

  34. Megha S. Karthikeyan, Suma Divakar, Mary Ukkuru, P., Nirmala, C. and Meena Kumari K. S.

    The study was carried out with the objective to develop an Instant Soup Mix from banana peel and ascertain it’s quality and shelf life. Physical characteristics, Sensory qualities of product, Nutrient profile, Chemical composition and shelf life were investigated. When sensory qualities among different formulations were evaluated S1 got significantly higher values for appearance, colour and taste. It comprised of banana peel flour, corn flour, onion powder, capsicum powder, coriander leaves powder, white pepper powder, ginger powder, garlic powder, citric acid and salt. Among the physical qualities bulk density was found to be 0.81g/ml and moisture content was observed to be 6.4%.Instant soup mix found to be rich in calories (284 kcal),carbohydrate (48.6g) and minerals (potassium-62.8 mg,calcium-40.7mg and sodium-18.5 mg).The product did not reveal any pathogenic organism when stored for three months in laminated pouches.

  35. Megha S. Karthikeyan, Suma Divakar, Mary Ukkuru, P., Nirmala, C. and Meena Kumari K. S.

    The study was carried out with the objective to develop an Instant Soup Mix from banana peel and ascertain it’s quality and shelf life. Physical characteristics, Sensory qualities of product, Nutrient profile, Chemical composition and shelf life were investigated. When sensory qualities among different formulations were evaluated S1 got significantly higher values for appearance, colour and taste. It comprised of banana peel flour, corn flour, onion powder, capsicum powder, coriander leaves powder, white pepper powder, ginger powder, garlic powder, citric acid and salt. Among the physical qualities bulk density was found to be 0.81g/ml and moisture content was observed to be 6.4%.Instant soup mix found to be rich in calories (284 kcal),carbohydrate (48.6g) and minerals (potassium-62.8 mg,calcium-40.7mg and sodium-18.5 mg).The product did not reveal any pathogenic organism when stored for three months in laminated pouches.

  36. Dr. Mahua Bhattacharya and Parthajoy Bhattacharya

    The aroma and taste of Darjeeling tea has its own charm and mesmerizing effect that it is known as the champagne of the east. The uniqueness of the location makes it an ideal destination to enjoy the beauty of nature as well as process of tea gardening. Sustainable Rural Tourism will also help in the development of the socio-economic condition of the local community as well as contribute to the cause of sustainability of the unique eco-system. The direct and the indirect benefits of tourism will help in improving the livelihood of the local community.

  37. Seile Yohannes, Tadalu Hundessa, Berwako Duale, Birtukan Getahun, 2Hire Ali and Deme Negasa

    Background: Recent progress has linked Dermatoglyphics with the Psycho-physiologic aspects of mental dimensions, thus being able to compare intellectual capacities of distinct groups. The current study expounded this linkage between the Dermatoglyphic parameters, handedness, and multiple intelligence scores. Materials & Methods: The study followed a cross-sectional, random, and stratified cluster sampling procedure to select 100 sex matched students from each of the major colleges at the university. Multiple intelligences were based on Howard Gardner’s model, while handedness assessment was based on the Waterloo Handedness Inventory. Results: The current analysis has revealed that intelligence and fingerprint patterns are correlated, especially with patterns on the right middle fingers, left thumbs, left middle, and left ring fingers. In particular, linguistic intelligence was associated with loop patterns, musical intelligence with whorls, spatial/visual intelligence with arches, interpersonal intelligence with whorls, and total multiple intelligence with whorl patterns. Further studies involving higher sample sizes are recommended in order to come to more conclusive deductions.

  38. Peetabas, N. and Panda, R. P.

    Ecosystem level changes in water quality and biotic communities in aquatic bodies of coastal lagoon have been associated with intensification of anthropogenic pressure. In light of incipient changes in Chilika lake, examination of different dissolved nutrients distribution and phytoplankton biomass was conducted. The effects of water soluble wastes containing NO2-, NO3- , P043-, NH4+ and Na+ on eutrophication behavior of Chilika lake have been investigated by following standard procedures. From the evaluation parameters it was found that Nitrogen is introduced into the aquatic environment through the discharge of domestic sewage and organic industrial waste. The discharge of excessive quantities of nitrogenous compounds into rivers and lakes resulted excessive growth of algae and macrophytic plants. This phenomenon which is known as eutrophication, resulted algae death and were degraded by decay organisms, which used dissolved oxygen in the process. Thereby, the destabilization of aquaculture environment is established.

  39. Sharon, M. P., Srikanth, S. and Anil Kumar, A. S.

    Type II diabetes mellitus is considered a major cause of mortality and a large percentage of diabetics live without being diagnosed. (International Diabetes Federation, 2014) Diabetes is known to affect salivary composition and function. (Panchbai et al., 2010) This study was done to examine correlation between salivary and blood glucose in type II diabetics and healthy adults. Salivary and blood glucose levels were estimated and compared in both groups. Eighty adults in age group of 30 - 50 years were included in our study and divided into 2 groups - diabetics and healthy adults. Blood and saliva samples were obtained from subjects after an overnight fast and 2 hours postprandial. Blood samples were analysed with hexokinase enzyme using an automated analyser and saliva samples with glucose oxidase enzyme using a colorimeter. Difference in salivary glucose levels between groups was determined by unpaired t test and correlation between blood and salivary glucose levels by correlation test. Salivary glucose levels were higher in diabetics (9.77 ± 5.34 mg/dl) when compared to controls (5.77 ± 2.01 mg/dl) in the fasting state and the difference (p<0.001) was significant. Postprandial salivary glucose levels were significantly different between the two groups (13.65 ± 5.92 vs 10.57 ± 3.07mg/dl, P<0.001). Correlation between blood and salivary glucose levels was not seen in both groups. Salivary glucose levels are significantly higher in diabetics in fasting and postprandial states in our study. Hence, estimation of salivary glucose levels can be used as a mass screening method for diabetes in large populations.

  40. Bhanderi, G. R., Radadia, G. G. and Patel, D. R.

    Training Research study on the suitability of different host foods of sitophilus oryzaerice weevil, Sitophilus oryzae (Linnaeus) on stored sorghum was carried out during the year 2007-08 at the Main Sorghum Research Station, Navsari Agricultural University, Surat, Gujarat state. The results of study revealed that cereals were more suitable host among the different commodities tested. The order of host suitability of different commodities was paddy> sorghum> maize> wheat> coriander> cumin> chilli> fenugreek

  41. Izdehar, M. Jassim and Dr. Rasmiya A. Aburesha

    From April to December 2014 Four hundred and ninty mid stream urin specimens were collected from patients suffering from urinary tract infections and from urinary catheterized patients in Baquba Teaching Hospital and Al -Betul Hospital, and Baghdad Teaching Hospital. Out of 14 Providencia isolates, 9 isolates were diagnosed as Providencia rettgeri. This identification was confirmed by biochemical tests, Api 20 E system and vitek 2 compact system. The results of susceptibility of isolates to antibiotics were tested, using disc diffusion method showed the bacterial isolates have complete resistance for Ampicillin, Tetracyclin,Vancomycin with a percentage of 100%, the results indicate that the antibiotics Amikacin and imipeneme were found to be the most effective drugs against the strains under the study i.e. the resistance to these antibiotics were 0%. All strains of P. rettgeri isolates were tested to ability to biofilm production, by two methods TCP and CRA , out of nine isolates only 4(44.5%) and 1(11.2%) were found tobe strong biofilm producer by CRA and TCP, respectively. The histological section of mice (kidney and bladder) injected ineraperitonial with two groups of P. rettgeri isolates, group (A) injected mice with P. rettgeri P9 isolate (strong biofilm producer and multi drug resistant especially beta – lactam) and group (B) injected mice with P.rettgeri P7 isolate(weak or non biofilm producer and sensitive to different antibiotics especially beta-lactam) , results showed Several pathological changes have been caused by P.rettgeri isolates in mice represented by sever inflammatory cell infiltration with congestion and degeneration with necrosis of epithelial mucosal layer in urinary bladder, while the Kidney suffered from sever inflammatory cells infiltration of PMN into Glomerulus and deposition of red fibrinoid material within glomerulus capillaries with necrosis of epithelial renal tubules. It was clear that the strong producer isolate P. rettgeri P9 was more virulent than the weak(non producer producing isolate P.rettgeri P7.

  42. Zahra’a A. Ahmed, Ekhlas M. Idan and Ali H. Ad'hiah

    The study was designed to determine serum level of IL-10 in a sample of 44 Iraqi visceral leishmaniasis (VL) patients and 40 control subjects. In addition, single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) of IL10 gene were determined at three positions (IL10-1082, IL10-819 andIL10-592).The results showed a significant increased serum level of IL-10 (40.02 ± 1.26 vs.18.60 ± 1.82pg/ml) in VL patients compared to controls, while analysis of genotypes and alleles of the three SNPs revealed no significant variations between VL patients and controls. Assessing the impact of these SNPs on 1L-10 serum level demonstrated that IL10-1082 GG genotype showed the highest level of IL-10 in patients (45.73 ±3.15 pg/ml) compared to AA genotype (38.02± 1.48 pg/ml). For IL10-819genotypes, they recorded approximated means of IL-10 level in patients. At IL10-592, neither patients nor controls demonstrated a significant difference between the means of IL-10 in their genotypes.

  43. Uttiya Jana and Sarmistha Chakrabarti

    Fish can be of two types according to habitat, i.e. river and sea fish. The content of this study was the comparison of macronutrients between rohu and pomfret. The carbohydrate and protein contents of rohu were higher than pomfret but the fat content was more in pomfret as compared to rohu in the raw condition. These fish were both subjected to conventional cooking methods like open pan dry roasting, boiling, shallow frying and deep frying. The nutrient contents had changed due to the application of cooking methods. Losses of nutrients had taken place in both fish. The carbohydrate and protein contents became higher in pomfret than in rohu after cooking whereas the fat content was higher in cooked rohu rather than in cooked pomfret. The study significantly showed that cooked pomfret was beneficial due to adequate protein and carbohydrate restoration whereas rohu was useful for fat restoration.

  44. Sivagami, K. and Dr. Ronald, J.

    Experimental trails were conducted to analyze water stability and palatability of probiotic enriched supplementary feeds. The results show that among the six types of diet feed-A,B,C,D and E exhibited moderate stability after 8 hours of immersion, except yeast included feed (feed-F) The maximum stability (71.66±2.08) was recorded in feed-B and the lowest (59.67±6.66) was noted in feed-F. The physical structure of all feeds was cracked at the end of the experiment.

  45. Kedelidze, N., Baratashvili, D., Meskhidze, A., Khalvashi, N. and Nakashidze, I.

    The research deals with the biological specifics of the development of the male gametophyte in Feijoa sellowiana Berg. 1% agar-agar solution and solutions of sucrose of three different concentrations (20%, 30%, 40%) were used for the investigation. We germinated pollen gains in the Moist Chamber van Tieghem (hanging drop); to paint the pollen grains, the acetocarmine method was applied. Based on the results of the research the low fertility of the Feijoa pollen grains has been defined. 12 hours after having the seeds sowed in all cases only 1-2% of the pollen grains were germinated, whereas 34-47% was germinated after 24 hour period. In this case 40% sucrose solution appeared to be optimal. In case of sucrose solution of 20 and 30% the amount of the germinated pollen grains mounted 13-24% within 24 hours after being sowed. The shape and size of the pollen grains change less in accordance with being depended on the forms of Feijoa. In 98% cases the pollen grains have a triangular form. We also come across with roundish, elliptic and oval pollen grain forms. Their sizes range between 221- 262 mcm2.

  46. Neelam Patel and T. B. S. Rajput

    Low head drip system was evaluated for its appropriateness for small fields. Drip irrigation systems were laid out in different areas starting from 12m X 12m to 48m X 48m plots and were operated at low heads (using water storage tanks placed at heights of 1.5m, 3.0m and 4.5m). Water distribution uniformity decreased with increasing area irrigated by drip system operated at any given operating head. Largest areas that could be irrigated with at least 85 % coefficient of uniformity were found to be 12m X 12m, 24m X 24m and 36m X 36m at operating heads of 1.5m, 3.0m and 4.5m, respectively.

  47. Rama Prasad, J., Suhas Souri, J., Ashish Kumar Sharma, Cherukuri, V. R., Lemma Fita and Chala Merera Ergae

    During the past decade the knowledge of dietary influence on health and wellbeing has amply been increased and often related to some food components. To ameliorate specific nutritional disorders, designer foods have been ad vented way back in 1980.Designer foods are the processed or fortified foods with potential health promoting food ingredients, which are normal foods consumed daily. The designer food approach is one of the best and low-cost strategies to reduce micronutrient deficiencies among people, because it can deliver recommended allowances of nutrients regularly. These foods are developed by the process of fortification or bio-fortification. The demand, regulatory status and the potential health benefits in alleviating life style and chronic disorders with designercrop-based foods are reviewed in this communication. In developed and developing countries, the designer foods played a major role in improving the diet and eliminating life style and chronic disorders and nutrient deficiencies among people. Designer oils fortified with omega 3-n long chain PUFA are produced by bio-technological methods like transgenic plants have health value. Designer rape seed oil and sunflower oil can alleviate lipid profiles in hyper tension and obesity patients. Designer vegetables like broccoli sprouts and cereals like fermented rice with monascus have reported to have antioxidant and immune- modulator activity in diabetes and hyper cholesterol patients. Cereals like rice, maize, wheat etc are fortified with beta carotene (Golden rice), iron, zinc, lysine and tryptophan as fortified foods are developed and available now in the market. Polyphenol fortified rich foods like tea are proved to have potential health benefits. As of now, designer foods are completely safe but fortification or bio-fortification should be done rationally at less than one third of the total recommended daily allowances of nutrients and they should be strictly regulated with stringent quality control measures to ensure safety and acceptance before releasing into the market. Ultimate success of designer foods depends on creating adequate awareness among people about their health benefits through national and international programs as well.

  48. Navin Kumar, Ashish Tomar and Lavanya, G. R.

    The present experiment was conducted at Field Experimentation Center, Department of Genetics and Plant Breeding, Sam Higginbottom Institute of Agriculture Technology and Sciences, The experiment was carried out with 18 genotypes procured from Indian Institute of Pulses Research, Kanpur, U.P, and India and grown in Randomized Block Design (RBD) with three replications. Observations were recorded on five randomly selected plants for all eight traits from each replication except for days to 50 percent flowering and days to maturity, where the observations were on plot basis. Plant height, number of pods per plant recorded high heritability with high genetic advance as per cent of mean. Plant height showed positive and significant association on with seed yield per plant while seeds per pod negatively significant with seed yield so during selection the priority should be given for plant height, number of pods per plant.

  49. Fredrik Rieuwpassa, Alfonsina M. Tapotubun, Matrutty, E. A. A. and Raja B. D. Sormin

    Seafood is an excellence of sea commodities, it content a great compound of protein, minerals and unsaturated fatty acids, that carachterize by the very high biological value so it is good for health. This excellence can be used to diversify the variety of processed products both for food and non-food products such as cosmetics and pharmaceuticals. Optimizing the marine products utilization as a raw material of various healthy products can impact on the increase of income and living standards of the fishermen and communities along the of sore. The aim of this study was to inventory the potency of marine products in Southeast Maluku district in order to know the opportunity of seafood processed development. Research method used in this research was descriptive or exploratory, by survey approaches, field observation and Focus Group Discussion (FGD). Southeast Maluku have an ecological dynamics, so it enabled to arise a wide variety of ecosystems with a distingtive diversity and character, however, there were no the balance of fishing, aquaculture production compared to processed product. It was not any attention of the government to the fishing and farmers communities in mentoring them on how to manufacture the processed product from the catches or aquaculture. While the potency of the seafood commodities in Southeast Maluku district is abundant both the types and the numbers (fish and non-fish including endemic species), in fact, the processing aspect of the product is still very low. The total of fiheries production in Southeast Maluku District recorded in 2011 were 82,233.00 tons consist of catch fisheries and aquaculture production 39,010.00 and 38,350.00 tons respectivelly. Meanwhile, the processed product were still very low at around 4,873.00 tons. Development opportunities of seafood processing is still promising, considering a plenty of raw materials available and the competition of processed product in the market is still low.

  50. Sifna Tahir, Abdul Hameed, Rukhsana Najeeb and Altaf A. Mir

    Background: Granisetron is a highly selective and potent 5-HT receptor antagonist acting specifically at 5-HTreceptors on the vagal afferent nerves of the gut. Granisetron leads to irreversible block of 5-HT receptors. This may account for the long duration action of this drug. Purpose: The present randomized, double-blind study was designed to evaluate and compare the effectiveness of long acting drug, Granisetron and Dexamethasone for preventing post-operative nausea and vomiting in patients undergoing laparoscopic abdominal surgery. Methods: In a randomized, double-blind study, 80 inpatients in the age group of 20-60 years, weighing 40-75 kg, belonging to physical status of ASA I and ASA II (American Society of Anaesthesiologists) scheduled for elective laproscopic abdominal surgeries received Granisetron (2.5mg) and Dexamethasone (8 mg) i.v. (n=40 of each) before IV induction agent. The standardized anesthetic included isoflurane and nitrous oxide in oxygen. After surgery all patients were observed for forty-eight hours. The incidence of nausea and vomiting was recorded at 2, 6, 12, 24 and 48 hours after extubation for a period of 48 hours after the surgery by direct questioning to the patient or His/Her attendents. The PONV was defined as the subjective unpleasant sensation associated with awareness of urge to vomit (nausea, vomiting and retching was grouped together). Results: With Granisetronthe incidence of overall PONV during first 24 hr (0-24 hr) was 30% (n=12) and Dexamethasone showed 40% (n=16). The corresponding incidence during the next 24 hr (24-48 hr) after anesthesia was 37.5% (n=15) in Granisetron and in Dexamethasone was 22.5% (n=9). Overall use of rescue medication was 22.5% (n=9) in Granisetron and 42.5% (n=17) in Dexamethasone. There was a significant difference in the use of rescue medications between the two groups (p value<0.05). No clinically important adverse events due to the study drug were observed in any of the groups. Conclusion: In conclusion Granisetron (2.5mg) intravenous was a better agent in decreasing incidence of post-operative nausea and vomiting. The overall requirement of rescue antiemetic was also significantly less when compared with Dexamethasone group.

  51. Aanshi, Kiran and Bhupendra

    In the present study the bacteria are isolate from soil samples. On screening of the samples for agar-degrading, were found to contain agarolytic bacteria. In each sample, various patterns of agar degradation were seen indicating different bacteria present in the sample. Different isolates were found all are gram negative they were checked for reproducibility of the agarolytic activity by culturing on the capex dox media. They were identified to be rod shaped. The strain was susceptible to penicillin, kanamycin and reactive to cloistin. An enzyme, agarase has purified appears to release oligosaccharide units, but not free galactose, from agar. Therefore, it is evident that the agarase specifically cleaves β- I, 4 linkages between D-galactose and 3, 6-anhydro-lactose of the agarose structure. The enzyme had a specific agarase activity with 1% agar and 0.1% galactose. The enzyme activity of 0.1 % galactose gradually increases as purification step and the enzyme activity of 1 % agar gradually decreases as purification step.

  52. Nasrullah, Syed Ainuddin and Khair Muhammad Kakar

    Natural disasters are expected to be occurred everywhere throughout the globe such as Land Sliding, Erosion, Drought, Flood and Earthquakes. The CRED data base on disasters indicates that both the frequency and impacts of natural disasters around the globe are on rise. Similarly, earthquake in Ziarat severely affected the rural livelihoods of the local in habitants. Dealing with certain natural disasters accurately and tactfully, is the real challenge for the relevant custodian of the sector concerned. The prime objective of the study was to analyze the impacts of the Ziarat earthquake on rural livelihood and migration of the affected households. 75 households were selected purposively who migrated after the earthquake from the affected union councils of Ziarat to Quetta district. The results revealed that 50 % of respondents with 45 frequency lost their house infrastructure as the earthquake hit the area, 40 % respondents with 36 frequency were with view that earthquake affected their means of livelihood, 8 % respondent reported that the earthquake effects were on their family as loss of lives with the 7 frequency and 2 % highlighted other effects of earthquake on their families. 41 respondents were with opinion that earthquake affected their livelihood as great loss with 37 frequency. 35.5 % with 32 frequency were reported that earthquake affected their livelihood were less and 23.5 % respondents with 21 frequency declared moderate effect on their means of livelihood. Psychological effects of earthquake on family members of respondents of the area concerned showed that 51 % respondents shared that there was still psychological effects of earthquake on their family members and 49 % respondents were with views that now there were no psychological effects of earthquake on their family members. Results in relation to migration from earthquake affected union councils of district Ziarat as fear of earthquake on family members showed that 57 % of respondents said that yes there was fear of earthquake on their family members and 43 % respondents replied that the fear of earthquake on their family members was normal.

  53. Sohini Roy and Santa Datta

    The seeds of Cucurbita maxima (pumpkin seeds) have been generally considered as agro-wastes and discarded inspite of having its high nutritional value as well as medicinal benefits. Pumpkin seeds contain high amount of protein, fatty acids, considerable amount of micronutrients like P, K, Mg, Mn and Ca. It is a good source of choline, an essential component for brain development. Pumpkin seed extracts and oils have been found useful in the treatment of Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia (BPH), parasite infestation, acrodermatitis enteropathica, hyperlipidemia, diabetes, depression to name a few. The observed benefits can attributed to the presence of bioactive components like phytosterols (eg, beta-sitosterol, stigmasterol), tocopherols, selenium (antioxidant), cucurbitin, squalene, lignan, and cardioprotective unsaturated fatty acids. Recent research has shone a light on the ever growing list of benefits of pumpkin seeds as a valuable food.

  54. Madhu Pusuluri, Arun Kumar Pandey, Basrur Venkatesh Bhat and Vishnu Bhat

    Somatic embryogenesis receptor kinases (SERKs) constitute a small gene family and are functionally conserved in plants with a specific role in embryogenesis and possibly in other developmental processes. The present investigation was aimed at identifying the SERK gene (s) present in sorghum genome through in silico studies. Here we report two SERK genes (SbSERK1, and SbSERK2) from sorghum (Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench.) by the comparative analysis of known SERK cDNA sequences from sorghum and other plants and their chromosomal location on sorghum. The sequences of SbSERK1 and SbSERK2 were more similar to that of ZmSERK1 and ZmSERK2 genes of maize. A putative SbSERK3 was also identified which was more similar to the rice OsSERK1.

  55. Sailaja, V., Umamaheswari, P., Dileep Kumar Kanderi, Praveen Kumar Reddy, G., and Girinath Rajoji

    A study was conducted to evaluate the quality of drinking water samples from the four different drinking water sources namely open wells, Bore wells, can water and tap water from 37 wards of Kavali Municipality, SPSR Nellore district, A.P. The microbiological parameters such as total viable count of bacteria, total conidial spores were carried out. The physico chemical parameters are using standard method. It was found that the open well water was contaminated in almost all the wards of the municipality. The microbiological contamination of drinking water is in this order. Open well water > Municipal tap water > Bore water > Can water. The results shows that the total viable count of the Open well water is highest (95 × 104 bacteria / mL) and lowest in can water. The total conidial spores are also high in open well waters (10.75 × 104 spores / cm). Total plate and coliform count revealed that 82.6 % and 92.4 % of drinking water samples found to cross the WHO guideline value for drinking water. Total viable count was by pour plate technique while Most Probable Number (MPN) counts were by the multiple tube fermentation technique. The pH (at 25oC) ranged from 6.1 to 8.33 for the untreated raw water samples while temperature ranged from 28 to 30oC while the turbidity of the water and waste water samples ranges from 0.08 to 1.00. The total viable counts for all the water samples were generally high exceeding the limit of 1.0 × 102 cfu/mL for water. The MPN count ranges from 9.3 to 44 MPN/100 mL. The fecal coliform counts on EMB agar plate ranged between 5 and 48 cells, also exceeding the standard limit for water. The Isolated organisms were identified to be organisms namely Escheichia coli, Pseudomonas aerugixnosa and Proteus vulgaris species.

  56. Arul Sheeba Rani, M. and Mary Josephine, R.

    Over the coming decades, our cities likely face an array of associated problems, including: rising temperature, water shortages, food scarcity and increased storminess with concomitant flooding, wind damage and coastal erosion. Less favourable aspects include contribution of gardens and gardening to green house gas emission, misuse of fertilizers and pesticides and introduction of alien plant species Effective environmental planning, including urban greening, can assist greatly in improving the quality of the urban environment and the livelihoods of the people who live in urban areas. There is need to plant trees that provide multiple benefits, particularly in house compounds for providing edible pods, flowers, fruits, leaves etc. As a result of impacts associated with urban infrastructure, arborists and urban landscape managers perform remedial management actions to make urban soils more suitable plant-growing environments, remedial soil management actions include irrigation, aeration, radial trenching, mulching, and fertilization, all of which further alter the physical, chemical and biological properties and thus the nitrogen status of urban soils. In urban environments human alter these soil-forming factors by impacts associated with urban infrastructure. The aim is to improve our quality of life in an increasingly densely populated, fast-living world. People have to find back to natural and green open spaces that become more and more important for our personal development, wellbeing and recreation due to increasing urbanization. In the present Chemical parameters of the litter collected from the tree canopy in the college campus were analyzed and the result were compared with the standard soil profile.

  57. Shyamala, L. and Mary Esther Cynthia Johnson

    Plants play critical role in keeping the atmosphere clean. Plants are used in monitoring programme as indicators of air pollution. The response of plants towards air pollution was assessed by Modified Air Pollution Tolerance Index, as plants are primary receptors. The present study was aimed to calculate Modified Air Pollution Tolerance Index (Modified APTI) by adding Free Amino Acids and Tot. Carbohydrates in 15 plants at IDA Nacharam and their ability to tolerate pollution a common stress factor prevailing in the environment to know their tolerance, sensitivity. It was observed that twelve plants were Tolerant, two - Intermediate and 1 was Sensitive. These twelve Tolerant Plants can be used for Green Belt Development.

  58. Swapan Kr Ghosh, Sujoy Pal and Subhankar Banerjee

    Cell wall was prepared from P. digitatum, dangerous post harvest disease of Citrus sp. The potentiality of lytic enzyme production by three biocontrol agents (Trichoderma viride -1, T harzianum -1 and Beuveria bassiana) was tested in vitro in mineral medium. In our experiment all three antagonists or biocontrol agents showed their ability to secrete lytic enzyme. Out of them the enzyme of T.viride I lysed 60% of the cell wall after 48 hrs, it was followed by T. harzianum I (45%) and Beauveria bassiana (37%). Moreover, within 24 hour, at 250C, the lysis by enzyme preparation of T. viride-I is maximum (30%) followed by 200C (26%) 300C (22%) and 150C (17%) and it indicated that at 250C, the efficacy of enzyme secreted by T. viride-I is optimum. It revealed that biocontrol agents during interaction with this pathogen may have secreted this enzyme to suppress or kill the pathogen.

  59. Ajith Kumar, K. G., Sunil Kesavadeth, G., Pratheepkumar, V., Bindumole, V. R., Aswathy, P. J., Athira, V. R. and Anju, T. U.

    The phytohormone, ABA plays a vital role in the growth and development of plants. The hormone is generally associated with seed dormancy and it is reported to be involved in desiccation tolerance in orthodox seeds. There is no conclusive information about the role of ABA in recalcitrant species. The present investigation was aimed at understanding the changes in ABA level during the desiccation of recalcitrant embryos of Artocarpus heterophyllus Lam. and Artocarpus hirsutus Lam. A significant positive correlation has been established between moisture content and ABA level in the local cultivars of Artocarpus heterophyllus (viz., varikka and koozha). A comparatively high level of ABA could be observed in the mature embryos of both cultivars of Artocarpus heterophyllus. Vivipary has been observed in these cultivars even under elevated levels of ABA. The ABA level drastically decreased during desiccation of embryos. However, the embryos could tolerate mild desiccation even under low level of ABA. A different trend in ABA could be observed in Artocarpus hirsutus in which the embryos maintained extremely low level of ABA and could tolerate desiccation better than Artocarpus heterophyllus. No significant correlation has been established between moisture content and ABA level in this species. Vivipary could not be observed in Artocarpus hirsute seven under low levels of ABA. Results suggest that vivipary cannot be attributed to the low level of ABA and it is not the sole factor in providing desiccation tolerance in orthodox seeds.

  60. Asish Mandal

    Extracellular xylanase production by the newly isolated Bacillus cereus BSA1 in presence of different nitrogen and phosphate sources and metal ions was optimized under submerged fermentation. The growth of bacteria and its enzyme production were maximum in the presence of beef extract. Maximum enzyme production was done in presence of Na2HPO4 and the most effective concentration was achieved in 0.10%. The most effective salt for xylanase production by the bacteria was NaCl. This article says about the smart and successful production of xylanase from a mesophilic soil bacterium, Bacillus cereus BSA1.

  61. Phani Deepthi, V., Chandra Sekhar, R. and Srihari, D.

    In the present study the organoleptic quality and shelf life of guava fruits treated with Naphthalene acetic acid (100 and 200 ppm), Gibberellic acid (150 and 300 ppm) and Benzyl adenine (25 and 50 ppm) were evaluated. Guava fruits were harvested at mature green (maximum growth of fruits is attained and skin colour changes from dark green to light green) and colour turning (skin colour turns slightly yellow from light green) stages to determine the appropriate stage of maturity during storage at 10±1ºC and 90±5% RH. TSS, reducing and total sugars increased gradually and reached their peaks on days coinciding with ripe stage followed by a gradual decline towards the end of storage. Titratable acidity and ascorbic acid contents however decreased with the advancement of storage period. Organoleptic parameters such as fruit appearance and colour, flavour, taste and overall acceptance gradually increased till ripe stage while fruit texture declined continuously. Results revealed that mature green stage fruits exhibited longer shelf life and better fruit quality with all the treatments studied. Among the growth regulators, 50ppm BA exhibited longer shelf life with highest TSS, sugars and ascorbic acid content and highly acceptable fruit quality during cold storage.

  62. Hiralal Jana

    The study was conducted in Hooghly district of West Bengal. The study reveals that the most harmful insect-pest of brinjal was shoot and fruit borer. Brinjal growers were using various brands of various pesticides for controlling insect-pests with several doses. Infestation of insect-pests was mainly on mature stage of the crop. The brinjal growers used 20-30 litres and 100-180 litres of water per bigha for spraying at seedling stage and mature stage respectively. Brinjal growers’ interval of spraying of chemicals was mainly 4-7 days.

  63. Hulihalli, U. K. and Fakeerappa Arabhanvi

    Large population of human beings in developing countries is mainly reliant on a staple diet of cereals, such as rice, wheat, maize and sorghum etc. Unfortunately all of our major cereal food crops lack certain essential vitamins and minerals, as milled cereal grains are poor sources of lysine, vitamin A, folic acid, iron, zinc and selenium, which are essential for normal growth and metabolism of human beings. This review paper aims to enrichment of micronutrient in major food grains have been considered as a sustainable strategy for immediate solution to tackle the problems of micronutrient deficiencies in human beings. Agronomic biofortification is a potential cost-effective and sustainable agronomic way to enrich the micronutrient content of food grains. It is an upcoming strategy for dealing the deficiencies of micronutrients in the developing world.

  64. Asokan, C.

    The BC3H1 smooth muscle cells of mice brain, the study was carried out membrane binding. This is important in relation to the activity of membrane proteins, because losing the activity of such systems will ultimately lead to malfunction or death of the cell. The interactions of Serum Amyloid A (SAA) and Serum Amyloid A protofibrils with BC3H1 cells of the mouse are dealt with in detail to study the binding of SAA protofibrils in various conditions. The FACScan and MTT assay results have shown the SAA and SAA fibrils binding and cell toxicity with the BC3H1 cells with different concentrations of Serum amyloid P component and Amyloid enhancing factor. Specifically, cells were incubated with 1.25-6.25M SAA-FITC and SAA protofibrils-FITC assayed. The 50% viable BC3H1 cells at 4–6 M with an LD50 of 3.5 M. The interaction of serum amyloid A fibrils with a cell surface binding site/receptor might alter the local environment to cause cellular dysfunction and to be more favorable for amyloid formation. The RAGE (receptor for advanced glycation endproducts) a polyvalent receptor in the immunoglobulin super family has been implicated in binding with the isoform of SAA (SAA1.1) which has the highest fibirillogenic property. In the present study, concluding the SAA fibrils more binding and cell cytotoxicity than SAA protein.

  65. Mahalingam Rajasekar, Gabriel Amalan Rabert and Dr. Paramasivam Manivannan

    In the present investigation, a pot culture experiment was conducted to estimate the ameliorating effect of triazoles such as triadimefon (TDM), tebuconazole (TBZ) and propiconazole (PCZ) on drought stressed maize. From 30 days after sowing (DAS), the plants were subjected to 4 days interval drought (DID) stress and drought with TDM at 15mg l-1, TBZ at 10mg l-1 and PCZ 15 mg l-1 alone and one day interval irrigation was kept as control. The plants were separated into root, stem and leaf for estimating the growth and biochemical. The experiment was laid out in a completely randomized block design (CRBD) with seven replicates for each treatment. Individual and combined drought stress and triazole treatments decreased growth parameters like shoot length, total leaf area, whole plants fresh weight and whole plant dry weight but root length increased when compared to control. The biochemical compounds like sugar and sucrose contents increased, whereas starch content decreased under drought stressed plants.

  66. Dr. Smita Pudale, Dr. Sachin Digambar Tonape, Dr. G. A. Pandit and Dr. Bapurao Pawar

    Haemoglobin E- Beta thalassaemia is the commonest form of severe thalassaemia in many Asian countries In India; it is prevalent in North-Eastern region, but relatively rare in the rest of the country. Identification of this Hb variant thalassemia is important, because doubly heterozygous state for HbE and beta-thalassemia is characterized clinically by thalassemia major. Manifestations of E-beta thalassemia include refractory anemia, splenomegaly and sometimes, unexplained Jaundice. In addition these patients have additional complications like iron overload, hypercoagulable states (post-splenectomy), pulmonary hypertension and cardiopulmonary disease. Thus the affected individual may be symptomatic and transfusion dependent at an early age. This paper reports a case with Hb E- Beta thalassemia from West Maharashtra

  67. Abirami, L., Mohamed Sirajudeen, A., Ravichandran, R. and Rengarajan, R.

    This study was designed to assess total contents of 6 toxic metals viz., Fe, Hg, Pb, Cr, Cd and As in the fine sediment soil samples collected from industrial zone of Karur, Tiruchirappalli and Thanjavur districts of Tamil Nadu, India during April 2015. Heavy metals were analyzed by using standard methods. Heavy metal concentration in ground water was in following order Fe > Cr > As > Hg > Cd > Pb (ppm). In the present investigation, the high level of heavy metal (Iron) was recorded from Kundur fine sediment samples and low level of heavy metal (Lead) was recorded in Patteswaram and Mathur areas of fine sediment soil samples.

  68. Madan Singh Shekhawat and Dilip Singh Chundawat

    An area of about 510 sq km around Keoladev Ghana National Park - A World Heritage Site - and Bharatpur city has been investigated for assessment of groundwater vulnerability. Groundwater is the major source of water for various uses in the study area. Hence, the DRASTIC method approach has been used as a valuable tool for identifying groundwater zones that are vulnerable to contamination. Adopting DRASTIC model approach, the Vulnerability Index has been determined for the entire area that ranges from 174 to 203. On the basis of Vulnerability Index, the area has been classified into three categories i.e. area with Vulnerability Index 174-185, 185-195 and 195-205 corresponding to low, moderate and high vulnerability zones, respectively. Using this classification, a groundwater vulnerability map has been generated which shows that 37% of the study area falls under low vulnerable zone, 51% under moderate vulnerable zone and only 12% falls under high vulnerability zone.

  69. Mahesh Babu, P., Chandramohan, Y., Ravindrababu, V. and Arunakumari, C. H.

    Two hundred progenies of four crosses of rice were evaluated to study the genetic variability in segregating generations for yield and bran oil content. The data was recorded on five randomly selected plants for ten quantitative and four grain quality characters. The analysis of variance showed significant differences for 14 characters studied, indicating the presence of high genetic variability among the progenies. The estimates of GCV were lower than the respective PCV, indicating the influence of environmental factors on the expression of the traits studied. Plant height (98.3%) showed the highest value of heritability and number of filled grains per panicle showed high genetic advance. However, high heritability coupled with low genetic advance was observed for number of productive tillers per plant, panicle length, kernel length, 1000-grain weight and bran oil content indicating that predominance of non additive gene effects in controlling the character. Hence, the improvement in these characters is not possible through simple selection and requires recurrent selection or heterosis breeding for improvement.

  70. Acharya, S. K., Mondal, S. and Adhikary, M. M.

    Rural leaders act as lighthouse to the villagers. They make decisions for the people where people interests as well as development of villages are involved. They tend to change the thought and action of others. The body- mind dialectics has got a dictum on the delivery mechanism of personality, which is being influenced by unique genetic characteristics and disposed of by its phenotypic expression through interaction with social environment. Thus leadership pattern, motivational elements of leaders, their psychological construct and personality profiles need to be studied in a framework to assess how all these factors do influence the attainment of social, political and cultural goals of common people. Any leader or person does act as per his/her social and psychological construct and the functions are unleashing by their structure. It is thus very much needed to understand the rural leadership structure so that this insight may be helpful in shaping up the capacity building programmers for the rural leader having an impact over the agriculture development in particular and rural development in general. Different value orientation or characters viz a viz variables were included in designing Socio-psychological structure like age (X1), community (X2), occupation (X3), education (X4), family size (X5), economic status (X6), five year Plan (X7), panchayat system (X8), Dominance (X9), Self Confidence (X10), Dogmatism (X11), Authoritarianism-equalitarianism (X12), conservatism-liberalism (X13), fatalism-scienticism (X14), familism- individualism (X!5), progressive –reactionary (X16), political ideology (X17), election-attitude (X18) and alienation (X19) which do form both configurative and compositional element of leadership. The present study was carried out with the rural leaders (Sociometric leaders and Institutional leaders) at Haringhata Block I of Nadia district in the state of West Bengal. The purposive sampling technique was followed in case of selecting the state, district, block and villages for generating the required data. From three villages namely Simhat, Fatepur and Mollabellia 100 respondents were selected. For some leaders selection have been must since there has been no choice but to select for example Panchayat leaders for some respondents the researcher has to opt for random sampling approaches since, some few have been selected out of relatively larger population. The selection of the respondent keep on encompassing a diverse score rural leadership like Socio-metric leader, School teacher, Head master, President of club and Co operatives etc. The selection of respondents has got both spatial and social dimensions.

  71. Somashekara, H., Javaregowda, Muraghendra, P. I. and Prakasha Batnalli

    Treatments evaluated for the management of YSB, Fipronil 40 WG @ 1 g/l registered its superiority over botonicles. All insecticides are found on par in the order of their efficacy viz, Fipronil 0.3 G @ 0.075kg a.i./ha, Car tap hydrochloride 50 SP @ 300 g a.i./ha, Cartap hydrochloride 4 G @ 750 g a.i./ha, Carbofuran 3 G @ 1kg a.i/ha and Chlorpyriphos 20 EC @ 2.5ml/l. Among the botanicals evaluated neem oil commercial formulation @ 5ml/l was found superior followed by NSKE @5%, Jatropha Nut Seed Kernal extract @5%,Vitexnegundo Leaf extract @ 5%,GnidiaglaucaLeaf extracts @ 5%, Acoruscalamus rhizome/powder extract @ 5% and Eupotorium leaf extract @ 5%.

  72. Jasmine Shahina, S. K., Nijna Sabin, F. and Summera Rafiq

    Pseudomonas aeruginosa is known to cause wide range of infections. It exhibits resistance to several antimicrobial agents and produces ß-lactamases, which are responsible for the widespread ß-lactam resistance. In the present study, 41 isolates of Pseudomonas aeruginosa were obtained from various clinical specimens like pus, urine, stool and wounds. 13/41 (32%) Pseudomonas aeruginosa isolates were found to be positive for the production of ESBL by disc diffusion method. 9/41 (22%) Pseudomonas aeruginosa isolates were found to be positive for the production of metallo-β-lactamases. All the 9 isolates were subjected for the detection of metallo-β-lactamases by different methods. Imipenem (IMP)- EDTA combined disc test detected 4(45%) compared to EDTA disc potentiation using Ceftazidime, Ceftizoxime and Cefotaxime which detected 3(33%), and Imipenem (IMP)- EDTA double disc synergy test detected 2(22%) of MBL producing P.aeruginosa and hence IMP-EDTA CDT was a better method compared to other methods used in the study to detect MBL producers.

  73. Ravikumar, K. R., Aditya S Rao, Mallesha, H. and Dhananjaya, K.

    Breast cancer is a malignant disease most commonly occurring in women. Mortality is high due to the fact that breast cancer in later stages metastases to other parts of the body causing multiple carcinoma and death. Many therapeutic targets have been identified for breast cancer of whichCDK9 is emerging as target for cancerous cells due to its role in cell proliferation. CDK9 is a component of multiprotien complex P-TEFb which plays a vital role as an elongation factor for RNA pol2 mediated transcription. Down regulation of CDK9 leads to disruption of P-TEFb complex thereby inducing apoptosis. Flavopiridol is a semisynthetic compound based on an extract from an Indian tree. Flavopiridol is a nonspecific inhibitor of CDK’s showing higher selectivity towards CDK9. Flavopiridol acts by competing for ATP binding site thereby disrupting CDK9/Cyclin t complex. In addition, flavopiridol is found to work synergistically with several other compounds which act on other targets like HER2 receptor, Androgen receptor, Oestrogen receptor, etc., which are extensively studied for their role in breast cancer. In this study we focus on the molecular interactions of flavopiridol and its analogues using Insilco docking methods. The results provide convincing proof to establish that using flavopiridol and its analogues might prove beneficial in treatment of breast cancer whether as a sole drug or in combination with other drugs to work synergistically.

  74. Bhalerao Ganesh Nandkumar, Anita Vitthal Hase and Shinde Tushar

    Rolling Bearing element is used in Rotating Machinery; complexity of lading mechanism in bearing which influence the vibrational local defects (faults). These faults are the reason of breakdown in rotating machines. Rolling bearing fault model is based on the dynamic load analysis of a rotor-bearing system. The rotor impact factor is consideration in the rolling bearing fault signal model. The defect load on the surface of the bearing is divided into two parts, the alternate load and the determinate load. In this paper we are going to study outer race and inner race fault simulations. The simulation process includes following parameter; the gravity of the rotor-bearing system, the imbalance of the rotor, and the location of the defect on the surface. The simulation results show that different amplitude contributions of the alternate load and determinate load will cause different envelope spectrum expressions. In the envelope spectrum the rotating frequency sidebands and fault characteristic frequency will occur. This appearance of sidebands will increase the difficulty of fault recognition. The test rig design of the rotor bearing system simulated several operating conditions: rotor bearing, rotor bearing with loader, rotor bearing with loader and rotor disk and bearing fault simulation without rotor influence. Hence we conclude that the rolling element bearing fault signal model is important to the fault diagnosis of rotor-bearing systems.

  75. Fadil, M., Farah A., Ihssane, B., Benbrahim, K. F., Haloui, T. and Rachiq, S.

    Myrtle, Myrtus communis L., is an herb widely used throughout the world. It is one of the most popular plants in Morocco. For the purpose of examining the factors affecting extraction of this plant’s essential oil by hydrodistillation, a screening study by Hadamard matrix type Placket and Burman was conducted. After an appropriate choice of seven variables, sixteen experiments lead to a mathematical model of first degree linking the response function (yield) to factors. After the experiment’s realization and data analysis, we concluded that five factors have a significant effect on the hydrodistillation process, namely: the extracting time, the individuality effect, the harvest period, the material/water ratio and the heating temperature with the coefficients: 0.041, 0.025, - 0.021, 0.018, -0.015 respectively. Moreover, the plant material’s drying and cutting present a statistically negligible effect.

  76. TaherehShekari, AlirezaDavaryDolatabadi and Abbas Akkasi

    With spreads usage of practical program, the network traffic increases too. While internet speed increases every day, tendency to benefit from multimedia rise too. Transferring mass size of multimedia data often make a high traffic in network that can be managed by distributed accounting system. In this article optimal solutions for analyzing audio and videotape files are examined.

  77. Marcia Cristina Lopes Clem, José Rodrigo de Moraes and Mônica de Aquino Galeano Massera da Hora

    This study examines the Vigidesastres program, which carries out environmental health surveillance in the state of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, focusing on the region formed by the municipalities of Nova Iguaçu, Belford Roxo, Nilópolis, Mesquita and São João de Meriti. This region, also known as Baixada Fluminense, besides being located in a lowlands area that is prone to flooding, also has precarious basic sanitation infrastructure, factors that can lead to disasters. Interviews were conducted with the managers of the program to obtain data on the situation of each municipality studied. This information is analyzed and discussed from the standpoints of organizational capacity, structure and techniques of environmental health surveillance of each municipality (identified with letters “A” through “E” to preserve the respondents’ anonymity). The results indicate that, in terms of management capacity of the Vigidesastres program, municipality B has the best general conditions, while E has the worst.

  78. Aparna Gopinath, P. K. and Grace John, M.

    Reversible data hiding can restore the image after the hidden data is extracted. Security and integrity of data are two challenging areas for research. Recently more attention is paid to reversible data hiding in encrypted images as original cover image can be losslessly recovered after embedded data is extracted while protecting the image contents confidentiality. Its applications are in medical imagery, military imagery and law forensics. Data hiding helps in protecting the data against malicious attacks such as information stealing, copyright piracy. This paper compares two techniques used for reversible data hiding. The PSNR value of the recovered image of both techniques are compared.

  79. Dahikar, P. M.

    Recently the synthesis of 4-dimethylaminobenzoinhydrazone were carried out by the condensation of 4-dimethylaminobenzoin with hydrazine hydrate in presence of aqueous sodium hydroxide in Dioxane-water (80%) medium respectively. Similarly 4,4'-dimethoxy benzoin hydrazone were synthesized by the interaction of 4,4'-dimethoxy benzoin with hydrazine hydrate in presence of aqueous sodium hydroxide in dioxane-water (80%) medium respectively. The synthesis of 4-dimethylaminobenzoin and 4,4'-dimethoxybenzoin were carried out by the known literature method. The structure of all the synthesized compounds were justified on the basis of chemical characteristics, elemental and I.R. and NMR spectral analysis.

  80. Shalini, P. and Paul Dhayabaran, D.

    In this paper, the new concept minimization of multiplicative labelings has been introduced and a formula for minimization of multiplicative labeling has been introduced. A function f is called a minimization of multiplicative labeling of a graph G with q edges, if f is a bijective function from the vertices of G to the set {1,2,3,…..p} such that when each edge UV is assigned the label f(UV)=f(u)*f(v)-min{f(u),f(v)},then the resulting edge labels are distinct numbers. Moreover, some families of graphs which are coming under minimization of multiplicative labeling are being investigated.

  81. Geetha, V. and Gopalan, M. A.

    The biquadratic Diophantine equation with five unknowns represented by is analysed for finding its non-zero distinct integral solutions. Introducing the linear transformations and employing the method of factorization different patterns of non zero distinct integer solutions of the equation under the above equation are obtained. A few interesting relations between the integral solutions are exhibited.

  82. Aadithya, T. A. and Deepika, S.

    A gas giant with its comprehensive set of continuous and discontinuous rings is a Unique cocktail of interactions between itself, dust and ice, its moons and nearby orbiting satellites and particles. The Gravitational Influence of the moons, notably the largest of them like Titan and Rhea has created Gaps in between the rings. For years this has baffled Astronomers. There has been a speculation that the prograde motion of the planet against the prograde motion of its moons have caused this unique effect. Others speculate that the Density wave theory with its spiral structure theories could provide an explanation for this gap causing influence. This Paper will be a case study on how are the gaps are formed between the rings of Saturn. The paper will explain the various phenomena surrounding the Influences, notably Resonance and orbital collisions and correlate as to why such phenomenon result in gaps being formed. It will also explain about our theory which describes the possibility of retrograde motion of the distant moons and other planetary bodies exerting a Gravitational influence on the Gas Giant Saturn which is in Prograde motion also being a cause for the gaps being formed in the rings, especially in the Cassini Division.

  83. Asha, G. and Manoj Kumar, B.

    Coffee processing involves large volume of water and wastewater. Coffee grown in many regions is processed using the wet method in order to be commercialized as green coffee. The coffee pulping wastewater from source-1 was characterised by low pH which varying between 3.92 to 4.99 and high COD between 8,320 mg/L to 10,400 mg/L, BOD 160 mg/L, total solids concentration was 5,000 mg/L, phosphorus varying between 60 mg/L to 94 mg/L, nitrate nitrogen varying between 32 mg/L to 52 mg/L, and ammonia nitrogen concentration was in the range of 50 mg/L to 84 mg/L. For wastewater to be easily treated in biological reactor the BOD5 / COD should be 0.5 or greater i.e., the waste is considered to be easily treatable by biological treatment. Since the BOD5 / COD ratio of coffee pulping wastewater was considerably less than 0.5 electrochemical treatment was tried to improve the BOD5 / COD ratio using aluminium electrode. The studies done for treating the raw coffee pulping wastewater by electrochemical method resulted in 93 %, 83 % and 90 % removal efficiency of COD, phosphorus and nitrate nitrogen respectively.

  84. Pavanraj, T. M. and Ms. Savita Patil

    The NET energy meter using both renewable and non renewable energy. In the renewable energy only solar energy is used for rooftop of the home. Generated solar energy is stored in battery then its voltage is the form of DC converted into AC by using inverter after that it can be used for home appliances. Then excess generated power is given to grid. Whenever battery voltage gradually decreases as consumed by the appliances then after battery level is less than that of required energy for home appliances that time energy is taken from the nonrenewable energy (grid) to loads. Processor will be continuously monitoring the battery voltage, then is this voltage divided into three levels they are high, medium and low. Based on voltage level operation is performed by processor and also simultaneously monitoring pulse from meters. Advanced power management system is real time updating the full information of energies utilized by net home meter to company data base website .billing information of its net home meter then owner can access directly available in website or message send to owner number instead taking the manual bill form the company person. Here not considering the NET energy meter billing instead of its takes the different bill for different energies.

  85. Wiem Guissouma and Jamila Tarhouni

    To prevent adverse health effect related to fluoride overdoses in drinking water, a comprehensive study is presented in this work for determining the optimal fluoride concentration range in drinking water. In fact, the optimal concentration range is bordered by two thresholds. For the hyper sensitive age groups (infant and children) the optimal concentration of 0.5mg.L-1 is required. This optimal concentration is known as the down threshold. However, for less sensitive age groups (adult), the optimal concentration of 1mg.L-1 is taken as the upper threshold. This study proposes also a numerical model to describe the daily fluoride exposure depending on the subject age via drinking tap water. In order to minimize the error between reference values (safety limit) and calculated values;the model is calibrated by means of an algebraic adjustment with introduce a correction factor.

  86. Chennakesava Reddy, A.

    The aim was to estimate the influence of shock pressure loading on the submersible hull using finite element analysis. The fluid medium was molded based on Tait’s equation of state. The equation of state from Jones-Wilkins-Lee (JWL) was used to describe the detonation products of explosives. The explosion and fluid were interfaced using Eulerian-Eulerian coupling and the fluid and shell were interfaced using arbitrary Lagrangian-Eulerian coupling. The damage has occurred in the submersible hull surface exposed to explosion only.

  87. Indu, Abhimanyu Singh and Raveesh Chandra

    A study of the physico-chemical parameters on surface water of Nawabganj Lake was conducted from summer and winter. Surface water was collected from twenty different stations along the Lake. Water samples were collected and analysed for physico-chemical variables. The average value of surface water on winter-summer the pH was 7-7.042105; EC (Electrical Conductivity) 524.8-492.5µs/cm, Tub. (Turbidity) 4.9-5.5NTU, DO (Dissolve Oxygen) 6.65-6.61Mg/L, BOD (Biological Oxygen Demand) 3.55-3.3Mg/L, TDS (Total Dissolve Solids) 322.95-300.7Mg/L, TS (Total Solids) 459.95-422.3Mg/L, Cl (Chloride) 50.9-43.15Mg/L, SO4 (Sulphate) 25.5-26.25Mg/L, N (Nitrate) 5.95-5.35Mg/L, Na (Sodium) 30.25-29.85Mg/L, K (Potassium) 3.835-3.76Mg/L, Mg (Magnesium Hardness) 73.7-72.25Mg/L, PO4 (Total Phosphorus) 0.134-0.124Mg/L, COD (Chemical Oxygen Demand) 12.3-13.1Mg/L, T.C.(Total Coliform) 376-347.5MPN/100ml, F.C.(Feacal Coliform) 191.5-142.95MPN/100ml, F (Fluoride) 0.595-0.645Mg/L, Fe (Iron) 0.3545-0.3345Mg/L, Zn (Zinc) 0.0975-0.07Mg/L. The databases obtained were subjected to Pearson correlation matrix. Correlation coefficients revealed positive and significant correlations between the pairs of parameters and metals in surface water. The major variations are related to anthropogenic activities (irrigation agricultural, construction activities, clearing of land, and domestic waste disposal). The present study, however, makes several is believed to serve as a baseline data for further studies. Future research should therefore noteworthy contributions to the existing knowledge on the spatial variations of surface water quality and concentrate on the investigation of temporal variations of water quality in the lake. The lake is gradually tending towards eutrophication.

  88. Tanmoy Mitra

    In 2006 Bhaskar and Laxmikantham introduced the concept of coupled fixed point for a partially ordered set. In this paper a common coupled fixed point result for two mappings are presented.

  89. Sai Pranay Kumar, B. and Dr. Raja Narender Reddy, K

    Globalization increases rapidly over the years along with the technology. But the Economic growth of the countries lies in its transportation capabilities. Transportation plays a vital role in today’s world. It may through air, water or surface mediums. But the most essential one and reliable one is surface transportation. Whenever the surface transport comes into picture it comprise of various vehicles like bike to a bullet trains. Here comes the factor called safety. The safety of a vehicle depends upon its own Braking system. Breaking is the most deciding element in the design of vehicle in automobile industry. Over the years many breaks like Disc brakes, Drum Brakes, hydraulic Brakes, Vacuum brakes are introduced but a new era has begun to develop more advanced braking systems like Anti- lock braking systems which ensure more safety and stability of a vehicle. Here we discuss about the advanced systems like ABS in detail.

  90. Ania Farkhanda

    The research was designed to conduct to identify the board size and board composition effects on Financial Performance in Banking Sector of Pakistan having Board Composition i.e. Independent Director, Board Size and Total number of directors on Board as depending variable, Leverage and Size of Banks as Control Variable whereas the independent variables was Financial Performance i.e. Return on Assets and Return on Equity. A total of 174 responses were gathered through secondary sources for the analysis of the study. The time horizon of the proposed research was “cross sectional” in nature because of the limited time available to complete the study and recourse constraint. The unit of analysis used in proposed study will be each financial banks listed at Karachi stock exchange in KSE-100 index. These units was represented all of the banks at Karachi stock exchanges.

  91. Pooja Choudhary and Dr. Vikram Chadha

    The economic prosperity of nations like Japan, China, etc. springs ample evidence that there exists positive relationship between educational development and economic development of a nation. To achieve the much emphasized objective of technological self-reliance since independence, Indian economy witnessed a massive growth of institutions providing technical education. Among the various streams of technical education, the growth of institutions providing engineering education is extremely applauded. As a consequence, the enrolment in the institutions of engineering education has increased over the years. In this respect, examining the female participation in Indian Engineering Education with special reference to Punjab is the thrust area of this study.

  92. Ardeshir Fathalian and Nourodin Mehdikhni

    Governmental commandments are those that the society ruler governs based on the anticipated religious principles and in accordance with the Muslims general interests to protect the health of the society and release from the impasses. Islamic ruler can respond to all the variant requirements with his governmental and warden ship commandment. The extensive jurisdictions of the Islamic ruler are the ways to adapt with the real requirements. The range and scope of the Islamic ruler and supreme leader hasa complete and total inclusion and generality. So, Imam Khomeini knows the supreme leader’s jurisdictions as Prophet Muhammad’ (PBUH) and other Imams’ jurisdictions. Of course, the scope of the supreme leader’s jurisdictions is to the extent that does not exceed the framework of Islamic laws. In this study, it has been triedto survey jurisprudence basics of Islamic ruler jurisdictions to divorce woman in certain conditions in the Civil Code of the Islamic Republic of Iran based on the basics and reasons of the subject in the holly Quran, traditions and religious scholars and jurists’ opinions and through wisdom perspective. There are some articles in Civil Code of the Islamic Republic of Iran such as the articles 1029, 1129, 1130, which shows the dominancy/validity of the governmental commandmentof the Islamic ruler and his jurisdictions in divorcing woman in certain conditions.

  93. Farideh Hadavi and Mahdi Jamali

    The present study aims at comparing the quality of life and quality of working life in SAPCO participants and non-participants in sporting activities (public sports). In so doing, the checklist of individual characteristics, quality of life questionnaire developed by Vaez Mousavi (2000), and Walton's (1973) quality of working life questionnaire were distributed among 302 people including 162 athlete staffs and 162 non-athlete ones. As the first phase of the study, coordinating with the Supplying Automative Parts Company (SAPCO), affiliated with Iran Khodro Industrial Group, the researcher obtained the letter of permission as well as the reference letter. Then, 350 questionnaires were distributed among participants who filled out them on the spot. 302 questionnaires have been filled out properly, which were later analyzed. time The questionnaires were distributed and subsequently collected in May, 2014. For data analysis, descriptive statistics (in the format of tables and graphs), Kolmogorov-Smirnov test, dependent T-test, and Two-way ANOVA using SPSS 16 (at the level of significance: 0.05) were applied. The study yielded the result that there is a significant difference between active and inactive people in terms of quality of life, individual well-being, social relations, altruistic behavior, and job satisfaction.

  94. Baljinder Singh

    Immigration from one place to another places is a universal phenomena since the ages from pre-Aryan stage to this age of science migration from one place to other place is there. Migration doesn't see any caste, creed or faith barrier even the language is not problem for migraiton. Indian's have been in contrast to ancient immigrantion, modern immigrantion from India was wholly a British creation it begin in 1834. When slavery was abashed in the British Empire. Labour was needed to work on the different British colonies. It is estimated that between 1834 and 1937 scene thirty millons Indian migrated to the sufficient pouts of the world. The present paper has focused on various problems and issues that are faced by Punjabi women immigraant. The researcher has used secondary source for collection data, like news paper, magzines literatures etc.

  95. Frederick O. Kumolalo

    Abraham Lincoln was the 16th President of the United States (1861-1865) and over a century and a half after his assassination, there remains a sleuth of opinions and oftentimes contradictory interpretations of his actions while in office. While some historians of note regarded him as the Great Emancipator whose singular action freed more than three million slaves and marked a major turning point in the historical evolution of the United States. Conversely, others saws him as just another product of his age – a racist politician who believed in the impossibility of “bringing about in anyway the social and political equality of the white and black races – that I am not nor ever have been in favor of making voters or jurors of negroes, nor of qualifying them to hold office, nor to intermarry with white people . . .” Lincoln was hailed as the believer in the equality of the races while at the same time he believed “that there is a physical difference between the white and black races which I believe will forever forbid the two races living together on terms of social and political equality.” This essay is therefore an attempt to critically appraise the position of noted authorities and their writings on this American statesman

  96. Sandhiya, S. and John William, A.

    India, unorganized retailing has been predominantly in the form of local Kirana shops also called Mom-n-Pop stores, manned general stores, paan and beedi shops, convenience stores, hand cart and Pavement vendors, The study aims to understand the orientation of unorganized retail shoppers towards shopping and to measures the impact of various factors of shopping experience in the context of unorganized retail and the statistical tool as chi square was used to analyze the relationship between the number of variables and it was found that the factors such as income, awareness, product availability and the services offered are the highly influencing factors.

  97. Oriabi, D. T., Raheem, H. N., Hassan, S. A., Hussain, Z. M., Kadhem, L. H. and Bahjat R. J. Muhyedeen

    Quantum density functional theory (DFT) calculations for benzannulatedlutidine bisstannylene-tin(II) monoxide molecule is carried out. To explore the proper functional for our molecule, we perform DFT calculations with different hybrid functional. The results show that B3LYP is the best among the others. We calculated the theoretical IR for benzannulatedbisstannylene-tin(II) monoxide Molecule using B3LYP/SDD with scaling factor 0.961 which confirms the lutidine moiety is perpendicular to Sn- group. The HOMO-LUMO energy gap is very low of 80.46 meV. The Sn NMR spectrum showed that Sn3located at downfield in comparison to Sn1 and Sn2.

  98. Chaitra, V. H.

    Training and development enables employees towards skill development and perform better at workplace. It develops zeal among the employees by introducing them towards the process of continuous learning. What is crucial for employees as well as the organization is that whether the present training program is able to help employees to develop required set of skills. Paper basically focuses on understanding employees opinion about the present training program, extent to which it is leading to skill development for employees to perform efficiently at their workplace. Study is confined to employee working at Canara Bank Bangalore to understand their opinion about present training practices followed and areas in which company can inculcate additional practices to enhance training and development practice followed in the company. Primary and secondary data was used for the study, where primary data was collected through structured questionnaire and secondary data through journals, magazines, books, internet etc. the data was analyzed using the statistical software SPSS16, excel and MS word, the statistical tool used is fishers exact test. study basically intended to understand employees opinion about training programs held in the organization and scope for updating of training program. The results shows that there is no significant association between training necessary in improving performance and the satisfaction towards training program at the significance 0.005 level. This shows that the training program is not effective and that there is no significant association between type of training program provided and satisfaction gained through the training program at the significance of 0.005 level. This shows that the kind of training provided is not much effective and right kind of training has not been identified.

  99. Esther Arulmani, S. and Dr. Swaminathan, N.

    Education in India has a golden past, present and future. The aim of the paper is to make the English language learning by adult learners, more active and interesting. The focus for us all, however, is the learner. Innovation should not be ‘just for its own sake’ but always directed to improve the quality of learning. It is the learner who do the learning, and our work as teachers is for the learners. Active learning has superseded passive learning in recent times because people today seek all-round development of the students. Active learning gives a different perspective to education. It not only helps the students to learn better but also gives the teachers an impetus to teach better. At this present scenario, an English teacher for adult learners should prepare herself/himself to cater for all types of intelligences and learning styles in order to create an enthusiastic learning environment. The paper highlights about some of the interesting language activities that can be tried out for adult students to improve the language skills.

  100. Noraini Rosli, Zahora Ismail and Philip Lepun

    This study was carried out in the Asap Koyan Belaga Sarawak regions of Malaysia where the Orang Ulu ethnics use indigenous knowledge of natural dye extraction from different plant parts. In this region, 51 plant species belonging to 30 families were identified as sources of natural dyes. In natural dye production, different parts of the plant or the whole aboveground plant are used. Eight different colours are gained from the plants. Sometimes the same colour can be obtained from different plants. By combining different plants, it is possible to produce various colours. Plants used by the Orang Ulu ethnics in the dying process are documented, together with their taxonomic characteristics; local names; the colour obtained; purpose and use of natural dye; in addition to which parts of plant are used for producing types of colour.

  101. Dr. Sudhir Chandra Das, and Suddhasuchi Das

    Sandalwood (Santalum album L.) is a precious timber plant which has been serving the world’s population since human civilization. Its valuation depends on the quantity of oil and santalol contents of the heartwood. Normally, heartwood formation starts after 12-15 years of plant age. It depends on the soil characteristics and other climatic factors. Some other factors viz. host plant association, mycorrhizal association etc. can play important role for the survival of the sandalwood plants. Keeping all these views in mind, a venture was undertaken to quantify the produce and to assess the oil quality of the heartwood. The role of host plant association in different gardens of the forest division and oil & alcohol contents (α- and β - santalol) were measured.

  102. Shabeer, V. P.

    Advertising is a form of marketing communication used to persuade an audience to take or continue some action, usually with respect to a commercial offering, or political or ideological support. Advertising are usually paid for by sponsors and viewed via various media. Television is the most powerful media among them. Commercial ads often seek to create a need in the minds of people and to generate increased consumption. Another significant trend regarding future of advertising is the growing importance of the niche market using targeted ads. Advertisement of Food products mean for children is example of niche market advertising. It makes a child, a consumer even before the age of 5. The new generation of children are spending most of their time in front of television and their eating habits are somehow influenced with the advertisements. This research paper makes an attempt to find out the level of influence of television advertisement on the eating habits of children in Kerala. This study is based on the response of 150 parents who have child in between 3-10 years, in Malappuram and Calicut districts in Kerala. The data is collected with the help of an interview schedule. Data is analyzed with the help of simple percentage and presented in bar and pie diagrams. This paper concludes that TV ads severely affecting the eating habits of children and the government has to take necessary regulations to control the unrealistic offers and misleading acts in the ads at least for children based food products.

  103. Tomas D. Reyes, Jr.

    The study generally aimed at integrating geographic information system (GIS) and statistical models in predicting landslide prone areas in Wahig-Inabanga Watershed, Bohol, Philippines. Logistic regression (LR) and bivariate statistical analysis (BSA) were employed to determine landslide prone areas using eleven significant landslide-related instability factors such as elevation, slope, aspect, lithology, soil order, soil type, fault line proximity, river proximity, road proximity, rainfall and land cover. The satisfactory results of model evaluation justified the application of the LR model for landslide hazard assessment. Out of eleven instability factors, only soil order and soil type were determined not significant. The first three most important instability factors based on the values of regression coefficients are elevation, slope, and lithology. Landslide hazard assessment revealed around 7,063 ha or 11.33% of the total area of the watershed has high to very high landslide hazard ratings. The study showed that GIS, in tandem with useful models, provides pertinent results which could be used as scientific basis for watershed management and land use planning in relation to landslide disaster risk reduction and management.

  104. Hossam Deraz and Gabriel Baffour

    Despite the extensive research in the context of brand communities on social networking sites (SNSs), the theoretical foundations underlying consumers’ assessment of advertisements on SNSs’ brand communities was not yet explored. The present study consequently aimed to explore how SNSs’ brand communities’ consumers assess social networks’ advertisements (SNAs). Regression analysis was used to identify the best fit model, and the most effective predictors on the assessment of SNAs. From the collected data, four dimensions had positive significant effects on the consumers’ assessment (informativeness, entertainment value, credibility value and interactivity value), while the fifth dimension (irritation value) had a significant negative effect. The results of this study had some contradictions with some results on previous studies, and confirmed other results. Moreover, the researchers used the descriptive analysis to gain deeper understanding of how the brand communities’ consumers (BCCs) on SNSs assess SNAs, and to identify the main characteristics of the BCCs on SNSs.

  105. Gadde Omprasad

    India’s relations with the World Bank can be traced back to the latter’s origin. India was one of the 17 countries, prepared the agenda for the Bretton Woods Conference (June 1944). It was also one of the 44 countries which signed the final agreement for the establishment of the Bank. The name “International Bank for Reconstruction and Development” was first suggested by India to the drafting committee. Since then the two have been established a close relationship with each other from framing the policies of economic development in India to financing the implementation of these policies. The article examines concept of financial assistance for development purposes, the establishment, objectives and organizational structure of World Bank along with its subscriptions. It emphasizes on India’s role and association with World Bank. The article also looks into the role played by World Bank in India’s economic development.

  106. Mohammad Paknezhad and Dr.Mahmoud Nagizadeh

    This present study aimed to describe the kind of deixison "Holy Quran", theoretically this study is expected to be useful for scholars of Quranic and language. The main purpose of this investigation is the use of deixis, including the form and reference of deixis. The main objectives of this study are a) to describe the pattern of deixis used in the first and second chapters (Juz', Al-Awal, Al-Sani, Al-Sales) and b) to show the reference of deixis use in the first and second chapters. The descriptive approach is straight forward in principle. It consists of fairly three types of deixis. The data used in this investigation were deixis be sourced from English Holy Quran translated by M.H. Shakir. Furthermore, the data that have been collected are classified and grouped according to form, characteristic and its reference, based on the data analysis. It was found that the prominent deixis, is spell deixis, next there was also place deixis, time deixis, person deixis in the English translated Holy Quran.

  107. Jegankumar, R., Dr. Nagarathinam, S. R., Kannadasan, K. and Abdul Rahaman, S.

    The quantitative measure of crop distribution is an important analysis to understand the cropping pattern of an area. The multifaceted agriculture practices, bring different crops in fields. The concept of agricultural regionalization is not dividing a land into different fragments but also a method of understanding the agricultural patterns. The existing patterns will strongly show the combinations of physical and socio-economic balance of an area. To map the cropping pattern the following analysis were required they include crop combination, cropping intensity, crop diversification and crop combination. In the present study analysis the above mention analysis, the results suggest that there are fourteen crops widely occupies in the study area. Among the fourteen crops oilseeds, Tapioca, paddy and maize were the top five crops. Cropping intensity result reveals that the highest cropping intensity found in Tharamangalam, Veerapandi, Panamarathupatty. The moderate cropping intensity found in Thalaivasal, Ayothiyapattinam, Yercaud, Omalur, Kadayampatty, Mecheri and Kolathur. The crop diversification indicates that Yercaud, Gangavalli and Thalaivasal shows lower crop diversification, other blocks in the study area have the index value more than 0.7 which indicates that the blocks have high diversification. The crop combination analysis also sight that oils seeds, Maize, Tapioca as fist ranking crop in several blocks, similarly oil seeds, paddy, Tapioca founds as second ranking crop and paddy is found as third ranking crop in the study area. The cropping pattern analysis will provide the agricultural and agro-climatologist to suggest better land use planning of an area.

  108. Dr. Nimmi Maria Oommen

    Learning is defined as modification of behavior through experience. It is also defined as the acquisition of a desirable behavioral pattern. In other words learning is the modification and co-ordination of the response of the organisms. Thus learning is essentially an active process and not a passive observation of knowledge. It is not the mere reading of books or listening to lectures is an enrichment of experiences. This study focuses on the important psychological variables like learning style and academic achievement. Normative survey method was used for the research. Sample includes secondary students. Stratified sampling technique was used. The statistical technique used was correlation and t test. The hypotheses state that. 1) There will be significant correlation between learning style and academic achievement of secondary students. 2) There will not be significant difference between male and female students in their Learning style. 3) There will not be significant difference between male and female students in their Academic achievement.

  109. Princy, T., Raj Kumar, R., Radhakrishnan, B., Mareeswaran, J., Jayanthi, R. and Nepolean, P.

    Plant Growth Promoting Rhizobacteria (PGPR) that colonize plant roots and promote plant growth and development. The plant growth is being enhanced by wide variety of mechanisms adapted by rhizobacteria. Hence the use of PGPR is steadily increasing in the field of agriculture. Six indigenous PGPR strains were isolated from tea soils and different environment and characterized for the enhancement of plant growth and to improve soil health. To investigate the growth inducing ability of PGPR in tea plants. A nursery trial was conducted using three popular clones namely CR-6017, UPASI-9 and graft CR-6017/UPASI-9. The plants were uprooted after 6 months of treatment implementation and studied their biometric parameters. During observation, the morphometric parameters viz., leaf count, shoot height, root length, biomass of shoot, root and secondary roots were monitored and found significantly higher in clones CR-6017 and Graft CR-6017/UPASI-9 treated with 50% NPK + VC + BF followed by 50% NPK+ BF. UPASI- 9 treated with either 50% NPK+ BF or 50% NPK + VC + BF registered significantly higher values of biometric parameters. While studying the NPK content in all three clones and graft combination, significantly higher nitrogen content was noticed in the plants treated with BF alone. In the case of phosphorous and potassium, higher values were recorded in the plants treated with 50% NPK + VC + BF. CR-6017 showed higher values of chlorophyll in BF alone treated plants, when Graft CR-6017/UPASI-9 and UPASI- 9 had recorded higher chlorophyll in 50% NPK+ BF. Integrated Nutrient Management practice by exploiting indigenous beneficial microorganisms with partial withdrawal of synthetic fertilizers will definitely provide sustainable yield and productivity in tea and the tea planters will be immensely benefited.

  110. Chiranjeevi, G. and Rajasekhar, M.

    This study empirically examines the relationship between brand awareness as the independent variable and purchases of ceramic tiles as the dependent variable in relation to select branded ceramic tiles. While one-way ANOVA is used to explain the significant relationship between these two variables, Chi-square explained the association between these two variables and t-test explained male and female awareness on ceramic tiles and their brands. For this we have collected opinions of 250 respondents by using a well constructed close-ended questionnaire. In this study, we conclude that Johnson ceramic tile brand has more awareness, Kajaria is the second popular brand, Somany and Nitco occupies third and fourth places among its customers mind.

  111. Anita Kumari Panigrahi

    Advertisement is the predominant Promotional Mix Variable which is being used in every industry to get noticed by their prospective customer, and thereby turning them into life time consumers. These advertisements are also playing their part in shaping the lifestyle of the individuals at large, whether elders, teenagers or children. Especially, these advertisements are influencing the lifestyle of the children in much greater fashion, both in righteous and unrighteous direction. The main objective of this study is to find out, how children are influenced by the television advertisements. The focus of the study is on effect of television advertisements on children with reference to different chocolate brands and their advertisements, to measure the impact of advertisement of chocolate on children, to study the reasons of preference of chocolate. An attempt has been made to know the children's awareness about chocolate brands and preference to buy. On random basis 100 children, in the age group of 5 - 10, and 50 parents are interviewed with the help of interview schedule and data thus collected is presented in the form of pie charts. Interpretations are also derived according to objective of the study.

  112. Saraswathi Nandhini, R. and Dr. Sathyamurthi, K.

    Psychological First Aid is designed to reduce the initial distress caused by traumatic events and to foster short- and long-term adaptive functioning and coping. Many distressing events happen in the world, such as war, natural disasters, accidents, fires and interpersonal violence affect the individuals, family and sometimes the entire community leading to a wide range of reactions and feelings. During these crisis situation, quick recovery steps are to be taken along with emergency care for which a professional practical training is necessary. WHO recommends psychological first aid can be provided to the person in need of psychological and social support based on which the study aims in understanding the opinion about inclusion of PFA in the course curriculum among the students and faculties of medical and psychiatric social work in Chennai. This is a cross-sectional study including 52 students and 10 academicians out of 90 students and 25 academicians from 10 colleges offering medical and psychiatric social work in Chennai by disproportionate random sampling. The finding shows the need of the practice of relaxation techniques among the professionals and majority of them were aware of relaxation techniques but not practicing. Also, there exist a strong agreeableness among the academicians and students in their opinion about the psychological first aid training. The paper suggests hands-on training on psychological first aid to enhance the skills of social worker.

  113. Fadili Kamal, Cherrat Ali, Amalich Smail, Hayani Mouhcine, Mahjoubi Malika and Zair Touriya

    The aim of our work is the characterization of the chemical composition and evaluation of the antibacterial activity of the essential oil and methanol extract of Thymus satureioides growing wild in the eastern High Atlas of Morocco. The extraction of the essential oil of the aerial parts of the plant was carried out by steam distillation. The yield of essential oil is 2,74%. The methanolic extract is obtained by maceration with methanol at 80%, and the yield is of the order of 11,66%.The results of the chromatographic analysis GC-MS of the Thymus satureioides Essential oils have allowed to identify around 35 constituents. The major ones are Carvacrol (30,47%); Borneol (18,15 %); β -cymene (12,69 %); Camphene (6,19%); α-pinene (3,77%) and γ-terpinene (3,66%). The antibacterial activity of the essential oils and that of the methanolic extract of Thymus satureioides has been studied with the help of the amatograms method through five pathogene bacterial strains for people: Klebsiellapneumoniae, Staphylococcus aureus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, wild Escherichia coli and acquired Escherichia coli penicillinase. The obtained results showed that the essential oils of Thymus satureioides represent excellent activities vis-à-visall tested strains with MICs ranging from 0, 68mg / ml and 21,73mg/ml.Thisstrong antibacterial activity is attributed to the major constituents, especially ʽcarvacrol’ known by these important antibacterial properties.However,this oil is more active than Imipenem and Amoxicillin used as a reference antibiotics. As for the methanol extract of this species, it represents a low activity vis-à-vis the same strains. The strong antibacterial activity of this species justifies its use in traditional medicine for the treatment of many infectious diseases.

  114. Akanbi, O. O., Oguntola, A. S., Adeoti, M. L., Aderounmu, A. O. A., Idris, O. L. and Abayomi, O. O.

    Delay presentation of breast cancer is most common form of presentation of breast cancer in our environment. This prospective study was done in Ladoke Akintola University of Technology Teaching Hospital Ogbomoso, to determine extent, reasons and factors associated with delay presentation of breast cancer in south western Nigeria. A total of 120 consented patients were recruited into the study. The mean duration of symptom was 68 weeks (± 53.92). One hundred and three (85.83%) of our patients suffered delay presentation. Fourteen (82.35%) of 17 patients that present early claimed to have previous knowledge about breast diseases (p <0.001 O R 12.5 CI 3.338-46.8086). Fear of mastectomy and social stigmatization were the main reasons for delay presentation in 32 (31.06 %%) patients. Fifteen (83.23%) of early presenter perceived their first symptom to be serious as compared to 18 (17.47%) of 103 patients among late presenter (p<0.001, O R 34.41). All patients perceived bleeding and wound as serious symptoms and constituted 43.68% of reason for presentation among all the patients. Educational level, marital status and social class did not affect pattern of presentation Fear of mastectomy and social stigmatization were the main reasons for delay presentation couple with poor knowledge about breast diseases. A well channeled appropriate, information and education dispensing the myths about breast diseases and cancer will help reduce the burden of delay presentation in our women.

  115. Ajay Simha, Harsha, T. R. and Nagarathnamma, T.

    Blood stream infections (BSI) caused by Candida species are a significant cause of morbidity and mortality in hospitalized patients. Although Candida albicans has been the most common Candida species isolated from BSI’s, there is an increasing trend of isolation of non-albicans Candida from BSI. With the shift to non-albicans Candida species, antifungal resistance has become a major cause of concern in the management of candidemia. In the present study, a total of 100 patients who were admitted in ICU’s of different departments of Victoria hospital, Bangalore Medical College and Research Institute who developed signs and symptoms of nosocomial BSI were screened. Two blood samples were collected and inoculated onto BHI broth, incubated and subcultured onto blood agar and MacConkey agar after 24 hrs incubation. Growth was subjected to Gram’s stain and subcultured onto Sabouraud’s dextrose agar. Speciation and drug susceptipility pattern of candida isolates was determined by BD Phoenix TM Automated Microbiology System. Out of 100 samples, only 2 were positive for Candida. Both were Candida krusei species and found resistant to fluconazole. Increased use of fluconazole has been implicated in shift to non albicans Candida causing BSI and this study confirms it. This study illustrates the importance of Candida in causing BSI and change in species distribution from albicans to non-albicans Candida and their resistance pattern which helps in formulating antibiotic policy of the hospital.

  116. Steele-Dadzie, Rebecca, K., Dzivenu, Portia, Asante, Matilda, Hayford, Frank, Intiful, Freda, D., Amoako-Mensah, Anna and Boateng, Laurene

    Background: Adequate Food labels can potentially prevent unhealthy eating and its associated diet-related diseases. Aim: To assess the extent to which prepackaged food products on the Ghanaian market meet requirements of The Ghana Standards Authority. Method: Study was cross-sectional. Five shopping centers were selected. Pre-packaged food products (N = 400) were put in 5 groups: Dairy products, Breakfast Cereals, Meat and Fish products, Fruit Juices and Carbonated Drinks, and Confectionery (80 per group; 40 imported products and 40 locally made). Their food labels were observed. The Ghana Standards Authority general labeling rules (L. I. 1541, 1992), was used as reference data. Data was summarized into proportions and percentages. Results: Adherence to labeling requirements was generally good though better in the imported than the local products. ‘Name of product’ and ‘prominent lettering of product name’ were most adhered to while ‘Directions for use’ was least adhered. Fruit juices, carbonated drinks, dairy products and meat and fish products recorded high adherence rates compared to breakfast cereals and confectionery. Conclusion: Prepackage food products on the Ghanaian market largely adhered to labeling requirements though better in imported food products than locally made ones.

  117. Dr. Leena Salunkhe and Dr. Durgawale

    Introduction: Ageing and urbanization are closely related. There are many possible ways in which the urban environment may influence the health and well-being of older residents. Indeed, older people may be particularly vulnerable to the influence of urban characteristics many aspects of urban living that affect the quality of life of older persons go beyond municipal boundaries. Objectives: 1. To assess and compare the quality of life of the study groups. 2. To suggest appropriate measures for promotion of health of elderly in urban & urban slum area. Material and Methods: A house to house interview was conducted among all randomly selected urban and urban slum area persons of age 60 yrs and above residing at least last six months with Pretested proform a containing details of health check-ups, Assessment Quality of Life Questionnaire (a tool for measurement of HR-QoL) and socio-demographic factors and standardized clinical materials. Observations: Total 153 from urban & 135 from urban slum were enrolled for the study. There was significant difference found in the ranking HR-QoL with sex, marital status and type of family distribution in both the areas. Conclusion: Ageing has profound effect on the individual status in the family, the work force, goals and organization of health, social services, policies and practices of the government. Age, gender, marital status, type of family and relationship dimension affects the Quality of life of elderly. Health is vital to maintain well being and Quality of Life of Aged population.

  118. Maktu Dennis, M., Nimzing, L., Vem, T. S., Kahansin, A. B., Maktu, F. D. and Sati, B.

    Background: Human T-cell Lymphotropic Virus (HTLV) is a retrovirus associated with depression of the immune system. Patients with dual human T-cell lymphotropic virus (HTLV-1) and HIV infections may present with a more serious stage of HIV disease especially at their first medical examination than patients with HIV infection alone, hence the reason for the study. Methodology: The research involved 180 Human Immune Deficiency Virus (HIV) positive individuals. Five (5) mls of blood was collected in EDTA container from each of them and the plasma were tested using ELISA method. Result: The prevalence of HTLV among HIV positive individuals discovered in the study was 0.6 %. The study also revealed that the only positive sample tested was from a 40 year female subject. Conclusion: infection with HTLV poses a great threat to HIV positive individuals whose immunity has already been altered

  119. Maktu D.M, Nimzing, L., Vem T.S, Kahansin A.B., Maktu F.M. and Sati, B.

    Background: Human T- cell Lymphotropic virus, Hepatitis B and C viruses have a common disease they cause “Cancer” apart from other diseases they are known to cause. Although the sites affected differ from one virus to the other. HBV and HCV cause cancer of the liver while HTLV cause cancer of the blood called “Adult T- cell Leukaemia/Lymphoma (ATLL)”. All the viruses also have a similar route of transmission with HIV which helps to facilitate their disease manifestations. Therefore, the study was carried out to detect these viral agents among the HIV positive individuals and to determine their coinfections. Materials and Methods: The research involved 180 subjects who individually completed a questionnaire each and donated blood sample for tests with ELISA and rapid screening methods for HTLV and Hepatitis B and C viruses respectively. Results: The prevalences of HTLV, HBV and HCV among the HIV positive Subjects were 0.6%, 8.3% and 5.5% respectively. Ages from 16-45 years had the highest infection rate with HBV (P ˂ 0.05); while those aged from 46-60 years were highest in HCV infection (P ˂ 0.05). However, HTLV had the lowest infection rate (0.6%) among the subjects. Conclusion: HIV infected individuals have higher risk of infection with viruses that share similar mode of transmission.

  120. Mythili M. and Indumathi, M.

    Aim: To analyse the prevalence and pattern of early repolarization in athletes and non-athletes. Study design: Retrospective study Sample size: • Total sample of60 • Athletes30 • Non-athletes30 Inclusion criteria for Study group: 30 subjects who are involved in sports should haveundergone atleast2-3hoursofpracticeperdayfor5daysinaweekforminimum of 2years Inclusion criteria for Control group: The control consists of 30 healthy volunteers matched forage and BMI. All of them had a relatively sedentary lifestyle. Exclusion criteria (Study and Control group): • H/Ohypertension, • H/Ocoronaryartery disease • H/Opulmonary disease • H/O smoking, alcohol • H/O drug (like antihistamine that causes prolongation of QT interval) • Past history of cardiac surgery and family history of cardiovascular disease. Materials and methodology: For both athletes and non-athletes ECG was taken in lying position, ECG paper having 1mm and 5mm squares is used. The tracing is usually made at a standard recording speed of 25mm/sec. The physical examination including height, weight, blood pressure and pulse rate were examined for all the participants and the ST segment morphology and amplitude of deviation from the isoelectric line was analysed. Results: Athletes showed more prevalence of ST segment elevation with concave upwards type of morphology in leads V3-V6 than non-athletes. Conclusion: Early repolarization which is a benign variant is more prevalent in athletes.

  121. Aliya Jafri, Nudrat Anwar Zuberi, Sayyada Humaira Masood, Mukhtiar Baig, Tahira Perveen and Basim Ali

    Objective: To evaluate the serum lipids and blood pressure in patients with and without diabetic retinopathy. Subjects and Methods: A total of 200 subjects of both gender and age ranging 35 – 65 years, were recruited and divided into three groups. Group A include 100 healthy subjects as controls, group B include 50 diabetic subjects with no retinopathy and group C consists of 50 diabetic patients with retinopathy. Diabetic retinopathy (DR) was graded clinically by dilated Opthalmoscopic examination by a qualified ophthalmologist. In all study participants, we measured systolic and diastolic blood pressures along with serum lipid profile. Statistical analysis was performed using one way analysis of variance (ANOVA). Results: There significantly increased levels of serum cholesterol, triglycerides, LDL-C and VLDL among three groups (p<0.01) while HDL-C levels showed significant difference when compared to healthy control (p<0.05). Similarly, both systolic and diastolic blood pressures showed statistically significant higher values in DR and without DR groups as compared to control group (p< 0.01). Conclusion: We found significantly elevated blood pressure and dyslipidemia in diabetic retinopathy group. It is suggested that strict blood pressure monitoring along with glycemic and lipid control would be helpful in delaying the onset of complications.

  122. Dr. K. Saradamba and Dr. M. Lakshmi Rajeswari

    Background: The stability of biomarkers in stored biomedical samples is crucial, especially when storage is for extended periods of time. High-sensitivity CRP (Hs-CRP) is a biomarker of low grade inflammation that is extensively used to identify and study card in vascular and/or inflammatory processes in clinical care and large epidemiologic studies. (Ayo et al., 2014) Therefore, assessing Hs-CRP stability in archived samples at a given temperature is important to insure precision of measurements over time and the validity of studies using archived samples. Methods: We evaluated the stability of Hs-CRP in 30 randomly selected human serum samples by measuring Hs-CRP concentrations in freshly collected sample (Hs-CRP (0)) and in the same set of samples after 7–11 years of storage at −80°C (Hs-CRP (LT)). Results: Hs-CRP did not significantly change up to 11 years of storage at −80°C as shown by a negligible median difference between Hs-CRP (0) and Hs-CRP (LT), delta(Hs-CRP (0)- Hs-CRP (LT)=−0.01, p=0.45. There was a good concordance and agreement between Hs-CRP (0) and Hs-CRP (LT) as measured respectively by Lin's coefficient of correlation (ρC= 0.98) and Bland-Altman analysis (mean difference = −0.02, 95% CI (−0.04–0.0045) p=0.107). In addition, the data also suggest that the time elapsed between collection and Hs-CRP measurement does not affect Hs-CRP stability over time when samples are kept under the appropriate conditions. Conclusions: Long-term storage at −80°C for up to 11 years did not significantly affect the stability of serum Hs-CRP. Given the cost and time for collecting fresh samples, this observation represents an important finding for biomedical research and clinical care.

  123. Dr. K. Saradamba and Dr. M. Lakshmi Rajeswari

    Aim: to find the relationship between Magnesium levels and patients who are digoxin therapy and correlated with those who developed digitoxicity. Methods: Eighty-one hospital patients receiving digoxin were separated into groups with and without digitoxicity (digoxin toxicity) using clinical criteria. Serum digoxin, sodium, potassium, calcium, creatinine, magnesium and monocyte magnesium concentrations were compared. Subjects with digoxin toxicity had impaired colour vision (P < 0.0001, Farnsworth-Munsell 100 hue test) and increased digoxin levels (1.89 (1.56-2.21) vs 1.34 (1.20- 1.47) nmol I-1, P < 0.01) (mean (95% confidence limits)), though there was considerable overlap between the two groups. Results: Subjects with digoxin toxicity had lower levels of serum magnesium (0.80 (0.76-0.84) vs 0.88 (0.85-0.91) mmol 1-1, P < 0.01) and monocyte magnesium (6.40 (5.65-7.16) vs 8.76 (7.81-9.71) mg g-1 DNA, P < 0.01), but there were no significant differences in other biochemical parameters. A greater proportion of toxic subjects were receiving. concomitant diuretic therapy (20/21 vs 37/60, P < 0.05). Conclusion: Magnesium deficiency was the most frequently identified significant electrolyte disturbance in relation to digoxin toxicity. (Young et al., 1991) In the presence of magnesium deficiency digoxin toxicity developed at relatively low serum digoxin concentrations.

  124. Samuel Embiza Tadesse, Kibrom Gidey and Kanchi Madhavi

    Learning, in psychology, is the process by which a relatively lasting change in potential behavior occurs that brought about by experience. The purpose of this study was to identify and analyze the factors that affect students learning in University graduate students. The main focus of this study was to see how some students perform well than the other in the academic achievement. Four departments in the college of social science and humanities were selected. Of the respective total population size of the study groups, 52 students as sample size were taken. The data for analysis were collected from students in the graduate class through focused group discussion and structured instrument. In here, factorial analysis, Pearson correlation, coefficient alphas, descriptive statistics, and percentage were employed on the data. The use of factor analysis has accomplished in identifying six distinct factors, so that using the highest load of the items the highest six components were considered to infer the result of the study: teaching methodology, teacher student relationship, peer influence, class size, context of the students and personal interaction were identified as factors that affect in the university students’ learning. Based on these findings conclusions and possible recommendations were made.

  125. Maj Rajeena Enoch and Lt Col Elizabeth M. Varghese

    Background: Patients with anxiety prior to coronary angiography and percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI), have increased levels of anxiety which can have negative physical, physiological and psychological consequences. Aim: The aim of this study was to assess the effectiveness of structured teaching on anxiety and procedure compliance in patients undergoing coronary angiography in a selected cardiac hospital. Methods: Pre procedure anxiety score was assessed using the Spielberger State Anxiety Inventory (SAI).For the experimental group (n=48), structured teaching was administered by the principal researcher for the control group (n=48) no structured teaching was given, the usual hospital routine of informing the patients verbally by the staff was followed. The compliance of the patients to the procedure was assessed using a self constructed tool comprising five essential steps to be followed by the patients during the procedure. Results: The mean scores of anxiety before intervention in the experimental and control group was 64.19 and 61.96 respectively. The mean anxiety level in the control group had increased from 61.96 to 63.04 post conventional teaching, however there was a considerable reduction in the mean anxiety level of patients in the experimental group from 64.19 to 32.27, who received the structured teaching (p<0.0001). The mean procedure compliance scores in the experimental group who received the structured teaching before coronary angiography was 4.77 0.47 and in the control group who received the conventional method of teaching was 2.65 0.60. (p <0.0001). Conclusions: Many patients have moderate to severe anxiety before coronary angiography and PCI; which is the most common and gold mark diagnostic test used today for coronary artery diseases. Therefore, routine assessment and management of anxiety are justified. The findings of this study strongly emphasize the importance of providing structured teaching to patients undergoing coronary angiography.

  126. Shalini Sharma

    Modern sedentary life style and faulty food habits are leading to development of early life obesity. The journey from early life obesity to cardiovascular disease will be evident by slow regression of their cardio-respiratory efficiency. As VO2 max is an accepted measure of cardio-respiratory efficiency, it was used in this study to estimate cardio-respiratory efficiency. Present study was aimed to find out whether obesity affects cardio-respiratory efficiency of young women or not. The study was conducted on 30 obese and 30 non-obese female volunteers aged between 18 and 22 years. VO2 max was estimated by Queen’s College Step test. Parameters measured and calculated were weight, height, BMI, Waist-Hip circumference Ratio[WHR], Pulse rate, Blood pressure and VO2max. There was negative correlation between BMI and VO2max but it was not significant (p>0.05). A negative correlation was observed between WHR and VO2max but it was significant (p<0.05). In this study VO2max per kg lean body mass shows no significant difference in obese and normal weight group indicating same cardio respiratory performance in both the groups No significant difference was observed in absolute VO2max of obese and non-obese females. Therefore we concluded that cardio-respiratory efficiency was not affected in obese group as compared to normal weight group; however ability to do exhausting work was less in obese group.

  127. Dr. Shylla Mir

    Objective: To determine the hemodynamic changes in primigravida with pre-eclampsia. Study design: Prospective cross-sectional study. Methodology: Forty-four primigravida women with pre-eclampsia and 44 normal pregnant (NP) woman matched for gestational age were recruited. Cross-sectional array echocardiographic Doppler system were used to obtain the hemodynamic measurements. The height, weight and blood pressure too were recorded. Results are expressed as the mean and standard error (SE) of the mean. Students ‘t’ test, Pearson’s correlation and regression analysis were used to analyze the data. A probability of < 0.05 was considered as significant. Results: The women in the pre-eclampsia and NP group had comparable clinical characteristics with respect to age (27.2 [0.83] / 26.7 [0.71] years), weight and height at the respective values in the NP were 120/75 (1.9/0.71), 81 (1.4), 21.38 (0.34) and 3.93 (0.07). The stroke volume (SV) was significantly lower (77.57 (2.61) ml) in pre-eclampsia than in NP (84.26 [1.92/ml]. The cardiac output in subjects with pre-eclampsia too (6.04 [0.23] l /min] was lower than in NP (6.79 [0.16] l / min). The mean total peripheral vascular resistance (TPVR) in the pre-eclampsia was 1625 (88.9) and in the NP was 1003 (26.6). In pre-eclampsia, TPVR showed a significant negative correlation with cardiac output (-0.83), SV (-0.56) and AD (-0.64). However, no significant correlation was observed with flow velocity integral (-0.17). Comments: It is important to know the correct hemodynamic state of a pre-eclampsia patients because it may have important therapeutic implications. The untreated pre-eclampsia is characterized by a reduced circulation volume, low cardiac output and high peripheral resistance.

  128. Pradeep Sharma, Ashok K. Gupta, Neeru Mittal and Komaldeep Kaur

    Serratia marcescens, a Gram-negative bacillus belonging to the Enterobacteriaceae family, is generally responsible for nosocomial infections. It produces reddish orange pigment named as prodigiosin. Community acquired pneumonia caused by Serratia marcescens in a healthy patient is very rare.A 38-year-old man presented with main complaints of cough, blood in sputum and fever. The sputum examination and bronchoalveolar lavage revealed that the patient had pseudohemoptysis due to S. marcescens pneumonia.Our patient presented with pseudohemoptysis due to S. marcescens although he was immunocompetent. This is a very rare reported case of community acquired Serratia pneumonia in an immunocompetent patient.

  129. Dr. Badiger, R., Dr. Kulkarni, N., Dr. Joel George and Dr. Dinesha, R.

    Rationale: The authors report a case of immune thrombocytopenia (ITP) as an extra hepatic manifestation in a hepatitis C virus (HCV)-carrier man with normal liver function tests. Presenting concern: A 42 year old male visited Dr. Prabhakar Kore Hospital on 21/6/15 in the medicine OPD. He had complaints of Fever for two days and rashes on both the forearms and also complaints of passing black colored stools. Diagnosis: The physical and laboratory examinations showed results within normal range except for very Low platelet counts and positive for HCV antibody (third generation).These findings suggested chronic infection with HCV, but there seemed to be no involvement of liver disease. Intervention: Patient was admitted and treatment was primarily aimed at improving platelet counts. Anti-viral therapy was prescribed. Interferon (IFN) and ribavirin to render HCV-PCR copies negative. Outcome: After 9 days of inpatient treatment the platelet counts were normalized and the patient discharged. Lesson learnt from this case: There are numerous papers reporting that HCV causes ITP as an extrahepatic manifestation, but a case report of ITP caused by chronic HCV infection without liver disease has not been found. The present case report discusses the specificity of HCV infection on extrahepatic manifestation, and the treatment of ITP caused by chronic HCV infection.

  130. Manju Jyoti Chaudhary, Rishi Pal, R. B. Kamal and Shraddha Singh

    young adult females' age group of 18-25 years. The study group consisted of 60 obese adult female with BMI>30 kg/mt2 and the control group consisted of 60 non-obese adult female with BMI 18.5-25 kg/mt2. Physical parameters studied were a) Body mass index (BMI) and b) Waist-hip ratio. The cardiovascular parameters measured were a) Heart Rate b) Blood Pressure c) PR interval and d) QTc interval in both the groups. The data obtained was analyzed by student 'z' test and p<0.05 was considered as level of significance in all parameters. Results show that obese adult female's BMI and wait hip ratio was found significantly high as compared to non-obese adult females. In cardiovascular parameters increase in heart rate and diastolic blood pressure was found insignificant in study group as compared non-obese adult females (p>0.05) while systolic blood pressure was significantly elevated in study group (p<0.001). ECG findings reveal that obese adult females have significantly increased both PR and QTc interval (p< 0.001) as compared to controls group. These results are suggestive of the cardiovascular risk to the obese adult females.

  131. Dr. Bhati Balgopal Singh and Dr. Sandhya Kumari

    Aims & Objectives: To determine the perinatal outcome in meconium stained amniotic fluid. Material & Methods: This prospective study was conducted from January 2013 to March 2014 on patients admitted to Labour ward, of RMC, Ajmer. Out of 16546 deliveries 2295 cases, 200 patients who met the inclusion criteria were enrolled in our study. Results: In current study incidence of meconium staining of amniotic fluid (MSAF) is 13.87% In thin MSAF 37.5% and thick MSAF 52.5%, PMR 5.5 % and morbidity 20.5% in which 4.5% and 16.5% respectively in thick and thin. Conclusion: Immediate airway management, need for suction and incubation should be guided by state of newborn rather than presence of meconium timely diagnosis and management MSAF may improve fetal outcome from our study conclude that MSAF adversely affect fetal outcome mostly by thick meconium.

  132. Parameshwari, K., Abdul Mateen, Madhusudhan, U. and Purushottam, K.

    Background: G-CSF is now used widely therapeutically to overcome neutropenia, a common side effect associated with chemotherapy. G-CSF is shown to improve neutrophil functions such as the phagocytosis, bactericidal and respiratory burst activity but not chemo taxis in cancer patients on chemotherapy. The varying results of various studies, raises questions about the functional competence of G-CSF induced neutrophils. Aims and Objectives: To evaluate the functions of neutrophils before G-CSF treatment and compare this with the neutrophil functions induced by G-CSF during chemotherapy. Materials and Methods: 30 patients with solid tumours coming to Oncology Department of VIMS & RC and other Oncology centres in Bangalore. And 30 healthy volunteers participated in the study. Blood samples were collected from patients G CSF administration and after G CSF administration during chemotherapy. Results: Neutrophil count was significantly improved after administration of G CSF. There was a statistically significant increase (P value<0.01*) in the killing capacity of Neutrophil after G CSF administration. Oxidative burst activity of Neutrophil showed slight improvement after G CSF therapy. Conclusion: Killing activity of the Neutrophil had improved in our study although not up to normal level. Phagocytic functions had reduced significantly in the post G CSF samples

  133. Pushpakala Jagannathan, Anju Kuriokose and Antony Aniston

    Aim: To assess the level of knowledge on biomedical waste management among staff nurses in selected tertiary hospital, Kanchipuram district, Tamilnadu. Methods and Materials: A descriptive approach was used for the present study. The participants were about 60 in number and purposive sampling technique was used. Data was collected by administering a structured questionnaire. Results: The study result shows that majority (90%) of staffs belongs to 21-30 Age group. A majority (87%) of the staffs were female and 60% of the staffs were belongs B.sc nursing. Majority (60%) of staff were underwent continuous nursing education programme on biomedical waste management. The study result reveals that 60% of staff nurse had moderate knowledge, 33% had adequate knowledge and 7% had inadequate knowledge. The result shows that the age (x2=6.666) had significant association with the level of knowledge at 0.05 levels and also the CNE programme attended (x2=13.262) had significant association with the level of knowledge. Conclusion: This result insists the importance of continuing education through skill based training programme and updating current changes in bio medical waste management for staff nurses.

  134. Nishat Afroz, Dr. Divya Rabindranath, Nida Shamim, Azka Anees Khan, Senthil, P.

    The simultaneous occurrence of Renal Cell Carcinoma (RCC) and transitional cell carcinoma (TCC) in the same kidney is unusual. We report a 60-year-old man with ipsilateral synchronous renal adenocarcinoma and renal pelvic transitional cell carcinoma with severe hydronephrosis and a huge staghorn calculus in the ipsilateral kidney. The patient was admitted to the hospital because of right flank pain and hematuria which he had had for 4 months. X-ray and USG revealed a huge stone in the renal pelvis and hydronephrosis of the right kidney and IVP suggested a non-functional kidney. Right radical nephrectomy was done. A section of the specimen revealed a renal cell carcinoma located at the middleof right kidney and a papillary transitional cell carcinoma arising from the renal pelvis. This is a rare case of combined renal malignancies presenting in an atypical manner as hydronephrosis.

  135. Atheer HadiIssa Alrammahi

    We have seen that the Web environment supported by the data warehouse a variety of ways, the link or surface to transfer data from the Web to the data warehouse is somewhat simple. Web data is contained in the records, the records manager nourish software information on flow, so the software is director of the amendments and summarize the data and re-organized. And pass the data manager software to the data warehouse. The surface or interface to transfer data from the data warehouse to the Web where a little complicated, that the data transmitted from the data warehouse to be operational data store (ODS) in the portfolio recording the ODS. If the ODS becomes the only point of contact between the Web and data warehouse environment for the purposes of the flow of data from the data warehouse to the Web. The reason for this is simple: that the ODS is able to ensure that operations at the Internet address system and quickly, and that are essential to the efficient processing Web. In addition, the data warehouse is a secure place for the huge amounts of data that can be downloaded from the Web environment and stored. Data Warehouse also provides a central point so that the company can integrate data and integrate with data coming from one or more of the Web sites to a single common source.

  136. Himanshu, V., Mowar, A. B., Mirinda, J., Ashita, M. and Smita, G.

    Dengue is one of the most commonly occuring epidemic in rohilkhand region. Many studies are available with regards to the effects of dengue virus on haematological profile and hepatic involvement of patients. We in this research paper aim to study the effects of dengue infection on renal function, electrolyte profile and random blood sugar profile. We found that males were predominantly affected (73.3%). Most patients belonged to 15-45yr age group (85.5%). The incidence of DF, DHF, DSS were 64.4%, 26.7% and 8.9% respectively. Fever (100%) followed by headache (68.8%) was most common symptom. Malena (17.8%) followed by petechial rash (12.2%) and hematuria (3.3%) was most common hemorrhagic manifestation. Thrombocytopenia (platelet < 1lac/mm3) was present in 79% of patients. IgM antibody positive was seen in 40% patients and IgM was weekly positive in 15.5% patients. Serum sodium was normal in 71%, hypernatremia and hyponatremia was seen in 1 patient each (out of 90). Serum potassium was normal in 76.7% cases and hyperkalemia and hypokalemia was seen in 7.7% and 15.6% patients. Random blood sugar was elevated in 11% patients. Blood urea & serum creatinine was found elevated in 25.6% and 13.3% respectively. 3 patient died (out of 90) and only 1 patient required hemodialysis.

  137. Dr. Anjana Tiwari, Dr. Dhiraj Bhawnani, Dr. Nirmal Verma and Dr. Kiran G. Makade

    Background: Cataract is the leading cause of visual impairment in most parts of the developing world, including India. Cataract surgery is a cost-effective intervention in eye care. Poor outcome of cataract surgery is a major problem in developing countries. The aim of this study was to assess the visual outcomes of cataract surgery and to identify factors associated with it among people aged 50 years and above residing in urban slums of Raipur city, Chhattisgarh, India. Materials and Methods: A community based, cross-sectional study was conducted in 30 randomly selected clusters (urban slums) of Raipur city during June 2010 to March 2011. People aged 50 years and above were interviewed, tested for visual acuity and their eyes examined by house to house visits. In cataract operated persons, information about details of cataract surgery were collected using a pre-designed and pre-tested proforma. Results: A total of 895 persons examined, of whom 210 (23.5%) persons had cataract surgery in one or both eyes. Of the 342 cataract-operated eyes, 90.5% had received intra-ocular lens (IOL) implantation. Post-operative visual outcome was good in 84.5% of eyes, borderline in12.3%, and poor in 3.2% with available correction. A better visual outcome were significantly associated with surgeries at younger age, literacy, IOL surgery, and Private hospital / Charitable or NGO hospital and in recent surgeries but sex of operated person was not important. Conclusions: Outcome of cataract surgery was excellent with 84.5% of operated eyes had achieved a good visual outcome, in study area. However, it can be further improved by adequate post-operative follow-up care and appropriate refractive correction.

  138. Akhilesh Shewale and Deepti Gattani

    Objective: EDTA (Ethylenediamenetetracetic acid) and Chlorhexidineare potent chelating and bactericidal in nature. QMIX ® (Dentsply Tulsa Dental, USA) has been developed as a two in one single irrigation solution containing EDTA and Chlorhexid in and to be used after a final rinse post bleach. Due to the properties of its composition, QMIX has the potential to modify as well as disinfect the intracanal root surface. Thus the aim of this in vitro study was to evaluate the efficacy of QMIX ® on the removal of smear layer from periodontally affected root surfaces. Materials and Methods: 30 longitudinally sectioned specimens from 15 freshly extracted teeth diagnosed with advanced periodontal disease were divided into two groups. In group A and B, the root surfaces were scaled and irrigated using normal saline and with QMIX ® respectively. All specimens were prepared for ESEM (Environmental scanning electron microscope) and scored according to the presence of smear layer. Results: QMIX® significantly increased smear layer removal as compared to the associated control group, in which only saline was used Conclusion: QMIX® increased the removal of the smear layer from periodontally affected root surfaces. Thus use of QMIX can be of therapeutic value and may be suggested as a root conditioner on diseased root surfaces. Clinical Relevance: A novel Agent with known chelating and bactericidal properties to be used for root biomodification on diseased root surfaces in order to facilitate attachment of periodontal fibers and aid in periodontal regeneration.

  139. Rosa Lelyana, Noor Wijayahadi, Kusmiyati, D. K., Purwanto, A. P., Hardian and Puguh Riyanto

    Background: There was still a controversial effect of coffee, whether coffee could increase or decrease the blood uric acid level. Study about the influence of coffee on the blood uric acid level has never been conducted in Indonesia. Objective: To prove that coffee could decrease uric acid level in the hyperuricemia blood serum of rat. Method: A pre and post test design has been done on 24 wistar strain rats that were divided randomly into 4 groups. On the 1st and 2nd week all groups were fed high purin diet. On the 2nd week all group were given coffee, too. Group 1 were given 0.36 ml coffee solution/ day, the other group were given 0.72 ml/ day; 1.14 ml/ day and 2.16 ml/ day. Blood were drawn at the beginning before high purin diet were given, before and after coffee treatment. The blood uric level were examined using spectrophotometry. Data were analyzed using Pair- t test and One Way Anova. Results: There were decreased blood uric acid level in the group receiving 0,72 ml /day and 2,16 ml coffee solution/day. Conclusions: Coffee is able to reduce blood uric acid level in experimental rats.

  140. Dr. Korada Saradamba and Dr. BhagyaLakshmi, V.

    Background and Aims: An association of diabetes with chronic liver disease has been reported, even though the temporal relationship between hese two conditions is not established. Methods: We identified all patients with a hospital discharge diagnosis of diabetes between 2005 and 2013 from the Hospital records of the King George Hospital, Visakhapatnam, Andhra Pradesh, India. We randomly assigned patients without diabetes and with diabetes. We excluded patients with concomitant liver disease. The remaining cohort was followed through 2005 for the occurrence of chronic nonalcoholic liver disease (CNLD) and hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Hazard rate ratios (HRR) were determined in Cox proportional hazard survival analysis. Using the Hospital records of the Departments of Gastroenter-ology and general Medicine. We randomly assigned 3 patients without diabetes for every patient with diabetes. We excluded patients with concomitant liver disease. The remaining cohort was followed through 2005 for the ccurrence of chronic nonalcoholic liver disease (CNLD) and hepato-cellular carcinoma (HCC). Hazard rate ratios (HRR) were determined in Cox proportional hazard survival analysis. Results: The study cohort comprise 243 patients with diabetes and 620 patients without diabetes. Most were men (98%). Patients with diabetes were older (62 vs. 54 years) than patients without diabetes. The incidence of chronic nonalcoholic liver disease(CNLD) was significantly higher among patients with diabetes (incidence rate: 18.13 vs. 9.55 per 100 person-years, respectively, P < 0.0001). Similar results were obtained for HCC (incidence rate: 2.39 vs. 0.87 per 100 person-years, respectively, P < 0.0001). Diabetes was associated with an HRR of 1.98 (95% CI: 1.88 to 2.09, P < 0.0001) of CNLD and an HRR of 2.16 (1.86 to 2.52, P < 0.0001) of hepatocellular carcinoma. Diabetes carried the highest risk among patients with longer than 10 years of follow-up. Conclusions: Among men with diabetes, the risk of CNLD and HCC is doubled. This increase in risk is independent of alcoholic liver disease, viral hepatitis, or demographic features.

  141. Soumi Samuel, Rajendra Prasad, B., Suchetha Kumari, ShashidharKotian, M., Sanal, T. S., Shilpa Chopra and Shambhavi Singh

    The aim of this prospective study is to determine the association of coffee and tea incidence as a factor for cleft lip and palate in Karnataka and Kerala population. This study took into account of mothers of 1000 non-syndromic oro-facial cleft subjects. They were questioned about their consumption of coffee –tea during first trimester and its frequency. Multiple logistic Regression for maternal coffee consumption during pregnancy shows that the odds ratio for mothers who consumed more than 3 cups was 1.84 ,1.31 and 1.23 with the confidence interval for the odds ratio was 1.46 to 1.99, 1.19 to 1.84, 1.06 to 1.45 in cleft lip, Cleft lip and palate and cleft palate group respectively. Whereas the odds ratio for tea is 1.65, 1.56, 1.33 with the confidence interval for the odds ratio being 1.28 to 1.93, 1.24 to 1.78 and 1.17 to 1.54 in CL, CLP, CP group respectively. Results from our study showed a dose dependent association between coffee and tea consumption during pregnancy and increased risk of oral cleft in their children.

  142. Balanaga Nandhini D., Shanthini, R. and Tamilkodi, M.

    Introduction: Stress is essentially the body’s reaction to a threatening impulse. The drivers are worst affected because of the more congested roads that leads on to stress which is having huge impact on their health. Aim and Objectives: To estimate the Blood Pressure and blood lipid profile for professional lorry drivers and compare the results with controls. Materials and Methods: The study design was a cross sectional study. The study was carried out in the Institute of Physiology, Madurai Medical College, Madurai. The study group is divided into two groups. Group A consisted of 25 subjects who were professional lorry drivers and Group B consisted of 25 subjects who were in control group. Blood pressure was measured and blood lipid profiles were estimated for both study and control groups, in fasting blood sample. The test was done in our Biochemistry lab by standard enzymatic technique CHOD-PAP, End point method. Results: Statistical analysis was done using the student “t” test. In control subjects, Mean ± SD of the systolic pressure, Diastolic pressure, total cholesterol, Low Density Lipoprotein and High Density Lipoprotein were 111.2 ± 10.92, 74.32 ± 7.2 mm Hg, 160.76 ± 22.44, 91.96 ± 20.09 and 41.92 ± 10.87 mg% respectively. In lorry drivers, Mean ± SD of the systolic pressure, Diastolic pressure, total cholesterol, Low Density Lipoprotein and High Density Lipoprotein were 138 .64 ± 20.29, 89.84 ± 10.13 mm Hg, 233.56 ± 17.72, 178.97 ± 16.61 and 30.64 ± 4.88 mg% respectively. Compared to the control subjects, there was a highly significant increase in the systolic blood pressure (p value of < 0.001) ,diastolic pressure (p value of < 0.001), total cholesterol (p value of < 0.001) and Low Density Lipoprotein levels (p value of < 0.001) and there was a highly significant decrease in High Density Lipoprotein level (p value of < 0.001) in lorry drivers. Conclusion: This study results showed statistically highly significant elevation of systolic pressure, diastolic pressure, total cholesterol and Low Density Lipoprotein levels and statistically significant decrease in High Density Lipoprotein in professional lorry drivers compared to control subjects. These findings indicate that there is increased cardiovascular risk factor for drivers, as driving itself is a major hidden stress. Because of increased health related risks, we have to take necessary steps to improve the health of the drivers.

  143. Amged Hussen Abdelrhman and Enaam A. Abdelgader

    Background: Anemia of chronic renal disease related to the failure of renal excretory functicn, and to the renal endocrine function, failure of the excretory function leads to an increased demand for red blood cells because of shortening of the red blood cells life span, failure of renal endocrine function leads to decreased erythorpoietic response because of imparid production of erythropoietin.(Krysiak et al., 2015a, Krysiak et al., 2015b) Hepcidinis a major hormonal regulater of iron homeostasis; (Carvalho et al., 2011, Atkinson et al., 2015) Made in the liver, it inhibits iron release from macrophages. (Tesfay et al., 2015) and could be serve as an indicator of functional iron deficiency in portion with renal failure (Lemos Ados et al., 2010) Objective: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the serum hepcidin level in Sudanese patients with anemia of chronic renal failue. Materials and methods: A total 42 patinets diagnosed with anemia of chronic renal failue enrolled in this study, serum was separated from participants for ELISA, to estimate hepcidin level. Results: A total 42 patients diagnosed with ACRF in Sudan, their ages ranged between (13-79) years (mean SD 45 20, the mean value of hepcidin level (13.6) both male 24 (12.7%) and female 18 (14.6%) from different age groups, The hepcidin level showed correlate with duration of disease and with gender (p.value<0.05) the relation of hepicdin level and age the p.value showed that more than 0.05 insignificant, no association with age. Conclusion: In summary we conclude that it has significant correlation of serum hepcidin level with gender and duration of disease, but no association with RBcs parameters and age.

  144. Mange Ram, Gaje Singh, Prasad, C. S., Sachan, S. K., Singh, D.V. and Gopal Singh

    Field experiments were conducted at Crop Research Centre of Sardar Vallabhbhai Patel University of Agriculture and Technology, Meerut, Uttar Pradesh, India during 2013-14 and 2014-15 using randomized block design to evaluate some novel insecticides against root borer, Emmalocera depressella and their effect on natural enemies’ population in sugarcane. All the treatments were found significantly effective in reducing the infestation of root borer compared with control. Chlorantraniliprole 0.4 GR @ 18 kg/ha was found most effective in reducing the incidence of root borer among all treatments. The treatment chlorpyriphos 25 EC @ 5lit/ha was recorded least effective in minimizing the pest problem.

  145. Bala Naik, R., Murali Krishna, T., Ramakrishna Rao, A., Devaki, K., Rajendra Prasad, P. and Bhaskara Reddy, B. V.

    Native strains of Beauveria spp. were evaluated against Spodoptera litura using leaf spray method. Twelve native and one reference strain of B. bassiana were assayed at 1×1010 spores ml-1 to determine LT50 by probit analysis. The least LT50 values of 135.84 and 179.96 hours were recorded in native strains of SGb and MKb followed by Hb, Kb and Bb i.e. LT50 value of 195.49, 201.20 and 235.30. The highest LT50 values of 500.88 and 336.90 hours were recorded in RARST-b and NBAII-b strains. Five effective and promising B. bassiana strains (SGb, MKb, Kb, Bb and Hb) were characterized using rDNA-ITS sequences. All the five strains of B. bassiana showed 100% homology with already submitted B. bassiana strain in NCBI GenBank. Phylogenic dendrogram exhibited B. bassiana strains Bb and Kb as distinct cluster compared to others, where as B. bassiana strains SGb, MKb and Hb formed one cluster, however SGb grouped into same clade with AB 027382 (IFO 4848) and FJ 755242 (CZ 590) which were isolated from China and Japan, respectively. Gene sequences of five native strains were deposited in NCBI Gene Bank, Bethesda, USA with the accession numbers: JX173280.1 (SGb, Bb1), JX313063.1 (MKb, Bb2), JX313064.1 (Kb, Bb3), JX313065.1 (Bb, Bb4) and JX313066.1 (Hb, Bb5).

  146. Neelima, P., Sunitha, K., Gopala Rao, N. and Chandra Sekhara Rao, J.

    Possible effects of a synthetic pyrethroid pesticide Cypermethrin (25%EC) were observed in a freshwater fish Cyprinus carpio (Linn.) Juveniles of test fish were exposed for lethal (96h LC50 i.e. 3.31µg/l) and sublethal (1/10th of 96h LC50 i.e. 0.331µg/l for 5, 10 and 15 days) concentrations of cypermethrin to study the haematological parameters: Red Blood Cell (RBC) count; white blood cell (WBC) count; haemoglobin (Hb); Packed Cell Volume (PCV); Mean Corpuscular Volume (MCV); mean corpuscular haemoglobin (MCH); Mean Corpuscular Haemoglobin Concentration (MCHC). RBC count, Hb content and PCV showed decrement at both lethal and sublethal concentrations. WBC count and MCHC exhibited increasing trend at sublethal and decreasing trend at lethal concentration. Elevated values of MCV were recorded at both lethal and sublethal concentrations where as MCH exhibited an increasing trend in all exposure periods of lethal and sublethal concentrations. The haematological alterations led to the conclusion that the cypermethrin has toxic effects on freshwater fish Cyprinus carpio, and that its presence in an aquatic ecosystem may jeopardize the health of status of the ecosystem and biota therein.

  147. Younesi Alamouti, M. and Zahedifar, M.

    The conventional urea treatment of cereal straw process is a laborious, tedious and time-consuming task. It is essential to facilitate or eliminate some of these operations by using machine. For this purpose, the small rectangular baler model 349-T was selected for optimizing and setting up the mechanical urea treatment systems. Based on the calculation, the required mechanisms were made and installed. The machine performance was evaluated in the farm condition by treating the straw mechanically. The nutritional value of treated straw was measured and compared with the straw that treated in conventional method. The experiments showed that there is no significant difference between two methods of treatment. Machine capacity is about 2 ton/hr and the usual (medium) tractors can be used for this purpose.

  148. Parimala, K. S., Seelibalaji and Nithiyasoundari, M.

    The main objective of this study was to determine the synthesis of silver nanoparticles and its antibacterial activity tested the different flower species. The flower plants namely; Rangoom creeper, yellow bauhinia, water hycinath, scarlet cordia, senna alata, golden shower, and sausage flower. The silver nanoparticles were synthesized by using 1mM silver nitrate solution through the flower extracts which act as a reducing as well as capping agent. Among these flower extract only four plants showed the positive result for the synthesized silver nanopparticles and it characterized by UV-spec and FTIR. Based on the extract the antibacterial activity was carried out against common fish pathogenic bacteria namely; Aeromonas hydrophila, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Vibrio cholera and Edwardsiella tarda. In general, synthesized AgNps showed the strong antibacterial activity.

  149. Rajitha, B. and Singara Charya, M. A.

    Hundred isolates of white-rot fungi were tested for their efficiency of wood degradation based on guaiacol-oxidation, lignin peroxidase, laccase and manganese peroxidase activities. The purpose of the test was to select the best isolates that show high efficiency of producing lignolytic enzymes. Among these isolate BR-1 (Pycnoporus cinnabarinus) was identified as the most good and highest activity for lignin degradation. Further its identification was confirmed in molecular level carried by the internal transcribed spacer ‘ITS’ regions of the ribosomal DNA (28S rDNA) sequencing. The D2 region of LSU (Large subunit 28S rDNA) gene sequence was used to carry out BLAST with the database of NCBI gene bank database.

  150. Ali Salim AL- Mamury

    This study was conducted at Poultry Farm of Animal Resources Dept., College of Agriculture, University of AL-Qasim Green to investigate the effect of adding Cinnamomum zeylanicum powder to the ration of broiler Ross 308 on productive traits. The Breeding 90 broiler chicks Ross 308 day-old were randomly assigned to three treatments (by 3 replicates per treatment 10 chicks per replicate) and treatments were as follows: control group without adding Cinnamomum zeylanicum powder to the diet, add Cinnamomum zeylanicum powder by 2000 mg / kg feed (first treatment) and add Cinnamomum zeylanicum powder by 2500 mg / kg feed (second treatment). The experiment included a study of the following characteristics: body weight, weight gain, feed consumption, feed conversion efficiency and mortality. The results indicated that the addition of Cinnamomum zeylanicum powder in 2000and 2500mg / kg feed to broiler dietled to a significant improvement in all the qualities of productivity compared to the control group. Concluded from this experience, that in addition to C innamomum zeylanicum powder to the diet can lead to improved performance of thebroilerproduction.

  151. Gaikwad, A. R.

    A survey of dung beetles biodiversity, abundance and composition were studied from cattle grazing lands of Phaltan Tahesil, Satara, Maharashtra during June 2010 to March 2013. Seven sites were selected from Phaltan Tahesil. The beetles were collected from the dung pad and under soil by handpicking method. Dung beetles were then segregated as per species, sampling sites. The present study of dung beetle diversity of Phaltan Tahesil reveals 43 species of beetles belongs to 15 (Fifteen) Genera. The data also shows that the subfamily Coprinae was the dominant subfamily in terms of species richness (32 species) and abundance followed by Aphodiinae (7 species), Scarabaeinae (3 species) and Geotrupidae (1 species). During the study period it was observed that three to four days old dung pads shown richest dung beetle diversity. The predominant genera in this region is Onthophagus (11 species) followed by Aphodius (7 species), Gymnopleurus (6species), Onitis (5 species), Catharsius (3 species), Heliocarpis (2 species) and single species form each genera.

  152. Korade, S. T. and Deokule, S. S.

    The healthy and well-balanced diet can play a significant role in the prevention of diseases associated with nutritional value. In the present study two commonly used wild vegetables like Celosia argentea, and Sennatora are taken to investigate. For studying nutritive value and antioxidant activity plant extracts were prepared from both fresh and dried materials as per methodology and showed significant result for both nutritive value like moisture content, mineral elements, proteins, carbohydrates, reducing and non-reducing sugars. And antioxidant activities like Total Phenols, Vitamin A, Vitamin C and Free radical scavenging activity. Demand for the accurate determination of antioxidant capacity is gaining importance in most areas within the food industry; therefore several analytical methods and measuring systems have been developed. According to above mentioned it is important and reasonable to get to know and to investigate the antioxidant characteristics of the vegetables and fruits which we intake and to know the compounds that play significant role in developing the antioxidant capacity. Similarly nutritive value of a given plant plays important role in maintaining health problems. And demand for the accurate nutritive analysis and measurement is increasing as people are moving more towards natural products as they are safe.

  153. Bhargavi, M.

    The present investigations were undertaken on laboratory studies of Trichogramma chilonis (Ishii) during the year 2013-2014 in the Bio-control laboratory, Department of Agricultural Entomology, College of Agriculture, Dapoli (Maharashtra).The results of effect of different hosts on parasitisation potential of T. chilonis revealed that the per cent parasitisation and per cent adult emergence of T. chilonis was found maximum on S. litura eggs followed by C. cephalonica and H. armigera eggs.

  154. Abdul Rasool Mohammed Hussein Mohammed Salih, Malla Sudhakar and Hamzah basil Mohammed

    Studies suggest that the autolysis of bacterial strains also enhances the biofilm formation and the increase in incidence of pathogenicity. When the strains are subjected to adverse conditions either acidic or alkaline or to stress tolerance or to heat pressure, the parameters described above are all affected adversely. During this period, as a matter of escapism or to gain resistance power, the bacteria undergo autolysis. The pathogenecity of the organism tries to increase and also makes sure that its genomic DNA is released into the external surroundings. Pure river bodies are being contaminated by anthropogenic methods. Their contamination makes the water switch to acidic or alkaline environment. Depending on the source of contaminants the water becomes either highly acidic or highly alkaline. This fluctuation not only kills the flora and fauna of the ecosystem, but also adversely affects the pathogenicity of the bacterial species. When bacteria are subjected to adverse condition (pH), it undergoes autolysis as a mode of protection, survival and tolerance. Studies also suggest that the autolysis of bacterial strains also enhances the biofilm formation and the increase in incidence of pathogenicity. For the first time we try to find out the possible cooperative role of autolysis and biofilm formation and its antibiotic resistance power. The results confirmed of the presence of autolysis during adverse conditions. Our hypothesis of the pathogenic strains escaping from the unfavourable conditions by increasing its antibiotic resistance is a well marked figure in our thesis. The results also clearly showed that, the strains showed an enhancement in the formation of the biofilms.

  155. Sireesha, G. and Dr. Kusuma, D. L.

    Although a national vitamin A prophylaxis programme has been in operation for more than three decades, vitamin A deficiency (VAD) continues to be a major nutritional problem of public health significance in India. The present study was carried out with the aim of assessing the prevalence of clinical VAD among school going children 8-10 years in Tirupati. A study was carried out in area of Tirupati during 2008-2009. A total of 776 school children were examined for the presence of signs and symptoms of VAD. The total sample (776) of them was used to estimate blood vitamin A levels. The intakes β-carotene containing foods of plant origin such as GLV were also found to be lower than the RDA. Thus, the quality and quantity of foods consumed is reflected in the low biochemical levels of vit-A resulting in a high prevalence of deficiency. It is observed that about 56 percent of school age children of the present study had mean serum vit-A levels <30 μg/dl indicating borderline VAD state. Further categorization of participants into different degrees of VAD reveal that about 38 percent were having levels of vit-A in the high risk range of 20-30 μg/dl and about 22 percent were deficient with levels < 20 μg/dl. A high percent of girls (20.1) were severely deficient when compared to boys (13.7). Combining the different levels of deficient states, boys and girls showed a high prevalence of VAD (53.8 and 56.7 respectively), with a little difference between them. As age increased the severe deficiency is decreased. Increased vitamin A supplementation, health and nutrition education and consumption of vitamin A rich foods are essential to prevent VAD.

  156. Salah Mahdi Hadi Al-Sherify

    This study was conducted at the Poultry Farm -Dept. of Animal Science, College of Agriculture, AL-Qasim Green University to investigate the effect of adding Salvia officinalis leaves powder to the ration on productivity characteristics of broiler type Ross 308. 90 unsexed broiler chicks one day-old were used and randomly assigned to three treatments with 3 replicates per treatment and 10 chicks per replicate. The treatments were as follows: control group without adding Salvia officinalis leaves powder to the diet, adding Salvia officinalis leaves powder by 1% (first treatment), and adding Salvia officinalis leaves powder by 2% (second treatment). The experiment included a study of the following characteristics: live body weight, weight gain, feed consumption, feed conversion ratio, and mortality rate. The results indicated that, the addition of Salvia officinalis leaves powder by 1% and 2% to broiler diet led to significant improvement in the live body weight ،weight gain, and significant decrease in the mortality rate. No significant differences were found between all treatments in the rest of productivity characteristics. This experiment concluded that adding Salvia officinalis leaves powder to the ration can lead to improve production performance of broilers.

  157. Asha V. Pillai and Sheela K. R.

    An investigation was carried out at College of Agriculture, Vellayani, Kerala, to evaluate the keeping quality shelf life and nutrient content of organic liquid manures. The results of the study revealed that the shelf life of promising organic liquid manure could be improved by bringing the pH to slightly acidic condition (6-6.5) by the addition of lime. Autoclaving helped to remove the foul smell of liquid manures without causing any reduction in nutrient content.

  158. Tati Ruhmawati, Chandra Ferdiansyah and Elanda Fikri

    High concentration of iron in the water can cause technical and health problems. Activated carbon can be used to reduce iron levels in the water by absorption process. A variety of activated carbon can be made from many materials including coconut shells and bamboo. The purpose of this study was to compare the ability of activated carbon made of coconut shell and bamboo, in reducing iron contents of the well water. Experimentation was designed with pre and post-test control. The population of this study was well water with relatively high iron contents, whereas the sample was well water taken from the population. Data were collected by investigating the iron contents of the well water before and after contact with activated carbon. Data were processed and analyzed using independent T- test. The result showed a p 0.001 which means that there are differences in the ability of the activated carbon made of coconut shell and bamboo in reducing the iron contents of the well water,. Bamboo activated carbon could reduce iron contents of well water by 87.77 % while the coconut shell activated carbon 79.62 % . It can be concluded that bamboo activated carbon could reduce iron contents in the well water more effectively than coconut shell activated carbon.

  159. Tarun Kumar Bera, Bidhn Chandra Patra and Ganesh Chandra Rana

    In the study on different sites the economics of paddy-fish farming system was conducted in the block of Moyna under East Midnapore district of West Bengal. The study was carried out among 100 farmers. Paddy alternate fish culture at Moyna Block utilizes a range of production systems and practices, but all contribute to eco friendly environmental benefits and sustainable development. Many factors have contributed to these developments, but equally and still, there are challenges that need to be addressed for up-scaling these production systems and practices. The production rate of fish is much higher than in other traditional system of culture. We have seen fish production at culture area in between 4200 Kg – 4900 Kg/hectare within six month. The growth rate of culture fishes at paddy alternate fish culture is higher than paddy with fish culture. The study revealed that farmers of this Moyna block followed paddy alternate fish farming by simultaneous and rotation techniques. About 47% farmers were under the age group of 31 to 40 and their education level was below matriculation. The study also pointed out the surplus labours of the local area had better employment opportunity through this farming system. Besides in this system the farmers get production of paddy from the same field at the rate of 5000 kg to 5200 kg per hectare, after fish culture the expenditure of paddy production at the culture areas is less. So, it clearly establishes the superiority of this system of fish alternate paddy cultivation. The study reveal that expenditure of winter paddy cultivation is less on culture sites because during fish culture the soil fertility is higher due to application of inorganic and organic manure. The result of this investigation exhibit the sustainability of this culture system as this system does not pollute the water and soil by use of fertilizers and pesticides to an alarming level. The investigation also brings to light clearly that this system is a very good instrument for socio-economic development of the fish farmers in a better way than any other system of culture. It is evident from the economics of this system for the fishermen.

  160. Damera. Vineeth, Chinna. Venkateshwar and Syeda.Azeem Unnisa

    To study the effect of heavy metals (Cd,Cr and Ni) on biochemical parameters in Vigna radiata (Green gram). Vigna radiata is an important legume species belongs to the family Fabaceae, commonly known as Green gram. Mung bean or green gram is an important cultivated pulses crop which has long been a food crop in Asia. Green gram is a protein rich staple food. It contains about 25 percent protein, which is almost three times that of cereals. It is also known as a useful green manure crop. The present research study was conducted to know the toxicity nature of heavy metals in Vigna radiata leaf and its remediation. Pot culture experiments were conducted with three treatments till productivity levels at Greenhouse of Botanical Garden, Department of Botany, Osmania University, Hyderabad. The three treatments consist of Treatment I control without any addition of heavy metals to the soil, Treatment II - heavy metals spiked into the soil and Treatment. III, 1 % of calcium hydroxide added along with heavy metals to the soil. The results showed when compared to treatment I and III the high concentrations of heavy metals (Ni, Cd and Cr) are found in leaf of Vigna radiata in (Treatment II). In addition, the plants grown in treatment III with 1% Calcium hydroxide treated soil, reversed the growth suppression and inhibited the heavy metal toxicity in plants as evidenced by reduced heavy metal concentration in leaf. The study concludes that food crop Vigna radiata affected with heavy metals can be treated by using calcium hydroxide.

  161. Bhaskar Naik, S., Balachiranjeevi, C. H., Abhilash, V., Harika, G., Laha, G. S., Prasad, M. S. and Sundaram, R. M.

    Marker assisted backcross breeding (MABB) is a promising strategy for improvement of elite crop varieties for one or more agronomical traits with minimal linkage drag. Akshayadhan is a high-yielding medium duration variety (135 days), whose yield is significantly limited by bacterial blight (BB) and blast diseases. In the present study, we attempted to improve Akshayadhan for resistance against BB and blast through marker-assisted backcross breeding (MABB). A breeding line in the genetic background of Samba Mahsuri, FBR1-15 possessing the bacterial blight resistance gene, Xa33 and C101A51 possessing the blast resistance gene, Pi2 served as donors and two sets of backcrosses were carried out to combine Xa33 and Pi2 into Akshayadhan separately. Backcrossing was continued till BC2 generation, and gene-specific markers for the two resistance genes were used for marker-assisted selection at each stage of backcrossing in addition to phenotype-based selection for identification of plants closely resembling Akshayadhan. A single BC2F2 plant from each backcross possessing either Xa33 or Pi2 in homozygous condition and closely resembling Akshayadhan were intercrossed to generate inter-cross F1s (ICF1s) to combine the two traits. ‘True’ICF1s were identified using the gene-specific marker(s) and selfed to generate ICF2s, which were then subjected for marker-assisted selection to identify plants which are homozygous for both Xa33 and Pi2. Homozygous ICF2 plants were advanced further by pedigree method for further evaluation. At ICF4 selected lines were subjected for screening against BB and blast pathogens and all of them were observed to be resistant against the two diseases. Further, the selected lines also were observed to closely resemble Akshayadhan with respect to agromorphological traits and possessed long-slender grains.

  162. Hanan Y. Muhsin, Ali H. Ad'hiah, Muna T. AL-Mossawei and Khadier K. Mayouf

    Introduction: Arthritis diseases in particular juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA) and rheumatoid arthritis (RA) are considered as autoimmune disorders, in which cytokines play a role in their pathogenesis. Methods: Serum levels of IL-1α and IL-1RA were assessed in 49 JIA and 43 and RA Iraqi patients, as well as 20 JIA controls and 17 RA controls. Results: Serum level of IL-1α was significantly (P ≤ 0.05) decreased in JIA patients compared to their controls (28.7 ± 1.7 vs. 52.5 ± 3.1) pg/ml, as well as in RA patients compared to their control (44.1 ± 2.5 vs. 51.2 ± 2.5) pg/ml. For IL-1RA, the serum level showed no significant difference between patients (JIA or RA) and their controls. Some significant variations were also observed when both groups of patients were distributed by disease severity scale, disease activity score and type of therapy and JIA patients by clinical subtypes. Conclusions: It was concluded that IL-1α was down-regulated in JIA and RA.

  163. Tayade, D.T. and Lunge, M. S.

    Recently a novel series of 2-substitutedimino-4-substitutedimino-6-(4- pyridineimino)amino-1,3,5-dithiazines (VIIIa1-a10) have been synthesized by refluxing 1-(4-pyridine)imino-5-substituted dithiobiuretes (Va-h) with various isocyanodichlorides (VIIa-c) in acetone-ethanol medium in 1:1 molar proportion for 2 hours. The structures of all the synthesized compounds were justified on the basis of chemical characteristics, elemental analysis and IR and NMR spectral analysis.

  164. Awfa Hasan Dakheel

    Plants are the source of feeling comfortable for most people but because of the business of everyday life these works could lead to forget watering plants periodically plants making of Good Condition and beautiful landscape. In this project will work to build a intelligent irrigation system its cost is relatively simple There have a various type using automatic watering system that are by using intelligent watering system, tube, nozzles and other. This project uses Arduino board. It is programmed in such a way that it will sense the moisture level of the plants and supply the water if required. This type of system is often used for general plant care as part of caring for small and large gardens. Normally the plants need to watered twice daily morning and evening. So the microcontroller has to be system to water the plants in the two times per day.

  165. Prasenjit Talukdar and Subrata Borgohain Gogoi

    Traditionally, the Barite (Specific Gravity of about 4.2-4.7) has been using as the weighting agent in conventional drilling fluid. But, the drilling of oil and gas wells from surface to the pay-zone with conventional drilling fluids may damage the producing interval. The formation plugging by drilling fluid’s compositional solids, drilled cuttings and polymers’ particles;hydration of clay envelop around pay zone particles by filtrate; formation of scales due to chemical reaction between formation fluid and mud filtrate are the most common damage mechanisms attributed to drilling fluid. So,to counter the damage, an ideal mud should not use of non-degradable compositional fine solids; must have minimum drilled fine solids; should reduce the filtration loss; and should generate inhibitive filtrate.Effective field development needs high quality drilling fluid to minimize formation damage and maximize productivity. This paper discusses the development of least damaging drilling fluid basically for development wells in the Upper Assam Basin of India. The idea behind the development of drilling fluid was to avoid fines and polymer plugging by optimizing the Particle Size Distribution (PSD) of fine and medium sized particles of calcium carbonate. The laboratory results have shown the effectiveness of sized particles of CaCo3 in Non Damaging Drilling Fluid (NDDF) to bridge the pore throat on the formation surface to build an external filter cake which is much easier to be removed than an internal filter cake based on the Particle Size Distribution of CaCo3 and Pore-throat diameter study of the sandstone reservoirs of some oilfields of Upper Assam Basin. CaCo3(Specific Gravity of about 2.7-2.8)is also used as the weighting agent in NDDF which is acid soluble and can be removed easily later on. The optimum composition of CaCo3also designed based on the interpretation of the mud properties of laboratory formulated NDDF and required mud properties for successful drilling and completion in the study areas.

  166. Waleed Hassan Khushefati, Mohammed Helmi Swellam and Mohamed Ibraheem Alattar

    Two environmental targets were addressed in this study; decreasing the demand on cement and consequently the amount of generated polluting carbon oxide by the cement industry as well as recycling the granite-marble sludge as a construction material rather than dumping it. This study presented the results of an experimental program that investigated the recycling of the sludge particles as a replacement for cement in mortars. The effect of replacement percentages 10%, 20% and 40% on the basic properties of cement and compressive strength of corresponding cement mortars were determined. Among the studied replacement percentages, the 10% provided optimum acceptable basic cementitious properties such as loss on ignition, soundness, setting times, alkalis and pH value as well as highest mortar compressive strength which fulfilled the ASTM C 150 strength limits at 3, 7 and 28 days. Also, this study showed that the sludge powder is acting as a filler material and that for mixes with sludge, one should control the actual water/cement ratio rather than the ratio of thewater to the sum of cement and sludge powder

  167. Poongodi, T. and Dr. (Mrs.) Muthulakshmi, S.

    Queuing problems are most common features not only in our daily-life situations such as bank counters, post offices, ticket booking centers, public transportation systems, but also in more technical environments such as in manufacturing, computer networking and telecommunications. The main observable performance characteristics for any queueing system are length and waiting time. Control chart is a graphical technique used to monitor changes in process over time and signifies to evolve methods to control. To deal with practical situations the control chart with fuzzy parameters are much more realistic than that of assumed classical crisp parameters. In this paper for M/M/s queueing model control limits are established for the mean waiting time of customers both in queue and in the system under fuzzy environment. Numerical illustrations are given to highlight its applications.

  168. Naniwadekar, M. Y. and Jadhav, A. S.

    In process industries, heat exchanger networks represent an important part of the plant structure. The purpose of the networks is to maximize heat recovery, thereby lowering the overall plant costs. This work attempt to present process design of heat exchanger network using pinch technology. Pinch Technology concept based on thermodynamic principles, offers a systematic approach to optimum energy integration in a process. The improvements in the process associated with this technique are not due to the use of advanced unit operations, but to the generation of a heat integration scheme. One of the key advantages of pinch technology over conventional design methods is the ability to set an energy target for the design. The energy target is the minimum theoretical energy demand for the overall process. After introducing cumene manufacturing process, its thermodynamic properties- molar flow rate and temperature values have been used for material balances and energy balances which further results in total energy required for the process. After getting total energy for the process we have calculated heat recovery by finding pinch point with the help of composite curve. Finally we have proposed a heat exchanger network design which shows maximum of heat recovery from different process streams.

  169. Sarada Gandu, Mishra, B. K. and Limbu, D. K.

    The present study is an attempt to understand the awareness about Hb E among the affected people and their family members of Tura town. The study reveal that ignorance and unawareness about the prevalent hereditary haemolytic disorders in these vulnerable communities of Meghalaya, which is affecting the normal life of these tribes. The defenceless peoples are not aware about its health implications, their mode of transmission and available testing facilities.

  170. Jadhav, G. B., Nalawade, S. N., Shinde N. N. and Doshi, S. A.

    In a process industry heat pump can be used for water heating application for an energy conservation application. The theoretical design for heat pump is designed from the point of view replacing electrical heaters. This paper presents simulation results of designed heat pump for water heating in a process industry. The paper also shows the results of indoor environmental quality improvement by heat pump around its surroundings. The compressor consumption analysis has done for electrical heater and heat pump also simulated results for compressor is shows in this paper. Electricity consumption has been reduced by designing and simulating heat pump process.

  171. Sarmandip Kaur and Navneet Bawa

    De-noising an image is major area of research in the field of image processing. Many techniques has been proposed so far for removing the noise from image in more optimistic manner. However no method is best for high density of noise and for preserving the edges. This paper has proposed a new technique that preserves edges and also removes the noise from image. This new technique will use decision tree structure to replace the noisy pixel in given window. The proposed technique is to be effective as it will replace the noisy pixel with its best suitable alternative which is evaluated using negative selection based algorithm. The comparative analysis has clearly shown that the proposed technique outperforms over the available techniques.

  172. Rafeekali, K. and Mohammed, E. M

    Nanoparticles NiFe2-xNdxO4 (x=0.0, 0.05, 0.1, 0.15) ferrite was prepared by solgel combution method. The samples were characterized with X-ray diffraction and SEM measurements. The effect of Nd3+ cations substitution on structure of prepared nano particles was investigated. From the analysis, the system was found to be inverse spinal cubic structure. The lattice parameter (a) increases with Nd doping content. Room temperature DC electrical resistivity decreases. Magnetic studies by Vibrating Sample Magnetometer (VSM) shows that magnetization (Ms) decreases with increase in Nd3+ concentration. Coercivity (Hc) first decreases for x=0.05, after which it increases up to x=0.15.

  173. Ms. Leena

    Education is a fundamental means to bring any desired change in society, which is an accepted fact throughout the world. Education helps to continue communication with known and unknown persons through technology and mass media. Further it helps to discriminate between wrong and right. Any attempt to deal with the issues of women’s education like access or enrolment, wastage and co-education etc is likely to be unrewarding unless the issues are viewed in their social context or we can say that neither the goals of women’s education, nor the issues relating to it can be properly understood except within the societal context. Women education in India has been a major preoccupation of both the government and civil society as educated women can play a very important role in the development of the country. Education of a woman is the most powerful tool of change of position in society. It also brings a reduction in inequalities and functions as a means of improving their status within the family. In the present paper, an attempt has been made to trace the changes in the education of women during the pre-independent and post independent era in India.

  174. Ajit Kumar Swain and Das, Biswajit

    A new neuro fuzzy approach is proposed for classification of medium resolution remote sensing data. The feature wise degree of belongings of patterns to all classes of the area through a fuzzification is processed. A fuzzification process is generated with a membership matrix having total number of elements equal to the product of the number of features and classes present in the data set. These matrix elements were the input to neural networks. The effectiveness of the proposed model is established with matrix methods, three neuro-fuzzy models and two remote sensing images. All these measures supported the superiority of the proposed NF approach model.

  175. Salihu, Aliyu Modibbo and Hamidu, Ibrahim

    This study examines the effect of internal audit unit independence and staff adequacy on the effectiveness of internal control system of tertiary educational institutions in Adamawa state Nigeria. This study employs survey research design. Data were collected using the questionnaires from the eight (8) TEIs were by 140 respondents were analyzed as a sample using Descriptive statistics and Chi-square technique. The main findings of this study are that internal audit unit of tertiary educational institutions in Adamawa State are not effective because they lack independence and are short of adequate staff, more so, they are not timely in their internal audit reporting. This phenomenon has contributed to the ineffectiveness of internal control system of the institutions. The study recommends that internal audit unit should be established as a separate department/unit to serve as custodian of internal control system, sufficient and competent staff should be recruited for the unit.

  176. Rituparna Mitra Barman and Mishra, B. K.

    Despite the fact that the consumption of pesticides in India is still very low, about 0.5 kg/ha of pesticides, there has been a widespread contamination of food commodities with pesticide residues, basically due to non-judicious use of pesticides. The widespread application of pesticides in agriculture, industry and infrastructure, public health can result in the accumulation of pesticides in the environment. Therefore, a survey was conducted to analyze the levels of organochlorine pesticide residues in buffalo milk from different locations of Dhanbad city, Jharkhand, India. Milk samples were collected seasonally, and pesticide residues were assessed using a gas chromatograph (GC) with an electron capture detector (ECD). The results indicate that the milk samples were contaminated with aldrin, isomers of hexalchlorocyclohexane (HCH; alpha, beta, and gamma), dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT) and its metabolites (DDE and p, p’-dichlorodiphenyldichloroethane [DDD]), and isomers of endosulfan (alpha, beta and endosulfan sulfate). Seasonal variations of these pesticide residue levels were also observed in all the milk samples. Samples collected during winter season were found to contain higher residue levels as compared to other seasons.

  177. Udoudo, I. O. and Ajayi, P. H.

    The study on socio-economic determinants of exclusive breastfeeding on working mothers in AMAC was carried out to find out if variables like mothers level of knowledge, attitude and other socioeconomic variable affect the practice of exclusive breastfeeding practice. The respondents were selected through simple random sampling. In all a total of 324 were sample for the study. Questionnaires, indebth-oral interview and focus group discussion were the instruments used for data collection. Data was collected randomly from various immunization clinics in AMAC, and analyzed using simple percentages and chi-square, testing methods. The findings showed that the variables like mothers level of knowledge, mother's attitude towards exclusive breastfeeding, mothers, level of education among others were all significant to their practice of exclusive o breastfeeding, while spouse support and cultural beliefs are not associated with exclusive breastfeeding practice. In conclusion, the study recommended for better practice of exclusive breastfeeding. More education for mother's and the general public on the benefits and need for exclusive breastfeeding. Also the extension of maternity leave to enable other's have enough time to practice exclusive breastfeeding, and provision of creches in all offices to enable working mothers breastfeed their babies properly and teaching of mothers ways of expressing of o breast milk and storage of expressed breast milk so as to improve the rate of exclusive breastfeeding practice by working mothers and the society at large.

  178. Emilia l. Baquilod

    Education has taken a significant overhauling with technological advances coming our way. It is therefore imperative that teachers update their online skills so as to reach their students and get them interested in improving their academic performance. The researcher used the normative survey to find out the extent of utilization of ICT in teaching chemistry among instructors and professors of the university. The study revealed that college instructors/professors are utilizing various forms of ICT in teaching chemistry, majority of the instructor/professors handling chemistry are using only power point and internet research in instruction among the various forms of ICT available, and students enrolled in chemistry believe that the use of ICT in teaching chemistry facilitates learning and improve their academic performance.

  179. Masthanaiah, T. and Karunakara Rao, M.

    This paper is an attempt to find the prevalence of different types of Smokeless Tobacco (ST) products use among male and female, in their age at start consumption and which factors are associated with smokeless tobacco users in EAG states. This study is based on the data from the Global Adult Tobacco Survey India (GATS India). GATS India was carried out in all 29 states and the two union territories of Chandigarh and Pondicherry, covering about 99.9 percent of the total population of India. Findings reveal that prevalence of ST among male is very high comparatively female in EAG States. In Urban male and female differentials in the prevalence of ST among male is considerably higher, in rural areas the use of ST is very common which is almost 46 percent among male and 26 percent among female, whereas in urban area 35 percent among male and 16 percent among female. In the male age group 15-24 years addicted to ST 44 percent when their age at <15 years and 33 percent of age between 15-18 years, the study depicts 77 percent of young males addicted to ST their early age of before 18 years. Hence greater concentration is essential to strengthen the use of evidence based policies for control of Smokeless Tobacco (ST) use, which could include having tobacco industries disclose the contents of ST products and more research is necessary in order to develop country-specific ST intervention programs and to explore the best ways to make these interventions accessible to ST (Smokeless Tobacco) users.

  180. Vijay Khare

    In India community based programmes supported by practices of the prevailing religions and localized in the communities, based on the specific needs available expertise and productivity requirements. Out of all the types of disabilities, an intellectual disability poses greater challenges than the other type. Special legislations have been put in place to ensure empowerment of persons with disabilities. Human resource development programmes are standardized by Rehabilitation Council of India. The National Institute for the mentally handicapped has developed many service models. Non –Government Organizations have started special education and vocational training programmes. However considering the nature of the condition, it is essential to see what has been the value addition in the area of intellectual disabilities and what more needs to be done. This paper focuses particularly on the current status of persons with intellectual disability in various stages of their lives ranging from infancy to adulthood in India.

  181. Sashapra Chakrawarty

    The term problem child is generally used to describe children whose behaviour or personality shows serious deviation from the normal/ typical (Panda, 2009). Understanding the psychology of problem children is necessary to distinguish it from normal behaviors. Attention Deficit Hyperactive Disorder (ADHD) is a condition in children which may lead to problem behaviours. Some of the problem behaviours exhibited by the children with ADHD are, not paying attention, making hundred different noises, not following directions, not turning in homework assignments and losing personal belongings. The children with ADHD often act immaturely and have difficulty learning how to control their impulsiveness and hyperactivity. In addition to this, a cluster of associated characteristic may include disorganization, poor peer/ sibling relations, aggressive behaviour, poor self-concept/self esteem, day dreaming, poor co-ordination, memory problem, persistent obsessive thinking and inconsistency. A child’s academic success is often dependent on his or her ability to attend to tasks and teacher and classroom expectation with minimal distraction. It is now known that symptoms of the disorders may diminish as a child ages, however many children with ADHD do not grow out of it. Fortunately there are now innovative interventions to cope up with ADHD behaviors. The present paper focuses on behaviors strategies to deal with ADHD.

  182. Dr. Gyanendra Kumar Sahu

    White collar crimes form a separate category of criminal offences. The terms White collar crime and ‘Economic Crime’ are more often than not, used as synonyms in fact, both the terms need to be used to define different categories of crime. White collar Crimes not only victimize individuals with pecuniary loss but can also have serious repercussions on the Corporate System. White collar Crimes includes such as various financial scams, fraud, money laundering, tax evasion etc. are crimes which evoke serious concern and impact on the Corporate system. This paper seeks to present a perspective on the trend of Corporate crimes and legislative measures to deal with such crimes in India. The paper is divided into two sections. The first section gives different dimension of corporate crimes and the second section deals with relevant legislation to prevent the corporate sector from White collar crime.

  183. Fori Emmanuel and Harrison O. Idakwo

    The study was a survey aimed at analysing teachers’ competencies in the utilization of the e-learning technologies in tertiary institutions for service delivery in Borno state, Nigeria. Three hundred and fifty (350) lecturers were randomly selected from seven tertiary institutions in Borno State for the study. Out of the 350 questionnaire distributed, 324 were retrieved for analysis. The study revealed among other things that the available e-learning facilities in the tertiary institutions are well utilized and lecturers’ level of competency is considerably okay. The findings also indicated that lecturers rarely: give assignments online, receive feedbacks via e-mail, chat online with students and/or fellow teachers, post students’ results online, and they are not competent with delivering online lecture to students. It is therefore recommended that: Lecturers should undergo computer trainings periodically to update their knowledge and skills needed for e-learning applications. Every department in the institutions should create a blog where every student can access and leave comments to serve as feedback to colleagues and lecturers; this enables the interactivity of the learning process. Every department in the institutions should ensure that lecturers structure their courses into modular format that could be taught through e-learning. Some lecturers may not always be available so, pre-recorded course content can be given to students for studies while they are away. Institutions should introduce the online continuous assessment system and set out a period for online test for students to login, answer the questions, submit and get instant results.

  184. Dr. Pratima Pallai

    This study aims at investigating the impact of children’s literature on literacy development of primary schools children’s. Classroom are only limited to using textbook for teaching-learning transaction. Teachers are thinking children’s story books can be used for entertainment only. But children’s literature can be used during storytelling and story reading as an effective teaching tool/strategy to improve literacy, language, reading comprehension. Through this study the researcher identify the effect of children’s literature on literacy development and to what extent story reading helps to develop vocabulary and comprehension skill so that they can read and write properly. The findings shows that children’s literature through storytelling has beneficial effects on reading and writing skills by which students being able to construct and associate meanings and emotions with words. Students also develop their vocabulary and comprehension level and learn when and where to use certain words and phrases.

  185. Mesfin Nigussie, Mulugeta Sisay, Jemal Yesuf and Haile Ketema

    This study was conducted in Wonago Destrict, Southern Ethiopia with the objective of assessing the response and challenges of smallholder farmers towards soil and water conservation structures. Multi-stage sampling procedure was followed to select the kebeles1 and the households for the study. The data was collected from 120 randomly selected sample households from three selected rural kebeles using probability proportional to size sampling techniques. Structured interview schedule was developed, pre-tested and used for collecting the essential data. Focus group discussions and key informant interviews were also conducted to generate qualitative data. In addition, secondary data were collected from relevant sources to substantiate the data collected by questioner. Descriptive statistics was used to describe the nature of data by indicating the significance of the relationship between dependent variable and independent variable. Ordered logit model was used to determine the relative influence of independent variables on the dependent variable. The result of descriptive statistics revealed that out of the total sample respondents 55% were adopters and 45% of them were non-adopters. It also indicated that in the study area, livestock holding, education, sex, participation in training of physical soil and water, non-farm activity, distance of farm land from residence and slope were found to be significantly affecting adoption of physical soil and water conservation technology by farmers. The model result revealed that sex of headed household, education of headed household, participation on training of physical soil and water conservation and livestock holding were found positively and significantly affect adoption of physical soil and water conservation structures. While the distance of farm plot from residence and non-farm activity were negatively and significantly related with adoption conservation structures. Thus, consideration of those variables would help to improve adoption of physical soil and water conservation technology among farm households. 1Kebele- The lower administration unit in the Ethiopian government structure

  186. Soumya Steephan and John William, A.

    The Consumer finance in India has experiences extraordinary change in it’s with a large number of Non –Banking financial entities all over India. And it aims to study the various factors that influence the decision of the consumer for taking consumer loan. This paper focuses on the Consumer loan offered by NBFC’S’s. Further the Results of the study revealed that basic demographic and socio-economic factors have significant impact on consumers’ attitudes towards consumer loans

  187. Dr. Vitthal V. Parab

    Marker Romanticism, the special term in literature has been used to refer to certain artists, poets, writers, musicians, as well as political, philosophical, and social thinkers of the 18th and early to mid 19th centuries. It has equally been used to refer to various artistic, intellectual, and social trend of the era. Despite of this common usage of the term, a precise characterization and specific definition of Romanticism has been the subject of debate in the fields of intellectual history and literary history throughout the 20th century, without any great measure of consensus emerging. The romantic impulse played a major role in the mid-nineteenth century blossoming of American literature and art that has been called the American Renaissance. Romanticism in English literature had little connection with nationalism, the related term, Transcendentalism, intellectualism etc. The major figures in the movement of Transcendentalism were Ralph Waldo Emerson and romantic realism of Walt Whitman. The poetry of Emily Dickinson— can be taken as epitomes of American Romantic literature. By the 1880s, however, psychological and social realism was competing with romanticism in the novels too. Through this paper we can innovate many new ideas and philosophies of the age of Romanticism. The books and journals of English literature are enriched by plenty of papers on Romanticism which give us enough opportunities to review and research on this topic.

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