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June 2017

  1. Ashenafi Worku and Brehanu Megersa

    The aim of this study was to scrutinize influence of different salt affected soil classes on TN, Av.P and Av.K in the study area. A total 400 soil samples were collected from two soil depth (0-20 and 20-40 cm) using systematic sampling technique. Then, salinity and sodicity parameters for all soils were analyzed. Based on analytical results, the study area was classified into 6 mapping units were indentified from both soil types. Standard procedures were employed for the analyses of soil parameters. The results of the study revealed that TN, Av.P and Av.K were significantly affected (P < 0.05 and/or P < 0.01) by salt affected soil class in both soil types, except TN were non-significant in Vertisols. TN and Av.P was showed decreasing pattern from non-saline non-sodic soil to salt affected soil classes in both soil types, although Av.P higher in Fluvisols of saline-sodic soil, whereas Av.K was higher in both soil types of saline soil. Pearson’s correlation matrix analysis, soil total nitrogen were significantly (p < 0.01) and negatively correlated with SAR and HCO3- whereas positively correlated with OM. Besides, Av.P was positively and significantly correlated with pHe, SAR, Cl-, HCO3- and CO32-, whereas Av.K was negatively associated with SAR, HCO3- and CO32-. TN, Av.P and Av.K were decreasing pattern from surface to sub-surface soil but higher Av.K at Fluvisols of sub-surface soil. Therefore, analytical result revealed of sufficiency in available K and P and deficient in TN. As recommendation appropriate management nitrogen fertilizer was sustaining agricultural productivity of in salt affected soils.

  2. Dr. Mohammed Elazami Elhassani, Youssef Nafidi and Dr. Anouar Alami

    This research aims to shed light on the issue of the employment of digital resources for the benefit of the learner in Morocco from the perspective of teachers and managers, focusing on the diagnosis of the barriers that interfere with the use of the information and communication technology’s infrastructure in the institutions of public secondary education. The conducted field research aimed at finding out the perspectives of the professors and directors of these institutions. To this end, we selected a special sample of staff having a great deal of information and communication technology facilities. I mean a multimedia room equipped with the horizon of knowledge of the level of efficiency of the actors and stand on the reasons for the imbalance. Is it attributed to the work of the leadership in the formulation of strategies that are built away from the involvement of teachers in the field, or that flaw refers to professors and managers who tend towards waiting for solutions and lack of initiative private act? The research concluded that among the most important outcomes, we find the professors and directors lacking the ways to manage digital resources and make use of it. This is due to ways that measure the digital resources in education and employment due to the poor institutional qualification and the quality limitations.

  3. Dr. Umbugala Douglas Muhammad and Amos Chom Haruna

    Project is one-off task that has specific objective and accomplished under the restriction of choice, time and quality. The construction of public buildings require the coordinated efforts of large number of professionals and organizations, these are critical to the successful delivery of the project goals. Construction on the public sector activities requires major investment outlays in developing countries, yet most construction projects are characterized by cost overrun. The research study was carried out in Katsina State on a population size of 38 construction sites. Structured questionnaires were administered and 32 responses obtained. The data were analysed using descriptive analysis. The result indicates that corruption, delays in payment, materials theft, and fluctuation of prices, poor infrastructure are factors militating against timely project delivery in the state. It is therefore recommended that construction work as an inherently uncertain process should incorporate value management to ease delivery and timely project completion.

  4. Dr. Santhi, V. and Dr. Menaka, G.

    Human behavior is complex and every individual is different from another, the challenge of an effective organization is in successfully matching the task, the manager and the subordinate. Under ideal situation, a manager would first analyze the task, then determine the required skills and assemble a team that complement each other skills; thereby creating an enriching &conflict free team. In reality, a manager has to use the existing resources for a given task, and must have the ability to understand the differences in individual behaviors and use themappropriately to increase the synergy. In order to understand individual behavior and personalities, it is important to understand the basics of human cognition.

  5. Francesco Scialla

    The research on the Caserta Royal Palace puts the drawing as a tool of knowledge, through critical inquiry, against some architectural exempla, whose explanatory story is not yet clearly be unraveled, the architectural design and, specifically, the relief of architectural works inherited from the past is a thorough knowledge of the process: a intellectual journey that allows, through the representation of the seized instrument, discretize, measure and capitalize, in the broad sense of its meaning, forget architectures are intended, therefore, to a sad fate of abandonment, decay and disuse.

  6. Dr. Lokesh Shrivastava, Shashikant Nag and Dr. Ritu Rani

    Land cover changes and the direct or indirect interaction of these changes have drawn much consideration in recent years. Thus in this study, "spatio-temporal analysis of land use/land cover shift in Jabalpur City, Madhya Pradesh” analyzed to reveal the nature, extent and rate of changes. Multi-temporal landsat imagery (LS 5 Oct. 2009 and LS Oct. 2016) were obtained in this study. Arc GIS 10.2 had used for band combination (LS 5 band 4,3,2 and LS 8 band 5,4,3 combined for FCC). Erdas imagine 2013 had used for land cover classification. Land cover classified and four land cover classes were developed; built- up area, vegetation (include agriculture and forest area), water bodies and open space. Land cover maps were generated and change detection analysis was performed. Jabalpur city is located at 2303’ to 23016’ North latitude and 79051' to 8006’ East longitude, at an altitude of 393 m. above mean sea level (MSL). Total area of the city is 276.36 km2. The temporal land use/land cover changes revealed that the built up surfaces had been increasing significantly. For example, in 2009 built up areas were 85.9 km2 which increased gradually to 99.06 km2 in 2016, signifying +13.16% growths within 7 years intervals. Figures 3.3 portrayed the temporal change of trends of land use/land cover change during 2009-2016. This figure signified the remarkable land cover change on the category of built up surface exerting an unbelievable pressure on non-built up surfaces, in particular open spaces, water bodies and Vegetation. Further analysis also showed the extent and rate. It is found the built up area was on continuous increase and vegetation, water bodies and open space were continuous decrease throughout the study period.

  7. Marguerite Wotto, Sujit Kumar Basak and Paul Bélanger

    Considering the multifaceted development of lifelong learning, the spread of digital uses, and their influence on the social and individual transformation, this paper analyses factors that could influence digital lifelong learning and affect institutions involved in this emerging field. From an in-depth literature review, it proposes a conceptual framework of digital learning factors that could help to articulate digital learning implementation issues in both formal and non-formal lifelong learning and training institutions.

  8. Dr. Mrs Kathleen Okafor

    Global trade and commerce have brought great economic prosperity for nations as well as serious labour challenges, environmental degradation, pollution, grave economic inequalities and concerns of climate change.1 Business leaders, governments and civil societies, realise the imperative of addressing these challenges in a collaborative and structured way especially as government alone cannot address these socio-economic problems. Thus, companies can undertake philanthropic activities towards the development of society in various facets of endeavour like education, health care provision, poverty alleviation, women empowerment, the environment etc. and still return handsome dividends to shareholders.2 Undoubtedly, corporations need to make profits to innovate, grow, reward investors, attract and retain high skills and plough back etc. Some of the critical questions which managements consider are what is the level of profit required to ensure long-term business continuity and success? Cancompanies improve their performance economically and financially by undertaking their core business in a manner that considers its impact on the broader society? Put differently, can new models of CSR influence profit? Does excessive focus on profits decrease capability of the firm to influence and even manage stakeholders? To what extent does current corporate philanthropy conform with the mandate of companies to operate in the 21st Century? To what extent can courts look at what the states have agreed to do in multilateral and bilateral agreements in connection with national constitutions? This paper attempts to address these questions in a general way and to profer new insights into the international trends of CSR legal framework. Essentially, this paper illustrates how companies have adapted capitalist precepts of pursuit of profit-maximisation to accept inclusive capitalism the latter of which considers the poor in the production processes not just as consumers but as producers and also other stakeholders like the environment and women.

  9. Mansi Tiwari and Priyadarshini Pant

    The profession of teaching has existed in the society since the ancient era. With changing times, the roles of teaching professionals too has gone under drastic transformations. Today, the roles and responsibilities of teachers are not only limited to delivering quality lectures and imparting best skills to students but also involves sustaining a job characterized by excessive pressure, conflicting demands, role ambiguity, and a heap of administrative obligations. This shift in the job role has impacted the quality of the lessons taught in the classrooms, stress levels, general wellbeing and overall quality of life of the teaching professionals. This paper attempts to highlight the impact of role ambiguity as a key factor in causing overwhelming pressure, stress and dissatisfaction among the academicians. These issues, suggestions for empowering academicians and implications of the study will be discussed during the presentation.

  10. Muslichah Erma Widiana

    The category of micro, small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) in reality is an indicator of Indonesia's economic resilience. Sidoarjo is a city of support for Surabaya and has a very vital economic function. Even with the establishment of several major industries here, Sidoarjo is already part of a nationwide industry. If looking at the data about Sidoarjo, precisely this city is proclaimed as "City of SMEs Indonesia". How not in the district of 591.59 square kilometers divided into 18 districts, there are 171,264 businesses that are divided into large businesses 16,000 businesses, 154,891 micro and small and medium enterprises. The purpose of this research is to know the role of innovation orientation as the variation variable of entrepreneurship orientation and market orientation toward market performance of SMEs.

  11. Tom M. Omtondo and Joyce W. Kanyiri

    The involvement of students’ leaders in school management is seen as a precursor to stability and overall school success. Stability in learning institutions is a fact that immensely contributes to the realization of the learning institution’s goals and objectives. School Prefects have been in place for a long time with the sole purpose of acting as a link between the teachers, school management and fellow students. In a recent development, a student representative will be required to be on the Board of Management as an ex-officio member according to the basic education Act 2013. Despite the bold steps aimed at ensuring harmony in secondary schools through student inclusivity in decision-making, cases of student unrests are still prevalent within secondary schools in Kenya. This study investigated the extent of the integration of the student’s representative councils in the management of secondary schools in Kisumu County, with specific focus on the role of the student’s representative councils in secondary school management. The study was guided by Douglas Mc. Gregor’s Theory Y which encourages participatory approach to management. The study involved 199 public secondary schools that have existed for at least five years. The respondents, who included the principal, deputy principal, board of management chairperson and student leaders were drawn from 60 secondary schools. Data were collected by use of questionnaires, document analysis, and observation. This study adapted a descriptive survey research design aimed at collecting information from respondents on their attitudes and opinions in relation to integration of the students’ representative councils in secondary schools management. The data collection instruments were questionnaires, document analysis guide and observation schedule. Data were analyzed by use of SPSS and subjected to a chi-square test for verification. Qualitative data were taken through content analysis. The study found that the roles of the members of the students’ representative council did not significantly influence their integration in secondary school management. This study recommends that the members of the students’ council be inducted into the performance of their roles, and that further research be conducted focusing on the role of the student’s council as pertains academic excellence in management of secondary schools.

  12. Ayalew Admasu Walelign, Mulu Geta Gencha and Sellassie Cheru

    This thesis was concerned to assess the practice of English language teaching through skills integration in Yirgacheffe town at four primary schools that could be selected using comprehensive sampling technique. The study incorporated the objectives that assessed how English language teachers integrated the language skills, the frequency how often the teachers integrated the skills and the perception of the teachers towards language skills integration. For this study, all 26 English language teachers from sample schools were the subject of the study. To collect the necessary data, questionnaire and interview were provided for teachers. In addition, three consecutive classroom observations were done in 8 sections to know how often the classroom teachers implemented skills integration in their English language pedagogy. Then, the data were analyzed using both qualitative and quantitative methods. The study indicated that majority of teachers did not implement the skills integration using communicative language teaching methods. The finding further revealed that most of the teachers did not use tasks, topics and contents to teach the language through skill integration. In addition to this, they hardly play the role of teachers in terms of motivating the students, organizing students in groups and giving enough time for students developing independent learning. Likewise, the teachers were interested in teaching the grammar part alone and a single skill without integration. On the other hand, large number of teachers thought that teaching language through integration perceived to be waste of time. Even though few teachers had a positive perception towards skills integration, majority of the teachers had a negative perceptions towards skill integration. Finally, the researcher recommended possible avenues for further works.

  13. Nikoleta Parthenopoulou

    This paper gives a summarized part of a PhD research, which deals with the real impact that nanotechnology and nanotechnology materials can have on all the phases of Architectural Design. The relations between our main research variables, i.e. Nanotechnology materials and Architectural design, have been approached through two main strategies. The first is through the hidden knowledge that is the “tacit” knowledge, which is highly personal and lies behind the architectural works or other forms of Art. The second strategy concerns the type of knowledge known as “explicit” knowledge, which is formal and systematic. This paper presents a broad idea of the attempt to follow the second strategy in order to test the hypothesis of the dissertation. The hypothesis states that “nanotechnology materials have a determinant impact on all the phases of Architectural design”. A special survey made via an especially customized questionnaire in order to see how a homogenous sample of people evaluate the degree of influence that nanotechnology materials have on all the phases of Architectural design, namely design, construction, life-cycle and cost of an architectural artifact e.g. a building. The research methodology is briefly presented and the results are equivalently analyzed.

  14. Anusha Pradhan and Col (Dr) Jayalakshmi, N.

    Background: Memory demands for students are much more than they are for working adults. One of the most commonly described problem of students is the inability to retain large volume of academic content. Therefore, it is imperative for all students to have good memory for better academic achievement. The present study attempts to assess the efficacy of mnemonics, chunking and mind-mapping in enhancing memory based on the preferred learning styles of the first year undergraduate nursing students. Aim: The main aim of the study is to assess the learning style of the students and to assess the efficacy of mnemonics, chunking and mind-mapping in enhancing memory of the first year undergraduate nursing students. Design: A descriptive and a pre-experimental one group pre-test and post-test research design was adopted for this study. Sample: A simple random sampling technique was used to fetch a sample of 100. Materials: A Modified Honey-Mumford 40 item learning style questionnaire was used to identify the learning style preferred by the students and a Structured Knowledge Questionnaire was used for assessing the memory of the students. The reliability of Modified Honey-Mumford LSQ was found to be .86 by using Cohen’s kappa Coefficient test and that of Structured Knowledge questionnaire was found to be .96 by using Karl Pearson’s formula. Results: Out of 100 subjects, 30% of the first year undergraduate nursing students preferred activist style, 26% of them preferred the pragmatist style, 23% of them preferred the reflector style and 21% of them preferred the theorist style. In pretest, 25% of the first year undergraduate nursing students had poor memory (score 0-10), 68% of them had average memory (score 11-20) and 7% of them had good memory (Score 21-30). In posttest, 20% of them had average memory (score 11-20) and 80% of them had good memory (Score 21-30). This indicates that the memory of the first year undergraduate nursing students improved remarkably after using mnemonics, chunking and mind-mapping study techniques. Conclusion: This study concludes that mnemonics, chunking and mind-mapping are effective in enhancing the memory of all students irrespective of their learning styles.

  15. Alyya Meerza

    Through an exploration of the creation, modification, and extension of the Technology Acceptance Model (TAM), this paper aims to convey an understanding of the Model as it applies to the use of information and communication technology (ICT) in studies within the field of education. By first explaining the original TAM and its foundational elements, and then engaging in discussion around the various subsequent modifications and iterations of the Model, this paper will provide the reader with a solid understanding of the variables involved in each of the Model’s versions. It thereby arrives at a conclusion as to why TAM has been considered important in research on ICT use in education and why the Model has merited continued examination and modification over the decades.

  16. Joseph Justin Rebello and Thampi, K. K.

    This paper is concerned with the ruin probability of two sided jump renewal problems under phase type claim/arrival distribution. We propose a class of finite dimensional phase type distributions as models for claim distribution .Different forms of phase type distributions are also discussed .Lindley distribution is approximated for claim distribution and a modified inter arrival claim distribution is also presented. A kind of ruin components is also given in the process.

  17. Mrs. Kavita Santosh Shevale, Prof. Gajanan V. Bhole and Prof. Milind Gayakwad

    Uncertain data is nothing but data with impurity or a data which is not completely correct. This data uncertainty has many reasons like incorrect input, changing environment, incorrect sampling, conversions and calculations. To deal with an Information Retrieval of such a data there must be refinement at both end that is query (input) and result of search (output). This challenge is well tackled in this paper literature review of various ways of inputs and forms of expected output; has been made. To analyze the effective processing of a data Nearest Neighborhood, Revers Nearest Neighborhood, Top K forms are considered for a study. After analysis of an input suitable comparative analysis of various systems is necessary and the effective means to introduce dynamism could be added in later half; to complete the system. The backbone of the system is to set the threshold effectively to fetch the desired data with highest degree of purity.

  18. Emtenan, A.M. Tahsin, Ahad Ullah and Rayhan Bin Ahmed

    Accessible transport means to make transport services easier for all groups of people. Removing features that create barriers for a particular group of people is the precondition of ensuring accessible transportation system. Mobility handicapped people constitute about 12% of the total population in Bangladesh. Problems with transport are the major reasons why they cannot access education, healthcare and employment opportunities. This inability leads them and their families to poverty. Incorporating these people in mass transportation system is a prime requisite to ensure an independent and poverty free life for them. This research work focuses on explaining the access difficulties faced by mobility-disabled people. It summarizes some instances of good access practice followed throughout the world for improving accessibility of disabled people. Considering costs & all other constraints, some recommendations are given here for improving access in Bangladesh.

  19. XiaoLin Li

    In 5-dimensional space-time, Quantum Mechanics have a special particle-wave symmetry. To particle wave, its phase velocity is equal with its group velocity, and the two speed value is invariant. This is very similar with the light speed C in Special Relativity Theory. We mark this speed with . But, different particle has different , not all particles have same . To one value, there exist one kind of particle. Particle satisfying Special Relativity Theory is just one kind of these particles. In Special Relativity Theory, = C. Light speed C is just a special instance of . Quasi-particle in Condensed Matter Physics, is another sample of . The new particle-wave symmetry contains the Lorentz symmetry. The new particle-wave symmetry is a extension to Lorentz symmetry. The Lorentz symmetry is just a special instance of particle-wave symmetry. But the new particle-wave symmetry no longer is limited by speed light C. The particle-wave symmetry has variable speed . So, Special Relativity Theory will be just a derived result of Quantum Mechanics. In 5-dimensional space-time, in the new theory, space and time is not relative, space and time is obsolute. The new particle-wave symmetry can be seen as speed quantization. In Quantum Mechanics, there may exist speed quantization possibly. We need rethink about these physical concepts, mass-energy equation, rest mass, inertial mass, gravitational mass. From the new symmetry, we can get new kind of particle which perhaps have relationship with cosmic dark matter and radio burst. At last, discuss the particle-wave symmetry about Schrodinger equation.

  20. Dr. Parag Dalal

    Carbon (C) is a main building block of all Living organisms. Carbon is present in the atmosphere in the atmosphere in large quantities as well as in Biosphere and geosphere in different compositions. If an organism absorbs more Carbon-di-Oxide (CO2) than he liberates than this is known as Carbon Sink i.e. Plants and the vice-versa is known as Carbon Source i.e. Human Beings (Dalal, 2010). The balancing of carbon is very essential as the formations of complexes from carbon are huge in number. In Year 1980 ambient Carbon-Di-Oxide in atmosphere is 339 PPM (Parts per Million) which increase to 370 PPM in Year 2000 and increased to 410 PPM in Year 2017 which increases the global temperature by about 33.8 °F impacting the Ecology, Climate, Sociology and Culture of the Earth.

  21. Venkateshmurthy, B. S., Dr. Nataraj, K. R., Dr. Rekha, K. R. and Dr. Mallikarjunaswamy, S.

    A co-processor numerical relay (CNR) is proposed in this paper which offers protection against abnormal conditions like over-voltage, under voltage, over current, over frequency and under frequency. The CNR also performs like a directional relay. Xilinx ISE 14.4 & synthesis has been performed on model-sim is used to investigates the performance of CNR. The prototype model is implemented using FPGA experimental kit. The proposed relay trips the circuit under any one of the abnormal conditional mentioned above. The proposed relay has numerous advantage including compact size and Co-processor functions for protection.

  22. Swapnil Lokhande and Savita Dixit

    In last few decades there has been a rapid increase in research work in the field of wearable devices for the physically challenged people. However the research work being carried out is still in the preliminary stage and the wearable devices are just coming into existence and beginning to display some future potential. Hence there are not many wearable devices available which can substantially benefit the physically challenged person in improving the lifestyle. In this study we have attempted to propose a design of a wearable travelling aid for a person who is blind as well as deaf. The wearable is an electronic device in which Infrared sensors (IR) are deployed to detect obstacles which are in close proximity to the user. Furthermore, on detecting the obstacle, the wearable device warns the user with the help of haptic sensor. The wearable device is hands-free and easy to operate and with the use of the IR sensor it is easy to detect the obstacle as it is a sharp detector and also covers the significant range of distance.

  23. Balaji, R. and Dr. P. K. Dash

    Swept wings are widely used in commercial Aircraft’s to cruise at transonic speeds with drag comparatively less than straight wings at transonic speed conditions. On the other hand trainer aircrafts both for commercial and defence trainings are preferred with swept wings to attain higher critical Mach speeds which is very less in straight wing trainer Aircraft’s. Swept wings are preferred for its high lift to drag ratio low speed takeoff conditions and for near sonic flight operating conditions. Much research work on swept wings were done in past and many more are being carried out by different research centres around the globe and aircraft manufacturer’s, but still the performance and aerodynamics of swept wings at transonic speeds and under different Turbulence levels and conditions is a grey area which needs to be addressed. In this paper two different configuration of swept wing (300 and 400 sweep) is analyzed and presented for two different Transonic speeds of 0.7 Mach and 0.9 Mach. The 3D wing model analyzed and presented in this paper is of NACA2412 profile. The lift and drag coefficient of this 3d wing at 00AOA and at 40AOA is tabulated in this paper for two of sweep angles 300 and 400. K-ω SST Turbulence model is used with Ansys Fluent as CFD software. The wing model is analyzed at four different Turbulence intensity levels of 2%, 5%, 10% and 15% and the results are tabulated. Pressure plot and Mach number plot of wing at symmetric section is shown at 00 and 40AOA and at different operating speeds of 0.7 and 0.9Mach. High altitude environment conditions are considered for this analysis since the commercial aircraft and defence trainer aircrafts are meant to operate at high altitudes. Also an overview of the Swept wing flow instabilities and flow transitions are briefed in this paper.

  24. Unhale, P. L., Kolekar, R. D., Prabhakar, P. and Mujawar, K. C.

    Landslide is typically defined by a wide range of ground movement, such as rock falls, deep failure of slopes, and shallow debris flows. Landslide hazard results in great loss of life and property. These damages can be avoided if the cause and effect relationships of the events are known. Landslides are frequent and annually recurring phenomenon in the Nilgiri district. High intensity rainfall triggered most of the landslides in the Nilgiri district. As long as landslides occur in remote, unpopulated regions, they are treated as just another denudation process sculpting the landscape, but when occur in populated regions; they become subjects of serious study. The study area Kadanadu is a part of the Nilgiris District located between 11°35 N and 11°58N latitude and between 76° 74 E and 77° E longitude. The study area falls in the Survey of India Toposheets 58A/11, 58A/14, 58A/15, 58E/2, 58E/3 in 1:50,000 scale. It covers an area present work is an attempt towards application of GIS for landslide vulnerability mapping. Different thematic layers have been prepared such as geomorphology, lineament density, drainage density, slope, soil depth, and land use. The numerical weights of the categories of the factors have been determined using subject knowledge

  25. Er. Jwala, Er. Vikram and Dr. Himanshu Monga

    Pavement means connectivity, for the development of any nation stretches of road network plays an important part. But conditioned, the stretches must provide better riding surface, required strength, proper drainage, moisture control, rutting resistance, etc. throughout their design life. To ensure structurally strong pavement design guidelines are provided by IRC Codes to determine thickness of constituent layer which can efficaciously serve the purpose for which it is designed.

  26. Vinit Shete, Ketan Parashar, Shashank Borde and Nandgaonkar, M. R.

    The pressure control valve is an important part of the antilock braking system (ABS). The functioning of ABS depends upon the response of this valve and mainly upon the diaphragms used in this valve. There are three diaphragms in the valve which deform due to the air pressure at different stages of the valve operation. Thus, it is required to simulate the exact operating conditions of the valve using modern simulation techniques and try to optimize the performance of the valve. Fluid Structure Interaction (FSI), one of the modern simulation techniques is used in the ANSYS software to replicate the exact operating conditions of the valve and find the exact deformation of the diaphragms. The type of simulation currently used for the valve does not take into account the interaction between the air and the diaphragm. In this paper, different turbulent models are used for the steady state simulation and mesh independent study is presented. From the results, Shear State Transport model and a fine mesh with 5.7 million elements have been selected and steady state analysis is carried out. The one way FSI method which is a steady state technique has been used to find the deformation of the diaphragm. The difference between the simulation of the valve using FSI and without using FSI is presented. The deformation of the diaphragm is 3.42 mm. The change in deformation with the change in mass flow rate is also presented.

  27. Lalit Kumar, Nitin Shyam, Ankit Batra and Hardik Saxena

    The increase in advancement in technology for the purpose of improving communication leads to availability of mobile phones at low prices. Availability of mobile phones at economical price enabled the low income group people to use personal means of communication. The multitude of mobile phone besides doing well for humanity also has adverse impact on environment. The adverse impacts ranges from the radiation effect to the degrading effect due to energy utilized for all the phases of life cycle as well as effect of disposing of materials. In this research paper the negative effect of mobile phone from start of life cycle to end of life cycle is critically analyzed. This paper concludes that the cell-phones contain hazardous material, harmful to environment according to EPA. The viability of mobile phone manufacturer is taken into consideration while making recommendation.

  28. TPL Samuel I. Emri, TPL Benedict E. Ojikpong, Ukpali E. Obongha and Jennifer K. Upuji

    This paper investigated the impact of plantation agricultural practices on housing development in Awi, Akamkpa Local Government Area of Cross River State–Nigeria. A total of 200(two hundred) questionnaires were distributed to the indigenes of Awi to capture information such as the type of agricultural practices in Awi, the impact of plantation agricultural practice and the analysis of land use in Awi. Both random and systematic sampling techniques were adopted in the study. Findings revealed that over 85% of agricultural practices in the study area is plantation estates of forest made up of gmelina owned by the Cross River State Government and oil palm estate. It has also shown that these plantation estates occupied over 90% of the total land area of Awi resulting to shortage of land for building development. The paper also showed in its land use analysis that over 60% of the land has been consumed by plantation agriculture and which has limited housing development. The paper finally recommended the introduction of site and service scheme and public private partnership (PPP) in housing development among others.

  29. Toniazzo, Sandra Patussi Brammer, Euclydes Minella, Andréia Caverzan, Paula Wiethölter, Alice Casassola, and Magali Ferrari Grando

    Barley is a cereal crop with several end uses such as animal feed and brewing, depending on the quality of the malt. Brazil produces barley mainly for brewing using as feed only the discards from the malt industry. Genotypes of barley generally have low genetic diversity as the breeding programs intend to improve the malting quality, reducing available sources for improving quality. This study investigated the malt quality (Kolbach index, β-glucans, α-amylase and diastatic power) and the genetic diversity among 11 Brazilian barley cultivars and inbred lines grown in seven different locations in southern Brazil, using molecular markers and the quality data aiming to find the potential of Brazilian barley to qualify for the international market and identifying variability for further breeding progress. BRS Cauê, PFC 2007057 and BRS Korbel showed very good values for the malt quality parameters, being promising genotypes for quality improvement. The molecular markers and the quality data showed genetic diversity among the genotypes studied suggest potential gains in breeding barley for brewing in Brazil.

  30. Wahua, C. and Iheaka, I.

    This work is set to investigate the micro-morphological characteristics and phytochemical constituents of Termina liacatappa and Terminalia ivorensis, members of the family Combretaceae. Teriminalia catappa has two varieties: the red fruit and the yellow fruit varieties. The epidermal study revealed amphistomatic with anomocytic stomatal type in all three types investigated. These Terminalia species have relatively same phytochemical composition, however Termina liacatappa (yellow fruit variety) has the highest flavonoid concentration on the stem bark, hence a good source of anti-oxidant for therapeutic purpose in tradomedicine.

  31. Gamze Hasturk

    The effectiveness of many alternative methods and techniques in the developing world is investigated and the question ‘how can we set up the best learning environments?’ has become the common question of educators. The education system has taken on a more dynamic structure with the question ‘how do the students learn better’ rather than ‘what do we teach’. In this regard, the poster activities used in educational environments have attracted attention in recent years and its effectiveness is investigated. Therefore, in the study it has been sought answers to the questions including ‘how are the poster activities used in educational environments, how is learning environment set up, how to do assessment and evaluation?’. As a result, the study has found that the abilities of individuals such as research and investigation, literature review, creativity, teaching of the topic, responsibility and public speaking have been improved by way of the posters used in education environments.

  32. Halicki, W. and Litowko, A.

    This article presents the results of research at selected lakes located on the border of northern Siberia beyond the Polar Circle conducted during the summer of 2016, and covers physical, chemical, and biological methods. This article also highlights the differences between glacial lakes in that part of Siberia and those of Europe and North America. These differences affect not only water quality, but more importantly the age of the lakes, their exact origin, and their hydrogeological conditions. In the water of the studied lakes, physical and biological properties match oligotrophic and mesotrophic class, while chemical parameters classify them mainly as eutrophic and hypertrophic lakes with no anthropogenic sources of contamination.

  33. Wahua, C. and Nkomadu, J.

    This study investigated the morphological, anatomical and phytochemical properties on Datura metel Linn. a member of the family Solanaceae also found mostly in the Niger Delta, Nigeria. The habit is biennial to perennial sub wood growing up to120cm in height. They are used mainly as snake repellant and environmental embellishment. The leaves are large, deep green in color, simple, ovate to triangular-ovate and elliptic, with few dentate lobes, measuring upto 25 ± 7cm long and 14±4cm wide, suspended with a long petiole up to 5±2cm long with alternate phyllotaxy. The flower is trumpet-like and solitary actinomorphic hermaphrodite measuring up to 1.0 cm in diameter. The creamy-whitish gamopetalous corolla is up to 10 ±5cm in length and greenish gamosepalous tubular calyxup to 4±2cm in length. Stamens and carpels are equi-equals up to 9±3cm in length each. Fruit is greenish dehiscing 4-valved capsule covered with blunt warts up to 4 ±1cm in diameter. The brownish seeds are up to 0.4cm in size. The epidermal studies of both adaxial and abaxial foliar epidermis revealed anisocytic stomata with 22.56% stomatal index for the former and 15.79% for the latter. The trichomes are simple and uniseriate. The anatomy of mid-ribs and petioles showed bicollateral vascular systems. There are three vascular traces and the node is unilacunar. The petioles have 2 rib traces at primary growth phase. At secondary growth phase, the mid-rib and petiole revealed vascular arcs and the stem has a ring of open vascular system. Alkaloids, saponin, tannins, flavonoids, combined anthraquinones and free anthraquinones are present while phlobatannins and cardiac glycosides are absent.

  34. Dr. Thangam, Y. and Ranganayaki, P.

    Congenital Nanoparticles are found to be reactive because of their small sizes leading to a high volume surface ratio which in turn leads to a lot of binding sites for metals and other compounds. The toxicity of nanoparticles depends on the shape, size, structure of the particle and aggregation. The aggregation, in turn depend on different types of factor in the aquatic environment such as pH, organic matter, ionic strength and composition. Bioassay studies (Acute and sublethal toxicity) were identified in fish Cyprinus carpio and the changes were observed. The lethal concentration LC50 for freshwater fish Cyprinus carpio were found to 0.1ppm. Silver nanoparticles were exposed for 24 and 96h and the values were noted as 1.0 and 0.5ppm. During the toxicant exposure various changes were observed like increase of mucus secretion, neurobehavioral changes, DNA gets damaged, the heart rate were increased, the liver cells, the stem cells and the swim bladder were affected. The growth and reproduction were stopped and the sterility were existed in fish Cyprinus carpio due to the exposure of Silver nanoparticles.

  35. Parvati Gadi, Joy Dawson and Shankar, M.

    The experiment was conducted during Kharif 2014-15 at Crop Research Farm, Department of Agronomy, SHAITS, Allahabad to study the effect of organic manures (farm yard manure, vermicompost and polutry manure), inorganic fertilizers (Nitrogen, Phosphorus and Potash) and growth regulator (Gibberellic acid) on yield attributes and yield in green gram, Vigna radiata (L.). The experiment was laid out in Randomized Block Design with thirteen treatments in three replications. Application of 10-40-20 NPK kg/ha+10 kg/ha N through poultry manure+GA3 75+75 ppm was recorded significantly maximum number of pods per plant, number of grains per pod, test weight(g), grain yield and straw yield in greengram as compared to the all other treatments.

  36. Mohd Yaseen Gudoo, Dr. Anuja Gupta and Mohammad Farooq Mir

    A comprehensive macroinvertebrate study was conducted on Anchar lake situated in Kashmir valley 12 kms to the northwest of the state summer capital Srinagar with main objective to trace out the rich wealth of macroinvertebrate fauna harboring the lake.Sampling was done on monthly basis for a period of one year from March 2016 to Feberuarary 2017.Benthic and suface invertebrates macroinvertebrates were collected by Ekman,s dredge and D-Frame net respectively. During the investigation a total of 31macroinvertebrate species were recorded which belong to 5 classes, 15 orders and 22 families of which 14 families belonging to Arthropoda, 4 to Annelids and 4 to Mollusca. During the survey the total population density of macroinvertebrate fauna was found to be 44516 ind/m2.Molluscs were found to be most prevalent (23145 ind/m2) with the most dominant one being Lymnaea stagnalis species (4976 ind/m2) followed by Arthropods (13958 ind/m2) and Annelids (7413 ind/m2) with most dominant ones being Chironomous species (5385 ind/m2) among Arthropoda and Lymnodrillus hoffmeisteri (3504 ind/m2) among Annelida. The population desity of macroinvertebrate fauna was found to be greatly influenced by certain factors like macrophytes, depth, and nature of bottom sediment.

  37. Patil, U. S. and Wanjare, P. D.

    Plant parts like stem bark, leaves and fruits of Ailanthus excelsa Seem were extracted with different solvents such as methanol, ethyl acetate, alcohol, acetone, and water. The antimicrobial assay of A. excelsa extracts were evaluated on bacterial and fungal strains like Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Bacillus subtilis, Candida albicans. Vibrio cholerae and Salmonella typhi. Phytochemical screening was performed for alkaloids, terpenoids, tannins, saponins, steroids, cardiac glycosides and flavonoids. Various solvent extracts were examined using agar disk diffusion method against bacterial and fungal microorganisms.

  38. Rawal, A. V. and Pawar, K. B.

    In India, mungbean is the 3rd major pulse crop cultivated for best source of proteins, carbohydrates and minerals. Seed germination and germination physiology play an important role in crop production. Ornamental plant Delonix regia is planted as shade tree in farm competes with neighboring plant species. Phytotoxins released by dry, dropped leaves of Delonix may have adverse effects on neighboring crop plants. Hence a study was carried out to evaluate the effect of aqueous leachates of leaves of D. regia on germination and some metabolic facets of seedlings of mungbean. In petriplate bioassay root length (74.62%, 17.20%, and 47.31%) and shoot length (76.43%, 16.98% and 46.70%) were reduced due to 20%, 0.2%, and 0.1% respectively. In soil bioassay, decrease in root length (16.09%, 13.73%, 1.02%) was observed. In petriplate bioassay a decrease in starch content (14.55%, 10.97%, 36.42%), reducing sugar (60.94%, 67.45%, 17.45%), total sugar (43.50%, 57.62%, 18.25%) and increase in protein content (54.26%, 13.42%, 42.61%) was observed due to treatment of leaf leachates. In soil bioassay, there was increase in starch (42.24%, 1071.12%, 859.66 %) and total sugar content (20.06%, 63.78%, 23.81%) and decrease in reducing sugar content (32.93%, 3.44%, 15.17%) and soluble protein content (3.64%, 0.298%) in seedlings of mung bean. Leaf leachate showed considerable amount of polyphenols and number of phytochemicals. Inhibition of seed germination, seedling growth and alteration in metabolism of mungbean seedlings may be due to the synergistic effect of appreciable amount of polyphenols and phytochemicals present in the leaf leachates.

  39. Nazreen Hassan, S., Ponraj, Libirobin and Loganathan, R.

    The social media promotions over time have created an effect in the learning behaviour of students. Therefore, an attempt has been made to find out the usage of social media and how it affects the learning behaviour of the students undergoing under-graduation in agriculture with the objectives of finding the extent of usage of social networking sites by the undergraduate students and the effect of internet usage on students learning pattern. The study was conducted at Agricultural college and Research Institute, Killikulam. The final year and third year B.Sc (Agri) students are the respondents for the study. A total of 187 students were contacted for the study. The study revealed that the variables, accessibility to internet, and internet usage exhibited a positive and significant relationship with the effect of internet usage at five percent and ten percent level of probability respectively.

  40. KWADJO Koffi Eric, KRA Kouadio Dagobert, DOUAN Bleu Gondo and DOUMBIA Mamadou

    Rhynocoris albopilosus (Heteroptera: Reduviidae) is a commun predator in West Africa agroecosystems. In preparation of its settlement as biological agent in that environment, it is important to know its natural enemies and it sprey. The observations carried on field showed that R. albopilosus has a wide range of prey, belonging to eightinsectorders. Moreover, the main naturels enemie sare spiders Peucetia (Arachnida: Oxyopidae: Araneae) and the eggs parasitoids belonging to the genus Gryon (Hymenoptera: Scelionidae). Parasitism rate is very variable and not correlated with the number of eggs per batch.

  41. Paikarao Santosh, Dokku Prasad, Vinay Shenoy, N. P. Sarma and E. A. Siddiq

    Biotic stresses that rob the yield advantage imparted through heterosis breeding can be retained by developing parental lines with inbuilt resistance. Bacterial leaf blight (BB) is one of prime diseases of rice, causing huge yield losses throughout the world. Here we have successfully demonstrated development of restorer lines with inbuilt resistance to bacterial leaf blight by Marker Aided Pedigree Selection (MAPS) - phenotypic selection, phenotyping and marker aided selection in the segregating generations for selecting desirable phenotype with target genotype of resistance genes. Phenotyping for bacterial leaf blight was conducted in F2 population developed from crossing KPG OS-722R with one donor KCMS2001 and 148 agronomically superior plants from putatively resistant plants were selected and genotyped for presence of Xa21 and xa13 genes by using linked markers pTA248 and xa13 promo, respectively. A total of 24 plants out of 148 plants were genotyped, selected and advanced to next generation. Out of 24 F3 progenies grown, 14 agronomically superior progenies were identified and one plant from each progeny was selected. Phenotyping for BB was conducted on 14 F4 lines under field conditions and 11 resistant lines were selected. After evaluation of per se performance and restoration ability of 11 lines, a total of three lines with strong resistance to BB and superior agronomic traits were selected. This work clearly demonstrates development of inbuilt resistant new restorer lines for BB with a lot of saving in time and other resources.

  42. Sudipta Sannigrahi and Sanjit Debnath

    For mass multiplication of healthy planting materials, shoot and root were successfully induced by macro-propagation technique from eight commercial banana varieties grown in West Bengal, viz., Grand Naine (AAA), Robusta (AAA), Martaman (AAB), Champa (AAB), Kanthali clone-1 (ABB), Bagda Kanthali (ABB), Baish Chhara (ABB) and Behula (ABB). Corms prepared by decapitation and pairing of healthy suckers (4-5 months old) were planted in growth media bed (containing 2 kg sawdust + 30g Trichoderma viride/Bacillus subtilis + 30g VAM per corm) and treated weekly with 25 ppm 6-benzylaminopurine (BAP) solution. However, each variety was significantly different from others with respect to induction time and number of primary, secondary and tertiary shoots induced and the number and length of primary and secondary roots induced. The time required for induction of primary shoot varied from 19.75 days in Grand Naine to 28.25 days in Bagda variety. The number of induced primary shoot was recorded higher (3.23 to 3.40/corm) in varieties under AAA group, compared to the AAB (2.70-2.90 shoots/corm) and ABB groups (2.20-2.50 shoots/corm). Similar trends were also recorded for induction of secondary and tertiary shoots. The number of tertiary shoots produced per corm was maximum (24.23) in Grand Naine and minimum (9.61) in Kanthali variety. The tertiary shoots were separated from corms at 2-3 leaves stage and planted in sterile sand bed by basal treatment with rooting hormone (IBA) @ 5 ppm. Two weeks after treatment, primary roots were induced, which was higher (2.20-2.65/plantlet) in the varieties under AAA group, compared with 1.23 to 2.29/plantlet in AAB and ABB groups. These plants were planted in polythene packets containing hardening mixture and hardened for 60 days under shade net house. After hardening, the number of primary and secondary roots were recorded maximum (10.80 and 35.50/plant, respectively) in Grand Nain and minimum (9.20 and 31.60/plant, respectively) in Baish Chhara variety.

  43. Adhav Rahul and Deokule Subhash

    The current investigation was conducted on Chenopodium album L. and Atriplex hortensis L. to estimate the contents of total phenolics, total flavonoids and antioxidant activity by using four different solvent extracts. Total phenolic content was determined by using the Folin-Ciocalteu method while total flavonoid contents were estimated by using Aluminium chloride (AlCl3) colorimetric assay. The antioxidant avtivity in the form ABTS 2, 2-azino-bis-(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulphonic acid) was evaluated with the help of spectrophotometric method. Among all the tested extracts the highest amounts of total phenolic content was observed in A. hortesnsis methanolic extract 32.33±0.021 gallic acid equivalent (GAE)/g. Similarly the highest flavonoid content was observed in A. hortesnsis ethanolic extract 1.75±0.026 mg of quercetin equivalent/g. The highest ABTS free radical scavenging activity was observed in A. hortesnsis ethyle acetate extract 98.6 %±0.015μg/ml.

  44. Vikram, D. Singh and Gangwar, R. K.

    Fusarium wilt is a serious disease of chickpea in India and other 32 countries. It is soil borne disease. Observation of symptomatology was record. This pathogen was isolated on culture media and natural host, purified and its pathogenicity was proven in pot culture and on potato-dextrose-agar. Pathogenicity of the fungus carried out on a chickpea variety Radhey, which exhibited wilting after 25 days of inoculation. Out of 75 seeds, 68 germinated in infected condition. Symptom appearances were in 20 plants at seedling stage, 14 plants in adult stage, 34 not show any symptom of wilting. Seeds harvested from wilted plants were lighter and duller than those from healthy plants (Haware and Nene, 1980). Further, on the basis of morphological, cultural characteristics of the pathogen and symptomatology, we have confirmed that fungal pathogen, as Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. ciceri.

  45. Pandey, S. K., Sujata Upadhyay, Zaffar Mehdi Dar, Hemantaranjan, A. and Srivastava, J. P.

    Mungbean (Vigna radiata L.) is an excellent source of high quality proteins. In sprouted mungbean, high level of ascorbic acid, riboflavin and thiamine is found. But the production of mungbean is threatened by salinity. In the present study, observations were made for two consecutive years regarding the electrolyte leakage activity level in mungbean leaves under induced salinity conditions. Ten different treatments comprising of various levels of NaCl and Zn separately and in combinations i.e. 40mM NaCl, 80mM NaCl, 120mM NaCl, 40mM NaCl+2×10-5M Zn, 80mM NaCl+3×10-5M, 120mM NaCl+ 4×10-5M, 2×10-5M Zn, 3×10-5M Zn and 4×10-5M Zn were applied to salt stressed mungbean along with control. The treatments were replicated thrice and the statistical analysis was done using CRD. Under study of effects of various salinity levels electrolyte leakage activity (%) was increased under salt stressed mung bean (Vigna radiata L.) pre-treated foliar application of Zn reduced the ion accumulation. The treatment 120mM NaCl+ 4×10-5M Zn gave the best results with minimum electrolyte leakage as compared to control.

  46. Mahadeo Badge and Kalpit Mhatre

    Airborne microbial analysis revealed in 50 components of fungal spore types of which 2 belongs to Zygomycotina; 3 belongs to Basidiomycotina; 17 belongs to Ascomycotina, 28 belong to Deuteromycotina, and three of other types in 2009 and 2010. Among all these type of spore groups, Deuteromycotina contributed highest percentage and lowest percentage contribution was found to be that of Zygomycotina to the total airspora. The order of dominance of airborne microbial groups was Deuteromycotina contributed (61.02% and 60.84%) followed by Ascomycotina (23.27% and 24.92%), Basidiomycotina (9.44% and 7.74%), Zygomycotina (0.66% and 0.80%) and other types (5.62% and 5.69%) in 2009 and 2010 respectively. Throughout the period of investigation the concentration of Cladosporium (6.98 &7.31 %), Alternaria (3.79 & 2.88 %), Helminthosporium (3.81& 3.96 %), Nigrospora (3.26 & 3.3 %) & Cercospora was found to be more as compare to other types of spores and concentration of Meliola (0.20 & 0.24 %), Cunninghamella (0.21 & 0.25 %) was found to be minimum as compare to other types of spores. During the investigation it was found that the fungal spores occurred were mostly parasitic on paddy crop, which lead to disease formations. Eventually pathogenic types like Curvularia, Helminthosporium, Alternaria, Nigrospora and phoma species were recorded. The weather parameters like daily minimum and maximum temperature, minimum and maximum Relative humidity, rain fall and wind speed were compared. It has clearly brought out the correlation between the spore concentration in the atmosphere, meteorological data and disease incidence in paddy crop.

  47. Bhima Sen Naik

    The experiment comprised of five lines, three testers and their 15 F1s. They were grown in randomized complete block design under late sown conditions. The line x tester analysis of Kempthorne (1957) was carried out to estimate general combining ability (gca) and specific combining ability (sca) effects. The line ‘OL 22-1’ and tester ‘OLC 10’ recorded significantly positive gca effects for both number of capsules per plant and 1000-seed weight. They excelled others and may be involved in a crossing programme resulting in identification of superior genotypes with higher capsule number with moderate 1000-seed weight leading to higher seed yield. The crosses ‘OL 2-3 x Padmini’ and ‘OL 4-1 x OLC 10’ recorded significantly positive sca effects for capsule number, 1000-seed weight and seed yield. They may be exploited in heterosis breeding.

  48. Jyoti Chaudhary and Neha Rawat

    In the present study “Determining the change in fatty acid profile of unsaturated cooking oils after repeated heating” an approach is made to determine fatty acid profile of the selected cooking oils for change in the same after repeated heating. A total number of 6 samples were selected for the study, including mustard, soybean and olive oil. Out of these 3 different oils were heated for one time and remaining 3 of the same type for five times each, the prepared samples were sent for laboratory testing which was done using the spectrophotometer method. Further the comparison was done to note the difference between one times heated and five times heated edible oils. The results revealed that among all the oils tested, mustard oil when heated five times, showed increase in total fat and MUFA by 0.10gm and 4.95gm respectively as compared to one time heated. Similarly, each cooking oil showed variation in fatty acid profile after reheating.

  49. Ramya, M., Shiva Kameshwari, M. N, and Thara Saraswathi, K. J.

    Urginea is a very important and rare medicinal plant, found growing in India, Africa and Mediterranean regions. Due to its medicinal properties the bulb of Urginea has found its place in British and European pharmacopeia. In the present study, genetic fingerprints of seven accessions of Urginea from different parts of Karnataka, South India were developed using PCR-based markers-ISSR. 3 ISSR primers were used to elucidate genetic diversity important for management and conservation. A total of 935 clear, distinct and reproducible bands were observed corresponding to an average of 311 bands per primer of which 899 bands were polymorphic in nature and percentage of polymorphism obtained was 96%. The binary matrix was used to calculate the distance matrix by Neighbour joining using free tree software. The matrix has a genetic distance of 0.52715 to 0.68282 with a mean of 0.5823. The smallest distance value of 0.52715 was observed between Ranganathittu and Bukkapatna indicating that these ecotypes are similar. The maximum distance value 0.68282 suggesting high divergence detected between Gulbarga and Channamallipura accessions. Dendrogram was constructed according to the data recorded. The accession B. R. Hills falls to cluster I and Ranganathittu, Magadi, C M Pura, Karighatta, Gulbarga and Bukkapatna falls to cluster II with three subclusters. High genetic diversity documented in the present study provides a baseline data for optimization of conservation of the Urginea species.

  50. Dr. Maitreyee Roy

    Coal mines are site specific and they are located in the ecologically sensitive areas where forests are rich in Biodiversity. Coal mining is not a curse in the state, as mining had a positive effect in the state of Meghalaya. It is one of the most important sources of energy in the state. The mining activity in Jaintia hills haveadverse effect on land use and socio-economic activities. The study revealed that rat-hole mining activity had initiated environmental degradation in the region due to deforestation, biodiversity loss, pressure on local resources and soil erosion. The damage caused to the local eco-system is permanent. Unsystematic shallow mining is one of the most important factors affecting the water body due to waste dumps. Coal in the state of Meghalaya possesses high degree of sulphur. Rat hole mining is technically simpler done by the tribals of Meghalaya. The National Green Tribunal banned rat hole mining in Jaintia Hills from April 2014.

  51. Surbhi, Ms Anjana Kumari and Priyanka Dhurve

    The study was conducted to develop dietary fiber powder (DFP) from white cabbage outer leaves since they are rich in dietary fiber but are generally discarded as waste. The chemical and microbiological parameters of DFP were studied at each step of production and storage. The cabbage outer leaves were blanched and both blanched and unblanched leaves were dried at 80°C and 90°C. The effects of hot-water blanching and hot air drying temperature on the quality of DFP obtained were investigated in terms of moisture content, proximate composition (protein, crude fat, crude fiber, ash and carbohydrate content), vitamin C content, total phenolic content (TPC), total antioxidant activity (TAA) and acidity. Also their effect on the microbiological quality and the rehydration ratio was analyzed. The study was conducted in the premises of Lady Irwin College. Data was analyzed statistically using ANOVA and DMRT tests. The result showed that both blanching and drying has affected the composition of fiber i.e., blanching the leaves has resulted in better retention of nutrients due to inactivation of the enzyme peroxidase. Drying on the other hand has resulted in loss of nutrients which has increased with the increase in drying temperature.

  52. Bhima Sen Naik

    Five lines, three testers and their 15 F1s were grown under late sown conditions. The line × tester analysis of Kempthorne (1957) was employed to estimate additive genetic variance (σ2A), dominance genetic variance (σ2D), degree of dominance ([σ2D/σ2A]1/2), heritability in narrow sense (H(ns)) and standard heterosis (diii) over standard variety ‘Padmini’ for plant height (cm), number of primary branches per plant, number of capsules per plant, number of seeds per capsule,1000-seed weight (g) and seed yield per plant (g). All the characters were controlled by a preponderance of non-additive gene action. Low estimates of H(ns) were observed for all the characters except number of primary branches per plant and number of seeds per capsule which had negative heritability. OL 1-3×Kiran, OL 2-3×Padmini, OL 18-4×Padmini and OL 22-1×Padmini had significantly high diii for number of capsules per plant and low diii for 1000-seed weight as well as high diii for seed yield per plant. The hybrids having significant positive standard heterosis (diii) can be effectively used for isolating transgressive segregants which will increase the frequency of desirable genes for seed yield component traits

  53. Ita, S. O. and Umana, K. T.

    The nephrotoxic effect of Nigerian Bonny-light crude oil (NBLCO) was assessed using serum uric acid, creatinine, and blood urea nitrogen as indicators of kidney function. Eighteen Wistar rats were divided into three groups, Groups I, II, and III. Group I was administered 3ml/kg of 0.9 % saline and served as control. Group II was administered 3 ml/kg of crude oil (NBLCO) whereas group III was co-administered 3 ml/kg of crude oil and 3 ml/kg of 50 % bee honey for of twenty-one (21) days. The result obtained showed that NBLCO significantly increase serum uric acid, creatinine and blood urea nitrogen levels compared to control (P<0.05). But, co-administration of bee honey with NBLCO in group III significantly increase serum values of the aforementioned parameters (P<0.05) compared to both the control and NBLCO groups (P<0.05). This research concludes that chronic ingestion of crude oil has the potential to depress kidney function with propensity to cause kidney damage and has also demonstrated that co-administration of 50% bee honey is unable to prevent the hazardous effects of NBLCO on the kidney.

  54. Ganmukhi Sneha Iresh, Gurav Abhijit Ningappa, Patil Rahul Ashok, Shete Abhijeet Rajendra, Shetgar Sumit Sharad and Bodele Swapneel C

    Missed appointments are a major cause of inefficacy in healthcare delivery, leading to delays in diagnosis and appropriate treatment. Patient reminders help reducing missed appointments. Mobile phone messaging, has shown to be a effective reminder in reducing non-attendance. Mobile phone text messaging, a telecommunication technology, offers an alternative strategy to the conventional reminder systems. Studies have also shown that using text messaging reminders was more cost-effective than telephone reminders. Text messaging potentially improves patient care by specifically targeting a population that would benefit most from attending. Aim: To determine effectiveness of mobile phone text messaging in improving the attendance of the patients reporting to the Department of Periodontology. Material and Methods: A total of 300 subjects reporting to the Department of Periodontology from December 2015 to February 2016 were included in the study and were randomized into two groups: text messaging reminder and no reminder. Inclusion criteria-age group 25 to 50 years Test group- 150 Subjects receiving mobile phone message reminder for the appointment. Control group- 150 Subjects not receiving any reminder. The participants returning for the appointments from both group, were included in Compliant groups and who didn’t return for the appointment were included in Non-Compliant. Result: Test group – 118 patients out of total of 150 returned for the appointment. Control group – 84 patients out of total of 150 returned for the appointment. Conclusion: The SMS reminders to the patient improved the attendance along with the compliance.

  55. Kalaiarasi, E. and Dr. Jeyagowri Subash

    Introduction: Children are the precious gift of God. Dr. Abdul Kalam says, “Todays children are tomorrow’s citizen and leaders”. The resources spent on the care and health of the young are an investment of the future. The primary purpose of the study is to assess the knowledge, attitude and practices of mothers of preterm babies regarding preterm care and to evaluate the effectiveness of structured teaching programme on preterm care among the mothers of preterm babies and to correlate the knowledge attitude and practices of mothers of preterm babies with selected demographic variables. Methods:A quasi experimental study design was used to evaluate the effectiveness of the structured teaching programme on “Preterm care among the mothers of preterm babies admitted in Neonatal Intensive Care and Referral New born unit at RMMCH, Chidambaram”. A structured questionnaire was used to assess the knowledge, attitude and practices among 30 mothers of preterm babies regarding definition, causes, temperature regulation, nutritional requirements and infection control among the mothers of preterm babies. Conceptual framework used for the study was General System Theory. Results: The pretest revealed that the mother’s knowledge on preterm care was zero (0%) After structured teaching programme majority of the mothers knowledge on preterm care was improved to 90%. The favorable attitude towards preterm care before structured teaching programme was zero (0%). It became 100% after structured teaching programme. The good health practices in relation to preterm care before structured teaching programme was only 30%. It became 93.3% after the structured teaching programme. Conclusion: This study demonstrated that the knowledge, attitude and practices of the mother was inadequate and poor before structured teaching programme. After structured teaching programme the knowledge, attitude and practice were increased significantly.

  56. Acute corneal Hydrops - A rare possible nightmare in pregnancy

    Keratoconus is a non – inflammatory ectatic condition of cornea that usually manifest during puberty. There is a progressive thinning of cornea leading to conical protrusion which induces irregular astigmatism resulting in visual impairment. Acute corneal hydrops is the development of marked corneal edema due to tear in the descemet’s membrane followed by leakage of aqueous into the stroma. ACH is a well-known complication occurring in approximately 3% of patients in keratoconus. Hormonal changes during pregnancy may have a negative impact on corneal biomechanics therefore indicating the pregnancy may be previously recognised risk factor for keratoconus. A high number of reports from eye clinics show pregnancy induced exacerbation of keratoconus. We present a case of 27 yrs. female with bilateral keratoconus. She presented to us with acute corneal hydrops in left eye and early keratoconus in the right eye at 34 th week of gestation.

  57. Syed Afroz Ahmed, Charu Suri, Nishanth Palakurthi and Veenila Panthala

    In routine histopathology, Haematoxylin and Eosin (H&E) stain is the commonly used standard procedure for the diagnosis of benign and malignant conditions. Though this conventional procedure gives a clue to the diagnosis of the lesion, it might be challenging in determining the exact origin, type, behaviour and progression of a given neoplastic tissue. Detection of cell markers of the neoplastic tissue will be helpful in identifying the exact nature of the lesion. For this, a technique called immunohistochemistry is used. Using the principle of antibodies binding specifically to antigens in biological tissues, this technique detects and visualises the individual or multiple antigens of biopsy tissue sections. This technique has an increasing role in modern pathology and has developed into a powerful research tool in the armamentarium of every biomedical research field. It has three major implications in our histopathology – diagnostic, prognostic and detecting the predictive markers for the specific cancer therapy. This review emphasises briefly on the steps involved in staining process.

  58. Elizebeth, Vinitha, Prabavathy, Vishnu Priya, Sriram, Anbarasi, Uday Samuel, Sagundala Devi and Kalaiarasi, E.

    Introduction: Babies with the birth weight of less than 2500gm, irrespective of the period of their gestation are classified as low birth weight babies. About 25 to 30 % of babies in India are low birth weight babies. According to the census provided by the WHO in the year 2010, approximately 6 to 8 million low birth weight infants are born in India annually; it is not possible to offer special care to all low birth weight babies. Skin to skin contact (Kangaroo Mother Care) with the mother’s bosom provides biologically controlled heat source. Apart from provision of warmth it enhances infant-mother bonding and promotes breast feeding. If normalize infant physiology improves weight gain and provide sense of security to the baby. It has been demonstrated that Kangaroo Mother Care is associated with increased survival and reduced hospital stay. Objectives of the study were to assess the knowledge on Kangaroo Mother Care among the mothers of low birth weight babies at JIPMER and to associate the knowledge regarding Kangaroo Mother Care among the mothers of low birth weight babies with selected demographic variables at JIPMER. Methodology: The cross sectional descriptive research study was conducted among 100 mothers of low birth weight babies in the nursery, pediatric medicine wards, and pediatric surgery wards, pediatric OPD, Neonatal ICU, pediatric ICU, Clean Labor Room and Septic Labor Room of JIPMER Hospital. The subjects were selected by convenient sampling technique. The structured questionnaires were distributed to the Mothers of selected Low birth weight babies to assess their level of knowledge regarding Kangaroo Mother Care after obtaining an informed consent. Self-evaluation technique was used for most of the samples and interview method was used for some samples that were not able to read. Results: This study included majority of Mothers from age group 24 – 27 years of age (50%). The study revealed, majority of the Mothers (57%) had moderately adequate knowledge when compared to mothers who had inadequate knowledge (40%) and who had adequate knowledge (3%) regarding Kangaroo Mother Care. Conclusion: This study concluded that Mothers of Low birth weight babies have a moderately adequate knowledge regarding Kangaroo Mother Care. Analysis also proved that there is no relation between the knowledge and the demographic variables. Health education is an important aspect of nursing practice. Health education can have significant in improving knowledge and practice regarding Kangaroo Mother Care among all the Mothers. A nurse should create awareness among the mass and improve the knowledge regarding Kangaroo Mother Care.

  59. Dr. Mitul Mishra, Dr. Grishmi Niswade, Dr. Jasmeet Chandhok and Dr. Arihant Bathiya

    The gingival facade and health are critical components of an attractive smile. Oral pigmentation is a discoloration of oral mucosa or gingival associated with several exogenous and endogenous factors. “Black gums” are an aesthetic problem especially those with a gummy smile. The reason for dark colour of gingival is the hyperactivity of melanocytes. Depigmentation is a procedure of removing or reducing gingival hyperpigmentation. This article focuses on literature related to various techniques used for treatment.

  60. Shreya Sehgal, Bhautik Kapadia and Abhishek, S.

    Congenital cystic adenomatoid malformation (CCAM) is usually observed in neonates because of respiratory distress and may occasionally be observed in older children or adults with recurrent infection 1. This malformation consists of adenomatoid proliferation of bronchioles that form cysts instead of normal alveoli. We report a case of a 11 days old neonate who presented with complaints of severe and persistent respiratory distress. Complete blood investigations, sequential chest radiographs and HRCT thorax of the neonate were performed. This study highlights the role of HRCT in reaching the diagnosis and further guiding the treatment.

  61. Dr. Amit Kalra, Dr. Gaurav Jasoria, Dr. Ankur Matta, Dr. Arun Kumar Gupta, Dr. Ashish Jain and Dr. Prateek Jain

    Introduction: In orthodontics, for diagnosis and treatment planning, an accurate antero-posterior measurement of jaw relationships is of critical importance. Various angular and linear measurements that have been proposed from time to time and are currently in use to assess the antero-posterior discrepancy between maxilla and mandible can at times be inaccurate due to their dependency on certain factors which have been found to be unreliable at times. So the purpose of this study is to compare and find a co-relation between the most commonly used parameters for finding sagittal discrepancy (ANB angle, WITS appraisal and BETA angle) and a relatively newly introduced parameter (W angle). Materials and method: The sample consisted of 42 pre-treatment lateral cephalograms of orthodontic patients, who reported for treatment in the Department of Orthodontics and Dentofacial Orthopaedics of Maharana Pratap College of Dentistry and Research Centre, divided into following three groups: Group I – Class I skeletal pattern (n=14), Group II – Class II skeletal pattern (n=14) and Group III – Class III skeletal pattern (n=14) based on the inclusion and exclusion criteria selected. Results : Pearsons correlation statistical analysis was performed and results indicated significant association between W angle and ANB angle in class II group ( p < 0.05 ) also significant association between W angle and all the other selected parameters in class III group ( p < 0.05 ) Conclusion: W angle is comparable to the widely accepted sagittal discrepancy parameters in assisting diagnosis of Class II and Class III sagittal discrepancies as effectively as ANB angle, WITS appraisal and Beta angle.

  62. Dr. Naseer A Khan, Dr. Sajad Ahmed, Dr. Yassar Shiekh, Dr. Peerzada Zia UlHaq and Dr. Samiullah Khan

    One of the most frequent motives of shoulder pain is rotator cuff disease. It is the third most efficacious musculoskeletal malady after low back and neck pain. Shoulder pain is usually due to one of several reasons: subacromial impingement and bursopathy, tendinopathy, a tendon tear, a frozen shoulder, ligamentous instability, and osteoarthritis. Shoulder ultrasonography is approved as the examination of choice for rotator cuff abnormality in many centers around the world since it is an inexpensive and safe tool for investigation of rotator cuff abnormalities. The goal of this study was to determine the ultrasound findings in patients with acute shoulder joint pain, and to compare the ultrasound diagnostic performance to that of MRI.

  63. Dr. Krishna Prasad, L., Dr. Bhagat S Tanwar, Dr. Naveen Kumar, K. and Dr. Ramya, M. K.

    Introduction:-Avulsion is the total dislodgement of an intact tooth from its socket.The principal challenge is to maintain the vitality of periodontal cells, as prognosis of a replanted tooth is directly proportional to the viable periodontal cells. Use of physiological storage media like milk, saliva or saline is critical to maintain the viability of periodontal cells until professional help is obtained. To ensure proper and appropriate management of the avulsed tooth, it is essential that medical professionals have sufficient knowledge on the emergency management. Aim-The objective of this study was to assess the knowledge and attitudes among KVG Medical College Doctors towards emergency management of Avulsed and fractured tooth. Materials and Methods- In this survey55 medical college doctors were randomly included in the study with their voluntary participation. Data regarding the emergency management of avulsed and fractured tooth was collected using a questionnaire having questions which was close ended. Results-cross sectional study participant doctors out of 55 respodents61.8% of the participants knew the correct meaning of avulsed tooth. 20% of the participants thought avulsion as the dislodgement of fractured segment of the tooth and 20% did not know the meaning. 41% of the participants did not have the prior knowledge about the management of an avulsed tooth.. 90.9% of the participants would suggest the patient to consult the dentist in case they come across a patient with avulsed tooth. None of the participants preferred milk to preserve the tooth in case professional care is not possible immediately.92.7% not aware about root fracture in apical, middle as well as cervical third and its consequences and management. Only 9.2% knows about tooth fracture traumatised with vertical fracture involving root. Conclusion- An education programme should be conducted to increase the knowledge and awareness of management of avulsed tooth and fractured tooth. From the survey conducted many of the participants showed a fair knowledge on the emergency management of an avulsed and fractured tooth and their dilemma pertaining to some aspects of this procedure can be solved by providing required awareness and knowledge.

  64. Islam, S., Ramsingh, C., Bheem, V., Harnarayan, P. and Naraynsingh, V.

    Intramuscular myxomas are benign mesenchymal tumours. They are commonly found in the atrial muscle. A search of the literature reveals a small scattering of reported cases in the gluteal region. However gluteal myxoma presenting as sciatica like symptoms are very rarely reported. We present a case of a hypothyroid middle aged female who had complaints of sciatica with a noticeable left buttock mass and was treated successfully with surgical excision.

  65. Sukhraj Singh, Deepika Sharma, Rohit Singla and Ajita Misra

    Background and Purpose: Obstructive airways diseases typically present with dyspnoea, cough and wheeze and defined by a reduce FEV1, and PEFR and accumulation of sputum in the lungs. Sputum clearance and improve pulmonary function test is prime importance in the patients with chronic bronchitis. ACBT has been used to treat the patients with tenacious sputum and also conventional chest physiotherapy for sputum clearance compares the effect of both treatments on pulmonary functions and sputum clearance. The purpose of the study was to compare the efficacy of Active cycle of breathing technique and Conventional chest physiotherapy in patients with chronic bronchitis. Methods: Thirty male and female patients with chronic bronchitis patients were trained and randomly assigned into two groups and apply each treatment three times in a week. The experiment was conducted at their places. Following FEVI, PEFR, CHEST X-RAYS dependent variables were measured on base line and after completion of study. Conclusion: The result of the study revealed that there are significant differences in FEV1, PEFR and X-RAYS READINGS between the groups.

  66. Mei Gao, YanyanCheng, Yilei Yang, Qinghao Zhang, and Jing An

    Metastasis and angiogenesis are two of the major obstacles that hinder the successful treatment of human cancers. C-X-C chemokine receptor type 4 (CXCR4), an important regulator of cancer metastasis and angiogenesis, is predominantly expressed in many metastatic cancers. We evaluated the antimetastasis and antiangiogenesis effects DV1, our recently developed potent CXCR4 antagonist, both in vitro and in vivo. DV1, a mimetic of the essential molecular moieties of a naturally existing CXCR4 ligand, consists of all D amino acids. At low nanomolar concentrations, DV1 strongly inhibited the in vitro tubule formation activity of HUVECs, the transwell migration of CXCR4+ cancer cells, and in vivo cancer metastasis and growth. These results support the continued development of this compound as a potential CXCR4 antagonist and a therapeutic drug that targets angiogenesis and cancer metastasis.

  67. Pooja Poulose and Sreeja, M. K.

    Aim of the study is to formulate and evaluate Mebendazole nanoemulsion containing Oregano essential oil, for enhancing anthelmintic activity prepared by spontaneous emulsification method followed ultrasonication. A problem stated with the use of synthetic anthelmintics is the development of parasitic resistance, which threaten the success of treatment in humans, use of a herbal alternative may reduce such resistance. Essential oil of Oreganum vulgare is taken orally kills intestinal parasites, therefore it can enhance the action potential of anthelmintics. Nanoemulsion was formulated using a Pseudo ternary phase diagram, which was created using design expert software Out of the five phase diagrams ratio of 1:3 was chosen, since it shows maximum area in the overlay plot. Nanoemulsion containing drug (NE1), containing drug and oregano essential oil (NE2) and oregano oil (NE3) were prepared using smix ratio 1:3. Anthelmintic activity, viscosity and globule size were fixed as the parameters for optimisation.NE2 was selected as the optimised formulation having viscosity (18.61±0.45Cp), Globule size (36.24µm), polydispersity index (0.2). NE 2 showed a minimum mean time of paralysis (1.2±0.01min) and mean time of death (2.2±0.02 min). Reduction in time for paralysis and death may be an indication of the synergistic effect of oregano essential oil on anthelmintic activity of Mebendazole. Evaluations of anthelmintic activity was carried out in artificial laboratory conditions by using the earthworms (Lumbricusterrestris).This study suggest that nanoemulsion is a promising novel formulation that can enhance the solubility of poorly soluble drug like Mebendazole and thereby enhance its oral bioavailability.

  68. Syed Mushtaq Ahmad Shah, Ishfaq Ahmad Gilkar, Hanief Mohamed Dar and Varun Dogra

    Introduction: Acute Appendicitis is one of the most common surgical emergency encountered in hospitals making up 10% of all emergency abdominal surgeries. Early diagnosis and timely intervention is essential in preventing complications associated with Acute Appendicitis. Methods: 100 patients of Acute Appendicitis were included in our study. A complete pre-operative workup was done in all patients. ALVARADO and RIPASA scoring was calculated and compared in terms of Intraoperative findings ,Sensitivity, specificity, Positive predictive value (PPV), Negative predictive value(NPV), diagnostic accuracy and negative appendectomy rates with respect to histopathology, as gold standard for diagnostic confirmation. Results: 88 patients were having ALVARADO score>7 and 96 patients with RIPASA score >7.5, While as 12 patients had Alvarado score< 7 and 4 patients with RIPASA SCORE <7.5. Out of the100 patients operated, 93 patients were reported as having AA whereas 7 patients were reported as having normal Appendix. Among 88 patients who were having ALVARADO score of >7, 86 were having Appendicitis on Histopathological report and the remaining 2 were reported having normal APPENDIX. 12 patients who were having ALVARADO score <7, 7 were having. Appendicitis and 5 were having no appendicitis. out of 96 patients who were having RIPASA score>7.5, 92 were having Appendicitis where as other 4 patients didn’t have AA. Patients with RIPASA score of<7, 1 patient had AA whereas 3 patients had no appendicitis on histipathological examination. On comparing both the scoring system in all the100patients, we found that sensitivity of RIPASA scoring is greater than ALVARADO scoring system 98.92 and 92.47 respectively, specificity of RIPASA scoring system is less than ALVARADO scoring system 42.85and71.42respectively.Positive predictive value of RIPASA scoring system is less than ALVARADO scoring system 95.83and 97.72 respectively. Negative predictive value of RIPASA scoring system greater than ALVARADO scoring system 75 and 41.66 respectively. Accuracy of RIPASA scoring system is greater than ALVARADO scoring system 95 and 91 respectively. Conclusion: RIPASA scoring system is more sensitive(98.92%) as compared to Alvarado scoring system (92.47%). However Alvarado scoring system is more specific (71.72%) as compared to RIPASA scoring system (42.85%)

  69. Kapil Sharma, DPS Sudan, Sheena Taneja, Abhishek Kapoor, Ashok Kumar Shah, Rahul Rai and Shweta Chauhan

    Background & Objectives: Presence of two comorbidities, both chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and depression impacts significantly on the morbidity and mortality of patients and thus interfering with quality of life and disease management. Indian studies throw limited light and data regarding identification of risk factors for depressive symptoms in patients with COPD and its impact on quality of life. This study was undertaken to identify the prevalence of depression and risk determinants of COPD patients attending a tertiary care health facility in north India. Materials & Methods: COPD was classified according to GOLD stages based on forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1) in 85 stable patients. Depression was examined by administering HAM-D (Hamilton depression) Scale. Linear regression model was used to examine association between predictor variables of COPD and depression with adjustment of age, sex and smoking status. Results: In the study population as whole 51.76%, patients showed depressive symptoms. Higher depression scores 12.35 ± 9.18 was present in moderate to severe COPD. Depression was found to be higher among patients with higher CAT Score, SGRQ_S Score, SGRQ_I Score and SF-36-MCS scale (HRQoL) Score. Activity components of SGRQ (SGRQ_A Score) were found to be potential predictors of depression in COPD patients. Interpretation & Conclusions: Majority of COPD patients have severe symptoms related to depression with increasing severity of COPD. Hence, clinicians and the patients both should be focused in adequate and timely management of both these comorbidities. Future studies are needed to adequately identify the casual association and management of both these conditions.

  70. Venu Gopal. M, Sujitha. K, Santoshini Allamsetty and Sankeerthana. M.

    An adverse drug reaction (ADR) is an injury caused by taking a medication. ADR’s may occur following a single dose or prolonged administration of a drug or result from the combination of two or more drugs. The aim of the present study was to monitor, assess and report the suspected adverse drug reaction at a tertiary care hospital. Prospective observational study was conducted for a period of six months and hospitalized patients were recruited in various wards based on inclusion and exclusion criteria. Each adverse drug reactions were assessed for its causality and severity based on “Naranjo’s causality assessment scale” and “Modified Hartwig and Siegel scale”. “Schumock and Thornton scale” was applied to assess preventability of adverse drug reactions. A total of 137 ADR’s were identified from 112 patients during the study period. Patient demographic data revealed that 36% of ADRs were reported from the age group of 31- 45 years, 52% of ADR’s were documented from General Medicine ward, 25% from surgical ward, and 16 % from paediatric. ADR monitoring need to be done in hospital setting continuously so that untoward effect caused by different medicines can be identified and documented. Strategies such as arranging educational programme for health care professionals related to importance of ADR’s reporting would substantially reduce ADR’s occurrence in hospital ward and remaining from other wards.

  71. Pallavi Kamdi, Vijayalakshmi Nimma, Amit Ramchandani, Easwaran Ramaswami, Ajas Gogri and Hemant Umarji

    Introduction: Haller cells are also known as infraorbital ethmoidal cells. These are the anterior extentions of ethmoid sinuses, located in median orbital floor. Haller cells are implicated as cause of sinusitis symptoms or orofacial pain. They may become infected and can spread infection to the orbit, also can complicate endoscopic sinus surgery. Their identification on conventional radiographic examination is limited, further necessitating need for advanced imaging like CBCT. Aims and Objectives: The purpose of this study was to demonstrate prevalence of Haller cells as visualized in CBCT images and to evaluate correlation between Haller cells with ipsilateral maxillary sinusitis and ipsilateral orbital floor dehiscence. Material and Method: A retrospective study was planned in which 200 CBCT scans were analyzed by two observers independently. Haller cells were identified by using diagnostic criteria used by Mathew et al in his study. The data obtained were tabulated and analyzed by using SPSS software. Result: Out of 200 CBCT scans, 99 showed presence of Haller cells. There was statistically significant association between the existence of Haller cells and ipsilateral maxillary sinusitis (20.93%) as well as ipsilateral orbital floor dehiscence (53.48%). Conclusion: CBCT is a fascinating imaging modality that has enhanced the scope of oral and maxillofacial radiologist and the advantage is that diagnosis of pathologies which have Haller cells as implicated etiological role is become easier. Our study has evaluated and established the relationship of existence of Haller cells its size and shape with ipsilateral maxillary sinusitis and orbital floor dehiscence by using advanced imaging technique CBCT.

  72. Battiato, C., Basiglini, L. and Giovannini, F.

    Three-dimensional reconstruction (3D) and rapid prototyping (RPT), starting from computed tomographic (CT) examinations, is a promising technology in traumatology. It facilitates the planning and surgical results of complex fractures. Here, we used it ina complex bilateral acetabulum fracture for the assessment of the injury type and for improving knowledge of the fracture fragments. The patient was a forty-five year old male, with no accompanying fractures. The solid model allowed an accurate preoperative and intraoperative planning. The 3D printed model improved the understanding of anatomy of the fractures, in order to facilitate the surgical approach and the creation of dedicated pre-shaped plates. The useof the 3D model reduced surgical time, intraoperative soft tissues damage and blood loss as well as the risk of infections. Fluoroscoping imaging was also minimized. This case highlights the importance of 3D model in the management of complex fractures.

  73. Dr. Shayesta Rahi, Dr. Neha Mahajan and Dr. Asif Iqbal

    Background: Multiple pregnancy is associated with increased maternal and fetal risk, therefore, warrants special attention. This study was conducted to evaluate the pregnancy complications and perinatal outcome in twin pregnancy. Methods: This observational study included 670 women with twin pregnancy achieving a gestational age of 28 weeks and above. Main outcome measures were maternal complications (i.e., anemia, PIH, preterm labour, PPH etc.), perinatal morbidity and mortality. Data was analyzed using SPSS-16. Results: The incidence of twin gestation observed was17.99 per 1000 births with maximum incidence of twining in the age group 26-35 years and in multigravida. Maternal and neonatal complications were remarkably higher with twin gestation. Maternal complications included anemia (41.94%), preterm labour (35.97%), hypertension (30%), PROM (23.88%), hyperemisis gravidarum (6.26%), gestational diabetes (10%), APH (6.26%) and PPH (11.94%). LSCS was done for both twins in 201 (30%) cases and for 2nd twins in 28 cases in view of placental prolapse and fetal distress. Most of the twins (75%) were delivered before 37 weeks and majority of newborn (>90%) had low birth weight. 362 (27.01%) babies required admission to NICU and major reasons for NICU admissions were prematurity, birth asphyxia, and septicemia. There were 84 still births and 43 early neonatal deaths. Conclusion: Twin pregnancy is associated with increasing risk to mother and foetus, therefore, all twin pregnancies should have a mandatory hospital delivery. Early diagnosis, adequate antenatal, intra-natal and postnatal cares are necessary to improve outcome.

  74. Dr. Swapan Kumar Mallick, Dr. Arista Lahiri, Dr. Arup Chakraborty, Dr. Md Asifullah, Dr. Sourav Sinha and Dr. Asit Ranjan Deb

    Introduction: Breast cancer is one of the most common cancer in India especially in women. Chemotherapy with or without radiotherapy or hormonal therapy following surgery is the most important treatment modality. This study explored clinical & hormonal profile of the patients along with their treatment outcomes. Materials and Methods: Socio-demographic and clinical profile as well as treatment outcome of the study subjects were obtained from the records. They were analyzed and results are mentioned with the help of tables and diagrams. Results: Most of the breast cancer patients were of the age 40-60 years. Most of the patients had locally advanced carcinoma. Most of the patients received chemotherapy with or without radiotherapy or hormonal therapy following surgery. External beam radiotherapy was the most commonly used. More than 90% of the patients received chemotherapy. Most of the patients completed their treatment. Discussion: Most of our results were in concordance with other international findings. Thus most of breast cancer patients are middle-aged female with locally advanced carcinoma receiving chemotherapy with or without radiotherapy/hormonal therapy following surgery.

  75. Dr. Anitha Alageshan, Dr. Akhter Husain, Dr. RaghavendraKini, Dr. Murigendrappa, S.M. and Dr. NillanShetty

    Objective: To develop an optimum bracket design, the stress-strain distribution of a particular material can be studied by means of finite element models (FEM). The purpose of this study was to design a basic structure of bracket-archwire configuration and to determine the location of stress-strain distribution. Method: Two 3D FEM of bracket-archwire configurations were designed. The first model was constructed with a stainless steel (SS) bracket having 0.022×0.028-in slot size along with 0.019×0.025-in SS archwire. The second model was designed with the same bracket model having 0.019×0.025-in nickel- titanium (NiTi) archwire. The wire was subjected to +/-0.025N of sliding force. ANSYS software was used to determine the stress-strain patterns at each nodal point. Results: In both the models, irrespective of the change in material properties, stress-strain with respect to bracket was seen to be concentrated at the contact boundary and in the archwire the maximum stress-strain was seen at the loading sites. The centre of the slot surface of the bracket and centre of the wire experienced the least amount of stress-strain values. Conclusion: The principal stress-strain was much below the normal values of the material properties indicating that both the bracket and the archwire can undergo heavy forces without undergoing fracture.

  76. Dr. Shah Aviraj Sharadbhai

    Background: Autism is a complex neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by impaired communication, reciprocal social interaction and restricted repetitive or stereotyped behavior. Autism cases have been increased these days before previous, due to better and broadened diagnostic criteria’s with increased awareness. There are recent research articles in the literature stating about the importance of early identification of the condition with long term outcomes avoiding psychological complications. There are various treatment modalities available in the present and past literature which is often confusing and contradictory leaving the patient in the state of confusion for the best treatment modalities. Out of all, Pediatric primary health care clinicians play a very vital role for both its early detection and the continuing management of children with autism. There for it is very essential for the clinicians to update and upgrade the knowledge about the condition so to cater best of the treatment at right time. This review article will discuss and emphasize more on the topic of updating and upgrading the Autism disorder.

  77. Dr. Shashikant Singh, Dr. Pradipprava Paria and Dr. Sibarjun Ghosh

    Febrile seizures are the most common seizures in children below 5 years of age. If a febrile seizure persists more than 30 minutes, it is termed as febrile status. Risk factors for first febrile seizure are well established, but risk factors for febrile status are largely unknown. An observational, analytical study of case control design was done in the department of Pediatric medicine of R G Kar medical college, Kolkata to find out the risk factors. Children with febrile status epilepticus were grouped as cases and simple febrile seizure patients as control. The parents were interviewed based on the predesigned case-record proforma to elucidate the history. Clinical examination of the child and relevant investigations were also done. Categorical variables were compared in two groups with the help of Chi-square test and continuous variables with the help of t-test. Odds ratio with 95% confidence interval was calculated to determine the strength of association. It was seen that, children developed FSE in their first FS had lower temperatures (<1020F), shorter duration of recognized fever prior to seizure (<12 hours) and younger age (<18 months) compared with children with simple FS. Preterm birth (<37 weeks), low birth weight (<2.5 kg) and history of developmental delay were pre and post natal factors responsible. Family history of FS and epilepsy in 1st degree relatives were indicative of a genetic background behind FSE. However these assumptions need further large multicentre studies for confirmation.

  78. Dr. Jesús M. González-González

    Introduction: Teleportation is the process of moving objects from one place to another instantaneously. In medicine it has been little studied. The theory of relativity shows that when an object moves with velocity "v" in relation to an observer, its length X is contracted in the same direction of movement, while its time is dilated. According to this theory the dimensions Y and Z perpendicular to that direction of movement are not altered. Methods: a theoretical model has been employed, in which a human organ is inside a moving train. A near observer will determine the relative lengths and times of that organ, as it approaches or moves away. Results: the lengths Y and Z of a human organ, perpendicular to the axis of its motion, are dilated by a factor K=1/√(〖〖1-v〗^2/c〗^2 ) as it approaches the observer and they are contracted by a factor K= √(〖〖1-v〗^2/c〗^2 ) when it moves away. On the other hand, the times ty y tz of that organ, perpendicular of the axis of motion are contracted by the factor K= √(〖〖1-v〗^2/c〗^2 ) as it approaches the observer and they are dilated by a factor K=1/√(〖〖1-v〗^2/c〗^2 ) when it moves away. Conclusion: to teleport human organs, they must travel perpendicular to the line of displacement until a certain point of approximation, so that the times are contracted, while the lengths are dilated. This could be used to modify biological processes, such as cancer, acting on its time and development size.

  79. Karmani Saurabh, Singh Navtej, Dawra Saurabh and Sharma Mukti

    Hepatitis A virus is a nonenveloped 27-nm, heat-, acid-, and ether-resistant RNA virus in the Hepatovirus genus of the picornavirus family. Its virion contains four capsid polypeptides, designated VP1 to VP4, which are cleaved posttranslationally from the polyprotein product of a 7500-nucleotide genome. Hepatitis A has an incubation period of 4 weeks. Its replication is limited to the liver, but the virus is present in the liver, bile, stools, and blood during the late incubation period and acute preicteric phase of illness. Despite persistence of virus in the liver, viral shedding in feces, viremia, and infectivity diminish rapidly once jaundice becomes apparent. The diagnosis of hepatitis A is made during acute illness by demonstrating anti-HAV of the IgM class. After acute illness, anti-HAV of the IgG class remains detectable indefinitely, and patients with serum anti-HAV are immune to reinfection. Neutralizing antibody activity parallels the appearance of anti-HAV, and the IgG anti-HAV present in immune globulin accounts for the protection it affords against HAV infection. Patients develop abrupt onset of prodromal symptoms of malaise, joint pain (11%), right upper quadrant pain, and evanescent rash (14%) even weeks before developing jaundice (40% to 70%) in acute infection. Atypical manifestations of prolonged cholestasis, relapsing hepatitis, and extra hepatic involvement, which are rare unlike in hepatitis B or hepatitis C, may be present. Extra hepatic manifestations may include acute kidney injury, urticarial and maculopapular rash, polymyositis, arthralgias, and suppurative parotitis that can be seen in both prodrome and acute infection. Polymyositis can result in rhabdomyolysis, as seen in our patient with elevated creatinine phosphokinase and myoglobinuria. Many cases of acute kidney injury associated with hepatitis A infection have been described in endemic areas. We present an unusual complication of Hepatitis A infection presenting in a 14 year old young boy with encephalitis and refractory seizures.

  80. Dr. Navin Hadadi Krishnamurthy, Dr. Surej Unnikrishnan, Dr. Umapathy Thimmegowda and Dr. Joseph Thomas

    Supernumerary teeth which are located between the two central incisors are termed as mesiodens. The occurrence of which in multiples are referred to as mesiodentes. We present a case report of an asymptomatic, non-syndromic fifteen year old male patient with fully erupted double mesiodens leading to unaesthetic appearance.

  81. Dr. Subir Swar, Dr. Animesh Maiti, Dr. Ashish Kumar Basu, Dr. Anirban Sinha, Dr. Praveen Devarbhavi, Dr. Neeraj Sinha, Dr. Tapas Chandra Das and Kingshuk Bhattacharjee

    Introduction: Simple 46, XY gonadal dysgenesis syndrome, also called Swyer syndrome, is known as pure gonadal dysgenesis. Individuals with the syndrome are characterized by 46, XY karyotype and phenotypically female with female genital appearance, normal mullerian structures and absent testicular tissue. The condition usually first becomes apparent in adolescence with delayed puberty and primary amenorrhea due to the gonads have no hormonal or reproductive potential. Case report: A23 years old Indian female with normal female genitalia presented with arrested secondary sexual character (arrested breast development) & absence of regular menstrual cycle. Chromosomal Analysis revealed- 46XY karyotype. So it is a case of 46XY DSD with female external genitalia. She failed to achieve secondary sexual characteristics until five years back when she was treated with OCP &subsequently developed scanty pubic hair along with painful breast enlargement. She had periodic cyclical bleeding which stopped after discontinuing OCP. Further investigation for primary amenorrhea & laparoscopy showed rudimentary uterus & B/L streak gonads. She underwent prophylactic gonadectomy with H/P report showing loose textured fibrous tissue on right side & fibro collagenous tissue with epididymal duct on left side, no palpable gonads in labia majora or in the inguinal region & presence of uterus, female range testosterone & undetectable AMH which excludes CAIS (complete androgen insensitivity syndrome). Our case also didn’t have ovarian tissue, thus, the differential diagnosis was made based on true hermaphroditism/ovotesticular DSD can be ruled out. Conclusion: This patient has bilateral streak gonads that do not secret sex steroids or AMH. Hence serum AMH is undetectable, and rogens (of adrenal origin) are low and do not respond to HCG stimulation and gonadotropin levels are elevated. Consequently, this patient has female external & internal genitalia. All the above mentioned facts led to the diagnosis of Complete Gonadal Dysgenesis or Swyer Syndrome.

  82. Dr. Amit Anthony, Dr. Shilpa Shetty, Dr. Gouri V Anehosur and Dr. Lekha, K.

    Objective: The purpose of this study was to determine the prevalence of denture induced stomatitis (DIS) in denture wearers in this part of India and to analyse the shift in epidemiology from Candida albicans to non albicans Candida (NAC) species and their antifungal resistance. Materials and Methods: Our study included 30 patients who were subjected to multiple choice questionnaire followed by clinical evaluation. The denture hygiene was assessed using a disclosing agent which was applied on fitting surface of maxillary dentures to assess the quantity of plaque. Based on Budtz- Jorgensen’s index, dentures were rated as: Excellent, Fair, Poor. The observations were tabulated and subjected to statistical analysis (chi- squared test). Oral candida colonization was assessed with concentrated oral rinse technique. The mouth rinse was collected and sent for further processing and sensitivity tests to widely used antifungal agents like voriconazole and fluconazole. Results: A significant correlation between DIS and poor denture hygiene (85%) and emerging resistance to common antifungal drugs was established. Conclusion: Our study indicated that the predisposing factors to DIS are associated with the method of denture hygiene and use of dentures while sleeping. Also, a shift in epidemiology towards antifungal resistant NAC is a worrying trend in context of their tendency to cause fungaemia.

  83. Dr. Monika Modi, Dr. Meena Daveshwar, Dr. Hiral Shah and Dr. Chirag Parmar

    The breast is a very uncommon primary site for extra-nodal lymphoma. The Non- Hodgkin’s Lymphoma (NHL) of breast typically presents as unilateral mass; the frequency of bilateral disease at first presentation ranges from 5-25%. Majority of them are of B cell phenotype. We report a rare case of Primary Non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma of B cell phenotype, MALT (mucosa associated lymphoid tissue) lymphoma of Breast, suspected on fine needle aspiration cytology and confirmed by histopathology and immunohistochemical markers. Lymphoepithelial lesions were identified histologically, and the majority of the cell population were confirmed as lymphoma cells of B cell origin on immunohistochemistry. This case highlights the limitations of cytology and the importance of histological examination supported by immunohistochemistry for making a definitive diagnosis of primary breast lymphoma (PBL). In view of the rarity of the lesion at this site, the case is being reported.

  84. Merlyn Joseph, Sulekha, T., Bhavana, P. and Tina James

    Introduction: Medication non-adherence is common among elderly suffering from chronic diseases. This in turn leads to unwelcome health, social and economic consequences. (Marengoni et al., 2008; Balkrishnan, 1998; Hughes, 2004) One reason for non-adherence to medication could be poor social support. Social support is critical for those elderly who rely on family, friends, or organizations to assist them with daily activities, provide companionship, and care for their well-being. (Wu et al., 2008) Greater social support has been shown to be associated with improved health outcomes and healthier behaviour. (Wu et al., 2008; Stroebe, 2000) Objectives: To study the association between social support and medication adherence, and the risk factors for medication non- adherence among elderly (>60years) suffering from select chronic diseases like diabetes mellitus, hypertension, osteoarthritis and COPD who seek care at the Taluk Hospital at Anekal. Methodology: A cross sectional study was conducted with the study population being elderly aged >60 years with select chronic disease who seek care at asecondary level of care hospital at Anekal. Data was collected using pre-tested semi-structured questionnaire and standard tools namely the Multidimensional Scale of Perceived Social Support (MSPSS) and Morisky’s Medication Adherence Scale (MMAS). Consecutive method of sampling was used. The estimated sample size was 138. Results: Of the 138 elderly subjects, 64(46%) were males, 74(54%) were females. 74 (54%) elderly reported low social support and poor medication adherence was seen among 38(27%) of the elderly. Practical social support (p<0.05) and physical activity of <2 times a week (p≤0.05) were significantly associated with good medication adherence. Conclusion: Active involvement of family members in healthcare of elderly people would greatly improve medication adherence.

  85. Dr. Shameen Kumar Paidi, Dr. Ravi Shankar Yalavarthi, Dr. Srinivas Kalluri, Dr. Sumeet Sharma, Dr. Harikrishna Modalavalasa and Dr. Satyendra Kumar Tedlapu

    Aim of the study: The aim of this study is to compare and analyze the flexural strength and fracture resistance of two different provisional restorative materials reinforced with two different types of fibres. Materials and Methods: Two commonly used resins, namely DPI (poly methyl methacrylate) and UNIFAST III (a mixture of poly methyl and poly ethyl methacrylates) were chosen in this study. These materials were reinforced with 5 wt% of nylon and 5 wt% of E-glass fibers forming a total of 12 groups with a total sample size of 120 (60 for flexural strength test and 60 for fracture resistance test). Both the tests were performed using 3- point bending tests and results were recorded. The results were then analyzed by using ANOVA and Scheffe’s Post Hoc test. Results: The mean flexural strengths of DPI control specimens, DPI specimens reinforced with 5 wt% nylon fibers and DPI specimens reinforced with 5 wt% E-Glass fibers were 3.07 MPa, 4.167 MPa and 5.280 MPa respectively, the mean flexural strengths of UNIFAST III control specimens, UNIFAST III specimens reinforced with 5 wt% nylon fibers and UNIFAST III specimens reinforced with 5 wt% E-Glass fibers were 3.948 MPa, 5.208 MPa and 5.886 MPa respectively. The mean fracture resistances of DPI control specimens, DPI specimens reinforced with 5 wt% nylon fibers and DPI specimens reinforced with 5 wt% E-Glass fibers were 2.08 MPa, 2.278 MPa and 2.989 MPa respectively. The mean fracture resistances of UNIFAST III control specimens, UNIFAST III specimens reinforced with 5 wt% nylon fibers and UNIFAST III specimens reinforced with 5 wt% E-Glass fibers were 2.654 MPa, 2.75 MPa and 3.535 MPa respectively. Conclusion: Within the limitations of the study it was concluded that silanated E-Glass fibers exhibited superior flexural strength and fracture resistance for both DPI and UNIFAST III materials. It was also noticed that, between DPI and UNIFAST III materials UNIFAST III exhibited superior flexural strength and fracture resistance.

  86. Simi Joju, K., Thangamani, S. and Arun, N. M.

    Background: Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is a progressive disorder of β-cell dysfunction until majority of patients with a longer duration of diabetes remain poorly controlled with oral agents, and use of insulin, which could improve glycemic control .Guidelines from the American Diabetes Association and the European Association for the Study of Diabetes recommend that insulin secretagogues such as sulfonylureas be discontinued at the time of insulin initiation to reduce the risk of hypoglycemia, and that treatment be intensified if HbA1c levels remain above-target 3 months after insulin initiation. Study design and methods: It was a prospective study and patients diagnosed with T2DM initiating insulin and no prior insulin use. The study duration was six months (December 2016 to May 2017) among type 2 diabetes mellitus patients at Karuna Medical College and Hospital, Diabetic centre, Quality clinic-Palakkad. Result and Discussion: Out of total 308 study populations, 226(73.37%) were taking Human insulin, 82(26.62%) were taking Insulin analogues. Conclusion: Human insulin dominate the prescribing pattern, but there was a shifting trend towards the use of insulin analogue preparations in the management of Type 2 diabetes mellitus. In achieving optimal glycemic control, intensification of current insulin treatment as well as planning multiple drug interventions with lifestyle modification is necessary.

  87. Dr. A. Vasanthakumari, Dr. Nayana Reddy, Dr. Vivek Reddy and Dr. K. Vivek

    To determine the prevalence of early childhood caries [ECC] and oral hygiene status of orphan children between the age group of 6 months to 6 years, a cross sectional study was conducted in thirteen different orphanages, located in four different areas of Chennai city, Tamilnadu. Diagnosis of dental caries was done based on National Institute of dental and craniofacial Research (NIDCR-1999) criteria and a modified version of the OHI-S (Greene and vermillion-1967) was used to record debris and calculus. The data was collected and analyzed using the SPSS package. A total number of 318 children participated in the study, out of which 155(48.7%) were males and 163(51.3%) were females. It was concluded that caries prevalence and severity are high in infants and preschoolers residing in orphanages.

  88. Anwesha Chakrabarti and Prof. Mallika Banerjee

    The present paper reports three case studies of children with learning disabilities introducing a combined mode of intervention on pattern recognition along with behaviour therapy. The present intervention plan gave special emphasis on visual recognition training on letters, numbers and words. The module has been applied to three different individuals having different features of learning disability problem. The associated problem of emotional disturbances and low motivation was controlled by behavior modification. The intervention was given through 10 sessions (1 hour each). The data is analyzed by comparing the pre- post data quantitatively as well as qualitatively. The overall result shows that the present holistic approach of SLD intervention in computerized and paper pencil modes along with behavioural therapy is effective to improve the pattern recognition skill and reducing learning difficulty. Additionally, the module was helpful for management of emotional disturbances, motivation and self esteem.

  89. Jasmine Lall, Lata Rajoria and Oby Nagar

    Background: In India, 65% of women in the first year postpartum have an unmet need for family planning. Copper IUCDs are the most commonly used type of IUD and the Cu T 380A has been found to be most effective IUD available in govt. Sector free of charge. The IUCD is a safe and effective contraceptive option for postpartum women who wish to either space or limit subsequent births. Methods: In a hospital based prospective observational, study we compared expulsion rate of post placental IUCD in vaginal and caesarean delivery groups. Results: We found that over all continuation rate for PPIUCD was good (84.5%) at 3 months follow up. Continuation rate was significantly higher in LSCS group (91%) as compared to vaginal delivery group (78%); P=0.019.We found that expulsion rate is significantly higher in vaginal group (10%) as compared to caesarean delivery (2%) group at 3 months of follow up. Conclusions: The acceptance of PPIUCD was high in the parturients studied and comparable to other studies done globally. We can conclude that inserting CuT 380A postplacentally is safe, effective and has high retention rate along with immediate return of fertility on discontinuation. The expulsion rate was not high, and further can be reduced with practice.

  90. Dr. (Mrs.) Daya K. Jangam, Dr. Dipika Dasu Gavit, Dr. Namarata Lohakpure and Dr. Amita Aditya

    Objectives: This study was conducted with an objective to determine the prevalence and characteristics of pneumatization of articular eminence (PAT) using Cone Beam Computed Tomography (CBCT) imaging. Material and Methods: A retrospective observational study was carried out in the Department of Oral Medicine and Radiology, which included CBCT images of 62 patients in which TMJ region was completely visualized. The demographic details of the patient viz. age, gender were retrieved from their records. These scans were evaluated in sagittal, coronal and axial section using Kodak dental imaging software. Tyndall and Matteson criteria were used for diagnosis and characterization of PAT. Evaluation of both right and left side was done and the frequency and characteristics of PAT were recorded. Frequencies/percentages and chi-square test were used for statistical analysis. Results: Of the 62 patients included in the study 40.3% showed presence of PAT. Of these pneumatization, 38% were unilocular whereas 26% were multilocular in characteristic. Presence of peumatization was correlated with unilocular and multilocular variety of PAT was statistically significant (p< 0.05) for both. Conclusion: To avoid serious complications that may arise due to pneumatization, all surgeries related to TMJ should be carried out after evaluation with CBCT. CBCT is a good tool for imaging TMJ and related structures with the added advantage of low radiation dose compared to CT.

  91. Teena Gupta

    Mineral trioxide aggregate (MTA) is a relatively newer material with various beneficial clinical applications. MTA has been recommended primarily as root end filing material but it is also being used in pulp capping, pulpotomy, apical barrier formation in teeth with open apexes, repair of root perforations and root canal fillings. This paper reviews the constituents, properties, anti bacterial activity, clinical applications, drawbacks and mechanism of action of MTA.

  92. Dr. Bandeppa Sangolgi, Dr. Ganapathi Rao and Dr. Praveen Simpi

    Haratala, Manahshila and Somala are important arsenic compounds which are used in Ayurveda. Haratala is most popular among them. Haratala is commonly used in treating the diseases like Sleshmaroga, Raktapitta, Vatarakta, Kustha etc. Haratala is called orpiment of yellow arsenic with two molecules of Arsenic and three molecules of Sulphur (AS2S3). Haratala consumed without proper Shodhana shortens the life span, causes diseases of Kapha and Vata, Prameha, Santapa, Spotha, Snayu Sankocha. Hence Shodhana of Haratala is essential. Shodhana is the process of removal of physical, chemical impurities and potentiating of the drugs. Generally Shuddha Haratala is not given alone. It is administered along with herbal drugs or in the form of Rasamanikya or also as a main ingredient in most of the popular formulations like Samirapannaga Rasa, Vatagajankusha Rasa, Kasturibhairava Rasa, Talakeshwara Rasa etc. There are various Shodhana procedures explained for Haratala in Rasa Granthas like Rasa Ratna Samuchaya, Ayurveda Prakasha and Rasa Tarangini.

  93. Nagahisa Matsuyama and Tetsuya Hachiya

    A male was diagnosed with squamous cell carcinoma on the right side of the tongue and underwent right hemiglossectomy and tongue reconstruction using a skin flap. Walking was initiated 16 days after the surgery, but he developed dyspnea and suddenly died 18 days after the surgery. Autopsy revealed a continuous thrombus from the right ventricle to the pulmonary arteries and fresh thrombi from the pulmonary trunk to the periphery in both lungs. His cause of death was considered to be pulmonary embolism resulting from movement of blood clots that formed after the surgery to the pulmonary arteries.

  94. Dr. Prathmesh Mehta, Dr. Rishi Bhimani and Dr. Anand Badavannavar

    Aim: To demonstrate two cases in which mini-implant supported orthodontic molar intrusion has been performed to regain ideal crown height space for implant prosthesis. Background: Tooth loss is associated with esthetic, functional and psychological consequences on an individual. Replacement of missing teeth by dental implants has gained significant importance due to promising advantages of implants over conventional prosthesis. Edentulism often results in supra-eruption of antagonistic teeth into the edentulous site resulting in reduced vertical dimension for tooth replacement, posing a restorative challenge for clinicians. Hence, it is necessary to regain the lost vertical dimension prior to the implant prosthesis, either conventionally by endodontic and prosthetic intervention or by orthodontic intrusion with the aid of Temporary Anchorage Devices (TADs). Mini-implants are a category of TADs that provide a minimally invasive technique for molar intrusion. Case description: Two patients with missing mandibular molars, desiring tooth replacement presented with supra-eruption of antagonist teeth, posing a difficulty during prosthetic treatment. Orthodontic intrusion using mini-implants was performed to regain the lost vertical space simultaneously along with dental implant placement followed by prosthetic rehabilitation. Conclusion: The present twin case report demonstrates the successful role of mini-implants in orthodontic molar intrusion for establishing an ideal crown height space for implant prosthesis to re-establish masticatory function. Clinical significance: The twin case report demonstrates mini-implant supported orthodontic molar intrusion as a replacement for conventional gross tooth reduction, for regaining the lost vertical space in cases of supra-eruption of maxillary molar associated with edentulism.

  95. Bader, G. N., Mir, P. A., Naqash, A., Ali, T., Wadoo, R. and Ali, S.

    The hepatoprotective activity of two extracts of Swertia petiolata (hydro-alcoholic and aqueous extracts) was studied against thioacetamide induced liver damage in rats. The levels of serum aminotransferases (ALT, AST), alkaline phosphatase (ALP), and gamma glutamyl transpeptidase (GGT) were increased owing to thioacetamide (TAA) insult. The extracts were able to decrease these increased levels. Hepatic malondialdehyde (MDA), an index of oxidative stress increased significantly after the induction of liver necrosis and decreased in extract treated rats. Significant reduction in the levels of reduced glutathione were observed in necrotic group and increased in extract pretreated experimental animals. Xanthin oxidase activity also increased significantly in TAA, and decreased in extract pretreated groups. Moreover, glutathione reductase, glutathione peroxidase, G-6-PD, SOD and catalase were decreased by thioacetamide, whereas level of these enzymes was found near normal in extract treated rats. The phytochemical investigation of the both extracts showed presence of flavonoids, steroids, triterpenoids, alkaloids, glycosides, carbohydrates, tannins, phenolic compounds etc. The histopathological examination of the liver tissue of all group of rats supported the hepatoprotective potential of extracts of Swertia petiolata.

  96. Dr. Pinaki Mukhopadhyay, Dr. Gautam Mukhopadhyay, Dr. Sangeeta Chhaya and Dr. Chandana Das

    Aims and Objectives: To evaluate the incidence and causes of ARF in obstetrics as well as to see the management and outcome of ARF in obstetrics. Methodology: Prospective observational study. We included women with ARF during pregnancy due to obstetric complications such as severe pre-eclampsia, eclampsia, antepartum hemorrhage, IUFD, sepsis etc. women developing ARF during postpartum period due to post-partum hemorrhage, puerperal sepsis, anaesthetic complications during caesarean section as well as those developing ARF after septic abortion. In all women thorough history taking and physical examination were done. A detail analysis of all investigations and management were recorded. Patients were followed thoroughly till discharge or death. Parameters Studied included clinical parameters (history taking), general survey, abdominal examination, pelvic examination, speculum examination and per vaginal examination Results: Out of 9270 deliveries (May 2012-April 2013) 79 women developed, Pregnancy related ARF (PRARF) showing an incidence of 0.87%. The age of the patients ranged between 17 to 40years with a mean of 23.23±5.05 years. 40.5% from cases were below 20 years of age. Majority of them (92.44%) were poor socio-economic status. 68 out of 79 patients were illiterate. Most of the patients were presenting ARF in their first pregnancy. PRARF was mostly found in (84.81%) referred cases. The most common causative factor for PRARF in the present study was sepsis 32 (40.51%) mainly due to puerperal sepsis, followed by PIH 20(25.32%) and postpartum hemorrhage17 (21.53%). 41 patients did not require haemodialysis, they were treated conservatively. On the other hand 2(2.53%) required dialysis more than 10 times. Most patients recovered completely. 59(74.68%), 13 (16.46%) patients died and 7(8.86%) patients left against medical advice. The case fatality rate was 16.46%. Conclusion: Pregnancy related acute renal failure is a rare but serious complication occurring during pregnancy. It was most commonly found in illiterate, poor, young, and primi-mothers. It was mostly seen in referred cases. Sepsis was the leading cause of pregnancy related acute renal failure followed by pregnancy induced hypertension and postpartum hemorrhage. Almost half of the patients needed hemodialysis. Case fatality rate is high.

  97. Nada Algahtani, Nouf Binhowaimel, Lujain Alnaqaeb, Deena Al Moddahi, Ghousia Rahman and Mohammad Abdul Baseer

    Aim: To assess awareness of orthodontic patients regarding oral hygiene measures during active orthodontic treatment in Riyadh region, Saudi Arabia. Methods: A descriptive cross-sectional study was carried out among 202 subjects aged between 15-25 years undergoing orthodontic treatment in various orthodontic centers. A structured, self-administered, and close-ended online questionnaire was provided to the orthodontic patients and their attitudes and actions regarding performance of several home and professional preventive measures during active orthodontic treatment were assessed. Descriptive and inferential statistics were applied to the data. All data were analyzed by using SPSS version 21software. Results: Most of patient 85.1% reported that their orthodontist never recommended them to brush their teeth once weekly with high concentrated fluoride gel (Elmex gel). 69.3% were not referred for routine dental examination, 76.2% of patient reported they didn’t receive any recommendation about the fluoride concentration in their toothpaste. Conclusion: The study showed patient’s awareness is inadequate for maintenance of several home and professional preventive measures during active orthodontic treatment in Riyadh Region.

  98. Yanka Kolarska, Asen Kamenov, Biliana Vasileva, Diana Trifonova, Nencho Nenchev and Boriana Deliyska

    Background: Hyperuricemia in chronic kidney disease (CKD) could increase the risk of developing cardiovascular disease (CVD). It is necessary to emphasize the need to identify patients with hyperuricemia and CKD for early prevention with reducing the levels of high serum uric acid (SUA). The aim of the study was to evaluate and compare the type of cardiovascular diseases among patients with hyperuricemia in pre-dialysis CKD stages and on dialysis treatment. Methods: We performed a retrospective study in two centers on 58 adult patients – 36 in pre-dialysis stage and 22 on chronic dialysis treatment with hyperuricemia and CVD. The pre-dialysis patients were with chronic kidney disease from second to the fourth stage. Chi-square test, independent samples T-test, and nonparametric Mann-Whitney U Test were used. Results: We observed that atrial fibrillation (AF) was the most common finding in the two groups and it was established in 29 (80,56%) pre-dialysis and in 17 (77,27%) dialysis patients. Ischemic heart disease (IHD) was found significantly more often in a pre-dialysis group, but the dialysis patients had higher cerebrovascular disease incidence. The incidence of IHD was higher in pre-dialysis female patients, while heart blocks were with a higher rate in dialysis females. Cerebrovascular disease and heart blocks were more often in male patients on dialysis treatment. Intragroup analysis of CVD in the pre-dialysis patients according to the genders suggested a higher rate of IHD and heart blocks in males. The same analysis in hemodialysis patients indicated that the women have a higher rate of cerebrovascular disease and AF, while men were more often with IHD and heart blocks. Conclusions: We supposed that patients with Hu, independently of the stage of CKD were with the highest incidence of AF, but there were differences in the type of CVD between the pre-dialysis and dialysis patients that were also gender specific.

  99. Radhika Kuttan, Deborah Joy Hephzibah, T., Dr. Manicka Vasuki, Dr. Jamuna, M. and Dr. Gnanapoongothai

    The aim of the study is to locate the mandibular foramen, from various anatomical landmarks in 35 adult dry human mandibles of 70 sides. The mandible with permanent dentitions of unknown sex from a south Indian population was chosen for the study. The distances were measured by using Digital Vernier Caliper and were statistically analyzed. It was found that the mean value and the standard deviation of the various distances were; from the MF to AB were 18.23 ± 1.91 on (R) and 17.8 ± 2.6 on (L) side. From MF to PB was13.49 ± 1.9 on (R) and 14.2 ± 2 on (L) side and the distance from MF to AG was been 20.6±3.3 on (R) and 21 ± 3 on (L). The distance between AB to PB were 31.2 ± 2.8 on (R) and 31.6 ± 3.37on (L). Mandibular foramen is an important landmark for the several dental approaches like inferior alveolar nerve block, as well for the mandibular osteotomies. Hence the Knowledge of the current study of location of MF ensures guidance to the maxillofacial and dental surgeons.

  100. Nasreen Ali and Sunil Kumar Agarwalla

    The truncus arteriosus or common arterial trunk, is a form of congenital cyanotic heart disease where only one artery arises from the heart, being responsible for the systemic, pulmonary and coronary circulation. It occurs in 1.5% of cases of congenital heart defects in newborns, presenting variations in their presentation as to the origin of the pulmonary trunk. We present a case of 6 month old male boy who presented with complains of fast breathing and respiratory distress. On examination, there was no cyanosis and clubbing. A systolic murmur was heard at mitral area. Chest radiography showed B/L non homogenous opacity with cardiomegaly. Hence a clinical diagnosis of Acyanotic heart disease most probably VSD with congestive cardiac failure with pneumonia was made. But ECHO Cardiography showed Truncus arteriosus Type 1. Here we want to emphasize that truncus arteriosus, though classified as a cyanotic heart disease may present without cyanosis in late infancy.

  101. Philapam A Shimray and Dr. Sheela Upendra

    Background of the study: The increasing amount of medical error has become a disturbing atmosphere, whether or not it is evident or harmful to the patient. The reason behind is due to an association with inexperienced physicians and nurses, this is why Knowledge acquisition and skills maintenance are important in bringing down the error. Traditionally this is taught by using low fidelity mannequins, but due to a technological advancement it has move towards high fidelity mannequins, which allows for repetitive practices, utilizing different scenarios with various levels of difficulty. Aim: To find out the opinions on low versus high fidelity simulation among the nursing students. Material and method: A non-experimental (Comparative research design) was conducted at selected nursing colleges, 50 nursing student were exposed on both low and high fidelity simulators in the skills laboratory after which a self-report technique was implied using 5 point Likert scale for obtaining the opinions from nursing students. The reliability of the tool was done using cronbach’s alpha and found to be 0.784. Result: The study revealed that the Low fidelity opinion mean score (11.82 ± 1.18) which is 58.04% and high fidelity opinion mean score (17.71 ± 1.424) which is 88.58%. The unpaired’t’ test showed differences in opinion on Low fidelity simulation and high fidelity simulation among nursing students (t value = 29.358). Chi square test also revealed that there was no significant association between opinion score and socio demographic variables like age and gender. However a significant association was found between the opinion score and demographic variables like previous training and workshop, which were (ᵧ2= 7.64 and 4.80) respectively. Conclusion: The study concluded that, High fidelity simulation is more effective than the low fidelity simulation according to the opinions of the nursing students.

  102. Ambaga, M.

    It was became clear that during last 4 billion years, owing to the bioevolution link existed between the two basic electron, proton dependent metabolic reaction systems of obtaining of ATP had been formed the various capacity of ATP based regulation of expansion in the number of genes in the case of the human gene and also in the case of Archea genome and Bacteria genome. We are developing the idea that the evolution based difficulty as the limitation of expansion in the number of genes because of slow developed systems of ADP + Pi + H+ + nH +, and the unsifficient of membrane redox potentials three - state line system in case of prokaryotes had been solved by appearance of powerful energy delivering systems as “Donators + membrane redox potentials three - state line system + O2 + ADP + Pi + H+ + nH + memb. space = (ATP + heat energy) + H2O + nH + matrix + CO2” (Ambaga and Tumen-Ulzii, 2015), conditioning the high capacity of ATP based increase of Genome Size . It can be say that during evolution development of living cells the shift from one cell to multicells had been accompanied with their metabolic system improvement as first slow developed system as ADP + Pi + H+ + nH + had converted to second powerful energy delivering system as “Donators + membrane redox potentials three - state line system + O2 + ADP + Pi + H+ + nH + = (ATP + heat energy ) + H2O + nH + matrix + CO2” (Ambaga and Tumen-Ulzii, 2015), which led to appearance of high capacity of ATP based increase of Genome Size. In such way the appearance of second more powerful energy accumulating systems as “Donators (glucose, aminoacids, fatty acids) + membrane redox potentials three - state line system + acceptor as O2 + ADP + Pi + H+ + nH + = (ATP + heat energy) + H2O + nH + matrix + CO2” had conditioned the increase the gene size, number of genes, linear gene structures in Human organism in comparision to Archea genome and Bacteria genome.

  103. Dr. K. Swathi, Dr. Chanchal Goinka, Dr. Nimeshika Ramachandruni, Dr. Aishwarya Ranganathan Iyer, Dr. Soham Apte, Dr. Dhwani Dhabalia and Dr. Rahul Katharia

    Aim: To know the knowledge and magnitude of the preventive dental services delivered by the dentists towards preventive dental treatment. Methodology: A questionnaire study was conducted among the dentists who are practicing at Greater Hyderabad city to know the attitude of dentists towards preventive dental services. A stratified cluster random sampling method was employed to select a list of clinics from each zone. Sample size was 165 dentists. Results: Approximately 37.8% dentists were using APF gels in their practice. Most of the dentists (68.3%) were applying pit and fissure sealants to not more than 10 children in a month. In multivariate analysis there was a significant association was found between knowledge of dentists and number of out-patients in the clinic. (0R:4.291, CI: Low 1.037- high 17.751, p-value .044). Conclusion: Most of the dentists showed positive attitude towards preventive dental treatments, but still some deficiencies were identified. There is a need to promote knowledge of dentists towards primary preventive services.

  104. Aiyuk, S. and Bohloko, R.

    Food safety and good hygiene practices are salient in preventing the risks and hazards that cause food borne diseases, thereby protecting public health. This research examined some issues of food safety and hygiene in one of the main breweries in Lesotho, the Maluti Mountain Brewery. The pH values for tested beer samples ranged from 4.31–4.33 and the pH values for tested soft drink samples ranged from 2.79 – 2.82. The dissolved oxygen values for beer ranged from 0.23 mg/L to 0.25 mg/L (table 1), while the dissolved oxygen values ranged from 0.21mg/L to 0.23mg/L for soft drinks. The packaged beverages are stored at 14C. The hygiene practices were also generally acceptable. All parameters analysed were within acceptable ranges, except storage temperature that seemed high and requiring an adjustment.

  105. Mr. Rajnish Ranjan Prasad, Ms. Shweta Bhardwaj, Ms. Shrutika Badgujar and Ms. Mridula Prasad

    Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) were adopted in September 2001 by 147 countries including India. Out of 8 MDGs, 3 MDGs were directly related to the health and under the framework of MDGs, Government of India set ambitious targets for reduction in maternal and child mortality by 2015. In 2005, Government of India launched, National Rural Health Mission (NRHM) to strengthen the health infrastructure & services in rural areas, particularly in 18 high priority states. NRHM was expected to make significant contribution in achievement of MDGs. Though NRHM made significant contribution in strengthening of health infrastructure in rural areas of focused states, however the key targets in-terms of reduction in MMR, IMR and TFR were not achieved.In 2015, world has accepted Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) to address global development challenges and facilitate sustainable development across the countries. However, in order to ensure that the health-related SDGs doesn’t meet the same fate as that of MDGs in the country, it is vital that lessons are learnt from the non-achievement of health related MDG goals and are incorporated in the relevant policies & programmes.

  106. Dr. Rishi Sharma, Dr. Sandeep Shankar, Dr. V.S Gurunadh and Dr. Sonal Singh

    Diabetes mellitus is a disease associated with both micro and macro-vascular angiopathy. The classical example is the manifestation seen in the retinal vessels. Diabetes is also associated with loss of capillaries and macro-vessel dilatation in the conjunctiva, similar to well-known vessel changes in the retina. The studies conducted on the conjunctival vessel in diabetic patients clearly demonstrate macrovesseldilation associated with diabetes may result in vessel engorgement and straightening, especially among those with longer duration of disease. Increased tortuosity associated with diabetes among conjunctival capillaries mirrors established vessel changes observed in the retina. Evaluation of conjunctivalangiopathy associated with diabetes may help in detecting changes in the retina more easily, maybe earlier even by para-clinical workers

  107. Pritesh Agrawal, Dr. N. G. Jibhkate, Dr. Ajas A. Gogri and Varun R. Kunte

    Introduction: Thorough knowledge of root canal morphology and its anatomical variations is essential for successful endodontic therapy. Methods: This report presents 3 rare cases of unusual tooth morphology involving mandibular first molar with 4 roots and variable number of canals. Results: The use of DOM, proper radiographic interpretation and modified access opening in these cases greatly contributed toward making a confirmatory diagnosis and successful endodontic treatment of four-rooted mandibular first molars with variable canal anatomy. Conclusions: Root canal anatomy often presents challenging situations that requires diagnostic approaches, access modification, and clinical skills to perform a successful endodontic treatment.

  108. Dr. Umar Nazir and Dr. Rouf Hussain Rather

    This article is in response to the claims of Government of Jammu & Kashmir where they have congratulated and felicitated the State health machinery for leading in reducing the IMR from 34 to 26 per 1000 live births in a single year and registering decline of 8 points in IMR which has been highlighted as the highest among all the states of the country. We are extremely happy for this historic achievement but have some reservations.

  109. Wajiha Iffat, Najia Rahim, Sadia Shakeel, Tariq Ali, Shazia Naz, Lubna Bashir and Areeb bin Tariq

    Background: Cardiovascular diseases (CVD) are the main source of mortality and morbidity in our society with dyslipidemia contributing considerably to atherosclerosis. The study aimed to estimate the prevalence of dyslipidemia in residents of Karachi in order to design appropriate health interventions at the primary and secondary levels to reduce cardiovascular events. Methods: Study design was transversal and conducted during the period of January to April’ 2016. Five hundred subjects who were healthy and not having any disease with ≥ 25 age group were selected who had attended their regular general health check-up in OPDs of different hospital in Karachi. Dyslipidemia risk levels were concluded as per National Cholesterol Education Program (NCEP) – Adult Treatment Panel (ATP) III guiding principles. Results: Overall 500 healthy subjects were screened for their total lipid profiles. Majority were males (61%) with average age of 48±1.3 years. Mean serum cholesterol (Total Cholesterol) (mean±SD: 181.5±40.94) and HDL-C (49.66±12.66) level were within the recommended range however; LDL-C (119.39±27.62), TG (163.4±76.28) and VLDL-C (33.6±13.12) level were to a certain degree beyond the range. Prevalence of hyperlipidemia was as follows: hyper-cholesteremia (≥240) 8.4%; hypo-HDL-C (<40), 29.4%; hyper-triglyceridemia (≥200), 15.9%; hyper-LDL-C (≥160), 8.8%. Conclusion: The prevalence of dyslipidemia, especially hyper-VLDL, hypo-HDL and hypertriglyceridemia, was higher than other types of hyperlipidemia in residents of Karachi. Consequently, necessitating urgent preventive programs and lifestyle changes in the form of community-based intercession strategies to put off and cope up with cardiovascular risk factors.

  110. Dr. Sheikh. Mahabub Alam

    Excessive noise causes if that exceeds the noise standard at compliance point set either by regulation, an environmental authorization or an approval. Mounting scientific evidences suggests potential serious mental and physical harms are created by the following major sources such as: Aircraft noise; Traffic noise; Noise from portable loud speakers; Construction noise; and Industrial noise. Excessive noise exposure on a regular basis will develop many indirect and direct health problems that will affect everyone (infants, children and adult) resulting various medical conditions. More damaging ones are: annoyance, sleep deprivation leading to insomnia; pregnancy and birth related problems; high blood pressure leading to cardiovascular diseases; and eventually it will cause mortality. Rampant use of Hydraulic horns on a daily basis at Dhaka city is leading Dhaka dwellers towards permanent deafness particularly the children, an unacceptable consequence therefore urgent measures are needed to ban hydraulic horns altogether. Strategies that will reduce noise generation effectively to maintain healthy living will include: Raising Community Awareness; Noise Inclusion in Academic Curriculum; Raising Media Participation; Government Sponsored Incentives; Sustainability Improvement and Of course Strict Enforcement of Smoke Regulation. In Sydney and in the western countries awareness is raising and overall noise trend is slowly declining but the accelerated traffic noise in the western world are the biggest causes of concern. It is reported that in Europe alone there are more than 50,000 deaths are taking place. European countries are increasingly adapting complete modal shift from private transport to public transport aimed to bring dual benefits - in one hand it will reduce acoustic contamination and on the other hand it will improve the environment by reducing air pollution. But in Dhaka the noise level is getting worse with the increasing number of Vehicles, Buses and big Lorries in the street 24 hours a day with increasing use of hydraulic horns in addition with increasing sound levels in every sector as country is going through economic boom. It is reported by UN that Bangladesh is on track to enter top 30 economies by 2030. While regulation and hefty fines is the best weapon to curb noise problem and there are many good regulations are in place but they still have limitations and loopholes which needs to be rectified including strict enforcement of the compliance of full forces of regulations. In addition community engagement through consultation and participation, encouragement and incentives and accompanied by effective structural changes are required to effectively reduce noise level to a healthy level amid development activities. In Bangladesh lack of education and ignorance is the main enemy. Introduction of traffic rules and the impact of noise on human health should be a mandatory part of schools and college education. Understanding of consequences of excessive noise by the drivers will definitely bring positive results.

  111. Dr. Abida Siddiqui, Dr. Mumtaz Khawaja, Uzma Punhwar and Anjum Shaheen

    The Physiography of Pakistan indicates that Pakistan is situated at a vulnerable region to meet natural disaster at any time. So, the purpose of exposfactotype of study is to analyze the geographical conditions of Pakistan and its outcomes interms of natural disaster. The Secondary Analyses of present data reveals that natural disaster hit millions of human lives and physical destruction. On the bases of discussion a complete rehabilitation program for the shelterless, hungry and archeologically disturbed learners and teachers is suggested. This rehabilitation program may be used for the natural disastrous places come under Provincial, National and International boundries also.

  112. Azad Gabil Oglu Aliyev

    For the last 15 years in periodic literature there has appeared a series of scientific publications that has laid the foundation of a new scientific direction on creation of piecewise-linear economic-mathematical models at uncertainty conditions in finite dimensional vector space. Representation of economic processes in finite-dimensional vector space, in particular in Euclidean space, at uncertainty conditions in the form of mathematical models in connected with complexity of complete account of such important issues as: spatial in homogeneity of occurring economic processes, incomplete macro, micro and social-political information; time changeability of multifactor economic indices, their duration and their change rate. The above-listed one in mathematical plan reduces the solution of the given problem to creation of very complicated economic-mathematical models of nonlinear type. In this connection, it was established in these works that all possible economic processes considered with regard to uncertainty factor in finite-dimensional vector space should be explicitly determined in spatial-time aspect. Owing only to the stated principle of spatial-time certainty of economic process at uncertainty conditions in finite dimensional vector space it is possible to reveal systematically the dynamics and structure of the occurring process. In addition, imposing a series of softened additional conditions on the occurring economic process, it is possible to classify it in finite-dimensional vector space and also to suggest a new science-based method of multivariant prediction of economic process and its control in finite-dimensional vector space at uncertainty conditions, in particular, with regard to unaccounted factors influence.

  113. Mogere Kelvin Machuki

    Service outsourcing is a concept that has been widely adopted by many manufacturing firms in today’s world. Globalization has been the main reason of outsourcing. Companies have therefore worked tirelessly in order to find out new ways of running their business without losing track of their main reasons for existence. This has therefore prompted them to outsource services and this includes having their non-core functions being performed by third parties. Cement manufacturing firms namely:-Mombasa Cement Ltd, ARM Cement Ltd, Bamburi Cement Ltd, Savannah Cement Ltd, East African Portland Cement Company Ltd and National Cement Ltd., outsource their non-core functions which include:- security guard, laundry, cleaning, catering, transport and logistics, information technology and customer care services. This study therefore sought to determine the relationship between service outsourcing and supply chain performance of cement manufacturing firms in Kenya. The research used a cross sectional research design. Primary data was collected using questionnaires and administered to 53 heads of department in the cement manufacturing firms in Kenya. The data was analyzed using regression and correlation analysis. The study established that cement manufacturing firms outsourced services in order to reduce their operating costs, concentrate on their main functions, increase quality and to improve response to the changing market demands. The study concludes that cement manufacturing firms outsource services and accrue various benefits including ability to concentrate on their main functions, risk sharing, cost reduction and increase in quality. The study then recommends that performance contracting for the case of service providers.

  114. Egiyi Modesta Amaka and Eyisi Adanma Sabina

    This research work focused on the effect of working capital management on the corporate profitability of manufacturing firms using Dangote Cement Plc. as a case study. Two hypotheses were formulated and tested using annual reports sourced from Dangote Cement Plc. web database spanning from 2007 to 2016. Ordinary least squares regression method was employed using a multiple regression model and results showed that efficient working capital management has positive significant influence on return on assets and that efficient working capital management has positive significant influence on net profit margin. It was however recommended that firms should improve their working capital policies in order to enhance corporate profitability and that there should be periodical appraisal of investments in working capital using capital investment models, determining ahead the viability of such investments.

  115. Dr. Neelam Kushwah and Annie Badkul

    The first impression of a country’s culture and traditions is created from its people and architecture: India is a country having vast history resulting in great diversity and plurality in its cultures and traditions. India’s core is its spirituality and related ancient myths, making it possible for various schools of thought to originate and co-exist simultaneously. After rampant destruction happened in world wars, Indian architecture over thousands of years of existence is a sequential progression with many interventions that served as modifiers. Hence architecture in every era in Indian historyis amanifestation of its time and yet is embedded in its past. The concept of modernism developed in 1920’s, was an era where it was difficult to grasp Indian architecture, as it was used with numerous aesthetic developments, following the spirit of the day. Starting with the efforts made by the European, through “modern architecture” as are bellious and pioneering force started to make cautious headway in India in the early 1930’s. Meanwhile realizing that our ancient past cannot be ignored in architecture since “ancient past is our living present”, hence architects like Raj Rewal, B.V. Doshi, Le Corbusier, Laurie baker and others attempted to merge modern architecture with fundamental credentials of Indianness bringing about a “modern Indian” architecture.

  116. Ahmad Syukron

    The objectives of this study is to find the information whether there is relationship between students’ knowledge about eco-labelling and personality with students’ counterproductive behavior in consuming non-eco-friendly products. Research method used was survey by involving 87senior high school students in Jakarta. There were three instruments have been developed in measuring students’ knowledge, personality and students’ counterproductive behavior. Data have been analyzed by applying regression and correlation which then be verified by t-test and F-test. Research results revealed that: there is a positive and significant correlation found between students’ knowledge and personality with students counterproductive behavior, even it has been analyzed by using first-order correlation, the results are still significant. Therefore, it could be concluded that students counterproductive behavior positively be predicted by students’ knowledge about eco-labelling and their personality, that is why it could not be neglected when students counterproductive behavior in consuming non-eco-friendly products need to be improved.

  117. Conte, M. J. and Roşca, I. C.

    This publication follows, recent works (Conte and Rosca, 2017; Conte and Rosca, 2017; Rosca and Conte, 2017; Rosca and Conte, 2017) related to the presence of mini black holes at the zero resulting potential between two masses, in quantum EVTD2 gravity. The equal reports series, arising from the classic gravity, is surprisingly augmented by the balance black body temperatures at fourth power reports for each concerned masses. This is highlighted by simply using the solar system data and the estimations and calculations that have been made during the recent works (Conte and Rosca, 2017; Conte and Rosca, 2017; Rosca and Conte, 2017; Rosca and Conte, 2017). Quantum gravity EVTD2 (Conte and Rosca, 2015; Conte and Rosca, 2015; Conte and Rosca, 2015; Rosca and Conte, 2008; Rosca and Conte, 2015) allows a new approach to the predominant phenomena in gravity that are not considered until now. This, taking into account the ubiquitous electromagnetic phenomena in space-time that structure the gravitational fields as they are generated by various black body photonic radiation of the masses to their black body requivalent temperature (Te). Te of a celestial body, part of a duo, can be determined if Te of the other one is known as well as their ratios and, their masses report.

  118. Dr. Shereen N. Abu Ghazaleh and Dr. Hassan Sami Alabady

    This research aims to define the Engineer Standard of Care in Green Buildings as it is an emerging issue. Standard of care shall define Engineer's liability in case of green building dispute. Thus, it discusses the traditional standard of care, the green slandered of care, the modification by expansion or limitation of such standard. This is in light of the Jordanian bylaws. It concludes that the nature of green building requires special standard of care and the engineer must be aware of all conditions that may expand or limit his liability.

  119. Kalpana, M. and Dr. Thilakam, M. R.

    The prosperity of a nation depends on the development of nation’s economy, when more people come forward to start their own business the economy will get improved. So inculcating entrepreneurial knowledge among students will improve the employment status in the country. The study was conducted to assess the motivating factors for taking up entrepreneurship among college students. For the present study, 150 girl students residing in Chennai city were selected by purposive sampling method. Questionnaire was administered to collect the data from the students. The aim of the present study was to identify the motivational factor, their family background in entrepreneurship and their attitude towards entrepreneurship. Many students were willing to take up entrepreneurship as their career after their graduation because of many motivating factors like flexibility in working hours and probability to become an employer.

  120. Nandhini, K. S.

    Menstruation is common process after the attainment of puberty among girls. Up to 80% of women report having some symptoms prior to menstruation. Common signs and symptoms include acne, tender breasts, bloating, feeling tired, irritability, and mood changes. These may interfere with normal life, therefore qualifying as premenstrual syndrome, in 20 to 30% of women. In 3 to 8%, symptoms are severe. If menstrual hygiene is practiced during the time of mensus, it will result in good reproductive health and good mental health too Objective: 1. To assess the practices of menstrual hygiene among the respondents. 2. To know the restrictions which were practiced during Menstruation? Methodology: The type of research design used is Descriptive. The Population size is 600 and the sample size is 60(Female Students). The sampling technique used for the study is simple random Sampling technique from probability sampling technique. The field of study is (insert ur college name and remove the brackets). Finding: Least number of respondents (5%) changes the pads once in a day, whereas the remaining members change more than once in a day. One third of the respondents (33%) mentioned that they are not allowed to do their house hold works during menstruation.

  121. Sivapriya Sriram and Ganegoda, G. A. P. K.

    Home gardening is deliberated as a beneficial practice in Sri Lanka as it increases the production of vegetables even during the off seasons. The existing literature insists that knowledge and information are basic aspects for increased agricultural production and productivity. This study focuses on examining the uses and limitations of agricultural communication about home gardening. Primary data were collected using questionnaire from fifty households in Kuchchaveli divisional secretariat in Trincomalee district, Sri Lanka which represents Muslim, Tamil and Sinhala ethnic groups. Findings indicate that around thirteen communication channels are used by the respondents to receive information on home gardening. Mostly used communication channel was Grama Niladhari (government appointed headman for villages). Mainstream mass communication channels such as television, radio and newspaper have least used by respondents to receive information related to home gardening. There is a significant relationship between communication source and adoption of home gardening. However, a significant correlation cannot be seen between communication sources and the awareness level. The study concludes that even though number of communication channels are available in the area, they have not been used effectively to disseminate information on home gardening to people. Thus, given the opportunity of being exposed to more information and support, the people of the area has the willingness and capacity to improve the adoption of home gardening and get the benefit of it.

  122. Sheila Maria Doula and Marina Lourenço Moura

    This research focuses on the Brazilian experience of the Science without Borders (Ciências sem Fronteiras - CsF) Program, launched in 2011 and terminated in 2017 after strong criticism from different sectors of society. The Program’s objective was to promote scientific and technological development through the funding of an international exchange program for undergraduate and graduate students. The international academic qualification is discussed in this context as public policy and individual strategy of acquisition of competences and differentiation in the labor market. This article aims to discuss how the students evaluate their experience while participating in the program and the influence that CsF had in those youths’ career projects. Once Brazilian economy relies on agricultural products and their exportation, the agricultural sciences were included in the program. Thus, given the importance of agriculture in the country’s economy and the program, this study concentrated on students from agricultural sciences graduation courses. The data collection was conducted through literature and document research and a survey. The survey was performed through the application of a questionnaire to a sample of 31 students from the agricultural sciences graduation courses of the Federal University of Viçosa, in the state of Minas Gerais, Brazil. The results points to a positive evaluation of the international experience provided by the program considering personal and subjective aspects, language learning, and scientific and technological capacitation. However, the students highlighted the differences between Brazil and the other countries in terms of social valorization of rural producers and other professionals that work in the agriculture and farming sector. From the students’ point-of-view, the economic, social and political crisis, and the lack of public policies focused on the sustainable rural development in Brazil are the obstacles to a professional fulfillment project and consequently reduce the intention of remaining in the country.

  123. Kulakov, A.V.Kulakov, A.V.

    For the first time in history the existence of a new state of matter - quantum plasma condensate combining the properties of a normal liquid and ionized plasma was theoretically predicted and confirmed. This paper analyzes the modern power industry paying special attention to its ecological condition, physical and chemical methods of power generation, discusses the quantum non-ideality of non-degenerate plasma and electron exchange in it leading to efficient energy release in the plasma under consideration. This paper defines the directions for using this energy, which are as follows: heating, lighting, transformation by means of photo elements or MHD-movements to electric power, producing energy in the ultraviolet and X-ray range, generating and accelerating charged particles. This paper pays special attention to one of the most fast-growing applications of quantum non-ideal plasma, namely, heating during which plasma combustion occurs. The discovery of this kind of phase state of collisional non-degenerate plasma and its application in science and technology will lead to creating a revolutionary efficient power industry globally. This source of energy is the only environmentally safe source that does not destroy and pollute our planet, and using it helps make our ecosphere cleaner.

  124. Aashish Jain

    Equity Mutual Funds are one of the important means of pooling risk capital from small investors. In order to encourage such investment culture, the Govt. of India in the year 1992 introduced the Equity Linked Savings Scheme (ELSS) mutual funds. Investments into the scheme qualify for tax benefit. The tax benefit comes with certain regulatory provisions. These regulatory provisions make the ELSS funds distinct from Diversified Equity Funds. Tax Saving Mutual Fund is one of the financial instruments in capital market, here the study is based upon the ELSS of public sector and private sector Mutual Funds, main purpose of the study is to compare the ELSS scheme of public sector and private sector and analyse the market timing abilities of fund managers of ELSS. A mutual fund is a financial intermediary that pools the savings of small investors for collective investment in a diversified portfolio of securities. Indian mutual fund industry is playing a significant role in the development of capital market and in the growth of Indian economy. Mutual fund investment is quite popular among small investors for seeking tax incentives. Tax-saving mutual fund schemes or the equity-linked savings schemes (ELSS) offers tax deduction benefits to investors. Thus, this study is carried out to fulfill the objectives of the investors.

  125. Ramu, C. and Baskaran, R.

    The study area represented in the Toposheet 58 N/13, N/14 and N/15 spread between the North latitude 10°13´ 30” and 10°51´30” and Longitudes 79°43´30” and 79°52´30” of Nagapattinam southern coastal region. Satellite imagery is used to identify the Land use/ Land cover status of the study area. The software like ERDAS 9.3 and Arc GIS 10.1 are used to demarcate the land use / Land cover features of Nagapattinam southern coast. Remote sensing and GIS provided consistent and accurate base line information than many of the conventional surveys employed for such a task. Supervised Classification Technique was applied to Landsat images in 1999 and 2009 data. Image Classification of seven reflective bands of two Landsat images is carried out by using maximum likelihood method with the aid of ground control point from SOI toposheet dated 1970. The result indicates that severe land cover changes have occurred in built-up land, agriculture land, has been experienced in the region between the 1999 and 2009. Mainly Land use and Land cover changes are occurring in coastal area region. The result of the work shows a rapid growth in built-up land between 1999 and 2009.

  126. Suman Paul and Manab Ghosh

    Handicraft is creative features of human life. Through the ancient time, handicraft has been related to generation to generation. This lifestyle gives to man occupation, employment, money and heritage of a place. Among the crafts, clay doll making industry of Krishanagar has a rich history and heritage. During the late 18th Century, the making of conventional clay dolls, clad in the provincial attire, gained momentum by the patronage of Maharaja Krishnachandra. Krishnanagar clay - dolls are unique in their reality and the quality of their fabrication. The handicraft creations of these artists are exhibited in most of the museums of the world. Exhibitions of Krishnagar dolls have been held in London, Paris and Boston. Ghurni (Ward no-2) is a very important center for the production of clay dolls and idols which are popularly known as Krishnagar clay dolls. Ghurni clay - models have won medals and certificates at international level. It spreads over the area of Kalipur, Bhatjangla, Pal Para, Halder Para, Sandhya Para and the surroundings. The Jalangi River, local ponds, wells, tube wells etc. act as important water resource while the raw material alluvial soil is available from the riverside. But in spite of so many advantages the scenario is becoming disheartening for so many reasons. Gone are the days of Jamindari patronage. So problems have arisen in the infrastructure, transport and marketing facilities. The flourishing market abroad of fiberglass models, have forced some artisans to change the base material of their products. The government should be taken some good policy for survival famous clay doll industry of Krishanagar.

  127. Dr. Suman Paul

    Urban landscape has undergone dramatic changes in most of the developing countries as a result of unplanned urban growth which needs to be analysed and understood for future planning purpose. Such growth has been facilitated by rapid development in transport and communication and new opportunities mostly found in the surrounding regions of an urban area. This kind of growth later on takes different shapes in different directions. It can be effectively mapped and precisely analyzed with the help of statistical approach and application of RS and GIS techniques. Google map, LISS IV, Landsat images of Sonarpur-Rajpur (South 24 Parganas, West Bengal) city and its surroundings have been used to monitor the urban growth pattern during 1980 and 2010.

  128. Jayanta Saha, Uttam kr. Patra and Dr. Suman Paul

    In recent time, Purulia district of the West Bengal faces a problem of occurrence of fluoride in groundwater and it gradually the scenario become serious. People of the many villages in Purulia-I and Purulia-II blocks have been marked with fluorosis after consuming fluoride contaminated water. Geologically, this study area is underlain by pre- cambrian metamorphic rocks like granite and gneiss etc. and have the semi- arid climatic condition. In present study a high fluoride concentration in groundwater is identified in a number of villages like Pattamputra, Bhul, in Purulia-I block and Hutmura, Chirumacha in Purulia-II blocks in Both post- monsoon and pre- monsoon season. In some of the village fluoride level have identified below the detection level. The average fluoride concentration of the study area in post monsoon and pre – monsoon season is 0.7215 mg/l and 0.8215mg/l respectively. The other water parameters such as pH, iron, and total hardness were also measured to find out the find out the hydro chemical relationship fluoride and other parameters. The groundwater of the study area is found acidic in nature but a positive relationship has been observed among the fluoride concentration and pH. Fluoride concentration has negative relation with iron and total hardness. The hydro - geological condition of the study area is a key factor for the occurrence of fluoride concentration in groundwater.

  129. Pranab Kumar Mishra

    The technological advancement has been responsible for a closer world. The world is interacting each other at all spheres i.e. social, economic, information etc. to gain prosperity. It is widely accepted as globalization. The State protected economy or privatization is the issue which has always been discussed. India opened it”s economy since 1991. The consumer satisfaction, innovation in the market, reduction in the costs and new means of finance or opportunities are the preferences of modern economy. This is the reason, India has managed to obtain special status in IT area in such a shorter period.

  130. Pratibha Pandey

    Gender inequality issue is more concerned in the third world countries. It is widely accepted that the issue is primarily related to economic empowerment of women. The women status is low in our social system and dalit women status is comparatively very low due to social hierarchy. There are eight ways i.e. access to resources, control over income etc. which can lead to dalit women to a stronger status. Similarly, understanding of empowerment issues and formation of subsequent strategies can uplift the Dalit women status. The role of self help groups, education and training, political participation are important to achieve gender equality.

  131. Neeraj Kumar Sharma

    In productivity fiction, cost effective allied methods are looked upon as input got used to replica. The replica was deliberated rooted in a single idea notion with a spotlight on totality cost minimization. This replica can be exploited as a sustain tool for decision makers at strategic and tactical decision levels. Supply chains management must be intelligent to put up ambiguity and disparity of supply because these are imperative aspects that concern supply chain performance. In supply chain management information sharing system is largely significant for better performance. A supply chain management is an included set of connections counting individuals, associations, actions, information and assets. Unswerving deliver of quality raw material for Automobile industry is mislaiding with unacceptable handling and transportation systems with options in loss of productivity. In today’s cut-throat bazaar, it is enormously easier said than done to lucratively generate elevated quality, low cost components without any erstwhile additional cost of suppliers. Cost reduction is one of the method useful for convalescing the productivity of associations. This paper confirms a Supply Chain Management replica in which acquisitioning components from altered assets, in company with production and distribution of components were scrutinized to perk up the productivity.

  132. Durairaj Dhanapal, Addisu Ferede Tesema and Gebrehiwot Asfaha

    The shoe industry demands an impressive array of adhesives due to variations in materials, processes, types of footwear, and seasonal design changes. Equally impressive is the performance demands placed on adhesives in this industry. These include a high degree of bond strength to resist numerous repetitions of bending, straightening, compressing, recovering, rubbing, and friction. The bond strength must also not be affected by rain, snow, wind, ultraviolet light, temperature changes, and whatever other elements to which the shoe will be exposed. In this review identify the adhesives bonding failure reasons in footwear processing. Failure reasons such as poor adhesive selection for processing, adhesive application problems, upper bottom poor skiving, poor lasing. Improper buffing process, adhesives improper applying methods , hot oven temperature control , improper sole attaching and sole pressing. In addition to providing high performance properties and durability, the adhesives and bonding processes that are used in the footwear industry must also offer good early strength and workability for fast and efficient production. The adhesive bond must be invisible or at least aesthetically pleasing to the shoe's design. And more recently, an additional imposing set of requirements has been placed on the shoe manufacturers - formulations and processes must be environmentally friendly and hazard free. Now days all footwear industry used for Water based adhesives use water as the carrier fluid, with the adhesive particles suspended in water, reducing the adhesive’s viscosity so that it can be applied to various substrates at varying thicknesses. Evaporation of the carrier fluid during the set and cure stages typically occurs in large ovens. Evaporation and cure also can take place in the open under ambient, non-thermal conditions. It is important to note that not all water based adhesives are 100% solvent-free, but may contain some VOCs as assistants to the water base for proper viscosity or fluid control. Water based adhesives have been available since the 1970s. They are formulated from rubber compounds (as the base material), with various additives such as synthetic hydrocarbon resins or pine sap derivatives to increase strength characteristics. The performance of solvent-based adhesives is largely determined by the polymer system in the formulation. The choice of adhesive type depends on the specific substrates and environmental resistance needed – temperature resistance, oil and plasticizer resistance, etc. Most solvent based adhesives contain flammable solvents which require proper precautions for safe handling. In addition, many organic solvents are regulated due to environmental concerns with emissions. Within each type of solvent based adhesive, formulations are available to match the application requirements of the process – brush, roll, bead or ribbon, spray. Once the adhesive is applied, solvent evaporates relatively quickly causing an increase in viscosity of the adhesive film. Bonds can be made immediately after adhesive application or after some solvent has evaporated but before the adhesive has dried to the point.

  133. Dr. Nitin Choubey and Prashant Udawant

    Today in the world of agriculture plants are demanding the utmost care to protect from various diseases. These diseases can create several damage to different plants & their growth.This paper characterizes different diseases of rose plants, common stages followed in plant disease identification methods. Few changes are suggested in the preprocessing stage to improve the quality of results. Lot of research is going on in this area with the help of Machine learning & Image processing. As some diseases of rose plant are common with many of the cash crops like cotton, this work can be further extended to the automatic plant disease identification method of many such plants.

  134. Dr. Iwasan D. Kejawa

    Nearly thousand of scientific experiments are performed both on humans and animals every year in the United States (Gregory, 1999). Does Science enormously play a role in the well beings of individual in the society? Research has found that science education is through motivation and satisfying the needs of humans. The scientific world is part of an elongated human development. This can be substantiated with the use and evolution of TECHNOLGY and SCIENCE (Minton, 2004). Education of the entities that comprise the need to achieve the goal of TECHNOLOGY and Science are important issues of today. Research has shown that scientific education is some conglomerate beliefs of individual minds. Education in general is through motivation and satisfying the needs of humans. The scientific world plays a role in human development. This can be substantiated with the use of evolution of TECHNOLGY. Education of the entities that comprise the need to achieve the goal of TECHNOLOGY and SCIENCE are important issues of studies in our world.

  135. Neeraj Kumar Sharma

    The paper confers how Total Quality Management largely augments production. The eventual purpose is to persuade customer’s demand. The erudition was carried out at Automobile Industry through accumulating the most important information from the managers throughout planned survey. The information was investigated by vivid study. The effect exposed that there is a noteworthy rapport involving Total Quality Management execution and high productivity. This erudition has imperative connotations for managers. It encourages managers to empower in the period and assets to apply Total Quality Management. Founded on the outcomes of this erudition, the functioning of Total Quality Management practices is associated with enhanced Productivity. If members of staff do not consider there is support from the organization and from employment contemporaries, then the execution of Total Quality Management courses may be most advantageous.

  136. Athira, T.

    Air pollution rate is getting verse day by day around the world due to industrialization and urbanization. And particulate matter (PM) is considered as one of the major contributor to this increase in air pollution. Besides the deposition of trace elements in air and reduction in visibility, the direct impact of particulate matter on vegetation and human health are serious issues. In several researches a reliable relation was found between health effects and elevated concentrations of atmospheric PM10 concentration. So for the risk-impact assessments and health studies it is very important to quantify the air pollutant concentration rate in the atmosphere and forecast particulate matter concentrations. In the present study particulate matter concentration of PM10 (10 micron size) was predicted using Artificial Neural Network and a Hybrid Artificial Neural Network. The parameters which affect particulate matter concentration such as Temperature maximum, Temperature minimum, Rainfall, Relative humidity and Station level pressure were considered as the input parameters in the modeling. ANN and hybrid ANN models were developed for Trivandrum district and the model performance was compared by statistical evaluation.

  137. Namory Camara and Lu Huilin

    Flow and temperature distribution in parallel-connection of solar heat exchanger are numerically analyzed. Fluent software is used to solve governing differential equations with boundary conditions. Numerical results indicate that it is important to take the flow maldistribution into account for a better design of the parallel-connection of solar heat exchanger. It is also found that the heat transfer rate of the optimized model is increased by 6.0% compared to that of the base type.

  138. Kamlesh M. Patel and Dr. Ashaben D. Patel

    Reversed phase isocratic method has been developed for the quantitative analysis of local anesthetics drugs bupivacaine, ropivacaine and mepivacaine with very good separation for determination in bulk drug and dosage form of pharmaceutical. A Hypersil BDS C18 250×4.6mm,5µm column, mobile phase mix buffer and acetonitrile (34:66v/v) in 1000 ml and adjust pH 7.5 with diluted KOH solution, isocratic flow rate 0.9 mL/min and system detection is performed at 220 nm has been used for HPLC and LC-MS. Forced degradation study is perform in different stress condition such as by keeping it in sunlight, UV light, thermal, humidity, acidic, basic, and oxidative for extended time. Degradation products separation on HPLC chromatography. Degradation products separation on HPLC chromatography. Degradation study experiments are also analyzed on newly developed HPLC method.

  139. EKWEH Kenechukwu Anthony, OYINLOLA Adeyinka Kofoworola and AKINDAPO Jacob Olaitan

    Evaluation of toluene and linearalkylbenzene as quenching media for 0.49 and 1.14Wt%C carbon steel was investigated. The samples were quenched to room temperature in the quenching media (toluene, linear alkyl benzene and water). The machined specimen of the steel were heated at 8400C and 8800C then quenched in water, toluene and linear alkyl benzene. Tensile strength, hardness and impact energy were used to measure the quenching potentials of the various media. The microstructures and mechanical properties of the quenched samples were used to determine the quench severity of the petrochemical products. The test of the mechanical properties shows that the hardness of steel quenched in water was (50.0, 46.6 and 63.1, 64.2 HRC), while the hardness of steel quenched in toluene was (8.9, 17.0 and 40.4, 44.3 HRC) samples which was recorded as the least in all samples quenched. Samples quenched in toluene absorbed the highest amount of energy (57.4, 34.3 and 16.0, 12.5J) before fracture while samples quenched in water absorbs the least energy (13.7, 6.5 and 3.4, 2.7J). The microstructure of the samples quenched in the toluene under study revealed the formation of low proportions of martensite and in the case of linearalkylbenzene, there was retained austenite. Hence, linearalkylbenzene can be used where cooling severity less than that of water would be required for hardening of plain carbon steels.

  140. Dr. Danesh Dinyar Chinoy

    Background: Musculoskeletal disorders are the most common health problems for computer users who work for an extended period. The aim of this study was to identify the best work-rest schedule with the three different work-rest groups: no rest break, mid-rest break, and multiple- rest breaks, which was associated with the least EMG activities of the upper trapezius muscle and would be beneficial for musculoskeletal health Methods: Forty-five right-handed females complaining of neck discomfort were randomly assigned into three equal groups, Group1 (no rest break) they were to be engaged in sixty minutes of typing followed by ten minutes break (60-10), group 2 (mid-rest break) thirty minutes of typing followed by five minutes break (30-5), and group 3 (multiple rest breaks) fifteen minutes of typing followed by 2.5 minutes break (15-2.5). Surface EMG was used to pick up the electrical activity of right and left upper trapezius throughout the computer typing task. Results: There was a statistically significant reduction of normalized RMS (p<0.05) between the three groups for both right and left upper trapezius. Also, our results demonstrated a positive effect of mid and multiple rest breaks regarding reduced muscle activity in the upper trapezius muscle during a computer work. Conclusion: There is a positive effect of mid and multiple rest breaks regarding reduced muscle activity in the upper trapezius muscle throughout a computer work in subjects with neck and shoulder discomfort.

  141. Dr. B. V. V. Padmavathi

    Communication competence is a term in linguistics which refers to a language user's grammatical knowledge of syntax, morphology, phonology and the like, as well as social knowledge about how and when to use utterances appropriately. Communication competence is the ability to send messages which promote attainment of goals while maintaining social acceptability. Competent communicators attempt to align themselves with each other’s goals and methods to produce a smooth, productive, and often enjoyable dialogue.

  142. Nemomsa Anbese and Belay Beyene

    A cross-sectional study of dermatophilosis was undertaken from December 2016 to February 2017 on 770 cattle (693 local and 77 cross) with the aim of determining prevalence and associated risk factors in and around Horro guduru animal production and research center of wollega university, Horro guduru zone, western Ethiopia. Culturing of D.congolensis and Giemsa staining were the techniques used. Twenty eight of 770 examined animals (3.63%) had dermatophilosis. Prevalence was higher in indigenous zebu (2.83%) than in cross bred (0.94%) cattle, in female cattle (2.43 %) than in male (1.35%), in > 3 years old than in< 3 years old, in wet (2.02%) than in dry season (1.75%), and in cattle with no tick infestation (1.62%) than in cattle infested with tick (2.16%). Statistically significant difference (p<0.05) was observed in breed of cattle, age, season of the year and tick infestation (p<0.05). The study indicated dermatophilosis is a potential determinant factor for the dairy development. Therefore, factors that bring mechanical injury to the skin and management practices that promote transmission should be avoided.

  143. Dr. Sumayya, A. R. and Dr. Sivagami Srinivasan

    The Green Leafy Vegetables (GLVs) such as Brassica juncea (mustard), Trigonella foenum (fenugreek), Amaranthus polygonoides (sirukeerai), Amaranthus tristis (araikeerai) and Sesbania grandiflora (agati) were grown to study their pigment levels in fresh water, 75% of silk dyeing effluent and biotreated effluent conditions as pot study. The pigments such as chlorophyll a, chlorophyll b, Total chlorophyll ab and carotenoids were evaluated on its 45th day of its growth. The total chlorophyll and carotenoids were significantly high in biotreated S.grandiflora and B.juncea. The total chlorophyll level was highly reduced in the T.foenum grown in 75% effluent. In case of carotenoids the most affected plant was S.grandiflora and the least affected was A.tristis grown in 75% effluent. The biotreated B.juncea has an elevated level of carotenoids when compared to other GLVs grown in biotreated effluent.

  144. Nutan Narwal and Reenu Rana

    The study was conducted on Maize (QPM mixture), Oat (HJ-8) and Tulsi leaves. Six types of blend flours i.e Type-I, Type-II and Type-III blend flour were prepared from maize: oat in ratios of 85:15, 70:30, 55:45(W/W), Type-IV, Type-V and Type-VI blend flours were prepared from maize: oat: tulsi leaves in ratio of 80:15:5, 65:30:5, 50:45:5 (W/W). Different types of baked products (Cake and Biscuit) were developed using blend flours and assessed organoleptically. Most acceptable products were nutritionally analyzed. Among baked products, mean scores for overall acceptability of Type-II cake were in category of ‘like moderately’ whereas mean scores for overall acceptability of Type-V based cake were in the range of ‘like slightly’. Mean scores for overall acceptability of Type-II and Type-V blend flour biscuits were in the category of ‘like moderately’. Nutritional evaluation of cakes and biscuits depicted that Type-II cake and biscuit contained significantly highest amount of crude protein (13.90 and 8.57 %) while crude fiber (3.07 and 3.11%) and ash (2.02 and 0.8%) content was significantly higher in Type-V cake and biscuit. Thus it can be concluded that incorporation of tulsi leaves in blend flour of maize and oat can serve as functional ingredients for combating degenerative disorders such as obesity, heart diseases, cancer, diabetes etc.

  145. Vijaya Rao Pidugu, Nagendra Yarla, Swathi Putta, Arunasree M Kalle and Krishna Satya, A.

    Histone deacetylases (HDACs) are the regulators of inflammation and HDAC inhibitors are shown to be anti-inflammatory agents. Previously, we designed and synthesized a series of novel glycine and alanine hybrids of 2,5-disubstituted 1, 3, 4-oxadiazoles as class I HDAC inhibitors. All the compounds synthesized (10a-j) showed moderate HDAC8 selectivity and anti-tumor activity. Here we evaluated the anti-inflammatory potency of the compounds on E. coli-infected mouse macrophage, RAW 264.7, cells. Among the 10 compounds (10a-j), compounds 10f and 10h alone did not inhibit the macrophage proliferation. Further studies using 10f and 10h showed reduced colony-forming units (CFU) of bacteria isolated from the infected macrophage and inhibition of the COX-2 inflammatory protein levels along with inhibition of the pro-inflammatory cytokines (IL-12, TNF-, IFN-γ). Further in vivo studies using carrageenan-induced paw edema in rat model demonstrated a significant reduction in the paw edema at 20 mg/kg body weight when compared to untreated control. The study results thus signify that compounds 10f and 10h with moderate HDAC8 inhibitory activity also possess potent anti-inflammatory activity.

  146. Patil, U. S. and Wanjare, P. D.

    The present survey provides information of the therapeutic proprieties of 38 crude drugs used by Andh tribes of Yavatmal District. Information on their boticinal name, Vernacular name, family, parts used, mode of drug preparation and administration is provided.

  147. Silvana Dervishi and Baki Dervishi

    The production of seedlings is an orienting study for all the producers of seedlings vineyard and the fruit’s trees. Study aimed to drawing conclusions for the implication of the real factors in seedlings’ production and also of the impacts with the objective to achieve the low cost production of seedlings (Musabelliu, 2007). The study is made at one of the most ancient places for the cultivation of the vineyard in Albania with old traditions in this field. The area where the production of seedlings is focused, it is placed in the territory of Ndroq Commune, in the south -west of Tirana, in which a part of the farmers has build their farms for the production of seedlings. Since in the ancient time in this area, the cultivation of vineyard has been a tradition, which is being resurected rapidly. The objective is to evaluate the production of seedlings sector and to give the necessary recommendation for: (i) The methodology of expenses records; (ii) Cost calculation methodology; (iii) The methodology of analysing the financial indexes. This study will incite all the seedlings growers in the country and a model in their work.

  148. Rajeev Dhakal, Deosarker, D. B. and Paudel, D. P.

    The field trial was carried out at the VNMKV, Parbhani, to study the correlation of 13 yield contributing characters and nine grain quality characters with grain yield of aerobic rice genotypes on Vertisols. The experimental materials consist of 50 rice genotypes including three checks and allocated in randomized complete block design in three replications. Correlation analysis of yield contributing characters shows that all the characters under study were significantly and positively correlated with grain yield per plant except, days to 50% flowering, days to maturity and iron chlorosis reaction at both genotypic and phenotypic levels. Whereas, among grain quality characters elongation ratio was found to be positively correlated with grain yield per plant however volume expansion, protein content and amylose content were negatively correlated. Path analysis studies among yield contributing characters indicated that number of effective tillers per planthad maximum positive direct effect followed by number of grains per panicle and 1000 grain weight on grain yield per plant.Almost all the yield contributing characters exerted negative indirect effect on grain yield per plant via iron chlorosis reaction. The grain quality characters elongation ratio, L:B ratio and relative density exerted highest positive direct effect on grain yield per plant, whereas direct effect of elongation index was negative.

  149. Manasa Kumar Panda, Swati Sucharita Panda, Nabin Kumar Dhal and Prasanna Kumar Panda

    Homeopathy not only used as medicines but also applied in agriculture in this modern era. Potentised substance (Arsenic trioxide, Gibberellin acid, Lysine, Sodium Chloride, Cupper Chloride) were used in the plant for germination, growth, and development of the plant. Effects were reported with decimal potency levels ranging from 14x to 45x, and centesimal potency levels ranged from 5c to 24c. The studies aimed to understand the effectiveness homeopathic medicine and also identification of therapeutic effect on different plants. These studies allowed extending the boundaries of the practical use of homeopathy including its use in the farming industry. This review covers the use of potentised homeopathic medicine in the agricultural sector.

  150. Dr. Narendra Kumar Singh

    Our society intimately linked with physics because discoveries affect it, like communication( telephones, telegraphs, teleprinter, antennas and other telx) enable us to quickly exchange messages between far up places. Curriculum is running new in class-11 with five branches:- 1-Mechanics 2-Thermodynamics 3-Electromagnetism 4-Relativity 5-Quantam mechanics. In physics there is close relation between theory and practical. The degree of impact of physics on the society can easily be gauged from the different products, which is simplify the life, it will be no exgeneration, if we say that science in general and physics in particular has the potentiality to eradicate poverty and hunger completely from the surface of earth and to user in age of prosperity.

  151. Dr. Usha, Dr. Deepa Rani, Dr. Neha Chaurasia, Dr. O. P. Mishra, Dr. Andleeb Zehra and Dr. Agrawal, N. K.

    Celiac disease is very common in our place. Aim was to find out prevalence of various autoantibodies in CD. Material and method: Total 22 cases of celiac disease along with 50 healthy cases were studied within a period of 6 months. Anti tissue transglutaminase (Ttg), anti thyroid peroxidase (TPO), Anti nuclear antibodies (ANA) were done by ELISA method, while antibody to extractable nuclear antigen (ENA), (Sm,RNP,SSA,SSB,Scl70,Jo-1,centromere) and antigliadin antibody were done by dot blot method. Result: Males (59.09%) were more affected than females (40.92%).In males disease was mostly seen between 1.5 to 15 years (76.92%) while in females disease was found in 15 to 30 years (77.77%). Chronic diarrhoea was the most common manifestation (68.18%), followed by failure to thrive (31.81%), pain in abdomen, nausea vomiting (22.72%),fullness of abdomen, belching (18.18%)and loss of appetite (13.63%). One case was associated with Type 1 Diabetes mellitus (TIDM) while in 3 cases patient had Type 2 Diabetes mellitus. About 11 cases (50%) had some kind of autoantibodies. Commonest was anti TPO antibodies detected in 27.27% cases followed by ANA and centromere Ab (9.09%), anti smith (Sm) Ab and anti scleroderma 70 and anti Jo-1 antibody (4.54%) each. Clinically only 3 patients had symptoms of hypothyroid. None of the patient positive for anti centromere antibody had feature of scleroderma. One patient positive for both anti Jo-1 and Scl 70 had muscle weakness. Two patients were positive for ANA out of which one was positive for anti Sm Ab also but clinically no evidence of SLE was present. Antigliadin Ab detected by dot blot method in 68.18% cases. Thus our study concludes that celiac disease in 50%cases is associated with some kind of antibodies of hypothyroidism, scleroderma, SLE or polymyositis, but clinically hypothyroidism is more common.

  152. Dr.Razak Wahab, Mohd Tamizi Mustafa, Mohd Sukhairi Mat Rasat and Siti Marlia Mohd Don

    The physical, mechanical and thermal properties of composite boards made from empty fruit bunch studied. The oil palm empty fruit bunches (EFB) obtained from a private oil palm plantation. By using fibre cutter and particle crusher, these EFB refined. Hardeners and wax added at 1% and 3% during the mixing process. Boards with densities of 500, 600 and 700 kg/m3 produced using resin urea formaldehyde as the bonding agent at 10, 12 and 14%. The boards conditioned in a conditioning chamber set at 20±2°C and 65% relative humidity before undergoing subsequent testing. The EN Standards specifications applied in the preparation of test samples and testing. Results showed the highest modulus of rupture (MOR) and modulus of elasticity (MOE) achieved in this study were 22.91 N/mm2 and 2059.56 N/mm2. The internal bonding was 0.98 N/mm2, meanwhile for edge and face screw withdrawal, 467.47 N/mm2 and 512.37 N/mm2. Boards with 700 kg/m3 density and 14% resin content met the requirement of standard specifications. The thermogravimetric analysis indicates maximum rate of decomposition for the EFB boards occurred at 380.83°C. This study shows that the board’s density and resin content applied influence on the board's overall properties with boards produced at 700 kg/m3 density with 14% resin content showed excellent overall properties with good dimensional stability.

  153. Gupta, Sanjeev Kumar

    The geographical location of the state of Jammu and Kashmir supports a rich floral diversity including tree diversity. The timber requirements are met by various species of trees including both the Gymnosperms and Angiosperms. A timber yielding tree attains maturity in hundreds of years but their rapid loss for one reason or the other cannot maintain a balance in nature. As such it adversely affects the forests and thus results in the fragile nature of ecology. All the species mentioned and described in the study are found in wild state. A total of 42 species of trees belonging to 23 families of Gymnosperms and Angiosperms have been enlisted and described. However, some species are also cultivated both by villagers and government agencies. This practice coupled with a shift to substitute the use of traditional wood to the popular synthetic materials may also change the ecological scenario in the state.

  154. Hemavathi, K., Abhilash, H. S., Amudha Senthil and Sourav Kumar

    The objective of the present study was to utilize Wheat Germ (WG), a low cost industrial by-product (waste), but a nutritional capsule, filled with high quality protein (33%), oil 14-16% (ω-3/6.2, ω-6/55.7), antioxidants like tocopherols, glutathione, polyphenols, non-starch polysaccharides, healthy fiber and minerals by replacing expensive black gram to prepare popular traditional fermented steam cooked Idli. Trials were conducted by replacing 25, 50, 75 and 100% black gram with processed, Unflaked, Undamaged, Stabilized and Debitterized WG (USDWG), following traditional method of preparation. Idli prepared by replacing 50-100% Black Gram with WG, had improved nutritional values, textural and sensorial attributes. Natural fermentation rate was faster due to superior USDWG protein quality and quantity, enabling fermentation time reduction to almost half of control Idli, co-relating batter pH (4.4) and density (0.4g/cm3). Significant difference was not observed in Viscoamylograph profile and invitro starch digestibility of the developed Idli. Prepared Idli had desirable sweet, sour, spongy texture, higher sensorial score and acceptability and can prove ideal vehicle to alleviate malnutrition constituting staple south Indian food due to its affordability. USDWG possesses strong anticancer and disease preventive properties as observed by the authors, translating developed Idli therapeutic, highly nutritive and traditional food at affordable cost.

  155. Amogh P. Kumar, Paul Lazarus, T., Santha, A. M., Brigit Joseph and Manju, R. V.

    Climate change is the major non price factor responsible for reduced production of food crops. A study was conducted in Idukki and Wayanad districts of Kerala to analyse the impact of climate change on black pepper production based on the secondary data collected for a period of 30 years from 1987 to 2016. From the panel data analysis, it was revealed that temperature during 3rd and 4th quarters has negative impact on pepper production. Rainfall during 2nd quarter was found to have positive impact on pepper production but was statistically insignificant. Compound annual growth rate of the climatic variables showed that, rainfall and maximum temperature had negative growth trend, while minimum temperature had positive growth trend in both the districts. Morning and evening relative humidity of the two districts showed opposite trends which was positive for Wayanad district and negative for Idukki district.

  156. Agadi, S. N. and Talawar, P.L.

    Considerable histological information on anther development was done by many scientists, but histochemical information on the anther development of Solanaceae members is almost lacking. An attempt is made to understand the distribution of histochemical substances during anther development in Solanum viarum. In the present study anther wall development is basic type, epidermis and endothecium is single layered and persistent. Middle wall layers are two in number, tapetum is binucleate glandular, dimorphic in nature, dual in origin. Rich content of RNA is seen in archesporial cells, sporogenous tissue, meiocyte, tapetal cells, wall layers and pollen grains and connective. It can be concluded that there is mutual interaction and utilization of biochemical substances in the anthers during formation and differentiation of pollen grains.

  157. Vrijesh Kumar Yadav, Nishant Kumar, Ajay Kumar Rana, Jahangir Imam, Rama Shankar Singh and Arun Kumar Bapully

    The molecular marker based identification techniques are extremely reliable methodologies that are currently used in forensic crime investigation of human, animals as well as plants. Generally the markers are short tandem repeats (STRs), species specific primers, SNPs (single nucleotide polymorphism) are based on PCR and NGS methods which is still under extreme investigation by FBI for development of more convenient, easy and reliable procedures. The human DNA profile generated through genetic analyzer (Electrophoresis of amplified STR markers) is the most used method which dealt with murder, sexual assault, rape, paternity dispute and physically burnt cases. However, the interpretation of results become difficult in cases of partial profiles generated from challenging forensic samples such as dead cells or mixed DNA profile and sometimes very difficult or impossible in case of monozygotic twin’s. The advances in NGS platforms applied in generation of DNA database from different sources, phenotypic analysis or phylogenetic analysis and can be used in analysis of mixed DNA identification, complex paternity cases, monozygotic twin’s identification, body fluid analysis, as well as species origin detection in forensic science. Recently, it has been reported protein can be also used in the identification of humans as the variations can be unique to an individual or a community of people. Thus, the advent of unique protein based human identification process might be an asset in forensic investigation which is the major new era challenge in forensic science.

  158. Md. Motiur Rahman, Md. Ariful Islam, Rakhi das, Md Amirul Islam and Khan Kamal Uddin Ahmed

    Management of soil and water quality parameters is important catalysts for gaining sustainable fish production in Bangladesh. In this context, a comprehensive survey was done to categories existing shrimp farms locally called ghers of Tala Upazilla of sathkhira districts covering each union based on water depth. Among the ghers, 56% found between 1.5 < to < 3 ft depth, 19% below ≤ 1.5 ft and 25% ≥ 3 ft and an investigation was carried out to assess soil-water quality parameters and production performance of 9 selected low depth shrimp ghers in Khesra Union under Tala Upazilla at Sathkhira districts of Bangladesh over a growing cycle. Physico-chemical parameters of soil-water needed to be measured and analyzed by standard methods. Total yield (260 kg/ha/cycle in T1, 63 kg/ha/cycle in T2, 70 kg/ha/cycle in T3) of fishes was also calculated from the stocking and harvesting data. Most of the parameters of soil and water correlated significantly with each other suggesting a high degree of interactions between different parameters in the system. A pattern of qualitative and quantitative difference of zooplankton over phytoplankton was also recorded in these farms Therefore, a high degree of salinity, Water level fluctuation and iron deposition in waters was also documented. However, considerably lower concentrations of phosphorus in the soil indicated a net retention and trapping of phosphatic nutrients in the environment. Moreover cropping pattern was two cycles (fishes single, paddy single) per year, feeding frequencies was irrigullar and shrimp suitability and production ranged from (0-15)% and 63 kg/ha/cycle to 260kg/ha/cycle. The present findings indicate that low depth gher comparatively gives a better result in fin fishes than shrimp and creates a hazardous environment for shrimp post larvae survives, viral death, health risk and economically not viable for sustainable shrimp production in Bangladesh.

  159. Gajanan Dhondbarao Ranvir, Sudhir Raghuttamrao Rajurkar, Tukaram Bhivaji Bhuktar, Nitin Dadarao Jadhav and Balasaheb Marutirao Kondare

    Coccidiosis, inflicting a huge production and economic losses to poultry industries is great concern due to its prevalence by shifting virulence from less to more pathogenic strains or species of coccidia. Control of coccidiosis is difficult due to emergence of drug resistance and several imitations of available anticoccidial vaccine leads to frequent disease outbreaks, strategic control and alternative approaches are being used and practiced in control of coccidiosis. Present study carried out to assess anticoccidial efficacy of SNPsCMcFE (Silver Nanoparticles coated with Morinda citrifolia Extract) against E. tenealla induced coccidiosis in broiler chicks (Ven cob 400). Total 120, one-day-old broiler chicks assigned and divided into six groups, each group comprised of 20 chicks employed in this study. Infection was given orally in groups T2 to T6 by single low dose sporulated oocysts of E. tenella (@ 20x103 per chick) and subsequently given treatments through water for 28 days were served as infected and treated groups. Group T1 was healthy control. Group T2 was infection control. Group T3 standard drug control given amprolium sulfate @ 125 ppm for eight days through water. Group T4 treated with SNPs @ 15 ppm. Group T5 was administered SNPsMcFE @ 15 ppm and Group T6 birds treated with fruit extract of Morinda citrifolia (McFE) @ 300 ppm. General performance, mortality, oocytes counts and lesion scores were perform for all groups. Results showed 100% morbidity and no mortality among birds of infection and treatment groups. Group T2 birds were inactive, depressed reduced body weight, weight gain, feed, water intake, anemic and revealed signs of ruffled feather, semisolid feaces, bloody and blood mixed mucoid diarrhea. Severity of signs and symptoms were greater on day 4th day PI followed by 6th and 7th, there were significant improvement in clinical signs and symptoms, performance, OPG count and lesions score in all infected treated birds compared to control on 9th day PI onwards. In groups treated with SNPsMcFE and others lesions score was graded as +1 against +2 of infected untreated birds in control group T2 suggested mild infection. Fruit extract M. citrdiloia treatment showed 100% efficacy in terms of OPG counts and improved condition after 7th day PI (28 day of age) onwards, SNPsMcFE treatment was more effective than SNPs and less than McFE, where anticoccidial activity found highest with the fruit extract. Efficacy of SNPsMcFE was comparable to amprolium. No caecal lesions or fecal oocytes were found in birds treated with M. citrdiloia extract and healthy uninfected untreated control birds (Group T1). Among all OPG count were in order of treatment SNPs, > SNPsMcFE > amprolium, whereas lesion score were SNPsMcFE > amprolium > SNPs, McFEs as compared to infected untreated control (T2). In conclusion, the anticoccidial activity of SNPsMcFE and SNPs were moderate and for McFE found at par, which could be possible alternative coccidiostat, obviously subtle infection at low doses of E. tenella are needs further rectification with moderate and higher doses on large scale assessment for guaranteed efficacy against coccidiosis in broiler chickens (ven cobb 400).

  160. Putri Teesa, Fitri Karimah and Rodman Tarigan

    Background: The burden of children with physical disability also affects people around them. A lot of skills can be obtained by attending a special school, as special school has its program to overcome problems that arise from disabilities. Learning achievement is needed as an evaluation tool for the education of pysically disabled student. The objective of this study is to describe learning achievement of student with physical disability Methods: Learning achievement was obtained from student’s study report. Academic courses were described in scores. As students in Physical Disability Specialized School of Disabled Children Development Foundation (Yayasan Pembinaan Anak Cacat) in Bandung were categorized into academic and developmental classes, the description of their learning achievement in this study followed that categorization as well. The school has special programs for motoric capability and activities of daily living. Those special programs were described with categorization of similar concern and obtained from teacher’s description in study report. Results: The score for academic courses both of classes improved by the end of the academic year. Developmental class is lower in achievement of both academic course and motoric capability than academic class. All students in academic class could eat and drink independently but they had poor ability in dressing and toileting. As for developmental class, all students depended on their caregivers and teachers in their daily activity. Conclusions: Students from academic class with normal intelligence to mild mental retardation provided a better study results than students with multiple disabilities. Both classes showed no significant improvement in motoric capability and activities daily living.

  161. Manimaran, K. and Murugesan, S.

    An ethno botanical survey was conducted to collect information about medicinal plants used by traditional healers in villages located in the forest area of Valasamalai hills, Thiruvannamalai district, Tamilnadu, India. Information presented in this work was gathered from tribal informants including practitioners using an integrated approach of botanical collections and interview schedules. Many tribal people depending on naturally growing or wild plants for their food and medicine in this region. A total information was gathered from 24 to 76 age groups of people. The exploration revealed that some of unknown medical uses from the medicinal plants. Totally of 95 medicinal plants belonging to 50 families were identified in the region. These medicinal plants are used to various diseases such as skin diseases, dysentery, cough and cold. The botanical name, local name, family name, parts used and traditional practice were documented. The plant parts were invariably preferred in the form of juice, extract, powder, paste and treating ailments. The indigenous knowledge available with these people plays an important role in quick and proper identification of natural resources.

  162. Ravindra Kumar Pandey, Nafees Ahmad Ansari and Tewari, J. P.

    Tomato is very important fruit vegetable grown in tarai region of Uttar Pradesh. The crop suffers a great loss due to infection of a whitefly borne virus tomato leaf curl. The present investigation deals with the role of weed reservoirs harbouring the virus inside the crop, nearby the crops and adjacent areas. TCLV has a very wide host range and the vector whitefly Bemisia tabaci Genn. can multiply on wide variety of host therefore, some of the host plants harbouring both virus and vectors were recorded. A total 38 plants including weeds, ornamental and cultivated plants were surveyed. Some of them were perennials and including plants grown as food, fodder and vegetables and were permanent source of inoculum of TLCV in nature having a potential role in the epidemiology of the disease. Influence of the climatic conditions and cultural practices were observed on the level of infection.

  163. Dr. Itedal Abdelraheem Mohamed Ahmed

    This study comprises two designs the first one is a community-based descriptive cross-sectional qualitative study conducted in Saudi and Alshikh Mohamed Ali Fadul Hospital in Omdurman, Sudan as well asNajran University Hospital, Kingdom Saudi Arabia (KSA)to study theimpact of maternal age and parity in incidence of placenta previa. The aim of the study, to correlate the maternal age and parity with placenta previa. The relationship between age and parity in Sudan and KSA. The Pearson correlation 0.718 in Sudan is strongly and 0.249 in KSA its middle level correlation and P value 0.000 is significant in both countries . The correlation between age and parity with placenta previam, showed a positive Pearson Product Moment correlation of between 0.257 for age andplacenta previa(PP) in Sudan and 0.071 in KSA. This relationship is quite high, which suggested a fairly strong relationship in Sudan and weakly in KSA may be to a few number of age group patient between 30 and 40 years and older which is common related to placenta previa (PP). The correlation is significant at the 0.05 level (2-tailed). The conclusion of the study, thematernal age and parity represent the impact factor of incidence ofplacenta previa (PP).

  164. Dr. Ravi Raj, Dr. Madhu Ranjan, Dr. Rohit, Dr. Ritu, Dr. Chetan and Dr. Binod

    Aims and Objective: To determine the Effect of different denture adhesives on the retention of maxillary complete denture. Materials and Methods: Twenty edentulous patients were selected from department of prosthodontics and crown &bridge, Hazaribagh college of dental sciences. The sample consisted of 12 males and 8 females, the age range between (40-78) years. Measurement of the Retention For purpose of this study retention has been expressed in terms of the force required to dislodge vertically a maxillary complete denture using loading apparatus. The three denture adhesives used in this study were Super corega powder, Boots denture adhesive powder (Boots Company PLC. Nottigham, England), Lacalut Dent. Gel (paste) (Arcam GmbH Germany). At the first day of testing, retention of the maxillary denture was first recorded 15 minutes after insertion without the use of any denture adhesives. Measurements were repeated in the same manner, 15 minutes after the adhesive was applied (base line) and at 1 and 2 hours after first measurement with denture adhesive. After that the denture was removed carefully, cleaned and kept in water. All these measurements were repeated in the next day using a second type of adhesive and at the third day using the third type of adhesive. After finishing with the measurements, the metal bar was removed and the maxillary denture was polished and returned to the patient. Results: The result showed no statistically significant difference between powder and paste denture adhesive, and between vegetable gum and synthetic polymer denture adhesive at different time intervals (P>0.05). Analysis of variance was used to make comparison at time interval between the three denture adhesives. The result showed that the denture adhesives had a statistically similar effectiveness at each time interval.

  165. Nithya Karpagam, G., Anitha Roy and Geetha, R. V.

    Background: An anti mycotic is a substance that kills or inhibits the growth of fungi. Papaya is also known as pawpaw or melon tree. Carica papaya is one of the accepted species in the genus Carica of the family Caricaceae. The fruits are the source of flavoring agent in candies, jellies, ice creams etc. It has protein digesting, antiseptic and antimicrobial properties. C.papaya has been widely used in the treatment of diabetes. Aim: To evaluate the antimycotic activity of Carica papaya extract on Candida albicans. Methodology: The antimycotic activity is carried out by agar well diffusion technique against the fungal pathogens and the zone of inhibition is measured in mm diameter. Result: In the present study, Carica papaya was found to be effective against gram-positive Candida albicans organisms tested.

  166. Dr. Rashmi. S. and Dr. Prashanth Kumar. M

    The present study was conducted to compare Auditory Reaction Time (ART) and Visual Reaction Time (VRT) in normal and anemic female subjects and also to correlate the same with the haemoglobin (Hb) concentration. Female students of age group 18-20 years were recruited. After haemoglobin estimation subjects with Hb<12g% were assigned as group I (n=30) and subjects with Hb≥12g% were assigned as group II (n=30). ART and VRT were assessed by making use of an in-house built device PC 1000. Data was analysed employing unpaired student’s “t” test using SPSS version 16 and significance value was fixed at p <0.05. The results showed highly significant prolonged ART and VRT in anemic individuals (p =0.001) and a negative correlation between ART and Hb; also VRT and Hb. Thus it can be concluded that with decreased haemoglobin concentration the ART and VRT are prolonged and that early correction of anemia can prevent ill effects.

  167. Dr. Avinash Akkur, Dr. Satya Bhushan, N.V.V., Dr. Gokkulakrishnan, S., Dr. Chiang, K. C. and Dr. Bharat Prakash, M.

    Potentially malignant disease of the oral mucosa, with the risk of conversion to Oral Squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) is described as premalignant or precursor lesions. The lesions like leukoplakia, erosive lichen planus, retention cysts like mucocele, and hyperplastic growths like traumatic fibroma are predominantly seen intra orally. A prospective study was done on 10 consenting patients to evaluate the effectiveness of open cryosurgical method in treating intra oral lesions with liquid nitrogen. Cotton swabs, 5-10 mm in diameter, were dipped in liquid nitrogen for 1-2 seconds and applied directly to the lesions after local anesthetic infiltration. Each site was directly exposed to 4 or 5 consecutive freeze-thaw cycles. The patients were examined on the 3rd day, 1st week, 2nd week and one month post operatively, to evaluate the parameters like pain, swelling, erythema, sloughing, formation of granulation tissue and epithelization. Atraumatic bloodless procedures which could give same or better results than surgical technique was introduced in the recent past. Cryosurgery is one of the modalities which fulfills these criteria. This technique provides a bloodless field, causes less pain, decreases operating time and causes minimal surgical morbidity. Cotton swab cryotherapy (CSC) with liquid nitrogen has shown significantly good results in achieving complete regression (CR) of the benign and premalignant lesions of the oral cavity.

  168. Dr. Gopal Chandra Bera, Dr. Shabnam Zahir, Dr. Deepashree Paul, Dr. Piyush Singh, Dr. Trishik Basak and Dr. Gautam Kumar Kundu

    Aims: The aim of the present study is to determine differences in the dental caries experience, gingival health among 4-14 year old Bengalee children with repaired cleft lip and /or palate in North Kolkata, West Bengal Study Design and Methods and Material: Forty five children of age group 4-14 years, with repaired cleft lip and /or palate selected as study sample who were sub-grouped according to gender and age. Children were clinically examined for dental caries and oral hygiene status. For caries assessment DMFT index for mixed & permanent dentition and dmft index for primary dentition were used. Assessment of oral hygiene status was done using OHI-S. In case of a child with primary dentition deciduous second molars &deciduous incisors were examined for OHI-S. Statistical analysis used: All the data were recorded, tabulated and arranged in excel sheet to obtain mean value, standard deviation, percentage and p value by utilizing SISA software. Results: Mean caries scores were slightly higher in female as compared to male children though it was statistically insignificant. Mean caries score in primary dentition is slightly higher as compared to mixed dentition & permanent dentition. Few children (8.88%) had good oral hygiene and a great majority (91.12%) of the children had either fair or poor oral hygiene. Conclusions: Based on this study it can be concluded that very high caries experience in both primary and mixed dentition and poor oral hygiene in children with repaired cleft lip&/ palate of both sexes could be attributed to low priority of dental care for these children because of the parents’ focus on the numerous medical procedures required to correct the birth defects during early childhood and the presence of deformity and surgical scars which makes it difficult to maintain good oral hygiene and to control plaque.

  169. Alkaff Hamed, O., Alrabeei Jamila, A. and Al-kaf Ali Gamal.

    Background/Aims: Khat is a natural stimulant from the Catha Edulis' plant that is cultivated in Yemen and most of East African regions. It is widely used in Yemen as a pass time social habit. Chewing of this cursed plant's leaves has been shown to has a direct damaging effect on liver tissue. There are few case reports on the effect of Khat chewing and hepatitis, but this is a retrospective study to investigate this relationship in response to recent case reports from the UK and Australia. Our Aim: was to show the direct relation between the habit of Khat chewing in the region and autoimmune hepatitis (AIH). Methods: This is a retrospective study that analyzed 68 patients who were referred to a tertiary teaching hospital in Sana’a, Yemen, from January 2011 to December 2014 who were diagnosed as an acute autoimmune hepatitis based on serum biochemistry, immunoglobulins, autoantibodies and hepatic viral markers. Khat chewing habit was also recorded. Results: There were 68 patients in this study with mean age of 28.3 years (range: 15-60). Male (M) to female (F) ratio was 4:1. Khat chewers were accounted for 85% of patients. The age distribution showed typical bimodal distribution of type I auoimmune hepatitis. Liver enzymes' tests (ALT and AST) showed more than three fold's increase in 47% of patients. Seventy two percent of patients showed an elevation of Gamma (G)-globulin rate. Antinuclear antibodies (ANA) and smooth muscle antibodies (SMA) were positive in a high number of patients. Liver imaging did not reveal obstructive pathology. About 80% of the patients responded to the conventional medical treatment. Conclusions: This performed study clearly showed the high prevalence of autoimmune hepatitis among male Khat chewers with a change in the pattern of autoimmune hepatitis from the norms of the international F:M = 4:1 distribution to the F:M = 1:4 ratio. This is a clear index of the possibility of Khat, being a trigger factor of developing clinical and serologic features similar to that of idiopathic autoimmune hepatitis. Thus, public education as well as physician's awareness should be emphasized.

  170. Wan Muhamad Amir W Ahmad, Nor Azlida Aleng, Zalila Ali, Ruhaya Hasan, Adam Hussein and Nurfadhlina Abdul Halim

    This paperwork emphasizes an alternative approach of SAS programming language for Linear Bayesian Regression with combination of Fuzzy Regression. The special of this method is, the method itself comprises of modeling, bootstrapping for linear minimization programming through fuzzy regression modeling based on the dependent and independent variables.

  171. Sharfi Abdelgadir Omer Ahmed, Sally Abdelrhman, Mahmoud Taha, Malik Ibrahim Malik and Wafa El Naseh

    Background: Laryngeal cancer is a common disease a among Sudanese smoker. It is a type of neoplasm that has the largest male to female ratio in Sudan. Objective: To provide a review of the clinical pattern and to determine the etiology of laryngeal cancer among the Sudanese patients. Justification:- • Cases of laryngeal cancer are increasing in Sudan. • There were no publications regarding laryngeal cancer in Sudanese patients to my knowledge expect that reported by Sharfi. Methods: It was a prospective study, random sample, cross sectional where 82 patients who were treated at Khartoum state hospitals during the period from March 2014 to Nov 2016. Videolaryngoscopy, plain chest x-ray, CT - scan of the neck and thorax and Microlarynogoscopy studies were done to all patients. Results: The larynx was examined with Direct microlarynogoscopy for all patients. laryngeal masses were found in the vocal cords. Biopsies confirmed the diagnoses. Conclusion: Laryngeal cancer was common among Sudanese smoker patients and less common in non smokers.

  172. Sanjana, A., Mohammed Gulzar Ahmed and Sharath, H. N.

    Rabeprazolea proton pump inhibitor the most effective pharmacotherapy for treating acidity related disorders. The main objective of the study is to formulate and optimize an orodispersible tablet of rabeprazole sodium. The tablets were prepared by direct compression method by using varying concentration of Crosspovidone as superdisintegrants. Theprepared formulations were evaluated for various parameters like, hardness, weight variation, friability, in vitro dispersion time, water absorption ratio, drug content uniformity and in vitro release study. The prepared tablets were dispersed in the range of 7.9±0.5- 12.2±1.5 seconds, the water absorption ratio was 122.5±2.2- 157.9±3.2%. All the formulations exhibited fairly uniform drug content92.7±0.4-99.5±0.8%and 85.6-95.2% of drug release was observed in 10 min, among this different formulation, the formulation containing 7.5% of Crosspovidone has shown maximum of 95.2±0.7% of the drug release. Stability study of optimized formulation revealed no significant change and its found to be a stable. The overall result indicated that the formulation F3 containing Crosspovidone 7.5% is fulfilling the needs of the orodispersible tablets.

  173. Dr. Aruah S.C., Dr. Jawa Z.M., Dr. Oche Ogbe, Dr. Aninwada, E., Dr. Itanyi U., Dr. Okwor V. C., Dr. Ezikeanyi S.I., Dr. Odume B., Dr. Ugwuanyi C.U., Dr. Okoye, O.G. and Asogwa, O.C.

    Introduction: Anaemia is the commonest haematological complication in cancer patients with aetiology usually multifactorial. The cut-off value for anaemia vary from centre to centre but a haemoglobin (Hb) level of 12g/dl in male and 11g/dl for female is usually acceptable in most Radiation Oncology Centres in Nigeria for therapeutic purposes. Administration of radiotherapy without adequate haematological support may tilt the patient into clinical anaemia. The study aims to ascertain the effect of radiotherapy on the haemoglobin level of cancer patients undergoing therapy. Materials and Methods: Patients with solid tumours with intent for radical treatment were recruited within a period of 8 months. Informed consent of participants was obtained. Demographic characteristics of the cancer patients and their various oncologic diseases were gathered. Baseline Hbandblood film pictures were measured on the first day of consultation then once every 2 weeks for 6 weeks. Data collected were summarized and presented in tables. Results: Out of 63 cancer patients, 92.1% were female. Mean and median ages of patients were48.55and 50 years respectively. Breast 47.6% (30) was commonest tumour while 74.6%(47) presented with stage III disease. Prevalence of anaemia in the study was 42.9%. At the end of therapy 55.6% (63) cancer patients had their Hb level between 11.52 – 12.13g/dl. Conclusion: Prevalence of anaemia in cancer patients undergoing radiotherapy was high. Female group dominated the study population. Patients had a downward trend in their Hb level as their treatment progressed thereby calling for need early identification and timely intervention.

  174. Dr. Abdul Hakeem and Dr. Sunil Sathyanarayana

    Patients seeking treatment for gingival recession has constantly been on a raise, where patients’ esthetic demands and biologic needs determine the treatment of choice for root coverage. Accordingly, the coronally advanced flap has been modified by Zucchelli and Sanctis to treat multiple gingival recession defects in esthetically critical areas. This technique does not use vertical incisions, which results in better healing, increases the quality of keratinized gingiva, provides good root coverage and doesn’t involve a second surgical site. This article reports a case of multiple contiguous gingival recessions treated using Zucchelli technique, with a simplified yet detailed description of the technique utilizing a diagrammatic representation. Clinical parameters to assess gingival recession were evaluated from baseline till 9 months. Successful results were found in terms of good root coverage, aesthetic appearance and increased keratinized tissue quality that has persisted till 9 months follow-up. Zucchelli technique was effective in the treatment of multiple adjacent gingival recessions in patients with high esthetic demands.

  175. Abdul Hakeem and Sunil Sathyanarayana

    Introduction: First line therapy of dentin hypersensitivity typically involves the use of desensitizing toothpastes. Two such agents in the market are 5% Calcium Sodium Phosphosilicate (CSPS) and 8% Arginine Calcium Carbonate (ACC), which have unique mechanisms of blocking the dentinal tubules in a natural bio-mimetic way. So the purpose of this in vitro study was to evaluate and compare the efficacy of dentinal tubule occlusion using Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) and dentinal permeability by using Stereomicroscope (SM) after the application of these agents. Methods: Total 60 samples were included in this study. 30 samples were used for SEM analysis and 30 others for SM analysis. Each of these 30 samples were again divided into three groups as: distilled water-Group-I, 5% CSPS-Group-II and 8% ACC-Group-III. The dentine surface morphology was evaluated using SEM after brushing and after acid treatment. Dentine permeability analysis using Evans blue dye was evaluated by using SM. Statistical analysis was done using one-way ANOVA and Chi-square test. Tukey post hoc test was used for multiple comparisons. Results: CSPS and ACC test groups showed statistically significant difference in dentinal tubule occlusion and in permeability reduction than the respective DW control (p<0.001). Comparing the mean permeability differences between different groups, after the treatment, CSPS group showed a higher permeability reduction and number of occluded tubules. Conclusion: 5% CSPS shows promise as a desensitizing agent, which not only occludes the dentinal tubules, but also reduces the tubule permeability and shows very good resistance to acid treatment than 8% ACC.

  176. Jemini kapadia, Dr. MouneshKumar, C. D., Dr. AshwiniRani, S. R., Dr. Pankaj Patil and Dr. Prashant Punde

    Aim: To assess the proximity of roots of mandibular third molar to the inferior alveolar canal in impacted teeth by radiovisiography” Background: Prior knowledge of the proximity of the roots of the mandibular third molars to the inferior alveolar nerve canal minimizes injury to the nerve. Previous studies have shown Intra Oral Periapical Radiograph (IOPA), Dental Panoramic Tomograph, and Cone Beam Computed Tomography (CBCT) as tool for assessment of risk of injury to the canal. The aim of our study was to assess proximity of roots of mandibular third molar to the inferior alveolar canal using radiovisiography (RVG). Methods: The total study sample enrolled 50 impacted mandibular third molars among 50 patients. Patients requiring surgical removal of impacted mandibular third molars are selected. Preoperative radiovisiographs was taken and the findings are correlated with findings during surgery. Study design: Descriptive interventional study. Result: Out of 50 patients 15(30%) were males and 35(70%) were females. All the nine radiographic signs were evaluated individually and their association with the Nerve identified at operation/ root grooved was studied. There was an root of tooth just touching upper white line was observed in 1 out of 11 Nerve identified at operation (root grooved) close cases and was the most statistically significant sign noted. p = 0.0038 (<0.05). Also darkening of the root was observed with p=0.0277(<0.05). Out of total 50 cases Type 2(8%) was most common in males; in females Type 2 (14%) and Type 4 (14%) were more common. Conclusion: In our study Type 2 (Root of tooth just touching upper white line) was most commonly observed. Risks of nerve damage during operation were more significant in Type 2 and Type 4.

  177. Dalia A. Nigm, Zeinab A. Abd Elhameed and Mohamed Z. Abd Elrahman

    Objectives: As we noted that CD30 is a valuable molecule in regulation of growth and death of lymphocytes in malignant lymphomas, we decided to analyze CD30 expression and serum soluble CD30 (sCD30) molecule level in patients with acute lymphocytic leukemia (ALL) to assess their role as a prognostic markers and to examine the possibility of anti-CD30 to be a targeted therapy in these patients. Methods: We studied CD30 expression by multicolor flow cytometry immunophenotypic analysis on bone marrow aspirates of 90 ALL patients (51 T-ALL and 39 B-ALL). Serum sCD30 level was measured by Enzyme Linked Immunosrbent Assay (ELSA). We correlate CD30 and sCD30 values with all of white blood cell counts, Hemoglobin, platelets, bone marrow blasts and cytogenetics. Results: Our study conducted on 90 ALL patients. The 90 ALL patients included 51 patients with T-ALL and 39 with B-ALL. Of the 51 T-ALL patients, 29 (56.8%) were males and 22 (43.2%) were females. Mean age was 42.4±19.1 years old (10-78 years), and of 39 B-ALL patients, 23(59%) were males and 16 (41%) were females. Mean age was 44.4±18.6 years old (9-70 years). In T-ALL, 33.3% ( 17 out of 51 patients) have high CD30-expression and 27.4℅ (14 out of 51 patients) have elevated serum sCD30.We found that there was a significant correlation between both CD30 expression and sCD30 level with WBCs count, BM blasts, Adverse risk cytogenetics, BCR/ABL and with relapse for CD30 expression, complete remission failure with elevated serum sCD30 level. While in B-ALL, CD30 expression (>20%) was detected in 20.5% (8 out of 39 patients) and elevated sCD30 was detected in 15.4℅ (6 out of 39 patients). However, we did not found significant relation between both CD30 expression and sCD30 level and BCR/ABL, relapse and failure of treatment. Conclusions: CD30 is expressed by lymphoblasts in ALL patients. We found that high CD30 expression and elevated sCD30 level can be used as prognostic markers for relapse and complete remission failure respectively in only T-ALL subtype not in B-ALL subtybe. Furthermore, these patients with adverse risk cytogenetics have not too many treatment options, so the use anti-CD30 targeted therapy may be a possible alternative for this patient group.

  178. Dr. Anshul, Dr. Chanchal Gangwar and Dr. Priyanka Upadhyay

    Dental caries is one of the most common infectious diseases of childhood all over the world and considered as oral health burden. The purpose of the study was to assess the awareness of parents about dental caries among the school going children in Bareilly city. An investigation was carried out among 200 parents in 15 different medium schools in Bareilly city. Results showed that parents’ initiation is low when dental health care of children is concerned. 54% parents (p=0.001) knows that sweetened food causes dental caries, 43.2% (p=0.001) parents give information that their child are taking sweetened food regularly, 28.45% parents reported that their child did not brush a single time in a day, 62.6% (p=0.000) knows that soft drinks may cause dental caries, 42.55% (p=0.002) parents give information that their child are taking fast foods or snacks regularly, 49.50 % (p=0.004) reported that have never visited a dentist. This study concluded that dental health care team can make awareness program more effective and can also make parents more aware about dental caries prevention.

  179. Dr. Kumar, B., Dr. Mitra, J.K., and Dr. Yogesh Anand

    Aims and Objective: Hyponatremia is the most common electrolyte disorder seen in advanced cirrhosis. The aim of the present study is to study the prevalence of hyponatremia in cirrhosis and evaluate the association between serum sodium level and complications with severity of cirrhosis. Materials and Method: Study was an observational study conducted at RIMS, Ranchi from October 2014 to October 2015. The patients were evaluated with detailed history, physical examination and relevant investigations. Results: The mean age of the patients was 44.89 ±10.27 years there was a significant association between hyponatremia and hepatic encephalopathy, hepatorenal syndrome and portal hypertension. There was also a significant association between degree of hyponatremia and severity of cirrhosis as judged by modified Child-Pugh score and MELD score. Conclusion: Hyponatremia is a common finding in cirrhotic patients. Thus early treatment and early detection can prevent complications and improve the quality of life.

  180. Dr. Sharath Kumar Shettly, Dr. Mahesh Kumar, Y. and Dr. Gayathri, S.

    The concept of “surgery-first and orthodontics second” is called “SFOA” (Surgery-First Orthognathic-Approach) or “SFA” (Surgery-First approach). Surgery first approach is an alternative methodology to conventional orthognathic surgery (“Orthodontics– Orthognathic surgery– Orthodontics”) which performs directly an orthognathic surgery, without the previous orthodontic preparation, followed by a post-surgical orthodontic treatment. Surgery-first approach treats facial esthetics first and then occlusion, whereas the conventional approach treats occlusion first and then facial esthetics. The surgery-first approach uses osteotomy to solve both skeletal problems and dental compensation, and a "transitional" occlusion is set up postoperatively

  181. Jain Abhay Kumar, Rathore Narendra, Tanwar Rajendra Kumar, Shukla Arvind Kumar, Rajpurohit Vikram Singh and Gagrani Vaibhav

    Context: Recently introduced Cobalt-60 HDR source has longer half life of 5.2 years compared with 73.8 days of Ir-192, more economical and attractive for low resource settings. Aim: The purpose of this study to know acute gastrointestinal and genitourinary toxicities associated with Co-60 source in HDR ICRT of cervical cancer patients and its comparison with similar toxicities in Ir-192 based HDR ICRT. Settings and Design: Prospective study Methods and Material: The study was completed on 65 patients of carcinoma cervix. External beam radiotherapy (EBRT) of dose 45-50 Gy in 25 fractions @ 180-200cGy per fraction delivered over 5 days per week using teletherapy Cobalt 60 machine. ICRT was started after one week of completion of EBRT. Fletcher suite applicators were used for brachytherapy in all patients. Total 3 sessions of ICRT, 7Gy each, were delivered 72 hours apart. The acute gastro-intestinal and genito-urinary toxicities were assessed using Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events version 4.03 (CTCAE). The only highest grade of GU and GI toxicity was used for final analysis and patients were kept in follow up for 3 months in this study. Statistical analysis used: Comparison with previous studies Results: Only 2 patients (3%) had grade 3 acute diarrhea. In other studies, the reported rates of acute toxicities ≥ grade 3 ranged from 0%–8% for gastrointestinal and 0%–3% for genitourinary toxicities. Conclusions: The acute gastrointestinal and genitourinary toxicities of high-dose-rate intracavitary brachytherapy using Co-60 radionuclide source is low and comparable with Iridium-192. Additionally, Cobalt 60 has economic advantage over Ir-192. Thus, it is more suitable for low economic resource settings.

  182. Kumar, D., Samo, K., Ahmed, N., Mangi, M. and Rehman, S.R.

    The Mirizzi syndrome (MS), a rare condition, is a late complication of chronic cholecystitis. It is a spectrum of disease ranges from simple compression of common hepatic duct to cholecystobiliary fistula (CBF). The clinical presentation is similar to symptomatic cholelithiasis like abdominal pain, vomiting, jaundice etc, hence it is difficult to diagnose preoperatively. Even peroperatively it is diagnosed by expert surgeon who has experience in hepatobiliary surgery, otherwise chances of biliary duct injuries are high.

  183. Suvarna Patil

    Background: Several factors play important role in expectant mothers seeking Antenatal Care in rural areas like socioeconomic status, availability of modern medical facilities, transport etc. Lack of these factors keep her away from early registration and make her and baby prone for complications. Objective- Community based holistic management of pregnancy and its outcome to reduce maternal and perinatal mortality and malnutrition in rural areas. Methods: It is a retrospective record based analysis from rural hospital from January 2009 to August 2016. Pregnant women from 52 remote villages were registered. Holistic antenatal care was provided in the community. High risk mothers were identified and treated at hospital. Result: Total deliveries in study period were 4930, 37.11% were identified as high risk mothers. Maternal mortality Rate (MMR) was nil, perinatal mortality was 1.99%.Percentage of LBW (LowBirthWeight) was 34.34% & progressive increase in institutional deliveries. Conclusion: This study demonstrated the effectiveness of community-based holistic antenatal care due to functional modern medical infrastructure, trained staff at rural hospital and a strong community network. It has created a strong foundation to plan a prospective study.

  184. Dr. Mayank, Dr. Archana Nagpal, Dr. Rajeev Gupta, Dr. Neha Vaidya, Dr. Jayshree Verma and Dr. Ashok Jairth

    Obtaining consistent mandibular denture stability has long been a challenge for the dental profession. In particular, “flat lower ridge” is associated with difficulties in providing successful dentures. Stability of lower denture in such cases is usually the distinguishing factor between success and failure. This article intends to acquaint the reader with the various conservative prosthodontic techniques which can be employed to improve mandibular denture stability in case of an atrophic ridge.

  185. Mageshwari, M., Dr. Rahul, G. R. and Dr. Karunakar Shetty

    Objectives: To compare and evaluate the effect of cleaning solutions on surface morphology of saliva contaminated lithium disilicate ceramic. Methods: 30 lithium disilicate ceramic discs of IPS e.max were prepared. The substrate surfaces were conditioned according to manufacturer’s instructions. Scanning electron microscope was used at 1000x and 25000x magnification for qualitative examination. Specimens were divided into 2 Groups (n=15), Group I treated with Ivoclean, Group II treated with 30% Sodium Silicate. Following which the specimens were contaminated with saliva and treated with cleaning solution. Specimens were examined using Scanning electron microscope for qualitative examination. Results and Interpretation: SEM image analysis showed that the surface appearance of the specimens after saliva contamination and cleaning solutions was better with increased surface irregularities in Group II treated with 30% Sodium silicate rather than Group I specimens treated with Ivoclean solution. EDX representative images showed high levels of Si on the ceramic surface after treating with cleaning solutions in Group II when compared to Group I. Deposition of a thin film of silica facilitated an effective bond. Conclusion: The surface appearance of lithium disilicate ceramic after saliva contamination and treatment with cleaning solution of Ivoclean and 30% Sodium silicate was comparable but the surface was more irregular and porous in Group II treated with sodium silicate suggestive of micromechanical retention for enhanced bonding.

  186. Kanav Mahajan, Mohinder Singh Chib and Sanjeev Gupta

    Clavicule fractures have an incidence of approx 3 % of all fractures. Bone Fractures most commonly in the middle third of the bone .the treatment methods are:-Non Operative: slings, straps and braces are there for clavicle immobilization and treatment of fractures. Operative: External fixators, Intramedullary nails, Plates and screws. The aim of the study was to analyze the results of fixation of clavicle fractures with plate and screws and assessing the union radiologically, complications associated and restoration of range of motion of the shoulder and to evaluate the results clinically regarding pain, activities of daily living, range of motion, power, radiologically regarding union, non-union, refracture, screw and plate loosening, implant breakage. A total of 30 cases of midshaft clavicular fractures which were Allman (type I) closed & fresh were included. They were treated by open reduction & internal fixation with S-shaped clavicular LCP in 15 patients and 3.5mm reconstruction locking plate in 15 patients. The age of patients in this study ranged from 18-55 years. Males formed 72% of the patients. Most common cause of the fracture in this was road traffic accidents (55%). Right side was involved commonly (57%). Duration from injury to surgery was an average of 3.78days and hospital stay was an average of 4.32 days. The time taken for complete radiological union ranged from 7 to 10 weeks. The time taken to return to previous level of activity ranged from 8 to 18 weeks. Overall excellent results were achieved in 21 patients & good in 9 patients.

  187. Dr. Ramesh, D.N.S.V., Dr. Saba Nasreen, Dr. Thriveni, R., Dr. Amit Byatnal, Dr. Sweta Kattimani and Dr. Wajiha Shereen

    Introduction: Oral Sub Mucous Fibrosis (OSMF) is the most common potentially malignant disorder found across India caused by chewing gutkha with tobacco. A number of studies have proven the use of antioxidants in the management of OSMF. Aim: The aim of the present study was to compare the efficacy of antioxidants Lycopene and composition of carotenoids, lycopene, minerals and alpha lipoic acid in the treatments of OSMF patients. Material and Method: 50 clinically diagnosed OSMF male patients were included in the study and were divided equally into two groups. Group A –was administered with 8mg LYCOPENE capsuleorally with intralesional injection of dexamethasone (Dexona)and hyaluronidase (Hynidase)and GROUP B – with combination of carotenoids, lycopene, alpha lipoic acid and minerals (SM FIBRO) with intralesional injection of dexamethasone (dexona) and hyaluronidase (hynidase). Both the groups were given intralesional injection every 10 days for 3 months. Different clinical parameters like mouth opening and burning sensation were evaluated every 10 days for 3months. ANOVA test and unpaired t test was done for statistical analysis. Results: Group B patients showed improvement in degree of mouth opening, burning sensation, as well as elasticity of mucosa as compared to group A. Significant p value of <0.001 was noted on comparison between two Groups Conclusion: Treatment modality of Group B was more effective in treating the patients with OSMF than group A. No side effects were seen in both the groups except some patients complained of pain during administration of intralesional injection.

  188. Dr. Ab. Rashid Ganie, Dr. Mohammad Saleem Itoo, and Dr. Rouf Hussain Rather.

    The present randomized controlled trial study was carried out over a period of one year to observe the effects of perioperative parenteral nutrition on weight, Serum albumin and total lymphocyte count. Hundred patients, admitted and operated were randomly divided into two groups of 50 each. Group A (Study group) and group B (Control group). Group A patients were given perioperative parenteral nutritional support whereas patients in the control group received no such treatment. Statistically significant increase in total serum albumin (P<0.001) was found in the study group. Total leucocyte count and weight was also better in the study group but it was not statistically significant. Parenteral perioperative nutritional support has a vital role in improving weight; serum albumin and total leucocyte count in surgical patients. It should be included in the management of surgical patients if affordable.

  189. Dr. Khan, Z. H. and Dr. Anita Khokhar

    Introduction: Type D personality has been observed to be associated with mental health issues later in life. Methods: This was a descriptive, cross sectional study conducted among college students of Delhi University. A sample size of 419 was calculated by taking into account the prevalence rate of negative affectivity as 55.3%, relative error of 5% in formula 4pq/l2 and a non-response rate of 10%. Type D personality was assessed by means of 14-item questionnaire based on DS-14. Those scoring high on both social inhibition and negative affectivity taking cut off value as 10 or >10 were considered as type D personality. Also, PHQ9 was administered for depression. Participants were selected from 5 Co-educational colleges under Delhi University from North Campus. 100 questionnaires per college were given to collect the relevant information. A total of 500 questionnaires were distributed, of which 422 completed questionnaires were received. Data was analyzed using SPSS licensed version 21, Chi- square test for association was used and p<0.05 was considered for statistically significant association. Results: Prevalence of type D personality was 39.6%. There was no statistically significant association between personality type and whether students stayed at home with parents or in hostel and paying guest accommodation or the course pursued by them in college (p>0.05). Based on PHQ9, 97(23%) had moderate and 18(4.3%) had severe depression. There was a statistically significant association between Type D personality and depression amongst college going students (p<0.05). Conclusion: Both type D personality and depression are common in college going students and also there is a statistically significant association between the two.

  190. Dr. Abhinav Avinash Havle, Dr. Girish Suragimath, Dr. Sameer A. Zope, Dr. Siddhartha A. Varma, Dr. Ashwinirani, S. R. and Kimaya Avinash Havle

    Background: Periodontal disease is a chronic tissue-destructive inflammation, which destroys tooth-supporting structures and ultimately leads to tooth loss. Early diagnosis and treatment of periodontal diseases can reduce the risk of tooth loss in general population. Several biomarkers like Lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) have been proposed for early detection of periodontal disease from saliva, serum and gingival cervicular fluid. Aims: To assess and correlate the LDH levels in saliva and serum of healthy subjects, subjects with chronic gingivitis and periodontitis and to compare the saliva and serum LDH levels in all three groups. Materials and methods: Total 33 subjects aged 20– 45 years were considered for the study. The subjects were divided into three groups based on periodontal parameters as healthy subjects, chronic generalized gingivitis and chronic generalized periodontitis. Two ml of un-stimulated whole saliva and two ml of blood was collected from all the subjects and the level of LDH in both saliva and serum were measured and compared using commercially available kit. Statistical analysis: Statistical analysis was carried out using student t test and ANOVA with the help of SPSS software and P value <0.05 was considered as significant. Results: The clinical parameters like gingival index, plaque index, probing pocket depth and clinical attachment level were statistically significant between healthy subjects, patients with generalized gingivitis, and those with chronic periodontitis. Serum and Salivary LDH levels were found to be within normal limits in healthy subjects where as it was significantly increased in patients with gingivitis and chronic periodontitis. The activity of LDH increased linearly as the disease progressed. Conclusion: LDH levels in saliva as well as serum increased with periodontal disease progression. There was no significant difference observed between saliva and serum LDH levels. Estimation of salivary LDH can be used as risk predictor in patients with periodontal disease.

  191. Dr. Suby Khan, Dr. Sruthi Somasundaran, Dr. Ranjini, M. A. and Dr. Veena Pai

    A good understanding of variations, aberrant anomalies mainly concerning the location and treatment of all canals, is a prerequisite for the success of endodontic therapy. Clinicians often relate the success of endodontic treatment with the detection of MB2 canals neglecting the possibility of occurrence of rare entities like additional palatal root and canals. Thus this case report highlights the need to have an eye for the variations in canal morphology occurring palatally contributing to the successful diagnosis and treatment of such cases.

  192. Pratima Kujur and Shashikala Kosam

    The Bethesda System for Reporting Thyroid Cytopathology (TBSRTC) has put an effort to overcome personalized usage of descriptive terminologies in thyroid aspiration smears. Aims: The objective of this study was to interpret thyroid cytology by TBSRTC, to look for distribution of diagnostic categories and subcategories and to correlate the cytopathology with histopathology. Material and Method: This was 11 years retrospective study of 114 fine needle aspirations (FNA) of thyroid swelling. Results: An overall sensitivity of 80%, specificity of 91.86%, positive predictive valve of 92.85%, negative predictive valve of 97.46%, and efficiency of the study was 91.22%.

  193. Awadhesh Kumar, Chinmoy Sahu, Rungmei S. K. Marak, U. K. Mishra and T. N. Dhole

    Introduction: Viral encephalitis is potentially fatal disease which requires rapid diagnosis and management and should be ruled out from other infectious and noninfectious cases. Serological tests can only presumptively diagnose the condition. Cell culture methods are definitive diagnostic test but require comparatively longer time. Shell vial culture is better than conventional cell culture methods being more sensitive and rapid. Molecular methods like Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) can rapidly diagnose but its sensitivity needs to be evaluated. Finally newer microarray techniques can detect multiple viruses in a syndromic approach. So, this study was carried out to evaluate conventional cell culture, shell vial culture and PCR to diagnose viral encephalitis. Materials and Methods: 203 consecutive clinically suspected patients with encephalitis, Dengue and Chikungunya fever were included. From each patient, blood and CSF samples were collected and inoculated on both conventional and shell vial culture. CSF samples were inoculated on RD (Rhabdomyosarcoma) for the Enterovirus isolation. PS ( Stable Porcine cells) were used for JE. Serum samples were inoculated on C6/36 for Dengue virus and chikungunya virus isolation. All cell culture positive samples were subjected to molecular detection by RT-PCR. All the cell culture negative samples tested by a molecular chip developed by NIMHANS Bengaluru and XCyton Diagnostics Pvt Ltd Bengaluru. Results: The positivity of conventional cell culture were 5 (2.4%), 6 (2.9%) 4(1.9%) samples respectively. In comparison, the positivity of shell vial cultures were 7 (3.4%), 10 (4.9%), 6 (2.9%) respectively. The corresponding positivity of RT-PCR were 3 (1.5 %) JE, 8 (3.9%) Enterovirueses , 4 (1.9%) Dengue and 0 chikungunya cases. All cell culture negative samples were negative by molecular chip methods except one sample which was positive for JC virus. Conclusion: We recommend shell vial culture in diagnosis of viral encephalitis cases due to its better positivity and rapidity over conventional cellculture. It shows better positivity than RT-PCR.

  194. Hemalatha Krishnasamy

    Aim: Voiding dysfunction is an under evaluated issue in females with metabolic syndrome. Aim of our study was to investigate correlation between voiding dysfunction in females with metabolic syndrome. Materials and Methods: The study was a retrospective study conducted from January 2015 to December 2016 in the Institute of urology, Madras medical college, Chennai. We investigated 80 female patients who visited the urology department for voiding dysfunction with features of metabolic syndrome. The data included were age, body mass index, diabetic status, blood pressure and lower urinary tract symptoms. Results: A total of 80 women were included as voiding dysfunction group with metabolic syndrome with mean age of 58.5 years (42 – 75years). 74 (92.5%) females had high blood sugar. Diastolic blood pressure was raised in 71 (88.75%) of patients. Obstructive voiding symptoms ware noted in 57 (71.25%) of patients and irritative voiding symptoms in 23(28.75%) of patients. Body mass index more than 25 was noted in 31(38.75%) of patients. Conclusion: Voiding dysfunction is a highly prevalent in females with metabolic syndrome. Diabetes and obesity cause voiding dysfunction through alterations in the phenotype of bladder. Chronic complications of diabetes especially neuropathy, nephropathy, and presence of metabolic syndrome are important predictors of bladder dysfunction.

  195. Vinay Kumar, M. B., Narayan N. Valavalkar and Bharath Chandra, G. N. R.

    Aim: The purpose of the study was to clinically evaluate and compare the efficacy of human fibrin sealant (Tisseel®) with non-absorbable surgical suture in the treatment of localized gingival recession. Methods: The study population consisted of 30 identical gingival recession defects. The selected gingival recession sites were randomly assigned either to 1) Control site A(lateral pedicle flap with suture) or 2) Test site B(lateral pedicle flap with Tisseel®). The clinical parameters plaque index, gingival index, recession width, width of keratinizedgingiva, and recession depth were recorded at baseline 7, 30 day postoperatively. Clinical attachment level were recorded only at baseline and 1 months post-operatively. Results: At 1 month the recession width and depth were reduced in both the groups (Control site A & Test site B) with mean root coverage of 34% and 47%respectively.On intergroup comparison, the mean difference in different clinical parameters was statistically not significant. Conclusion: Both groups showed the potential of achieving root coverage; however on comparison between the two groups, the results obtained of lateral pedicle with Tisseel group were slightly better although statistically not significant.

  196. Dr. Moksha Nayak and Dr. Deepa S. Nair

    Aim: This cross sectional study is aimed at assessing the perceptions and level of awareness of dental students about their own dental health through evaluating the prevalence of white spot lesion. Materials and Methods: A detailed oral examination of ninety two dental students of K.V.G. Dental College and Hospital, Sullia, D.K, Karnataka, aged between 20 and 24 years was done to detect white spot lesions and caries experience through International Caries Detection and Assessment System II criteria. The subjects were handed a questionnaire to investigate the possible explanatory variables for their caries status and to assess dental knowledge and attitudes. Attempt was made by examiner to identify the etiology of white spot lesion as carious or enamel hypoplasia by air drying using a three-way syringe. Results: A majority of 93.5% of the student had acceptable level of knowledge to identify the non cavitated white spot lesion. The results revealed60.8% of patients undergoing orthodontic treatment had at least one white spot lesion. Among the ninety two students participated in the study, the examiner found a prevalence of enamel hypoplasia to be 29.3% and carious hypomineralisation to be 9.8%. Conclusion: Findings of this study indicate that the level of knowledge among dental students regarding white spot lesion of teeth as well as its association with orthodontic treatment and oral hygiene habits was acceptable.

  197. Ruchika Duggal Choudhary and Koushal Dave

    Nurses caring for children in critical care areas encounter ethical dilemmas therefore it is important for nurses to have a basic understanding of the laws that affect their practice and the ethical guidelines that can be used to resolve dilemmas. Prospective randomized experimental design was selected for this study. 100 Nurses from pediatric setting were selected from selected hospital and divided into two groups: Group A and B. Structured Knowledge Questionnaire (score of 0 to 30) was used to assess the knowledge about ethical responsibilities and rights of children. Pre knowledge test of ethical responsibilities and rights of children were done from both the groups. Group A received the educational intervention on ethical responsibilities and rights of children and Group B did not receive any educational intervention. Post knowledge test of ethical responsibilities and rights of children were done from Group A and B. There was significant (p <0.05) effect on knowledge score among Nurses was seen in educational intervention group with mean knowledge score of 25 ± 2.66 as compared to non intervention group with mean knowledge score of 16 ± 2.52. It shows that education about ethical responsibilities and rights of children can strengthen the knowledge of Nurses and can improve the quality of care.

  198. Dr. Rouf Hussain Rather, Dr. Umar Nazir and Dr. Mariya Amin Quraishi

    Introduction: Adolescence is the phase of life which is characterized by acceleration of physical growth and, psychological and behavioural changes. These issues have not only a huge socioeconomic impact but also impact on National Health Indicators. Medical Officers working in the peripheral hospitals frequently come across the adolescents and hence need to be trained to deliver the best care to them. National Health Mission under RKSK is organizing trainings of Medical Officers in collaboration with Department of SPM Govt Medical College Srinagar. Objectives: To assess the knowledge of Medical Officers regarding adolescent health before the training, and to assess the impact of training upon the knowledge of Medical Officers regarding adolescent health. Methodology: Department of SPM GMC Srinagar conducted 6 three-day training workshops in collaboration with NHM under RKSK. In total 117 Medical Officers from two districts of Anantnag and Baramula of Kashmir valley were trained from January 2015 upto April 2015. A self-adminstered questionnaire was introduced to all the participants at the start of workshop and the same questionnaire was again introduced at the end of the workshop. Descriptive analysis was performed using percentages. Results: Overall 37% improvement in the knowledge of adolescent health was observed among Medical Officers after three-days training workshop. Discussion: Maximum improvement was seen in the domain of General knowledge (41.75%), indicating the need for such training programs and minimum improvement was seen in the domain of Reproductive health (30%), indicating the need for reassessment of training material and training approach of resource personnel in that domain. Overall a total of 37% improvement was seen which is appreciable. Hence such training programs should regularly be conducted among Medical Officers to update and refresh their knowledge.

  199. Naveen Kumar, G. S. and Srinivasa, U.

    A simple, specific, accurate, precise stability indicating reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatographic (RP-HPLC) method was developed and validated for the simultaneous determination of folic acid (FA) and meclizine hydrochloride (MEH).

  200. Dr. Saibalini Pani, Dr. Snigdha Pattanaik and Dr. Subhrajeet Narayan Sahoo

    Skeletal Class III malocclusion is considered to be one of the most difficult orthodontic problems to treat. This malocclusion may be associated with the retrognathic maxilla or prognathic mandible or sometimes a combination of both. Orthopedic correction of skeletal Class III malocclusion in a growing patient is important as it may predict the future surgical procedures. This article describes about various procedures of growth modification during growth period.

  201. May A. I. AL-Mosa, Kifah Fedhil Hassoon Al- Shabaa and Nadia K.J.AL-Dawah

    Background: Because there is no effective drug therapy for hydatid cyst yet, assessment and finding of some new agents especially from herbal origin with a desired scolicidal effect attracts great attention for treatment and pre-surgical use to prevent the hydatid cyst recurrence. In the present study, the scolicidal effect of ethanolic extract of Allium sativum, Mentha longifola and Zingiber officinale were investigated. Methods: Suspension of protoscolices was obtained an aseptically from sheep livers containing hydatid cysts. Three concentrations of Allium sativum, Mentha longifola and Zingiber officinale extract (10, 25 and 50 mg/ml) were used for 5,10,15, 20, 25 and 30 min. Viability of protoscolices was confirmed by 0.1% Eosin staining. Results: Present study showed that ethanolic extract of garlic (Allium sativum) had more potent protoscolicid effects among all the 3 plants and killed 100% of protoscolices in 25 mg/ml, 50 mg/ml on a minimum of 30, 15 min of application, respectively. While the rate of dead protoscolices was 13.7% in the control group, while protoscolices were exposed to Mentha longifola extract at the concentration of 25 mg/ml, the rate of dead protoscolices increased to 83.1%, 87.1%, 98.0%, 99.2%, 99.9%, and100% after 5,10,15, 20, 25 and 30 min respectively. One hundred percent mortality rate was observed at concentration of 50 mg/ml after 20 min of exposure. The scolicidal activity of Zingiber officinale extract at the concentration of 25 mg/ml killed (19.1, 22.5, 31.5, 41.0, 50.6 and 60.2) % of the protoscolices after 5, 10, 15, 20, 25 and 30 min of application respectively, but scolicidal activity of Zingiber officinale extract increased at the concentration of 50 mg/ml to 98.8% after 30 min of application then 100% after 35 minutes. Conclusions: Ethanolic extract of garlic, Mentha longifola and ginger showed high protoscolicidal activity in vitro. It may be considered as an effective natural agent used in hydatid cyst treatment and pre-surgery to prevent secondary cyst recurrence. However, further biological and phytochemical investigations aiming to identify the active compounds of these extracts and other pure compounds from these plants to find other ant parasitic agents that are not affected when treated with common therapeutic agents.

  202. Ekenedo, Golda O. and Ogoloma, Stella C.

    The study investigated the effect of health education intervention on knowledge about alcohol among senior secondary school adolescents in Eleme, Nigeria. The study was guided by three research questions and two null hypotheses tested at 0.05 alpha level. The research design was a pre-test post-test quasi experimental research design. A sample of 817 senior secondary school adolescents were selected from 3,750 adolescent students in 5 senior secondary schools in Eleme Local Government Area of Rivers State, Nigeria, comprising 413 in the experimental group and 404 in the control group. A self structured and validated 20-item questionnaire with a reliability index of 0.78 was used for data collection. Mean and standard deviation were used to answer the research questions while Analysis of Co-variance (ANCOVA) was used to test the null hypotheses at 0.05 alpha level. Results revealed that the health education intervention increased their knowledge about alcohol with a mean gain of 0.3718. Again there was significant difference in the effects of the health education intervention on the knowledge about alcohol based on sex and religion. Based on the findings, it was concluded that a comprehensive, skill-based health education can boost the knowledge base of adolescents in Eleme LGA about alcohol. It was recommended among others that schools should invite health professionals on a regular basis to properly educate the students on the health implications of alcohol use

  203. Garg, S. and Garg, A.

    In the proposed work, enhancement of anticancer potential of 5-Fluorouracil (5-FU)by encapsulated in the silver nanoparticle.5-FU shows poor solubility and low absorption rate therefore its silver nanoparticles was formed to increase solubility, absorption as well as affectivity against tumor. Various analytical methods and assay such as Particle size, Zeta potential, Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM), DSC, X-ray Diffraction (XRD) and Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR), Drug Release, In-vitro cytotoxicity study were employed for monitoring the formation of nanoparticles. Presence of silver nanoparticles with an average size of 28.9 nm was revealed by Atomic Force Microscopy. The crystalline nature of synthesized nanoparticles was done by X-ray diffraction. This work shows that 5-FU encapsulated silver nanoparticles shows potential activity against cancer cell.

  204. Dr. Robert Justin, M., Dr. Radhika, V. and Dr. Porkodi, I.

    Aim: To analyze bcl-2 protein as marker of regulating apoptosis in periapical tissue reaction which causes bony defects Objective: Immunohistochemical study of periapical lesion gives the clinician a chance to correlate between case history findings and progression of the lesion. Materials and method: Six patients with the history of trauma and having large periapical radiolucency, indicated for periapical curretage were selected. The periapical curretted biopsy specimens were formaline fixed, taken for histopathological and immuno histochemical study. The bcl2 expressions in all specimens were studied. Inference: Bcl2 proteins were positive in all cases, but more in cystic lesions Conclusion: bcl2 proteins were used as markers to understand the extent of the lesion. More bcl2 expressions shows blocked apoptosis, which leads to bony lesions.

  205. Dr. Preeti, Stuti Juneja, Pandya N.N., Ahir, H.D. Pawan Jarwal and Bhavesh Mer

    Background and objectives: This study was aimed to evaluate the incidence, age and sex distribution, aetiology, prognostic indicators, various complications associated with traumatic cataract and to determine final visual outcome of various treatment modalities. Methods:- In this prospective study 40 traumatic cataract patients were identified, then pre-operatively evaluated and had underwent surgery for cataract with or without intraocular lens implantation for a period from April 2015 to October 2016 at S.S.G. Hospital, Vadodara (India). All the patients were followed for a period of one and half months. Determinants of the visual acuity were compared between traumatic cataract due to open globe and closed globe injuries. Incidence of traumatic cataract with characteristics like age, sex, cause of injury, mode of injury, management of complications and visual outcome after management were analyzed and results interfered. Results: From the present prospective study enrolling 40 patients the following conclusions were drawn. Majority of the patients were male (70%) compared to only 30% female patients. Majority of our patients (50%) sustained agricultural injuries and the commonest object causing injury was wooden stick (50%) patients. Nearly 77.5% of the patients had a total traumatic cataract on presentation. Cornea was most frequently involved, of which most common was corneal laceration in 52.5% followed by irregular pupil in 32.5%. The most common surgical procedure performed was cataract extraction with a posterior chamber IOL placement (82.5%). The final visual outcome in majority of patients was excellent. Conclusions:- The most common surgical procedure performed was cataract extraction with IOL implantation. Final visual outcome was good in most cases after surgery with IOL implantation. Corneal opacity was the most common cause of decreased visual acuity.

  206. Manisha Ramani, Dr. Upma Saxena and Sidarrth Prasad

    Objectives: To study different phenotypes in PCOS and their correlation with AMH Methods: This prospective case-control study included 90 patients attending Gynaecology out patient Department of Dr RML Hospital, New Delhi from 1st November 2015 to 31st March 2017. Clinical history and examination including Ferriman Gallwey scoring, BMI, investigations including pelvic ultrasonography and blood serum FSH, LH, estradiol, TSH, prolactin, testosterone (total) and AMH was done for all the women. The patients were divided into two equal study groups of 45 each – PCOS diagnosed using Rotterdam criteria and Controls, using inclusion and exclusion criteria. Results: The mean age and BMI of cases and control were similar with no statistical difference. Mean FG score of 10.13 in PCOS case was statistically higher than in control. Mean AMH levels of 6.08ng/ml in cases was almost twice that of 2.98 ng/ml in control (p<0.0001). In PCOS, positive correlation of AMH to FG score and negative correlation with oligomenorrhea was observed. Phenotype A (HA+OA+PCOM) was most prevalent (42.22%) with highest AMH level of 7.96 ng/ml. Prevalence of phenotype D (OA+PCOM), phenotype B (OA+HA) and phenotype C (HA+PCOM) were 28.88%, 15.55%, and 13.33% respectively. Conclusion: AMH levels were significantly higher in PCOS than control. Phenotype A was the commonest, with highest AMH levels. AMH had a positive correlation to FG score and negative correlation with oligomenorrhea.

  207. Dr. Sumanrai and Dr. Shubhangi Mahashabde

    Obesity and in particular obesity have consistently associated with hypertension and increased cardiovascular risk. Based on population studies, risk estimates indicate that at least two-thirds of the prevalence of hypertension can be directly attributed to obesity. Apart from hypertension, abdominal adiposity has also been implicated in the pathogenesis of coronary artery disease, sleep apnoea, stroke and congestive heart failure. Methodology: The present study was carried out in the department of physiology, Amaltas institute of medical sciences Dewas (M.P.). We have selected the 250 individuals of age groups 14 to 25 years. A randomized cross sectional non interventional study was performed. Data thus obtained were analyzed by Chi square test with the help of SPSS-20 (software Package used for Statistical Analysis) software for statistical analysis. Results: The results of the present study showed that there was aSignificant association of Body mass index with blood pressure in males only, while in females body mass index failed to show association with blood pressure.

  208. Dr. Sangita Kamath and Dr. Neeraj Jain

    Background: Sickle cell disease (SCD) is a chronic, potentially life-threatening, inherited hemoglobinopathy of which pain is (the) hallmark. Amongst the various complications of SCD, painful vaso-occlusive crisis (VOC) is the most frequent cause of hospitalization, impaired health-related quality of life with increased mortality. The painful crisis, manifests as pain in the extremities, back, abdomen, or chest. As sickle cell disease is prevalent in and around Jamshedpur with affection of both tribal and non-tribal groups and an important cause of mortality and morbidity, one year study was undertaken with the Aim: To describe the clinical spectrum, laboratory parameters, efficacy of treatment and outcome in adults with pain crisis of sickle cell anemia admitted in Tata Main Hospital (TMH) over one year. Methods and Materials: This was a retrospective cohort study done from 1st March 2015 to 28th February 2016 and included patients admitted in the medical wards, of TMH, Jamshedpur. Results: A total of 32 patients were admitted with 50 pain episodes. The average pain rate was 0.492 patient-years. The average pain score was 8.9 ± 1.1 for males and for females was 8.6 ± 1.24. Most patients, 46.9% were in the age group of 21 to 30 years while only 2 patients (6.2%) were beyond the fourth decade of life. 25% of the patients had recurrent episodes. Sites of pain involvement were varied with involvement of knee being most common (78%). Length of stay (LOS) was maximum (7.12 ± 3.9) in patients with severe pain score. There was no mortality during the study period. Conclusion: VOC represents a chaotic interval in the life of patients of SCD which needs immediate and appropriate treatment with counseling to avoid complications.

  209. Dr. Kunal Kishore, Dr. Ganapathirao, Dr. Chandrakanth Halli and Dr. Vijay Biradar

    Urinary disorders have a specific identity both in modern and Ayurvedic system of medicine. The oldest written reference of this disease is seen in samhitha. The improper purificatory procedure results in residual accumulation of kapha and pitta Prakopa in mootravah srotas. Hence all the doshas collectively result in formation of Ashmari. Ashmari (urolithiasis) is a frequent clinical problem with an incidence of 0.1% to 6% in general population. The disease is prevalent irrespective of their socio-economic and cultural background. It is estimated that about 5-7 million patients are suffering from urinary calculus in India with male to female ratio of 2:1. The peak incidence is observed in 2nd to 3rd decades of life. There are different treatment lines for the management of Ashmari in modern system. In spite of all these techniques, surgical management remains as a treatment of choice. Recurrence is inevitable in 60% of cases. But these techniques can develop complications and are not affordable to an average Indian patient. So there is a need to find out an alternative management. Management of urinary disease occupies an important place in Ayurveda. Even though a lot of research has been done in Ashmari management, there is still a vast scope to explore new avenues. Hence the proper, cost effective, simple, safe, conservative i.e. Shigrumula kwatha is advised.

  210. Sumayya Sulthana, I. S., Swapna, S., Dr. Mydhili Mungara, Dr. Sunayana Manipal, Dr. Prabu, D., Dr. Rajmohan, M. and Dr. Savithri

    Background: Chewing of sticks from plants of neem, miswak, liquorice and babul have been used as a method of cleaning teeth in rural areas and as part of tradition in many parts of India. Pine was believed to be used in ancient times for cleaning teeth. The seeds and oil of Black cumin also finds wide use in oral hygiene and treating oral diseases. These plant parts are considered to have medicinal values. Objectives: To assess the efficacy of miswak, neem, liquorice, babul, black cumin and pine extracts for their antibacterial effect also to assess for their probable synergistic effect. Materials and Methods: Twigs of neem, miswak, liquorice, babul chewing sticks ; black cumin seeds and pine leaves were sun dried, ground into coarse powder. 5%, 10% and 50% sterile aqueous solutions were prepared. Two types of methodology was done, aqueous extraction and cold infusion method. The filtrate was inoculated onto blood agar plates containing Streptococusmutans and Lactobacillus and incubated at 37⁰C for 48 h. Results: The six plant extracts were found to inhibit Streptococcus mutansand Lactobacillus. Miswak and babul surfaced as strong antibacterials. The combination of these plant extracts showed significant zone of inhibition Conclusion: Pine doesn’t have earlier adequate research to validate its medicinal effects. Six plant extracts and their combination were effective against bacteria and can be used for preparation of antiplaque agents.

  211. Dr. Rachna Jain, Dr. Shruti, Dr. Suresh, D. K. and Dr. Esha Goyal

    Aim and Objective: The objective of this controlled clinical trial was to clinically evaluate the peri-implant soft & hard tissues and to radiographically analyze the difference in crestal bone level both mesial and distal to the implant. Materials and methods: A total of ten sites from ten volunteers were selected for the placement of the implants and were subjected to presurgical evaluation and clinical and radiographic parameter assessment. Statistical analysis used: Mann-Whitey U test and Wilcoxon Signed Rank Test were used to find the significance of study parameters on continuous scale for the intragroup comparisons and the comparison between the mesial and distal bone levels. Results: At baseline, 6 and 9 months there was a statistically significant overall decrease in the mean gingival index score around implants. The mean plaque index, sulcus bleeding score and mean difference in the peri-implant probing depth (mm) around the implants was statistically not significant. The mean width of keratinized mucosa and the mean papilla fill index remained constant throughout the study. On comparison between the mesial and distal implant site there was more crestal bone loss on the mesial than on the distal aspect. Conclusion: Nanothin surface coating of calcium phosphate enhanced the biological response of bone to implant at the early implantation times, supporting opportunities for increased bone healing response in clinical practice.

  212. Dr. Babitha, G.A., Dr. Ansu Korah, P., Dr. Shobha Prakash., Dr. Shiva Charan, Dr. Thimmashetty and Dr. Kishore Bhatt,

    Betel (Piper betle) is the leaf of a vine belonging to the Piperaceae family, which includes pepper and kava. It is mostly consumed in Asia, combined with tobacco, slaked lime and areca nut and is used as a recreational practise and for oral hygiene. Areca nut extract have been popularly known to exert carcinogenic actions on oral cavity. In this study we have attempted to analyse the effects of betel leaf oil on common periodontal pathogens like Prevotella Intermedia, Porphyromonasgingivalis, Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans and Fusobacterium nucleatum. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) required to inhibit the growth of these pathogens was analysed using the TUBE DILUTION METHOD and it was concluded that betel leaf oil has potent antimicrobial actions.

  213. *Jamal S. Shrair

    The external energy supply to the sun is overwhelmingly obvious even before space probes (Voyagers and IBEX) have detected it. The sunspot cycle, the surface temperature, the reverse temperature gradient and the existence of the corona in itself, are some of the outstanding evidence that point to the external energy supply that our star receives. In fact, all the basic features of the Sun are in complete disagreements (or in direct contradictions) with the concepts of the Standard Solar Model (SSM). In physical reality our star is not an isolated celestial body, but rather it is linked permanently to the Universe- not only to our galaxy-since magnetic fields are permanently present in the building blocks of matter. Furthermore, the Sun-like all stars- is not a self-sufficient entity, but it is externally powered by inducing current from high energy particles (cosmic rays). And yes, its radiated energy is the result of nuclear fusion, except that this nuclear fusion is a consequence of another primary process. In other words, the process of nuclear fusion-not thermonuclear fusion- is generated in the sun as a result of interactions between the sun's layers and the external energy source which is transported by complex galactic magnetic fields. More importantly, the sun converts energy to mass, not the other way around. Nonetheless, those theoretical physicists who established and developed the concepts of the SSM had simplified it by ignoring the roles of magnetic fields and rotation. They assumed that the sun is spherically symmetric and neutral object. Based on real solar physics, the Sun is an overall positively charged celestial object, where interaction of magnetic fields and rotation have the dominant roles on the solar surface, over the corona and in the solar interior. In addition to that, the physical mechanism of the Heliosphere is completely governed by magnetic fields interactions. Nevertheless, the high energy cosmic particles that power the sun are modulated by the Heliospheric Current Sheet (HCS) and the Solar Polar Fields (SPF). The increasing phase of the external energy supply is during solar minimum while the decreasing one is during solar maximum.

  214. Vijayshri Deotale and Deepashri Maraskolhe

    Introduction: Depending upon the environmental conditions, serotype of the virus and the vector, the epidemiology of dengue is changing. The increase in number of cases and the mortality due to dengue fever had been reported by various workers. Therefore to know the status of these, we have planned to do retrospective study with an aim to find out the trends of dengue fever in our tertiary care rural hospital. Material methods: We have conducted a retrospective analysis of cases admitted or visited to our tertiary care hospital during last five years (2012-2016). A total of 16744serum sample sent to the laboratory for serological testing of dengue were enrolled in the study. The enrolled cases were from all age group, from both indoor and outdoor department. A data was analyzed for all positive cases. Patients were labeled as seropositiveonly when found to be positive for dengue NS1 antigen and/ or dengue IgM antibody. Such patient’s data was analyzed in the study. Results: A total of 16744 cases were analyzed, out of which 1157 (6.91%) were found to be positive by ICT and 1077(6.43%) by both EARLY NS1 Ag ELISA and IgM MAC ELISA for dengue during last five year (2012 to 2016). Out of total dengue positive by both ICT and ELISA, 615 (57.10%) were NS1 antigen positive,462 (42.90%) were IgM antibody positives. Retrospective analysis revealed that predominantly males (60.82%) were more affected than females (39.18%) and most affected age group was 1-20 yrs. Conclusion: In our tertiary care rural hospital, during the last 5 year the dengue suspected cases has been increased along with their seropositivity.

  215. Elizabeta Popova Ramova

    During the last decade, the use of traditional medicine has expanded globally and has gained popularity. It has not only continued to be used for primary health care of the poor in developing countries, but has also been used in countries where conventional medicine is predominant in the national health care system. The aim of our research was to develop a model to evaluate the effect of TM. Material and method: We chose one disease, where the AM is used in a high percentage worldwide. We have analyzed Parkinson disease (PD) because 56% of patients use AM. The second step was to find all methods of AM that are used for the treatment of symptoms. The third step was to find measurable instruments to evaluate effects of AM, and the last step, to see the discussion about effects from other studies published in last five years. Results: We have found that some scores and scale, which are used in conventional medicine for assessment of PD have been used in AM treatments. We are looking for a physiological explanation of effects, as well. Discussion: In consulting studies, the model of science presentation of effects were similar. In each study, we have been explaining the symptom, as well as the high impact on the quality of life. Method of application, evaluation and scale for scoring, have been analyzed, too. Conclusion: Before we support or reject the effects of AM, we must analyze it by using conventional measurable instruments.

  216. Noorul Aneesa and Dr. Gopinath, P.

    Staphylococcus aureus is one of the important bacterial pathogen causing a wide spectrum of infections. Eucalyptus species are well known as medicinal plants due to their biological and pharmacological properties. The aim of the present study was to determine the antibacterial activity of eucalyptus oil against clinical isolates of Staphylococcus aureus. The MIC of eucalyptus oil was appeared to be 0.06% for S. aureus. The eucalyptus oil is found to have antibacterial activity against S. aureus. However, its irritant properties has been evaluated before it is formulated for medicinal purpose.

  217. Niha Naveed and Dr. Dhanraj, M.

    The use of dental implants for the rehabilitation of missing teeth has broadened the treatment options for patients and clinicians equally. The use of dental implants has increased dramatically in the past two decades as a result of advancements in research in implant design, materials and techniques, and is expected to expand further in the future. However the clinical complexity of the patient who present with limited bone volume often requires additional biomaterials and surgical procedures to ensure successful implant treatment. This review outlines the various biomaterials used in augmenting bone deficiencies encountered, the different surgical techniques that are used in order to achieve a predictable long term success of dental implants with elaboration on the recent advancements and the future of bone regeneration.

  218. Pradeep Kajal, Namita Bhutani and Yogender Kadian

    Background: Lymphadenopathy (LAP) is a commonly encountered clinical problem in the pediatric population which has a multitude of causes. Cervical lymphadenopathy is the commonest form of peripheral lymphadenopathy and is a major concern amongst the parents. Fine needle aspiration cytology (FNAC) of lymph node has become an integral part of the initial diagnosis and management of patients with lymphadenopathy due to early availability of results, simplicity, and minimal trauma with less complication. Materials and method: All children upto the age of 16 years presenting to the Department of Pediatric Surgery, Pt. B. D. Sharma, PGIMS Rohtak, Haryana, India with LAP of the neck and head were included in the study group. Lymph nodes that were enlarged more than 10 mm in the cervical, submental, and submandibular region, and 5 mm in the suboccipital, preauricular and postauricular region, were accepted as LAP. LAP that lasted less than 4 weeks was termed as acute LAP and 4 weeks or more as chronic LAP. Results: Among all groups, 57.6% (n = 568) were girls, and the maximum number of cases were in 5-10 age group with mean age 7 years and female: male ratio of 1.35:1. 15.4% pre-cervical, 36.3% submandibular, 25.7% post cervical, 19.9% retroauricular and 02.7% supraclavicular. Patients were divided into two groups: patients with no malignancy (group 1; n=782), and patients with malignancy (group 2; n=204). Five hundred seventy three patients (58.1%) had acute LAP and 41.8% (n = 413) had chronic symptoms. Mean lymph node size was 27.5 ± 5.8 mm in group 1 and 29.2 ± 5.0 mm in group 2. The commonest cause of lymphadenopathy in children was reactive hyperplasia followed by tuberculosis Conclusion: A thorough clinical history, examination (both local and systemic), routine and some special investigations should be considered to arrive at the diagnosis of paediatric cervical lymphadenopathy. FNAC is an accurate diagnostic technique in diagnosing various etiologies of lymphadenopathy. It provides a reliable, safe, rapid and economical method of investigating lymph node enlargement, the accuracy of which approaches that of other diagnostic procedures.

  219. Chowdhary Zoya, Mohan Ranjana, Mehrotra Shalabh and Gundappa Mohan

    Electrosurgeries are performed routinely in clinical dentistry, and it has a great relevance to general dentists as it provides a bloodless field while performing the gingivectomy, gingivoplasty, crown lengthening, frenectomy, depigmentation etc. But the overzealous use of electrocautery leads to delayed wound healing leading to sometimes necrosis of alveolar bone and gingiva. The present case reports the osteonecrosis of the alveolar bone of the mandible following a careless handling of electrocautery while managing a case of gingival hyperpigmentation.

  220. Keerthika, S., Dr. Marian Anand Bennis and Dr. Vinay Sivaswamy

    Aim: To evaluate antimicrobial activity of ethanolic extract of curcumin against Candida albicans and steptococcus mutans by agar well diffusion method. Background: Oral pathogens such as streptococcus mutans and Candida albicans are associated with severe human diseases.The alarming incidence of antibiotic resistance amongst the microbes, has led to the search of alternative antimicrobial drugs from medicinal plant to treat these infections. Curcumin, an active product of turmeric (curcuma longa) has broad spectrum of biological actions. Materials and Methods: Curcumin was diluted with ethanol and with phosphate buffered saline. Test organisms were cultured in the respective culture media.Antimicrobial activity was tested by using agar well diffusion method. Results: Confluent growth was seen in Candida albicans and no growth was seen in streptococcus mutans which indicates that curcumin was effective against streptococcus mutans and does not have antimicrobial activity against Candida albicans.

  221. Vaishali. S. and Dr. Marian Anand Bennis

    Aim: The aim of the study is to describe the attitude of year three dental students towards prosthodontic clinical decision-making for edentulous patients. Objective: The objective of the study is to describe the attitude of year three dental students towards prosthodontic clinical decision-making for edentulous patients and to identify whether there are gender differences in these attitudes. Background: Decision making is an essential part of all healthcare delivery. Clinicians need to appraise a wide range of factors prior to arriving at a decision that represents optimal care for their patient. These factors include clinical factors, patient values, the available research evidence, clinical guidelines, their previous clinical experience and medico-legal implications. Reason: The edentulous state is a chronic condition and prosthodontic interventions will inevitably require multiple treatment sessions and long term care. Therefore proper decision making is required. Result: 83% of the dental students acknowledged an influence from their own person values on their presentation of material to patients who are in the process of choosing among different treatment options and 89% thought their edentulous patients were satisfied with the decision making process when choosing among different treatment options, 73% of dental students supported a strategy of negotiation between patients and clinicians( shared decision making).

  222. Sai Sruthi Arige, Sai Datri Arige and Lakshmana Rao, A.

    Liver is one of the largest and most vital organs in human body and the chief site for intense metabolism and excretion. It has a surprising role in the maintenance, performance and regulating homeostasis of the body. It is involved with almost all the biochemical pathways to growth, fight against disease, nutrient supply, energy provision and reproduction. The major functions of the liver are carbohydrate, protein and fat metabolism, detoxification, secretion of bile and storage of vitamin. Thus, to maintain a healthy liver is a crucial factor for overall health and well-being. But when it is continuously and variedly exposed to environmental toxins, chemicals like CCl4, drug habits, alcohol, infections and autoimmune disorders, prescribed (antibiotics, chemotherapeutic agents) cum over-the-counter drugs can eventually lead to various liver ailments like hepatitis, cirrhosis and alcoholic liver disease. These conditions can be cured with hepatoprotective agents. Both in vitro and in vivo liver models have been developed in the past years to study the hepatoprotective agents. These Systems measures the ability of the test drugs to prevent or cure liver toxicity (induced by various hepatotoxins) in experimental animals.

  223. Prabhakaran Raju, John Grifson John Rose, Chandrasekar Thiruvarur Sivaraman, Amudhan Anbalagan, Bennet Duraisamy and Kannan Devy Gounder

    Background: Surgical resection is the only potentially curative therapy for pancreatic and periampullary cancer. The morbidity and mortality of pancreaticoduodenectomy (PD) is related to the outcome of anastomosis. Methods: This was a retrospective analysis of prospectively collected datafrompatients undergoing PD for pancreatic or peri-ampullary cancers between 2010 and 2014.Whipple’s pancreaticoduodenectomy was performed by three expert, senior surgeons. Pancreatico-enteric anastomoses were either in the form of a pancreaticogastrostomy/pancreaticojejunostomy (PG/PJ; Group A), or isolated loop pancreaticojejunostomy (IPJ; Group B). The primary outcomes were pancreatic fistula formation, delayed gastric emptying, intra-abdominal abscess formation, post-pancreatectomy hemorrhage, and mortality. Operative variables such as duration of surgery, blood loss, and transfusion requirements were also assessed, and minor morbidities including pneumonitis, urinary tract infections, and wound infections were analyzed. Results: 140 patients underwent Whipple’s pancreaticoduodenectomy, 100 patients underwent PG/PJ (Group A) and 40 patients underwent IPJ (Group B). DGE was significantly less frequent in Group B compared to Group A patients, occurring in 10% and 33%, respectively (p=0.003). Pancreatic leak occurred in 31% of Group A patients and 15% of IPJ patients (Group B), with clinically significant grade B and C leaks occurring significantly less frequently in patients undergoing IPJ (13% in Group A vs. 0% in Group B, p=0.002). Intra-abdominal collections occurred in 14% of Group A patients compared to 12.5% of Group B patients. The mean postoperative hospital stay was 12.6 days in Group A and 11.2 in Group B patients. Post pancreatectomy hemorrhage was significantly higher in Group A (n=7) than in Group B (n=0). Conclusions: Isolated loop reconstruction has a significant influence on the frequency of delayed gastric emptying and the grade of leak. The overall leak rate was significantly different between groups, and clinically significant grade B and grade C leaks were significantly less frequent in patients receiving IPJ reconstructions. The IPJ technique also showed a trend toward lower mortality.

  224. Kousalya Vuyyuru

    The relationship between periodontal and endodontic disease has aroused confusion, queries and controversy. Differential diagnosis has always been difficult for periodontal and endodontic diseases. A symptomatic tooth may have pain of periodontal or pulpal origin. The nature of pain for that symptomatic tooth helps in determining the etiology of such a problem. Radiographic and clinical diagnosis helps in clarifying the nature of the problem. In some cases, the influence of pulpal pathology may create periodontal involvement. In others, periodontal pathology may create pulpal pathology. This review article discusses the various clinical aspects to be considered for correct diagnosis and treatment.

  225. Dr. Babita Dubey and Jamila Khatun

    The objective of present empirical piece of research work is to examine the predicting effect of gender on stress coping strategies. Following the stratified random sampling technique 360 college going students within the age range of 18 to 21 years were drawn from different college of, Durg districts, to serve as participants in the present research work. In present research work correlational research design was employed. Stress coping strategies were measured by coping resistance scale (Shrivastva, 2001). Regression analysis was used to examine the predicting effect of gender on stress coping strategies. Results of study indicated that, gender was significant predictor of stress coping strategies. It is concluded that there is sufficient empirical and statistical evidence of the predication effect of gender on stress coping strategies.

  226. Sruthi Srinivasan

    An ectopic pregnancy, is a complication of pregnancy in which the embryo implants outside the uterine cavity (Page et al., 1976). Generally ectopic pregnancies are not viable. Furthermore, they are dangerous for the mother, since internal haemorrhage is a life-threatening complication. Most of the ectopic pregnancies occur in the fallopian tube, but implantation can also occur in the cervix, ovaries, and abdomen. An ectopic pregnancy is a medical emergency, and, if not treated properly, can lead to death. Ectopic pregnancy causes major maternal morbidity and mortality, with pregnancy loss, and its incidence is increasing worldwide (Why women die, 1998; Storeide et al., 1997; Ectopic pregnancy—united states, 1995). In northern Europe between 1976 and 1993 the incidence increased from 11.2 to 18.8 per 1000 pregnancies, (Storeide et al., 1997) and in 1989 in the united states admissions to hospital for ectopic pregnancy increased from 17 800 in 1970 to 88 400 (Simms et al., 1997). These changes were greatest in women over 35 years of age (Storeide et al., 1997; Ectopic pregnancy—united states, 1995). In the united kingdom there are around 11 000 cases of ectopic pregnancy per year (incidence 11.5 per 1000 pregnancies), with four deaths (a rate of 0.4 per 1000 ectopic pregnancies) (Why women die, 1998).

  227. Dr. Gis George, Dr. Rejitha, K., Dr. Vedavathi, B., Dr. Ranjini, M. A. and Dr. Neeharika, G.

    Cracked tooth is a distinct type of longitudinal fracture which may extend through one or both of the marginal ridges (through the proximal surface). It is caused by occlusal forces, either large forces on a normal tooth or normal force on a weakened tooth. Cracked tooth by itself is not a diagnosis, but is a clinical finding. A cracked tooth can act as a pathway for ingress of bacteria causing pulpal and/or periapical inflammation or disease. Early diagnosis followed by proper treatment planning and periodic follow up evaluation is the goal standard protocols in treating cracks.

  228. Dr. Manish Kundu, Dr. Manisha Singh, Dr. Shalini Ray and Dr. Priyanka Sachdeva

    Introduction: Internet use in India is increasing globally and has become a major part of daily life. Use of technology by health professionals for education and clinical care is evolving interest. College students are vulnerable to developing dependence on internet due to ease of use, unlimited access, limited supervision. They use internet for social media, email and online medical records. With this background the present study was conducted to assess the pattern of internet use and internet addiction among 130 medical students of Gurugram and also to find any association between depression and internet addiction among them. Youngs internet addiction scale and Becks depression scale along with a predesigned semistructed questionnaire was used. Results: The mean age of participants was 20.15 + 1.89years. Majority, 83% belonged to 17-20 age group. About 23.08% were severely addicted to internet. Most common gadget used by participants for internet access was mobile.11.54% reported of being online more then 6hrs.About 8.46% were severely depressed. Gender was significantly associated with internet addiction, girls being more addicted than boys (p<0.05). Significant association was also found between internet addiction and depression (p<0.05) Conclusion: All teachers, health care providers should pay closer attention to students who show internet addiction and depression. For the detection of high-risk students, it is important to regularly screen. In order to prevent the transition to addiction there is need to develop preventive interventions including counselling.

  229. Dr. Nikita Patel and Dr. Manoj Kumar

    To compare energy expenditure of ambulation on even indoor and uneven outdoor surface in CP children as well as between CP and asymptomatic children. Objective: To find out and compare physiological cost index on even indoor and uneven outdoor surface during walking in spastic CP and asymptomatic children. To correlate gross motor function and PCI. Method: 30 CP children and 30 asymptomatic children between 3 to 17 years walked for 6 minute on indoor even and uneven outdoor surfaces. Their energy expenditure was measured by physiological cost index. Results: Independent ‘t’ test and paired ‘t’ test were used for analysis. There was statistically significant difference between normal and CP children also between indoor even and outdoor uneven surfaces. Indoor performance better than outdoor performance under both conditions. Conclusion: children with CP having more energy expenditure than normal children on both surfaces.

  230. Bijitha Das, K. and Vimal Mathew

    An ideal dosage regimen in the drug therapy of any disease is the one, which immediately attains the desire therapeutic concentration of drug in plasma (or at the site of action) and maintain constant for the entire duration of treatment. To fulfill these medical needs, Formulator have devoted considerable efforts for developing a novel type of dosage form for oral administration known as mouth dissolving tablets (MDT). It is define as “a tablet that disintegrates and dissolves rapidly in the saliva within a few seconds without the need of drinking water or chewing.” A mouth dissolving tablet usually dissolves in the oral cavity within 15sec to 30sec Most of the MDTs include certain superdisintegrantsand taste masking agents. Telmisartan (TLM) is a non-peptide Angiotensin receptor II (Type- ATI) antagonist, that cause inhibition of action of Angiotensin II on vascular smooth muscle in the treatment of hypertension. The bioavailability of telmisartan is poor about 45% which is due to extensive first pass hepatic metabolism. The bioavailability can be increased by fast dissolving formulation. Conventional telmisartan tablets available in markets are not suitable were quick onset of action is required. In order for better patient compliance its better to develop a dosage form that can rapidly disintegrate and dissolve in saliva without need of water. The aim of present investigation was to prepare mouth dissolving tablet of an anti hypertensive drug telmisartan. The solubility of poorly soluble drug was enhanced by preparing inclusion complexes (solvent evaporation and kneading method) with β cyclodextrin and PEG 4000 in various concentrations. The optimized complexes (drug:βcyclodextrin, 1:2 ratio) were further kneaded with suitable proportion of superdisintegrant such as crosscarmellose, sodium starch glycolate and crosspovidone. Mouth dissolving tablets of Telmisartan was prepared by Direct compression method. The pre-compressive parameters for the blends and post compressive parameter for the prepared tablet were evaluated. All formulation showed desired pre and post-compressive characteristics. FTIR study showed no evidence of drug excipient interaction. The optimized formulation was found to be F6. It can be concluded that Mouth dissolving tablet of Telmisartan can be prepared by inclusion complexes with cyclodextrin and combination of superdisintegrants provide complete and better dissolution within in shorter period of time. Hypertensive treatment anywhere, and anytime particularly for ageriatric, pediatric, metally ill, bedridden and patients who do not easy access to water.

  231. Shirisha Yeturu

    Background: Abnormal uterine bleeding (AUB) is a common cause for concern among reproductive women, sometimes debilitating, for which patients seek advice in gynecology outpatient department. The aim of the study was: 1.To categorize women with AUB attending a rural teaching hospital according to new classification system PALM-COEIN by the International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics (FIGO). 2.To collect clinical and histopathologic data based on new terminology and definitions. 3.To correlate the clinical and pathologic features. Materials and Methods: This study was a cross sectional descriptive study to categorize women with AUB according to PALM COEIN classification system by International Federation of Obstetrics and Gynecology (FIGO), conducted in MALLAREDDY INSTITUTE OF MEDICAL SCIENCES, Suraram, Hyderabad, Telangana from October 2015 to March 2017. The study carried out on 250 non-gravid women presenting with AUB attending gynecology OPD after considering inclusion and exclusion criteria. The variables were analyzed using frequencies, percentages and chi-square test. The data and graphical techniques were presented by latest version of statistical software (SPSS-6). Results: In this study 250 nongravid women presented with AUB aged between 25-45years were included. Among women with 25-30 years Polyp was most common structural abnormality seen. Where as in women aged 31-45 years leiomyoma. Among women with 25-30 years iatrogenic cause was the most common and ovulatory dysfuntion in 36-45 years age group among non-structral causes. 68.8% of women presented with chronic AUB, while only 31.2% presented with acute AUB. Among all causes of AUB, leiomyoma was the most common cause and coagulopathy was the least common cause accounting for 0.8% of all cases. On sub classifying polyps, 69.3% were arising from endometrium and 30.7% were from cervix. Of 26 cases of polyps, 16 cases (61.5%) were associated with proliferative phase of endometrium and 8 cases (30.7%) with secretory phase of endometrium. Most of the women with adenomyosis had secretory phase of endometrium (53.3%), where as leiomyoma were associated with (55.2%) secretory phase of endometrium, followed by proliferative phase of endometrium (38.15%). Most of the leiomyoma cases were from sub mucosal (68.5%) origin. Most of the cases of endometrial hyperplasia are of simple endometrial hyperplasia without atypia contributing to 64.2% of cases. In the category of malignancy and hyperplasia, endometrial hyperplasia contributed to 73.7% and malignancy contributed to 36.7%. Most of the cases with ovulatory dysfunction had endometrium in proliferative phase (52.9%), while atrophic were only 10% of endometrial causes of AUB.62% of the cases were having a history of using hormonal medications in the preceding three months, while 38% of women were using intra uterine contraceptive devices. 58% of women with AUB had single pathology and 42% of women were having multiple pathologies. This classification helps in denoting a patient with single or multifactorial etiology. Conclusion: Confusion regarding the terminology, definitions and classification of AUB has been overcome by new standard terminology and universally accepted classification system, PALM-COEIN by the International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics (FIGO). Maximum number of patients with AUB were in 41-45 years age group and more common in multiparous women. Most common clinical presentation was HMB. In this study 42% of cases were identified to have multiple pathologies. This classification system helps in understanding various exact etiological causes of AUB and can be used by the clinicians to facilitate communication, clinical care and research. For this reason we strongly recommend adoption of this classification for AUB and HMB.

  232. Dr. Appasab Sanadi and Dr. Neha S. Agnihotri

    Lymphangiomas are rare benign hamartomas that result from maldevelopment of primitive lymphatic sacs. They are most frequently found in the neck and axilla, while intra-abdominal and mediastinal lymphangioma are uncommon. Lymphangiomas are rare pediatric tumors and very fewer cases reported in adults according to the literature. Therefore this article discusses a case report of cystic lymphangioma of 22 year old male patient with a brief review on its clinicopathologic presentation, classification, diagnostic techniques and its management.

  233. Nur Liyana Hannah Izham Akmal

    Aim: To study the effects of Zumba dance in the management of stress. Background: Stress is a part of daily living and it can be considered as a natural human phenomenon. Basically, stress refers to the feeling of being under unbearable mental and emotional pressure. It may affect an individual’s feelings, thoughts, behaviour, and physiology. Stress can be caused by various life’s demands, which include work, academic, relationships and financial. Different people have different ways of dealing with stress, depending on the individual. Zumba dance is a form of cardiovascular exercise that helps in improving mood and the energy level of an individual through the secretion of hormones that induce stress relief such as norepinephrine, serotonin and dopamine. Zumba dance involves various active movements and exercises, which can stimulate the production of endorphins in the body in order to suppress the action of stress-causing hormones such as cortisol and adrenaline. Materials and Method: 1) A group of 50 individuals are randomly selected as the sample subjects. 2) Each individual is given a survey form to be completed within 30 minutes. 3) After a month, the same survey form is given again to each individual to be completed within 30 minutes. 4) The survey forms of an individual given before and after the Zumba dance classes are compared. 5) The difference between the two survey forms is recorded to study the effects of Zumba dance in the management of stress. Result: Difference between the first and second survey forms given to an individual indicates the effects of Zumba dance in the individual’s stress management.

  234. Sathyanarayanan, R., Selvakumar, C. and Tamizhp Pozhil Guna

    Introduction: Low flow venous malformations are characteristic lesions with unique presenting features. The most common sites of occurrence are the cheek and the ear in the midface region. Most centres recommend sclerotherapy as the first line of treatment for low flow vascular malformations. We report a case of low flow vascular malformation in the buccal mucosa treated successfully by wide excision and reconstructed with buccal pad of fat. Case report: A 26 year old patient reported to our hospital with a painless swelling in the buccal mucosa. Under IV sedation patient underwent angiography via the femoral artery which showed no abnormal feeding vessels or draining veins. The lesion was treated by wide excision including the surrounding nidi, which was followed by reconstruction with buccal fat pad under general anaesthesia. The patient was followed up regularly and there was good take at recipient site and also there was no evidence of recurrence. Conclusion: Low flow venous malformations can be managed by surgical excision alone if there is no feeder vessel or very minimal uptake of the dye by a feeder vessel with the combined effects of a surgeon and vascular radiologist.

  235. Varu, Ashwani Sharma, Md Arif Naseer and Das, S. C.

    Type 2 diabetes (maturity onset diabetes) occurring in and around the age of 40 is also showing a rising trend in thyroid dysfunction. Present work in Saharanpur (U.P.) India was carried out to know the relationship if any between the two disorders. Thyroid function in normal groups and type 2 diabetic patients were carried out. Biochemical parameters such as – fasting plasma glucose TSH (Thyroid stimulating hormone), T3 (Triidothyronine), T4 (Thyroxin) were measured in different groups for assessment. The study showed the subclinical cases of hypothyroidism are at risk for type 2 diabetes.

  236. Dr. Panchal Vinayak, J., Dr. Vijaykumar biradar, Dr. Sanjay Trivedi and Dr. Chandrakanth Halli

    Dagdha vranas (Burn wounds) are very frequently and commonly seen in society, which are difficult to heal and leads to the intolerable painful condition to the subject. Such a burn conditions can be treat by topical applications in modern science, but none is perfect. In a case one of the important Upkrama described by Acharya Sushruta i.e. Patradana tried with Kadali Patra as a covering dressing after application of Yastimadhu ghrita in burn wound. Kadali Patradana is effective in burn wound management. Kadali patra are easily available in abundant supply round the year and are economical. It is easy to prepare the dressing since it does not require any special skill or instruments to store. Kadali Patradana is a good option available with properties close to an ideal burn dressing. A 26 yrs young female presenting with history of burn injury with complaint of burning, pain, odema in right hand fingers since 1 day has presented here.

  237. Ngueji Kakubu Olivier, Wang Li Min, Tshibadi Kushadi Michel, Wang Shu jing, Wang Wen Juan and Mufuta Ntambwe Simon

    Objective: To investigate the effect of aliskiren by expression of matrix metalloproteinase- 3 (MMP-3); Tissue Inhibitor of Metalloproteinase-2 (TIMP-2) on kidney of rats with unilateral ureteral obstruction (UUO).In addition, to explore its action in the process of renal interstitial Fibrosis. Materials and Methods: 60 male SD rats were randomly divided into sham operation group, model group and treatment group. Model group and treatment group were ligated and the left ureter transection induced the unilateral ureteral obstruction (UUO) model group began treatment after surgery, Aliskiren administered 50mg / kg oral treatment once a day and sham operation group and model group were given the same amount of physiological saline gavage. After 1 week, 2 weeks; 10 rats of each group were sacrificed respectively, left kidney specimens, do Hematoxylin Oesin (HE) and Masson staining, and by immunohistochemically SABC method to detect renal tissue expression of MMP-3, TIMP-2. Results: HE and Masson staining: the degree of tubular damage in treated rats was less than model group (P <0.05). Immunohistochemistry showed that in the UUO rat model of renal tissue, the expression of the treatment group with a time point of MMP-3 was higher than the model group, and the expression of TIMP-2 is lower than the model group (P <0.05). Conclusion: Aliskiren by regulation of the renal tissue MMP-3 / TIMP-2 ratio imbalance may play a renal protective effect in renal interstitial fibrosis process.

  238. MunthirAl-Zabin; MD, PhD and Dieter Hellwig; MD, PhD

    Introduction: The intracranial lesions in the third ventricle can have a variety of clinical manifestations. Masses related to the anterior recesses or floor of the third ventricle may manifest as dysfunction of the hypothalamic–pituitary hormonal axis. Masses of the posterior wall of the third ventricle, foramen of Monro masses, and intraventricular masses often manifest as hydrocephalus accompanied mostly by headaches. Some congenital cysts or acquired abnormalities, such as cavum veliinterpositi cyst and ectatic basilar artery, respectively, may be incidental imaging findings but distort the normal anatomy of the third ventricle or mimic more serious disease. Objective: 41 Patients (24 female, 17 male, age 12-82 years) with occlusive hydrocephalus due to intraventricular processes were treated with endoscopic technique with the aid of neuro-navigation. Methods: In these cases, the endoscopic cysto-ventriculostomy and biopsy of lesion has been selected as operative method. The neuro-navigation has been used for the optimization of the operation approach. For diseases in the region of the 3rd ventricle there are three variants: micro neurosurgery, stereotaxy, and endoscopic method. In patients with unclear diagnosis and other clinically limiting conditions the endoscopic guided method as a minimally invasive method should be selected. Results: With the endoscopic method, the intraventricular processes could be visualized. A necessary haemostasis could be performed under direct vision. In addition to the biopsy extraction, the occlusive hydrocephalus could be also treated with this method in approximately 68.3 % of the patients. There were no significant complications or bleedings postoperatively. There was in 70-90% of the cases a reliability of histopathological diagnosis. In comparison with the stereotactic method it has the same grade of accuracy (Mennel et al., 1994, Zentralblattfür Neurochirurgie). There has been no postoperative morbidity or mortality in consequence of this treatment. Conclusions: Neurovavigation-assisted, endoscopic biopsy and cystoventriculostomy has in comparison with the stereotactic method the same grade of accuracy and reliability. It has also more advantages, such as visualization of the operation area and intraoperative treatment and avoidance of complications postoperatively, especially intracranial or intracerebral haemorrhages. The hydrocephalus can also be treated concurrently in the most cases.

  239. Irfan Gul, Shujat Gul, Aadil Ashraf, Asifa Ali, Sabreena Qadri, Malik Suhail and Paras Koushal

    World Health Organisation estimates that 422 million adults aged over 18 years were living with diabetes in 2014 and the prevalence of diabetes mellitus has risen dramatically over the past two decades. Diabetes if not controlled causes severe neurological complication that impact significantly on quality of life Material and method: This was a hospital based cross sectional study, conducted among 616 diabetics. Patients with other potential causes of neurological disorders were excluded from study. After written consent, detailed History and neurological examination of patients was done. Patients were subjected to diabetic neuropathic symptom score (DNS), diabetic neuropathic examination (DNE) score, electro diagnostic studies (NCV) and other necessary investigation for evaluation of various neurological disorders. Results: Among 616 adult diabetic patients 42.53% were men out of which 93.67 % were Type 2 diabetic with mean age of 56.92 ± 7.96 year. The neurological disorders were present in 73.86%. Type 1 diabetes mellitus patients had higher prevalence of neurological disorders 79.49% compared to type 2 diabetic patients 73.48%.Diabetic neuropathy was the most common neurological complication and was found in 68.01% followed by stroke in 8.6%patients with ischemic (7.46%) > haemorrhagic (1.13%), Isolated cranial neuropathy(1.46%) patients, dementia (1.29%), parkinsonism (1.13%), Transient ischemic attacks (0.97%) and seizure disorder (0.81%).In 26.14% diabetic patients among studied patients there was no neurological complication Conclusion: Diabetics are prone to develop various neurological complications (73.86 %) and diabetic neuropathy being predominant (68.01%).thus all diabetic patients should undergo periodic neurological examination and all diabetic should be educated about the neurological complication by treating physician about neurological complication

  240. Reena Sinha, Shadan Rabab and Singh, D. N.

    A total of 100 cases of soft tissue tumor was studied by fine needle aspiration cytology and was compared by histopathological examination. In this, 60 cases were benign, 33 were malignant and 7 cases were inconclusive on FNAC. On histopathological and IHC study the accuracy rate of benign tumors were 91.1% and of malignant 90.8%. The overall accuracy rate was 89.8%. So FNAC is considered as a useful, cost effective procedure for primary diagnosis and recurrent tumors and should be used as a primary complementary method.

  241. Dr. Prabhahar, C. S. and Dr. Brindhav Devi

    Background: Deficits in daytime performance due to sleep loss are experienced universally and associated with a significant social, financial, and human cost. Overall, immunity decreases, a state of systemic inflammation with increased inflammatory markers ensues, and several hormones become up regulated. Underlying mechanisms involve modulation of immune inflammatory mechanisms. These changes might contribute to potentiation of destructive periodontal disease. Therefore, the present study aimed to assess if there is an association of sleep deprivation with chronic periodontal diseases. Materials and Methods: Hundred sleep deprived subjects were taken and their Periodontal status was assessed by gingival index and pocket probing depth. All the study subjects were administered Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI) questionnaire for the assessment of sleep deprivation. Results: Present investigation revealed that mean PSQI was highest in the subjects with chronic periodontitis compared to normal and gingivitis subjects and the difference among three groups was statistically significant. Conclusion: The present study with preliminary results suggests that there is association between sleep deprivation and severity of periodontal disease. Hence, there is a need for future studies with larger samples to understand how sleep habits can influence periodontitis.

  242. Sagar Prakash Kadam, Abhijit Ningappa Gurav, Rahul Ashok Patil, Abhijeet Rajendra Shete, Sumit Sharad Shetagar, Pradnya Rajendra Khatavkar and Swapneel Charandas Bodele

    Purpose: Chronic periodontitis (CP), the commonest type of periodontal disease caused progressive loss of attachment and bone loss. It is closely related to several systemic diseases, such as diabetes and cardiovascular disease. The link between periodontal disease and chronic kidney disease(CKD) may be due to infection and inflammation. The periodontal inflammatory state may increases the chronic inflammation present in CKD, thus decreasing renal function. Periodontal therapy may reduce inflammation and improves endothelial function. Materials and Methods: Fifty one CP patients (Age 35- 60 years) was selected. Categorized into group I and groups II. Group I was test group (TG) included twenty five patients and group II was control group (CG) included twenty six patients. Scaling and root planing (SRP) was done in test group only. Serum renal function and clinical parameters were checked at baseline and one month after SRP. Results: After comparison of the clinical parameter and renal function markers at baseline there is no statistical difference among TG (p= 0.102). Before and after Comparison (baseline and 1 month) in TG, the clinical and renal function markers were statistically significant (p < 0.001). Conclusion: In the study there is significant improvement in periodontal parameter, which shows periodontal improvement, also serum creatinine, urea and bilurubin levels showed improvement after SRP.

  243. Dr. Karthik Kabbur, Dr. Fatima Khalidi, Dr. Hemanth, M., Dr. Chatura Hegde and Dr. Sharmada, B. K.

    Objective: The aim of the present study is to evaluate the efficiency of microabrasion, enamel remineralising agent and resin infiltration technique in treatment of white spot lesion. Materials and Methods: Ninety extracted teeth with no visible enamel defects were taken. The teeth were then subjected to demineralisation cycle for 2 weeks. The samples after demineralisation were divided into three groups of thirty teeth each: GROUP A treated with microabrasion technique, Group B s treated with remineralising agent, Group C treated with resin infiltration technique. The microhardness, transmittance and absorbance values were recorded pre-treatment (T0), after demineralisation (T1) and after different treatment modalities (T3) using microhardness tester, and UV-Visible spectrophotometer respectively. The data were analysed using ANOVA followed by Bonferroni post hoc analysis to compare the microhardness and absorbance and transmittance between the groups. Results: The results suggested that there was statistically significant difference between group A, B,C in improvement of microhardness, transmittance and absorbance values after demineralisation, the improvement was more in group C followed by group A and group B. Conclusion: The results of the present concludes that white spot lesion can be best treated by resin infiltration technique which improves the microhardness as well as mask the white spot lesion lesions by getting camouflaged with the adjacent sound enamel.

  244. Reena Sinha, Nishi, Verma, P. K. and Jha, P. C.

    Introduction: Carcinoma breast is one of the commonest cancer in women, both in western world and in developing countries like India. Breast carcinoma is a hormone dependant disease. Immunohistochemical prognostic and predictive markers ER, PR and Her2/neu significantly influences prognosis, survival and selection of therapy in female breast cancer cases. Aim and objective: The purpose of this study was (i) to evaluate the prevalence of prognostic and predictive markers ER, PR and Her2/ neu by immunohistochemistry in female carcinoma breast cases in Bihar (Northern India), (ii) to compare the pattern of expression of these markers with age of the patients & (iii) to correlate the ER, PR & Her2/neu expressions with each other. Materials and Methods: This prospective study was carried out in Department of Pathology, Mahavir Cancer Sansthan and Research Centre, Phulwarisharif in between March 2015 to December 2016. 412 female carcinoma breast cases diagnosed by radiology and FNAC and further confirmed by histopathological examination of biopsy were included in this study. Immunohistochemical staining for ER, PR and Her2/neu were done in all 412 cases of female carcinoma breast. Results: Immunohistochemical markers ER and PR were found positive in 210 (50.97%) and 234(56.49%) cases respectively. Her2/neu was found positive in 148 (35.92%) cases. The Mean± SEM age of the patient in this study was 47.63 ± 0.549 years. Triple negative breast cancer which had poor prognosis was found in only 16 (3.88 %) cases. Conclusion: In conclusion, the prevalence of ER, PR and Her2/net over expression in our study does not fall within the ranges given in most of the literature. Our results showed higher proportion of ER, PR and Her2/ neu over expression in comparison to most of the studies. Fortunately our results also showed lower proportion of triple-negative breast cancer cases having poor prognosis. The findings suggest that North Indian women in the Bihar have breast carcinoma comparatively at younger age, likely to be more susceptible to conventional hormonal and targeted antibody treatment.

  245. Dr. Tej Joshi, Dr. Ekta Rohra, Dr. Gaurang Mistry and Dr. Omkar Shetty

    The “All-on-Six” concept is based on the placement of six implants in the anterior part of fully edentulous jaws to support a provisional, fixed, and immediately loaded full-arch prosthesis. “All on six” concept of implants for supporting fixed prostheses can be considered a viable treatment modality resulting in a simple and less time consuming procedure, significantly less morbidity, decreased financial costs and a more comfortable postsurgical period for the patients.

  246. Puguh Riyanto

    Gay, bisexual, and other men who have sex with men (MSM) are at increased risk for sexually Transmitted Infections (STI). Because STI, and the behaviors associated with acquiring them, increase the likelihood of acquiring and transmitting HIV infection, STI incidence among MSM may also be an indicator of higher risk for subsequent HIV infection. This research is observational, as sample are gays living in Central Java Indonesia in September-October 2016. The sample size was 50 gay obtained randomly. The data collection in this research is done through Interviews, questionnaires, and Focus Group Discussion. The results obtained mean age of gay ranged 19 years. The everyday appearance of gays is always fashionable and well-groomed face, loves to seduce men, wear perfume that smells, gestures and attitudes like women, homophobic male, and likes gossip. Respondents who suffered from STI syndrome, namely urethral discharge 80%, genital ulcer 42%, genital vegetation 56%, scrotal swelling 14%, gay bowel syndrome 88%.The conclusion in this study that the majority of gays have a history of sexually transmitted infections and at risk of contracting HIV.

  247. Dr. Monica Bhadwal, Dr. Archana Nagpal, Dr. Jasjit Kaur and Dr. Rupandeep Kaur Samra

    Statement of problem: The presence of ferrule is hypothesized to protect the tooth from wedging stresses in post restored teeth. Restoration design must provide enough strength to restoration and to abutment teeth to resist occlusal forces. It is important to evaluate the optimum ferrule length in various post and core restorations that must be incorporated in endodontically treated teeth to increase its fracture resistance. Purpose: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of different length of ferrule on fracture resistance and mode of failure of endodontically treated teeth restored with two different post systems, including glass fibre post and composite system and Ni-Cr cast metal post and core system. Methods: Eighty freshly extracted human maxillary central incisors were endodontically treated. Teeth were randomly divided into two groups of 40 teeth each. Each group was further subdivided into four subgroups of 10 teeth each depending upon the length of ferrule preparation i.e., 0mm, 1mm, 2mm and 3mm. The Group A was restored with glass fiber-reinforced post and composite resin core (GFRP) and the Group B was restored with Ni-Cr cast post and core (CP). All the specimens were loaded to fracture using a universal testing machine and mode of failure was recorded by visual inspection. Data were statistically analyzed. Results: The mean fracture resistance was found to be highest at ferrule length of 2mm in both groups. Conclusions: This in vitro study demonstrated that the optimum ferrule length required is 2mm.

  248. Dr. Jinal Desai, Dr. Krishna Dave, Dr. Gaurav Bakutra, Dr. Dharmesh Vasavada

    Traumatic or irritation fibroma is a benign exophytic oral lesion that develops secondary to tissue injury. It is the benign reactive lesion, and the treatment of choice is surgical excision. Here is the series of two cases of irritational fibromas in buccal mucosa and hard palate regions which were managed by excision biopsy and were diagnosed as irritation fibroma after histopathologic evaluation.

  249. Fazeelath Banu and Dr. Saravana Pandian

    Understanding of growth events is of importance in orthodontics. To know the exact status of growth, for treatment planning and treatment prognosis skeletal maturity indicators are used. The most widely used method for skeletal maturation analysis is hand wrist bone radiograph. The assessment of degree of cervical bone maturation is another method for assessing skeletal maturation. The present study is to find the possible concordance between hand wrist bone radiograph and cervical vertebral analysis using lateral cephalograph.

  250. Dhanu G., Snehal Shivraj Kadge, Raghavendra Havale and Dr. Antarmayee Panigrahi

    Pulpal necrosis of an immature tooth caused by caries or trauma may lead to potential complications. Regenerative endodontic procedures are biologically based procedures which deals with the regeneration of pulp like tissue, more idealistically the pulp-dentin complex. These case reports describe the treatment of immature permanent teeth with periapical lesion which were treated with regenerative approach. The root canal was gently debrided of necrotic tissue and irrigated with 2.5% NaOCl, and then medicated with triple antibiotic paste. When the tooth was asymptomatic, bleeding was induced into the canal; blood clot was allowed to form and mineral trioxide aggregate (MTA) was placed over the clot. After 3, 6, 9 and 12 months, radiographical examination revealed resolution of the radiolucency and progressive thickening of the root wall and apical closure. Proper disinfection and use of a suitable scaffold and proper coronal seal led to successful outcome of revascularization in the patients.

  251. Dr. Ruparel Ritu B., Dr. Shakuntala Goswami, M.D., Dr. Namrata Takyar and Dr. Nehal Rajesh Chandra

    Recurrent laryngeal papillomatosis is a rare chronic disease of viral etiology affecting most commonly larynx and paediatric age group. A 7 year old child with stridor was posted for laser excision of papilloma and managed with apnoeic anaesthesia with intermittent ventilation. The objective of our case was to review safety and efficacy of AAIV technique. At the end of case we observed. AAIV technique provides better visualization and immobile field for operation without any serious outcome. Thus we can conclude AAIV is an useful alternative technique for anaesthetic management of laryngeal papilloma.

  252. Shivani Sharma, Yashoda Devi, Sujatha S., Rakesh N., Shwetha V. and Pawan T.

    Candidiasis, a common opportunistic fungal infection of the oral cavity is caused by Candida species. There are many risk factors involved including the use of prosthetic dentures with poor denture hygiene. We hereby present a case of an elderly female wearing maxillary and mandibular complete dentures for 20 years with poor denture hygiene. She complained of burning sensation in the mouth for 1 week. After complete examination, a provisional diagnosis of Pseudomembranous candidiasis W.R.T mandibular ridge and Atrophic candidias is W.R.T maxillary ridge and the hard palate was made. The lesions healed completely in 5 days after the application of candid mouth paint and maintenance of oral and denture hygiene.

  253. Dr. Pinal Jain, Dr. Prabhuraj B. Kambalyal and Dr. Gaurav Sharma

    Management of orthodontic cases often requires extraction of permanent teeth. The decision to extract the teeth or not depends upon the arch length tooth material discrepancies, the growth pattern, general profile, and arch asymmetries. Earlier, annon-extraction approach or an approach involving the extraction of all four first premolars was the primary basis of treatment planning in orthodontics. However, an alternative orthodontic treatment modality involving the unilateral extraction of premolar in borderline cases has gained popularity nowadays. The present report describes a case with unilateral placed buccally blocked out canine and crowding in upper and lower arch, for which unilateral asymmetric premolar extractionswere performed to achieve aesthetic and functionally stable occlusion.

  254. Dr. Suman Sethi and Dr. Nitin Sethi

    Renal impairment has long been known to affect woundhealing. However, information on differences in the spectrum of wound healing depending on the type of renal insufficiency is limited. Acute kidney injury (AKI) may be observed with different wound types. On one hand, it follows acute traumatic conditions such as crush injury, burns, and post-surgical woundsand on the other hand, it arises as simultaneous targeting of skin and kidneys by autoimmune-mediated vasculitis.Chronic kidney disease (CKD) and end-stage renal disease (ESRD) often occur in older people, whohave limited physical mobility and predisposition for developing pressure-related wounds. The common risk factors forpoor wound healing, generally observed in patients with CKDand ESRD, include poorly controlled diabetes mellitus, neuropathy, peripheral vascular disease, chronic venous insufficiency and aging.In the present literature review, we discuss the association between different types of renal impairments and their effects on wound healing.

  255. Ghazia Kafeel and Ismath Shameem

    Ovulation is the central event in female production. Coordinated effects of hypothalamic gonadotropin releasing hormones, pituitary gonadotropins, ovarian estrogens and follicular response to these effects result in ovulation. Any derangement of the above factors results in ovarian dysfunction. In classical Unani literature, various physicians mentioned the detailed description of female genital organs.Soranus of Ephesus (98- 138 AD) father of gynaecology, gave a detailed description of ovaries noting their shape, size and position. He believed that conception was most likely to take place directly after menstruation. He mentioned that ovaries were attached to uterus and were not of firm consistency but glandular and covered with membrane. Aristotle (Arastu) and Galen (Jalinoos) mentioned that both male mani (sperm) and female mani (ovum) are responsible for conception. Galen (Jalinoos) states that if both baiza (ovaries) of any animal are either excised or crushed or make it colder with shokran, then conception will not take place.Therefore this paper has been entitled for historical review of anovulatory infertility in perspective to Unani medicine.

  256. Dr. Muhammad Ali and Dr. Khaldoun Ali

    Broken heart syndrome (BHS), which was first reported in 1991, is an acute cardiomyopathy that mimics an acute coronary syndrome with left ventricular systolic dysfunction without obstructive coronary artery disease. Its prevalence is approximately 1.2-2% in patients with acute coronary syndrome undergoing coronary catheterization. Chest pain is the most common clinical presentation. Sudden cardiac death due to ventricular fibrillation could be the first clinical manifestation. The patients are mostly postmenopausal women. BHS is a diagnosis of exclusion and has no single definitive diagnostic test. Nevertheless, most of the patients have an excellent prognosis. This review provides a general overview of BHS and focuses on current practices in diagnosis, prognosis, and treatment, as well as update current information on the pathophysiology.

  257. Khadija Awad, Iman Ramadan, Rawya Bahlas and Salimah Abdrabu

    Background: Non-medical use of medications is defined as the use of treatment for disorders which self-diagnosed. There are multiple factors could shape such use like; age, education, family, and society. Objectives: The current study was carried out to estimate prevalence of non-medical use of analgesics and to investigate potential risk factors of nonmedical use of analgesics among (Al-Azhar university) medical students. Methodology: This is a cross-sectional study which was conducted during the period (March to May 2016) using self administered questionnaire. The questionnaire was circulated and accomplished by 1097 medical students attending two faculties of medicine “Girls and boys” in Cairo, Egypt. Data was analyzed using STATA version 13. A multiple logistic regression model was built to investigate potential covariates of nonmedical use of analgesics. Results: non-medical use of analgesics in the previous 6 months was 68.92%, and it was more prevalent among female students (70.69%). Analgesic use in the previous six months was one time in 66.80%, double in 14.95%, triple times in 10.71% and more than three times in 7.54% of the medical students. Of all the medical students, 23.52% reported headache as the problem while around 12.00% claimed bone and tooth aches as the main causes of their non-medical use of analgesics. The more likely used basic knowledge for non-medical use of analgesics were friends and families recommendations (42.0%), formerly used analgesics (12.4%), their own basic knowledge (6.9%) and a pharmacist suggestion (4.0%). Regarding the independent predictors of non-medical usage of analgesics, older students were more 1.2 times likely to be experience non-medical use. Male medical students were 1.29 times more likely experienced non-medical use. In general, the results revealed that students with co-morbidities were 1.95 times more probably experienced nonmedical use of analgesics. Conclusion: non-medical use of analgesics is expanded among medical students in (Al-Azhar University). This might be an alarming signal for all policy makers of the Egyptian community. Insufficient information about analgesics, draw the attention for the magnitude of training courses and education over the social media.

  258. Hemalatha Krishnasamy

    Sustainable Introduction Urinary retention in females is very uncommon. Careful evaluation including detailed history, physical examination and urodynamics is required to find out any reversible pathology. Surgical treatment in women should be approached with caution as it carries significant risk of injury to sphincter and incontinence and intervention requires an individualized approach based on careful evaluation. Aim of the study: To analyze the causes of urinary retention in female inpatients and outpatients and utilize these results for proper management of urinary retention at an early stage. Materials and Methods: The study was a retrospective study conducted from January 2015 to December 2016 in the Institute of urology, Madras medical college, Chennai. Urinary retention was defined as a difficulty in self-voiding despite a sufficient urine volume or more than 250-mL of post void residual urine. The data included are patients' age, ambulatory status, medical and surgical history, classes of taking drugs, and urinary tract infection and menopausal status. Observations and Results: A total of 234 women were included as retention group with mean age of 59.5 years (41–78years). 190 (81.19%) females were attained menopause. The most common surgical history was cystocoele repair. The patients taking drugs with anti muscarinic effects were 15 (6.41%) and diuretics 32 (13.76%). Urinary tract infection was identified in 97 patients (41.45%). 18 patients were bed ridden. Diabetes mellitus was found in 54 patients (23.07%). Cystocoele was found in 12 patients. Most common benign and malignant tumours observed were urethral caruncle in 12 (5.1%) patients and uterine fibroids in 8 (3.41%) patients and carcinoma cervix in 34 (14.52%) patients and malignant ovarian tumours in 4 (1.70%) patients. Conclusion: Urinary retention in females is much less common in females than in males. It is very important to identify the cause of the retention. The acute emergency can be managed with transurethral or supra pubic catheterization. The cause of the retention determines further specific treatment.

  259. Shiva V Murarka, Khushbu R Patel, Parth S Shah, Nidhi D Shah, Bhavini S Shah and Mandava V Rao

    Hepatitis B viral (HBV) load monitoring is mainly important for the patients suffering from liver related diseases. Several techniques have been established to identify the viral load in the patients such as serological tests and various types of PCR. In this cohort we describe the validation and implementation of cost-effective quantitative real-time PCR for Hepatitis B viral load detection. The use of Quantstudio 3D digital PCR for the preparation of in-house standards also makes the technology more cost-effective and sensitive. The real-time HBV assay was validated for its linearity, sensitivity, precision, reproducibility while at the same time we also compared with the digital PCR (dPCR) for its accuracy. The sensitivity of digital PCR (dPCR) is better than RT-PCR due to its absolute quantification. RT-PCR is used in all laboratories with Taqman chemistry which is almost competent with dPCR, though the latter is better in a way that no standards or controls are required for quantification.

  260. Dr. Binish Gulzar and Dr. Chitralekha Saikumar

    Aim and Objective: This study is aimed in determining the prevalence of different bacterial isolates and their antibiotic susceptibility pattern from the patients with respiratory tract infections. Introduction: Respiratory tract infection is one of the most widespread infections that can affect the individuals of all the age Groups and have serious manifestations. There is an emerging antibiotic resistance among the pathogens causing RTI’s that leads to therapeutic failures in these patients. So it is important to perform antibiotic susceptibility testing for the isolated organisms and development of appropriate antibiotic policies. Materials and Methods: A total of 190 samples were collected from the patients at the tertiary care hospital, Chennai for a period of six months. Result: Out of a total of 190 samples 152 were positive for microbial isolates. The predominant pathogen isolated in my study was Klebsiella spp 44 (29%) followed by Streptococcus spp 30 (19.7%), Pseudomonas aeruginosa 22 (14.4%), Enterococcus spp 14 (9.2%), Staphylococcus aureus 10 (6.6%), CONS 8(5.3%), Acinetobacter spp 7 (4.6%), Candida species 10 (6.6%), Proteus spp 5 (3.3%) and Escherichia coli 2 (1.3%) respectively. Conclusion: Clinicians should prescribe the drugs according to the susceptibility pattern after isolating the etiological agent of the infection and this will further decrease the mortality and morbidity due to the disease.

  261. Poorna Devadoss, Skanda Ramesh, Anbu Velusamy and Jasher S, Agasthiya

    This study was done to determine different palatal rugal patterns amongst untreated patients with class I, class II and class III malocclusion and hence use it as an additional criteria for classifying malocclusions. 4 parameters (Mean Length, Mean Width of Rugae, Total number of Rugae present and Presence or Absence of Union of any rugae) were taken to assess any significant feature present amongst the above mentioned malocclusions. It was found that in Class II Malocclusion, there was no union of rugae present and the Mean Width of Rugal Patterns amongst males was significantly higher when compared to females.

  262. Pheba Raju, Sajeeth, C. I.,Shalu Varghese, Athulya Rajan and Kiran, D. R.

    The appropriate use of antimicrobial agents is crucial for patient’s safety and public health. One way of optimizing antibiotic use is to switch earlier from intravenous to oral therapy. The main types of conversion are sequential therapy, switch therapy and step down therapy. The aim of the study is to evaluate the practice of conversion of intravenous (IV) to oral antibiotics and to assess the rationality of antibiotic therapy. A prospective observational study was done for a period six months at a tertiary care hospital, Palakkad. A standardized data entry form was prepared to record all patient details, investigations and therapy given. About 145 patients were observed and the study shows that cephalosporins (56.5%) were the mostly prescribed IV antibiotics. Step down type conversions were mostly observed type of conversion that is of 45.3% followed by switch type (35.9%) and sequential type (18.7%). Polypharmacy was the major cause for irrationality.

  263. Hrishikesh Walimbe, Priyanka Vijay Karekar, Fawaz Shamim Siddiqui, Meenakshi Nankar, Harsha Sanjay Nalawade and Krishnapriya Suhas Nene

    Purpose: To evaluate and compare anxiety levels in children prepared for oral prophylaxis and topical fluoride varnish application using three behavior shaping techniques- tell-show-do, live modeling and filmed modeling. Methods: Sixty three subjects (7-9 years) with Frankl’s score 3 and 4 were allocated in three groups using randomized block design, each group having 21 patients. Group I-children prepared for oral prophylaxis and topical fluoride varnish application by means of tell show do (TSD) technique; Group II- children prepared for oral prophylaxis and topical fluoride varnish application by means of live modeling; Group III-children prepared for oral prophylaxis and topical fluoride varnish application by means of filmed modeling. Facial Image Scale with image scores and heart rate were used to record the anxiety. Scores were taken before, during and after the dental treatment procedures. Results: It was observed that, before, during and after oral prophylaxis and topical fluoride varnish application procedures, highest anxiety score was seen in Group I, followed by Group II whereas least anxiety score was seen in group III. Conclusion: Filmed modeling can be an efficient method in pre-appointment preparation of children during dental treatment procedures.

  264. Puja Londhe and Kumar Nilesh

    Platelet concentrates (PC), also known as platelet gel or plasma rich in growth factors is supra-physiological concentrate of platelet in plasma, derived from autologous blood after its centrifugation. It has dynamic use in regenerative and repair therapy. It gained popularity in late 1970s in Europe, wherein fibrin sealants were used for haemostasis and tissue closure. Subsequently it evolved into platelet rich plasma (1st generation PC) and platelet rich fibrin (2nd generation PC).Common to both the generations are presence of multiple growth factors which has potential to catalyse soft and hard tissue healing. It has been used in field of medicine and dentistry in varied forms. This paper aims to review various applications of PC, specifically in field of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery.

  265. Dr. Braj Bhushan Mall, Dr. Poonam Singh, Dr. Narash Sharma and Dr. Praveen Reddy

    Objective: To evaluate the effect of Platelet-rich plasma (PRP) with hydroxyapatite (HA) in healing of post surgical osseous defects clinically and radio graphically. To evaluate the role of PRP in modifying the physiologic response to grafting of alveolar bone defects in maxillofacial region. Methods: After selection according to inclusion and exclusion criterias, 40 patients were selected. All the patients were to undergo surgical enucleation of the cystic lesion or extraction of impacted mandibular teeth, followed by placement of platelet rich plasma (PRP) with hydroxyapatite in the surgical defect. Pre operative and post operative radiographs, ultrasonography and colordoppler were utilized as diagnostic tools. Surgery was performed. After removal of the lesion/tooth the bone defect was packed with mixture of platelet rich plasma (PRP) and hydroxyappatite (HA). Closure of wound was achieved by interrupted sutures using 000 black silk with 16 mm 3/8 reverse cutting needle. The data was analyzed statistically. Results: the findings of the study suggest that platelet rich plasma is a feasible method to treat post-treatment jaw defects with a very high success rate and very low rate of complications such as pain, swelling and infection. Ultrasonographic evaluation proved to be very beneficial in evaluation of bone formation and calcification whereas Color Doppler evaluation helped to predict the vascularization of the affected area thus showing the evidence of wound healing.

  266. Dr. Shailesh Kumar and Dr. Ketki, K.

    Accurate age estimation of these fetuses can be very important to medico-legal authorities, particularly as it is sometimes necessary to determine if these fetuses are those of a full-term or a pre-term fetus. Age estimation is usually the primary characteristic for identification and is often the only means of identification for fetuses since they do not usually have any other type of identification with them. Age estimation can also play an important role in the prosecution of forensic cases. In this article, we discussed the different methods of age estimations and their medico-legal importances.

  267. Rianne Carragher MSN, NP-C, BScN, Jessie Johnson RN, PhD and Marti Harder RN, MSN

    Sudden out-of-hospital cardiac arrests are the most common cause of death worldwide. This mortality rate can be significantly reduced with the provision of bystander cardiopulmonary resuscitation. This narrative reviewuses a constructionist framework, and examines factors related to the provision of bystander cardiopulmonary resuscitation. Common factors include: resistance to perform the act due to various fears, lack of cardiopulmonary resuscitation education and training, legal implications around performing cardiopulmonary resuscitation, and socioeconomic variables whether or not cardiopulmonary resuscitation is initiated during out-of-hospital cardiac arrest.The authors developed a list of recommendations to enhance the provision of bystander cardiopulmonary resuscitation in out-of-hospital cardiac arrest with the ultimate aim to enhance overall survival rates during cardiac arrest. Education around the legal implications for providing bystander cardiopulmonary resuscitation needs to be widely disseminated. Support for cardiopulmonary resuscitationeducation and training should be provided to all individuals, including those with low socioeconomic statuses. Education should be provided around the efficacy of bystander cardiopulmonary resuscitation and the low to no risk for the bystander in relation to contracting infectious diseases.

  268. Dr. Vandana J Gade, Dr. Neelam Rahul, Dr. Surbhi Gajbhiye and Dr. Jaykumar R Gade

    Introduction: For many years, sodium hypochlorite and 2 % chlorhexidine have been used for eradication of E faecalis. But side effects caused by sodium hypochlorite and constant increase in antibiotic resistant strains has shifted attention towards herbal alternatives. Aim: To evaluate and compare the antibacterial efficacy of herbal irrigants like Morinda citrifolia, Propolis, green tea with gold standard Sodium Hypochlorite and Chlorhexidine Methodology: Muller Hinton agar plates were prepared and incubated for 24 hours at 37°C. 5 Holes of 6mm diameter were punched out on muller hinton agar plate followed by streaking with strain of Enterococcus faecalis on the plate. 5 holes were marked at the bottom of the petri dish for different groups as, Group 1-Morinda Citrifolia, Group 2- Propolis, Group 3- Green tea, Group 4- Sodium Hypochlorite, Group 5- Chlorhexidine. 100 μl of each irrigant was pipetted in its respective well and incubated at 37°C for 24 hours and plates were examined for the presence and size of zone of inhibition. The readings were subjected to statistical analysis using one way ANOVA and Tukey’s test. Results: Chlorhexidine exhibited highest antibacterial efficacy as compared to other irrigants. Amongst herbal irrigant Propolis showed comparatively higher antibacterial efficacy followed by Morinda Citrifolia and least with Green Tea. Propolis showed no statistically significant results as compared to Sodium Hypochlorite. Conclusion: According to the results of this study, propolis can be used as an effective antimicrobial agent similar to that of sodium hypochlorite, although long-term in vivo studies are warranted.

  269. Dr. Seema Qayoom, Dr. Roomi Yousuf, Dr. Majid Jehangir, Dr. Rahil yousuf Khanday and Dr. Jahangir Ahmad Bhat

    Introduction: leprosy is the most common treatable peripheral nerve disorder. As high resolution sonography provides objective measurements of nerve thickening, we used it to demonstrate nerve enlargement in leprosy patients. Aim and objectives: The aim of the study was to assess the usefulness of high resolution sonography in assessing nerve damage in leprosy patients Materials and methods: We performed bilateral high resolution sonography of ulnar, median and common fibular nerves in 20 leprosy patients and 20 healthy controls. Results: The nerves were significantly thicker in the leprosy patients as compared to healthy controls (p<0.0001 for each nerve) Conclusion: High resolution USG is useful in early diagnosis of leprosy neuropathy.

  270. Dra. Liliana García Reyes, Dra. Luz Virginia Pacheco Quijano, Dr. Miguel Ángel Tuz Sierra, Dra. Gabriela Pérez Aranda, Mtro. Sinuhé Estrada Carmona, Mtra. Galdys Rodríguez Novelo, Mtro. Carlos Efrén Huitz Uc, Br. Linsay Vianey Berzunza Rivera and Mtra. A

    This study was carried out with the objective of investigating the relationship between the type of motivational regulation of behavior, the perception of competence and autonomy with the educational backwardness of psychology students. It was carried out with a population of 340 students, of which 28% were male and 72% were female. Two Liker scales were used: Behavior Regulation Scale (adapted from the Markland and Tobin Physical Activity Behavior Scale) with a Cronbach alpha of α.65 and the Basic Psychological Needs Scale, Created from the Theory of self-determination, with a Cronbach alpha of α.77. The results indicate that 51% of pupils with educational backwardness have an extrinsic motivation, compared to only 2% of those with no backwardness. 31% of the students with lag are perceived without the necessary competences for this level of study as opposed to 10% of the students without lag. Through this study the relationship between intrinsic motivation, the perception of competence and autonomy can be demonstrated as indicators of permanence in the studies, while being directed towards an extrinsic motivation with a perception of low level in competence and autonomy, Would denote a high probability of educational lag.

  271. Dr. B. M. Vashisht, Dr. Vikram, A., Dr. Himanshu Bhardwaj, Dr. Neeraj Pawar, Dr. Brijesh Kumar, Dr. Sangeeta, Dr. Jai Parkash and Dr. Jyoti Kaushik

    Introduction: Antenatal care (ANC) refers to the care of the woman during pregnancy. The primary aim of antenatal care is to achieve at the end of the pregnancy, a healthy mother and a healthy baby. The maternal mortality and morbidity continue to be high despite the existence of national programs for improving maternal and child health in India. This could be related to several factors, an important one being non-utilization or under-utilization of maternal health-care services. Objectives: The present study was conducted to find out the utilization of ANC services among women with children less than 1 year of agein a rural block of Haryana. Methods: A population based cross sectional study was conducted among 210 mothers with children less than 1 year of age living in Lakhan Majra block of Rohtak district, Haryana during Nov & Dec 2016. 30 X 7 cluster sampling technique used by WHO for coverage evaluation surveys was used in our study as the sampling technique. The survey on ANC services utilisation was done in each selected cluster on 7 eligible mothers to find out the immunization coverage of the children living in that area. Collected data were analysed using frequency distribution and proportions. Results: Majority (90.9%) of the mothers were above 20 years of age. MCP card was available with 86.2% of mothers. All mothers had taken the first dose of TT and 97% of them received TT2/Booster dose. 92.3 % mothers consumed IFA tablets though not regularly. All the mothers had at least one antenatal visit during their pregnancy. Majority (96.66%) of the mothers had institutional deliveries. 3.34% deliveries were still being conducted at home. Delivery of majority (96.66%) of the study subjects was attended by health staff. Still 3.33% deliveries were attended by untrained persons. Conclusion: Utilization of antenatal care (ANC) services and promotion of institutional deliveries should be increased by enhancing awareness among females by strengthening IEC activities by health workers.

  272. Dr. Rashmi Sharma, Dr. Rajesh Sharma and Dr. Ishan Gupta

    Objective-To diagnose hyperacute(<3hrs duration of symptoms) ischemic infarct and differentiating penumbra from core infarct by using CT perfusion technique. Material and method- The study was conducted on 40 patients of acute stroke using 128 slice MDCT scanner first NCCT were done to rule out hemmoragic infarction and other pathologies followed by 40 milliliters of a nonionic contrast agent at a rate of 4 mL/sec. 5 seconds after initiation of the injection, a cine (continuous) scan was initiated for duration of 45 seconds. CT perfusion data was analyzed at an imaging workstation (Syngo Acquisition workstation; Siemens healthcare Systems) equipped with commercially available software (Stroke MTT; Siemens Healthcare Systems). Results: out of 40 patients, 8 patients presented within 3 hours of symptoms and the sensitivity of NCCT in detecting Ischemic infarct within 3 hours is 26 % whereas that of CTP was 87.4%. rCBF of tissue at risk was 0.64 ± 0.12 and that of core infarct was 0.35 ± 0.05. the rCBV of tissue at risk was 0.80 ± 0.16 and rCBV of core infarct was 0.29 ± 0.11 Conclusion:- Considering all the parameters studied, CT Perfusion was found to be more sensitive than NCCT in diagnosing acute ischemic stroke and was better in differentiating salvageable penumbra from non salvageable core infarct.

  273. Mohammad Naseed, Rajesh Sharma, Asif Muzaffer Reshi, Manjit Arora and Rashmi Sharma

    Objective: Detecting solitary or multiple pulmonary cavitary lesions on multi detector CT scan of the chest and assessing the role and value of multi detector CT in diagnosing the nature and causes of pulmonary cavitary lesions. Materials and Methods: The study was conducted on a 16 slice multi detector CT scanner (GE BRIGHT SPEED ELITE 16 SLICE). Characterizing number, location, size, shape , margin, nodularity, internal characteristics of nodule as calcification , wall thickness , wall contour, satellite nodule and feeding vessel with associated changes of lymphadenopathy, consolidation and pleural effusion were investigated. Results: Out of 30 pulmonary cavitary lesion cases 21 (70%) were non-malignant and 9 (30%) were malignant cavities. Thick wall (>15mm) was seen in 83% of malignant cases. Central location, nodularity, spiculation, and lymphadenopathy were seen in 44%, 55%, 33%, and 55% malignant cases respectively. Thin walled cavities (<7mm) was seen in 93% of benign cases and most of them were due to tuberculosis. Conclusion: Thick walled solitary cavities with nodularity, spiculation, irregular margins, central location and marked lymphadenopathy were more frequently in malignant cases whereas multiple thin , smooth walled cavities with centrilobular nodules, associated consolidative areas and peripheral and upper lobe location were seen in benign cases.

  274. Nancy Arora, KetoulelhouVizo and Patricia OmeBorang

    Free radicals are the molecules or molecular species containing one or more unpaired electrons with independence existence. Reactive Oxygen Species are constantly formed during normal cellular metabolism (lipid peroxidation) and due to various environmental influences (ionizing radiations). Free radicals are highly reactive, capable of damaging almost all type of bio-molecules, and have been implicated in the causation of many diseases including periodontitis. To mitigate the harmful effects of free radicals, the aerobic cells have developed antioxidant defense mechanism- enzymatic antioxidants (superoxide dismutase, catalase) and non-enzymatic antioxidants (Glutathione, selenium, α-tocopherol, β-carotene).

  275. Dr. Mansi Khatri, Dr. Sapna Rani, Dr. Ruhi Bajaj and Dr. Salil Pawah

    Removal of an injured or diseased body part is called amputation. The etiology for amputation may be traumatic injury, or a planned operation to prevent the spread of the disease in an infected finger or hand. Extra-oral prostheses are generally made of silicones to match the skin colour, provides life like appearance, good retention, and comfort for the patient. This case report describes the rehabilitation of a patient with partially amputated index finger with silicone.

  276. Rita, Kanika Suri and Swati Singh

    The cardinal object of the present study was to investigate the mental health status and marital adjustment of the working and non- working women. The present study consisted sample of 60 women subjects (30 working and 30 non- working women), selected through random sampling technique from Srinagar city of Garhwal, (Uttarakhand). Data was collected with the help of Mental Health Inventory developed by Dr. A. K. Sharivastava and Dr. Jagdish and Marital Adjustment inventory constructed by P. Kumar and K. Roshatgi. For data analysis and hypothesis testing Mean, SD, and t-test was applied. Results revealed that there is a significant difference between working and non-working women with respect to their mental health and marital adjustment.

  277. Ashok, H. K., Dr. Roopa R Nadig, Dr. Veena S Pai and Vedavathi, B.

    Careful attention and meticulous treatment planning are the most important factors in full mouth rehabilitation. It is a biggest challenge to restorative clinicians. Efficient diagnosis and elaborate treatment planning is required to develop ordered occlusal contacts and harmonious articulation in order to optimize stomathognathic function, health and esthetics which then translates to patient’s comfort and satisfaction. With early loss of posterior teeth and the collapse of occlusion results in the loss of normal occlusal plane and the reduction of the vertical dimension of occlusion. This case report is of full mouth rehabilitation of a 55 years old patient with multiple decayed and long time loss of posterior teeth with loss of vertical dimension. The patient's chief complaints were poor chewing function and esthetic appearance. To create sufficient restorative space and provide an improved appearance, we used a removable appliance to test an increased vertical dimension. During the provisional stage, the patient adapted smoothly, and no muscles or temporomandibular joint related symptoms or signs were noted. Finally, we met the treatment goal of rehabilitation of the chewing function, and a satisfying smiling appearance

  278. Dr. Sanjay Kumar Bhasin, Dr. Sunita Kumari, Dr. Ankit Gupta and Dr. Gopal Sharma

    Dermato fibrosarcoma protuberans (DFSP) is considered to be a very rare, low-grade sarcoma of fibroblast origin from the Dermis of the skin. Controversy exists regarding its tissue origin. In present prospective study 10 patients in age group of 32-70 years, 07 females and 03 males all except 01 belonging to Hindu religion formed base of the data. Clinical examination, FNAC and histological study fetched the diagnosis. Majority of patients were having disease for the first time (n=07) and commonest site involved was shoulder, in 01 patient old scar was the site and in another 01 patient neck was the site of the disease. All the patients were subjected to wide local excision and in 02 patients radiotherapy was also given. Maximum follow up of our patients was 03 years (n=04). We conclude that DFSP is locally recurrent tumor having low metastatic potential. Wide surgical excision with 3 to 5 cm wide margins and MMS are surgical options, whereas, Imatinib and Radiotherapy is given in specific indications. Sorafenib trials are under way as good tumor regression response in few studies has been noticed.

  279. Hussa ALHussain, Kaltham ALUmairi, Maha ALZahrani, Tagreed Bin Salman and Shibu Mathew

    Objectives: Evaluate and compare the effect of saliva and blood contamination on dentine during the bonding procedure on shear bond strength of self etch and total etch adhesives, and to Compare the difference between the two contaminants in bond strengths. Methods: 38 freshly extracted human mandibular and maxillary molar teeth, intact and caries free. Occlusal surface of the teeth was reduced at 2 mm deep leaving a flat dentinal surface. The teeth’s were mounted on plastic jigs, filled with self-cured acrylic. The samples were randomly divided into 2 main groups (n=19) Group1 (self-etch) and Group2 (total-etch). Each groups were further subdivided based on contamination (n=14) and non-contamination (control) (n=5). Each contaminated group was subdivided into contaminated with blood (n=7) and saliva (n=7). Results: Self-etch group, Non Contaminated group (control) showed the highest mean (±SD) compressive strength (24.4326±1.62734 MPa).The group contaminated with blood showed the least bond strength (6.2573MPa), followed by contamination with saliva (18.6 MPA). In the total-etch group Non contaminated (control)b2 group showed the highest mean (±SD) compressive strength (23.7247±0.81738 MPa). The group contaminated with blood showed the least (3.8380 MPa), followed by the group contaminated with saliva (19.6805 Mpa). Conclusion: In the self etch and total etch group, blood contamination showed the least bond strength followed by saliva contamination which had a slightly better adhesion when compared to blood contamination.

  280. Sunil Raj, N., Arvind Sridhara, Sapna Konde and Kumar, N. C.

    Dental unit waterlines may be heavily contaminated with microorganisms and are a potential source of infection for both practicing staff and immunocompromised patients. Contamination of dental unit water lines can be inhibited with the use of disinfectants. Objective: The objective of this study was to evaluate and compare the efficacy of commercially available Aloe Vera, 3% sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl), and 5gms sodium dichloroisocynurate (NaDCC) in controlling microbial contamination of dental unit water systems. Materials and Methods: Fifteen dental units, divided into 3groups, were selected for the study. Water samples were collected from the outlet of air/water syringe and high speed hand piece and base line samples were obtained. 500ml of three disinfectants were added to the reservoir bottle. Their efficacy was assessed by the total viable count (TVC) method, after 40 hours, one week and three weeks post disinfection, and was statistically analyzed using one way Anova and wilcoxon signed rank test and post hoc analysis. Results: NaDCC was found to be the most effective in reducing the microbial colonies, with 99.9% reduction at 40 hours and 100% reduction in mean CFU/ml at 3-week interval of disinfection as compared to sodium hypochlorite and aloevera which was statistically significant (p=0.005). Conclusions: Decontamination protocol should be followed in order to minimize the risk of exposure to potential pathogens from dental units. Chemical-based disinfectants such as NaDCC can be considered effective, fast acting and economical for treating microbial contamination in dental unit waterlines.

  281. Ramgopal Meena, Radhey Sankhala, Mahendra Kumar Arya, Komal Singh Meena and Mukesh Kumar

    Hydatid disease is a common parasitic infestation that is endemic in many parts of the world. Hydatid primary affects the liver but secondary involvement due to haematogenous spread occurs any part of body. However primary peritoneal Hydatid is very rare, either resulting from spontaneous spread of cysts or occurring after operations involving hydatid in other regions.

  282. Dr. Dusabe Emmanuel, Dr. Lin Jie, Dr. Mazimpaka Patrick, Dr. Huang Zhibin, Simon Afewerki Gebremedhin and Prof. Cao Yingguang

    There are many reports talking about rising incidence of oral cancer from many parts of the world, this incidence has gone up reasonably. It is known that oral cancer increases with person’s age, previous studies have demonstrated an increasing incidence of tongue cancer and in the mouth of young males. Several studies by many authors also suggested that 4 to 6% of oral cancers occur at ages younger than 40 years. The studies provided evidence about risk factors for oral cancer and patients who have never smoked or consumed alcohol which are known as risk factors in older population with too short duration for malignancy transformation to occur. There is a multifactorial risks for this disease in young population including occupational, familial risk, immune deficits as well viral infections. Conflicting evidence has also been reported on the sex distribution and outcome compared with older patients. Therefore further more researches are required to understand demography involvement of the disease, high risk factors about this disease, current innovative diagnostic modalities and its prognostic markers.

  283. Amit Kr. Chakraborty, Arunima Ghosh, Priyanka Biswas, Sutapa Das, Debasish Maji, Madhusnata De and Archana Sengupta

    Diabetic neuropathy (DN) is one of the most common troublesome microvascular complications and it has also got some oxidative stress mechanism associated with nerve damage, followed by structural and functional change. The present study aimed in assessing the antioxidant superoxide dismutase activity in type 2 diabetes patients with neuropathy. The study was conducted with 109 diabetic neuropathy patients from the out patients endocrinology department of Ramakrishna Mission Seva Pratishthan, Kolkata. 30 healthy controls were also taken in this study. All the procedures were done with the consent of the participants. After confirmed positive sensory / polyneuropathy problem by nerve conduction velocity (NCV) test, the patients have been selected in this study. The present result shows that SOD activity in DN was much higher than that of control group. Furthermore, a considerable difference was observed in male and female patients when different duration of the disease was considered.

  284. Ambaga, M.

    Owing to the bioevolution link existed between the two basic electron, proton dependent metabolic reaction system of obtaining of ATP during last 4 billion years had been formed and developed a living processes in our planet. In the early period of 4 billion years of bioevolution development had been formed the first reaction system of obtaining of ATP in the form of the slow developed bioenergy accumulating system (2 billion years ago) “Donator molecules as water molecules + ADP + Pi + H+ + nH + = ATP + nH + O2 formation with shortage of membrane redox potentials three - state line system and with lack of O2 acceptor utilization regulations”. In the last period of 4 billion years of bioevolution development had been formed the second reaction system of obtaining of ATP in the form of more powerful energy accumulating systems as “Donator molecules (glucose, aminoacids, fatty acids) + membrane redox potentials three - state line system + acceptor as O2 + ADP + Pi + H+ + nH + = (ATP + heat energy) + H2O + nH + matrix + CO2” (Ambaga and Tumen-Ulzii, 2015). Without the first electron, proton dependent reaction system of obtaining of ATP as “Donator molecules as water molecules + ADP + Pi + H+ + nH + = ATP + nH +O2 formation with shortage of membrane redox potentials three - state line system, lack of O2 acceptor utilization regulations” it was impossible to wait the appearance of second more powerful energy accumulating systems as “Donators (glucose, aminoacids, fatty acids) + membrane redox potentials three - state line system + acceptor as O2 + ADP + Pi + H+ + nH + = (ATP + heat energy) + H2O + nH + matrix + CO2” .

  285. Jaswant Singh Matta, Arpan Jain, Shiv Shankar Kaushik, Abdul Sajid Mansoori and Nikhil Soni

    Allergic rhinitis is considered to be a major health problem that impairs quality of life. Insufficient response to treatment and declining quality of life illustrate the continuing need to find new treatment modalities for allergic rhinitis (AR). Escitalopram, anewer anti-depressants of SSRI class is one of the most favoured antidepressants for the patients of mood disorder. It is a S - enantiomer ofcitalopram so it lacks the antihistaminic properties. The present study aims to verify the relationship between allergic rhinitis and psychological stress aiming to improve treatment of patients with allergic rhinitis and thereby improve QOL. Patients with allergic rhinitis (166) were diagnosed then analyzed using the Kessler Psychological Distress Scale. Patients with allergic rhinitis and who were positive on the Kessler scale (122) were randomly divided equally into a control group which received levocetirizine and a study group which received levocetirizine and escitalopram. Nasal symptom assessment and QOL assessment were performed in all patients after treatment. Of the 166 patients with allergic rhinitis, 122 (73.5 %) were positive on the Kessler Psychological Distress Scale. There was a marked improvement in the study group compared with the control group as regards nasal symptoms with better QOL in the study group (6.93) compared with the control group (2.13). Psychological stress has a strong impact on persistent allergic rhinitis. When stress is controlled by a combined treatment of Escitalopram and levocetirizine, allergic rhinitis symptoms improved and a better QOL was obtained.

  286. Rabbanie Tariq Wani, Hibba Dar and Khalid Javid Bhat

    Back ground: Relation between inadequate sleep and health outcomes among youth require identifying its modifiable determinants. Television has been associated with reduced sleep time, but our knowledge about small screens influence is restricted. Objectives Therefore, we analyzed the association of different screens in sleep environments with duration of sleep & perception of insufficient sleep or rest. Materials & Methods: There were 892 participants constituting students from Private & Government Schools along with Government & Private Colleges in Kashmir valley in India in the year 2015. Using linear & logistic regressions, we examined cross sectional associations of small-screens & TVs in sleep environments and screen time with weekday sleep duration and perceived insufficient sleep or rest in the past week. Results: People who slept near a small screen (compared with never) reported 97.8 minutes lesser sleep (95% confidence interval (CI), -113.9 to -81.7) and a higher prevalence of perceived insufficient rest or sleep (prevalence ratio, 2.25; 95% CI, 1.53 to 3.31). People who slept in a room with a TV (compared with no TV) reported 17.6 fewer minutes of sleep (95% CI, -33.9 to -1.3).Use of small screens and playing with video or computer games were associated with both sleep outcomes (P < .05). Conclusions: Sleeping near a small screen, sleeping with a TV in the room, and more screen time with computer/video games playing was associated with shorter sleep durations. Presence of small screen in the sleep environment was also associated with perceived insufficient rest or sleep. Our findings warn us against unrestricted screen access in student`s bedrooms along with excessive playing of computer/video games.

  287. Getachew Alemu Tayachew

    Background: Exclosures are among degraded land rehabilitation strategies which are practiced in Ethiopia. However, due to lack of environmental and socio-economical virtues most exclosure are attributed negatively by local people and hence their sustainability left at risk. A study was carried out on two selected kebeles to investigate the effectiveness of exclosure in achieving the goal of environmental conservation and improving community livelihood strategy. Stratified random sampling was employed for the selection of sample households in two kebeles and they were surveyed using semi-structured questionnaires. Additionally, focus group discussions and key informant interviews were also administered. In all, a total of 96 households (70 non-participants and 26 participants) were interviewed. Data were presented in descriptive statistics. Results: The study showed that the majority of the local communities living next to exclosure were dependent on subsistence farming system mainly crop cultivation and animal rearing, but a few were participated in exclosure activities as a means of their livelihood strategy. Conversely, a majority of the household heads (66%) had a wish to participate in exclosure developmental activities. Conclusion: To ensure the sustainability of exclosure local community’s participation and beneficiary involvement is mandated in almost all exclosure activities but it has not been proved very significant in practice. Therefore, rehabilitating of degraded areas by exclosure can be successfully realized through greater participation and involvement of the local communities, and it becoming environmental soundness, economic viability and social acceptability.

  288. Bindu, B. M., Kasturiba, B., Dr. Usha Malagi and Dr. Ganajaxi Math

    Twelve green gram varieties including both elite entries and released varieties procured from the AICRP on MULLaRP (Mungbean, Urdbean, Lentil, Lathyrus, Rajmah and Peas), Main Agriculture Research Station University of Agricultural Sciences, Dharwad and they were analysed for proximate composition and mineral content. DGG-3 had highest crude protein content, BGS-9 had highest fat and carbohydrate content, PusaBaisaki had highest moisture content, Selection-04 had highest crude fibre and calcium content, DGG-1 had highest ash, zinc and copper content, DGG-8 and DGG-7 had highest iron and manganese content respectively. The variation in nutritional compositions between the varieties could be from location, varietal differences, soil and climatic condition and also depends on fertilizer treatment. The results of the present study revealed that elite entries are on par with released varieties with regard to nutrient composition.

  289. Dr. Ruchita Attal, Dr. Vijayshri Deotale and Ms. Anagha Potharkar

    Background: Ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP) contributes to approximately half of all cases of hospital-acquired pneumonia. VAP is estimated to occur in 9–27 % of all mechanically ventilated patients. Due to increase in incidence of drug resistance among the VAP isolates, correct diagnosis is a challenge for an accurate management. Aim: The aim of the study was to isolate the causative agents for VAP in patients on mechanical ventilation and determine their antibiotic susceptibility testing and also Study the risk factors associated with VAP in critically ill patients admitted in ICUs. Material & Method: This prospective observational study was conducted in the intensive care units (ICUs) from July to Dec 2015 undergoing mechanical ventilation for >48hrs. Endotracheal aspirates were collected from patients suspected VAP and quantitative cultures were performed .VAP was diagnosed on the basis of CPIS score. Results: The incidence of VAP in our study was 34.61% and incidence rate of VAP was 46.65 per 1000 ventilation days.83.83% (83/99) isolates were from MICU and predominant VAP pathogens were Acinetobacter spp. (51.75%) . Acinetobacter baumanii and Enterobacteriaceae were the prevalent MDR isolates. This might be attributed to prolong hospital stay and improper cleaning of the tubes. Conclusion: Increase in VAP cases with the potential drug resistant organisms is an emerging threat in our ICUs. Quantitative culture of endotracheal aspirate is a useful test for diagnosis of VAP and also help to determine the drug resistance in ICUs.

  290. Mr. Lakhanpal S.Kendre and Prof. Sagar M.Gawande

    The study was aimed to know water quality from analysis of physico-chemical characteristics of Pavana River, Pune from September 2016 to February 2017. Due to the increase in population and industrialization, there shall be a necessity to understand the present status of Pavana River. The study was also aimed to find strong correlation between two parameters in three seasons. The experiment was carried out for three season i.e. Monsoon, Post-monsoon and Pre-monsoon. The water sample is collected from river as the depth changes. The physicochemical parameters such as pH, DO, COD, BOD, Alkalinity, TDS, TSS, TS, Turbidity, Temperature has been studied during analysis. A correlation study has been carried out among the all possible pairs of 10 physico-chemical parameters of river water quality. All the correlations indicate that different parameters are strongly interrelated to each other. A correlation coefficient and regression provides an excellent tool for calculating of various water quality parameters within reasonable degree of accuracy.

  291. Dr. Manju Bala Pahwa, Dr. Parveen, Dr. Rajesh Rajput and Dr. Meenakshi

    Introduction: Fluorosis an endemic problem affects many tissues including endocrine glands such as thyroid. Iodine deficiency remains the most common cause of primary hypothyroidism worldwide. Fluoride and iodine are both halogens. Fluoride, the negative ion of the element fluorine, easily displaces iodine in the body because it is much lighter and therefore more reactive. Few studies have reported no relationship between serum fluoride levels and thyroid disorders, while others have reported decreased serum thyroid hormone levels are associated with increased fluoride levels in hypothyroidism. Goiter and hypothyroidism are known to be caused by iodine deficiency. However, it has also been found to occur in areas where there are adequate supplies of iodine, but where there is an excess fluoride in the water. The present study was conducted to assess the fluoride status in newly diagnosed cases of hypothyroidism. Aims & objectives 1) To assess the fluoride status in the patients of hypothyroidism and healthy controls. 2) To correlate the fluoride status with the severity of hypothyroidism. Material & Methods: The present study was conducted in the Department of Biochemistry in collaboration with Department of Medicine (Endocrinology), Pt. B.D. Sharma PGIMS, Rohtak. Fifty newly diagnosed patients with hypothyroidism in the age group 20-55 years and fifty age and sex matched healthy controls were taken in the study. Fasting venous blood samples were collected from cases and controls for routine biochemical, hormone analysis and fluoride estimation after obtaining informed written consent and complete history. Results: Mean water fluoride level of cases was 2.308 ± 0.282 ppm (Mean ± SE) and of controls was 1.659 ± 0.183 ppm and found to be statistically significant. Mean value of serum fluoride levels in study group was 0.234 ± 0.023ppm and of controls was 0.058 ± 0.007ppm and found to be statistically significant. Mean urine fluoride level of cases was 2.359 ± 0.146 ppm and of controls was 1.577 ± 0.166 ppm and found to be statistically significant. TSH in the study group (20.924 ± 2.398) and control group (2.817 ± 0.186) were compared and found to be statistically significant. Discussion & Conclusion- In the present study the serum & urinary fluoride levels in the study & control groups indicate the likelihood of fluoride ingestion from food & other sources is apparently, like dental products, cosmetics etc. It is evident in consistent with the findings of reported studies that analysis of fluoride in body fluids besides drinking water is highly relevant & necessary for understanding & prevention of potential health implications like hypothyroidism seen in endemic areas.

  292. Dr. Neeta A. Nagori

    In today’s global era, peoples are demanding for more personalized tailors, designed garments. The most prime process in garment production is sewing. Final look of the garment is successful when the sewing is proper. Ultimately the proper sewing leads to many factors. So this paper explores the survey of 100 tailors in Gandhidham and Adipur unit, the researcher identified and described certain factors such as selection of needle according to weight of fabrics, brand of sewing machine, brand of needle, cost of needles, needle size, breaking of needles in a month, stitch problems and musculoskeletal pains faced by tailors. So a study on “sewing related problems amongst 100 tailors in Gandhidham, Adipur units of Kutch Region” was done. In this study tailors were suggested to use organ needles as its price is comparatively more but it breaks very less and ultimately it will be profitable for tailors as it save time as well as minimizing ergonomically problems, such as eye–strain, increases productivity leading to proper functioning.

  293. Rachana, A. and Raj Kumar, B.

    In present work an attempt has been made to assess the variations in physico-chemical parameters in the lake waters of Pedda Cheruvu lake Dubbak, Siddipet District, Telangana state. The study is carried out for a period of one year from may 2015 to April 2016. Monthly data has been collected and assessed seasonally. Different Physico-Chemical parameters like Air Temperature, Water Temperature, Turbidity, pH, DO, Calcium, Magnesium, Chlorine, Phosphates, Nitrates, Nitrites, Sulphates and Silicates were analyzed at monthly intervals. The results indicate that the lake is progressing towards eutrophication.

  294. Romesh Sagolshemcha and Robindro Singh, W.

    The present review highlights the multifaceted prospect of aquatic legume Neptunia oleracea Lour as food, medicinal plant and biofertilizer. The bibliographic data of the plant summarizes the parts used, its uses and country with references. The common chemical constituents of the plant responsible for the treatment of various ailments are given. It also describes the methodology and magnitude of its various biological activities. High nutritious value, high antioxidant an activity shown by the plant makes these plants an ideal food. The plant is also used as medicinal plant in various ailments in different countries. Pheophorbide a and its related compounds plant makes this plant a promising antitumor plant. The plant can also be used in sewage water treatment plants. The symbiotically associated bacteria efficiently fixed atmospheric nitrogen which significantly increases the N2 status of the oligotrophic soil of wetland ecosystem.

  295. Suman K. Keshri, Ratnesh Kumar, Shailesh Kr, Rakesh Kr, Namrata Kumari, Anima Xess and Shahi, S. K.

    Background: Recently, Acinetobacter has emerged as significant hospital pathogen, notoriously known to acquire antibiotic resistance to most of the commonly prescribed antimicrobials. Many risk factors are associated with Acinetobacter infections, especially in patients in intensive care unit (ICU). The aim of this study was to isolate Acinetobacter species from clinical specimens and its antimicrobial susceptibility pattern. Material and Methods: Identification of Acinetobacter spp. was done by the battery of biochemical tests and its antimicrobial sensitivity was done according to Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute guidelines (CLSI). Results: Among the 158 isolates, 25 Acinetobacter strains (15.8%) were isolated mainly from the respiratory samples 24(96%) and only one (4%) isolate was from pus. Majority of Acinetobacter strains was isolated from male patients 19 (76%). Among the Acinetobacter spp. isolated, 44% were sensitive to Imipenem, 32% for Amikacin, 20% for Ceftazidime, 12% for Gentamycin, 4% for Cotrimoxazole and Piperacillin-Tazobactam. All the isolates showed 100% resistance for Ampicillin and Cefazolin. Conclusion: Nosocomial infection caused by Acinetobacter spp. was resistant to most antimicrobials have emerged, especially in ICU. Early identification and continued surveillance of prevalent organism will help in preventing the spread of Acinetobacter in hospital environment.

  296. Ravikumar, V. and Vijayakumar, R.

    Vibrio alginolyticus, Vibrio parahaemolyticus and Vibrio harveyi is a notorious seafood borne pathogen with a high mortality rate. This is ubiquitously present in marine environments, particularly in tropical water. In these studies, the prevalence of Vibrio sp. in fishes caught off Chennai coast of Indian Ocean are determined. Commercially important fishes were analyzed for the occurrence of vibrios of which some of them were harbored fishes. The prevalence of Vibrio harveyi constitutes about 14%, 17% and 8% of total vibrio isolated from fish. Other clinical vibrios are also isolated and identified. Vibrio sp. were detected by conventional cultural and molecular methods using PCR and sequencing of 16SrDNA. This study is an initial step to provide a baseline for future molecular research targeting Vibrio sp. food borne illness.

  297. Lhaki Doma Bhutia and Dr. Damodar Singh, Y.

    A study was undertaken to survey the prevalence of viral diseases of poultry in Mizoram during March 2013 to February 2014. Out of 476 poultry carcasses examined, 208 (43.69%) cases were diagnosed as viral diseases. Only 10 cases of infectious laryngotracheitis (2.10%) could be diagnosed basing on the clinical history, gross and histopathology, which were found to affect the birds older than 3 weeks with higher incidences (40.00%) in 3-6 and 6-9 weeks followed by 9-12 weeks of age (20.00%) with morbidity and mortality rates of 20-40% and 2-5% respectively. All the incidences were found in winter season only, not in summer and rainy seasons. The characteristic signs recorded during the study included conjunctivitis, ocular discharge, mouth breathing, gasping, respiratory rales and coughing of blood, while some birds showed great respiratory distress by extending their neck with prolong difficult inspiration through wide open beak, expectoration of bloody mucus and high mortality while some exhibited mucoid tracheitis, sinusitis, unthriftiness and low mortality. The significant gross lesions were mucoid tracheitis, laryngitis and severe hemorrhages in the trachea which was filled with mucus mixed with blood leading to obstruction. Most striking microscopic changes were severe congestion and hemorrhages of the tracheal mucosa which showed the presence of several syncytial cells with intranuclear inclusion bodies in the epithelium, while sections revealed complete desquamation of tracheal mucosa with infiltration of lymphocytes and plasma cells.

  298. Suman K. Keshri, Ratnesh Kumar, Shailesh Kr, Namrata Kumari and S. K. Shahi

    Background: Cryptococcus laurentii is one of the several non neoformans Cryptococci that has rarely been associated with human infection. However in recent years, there has been an increase in incidence of opportunistic infections with Cryptococcus laurentii. Cryptococci are a saprophytic fungi present in soil contaminated with bird droppings mainly pigeons, roosting sites and decaying vegetables. Some authors reported a case of pulmonary cryptococcosis caused by C. laurentii in a diabetic AIDS patient who was on antituberculosis and antiretroviral treatments. Cryptococcus species is now recognized as a potential pathogen which can cause superficial as well as systemic disease, the most common presentation being meningitis, but can cause lung disease, pneumonia or respiratory failure. Here we report a case of 43 year old male patient who presented with fever, cough, chest pain and expectoration for 3 days. The patient gave the history of hypertension, diabetes mellitus and kidney transplantation. The patient gave a history of corticosteroid treatment for last 5 years. Sputum and pus samples were received in the lab in sterile container was cultured on blood and mac Conkey agar plates. On the basis of colony morphology, gram staining, yeast panel was selected for identification and sensitivity of the microorganism on Vitec II, fully automated microbiology analyser (Biomerieux). Conclusion: To the best of my knowledge it is the first case reported from IGIMS, Patna, Bihar. In the present case report the patient was having renal transplantation and on prolonged corticosteroid therapy so was immunocompromised. Recent report on the outbreak of Cryptococcus infections should be considered as an alarming signal. Generally, immunocompromised patients are at risk of Cryptococcal infection, but infection in immunocompetent patients cannot be ruled out. The infection is easy to miss, so a high degree of clinical suspicion, improved culture methods and identification techniques like Vitec II can contribute to the diagnosis of unusual fungal infections. Previous report have suggested that HIV negative patients ( 30-70 )% suffer from pulmonary cryptococcosis more frequently as compared to AIDS (2%) patients who suffer from disseminated Cryptococcal disease.

  299. Amit Pande, Pranav Dorwal and Suresh Kaushik

    Phosphorus (P) is one of the major essential macronutrients for plants and is applied to soil in the form of chemical P fertilizer, however the synthesis of chemical P fertilizer is a highly energy intensive processes, and has long term implications on the environment in terms of eutrophication, soil fertility depletion, destruction of micro-organisms and carbon footprint. Plants can use only a small amount of applied P, since 75–90% of added P is precipitated by metal–cation complexes, and rapidly becomes fixed in soils. Such environmental concerns have led to the search for sustainable way to provide P nutrition to crops. In this regards, phosphate solubilizing microorganism have been seen as best ecofriendly tools to generate solubilized P for plants, provide resistance against plant pathogens and stimulating the production of essential phytohormones. However, their performance under in situ conditions is not reliable and therefore needs to be improved by using either genetically modified strains or co-inoculation techniques. In recent years, several phosphatases encoding genes have been cloned and characterized which prove to be the excellent for plant growth. Therefore, genetic modification of phosphate solubilizing bacteria includes gene cloning, followed by their expression in selected rhizobacterial strains is an interesting approach. Besides phosphate solubilizing activity of microorganisms, this review article focuses on diversity of PSM, mechanism behind P solubilization, genes involved in phosphate solubilization, co-inoculation of PSB with other microbes. In addition, it also describes possible future scenario of their use.

  300. Dr. Madhavi Rane, Yogesh Dhumal and Shruti Tupe

    The present study demonstrates the antimicrobial, polyphenolic compounds and antioxidant potential of brown marine algae collected from the south coast region of Maharashtra. The methanolic extracts were tested against gram positive, gram negative bacteria in an attempt to be used as an alternative to commonly used antibiotics. Both brown seaweed species Sargassum wightii and Ascophyllum nodosum methanolic extracts were found to be active against gram positive as well as gram negative bacteria. Ascophyllum nodosum methanolic extract gave the highest inhibitory activity against Klebsiella sp. The present work shows a comparable therapeutic potency of tested seaweed members Sargassum and Ascophyllum extracts in treating human microbial pathogens to synthetic chemical antibiotics. A remarkable higher antioxidant DPPH free radical scavenging effect was recorded with Ascophyllum nodosum extract compared to Sargassum sp. Total flavonoid and phenol contents were determined by colorimetric methods using querecitin and gallic acid standards. FTIR Infrared Spectrometer analysis together with the high performance liquid chromatography provided a detailed description of possible functional constituents and major chemical components present in the marine macroalgae particularly in brown seaweeds to be mainly of phenolic nature to which the potent antimicrobial activity is being attributed.

  301. Patil Rajesh and Namita Mahadik

    In this study, chitosan nanoparticles were synthesized from chitosan polymer by ionic gelation method. The chitin was first extracted from Saccharomyces cerevisiae and then deacetylated to chitosan. The presence and characterization of chitosan nanoparticles was investigated by UV-Visible Spectroscopy (UV) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The antioxidant property of these chitosan nanoparticles were studied and compare with that chitosan polymer. CSNPs showed higher antioxidant activity than chitosan. The cytotoxicity of this chitosan nanoparticles against CHO cell line were studied which showing very low toxic. The antioxidant property was studied by radical scavenging (DPPH) assay and cytotoxic activity was evaluated against A-431 osteosarcoma cell line by MTT assay. The characteristics of the synthesized nanoparticles suggest their application as a potential Antioxidant and Cytotoxic activity.

  302. Sanya, E. A., Ahouansou, R. H., Chaffa, G., Quenum, D. A. and Sanya, A. K. C.

    Maize plays a very important role in the daily diet of the Beninese populations with a high level of consumption varying according to the different zones of the country. Among the Beninese food products, maize is the subject of the greatest number of food transformations with about forty derived products, including crispy patties "klèklè (resp. kluiklui)" obtained from flours of dry ordinary (resp. roasted) grains. Rich in carbohydrates, maize kernels are unfortunately poor in protein, lipids, minerals, fibers and vitamins. Combining maize with soya, a natural legume rich in essential proteins and nutrients, the noted deficit can be filled and simultaneously resulting patties quality improved. Therefore, what will remain of the so prized patties crispiness by consumers? This article aims at studying the effects of soy addition, provided in two flours types (entire grains and freed-of-pellicles), both torrefied, to maize flour, during patties' manufacture, on some quality characteristics: physical (residual moisture, density), mechanical (expansion rate, breaking strength) and organoleptic (taste, color, crispiness). The achieved results are interesting and reveal that residual moisture of the confectioned patties, using the shelled soy-grains, decreased (7.22±0.79 to 5.62±0.37%) with augmentation of soy-flour content (0-20%). Addition of the unshelled soy-grains first drastically dropped patties’ residual moisture (7.22±0.79 to 3.46±0.63%), and after, induced its increase (3.46±0.63 to 6.38±0.41%). However, these values of maize-soy residual water contents remained lower than that of the control patties (7.22±0.79%). Opposite trends were obtained for densities with regards respectively to the two torrefied soy-grains flour kinds where densities of maize patties made from shelled soy-grains increased (0.71±0.04 - 0.83±0.08 g/cm3), unlike those provided from non-decorticated (0.71±0.04 - 0.67±0.08 g/cm3). The volumetric expansion rates have all displayed increase trend, regardless the formulated patties were from the shelled soy-grains (4.83 - 25.5%) or not (0.91 - 11.75%), calculated ratio related to the control patties. Although they disclosed relatively higher expansion rate values, the maize patties made of shelled soy-grains have got the best crispness scores (40.00 - 44.44%), just after the control variant (31.00 - 40.00%). For the general appreciation, consumers’ preference was rather oriented towards the elaborated maize patties from shelled soy-grains (42.22 - 44.44%).

  303. Suganthi, A. and Marry Josephine, R.

    Introduction: Edible wild plants are nature’s gift to mankind. Considering the growing need to identify alternative bio-nutritional sources, Solanum trilobatum (L.) of the family Solanaceae was evaluated as wild edible fruit to study their nutritive and mineral composition in order to prioritize their edibility for indigenous people. Materials and Methods: The major proximal components (moisture, ash, lipids, proteins, fibers and carbohydrates) were determined by standard AOAC methods and the concentration of various minerals (Na, K, Mg and Ca) and trace elements (Fe and Zn) were recorded by using an atomic absorption spectrophotometer. Results: Our results indicated a range of moisture contents from 80 ± 0.56 g/100g (fresh weight basis); protein 5.5 ± 0.89 g/100g (fresh weight basis); carbohydrates 25 ± 0.78g/100g and fiber 3.3 ± 0.55g/100g. The highest levels of Mg((194 ± 0.07) mg/100g), Ca((60 ± 0.42) mg/100g) and Na((28 ± 0.11) mg/100g) and lowest levels in potassium ((0.73 ± 0.04) mg/100g), Iron ((0.34 ± 0.08) mg/100g) and phosphorus ((0.02 ± 0.01) mg/100g) and the basic detect level of Fe. Conclusion: According to our results, Solanum trilobatum is recommended for commercial-scale production for the pharmaceutical industry to overcome medicinal crises as they are potential medicinal sources and its contain moderate nutrient profiles.

  304. Agnes Sharmila, M. and Jegadeesan, M.

    Capsicum annuum is a large perennial shrub which has been used in medicine and culinary forms, although, it was used in traditional medicine for the treatment of various diseases. For the better growth of this plant, now a day’s organic fertilizer such as vermicompost was used in spite of using inorganic fertilizers like Urea. The usage of Urea in agriculture land also leads to the soil infertility. In our previous study, to improve the soil health and plants growth we designed different combination of vermicompost with cow dung, bagasse, and Trichoderma harzianum T22 at different compositions and analysis their physio - chemical properties and found that bagasse, and Trichoderma harzianum T22 complex vermicompost were best among them. So the current study is to find out the influence of bagasse - Trichoderma harzianum T22 vermicompost on Capsicum annuum growth parameters. The plant were cultivated in the bags contained the vermicompost at different concentration and the growth parameters were studied at 15th, 30th, 45th and 60th day. The growth of plants in different concentrations bags were studied with respect to Plant height, No. of buds and flowers. Finally our study reveals that the bagasse - Trichoderma harzianum T22 complex vermicompost in 20% concentration had higher yield when compare to the inorganic fertilizer.

  305. Dr. Aparajeet Walawalkar, Dr. Sonal Walawalkar and Dr. Dhruv Mamtora

    Background – Pregnant women are at higher risk of urinary tract infections. Urinary tract infections are most commonly occurring infections in pregnancy leading to multiple complications. Asymptomatic bacteriuria is commonly occurring condition in pregnancy. Material and Methods - A total of 200 antenatal women in their first, second or third trimesters were screened over a period of 1 year, for asymptomatic bacteriuria by collecting 20 ml of clean catched mid stream urine samples. The samples were processed in microbiology laboratory as per standard methods and antibiotic sensitivity was done as per CLSI guidelines. 4 screening tests – Gram staining, pus cell counting, catalase test and Greiss nitrite test were done and the sample that gave a positive result was subjected to standard loop method (semi quantitative) and pour plate method (quantitative), for confirmation. Results - Out of 200 cases, 29 were culture positive. A control group of 50 non-pregnant women, both married and unmarried were screened simultaneously. The control group yielded an overall positivity of 6% (8% in married non-pregnant women and 4% in unmarried women). Primigravida had the highest percent culture positivity of 55.1%. E.coli was the most common organism isolated. The organisms were in general sensitive to norfloxacin and cephalexin. Conclusion – Standard loop method was found to be best semi-quantitative method for diagnosis of asymptomatic bacteremia. There was satisfactory agreement between standard loop method and pour plate method. Primigravida had highest incidence of significant bacteriuria.

  306. Mr. Nripesh Kumar Nrip and Dr. Anil T. Gaikwad

    The History gives some evidence of Indian Agriculture from Vedic Times. Today India is the second agriculture based country in the world. It is the first largest exporting country of agricultural outputs. The growths of technologies are minimizing the challenges before Indian farmers. In this paper the researcher has studied various Literatures contributions about Expert Systems for Pest Management in Agriculture and have developed a general purpose model for the same. This research will be useful to farmers and stakeholders of agriculture to manage and control the pests in scientific way. Researcher has future plan to collect he actual data and process it for certain common pests on the crops.

  307. Negash Abido Hassen

    In this work, the piezoelectric response of modified asphalt design that can significantly solve damage that arises from overloading and high traffic load effects during the service-life were studied. The piezoelectric response of standard and modified binder with 0%, 5%, 10% and 15% of kaolin and hydrated lime content have been studied using voltmeter and Marshall compressive test machine. The results showed that the addition of kaolin and hydrated lime induces the piezoelectric response compared to the standard asphalt mixture. Various types of loadings have been considered throughout this study. It was determined that the type of modifier and applied load have an effect on the result of piezoelectric response on the surface and within an asphalt pavement structure. Also the result showed that modification of bitumen by kaolin and hydrated lime enhances its performance characteristics as well as significantly alters its rheological properties. The rheological studies on kaolin and hydrated lime modified bitumen were made through penetration test. It was observed that kaolin and hydrated lime showed an effect on penetration. Better results were obtained when hydrated lime concentration was at 15%. The mechanical properties of the standard asphalt mixture and modified asphalt mixture with kaolin and hydrated lime were evaluated using Marshall immersion test. This study showed that the effect of kaolin and hydrated lime modifiers with 5%,10% and 15% of modifier satisfy the minimum Ethiopia road authority acceptance criteria of air voids(except at 5%,10% hydrated lime and kaolin content respectively), void mineral aggregate, void filled with asphalt and Marshall stability butflow value do not meet Ethiopia RoadAuthority acceptance criteria.

  308. Kavya Dwivedi and Prashant Jain

    India's per capita energy and electricity consumption are less than one tenth of developed countries' per capita consumption. The inequalities in urban vs rural, southern, western and northern region vs eastern and north­eastern region, and higher income vs lower income households are very high. Unfortunately, the regions where large fossil and renewable energy sources are accessible have lesser per capita energy consumption. For sustainable and equitable socio­economic growth such a situation needs to modify. Given the country's over dependence on coal, large scale import of oil and gas, difficulty in meeting the financial burden of import, environmental consequences of large scale energy production, transformation, transportation and use it is not wise to strive to attain the developed country level of energy consumption. To enhance the quality of life of Indian citizens, there is no doubt that per capita energy consumption has to increase. Through judicious approach, upper quality of life can be achieved with reasonable increase in energy consumption. The nation needs to make timely change of our emphasis on non­renewable energy. Such a transformation in strategy calls for a paradigm shift in our development approach, i.e. from a unsustainable progress oriented economic development to an environmental friendly equitable development. Subsequently three most serious environment related problems (Global warming, acid rain and ozone layer depletion) owe their origin to energy, it is in our national and global interest that we decrease 'energy want' without sacrificing the 'energy need' for a decent quality of life. A time bound plan is vital to change to 'renewable energy dominant decentralized system' from the existing 'non­renewable energy focused, fossil fuel centric centralized system'

  309. Ravindra Parsai, Jitendra Binwal and Milan Joshi

    In this paper, we present some fixed point theorems with best approximation flavor. Our results generalize the results of (8) by relaxing the compactness condition of the set X. The original result in this direction was due to (1) for a continuous map defined on a compact convex set.

  310. Papiya Nandy, Poonam Bandyopadhyay, Biplab K.Paul,Debbethi Bera, Ananda Lal Gayen, Sukhen Das, Durga Shankar Bhar, Raj Kumar Manchanda, Anil Kumar Khurana and Debadatta Nayak

    It has been established earlier that at higher potency homeopathic drug aggregates achieve nanodimension. For the first time we have utilized this nanoparticle aspect of homeopathic drug in various technical applications, giving birth to the science of Technohomeopathy. We have shown that the thermo- and photo- voltage generation gets enhanced in presence of the homeopathic medicine, triturated Zincum oxydatum- thus making itself an agent for efficient solar energy conversion. Similarly incorporation of the homeopathic medicines Cuprum metallicum (triturated Cu) and Cobaltum metallicum (triturated Co) in a polymer PVDF, which is commonly used as filler material for capacitors in electronic industry, enhances the electrical properties.

  311. Balaji B. Borawake, Mallikarjun B. Hachhad, Vivek D. Umale, Sanjog Doshi and Gajanan P. Arsalwad

    Due to increase of the cyber threats, we have made cyber security paramount for protecting personal and private information to get move secure network in the real time information, we have to provide the most highly secure network environment, network traffic monitoring and the most important threats detection system that is varied from the enterprise networks. In this paper we have concept for the issue of handling the large amount of network traffic data for the enterprise system it can simultaneously provide real time monitoring. Basically we introduced and evaluated on threat detection which is highly intensive network traffic for real time and we utilizes K-ANN (Kohonen Artificial Neural Network) algorithm detection of abnormal network activities. Remote device which is directly connect seed to server and has authority to monitoring and modifying the network activity. To avoid all the above problems we can set up WLAN with the serves machine which can handle and monitor the LAN network.

  312. Njipouakouyou Samuel, Galmai OROZI and Yacoub Idriss Halawlaw

    This paper proposes a method to estimate an index of the deficit of water in the system Earth-Atmosphere in the southern region of Chad under the condition of insufficient, even total absence of data traditionally used, i.e. the temperatures of the earth surface and air. This method is based only on the exploitation of the maximum and minimum temperatures of the air since these are the two parameters traditionally registered in almost all the meteorological stations of Chad. The maximum temperature of the air was assimilated to the temperature of the Earth surface. This enables us to compute the estimated minimal annual and monthly values of this index, the maximum values of the relative error generated by this assumption and at last we proceed to the modelling of the time variation of the annual composite of that index over the whole region. The analysis of these numerical characteristics shows that the obtained results are acceptable and lead us to the general conclusion that this method is to be improved for the operational work in the considered area and this improvement can be done as needed data will be progressively available.

  313. Mr. Shinde Rajaram, B. and Prof. Gawande Sagar

    Odor pollution in the environment will be considered, together with its sources and smattering, the physical and chemical properties of odor, odor emission regulations in selected countries, odor control technologies as well as the state-of-the-art instrumentation and technology that are necessary to monitor odor, e.g., chemical sensors, olfactometry, gas chromatography, and electronic noses. With today’s increasing levels of progress, residential areas are predictably built closer to odour generating facilities pharmaceuticals industries and chemical industrial plants. Odour measurements, which provide important information in the planning of the plants and odour treatment facilities, are needed to underpin the numerous decisions that will have to be made to reduce odour nuisance. An odour emission regularly consists of a multifarious mixture of many odorous composites. Analytical monitoring of individual chemical compounds present in such odour is usually not practical. As a result, odour sensory methods, in its place of instrumental methods, are normally used to measure such odour. Odour sensory methods are available to monitor odour both from source emissions and in the ambient air. These two different situations require different methodologies for measuring odour. Thus the sensitivity of the odour sensory method must be significantly greater for measuring ambient odour than for source odour emissions. For known compounds, the Odourstrong point can be steadfastly estimated by measuring the awareness of the chemical, while, for mixtures of unknown substances, sensory method is preferred. It consists of a sensor which is used to detect the presence of gases namely ammonia and hydrogen sulphide. As this is a daily activity, the sensors are also used to monitor them regularly for a better health. The main advantage of our model is that the sensor does a regular act in monitoring them from their daily activities. This paper describes the arduinouno based odor sensory measurement system used in kurkumbh industrial area.

  314. Dr. S. Arul Manikandan, Sagaya Vijaya Chitra, A. and Dr. J. Sirajudeen

    The present investigation is aimed to water quality for the ground water samples of Malaiyeedu area Pudukkottai district .Seven groundwater samples were collected and analyzed for some important physico- chemical parameter such as pH, Electrical Conductivity (EC), Total Dissolved Solids (TDS), Biological Oxygen Demand(BOD), Chemical Oxygen Demand(COD), Dissolved Oxygen (DO), Calcium(Ca), Magnesium(Mg), Total Hardness (TH), Bicarbonate (HCO3), Carbonate (CO3) and Chloride (Cl) were determined for water samples and the results were compared with standards prescribed by WHO. The study indicates that the water quality parameter such as EC, TDS, COD, BOD and Cl are exceeded the permissible limits. This result shows that the water quality of the study area is very poor and not suitable for drinking purpose. The correlation analysis provides an excellent tool for the prediction of parameter values within a reasonable degree of accuracy. This result was considered for correlation analysis and it was observed that many of the Physico- Chemical parameters bear a positive correlation and some bear negative correlation.

  315. Dushyant Chauhan

    Quality of service (QoS) is a key issue of today's IP systems. Numerous structures have been proposed to give benefit separation in the Internet. In the meantime, the Internet is ending up noticeably more heterogeneous because of the current blast of remote systems. In remote situations, data transfer capacity is rare and channel conditions are time-fluctuating and now and then profoundly loss. Numerous past research works demonstrate that what functions admirably in a wired system can't be specifically connected in the remote condition. In spite of the fact that IEEE 802.11 remote LAN (WLAN) is the most generally utilized WLAN standard today, it can't give QoS support to the expanding number of sight and sound applications. Subsequently, countless QoS improvement plans have been proposed, every one concentrating on a specific mode. This paper surveys various works on 802.11 protocols and exhibits a study of flow research exercises. Initially, we break down the QoS restrictions of IEEE 802.11 remote MAC layers. At that point, diverse QoS upgrade methods proposed for 802.11 WLAN are depicted and characterized alongside their preferences/disadvantages. At last, the up and coming IEEE 802.11e QoS upgrade standard is presented and examined in detail.

  316. Deepak Kumar, Aniruddha Singh and Manish Verma

    Steganography is the old craft of concealing messages. The word steganography originates from Greek inception and signifies "secured or shrouded expressing" in which hiding information is implanted into a blameless looking transporter. The transporter might be a content record, advanced picture, sound document or a video document. After installed information is exchanged crosswise over correspondence diverts or posted openly territories. In this way, the transporter ought to appear to be blameless under generally examinations. There are a few systems of steganography; some utilization the minimum critical bits of the picture information to conceal the hiding message, some shroud the data in a particular band of the spatial recurrence segment of the transporter, some of them make utilization of the testing mistake in picture digitization. Every one of these procedures are constrained as far as data concealing ability To build the inserting limit we need a steganography system in view of the compressed lossless steganography. In this paper we survey various techniques in which information hidden using compression over the cover picture.

  317. Ishan Borker, Ruchika, Vinoth Kumar, R. and Aditya Kumar Sinha

    Back propagation Algorithm is a technique to train Artificial Neural Networks to calculate the gradient of the error function with respect to all the weights. This gradient is then used to update the weights to reduce the error function ( back propagation-example/). Back propagation Algorithm is a supervised learning approach in neural networks. Open MP is a model used for parallel programming to improve efficiency and time. It is used to produce more efficient neural networks. This technique executes the algorithm in parallel. This paper summarizes the basic Back propagation Algorithm and measures the time of execution of the serial code. It is then compared with the time of execution of parallel code. Also various methods like code profiling, code optimization are being used. Also, the need to perform benchmarking is required to check the relative performance of the program on different system architectures.

  318. Bikramjit Chowdhury, Dr. Meena, K., Ruchika Vyas and Aditya Kumar Sinha

    Satellite Image is used to analysis the ground area to identify the object. The main barrier of this image processing method is the pixel-wise analysis. The fully convolutional neural network is a popular method to process this type of image processing. However, train stage is taken the maximum computation of this method. Parallelize version of this method to reduce computation time is researching topics, now. But little work is done on optimize the complexity of the algorithm of this method. In this paper, we find an optimized algorithm solution of this algorithm. Also, the result of the parallel version of the proposed algorithm is discussed.

  319. Supriya S. Patil and Prof. Pramod A Jadhav

    Testing of Software is an important phase in the SDLC. This phase not only help to check the quality of the software. This process of testing is divided in two categories, one is Model Based technique and other is code driven testing. Code driven testing is based on the testing complete code (each and every line). Code driven testing is based on a data flow and control flow that is flow is sequential. In model, based testing approach focus is on executable module not on every line of code; reason of this approach is to support third party components, APIs, modules. One need not to be expert in all domains, the tester will concentrate on the functionality of individual component not on the details of a code used in that component. In this paper the combination of extended finite state machine and sequence diagram is discussed.

  320. Mugunda Kumari, S., Priya, P., Thangaraj, N., Rakhesh, R. and Joseph John, N.

    Single crystals of Calcium chloride (CaCl2) doped organometallic nonlinear optical material L-asparagine cadmium chloride monohydrate (LACCM) were successfully grown by slow evaporation method at room temperature. Grown crystals were characterized by single crystal and powder X-ray diffraction analysis, scanning electron microscopy and energy-dispersive analysis by X-ray. The second harmonic generation was confirmed by the Kurtz and Perry powder technique. The presences of various functional groups were identified from FTIR spectral analysis. DSC analysis revels it is thermally stable upto 400oC

  321. Zhe Yin

    The conditions and applications of Newton's theorem

  322. Rageena Joseph

    Twentieth century saw the rapid spread of conventional energy usage worldwide, which brought life changing progress and improvement in quality of life. However, this progress came with a price, global warming and attended risks of climate change, loss of habitat and rise in sea level. The need of the hour is to reduce the rate of global warming. In this article, I have briefly described the history and use of conventional energy sources and the way we can introduce new nonconventional energy sources. Nonconventional energy is expensive now, because the technology is still in research and development phase. Even though the initial cost is high, it is expected to come down because newer technologies with lower costs will be developed with wide spread use.

  323. Muthulakshmi Balamurugan, Johnson Jeyakumar, S., Vijayalakshmi, S. and Kartharinal Punithavathy, I.

    Nitrogen oxides are major pollutants in the atmosphere, being a precursor to acid rain, photochemical smog, and ozone accumulation. Measurements of NO2 and meteorological parameters (temperature, relative humidity, and wind speed) data over a period of two years (October 2014– September 2016) have been utilized to evaluate the NO2 concentration levels over the area Ashok Pillar, Chennai. It is a steamy site which is situated at 13°08′N and 80°27′E on the southeast coast of India. The Diurnal, Seasonal and Annual pattern of NO2 values over the study period has also been analyzed. The monthly variation of meteorological parameters shows little changes as it is being a coastal site. The changes in the No2 level have been mostly influenced by the traffic intensity.

  324. Dr. Anu Singla and Baljeet Yadav

    When a crime is falsified committed and with intent to deceive is said to be forged. Such Crime is punishable under law. Fraud in banks is more often seen by false documentation, transactions, signatures and invalid KYCs which in turns convert into Fraud and further leads to fraud investigations. Fraud investigation in also adversely affected by the digitization in banks, from unsafe unsecure internet banking solutions which are more prone to fraud activities through Internet and there are still so many observation which on documents can be copied altered without any prior permission and further which could be fatal for customer or even sometimes to bank officials. So, there is an urgent need for the proper systematic investigation in Bank fraud examinations.

  325. Patrick G. Galleto and Evelyn R. Campiseño

    Optimizing matriculation collection is a responsibility of every higher education institution. This study was conducted to optimize matriculation collection through scheduling parameters of Jose Rizal Memorial State University System, school year 2016 – 2017. Descriptive survey method of research was used with the aid of questionnaire checklist which was administered to 360 students, 167 teachers, and 12 tellers in which collected data were treated via frequency count, percent, and Chi-Square test. Finding revealed that the university carried out various matriculation collection practices for allowing students meet their fee obligations which in turn registered huge amount of receivables. Further, payment of Php 500 upon registration and three equal installments of the remaining each of which shall be paid during the conduct of the preliminary, midterm and final examinations was preferred to optimize matriculation collection. However, this requires that the university should develop a policy standard to strongly support the matriculation collection procedures and scheduling parameters of the university. As the economic langscape continues to change, it has become increasingly important that those responsible for the administration of public funds in the university develop processess through which funds are appropriately collected and managed.

  326. SaadatNuriyeva

    Being non-cognate languages, the English and Azerbaijani languages differ greatly in grammatical structure, especially in the ways of expressing future.Being non-native speakers, Azerbaijanis have many difficulties in using proper means of futurity.For to eliminate those difficulties we find it necessary to give step by step analysis of the futurity basing on the principles of comparative typology, especially quantitative typology, which lets usinvestigate future tense in the two compared languages. The purpose of our investigation is to focus on the analysis of different scholars’ viewpoints about the future and to show the lexico-grammatical ways of expressing future in contemporary English, and consequently, provide their corresponding forms in Azerbaijani. As we have already given the analyses on the grammatical ways of expressing future in the paper “The Grammatical Ways of Expressing Future in English and their Corresponding Forms in Azerbaijani” (2016, 156),we’re going to analyze the lexico-grammatical ways of expressing future such as modal verbs (must, may, can, will, would, may, might, to be to etc.) some idioms with “to be” having modal shades of meaning (to be going to, to be about to, to be able to, to be expected to, to be due to,to be likely to, to be bound to, to be sure to, to be certain to, to be meant to, to be obliged to, to be supposed to, etc.), some set expressionswould better, would sooner, would rather, had better, had rather, had sooner+the bare infinitive, verbs with future meaning+(to) infinitive such as hope, expect, want, intent, promise, warn, wish, swear, plan, offer, attempt, dare, encourage, instruct, ask, aspire, allow, mean, agree, cause, choose, consent, prepare, propose, threaten etc., a group of verbs requiring the gerund.(to anticipate, to look forward to, to think of, to fancy, to mind, to imagine, to intend, to be intent on, to insist on, to hope, to need, to be on the verge of, to be on the point of, to be on the brink of, to consider, to contemplate, to put off, to feel like, to suggest, to want+gerund...)The article highlights these lexical ways of futurity by providing prominent linguists' theoretical points of view as well as the author`s own analysis and approach to the stated problem.

  327. Solomon Tadele Jember, Zelalem Desta Alemayehu and Addis Yitbarek Fikadu

    The main objective of this study was to investigate teacher’s awareness about multicultural education. To give a response for this objective, 120 Dire Dawa Administration preparatory teachers´ were selected by non-probability sampling method, particularly purposive sampling technique. From these participants, the data was collected by a five point likert scale questionnaire (Validity of the questionnaire as well as clarity of language was checked by multicultural experts and its reliability was calculated using cronbach alpha 0.78). After that, the collected data was analyzed by descriptive (mean and standard deviation) and inferential (simple t-test and independent t-test) statistics. The analyzed data showed that the participants have high level of awareness about multicultural education. Both females’ and males’ teachers have similar and high level of awareness about multicultural education, but well experienced teachers have more awareness than less experienced once. So, we recommended that teachers’ awareness in multicultural education there will be helping them to implement culturally sensitive strategies and content to ensure equitable opportunities for academic success if necessary.

  328. Ar. Neelam Kushwah and Sanand Telang

    Architecture speaks of time and evolution, and while it narrates its observations, it unknowingly becomes an epicentre of a lot of 'socio-philic' processes that cultivate art, culture, and religion in which it transforms into an architectural monument. During this monument conversion process, civilisations gradually fit in to become a part of it, and this is exactly how the metamorphosis of towns take place. In exceptional conditions, the adverse of a civilisation first and then a monument later is observed. While this development goes on, a certain configuration of spaces gets generated. The research is intended with the aim of understanding the influence of historic centres on the spatial configuration of towns of the state of Madhya Pradesh, India. The entire research is based on the idea of human preferences and choices generated through the space syntax methodology of space analysis.

  329. Ernest N. Tingum, Moses A. Ofeh and Akwi Tafah-Oteh

    In this paper, the factors affecting technical efficiency of tobacco farmers in Tanzania are examined. Tanzania is the third biggest producer of tobacco in Africa, after Zimbabwe and Malawi. About 0.08 percent of Tanzania’s land (about 34,000 hectares) is allocated for growing tobacco. More so, Tanzania has great potential in tobacco production and it is one of the countries that is expected to dominate the African continent in terms of foreign exchange earnings. Using a stochastic frontier model (SFM) proposed by Battese and Coelli (1995), the paper estimates the levels of technical efficiency of 200 tobacco farmers using the maximum-likelihood method. The data used for the study were obtained from the Tobacco Control Policy Survey conducted in Tanzania in 2013. The survey was conducted in Sikonge, Uyui and Urambo districts in Tabora region. The districts were chosen to represent potential tobacco growing areas in the country. Results show that smallholder tobacco farmers in Tabora are significantly less efficient. Technical efficiencies of tobacco farmers range from 0.001 to 0.981 with a mean of 0.7162. In addition, farmers’ characteristics such as age, primary level of education, keeping large family sizes, air breath during tobacco curling, extension agent’s advice and distance to farm land are the major socioeconomic variables influencing farmers’ efficiency.

  330. Dr. Geevarghese M. Thomas

    Despite decades of planning, dichotomy of labour market has been one of the salient features of economic development in India. But, it is considered to be a transitory phenomenon in the long run process of economic development. Indian economy has been undergoing liberalisation since 1991. In this context this paper seeks to throw light on the dichotomy of labour market in post-liberalistion period. The paper also analyses the determinants of employment in the informal sector.

  331. Mohammad Ahzam and Ar. Manita Saxena

    This research paper examines the rising development in urban social infrastructure in MMR (Mumbai metropolitan region), India. Contrasting the other planned metropolis of India, MMR was distinctively built as a planned transference of a huge urban city. The study centres on explaining the urban social infrastructure of this specific case study. An urban social infrastructure reflects the social attributes of the urban setting. In the instance of MMR, the government had a social agenda to encourage a social form based on socioeconomic division rather than an cultural one. Investigation of the data gives an insight to the result of this social agenda, and presents a basis to frame new ones. The study includes a broad review of secondary source data to create the speculative framework for the research. The review also involves an extensive inspection of the past, present and future of the whole MMR (Mumbai metropolitan region) to better understand the whole context of urban morphology and social infrastructure as a whole and also there effects, pros and cons. The research puts forth a study that explains the social infrastructure of MMR by social area investigation using variables, which are found from social aspects of any big city and native/radical factors of Indian settlements. The study depends not only on form and space analysis but also on understanding of local conditions. As the local conditions of working, living, the geographical factors all widely affect the social infrastructure of the city. This research lays the understanding of the rising social patterns in in developing cities.

  332. Rameshkumar, S. and Alexpandi, M.

    This paper is an attempt to analyse the farmers’ opinion about the implementation of the Kisan Credit Card Scheme in Sivagangai Taluk in Tamilnadu. It is mainly based on the primary data collected from 150 KCC holders selected by employing proportionate random sampling technique. The selected KCC holders belong to five villages coming under the area of operation of the Idayamelur Co-operative Society in Sivagangai Taluk of Tamilnadu and engaged in paddy and banana cultivation. The Chi-Square Test and Factor Analysis Approach have been employed to analyse the data. The results show that though the procedural efficiency in expediting the sanction and disbursement of loan under KCC and the reasonable rate of interest are well appreciated by the farmers in the study area, they place on record only a medium level of opinion about the overall implementation of KCC Scheme. While the farmers whole-heartedly welcome the cash discount offered under the KCC Scheme they are highly disappointed at the inadequacy of loan amount under this scheme which adversely affects them in two ways. First it miserably fails to meet all the expenses of cultivation and secondly and more importantly it forces them to approach the money lenders in order to meet their cost of cultivation. Further, a close watch over the repayment of loan availed under KCC shows that there is no default on the part of the farmers in the study area. So, the authorities concerned might give due consideration to maximise the credit limit fixed under KCC so as to save the poor farmers from the inescapable clutches of blood-sucking usurers.

  333. Mabel Ambogo Mudulia, Prof Laban Peter Ayiro and Prof Emmy Kipsoi,

    Sustainable development goal number five aims to achieve gender equality and empower all women and girls. Kamunge report recommends that schools and universities provide guidance to university applicants to enable them make right choices. The purpose of the study was to explore the correlation between career guidance and career choice among girls in secondary schools in VihigaCounty. For effective career guidance to take place, there ought to be adequate structures, facilities and personell. Hence, the objective of the study was to assess the impact of availability of structures for career guidance on performance and careerchoices of girls in secondary schools in VihigaCounty, Kenya. The study embraced a mixed methods approach. It targeted 4,628 form four girls of 2012 in mixed and girls’ secondary schools in Vihiga County. 30 schools were selected by stratified sampling using the 4 constituencies as strata. Purposive sampling was used to select 30 principals, 30 career guidance teachers, 4 district quality assurance officers and one county director of education. Data was collected using questionnaires, content analysis and interview schedules. Quantitative data was analyzed using frequencies, means, standard deviations, Pearson’s product moment correlation, t-test and Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) while qualitative data was analyzed thematically. For all statistical tests, the alpha (significance) level was set at .05. The result of the analysis indicated that there was a statistically significant correlation among the students’ perception on structure for career guidance and counseling on academic performance and career choice, r = 0.513, p< 0.05, teachers’ perception on guidance and counseling structures’ effect on academic performance and subsequent career choice, t(58) = 2.035, p < .05. The study found out that schools that were better equipped and staffed for career guidance performed better and sent more students to public universities who got admission into a variety of careers than those that were not. The study concluded that career guidance is an essential component yet many schools are not adequately funded, equipped and staffed for it. It recommends that all schools be adequately funded, equipped with structures for a career guidance department separate from the guidance and counseling department. The study has practical implications for the ministry of education and school administrators to revamp career guidance and demystify careers for the girl child. The findings will help in achievement of SDG number five and consequently goals 1,2,3,4 and 8.

  334. Tamene Yohannes

    Forest and climate are interrelated and the relationship between them is very interesting. The effect of one on the other is very important and decisive. Climate change will affect the environmental conditions to which forest trees are adapted and expose them to new pests and diseases; thus, create additional challenges for forest management and threats the biological diversity in forest ecosystems. In addition to soils, aspect and elevation; climate dictates what will grow when, where and how well. Therefore, changes in temperature, precipitation and other climatic factors have the potential to dramatically affect forests at national level and similarly worldwide. On the reverse, climate is also shaped and strongly influenced by forests. Global warming and climate change largely depends on both the CO2 and other Green House Gases (GHGs) source from human emissions and the CO2 sink from natural sinks in the terrestrial biosphere which is mainly forests. Therefore, forests affect the situation both as a source and sink of CO2. On the top of the efforts being undertaking to reduce the emissions of GHGs into the atmosphere; forest management solutions such as: reduced deforestation and forest degradation, wildfire management, increased afforestation and reforestation, maintained or increased forest carbon density and others; not only reduce the CO2 emission but also increase the carbon sequestration capacity of forests. In 2010 the overall Ethiopia’s GHGs emission level was estimated to be around 150 Mt CO2e represent less than 0.3% of the global emissions. However, by 2030 it will be more than double (from 150 Mt CO2e to400 Mt CO2e) if current practices are continued. Since more than 87% of GHGs emissions in Ethiopia come from forestry and agriculture sectors and according to IPCC definition of “forest”, the county has a total of 61.62 million ha of “forest” which can sink 2.7 million tons of carbon and can mitigate the impacts of climate change to certain extent. So, Ethiopia can be benefited from the carbon trade and can achieve the zero-emission target of the Climate Resilience Green Economy (CRGE) plan of the country, if a proper forest management practice implemented effectively.

  335. Abbas, S. S. and M. Hum

    This paper aims at comparing two great authors of American fiction, John Steinbeck and Francis Scott Fitzgerald. Both authors have similar and different to express the stories. Steinbeck has social background in Southern America among villagers, gardeners, fishermen, labors, and domestic life. He noticed the Indian’s struggle against the existing immigrants to overcome the economic and social condition in Gulf California, La Paz. It was documented in novel The Pearl (1947). He also wrote Travels With Charley (1962) which reflected him and motherland. On the other hand, Fitzgerald lived in metropolitan city by jazz age, glamour, parties, white collar, and public life. He expressed the social situation of biggest cities in America and Europe such as New York, California, Paris, Rome, and London, which described in novel The Great Gatsby (1925) and Tender Is The Night (1934). The writer of this paper used Genetic Structuralism Approach. It considered that the literary works as social product related to author’s background and social reality at the time and situation currently. As the social product, literary works appeared theme from issues flourished among society, namely social criticism. The data of fictional story, author’s background, and social reality were collected by using the Llibrary Study and analyzed in descriptive method. Data analysis also supported by theory of the Comparative Literature to describe the selected stories of Steinbeck and Fitzgerald. The writer in comparing the literary works of John Steinbeck and Francis Scott Fitzgerald identifies similarities and differences them. Those similarities are the fictional stories are real and natural, the plot of forward, authors’ personality strong reflect into the story, both authors have a strong sensitivity to the social reality, and authors honestly describe the social life of American people. The differences are at least five aspects, including characters of story, physical background of story, theme of story, social facts of American, imagination and authors’ background.

  336. Dr. N. Amareswaran

    Education is a key for national development in general and individual development in particular. The aim of higher education is changing from character development to economic development. With the help of science and technology, the life style of an individual is changing from time to time. Social system is a dynamic process like nature. In the present modern, scientific, technological and globalized word enormous changes are occurring in all the spheres of an individual life. The role and responsibilities of States and Central Government is also changing from time to time. The administrators are using Information and Communication Technologies (ICTs) to reach the people easily, quickly and efficiently. University Grants Commission (UGC) is the highest regulatory body in the field of higher education in India. The UGC and other administrative bodies in the Union of India are using ICTs in their daily work. The main aim of e-governance is to speed up in delivering government services effectively without any bias. In the present paper the researcher has explained how e-governance helped to overcome the problem and also an attempt has been made to prove the strength of e-governance regarding UGC Research Award for the year 2016-18.

  337. Boalidioa Tankoano, Hyppolite N’Da Dibi, Jerôme T. Yaméogo, Martin Karlson, Valère-Carin Jofack-Sokeng, Koffi Fernand Kouamé and Mipro Hien

    Burkina Faso’s protected areas are under pressure from human activities, in particular agricultural expansion. In addition to the effects of climate change which are a major cause of land cover modifications. Together, these factors causes the loss of biodiversity in protected areas. The main objective of this study is to analyze changes in the spatial structure of the Deux Balé National Park, Burkina Faso. Land cover maps of the park for the years 1986 and 2016 were used for the calculation of the landscape indices and the transition matrix approach allowed to better quantifying the changes in the landscape of the park. The results reveal three processes of change, including i) the fragmentation of tree savannahs, ii) the creation of new shrub savannahs patches, anthropogenic zones, bare soils and water bodies and iii) the removal of gallery forests. The processes of fragmentation and suppression of classes comprising tree cover are mainly related to human activities. This is a danger to the conservation of biodiversity in this park if no corrective measures are taken to reverse the trend.

  338. Winnie Awuor Odhiambo, John M. Momanyi and Esther Kiaritha

    Students in Rachuonyo North Sub County have continued to perform poorly in Kenya Certificate of Secondary Education (K.C.S.E) over the past years. The focus of this study was to look into the selected discipline strategies specifically suspension, manual labour and sending students home to call their parents and how these strategies influence students’ academic performance. The study presents the knowledge of these discipline strategies, how they are executed in schools in Homabay County, Kenya and how they influence the academic performance of high school students. From the literature review, academic performance of students before and after these strategies has not been looked into which necessitated the study. The students’ academic performance before and after the discipline strategies is subjected to empirical testing and the test results are likely to equip teachers with the knowledge on the influence of these selected strategies on their academic performance. Further research is required to determine the influence of these discipline strategies in other counties.

  339. Dr. Abdulrahman Al –Arman

    The extremely importance comes through promotion decisions which it is relating to public officials and its impact on society, especially the high category of employees to whom these decisions belong in the public profession. Promotion of personnel is one of the advantages of public profession. It motivates the souls and performance is better than positively reflected on management through proper management and regularity. Also on the individuals and employees through financial promotion and salary increment.

  340. Priyanka Singh and Dr. Bharat Mishra

    Recently the evolution of knowledge management has become increasingly important. Nowadays knowledge management has become interesting area for the research purpose for both researchers and practitioners. There are no unique and universally accepted definitions of knowledge management. Many researchers stated that knowledge management is like an engine which accelerates the performance of any organization and organizational economic growth. Knowledge management is the key achieving opportunities for better decision making and competitive advantage for organizations and also increase the efficiency and effectiveness of both educational and business organizations. There are several methods and techniques related to knowledge management are discussed in previous researches. In this approach, we looked at the developed model of knowledge management system as well as conceptual approaches of this expertise.

  341. Tuba Sari and Yurdanur Dülgeroğlu Yüksel

    The research deals with five different urban centres in Istanbul where high-rise housing has been increasing dramatically since the 2000s. Therefore, the research regards the multi-centred urban residential model being created by high-rise housing structures in the urban tissue. In the framework of the research hypothesis, it is aimed to prove that the character of vertical dense structuring in Istanbul is based on differentiation, form and image making in the expressive quality. The site analysis is realised with the help of the Sign model of Charles Sanders Peirce. The high-rise buildings have been analysed in the context of icon-index-symbol sign parameters, questioning the search for differentiation, form and image.

  342. Caio Cesar de Lima Sá, Jaqueline Gomes Cavalcanti, Emerson Araújo Do Bú, Karla Costa Silva and Adriele Vieira de Lima Pinto

    This study aimed to identify the motivational and demotivation factors and of public and private employees from the city of João Pessoa – Paraíba - Brazil. It was developed with a sample of 201 participants, in which 121 were private servers and 80 public servers. The instruments used for data collection were: Motivation Multifactor Scale at Work, complementary issues related to work motivation and the socio-demographic questionnaire. The results showed no differences between the two sectors regarding questions of stability and recognition at work. As for the factors that motivated and demotivate at work, compensation was the most cited by both sectors, followed by other relevant, as recognition and growth opportunity. In addition, employees from public sector indicated a greater motivation to work over the private. In short, it is considered that this study may contribute to the development of motivational policies that take into account the particularities of each sector and to each employee.

  343. Dr. Gokulananda Patro

    System of Transport and conveyance constitutes an amazing chapter in the economic history of Odisha. No study on the economic history of Odisha can be completed without the reference of the means of transport and conveyance. Hence, an attempt has been made in this paper to discuss various means of transport and conveyance in medieval Odisha.

  344. Jincy Joseph, Aleeshya, P. V. and Yamuna, P. B.

    This study focussed on the use of e-resources among faculties and satisfaction with dissemination of information from e-resources available in internet. The study conducted among the faculties of St.Joseph college of Teacher education to find the awareness of educational information disseminate through internet. The majority of the faculty know about the internet resources but proper use of it is very less. Consortium and database are used for educational efficiency is very less by the faculty members.

  345. Leonardo Ereno Tadielo, Priscila Cristine Carraro, Tainara Bremm, Nathaly Lopes Toledo dos Santos, Diego Corazza, Marinara Macelai, Deise Dalazen Castagnara and Rodrigo HolzKrolow

    The objective of this work was to determine the structural components and the forage supply in ryegrass pastures managed at different heights. A randomized block design with four grazing heights (5, 10, 15, and 20 cm) and one with the absence of grazing (30 cm) was adopted. Four repetitions were carried out, totaling 20 experimental units. Sixty days after the emergence of ryegrass cv. Estanzuela 284, grazing began with the use of four sheep testers, grazing for 45 days. Subsequently the sampling was performed, and the material was separated into fractions of dead material, leaves and stems+ sheaths. Dry matter production increased linearly in response to grazing heights with an increase of 399.76 kg ha-1 for each centimeter increase in pasture management height. However, the increase in management heights also caused a linear increase in litter deposition. For each centimeter of increase in the management height, a deposition of 62.96 kg ha-1 of litter was verified. The leaf/stem ratio presented a quadratic behavior in response to the increase in pasture management heights, so that the lowest leaf/stem ratio was observed at the estimated grazing height of 15.6 cm. The study showed that the higher the pasture height, the higher the dry matter yield, the greater the availability of forage, and consequently the better the animal performance.

  346. Charletta Barringer-Brown

    During Student evaluations of their instructors is common practice in higher education. The purpose of this study was to approach the relationship of race with regard to student evaluations. Atraditional end-of-course evaluation form used in the College of Education (COE) at one selected Historically Black College and University (HBCU) in Southeastern North Carolinawas studied. Teaching effectiveness of instructors based on race (Caucasians, African Americans, and other racial groups including Asians, Latinos, and Native Americans) was reviewed using the critical race theory (CRT). The student responses at the selected HBCU were then analyzed to determine if, race affected student evaluation in this setting.

  347. Ajadi Jimoh and Ajenipa Rasaq Adeleke

    The occurrence of barite mineralization in both the sedimentary and basement rocks in Cross River State shows a genetic linkage in relations to source of the metal for fluids that drain the basements. This agrees with current opinion based on isotopic and fluid inclusion data obtained by previous workers who on the basis of observed strontium data, Pb isotope composition of galena and rare earth element patterns in fluorite suggested that the basement rocks in the Benue trough or their weathered equivalents are likely sources of metal for mineralizing fluids in the Benue trough. The gentle dip of the basement rocks are believed to have generated slow migration of the fluids, a condition that is necessary to prevent quick flushing thereby allowing adequate time for enough leaching of barium from the basement rocks to form the barite deposits. The NE-SW trend of the barite veins, the identified sinistral faults as well as the fact that the barites that are associated with wall rock alteration usually display well developed crystal habits are suggestive that the barite mineralization is structurally controlled. Ore fluid formation from juvenile and circulating connate brines have been proposed for the formation of the barite deposits in Cross River State and indeed in Nigeria.





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Chief Scientific Officer and Head of a Research Group

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Luai Farhan Zghair
Hasan Ali Abed Al-Zu’bi
Fredrick OJIJA
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