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September 2019

  1. Sisay Taddese and Dinku Balcha

    Settler and different organization in the city produce a large amount of refuses in several forms, frequently making our environments impure and unpleasant. The urban and Arsi University discarded solid and fluid waste disposal deteriorating water quality through decrease in quality indicators because of the undiscriminating dumping of different waste. Therefore, this study determine urban waste disposal effects on water quality at open waste dumping sites of Asella city, Arsi zone, southeast Ethiopia. To ratify the quality of water for public expenditure, recreation and irrigation purpose, the water quality index was performed in indicating the water quality in terms of index number. This water quality index was determined using the selected biological physical and chemical properties as pH, EC, BD, SMC, temperature, TDS, lead, chromium, cadmium, calcium, magnesium, potassium, sodium and total coliform. Composite water samples were collected from fluid waste disposal site and residue discarded from Arsi University to the watercourse along the watershed. Water sample was taken from Arsi university waste, Emipond and nursery site. A total of 9 samples were brought for laboratory analysis. Results of the mechanical analysis revealed that the problem of Arsi University discarded waste had significant effect on the water quality mainly at the nursery site which had been disturbing through toxification in excess presence than the critical value of pH at nursery site (8.53), Mg at Arsi university (36.01mg/l) and nursery site (30.78mg/l), K and Cr at nursery site (12.49mg/l and 0.053mg/l) respectively as well as total coli forming organism in Arsi University (161/100ml), Emipond (74/100ml) and nursery (108/100ml) site than the threshold value. Similarly, the mean value of Ec, Temp, TDS, Ca, Na , Cd and Pb are found less than the standard at all Arsi university, Emipond and nursery site whereas Mg at Emipond (23.09mg/l) and K at Arsi University (11.97mg/l) and Emipond (10.46mg/l) where found less than the standard. So, it was concluded that the average values of water from Ardu to Tulu dimtu watershed were found all biophysical-chemical indicators was contaminated at the nursery site according to World Health Organization standard for water quality. Therefore, management was required to undermine the cause of waste and treating the discarded material within the organization through recycling the use before release to the watershed community.

  2. Mr. Aejaz Ahmad, Mr. Sagar Kulkarni and Ms. Tejashri Ligade

    Central venous cannulation (CVC) is an invasive procedure that is considered as a minor surgery requiring local anaesthesia. It can be also used where placement of peripheral IV cannula is difficult. Even though such catheters supply essential vascular access. Employment of these catheter takes patient into the risk of local and systemic infection complications including local site infection, catheter related bloodstream infections (CRBSIs), septic thrombophlebitis, endocarditis, and other metastatic infections.The infection caused by CVC is colligated with increased morbidity, mortality, duration of hospitalization and medical costs. To prevent catheter related bloodstream infectionsuse of antiseptic solutions for catheter insertion is used to dis-infect the skin. Povidone-iodine solution is the most frequently used agent for CVC. In some countries chlorhexidine is more used than povidone-iodine and is available in different formulations (0.5 - 4%) and can be taken single or in combined with other products like alcohol & cetrimide.

  3. Gitanjali Devi

    Plant-parasitic nematodes cause serious yield loss of various agricultural crops. One strategy that has attracted the interest of researchers is the use of biocontrol agent for the management of these nematodes. As a group of biocontrol agent of plant-parasitic nematode, bacteria exhibit diverse modes of action viz. parasitizing; producing toxins, antibiotics, or enzymes; competing for nutrients; inducing systemic resistance of plants and promoting plant health. The aim of this review is to present some of the results of this work, indicating its potential and limitations.

  4. Dr. Chelliah, S.M.A., Ph.D., D.Litt

    This paper lays focus on the fictional forte of Manohar Malgonkar and Khushwant Singh, with an emphasis on the communal riots between Hindus and Muslims, as it becomes unbearable and unforgettable for them as Indo-Anglian writers, and to the extent, they both converted contemporary history into literary creations by artistically depicting the impact of the partition that began to cast its shadow of communal disharmony and violence.

  5. Dr. Ramya, C. M.B.A., M.A, M.Phil, Ph.D

    This article throws light on the dramatic approaches of Arthur Miller, who is one of the topmost American playwrights. Miller in his plays successfully judges together the social and the psychological. Miller’s approach to playwright and the drama itself is organic and his plays may be called realities but they are also naturalistic and expressionistic. So, his play concentrates and portrays the conflict between the individual and the society.

  6. Abdanur Mohammed, Girma Tasew and Mohammed Seid

    Proper utilization of partograph contributes to reduction of maternal deaths during labor. This cross-sectional study was designed to assess the magnitude of utilization of parthograph and factors associated with its utilization among obstetric caregivers in public health institutions of Buno-Bedele Zone, South Western Ethiopia from February- March 2017. The data in this study was collected using Key informant face to face interview and structured questionares among the samples of 362 obstetric care givers. Logistic regressions analysis was carried out to assess associations of independent variables with the outcome variable. Reported magnitude of partograph utilization reveals 32.2%, participant Working department, level of education, in-service training and knowledge on parthograph utilization (AOR=0.102, 95% CI 0.037,0.279), (AOR= 0.272, 95% CI 0.137,0.540), (AOR=1.943, 95% CI 0.858,4.401), (AOR=. 150 95% CI. 065, 0.345) were significantly associated with partograph utilization respectively. Reported partograph utilization in the area was low, despite the recognition of high maternal mortality as a major public health issue in the study area. Pre-service and on job training on partograph use, continuous monitoring, supervision and staff motivation could improve the utilization of the tool.

  7. Berisha Kapitano, Getahun Endale and Betherlhem Korra

    The field trial was conducted to assess the problem of trypanocidal drug resistance in Konso District using Diminazeneaceturate (Veriben®) and Isomethamedium chloride (Veridium®). A total of 250 naturally infected animals were screened and divided in to two groups of 125 animals. Group I was treated with Diminazeneaceturate at a dose of 3.5 mg/kg/ bodyweight (b.w.) and group II was treated with Isomethamedium chloride at a dose of 0.5 mg/kg/b.w. and monitored for relapses at 15 days interval for 90 days. The relapsing cases were treated with double dose of the drugs and monitored at the same interval for the same period.It was found that the proportion of relapsing cases was 51.2% and 32.81% in group I and 41.60% and 30.77% in group II after single and double doses of the drugs respectively. The relapses were due to T.congolense (75%) followed by T. vivax (20.31%) and T. brucei (4.65%); and T. congolense(86%) followed by T. vivax (9%) and T. brucei(5%) after single and double doses in group I respectively. similarly the relapses observed in group II were higher for T. congolense (71%) followed by T. vivax (27%) and T. brucei(2%) and T. congolense(56%) followed by T. vivax (38%) and T. brucei(6%) after single and double doses respectively. However, no statistically significant difference has been observed among different sexes (P>0.05) showing their equal susceptibility. The overall mean PCV of the infected animals was 24.34+0.27 with standard deviation (s.d) of 4.34 at 95% CI (23.80-24.88).Therefore, relapses were observed in both single and double doses of both drugs requiring integrated sustainable vector control, enhanced community awareness in the appropriate and strategic use of the drugs, and further research on multiple drug resistance to minimize further development of the problem.

  8. Dr. Arunoday Kumar, Dr. Barun Kant, Dr. Sandeep Kumar, Dr. Shishir Kumar and Dr. Amrendra Kumar

    For the patient facing the loss of all his/her remaining natural teeth, there are three treatment options. One is for the patient to have all remaining teeth extracted and wait for 6–8 weeks for the extraction sites to heal. The conventional complete denture is made following healing, leaving the patient without teeth not only during the healing phase but also during the time required for the fabrication of the conventional complete denture. A second option is to convert an existing removable partial denture into an interim immediate complete denture. A third option is to make a conventional immediate complete denture. The aim of this clinical case report is to describe the procedure involved in the fabrication of interim immediate denture in a patient with hopeless periodontally compromised existing natural dentition.

  9. Dr. Preet Thakor and Dr. Manoj Kumar

    Background: For non-ambulatory stroke patients, treadmill walking with partial weight support provides the opportunity to complete more walking practice than would be possible using assisted over ground walking. Body weight support treadmill training (BWSTT) “uses overhead suspension system and harness to support a percentage of the patient’s body weight as the patient walks on a treadmill”, thereby removing weight symmetrically from the lower extremities.20 The performance of complete gait movements on a treadmill with partial body weight support as a task-oriented approach could restore the gait of non-ambulatory patients faster and with less effort for the therapists. Outcome measure: Step length, stride length, cadence, 10 meter walk test, dynamic gait index. Method: SUBJECTS: 30 diagnosed with stroke and divided in two groups: Group A (experimental group) (n=15), Group B (control group) (n=15). Study duration 3 times per week for 4 weeks. Results: Results showed that Group A showed more significant improvement than Group B.

  10. Abbas Ali, Andrew Y. Li, Nurhayat Tabanca, Zulfiqar Ali and Ikhlas A. Khan

    Three natural flavor and fragrance compounds, n-butyl cinnamate, benzyl cinnamate, and benzyl cinnamate, were evaluated for toxicity and repellency against mosquitoes and ticks in this study. n-Butyl cinnamate showed the highest level of toxicity among the tested cinnamates with LC50value of 7 ppm followed by benzyl cinnamate (LC50= 8.4 ppm) and phenethyl cinnamate (LC50= 10.3 ppm) against 1-d old Aedes aegypti larvae. In Klun & Debboun (K&D) biting deterrence bioassay, these three compounds showed biting deterrent activity above the solvent control. n-Butyl cinnamate and benzyl cinnamate with proportion not biting (PNB) values of 0.8 and 0.74, respectively, were similar to DEET while the activity of phenethyl cinnamate was lower than DEET and the other compounds at a rate of 25 nmol/cm2. In Ali and Khan (A&K) bioassay, n-butyl cinnamate was active at the lowest dose of 5.9 µg/cm2 followed by DEET and benzyl cinnamate that were active at 11.7 µg/cm2 whereas phenethyl cinnamate did not show repellent activity at the highest dose of 93.7 µg/cm2. Based on repellency data, n-butyl cinnamate was tested for residual repellency. Both DEET and n-butyl cinnamate were within the limits of the minimum effective dose (MED) up to 120 min at a dose of 23 .4 µg/cm2. At 11.7 µg/cm2, DEET crossed MED threshold after 30 min whereas n-butyl cinnamate was active up to 120 min. In tick bioassays, the repellent activity of n-butyl cinnamate at the concentration of 2.5% was similar to DEET at 1.25%. n-butyl cinnamate demonstrated reasonably good concentration-repellency response. In contrast, benzyl cinnamate did not demonstrate significant repellency when compared to DEET at the highest dose of 5%. High residual repellency of n-butyl cinnamate indicated its potential to be used as mosquito repellent.

  11. Rekha, K. and Sherin Jose, M.

    The study analyses age related variations in the phytochemistry and antioxidant property of Artocarpus heterophyllus Lam. leaves. Aqueous and ethanolic extracts of tender, mature dark green and old yellow leaves were used for the analysis. Leaves of different ages were collected from the same plant. Qualitative phytochemical analysis revealed the presence of carbohydrate, protein, cardiac glycosides, terpenoids, phenols, saponin, tannin, steroids and coumarin in all extracts. Flavanoids were detected only in the old yellow leaves and the presence of amino acids was noticed only in the tender leaves. Comparatively higher concentrations of various secondary metabolites were detected in the older leaves. Antioxidant activity was higher in the alcoholic extract of older leaves followed by that of tender leaves. Results of the study indicate the importance of detailed investigation on the influence of ageing on the phytochemistry and bioactivities of A.heterophyllus for the proper utilization of this plant.

  12. Devi Sarita, Sharma Preksha and Kaur Shaminder

    Introduction: Cancer is one of the most prevalent diseases around the world. According to recent reports by World Health Organization (WHO), the incidence of cancer will increase in future decades. In fact, this condition is expected to be the second most common cause of mortality. Hazardous drugs have been used for many years in cancer treatment. Nursing personnel have a major responsibility in ensuring safe handling of chemotherapeutic agents. This study was undertaken to assess the knowledge, attitude and practices regarding safe handling of chemotherapeutic drugs among nursing personnel in tertiary care hospital, India. Aim: The aim is to assess the practices regarding safe handling of chemotherapeutic drugs among nursing personnel. Material and Methods: - Non-experimental descriptive approach was used. Through convenient sampling, 60 subjects were selected. Self reporting practices rating scale to assess was used to assess practices. Descriptive statistics, Pearson correlation and ANOVA /t- tests were used to analysis data. Results: - The result revealed that the majority of nursing personnel (51.7%) had average practices regarding safe handling of chemotherapeutic drugs. The statistically highly significant association was found between practices regarding safe handling of chemotherapeutic drugs and oncology work experience of nursing personnel, and challenge in safe handling of chemotherapeutic drugs. Conclusion: - The results of the present study reveal that there were average practices regarding safe handling of chemotherapeutic drugs among nursing personnel of tertiary care hospital, India.

  13. Dr. Gediwon Getachew, Dr. Dawit Teare and Tilahun Saol Tura

    Background: Breast cancer is the most common cause of mortality in middle aged women in western countries and it is also one of the major health problems globally. Objective: The objective of this study was to assess knowledge and practice of methods of early detection and risk factors for breast cancer among regular undergraduate female students of Jimma University. Methodology: This study was conducted in Jimma University, which is located in Oromia Region Jimma town, 335 kilometers South West of the capital Addis Ababa. The study was conducted from June 10-24, 2016. All female regular undergraduate students in Jimma University in the academic year of 2015/2016 were taken to be the source population for this study. A sample of 397 students was selected to fill the questionnaire. A stratified random sampling technique was used to select the study participants; and data analysis was done manually and using SPSS computer software. Result: A total of 361 students filled and returned the questionnaire in this study. The median age of these participants was 21 year. 68.98% of the participants have heard about Self-Breast Examination (SBE) and mass-medias were the main source of information (55.42%) for them. 24.1% of the students have at least once performed Self-Breast Examination; where as 75.9% of them have never performed It; mostly because of not being sure how to perform it (87.26%). Most of the participants (85.04%) want to be taught about and how to perform Self-Breast Examination. 91. 14% of the participants know that a previous personal history of breast cancer increases the risk of having breast cancer again; whereas 83.66% of them know that family history of breast cancer increases the risk of having breast cancer in the individual. Conclusion: Most of the participants were unaware of the benefits, the appropriate timing in relation to menstrual period, and techniques of performing Self-Breast Examination (SBE). Health Science Students (HSS) had better awareness & practice of Self-Breast Examination than Non-Health Science Students (NHSS).

  14. Akpa You Lucette, Dibi N’da Hyppolite, Danumah Jean Homian, Bruno Kouassi Kpangui and Valere Carin Jofack-Sokeng

    The increasing world demand for cashew (Anacardium occidentale L.) nuts and by-products generates rapid expansion of cashew cultivation across West-African countries especially in Cote d’Ivoire. This has created wealth for many smallholders. This is not to mention the pressure on forest-savanna transition zone. The aim of this study is to contribute to a better management of rural land by investigating the spatial trends of cashew production and assessing the natural vegetation vulnerability to future cashew expansion in the forest-savanna transition zone. A spatial dynamics of land use were analysed from 2001 to 2015 at a watershed level based on remote sensing-based classification and post-classification change detection. GIS and multicriteria analysis were used to analyse the natural vegetations’ vulnerability to future cashew expansion. The results identified cashew expansion (a rate of 7.24% per annum for the periods 2001-2015) as a major land use changes. From 2001 to 2015, more than 13305 ha (i.e. 19%) and 22539 ha (i.e. 33%) of forest/woodland and savanna areas respectively were converted to cashew plantations. Natural vegetation vulnerability to future cashew expansion was in the descending order of forest/woodland (21.43%), tree savanna (11.87%) and tree/shrub savanna (8.27%). This implies that cashew expansion is of higher threat to more woody vegetation which has serious implication in terms of conservation and carbon emissions. There is therefore a need for a more sustainable management approach to cashew agriculture practices to ensure optimum production for farmers, while conserving the forest-savanna ecosystem.

  15. Dally Theodor, 1Kahou Bi Gohi Parfait, Diby Yao Bernard, Meité alassane, Gue Gondo Marius and Kati-Coulibaly Séraphin

    The almonds of (Irvingia gabonesis) "Siako" in the Betes or "pkle" among the Gueres are used in food of the people of the West of Ivory Coast. The sauce from these almonds is an accompaniment for typical dishes. Unfortunately these spontaneous food plants are less and less present in our markets given the excessive deforestation. In order to valorize these almonds and to encourage the domestication of the plant, we are interested in the determination of the essential constituents of these almond found in our main markets in Daloa (Central-West of Côte d'Ivoire).The results obtained after chemical analysis give nutrient contents respectively: 36,82 ± 0,26; 14,56 ± 0,26; 6, 62 ± 0,71; 13,85 ± 0,16; 13,30±5,20; 10,21±4,20; 12,69 ±3,14 and 21,41 ± 2,5%. In addition, biometric and physiological studies with rats (Wistar) revealed steady weight gain after the sixth day. This weight gain confirms the good quality of this spontaneous food plant. This suggests the popularization of this plant in the dietary practice of our populations and level with the well being of these.

  16. Ibrahim Saif Elnasr and Hesham Ammar

    Background: Urinary bladder injury is one of the most common operative morbidities of cesarean section. Bladder invasion with morbidly adherent placenta occurs rarely but can cause significant morbidity and mortality both for mother and fetus. Multiple management strategies have been mentioned in literature varying from conservative to radical approaches depending upon many factors as the degree of placental invasion. Objectives: this study was conducted to evaluate the efficacy and safety of lateral approach technique through the broad ligament to avoid bladder injury during cesarean section in cases with morbidly adherent placenta. Methods: This is a prospective observational cohort study was conducted on Obstetrics and Gynecology department at Menoufia university hospital, Menoufia governorate, Egypt where 200women with placenta accrete and history of at least one Previous cesarean section allocated into two groups ,Group 1: included 100 patients while the bladder was dissected from the uterus by lateral approach technique and Group 2: included 100 patients while the bladder was dissected from the uterus by classical central approach . Incidence of intraoperative bladder, ureteric injury and caesarian hysterectomy were considered primary outcome measures where operative time, maternal morbidity and mortality, intraoperative blood loss, duration of hospital stay and late urological complications as genitourinary fistula were considered secondary outcome measures. The data analyzed by SPSS 22. Results: The overall incidence of urinary tract injury, urinary bladder injury, longer operation time , estimated blood loss, number of unit blood and plasma transfusion , Postoperative hospital stay, intensive care unit admission, Postoperative fever surgical site infection and Paralytic ileus were significantly higher in group 2 than group 1. Cesarean hysterectomy was highly significantly higher in group 2 (p- value <0.001). Conclusion: Lateral approach technique of bladder dissection was very effective in preventing maternal Obstetrics and urological morbidities during cesarean section in placenta accrete.

  17. Homero Aguirre-Milling, PH. D.

    The purpose of this article is to examine the interconnections of significant, and remarkable intellectual resources, like the Strategic Process, and the STP (Segmentation, Targeting, and Positioning) tool to attain business success. This paper proposes the joint application of these two managerial, and marketing tools to a company. The impact of these two components embedded in managing a firm, creates a synergetic effect applying an enriched managerial formula. This document presents a renovated dynamic linking the strategic process, and the STP marketing strategy. The Traditional Strategic Management Process is first reviewed, and then the STP tool is added as a new step in the stratregic model. Every phase of the traditional, the renovated processes, and the STP synergy are explained in this article.

  18. Dr. Renuka Devi and Dr. Rashmi, R.

    Ayurveda is one of the primeval medical science among the world. It narrates conceptual study of different diseases with reference to its principles and postulates. Sthoulya (Obesity) is described by different acharyas in the classics, whereas Charakacharya acknowledged Sthoulya as “ Astau Nindita Purusha “ and one of “ Santarpana Janya Vikaras “. Charakcharya while enlisting Astau ninditha Purusha he emphasized in detail regarding Atisthoola and Atikrusha, wherein Atisthoola being considered to be hardship among them due to its Samprapti, Bahudoshaavastha, complications and longstanding therapy. Sthoulya is such a disease where it’s becoming stepping stone for many hazardous like DM, HTN, Ischaemic disease and Psychological disorders. The mortality and morbidity rates are high in the obese people. Ayurveda Chikitsa greatly emphasize on removal of Nidana of the diseases and restoration of Doshic equilibrium. There are two chief segments in Ayurveda Shodhana Therapy viz. Bahya and Abhyantara. Abhyantara Shodana includes Panchakarma, whereas Udvartana is included under Bahyashodhana. Udvartana being suggested remedy for Sthoulya and have good efficacy over Sthoulya, so choosen for present study. Hence an attempt was made to assess the efficacy of Vachaharidradi Gana as Udvartana in Sthoulya. It’s an open randomised clinical study with the pretest and post-test designs, where minimum of 30 patients suffering from Sthoulya were selected and executed for clinical trials. There were significant changes seen in the parameters like BMI, Body Circumference, Weight.

  19. Abdulvahid Nuriddinov

    The author states the teaching of one of the great Sufi scholar Makhdumi Azam through analysing of his scientific-philosophical works, and also highlights its importance in bringing up today’s young.

  20. Dr. Akilandeeswari, K. M.A., M. Phil., Ph.D. and Dr. Shanmugasundram, A. Ph. D.

    Reading skill is essential tool for the student’s community to enhance their ability and comprehend the content. The researcher planned to assess the reading habit of English department graduate students to find the level of assigned reading habit during their course and leisure reading habits. The developed questionnaire was administrated to the students and data were analyzed. The result reveals that most of students had adopted the assigned reading habits during their course of study effectively and leisure reading had supported for them to improve their knowledge, vocabulary, pronunciation. . So the researcher conclude that to acquire various type of reading habits will enrich their knowledge and help the students to bring their potential and exposed more in English language throughout their carrier.

  21. Marcos Airton de Sousa Freitas, Paulo Breno de Moraes Silveira and Gabriel Belmino Freitas

    Droughts in Northeast Brazil, which tend to intensify due to climate change, have repeatedly brought famine, mass migration and social conflicts in this region. Its prediction, monitoring and management, however, remain a central research theme. In water resources management in semiarid regions such as the Northeast of Brazil, it is fundamental to have tools to aid decision making. This paper presents three components of the so-called SIGES (Drought Management System), the items related to drought prediction and monitoring, as well as many reservoir operation methodologies for water scarcity situations. Statistical models, artificial neural networks and machine learning techniques were used for drought prediction. In order to perform precipitation monitoring, several indexes were adapted and incorporated into a droughts basic characteristic monitoring system (duration, severity and intensity), so that different mitigating actions could be implemented in accordance with the values reached by these parameters. We utilized the following meteorological indexes for this purpose: Rainfall Anomaly Index (RAI); Bhalme and Mooley Drought Index (BMDI); Lamb Rainfall Departure Index (LRDI). Finally, some reservoir operation for water scarcity situations methodologies are presented and discussed. The described components were applied to the Northeast of Brazil, especially Piauí, Ceará and Rio Grande do Norte states.

  22. Tanushree Tulsian (Samanta) and Arpita Rani Khamrai

    Bacillus thuringiensis is a spore forming gram positive bacteria that have a number of different chemical compounds which are used for different types of insecticidal purposes. Though other various species of Bacillus are used for insecticidal purpose the effect on mammalian system has not been elaborated till now. In our study we observed some adverse effects of the cry toxins on the mammalian tissues i.e. specifically in the renal and hepatic tissues. The renal tissues and the hepatic tissues are the markers of toxin excretion and accumulation in physiological systems. Some results show no significant differences at all while some showed potent differences. Our study in brief reflects the different biochemical and histological changes that occurred by Bt Cry proteins in daily diet to the group of animals for observing the toxicological effects of the said insecticidal protein.]

  23. Prathibha, P. and Dr. Gururaj, B.

    The article assessess the effectiveness of various health awareness programmes organized by Mahila Samakhya Karnataka (MSKn) at Najangud Taluk of Mysuru District and analyzes the utilization of awareness on health by MSKn Sangha women. Sample comprises of 90 women who are randomly selected from 6 Sanghas belonging to 06 villages in the area of study. Data is collected using structured interview schedule developed by the investigator and analyzed using percentage analysis. The study found that the health awareness programmes have been extremely effective and Sangha women are utilizing the awareness gained through health programmes.

  24. Nabha Shah, Riya Shah, Dr. Savita Hadakar, Dr. Swapnil Taur, Dr. Shashikiran N. D. and Dr. Namrata Gaonkar

    Background: Early childhood caries (ECC) is a public health problem due to its impact on children’s health, development and wellbeing. The objective of study was to evaluate parents knowledge, attitude and practices towards the prevention of early childhood caries. A pretested questionnaire with 23 questions was used for collecting information regarding mothers practices regarding feeding and oral hygiene practices. Aim and Objectives: 1. To analyze parents attitude towards prevention of early childhood caries. 2. To evaluate parents Practices towards prevention of early childhood caries. Materials and Methods: A Cross-sectional survey using a Questionnaire consisting of questions addressing knowledge, attitude and practice of early childhood oral heath related factors like oral development, diet, nursing habits, oral hygiene habits, importance of primary teeth. 150 parents of normal healthy children aged below 2-5 years were surveyed. Selection criteria: Inclusion criteria: Parents of normal healthy children aged between 2-5 years who are the primary caretakers of their children. Exclusion criteria: Parents who are not the primary caretakers of the children or who had children with medical problems. Conclusion: The study conducted in Karad reveals that the parents socioeconomic status affects oral hygiene practices. Mothers should be educated about appropriate breast and bottle feeding practices and should also be made aware of prolonged breast feeding, bottle used for sweetened liquids other than milk. Parents should also be educated about oral health issues and risk factors for ECC and its consequences.

  25. Pratibha Singh and Dr. Deva Raj Badugu

    The study seeks to analyze the important role of customer satisfaction in maintaining and enhancing the relationship between customer value and customer loyalty. The study documented and reviewed the private bank (HDFC, AXIS and ICICI). The research design used was a descriptive research approach which essentially presents and describes quantitatively analyze these private banks. Questionnaires were designed and administered to customers of these three banks. The target population of study was the customers in theses bank. Purposive and random sampling method was used in selecting the sample size of 50 customers. From the study, the respondents respond towards the overall satisfaction on these three banks and the facilities they provide, out of total of 150 respondents representing 100 per cent, 3 of total were dissatisfied, HDFC 1, AXIS1, ICICI 1, representing 33.3%, 33.3% and 33.3% respectively and 6 of total were room for improvement, HDFC 2, AXIS 2, ICICI 2, representing 33.3%, 33.3% and 33.3% respectively. 19 of total were satisfactory, HDFC 1, AXIS 7, ICICI 11, representing 5.3%, 36.8% and 57.9% respectively. 79 of total were highly satisfied, HDFC 36, AXIS 31, ICICI 12, representing 45.6%, 39.2% and 15.2% respectively and 43 of total were delighted, HDFC 3, AXIS 6, ICICI 24, representing 9.1%, 18.2% and 72.7% respectively. From this analysis, it can be concluded that, majority of the respondents have responded as highly satisfied on the overall satisfaction towards the bank and the facilities provided. Based on the findings, I recommended that management should continue to make sure customers need are always met on time in order to maintain their relationship with them and as they do so it led to customer satisfaction.

  26. Dr. Sohini Banerjee and Dr. Debkamal Kar

    Traumatic fibroma and/ or irritation fibroma, is a benign exophyticlesion secondary to tissue injury. It can occur at any soft tissue site exposed to injury or irritation, whereas the tongue, gingiva, buccal mucosa being the most common site of occurrence. Management includes conservative surgical excision of the lesions along with the removal of source of irritation. This case report would highlight about the management of the traumatic fibroma of lower lip in adult male patient with the help of soft tissue laser which was found to be safe, and effective with minimal or no bleeding, and also uneventful healing.

  27. Beugré Grah Avit Maxwell, Niaba Koffi Pierre Valery, Gnahe Dago André, Blei sika Hortence and Yao N’zué Binjamin, Gnakri Dago

    Yam peelings are among the co-products whose technological applications and nutritional potential remain poorly known by agri-food sector stakeholders. The objective of this study is to contribute to the valorization of these co-products. The peelings of three yam cultivars of the Dioscorea cayenensis-rotundata complex: "Assawa", "Krenglè" and "Kponan" were studied and compared to the pulp of these cultivars. The biochemical parameters, the phyto-chemical compounds and the functional properties of these varieties were determined according to the standard methods. The results showed that the dry matter, protein, fat and ash contents of the peelings of the Assawa variety were respectively 92.02%; 5.74%; 0.82% and 3.42%. As for the peelings of the Krenglè variety, the contents in dry matter, proteins, fat and ashes are successively of 91,26%; 5.87%; 1.51% and 91.26% and 2.21%. The peelings of the Kponan variety have 92.29% dry matter, 4.30% protein, 2.15% fat and 3.71% ash. Peelings of the variety Assawa contain the highest levels of oxalates with 90.33 mg / 100 g. On the other hand, peelings of the Krenglè variety have the highest levels of total polyphenols (183.08 mg / 100 g) and tannins (143.31 mg / 100 g). The water absorption capacity, the water solubility index and the dispersibility of kponan peelings are the highest compared to peelings of the Assawa variety and peelings of the Krenglè variety. In addition, peelings of the variety Assawa have the highest hydrated densities and brightness compared to peelings of the Krenglè variety and peelings of the Kponan variety. Thus, it appears that peelings varieties "assawa", "kponan" and "krenglè" have good nutritional and functional properties allowing them to be used in food and feed.

  28. Dr. Divyanee Doshi, Dr. Girish Suragimath, Dr. Siddharth Varma and Dr. Sameer Zope

    The application of 'health-promoting' bacteria for therapeutic purposes is one of the strongest emerging fields. In medicine, probiotics are used mainly in support therapy for gastro-intestinal diseases. In recent years, probiotics have been used as a treatment to promote oral health. Better knowledge of the ecology and microbiology of the oral cavity has laid to a change in understanding of the oral disease process. Very encouraging studies have come up in the recent past exploring probiotics in the fields of caries, periodontal diseases and few other areas and the results tend to suggest beneficial effects of probiotics on oral health and on the whole body in general. Extensive research to create a probiotic product intended to maintain dental and periodontal health is needed. This article reviews the role of probiotics in oral health.

  29. Apurba Chakraborty

    Working class in India was a enormous area of discussion in lightning of the crisis on social respect. Working class Women in India provide a vigor important subject for debate and properly influence in colonial India. They had always been labeled and definited but increasingly the colonial literature presented Indian women’s worker as vulnerable class. They were divided in to two categories that were mentioned as organized or formal labour and another was Unorganized sector. In the category of Unorganized labor a portion of them are treated ‘Unorganized Womens worker’ who were tragically exploited throughout the year, in their working place as well as in our society. Unorganized women workers had been giving equal labour in working with a male fellow but they were deprived for earning the same wage. Most of cases they wear given extra labour without normal working hours. The exploration of working class women in respect of ‘sexual harassment in workplace’ is a one of the major problem in India. Quite a lot of report of the Government has pointed out the problem but truly proper improvement has not followed.

  30. Leela lavanya T. and Dr. Nagarathnam, M.

    Introduction: Occupational accidents are common in any area of work, including hospitals. Every year, hundreds and thousands of health care workers are exposed to deadly diseases like HIV and Hepatitis C through needle stick injuries. Objectives: To assess the knowledge on prevention of needle stick injury before and after the skill training program, to determine the effectiveness of skill training program by comparing pre test and post test level of knowledge and to associate the knowledge on prevention of needle stick injury with skill training programme on needle stick injury. Materials and methods: Quasi experimental one group pre and post-test research design was used for the study. 143 B.Sc. nursing students of 1stand 2ndyears were selected as participants by simple random lottery sampling technique. A structured questionnaire was used to assess the knowledge and skill on prevention of needle stick injury. Results: In pre-test 43.4% of the students had inadequate knowledge, 49% showed moderate knowledge and 7.7% had adequate knowledge. After the administration of skill training programme 47.6% had moderate, 52.4% had adequate knowledge, 40.6% had moderate skill and 59.4% had high skill in practicing safe recapping techniques and disposal methods after the skill training program in post test. Conclusion: The skill training programme was an effective mode to create awareness and helps to improve the knowledge and practice of safety measures to prevent needle stick injury among nursing students.

  31. Reeta Kori, Alok Saxena, Harish Wankhade, Asad Baig, Ankita Kulshreshtha, Saket Mishra and Smriti Sen

    The release of toxic, harmful metals in to ambient air by natural forces, man and other animal has become a great threat to ambient environment of developing countries, which increasing in positive correlation to urbanization and industrialization. Heavy metals in ambient air mostly associated with the particulate matter. This study reveals PM10 bound heavy metals in ambient air atmosphere around Mandideep industrial area, Madhya Pradesh, India. The study of PM10 bound heavy metals i.e. Chromium (Cr), Manganese (Mn), Copper (Cu), Zinc (Zn), Cobalt (Co), Cadmium (Cd), Iron (Fe), Lead (Pb), Nickel (Ni) and Arsenic (As) has been done. Among of all heavy metals mainly there metals i.e. Pb, Ni, Pb were reported as pollutants in National Ambient Air Quality Standards 2009. Lead (Pb) was found within standard limit (0.5 µg/m3) at all monitoring locations, Nickel (Ni) was found exceeded at monitoring location A8 (101 ng/m3) but within standard limit (20 µg/m3) at all other monitoring locations and Arsenic (As) was found within standard limit (6 µg/m3) as per National Ambient Air Quality Standards 2009 at all monitoring locations around Mandideep.

  32. Dr. Surendra Kumar, Dr. Praveen Kumar, Dr. Atul Kaushik and Dr. Desh Pal Singh

    Introduction: The fundamental responsibility of an anesthesiologist is to maintain adequate ventilation / gas exchange during operations. Failure to maintain a patent airway for more than few minutes results in brain hypoxia, damage or death and has medico legal implication also. When a difficult airway is unrecognized before attempting the intubation, the result can be catastrophic because the personnel and necessary equipment needed for specialized tracheal intubation may not be available in such emergent situation. Aims and objectives: To assess the reliability of simple bedside tests to predict difficult endotracheal intubation and to determine if a combination of any of these tests could enhance the sensitivity and specificity in predicting difficult intubation. Material and method: This double blind prospective study was conducted on 100 adult patients who presented for pre-anesthesia checkup in the Department of Anesthesiology, Rama Medical College Hospital and Research Centre NH 24 Pilkhuwa, Hapur. Summary and conclusions: From this study it is concluded that no methods either individual or in combination identifies all the cases of difficult intubation and so the “difficult intubation drill” should always be ready. Amongst the individual tests the best balance of sensitivity and specificity was that of Modified Mallampati Test, Thyromental Distance and Sternomental Distance.

  33. Dr. Rangrej Divya Manishkumar, Dr. Makrand A. Sonare Dr. Pooja Krishna Prasad

    Today Ayurveda has been gaining popularity throughout the world. The Ayurvedic products are prepared from single herb, combination of herbs, metals, minerals and animal products. The increasing demand for the classical Ayurvedic preparations and the alarming rate of disappearance of the resource of the ingredients, led us to think of the Novel Unifications of Drugs and Formulations. These formulations can give us an effective result provided the Selection of apt drugs is done. Also the consideration of the basic principles of Bhaishajya Kalpana like the role of the Rasa Panchakas, Maatra pramana and understanding the Karma of the drug plays an important role. In the end, formulating in the best suitable form which can give the maximum desired result in a single or compound preparation can be helpful. And, thus development of an effective Novel Unified Drugs and Formulations can be done. This work is an attempt made to throw light on how we can proceed with the novel unification of drugs and formulations (Ayurvedic), its benefits and the challenges faced.

  34. Dr. Binija George

    ‘Work is Worship’ seems to be gone now a day because of the reason of stress. Stress is an unpleasant state of emotional arousal that people experience in situations that they perceive as dangering or threatening. Occupational stress is stress involved in work. It is the response people may have when presented with work demands and pressures that are not matched to their knowledge and abilities and which challenge their ability to cope. The study mainly focussed on the occupational stress among SBI employees in Nilambur Taluk and various factors leading to cause stress and types of stress. It also discusses the various strategies adopted to overcome the occupational stress.

  35. Tra Bi Crolaud Sylvain, Coulibaly Tenon, Blei Sika Hortense, Souleymane Konaté, Kouassi Kouassi Philippe and TanoYao

    The objective of this study is to evaluate the damage caused by termites in cocoa plantations of Oumé (Central West, Ivory Coast). Six (6) age classes of farms (less than one year, 5 years, 8 years, 20 years, 25 years and 30 years) were studied. Four types of damage (ranked on a scale of 1 to 4) are observed on the cocoa trees. A total of 14 species have been harvested. Termites identified as being responsible for the damage all belong to the fungus grow and xylophagous groups. The totality of termite damage on the seedlings of the plot of less than 1 year is 99.1% caused by Microtermes toumodiensis. Nasutitermes latifrons, Coptotermes sjöstedti, Microcerotermes fuscotibialis, Schedorhinotermes lamanianus and Neotermes aburiensis generally attack older cocoa trees between 20 cm and 30 cm in diameter. Young seedlings less than one-year-old and cocoa trees over the age of 20 are therefore the most vulnerable to termite attacks, unlike those aged 5 and 8 years.

  36. Frehun Takiso and Tafano Ouke Labiso

    This study was conducted in order to assess the practices and challenges of teachers’ performance appraisal in the primary schools of Wolaita Zone, Southern Nations, Nationalities and People’s Region. By stating the existing problems the researcher formulated four basic questions. Those are 1, how do current TPA practices implement? 2, to what extent current teachers` performance appraisal practices affect student learning? 3, to what extent current TPA meets purposes? 4, what are factors that affect the implementation of current teachers` performance appraisal? In order to achieve the general objective of the study and the specific objectives of basic questions descriptive survey method was employed. The study was conducted in fifteen government primary schools, four Woreda education offices, one city administrative education office and Zone education department. The primary schools,city administrative and Woreda education offices were selected by simple random sampling techniques. The primary school teachers were selected by systematic sampling while school principals, supervisors, Woreda education offices and Zone education department process owners were selected purposely. The study included 35 principals\viceprincipals, 100 teachers and 6 process owners of the Woreda education offices and Zone education department. Questionnaires and interviews were used to collect data. The data gathered through questionnaires were analyzed using percentages, mean, standard deviation, and weighted mean Based on the analysis the study portrayed that poor practices implementation, un related practice with students achievement, low related practices with TPA purposes, lack of validity and reliability of performance appraisal criteria, management bias and negative attitudes of teachers were found to be the major factors that affect the teachers’ performance appraisal in the primary schools of Wolaita Zone. In order to improve quality of education qualified teachers were blood vessels. To get qualified teachers it was better to implement proper assessment, critical feedback, different incentives related to students’ achievement and professional development.

  37. Dr. Deepak Jha, Dr. Anuradha Pathak and Dr. Haridarshan Singh Sidhu

    Aim: The aim of this study was to investigate knowledge and attitude of medical interns and dental interns regarding emergency management of avulsed teeth. Method: 40 medical interns and 40 dental interns were surveyed. All surveyed participants had served in either hospitals or dental centres with emergency department duties. Informed consent was sought from all the participants. Data was collected using a self- administered questionnaire. Results: Majority of the medical interns (n=36, 90%) surveyed had never received any information on management of tooth avulsion. All dental interns (100%) had received information about emergency management of tooth avulsion. 30% (n=12) of the medical interns demonstrated some knowledge, 70% (n=28) low knowledge and none of the medical interns showed high knowledge. In contrast, 33 dental interns (83%) had high knowledge, 7 (17%) some knowledge, none demonstrated low knowledge. Conclusion: There is a need to improve knowledge of medical interns regarding emergency management of traumatic tooth avulsion.

  38. Alexandra G. Sandor and Faïza Diaba

    An expeditious synthesis of -lactams from benzyl-tethered trichloroacetamides using ruthenium catalysts in toluene under microwave activation was achieved. The new C(sp3)-C(sp3) bond formation takes place through a “Ru”complex promoted activation of a benzylic position in a radical process.

  39. Chikkanarasaiah Nagarathna, Yoshang Julu and Varsha V.K.

    Background: Radiographic examination has a great value in the detection of carious lesions, especially the diagnosis of the smooth surface caries on the interproximal areas, thereby preventing extensive tooth loss. Periapical radiographs are primarily useful for detecting the extent of the wide carious lesions and changes around the teeth mainly pulp and periodontium. However, it is well known that ionizing radiation is capable of causing genetic damage to cellular systems. One of those genetic alteration is the formation of micronuclei which are not included into the main nuclei of the daughter cells and are used to evaluate the magnitude of DNA damage. Objectives: To evaluate micronucleus frequency in exfoliated buccal mucosa cells of healthy children before and after the exposure to IOPA radiography during diagnosis and treatment of proximal carious lesion, using Buccal Micronucleus Cytome assay. Methods: A total of 20 children between the age group of 4-8 years were involved in the study. Cytological smears are taken from the buccal mucosa immediately before the X-ray exposure and 10 ± 2 days after exposure. The cells were stained with fuelgen and evaluated for micronuclei by scoring 1000 cells per sample. Results: The frequency of micronuclei increases significantly post exposure to IOPAR with a ‘p’ Value of 0.001. Conclusion: The X-ray radiation emitted during IOPAR does induce some genotoxic changes in the form of increased frequency of micronuclei. So, great care to be taken only to advice radiographs if necessary and reduce these cumulated biological effects of radiation exposure.

  40. Van Cong Tan

    Hinduism and Jainism are the two major religions in India. Both have different doctrines and concepts about spiritual life. And the concept of atman is mentioned a lot in their theories.For example, in Hinduism and Jainism there is the notion of the ordinary soul and the liberated soul. Further, the concept of karma is what that distinguishes the mundane soul from the liberated soul. This is the system of thoughts and practice that safeguard the soul from one life to the next.So in this article I would like to present some of the concepts of atman of Hinduism and Jainism.

  41. Singh, R.A., Shanker Singh, Dharmendra Yadav, Renu Singh, Singh I.P. and Rajesh Rai

    The present study was under taken during two consecutive rainy seasons at Regional Research Station Mainpuri. The experimental soil was sandy loam with poor fertility status. The ten varieties of groundnut were tested. The main objective was to findout the suitable short and bunch type cultivars for cultivation during rainy season for increasing area, production and productivity. Cultivar Dh 86 and ICGV-93468 (Avtar) gave highest pod yield of groundnut by 24.95 q/ha and 24.27 q/ha, respectively. The other tested varieties produced poor yield in comparison to aforementioned genotypes. As regard to gross income, net return and BCR, the cultivars Dh 86 and ICGV 93468 gave highest values of gross return, net profit and BCR. The genotype Dh 86 gave gross return, net return and BCR by Rs. 137225/ha, Rs. 74955/ha & 1:2.20, respectively. Similarly, genotype ICGV 93468 gave gross return, net return and BCR by Rs. 133485/ha, Rs. 71225/ha & 1:2.14, respectively. The other tested cultivars did not perform considerable response for return and BCR in comparison to Dh 86 and ICGV 93468.

  42. NYAKIO Olivier KIBUKILA Fabrice Deschryver Christine Bwami joyeux Kafilongo Vanessa Mukwege Denis TAMBWE Albert KAKUDJI Prosper KALENGA Prosper and KAKOMA Jean Baptiste

    Background: Sexual violence is a huge scourge due to its impact on the future lives of victims who are at a high risk of developing sexually transmitted diseases, including human papillomavirus diseases. The purpose of this work is to diagnose and share the different reactions of women victims of sexual violence during the screening process, from awareness to the announcement of the results. Methodology: This is a qualitative and observational survey of the 126 girls and women aged 13 to 54 listed at the City of Joy(Panzi) and in the service of VSV (Victims of sexual violence) of Panzi General Reference Hospital (PGRH) in South Kivu (DRC) andhaving benefited a screening for a period of 9 months, from January to September 2018. Data analysis was done using SPSS statistics software 20. Results: Patients aged less than 15 years represented 9.1% of the population, the tendency to refuse awareness was found in 80% of cases, with a categorical refusal in 20%. Retrograde ideas in terms of organ sales were raised during screening; there was 25% categorical refusal of screening; 4% of patients had their menses a few minutes before screening. We noted an exaggerated fear in the patients before the announcement of the results with a tendency to 80% to the rejection of this one for fear to be declared seropositive. For the negative cases, it was a total euphoria, whereas for the positive cases, which seemed to ask a lot of questions, glimpsed death directly. Conclusion: This study, which is the first in the region to our knowledge, supports the idea that women who have been victims of sexual violence are reluctant to screen for cervical cancer. Sexual violence therefore constitutes an obstacle to the preventive screening of the latters. Clinicians are called upon to know about the impact of sexual violence on victims' lives and to know that they need both physical and psychotherapeutic comfort to overcome their history. We hope that more studies will be done in the region and will provide many other solutions against this torment of victims of sexual violence.

  43. Pranjić Nurka, Bajraktarević Amila and Edisa Trumić

    Purpose To explore relationship between untreated psycho- social distress and return to work among cancer patients in the first year after diagnosis. Methods This longitudinal study was conducted in family practice among 174 cancer (out) patients in the first year after diagnosis from 2011 to 2016. Psycho- social distress screen of each individual case with questionnaire HADS, and the total sample was divided into 3 groups during the evaluation. A key factor in the creation of the groups was the time elapsed from the moment of confirmation of the diagnosis: T1, 1-14 days, n = 56 patients, the first group; T2, 15 days- 6 months, n = 79 patients; the second group; and T3, 7-12 months n = 39 patients, the third group. Results The prevalence rate of distress was very high: 70% in the first 14 days, 66% from 15 days to 6 months and 100% from 7 to 12 months after diagnosis. Conclusion Untreated anxiety and depression symptoms are common problems in cancer patients from the first day since cancer diagnosis and programs that routinely screen anxiety and depression among cancer patients are feasible.

  44. Ramya, R. and Dr. Rajalakshmi, D.

    Introduction: Resistance training is also known as strength training. Strength training programmes may include the use of free weights, weight machines, elastic tubing, or body weight. In preadolescents proper resistance training can enhance strength without concomitant muscles hypertrophy. This mechanism helps to explain the strength gained from resistance training in population with low androgen levels including males and females. Strength training can also augment the muscles enlargement that is normally acquired with pubertal growth in males in females. Purpose: To achieve the purpose of these study 30 male handball players were selected from Alagappa matric Higher Secondary School, karaikudi. Random group design was used. The subject’s age ranged from 14 to 17 years. Methodology: To carry out the study the investigator used two groups, one experimental group and one control group, each group consists of 15 subjects. All the groups were tested after the training on Half squat, leg press, leg extension, leg curl, upright rowing, bench press, abdominal curl, shoulder press, seated calf rise with the intensity of 65% and duration of 30 seconds 9 repetition of 3 sets each with rest interval period of 10 seconds was given to the subjects, selected criterion variable and the readings were recorded in their respective unit, as pre-test scores. After pre-test the experimental group was treated with resistance training for a period of six weeks. After six weeks of training both the groups were tested again on the selected criterion variables and the scores were recorded in their respective units as post test scores. The pre and post test were taken for analysis. The followings statistical procedure was followed to estimate the effect of resistance training on speed, explosive power, and breath holding time of higher secondary school handball players. Statistical technique: The data collected from the subject on selected physical and physiological variables were statistically analyzed by using ‘t’ ratio, 0.05 level of confidence was fixed to test the level of significance. Conclusion: The study concluded that Speed, Explosive power on Breath holding time, were significantly improved to the influence of resistance training group among higher secondary school handball players.

  45. Charletta H. Barringer-Brown

    The current study assessed the connection that existed between the social acceptance and peer bullying of 76 high school students that identified as Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, Transgender, Queer, Intersex, Asexual (LGBTQIA). The study was conducted within ten separate high schools in Southeastern North Carolina. The study considered all the experiences of peer bullying and social acceptance within the context of both family and peer groups. There was an identification of 76 adolescents in the study survey that was conducted in the ten high schools. The LBGTQ adolescents were then matched to a sample comparison of their heterosexual peers within the same locations. The LBGTQ adolescents expressed a higher rate of depression symptoms and behaviors compared to those of their heterosexual peers within the same age group. They also reported a greater number of incidents of sexual harassment, not having a close relationship with their parents, having fewer personal relationships with friends, and more bullying in comparison with their heterosexual peers. The study noted that there was an insignificant difference between the LGBTQ adolescents. Generally, both bullying and social acceptance mediated the connection existing between psychosocial symptoms and sexual orientation. Among the LGBTQ adolescents’, the connection that existed between externalizing and social acceptance was arbitrated by the experiences of peer bullying. The findings demonstrate and emphasize the factors of protection and the contextual risks that related to the sexual orientation of the non-heterosexuals in accordance with both behavioral and emotional problems within the population.

  46. Temesgen Orebo

    The present study was carried out on the Isolation and characterization of the leaves extract of V. auriculifera because; the plant is used for traditional medicine especially its leaf juice is locally known by blood clotting and healing wounds. In the present study, the powdered leaf of plant was sequentially extracted with organic solvents: petroleum ether, chloroform, chloroform/methanol (1:1), methanol and water respectively. Repeated use of solvent extraction followed by Column Chromatography and Thin layer Chromatography, leaf extract of V. auriculifera yielded one compound which was characterized as (E)-methyl 11-hydroxy-1-(4-hydroxyphenyl) tetradec-7-en-14-onenamide using UV, FT-IR and NMR spectral data and by comparing with literature reports.

  47. Dr. Swati Sharma, Dr. Abhijit Das, Dr. Megha Rastogi, Dr. Madhu Sinha and Dr.Man Mohan Mehndiratta

    Introduction: The empirical use and abuse of antibiotics is quite common in community acquired urinary tract infection, leading to increase in antimicrobial resistance. Patients presenting to the outpatient department of a hospital are a heterogenous set of population, including all age groups and socioeconomic strata. Monthly and annual review of the antibiotic prescribing pattern and the trends in antimicrobial resistance is needed to curb the menace of antimicrobial resistance. Objectives: To study the etiology and trends in antimicrobial resistance of community acquired urinary tract infections and to update the antibiotic policy for the treatment of community acquired urinary tract infections at our institution. Methods: The study was performed at a tertiary care super speciality hospital in North India. This was an observational study including urine samples from patients presenting to the outpatient department of the hospital, with symptoms suggestive of urinary tract infection. The samples were cultured on routine culture media and identified according to standard guidelines. Antimicrobial susceptibility testing was done on Mueller Hinton agar plates by Kirby Bauer disc diffusion method as per the Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI) guidelines. Extended spectrum beta lactamase (ESBL) testing was also performed as per CLSI guidelines. Results: A total of 3758 urine specimens from outpatient department were received, out of which 452 samples were culture positive, of which 414 (91.6%) were Gram negative and 38 (8.4%) were Gram positive. Escherichia coli(67.0%),Klebsiella pneumonia (12.4%) and Pseudomonas aeruginosa (3.0%) were the predominant Gram negative isolates. Of the 414 Gram negative isolates, 271 (65.5%) were found to be multidrug resistant (MDR) strains. By combined disc test, 182 (44.0%) Gram negative isolates were found to be ESBL producers. Conclusion: The present study emphasizes on the need to develop and regularly update the antibiotic policy in each hospital, as the antimicrobial resistance trends are changing rapidly and the trends vary in each region.

  48. Dr. Padma Vishal and Dr.Chaitanya Sree, V.

    Introduction: After lower abdominal surgeries, postoperative discomfort and pain can be anticipated. The provision of effective postoperative analgesia is of key importance to facilitate early ambulation, reduce pain on physical straining such as coughing, avoid emotional stress and prevention of postoperative morbidity. The use of TAP block,in lower abdominal surgeries is relatively less common. This may be attributed to the usage of ilioinguinal-iliohypogastric (IHN) block, However, after IHN block, the duration of the block is not prolonged enough to allow pain control during all the postoperative period .Also, the reliability of the technique is variable as it is performed blindly and the incidence of peritoneal puncture and consequent peritonitis is considerable. In this context, our study was designed to hypothesize that an ultrasound guided TAP block in addition to conventional analgesics may improve pain relief after lower abdominal surgeries, thus, facilitating early ambulation and improved patient satisfaction. Material and methods: 74 male patients belonging to ASA grade I and II physical status, scheduled for lower abdominal surgeries under spinal anaesthesia were randomized into 2 groups of 37male patients each, using a computer generated random number table- • Spinal anesthesia plus postoperative TAP block and IV diclofenac (Group A), and, • Only spinal anesthesia without TAP block and only IV diclofenac (Group B). Results: Both groups were comparable with respect to age, ASA grade, weight and duration of surgery. Patients who received TAP block had a longer time to first rescue analgesic request (tramadol) and lesser total rescue analgesic requirement over 24 hrs when compared to patients who did not receive the block. The total tramadol requirement over 24 hrs was 133 mg in control group as compared to 73 mg in patients who received TAP block. Addition of ultrasound guided TAP block to conventional analgesics thus prolonged the duration of analgesia approximately by more than two hours and also reduced total tramadol requirement by nearly half, thus reducing nausea. Conclusion: The present study demonstrated that the addition of ultrasound guided TAP block to conventional analgesics (IV Diclofenac) following lower abdominal surgeries prolonged the time to first rescue analgesic request and reduced total opioid requirements postoperatively.

  49. Zaku, S.S. and Maiguru, A.A.

    Non-Timber Forest Products (NTFPs) have been identified as a coping strategy to climate change. Adaptation in Taraba State. This coping strategy is people and site specific and may be short lived. If continous availability of Non-Timber Forest Products cannot be guaranteed. Information on the Role of Non-Timber Forest Products to climate change adaptation is crucial for their sustainable Management. However this role has not been documented in Taraba State, therefore, “A survey of Non-Timber Forest Products used for climate change adaptation” was investigated.

  50. Dr. Skali Hajar, Dr. Aourarh Sana, EL Mezouari El Mostafa and Moutaj Redouane

    Aims: To assess the knowledge of pregnant women about toxoplasmosis, to screen the main risk factors involved, and to evaluate the seroprevalence of this parasitosis in pregnant women in Marrakech. Methods and Material: Through a prospective study over a period of two months, from the beginning of October 2018 until the end of December 2018, two hundred and thirty-four pregnant women were invited to participate in our department of parasitology. They were interviewed with a structured questionnaire about known risk factors (age, meat consumption, contact with soil, and presence of cat...). Deferent parameters were collected and analyzed according to this questionnaire. Venous blood samples were taken. Sera were analysed for immunoglobulins (IgG and IgM) by ELISA using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Statistical analysis used: Data entry was performed by double entry and data analysis was performed with the software Excel. Qualitative variables were presented as proportions. Results: A total of 234 women were included. Median age was 24 years old. And 64 women (27,35%) were found to be positive to total Ig and 16 out of 64 (25%) were positive to IgM. IgG avidity was low for two (12,5%), women, high for 14 women (87,5%). The seroprevalence of pregnant women immunized against toxoplasmosis in this study was 26,49%. There was an association between seropositivity and certain risk factors assessed. Conclusion: 73,51% were not immunized against toxoplasmosis, indicating a need for measures to prevent and control this infection during pregnancy.

  51. Khadija Benchakroun, Saad Benali, Jaouad Kouach and Moulay Driss Moussaoui Rahali

    Metaplasic breast carcinomas are rare tumors. They constitute a heterogeneous group of tumors defined by the Wotld Health Organization as infiltrating ductal carcinoma but with metaplasic zones (epidermal cell, spindle cell, chondroid, bone or mixed), which vary from a few miscoscopic foci to a complete glandular replacement. The clinical and radiological aspects are not specific. The treatment combines surgery, radiotherapy and chemotherapy. Hormonal therapy has no place. The prognosis is gloomy. Histopathology combined with immunohistochemistry provides a reliable diagnosis. Since therapeutic management is limited, a new molecular approach could modify this weak and poorly understood contribution of classical systemic treatments. Patients with breast metaplasic carcinoma may benefit from targeted therapies, which remains to be confirmed by clinical trials.

  52. Joohyun Lee

    The purpose of the study is to identify the dimension of service; and to examine the relationships among service quality, satisfaction and loyalty to visit the local festival. It is hypothesized that service quality is related to satisfaction and loyalty, and satisfaction is related to loyalty. A total of 149 visitors completed the survey during the local festival in Harrisonburg, Virginia. The findings showed that festival attendees assigned a great deal of importance on service quality to predict satisfaction and future intention. Also, the results indicated that satisfaction was the important predictor of future intention. Further, the findings of the study would be particularly beneficial because it pinpoints what areas to improve to better serve people and helps better understand the festival attendees.

  53. Divya, V., Sumathi, N. and Karthika, K.

    Background: Preterm premature rupture of membrane (PPROM) is associated with various maternal and neonatal complications. The study was carried out to determine the various maternal and neonatal outcomes associated with rupture of membranes beyond 34 weeks of gestation. Methods: It was a prospective study carried out in Govt .Rajaji hospital for a period of 5 months from March 2019 to July 2019. All the pregnant women with rupture of membranes after 34 weeks are included in the study. After establishment of diagnosis of rupture of membranes, antibiotics were started and all of them were induced after 6 hours if they did not have spontaneous labour. Various maternal and neonatal outcomes were noted and statistical analysis carried out. Results: Incidence of rupture of membrane in our study was 1 %. 84 % of patients delivered within 24 hours of rupture of membrane and 20 % of them required caesarean section. 14 % neonates had respiratory distress syndrome and 12 % neonate had sepsis. Conclusions: Induction of labour and delivery within 24 hours of rupture of membranes associated with low incidence of maternal and neonatal adverse outcome.

  54. Dr. Munaif, V., Dr. Raghunath N., Dr. Jyothikiran, H. and Dr Aishwarya Ramkumar

    Orthodontists are constantly being challenged with the task of providing their patients with acceptable esthetics and masticatory function. Although esthetics is often the patient’s immediate and primary goal, function becomes far more important over the lifetime. So developing a sound, functional masticatory system is the primary goal of all orthodontic therapy. The frequency of TMJ complaints has multiplied in the last few years. This may have been brought about by the increased stresses of our fast paced world, or at least we now recognize that there is a stress strain tension release syndrome that often manifests itself with nocturnal parafunctional activity. Orthodontist, through many accepted treatment procedures may inadvertently exert distal pressure on the mandibular complex, which can be the beginning of a TMJ disorder.

  55. Jefri Banjarnahor, Imam Budi Putra, Asrizal, Ridha Dharmajaya and Rosina Tarigan

    Background: diabetic foot ulcer is an open wound on the surface of the skin that occurs due to an injury to the soft tissue of the foot. Diabetic ulcers can also result in tissue death and if not treated properly and intensively, ulcers can cause gangrene. Objects: to identify the influence of compression bandage on lower extremity circulation in diabetic foot wound patients. Methods: The study design used quasi experimental with one group pretest and posttest with a sample size of48 respondents, taken by consecutive sampling. Data was collected using ankle brachial index and Bates-Jensen Wound Assessment Tool. Data analysis used Paired T-test. Results: statistical test results using paired t-test obtained p-value 0.000<0.05 which means that there was an influence of compression bandage on lower limb circulation interference in the process of healing diabetic foot injuries. Conclusion: Administration of compression bandages for patients with diabetes mellitus for healing diabetic foot injuries. This intervention is one of the modality therapy options to improve circulation in the lower extremities.

  56. Ahmed M Sharaky, Dr. Amr Abu Ella and Dr. Abdelrahman Kamal

    Background: To prevent recurrence, mesh repair is the optimum choice for elective hernia repair, however the application of mesh herinoplasty in the acutely complicated inguinal hernia in emergency sitting is still controversial especially when omentum and intestinal resection is required. Patients and methods: This study was multicenter study conducted in the departments of surgery at AL Ahrar and Al –Sahel teaching hospitals during the period from December 2014 to June 2019. Polypropylene mesh herinoplasty was performed to100 male patients included in this study and presented with acute complicated inguinal hernia. Prospectively patients were divided into two groups: Group (I) included 72 patients who didn’t required intestinal resection and Group (II) 28 patients required intestinal resection. Results: The operative time and hospital stay were longer in Group (II) (P <0.001). There was no significant difference between the two groups regarding postoperative complications. All cases of surgical site infection (SSI) were superficial and successfully managed with drainage and local wound care. There was no deep wound infection or mesh rejection, no postoperative mortality and there was 1 case of hernia recurrence during 1 year follow up. Conclusion: The current study approved that mesh herinoplasty in acutely complicated inguinal hernia can be accomplished safely with favorable outcome even if associated with omentum and intestinal resection assuming that the wound was maintained in clean –contamination condition during surgery.

  57. Mateus Oliveira Mendonça, Jose Cornelio Guterres and Jacob M. Ratu

    Diarrhea is a disease based on the environment. serviço saùde Muncipio Covalima is one of the regions with the second-highest IR in Timor-Leste 2017, with a prevalence of 16.7 percent of all diarrhea events and a major cause of under-five deaths of 25.2 percent. The purpose of this study was to determine the relationship between environmental sanitation and maternal behavior with the incidence of diarrhea in infants in the Serviço Saude municipal area of Covalima. This research is quantitative analytic research with a Cross-Sectional approach. The sample in this study amounted to 98. The technique in sampling; Multi-stage Random Sampling. Research instruments in the form of questionnaires and observation sheets. The results showed that; "There is a meaningful relationship between drinking water sources with Prevalence Ratio (RP) 1,183 and 95% CI: lower 1,038 and upper 13,421, latrine ownership with Ratio Prevalence (RP) 1,389 and 95% CI: lower 1,705 and upper 22,302, behavior/habits cook or boil drinking water and process food with a Prevalence Ratio (RP) 1.119, and 95% CI: lower 1.634 and upper 17.706, and behavior / habits of providing complementary feeding and caring for children with Prevalence Ratio (RP) 3,238 and 95% CI: lower 4,900 and upper 183,690. The results of this study also showed that: There was no relationship between the availability of trash cans and household sewage, behavior/habits of defecation, behavior/habits of washing hands with soap with the incidence of diarrhea in children under five. Behavior/habits of providing complementary feeding and caring for children are the most significant factors associated with the incidence of diarrhea in infants. It is recommended to the community, especially mothers who have toddlers to maintain environmental conditions and improve clean and healthy living behavior, especially in taking precautions to prevent diarrhea such as washing hands with soap after bowel movements, before eating, before preparing and feeding toddlers.

  58. Khaled Mustafa Elerian, Hamed Elmously and Ola H. Abdelbar

    This study focuses on the use of cellulose-based natural fibers, extracted from date palm midribs in the form of nano particles, as reinforcement to Epoxy resin. Date palm midribs were first roughly broken to lengths of ~ 10mm in macro scale and then were chemically treated by two methods (Alkali treatment which is called Treatment1 and the other alkali and acetylation treatment which is called Treatment2). Further the material was milled down to nano scale, using a self-designed and constructed planetary ball mill, resulting in particles sizes ranging between 10.86 to 21.36 nm for Alkali treated fibers, and between 30.63 to 63.93 nm for alkali and acetylation treated fibers. Nanocomposites were prepared using a casting technique by ultrasonic dispersion method, where compounds of varying compositions (0.5 up to 5 wt% nanofiber reinforcement), were treated using Amino silane coupling agent, and finally specimen were poured into rubber molds of requested shape. Nanocomposites were oven-dried at 80oC for 2 hours. The mechanical performance of the composites was evaluated in terms of tensile, flexural and impact properties in addition to hardness. The results show that increasing palm midrib nano fibers content has significant effect on all mechanical properties as compared to the control sample. The results show that the alkali treatment is more suitable and provide better enhancing in all mechanical properties than the alkali and acetylation treatment.

  59. Bharat Ratna and Dr. Spersh Bhatt

    The field of demography provides a researcher with a lot of areas for research studies. Demography is the science of the study of population dynamics. The ever changing population patterns are affected by a multiplicity of factors - migration being one such factor. In the recent years, the problem of out-migration has been one of the major points of concern and deliberation for the state of Uttarakhand. The various demographic events can be studied through expectancy table procedure. The present paper is an attempt to find out the pattern and nature of out-migration expectancy characterized by age and gender. The study area is the Okhalkanda block of the Nainital district in Uttarakhand.

  60. Gelfeto Gelassa Titta

    This study is to assess the impact of credit provision of microfinance institution on job creation and Poverty Reduction in Hawassa city. In order to carry out this study the field survey was conducted on a sample size of 100 members randomly from 27 small scale enterprises of the package program. The credit provision was assessed using various indicators of economic and social aspects such as income, access to education service, and health care, nutrition condition and self- employment. Thus, Microfinance programs have been considered as one of the main instruments in reducing poverty in recent development agenda. It is a means to support the marginalized active poor of the society. Microfinance comprises the provision of financial services and the management of small amounts of money through a range of products and a system of intermediary functions that are targeted at low income clients through the provision of credit and other facilities like savings, insurance, and transfer services to poor low-income household. The main objective of the study was to assess the accessibility, contributions and the implications of microfinance institutions in reducing poverty and promoting sustainable income in Hawassa City. Microfinance Institutions have an explicit potential that intends to reduce poverty. This research work employed both primary and secondary data like questionnaires, interviews, focus- group discussions and on- site- observation to collect primary data. The secondary data has been collected from different review of literatures, unpublished and published materials. The questions to be addressed in this study required both quantitative and qualitative research methodologies. This study discloses microfinance institution credit provision increase in income and diversified sources, and reduces income inequalities. It has also contributed to increase personal consumption and improved living condition in terms of assets, access to education and medical services, and creation of employment opportunities. The findings of the study indicate that the beneficiaries of credit in the area perceived their lives have improved after the intervention of the credit. The outcome of the study has established that microfinance intervention on Job creation and Poverty reduction has achieved significant improvements. Therefore, it is recommended that such a strategy and micro finance institutions should be encouraged and diversity their activities and approaches to include the active poor.

  61. Miss. Netnapa Sutthirat

    The study is context analysis on fields of ethics especially in Thai Buddhist engaged Buddha Dharma into dairy life and towards in the society, the aim of study is to analyze Family Ethics: Thai Buddhist Cultivate Seeds of Virtues of Husband that a part encouraged the virtues and obvious role of husband in the Thai family. It finds the ethics of mole’s Buddha Dharma seem 5 Virtues of Husband as ‘I.D.S.F.C’ stand for (1) I: intelligent, (2) D: decisively, (3) S: scholar, (4) F: fairness, and (5) C: conductor, and 4 Cultivate Seeds of Virtues as ‘R.H.F.G.P’ (1) R: to respect, (2) H: to honor, (3) F: to faithful, (4) G: to give greatness, (5) P: to provide.

  62. Mamadou Guèye, Makhtar Guène, Abdou Aziz Diagne and Papa Charles Harris Mandiamy

    Nickel cobalt mixed valence oxide nanoparticles composite Ni0.9Co2.1O4 was prepared by sol-gel method via propionic acid. The cell parameter and the average crystallite size of the Ni0.9Co2.1O4 composite are 8.102 Å and 49.57 nm, respectively. The composition and spinel type structure of the binary mixed oxide were characterized by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) combined with cyclic voltammetry (CV). It was found that the as-synthesized composite has a mixed spinel structure. Cyclic voltammetry, electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) and chronopotentiometry measurements were performed to investigate the electrochemical properties of the composite. The results indicate that Ni0.9Co2.1O4 oxide composite offer high electrical reactivity, good stability in alkaline media, and that increasing the polarization potential leads to the decrease in catalytic performance.

  63. Dr. Mohammed Deluwar Hoque

    Electric rickshaws are three wheel battery operated vehicles. They are considered as an upgrade to the conventional cycle rickshaws and economically better than auto-rickshaws and other fuel variants. A continuous attempt was made by Anil K. Rajvanshi for the improvement of the cycle rickshaw at Nimbkar Agricultural Research Institute (NARI), Maharashtra and had designed his first model of a Motor Assisted Pedal Rickshaw (MAPRA) and tested on Phaltan road in Maharashtra in 1996. After the introduction of MAPRA, he had further worked for the improvement of it. Finally, with the help of funding from the Ministry of Non-conventional Energy Sources (MNES), Govt. of India, he had designed and developed the first electric rickshaw, ELECSHA, in India in the year 2000. The present study has been an attempt to study the role of E-rickshaws as a means of transportation in the rural areas of Barpeta district of Assam. An attempt has also been made to examine some of the demographic features of the drivers and the scope of E-rickshaws in employment and income generation. Both primary and secondary data have been used for the study. Primary data have been collected through field survey, which has been carried out during the period of June to July, 2019 by using a structured interview schedule. A total of 140 E-rickshaw drivers were interviewed from the different rural areas of Barpeta district. The collected data have been analyzed by using simple statistical tools. The study has found that electric rickshaws have become a popular means of transportation and also a new source of livelihood in the study area. The E-rickshaw drivers work for almost 12 hours every day to earn some amount of income, which is quite low but help them to fulfill their basic needs to a certain extent. Many E-rickshaw drivers have also faced some problems during their work hours mainly the problem of parking and the competition from the alternative means of transportation available in the study area.

  64. Noura M S Eid

    It is essential that students in higher education are provided with academic support to gain enough medical and clinical expertise to empower their academic competence. This study is cross sectional qualitative study conducted for the first time in King Abdul-Aziz University to evaluate the quality of training sessions provided by Tanmia program. Tanmia program is a continuous learning program newly developed in the Faculty of Applied Medical Sciences to support students learning. We used interview based questionnaires applied on a focus groupto assess quality of sessions and its association with several factors such as the topic, difficulty rate and trainer. Our findings shows that courses related to self-development, such as goal achievement and time management, were highly desired by almost 100% of the attendees. Surprisingly, there was a significant association between the difficulty of the courses and the students’ desire to attend them, in comparison with courses at a beginner level. No association was seen with the selection of trainers, where all attendees were satisfies. Our future plan is to focus on the programs impact on students grades and successful rates

  65. Aulakh, B.S.

    Dairy farming is such a profession these days that has become very competitive and more or less organized on the lines of an industry. Just like industry, it has seen the application of many a new technologies and the trend is growing. Sexing sperm is acclaimed such a new development that has attracted the attention of farmers, organizations and governments alike. This technology of course promises to increase the dairy productivity to many times the existing levels. So, farmers are trying to eagerly implement this on their dairy farms. But dairying is business and just like any other business, it has to be very cautious about input costs, financial outputs and economics of course. Overall, it is a very complicated concern and recently we have seen many dairy farms closing due to a variety of reasons related with financial, social, governmental and management concerns. Sexing semen being a new entrant, also demands a genuine review so that it is implemented with a view to be efficient, successful and beneficial for the profession because the dairy farmer and his financial wellbeing is the central point in this discussion. So, an endeavor in this regard has been attempted in this article to critically examine the concerned operations and their intricacies with relevance to the general running of a dairy farm and the possible nitty-gritty that may be encountered upon the introduction of such a new breakthrough and various fallouts are discussed in greater depth therein.

  66. Ichwan Syahdat and Rodi Chandra

    This study aims to determine and analyze the influence of work environment on the performance of extension agents, the influence of organizational commitment on the performance of extension agents, the influence of the work environment on work satisfaction of extension agents, the influence of organizational commitment on work satisfaction of extension agents, the influence of job satisfaction on performance of extension agents, the influence of job satisfaction as mediation between the work environment with the performance of extension agents and the influence of job satisfaction as a mediation between organizational commitment and the performance of extension agents. The sample in this study were 70 people from the Agam District Agriculture Agency. The sampling technique is the census method because the number of instructor is only 70 people who filled out the questionnaire. The type of data used is primary data, the method of data collection uses a questionnaire with a Likert scale. The test of research instruments is validity and reliability test. Data analysis techniques consist of data description test, classical assumption test, simple, multiple and multilevel regression analysis and hypothesis testing. The results of the study found that the work environment influences the performance of extension agents, organizational commitment influences the performance of extension agents, work environment influences the job satisfaction of extension agents, organizational commitment influences the job satisfaction of extension agents, job satisfaction influences the performance of extension agents, job satisfaction influences the work environment with performance of extension agents and job satisfaction have an effect as a mediation between organizational commitment and the performance of extension agents. This research suggests that to improve the performance of extension agents, a more conducive work environment is needed, an increase in organizational commitment and an improvement in increased job satisfaction.

  67. Nurzal and Rodi Chandra

    This study aims to determine and analyze the effect of job satisfaction on teacher performance, the influence of organizational culture on teacher performance and the effect of work motivation on teacher performance. The sample in this study was 37 Teachers MAN 1 Muaro Jambi. The sampling technique is the census method because there are only 37 teachers filling out the questionnaire. The type of data used is primary data, the method of data collection uses a questionnaire with a Likert scale. Test of research instruments test validity and reliability. Data analysis techniques consist of data description test, classic assumption test, regression analysis and hypothesis testing. The results of this study found that job satisfaction influences teacher performance, organizational culture influences teacher performance and work motivation influences teacher performance, and job satisfaction, organizational culture and work motivation together have a significant effect on teacher performance. This research suggests that to improve teacher performance, it is necessary to increase job satisfaction, a more conducive organizational culture and improve work motivation.

  68. José Bustorff and Nuno Soares Domingues

    Public road lighting during night-time is essential in citizens' daily lives. In recent years, investments in efficiency of street lighting have been done at all levels: European, national, regional and local. A switch to LED technology is taking place as pilot projects. It is expected to provide the same lighting quality, reduction of costs and increasing energy efficiency. In this investigation, the relationship between illumination during the daytimedarkness period and the number of road accidents resulting in fatalitieswas studied for the Loures County. It was found that the largest number of fatalities occurred during the darkness period. Fatalities decreased between 2000 and 2015. The energy efficiency of Loures increased and at the same time, there was a decrease in the number of accidents resulting in fatalities. It is concluded that the quality of public light may contribute to reducing loss of human life in road accidents.

  69. Tolasa Tamasgen Hirpha and Tesfaye Megerssa Oljira

    In this paper the enhancement factor of local field for pure ellipsoid metal/dielectric composite in linear host matrices is studied. The enhancement factor of local field which extremely enhanced is shown by analytical and numerical results. It is shown that the local field in metal ellipsoidal particles with dielectric core in an external varying electric field has two maxima at two different frequencies. The second maximum becomes more important with increment in the metal fraction.

  70. Mavlyanova Sh.Z., Kapralova Y.A., Yunusova Z.S., Mullahanov J.B., Mahsudov M.R., Gulyamova G.Sh. and Razikova G.R.

    The article presented molecular genetic studies of genotypes of St.aureus isolated from biosubstrates of the persistent opportunistic skin of the organism in patients with allergic dermatoses. Results of the study showed development of persistent opportunistic skin infections caused by persistent opportunistic skin infections in patients with allergic dermatoses caused by MRSA and toxic shock syndrome (TSST) by strains of S.Aureus in 37.5% of cases.

  71. Khan, M. S. A.

    Detection efficiency of alpha particles emitted by radon-222 in the air of the diffusion chamber under the influence of an electrets have been carried out by using solid state nuclear track detector LR-115, type II. Electrets are the electrostatic equivalent of permanent magnet, having a permanent surface charge resulting in a surface potential that may be several KV. Electrets were used to attract radon progeny formed in a cylindrical shape diffusion cup where solid state nuclear track detector LR-115, type II was placed for the measurement of radon concentration. In this way the sensitivity of detector could be increased by bringing progeny just in front of detector in more convenient measuring geometry. It was found that the detection efficiency of α-particle emitted by radon only in the air of diffusion chamber increases with the distance at 5.45 Mev for five hours and ten hours respectively where as the detection efficiency of α-particle emitted by radon progeny in the air of diffusion chamber decreases with the distance at 6.49MeV and7.59MeV for five hours and ten hours respectively. Influence of distance between electret and detector on sensitivity of such equipment has been investigated theoretically. It was also found that in the analysis that the radon progeny 218Po and 2l4Po just have the same detection efficiency of 25% when the electret is closed to the LR-115 detector.

  72. Mrs. Josephine Abarna, D and Dr. Rose Rajesh

    Background of the study: Blood sample collection is an invasive procedure and is carried out for diagnostic purposes; standardized technique in withdrawing blood sample should be followed to reduce pain and psychological trauma. Therefore it is essential to follow the Standard Operative Procedure for collection of blood specimen to get accurate laboratory results. Methods: The design adopted for this study was descriptive design. The study was conducted in pediatric unit. Data collection period was for one month. Samples were Health care workers in Pediatric Unit of selected hospital. Purposive sampling technique was used to select the participants for the study. Sample size was 45. The tool used for data collection was observational checklist. Results: The findings show that compliance of Doctors in following standard operating procedure in blood sample collection was 79%.The compliance of staff Nurses in following standard operating procedure in blood sample collection was 89.8%.The compliance of staff Nurses who assisted phlebotomy was 75% and student Nurses who assisted was 88.9%.The compliance of Attendants in following standard operating procedure in transportation of samples was 96.6%. No significant association was found between the compliance and demographic variables of Health care workers. Conclusion: The study findings revealed the health care workers do not have 100% compliance in following standard operating procedure in blood sample collection. Health care workers need to be reinforced about their accountability in minimizing errors related to blood sample collection and transportation.

  73. Nirapjeet Kaur, Arun k. Bhandari, Pavittar Kaur and Sarbjot Singh

    Background: The aim of this study was to assess the knowledge, attitude, and practice regarding early childhood caries (ECC) among pediatricians in Amritsar city. Material & Method: A systematic random study was conducted among 120 pediatricians in Amritsar city by using a self administered questionnaire. Results: Pediatricians lacked ECC-related knowledge. Most of them were unaware of the first dental visit. All pediatricians agreed that both medical and dental professionals together are responsible for infant oral healthcare and they should work together to appropriately educate and train themselves to be able to provide risk assessment and to provide preventive oral health services.

  74. Vijaya Lekshmi R., Shajahan, M. A. and Indulekha, V.C.

    Background: The ability to produce in-vitro cultures of neuronal cells has been the base for advancing the knowledge of the nervous system functioning. There is a rise in memory loss and associated disorders in the present era. The present day research focuses on developing cost effective medications for such conditions. There are many such medications found in classical Ayurvedic textbooks which if revalidated scientifically may get global acceptance and benefit the ailing society. Ashtangahrdaya, describes ‘Chathushkuvalaya Rasayana’ and claims it to be a potent memory enhancer. In it Kuvalaya, botanically identified as Monochoria vaginalis Presl. is the only herbal ingredient. There is scarce published work regarding the neuroprotective potential of the plant. Objective: To evaluate the Neuroprotective effect of Ethanolic extract of Monochoria vaginalis Presl. in SHSY5Y cell lines followed by flow cytometry. Method: The ethanolic extract of the plant (rhizome, leaf, stem, flower) (KEE) was used as the study material in 5 concentrations (6.25µg/ml, 12.5µg/ml, 25µg/ml, 50µg/ml and 100µg/ml). Hydrogen peroxide was used to induce toxicity. Result: The concentrations 25µg/ml and 50µg/ml was found to have statistically significant neuroprotection (p<0.01). Flow cytometry was done with concentration providing maximum protection (50µg/ml). Treatment with KEE (ethanolic extract of Kuvalaya) produced decrease of apoptotic cells to below 50%, increasing the cell viability to 46% which confirmed the fact that KEE provided neuroprotection. Conclusion: The present study focuses on the importance of exploring such locally available plants and this study may serve as a base for further higher studies on the neuroprotective potential of the Monochoria vaginalis Presl.

  75. Dr. Umakant N. Rabb

    The word Shaka – Varga refers to vegetables and their classification. In an Ayurvedic classical texts there are various classifications of drugs, minerals, and vegetables. In the vegetable it includes Patra (Leafy vegetables), Pushpa (Flowering vegetables), Phala (Fruit vegetables), Nala (Stalk vegetables), Kanda (Tuber vegetables). Consumption of these vegetables helps to maintain the health of the healthy person and take part in the curing the diseases. Some of the vegetables also recommended as Pathya (Suitable) and Apathya (Not suitable) in particular diseases. According to Acharya Charaka the classification of vegetables , he mainly stressed on the Rasa (Taste) and Dosha Prabhava (Effects on Doshas). Whereas Acharya Sushruta mainly stressed on the various parts of vegetables like leaf, stem, flower, roots, tubers etc. In the present review study reveals the effects of intake of these vegetables in the body and the alleviation of diseases produced by imbalance in the three Doshas (Vata-Pitta-Kapha) was elaborated. The further scope of study is to bring the original and classical method of cultivated vegetables in the market so that the manifestation of the disease will be reduced and helps to maintain the health of the person.

  76. Wafaa Mahmoud Amin, Mohammed Qasheesh, Ahmed Abdel-Aziz Mohamed Hefny

    Background: Assessment of core stability (CS) in subjects with high body mass index (BMI) is critical for prognosis and for designing a core stabilization program. Objectives: Investigation the effect of BMI on core stability in healthy adults, and to compare the outcome between female and male healthy adults. Subjects: 90 healthy students with the right dominant lower limb admitted in this study based on the inclusion criteria, with the age of 19 to 25 years. Subjects have been distributed into three groups; Group I: 30 individuals with BMI<25 kg/m2. Group II: 30 individuals with BMI =25–30kg/m2. For group III: 30 individuals of BMI>30 kg/m2. 15 male and 15 female students were involved in each group. Material and Methods: Electronic scale of weight and stadiometer device: calculation of BMI percentage. Prokin system: to measure the motor control of CS by balance tests (static& dynamic). Results: There were significant differences in MLSD, AFBS, AMLS, and PE parameters of bilateral open and close eye static balance test in group III than other groups (p=<0.05). Also; COPX of right foot static balance test increased significantly in subjects of group III. Male subjects showed a significant increase in bilateral and unilateral static balance tests than females in group I&II, and in all groups for dynamic balance. Conclusion: The effect of BMI on CS is significant, and this could be used for preventive programs to improve motor performance.

  77. Zhang Yong, Zhou Xin, Zhou Xuan and Li Ming

    Background: The problem of left-behind children is a focus of social concern. Objectives: In order to investigate the situation and characteristics of college students who grow up from left-behind children, this paper conducts a comparative study of college students who grow up from left-behind children and those who grow up from non-left-behind children in Hunan University of Science and Technology from four aspects: thought, life, study and work. Material & methods: 174 students with "Left-behind experience" and 190 students without "Left-behind experience" were investigated. Results: According to the survey findings, there is no significant difference between college students with left-behind experience and college students without left-behind experience on learning burden; The proportion of college students with left-behind experience willing to participate in campus activities is lower than that of college students without left-behind experience; there is any experience of left-behind does not affect college students' habit of smoking or drinking, but 4% of college students often smoke or drink alcohol; College students with left-behind experience and college students without left-behind experience had the same proportion of love before they went to college, accounting for 61% and 62% respectively. Conclusion: When college students with left-behind experience have psychological doubts and puzzles, they hardly turn to teachers and school psychological counsellor for help; These college students are not all "problem students"; These college students are not enthusiastic enough to participate in university, college or class activities; These college students fully understand their parents hard work.

  78. Balqis Nurmauli Damanik, Juanita Juanita and Rahayu Lubis

    Tuberculosis is a global health problem, especially in countries that are grouped in high-burden countries, including Indonesia. Indonesia was in second position with the highest number of TB patients in the world in 2016. Based on the annual report of Medan City Health Department in 2016, succeed rate in Medan City was 73.04%. This study was conducted to determine the relationship of knowledge of pulmonary TB patients with the level of treatment adherence. uses correlational analytic design with cross sectional approach obtained 80 TB patients who had treatment in community health centers of Medan Denai District. Data were collected through interview using questionnaire and analyzed by chi-square test with 95% confidence interval. The results showed an association between patients knowledge (p=0.001) with the level of treatment adherence in the primary health center of Medan Denai District.

  79. Dr. Nilam U. Sathe, Dr. Dhanashree Chiplunkar, Dr. Rakhi Thakkar and Dr. Anjali Taku

    Rhabdomyosarcoma is a highly malignant neoplasm that arises from embryonic mesenchyme ( Horn, 1958). It is the most common soft tissue tumor in children, with the head and neck region accounting for 35-40% of cases ( Healy, 2012). Rhabdomyosarcoma in the nasal cavity often begins as a polypoid growth and may easily be mistaken for nasal polyps. For this reason, it is important that polypoid growths in the nasal cavity occurring in childhood to be biopsied. Embryonal rhabdomyosarcoma of the nasopharynx is an uncommon tumor occurring almost exclusively in children. We present a case of nasopharyngeal rhabdomyosarcoma in 3 years old male child which was excised by coblation technique. The modality of treatment is surgical debulking followed by radiotherapy with or without chemotherapy. We are the first one to use coblation as a new tool for surgical excision of nasopharyngeal rhabdomyosarcoma in a 3 years old child.

  80. Leonard Oyoo Omboto and Ombaba Kennedy B. Mwengei

    Firms are seeking to be competitive world over because of the changing business environment. Banks too are seeking for means to gain competitive advantage over each other. One key parameter of achieving or attaining competitive advantage is to have sound and efficient performance. To achieve this bank need to check and compare the amount of nonperforming loans in their portfolios. The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of ownership structure on non-performing loans of commercial banks in Kenya. The study's specific objective was to establish the effect of government ownership structure on non-performing loans of commercial banks in Nairobi city. This study was guided by stakeholder theory. Cross-sectional research design was adopted by the study. The target population for this study comprised the employees of 39 commercial banks in Nairobi city, Kenya: The respondents were 117 employees who include 39 branch managers, 39 operation managers and 39 credit officers. The study adopted census survey because the numbers of respondents are few, therefore all the 117 respondents were included in the study. Questionnaire was used for collecting data. For validation of the research instruments, the researcher consulted the supervisors and other experts in this field. The study used the cronbach alpha coefficient to determine the reliability of data collection instrument. Data was analysed using both descriptive and inferential statistics. Descriptive analysis included mean, standard deviation, percentages and frequencies while inferential statistics was multiple regression and Pearson moment of correlation. The study findings indicated that, government ownership structure (β = 0.263; p<0.05), affects non-performing loans of commercial banks. The study recommends that government should consider infusing private sector-like management systems and progress the divestiture program to attract more private individuals and institutions to co-own the state corporations. In addition, policy makers should create a conducive environment which attracts foreign investors as it noted that foreign investors can possess firm-specific advantages.

  81. Chaudhary Veena

    In this study, the aim was to find out the prevalence of blood groups in a group of patients in World College of Medical Sciences & Research and Hospital, Jhajjar, Haryana, India. In this study, the blood groups of 612 patients were evaluated. In this study, the results showed that the prevalence of different blood groups among one group of 612 patients was approximately: B+ 36%, O+ 28%, A+ 19%, AB+ 8% and Rh negative- 9 % (O- 4%, B- 3%, A- 1% & AB- 1%). Thus, B+ is the most common blood group in our study. By conventional criteria, this difference was considered to be extremely statistically significant. It is also concluded that the B gene is the most frequent, about 39% (B+ 36% & B- 3%), followed by O gene (O+ 28% & O- 4%), whereas the A gene is infrequent, in the present study.

  82. Ijeoma-Harriet Onyejekwe1, Okechukwu Agukoronye and Arthur Essaghah

    This paper assessed the potential economic value of PET Bottled Water Scraps (PBWS) that constitute a large proportion of municipal solid waste in Enugu Urban, Nigeria. It investigated the volume and typology of PET Bottled Water (PBW) produced and placed in the market in Enugu Urban and estimated the scale of potential economic value of the Scraps. Field Survey and key informant interviews were utilized to collect primary data on the typology, volume and cost of PBWS. Data collected was analyzed using simple descriptive statistics. Findings revealed that 75cl PBW is more predominate in the market and the potential cumulative economic value of PBWS (50Cl, 75Cl and 150Cl) in 2019 will be N320, 371, 800 and N6.2 billion ($17.2 million) in the next ten years. The paper noted that government investment in PBWS will generate the much needed revenue to finance capital projects in the state while creating employment and sustaining the environment. The paper recommended the investment in recycling infrastructure and integration of scavengers in a formal and legal coordinated collection and management of PBWS to optimize its economic potential and mitigate its environmental externalities.

  83. Dr. Nidhi Duggal, Dr. Deepika C.S., Dr. Sarabjit Kaur and Dr. Honey Chandel

    Feeding in an infant with cleft lip and palate is a major challenge due to an abnormal oronasal communication in these patients. These infants have difficulty in making a seal around the nipple of the mother or the bottle. Feeding obturator restores this gap and assists in feeding as well as helps in reduction of airway problems, regurgitations and frequent infections.

  84. Nuno Domingues

    Governments have the responsibility to implement and guarantee the success of the international agreements and their own goals. However, the financial and the economical issues are crucial and can undermine it. This paper explains how to use market based instruments to avoid or mitigate it, focusing also on how sustainable consumption can be achieved.

  85. Dr. Pradnya Yashwant Dumore and Dr. Shyam Devidas Ganvir

    Background: Falls are very common in elderly population. Falls are a main cause of morbidity and disability in the elderly. More than one-third of persons 65 years of age or older fall each other, and in half of such cases the falls are recurrent. The risk doubles or triples in the presence of cognitive impairment or history of previous falls. Many view falls as merely a risk factor for fractures, disregarding the fact that falls can lead to affect quality of life and social and psychological consequences, with profound economic effects. This study is design to make aware about risk of fall among the elderly individuals. Research question is does risk of fall affect the community dwelling elderly individuals? and Aim of the study is to find out the risk of falls in community dwelling elderly fallers and non fallers individuals. Clinically this study will help to avoid the injuries which will occur because of fall. Methods: Total 30 participants were studied. History of falls in past 1 year was studied using falls questionnaire. Elderly individuals divided into two groups fallers and non-fallers. TUG test was performed on community dwelling elderly individuals. Result: Graph Pad 8 software is used for analysis. The participants who had a history of falls also has risk of falls according to their age group. Data is compared with inter groups fallers and non-fallers elderly community dwelling elderly individuals. Two-tailed P value equals 0.0205, 95% confidence interval of this difference (range 0.25-2.81) standard error of difference= 0.624. Unpaired t test is used for the analysis. Conclusion: Study concluded that the community dwelling elderly individuals who had not history of fall showing the risk of fall.

  86. Raffaele Perez and Pedro García Martinez

    Through the testimony of the restorative architect of the Emanuela Gambini Monastery we will discover the great work of the architect Francisco del Moradillo and how it has endured over the centuries. The restorer Gambini will make us reason about the importance of investigating the materials at work for their subsequent recovery, ending our tour in the room of the forbidden, where recovery goes through the historical study of it. We will discover that the restorer must recover, along with the construction, the historical memory of the building throughout his life.

  87. Dr. Rashmi Rani Agnihotri H.R. and Prof. Dr. Malipatil, K.S.

    Women Empowerment is a significant topic of discussion, mainly in underdeveloped and developing nations. They have lately realized that the development that they aspire cannot be achieved unless we achieve gender equality by empowering their women. The economic empowerment of women refers to their right to control the economic decisions, income, assets and other equivalents; improving their economic as well as social status. Women Empowerment means promoting women in their social and economic development, providing them equal opportunities of employment, education, economical development and allowing them to socialize; the freedoms and rights that were denied before. It is process which empowers women to know that they too can achieve their aspirations as the men of the society and help them do that. The essential factors for empowerment are:(1) Education: Education gives one the ability to think wisely and take thoughtful decisions.(2) Gender Discrimination: A society which discriminates between the 2 genders can never be empowered.3) Discrimination based on caste, creed, religion etc. Empowerment of women, particularly rural women has become an important issue in the strategies of balanced development with social justice. Economic empowerment results in women's ability to influence or make a right decision, increase self-confidence better status and role in household etc. They understand and believe in the company vision and generate ideas directly aimed at improving products and services. Empowered employees have increased self-confidence, are keen to develop their own skills and also to find ways to make use of those skills to the company's benefit. In this way The Govt has initiated so many Policies for Women Empowerment. The Study is Purely Theoretical. The Study is based on secondary data sources. The necessary information about the Role of Government Policies for Women Empowerment and its various components are collected from Books, Journals, Internet Source or related topic. The Researcher study about the Role of Government Policies for Women Empowerment the Research Work includes I. Introduction II. Methodology III. Women Specific Policies in India. IV Conclusion.etc

  88. Nilton Paulo Vieira Junior, Gabriel da Rosa Schroeder, Enderlei Dec and Denise Monique Dubet da Silva Mouga

    Sporopalynological descriptions are provided for fourteen species of ferns found to occur in Acarai State Park, a full-protection conservation unit in Praia Grande, São Francisco do Sul, Santa Catarina, Brazil: Asplenium brasiliense Sw., Campyloneurum acrocarpon Fée, Cyathea phalerata Mart, Lindsaea lancea (L.) Bedd, Macrothelypteris torresiana (Gaudich.) Ching, Microgramma vacciniifolia (Langsd and Fisch.). Copel, Niphidium crassifolium (L.) Lellinger, Pecluma chnoophora (Kunze) Salino and Costa Assis, Pecluma pectinatiformis (Lindm.) M.G. Price, Lepidopteris pleopeltis (Langsd. and Fisch.) de la Sota, Rumohra adiantiformis (G. Forst.) Ching, Schizaea elegans (Vahl) Sw., Serpocaulon latipes (Langsd. and Fisch.) A.R.Sm. and Trichomanes cristatum Kaulf. Botanical material was observed while walking a trail of the park during 26 biweekly expeditions from May 2017 to June 2018. Fertile botanical material was verified and photographed. The studied ferns belong to four orders, eight families and thirteen genera of the subclass Polypodiidae. Spores were prepared, analyzed, photographed and measured using light and scanning electron microscopy. Descriptions and terminology followed the literature. An identification key is provided for the species.

  89. Mphonyane H. Ntlele, Makoala V. Marake, Sebolelo F. Molete, Francis T. Mugabe, Botle E. Mapeshoane, Tumelo Nkheloane , Joseph Patrick Mensah and Tebello A. Sekhobe

    Water quality monitoring is the integrated activity for evaluating the physical, chemical and biological characteristics of water in relation to human health, ecological conditions and designated water uses. However for the purpose of this study, the assessment focused on Temperature, total phosphorus, Total Nitrogen, pH, total dissolved solids, turbidity, Electrical conductivity and base cation (Mg and Ca) concentrations. These being some of the parameter that are measured in water and sewage company in Lesotho to indicate the water quality in our resources, therefore the same thing applied to our study since we were supposed to determine the water quality in Bolahla Mphosong catchment. Water quality and quantity indices were measured from 22 selected water resources. Some water quantity indices were measured right in the field using physical measurements or chemical methods based on a field toolkit while others were measured in the laboratory. The water quality parameters that were measured were, water temperature, pH, EC, TDS, Turbidity, ions (Mg, Ca, , nitrates, phosphates) and chemical oxygen demand while the water quantity parameters included, water flow, water point depth and water flow rate. The water testing kit was used to measure the water quality parameters like temperature, pH, EC and TDS in the selected water resources per sub catchment and other parameter were analyzed in the laboratory. The water testing kit was used to measure water quality while for water quantity, measuring tape, measuring stick and the wading rod were used and the float method and current meter method for flow velocity. Most water resources in terms of water quality seemed to be within the recommended drinking water standards except for the stagnant water in dams and wells however the water quantity (depth, width and flow) seemed to have decreased in the study area.

  90. Dr. Peeyush Jain, Dr.Kartikeya Singh, Dr.SurabhiGoyal, Dr. Saurabh Singh Dr.MeetuRani, Dr. Maulik Patel

    Objectives: To measure frontal bone thickness in skeletal hyperdivergent and hypodivergent patients and compare with a group of normodivergent patients. Settings and sample population: The material comprised of 150 patients divided into three group, 50 patients with skeletal hyperdivergence and 50 with skeletal hypodivergence. They were compared with a control group of 50 patients of skeletal normodivergence. Materials and methods: The thickness of the frontal bone was measured on lateral radiographs of patients with skeletal hyperdivergence and skeletal hypodivergence and compared with a control group. Unpaired t- test were used for evaluating differences in thickness. Results: Patients with skeletal hyperdivergence had a significantly thicker frontal bone than a normodivergent group. Frontal bone thickness in skeletal hypodivergent patients was comparable to the normodivergent group. Conclusion: The most important outcome of this study was increased thickening of frontal bone in patients with skeletal hyperdivergence compared with skeletal normodivergent patients. Deviations in the theca cranii are thus associated with skeletal hyperdivergence.

  91. Orziyev Makhmoud

    This paper describes the issues of printing, publishing and publishing activities in the emirate of Bukhara in the late 19th and early 20th centuries, publishing houses of Mulla Akhmad, Mulla Mukhsin and others under the conditions of Russian. Levin's printing house in Bukhara, which plays a crucial role in the printing industry, has been exposed by new facts and arguments in the sample of printing house of Levin. The processes of introduction of publishing houses into the territory of the Bukhara empire and the role of media outlets in the foreign countries, including the role of publishing enterprise in the emirate, including "Tarjuman" from Crimea, "Waqt" Kazan, "Mulla Nasriddin", "Irshad" from Baku, "Right path", "My Taarifi muslimin" (Mutual fraternity of Muslims), "Khikmat" from Turkey, and press outlets "Taswiri afkar", "Sabili Rashshad", "Osmanisher Lloyd", "Ze Yeune Turk" and other media outlets were replaced by the emerging local mass media in Bukhara. Bukhara's first publishing houses and it’s “Bukhara Sharif” and “Turon” newspapers were analyzed by articles and stories printed in these newspapers. These articles were used to cover the stories and articles published in the local mass media, and historical literature of that at that time epoch.

  92. Waleed I. Muqri, Dr. Abulrhman Mohammed Salim, Mohanned Alharthi, Ali Shubaili, Mohammed A. Masmali, Osama A. Alharbi, Hussain Y. Rayani, Fahad N. Khormi, Dr. Mowafeg A. Gadri and Seham A. Habeeb

    Background: Middle East Respiratory Syndrome-coronavirus causes respiratory illness and has been linked to high morbidity and mortality since it was first found in Saudi Arabia in 2012. Camels have been identified as the likely source of the infection of Middle East Respiratory Syndrome in Egypt, Qatar, and Saudi Arabia. Currently, there is no available treatment for Middle East Respiratory Syndrome-coronavirus; however, many efforts was done by the World Health Organization. Methodsa cross-sectional study aimed to assess the level of knowledge and attitude towards Middle East Respiratory Syndrome among health care workers at King Fahad Central Hospital Jazan city of Saudi Arabia. using structured self-administered questionnaires. Results: A total of 384 participants (239 female and 145 male) included in the survey. The vast majority of the participants were aged less or equal 29 years (53.9%). In general, our findings showed that (80.7%) having a good knowledge about the infection with mean knowledge score 15.5 ±. 08 and most of them (91.8%) showed positive attitude towards the infection with mean attitude score 30.5±. 2. Female were significantly more knowledgeable compared to male. No significance difference was found between knowledge and respondent age. Physicians were significantly found more knowledge compared to other health care workers concerning many terms of knowledge. Conclusion: Our study showed that generally there are good knowledge and positive attitude among healthcare workers at King Fahad Central Hospital Jazan city of Saudi Arabia towards Middle East Respiratory Syndrome-coronavirus in general a part of, certain gaps needs Continued and strengthened educational programs, moreover making the maximum benefit to modern technology to spread the information.

  93. Afrin, Ayesha, Manirul Islam M. and Jamaluddin Ahmed, M.

    A new spectrophotometric reagent 2-hydroxynaphthaldehydebenzoylhydrazone (HNABH) has been synthesized and characterized. A very simple, ultra-sensitive and highly selective non-extractive new spectrophotometric method for the determination of ultra-trace amount of uranium using 2-hydroxynaphthaldehydebenzoylhydrazone (HNABH) has been developed. HNABH undergoes reaction in a slightly acidic solution (0.00025-0.00075M H2S04) with uranium to give a very light yellow chelate, which has an absorption maximum at 406-nm. The reaction is instantaneous and absorbance remains stable for over 24h. The average molar absorption coefficient and Sandal’s sensitivity are found to be 2.87×105 L mol-1cm -1and 8-ng cm-2 of, U respectively. Linear calibration graphs were obtained for 0.01- 60-mg L-1 of U having detection limit of 1.0-µg L-1 and RSD 0 – 3.0 %. The stoichiometric composition of the chelate is 1:1 (UVI: HNABH). A large excess of over 60 cations, anions and some common complexing agents (such as chloride, azide, tartrate, EDTA, SCN- etc.) do not interfere in the determination. The method was successfully used in the determination of uranium in several Certified Reference Materials (alloys, steels, ores, standard uranium solution water and marine sediment) as well as in some environmental waters (potable and polluted), biological samples (human blood, urine, milk, hair and nails), soil and oil samples, and complex synthetic mixtures. The results of the proposed method for assessing biological, food, water and vegetables samples were found to be in excellent agreement with those obtained by ICP-OES and AAS, respectively. The method has high precision and accuracy (s =± 0.01 for 0.5 mg L-1).

  94. Mrs. Moirangthem Thoibi Devi, Mrs. Passang Chiki Sherpa, Anu Kumari Rajak, Anzon Lepcha, awa Lhamu Bhutia, Indira Khanal, Nirmala Chettri, Osin Rai, Pooja Koirala, Pranisha Pradhan, Ruth Shankar, Sabina Chettri, Sneha Pradhan, Sunu Hangma Subba, Suravi Ta

    Donation of blood is of utmost importance in the science of surgical, medicine so it is purely obligatory on the part of every citizen who is not suffering from ill conditions to donate blood. The primary purpose of this study was to explore the attitude, practice and barriers towards voluntary blood donation among health care and non health care professionals of Sikkim Manipal University. The objectives of the study are to: assess the attitude and practice of health care professionals and non-health care professionals towards voluntary blood donation, determine the association between attitude and practice of health care professionals, non-health care professionals and selected demographic variables, determine the co-relation between attitude and practice of voluntary blood donation among health care professionals and non-health care professionals, identify the barriers towards voluntary blood donation among health care professionals and non-health care professionals. A non experimental descriptive survey research design was adopted for this purpose, a total of 200 samples, 100 each from healthcare and non- health care professional were selected from Sikkim Manipal Institute of Technology, Majhitar and Central Referral Hospital, Tadong, Sikkim respectively by using non-probability convenient sampling technique. The tools consist of structured questionnaire for practice and barriers and 4 points likert scale for attitude which were validated by a total of 5 experts and reliability was ensured. The demographic characteristics for health care professionals were the majority 78% of the sample belonged to the age group of 22-31years, 61% were female , 63% were unmarried, 68% had monthly income below 30000, 94% did not have any chronic illness. In non- health care professionals’ majority 46% belonged to the age group of 22-31years, 70% were male, 64% were married, 70% had monthly income between 31000-60000, 94% did not have any chronic illness. Finding of practice on voluntary blood donation among healthcare professionals showed that the 63% had poor practice whereas among non- healthcare professionals 59% had poor practice. The attitude of health care professionals showed that 50% of the participants had favorable attitude whereas among non-health professionals 56% had favorable attitude.48 healthcare professional were non-donors and 54 of non – health care professional were also a non-donors. The barriers towards voluntary blood donation among non-donors of health care professionals were 35.4% physically unfit, 33.3% did not have adequate knowledge regarding blood donation, 18.7% had fear of becoming weak after blood donation and among non- health care professionals 38.23% mentioned that they were never asked to donate blood, 28.43% were due to lack of time and 27.45% were physically unfit to donate blood.

  95. EA Hassan, MD, AssemAbdelarazek, MD, Tamer A Helmy, MD and Aglan, A. MD.

    Background and aims: The aim of this work was to study the effect of intravenous glutamine dipeptide on the oxidative state and outcome in enterally nourished critically ill patients as regards the improvement of nitrogen balance, improvement of Body Mass Index (BMI), changes in the level of total antioxidants (especially glutathione), serum albumin, WCBCs and C-reactive protein, duration of stay in ICU and prognosis and incidence and frequency of complications. Patients and Methods: This prospective study was carried on 60 critically ill patients who were admitted to ICU and they received their nutritional requirements from protein, fat and carbohydrates according to food composition table via enteral route for 7-10 days. Patients were divided into 2 groups (A and B) with 30 patients for each group. The patients of group (A) had received their daily caloric requirements via the enteral route with parenteral GD for 10 days. Whereas the patients in group B had received their daily caloric requirements via the enteral route of nutrition without GD supplementation for 10 days. All critically ill patients were fully examined and assessed by the standard methods of critical care assessment. Also, other measures were taken including complete history, physical examination, anthropometric measures and investigations. Results: Parenteral GD proved that it improves nitrogen balance, serum total protein, serum albumin, glycemic control and serum total antioxidant (as glutathione). There was less GIT complications with the patients received glutamine dipeptide. Conclusion: GD improved patient’s nutritional status as regard serum albumin, total protein, nitrogen balance, and improved the patient’s outcome as regard (oxidative state: serum total antioxidants),also it improved the patient’s immunological reaction (total leukocytic count, C-reactive protein), and glycemic control. This was in addition to less frequency of GIT complications among those patients who received parenteral GD through the days of study. While the body weight, Body Mass Index, mortality rate, length of hospital stays, and the APACHE II score didn’t be affected by parenteral GD.

  96. Xiaohong Zhang, Junhong Dong and Xiangyu Luo

    Academic English abstract is a miniature of the whole dissertation with the presentation of the principal objectives, scope of the study, methods employed and principal results. However, the Chinese engineering graduates have a relatively poor level of academic writing resulting in ineffective academic communications with internatiosnal experts. Therefore, this study focuses on the main English academic writing errors committed in master dissertations from the perspective of Error Analysis. Results shows the negative transfer of mother tongue has a huge effect. Several solutions are also given in this study.

  97. Sion Park

    The market scale of sportswear keeps increasing globally. As it increases, not only the variety of the products is broadened, but also the definition of sportswear is broadened. Sportswear now refers to functional clothes for fierce activities as well as clothes for daily life. In this report, by going over theories explaining factors of fashion trend changes, drastic increase of sportswear sales in China is explained. Fashion trend is a tendency of fashion which is influenced by tremendous factors like significant or meaningful incidents. The incidents can be political events, economic depression, and social conflicts. In this report, economic factor will be mainly discussed. For economic factors, macroeconomic index such as GDP per capita and PPP per capita show positive relationship with sales of clothes. Moreover, economic situation also has some relationship with the use of color and design patterns. Applying regression analysis to China case study, this research was not able to figure out meaningful relationship due to extremely rapid growth of Chinese sportswear market. However, experts state that economic growth has significantly contributed to the increase of market scale considering governmental policies and situational evidences. For these reasons, the estimated growth rate of sportswear market is optimistic.

  98. Mazurkin Peter Matveevich

    The wavelet analysis of the dynamics of the maximum annual temperature of Central England according to HadCET is carried out by the method of identification of stable regularities. The dynamic series is decomposed into 57 wavelets with a maximum relative error of 0.42%. Based on the forecast of 57 members of the model, 15 members were placed, and 42 members or 73.68% affect the future. Valentina Zharkova's forecast for a small ice age is confirmed, and it will be from 2032 to 2046. The nonlinear two-term trend shows the influence of two forces: the first term is global cooling (the influence of space on the earth's atmosphere), and the second – global warming (the influence of the Earth and humanity). The negative for the third and fourth members is that the fluctuation periods fall from 632.5 and 14.6 years for 1878 to 32 and 5.5 years for 2017. And by 2032, the third member reaches a half-period of 1.4 years. Since 1879, there is an increase in fluctuations and periods decreased by 19.8 and 10.4 times. The increase in frequency indicates a loss of climate stability over 140 years. The forecasts stage from 2018 to 2031 gives further warming from 13.13 to 15.92 0C. Taking into account the underestimation in the models by 2031, the maximum air temperature can reach 17.51 0C. At the stage from 2031 to 2046 will be cold from 15.92 to 10.25 0C. The air temperature will decrease by 55.32%. However, from 2046 to 2051, warming is expected from 10.25 to 13.30 0C. But then from 2051 to 2066 there will be a heat stroke with an increase in air temperature to 38.36 0C in 2061 and then a sharp decline to 3.21 0C in 2066. From 2061 to 2074 is the next global cooling from 38.36 to -120.38 0C. But until 2080 it will be replaced by a rapid rise in temperature to 100.25 0C. Since then, the oceans will begin to boil and by 2088 the temperature will be as on the planet Venus, reaching a maximum of 795 0C. The earth will also become lifeless.

  99. Dr. Neha Charak

    Exposure to blood borne pathogens such as HBV remains a significant occupational hazard to health care workers especially among dental professionals and they are higlyvulnerable. Infection through saliva contamination or via needle stick injuries remains a common cause. Hence this study was conducted to determine the level of knowledge and awareness about HBV transmission. It was found that third year students have least knowledge when compared to final year and interns necessitating the need for formal education about these infectious disesases, mandatory vaccination protocol once a student enters clinics and knowledge about post exposure prophylaxis if a mishap occurs.

  100. Dr. Prithika Eswaramurthy, Dr. Meena Ajay Aras, Dr. Vidya Chitre, Dr. Praveen Rajagopal and Dr. Kathleen Manuela Dsouza

    Background: To investigate the amount of mandibular ridge resorption in nondiabetic and diabetic completely edentulous post-menopausal women and to describe the effects of age, duration of edentulousness, time since attaining menopause and duration of diabetes mellitus. Methods: A cross-sectional, pilot study was conducted on 20 completely edentulous women (10 nondiabetic and 10 diabetic with type 2 diabetes) with a mean age of 56 years (range of 45 to 67 years). Resorption in the mandibular residual ridges was assessed by using the mental foramen and the inferior border of the mandible, as they appear in panoramic radiographs, as reference points using Wical and Swoope Analysis method. The orthopantomograms were digitized using scanner and measurements were performed. The amount of mandibular ridge resorption was calculated and compared between nondiabetic and diabetic groups. Statistical analysis was performed using Statistical Package for Social Scientists (SPSS) version 20. A paired t-test was used to evaluate the differences in mean values of mandibular ridge resorption between nondiabetics and diabetics. Level of significance was set at 0.05. Results: The mean mandibular residual ridge resorption of all participants was 15.71 mm, diabetic group (10.79mm) had 0.5 times more resorption compared with control group (20.62mm). Conclusion: Completely edentulous, postmenopausal diabetic women have more residual ridge resorption than completely edentulous, postmenopausal nondiabetic women.

  101. Logvynenko P.N., Moskalenko A.A., Kobasko N.I., Razumtseva O.V., Karsim L.O. and Riabov S.V.

    The results of a study of the cooling and rheological properties of solutions of oligomers and polymers polyisobutylene (PIB) in mineral oil are presented onwards. The concentration of PIB additives ranged from 0.25% by weight to 20.0% by weight while molecular mass (Mm) ranged from 4,0•102 m.u. to 6,0•104 m.u. It was established that in oligomeric PIB solutions with Mm from 0,68•103 to 1,0•104 there was a range of optimal concentrations in which there is a sharp reduction in the duration or complete elimination of film boiling (EFB effect) observed. In isoviscous solutions of PIB oligomers, an extreme dependence of the Inconel 600 thermal probe (TP) maximum cooling rate on Mm is observed, which is explained by the indirect influence of the geometric sizes of PIB macromolecules on the ratio of the density of the initial and critical heat fluxes caused by the first and second boiling crisis. A mechanism is proposed for the formation of an oligomeric heat-insulating film in the wall layer, which is responsible for the destruction of the vapor film (VF) and the transition to bubble boiling.

  102. Shah Taha Sarmast and Dr. Dr. Mohamed Haq

    Breast cancer is now the most prevalent form of cancer in Indian women. The Incidence of Breast Cancer in India is 25.8 per 100,000 women, while in a developed country such as the United States of America, it is 124 per 100,000 women. The 5-year survival in India is however only 50% while in the USA, it is 91%. The prevalence of breast cancer is increasing in India, especially in the younger age. Significant factors for developing Breast cancer are dietary habits, lifestyle, reproductive pattern, and usage of post-menopausal hormonal therapy. In a resource limited country with a large population like India, a National program combining prevention strategies, educational programs for early detection will have the best chance of substantially lowering the incidence and mortality from this lethal disease. A collaborative approach of government, non-government organizations, and the people at large has the potential to substantially reduced the incidence and mortality from breast cancer. We briefly summarize the data on the incidence, risk factors, and risk reduction approaches for achieving this goal.

  103. Dr. Varsha Agarwal, Dixita Kumari, Diksha Jain and Akshit Jain

    Base Erosion and Profit Shifting (BEPS)is the method used by multinational companies to shift their profits to low tax or no tax jurisdictions. The MNC’s capabilities to successfully avoid tax motivated the G20 countries and OECD to launch BEPS Action Plans. BEPS action planshas attracted the attention of tax policy makers, practitioners and academics. By this research, we bring forth the importance of BEPS Action Plans among readers and howthese are acting as a support system in economic development of the nations by reducing Illegal/ Unaccountable Transfer of Profits into Tax Havens. Through this research we intend to give the readers an insight and understanding about the BEPS origin, its objectives and its future scope and how it may proceed in future. In our paper we do not aim to summarise in detail the work of each action plan rather we aim at giving brief knowledge of BEPS.

  104. Howraa Abed, Hana Morrissey and Patrick A. Ball

    Since the year 2000, the world elderly population increased by 48%. Medical problems become more predominant with aging leading to polypharmacy. Biological changes can occur with aging resulting in increased susceptibility of older people to medications and their side effects. These changes may have greater effect in a frail person or person with number or long-term or chronic diseases and conditions. Atorvastatin, rosuvastatin, perindopril, amlodipine and paracetamol are commonly used medications among elderly. This paper has reviewed clinical trials and publications on these medications among elderly. It has been found that the safety and effectiveness of these medications among elderly had been evaluated with the main focus on the effectiveness of these medications on different medical conditions and less focus on the effects of the elderly pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamic changes on these medications. Thus, more clinical trials are required to test elderly biological changes’ effects on these medications.

  105. Tovo Harivony, Razakanaivo, M., NO Andrianandrasana, Randriamalala, R., Ramboamampianina, O and Rafaramino, F.

    Objective: Cervical cancer is the first leading cause of cancer-related death among woman in Madagascar. Nurses and midwives have an important role in promoting prevention. The aim of this study was to investigate the knowledge of cervical cancer screening among final year undergraduate nurse and midwife students. Methods: We conducted a survey during the academic year 2017-2018 at all training institutes in nursing and midwifery across the city of Antananarivo. Result: Thirteen out of 15 existing institutes in Antananarivo participated in the survey. Questionnaires were completed by 369 students. All reported that they had heard of cervical cancer. Less than a third (28.8%) knew any risk factors of cervical cancer. Only 8% found the two screening techniques used in Madagascar. Most respondents (96.47%) said that screening for cervical cancer was important but 97.13% of women had never taken a cervical screening. Conclusion: Knowledge of cervical screening was low in midwife and nurse students in Antananarivo.

  106. Tovo Harivony, Razakanaivo, M., NO Andrianandrasana, Randriamalala, R., Ramboamampianina, O and Rafaramino, F.

    Introduction: Neurofibromatosis Type 1 (NF1) is a multi-organ disorder of genetic origin, transmitted through the autosomal dominant modality. Peripheral nervous sheath malignant tumors (PNSMT) are rare highly aggressive soft tissue sarcomas, they represent 5-10% of soft tissue sarcomas (2) and are the main complication of NF1. We report in this article a giant PNSMT observation complicating a NF1. Observation reported: This is a 50 years-old woman with cutaneous neurofibroma since adolescence and no other specific antecedent. Plexiform neurofibroma of the left flank increased rapidly in size, becoming ulcero-necrotic and inflammatory, and malodorous. The examination showed coffee-milk and cutaneous neurofibromas on almost the whole body, pleoform neurofibromas in the occiput, vertex and vulva, and budding, whitish, ulcero-necrotic, pedicled, hemorrhagic, 210mmx170mm at the left flank. In the back of the eye, nodules of Lish were present. The biopsy of the giant tumor was in favor of aMPNST. Chest x-ray and abdominal and pelvic ultrasound were normal. The patient died before the surgery.

  107. Manuj Awasthi and Manju Negi

    The experiment was carried out at Fruit Nursery of VCSG Uttarakhand University of Horticulture and Forestry, Bharsar, Pauri, Garhwal, Uttarakhand, India, in 2016. To investigate the effect of different time of budding on the performance of Nectarine cv ‘Red June’ as a bud stick cultivar on peach root stock. Peach seedlings were budded at 15 days interval from 20th August to 20th September. The data showed that budding time and had no significant effect on number of leaves, while it significantly affected the days taken to sprouting, length of longest sprout(cm), diameter of thickest sprout(cm), number of branches, bud take success rate, survival budded plant percentage and total saleable plant percentage. Earliest bud sprout(161.46), Maximum number of leaves(135.15), length of longest sprout (85.68 cm), diameter of thickest sprout(0.93 cm), bud take success rate (87.63%), survival of budded plant(86.52%) and total saleable plant (96.86%) were observed for the plants budded on 20th August. Maximum number of days to sprouting (176.12 days), and minimum Number of leaves(103.45), length of shortest sprout (66.36 cm), diameter of sprout(0.68 cm), bud take success rate (72.38 %), survival of budded plant (71.21 %) and total saleable plant (88.49 %) were recorded for the plants budded on 20th September.

  108. Th. Romabati Devi and Kananbala Sarangthem

    Some biochemical parameters were studied in the leaves/shoots of seven wildly occurring vegetables viz, Amaranthus viridis L. (Chengkruk), Chenopodium album L. (Monsaobi), Polygonum perfoliatum L. (Linha-maton), Stellaria aquatica L.(Yerum-keirum), Cissus javanica DC. (Kongouyen), Zanthoxylum acanthopodium DC. (Mukthrubi) and Antidesma acidum Retz. (Ching-yensin). The parameters included determination of percentage of total soluble sugars reducing sugars, total free amino acids and proteins on moisture free basis, in addition to moisture content. The level of total sugars, reducing sugars and total free amino acids are maximum in Antidesma acidum and in this species the moisture content is least next to Zanthoxylum acanthopodium. The protein level is highest in Stellaria aquatica and minimum level is observed in Zanthoxylum acanthopodium. The lowest content of total soluble sugars and reducing sugars are found in Polygonum perfoliatum and in case of total free amino acids, Cissus javanica have the minimum content.

  109. Vijeta Angural and Sandhya Jain

    Anterior open bite cases are very difficult to treat satisfactorily because of their multifactorial etiology and their very high relapse rate. Dependent on the origin of the anterior open bite malocclusion and the patient’s age, there are several treatment possibilities ranging from deterrent appliances, high-pull headgear, fixed appliances with and without extractions to orthognathic surgery, and skeletal anchorage with miniplates or minis crews. This article reviews and describes the prevalence, classification, etiology, treatment strategies and stability of open bite malocclusion.

  110. Shams M. Alshamasi and Nigel Westbrook

    This paper investigates the design deficiencies in the current Saudi house. It sheds light on the socio-cultural and climatic responses that should be offered by the physical form in order to enhance its passive performance and reducing the reliance on mechanical cooling. A typical size of a common design of a domestic unit is analysed. The analysis identifies the main design deficiencies which contribute to extensive reliance on mechanical cooling. Recommendations to improve the current design are set up.

  111. Dr. Ritika Dhamija, Dr. Nishant Chauhan, Dr. Natasha Saini and Dr. Bindu Kadian

    Introduction: Through and through bony lesions are characterized by erosion of both buccal and palatal/lingual bony plate in relations to the teeth apices. PRP has been used in various fields and proven beneficial in healing. Case description: Lack of both buccal and lingual cortical plates was confirmed both clinically and CBCT in the case. Endodontic Microsurgery was performed following modern techniques and the lesions were filled with PRP before closure. A follow up was done at 12 month follow up. Discussion: Various studies have demonstrated the role of different GTR techniques in the healing of through and through lesions. PRP being a rich source of growth factors found to enhance healing. However there is a scarce literature on the use of PRP in endodontics. We have assessed the radiographic healing with the use of PRP. Conclusion: Our case report has demonstrated both clinical and radiographic success using PRP in through and through defect at the end of 12 months.

  112. Gloria Ajami Makokha

    Comparative Literature brings about a sense of the unity of knowledge. Comparative analysis allows for understanding and adaptation without necessitating elimination of opposing views or the absolute privileging of one theoretical position, thus the differences and similarities within and across literary genres are perceived. The context, geographical or historical hugely influences the interpretation of the message in these genres. This paper, therefore seeks to conduct a comparative analysis of six selected poems, with an aim of establishing the elements of comparison, including the tone, personas, themes and styles, with a leaning on the theoretical standpoints of Marxism and Postcolonialism. Projected arguments by various comparative literature critics are featured to help decipher the message in the poems.

  113. Ramya, R. and Dr. Rajalakshmi, D.

    Introduction: Fartlek is a great training tool. Fartlek means "speed-play" and is very effective in increasing a runner's speed and endurance. Fartlek is a relatively unstructured type of continuous training that originated in Scandinavia. It is performed over natural terrain. A typical session lasts about 45 min. The route is predetermined, but the pace is varied from fast bursts to jogging and walking, according to the terrain, and the disposition of the runner. Depending on the precise composition, Fartlek training can improve both the aerobic and anaerobic capacity of the athlete. Many coaches use Fartlek training because it provides relief from highly structured types of training. Purpose: The purpose of this study was to find out effect of fartlek training on selected physical fitness and skill performance variables among intercollegiate level hockey players. Hypothesis: It was hypothesized that there would be significant differences due to fartlek training on selected physical fitness and skill performance variables among intercollegiate level hockey players from baseline to post treatment. It was also hypothesized that experimental group would show significant difference than the control group on selected skill related fitness variables among intercollegiate level hockey players. Methodology: Thirty women hockey players aged from 18 to 25 years who were represented intercollegiate level were selected as subjects to achieve the purpose of this study. They were dived into two groups of fifteen each. One group underwent the experimental treatment for a period of six weeks on fartlek training and another group acted as control group. The performance in 150 meters sprint was used to measure the speed endurance. The performance in Sit ups was used to measure the muscular endurance. The performance in Henry Friedal Field Hockey skill test was used to measure the ability of pass receiving, fielding and drive while moving. Statistical technique: The data collected from the subject on selected physical and physiological variables were statistically analyzed by using ‘t’ ratio, 0.05 level of confidence was fixed to test the level of significance. Conclusion: The study concluded that speed endurance, muscular endurance and ability of pass receiving, fielding and drive while moving, were significantly improved to the influence of farlek training group among intercollegiate school hockey players.

  114. Kaustuv Bhattacharyya

    The present paper aims to document the plants belonging to the class Liliopsida (sensu Takhtajan, 2009) of the erstwhile undivided Bardhaman district of West Bengal, India. During the present investigation, a total of 300 species of monocotyledonous plants belonging to 177 genera and 47 families have been inventoried. The evolutionary tilt of this group of plants of the region towards cosmopolitan-, evolutionarily younger Liliopsid genera than endemic-, and evolutionarily older ones have also been indicated. Finally, some management strategies for the sustainable conservation of the inventoried plants have been suggested.

  115. Dr. Diksha Suri and Dr. R. Somasekar

    Introduction: Lower respiratory tract infections are a common cause of hospitalisation in infants. It is estimated that infants younger than 12 months with bronchiolitis account for 18% of all paediatric admission , representing a great burden to industrialised healthcare systems each winter. Bronchiolitis is defined as the first respiratory tract infection in infants younger than 12 months. Clinically, it can be manifested by cough, tachypnoea, apnoea, increased respiratory effort, fever, nasal congestion and rhinorrhoea. On chest auscultation, the key feature is diffuse bilateral inspiratory crackles. The most common virus detected in children with bronchiolitis is respiratory syncytial virus (RSV). Aim of the Study: To compare the length of hospital stay (primary) and improvement in clinical severity scores (secondary) among children with bronchiolitis nebulized with 3 % hypertonic saline or 0.9% saline. Materials and Methods: It is a randomized, double-blind, controlled trial involving infants and children aged 1 to 24 months hospitalized with acute bronchiolitis of moderate severity. Nebulization of 4 ml of 3% hypertonic saline or 4 mL of 0.9% saline, along with 2.5 mg salbutamol, at 4-hourly intervals was done till the patient was ready for discharge. Monitoring parameters for improvement or worsening of the condition were measured and recorded at admission and then at 12 hourly intervals. Results: Baseline characteristics were similar in two groups. Median clinical severity score at admission was 6 (IQR-1) in both the groups. Clinical severity scores monitored afterwards 12-hourly till discharge (132 h) did not show statistically significant differences in 3% and 0.9% saline groups. Mean length of hospital stay (time to reach predefined clinical severity score<3) was 63.91 ± 22.46 h in 3% saline group and 63.54 ± 21.25 h in 0.9% saline group (P=0.878). No adverse events were reported by the parents, caregivers or treating medical attendants in both groups. Conclusion: Nebulized 3 % saline is not superior to 0.9% saline in infants with clinically diagnosed acute bronchiolitis.

  116. Ishfaq Ahmad Gilkar, Javid Ahmad Peer, Umer Mushtaq , Yaqoob Hassan, Varun Dogra and Ahlam Manzoor Khan

    Introduction; With the modernization and hasty life Accidents are considered as a modern day epidemic. Worldwide one third of trauma patients have abdominal trauma and remains a frequent cause of preventable death. Materials and Methods; The present study was carried out in a tertiary care hospital government medical college Srinagar from june 2014 to may 2019. It’s a prospective study entitling 677 patients getting admitted in our hospital as a case of isolated abdominal trauma. Results; mean age in our study is 29.32, male female ratio of 3.3, injuries sustained were mostly blunt trauma abdomen followed by penetrating injury, more than 90% patients presented with pain abdomen, most common solid visceral injured organ was spleen (19.7%) followed by liver (15%) and About 66.6% of patients were subjected to emergency laparotomies and remaining 33.3% patients were observed and managed conservatively. Conclusion; With the modernization and dramatic rise in automobile industries the consequent rise in rate of road traffic accidents is nothing new but an avoidable mishap that if sufferer is mobilized to tertiary care hospital as early as possible will definitely change the prognosis and morbidity.

  117. Ishfaq Ahmad Gilkar, Varun Dogra, Umer Mushtaq, Javidahmad Peer, Yaqoob Hassan and Sheemajavid Hafiz

    Introduction-Placement of negative suction drain in subcutaneous plane in emergency laparotomy has been shown to drastically reduce incidence of infection by many mechanisms like evacuation of seroma, evacuation of infected content thereby decreasing bacterial load which results in improved healing better wound management and decreased morbidity and hospital stay. Materials and methods-This was a tertiary hospital based observational study carried in the department of general surgery government medical college Srinagar Kashmir, over a period of two years from august 2017 to august 2019 entitling 100 patients who underwent emergency midline laparotomies for purulent peritonitis. Results- mean age in group A was 32.7 and mean age in group B was 35.2, males were predominate both groups, In both the groups the underlying pathology was mostly perforated appendix or duodenal perforations which contributes to almost half of the patients, . development of post-operative surgical site infection were less common in vacuum assisted group which was 7% incomparison to other group which has 42%,mean duration of hospital stay in group A was 11.2 days and in Group B it was 7.8 days. Conclusion-placement of subcutaneous negative pressure drain not only improves better management of contaminated-dirty wounds better and also ensures early recovery.

  118. Tesfaye Megerssa Oljira

    In this paper, common fixed point theorems of f-contraction mapping have been established with generalized altering distance function. Existence and uniqueness of common fixed point off-contraction mapping with generalized altering distance function in partially ordered metric spaces satisfying occasionally weakly compatible maps are proved.





Rosane Cavalcante Fragoso, Brasil


Chief Scientific Officer and Head of a Research Group

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