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February 2017

  1. Dr. Indira Arumugam, Subhashini, N. and kantha, K.

    Population explosion is a major problem in India and also second most country in the world. Population grows in this manner India will become the most populous country in another few years and also have the more than 248 billion reproductive age girls .For combating this problem India has implemented many family planning methods. The extent of acceptance of contraceptive methods still varies within and between societies and also among different castes and religion groups. The present study was carried out with the aim to assess the practice regarding temporary contraceptive methods.30 reproductive age (15-45 years) group women selected by using randomized technique and data obtained after getting informed consent by interview method and data documented. Statistical analysis performed. The finding explored that out of 30 subjects majority of the women 27(90%) were not practicing any temporary contraceptive measures, 2(7%) women were practicing occasionally and 1(3%) women practicing regular temporary contraceptive measures. Education of the subjects will play an important role in the practices of temporary contraceptives methods. The present study concluded that furthermore education to the public is necessary for improving the practice of temporary contraceptive methods and also emphasizing the positive uses of contraception.

  2. Kafil Akhtar, Mohd Rafey, Noora Sayeed and Afzal Anees

    Angiolipomas are benign neoplasms of adipose tissue with a rich vascular component and are classified as either infiltrating or noninfiltrating. Noninfiltrating angiolipoma is seen in young individuals, present as painful, soft, subcutaneous nodules and is treated by enucleation. Infiltrating angiolipoma is a rare neoplasm with only 23 previously reported cases. These lesions are usually unencapsulated or rarely partially encapsulated and tend to infiltrate bony, neural, muscular, and fibrocollagenous tissue. Treatment of infiltrating angiolipomas is aimed at wide excision with radiotherapy indicated for cases of recurrence. A rare case of infiltrating angiolipoma of the nasopharynx causing the eustachian tube dysfunction in a 63 year old male is reported.

  3. Dr. Ramteke, R.V. and Dr. Madane, R. B.

    Introduction: A variety of non-neoplastic and neoplastic lesions involve the nasal cavity (NC), paranasal sinuses (PNS) and nasophyrynx (NP) and these are very common lesions encountered in clinical practice. Among this granulomatous and neoplastic lesions are important for both ENT surgeon and Pathologist. Exact diagnosis of the lesions can affect treatment as well as prognosis. Objectives: To study the clinical and histopathological features of various lesions of NC, PNS and NP. Methods: In the present prospective study, total number of 50 cases (male 35, female 15; age group ranging from less than 1 y to 76 y) of space occupying lesions of NC, PNS and NP over the period of 24 months (from September 2009 to September 2011) with presenting history of lesions in NC, PNS and NP to ENT department were investigated and included. All tissues after fixation in 10% buffered formalin, processed and then stained with Hematoxylin & Eosin to study various histopathological patterns. Photographic documentation of macroscopic appearance of lesions and histopathological correlation of clinical diagnosis was done. Results: The non-neoplastic lesions are more common than neoplastic lesions in age group of 20-30 years with male predominance. Among NC, PNS and NP masses, there were 41 (82%) non-neoplastic and 09 (18%) neoplastic lesions. Inflammatory polyps (89.5%) were the most common among the non-neoplastic masses; squamous cell carcinoma (46.15%) was the commonest out of all malignant masses. Conclusion: It is difficult to comment on nature of polyps, by clinical examination and gross examination of specimen and hence histopathological examination is mandatory for diagnosis and management.

  4. Anusha Gummadi, Anupama Masapu, Greeshma Matarasi, Salavadhi Shyam Sunder Mussalaiah Sunkara, Aravind Kumar and Sankalp Verma

    Background: The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the clinical efficacy of free rotated papilla autograft technique combined with coronally advanced flap and coronally advanced flap alone on other side using the microsurgical techniques in root coverage procedures and to compare the efficacy of these two surgical therapeutic modalities in the treatment of localized gingival recession. Method: 20 patients showing Miller’s class I and class II type of localized gingival recession on the contralateral sides were selected and assigned randomly into experimental site A (free rotated papillary autograft combined with coronally advanced flap) and experimental site B (coronally advanced flap.) using microsurgical approach, according to the split-mouth design. The clinical parameters recorded were Plaque Index, Gingival Index, Recession depth, Recession width, Probing depth, Clinical attachment level, and Width of keratinized gingiva at baseline and 12 months post-operatively. Results: All parameters improved from baseline to 12 months. The mean plaque index at baseline was 0.89 ± 0.11 which was reduced to 0.62 ± 0.11 at 12. The mean gingival index at baseline was 0.73 ± 0.12 which was reduced to 0.46 ± 0.12 at 12 months. Conclusion: Both groups showed adequate amount of coverage of recession sites. However on comparison between the two groups, the mean difference in clinical parameters between the two procedures showed no statistical significance.

  5. Dr. Varun Malhotra, Dr. Megha Kapoor and Dr. Manish Sharma

    Background: Knowledge of risk factors associated with ischaemic heart diseases help us to prevent those dreadful diseases which are becoming a health hazard in our society. Aims and Objectives: To find out the association of Ischemic heart disease (IHD) with risk factors like age, sex, religion, smoking, alcohol, occupation, hypertension and diabetes mellitus. Materials and Methods: A prospective study, in a sample of 410 patients attending the medicine OPD, was done in a tertiary care hospital to find out an association of risk factors and ischaemic heart disease. Results: Out of 410 patients, 226 patients were of myocardial infarction and 133 of angina. The mean age of subjects with MI was 38.87+9.64 years with male to female ratio of 1.4:1 and 37.62+9.26 years for angina subjects with male to female ratio of 1.1:1. In MI patients 19.46% of subjects were obese with 23.89% subjects giving history of smoking whereas these figures for angina were 25.56% and 15.03% respectively. In MI subjects association of diabetes mellitus and hypertension was seen in 30% and 28.76% whereas in angina it was 20.30% and 15.03%. 28.76% subjects of MI and 15.03% subjects of angina gave family history suggestive of IHD. The occurrence of MI was 43.36%, 32.33%, 14.28% and 9.02% in subjects doing government service, business, no occupation and agriculturists, respectively whereas angina occurrence was 44.28%, 28.57%, 21.42% and 5.71% among agriculturists, servicemen, businessmen and those with no occupation, respectively. Conclusion: The IHD was more common among men as compared to women. The ratio of males to females with MI was 1.4:1 and for angina was 1.1:1. The occurrence of IHD was highest among subjects with age less than 40 years. The relation of obesity and diabetes mellitus with IHD is statistically insignificant. Higher numbers of patients were alcoholic as compared to controls. Hypertension had a strong association with ischaemic heart disease. Ischemic heart disease was more common among men who pursued an occupation in which sedentary lifestyle was present.

  6. Mbongo, J.A., Mahoungou, F., Nguesso, N.I., Gombet Koulimaya, C.E. and Iloki, L.H.

    Objectif: Décrire et analyser les connaissances, attitudes et pratiques des femmes congolaises face au dépistage du cancer du col de l’utérus afin de faire une approche évaluative avec le projet pilote de lutte contre le cancer du col utérin existant. Patientes et Méthode: Il s’est agi d’une étude CAP, de type descriptif (CAP1: l’analyse des résultats est rapide, mais il est difficile d’établir le lien entre l’intervention et le changement observé), ayant concerné les femmes venues en consultation tout venant et/ou accompagnant les autres. Résultats: Sur l’existence du cancer du col de l’utérus du cancer du col de l’utérus, 81/103 soit 78, 6% des femmes ont la connaissance; 60 /103 soit 58,3 % d’entre elles savaient qu’il existe les moyens de dépistage. Cependant, les taux de manque de connaissance ont été respectivement de 94/103 (91,3%) pour le début et de 98/103 (95,2%) pour la fin du dépistage ; 99/103 (96,1 %) pour la fréquence du dépistage ; 81/103 (78,6 %) pour le coût du dépistage et 87/103 (90,3%) pour le caractère non douloureux du dépistage. Pour l’attitude des femmes au dépistage du cancer du col de l’utérus, 98/103 femmes (95,1%) n’ont jamais fait de dépistage. Parmi les 5 femmes ayant fait le dépistage, 3 (2,9%) l’ont fait au bon moment et connaissaient la date de leur dernier dépistage. Au moment de l’interview 45/103 (43,7%) ont été motivées pour faire le dépistage. Malgré le counceling, préalable à l’appréciation de leur pratique au moment de l’interview, seulement 61/103(59,2%) femmes ont manifesté le désir de se faire dépisté ultérieurement ; 85/103 (82,5%) d’entre elles n’ont pas retenu le moment de leur prochain dépistage ; 58/103(56,3%) qui ont manifesté le désir immédiat du dépistage et en ont bénéficié effectivement. Conclusion: L’attitude des femmes face au dépistage du cancer du col de l’utérus est encourageante, cela contraste avec leur niveau insuffisant de connaissances et une pratique encore timide.

  7. Krishnasamy Narayanasamy, Subash, S., Janifer Jasmine, J., Prem kumar, K., Chezhian A., Priyadarshini, P., Koodal raj, A. and Muthu kumaran, R.

    Aim: To determine the prevalence of Rh positivity, distribution of blood groups, Blood Borne Infectious Diseases (BBID), age and weight related to blood donors, test validation and post donation counseling among the South Indian blood donors. Materials and Methods: Blood screening for blood borne infectious diseases were done for, 1, 70,001 blood donors with in Rajiv Gandhi Government General Public Hospital. Age, weight, test validation, look back process done and recorded. Results: Among the 1, 70,001 blood donors, (Rh positive: 96.3%, Rh negative: 3.7%). Blood groups, were (A-17.9%, B-34.2%, O-42.1% and AB-5.7%). 1775 donors (1.04%) were reactive for HIV, HBsAg and HCV. Of, 1775 donors 51 donors were reactive for HIV (2.8%), 1657 were reactive for HBsAg (93.4%) and 67 were reactive for HCV (3.8%). Increased age and less weight in HIV reactive donors, increased age and body weight in HCV donors and decreased age and increased body weight in HBsAg donors were found. Enzyme-Linked Immune-Sorbent Assay (ELISA) was sensitive 71.3% and rapid test was sensitive in 28.7%. In regional distribution, we found 1435 (80.8%) reactive blood donors donated blood in Chennai and 340 (19.2%) were found Other Than Chennai (OTC). Conclusion: In conclusion our study reflected higher number of Rh+ blood donors, higher distribution of blood group were “O” followed by “B”. HBsAg was higher among blood donors. Older age and lesser weight in HIV reactive donors, young with increased body weight in HBsAg and older and higher body weight in HCV reactive donors. ELISA was best in test validation.

  8. Shravan Kumar, D. R., Charu Suri, Syed Afroz Ahmed, Shahela Tanveer, Kiran Kumar G. and Ketaki Joshi

    Background and Objectives: Leukoplakia is the most common potentially malignant lesion of the oral cavity. As the histological study of oral leukoplakia cannot predict precisely the malignant transformation of this lesion and metallothionein (MT) is a protein that has been associated with carcinogenesis, this study could be auxiliary in this histological assessment of this lesion. The present study was done to evaluate the immunoexpression of metallothionein in oral leukoplakia (OL) and to correlate with histological grade and clinical localization. Methods: 30 diagnosed cases of oral leukoplakia along with 10 cases of normal oral mucosa were taken for the study. Oral leukoplakia was graded as: hyperkeratosis without dysplasia change (8 cases), mild dysplasia (13 cases), moderate dysplasia (6 cases) and severe dysplasia (4 cases). Immunohistochemistry for the metallothionein was performed and the Pearson Chi-Square test was used in statistical analysis. Results: In normal oral mucosa MT expression is restricted only to basal and parabasal cells with a mosaic cytoplasmic-nuclear expression pattern, whereas in dysplastic lesions an additional focus in the spinous layer was noted. Interpretation and Conclusion: Metallothionein expression was highest in severe dysplasia with the lowest expression found in cases of Hyperkeratosis without dysplasia. The expression in mild dysplasia and moderate dysplasia was more or less equal. Thus, this study suggests that Metallothionein overexpression can be one of the useful diagnostic marker for predicting the potential behavior of oral Leukoplakia turning into oral squamous cell carcinoma. (OSCC)

  9. Dr. Isha Kaur Bagga, Dr. Pratik Jain and Dr. ParikhAbhishekVijaykumar

    The objectives of our study was to evaluate the efficacy, safety and tolerability of transdermal diclofenac sodium patch for in the management of postoperative pain following surgical removal of impacted mandibular third molars. Material and method: 100 healthy subjects belonging to both the sexes in the age group of 18–40 years with impacted third molar teeth were included in the study. 60 minutes before extraction, Transdermal patch of Diclofenac sodium 100mg (Diclo-patch) was applied. Subsequently surgical removal of impacted tooth was done under local anesthesia after administering the nerve block and patient was asked to change patch every 24 hours for the next 3 days. The postoperative pain was recorded on The Visual Analog Scale (VAS), Verbal Rating Scale (VRS), Pain Intensity Scale (PIS), Pain Relief Scale (PRS). Any adverse effects were also noted. Readings were taken at 4hours, 6hours, 8hours, 12hours and 24 hours postoperatively, taking the time at which the surgery was completed as a reference. Participants were given Diclofenac Sodium Transdermal Patch 100mg once a day for 3 days after performing surgery followed by follow up of 2days. Results: The statistical analysis was done using chi-square test and clinical observation revealed that on the first postoperative day significant relationship was somewhat less when diclofenac sodium administered transdermally. Though, on the second and third postoperative days there was no statistical or clinical difference in the pain control by this route of administration and found to be most effective in almost all patients whereas was even easy acceptable by them. Conclusion: The study concludes that transdermal diclofenac sodium can be used as an alternative form of pain control following removal of impacted mandibular third molars, however considering that the analgesic potency might be lesser in the immediate postoperative period in sensitive and anxious patients.

  10. Dr. Priyadharshini, V., Dr. Triveni, M.G., Dr. Mehta, D.S. and Dr. Tarun Kumar, A.B.

    Background: Nitric oxide (NO) being a free radical has been evidenced to play a controversial role in the etiopathogenesis of periodontal disease. The present longitudinal study aims to investigate the levels of salivary NO metabolites in healthy as well as in chronic periodontitis patients, its correlation with the periodontal clinical parameters and the effects of periodontal treatment on salivary NO metabolites in CP patients. Methods: A case-control interventional study was conducted. A total of 54 subjects -36 CP patients and 18 healthy controls were enrolled for this study. The controls were allotted as Group I whereas the CP patients were divided based on the treatment delivered as Group II (scaling and root planing [SRP]) or Group III (SRP with periodontal flap surgery). Clinical parameters, such as probing depth (PD), clinical attachment level (CAL), sulcus bleeding index (SBI), and plaque index (PI) were recorded at baseline and at 12 weeks post- operative. The salivary NO metabolite levels were determined using a spectrophotometric technique. Results: At baseline, the salivary Nitrate, Nitrite and NO levels for Group II and Group III were higher than Group I controls. At 12 weeks post-operative the salivary Nitrate, Nitrite and NO levels for Group II and Group III were significantly reduced when compared with the baseline values. It was also evident that there was a more significant reduction in salivary NO metabolite levels in Group III which underwent surgical periodontal therapy as compared to Group II which underwent only non-surgical therapy (p< 0.05). Conclusions: Within the limits of the present study, salivary NO metabolites were significantly higher in CP patients when compared to controls. Its levels were positively correlated with the periodontal clinical parameters. The study also concludes that surgical periodontal treatment carried out in Group III patients showed an effective reduction in the salivary NO metabolite levels as compared to the non-surgical periodontal treatment performed in Group II patients. Therefore, surgical periodontal treatment offers added advantage in reducing the damaging effects of NO free radical.

  11. Dhulkhed, V. K., Pavan Dhulkhed, Bilal Mohammad, Indrajit Gupta and Gagandeep Singh

    Background: Surgery and anaesthesia by itself is a stress. Although a normal patient goes through it without adverse effects, in a patient with insulin dependent diabetes it can lead to significant hyperglycaemic reaction. It was observed that a skillfully conducted regional anaesthesia is better as far as glycemic control is concerned and overall outcome of the patient postoperatively, compared to general anaesthesia (GA) technique. Therefore, we though it prudent to test our hypothesis on patients with well controlled diabetes, on insulin therapy, to compare regional versus GA technique. Method: We recruited 120 patients with well controlled DM on subcutaneousinsulin scheduled for surgery in this comparative clinical study into two groups, Group ITGA (Intratracheal General Anaesthesia) and Group NB (Neuraxial Block) of 60 each.The blood sugar levels were recorded before induction, intraoperatively every 20 minutes and post-operatively every hourly till 5 hours. The systolic and diastolic blood pressure, heart rate and SPO2 were recorded every 20 minutes intraoperatively and post-operatively. Result: BSL was significantly higher immediately after induction, intraoperatively and postoperatively at all levels in group ITGA compared to group NB. Insulin requirement was more in ITGA group as compared to NB group intraoperatively and postoperatively. Wound healing was better in group NB as compared to group ITGA. Conclusion: In well controlled diabetic type 2 patients subjected to surgery, glycemic control under ITGA was poor compared to those under NB intra and post operatively and that the patients in former group needed early and more repeated insulin supplementation to control BSL to desired level.

  12. Leny Thomas Mathew, Suresh Kumar and Stephen Abraham Suresh Kumar

    Bilateral medial medullary stroke is a very rare type of stroke, with catastrophic consequences. Early diagnosis is crucial. Here, we report a case presenting with acute vertigo, progressive generalized weakness of all 4 limbs, dysarthria, and decreased single breath count. Brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) that was done showed characteristic “heart appearance” shape at diffusion weighted (DWI), and confirmed bilateral medial medullary stroke. Other possibilities were excluded by lumbar puncture and MRI of cervical spine with screening of whole spine. Retrospectively, a vague-defined hyperintense linearDWI signal at midline was noted in the first brain MRI. Because of the symmetric and midline pattern of this abnormal signal and similarityto an artifact, some radiologists or neurologists may miss this type of stroke. Radiologists and neurologists must co relate clinical and MRI findings of this rare type of stroke, where early treatment could make a difference in patient outcome and therapy. The abnormal DWIsignal in early stages of this type of stroke may not be a typical “heart appearance” shape, and other variants such as small dot or linear DWI signal at midline must be recognized as early signs of stroke. Also, MRI of cervical spine may be helpful if there is suspicion of spinal pathology.

  13. Yadav Rao, K., Parthasarathi Reddy, P., Shakeel Anjum, MD, Monica, M., Irram A. and Sai Pravallika, T.

    Background: Health is multifactorial and every individual’s biological makeup influences health through interaction with social and physical environments as well as behavior. In thermal power station different groups of employees are exposed to different working conditions and environmental factors at their work place in turn making them prone to various health hazards and succumbing to habits detrimental to their general and oral health. Objective: To assess the oral hygiene status and practices. Methods: A total of 294 thermal power plant workers were enrolled in the study. Data was collected using “WHO oral health proforma 2013”. Intra oral examination and tobacco habits were recorded. Intra examiner reliability was 0.84-kappa value. Results: Caries experience was found to be (46.3%) with a mean DMFT of 1.09±1.74. About 9% study subjects were with untreated dental caries and 15.6% subjects were with missing teeth. 40.4% subjects were having unhealthy periodontium in terms of gingival bleeding and/or periodontal pockets and about 239 (81.2%) and 52 (17.6%) of subjects were with 0-3mm and 4-5mm loss of attachment respectively. 40% of the workers were having habits like tobacco and alcohol consumption. Conclusion: Though adequate periodic dental services are provided still majority of power plant workers had poor oral hygiene and moderate dental caries and periodontitis.

  14. Prabu, P. K.

    Objectives: To combine Trendenlenburg Positioning of Patient and Intra Procedural Forced Diuresis during Shock Wave Lithotripsy to improve stone clearance rate for Lower Calyceal Stones. To compare the results obtained with that of Standard Supine Shock Wave Lithotripsy for Lower Calyceal Stones. Methods: A prospective study was done in Institute of Urology, MMC, Chennai between February 2015 to February 2016. All patients presented with isolated lowerpole renal calculi of size between 7-20mm were registered. Total number of patients included are 132. Among them 33 patients refused to participate in the study and 14 patients who failed to follow up are excluded. All patients selected were allotted randomly in to two groups. Group A, comprising 62 patients who underwent ESWL with inversion therapy and intra-procedural diuresis Group B, comprising 56 patients, who underwent standard Supine ESWL and the data including number of sessions, success rate, and complications are all recorded and analysed. Results: Both groups were comparable in terms of Demography (age, sex) and in terms of Stone Characteristics. Based on number of sessions for ESWL, there is a significant increase in number of third session required in Group B, when compared to Group A. (P value 0.044) Regarding treatment success, both Stone Free Rate and Insignificant Residual Fragments are significantly higher in Group A, from first follow up itself, which increased steadily up to 12 weeks. (P value 0.04). Overall success rate achieved is 74.6%. And Treatment success rate achieved with the study group (Group A) is 82.3%, when compared to 66.1% achieved with the control group. There is a significant difference between the two groups in terms of treatment success. (p value 0.044) In both groups the average stone size and stone density as measured by stone attenuation value correlates significantly. Regarding complications there is no significant difference exists between the two Groups. Among the complications, colic is the most common, followed closely by LUTS and hematuria, then steinstrasse and fever in the order. Conclusion: Combination of Inversion with Intra Procedural Forced Diuresissignificantly improves the Stone Clearance Rate of Lower Calyceal Stones during Extra Corporeal Shock Wave lithotripsy. Though the results obtained are not as equivalent to that of Percutaneous Nephrolithotomy, ESWL with this combination of inversion with Forced Diuresis can be preferred for its specific advantages like Outpatient procedure, Non invasive intervention, No need for higher an aesthesia, No added cost and Can be repeated with least morbidity

  15. Gonçalo Sarmento, Fátima Leal-Seabra and Agripino Oliveira

    Background: The clinical spectrum of neurosyphilis (NS) has changed over time. The majority of cases are reported in HIV-infected patients, but the epidemiology of modern NS is not well defined because of the paucity of population-based data. Objective: To describe the clinical spectrum and characteristics of NS in HIV-negative patients. Materials and Methods: Diagnosticated cases of NS by diagnosis-related group presenting at Centro Hospitalar Gaia-Espinho a period of 6 years were identified. Diagnosis of NS was based on clinical presentation, routine CSF biochemistry (protein and leukocytes) and serological evidence serum and CSF Venereal disease research laboratory (VDRL) and Treponema pallidum haemagglutination assay (TPHA) tests. Results: We identified 47 clinical records and excluded 7 HIV positive cases, 1 case diagnosed in 2001 and 6 cases of unlikely diagnosis. In the other, the median age was 61 years with a male predominance (79.79%). We not identify asymptomatic patients and later forms were the most representative (57.58%) with a predominance of general paralysis (54.55%). All patients had serum and cerebrospinal fluid TPHA positive titers. VDRL performed in CSF was positive in 12 (36.36%). In 13 patients (39.39%) showed CSF pleocytosis and 27 (81.82%) elevated CSF protein were found. In the study by neuroimaging in 25 patients (75.76%) showed abnormalities. Conclusions: Neurosyphilis has various clinical manifestations, laboratory, and neuroimaging findings, but all studies lack specificity. Every patient with neurological or psychiatric symptoms that are without unambiguous causes should have blood tests for syphilis. When serology proves positive, patients should undergo CSF examination.

  16. Mohammad Azhar, Zarnigar, Sofi, G. and Mohammed Yasir

    Atherosclerosis is the hardening and narrowing of the arteries and is caused by the slow build-up of plaque inside the walls of arteries. The clinical manifestations of atherosclerosis include myocardial infarction, stroke and sudden cardiac death. The prevalence of the disease is high, and approximately 50% of all deaths globally can be attributed to atherosclerosis. The concept of Dusumate Dam in Unani literature has been considered responsible for the development of Salabate Sharaeen (atherosclerosis) and Simane Mufrit (obesity). A randomized, single-blind, standard controlled clinical trial was conducted in National Institute of Unani Medicine Hospital Bangalore, with the objective of evaluating the efficacy of Badranjboya (Nepeta hindostana) as a cardio-protective drug. A total of 30 patients with risks of atherosclerosis were selected randomly and assigned into two groups 20 in test and 10 in control groups. Test group was treated with Badranjboya powder, 6 grams twice a day for 2 months whereas control group was treated with Garlic powder, 2 grams powder filled in gelatin capsules and given in to two divided doses for the same duration. The response was evaluated by the assessment of subjective parameters (palpitation, breathlessness, headache and chest pain) and objective parameter (blood pressure, lipid profile, haematocrit value and random blood sugar). The data was tabulated and analyzed by using apropriate statistical tests. Test group showed significant reduction in subjective parameters (p<0.01) and objective parameters like blood pressure, MDA concentration, whereas significant increase in HDL level (p<0.01) but changes in serum cholesterol, triglyceride, LDL, and haematocrit values were found statistically not significant in both groups. The effect of the drug was prominent on vessels wall. The overall improvement in test group was highly remarkable, without any clinically and statistically significant side effects or toxicity. Therefore, it can be concluded that Badranjboya has encouraging potential in the prevention of atherosclerosis and it may be combined with other treatment modalities like weight control in obese, physical therapy and dietary modification etc. for optimal results.

  17. Betul Apaydin Yildirim, Saban Kordali, Serkan Yildirim and Fatih Yildirim

    In this study was aimed to investigate effects on the levels of plasma and rekto-anal tissue some biochemical and histopathological parameters of Polygonum cognatum Meissn extract on hemorrhoid rats. A total of 32 Spraque Dawley female rats, weighing 200-250 g were used in the present study. Thirty two rats were randomly assigned into 4 experimental groups (8 rats per group). They were allowed to adapt to laboratory conditions for 7 days. The study was conducted for 18 days. Rats were divided into the following groups: Control Group, Croton oil Group, Polygonum cognatum Meissn. extract (PCE) Group, Croton oil + Polygonum cognatum Meissn extract Group. After 3 days of croton oil application, rats were treated with Polygonum cognatum Meissn extract for 15 days. Blood and recto-anal tissue samples were collected for biochemical and histopathological studies. Plasma and recto-anal tissue glutathione, catalase, glutathione peroxidase and superoxide dismutase activity were significantly decreased in compaired to Croton oil group. Despite this decrease, plasma malondialdehyde; recto-anal malondialdehyde and myeloperoxidase levels increased in this group. In contrast plasma catalase, glutathione peroxidase and superoxide dismutase activity and recto-anal tissue glutathione, catalase, glutathione peroxidase and superoxide dismutase activity were significantly increased, plasma malondialdehyde; recto-anal malondialdehyde and myeloperoxidase levels decreased in following treatment with PCE. Polygonum cognatum Meissn extract can play an protective role recto-anal tissue damage and oxidative stress that can be concerned with modulating of antioxidant molecule activities in rat of hemorrhoid which can be used safely for the treatment of hemorrhoids in the large population of patients who do not want to undergo surgery and do not want to use drugs or cream due to their many side effects. Polygonum cognatum Meissn extract can play an protective role recto-anal tissue damage and oxidative stress which may be related to modulating the activities of antioxidant molecules in rat model of hemorrhoid.

  18. Dr. Kanav Padha, Dr. Abdul Ghani and Dr. Mohd Javed Bhatti

    Introduction: Most of fractures of the shaft of the humeral shaft heal well when treated nonoperatively, nonunion is not a rare complication. The prevalence of nonunion as a complication of both nonoperative and operative treatment has been reported to be as high as 13%. Open reduction and plate fixation combined with autologous bone grafting can result in reliable healing of these humeral nonunions with excellent functional outcome. Material and Methods: Between 2009 and 2014, 30 nonunion cases of the humeral shaft were treated with open reduction and internal fixation by a plating. The series included 10 female patients and 20 male patients with an average age of 40years (range 20–60 years). The patients were followed up for an average of 18 months. The time from diagnosis of nonunion to our treatment of the nonunion averaged 9 months (range 6–24 months). Result: According to the Stewart and Hundley Criteria, the functional postoperative result was excellent or good in 22 (73%) cases and fair in eight (27%) cases. One year after surgery, all patients had an essentially normal range of motion of the ipsilateral elbow and shoulder. Conclusion: Surgical compression plating and autologous bone grafting of humeral diaphyseal nonunions resulted in 100% union rate and mostly excellent or good functional results without significant morbidity.

  19. Sumit Narayan Jarholiya and Dr. Shachi Awasthi

    Image fusion is defined as the process of combing more than one image from various environments of same scene into a single image. The resultant fused image gives more accurate information therefore information contents are increased in the fused image. It helps to diagnose the diseases like tumor, cancer, fracture in bones, ulcer and stones in the body etc. effectively. Discrete Wavelet Transform (DWT) is easy to implement, reduces the computation time, resources required and it also provides energy compaction, larger SNR and More accurate clinical information for medical diagnosis & evaluation. Dual Tree Complex Wavelet Transform (DT-CWT) provides better image visual eminence and shift invariance feature. Hence medical image fusion with the combination of DWT and DT-CWT will provide very good quality of fused image and efficiency of fused image will increase significantly. Various fusion applications have appeared in medical imaging like simultaneous evaluation of CT, MRI, and / or PET images.

  20. Santosh Dora

    Introduction: OHSS is a rare complication occurs following the use of assisted reproductive technologies. Most of the current literature describes spontaneous OHSS in patients with endocrine disorders, pregnancy with triploidy & invasive mole etc. But we describe an interesting case of spontaneous OHSS with its management, which mimics as ovarian malignancy in some aspect with no risk factor to develop OHSS. Case report: A 25yr old G4P0120 at 9+3 weeks was referred to us with severe abdominal pain & distension for 1 day. On examination she had gross ascites with bilateral ovarian cyst of size 11×7 cm & 12×9 cm. Her CA 125, βhCG, Hb&Hct were 445U/ml, 212844.26 miu/ml, 15.5 g/dl & 48% respectively. Her ascitic fluid cytology and culture for tuberculosis were normal. She was managed conservatively for 2 days. But with deteriorating general condition decision for termination of pregnancy was taken. After that she has improved both clinically, radiologically and biochemically. Conclusion: Spontaneous OHSS is a rare condition. It should be diagnosed early. The main stay of management is conservative with proper vitals monitoring. In rare case sometime termination of pregnancy or surgical management is required to improve maternal condition.

  21. Dr. Nishikant Gujar, Dr. Vijay Shivpuje, Dr. Shiraz Ahamed Sharief and Dr. Vijay, N.

    Genetic Hemorrhoids is very common Ano-Rectal condition with high prevalence and there are large number of treatment modality available to treat this frequently occurring condition Materials and Method: This prospective was carried out in department of surgery Al-Ameen medical college bijapur from 2006 to 2016. It includes 400 patients of haemorrhoids treated with different modality of treatment (injectionsclerotherapy, rubber band ligation, ligation and excision hemorrhoidectomy and circular stapelerhemorrhoidectomy). Results: 80% Group 'A' patients had mild pain postoperatively lasting for 1 day, RBL group had moderate pain in 76% lasting for 2-3 days. 80% Group 'C' patients had moderate pain for 2-3 days where as 70% patients in group 'D' had only mild pain for < 3 days. Retention of urine was seen in 33.3% of Group 'C' patients. Painful bowel action was seen in 66.7% of ligation and excision group. Most of the patients in INJ and RBL group went home on same day. In excision and ligation group patients stayed for 2-5 days and average of 1 day in stapled group. At 6 months follow up bleeding was seen in 33.3% of patients in Group 'A', 19% of patients in group 'B'. Prolapse was seen in 5.5% of patients in group 'A', 9.5% of patients of group 'B'. At one year follow up 40%, 25% and 8% of patients in group 'A', group 'B' and group 'C' respectively had bleeding. Prolapse was present in 10%, 16.7% and 8% of group 'A', 'B' and C respectively. CONCLUSION: Injection sclerotherapy and rubber band ligation to be the first option in the treatment of hemorrhoids, later if necessary by operative procedure.

  22. Sandeep Kumar Mitra, Chandrashekar, B.S., Vinay P Reddy, Mahesh, C.M., Mahendra, S. and Abhishek Sundara

    Aims and Objectives: To introduce K angle, a new cephalometric measurement to assess the sagittal jaw relationship. To define the mean value, the standard deviation for Kangle in people with the skeletal class I pattern and to determine whether there is a statistically significant difference between the mean value of Kangle between the skeletal class I, class II and class III groups. Materials and Methods: Seventy-five pretreatment lateral cephalograms (twenty-five each of Class I, II, and III) of patients between the age of 18 and 30 years were selected. They were again subdivided based on ANB and Wits appraisal into skeletal class I, class II, and class III groups, each group having twenty-five radiographs. The new measurement is based on the landmarks: Point M (midpoint of the anterior maxilla), Point G (center at the bottom of the symphysis) and apparent axis of the condyle (C). The K angle is the inferior angle measured at Point M, between the lines M-G and perpendicular from Point M to line C-G. Results: Subjects with K angle value between 40° and 46° were found to have a skeletal class I pattern. More acute angles implied skeletal class II pattern and more obtuse angles implied skeletal class III pattern. Conclusion: The K angle is an accurate, stable, reliable and reproducible parameter for the assessment of sagittal jaw relationship.

  23. Dr. Dhivya Ashok Kumar, Dr Kanchan Solanki, Dr Priya Subashchandra Bose and Dr Amar Agarwal

    Dirofilaria repens is an endemic parasite in Mediterranean countries that mostly affects animals. Rarely, it can infect humans causing inflammatory subcutaneous swelling. We present a 67 years old male patient with history of chemotherapy for carcinoma bladder who presented with painless swelling about 2x1.5cm approximately 4cm from the lower lid. The mass was freely mobile with no signs of inflammation. The excision biopsy showed three filarial parasites of Dirofilaria Repens species in the mass with mild granulation around them. The serology was negative. The case report showed that ocular filariasis can present as a non inflammatory tumour of the eyelid in non endemic regions (Tamil Nadu, where it is not often reported) also with blood serology being negative due to chronic immunosuppresion due to anticancer medications and radiotherapy.

  24. Dr. Sandeep Reddy Ravula, Dr. Leela Venkata Soujanya Nallamilli, Dr. AnilDev Dutt, Dr. Syed Khaja Aliuddin, Dr. Prashanth, P. and Dr. Sana Mohiuddin

    Pediatric mandibular fractures are less common when compared to the fractures of adults. The problem associated with mandibular fractures may vary from temporary or permanent loss of one of the important function of oral cavity like speech, esthetics and mastication. The management of these problems are also complicated due to the presence of tooth bud and potential growth difference. Among different management protocols the closed reduction with acrylic splint was found to be one of the safest, compatible with minimal or no complications. Here we describe the experience of a comprehensive management of a 3 years old boy with mandibular fracture caused in a road traffic accident.

  25. Dr. Ananya Pal, Dr. Shabnam Zahir, Dr. Gautam Kumar Kundu, Dr. Deepashree Paul and Dr. Deepshikha Singh

    Endodontic treatment of non-vital immature permanent teeth are a challenge itself, because of the size of the canal, the thin and fragile dentine walls and large open apex. The challenge has been faced by different treatment options like apicoectomy, apexification, regenerative and revascularization endodontics. The aim of the present article is to report three clinical cases of management of non-vital immature permanent teeth by using different treatment protocols. Child Patient with an age range of 8-10 yrs reported with a common chief complaint of pain. The clinical and radiographic examination revealed carious teeth with open apex in respect to 46 (2 cases) & Ellis class III fracture with open apex in 21(1case). Three different treatment plans were deviced for them. First case done by apexification using Ca(OH)2, Second case, done by MTA apexification & Third case, done by MTA apexification guided by PRF matrix. Apexification done by the discussed procedure have good success rate. The technique was selected depending upon the situation.

  26. Shikha Madan, Vinita Gupta, Pardeep Kumar

    Anemia is responsible for 40 to 60% of maternal death in non industrialized countries. The women are well aware about the tetanus toxoid , this can be used as an opportunity to give intramuscular iron to the patients for prophylaxis of anemia. The present study is used to evaluate the effectiveness of giving intramuscular iron as compared to oral iron for prophylaxis of anemia in pregnancy.

  27. Dr. Sonalee Shah, Dr. Manpreet Kaur and Dr. Navneet Singh Kathuria

    The saliva circulating in the mouth at any given time is termed as whole saliva and it comprises of a mixture of secretions from the major and minor salivary glands and traces from the gingival crevicular fluid. Like a mirror of the body’s health it contains proteins, hormones, antibodies and other molecules that are frequently measured in standard blood tests to monitor health and disease. Purpose:- In the present study we evaluated alterations of physical properties like ph, flow rate, buffering cpapcity and biochemical properties like salivary total protein, albumin, sIgA and calcium in periodontal disease in different age groups, analysed their interdependence and thereby assessed the probable role of various salivary parameters as a diagnostic aid in the detection of alterations in oral tissue integrity. Materials and Methods: - 60 cases and controls were taken for the study and three physical and four biochemical parameters were evaluated in all of them for each age group of 7 to 18 yrs., 18 to 36 yrs. and 40 to 60 yrs. T-test and Pearson test were used to analyze the data. Results:-Periodontitis patients showed significant change in salivary albumin and some change in buffer capacity with significant intergroup alterations of pH and calcium levels. Certain parametric changes were correlative also. Conclusion:- Changes in physical and some biochemical properties like calcium and sIgA in periodontitis cases were interrelated and an indirect effect of periodontitis. However, changes in albumin and therefore total proteins were to a greater extent a direct effect of periodontal inflammation.

  28. Dr. Shyamacharan A Samanth

    Aim: To check for Periodontal Treatment needs in school children of suburban Mumbai. Objective: To evaluate the Gingival disease in school children in suburban Mumbai. Materials and Methods: The data was collected from 409 students screened for signs of gingivitis in the age group of 10-18 in a private school in suburban Mumbai. All the children were otherwise healthy and had no signs of any other disease. Each student was checked for presence of dental caries, gingival inflammation and presence of malocclusion. A report was generated on the dental health requirements of each child and with information on tooth-brushing. Results: 409 children were examined out of which 390 had need for basic Periodontal Therapy and 19 were healthy with no sign of gingivitis or periodontal disease. In terms of oral hygiene maintenance out of 409 - 38 (9.3%) brushed twice daily and 371 (90.7%) brushed once. All the children brushed their teeth using toothbrush and toothpaste. Conclusion: According to this study the prevalence of gingivitis is 95% therefore a sustained awareness and treatment campaign should be considered.

  29. Dr. Pradkhshana Vijay and Dr. Nilesh Pardhe

    Lateral periodontal cyst is a developmental odontogenic cyst, mostly diagnosed radiographically as a well circumscribed or round radiolucency. Its location can often lead to misdiagnosis of having an endodontic origin. We report a classic case of lateral periodontal cyst arising in the canine-premolar region of a middle aged male patient with a brief on clinical features and review of literature.

  30. Dr. Suman Sen, Dr. Pradyumna Kumar Sahoo, Dr. Vihang Naphade and Dr. Smita Priyadarshani

    Aim is to evaluate and correlate the levels of psychological stress, serum cortisol and hemoglobin among different types of oral lichen planus patients in both the sex. Material and Methods: Study group comprises of 60 oral lichen planus (OLP) subjectsand 30 healthy subjects in control group. HAD scale is used to evaluate stress anxiety and depression. 5ml disposable syringe was used to collect blood for measuring cortisol and hemoglobin and ECI chemiluminescence method was used for serum cortisol level evaluation. Results and Conclusion: 95% of study group were having stress with P value of 0.0001 which is highly significant. Serum cortisol level also showed 381nmol in OLP subjects compared to 211nmol in Control group. OLP were significantly higher in the younger age group (18-39). Oral diseases were significantly higher in anxiety patients than indepression and control group patients. Most common is Reticular type (70%) of OLP followed by mixed, papular and erosive types. Most common site is buccal mucosa followed by gingiva and hard palate. Hemoglobin level hasn’t showed in significant change. Author also emphasis counseling to be part of management of OLP and relaxation technique included in day to day routine to combat the stress.

  31. Ambaga, M.

    By us postulated that evolution based biological mechanism of obesity have been connected with these processes as shift from the slow developed bioenergy accumulating regulations of early evolution times in the form as ADP + Pi + H+ + nH + memb.space, and the shortage of membraneredox potentials three - state line system, lack of O2 acceptor to more powerful energy accumulating systems as “Donators + membraneredox potentials three - state line system + O2 + ADP + Pi + H+ + nH + memb. space = (ATP + heat energy) + H2O + nH + matrix + CO2” and formation of 4 compartments of body (Ambaga and Tumen-Ulzii, 2015). The appearance of mitochondrial power systems in the form as “Donators + membraneredox potentials three - state line system + O2 + ADP + Pi + H+ + nH + memb.space = (ATP + heat energy) + H2O + nH + matrix + CO2” (Ambaga and Tumen-Ulzii, 2015) had give to organisms the possibility to accumulate the excessive saturated fatty acids inside body in 3-th compartment of 4 compartments of body as normal regulations and but this bioenergy accumulating mechanism sometimes turned to main reasons to cause the obesity .

  32. Dr. Rohit Premkumar Bulbule, Dr. Anurag Ayachit, Dr. Rajagopal, K. V. and Dr. Vivek Pandey

    Background: Aims & Objectives of this study is to evaluate meniscal injuries using volumetric MRI(VISTA) and to compare volumetric protocol with 2D protocol considering arthroscopy as reference standard. The purpose of this study is also to determine whether volumetric MRI is superior to 2D MRI in diagnosis of injuries AND/OR can allow reduction in total imaging time without loss of diagnostic efficiency. Methods: Total 51 subjects were studied.Adult patients referred for MR evaluation of knee trauma and subsequently underwent arthroscopy included.Patients with previous knee surgery and non-traumatic pathologies excluded. Imaging performed on 1.5T Philips Achieva MRI machine. Conventional MRI images were acquired, followed by 3D VISTA data-sets in sagittal plane which were then reconstructed. Results: Regarding detection of medial meniscus tears, overall sensitivity was similar for two techniques (88.2%), specificity of 2D & 3D protocol was 88.2% and 94.1% respectively. Regarding detection of lateral meniscal tears, specificity was similar for two techniques (84.9%) while sensitivity of 2D & 3D protocol was 72.2% & 83.3% respectively. Conclusions: 3D TSE is a reliable technique and has diagnostic performance similar to that of routine 2D TSE MR for detecting meniscal tears at 1.5T. 3D TSE MRI protocol has advantage of faster acquisition time which potentially reduces patient discomfort and improves efficiency by reducing patient non-compliance. Results of this study represent an important step toward implementing this technique in routine clinical practice.

  33. Dr. Arpit Viradiya, Dr. Poorvin Prajapati, Dr. Shashank Kumar Mishra, Dr. Ravindra J. Choudhary and Dr. Mukundi Dhaduk

    Missed canal is a collapse of success for a root canal treatment. Where the discussion of the anomalous anatomy comes, mandibular premolars have gained the credit for having it. When the tooth is having two canals, the buccal canal is much easier to be negotiated as compared to lingual canal. This report justifies a rare case of successful endodontic management of a mandibular first premolar with three roots along side diagnostic, inter-operative and postoperative IOPA radiographic and CBCT records along with a significant data on the incidence of extra roots in these teeth.

  34. Sandeep Kumar

    Acute Post streptococcal Glomerulonephritis (APSGN) is an important renal disease occurring in children. Typical clinical manifestations include rapid onset of gross haematuria, edema and hypertension resulting from a prior group A - beta hemolytic streptococcal infection. However, patients with APSGN sometimes present with atypical clinical manifestations often leading to delayed diagnosis or misdiagnosis. Recognition of these unusual manifestations is important so that patient receives adequate treatment with decreased morbidity. We are reporting two cases of APSGN who presented with atypical manifestations. One case presented with generalized edema, respiratory distress and pulmonary edema with congestive heart failure and another with fever, headache, seizures and altered sensorium. Both patients had hypertension. Urinalysis and other investigations led to diagnosis of APSGN with pulmonary edema and heart failure in first case and APSGN with Posterior Reversible Encephalopathy syndrome in second.

  35. Dr. Bimal Krushna Panda and Dr. Sujata Panda

    The most common and distressing symptom following general anaesthesia are nausea and vomitting which occurs in post operative period of 20% to 30% of patients. The aim of this study is to compare the anti emetic eficacy of ondansetron and palonosetron by comparing the incidence of post operative nausea and vomitting using each drug. It was seen in the study that with palonosetron the incidence of post operative nausea and vomitting was significantly lower as compared to the group that received ondansetron.

  36. Dr. Pradyumna Kumar Sahoo, Dr. Smita Priyadarshani, Dr. Suman Sen and Dr. Gade Phani Krishna

    Electronic cigarettes are an alternative to nicotine deliveryhave been recently introduced &is considered a very popular mode of tobacco deaddiction. The purpose of this paper is to review the literature about the design, components & contents, effects, safety considerations along with the potential for smoking initiation and cessation. Patients should be counselled& educated regarding the usage. Though it’s increasing in popularity and readily available in many nations there are controversies regarding their safety& effective role in smoking deaddiction.

  37. Manjusha Madhusudan Litake and Kaushal Rai

    Background: Fibromatosis or desmoid tumors are rare (constitutes less than 3% of soft tissue tumor) benign tumors of musculo-aponeurotic origin with extensive tendency of local invasion causing morbidity. Case Presentation: We report a rare case of 30 year old male presented with left sided neck mass situated in left supra clavicular region. Ultrasonography and Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of neck revealed well defined soft tissue swelling of sized 7cm x 8cmx 8cm, present in left supra clavicular region. patient underwent surgical excision of mass. Histological and immunohistochemistry analysis confirmed the diagnosis of fibromatosis (desmoid tumor) of neck. Conclusion: Fibromatosis has unique aggressive behavior. Due to lack of set protocols for its management, treatment should be individualized and multi-modality treatment including radiotherapy and chemotherapy should be considered. We expect further awareness and study of this aggressive tumor by presenting our case.

  38. Protiti Bose, Prabha Desikan, Ram P. Punde, Akanksha Shrivastava, Vikramsingh Gujar, Lalit Kumar, Manoj Pandey and Mahesh Rathore

    Background: CD14 is expressed principally by cells of monocyte/macrophage lineage and plays a pivotal role in the innate immunity to intracellular infections. Recent research findings have revealed an association between the CD14 gene promoter polymorphism and several major infectious diseases. The purpose of the present study is to confirm the association between CD14-159C/T polymorphism (rs2569190) and pulmonary tuberculosis. Furthermore, association of various serum based biomarkers would be helpful in understanding better susceptibility to the disease state. Methods: This study included a tertiary hospital based age and sex matched 12 patients with pulmonary tuberculosis and 15 subjects with normal lung functioning. These cases were recruited from January 2014 to April 2014. Subjects were included in the pulmonary tuberculosis group on the basis of smear positive for acid fast bacilli. DNA extraction was done by isopropanol precipitation method and amplification of CD14 gene was done by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) followed by restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP). Results: It was found that CT heterozygotes were more susceptible to pulmonary tuberculosis (OR=5.6, 95% CI=1.01 - 30.91, p = 0.05) whereas TT homozygotes were found to be less susceptible to pulmonary tuberculosis in Central Indian Cohort. Elevated level of IgE (182.5ng/ml) were found in CT genotype. Slight elevated N-GAL level were found in cases with CT genotype 5.31 ng/ml when compared with control’s level. It was found that CT genotype had high bacterial load of 10.4x103 copies/μl) whereas TT has bacterial load of 48.39x102 copies/ μl and CC has very less bacterial load. Serum sCD14 estimation displayed somewhat high values (741 pg/ml) in cases with TT genotype. The results of our study on sCD14 level in TB Conclusion: An association between the C-159-T polymorphism of the CD14 gene and presence of tuberculosis in the Central Indian population was evident as the risk of TB was greater in participants with heterozygous CT genotype than in those with homozygous CC genotype. It was also seen that heterozygous CT genotype was found to be more susceptible for pulmonary tuberculosis whereas TT genotype was found to be less susceptible for TB and homozygous CC genotype was found as protective role against TB, which was evident from elevated cytokines in CT heterozygotes.

  39. Dr. Jaya, A. R., Dr. Nagarathna, C. and Dr. Soundarya, V.

    Background: Anomalies of the dentition may involve either number or morphology and can occur either in the primary and/or permanent teeth. Based on the anomalies relating to number, supernumerary teeth are most common. Case Description: This article presents a rare case of a six year old boy with supplemental primary maxillary central incisor without a permanent successor. Clinical and radiographic examination revealed the presence of a supplemental (type of supernumerary) primary central incisor in the maxillary arch. Conclusion: Occurrence of supernumerary supplemental maxillary primary central incisor without a successor in the permanent dentition is a rare phenomenon. Clinical Significance: Recognition anomalies of teeth related to number are important during routine dental examination. Its detection requires the careful counting and identification of each tooth in the dental arch. Dentists should be aware of this condition when unusual crowding and/or displacement are seen. Early diagnosis may provide a better opportunity for optimal outcome of treatment.

  40. Dr. Venisha Ann Alexander, Dr. Anil Kumar and Dr. K. Nillan Shetty

    Background: The aim was to describe the morphology of the mandibular symphysis and its correlation with the antegonial notch in adults from Dakshina Kannada with well-balanced faces and normal occlusion, individualized in terms of gender and facial type variables. Methodology: 90 pre-treatment cephalometric radiographs of Dakshina Kannada patients in the age group of 18-35 years, who presented with well-balanced face and normal occlusion were included. The sample was standardized according to gender and facial types. Various angular and linear measurements were carried out. Results: No significant difference were found among the male and female subjects, except for the inclination and height of mandibular symphysis as well as the antegonial notch depth. Also, the brachyfacial group presented a higher degree of inclination of the alveolar and basal symphysis with increased thickness whereas more anterior projection of mandibular symphysis was exhibited by the dolichofacial group. Significant correlation was seen between the notch depth and anterior projection, height and thickness of the symphysis. Conclusion: The symphyseal height and the depth of the antegonial notch were more in males. The brachyfacial types exhibited a greater dentoalveolar inclination and a broader basal symphysis while dolichofacial types presented with an increased projection of the symphysis anteriorly. A highly significant correlation was seen between the antegonial notch and the height, thickness and anterior projection of mandibular symphysis.

  41. Abdullah A. Almalki, Rosliza Abdul Manaf, Muhamad Hanafiah Juni, Hayati, K. S., Noramaliza Mohd Noor and Abdelsafi Abbas Mohammed Gabbad

    Background: Repetition of radiograph is a critical event in routine digital radiography. High repetition rate also consumes equipment life time, increases operational cost, decreases patient satisfaction, increase world load and dose of radiation to the professionals. Objective: This article aims to review published literature on the repetition rate of digital radiography including its associated factors, reporting, and interventions. Methods: English articles in ScienceDirect, Pub-MED, CINAHL and Medline from 2009 to January 2016 were reviewed using key words of “repetition rate” or “digital radiography”. Inclusion criteria were studies in full free text, studies conducted in routine, conventional, or digital radiography, and focussed on repetition rate measurements. Studies conducted on other branches of diagnostic imaging department, as well as studies carried out on diseases, radiological equipment and radiation protection were not included. Results: After removal of duplicated studies, a total of 37 articles were selected, the full text were read, and seven studies fulfilled the inclusion and exclusion criteria, of which four were intervention and three cross-sectional studies. The repetition rate reported in the studies ranged from 4.9% to 15.5%. Conclusion: Seven studies conducted all over the world imply the existing issue of repetition rate measurement and its analysis. The interventions studies are statistically significant. Interventions were almost technical. In addition, positioning errors were the main causes of repetition in the most studies which imply that radiographers are playing important role in repetition.

  42. Dr. Nithya Annie Thomas, Dr. Priya Shetty, Dr. Charvi Chawla, Dr. Ann Thomas and Dr. Sowmya B. Shetty

    Supernumerary teeth are considered as a bizarre rise in the number of naturally occurring teeth. Only some examples of nonsyndromic multiple supernumerary teeth have been reported in literature. In this report, we present a case of multiple unerrupted bilateral supernumerary teeth without any associated syndrome in a seven year old child as a result of a casual finding during routine X ray study. A panoramic radiograph revealed multiple impacted supernumerary teeth which were diagnosed during routine radiographic evaluation. Based on the clinical examination and radiographic investigation, a diagnosis of idiopathic hyperdontia was given. In such cases, management should be planned by a multidisciplinary approach.

  43. Hani Alharbi and Muhanad Alsarrani

    Initially Deep Brain Stimulation was thought to act like the functional ablation, after many studies showed DBS acts by antidromic activation and that responses depend on both GABAergic and glutamatergic transmission. This understanding helps greatly on weighing the risk-benefits ratio of treatment, because the advances of psychosurgery technological benefits have dramatically increased while the risks have been reduced. In the course of time, we come to realize that different parts of the brain do different things. There are areas of the brain dedicate to control your movement, vision, memory and so on. When these work well, the nervous system works well and everything is function. However, once in the while, things do not go so well and there is trouble in the circuits, where some neurons misfire and causing trouble, or sometime they are underactive and they are not working, as they should. The manifestation of this depends on where in the brain these neurons are. So when these neurons in the motor circuit, motor dysfunction will result, such as Parkinson disease. When the malfunction in the circuit that regulate your mood you will get depression or mania, and when it is in the memory you will get Alzheimer disease. The main principle of DBS is to interfere with the circuit and turn them up or turn them down. What makes DBS superior to ablation? DBS can be adjusted based on the symptoms or the progress of disease and overall it is reversible, and less damaging than lesion surgeries.

  44. Vandana Gade, Aparajita Gangrade, Jaykumar Gade, Sanjay Patil and Priyatama Meshram

    Objective: Endocrown restorations are single unit prostheses fabricated from reinforced ceramics. These restorations are indicated for endodontically treated teeth, molars especially, that have significant loss of coronal structure. Endocrowns gain their retention from the coronal portion integrated into the apical projection that fills the pulp chamber space, and possibly the root canal entrances. Clinical Consideration: In this case report a new style Fixed Partial Denture is introduced. Here mandibular second molar had compromised tooth structure and hence Endocrown was planned with the tooth. For replacement of missing first molar a three unit fixed partial prosthesis was planned. This unique three unit prosthesis had Endocrown on mandibular second molar and a full veneer crown on mandibular second premolar as an abutment fabricated in Zirconia with CAD-CAM technology. Conclusion: This innovative design of Fixed Partial Denture is better suited in cases where there is compromised tooth structure and the tooth is strategically important and has to be retained.

  45. Priyanka Mariam George and Jaiganesh Ramamurthy

    Aims &Objectives: To assess and compare the oral health attitude, knowledge and practices of engineering professionals versus the site workers in Sriperumbudur region of Chennai, Tamilnadu, India. This study was aimed in order to conduct industry based community-oriented oral health promotion programs with the results obtained Materials and Methodology: Study group comprised of a total of 316 employees of the Construction industry from various Construction sites from Sriperumbudur region. The study population is classified into two groups, first group consisting of 121, were the professionals including Engineers and the second group of195, consisted of site workers of various trades. They were assessed using data obtained from a self administered questionnaire. Data was entered into a personal computer and analyzed using the SPSS software version 20. Results: We understand from the study that even in one particular industry, it has been found that among the two groups: Group A (Engineering Professionals) & Group B (Workers), Group B has low level of oral health awareness and practices as compared to Group A. Statistical analysis was done and the results obtained showed a statistical significance Conclusion: Oral diseases & problems needs to be considered among the major public health problems owing to their high prevalence and incidence, For which oral health knowledge is to be considered as an important prerequisite for healthy oral practices. Special training needs to be organized in order to train and change certain misconceptions and to imbibe healthy oral practices.

  46. Dr. Haluk Şengün and Kerem Sahin

    All businesses that survive in today's strongly competitive environment are proactive organizations which quickly adapted to change. These companies are organizations which can renew itself quickly when it needs to conversion, having good understanding of surroundings and trying to understand the world. The hospitals are the basis foundations of health services which could define like information extensively or labor-intensive organizations. Public health status is attempted to be upgraded by the use of extensively information in the health services. The basic elements of learning organizational culture are investment in human resources and use human resources efficiently. The organizations which constantly open to innovation should keep in line the personal development of employees and organizational goals. The hospitals which finds application area of new and innovative information are one of the finest examples of knowledge-based learning organization. Being related with human health which provided in the hospitals is the most important factor of knowledge and learning organization. The aim of this study is illuminate the working area of aforementioned which there is so few research about it.

  47. Dr. Jacob Joseph, Dr. Nillan K Shetty, Dr. Rohan Rai and Dr. Keshava Raj

    Objectives: To correlate sella turcica bridging and canine impaction and to associate the impaction with angular and sectoral parameters. Materials and Method: Pre-treatment cephalometic and panoramic radiographs of the selected patients were obtained. Group 1 consisted of 25 patients with palatally impacted canines. Group 2 (control group) consisted of 25 subjects with normally erupted canines.The data obtained is analysed and compared between the groups. Results: there was a reduced interclinoidal distance among the subjects with impacted canines (P = 0.009). The comparison of mean depths and diameters between the subjects and the controls was found to be insignificant. The highest frequency of type II calcification was reported in 19 patients (76%) with impacted canines. Type III calcification of the interclinoid ligament was observed in (20%) subjects with impacted canines, whereas no subjects had type III calcification in the control group. There was a positive correlation between inter clinoidal distance and angle and a negative correlation between inter clinoidal distance and sectoral values. Conclusion: The frequency of sella turcica bridging is increased in patients with palatal canine impactions. Sella turcica length is reduced in patients with palatal canine impactions. There is no significant difference in the size of sella between males and females. The chances of having partial or complete bridging of sella turcica in subjects with palatally impacted canines are approximately greater than those with normally erupted canines.

  48. Dr. Saraswathi Gopal, K., Dr. Padma, M., Dr. Mahesh Kumar, P. and Dr. Murugavel, C.

    Background: Temporomandibular disorder (TMD) is a multifactorial disease and occlusal force has main role in determining the teeth health, chewing, muscle and TMJ function. Dysfunctional occlusal contacts can lead to disorders in dento-maxillary system, which may be accompanied by painful symptoms for the patient. Aim and Objective: To evaluate the digital occlusal parameters using T-Scan device that senses and analyses occlusal contact forces, occlusion time, and the effect of reducing disclusion time on symptoms of temporomandibular joint- muscular disorders. Materials and Method: Myofascial pain symptomatic patients was recruited as per the diagnostic criteria for temporomandibular disorders (TMD), including the clinical protocol outlined by the International RDC/TMD consortium network (version: January 20, 2014) to assess the efficacy of reduced disclusion time in lateral excursions to resolve the myofascial pain symptoms. As per the inclusion and exclusion criteria, static and dynamic interocclusal record was scanned and analysed using image software. 25 cases were treated in four visits. Recall occlusal parameters were recorded. The questionnaire was used for symptom assessment at every recall visit. Results: Among the occlusal parameters, TMD patients had prolonged occlusion and disclusion time, variations in right and left quadrant occlusal forces, more incidence of occlusal premature contacts compared to post therapeutic evaluation in same individuals. Changes in the intensity of symptoms from reducing the disclusion time to <0.4 seconds were statistically significant with p value of 0.001from treatment day 1, and onward through the 3 months period of observation. Conclusion: The results indicate that T scan evaluation and then treating the dentition relieves the musculoskeletal symptoms of myofascial pain, such that this methodology increases clinical therapeutic success.

  49. Dr. Nazia Quyoom, Dr. Ruby Reshi, Dr. Bushra Rashid, Dr. Shaista Mushtaq, Dr. Rukhsana Akhter and Dr. Ouber Qayoom

    The colon including the rectum is host to more primary neoplasms than any other organ in the body. Colorectal carcinoma is an important cause of cancer deaths worldwide, but has variable geographical distribution.In developed countries it is among the 3 most common cancers with an incidence of 570000 new cases per annum.Colorectal cancer in Kashmir valley is the 3rd most common gastrointestinal cancer after esophageal and gastric cancer as per reports. The present study was conducted prospectively from September 2009 to August 2011 in the Department of Pathology, Government Medical College, Srinagar.In the present study there were a total of sixty eight (68) cases of colorectal carcinomas with mean age being 49.8 (SD 16.4) years and maximum number of patient were in the age group of 50-59 years with 32.35% of patients were below forty years of age. Male to female ratio was 1.3:1. The most common presenting symptom was bleeding per rectum (57.36%). Rectum was the predominant anatomic site accounting for 35.5% of carcinomas. On histological examination 94.11% were adenocarcinomas, 4.41% were mucinous adenocarcinomas and 1.47%were signet ring cell carcinoma.

  50. Pradyumna Pan

    The concept of the pelvi ureteric junction has been there for more than a century and yet there is no clear anatomical definition of this junction. Pelvi ureteric junction (PUJ) obstruction is an impedance to the urine flow from the renal pelvis to the ureter. It occurs in 1:1000 to 2000 newborns and is the commonest cause of obstructive uropathy in children.1 The pathophysiology of pelvi ureteric junction obstruction in unknown. The knowledge of histologic changes and innervations at UPJ is necessary for proper understanding of patho physiology and its correlation with the functional outcome after pyeloplasty. This systematic review addresses the question of whether the human pelvi ureteric junction is a discrete anatomical entity and changes seen in PUJ obstruction. Methods: A systematic literature review was undertaken to investigate the normal gross and microscopic anatomy of the pelvi ureteric junction and histopathological changes at pelvi ureteric junction in patients with PUJ obstruction using the electronic databases MEDLINE, PubMed, Cochrane Library and Google Scholar

  51. Janhvi Manohar, Dr. Dhanraj and Dr. Rakshagan

    Aim: To assess the knowledge, awareness and practice among dental practitioners regarding oral appliances in treatment of obstructive sleep apnea (OSA). Objective: The objective of this study is to analyse the knowledge, attitude, perception and practice among dentists in the city of Chennai regarding oral appliances in treatment of OSA and thus create awareness to ensure it’s early screening and proper treatment. Background: Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) constitutes a major public health problem that affects the middle-aged population. The problems of snoring and obstructive sleep apnoea have received considerably increased public attention during the past10-15 years. Oral appliances are devices that can be used to treat mild or moderate Obstructive Sleep Apnea, as well as snoring. Oral appliances are known as: Mandibular Advancement Splints (MAS), Mandibular Advancement Devices (MAD), Mandibular Repositioning Appliances (MRA), or Tongue Retaining Devices (TRD) which hold your tongue in place to keep your airway open while asleep. This study aims to assess the knowledge and analyse the practice of dentists regarding OSA and its management. Reason: Management of OSA should be given more importance in the student’s curriculum as dentists often fail to recognise OSA as being related to dentistry and thus co-operating with physicians while treating OSA.

  52. Nurul Afiqah Amani Binti Zaaba and Dr. Gheena

    Aim: To measure the awareness of the general public about Systemic Lupus Erythmatosus, its clinical manifestations, treatment, consequences and co-morbidities. Objective: To assess the the awareness of the general public about Systemic Lupus Erythmatosus and its clinical manifestations. To assess the treatment, consequences and co-morbidities on Systemic Lupus Erythematosus. Background: Systemic Lupus Erythmatosus (SLE) is one of the autoimmune disease which is characterized by the presence of autoantibodies directed against nuclear antigens. It is known as multi-system disease, cause it can lead to multiple organ failure. Thus, it is important to know the onset and have early diagnosis on it, in order to prevent it from becoming more severe. There are various symptoms which SLE can develop, such as fatigue, fever and joint problem. The most common symptoms are joint swelling as well as butterfly rashes, which are commonly experienced by female patients. The prevalence of SLE is varies, but it is estimated to be 1 per 1000 overall with a female to male ratio of 10:1. Management of this disease should include both pharmacological and non-pharmacological modalities for symptomatic relieved and to improved quality of life.

  53. Shiny George and Biju Baby Joseph

    Background: Medical profession is demanding and stressful due to its high competitive nature. Studies from various parts of the world have shown that medical students experience varying degrees of stress which not only affect their academic performance but their personal behavior also. Aim and Objectives: Present study was undertaken to assess the perceived stress among medical students. An attempt is also made to find out whether they are aware of the fact that they are stressed and the cause for the stress. Material and Methods: A cross sectional study was carried out among 106 students with the help of a Questionnaire which has 2 parts, 1st part contain demographic factors and self reporting of stress and its causes and 2nd part contain PSS questionnaire by Cohen to evaluate the level of stress. Results: According to the Perceived stress scale, out of the 106 participants, 89 (83.9%) were found to be under stress. This includes 11 students who did not report to have stress (self reported stress). 49 students (46.2%) were under high stress according to perceived stress scale and 40 students (37.7%) had stress in the average range. Exam was reported to be the main cause of stress. Females were found to be more stressed than males. Conclusion: The prevalence of stress is found to be very high among medical students. Extensive studies are required in this regard to find the gravity of the problem. Intervention strategies should be planned accordingly.

  54. Abhishek Gupta and Niharika Jain

    Botox Cosmetic (Botox) is a formulation of the neuromuscular blocking agent botulinum toxin type A (BTX-A). The use of botox for enhancement of facial esthetics is most common procedure currently undertaken in clinical practice all around the globe. Dentists are highly knowledgeable and precise regarding facial anatomy and therefore it seems reasonable for them to be at the forefront in providing these services. This review encompasses the pathogenesis of facial lines and wrinkles, toxin overview, preparation, uses, complications and contraindications of botox therapy and provides the practitioners in-depth and current knowledge of use and handling botox for facial rejuvenation. Factors unique to each area are presented, highlighting the key elements that can increase the likelihood of a successful outcome.

  55. Dr. Pooja Dang, Dr. Amit Jagtap and Dr. Nilesh Bulbule

    Aim: Which membrane out of resorbable and non-resorbable membrane is better when used for guided bone regeneration in dental implant cases? Materials and Methods: A systematic review of articles selected from MEDLINE, Clinical trials registry (India) and Google Scholar was carried out. Additional studies were hand searched. Only randomised controlled trials (RCTs) published from 1st January 1995 to 30th September 2015 were included in this study. These studies compared the resorbable and non-resorbable membranes used for guided bone regeneration in cases to be treated with implant placement. Results: A total of 172 articles were identified through electronic database. 170 articles were obtained after elimination of duplicates which were then screened. 16 full-text articles were accessed for eligibility criteria. 8 trials were identified for inclusion in this review, comparing the test group (non-resorbable membranes) with the control (resorbable membranes.) Conclusions: The use of a membrane definitely contributes to the regeneration of the hard tissue in bone augmentation. The complete fill of the defect was obtained with Polyglactic-910 (resorbable membrane). No substantial differences were observed comparing non-resorbable ePTFE membranes and resorbable membranes. Limitation: Only one electronic database search was done and only full-text articles in english were included. Only 13 trials were included and the majority are of limited sample size, and have short follow-ups. Conflict-of-interest statement: The authors declare that there are no conflicts of interest in this review which was funded by the authors themselves

  56. Larisse P. Schmid, João C. Medeiros, Paulo R. R. X. Pereira and Fabio Mielezrski

    Nitrogen (N) is one of the most limiting nutrients in agricultural systems, in this way, the production of high quality soybean requires the nitrogen management in the soil is related to the profitability of the production system. This study aimed to evaluate the yield, seed quality and economic viability of late nitrogen fertilization on soybean.The experiment was conducted in a randomized block experimental design with four replications, with different doses of N: 0, 30, 60, 90 and 120 kg ha-1, in which were conducted two trials (with use of urea and Ammonium sulfate source). The fertilizers were applied at the transition phase between R4-R5. We evaluated vegetative growth components, yield and seed physiological quality and economic viability. The results indicated that the use of urea resulted in higher yield in terms of productivity and with dose of maximum agronomic efficiency of 78.7 kg ha-1N. Urea and ammonium sulfate changed the variables of physiological quality.The economic viability analysis showed difference in gain between sources and between doses, and responses with the use of urea were substantially higher than with ammonium sulfate, and the optimal dose of ureawas 86.7 kg ha-1 N, with net revenue of R$ 8,188. It was concluded that late nitrogen fertilization on soybean provides productive and economic efficiency in seed production system, with lower operational risk with the use of urea as a source of nitrogen fertilizer.

  57. Geeta Patel, Namrata Dwivedi and Tripathi, I. P.

    Butea monosperma is a medium sized tree, growing from 6 to 12 m high and the trunk is usually crooked and twisted with irregular branches and rough grey bark. It is seen in all its ugliness in December and January when most of the leaves fall, but from January to March it truly becomes a tree of flame, a lot of orange and vermilion flowers. The palas is sacred to the moon and to Brahma and is said to have sprung from the feather of a falcon impregnated with the soma the beverage of the gods and thus immortalized. The plant is also popularly known as Kakracha, Mooduga, Palasamu, Parasa, Mutthuga, Dhak and Palas. In the present study we were describe the antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, anti-diabetic and antiesterogenic activity of various parts of Butea monosperma.

  58. Sarika Mishra and Sudha Babel

    In many stuffed textile products, generally waste fibres from spinning mills are used to be filled. These natural fibres are susceptible of microbial infestation and can also infect human who comes into contact of this waste fibre. Thus, the study is aimed at the treatment of waste flax fibre with extract of green leaves of Azadirachta indica which can be extracted by indigenous method and screening for antimicrobial potentials of treated samples against the gram positive (Staphylococcus Aureus) and gram negative bacteria (Escherichia coli). Extract was applied on to the fibre samples in ten different concentrations from 100% to 10 % and evaluated by standard test methods of AATCC and ENISO, out of which each sample possess good antimicrobial activity against these microorganisms and hinder their growth.

  59. Dr. Sabiha Imran

    Visceral leishmaniasis (VL) or kala-azar, a vector-borne protozoan disease, shows endemicity in larger areas of the Asia, Africa, South America, and the Mediterranean basin. WHO report suggested that an annual incidence of VL is nearly 200,000 to 400,000 cases, resulting in 20,000 to 30,000 deaths per year. Treatment with available anti-leishmanial drugs are not cost effective, with varied efficacies and higher relapse rate, which poses a major challenge to current kala-azar control program in Indian subcontinent. Therefore, a vaccine against VL is imperative and knowing the fact that recovered individuals developed lifelong immunity against re-infection, it is feasible. Vaccine development program, though time taking, has recently gained momentum with the emergence of omic era, i.e., from genomics to immunomics. Classical as well as molecular methodologies have been overtaken with alternative strategies wherein proteomics based knowledge combined with computational techniques (immunoinformatics) speed up the identification and detailed characterization of new antigens for potential vaccine candidates. This may eventually help in the designing of polyvalent synthetic and recombinant chimeric vaccines as an effective intervention measures to control the disease in endemic areas. This review focuses on such newer approaches being utilized for vaccine development against VL.

  60. Sahlan Norau

    The prominent economic activity in Guraici Island region is fishing of highly economical coral reef fishes such as grouper, emperor, and others. The main problem emerged if fishing activity is extensive and uncontrolled that will threaten or degrade coral reefs fish resource in the area. The objective of this research was to analyze the fishing optimization model of pink ear emperor (Lethirinuslentjam, Lacepede 1802) resource the level of coral reef conservation area changes in Guraici Islands, South Halmahera Regency. This research was conducted in the waters of Guraici Islands from July to September 2015. The methods were experimental fishing and line transect. The results showed that the larger the area of coral reefs in the waters of Guraici Islands, South Halmahera Regency conserved, the lower the fishermen produced. This, however, led to emperor stock being abundant. MEY policy combined with coral reef conservation area protection policy provided more conservative variable indicator but provided positive economic rent compared to the combination of coral reef conservation area protection policy and open access policy.

  61. Mehmet Levent OZDUVEN and Arzu CELEBI CAM

    This study was implemented to determine the effects of lactic acid bacteria (LAB) inoculants and/or enzymes on the fermentation, aerobic stability and in vitro organic matter digestibility characteristics of alfalfa ensiled at different stages of maturity. Alfalfa was harvested at three levels including early, middle and full flowering stages. In this research, inoculant-1188 (Pioneer®, USA) and enzyme (Global Nutritech, TR) were used as lactic acid bacteria, enzyme and as lactic acid bacteria+enzyme mixture inoculants. Proceeding the treatments of these inoculants to silages at 6.00 log10 cfu/g levels, the chopped alfalfa was ensiled in 1.0 liter special anaerobic jars, equipped with a lid enabling gas release only. The jars were stored at 25±2°C under laboratory conditions. Microbiological and chemical analyses were done through four jars sampled from each group on the 45th day of ensiling process. At the end of the ensiling period, in vitro organic matter digestibility test was done and all silages were subjected to an aerobic stability test for 5 days. The results showed that LAB and/or enzymes increased the characteristics of fermentation but decreased cell wall content. There was no effect determined on aerobic stability and in vitro organic matter digestibility of alfalfa silages.

  62. Meenakshi Choudhary and Dr. O. P. Jangir

    Manuka honey has been assessed for its nutritional and phytochemical composition, to predict doable clinical uses. The past and up to date literature reports the fortunate use of honey to manage a spread of wound aetiologies. Bacterial Infection of a wound could lead to tissue death, native drive, vessel occlusion and a rise in wound size, ultimately swiftness the healing method. Studies have reported that it’s going to with modestly decrease wound-healing time, act as a medicament, deodorize wounds, and enhance cell proliferation and enlargement in vitro. The aims of the study were to achieve insight into the practical use of Active Manuka honey in wound management. To gather the mandatory information, photographs, acetate tracings, data monitoring and patient comments and observations were accustomed to add greater responsibility and validity to the findings. The wounds were dressed weekly with Manuka honey. The results obtained showed all seven patients achieved 100% reduction in visually wound size among average thirty days (four-week treatment period). Odour was eliminated and pain reduced. The conclusions drawn were that the utilization of Active Manuka honey was associated with a positive wound-healing outcome in these seven cases.

  63. Moushree SARKAR and Sabyasachi KUNDAGRAMI

    In the present investigation, twenty five mungbean (Vigna radiata L. Wilczek) germplasms were evaluated in 8 environments in West Bengal during the pre-kharif season (summer) for five years (2012–2016). The main purpose of the investigation was to estimate the stability of yield and maturity duration of twenty five germplasms for improving selection in mungbean. The study was conducted using a randomized block design with three replications. G × E interaction and yield stability were estimated using Eberhart and Russell model. The pooled mean study revealed a wide range of variation for seed yield and its components across environments.The environment 8 (E8) which had average rainfall and temperatures as well as slightly more acidic soil pH than other location was found to be a more favorable environment for better expression of pods plant-1, seed pod-1, seed yield plant-1 and early maturity.The results of the combined analysis of variance showed highly significant variance for both germplasms, environments and interaction effect, which ultimately emphasized the utilization of stability analysis in crop improvement programme. On the basis of stability parameters, the high yielding early maturing germplasms B1, UPM-99-3 and Shonamung 1 exhibit the stable performance across the environments. The germplasms such as APDM-116, 24 Pargana Local and Shonamung 2 recorded favourable mean performance for all the parameters studied, but their performance was unstable due to significant deviation from regression.A correlation study following Spearman’s coefficient of rank correlation recorded the presence of a highly significant link between pods plant-1 with seed yield and plant height with maturity duration suggests that seed production is mostly depends on pods whereas early maturity on plant height.

  64. Manoel Euba Neto, Walter Esfrain Pereira, Jacob Silva Souto and Everaldo Paulo Medeiros

    Several studies have demonstrated the effect of fertilizer on different crops; however, few contemplate the low yield of sesame obtained in most growing areas by production constraints associated with low-income cultivars or, because of non-application of fertilizers. The objective of this experiment was to verify the yield and quality of oil in two sesame varieties as a function of organic and mineral fertilization. To this effect, a field experiment in a randomized complete block in factorial (2 x 5) + 2, corresponding to the ‘BRS Seda’ and ‘CNPA G4’, five organic sources (cotton cake and mammon cake, cattle manure and goat; without fertilization), two relative controls, fertilized with ammonium sulfate was performed with four replications. Productivity were determined, the oil content, acid value and peroxide value. Submitted the results of analysis of variance, Pearson’s correlation, Tukey test, F test and analysis of principal components and grouping. The sources of fertilization influence on yield and oil content, especially goat manure; while the cultivars showed significance for oil content extracted by solvent. The high oil content, 0.698 t/ha, obtained in this experiment is indicative of the viability of commercial extraction.

  65. Satheesh, D. and Kulkarni, R. S.

    The mouth brooding Cichilid fish Oreochromis mossambicus (p) is found to be omnivorous and prolific breeder. The present study is on the assessment of condition of the male fish Oreochromis mossambicus from Daroji water tank, considering gonadosomatic (GSI) and hepatosomatic (HSI) indices, Fulton’s condition factor (K), somatic condition factor (KS), in relation to length and body weight. Ten specimens of male Oreochromis mossambicus were randomly selected every month from June to December 2016 for the assessment. The females and males can be identified on the morphological basis. Such studies are needed for the fish to understand the health condition of the female and male fish separately in an aquatic body for their survival, growth and breeding activities. The K values of the male fish during breeding period from June to December 2016 indicates that as the length and body weight increases the K values also increase. The KS values exhibit fluctuations in different length and body weight. However, as the length and body weight increases, the KS values also increase. The GSI increases as the length and body weight increases. The HSI exhibits a different trend of values as the gonad weight increases the liver weight decreases and as the liver weight increases the gonad weight reduces and similarly the HSI values are found. The study indicates that the condition of male fish improves as the length and body weight increases with a inverse relationship of GSI and HSI and thus indicating that the fish is thriving well in the aquatic body.

  66. Eman M. Halawani, Hayam S. Abdelkader and Roqayah Kadi

    Helicobacter pylori are the major cause of chronic active gastritis, peptic ulcer disease and gastric carcinoma. Currently, the eradication of H. pylori infection involved a triple therapy, which combines two antibiotic with a proton pump inhibitor. In this study, the aqueous and alcoholic extracts of olive leaf extracts (OLE) and Oleuropeinwere screened for their antibacterial activity against33 gastric biopsy specimensofH. pylori virulent isolates. Virulent H. pylori isolates were detected by PCR for gene typing of virulent CagA/IceA genes and their distribution among isolates.Resistant to tetracycline and metronidazolewere detected in all isolates (100%), however no resistance was observed to amoxicillin, levofloxacin and clarithromycin. The results of minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC) indicated that olive leaf extract (OLE) and Oleuropein had a potent antibacterial effect against the virulent H. pylori isolates used in this study. The MICs of OLEs were g/mL (alcohol extract), 70g/mL (cold water extract), and 60 g/mL (boiled water extract) while the MICs of Oleuropein was ranged between 20 µg/ml to 40 µg/ml. Interestingly, heat treatment of OLE water extract increased its inhibitory activity against H. pylori. MBC of H. pylori genotypes tested was ranged between 60-70 µg/ml for alcohol extract, 70-80 µg/ml for cold water extract, and 80-90 µg/ml for boiled water extract while it was ranged between 50 g/ml to60 g/ml for Oleuropein. These findings suggest that olive leaves extract and its active consecutions Oleuropein is an effective as the commercial antibiotics used againstH. pylori infection.

  67. Aruna, V., Amruthavalli, G.V. and Gayathri, R.

    One of the reasons for the poor conversion of Siddha drugs from tall promise to therapeutically effective despite they are being formulated with time tested and laboratory proven herbal ingredients is due to the question of whether the herbs are present in the finished product. The present study has established the fingerprint perseverance of certain herbs on ‘as is basis’ and in the finished product. We have chosen anti dandruff oil, a scientifically and clinically proven Siddha drug for the present study. Study findings shows that anti dandruff oil speak and does its promise may be because the herbs in the formulation are well preserved in the finished product as established by HPTLC.

  68. Rewaida Abdel-Gaber, Sherein Maher and Nashwa El Deeb

    The white spotted gecko Tarentola annularis (Family Gekkonidae) is a reptilian species found in the Middle East, Africa, and some states in the United States mainly Florida. A total of 40 specimens of this species were collected during the period of February –November 2016 from Abu-Rawash, Giza Governorate, Egypt; they were dissected and examined for the presence of parasitic infection. Only 35 (87.50%) specimens were found to be naturally infected with coccidian parasites. Seasonally, the prevalence of infection was reached its maximum value of 80.0% during summer and minimum value of 50.0%, 40.0%, 20.0% during spring, autumn, and winter, respectively. Prevalence and mean intensity of parasitic infection were negatively correlated with the host size as smaller geckos (<5cm in length and <30gm in weight) are more infected than larger ones (5-10 cm in length and >60gm in weight). The numbers of parasites of male and female T.annularis were compared, and no significant differences were observed. Morphology of the recovered parasites was studied by using light microscopy and revealed the presence of two new coccidian species identified as Eimeria tarentoli and Eimeria ghaffari belonged to the family Eimeriidae. Oocysts of Eimeria tarentoli n. sp. were spherical to sub-spherical with single-layered, measured 21.6-31.4 x 15.3-25.2 (26.5 x 19.2) µm, with shape-index (length/width) was 2.01 (1.58-2.34). Both micropyle and oocyst residuum were absent, but a fragmented polar granules were present. Oocysts of Eimeria ghaffari n. sp. were elongated to cylindroids with single-layered wall, measured 29.6-31.3 x 14.7-23.2 (34.5 x 19.3) µm, shape-index (length/width) was 2.01 (1.98-2.65). Micropyle and oocyst residuums were absent, but single polar granule was present. Combining morphological characteristics, host specificity and geographical distribution, tissue tropism, in addition to molecular analysis of partial sequence of SSU ribosomal DNA gene, revealed that the recovered parasite species described herein were genetically distinct from other coccidian species, but had 95.7-95.1% sequence similarity to E. collieie and E. arnyi. Also, Phylogenetic analysis placed the present coccidian species in the gekkonid Eimeria clade, which is a sister group of bovids Eimeria species. In addition, the present study was considered as the first report for occurrence of eimerian species from the white spotted gecko in Egypt.

  69. Ranjit K Nagireddy, Jayavardhan, T. S., Vemireddy, L. R. and Siddiq, E. A.

    Genetic diversity is pre-requisite for any crop improvement program as it helps in the development of superior recombinants and selection of parents with wider variability for different traits. Therefore, there is a need to diversify the genetic base of improved rice cultivars. To this end, 30 rice genotypes comprising both drought tolerant and susceptible were screened with 50 rice microsatellite markers to estimate the genetic diversity of the genotypes. A total of 123 alleles were detected using 46 primer pairs with an average of 2.7 alleles per microsatellite locus, which was sufficient to classify the rice accessions investigated. In addition, they were also screened for drought tolerance using PEG-induced stress and data of root and shoot related traits viz., Root length, Root dry weight, Shoot length, Shoot dry weight, Root shoot weight ratio, Relative shoot length, Relative root length, Relative shoot dry weight, Relative root dry weight, and Relative root-shoot weight ratio were recorded. The genetic diversity of the rice genotypes was estimated using both molecular markers as well as drought related traits. The result from the present work is expected to give more insights in selection of parents for development of drought tolerant varieties.

  70. Huidrom Puinyabati Devi, Maibam Shomorendra Singh and Devashish Kar

    This article deals with the cestode parasites infecting some freshwater fishes of Manipur where the knowledge of fish parasites are less explored. The present study was carried out from 2015-2016. Five species of cestode parasites were collected during the study period viz., Lytocestus fossilis Singh, 1975; L. indicus (Moghe, 1925) Woodland, 1926; L. longicollis Rama Devi, 1973; Djombangia penetrans Bovien, 1926 and Ophiotaenia sp. La Rue, 1911.

  71. Jehane I. Ibrahim and Magda M. Al-Tuwaijri

    One of the great challenges that face human is high mortality rate associated with invasive pulmonary aspergillosis (IPA). The sepia ink extract was studied for its potential antigenotoxic, antifungal and antioxidant effects against Aspergillus fumigatus in comparison to the common antifungal drug amphotericin B. Thirty-six mice were distributed randomly into four equal groups. All mice were immunosuppressed and infected with aspergillosis. Group I did not receive any treatment. The groups II, III and IV were treated after 1 day of infection with 200 mg ink extract, 150 mg amphotericin B and mixture of ink extract and amphotericin B, respectively. The current work showed that the ink extract has reduced the fungal load in the liver as well as the levels of fungal toxin gliotoxin in the serum. Throughout the 7 days’ post-infection, after treatment with ink extract and/or amphotericin B, glutathione (GSH) content and superoxide dismutase (SOD) activities in the serum were markedly increased whereas the levels of malondialdehyde (MDA) were significantly reduced. The tail length (TL), %DNA in tail, tail moment (TM) and olive tail moment (OTM) in the hepatocytes were significantly alleviated after treatment with ink extract and/or amphotericin B. We can conclude that although ink extract and amphotericin B separately showed their antifungal, antioxidant and antigenotoxic properties, the combination between them can lead tothe antagonistic effect.

  72. Gayathiri, E., Bharathi, B., Selvadhas, S. and Natarajan, S.

    Contamination of soil by hydrocarbons is becoming prevalent across the globe. This is probably due to heavy dependence on petroleum as a major source of energy throughout the world, rapid industrialization, population growth and complete disregards for the environmental health. The effects of hydrocarbon pollution on soil physical and chemical properties were investigated by using different methods. Physical analysis like Texture, pH, Lime status and EC were performed and concentration of Micro and Macronutrients were analyzed. The results revealed that organic carbon increased with increase in pollution while nitrogen, potassium and phosphorusdecreased with increase in pollution. The pH became more basic as pollution decreases. This result reveals that the polluted soil when compared with the control (soil from unpollutedfarmland) is unsuitable for agricultural activities as full remediation has not taken place except remediation can be hastened. This result reveals that the polluted soil is unsuitable for agricultural activities. A wide range of bioremediation strategies is being developed to treat contaminated soil.

  73. Gowri, R. and Rajeswari, T.

    Some characterizations of S-α fuzzy semigroups by their S-α level subgroups are obtained. S-α fuzzy semigroups which have an identical family of S-α level subgroups are discussed. It is also derived a necessary and sufficient condition for two S-α fuzzy semigroups with an identical family of S-α level subgroups to be equal. Mathematical Subject Classification: 03E72, 08A72, 20N25.

  74. Srikanth Nagarajan and Vishnu Thattil

    In today’s world of cut throat competition for attaining maximum profits with minimum damage to the environment, imagine what would be the scenario if one is able to discover a methodology which uses the otherwise wasted energy for constructive purposes in the energy usage cycle primarily defining the functional process of that particular industry. Energy management thus becomes the inevitable aspect in any functional society. This paper identifies such a robust methodology of recovery of heat energy and its further use in the energy cycle. The recovered Heat energy from the hot crude product in a SAGD project can be reused effectively without being wasted by changing the medium of exchange. In SAGD projects usually glycol and BFW (boiler feed water) is used for cooling the hot crude product. The heated up glycol is used for heat tracing of lines instead of the electric tracing which is more common in Canada or polar countries where steam tracing becomes uneconomical. And the recovered glycol can be reused for cooling of the hot crude. The same glycol is also being used for heating up of the Working Areas with heat addition from heaters during winters. This is made possible because of glycol heat bearing capacity without change in state. Thus heat produced inside a facility is not wasted and is utilized effectively. Glycol (Ethylene Glycol) has been used as a heat transfer agent in automobile and air conditioning system for years now. Ethylene glycol is produce from Ethylene which oxidizes and reacts with water to form Ethylene glycol. It has a melting point of ‐12.9oC and a Boiling Point of 197.3oC. But Glycol when mixed in water, the Melting point and Boiling Point varies significantly depending on the concentration of the glycol, typically with a proportion of 70% glycol the freezing point reduced to ‐51oC. Hence by varying the proportion of the glycol in the mixture the heat carrying capacity can be changed according to the requirement. Thus, with this paper we intend to compare the various heat tracing methods, the energy consumption comparison in each method, the tracing system installation cost, the tracing system performance, the Steam Assisted Gravity Drainage (SAGD) project philosophies, the modifications in the system while using glycol medium, glycol properties, the advantages and the challenges faced during the utilization of the heat conserved.

  75. Hebah H.O. Nasereddin

    The paper; discuss the concept of estimating and building the model process using association rule model, scanning item sets with their counts and design a novel, efficient, dynamic mining algorithm. (ARBSI) will not require rescanning the original database after collecting the data, even if a number of transactions have been newly inserted, and this will work regardless of the support value used and regardless of the confidence value used. (ARBSI) can work in conventional form, this is more efficient and will reduce the time when its performance is compared with the previous techniques used, in such away as: It will know the number of items used from the last process after normalization sub-process which will reduce the time for scanning each transaction, It will know the types of modification insert, update, and/or delete, In case there is an new inserted record (ARBSI) can translate this record to numeric using dummy table for attribute without duplicate (especially for nominal values)

  76. Dr. G. Hariprakash

    Theories of fuzzy relations occupy a central position in the field of research and development of mathematics. Recently regular semigroup has become very important and offers valuable results by applying fuzzy properties of many of its concepts. This study is an extension of the work “On Green’s Fuzzy Orthodox Semigroups". An important class of regular semigroups is an orthodox semigroup and some special classes of orthodox semigroups are a ‘Generalized inverse semigroups’. It endeavours to find out some important results on fuzzy generalized inverse semigroup. In the field of regular semigroups fuzziness becomes very important. So the researcher's are very much interested in finding out many results, connecting special classes of fuzzy regular semigroups, the set of its inverses, the set of its idempotents, their correspondence and to establish theorems. Using the composition of fuzzy relations we get quotient group of semigroup of Green’s fuzzy relations. In the ideal theory a semigroup S is simple when the only ideal of S is itself. In this sense the definitions fuzzy simple, fuzzy self-simple and fuzzy anti-simple are described using the new concept of Green’s fuzzy equivalence classes. Using two proportions to get a quotient class of a generalized inverse semigroup from a Green’s fuzzy anti-simple fuzzy congruence, on a generalized inverse semigroup, the study concludes by establishing four theorems with three equivalent conditions on a regular semigroup.

  77. Zahra.I. Adam Mahamoud and Abdelilah K. Hassan Sedeeg

    In this paper, we use Kamal transform and Decomposition Method (KTADM), which is integrated of Kamal transform and Decomposition Method for solving the approximate numerical solutions of Predator-Prey systems. We can easily decompose the nonlinear terms by the help of special kind of Adomian polynomials. This technique provides a sequence of functions, which converges fast to the accurate solution of the problems. Finally, numerical examples prepared to illustrate and given to show the effectiveness and applicability of this method in solving these kind of systems.

  78. Manjari Srivastava and Richa Tripathi, A. K. Aggrawal

    The purpose of this paper is to introduce the concept of Hausdorffness in fuzzy biclosure space. We obtain some important results relating to fuzzy pairwise T2 space (in short FP-T2). In particular, we find that T_2 satisfy basic desirable properties viz. hereditary, productive and projective properties. T_2 Fuzzy biclosure spaces are “good extensions” of the corresponding concepts in a biclosure spaces.

  79. Elumalai, M. and Selvaraj, C.

    In this present paper, we introduce new subclasses and of bi-univalent functions defined in the open disk Furthermore, we find upper bounds for the second and third coefficients for functions in these new subclasses using differential operator.

  80. Yousif Shoaib Mohammed

    In this work We have investigated the magnetic ordering of Con/Ni systems with a first-principle calculation of the Density Functional Theory (DFT) ferromagnetic (FM) face-centered cubic (fcc) of Cobalt Con on Ni substrate for n=1-3 over layers. The relaxed ion, relaxed ion + volume, and non-relaxed electronic structures of the Con/Ni (111) crystallographic orientations are determined with generalized gradient approximation (GGA) and generalized gradient approximation + Hubbard (GGA+U). The onset of magnetism depends on the faces considered. The magnetism is most favored with GGA+UNi than with GGA calculations due to the strong correlations of Hubbard. The observed trends can be explained as in earlier studies in terms of the hybridization between d states of Ni substrate, also some interesting specific behavior of the magnetization in the fcc Con/Ni (111) overlayers with different layers has been observed.

  81. Dhairya Shah, Jigar Kataria and Harsh Vora

    Importance of cyber security cannot be denied in the current evolving era of the Internet – where safety is no longer just a concern, it has become a #1 priority, as it affects both big reputed organizations as well as small business and individuals. Intrusion detection systems (IDS) are considered to be an efficient way for detecting and preventing cyber security threats. However, there has been not enough attention and awareness on intrusion detection and prevention systems, especially among small business and individuals. Due to this, selection and deployment of IDS is significance in regard to this subject being considered highly technical, expensive and time consuming process. To overcome this, it is necessary to understand the underlying concept of IDS, its role in Cyber Security & thus create an awareness of IDS tools which form the basis of this paper. Further, this will also help in identifying suitable IDS functions needed for developing IDS Software for respective organizations, personal use etc.

  82. Nadhum A.N. Awadand and Bassam A. R. Alabdul Aziz

    A cloud point extraction (CPE) method was developed for the separation and preconcentration of trace amounts of lead using flame atomic absorption spectrometry (FAAS) to determine trace amounts of lead in brinewater. The method was depend on the formation of the hydrophobic complex between Pb(II) and sodium diethyldithiocarbamate (DDTC) followed by its extraction into a Triton X-114surfactant. The parameters such as effect of modifying agent, pH of sample, concentrations of DDTC and Triton X-114, equilibrium temperature, and equilibrium time, which affect both complexation and extraction, are optimized. Under the selected optimum conditions, and use of hydrazonium sulphate as matrix modifying agents enable us to develop the direct method for determination Pb in brine water. The accuracy of the method was batter than 95.3 % while the detection limit was found to be (0.0781µg/ml) for preconcentration of 1 ml sample for the determination of Pb(II) is obtained.

  83. Ruchika Sewaiwar and Prof. Bharti

    In the present era of communication system, the requirement of image storage and transmission for image processing are increasing exponentially. This is why; the need for better compression technology is in extremely demands. In this paper, a gray image compression method using modified quantization scheme is proposed. This method having the advantages of BTC and quantization both. The BTC algorithm with quantization has some controlling parameters through which we can control the quality and compression of the image. The performance of the proposed method has been evaluated in terms of Entropy, PSNR, MSE and SSIM. The result of the proposed work is better than the previous work of literature.

  84. Swathi, R., Ramachandra, B. and Venkatasubba Naidu, N.

    A simple, selective, precise and accurate High Performance Liquid Chromatographic method for the analysis of Acifluorfen in its formulations was developed and validated in the present study. The mobile phase consists of mixture of 0.05% phosphoric acid and acetonitrile in the proportion 20: 80 (v/v). This was found to give sharp peak of Acifluorfen at a run time of 10 min. HPLC analysis of Acifluorfen was carried out at a wave length of 225 nm with a flow rate of 1.0mL/ min. The linear regression analysis data for the calibration curve showed a good linear relationship with a regression coefficient 0.998 in the concentration range of 50% to 150%. The linear regression equation was y =1907x + 270.4. The developed method was employed with a high degree of precision and accuracy for the analysis of Acifluorfen. The method was validated for accuracy, precision, robustness, ruggedness and specificity. The precision, accuracy, sensitivity, short retention time and composition of the mobile phase indicated that this method is useful for the quantification of Acifluorfen.

  85. Saravanan, N. and Rathika, G.

    The objective of this work is the study of adsorption behaviours of three dye solution (methylene blue, methyl violet & malachite green) using commercial activated carbon prepared from copper pod. Removal of these three dyes from aqueous solution using commercial activated carbon has been investigated through batch experiment. Batch adsorption studies were carried out by observing the effect of contact time, adsorbent dosage, pH and temperature. The results obtained shows that copper pod could be employed as a low cost material for the removal of dyes and colour from aqueous solution.

  86. Lijiang Zeng

    The linear algebra plays important roll to almost all kinds of algebraic system. And the algebraic system in various natural sciences has the extremely widespread application. In this article, we collected a large number of data, describes how to the linear algebra to the transformation of the matrix, and its many kinds of algorithms, and even some algorithm program is presented.

  87. Atahu, M. K., Saathoff, F. and Gebissa, A.

    Road constructed on an expansive soil needs special attention during the design and construction stages. This study investigates the possibility of using coffee husk ash as an expansive soil stabilizer. Coffee husk is a by-product of coffee beans: when coffee husk is burnt the resulting ash is coffee husk ash (CHA). To investigate the effect of adding CHA to an expansive soil, laboratory experiments such as Proctor density, swelling index, consistency limits and unconfined compressive strength (UCS) tests were performed for different percentages of CHA. Standard Procter tests were conducted to evaluate the compaction behavior and unconfined compressive tests were performed on samples of 5 cm diameter and 10 cm height, after curing for 1, 7 and 14 days. The laboratory test results show that the addition of CHA increases compressive strength and decreases swelling ratio and shrinkage. From Atterberg limit and Proctor tests a decrease in the plasticity index and optimum moisture content while an increase in dry density as the CHA percentage increases were observed. The study reveals that the addition of CHA improves the geotechnical properties of expansive soil.

  88. Dr. Mbarek Rahmoun Dr. Mairaj Salim and Amal Kefi

    This paper attempts to present customers satisfaction perception towards service quality provided by Tunisie Telecom operators in Tunisia. For many years, the telecommunications industry has been seeking to adapt its technology to help operators remain competitive in a competitive environment fraught with sophisticated new services. Today, we witness a real shift from supply-oriented marketing to demand-oriented marketing, from product-oriented marketing to customer-oriented marketing, also known as push marketing, a loyalty marketing that is increasingly becoming relational in focus. This form of marketing is suitable for customers who require more services, more facilities and an increasingly customized communication. In this paper, our starting point is a review of the literature in which we try to define some relevant key terms such as perceived quality and satisfaction and the nature of the relationship that may bind these two concepts. Second, we report on an empirical study conducted in order to better understand the impact of perceived quality on the satisfaction of industrial customers with their phone operator ''Tunisie Telecom''. To this end, a questionnaire-based quantitative study was conducted. Our study consisted of the following stages: the sampling stage, questionnaire development and administration, analysis via SPSS, an analysis stage and the results reporting stage. Indeed, the study confirms the presence of a causal relationship pointing to the positive impact of quality on satisfaction. Indeed, Tunisie Telecom could improve the quality of its offerings and determine its customers’ needs in terms of service delivery. Moreover, Tunisian companies showed a great deal of satisfaction with the performance of Tunisie Telecom’sales service while wishing for a continuous improvement of its offers. These results will enable Tunisie Telecom to be able to identify its offerings and meet well the needs and expectations of its target customers. In addition, Tunisia Telecom should focus on managing service quality and customer satisfaction to provide a sustainable competitors and insure an ongoing business development tool.

  89. Olivia Sunny, Sendi Seb Rengma and Dr. Jinamoni Saikia

    Adolescence is a transitional period from childhood to adulthood and is considered as a period of ‘storm and stress’ which is characterized by many changes and challenges. Due to the rapid growth and development of adolescents, most adolescents experience adjustment difficulties in emotional, social and/or educational aspects of their life. The present study was taken up to find out the Emotional, Social and Educational adjustments of adolescents and if there is any gender difference in adjustment level of adolescents. The sample comprised of 80 (15-16 years) adolescents drawn from the Jorhat district of Assam. The Adjustment Inventory for School Students (AISS) developed by Sinha & Singh (2007) was administered to assess the adjustment levels of the adolescents. The findings of the study revealed that more than half of the respondents’ level of emotional adjustment was excellent. In the area of social and educational adjustments more number of respondents had good level of adjustment. It was found that more number of male respondents had excellent level of emotional adjustment than their counterparts, while more number of female respondents had excellent level of social and educational adjustments.

  90. Dinesh, B. and Dr. Amarjothi, P.

    Socio-economic condition is indicates the development of human life, like this tea plantation workers development also. They are depends the earnings form tea plantation, it help them to run their family. This study focuses about socio economic conditions of workers, in this case no significant relationship in age and gender. Hence, in the economy factor is no improvement of monthly income and monthly expenditure. Even though job opportunity avail for the workers. India is also such a country, where about 70 per cent of the labour force is employed in the agriculture sector. Although in the recent years the share of agriculture in Gross Domestic Product is coming down, still agriculture is the dominant sector of the economy and it impacts the well being of the other sectors.

  91. Dr. Jyoti Syal

    William Shakespeare is regarded as one of the leading dramatist of his time. He was born on April 23, 1564, in Stratford-on-Avon. The son of John Shakespeare and Mary Arden, he got education from King Edward IV Grammar School in Stratford. Shakespeare is often regarded as England's ‘National Poet’, and the ‘Bard of Avon’. His works consist of approximately 38 plays, 154 sonnets, two long narrative poems, and a few other verses. His plays have been translated into many languages all over the world and are performed more often than those of any other playwright."To be, or not to be" is one of the most widely known and quoted lines in modern English and the soliloquy which has been referenced in numerous works of theater, literature and music. ‘To be or not to be’ is the soliloquy spoken by Prince Hamlet in the Act III, Scene 1-‘Nunery Scene’ of Shakespeare’s play Hamlet. Unable to do little but wait for completion of his plan to "catch the conscience of the king", an internal philosophical debate goes on in the mind of Hamlet. He ponders over the advantages and disadvantages of being alive. He questions himself whether it is one’s right to end his or her own life. This soliloquy of Hamlet questions the righteousness of life over death in moral terms. Thus the paper analyses the tragic hero caught in the trap of uneventful episodes and how he overcomes triumphantly, though the stage is littered with dead bodies.

  92. Sarah Thangadurai

    Malaysia’s tourism industry is deeply wounded following several unfortunate incidents in recent years. As a result, hotels across Malaysia are poorly performing compared to how they have performed in the past years. Although previous researchers confirm the influential roles of price fairness and service value in predicting customer satisfaction and hotels’ performance, previous researchers have failed to establish how well price fairness and service value increase price satisfaction and customer satisfaction. Thus, this study explores the extent to which customers’ price fairness and service value affects price satisfaction and customer satisfaction in theMalaysian hotel industry. A total of 166 responses have been collected from leisure tourists that come to Malaysia from across the world. The findings reveal that price fairness and service value are useful predictors of hotel price satisfaction and customer satisfaction. The study also offers potential research avenue for future researchers.

  93. Jesu Stephan, A. and John Kaviarasu, S.

    Background and Aim: The development of our nation depends upon the development of all the villages and their condition. Thus the study encourages helping the development of farmers living in Kattusurai village of Sivagangai district in Tamil Nadu state. This study focuses on studying living conditions of farmers and to find out the problems faced by them. The study specifically concentrates on the demographic profile of the respondents, the living conditions, the economic status and problems and the awareness of respondents about the facilities provided by the government and NGOs regarding agriculture. Methodology: The study describes how the farmers are struggling with their problems to eke out their living. Therefore the researcher adopted descriptive design to bring out the profile and economic status of farmers. The researcher adopted purposive sampling method. The sample size of the study is 60 respondents. Primary data was collected through interview schedule. Results: The study reveals that in this village 85.3 percentages belong to Christian community and 78.3 percentages of farmers involved in self-cultivation. 55 per cent of the respondents are aware of the government schemes and loans for agriculture. Suggestions: The researcher comes out with some of the major suggestion are people in the village should be given awareness on good crop pattern and other facilities available for agriculture productivity and government should make research on best irrigation facility. The government can provide some more loans for financial stability of the farmers.

  94. Gowri Naidu, B. and Vijay Mohan, N.

    The purpose of this study was relationship among anthropometric measurements and fast bowlers performance. The 82 male fast bowlers were selected from inter district level representation in Andhra Pradesh on non-randomly by purposive sample was used. Karl Pearson coefficient of correlation was used to Analysis of the collected data on anthropometric measurements are Height (0.585*), Ponderal Index (0.259*), Fore Arm Girth (-0.237*), Shoulder Width (0.364*) coefficient of correlation with fast bowlers performance was positively with significant level 0.05. Remaining anthropometric measurements not correlated on this current study.

  95. Boyacı, A.

    In the study, it is aimed to investigate the relationship between the strength performance values of the female volleyball players and the agility performance values.42 female volleyball players who have been playing licensed in İstanbul Pertevniyanl Sports Club for at least 2 years have participated voluntarily. Athletes are required to participate in any physical activity until 24 hours before the measurements. Measurements were made in two steps. First, the athletes' height and weight measurements were taken. In the second phase, rats, leg strength, plank, and agility performance in Illinois and Pro-Agality were measured by random selection in the test area established by experts. Statistically significant differences were found between female agile measurement scores and leg strength (-0.625 *) and plank (0.583 *) variables of female volleyball players (p <0,05 *). However, no statistically significant difference was found between the back strength (-0,152) and the change. Statistically significant differences were found between Pro-Agality agility measurement scores and leg force (0,712 *) and plank (0,692 *) variables (p <0,05 *). However, no statistically significant difference was found between the back strength (0,052) and the change.As a result, there was a significant relationship between the leg strength and plank (muscle strength) performance values of the female volleyball players and their agility.

  96. Ravi Kumar and Joshna Handa

    Study shows that there is a very innovative programmes organized by industry. Proper role and responsibility have to be allocated to all the trainers for the accountability. Training may receive the positive or negative results. Idea of training should not be rejected or over on getting the negative feedback. Infact, we should try to emphasis on the positive and should try to design the programmes on the base of need analyses and company objectives. Responsibility of training at each level of management should be well defined. Training methods in the Infosys technologies, TCS, Accenture, IBM demonstrate the Model of training including Induction training, simulation Sensitivity Training, Simulation exercises, Vestibule Training, Lectures and conferences, In-basket training methods like, Role playing, Case study, Management Games, Simulation Exercises: Simulation is any artificial environment exactly similar to the actual situation. Vestibule Training Demonstrations like Lectures Audio-visuals, Programmed Instruction (PI), Computer-Assisted Instruction (CAI), Simulation Conference Case, Studies Role Plays are also communally used by the Industry.

  97. Tadie Degie Yigzaw

    The purpose of this study is to scrutinize the indigenous environmental ethics of the Gedeo people, in Gedeo zone focusing on sage and elite informants on three randomly selected woredas. It is assumed that the views of both sage and elite informants represents the indigenous environmental ethics of the Gedeo people is holistic and implicit. Methodologically, qualitative research approach has been employed. Theoretically, the meaning, nature, significance and the roles of environmental ethics were discussed with the informants and a nexus has been sought vis-à-vis scholarly perspectives. Besides, the moral relations between the Gedeo people with their environment were discussed. Despite the divergent meanings given by informants, the meaning of indigenous environmental ethics for the Gedeo people, undoubtedly, is understandable implicitly and found in unwritten form in their cultural practices, institutions, religious systems, history, and oral traditions. It is also holistic in its nature since it encompasses both anthropocentric (weak) and non-anthropocentric views. Besides, they provide utilitarian and non-utilitarian, intrinsic and extrinsic values and both the power of domination and stewardship for humankind towards the environment. Morality, religion, culture, history, indigenous knowledge, social institutions are the Archimedean points of environmental obligation. Generally, for the Gedeo people the issue of justice, integrity, and stability is not merely human virtues but they also extend them to the environment as well.

  98. Martin Bressler

    Sometimes referred to as older-preneurs, by others as senior entrepreneurs, third age entrepreneurs, gray entrepreneurs, and other names, persons aged 50 and over are starting businesses at a rate faster than any other age demographic. This phenomenon runs counter to the overall rate of new business startups which has been declining since the 1970’s. Research supports that baby-boomers are becoming senior entrepreneurs and often out-perform their younger counterparts in several ways. In this paper, the author discusses the reasons for the senior entrepreneur boom, profiles some of the more successful senior entrepreneurs, and identifies the keys to success for older entrepreneurs.

  99. Martin Bressler

    Sometimes referred to as older-preneurs, by others as senior entrepreneurs, third age entrepreneurs, gray entrepreneurs, and other names, persons aged 50 and over are starting businesses at a rate faster than any other age demographic. This phenomenon runs counter to the overall rate of new business startups which has been declining since the 1970’s. Research supports that baby-boomers are becoming senior entrepreneurs and often out-perform their younger counterparts in several ways. In this paper, the author discusses the reasons for the senior entrepreneur boom, profiles some of the more successful senior entrepreneurs, and identifies the keys to success for older entrepreneurs.

  100. Martin Bressler

    Sometimes referred to as older-preneurs, by others as senior entrepreneurs, third age entrepreneurs, gray entrepreneurs, and other names, persons aged 50 and over are starting businesses at a rate faster than any other age demographic. This phenomenon runs counter to the overall rate of new business startups which has been declining since the 1970’s. Research supports that baby-boomers are becoming senior entrepreneurs and often out-perform their younger counterparts in several ways. In this paper, the author discusses the reasons for the senior entrepreneur boom, profiles some of the more successful senior entrepreneurs, and identifies the keys to success for older entrepreneurs.

  101. Abduh Almashy

    Speaking is one of the most essential skills of language usage. In general, teaching and testing speaking ability is both difficult and time consuming. This paper will concentrate on the different methods used to test speaking ability. It starts by presenting a brief summary of the methods of testing speaking skills used in Saudi schools. It then discusses several of the problems and difficulties associated with testing speaking skills and describes some of the practical methods used. For example, it explains how computers can be used when testing speaking ability. The purpose of this research is to help teachers to both design adequate speaking tests and improve their testing methods.

  102. Dr. Krishnarathi, A. and Stella Prema, T.

    Blogs have the potential to increase reflection, sense of community and collaboration in the classrooms. Blogging has become an increasingly popular technological tool within an educational context. Blogs provide opportunities for people to publish their thoughts, opinions and feelings in an online environment. The potential of blog use in increasing student interactivity and collaboration has been explored by many educators. This study focused on teaching of blog B.Ed., students and found that the students were very much interested to learn psychology through blog. The researcher was find out the performance of the students in learning Psychology through blog and to the traditional method of teaching. Experiment method was used in this study. 40 B.Ed. students participated in this study. This data was analyzed using Mean, standard deviation and t-test .Findings revealed that the blog method is effective than the ordinary method.

  103. Fadhil N.A.Alkanany

    The quality of human use water at the point of delivery to the peoples houses is related directly to the consumer's health. The current study assessed the changes in residual chlorine content with distance in water distribution system in Abu-Alkhaseeb district, Basrah city, South of Iraq. Collection of water samples have been done from the start point of the water treatment plants, mid distance and the taps at consumer households at an intervals of 1-2 km. Standard methods were used for determination of residual chlorine contents and present of total and fecal coliforms of 36 water samples collected from water pipeline distribution systems related to 12 water treatment plants. The mean concentration of the residual chlorine from all sampling stations was between (0-3.5). Total coliforms detected in the most water samples in the range of (0-34) cfu/100ml while fecal coliforms were in the range of (0-20) cfu/100ml. The chlorine concentration levels in the transported water were decreased with the time and distance. The results indicate strongly that the residual chlorine in most sampling locations is not sufficient to support the elimination of bacterial growth in the water distribution system unless the specialists repair the water pipe leakages and other damages which are the main source of the bacterial contamination and focus on careless of the responsible staff in order to treat the water with accurate chlorine concentrations.

  104. Dr. Saraswathi Gopal, M.D.S. and Dr. P. Sai Archana, M.D.S.

    Ectodermal dysplasias (EDs) are a heterogeneous group of disorders characterized by developmental dystrophies of ectodermal structures. The X-linked recessive ED (Christ-Siemens-Touraine syndrome) is the most common disorder affects mostly males and is inherited through female and they become carriers. It is characterized by the triad of signs of sparse hair (atrichosis or hypotrichosis), abnormal or missing teeth (anodontia or hypodontia) and inability to sweat due to lack of sweat glands (anhidrosis or hypohidrosis).The lack of teeth and the special appearance were reported to be major concerns. Thus an early diagnosis is important. Families suffering from this disorder should therefore be offered genetic counselling. Currently the genes and gene products are defined, hence identification of the genes and taking necessary precautions before starting a family will be beneficial. For the patients as well as the dentists, tooth agenesis and its secondary effects on growth and development of the jaws is often the most significant clinical and therapeutical problem. The course of the treatment is to restore the function and the aesthetics of the teeth, normalise the vertical dimension and support the facial soft tissues. We report two cases of ectodermal dysplasia with review in this article for better understanding of this disorder.

  105. Saifullah Soomro, Asmatullah, Syed Shahid Noor, Mehroze Zamir and Osama Bin Zia Siddiqui

    Objective: To observe the effects of early treatment in elderly patients with hip fractures in terms of mortality at one year. Method: In this retrospective observational cohort study we compared the difference in one year mortality between two groups of the patients who were operated for fractures of hip. This study was conducted on patients who were hospitalized and operated for hip fractures from January 2014 to December 2014. Patients were divided in two cohorts, cohort 1 included patients who were operated within 24 hours of getting fracture and patients who were operated after 3 days of injury. All patients followed at one year of treatment via phone calls and emails. Inclusion criteria were patients with either sex, older than 60 years of age with diagnosis of hip fracture confirmed by history, clinical examination and radiographs. Patients below age of 60 years, having pathological fractures, acetabulum fractures, bilateral hip fractures, prior surgery on same hip or previous ipsilateral hip fracture were excluded. Result: Total 445 patients were hospitalized with hip fractures, cohort 1 included 190(42.69%) patients who underwent for surgery within 24 hours of injury, and 115(25.84%) were those patients who were operated after three days of injury included in cohort 2. These two groups were comparable in gender, age distribution and types of operation. Mortality in group one is 15.7% and in group 2 is 29.56%, there is increase of 13.86% in the mortality of patients in cohort 2. Conclusion: This study shows that survival at 1 year is better when patients who were presented earlier and were operated within first 24 hours of injury.

  106. Dr. Dhanu G Rao, Dr. Antarmayee Panigrahi and Dr. Susant Mohanty

    Class III malocclusion continues to be one of the most challenging problems confronting orthodontist and paediatric dentists owing to its unpredictable and unfavourable growth pattern. Although early orthopaedic intervention is recommended but still it is not customarily used because of poor patient compliance and convoluted appliance therapy. The following case report describes management of a 5-year old male patient in deciduous dentition with developing class III malocclusion by modified occlusal splint along with facemask. Improved patient compliance with this new appliance enabled correction of malocclusion in 6 months and encouraging favourable skeletal growth for future.

  107. Dr. Hari S Prabhu, Dr. Thiruneervannan, R. Dr. Mohan, N. and Dr. Benjamin Premkumar

    Oral cancer is reported as the sixth most frequent malignant neoplasm in the world. Among all malignancies 25% are found in the oral cavity. Early diagnosis of malignant and potentially malignant disorders may help in reducing mortality. Clinical efforts in cancer therapeutics were concentrated mainly on invasive cancer. Such an approach has limited effect. A refocus on carcinogenesis is important with prime aim for cancer prevention. Plasma concentrations of ascorbate have been shown to be inversely associated with risk for developing cancer. The objective of study was to estimate and correlate the salivary levels of vitamin C in oral malignant and potentially malignant disorders. 20 subjects with oral cancer and 20 subjects with potentially malignant disorders were selected and salivary levels of vitamin C were compared with controls. 1ml of whole saliva was collected from each subject. The samples were collected in micro centrifuging tube and were frozen at less than minus 200C. The samples were analyzed in a spectrophotometer for vitamin C levels. It is observed that salivary levels of vitamin C were very much reduced in oral malignant and potentially malignant disorders when compared to control (p<0.001). In the control group salivary vitamin C levels were maintained in all the age groups. Low levels of vitamin C causes increased cell damage. There is an inverse association of vitamin C and development oral cancer. Thus this study suggests that Vitamin C may have a strong association in inhibiting initiation and promotion of oral cancer.

  108. Asha, M. L., Priyanka Baswaraj Lasune, Lekshmy J., Dr. Rajarathnam, Dr. Mahesh Kumar, H. M. and Laboni Ghorai

    Imaging technology has revolutionized over the past few decades and has witnessed immense development, especially in the field of oral and maxillofacial imaging. The development of ‘Black bone MRI’signifies anew era of paradigm shift in maxillofacial imaging where thisMRI sequence for imaging cortical bone can be used as a potential replacement for CT. Using alow flip angle with short repetition and echo times, this sequence is optimized to minimize soft tissue contrastand enhance the bone-soft tissue boundary. Furthermore, Black bone MRI eliminates radiation burden to the patients as it is a non-invasive ‘radiation-free’ method of paediatric diagnoses and adult screening of benign and malignant lesions affecting the maxillofacial region. This paper elaborates this novel gradient echo MRI sequence and highlights the potential of this sequence in maxillofacial imaging.

  109. Dr. Saraswathi Gopal, K. and Amala Manivannan

    Aloe vera is the oldest medicinal plant ever known and the most applied medicinal plant worldwide. The plant leaves contains numerous vitamins, minerals, enzymes, amino acids and other bioactive compounds with emollient, purgative, antimicrobial, anti inflammatory, anti-oxidant, aphrodisiac, anti-helmenthic, antifungal, antiseptic and cosmetic properties. Aloe vera has been used in dentistry for its wound-healing effects, gingivitis, plaque control & curing oral mucosal lesions. Aloe vera may also reduces pain and duration of oral ulcers by rapid healing. The dentists should use Aloe vera to maximize its therapeutic benefit.

  110. Dr. Bikash Pattanaik, Dr. Girish Nazirkar, Dr. Shailendra Singh, Dr. Neha Giri, Dr. Aishwarya Tendolkar and Dr. Snehal Mane

    The accuracy of impression materials in terms of both dimensional stability and detail reproduction is necessary for FPD and implant prosthesis. For this purpose polyvinyl siloxane impression material have become extremely popular. This material is known for their excellent elastic recovery, optimal accuracy, adequate tear resistence, satisfactory handeling characteristics and virtually ideal dimentional stability. VSE (Vinyl siloxane ether) is newly introduced material with additional benefits of hydrophilic properties. In the present study we are comparing the effect of one step and two step impression technique on accuracy when finish line is within the sulcular area by using PVS (addition silicon) and VSE. A standardized stainless steel die was fabricated for making impressions with Polyvinyl Siloxane Ether (Group A) and Vinyl Polysiloxane (group B). 20 impressions of each group were made. Further the two groups were subdivided into one (one step impression technique) & two (two step impression technique). The accuracy of impression material was measured using 3 D scanner. The data obtained was subjected to statistical analysis. The mean difference in dimensional change between the four groups was not statistically significant (P(0.05). However the results revealed that there was higher mean dimensional accuracy with two step impression technique of vinyl polysiloxane impression material.

  111. Sathyaprasad Savitha, Sharma, S. M., Shetty Veena and Rekha, R.

    The chromosomal region around 14q22-q23 containing bmp4 gene is extensively studied by genotyping to give evidence of linkage and one of the most functional single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) of BMP4 gene, rs17563, is currently a research focus which is a promising in NSCL/P development. Aim: This study was done to identify Single nucleotide polymorphism that confirmed change from T to C at 538 nucleotide position (538T/C). Method: The sequencing pattern of the base pairs at BMP4 538T/C position to find out subsequent polymorphism, resulting in an amino acid change of Val=Ala (V152A) in the polypeptide chain in cleft lip and palate patients using the most common bioinformatics analyses, Multiple Sequence Alignment (MSA) that involve comparing homologous sequences and then further alignment by Clustal Omega, a progressive method MSA. Results: Our results showed that 71.4% of the samples represented the nucleotide as C and 28.5% showed presence of nucleotide T at SNP point mutation site. Conclusion: Sequencing in our present study confirms the previous results of our findings of PCR restriction fragment length polymorphism on NSCLP in an Indian population that C genotype has more risk for NSCLP.

  112. Eliane Mikkelsen Ranivoharisoa, Philippes Chauveau, Veronique François, Christine Nazaris, Jean Arnautou and Pierre Merville

    The chronic kidney disease is a public health problem in aggravation. The management requires best conditions for dialysis initiation. The national and international recommendations suggest multidisciplinary management of chronic disease. We report here the experience of "Lot-et-Garonne" regarding the benefits of a proximity nurses and dietitians counseling. Since its five years of existence, we would evaluate the impacts of the proximity therapeutic education offered by theses paramedical teams in the management of patients with chronic kidney disease. The main objective is to determine if the Proximity Nurse and Dietitian Counseling could reduce the emergency dialysis. We have selected 212 patients new dialyzed, divided into 3 groups according to the types of consultations which they have benefited. The main objective is to determine if the Proximity Nurse and Dietitian Counseling could decrease the emergency dialysis. The others objectifs are to determine if it could increase the using of native fistula for starting the dialysis, secondly if it could increase the rate of dialysis in satellites dialysis center and finally if it could increase the survival rate one year after starting the dialysis. During this study, patients were divided into 3 groups according to the types of consultations which they have benefited. So, 93 patients were followed exclusively by nephrologists, 76 have had a medical nephrology monitoring and hospital nurse consultation and 43 have benefited the Proximity Nurse and Dietitian Counseling in ad of both previous consultations. The proximity Nurse and Dietitian Counseling allowed to decrease significantly the emergency dialysis in 43% to 20.28%. It could increased significantly also the using of artery veinous fistula passing 44.09% in Groupe 1 to 90,7% in Groupe 3 and the transfert in Satellites Auto-Dialysis Unit or Antennas passing 39.78% to 74.42% in the two previous groupes without changing the survival rate. The presence of the paramedical management including nurse and dietitian counseling are close substitutes consultations. Sometimes, they induce medical consultations required for strict monitoring of patients. Its benefits is not only reducing the emergency dialysis but also promoting the using of artery veinous fistula and the hemodialysis in antennas and so producing different economic impacts at all levels. The proximity educational therapeutic helped for managing the patients with chronic kidney disease. It should be included in their care management.

  113. Prof. Dr. Ricardo H Illia

    The instrumental assistance of a second period of delivery is one of the more complex issues to be analyzed into the obstetrics practice because there are multiple factors related.Historically there were physicians for and against instrumental assistance of delivery. We can solve a complicated situation by the rigth use of forceps or vacuum into the skilled hands as we can produce maternal and neonatal morbidity with unwise use. Perhaps, the most important fact is that instrumental delivery constitute an valuable option in the final target of decrease the rate of cesarean section. In this article, I analyze several problems associated to instrumental delivery. Fisrt the subject of the training problem is argued over real numbers, and second, also over real numbers is analyzed the problems related with the technique, indications, outcomes and finally complications of the use of instruments to get a vaginal delivery.

  114. Dr. Isha Kaur Bagga, Dr. Pratik Jain and Dr. Parekh Abhishek Vijaykumar

    Introduction- Leukoplakia’s are premalignant lesions with a significant 0-20% potential for malignant transformation. There are various ways to prevent malignant transformation, surgical interventions are amongst one are recommended for their removal. Laser ablation is one of the favored procedures with sequential histopathology using one of the many types of lasers. The efficacy of such procedure with respect to the lesion location is, however, unclear. Many studies are contradictory. Some shows laser ablations as prevention of malignisation other see it as increased risk. Aim and Objectives- To compare the a) efficacy of diode laser versus scalpel; b) clinical healing and; c) histopathological changes. Material and Method- Ablation of the leukoplakia lesion by 810nm diode laser in outpatients (Group A) or excising the leukoplakia lesion using conventional method [scalpel] (Group B) from different region including buccal mucosa, tongue, alveolar ridge. In total 20 lesions were treated under local anesthesia in altogether 20patients. Initially, all lesions were histopathologically confirmed by taking punch biopsy from the encountered lesion. Follow up was done in the interval of 7days, 3weeks, 6months, 9months and 12 months. Results- Conventional method found to be more beneficial in all aspects though laser ablation has proved to have patient compliance, faster healing and no scar formation but malignant transformation is found to be more in laser ablation procedure. Conclusion- Higher risk of reoccurrence and malignant transformation of leukoplakia is observed, especially verrucous type.Thus scalpel method overshadows the laser ablation method as per the current study. Hence more studies are required to confirm its pros and cons.

  115. Arvind Ramachandran, Bhaskaran A. and Asadulla Biag

    Introduction: One of the most common presentation of patients presenting to surgical OPD is heart burn or non specific abdominal pain. Over the years endoscopy has proven to benefit and aid in diagnosing the definitive causes of such clinical presentation. Among them those frequently encountered include GERD, biliary gastritis, reflux esophagitis and in some instances malignancy of upper GI tract can be diagnosed. Objectives: To retrospectively analyse the most common endoscopic finding in patients presenting with non specific abdominal symptom undergoing upper gastrointestinal endoscopy. Clinical data and findings of patients who have undergone upper gastrointestinal endoscopy in the past 3 years will be collected through departmental records. Results: A total of 1406 endoscopies were performed from the period comprising 2013-2015. A diverse range of etiologies were found 922 males comprised the study population while the female population included 484 patients with a male: female ratio of 1.9:1. Antral gastritis as an endoscopic finding was most common among the list of diagnosis and was seen in 275 patients of which the male population was 194 and female were 81. Endoscopy was normal in 643 patients belonging to the study population. The number of endoscopies performed in 2013 were 392 (28% of study population), 2014 -501 (36% of study population) and 2015-513 (36% of study population). Conclusion: The only clinical symptoms which patients present with are heart burn or abdominal pain of non-specific etiology. By performing an endoscopy the exact cause and the nature of condition can be deduced which aids the clinician in planning the appropriate treatment as demonstrated in this particular study.

  116. Dr. Deepak Kumar, Dr. Aftab Ahmed and Dr. Rajesh Kumar

    The biliary tract is a complex organ system that performs the simple though vital task of collecting, storing, and delivering bile to the gastrointestinal tract. Diseases of the biliary tract can be extremely painful, debilitating, and occasionally life threatening. the complex development of the liver and biliary system in utero can result in multiple anatomic variations. An absolute knowledge of these anatomic variations with careful dissection and identification of structures at the time of surgery is a minimal requirement for the safe performance of any hepatobiliary operation. Because of the unforgiving nature of the biliary system, errors in technique or judgment can be disastrous to the patient, resulting in lifelong disability or death. For this reason, a high premium exists on performing the correct procedure, without technical misadventure, the first time. Equally important is the ability to recognize iatrogenic injury so that prompt repair or referral to a surgeon who has expertise in hepatobiliary surgery can be instituted. Positive outcome requires a balance between sound judgement, technical acumen, and attention to detail. Additionally, the surgeon of today must be able to integrate surgical options with the broadening array of radiologic and endoscopic treatment options available in the management of patients who have these disorders. Also because of the great frequency with which the operation is performed, cholecystectomy remains the greatest source of post-operative biliary injuries. In a review of more than 42,000 open cholecystectomies performed in the United Statess in 1989, the incidence of incidence of biliary injuries was documented to be 0.2%. Strasberg and associates reported a 0.3% incidence of injuries in a literature review of more than 25,000 open cholecystectomies since 1980. The advent and preference for laparoscopic cholecystectomy has refocused attention on this issue, however because of the significant increase in the number of injuries. Several studies worldwide have documented a marked increase in the frequency of bile duct injuries associated with the laparoscopic approach, ranging from 0.4% to 1.3%. Also in a review of nearly 125,000 laparoscopic cholecystectomies reported in the literature in the years 1991-1993, Strasbeg and colleagues reported an overall incidence of biliary injuries of 0.85%.

  117. Leny Thomas Mathew, Suresh Kumar and Stephen Abraham Suresh Kumar, S.

    Levetiracetam (LEV) is a broad spectrum anti-epileptic drug with renal elimination and no hepatic metabolism. LEV is a relatively well-tolerated both in adults and children. Various behavioral and psychiatric side-effects associated with LEV is been reported. Encephalopathy can occur concomitant with levetiracetam accumulation in a patient with chronic renal failure and also when administered along with valproate. This condition like encephalopathy and psychosis are reversible after down-titration of levetiracetam with no change of the renal function. Encephalopathy resulting from LEV administration without renal dysfunction is a rare occurrence. The knowledge of these facts hold an important role in clinical practise. We hereby present two case reports enlightening the complication of LEV in different clinical scenario.

  118. Dr. Sunil Kumar Mahto, Dr. Anu Singh, Dr. Arvind Kumar, Dr. Srivastava, A. K., Dr. Sinha, A. K. and Dr. Paswan Manoj

    Background: Undiffrentiated pleomorphic sarcoma of vulva with osteoclastic giant cells is a diagnosis of exclusion. It is an exceptionally uncommon diagnostic finding which was eventually diagnosed in our institute and this required a methodical clinical approach and extensive immunohistochemical markers to rule out other probable diagnostic possibilities at this site. The quick diagnostic approach at our institute was ensued by operation. Case Report: 53 years old female presented with vulval growth to our institute. Incision biopsy was performed as a routine procedure. Biopsy showed atypical spindle cells with few cells showing rhabdoid morphology and osteoclast like giant cells were also present. Histological findings with aid of immunohistochemistry led to the diagnosis of undifferentiated pleomorphic sarcoma with osteoclast like giant cells. The tumor cells stained intensely for vimentin (a mesenchymal marker), but no immunoreactivity for the Cytokeratin Pan (epithelial cells marker), Leukocyte Common Antigen (lymphoid cells marker), SMA (smooth muscle actin), Desmin (smooth and striated muscular cells marker), S100 (neuronal cells marker), CD34 (to identify vascular tumor), CD99 (synovial sarcoma marker) was detected. Conclusion: Undifferentiated pleomorphic sarcoma of the vulva is an uncommon mesenchymal neoplasm that presents diagnostic challenges. Therefore, as with all rare tumors, undifferentiated pleomorphic sarcoma should be managed in reference centers to determine whether treatment of choice is surgical excision or some form of adjuvant therapy can have beneficial effects.

  119. Dr. KruttikaBhuse, Dr. Devanand Shetty, Dr. Arvind Shetty and Dr. SuyogDharmadhikar

    Periodontitis is an inflammatory disease of the supporting tissues of the teeth caused by specific microbes, resulting in progressive destruction of the periodontal ligament and alveolar bone in the oral cavity. The ABO blood groups in determining the susceptibility to various diseases have long been a subject of debate and periodontitis is one among them. Till date very few studies have been conducted to determine the association between ABO blood group and severity ofperiodontitis The aim of the study was to evaluate and Compare the association between ABO blood Groups and severity of Chronic Periodontitis. On oral examination, plaque index, gingival index, pocket probing depth, clinical attachment loss and the number of missing teeth were recorded. The blood group investigation was carried out by slide agglutination method.Analytical statistics were done. The Kolmogorov-Smirnov test was used for testing normality of data. The non-parametric Kruskal-Wallis test was used to check differences between the groups.66 Post hoc comparisons were done using Dunn-Bonferroni test.67 The chi-square test was used to check differences in proportions between groups. Software: SPSS (Statistical Package for Social Sciences) Version 20.1(Chicago, USA Inc.) There was a significant association of blood group ‘B’ with mild and moderate periodontitis and of blood group ‘ O’ with severe periodontitis (p =0.024).

  120. Gavril Cornutiu and OanaLet-Cornutiu

    Scientific language is supposed to be clear and concise. This is the reason why natural Sciences, in general, are expressed through mathematics and quantify their conclusions. Anthropological sciences, medical in particular, and of these, forensic psychiatry specifically use phenomenological descriptions. The quantification of a forensic psychiatric examination would generate language of maximum clarity and concision, lacking distortions from the way of thinking from the different types of experts dealing with such cases. The present paper proposes such a possible quantification model for the integrative mental capacity of the patient being evaluated.

  121. Dr. Deepashree Paul, Dr. Deepshikha Singh, Dr. Prof. ShabnamZahir, Dr. Sudipto Kar and Dr. Prof. Gautam Kumar Kundu

    Aesthetic outcome of a grossly decayed or broken down tooth can be greatly improved by the judicial use of pedo posts. There are various types of posts that can be easily customized in a simple chair side maneuver. Yet, posts are not regularly used in primary teeth and there are very few documented cases of successful use of pedo posts. This is a case report of a modified omega loop used to restore a fractured anterior tooth.

  122. Márcio Cristiano de Melo, Prof. Maria Rita Donalisio and Prof. André Ricardo Ribas de Freitas

    Facing the crescent transmission of Zika virus in Brazil and elsewhere, the objective of this study was to analyze the number and features of publications since the discovery of the virus until May 2016. A bibliometric and integrative review of literature using the single descriptor "Virus Zika" to reach researches around the world. Were found 428 papers and 321 analyzed in this study, of which 59.8% were indexed in PubMed database. The increasing number of publications of different aspect of the virus and epidemics is remarkable and show the rapid answer from research institutes, universities and groups, financial agencies to face this emergent public health threat.

  123. Dr. Nitin Sethi, Dr. Suman Sethi and Dr. Abhinav Singh

    In Complex case of drug extravasation wound with infection and high fever, V.A.C.® Therapy facilitated faster wound bed preparation, promoted formation of granulation tissue, and better graft take. In this case allograft from mother was used in combination with V.A.C.® Therapy for final closure.

  124. Sanjana Malhotra and Sherin P. Antony

    Aim: To analyse the potential cognitive factors and family functioning related to adherence among type 1 diabetic mellitus adolescents in India. Method: Standardised tools such as Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (1983); Self Care Inventory-R(2001); Emotional Regulation(2003); Family Assessment Device(1983) was administered on 84 adolescents who had mean age of 15.4 years; their age of diabetes onset was 9.83 years; the mean duration of diabetes mellitus was 5.5 years; 37% boys were participants in the current study and 52% of the participants hailed from urban and semi-urban areas. Results: The results were analyzed through the statistical tool Spearman correlation which revealed significant relationship between family functioning and adherence (p=.318**); behavioural control practiced by family members and adherence (p=.339**); affective involvement and adherence (p=.216*); communication and adherence (p=-.261*).Thus, when an individual is able to evaluate their family environment, they are more likely to adhere to their treatment regimen. Conclusion: A chronic health condition may likely place the adolescent in jeopardy for developing emotional and behavioural problems which may hinder adherence to treatment regimen. Also, the functioning of the family in which the adolescent resides can influence adherence to the diabetes regimen.

  125. Umadevi, Dr. Santha Devy, Dr. Udhaya Visvanathan, Dr. Vezhavendhan, Dr. K. R. Prem Lal and Dr. S. Vidyalakshmi

    Background: Oral cavity reflects the general health status of an individual and is colonized by more than seven hundred species living in its own domain and balances the normal oral ecology. This ecosystem tends to get altered when there is a local or systemic disease. One among the systemic diseases, Diabetes Mellitus a common life style disease has an influence on the microbiota which in turn tends to shift the ecosystem. Thus the aim & objective of the study is to identify the Carriage rate of Streptococcus mutans from five anatomical surfaces of oral cavity of Type I and Type II Diabetes Mellitus and Non Diabetic population & to compare carriage rate Streptococcus mutans of Type I and Type II Diabetic patient with Non Diabetic population. Materials and Methods: Swabs were collected from five different anatomical sites of the oral cavity from Type I & Type II and Non Diabetic patients of 30 each. Samples were confirmed for the species and then inoculated in Mitis Salivaris Agar to assess the Frequency of isolation and Colony Forming Units (CFU) of Streptococcus mutans. Results: Observation of the study revealed that the Frequency of Isolation and Colony Forming Units were high in patients with Type II Diabetes Mellitus when compared to that of Type I Diabetes Mellitus and the Non Diabetes Mellitus subjects.

  126. Dr. Ankita Jaiswal, Dr. Ragni Tandon, Dr. Kamlesh Singh, Dr. Aftab Azam and Dr. Abhimanyu Rohmetra

    In recent years, stress analysis of dental structures has been a topic of interest with an objective of determining stresses in the dental structures and improvement of the mechanical strength of these structures. The study of orthodontic biomechanics requires the understanding of nature of stress and strain induced by orthodontic forces. FEM is an engineering method of calculating stresses and strains in all materials including living tissues. The finite element analysis provides the orthodontist with quantitative data that can extend the understanding of physiologic reactions that occur within the dentoalveolar complex. Such a structural analysis allows the determination of stress resulting from external force, pressure, thermal change, and other factors. The scope of the review covers various steps of finite element analysis, its applications in context to orthodontics and general dentistry.

  127. Mohammed Ismail, Dr. Shaik Kareemulla, Mohamed Abdul Raheem, Mohammed Ahmed, Shafiq Ur Rahman Khalid, Shaik Gouse Basha and Zoheb Anjum

    Drug delivery is the method or process of administering a pharmaceutical compound to achieve a therapeutic effect in humans or animals. For the treatment of human diseases, nasal and pulmonary routes of drug delivery are gaining increasing importance. These routes provide promising alternatives to parenteral drug delivery. Development of new drug molecule is expensive and time consuming. Improving safety efficacy ratio of “old” drugs has been attempted using different methods such as individualizing drug therapy, dose titration, and therapeutic drug monitoring. The conventional dosage forms (tablet and capsule) have wide acceptance up to 50-60% of total dosage forms. Tablet is still most popular conventional dosage forms existing today because of ease of self administration, compact in nature, easy to manufacture and it can be deliver in accurate dose. Amiodarone is an antiarrhythmic medication used to treat and prevent a number of types of irregular heartbeats. Amiodarone HCl is a white to cream-colored crystalline powder. It contains 37.3% iodine by weight. Tablet disintegration has been considered as the rate limiting step in faster drug release. Natural gums and mucilages have been widely explored as pharmaceutical excipients. These are widely used in the pharmaceutical industry as thickener, emulsifier, stabilizer, gelling agent, granulating agent, suspending agent, binder, film former, disintegrant and as sustained release matrix.

  128. Dr. Vijayalaxmi Kanthe and Dr. H. B. Prasad

    Aims of the study: To study clinical presentation, complications and response to supportive management of cases of scorpion sting. Methods and Material: Thirty cases of acute scorpion bite were studied in detail and compared with previous data from literature. Results: All the thirty cases were brought to our hospital, among them twenty one cases were males and remaining nine cases were females, with their age ranging from 14 years to 62 years. Sixteen cases were farmers, six were housewives, five were students, two were truck drivers and one was manual labourer. Local pain was prominent symptoms, next were warm extremities, breathlessness, sweating, palpitation and vomiting, eighteen cases had tachycardia, hypertension and hyperthermia. Two cases had mydriasis, pulmonary oedema, ST segment changes and reduced left ventricular ejection fraction. None of the patient was treated with mechanical ventilation. All the cases responded to supportive treatment and recovered completely. Conclusion: Scorpion stings are more common in males. Maximum patients are in age group of fourth decade. Incidence is high in farmers. Maximum number of cases had scorpion sting on lower limb. Stings are more at the day time. Local pain, breathlessness, sweating and redness of local area are the commonest symptom. Tachycardia hypertension and hyperthermia are common signs. Mydriasis is rare. Electrocardiogram were normal except few had ST segment depression and ventricular premature beats. Myocarditis and pulmonary oedema are rare complications which are treatable.

  129. Jyoti Thakur, Anshul, Ved Prakash and Prem Prakash Mishra

    Aim: To assess and evaluate the effectiveness of sterilization of endodontic files by different methods (Autoclave, Diode laser and Glutraldehyde) with and without disinfection by ultrasonics cleaner. Methodology: The study was performed on 280 K-files to test the sterilization efficacy of autoclave, glutaraldehyde and diode laser with and without ultrasonics. Standard bacterial isolates of Bacillus stearothermophilus, Enterococcus faecalis, Streptococcus mutans and fungi Candida albicans were obtained and the pre-sterilized files were contaminated. All the endodontic files randomlydivided into seven groups were subjected to sterilization by different methods of sterilization. The test tubes were kept for incubation at 55OC for 21 days and checked for growth. Presence of turbidity in a test tube indicated the presence of bacteria and that the particular file was not sterilized completely. Results: It was observed that in Group I turbidity was observed in all test tubes. No turbidity was found in any of the test tubes in Group II a and Group III a thereby indicating total sterility. The files of Group II b showed turbidity in 4 test tubes and Group III b showed turbidity in 2 test tubes (5%). Files of Group II c showed turbidity in 6 test tubes while Group III c showed turbidity in 5 test tubes. The subculture from turbid tubes of various groups were identified by various bacteriological tests. Conclusion: It can be concluded that to achieve one hundred percent of sterilization, autoclave is a suitable method for killing of all microorganisms.

  130. Nizar MOHAMMED Al-Hibshi, Hawazin Hawazin Fallatah, Nada Sougan Al-zahrani and Bayan Ghassan Badgish

    Introduction: Myopia of eyes characterized by a limited vision of remote objects while nearby objects appear in focus. It is the most common refractive error attacking (1). Several studies have revealed that increasing t prevalence of myopia over the past few decades, reaching up to 80% in some populations. (2,3). Objective: The primary objective of this study was to measure the prevalence of myopia among senior medical students, and the secondary objective was to identify any relationship between different types of study electronic and non- electronic methods used by students. Methods: An analytic cross-sectional study conducted at King Abdul-Aziz University in 2015. A two-staged sampling technique. A questionnaire was constructed with Questions included measuring risk factors for myopia. Results: Out of 240, 76%were females and 24% were males. Prevalence of myopia was 19%. 34% complained of a progressive worsening of their symptoms. (74%) had a first degree relative with myopia. 37% of the myopic students complained of headaches after reading. The correlation between myopia and non-electronic type of study was significant (p-value .027). And with electronic (p-value.175) Conclusion: The results of this study indicate progression of myopia during medical school was very significant: chi- square test =36.06 (p-value .000). And suggest an association between the types of study and the progression of their eye diseases.

  131. Vinitha SAMARTHA, Shreya HEGDE and Thoppil Reba PHILIPOSE

    Strongyloides stercoralis is an intestinal nematode of humans. It is prevalent throughout the tropical, subtropical and temperate regions. It is endemic in hot and humid climates as well as resource poor countries with inadequate sanitary conditions. The rise of international travel and immigration has a positive impact in strongyloidiasis. Man is infected by filariform larvae of Strongyloides stercoralis. Due to its unique auto infection life cycle, Strongyloides may lead to chronic infections remaining undetected for decades. Strongyloidiasis is most often asymptomatic but it has a wide range of clinical presentations.

  132. Ashika Rachael Samuel and Dr. Gheena

    Aim: The aim of this study is to find a potential alternative that can be used in place of the regular fixatives. Materials and Method: In this study, we will use sodium nitrite as a fixative. 5 samples of the tissue overlying the extracted teeth will be used. 30g, 35g, 40g, 45g and 50g of sodium nitrite were the concentrations. Background: Fixation is the foundation step behind the study of pathology and essentially exists to prevent the autolysis and degradation of the tissue and tissue components such that they can be observed both anatomically and microscopically following sectioning. The broad objective of tissue fixation is to preserve cells and tissue components in a “life-like state”. Sodium nitrite has been found to inhibit growth of disease-causing microorganisms; give taste and color to the meat; and inhibit lipid oxidation that leads to rancidity. The study was carried out in 2016 using 40g, 50g, 60g and 80g of sodium nitrite in 100 ml of water. 40g sodium nitrite showed the best fixation properties among the other concentrations. Even 60g showed significant results. However in the experimental study we chose concenterations around 40g. Conclusion: An innovative Method to detect the effectiveness of a new salt like sodium nitrite as a fixative in place of the usual toxic Formalin.

  133. Radhika Murali and Dr. Manish Ranjan

    Aim: To evaluate the effect of bleaching products on the surface of composite restorative material Objective: To understand the effect of different bleaching products acting on the surface of tooth colored composite restoration before and after staining in various drinks Background: Tooth coloured restorations are composite restorations which are applied on the prepared cavity and hardened with a special light, which ultimately bonds the material to the tooth to restore or improve the persons smile. Various beverages such as tea, coffee, soft drinks, wine etc. can affect the colour and texture of the composite restoration in various degrees depending on their composition. Bleaching agents such as hydrogen peroxide and carbamide peroxide, the two most popular bleaching products, can change the physical properties of dental restorations. Purpose: As dental whitening has become more accessible, many patients select this treatment for esthetic reasons. In most cases, they want whiter teeth. Consumption of various beverages such as soft drinks, coffee, tea etc. is also increasing among patients of all ages. Because of the popularity and convenience of bleaching and the addition of new bleaching products every year, it is important to study the effects of these products on teeth and dental restorative materials. Materials and Methods: 27 specimens (5mm x 2 mm) of composite were prepared, The specimen were divided into 3 groups of 12, 12, and 3 each. These groups were again divided into 4 subgroups of 3 specimen each (n=3) and stained for 9 hours in tea, coffee, soft drinks and wine respectively. The specimen were then subjected to their specific bleaching agents, Pola Office and Colgate optic White Blaching Kit. Colorimetric measurements were performed before staining, after staining and after bleaching. Analysis of variance and nonparametric analysis were used to analyse data. Results: After staining, it was observed that tea stained the composites the most. After bleaching it was observed that the Pola Office Bleaching kit was more effective in bleaching than the Colgate Optic white bleaching kit. Conclusion: It can be concluded that in office bleaching removes surface stains from composite restorations more than when compared to the home use bleaching kit. It is advised that the in office bleaching agents be used for patients with stains on composite restorations, providing better whitening effect.

  134. Kirtana Gopalasamy, Dr. Dhanraj and Dr. Rakshagan, V.

    Aim: The main aim was to find appropriate and comfortable options to treat resorbed alveolar ridges. Objective: The main objective was to find a cure and appropriate options to for the augmentation of highly resorbed alveolar ridges in an effect to provide a much comfortable and reasonable option to completely edentulous patients in an effect to wear denture bases or treat the resorbed alveolar ridge to give an implant. Materials and Methods: The survey was carried in saveetha dental college by distributing a questionnaire to about 150 dental student, post graduates and dental practitioners. The questionnaire consisted of 13 close ended questions and 2 open ended questions. Results: The extent to how much dental students and dental practitioners know about management of highly resorbed ridges progressively increases from dental practitioners to postgraduates then when compared to the final years This can be attributed to increased experience ad exposure Conclusion: Although the awareness and knowledge among the students, post graduates and dental practitioners is sufficient and satisfactory which was assessed through this survey. It provides the need to educate the practitioners and post graduates to carry out the same and practice it in patients with severe residual alveolar ridges.

  135. Prakash, B. V., Mohammed Zuhaib and Hemanth Nagavarma

    Oralcancers are sixth most common cancers worldwide. The objectives of our study were to give a precise description of our experience with surgical based therapy of oral cancer during the study period, to evaluate the use of various locoregional flaps in the reconstruction of post ablation oral defects. 20 patients of oral carcinoma were included who underwent excision of tumors with neck dissections and reconstruction with one or multiple locoregional flaps.

  136. Dr. S. Vinoth Kumar, Dr. N. Venkatesan, Dr. A. Kirubakaran and Dr. Vidhu Antony

    Objectives: In spite of extensive research and progress over the past few decades in prosthetic dentistry, a common objective for impressions of interim crowns or fixed dental prostheses is to register the prepared abutments and finish lines accurately. For all impression procedures, the gingival tissue must be displaced to allow the subgingival finish lines to be registered. Retraction is the temporary displacement of the gingival tissue away from the prepared teeth. Different techniques are mentioned in literature for this purpose. Materials and Methods: in this article four techniques are discussed namely retraction cord , Diode LASER, Electrosurgery and Expasyl retraction system to evaluate and compare with time 1) Patient’s comfort after gingival retraction/displacement. (2) Gingival health. Results and Conclusion: The results indicated that gingival retraction by Expasyl retraction system is better than the other two in term of patient comfort, gingival recession (0.04 mm 14 days after retraction), and gingival health. Trauma to gingival tissue was minimal and gingival tissue returned to normal condition within 24 hours.

  137. Dr. Nilofer Sultan Sheikh, Dr. Nilima Rajhans, Dr. Gabriela Fernandes and Dr. Komaldeep Ghotra

    Lipomas are benign soft tissue neoplasm of mature adipose tissue seen as a common entity in the head and neck region. Lipomas are extremely rare in oral and maxillofacial regions and consist of around 1 to 5% of all neoplasms of the oral cavity. However, they are the most common tumours of mesenchymal origin in human body. And although the etiology remains unclear, several theories have proposed the role of the pathogenesis of this adipose tissue tumour and also different histological variants of oral lipoma. Intraoral lipomas are a rare entity which may be noticed only during routine dental examinations. A significant amount of these tumors rarely cause pain or torment, bringing about deferral to look for treatment. It is required for a clinician to analyze intraoral lipomas utilizing most recent symptomatic strategies and conservatively treat them without bringing on much distress.

  138. Dr. Terence Abraham, Dr. Abhinay Saroke, Dr. Ridhima Suneja and Dr. Femy Terence

    Aim: This case reports discuss the non-surgical correction of openbite using conventional biomechanics. Background: Open bite is a malocclusion that occurs in the vertical plane, characterized by lack of vertical overlap between the maxillary and mandibular dentition. Openbite can occur in the anterior and the posterior region and are called anterior openbite and posterior openbite respectively. The diagnosis, treatment, and successful retention of treated openbite malocclusion pose a challenge to the technical ability and skills of the clinicians. Case Description: This case reports discuss the management of Anterior openbite in a 32 yr old male patient who refused surgical treatment so a non-extraction treatment was planned using box elastics. Anterior spacing was closed using elastic thread. Class I molar and canine relation was achieved with normal overjet and overbite along with a pleasing smile. Conclusion: The use of fixed tongue crib and Box elastics could correct the anterior openbite in some extent and helped in maintaining proper Overjet and overbite, improvement in profile and smile esthetics. Fixed retainer with tongue crib along with patient motivation for tongue exercise improved the long-term stability. Clinical significance: This case report discussed the non surgical management of anterior open bite using conventional biomechanics. NiTi wire used here benefits the correction of open bite by its bite deepening property. Fixed tongue crib and Box elastics in some extent helped in maintaining proper overjet and overbite, improvement in profile and smile esthetics.

  139. Safeena Beevi, S. S., Dr. Premaletha, T., Dr. Sobha Kumar, S. and Sona, P. S.

    Introduction: The popularity and credibility of alternative treatment modalities such as music therapy have increased over the past decade. The primary purpose of this study is to assess the effect of classical music therapy on behavioural parameters among preterm neonates. Methods: The research approach of the study was Quasi experimental with time series design. Classical music (Instrumental Flute) was played for preterm neonates with MP3 player for a total duration of 30 minutes at 20 to 30dB-SPL. The behavioural responses were assessed by Neonatal Behavioural Assessment Scale, and parameters were recorded at 5 minute intervals during the therapy period and for the pre music and after music therapy period, the time intervals were 2.5 minutes. The study duration was 60 minutes, 15 minutes before music therapy (BMT), 30 minutes of music therapy (DMT) and 15 minutes after music therapy (AMT). 50 preterm neonates admitted in newborn nursery were selected by convenient sampling and studied for 4 consecutive days. Day 1 and 3 for music therapy (experimental group) and day 2 and 4 as control group when no music was played through headphone. Here the subjects act as control group on alternate days. Results: Regarding the neonatal behaviours in the experimental group with music therapy, 98% of preterm neonates were in the deep sleep states during music (DMT) and 97% had an ongoing effect after music (AMT) for a short period and found that music therapy is statistically highly significant (U= 9.9 (DMT) 9.85 (AMT), P= <0.001). Conclusion: Listening to classical music therapy in Preterm neonates showed deep sleep behaviour states. These effects appear to persist beyond the music therapy for a short period and may play a useful role to achieve relaxation for babies in NICU.

  140. Dr. N. Bharath, Dr. S. Thillainayagam and Darla Srikanth

    Aim: To compare and evaluate the penetrability of three different root canal sealers – An Invitro study. Materials and Methods: Eighty freshly extracted mandibular premolars were used in the present study. The teeth were decoronated and canal lengths were established 1 mm short of the apex and divided into 4 groups. Group 1 used epoxy resin based sealer, Group 2 used polydimethylsiloxane based sealer, Group 3 used calcium based sealer and Group 4 used zinc oxide based sealer (control). The canal system was prepared using the protaper universal rotary system. Smear layer was removed by irrigating the canals with 3 ml of freshly prepared 17% EDTA solution, followed by irrigation with 3 ml of 5.25% NaOCl, for 3 minutes. EDTA was employed as the final rinse followed by a rinse with distilled water. Roots were sectioned using diamond disc, these sections were gold sputtered and examined under scanning electron microscope. Dentin sections were fixed in acrylic resin block, polyethylene tubes were cut to form 3-mm-high cylinders. The sealers were mixed according to the manufactures instructions and dispersed into the cylindrical space. The samples were then engaged perpendicularly at their base of universal testing machine at a cross head speed of 1 mm min-1. Results: It was found that Group 1 had higher depth of sealer penetration than the other group of sealers evaluated in the study. Conclusion: Calcium silicate sealer had comparable penetrability to that of epoxy resin sealer. Within the limitations of the present study it can be concluded that epoxy resin based sealer had better penetration when compared to that of other sealers evaluated in this study.

  141. Supreet Bindra, Dr. Sinha, A. G. K. and Dr. AI Benjamin

    Low back pain (LBP) is the commonest musculoskeletal disorder among industrial workers. The prevalence and risk factors of LBP in garment industry of North India have not been studied thus was the topic of interest. Data was collected from 1329 workers using pre tested questionnaire and clinical examination form. The subjects were divided in to 2 groups: workers with LBP (cases) and workers without LBP (control) based on presence or absence LBP at the time of examination. Multivariate logistic regression analysis was used to determine the risk factors. The point prevalence of LBP was found to be 34.91%. The 12 month prevalence and lifetime prevalence was 41.08% and 39.65% respectively. Workers with history of LBP in the past 12 months (OR= 16.41, 95% CI: 11.90-22.64, p=0.001), married workers (OR= 2.85, 95% CI: 1.83-4.44, p=0.001), those who perceived their work to be excessive (OR=1.42, 95% CI: 1.05-1.92, p=0.022) and those who did unsupervised yoga and gym workout were (OR= 1.37, 95% CI: 1.08-1.75, p=0.009) found to be risk factors for LBP. The prevalence of LBP in garment industry is comparable to that has been reported for industrial workers. There is difficulty in comparing results due to lack of similar studies in garment industry and needs further study.

  142. Thamyê Aragão de Almeida, Mariane Santos Ferreira, Maura Cristiane e Silva Figueira, Lia Maristela da Silva Jacob, Viviane Carrasco, Cláudia Jeane Lopes Pimenta and Márcio Cristiano de Melo

    It is a documentary research of qualitative and quantitative approach, carried out through secondary data obtained through reports from relatives of patients with potential donor, female and male, patients diagnosed with brain death. That aims to know the reasons why the family not to authorize the donation of organs and tissues for transplantation. These records were made by a team of Organ and Tissue Procurement Organization (OPO Tapajós), a resident of the Lower Amazon Regional Hospital, in the city of Santarém, Pará. Data collection was conducted through forms with open and closed questions recorded on the instrument itself. The subjects of this study were all potential donors registered in the reporting forms with a diagnosis of brain death that are part of the records of that organization. The forms analyzed comprise the years January 2012 to March 2015. According to the organization, the records of notification of potential donors OPO Tapajós, the percentage of family refusals showed that in 2012 it obtained the highest number of negative, with 47% of potential donors, second 2014 with 42%, followed by 2015 which showed a 25% rate, and finally in 2013 with a lower rejection rate, only 20% of cases. We are listeded six reasons for not organ donation, namely: 25% intact body, 25% religious conviction, dissatisfaction with hospital care 20%, family or donor contrary to the donation of 15%, lack 10% family consensus, 5% undecided family.

  143. Dr. Shwetha, J. V., Dr. Sneha, K. C., Deepa, S. and Dr. Ambica, R.

    Purpose: Diarrhea remains a major public health problem in the developing world. Diarrhea is an important cause of morbidity and mortality in children. This study investigated the bacterial enteropathogens causing acute diarrhea in Children Under 5 years with special reference to Diarrheagenic E.Coli. Materials and Methods: The study was carried at a tertiary care hospital, children under 5 years of age presenting with acute diarrhea were evaluated. The stool sample of the cases were investigated for parasitic and bacterial pathogens. The E. coli isolated from these samples were tested by molecular method to detect diarrheagenic E.coli. Results: Out of 50 stool samples investigated, 16 (32%) sample yielded E.coli, 5 (10%) were Vibrio cholerae, 3 (6%) were Salmonella species and 2 (4%) were Shigella species. The Giardia species was seen in 5 (10%) cases, 4 (8%) showed eggs of A.lumbricoides and 3 (6%) showed eggs of hookworm and 1 (2%) showed E.histolytica cysts. Mixed infection was seen in 3 cases. Other stool samples showed only normal commensals. All 16 E.coli isolates were negative for diarrheagenic E.coli by molecular method typing. Conclusion: In this study, E.coli was the most common bacteria isolated from stool samples of acute diarrhea cases in children. But caution has to be exercised while reporting it as a pathogen as none of the E.coli isolates in this study were diarrheagenic E.coli. The misinterpretation may result in inadvertent use of antibiotics contributing to drug resistance.

  144. Dr. Indumathi. K. P., Dr. Indra Priyadarshni, Dr. Preetha Chaly, Dr. Mohammad Junaid, Dr. J. E. Nijesh and Dr. S. Vaishnavi

    Healthy diet helps children to grow develop and perform well in school. Healthy food also helps to prevent chronic diseases, such as heart disease, certain cancers, diabetes, stroke and osteoporosis that are leading causes of disability and death. Family, friends and personal beliefs, including cultural and environmental considerations, play a major role in people's food selection. The nutritional assessment process includes two phases: screening and assessment. The definitions of nutrional screening and assessment vary slightly from one setting to another. The major purpose, however, is to screen for nutritional risks and apply specific assessment techniques to determine an action plan (Council on Practice, Quality Management Committee, 1994). Screening identifies patients at nutritional risk or suspected to be at risk due to disease or medical treatment. The goals of screening are to identify individuals who are at nutritional risk and those who need further assessment, as well as to determine who should provide that assessment .Screening can be done in different places. The screening tool can be used in the clinic setting, for the elderly in congregate feeding situations. A short screening can be used in hospitalized patients not suspected of being at risk. Thus various nutritional analysis tools available in literature are discussed for effectively identifying the population under nutritional risk.

  145. Dr. Shwetha, J. V., Dr Harsha, T. R., Shariq Ahmed Khan and Dr. Ambica, R.

    Purpose: Dermatomycosis, the most common of mycotic infections, occur worldwide. In an epidemiological survey done in India, the prevalence of superficial fungal infection was 27.6%, out of which dermatomycosis was 75.6% and non-dermatmycosis was 24.4%. Rapid confirmation of dermatomycosis and onychomycosis is desirable because it allows the clinician to initiate appropriate therapy without delay. The existing modalities such as Calcofluor White stain requires fluorescent microscope whereas KOH is less sensitive compared to Calcofluor White stain. Aim of the study: To compare the novel contrast stain Chicago Sky Blue with the established methods such as Calcofluor White stain and KOH for the rapid diagnosis of dermatomycosis and onychomycosis. Materials and Methods: The infected nail clippings and skin scrapping were subjected to Chicago sky blue stain, Calcofluor White Stain and KOH mount. The microscopic findings were noted for the positive and negative results. Based on the results obtained, sensitivity and specificity of Chicago sky blue stain was assessed against Calcofluor White stain as reference method. Simultaneously, the diagnostic efficacy and cost effectiveness of Chicago sky blue, Calcofluor white stain and KOH mount was assessed. Results: Chicago Sky Blue stain is 100% sensitive in detecting dermatomycosis and 83.4 % in detecting onychomycosis whereas KOH mount is only 93% sensitive in detecting dermatomycosis and 66.7% in onychomycosis. Chicago Sky Blue stain is 100% specific in detecting dermatomycosis and onychomycosis whereas KOH mount is only 77% specific. Conclusion: Chicago Sky Blue stain was found to be highly efficacious, easy to perform and interpret as well cost-effective for detection of dermatomycosis and onychomycosis.

  146. Kavita Bekal and Arjun, M. R.

    Excessive gingival display and gingival hyperpigmentation are major concerns for a large number of patients visiting the dentist. This problem is aggravated in patients with a gummy smile or excessive gingival display while smiling. This case report represents a simple surgical technique to de-epithelization which has been successfully used to treat gingival hyperpigmentation caused by excessive melanin deposition and crown lengthening procedure in a 14 year old female patient. Highlighting the relevance of an esthetically pleasing smile, especially in smile conscious individuals.

  147. Dr. Chandra B. Ahuja, Dr. Amit Jagtap, Dr. Nilesh Bulbule and Dr. Arpita Tandon

    Aim: Which of the following amongst Immediate, Delayed, Progressive Implant loading protocol is better for implant placement in the maxillary posterior region? Materials and Methods: A systematic review of articles selected from MEDLINE, Ebscohost and Google Scholar was carried out. Additional studies were hand searched. All articles that were published in English or those having detailed summary in English were included. Only those articles that were published between 1st January 1985 and 30th September 2016 were considered. Randomized controlled trials and case studies were included with data on bone density in Immediate, Delayed and Progressive Implant Loading protocols. Results: A total of 54 articles were identified through electronic database searching. 51 articles were obtained after elimination of duplicates which were then screened. 10 full-text articles were accessed for eligibility criteria. 8 trials were identified for inclusion in this review. (Six papers were identified on immediate loading, One paper on delayed loading, Two papers on progressive loading.)This review gives an insight about the different implant loading protocols to assess the bone level changes and bone density in the posterior region of the maxilla. Conclusions: It is possible to load implants successfully in the posterior region of the maxilla using Immediate or Delayed or Progressive Implant loading protocols. Primary implant stability is an important factor for a successful loading procedure. At this stage, it is difficult to draw conclusions concerning the eligibility criteria’s, the implant stability, bone density and bone quality needed. Clinical trials with larger samples in which the confounding factors are controlled is necessary to evaluate our finding. Limitations: Certain studies do not give concrete conclusions due to the failure of implants, bone quality and bone quantity needed, smaller sample sizes, availability of relevant articles in different languages other than English.

  148. Dr. Jose Kurian, Dr. Kishore, H. C. Dr. Prabhuji, M.L.V.

    Peripheral ossifying fibroma (POF) is a non-neoplastic reactive gingival overgrowth occurring frequently in the anterior maxillary region. Occurrence of POF in mandible is uncommon as compared to maxilla. It represents up to 2% of all oral lesions involving gingiva that are biopsied. In this case report we are presenting a case report of POF in mandibular anterior region in a 65 year old female. This case report describes the clinical features, etiopathogenesis, histopathology and treatment.

  149. Lkhagvadorj Tsendjav, Zhang Jian, Raihan Kibria and Zhang Lu

    Objective: To investigate the diagnostic value of DWI (diffusion-weighted imaging) value of ADC (apparent diffusion coefficient) in early diagnosis of liver cirrhosis. Methods: From 2015 October to 2016 June this study investigated in 60 patients underwent diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) with 3.0-T MRI, 30 liver cirrhosis patients and 30 healthy controls (control group). DWI was performed with b values of 0 s/mm2, 500 s/mm2 and 800 s/mm2. ADCs of liver were measured using in the right posterior lobe, right anterior lobe and left lobes of the liver. The data was entered into the computer and analyzed using the Statistical Package for Social Sciences (version 20.Inc. Chicago, USA) for analysis ADC value. Result: The ADC mean values of two groups had significant differences cirrhotic group b=500 s/mm2 mean value is 1.27 .b=800 s/mm2 mean value is 1.26, control group b=500 s/mm2 mean value is 1.33 0. b=800 s/mm2mean value is1.5. ADCs liver cirrhosis lower than control group. Conclusion: DWI at 3.0 T magnetic resonance in examination of liver could synthetically and quantitatively analyze the rule of ADC values in liver cirrhosis

  150. Hind M Beheiry, Ibrahim A Ali, Hiba A Awooda, Duria A. M. Rayis, Ibtisam Ahmed Ali and Amal M Saeed

    Introduction: Pregnancy causes stress on thyroid gland especially in areas of iodine deficiency. Women with pre-eclampsia are more likely to have slightly reduced thyroid function during the last weeks of their pregnancies. Objectives: This study was to assess changes in serum Thyroid Stimulating Hormone (TSH) and Free Thyroxine (FT4) in pre-eclamptic cases compared to second-half normal pregnant and non-pregnant Sudanese women and their correlations to other biomarkers. Methods: This was a case-control study, in Omdurman Maternity Hospital, Sudan. The pre-eclamptic cases (72) were compared to control second-half normal pregnant (96) and non-pregnant (63) Sudanese women. The groups were matched. The clinical and laboratory investigations were undertaken at St Hellier s hospital – London. TSH was measured by two-site sandwich immunoassay and Free T4 by competitive immunoassay using chemiluminescent technology. Liver and renal function tests were performed using atomic absorption spectrophotometer (SiemensAdvia2400 Chemistry System Serial No CA12420098and No a12420083). Results: There was a highly significant difference in mean of TSH in mU/L between pre-eclamptic (2.52 ± 1.15) and non-pregnant (1.36 ± 0.71) (P-value = 0.000), between pre-eclamptic (2.52 ± 1.15) and pregnant (1.53 ± 0.79) (P-value = 0.000), but no significant difference between non-pregnant (1.36 ± 0.71) and pregnant (1.53 ± 0.79) (P-value = 0.237). There was a highly significant difference in mean of FT4 in pmol/L between non- pregnant (16.11 ± 2.02) and pregnant (13.55 ± 2.09) (P-value = 0.000), between non- pregnant (16.11 ± 2.02) and pre-eclampsia (13.96 ± 2.18) (P-value = 0.000), but no significant difference between pregnant (13.55 ± 2.09) and pre-eclampsia (13.96 ± 2.18) (P-value = 0. 213). TSH, in pre-eclampsia, has significant correlations with serum uric acid (r=0.50, P=0.049), serum albumin (r = 0.28, P = 0.018) , serum Aspartate transferase (AST) (r= 0.24 P= 0.049) and urine protein (r = 0.42, P = 0.000); but had no significant correlations with blood pressure or serum Alanine Transferase (ALT) (r= 0.03, P= 0.792). FT4, in pre-eclamptic cases, had no significant correlations, except with urine creatinine (r=0.3, P=0.003). Conclusions: This study revealed that TSH was significantly increased in pre-eclamptic when compared to normal pregnant and non-pregnant women, FT4 was significantly decreased in pre-eclamptic cases when compared to non-pregnant women.

  151. Dr. Janavi, B. R., Dr. Ramnarayan, B. K., Dr. Manasa Anand Meundi, Dr. Chaya M David, Dr. Preeti Patil, Dr. Chithra P. and Dr. Ramya Katyayani Kastala

    Adenomatoid Odontogenic Tumor (AOT) is a benign odontogenic tumor arising from the Odontogenic epithelium without odontogenic ectomesenchyme. Peripheral variant of Adenomatoid Odontogenic Tumour (PAOT) is relatively a rare entity which has been infrequently reported in the literature. These uncommon clinical variants of an AOT typically manifest as a soft tissue tumor of the gingiva with an identical histopathologic presentation as their intraosseous counterpart. Only fourteen cases have been adequately documented so far. In this case report we are reporting a case of PAOT of the anterior maxillary gingiva with CBCT (Cone beam computed tomography) findings which aided in better visualization of the lesion compared to conventional radiography.

  152. Hitasree, B. N., Malathi Manne, Shivani Neelam, Syed Afroz Ahmed, Charu Suri, Shahela Tanveer and Shravan Kumar

    Introduction: Oral squamous cell carcinoma encompasses all malignancies originating in the oral cavity and there is need for improvement in early detection of oral carcinomas because treatment is more effective and the morbidity is minimal. Cytological study of oral cells is a non-aggressive technique that is well accepted by patients and an attractive option for early diagnosis. AgNORs study provides understanding of the tumoral behavior since their frequency, size and cell arrangement have been reported as a discriminatory factor between certain suspected lesions. Aim: The aim of the present study was to evaluate the acidic, argyrophilic, nonhistonic proteins by using silver-staining AgNOR technique in exfoliated cells and to compare in normal oral mucosa and oral squamous cell carcinoma. Materials And Methods: Exfoliative cells were obtained from 25 cases of oral squamous cell carcinoma and 25 cases of normal mucosa by using wooden spatula. After staining, 100 epithelial cells were randomly selected and counted by using oil immersion at 1000x magnification. Student’s independent t-test was used for data analysis. Result: The mean AgNORs count per nucleus was found to be 4.46 in oral squamous cell carcinoma group and 2.84 in normal mucosa with a p-value (<0.0001) and was statistically significant. Conclusion: Thus the present study suggested that, the silver staining technique used for the detection of NORs in conjunction with exfoliative cytology is an easy, non-invasive and accurate screening method for the detection of clinically suspicious oral cancerous lesions. Because of its simplicity and high reliability for cellular proliferation, AgNOR staining with oral smears can be used as an adjunct to the other cytological diagnoses for the early detection of oral cancer.

  153. Dr. Ashwin Kodliwadmath and Dr. Naren. V. Nimbal

    Introduction: Thryrotoxic periodic paralysis is a rare complication of thyrotoxicosis presenting as sudden onset of weakness of both lower limbs and sometimes of all four limbs. The complication can occur in a patient with other symptoms of thyrotoxicosis or previously asymptomatic individual. Case report: We report the case of a 40 year old male who presented with sudden onset of weakness of both lower limbs with no sensory or bladder symptoms. On examination, patient had a power of 2/5 in both lower limbs, hypotonia and absent reflexes. Investigations: The serum potassium was 2.2meq/l and thyroid function tests revealed hyperthyroidism. Results: The patient was treated with injection potassium chloride which improved the serum potassium level. Concurrent to the improvement in serum potassium, power of lower limbs also improved. He was then started on methimazole and beta blockers. Discussion: Thyrotoxic periodic paralysis is a rare complication of thyrotoxicosis, more common in Asian males. It can occur in individuals with few or no clinical faetures of thyrotoxicosis. Conclusion: Thyrotoxicosis should be kept in mind while evaluating a case of hypokalemic periodic paralysis as treatment for the same can prevent future recurrences.

  154. Ravi Dosi, Deepika Patel, Arpit Jain and Mriganka Madhab Misra

    Endobronchial tuberculosis is rare nowadays. Endobronchial tuberculosis (EBTB) is known to complicate pulmonary tuberculosis and can occur in the absence of parenchymal lesion, and is less recognised which can lead to difficulties in diagnosis. We report a 60-year-old woman who presented with symptoms of cough, shortness of breath and wheezing simulating bronchial asthma. A rare case of endobronchial tuberculosis presented as central tracheal mass in CT scan suspecting malignancy. Patient was sputum smear negative for acid fast bacilli. Diagnosis was possible only with fiberoptic bronchoscopy along with cartridge-based nucleic acid amplification test.

  155. Varun, M. S., Sathyanarayan, M. S., Shwetha, J. V., Mythri, K. M. and Ambica, R.

    Hospital acquired infections are a burden to patients as well as health care providers due to enhanced costs. Urinary tract infections are frequently noted in health care settings and are often associated with indwelling catheters. Biofilm producing pathogens are isolated frequently from patients with catheter associated urinary tract infections (CAUTI) and are more difficult to treat due their higher antimicrobial resistance and persistence. The present study was carried out over a period of two months in the Department of Microbiology, BMCRI, Bengaluru to determine the profile of uropathogens among patients with CAUTI and biofilm producing ability of these pathogens. Biofilm producing ability was confirmed by Tissue Culture Plate method using microtitre plates and the biofilm producers were categorized as Weak, Moderate and Strong. Escherichia coli was noted to be the predominant pathogen, followed by Klebsiella oxytoca in cases of CAUTI and a majority of these isolates were noted to be biofilm producers. The biofilm producing strains were noted to have increased antimicrobial resistance compared to non-biofilm producers in the study. Nitrofurantoin was the most effective antimicrobial in vitro among the isolates encountered in the study. Studies related to biofilm production in indwelling medical devices aid us in understanding the mechanisms associated with nosocomial infections and help in devising strategies to prevent infections due to colonization.

  156. Prashant Kumar, Richa Malik, Sandeep Kumar and Sudhir Kumar

    Myasthenia Gravis is an autoimmune disease characterized by weakness and fatiguability of skeletal muscles, with improvement following rest. It may be localized to specific muscle groups or it may be generalized. The incidence of myasthenia gravis is cited as 50 to 142 cases per 1 million and women in the age group of 20 - 30 yrs are most commonly affected. It is a chronic autoimmune disorder characterized by a decrease in acetylcholine receptors at the neuromuscular junction secondary to their destruction or inactivation by circulating antibodies. Patients are at an increased risk of pulmonary aspiration because of pharyngeal and laryngeal muscle weakness, and they may present with dysphagia, dysarthria and an overall difficulty of handling secretions. In this case report, we describe a patient with myasthenia gravis undergoing laparoscopic cholecystectomy using a proseal laryngeal mask airway without the use of muscle relaxant.

  157. Dr. Shantanu R. Choudhari, Dr. Chirag M. Vaghela, Dr. Parikrama J. Solanki, Dr. Sandip I. Saxena, Dr. Swati P. Goyal and Dr. Kanwaljeet Bharti

    Intrusive luxation is defined as dislocation of tooth into the alveolar process that causes damage to pulp and surrounding structures of tooth. As a consequence of this type of injury, maximum damage occurs to the pulp and all the supporting structures. This case report presents the case of surgical removal of a severely intruded Type III maxillary primary lateral incisor due to trauma. A 5-year-old boy was referred to the clinic 1 day after a fall. Clinical and radiographic examinations suggested severe Type III intrusive luxation of the right primary lateral incisor. The intruded tooth was removed surgically under local anesthesia after a follow-up period of 2 months. Antibiotic therapy was initiated at the time of surgery and maintained for 5 days. The postoperative healing was uncomplicated, with both clinical and radiographic success after 3 months of follow up.

  158. Eman Elsayed Mohammed Elsabagh and Khadega Ahmed Hefnawy Elhefnawy

    Academic performance is the ability of students to cope with their studies as well as how various tasks assigned to them by their instructors are accomplished. Many studies were conducted by previous researchers have discussed the different factors that affect students' academic performances. The aim of the study is to determine the factor affecting academic performance among female nursing student. A descriptive design was used in this study. The study was conducted in Nursing College at Taibah University (Saudi Arabia). The study comprised of 205 under-graduate female nursing students was chosen from the above mentioned setting. The actual number of female matinee nursing students 258 of different academic levels: level 3 to level 8. Two tools was used to collect data. The first tool was Interviewing questionnaire, the second toot was self-reporting questionnaire to gather data on the factors affecting nursing students The finding shows the most factor affect academic performance was from personal condition was feeling sleepy in class and less factor was difficult of breathing and from the study habit the most important factor affecting academic performance was studying only for quiz, teacher has mastery of the subject matter’ had the greatest mean with a very high impact, and the time scheduled is not followed was considered high impact factor of school related aspects. The study finding concluded that there are several factors pose a high impact on the academic performance of student nurses, with School-Related factors topping the list. Among the five (5) domains, study habits and teacher-related factors fall behind the school-related factors. Nonetheless, both categories are still deemed to be highly impactful. The main study recommendations: 1- teachers should use varied strategies so as to improve the academic performance of the learners; 2- teachers should undergo seminars on teaching strategies to improve classroom instruction; 3-the researcher suggests a research specifying a subject in determining the factors affecting the academic performance of student nurses and adding respondents from level one to level three.

  159. Dr. Manasa Ravath, C. J., Dr. Noopur Managoli, Dr. Shailesh Gawande and Dr. Sujit Londhe

    The connective tissue has a characteristic morphology. Spindle cells are one such group of cells which have a unique variation & its appearance is exhibited by various cells. A few of them are fibroblast, myofibroblast, smooth muscle cells, pericytes & so on. The cellular architecture, histomorphology, ultrastructural properties, immunohistochemistry & other salient features have been described in our paper. Also this paper is an attempt to assemble almost all the spindle cells together under one draft. A variety of sub population of a few of these cells have an enormous role & influence on the oral epithelium (both in Physiology & Pathology). These interesting spindle cells have a pivotal role which lead to many pathologies. This demands to increase the necessity to shift focus in the area of Spindle cell lesions also, which all together is a different segment of Head & Neck Pathology

  160. Dr. Noopur Managoli, Dr. Mansa Ravath, C. J., Dr. Sujit Londhe and Dr. Shailesh Gawande

    The era of elementary medicine where there were primitive methods of health practice has undergone changes by leaps & bounds. Today, the ever changing world of medicine and science is full of ideas and concepts in a mind-boggling array. The inroads of scientific & evidence based research into medical practice in terms of diagnosis, management & even perception of medical treatment are changing the future of medicine.

  161. Tamilarasi, P., Senthamilselvi, P., Ramya, P. and Sukumaran, M.

    This study is carried out to investigate the sublethal (1/10th of predetermined LT50/96h) effect of Lead acetate on some biochemical parameters of an estuarine fish, Mystus cavasius (Ham.). The parameters measured were Glucose (mg/dl) and glycogen (mg. g–1 wet tissue) in the liver and muscle tissues over a period of 12 hours. The results of this work clearly indicated that lead induced significant elevated levels of blood glucose or Hyperglycemia was found in the treated groups than controls. Also, the lead caused depletions in the Glycogen content in liver and muscle tissues of M. cavasius. Significant decreases (P < 0.05) in glycogen levels were noticed in liver than the muscle tissue.

  162. Bavani Saraswathy, A., Thilaga, R. D., Jeya Ruby, S. and Shibana, C.

    An investigation was carried out to analyze the antipyretic activity of the marine mollusc Babylonia spirata. Methanol extract of Babylonia spirata was subjected to antipyretic activity on Wistar albino rats by Brewer’s yeast induced pyrexia. The extract when administered at a dose of 400mg/kg body weight caused significant antipyretic activity by lowering the body temperature (37.12±0.13) at 3 rd hour compared to standard drug paracetamol (37.51±0.14). The methanolic extract of Babylonia spirata at the concentration of 200mg/kg and 400mg/kg showed a significant (P<0.05) antipyretic activity.

  163. Dr. Hemangi Shukla and Dr. Nileshkumar chabhadiya

    Hearing loss (hearing impairment), is a partial or total inability to hear. A deaf person has little or no hearing. Hearing loss may be caused by a number of factors, including: genetics, ageing, exposure to noise, some infections, birth complications, trauma to the ear, and certain medications or toxins. According to modern medical science, there are three type of hearing loss: 1) conductive hearing loss, 2) sensory neural hearing loss, 3) mixed hearing loss. In Āyurvēd, hearing loss described as a Bādhirya. There are two type of hearing loss described in Āyurvēdsamhita: 1) vātakaphaj& 2) shuddhaVātaj. Among them, shuddhaVātajBādhirya can be correlated with sensory neural hearing loss. VātaDōṣ is main causative factor of Bādhirya, so vātavyādhivatcikitsāsiddhant can be implemented in the managements of Bādhirya.

  164. Pallavi K. Aradhye and Meera D. Chavan

    A fibrinolytic enzyme was produced by Pseudomonas putida B-18, isolated from soil. Screening of protease enzyme activity checked on milk nutrient agar, followed by fibrin agar plate for its fibrinolytic activity. Soy meal wheat powder broth used for the production of enzyme. Enzyme purification was done by ammonium salt precipitation, dialysis and DEAE cellulose. Native PAGE performed for the determination of molecular weight of the enzyme. In vitro blood clot lysis found within 19h of incubation. Effect of various environmental factors on enzyme activity was performed; in that maximum activity observed at 450 C temperature, pH 9.0. FeSO4, MgSO4, ZnSO4, CoCl2 and CuSO4 had inhibitory action except CaCl2.

  165. Dubey, A. G., Nighot, N. K., Pardeshi, G. D. and Sanghai, A. A.

    Adult male Indian Monitor Lizard (Varanus bengalensis) was presented with a swelling on the both fore limb near the site of distal end of radius bone and metacarpal region in Snake Park of Rajiv Gandhi Zoological Park and Wildlife research Center Katraz, Pune. Palpation of swelling indicated that it might be abscess hence opened it was pasty pus. Swab was processed for antibiotic sensitivity test. Cavity was cleaned with Hydrogen Peroxide liq and applied Calendula liq. Cultural examination revealed presence of Citrobacter freundii Complex & Klebsiella oxytoca. According to susceptibility abscess was treated with antibiotic cefotaxim @ 20 – 40 mg/kg body weight, anti-inflammatory inj. Melonex @ 0.4 mg/kg body weight and regular dressing. The wound was start healing and complete recovery was observed in one month.

  166. Chaitra B. Negalur and H.C. Lakshman

    The evaluation of pollen viability and its germination capacity are two essential criteria for pollinator’s characterization. This study was carried out to determine in vitro pollen viability and pollen germination in a medicinal plant Guaiacum officinale L. belonging to the family Zygophyllaceae. To study the role of boron in pollen germination and pollen tube growth, pollen grains were cultured in standard medium or Boron deficient medium. The maximum 48% pollen germination along with 56.89µm long pollen tube developed in 15% sucrose solution supplemented with 0.01% boric acid compaired to the boron deficient medium. Two pollen viability tests, TTC (2,3,5-triphenyl tetrazolium chloride) and Cotton blue in lactophenol were used and pollen grains showed nearly 39.2% and 40.6% viability respectively. Pollen grains which were collected in the morning (6.00hrs - 8.00 hrs.) showed best results. Stained pollen rate was higher and pollen was well-stained with Cotton blue test and pollen viability estimated with Cotton blue staining test was better than that TTC estimated with the staining test. The result revealed that the boron has a regulatory role in pollen germination and pollen tube growth in Guaiacum officinale L. which is necessary for the regeneration and conservation of this highly medicinal plant.

  167. Raj Shikha and Ashok Kumar Jha

    In this review article we have described the systematic position, common names, characteristics, chemicals isolated, harmful effects on ecosystem, allelopathic effects of leaf and stem extract of Parthenium hysterophorus on some selected seeds of crop plants such as Phaseolus mungo, Cicer aeritinum, Pisum sativum, Cajanus cajan and Zea mays in brief. Effects on animals and human beings have also been discussed. For the control of Parthenium management practices such as manual, chemical, bioherbicidal, biological and by useful utilization have been discussed. There is a need to develop integrated management programme for eradication and to check the further spread of Parthenium.

  168. Alok Kumar Pramanik, Kalyan Brata Santra and Chanchal Kumar Manna

    In the Raiganj Wildlife Sanctuary, premonsoon (March-June) was characterized by high air temperature, low percentage of relative humidity and occasional rain. The monsoon season (July –September) had high percentage of relative humidity and higher rainfall. On the other hand the postmonsoon season (October-February) was characterized by lower temperature and lesser precipitation. The pH of water of the sanctuary remained slightly acidic during monsoon season. Conductivity value was maximum during summer and minimum during winter months. BOD values have been recorded higher during premonsoon season. The minimum value of CO2 was observed during winter months. The increase in total alkalinity during summer months appeared to be due to the concentration of nutrients in water. Total suspended solid and total dissolved solid values were maximum in summer and minimum in winter. Premonsoon showed high chloride values when water level was low followed by monsoon and postmonsoon with high water levels. Nitrate value was higher during monsoon season and decreased in postmonsoon and premonsoon season. High amount of phosphate remained in the canals during summer months. The pH values of soil were recorded 6.0 and below 6.0. The nature of soil of the sanctuary seemed to be acidic. Percentage of organic carbon increased after premonsoon season in both the core and buffer region and this value became highest during postmonsoon season. High concentration of available nitrogen and available potash was observed in the core region as well as buffer region during postmonsoon than premonsoon season. Availlable phosphate content value was lower than the nitrogen and potash content of soil of the sanctuary. The physico-chemical characteristics of water expressed the poor water quality in the canals of the sanctuary. This characteristic showed maximum contamination of water due to faeces of birds. The soil of Raiganj Wildlife Sanctuary is mostly acidic, loamy type and the nature of the soil is unique for differential deposition of faeces of birds.

  169. Preethi Saligrama Devegowda, Vivek Hamse Kameshwar, Kyathegowdanadoddi Srinivasa Balaji, Doddakunche Shivaramu Prasanna, Toreshettahally Ramesh Swaroop, Shankar Jayarama, Lokesh Siddalingaiah and Kanchugarakoppal Subbegowda Rangappa

    The current investigation was on synthesis, characterization and molecular docking studies of novel 4-anilinoquinazoline derivatives for their anti-tumor effects.The synthesized novel 4-anilinoquinazoline derivatives were characterized using 1H and 13C Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR), Infrared (IR) and mass spectroscopic analysis. Compounds PR (1-6) were screened for cytotoxicity assays against various cell lines such as HCT116, K562, SKBR3 and EAC cell lines using MTT assay, trypan blue dye exclusion and LDH release assay. The molecular docking studies were drawn using Maestro 2D sketcher and energy minimize was computed by OPLS 2005. Proteins were prepared by retrieving into Maestro platform Schrödinger, Inc.PR-6 enhanced cytotoxic activity in the range of 10.09±0.92 to 11.24±0.81 µM on all four cell lines, which is comparable to that of standard drugs cisplatin (6.4±1.45 to 8.48±0.63 µM) and doxorubicin (7.89±091 to 8.48±1.02 µM). Furthermore, molecular docking studies of synthesized compounds PR (1-6) as vascular endothelial growth factor receptor-2 (VEGFR-2) and epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) inhibitors were performed on crystal structure of VEGFR-2 and EGFR and amongst them PR-6 has shown maximum docking score (-11.13) against VEGFR-2. This finding strongly suggested that PR-6 is effective cytotoxic agent against all the four cancer cell lines in-vitro and also significant angiogenic inhibitor as ascertained by its potential interaction with VEGFR-2 and EGFR.

  170. Tehzeeb Shaikh, Sadaf Shaikh, Afreen Sayyed, Kirti Dahigaonkar, Pratibha Jadhav and Dr. Jaspal Kaur Oberoi

    Samples of unicellular microalgae were collected from different locations of Pune city of Maharashtra state, India (Latitude 18.5203° N, Longitude 73.8567° E). The microalgae isolate was selected based on its morphology and ease of cultivation at our test conditions. By further microscopic analysis this culture was identified as strain of Chlorella vulgaris. On carrying out media optimization using different media’s it was seen that Chlorella showed best growth in Modified Chu’s 10 medium. The isolated organism was further cultured and examined for morphological features, chlorophyll content, total carbohydrate content and total protein content. Biomass estimation at various stages of growth was done. Nile red staining for lipid determination indicated that lipid bodies are present in Chlorella vulgaris. Lipid estimation was done by single step method and it was seen that maximum lipid accumulation was obtained at 25th day of growth. Further it was seen that highest lipid accumulated at 8th concentration of nitrogen limitation. Biodiesel was extracted by direct trans esterification method. Cow dung can be used as a cheap source for large scale production of microalgae.

  171. Gerusa Pauli Kist Steffen, Joseila Maldaner, Ricardo Bemfica Steffen, Marcelo Aloísio Sulzbacher, Cleber Witt Saldanha, Evandro Luiz Missio, Rosana Matos de Morais, Zaida Inês Antoniolli and Rodrigo Josemar Seminotti Jacques

    Knowledge of the diversity and ecology of fungi in forest stands is important for understanding the interactions between these microorganisms and plant communities. The objectives of this study were to collect, identify and classify macroscopic fungi (Agaricomycetes) found in forest fragments and adjacent areas in the Forest Research Center of the Fundação Estadual de Pesquisa Agropecuária (FEPAGRO) and surroundings, in the state of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil. This search was conducted from April to June 2013, in fragments of pine, black wattle, eucalyptus, native species, mixed stands, as well as in grasslands near forest fragments. We found 40 species of fungi, 29 considered ectomycorrhizal, eights aprophytic and three lignocellulolytic species. Among the ectomycorrhizal fungi were species belonging to nine different genera: Amanita, Descomyces, Lactarius, Pisolithus, Ramaria, Rhizopogon, Russula, Scleroderma and Suillus. Seven saprophytic fungi genus were collected: Calvatia, Gymnopilus, Lepiota, Lepista, Leucoagaricus, Macrolepiota and Stropharia. Among lignocellulolytic fungi were three species of the Ganoderma genus. Samples of specimens of fungi collected in this study were stored to allow molecular studies. This scientific survey confirmed the existence of a large variety of macroscopic fungi in the forest fragments of the Forest Research Center (Rio Grande do Sul State, Brazil), demonstrating the potential of these sites as a source of mycorrhizal, saprophytic and lignocellulolytic fungi besides the importance of these habitats for the preservation of genetic heritage.

  172. Prathusha S. Chegu, Yogesh N. Joshi, Nitin N. Bolabattin and Chetan H. Godale

    Pectin is the one of the major component of plant cellwall which maintains structural integrity of cellwall. They can be modified by pectinases such as pectin methylesterases (PMEs) which catalyses the demethylesterification of homogalacturonans releasing pectate and methanol, playing important roles in growth, development and seed germination. The activity of an enzyme PME affects the cell wall porosity and elasticity by allowing water uptake. The control PME activities by several proteinaceous inhibitors have a direct effect on the regulation of various processes in plant physiology. Recently it has been found that the catechin isolated from Green tea can inhibit the PME from citrus and tomato plants. In the previous work we have characterized the PME from A. thaliana & predicted its 3D structure by using bioinformatics tools. Now, the present study focuses to find out the novel inhibitor of PME by screening the various catechin analogue compounds from the ZINC database. The molecular docking studies of catechin analogue were carried out by using the Hex software against the PME of A. thaliana which give the detailed insight of interacting residue with the ligand and target complex in the Pymol software.

  173. Ashok Kumar T. and Rajagopal B.

    Understanding the biological phenomena of sequence, structure, function, metabolism, and molecular interactions of species is crucial to identify or analyze the biological problems in the ideal way. Integration of all data facilitates unified access to the key problem. PDTDB (Phytochemical and Drug Target DataBase) is anintegrative structural database, which contains information about the plants (secondary metabolites, plant anatomy, side effects, and medicinal properties), ligands (3D molecular structure, SMILES string, side effects, and medicinal properties), therapeutic drug targets (3D molecular structure, sequence, mechanism of the drug target, disease nature, and disease symptoms), molecular dockings (target-ligand complex interaction, drug action, home remedies, and docking results), and structure activity relationship between diseases, therapeutic targets, plants, and phytochemicals. The database provides keyword or accession number search, similar phytochemical structures search using SMILES string or by sketching the structure in the chemical structure editor, phytochemical structures with similar molecular formula search, binding structure search, and browse and/or search database entries from the sortable table. It supports predicting physicochemical properties of sequence and structures, and interactive visualization of structures in various models. PDTDB is freely accessible at https://pdt.biogem.org.

  174. Siddeshwar S. Shiraganvi and Guledagudda, S. S.

    Chickpea is an important pulse crop of India which plays an important role in meeting the domestic and export demands. India, despite being the world’s largest producer of chickpea it imports a considerable amount to meet the domestic requirement. The present level of export is not consistent and exhibits high variations in volume and revenue earnings because of frequent ban on the export by the country. In this paper, the dynamics of changes have been measured in the export of chickpea from India to different export markets employing the Markov-chain model. The results have shown ‘other countries’ category as the stable destination for our Indian chickpea exports. The other traditional importing countries such as Algeria, Pakistan, UAE, Saudi Arab, Sri Lanka and Turkey indicated unstable export share to these markets. Projected export shares of Indian chickpea to major importing countries revealed that the export share of Indian chickpea is predicted to be highest (28.8%) to Pakistan.

  175. Renuka Madhu, Anupam J Das, Laxmikanth, G. and Veena, V.

    Chonemorpha fragrans is a medicinal plant used in Indian medicinal systems for the treatment of skeletal gynaecological disorder, stomach disorders, respiratory diseases, rheumatism, skin diseases, diabetes and jaundice. The plant extract shows antipyretic, antidiabetic, anti-parasitic, anticancer and anti-HIV activity. According to International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN), the plant is considered to be endangered medicinal plant in the Karnataka and vulnerable in Kerala state of India. The threats for the C. fragrans are due to exploitation of its natural habitat and overexploitation of plant for medicinal use. Conventional propagation by seeds has very low seed viability and the vegetative propagation through stem cutting has low frequency of rooting and low survival rate. The present investigation Chonemorpha fragrans was focused on standardizing the protocol for micropropagation, explore the biological potential such as antimicrobial and anticancer properties of the aqueous and methanolic extract of callus from leaves and leaves alone. The best explants for the direct regeneration were found to be shoot tip as well as single node followed by root and shoot induction. More importantly, the embryogenesis from callus was successfully obtained. Methanolic extract exhibited excellent broad-spectrum antimicrobial activity against human pathogens such as Klebsiella pneumonia, Staphylococcus aureus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Bacillus subtilis than the aqueous extracts of leaves as well as callus. The anticancer activity revealed that methanolic extract of leaves exhibited inhibition of leukemic cells with the IC50 concentration of 0.3±0.02 and 0.29±0.02 µg ml-1 in HL-60 and K562 cells respectively than the 0.5±0.02 and 0.39±0.02 µg ml-1 methanolic extract of callus in HL-60 and K562 cells respectively. The aqueous extract of leaves showed IC50 concentration of 1.4±0.03 and 1.8±0.04 µg ml-1 in HL-60 and K562 cells respectively aqueous extract of callus showed 1.1±002 and 1.2±0.05 µg ml-1 in HL-60 and K562 cells respectively. These results concluded that the methanolic extract of both callus and leaves of the plant exhibited maximum anticancer activity than aqueous extract of both. The phytochemicals analysis revealed the maximum variety of compounds was present in the methanolic extract which corresponds with the considerable inhibition demonstrated on test microorganisms and cancer cells. These results revealed the optimum micropropagation of medicinal plant that can be used as a natural drug source for modern medicine.

  176. Lavanya Balakrishnan, Ganesh Kumar, A., Illanjiam, S. and Karen Kiruba

    Acne vulgaris - a skin disease of the face and chest causing pimples, papules and scarring in adolescent children; has been found to be concomitant with the commensal skin bacteria Propionibacterium acnes. The commonly used drugs for the treatment of acne have many detrimental side-effects. For centuries Curcuma longa and lauric acid have been used in herbal medicines for various ailments including acne. The current study aimed to deliver Curcuma longa through the skin by a lipid vehicle lauric acid to inhibit acne more effectively than Curcuma longa or lauric acid being used as a single drug. Curcuma longa extract was prepared from the dried rhizomes and lauric acid was separated from coconut oil. The lipid vehicle was prepared by Curcuma longa, lauric acid and isopropanol. The Organoleptic properties of the lipid vehicle were studied. The antimicrobial properties of Curcuma longa loaded lauric-acid vehicle, along with the individual extracts of Curcuma longa and lauric acid were studied against Propionibacterium acnes by microdilution broth method. Cell viability assay on Peripheral Blood Mononuclear Cells by Dye Exclusion Method and the Cytotoxicity on HaCaT cell line by MTT assay were studied on the Curcuma longa loaded lauric-acid vehicle, as well as with the individual extracts of Curcuma longa and lauric acid.It was found in the study that the combination of Curcuma longa and lauric acid in a lipid form proved to be more beneficial than the individual extracts.

  177. Evans Jimmy Kenyi, Abdel Gabbar El TayibBabikriand and Philip WaniMarchelo-d’Ragga

    A laboratory experiment was conducted at the Weed Science Laboratory of Agricultural Research Corporation, Wad Medani (Sudan) in 2007. The experiment adopted the El Mubarak (1998) improvised disc technique. Tentatively, Striga seed germination and attachment of germinated striga seeds to roots of four legumes species namely, Bambara nuts, Vignasubterranea; ground nuts, Arachishypogoea; Clitoria, Clitoria spp. and Desmondium spp) were tested and two sorghum cultivars (Wad Ahmed and ArfaGadamak) were used as checks. Results showed that, Bambara nuts, Clitoria and Desmondium spp were antagonistic and resulted in less Striga seed germination than sorghum while Ground nuts resulted in high Striga germination similar to those for the sole sorghum checks. Nevertheless, all four legume species tested resulted in less Striga attachment to roots than for sorghum. Therefore, this study recommends the use of ground nuts as a rotational crop in striga infested soils as they can effectively reduce the striga seed load in the soil.

  178. Haldar, D.

    This communication deals with the description and illustrations of two undescribed species of Cercosporoid fungi viz. Cercospora pachyrhizicola, sp.nov. and Curvularia tremae sp.nov. growing on the living leaves of Pachyrhizus angulatus Rich., (Fam.Fabaceae) and Trema orientalis Blume (Fam.Ulmaceaee), collected from Murshidabad district, West Bengal, India.

  179. Divya Damodaran, Dr. Sudarsanam, D., Maria Infanshia Sajini, Vasantha Suppriya, Joel Singh, D. and Siddhardha Solosan

    Recent studies on DNA-based approaches show a promising trend in the rapid description of biodiversity. Traditional morphology-based assessments are timeconsuming and require specialists whose numbers are insufficient and dwindling. A DNA-based method called DNA barcoding has been proposed as a rapid means of cataloguing species. Hebert et al., (2003) specifically suggest the employment of DNA sequences as taxon ‘barcode’s and propose that the mitochondrial gene cytochrome oxidase I (COI) serves as the core of a global bio identification system for animals. The unique contribution of DNA barcoding to mosquito taxonomy and systematic is a compressed timeline for the exploration and analysis of biodiversity. According to Knowlton and Weigt (1998) among the mitochondrial genes, cytochrome oxidase subunit 1 (COI) is to be the most conserved gene in the amino acid sequences and hence has distinct advantage for taxonomic studies. The morphological identification keys used currently for identification of mosquitoes are mainly related to imaginal and fourth instars only. Hence, difficult to identify other stages of development collected in the field, if not reared in the laboratory.

  180. Varun, M. S., Sathyanarayan, M. S., Shwetha, J. V., Sneha, K C. and Ambica, R.

    Urinary Tract Infections (UTI) are a major cause of morbidity leading to serious long term complications. Profile of uropathogens and the pattern of their antimicrobialsusceptibility vary widely in different geographical regions. The present study was undertaken to determine the bacteriological profile and antibiogram of uropathogens isolated from catheterized and non-catheterized patients at a tertiary care centre. Urine samples were collected from patients with UTI attending a tertiary care hospital. The clean-catch technique of midstream urine was used for patients without catheterization while specimens of catheterized patients (> 48 hours) were collected from proximal part of catheter after aseptic precautions.Profile of bacterial isolates in both the catheterized (50) and non-catheterized (50) groups were almost similar. Commonest organism isolated was Escherichia coli, followed by Klebsiella spp. However, difference in the antibiogram was noted in isolates from both the groups. Our study shows that, E.coli was the most common uropathogen and profile of uropathogens was similar in catheterized and non-catheterized groups. However, difference in the antimicrobial sensitivity pattern in either group emphasizes that different factors play role in determining antibiotic sensitivity of uropathogens isolated from catheterized v/s non catheterized patients. Also, unnecessary catheterization should be avoided and indiscriminate use of antimicrobials in patients with UTI should be discouraged. Urine culture and sensitivity should guide the treatment of UTI in both catheterised and non-catheterised patients.

  181. Dr. Pandey, H.S. and Dr. Pandey, R.P.

    Asteracantha longifolia (L.) Nees. belonging to the family Acanthaceae is known as Talmakhana in Unani and Kokilasha in Ayurveda system of medicine. It is a small, spiny weed found in most places throughout India. The plant is widely distributed in India, Srilanka, Burma and Nepal. The Plant Seeds, root and leaves are used for medicinal purpose. Many pharmacological studies have been conducted on Asteracantha longifolia which proved its aphrodisiac, hepatoprotective, antioxidant and analgesic activities etc.The present paper describes the isolation and characterization of a triterpenoid on the basis on the basis of chemical and spectral studies like IR, 1HNMR, 13CNMR and mass spectroscopy.

  182. Kerim A. Kuliev and Shafa A. Mamedova

    2, 6-dithiol-4-ethylphenol (DTEP) as a photometric reagent for the extractive spectrophotometric determination of Copper (II) is presented in this paper. The reagent DTEP in the presence hydrofobic amins gave instantaneous and stable blue colour with Copper (II) in the pH range 6.2 to 7.7. The Beer’s law was applicable in the range of 0.05 - 4.0 μg/ml at 534-540 nm. The Limit of Detection (LOD) is found to be 8.5-8.7ng/mL. The stoichiometry of the complex is established as 1:1:1 (M: L: Am) by equilibrium shift method. The standard deviation and the coefficient of variance are presented. The results of the prescribed procedure applied for the determination of the micro amounts of Cu (II) in pharmaceutical, food and in plant samples are presented.

  183. Reyes Yañez, I. E., Meléndez-Estrada, J. and Cruz Castro, O.

    There are various processes for treating wastewater and one of the most efficient is biological treatment, which consists of reducing the organic load, the elimination of pathogens and the reduction of dissolved solids. The biodisks are part of a secondary biological treatment system, known as attached growth. In the system of Conventional Independent Biodisks (hereafter, CIB), the support for the microbial fixing consists of several parallels and disks with a short distance between each of them and with a central axis passing through their centres. In this study, a system known as a Spiral Support Biodisk (hereafter, SSB) was designed and its performance was compared to CIB. A substrate in domestic sewage was used, and this was obtained from a wastewater treatment plant at Los Reyes Ixtacala in the municipality of Tlalnepantla de Baz, México City. The results showed a higher efficiency of operation and removal of organic matter with the SSB, and it was also possible to optimise the contact area and increase the turbulent flow.

  184. Tayde, K. B. and Harne, R. R.

    The concept praposed here is on the real time automotive application of invigilating the performance of the induction motors which monitorthe torque and efficiency byemploying wireless sensor networks (WSNs). A strong embedded systemis deployed for getting electrical signals from the motor ina constructive manner, and then performing local processing fortorque and efficiency estimation. The values calculated by the embeddedsystem are transmitted to a monitoring unit through an RF-SMD based WSN. Various motors canbe monitored in real time, at the base unit. The relationship between theWSN performance andthe spectral occupancy has been calculated by performing expermental analysis at the operating environment. This thesis specifies that the use of intelligent nodes,with local processingcapability, is essential for the application of motors. A workbench is designed and the embedded system is deployed thereto analyze torque and system efficiency.

  185. Santhi, M., Kumar, P.E., Perumal, V. and Sathya. M.

    The use of activated carbon-MnO2 nano composite for the removal of Bismarck Brown Y, a most widely used basic dye has been studied. The effect of several parameters such as adsorbent dose, contact time, initial dye concentration, pH and temperature has been evaluated. The adsorption data were analysed by using adsorption isotherms like Langmuir, Freundlich and Tempkin isotherms. The study has found that the nano composite adsorbent play an effective role in removing the Bismarck Brown Y from its aqueous solution.

  186. Mohammed Waaiz, Krishna Reddy, K. and Punyaseshudu, D.

    This study reports the analysis of the ambient air in Kurnool city, Andhra Pradesh State, India employing air quality index (AQI) simplified public information and data interpretation. The frequency of sampling is twice a week with 24 -hourly average concentrations of three major criteria pollutants, viz. Sulphur Dioxide (SO2), Nitrogen Dioxide (NO2), Carbon monoxide (CO) for the year 2015 (December) to 2016 (November) at four different selected locations in Kurnool city. They are KALLUR Estate (industrial), NANDYAL Check post Junction (City outskirts), RAJ VIHAR Junction (Commercial) and Old bus stand Fort area (Residential). It has been observed that due to various variations in meteorological parameters, concentrations of air pollutants exhibit typical diurnal, weekly and annual cycle’s changes. The AQIs were calculated using IND-AQI procedure. NO2 and SO2 are the primary causes of pollution at Location -1 and Location-2 which canbe attributed to industrial emissions It has been observed that the calculated AQIs values CO fall under “good” and “satisfactory” categories with varying percentages. At present the study shows that pollution is under “Moderately polluted” category. Suitable measures are suggested to improve the situation and prevent further deterioration of the atmospheric conditions.

  187. Balasubramaniyan, S., Rajasekar, K., Palanivelan, L., Govindharaju, R., Soji George, M. and Ramachandramoorthy, T.

    Now a days, PVC flex sheets (Banners) are used for almost all kinds of advertisements or information. These low cost and durable materials are flexible and almost unaffected by sunlight, heat and rain. They have been used for political popularity, public and private advertisement, religious festivals, family functions etc., These banners are mostly thrown away as landfills which cause environmental pollution. The present work deals with the physic-chemical analysis, photo degradation, thermal degradation and biodegradation of waste /used PVC flex materials collected from Sendurai, Ariyalur and Udayarpalayam Taluks in Ariyalur District, Tamil Nadu. Also, a few utility articles like flower vase, bag etc. were made from the used PVC flex sheets.

  188. Eyad Makki and Lin-Ching Chang

    The effectiveness of an E-commerce website is vital to E-business success. Therefore, it is important to accurately evaluate the performance of E-commerce websites. Many website evaluation methods have been proposed and used. However, though these tools have covered remarkably broad factors, social media as well asregional and service-relatedfactors are usually not taken into consideration. In this paper, a new model is proposed, integratingsocial media (i.e., Twitter data), website rank, website functionality, regional and service-related data in order to quantitatively evaluate the performance of E-commerce sites. By adopting those new factors, we try to provide a new model to better assess the compounding effect of website performance. The proposed model is applied to54 selected E-commerce websites in Saudi Arabia, and the evaluation results show the benefit of the new model. The proposed model can be used to improve the site performance and help decision makers to better understand their business.

  189. Pankaj Sharma

    The spray forming process is the process in which a molten metal is impinged by inert gases which results in atomized droplet. The resulting metal droplets while on flight and in residence time inside the spray cone cools rapidly before impinging onto the substrate. The temperature of smaller droplet drops down very fast and strikes the substrate in solid state while larger droplet strike the substrate in liquid form. Therefore to get the mushy droplet impinging on to the substrate knowledge of the thermal history of droplet is of utmost important. In order to determine the size of the cooling chamber of gas atomization plants, a fundamentally based mathematical model was described and the governing differential equation was solved using mathematically modelling method, and the relation between the flight distance and the time was established, then it is solved with the help of initial and boundary condition. With the help of the atomizer angle the size of the cooling chamber is calculated by the help of trigonometry.

  190. Frank Kataka Banaseka and Stephen Dotse

    Over the past few decades, mobile and wireless communications as well as Internet have been the most profound and important technologies in information technology that are rapidly growing and continuously changing human life. Despite the tremendous potentials of wireless networks, several significant research challenges remain to be addressed before widespread deployment of wireless networks, including isolation, control signaling, resource discovery and allocation, mobility management, network management and operation, and security as well as non-technical issues such as governance regulations, etc. In recent years, the demands of mobile data keep thriving, meanwhile, the smart phone and mobile applications become increasingly powerful and varied. These lead to a sporadic opportunity to combine both mobile communications and Internet, i.e. mobile Internet. In this paper, we present a critical review of New Developments and Research Challenges for 5G Wireless Systems and Networks. The paper includes discussions on technology development approach toward 5G, some supporting technologies, technology components and then research challenges in 5G wireless systems.

  191. Soner Çelen, Ugur Akyol and Serhat Kuş

    In the present work, the effect of drying on properties of pear samples (Deveci) was analyzed by microwave energy drying at microwave powers of 2000W and 2800W. The drying was carried out using a microwave belt dryer at a rate of 0.175 m/min, 0.210 m/min and 0.245 m/min using pears with a slice thickness of 5 mm until the moisture content reduced at a rate of 10.1 ± 0.5 (w.b.). The energy consumed during drying was calculated, and the optimum results were obtained at 2800 W microwave power and at a drying rate of 0.175 m/min. From the color quality standpoint, the best results for pear slices were determined at a belt speed of 0.175 m/min at 2800W microwave power. Moreover, in estimating the removable moisture content, constant coefficients in Newton, Page, Henderson and Pabis, Geometric, Wang and Singh drying models were investigated by multiple regression method. As a result of the analyses it was determined that the model that predicts the best kinetics of drying in all experimental conditions is "Page" model. In addition, the energy consumed during drying and the color parameters of the dried product were also determined.

  192. Aylin AKYILDIZ and Soner ÇELEN

    Microwave curing (MC) is a method that can accelerate hydration of cement, which results in rapid strength increase of mortars. This study investigates effect of microwaving curing on the strength of mortar the effect of MC (460 W,5, 10, 15, 30 mins) and the effect of MC (700 W, 5, 10, 15, 30 mins). MC can be used to determine the hydration degree of the mortars and rapid strength increase of mortars. Additionally, Newton, Page, Henderson and Pabis, Geometric, Wang and Singh drying models were compared with each other to determine the moisture content at a given moment in the dryer. The performances of these models are compared according to the correlation coefficient (r), the estimated standard error (es) and the sum of the squares of the residuals ( ) between the observed and predicted humidity ratios. According to the results obtained, for all drying conditions the drying behaviors of the products are explained better by Page Model as compared others.

  193. Lee Fergusson

    There is a significant body of extant published literature about Maharishi Mahesh Yogi and the impact his insights into Vedic Science have had on the modern academic disciplines, on applied areas of personal and collective life, and on the future. This literature appears throughout the academic record, and includes publications on topics as diverse as the arts and architecture, the environment, higher education, health and healthcare utilization, management and leadership, and government; even specialist analyses of quantum physics and supersymmetric quantum unified field theories, neuroscience, genetic engineering, mathematics and gerontology by Nobel Laureates, business and government leaders, academics, educators and scientists from virtually every major discipline form part of this anthology. These publications have appeared in the literature of countries as diverse as Australia, Sweden and Senegal, with the bulk of the collection published in Europe, India and the United States. Moreover, leading peer- reviewed journals, including Scientific American, American Journal of Physiology, British Journal of Educational Psychology and International Journal of Neuroscience, and some of the world’s most notable research institutes, have conducted and published empirical findings and theoretical papers on Maharishi’s programs. However, few, if any, scholarly research studies have attempted to document the actual publications by Maharishi himself, despite the fact that he was a prolific writer and teacher over the course of 50 years. For this reason, the present paper presents an annotated historical survey of 84 published documents by Maharishi from 1957 to 2015, all of which form part of the public record. By evaluating this catalogue of published material—including the identification of central themes, key words and phrases, and encapsulating quotes—and by cross-referencing the material with an index of terms and a bibliography of 421 third-party publications which validate the written statements by Maharishi, it is hoped the present study will serve as a platform upon which further reading and analysis of Maharishi Vedic Science can systematically be conducted, thereby preparing the ground for future scholarship and research.

  194. Inamani Das and Bhagabati, A. K.

    Land-use and land-cover change (LUCC) is a key driver of global environmental change and has important implications for many national and international policy issues (Nunes and Auge 1999; Lambin 2001). Rani-Garbhanga Reserve Forest is located in Kamrup East Division of Assam. It has witnessed significant decline in forest cover. The growing population pressure on the forests for timber, fuelwood, fodder and other forest products, poor management on the part of the forest department, smuggling of trees are some of the major factors for accelerating the degradation process. The result of the study shows that land use changes in the study area are primarily responsible for the decrease of forest area and wild habitats in and around the reserve. This study addresses relevant issues on land use and land cover changes and its causes related to degradation of forest cover.

  195. Arzu Morkoyunlu Yuce

    The water resources of İstanbul, which is the biggest city in Turkey, confront environmental problems brought about by the increasing population, urbanization and industrialization. Particularly, the change in urban population affects water resources as well. Water resources for sustainable life are of great importance ecologically, economically and sociall. Treatment of industrial wastewater before being discharged into the receiving environment is one of the essential factors for sustainable environmental management. In this study, COD, pH, Suspended solids and BOD data of water samples taken from treatment plant of wastewater produced in Kız Kulesi was evaluated. As a result of the research, treatment plant in food sectors was determined to be below the limit values given within the scope of the Water Pollution Control Regulation and it was determined to be appropriate for water discharge.

  196. Muhammad Dahlan

    Value chain analysis (VCA) of implementation is sequential event of business activities, we justification sicle of research and development, design of production process or not, productions or not, marketing, distribution, and customer services. Based on literature reviews conclude the relationship between VCA of implementation and management accounting systems, budget tightness and perceived environmental uncertainty. Because that is CEO need any information’s to support day to day decision making and business activity. The research method using the explanatory research. The population of research in Indonesia business with research sample are 85 State-Owned Enterprise’s. The type of data in this research is primary data and data collections with a questionnaire design were represent by a manager or director as the unit of observation. Validity and reliability data were tested before examining the hypotheses. The hypotheses testing were used binary logistic regression model. Based on hypotheses testing indicate that 59 unit samples were conducted of VCA implementations in business activities with of the predicted percentage correct of 93,70% and 13 unit samples fail to conduct of VCA, the percentage correct of 84,70%. And the management accounting systems, budget tightness and perceived environmental uncertainty indicate positively effect on VCA implementations. Further analysis show that, state-owned enterprise in Indonesia’s indicate that the higher weight average of firm performance were conducted of VCA implementations because run of business will be support by sophisticated concept of management accounting systems, budget emphasis and prudent action in change of environmental uncertainty, and another word the lower of firm performance fail to conduct of VCA day to day in business activities. Never the less, budget tightness to be anticipations of environmental uncertainty, sometime cause to VCA conducted less effectiveness. That is effect by the systems and operating procedure of administration requirement.

  197. Zeleke Arficho Ayele (PhD)

    This research was intended to survey the practices and challenges of mother tongue as a medium of instruction with reference to Sidaamu-afoo. In order to achieve the objectives of the study, a descriptive research design was used. To this end, a total of 144 teachers were randomly selected from 36 first cycle primary schools in Sidama Zone; the schools were also selected in like manner. The teachers were made to fill in a close-ended questionnaire, and a semi-structured interview was held with 12 teachers who were randomly selected from those who had already filled in the questionnaire. Data obtained by the questionnaire were analyzed by using different types of appropriate descriptive statistics, and data collected by the interview were analyzed qualitatively by categorizing similar responses together in themes and the results were discussed by quoting some utmost concepts directly. The results of the questionnaire and the interview were triangulated. Thus, this research employed a mixed-methods approach. The findings revealed that teachers strive to effectively implement Sidaamu-afoo as a medium of instruction. However, there are factors affecting the effective implementation of Sidaamu-afoo as a medium of instruction. The factors are associated with education offices (regional, zonal or woreda), schools, teachers, and students. Based on the findings, recommendations have been made.

  198. Sujeewa Kodithuwakku

    Academic staff is an essential and the most important component in the process of achieving the mission and vision of an educational institute. Because academic staff members are the first line of contact with students and requires complex work in an increasingly demanding environment (Fang-Mei Tai, 2014). At present satisfied academic staffs form the sources of competitive advantage. To meet the required standards of education sector the academic staff members need a working environment that allows them to work freely without problems that may restrain them from performing up to the level of their full potential. This study has made an attempt to identify the job satisfaction among the academic staff members in state universities in Sri Lanka. This study is based on both primary and secondary data. A cross-sectional survey among university teachers was conducted from May 2016 to July 2016 in Sri Lanka. For this study, ten universities were selected out of 16 state universities and 30% of the full-time academic members were randomly sampled from each university selected. Anonymous self-administered questionnaires were distributed to 880 academic staff members after obtaining their written consent. Out of this a total of 720 effective responses were obtained (effective response rate: 78.5%). The study procedures were in accordance with ethical standards. A questionnaire was developed with variables in two dimensions to analyze job satisfaction i.e.12 intrinsic job satisfaction items and six extrinsic job satisfaction, with each item being rated on a 5-point Likert-type scale, ranging from 1 (strongly dissatisfied) to 5 (strongly satisfied).The distributions of job satisfaction in categorical variables were examined by the Student’s t-test and one-way ANOVA. Pearson Correlations method was used to measure the relationship between independent and dependent variables. Hierarchical linear regression analyses were performed to explore the factors associated with job satisfaction. Statistical significance was defined as p < 0.05 (two-tailed).The field survey revealed that Sri Lankan university academics have an average level of satisfaction (the average score of job satisfaction was, SD = 59.5). Over-commitment was found to have a negative association with job satisfaction. Perceived Organizational Support was found to be associated with overall job satisfaction among Sri Lankan university academic staff members. Specially, academic staff members expect a high level of organizational support and it tends to feel confident and hopeful about their desired job goals and are able to have both the motivation and plans to achieve their goals. Psychological Capital was also found to be positively associated with job satisfaction. As a recommendation it is suggested that measures such as establishing flexible work schedules for academic members, introducing rewarding methods on the basis of their academic and administrative contribution, provide more funds for scientific research and higher education, increasing opportunities for career advancement and encouraging them for administrative involvement of department/faculty in decision-making might increase academic members’ job satisfaction. Furthermore, improving Psychological Capital might be more effective for enhancing the overall job satisfaction.

  199. Dr. Mumtaz Khawaja, Uzma Panhwar and Dr. Abida Siddiqui

    The paper compares and examines the effects of socio political and socio economic condition of the country on Five year plans in Pakistan. The main objective of the study was to compare the various Five year plans to observe the effects of political instability and governance on framing and implementation process. The research is based on the Documentary analysis of the various Five year plans along with other government and nongovernment studies. The finding of the study reveals that the government determination and desire, political stability, international and domestic conditions affects the framing of the plans while; rapid turmoil of the government, political interference, social and economic conditions affects the planning as well implementation process. The study suggests that government should empowered the planning commission as an independent authority and give free hand to the planning commission with permanent qualified and trained staff without any interference.

  200. Jafar Rouhi, Bianca Gioia Marino and Aldo Aveta

    From past to the present, lessons learned from structural behaviour of buildings during destructive earthquakes have been used to advance construction techniques, and more recently, such lessons have fostered the development of methods and techniques to have more engineering interventions and preservation disciplines on historically or culturally important structures. Generally, post-earthquake damage assessments will offer an opportunity to understand why historic buildings fail, and will provide information that can serve as the basis for their seismic improvement. The tragedy of December 26, 2003 Bam earthquake, and what happened over the Bam Citadel, as a result, entails the need to evaluate the seismic vulnerability of historic adobe structures. Therefore, documentation of the actual damages resulting from strong ground motions are essential to understand how historic adobe buildings perform, or in fact behave at the time of earthquakes. In this case, survey about structural behavior of this vulnerable type of construction material, analyzing its seismic weakness, which may help in preventing social, cultural and economic losses against a subsequent earthquake that may happen in the near future. Therefore, in this paper to have better insight about the possible seismic damages on historic adobe-mud brick structures, the damages on seismically destructed Citadel of Bam are analyzed in details, the possible damages that the consciousness of their occurrence can result in better anti-seismic intervention on historic adobe structures.

  201. Philippe JOSEPH

    The main physical factors influencing the diversity of phytocenoses are the climate and geomorphology. The latter’s various aspects can modify, for example, the spatiotemporal structure of the temperature, rainfall, humidity and evaporation. These changes result in a set of biotopes whose varied biocenotic responses correspond to a dense floristic mosaic. Among these responses, due to their small size, the vegetation inversions represent specific cases. To demonstrate this phenomenon, we used 73 stations of Martinique’s lower level influenced by the dry sub-humid bioclimate and occupying each of the specific topographic facies. Using indicators and a multifactorial treatment (AFC), the data from the floristic inventories revealed the existence of a station whose flora is composed of mesophilous (evergreen tropical seasonal) species typical of the wet or even wet sub-humid bioclimate.

  202. Lilian. C. Kimaiyo

    The study sought to establish the influence of trainee teacher perceived competence about computer on integration of computer technology into future teaching practices. It was carried out in five public TTCs in the Rift Valley Province. This study employed correlation research design. The research population for the study was all teacher trainees in pubic teacher training colleges in Rift Valley. The colleges had a total population of 5,075 student teachers. Using a table of random numbers, the researcher then selected proportional sample from each stratum in every TTC to ensure that there was uniform representation of the different groups. The total sample from the five TTCs was 357 trainee teachers. The primary data was collected using a questionnaire. The study established that trainee teachers' perceived competence about computer had no statistically significant influence on integration of computer technology.

  203. Sulismadi, Wahyudi, Ihyaul Ulum and Salahudin

    Village Autonomy Policy, through a validation of Law No.6/2014 about Village, had given a status for any villages in Indonesia as autonomous region. Village government would have wide rights and discretions in managing village potentials. However, the practice of village autonomy was not good yet after all. Village Autonomy Policy, therefore, required governance innovation through electronic government. This research was aimed to review the implementation of village governance based on electronic government (e-government) in village autonomy era. The research used qualitative approach. Data were collected through interview, observation, documentation, and review on preliminary study. The object of research was Village Government in Landungsari Village, Malang Regency, East Java, Indonesia. This review had found that village government was very enthusiastic and responsive to Village Autonomy Policy. In other hand, village government had faced serious problems, among others was that human resource was still marginal in terms of quantity and quality. Village government resolved this problem through a governance innovation by applying e-government. It was manifested by a website to be as a structure to support the realization of effective and efficient governance. However, e-government was challenged by the absence of human resource to manage e-government system. This research was attempting to design e-government through website that contained data in relation with the implementation of village governance. Website design was created through a cooperation between village government and university. It was expected that this review would provide a reference needed by village government in designing e-government during village autonomous era.

  204. Sandeep R. Shelar

    There is hot wave in India to adopt digital transaction for all economic activities in India 97% economic activity is in pure CASH The Government’s step to cancel 86% of high value notes in 500 & 1000 on November 8 2016 has disturbed the rural economy where the banks have rare presence. Six lakh plus villages have yet to see the new notes. India witnessed in the last two months of 2016 rural economy in shambles. Government‘s intension to adopt digital was to withdraw high value notes and adopt cashless work.

  205. José Luis González Rufino, Omar Chávez Alegría, Sergio Aurelio Zamora Castro, Ma. De la Luz Pérez Rea and Eduardo Rojas González

    Expansive soils have caused significant damage in pavements and households; this damage leads to substantial economic loss in the world. In Mexico, around 12% of the territory is made of expansive soils and due to the problems that they cause, various techniques have been developed so as to stabilize them, which include mechanical and chemical methods, among others. One proposed technique to diminish expansion problems is the presaturation method which consists in provoking soil expansion by adding water to produce swelling prior to the structure’s construction, reaching a degree of saturation higher than 80%. In this article, a literature review about the efficiency of the implementation of quick and inexpensive stabilization of expansive soils applying the presaturation technique is made.

  206. Shavliashvili, L., Bakradze, E., Arabidze, M. and Kuchava, G.

    In Georgia there are many sources, whether natural or anthropogenic, which causes environmental pollution by arsenic compounds. Arsenic sulfide ore mining, processing and production of arsenic-containing drugs was carried out for decades (Racha-Lechkhumi and lower Svaneti). In the Article is presented studies of eco-chemical conditions for soils contaminated areas with arsenic industrial wastes (in the village Uravi - Ambrolauri Municipality, village Tsana - Lentekhi Municipality) and surface water (River Tskhenistskali and Lukhuni) 2014-2016years. The sampling of the soil and water, conservation, labeling, storage and transportation were produced in the accordance with the International Standard Organization (ISO) standard methodology. The study was conducted in laboratory by the ISO standards and USEPA methods in soil samples arsenic will be determined by plasma–emission spectrometer. The survey results shows that the arsenic maximum content in 2014 were observed in the vicinity of Uravi white arsenic treatment plant, where the arsenic maximum concentration was 61814.9 mg/kg and in the settling of the surrounding area - 36373.7 mg/kg; According to the 2015 data a high value was observed only in the samples from the 3rd site and settling in the village Tsana. The results were the following 59025.0 mg/kg and 55795.0 mg/kg. Ecologically most polluted rivers are: Tskhenistskali and Lukhuni. River Tskhenistskali (upper Tsana) arsenic concentracion in 2014 exeded the MPC. While in 2016 the concentrations were in the norms and in most cases it has been a declining trend. In 2014-2016 years the project "Arsenic Containing Mining Waste Management in Georgia", was ongoing between the Ministry of the Environment and Natural Resources Protection of Georgia and the Ministry of Economic Affairs of the Netherlands. The project was carried out in bilateral financing, which aims first urgent works to be carried out near the territory of the former arsenic hazardous plants, resulting in decreased concentrations of arsenic in the study areas.

  207. Ritu Hooda

    With the increasing scale of trade, need was felt for quality based, informative and reliable accounting standards. Hence, the ASB formulates Accounting Standards for India giving due consideration to International Accounting Standards. But now, trade has to give global level crossing all jurisdictions and regions. The integration of global economy demands a set of accounting standards which are generally accepted all over the world for facilitating the countries doing trade in a more simplified way of accounting. International Financial Reporting Standards (IFRSs) are such set of accounting standards as have been prepared to cope up with the increasing demands of accounting at global level. More and more countries are moving to IFRSs due to their capability to facilitate economic growth in international or global market. India had decided to converge with IFRS in phased manner and the initiative was taken in April, 2011 by letting a roadmap for convergence with IFRS. Different roadmaps have been set for different entities like insurance companies, banking companies and other financial enterprises. Indian trade is growing at a tremendous rate and making its way ahead in global market. Hence, it is worth benefitting for Indian trade to converge with IFRSs. The first phase of convergence with IFRS is partly completed in India. The concept of IFRS is taken very sensitively by the Govt., regulatory authorities and concerned entities. As the IFRSs are widely known as global accounting standards, it becomes need of the hour to adopt them. This paper has been prepared using secondary data and information obtained from various websites, published sources like books, journals, articles etc. Why more and more countries are moving to IFRSs? Research has been done to get the answer in an adequate and reasonable way to understand the concept and to find its importance to attract countries adopting and converging with IFRSs. India adopted the way to converge with IFRSs so that Indian enterprises can apply global set accounting standards and prosper the economy by trading globally with more confident, reliable and high quality accounting standards. Before converging with IFRS, a challenge towards convergence with IFRS was lack of professionals. For this purpose, the ICAI launched a course (CA) that proves itself the solutions to the challenges. Today’s position of India regarding convergence with IFRS is satisfactory, fast and smooth going. However, the results are yet to come showing the outcome of emerging concept being adopted by India.

  208. Nivetha, A., Karthika, B., Kadheeja Roshni, M., and Vinayaga Moorthi, P.

    In the present review, we accumulated the information on cancer, the second largest killer disease (the first being coronary heart disease) in the developed countries, and its prevalence in different regions of the world. Cancer is characterized by loss of control of cellular growth and development leads to excessive proliferation and spread of cells. This review mostly focused on the colorectal cancer, one of the most familiar cancers and cause of cancer death in developed countries. In India it has 6.3% out of an all 28 cancer reported. This review also revealed strongly the role of APC gene for the wide dispersal of colorectal cancer. APC gene is the most important gatekeeper of colonic epithelial cell proliferation and is responsible for controlling the onco protein called β-catenin. Microsatellite instability (MSI) occurs in 10−20% of colorectal cancers (CRC), and has been attributed to both MLH1 promoter hyper methylation and germ-line mutation in the mismatch repair (MMR) genes. It may support and paved the way for the therapeutic targets.

  209. Anas Bin Rosli

    Cancer is a disease characterized by out of control cell growth. It is also the common term for neoplasm, or tumors that are malignant. All cancers are caused by the malfunction of genes that control cell growth, division and maturation, which later progresses to abnormal or uncontrolled cell division. Chemotherapy is responsible for the long term survival of patient with malignancies. Chemotherapeutic treatment has deleterious effect on both normal cells and tumor cells provided that certain normal cells of oral mucosa which divide rapidly are also affected. Thus, the effect of chemotherapy may result in oral complications such as mucositis, xerostomia, osteoradionecrosis etc. These complications have a negative impact upon patients’ quality of life and could be life threatening in serious cases.

  210. Dr. Prem Gowtham, E., Dr. Ruthira Eshanth, V.N. and Dr. Shaik Farid

    Mayer- Rokitansky- Kuster- Hauser syndrome is characterized by vaginal atresia and a spectrum of uterine anomalies, including absence, hypoplasia, and duplication. Patients have a normal female karyotype, external genitalia, secondary sexual development and normal ovaries. Renal anomalies, usually agenesis and rarely ectopia or hydronephrosis, occur in about 40% of patients. Skeletal abnormality co exists in about 10% of patients. Patients with arrested development of mullerian ducts most commonly present with primary amenorrhoea.

  211. Priya Ramani, Preethi Nandagopal, Praveena, N. M. and Krithika, C.

    With the rapid development of technology a range of medical and surgical modalities with lasers are available in various fields of dentistry. Soft tissue lasers are widely used by the clinicians for their potential advantage over conventional surgical methods. Use of laser technology has encroached all the areas of dentistry. The purpose of this article is to provide an overview of the current and possible future of clinical applications of lasers over the conventional surgical methods.

  212. Uzma Eram and Tamanna, Z.

    Introduction: There are a lot of misconceptions and cultural taboos relating to breastfeeding practices .Cultural practices are related to food avoidance, restricted diet during pregnancy and after childbirth. Some of these problems can be overcome if the woman is informed antenatally about the benefits of breast-feeding and other important things .Cultural factors and household food security situation have been identified as underlying factors that influence the nutritional status. The aim of this study was to find out the socio-cultural beliefs among females during their pregnancy in rural areas of Aligarh. Material and Method: A cross-sectional study was conducted during May –July in 2015 in the rural areas of registered villages of Rural Health Training Centre of the Department of Community Medicine, Aligarh. The study population comprised of mothers who had just delivered a baby. Informed consent was taken from each participant. A total of 70 mothers were selected for the study. Questionnaires were prepared for the study. Data was collected and analyzed using SPSS software. Results: More than half of females under study took no special care during pregnancy of their breasts. Some of them clean their breasts with soap and water everyday while bathing. About 60 % of females were given milk with ghee to facilitate easy delivery. Extra pulses or eggs or meat were given in 30% of females during pregnancy. In 10% of females no extra food was given as it increases the weight of the baby. More than half of females were told to do the household work like sweeping and swapping the floor.4.2% of the females under study told that they were asked not to sleep in the afternoon as it will increase the size of the baby.7.2% of females told that they were asked not to walk for a long distance as it causes premature delivery. Sexual intercourse was avoided during the first 3 months in 61.4% of females and during first one month only in 22.8% of them. In 8.5% of females under study, it was avoided till delivery and there was no restriction on it in 7.1% of females. Conclusion: Usually the socio- cultural practices are imposed by elderly females in the family. So they should be given proper information and education regarding pregnancy. Misconceptions should be removed. Exclusive breast feeding should be done till 6 months. Healthy practices should be promoted.

  213. Mohammad Effatpanah, Alireza Mahjoub, Maryam Kia, Mojtaba Sedaghat, Parisa Fazlipanah, Hamidreza Hekmat and Zohreh Asgari

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of vitamin D3in response to the treatment ofstage1treatment-resistant depression. In this clinical trial, 64 patients with treatment-resistant depression in the age range 18-65yearsreferred to Ziaeian Hospital were enrolled. Patients were randomly divided into two groups of 32 patients in each group and in addition to the main treatment for depression, in group A, vitamin D was administered and group B, received placebo of vitamin D. There were no statistically significant differences in the levels of alkaline phosphatise and phosphorus in group A and B before and after taking vitamin D or placebo. The parathyroid hormone inpatients receiving vitamin D were reduced, although this reduction was not statistically significant. The average level of vitamin Din patients taking these vitamins significantly increased. The results of this study showed that patients who had received vitamin D, their depression were quite improved and while the average depression score of patients receiving placebo was moderate at the end of the study. Since depression is accompanied by decreased serum level of vitamin D, consumption of supplementary vitamin D can be helpful in the treatment of these patients.

  214. Shalu Krishan, Anurag Aggarwal and Saloni Gupta

    Objectives: This study was performed to investigate the effects of different intracanalmedicaments on chemical structure and microhardness of dentin. Materials and Methods: Twenty Four human dentin discs were obtained from intact third molars and randomly assigned into three treatment groups. The threetreatment groups were irrigated with NaOCl, treated for four weeks with either 1 g/mL triple antibiotic paste (TAP), 1 g/mL - modified triple antibiotic paste (MTAP), or calcium hydroxide [Ca(OH)2] and finally irrigated with EDTA. Aftertreatment, one half of each dentin disc was subjected to Vickers microhardness (n = 10per group) and the other half was used to evaluate the chemical structure (phosphate/amide I ratio) of treated dentin utilizing attenuated total reflection Fourier transforminfrared spectroscopy (n = 4 per group). One-way ANOVA followed by Fisher's leastsignificant difference were used for statistical analyses. Results: Dentin discs treatedwith different intracanal medicaments showedsignificant reduction in microhardness (p < 0.0001) and phosphate/amide I ratio (p< 0.05). Furthermore, dentin discs treatedwith TAP had significantly lower microhardness (p < 0.0001) and phosphate/amideI ratio (p < 0.0001) compared to all other groups. Conclusions: Within the limitations of this study, the use of TAP in ER caused significantly higher dentin demineralization and reduction in dentin microhardness compared to MTAP or Ca(OH)2.The use of MTAP or Ca(OH)2 rather than TAP as intracanalmedicaments during ER may minimize the reduction in dentin microhardness and the change in chemical structure of superficial dentin.

  215. Sudha Pankaj Meena, Vandana Pathak, Deepti Sukheeja, Rajshree Bhati and Shahida Riyaz

    Introduction: Nephrectomy has been a standard surgical procedure in practice performed for neoplastic and non neoplastic conditions of kidney with end stage diesease. Aim: A retrospective review of histopathological lesions encountered in different age group & genders among all nephrectomy specimens received in department of pathology. Methodology: Study included total 100 nephrectomy cases over a period of 3 years from July 2013 to June 2016. Result: In this study the most common lesions were inflammatory (66%), followed by malignant neoplasm (32%) and benign neoplasms (2%). Most common age group was 4th decade for inflammatory lesions, and 4th to 5th decade for malignant lesions. Mucin secreting adenocarcinoma in an adult was the rare lesion present in our study. Conclusion: Common lesion encountered were chronic nonspecific pyelonephritis, followed by renal cell carcinoma. Mucin secreting adenocarcinoma in an adult was the rare lesion present in our study.

  216. Sri Lakshmi, K., Siva Sai Kiran, B., Dr. Chandra Sekhar, K. B. and Shaik Muneer

    In view of importance of herbal drug standardisation, it was contemplated to carry out the heavy metal determination in papaya fruits which were procured from gandi maisamma fruit market, Hyderabad, Telangana. The extract were subjected to general phytochemical screening and estimated for metals like copper, iron, magnesium, nickel, sodium and zinc in the hydro alcoholic extracts by using ICPOES. It’s an alarming bell for human kind if the heavy metal content is more than permitted level cause lethal effects.

  217. Anas Bin Rosli

    Aim of study is to assess the awareness of jaundice associated with leptospirosis among college students. The students’ feedback are evaluated to investigate the awareness of jaundice which is developed from leptospirosis infection. Jaundice can occur due to obstruction of bile duct, hemolytic diseases and sometimes viral due to the spreading of hepatitis. Factors such as rate of incidence and exposure to cases, and people prone to risk of infection are taken as consideratio n for the survey. This study is to assess the awareness of jaundice associated with leptospiros is among college students.

  218. Wadhai, V. S. and Ashtankar, A. A.

    Multidrug resistant methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) is a major cause of nosocomial and community acquired infections and is on the rise. The glycopeptides vancomycin has been proposed as the drug of choice for treating such infections. The present study aimed at identifying the methicillin and vancomycin resistance staphylococcus aureus from tertiary care hospitals in Vidarbha region, (M/S) India. This study presents the report of methicillin and vancomycin heteroresistance in Staphylococcus aureus isolate from clinical samples. The original isolate was resistant in vitro to methicillin and fewer to vancomycin. Resistance confirmed for all isolates with E-tests using strips of methicillin MIC of >265 mcg/ml and vancomycin MIC of >256 mcg/ml. MRSA were isolated and identified from different clinical samples using conventional methods. Antibiogram of the isolates and MIC were determined following CLSI guidelines. All Multi Drug resistant Staphylococcus aureus isolates were MRSA. Only four Vancomycin resistant Staphylococcus aureus were found, out of the all MRSA isolates. All MRSA had a Methicillin MIC > 265 mcg/ ml except one showing 5.0 mcg/ml that of three VRSA had a Vancomycin MIC > 265 mcg/ ml and one shows MIC 24 mcg/ml.

  219. Sarah Fawzisaham

    The study included the collection (50) urineSample, and through the results of the transplant bacteriological the circles MacConkey agar and blood agar and central Eosin Methylen Blue, diagnosis phenotypic and biochemical, were obtained (10) isolation belonging to the typeproteus mirabilis (20%). The results of the investigation of some virulence isolates factors explained, including the ability to produce Haemolysine The results showed that all isolatesproteus mirabilis do not have the ability to produce hemolysin on central blood Agar, was to investigate the ability of bacteria to produce theSwarming, and the results showed that all isolates proteus mirabilisher the ability to produce these, the results showed that all isolates have the ability to produce biofilm and Swarming 100%.

  220. Radha Vellayappan and Sheeja. S. Varghese

    Objective: To analyze the antibacterial activity of crude extract of Garlic (Allium Sativum) ex vivo as a mouth rinse and compare their efficacy with chlorhexidine gluconate 0.12%. Materials and Methods: A solution made with white clone of garlic was used as a mouth rinse and compared with conventional chlorhexidine mouth rinse. Three groups were assigned, each having 10 patients, where, Group A consisted of patients who used saline as mouth rinse, Group B consisted patients who used chlorhexidine gluconate 0.12% mouth rinse and Group C consisted patients who used crude extract of garlic mouthrinse. Pre and post saliva samples were collected. Pre and post mouth rinse saliva samples were collected from 30 patients. The samples were then cultured and the total bacterial count was calculated. The antibacterial effect of garlic was then compared with the antibacterial effect of Chlorhexidine mouth rinse. Results: The microbial colonies of all the three groups showed a confluent growth. In this study we found that there is significant reduction of Coagulase negative staphylococci by Garlic in saliva sample. Conclusion: There was a partial benefit with the crude extract of garlic. Chlorhexidine gluconate 0.12% showed a better disinfection property than the crude extract of garlic.

  221. Nor Syakirah Binti Shahroom and Dr. Gheena, S.

    Aim and objective: To investigate and determine the knowledge and level of awareness of the outpatient population visiting dental hospital in Chennai about lymphatic filariasis. Method and Materials: This study was done by distributing 121 questionnaires to the outpatient population visiting dental hospital in Chennai who were willing to participate. Result and discussion: 62% of the study population has heard or knew about LF and 45% had come across people with LF. People who have heard about LF mostly gets information from the school (38%) followed by mass media (31%). Most of the study population aware (60%) about mode of spread of LF is caused by mosquito. Lymphedema (42%) and Elephantiasis (36%) are the most common clinical features knew by the study population. Quite a number of population (77%) knew that LF is non hereditary, (82%) knew that LF is not caused by supernatural causes and (67%) knew that drinking unsafe water can cause LF. (67%) of the study population believed that LF can be diagnosed through blood examination and using mosquito net and repellent can prevent LF. (69%) of the population also believed that LF can be prevented through various measures and (55%) believes that traditional healers cannot help curing LF. About (69%) of the study population have heard about Mass Drug Administration Programme. Conclusion: Lymphatic filariasis is quite familiar among the outpatient population in Chennai. However, the awareness and knowledge about LF is still lacking in the urban area. Mass Administration Programme also quite unfamiliar among them as it mostly focus on the rural area compared to urban area.

  222. Nadhirah Faiz

    AIM & OBJECTIVE: To assess the awareness amongst the general public of chennai on oral submucosal fibrosis. MATERIALS & METHOD: A questionnaire consisting of 12 questions on the topic, oral submucous fibrosis,was constructed and circulated amongst the general public of Chennai. The data retrieved from the survey was processed using Microsoft Excel. BACKGROUND: People are not aware of potentially malignant disorders of the oral cavity and hence don't take adequate measures to prevent it from occurring. It is important to assess and understand the level of knowledge of the participants and create the awareness so that there is an initiative taken to reduce the likeliness of occurring. REASON FOR THE PROJECT: Oral submucosal fibrosis is a chronic, progressive disease that is becoming more predominant in South India due to the habits of the people. One of the main causes is excessive chewing of betel quid and Areca nuts. Oral submucosal fibrosis is also a disease which could progress into a malignancy of the oral cavity if left untreated for a period of time, or if there is continuous chewing of betel quid or areca nut combined with the effects of smoking and drinking. RESULT: The awareness of the public of Chennai on oral submucosal fibrosis is studied.

  223. Miloni Suresh Shah and Dr. P. Gopinath

    Enterococci have changed over the previous century from being an intestinal commensal life form of minimal clinical significance to turning into the second most boundless nosocomial pathogen and is connected with extensive mortality and horribleness. Ginger is an important spice in Thailand. In 2001, Thailand grew more than 30,000 million tons of ginger. It is widely used as an ingredient in the food, pharmaceutical, cosmetic and other industries. Thus, the present study indented to determine the antibacterial activity of ginger oil against clinical isolates of Enterococcus spp. The MIC of ginger oil was appeared to be 0.25% for Enterococcus. The ginger oil is found to have antibacterial activity against Enterococcus species. However, the studies on toxic and irritant properties of essential oils are imperative, especially when considering any new products for human administration.

  224. Nor Masitah Mohamed Shukri and Dr. Jayalakshmi

    The management of biomedical waste is very crucial for prevention of infection as it can bring risk and hazard for people and environment. Health care unit especially dental and medical professionals can bring harm to their patients for every seconds if the waste is not managed properly as they are the ones whom being exposed to patients. Good level of awareness and adequate knowledge will help to minimize the risk transition of infection. Hence, this survey is conducted to assess the students' knowledge and attitude towards biomedical waste management. In regards, proper intervention and continuous education will be needed to increase their level of understanding.

  225. Nor Masitah Mohamed Shukri and Dr. Gheena, S.

    Cervical cancer is the second most common disease that affect women globally. Everyday there will new cases and deaths occur in tremendously. Although this cancer is considered to be a preventable health problem, adequate knowledge on cervical cancer is a paramount of importance. The objective is to validate a questionnaire used to assess level of general knowledge upon cervical cancer including its primary and secondary prevention. This is to create an awareness on cervical cancer and to explore the preventives measure of this disease.

  226. Dr. Saraswathi Gopal, K.

    Oral malignancy is the major health problem worldwide. Sixteen million new cases of cancers are estimated by 2020. Inspite of various advancement in treatment modalities including chemotherapy and radiotherapy, the survival rate has not been increased. Chemopreventive agents are essential micronutrients whose role is extensively known in physiological and also in pathological state associated with malignancy. This paper highlights the mechanism of action how chemopreventive agents suppress the carcinogenesis and also related to the clinical trials.

  227. Dr. Ravi Sunder, R. and Dr. Neelima, P.

    There has been an increasing level of stress among the school teachers who shoulder diverse responsibilities. To detect the stress levels, a model stress questionnaire was circulated among 116 school teachers of a private school after taking informed consent. The response was obtained from 98 teachers of which 72 were female staff. Leading questions were asked whether they had experienced any stress symptom in the last year. The questions included eighteen stress symptoms. A three grade choice having options of “never experienced”, “sometimes” and “very often” was given and were asked to tick the most appropriate choice. Questions on how they feel at work were also asked. Remaining part of the questionnaire included the number of work hours per week and factors for increased work load apart from the demographic data. The final column was given to explain the cause of stress, if any, in their own words and any suggestions of their choice. The teachers were requested to fill the questionnaire with a calm mind. Results reflect a high level of stress among the school teachers. Headaches and pains were the most common (82.65%) stress symptoms complained of. 42.85% of the teachers were overtired often due to work load. The other results were also evaluated. 22.44% were working for more than 51 hrs per week. Increased student number and meeting the targets were the commonest factors for increased work load as opined by 63.26% and 60.20% of teachers respectively. When asked to describe any other problems or suggestions in their own words, 29.59% suggested implementing government leave pattern could relieve some stress. This data reflects stress as an occupational hazard amongst teachers from a private school of Visakhapatnam city. There is every need to take preventive measures and to adopt easy methods to reduce stress related problems. A conducive work atmosphere will enable the teacher to deliver his/her duties perfectly resulting in ideal moulding of the future generation.

  228. Sinha, M.G., Djaboutou, M. C., Houedjissin, S.S., Quenum, F.J.B. Cacaï, G.H. and Ahanhanzo, C.

    Sixty-six traditional cotton accessions (Gossypium spp), collected in Benin, and were characterized by a set of 31 agromorphological traits established by UPOV and IPGRI. The evaluation was carried out during the 2011-2012 rainy season through a randomized complete block design at Cana CPE. Statistical analysis showed very highly significant differences between accessions for the 15 qualitative characteristics observed. The accessions Q111, Q122, Q95, Q93, Q135, Q92, Q71 and Q90 have characteristics of higher qualities. Analysis of the Pearson correlation matrix showed strong positive and negative correlations. The first two axes of the PCA absorb 73% of the total variability of the quantitative characters (54% for the vegetative development and 19% for the precocity). The first two factors of the CFL of qualitative traits account for 82% of inertia (70% for petal color, macula, pollen color and leaf shape, 12% for hairiness in lower part of The leaf, the denticulation of the bracts, the size of the capsules and the shape of the plant). The ascending hierarchical classification based on the Euclidean distance divided the accessions into six distinct groups comprising respectively 2, 14, 8, 11, 2 and 29 accessions. The results of this study provide information that can be used for the conservation and rational use of biodiversity for the improvement of commercial varieties.

  229. Dr. Mukesh Kumar Napit

    The pollutants and drastic environmental variation have also adversely effected and changed water qualities i.e. colour, hardness, turbidity , alkalinity, pH. COD, BOD and TDS etc. Aquatic life, thus, also is affected. Changes in morphology of fish like- colour, pigmentation, length, weight mass, structure of scales, finrays etc. may occur. This cannot be ignored that the afore-mention variation may be responsible to develop new varieties or sub species. Unfortunately, negligible work is done in relation to fish fauna of the area in recent-past. Though, appreciable limnological work is done, yet the fish fauna remained unexplored. The fauna study is of tremendous significance in determining population density and calculating sub specific diversity and conservation of ecosystem in Damoh District.

  230. Tirthesh Kumar Sharma, Vijay Kumar Yadav, Mukesh Shrivastav, Sippy Dassani, Ramendra Singh and Panday, M.M.

    In recent years, nanotechnology has been explosion. Nano-structured materials are attracting a great deal of attention because of their potential for achieving specific processes and selectivity, especially in biological and pharmaceutical applications. Nanotechnology has become one of the most practical technologies, because of unique physical and chemical properties of nanomaterials. Our studies discuss recent advances in the synthesis, characterization, toxicity and antibacterial effect of TiO2 nanoparticles obtained mainly through biogenic processes. The importance of biogenic synthesized nanoparticles has been increasing in recent years; however, more studies aimed at better characterizing the potent toxicity of these nanoparticles are still necessary for nanosafely considerations and environmental perspectives. A wide array of inorganic nanoparticles has been synthesized by using biogenic enzymatic methods and their applications in many cutting-edge technological areas have been explored. In the present work, Titanium dioxide nanoparticles were synthesized by using the culture supernatant of Lactobacillus sp. that was obtained from yoghurt. Lactobacilli have a negative electro kinetic potential, which is suitable for the attraction of cations, a step that is required for the biosynthesis of metallic nanoparticles. Ultrafine size and morphological properties of synthesized nanoparticles was determined by TEM, SEM and X- ray diffraction where the size of Nanoparticles were 5-20nm, found morphologically as aggregate form. The antibacterial activity of the biosynthesized TiO2 nanoparticles was tested against Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli. Maximum zone of inhibition was observed against Escherichia coli. Thus the biogenic TiO2 nanoparticles can be explored in biomedical and nanotechnology applications without any adverse side effects.

  231. Priyadarshini and Ravindra Singh

    Apple candy were prepared by steeping in 2% salt solution (blanching with erythrosine colour (T1), green colour (T2), with water (T3), with lime orange (T4)) and 2% lime solution (T5-blanching with erythrosine colour, T6 green colour, T7 with water, T8-with lime orange) and then candy was stored for 2 months various physio-chemical properties & shelf life were tested at 0, 20, 40 and 60 days after storage. Statistical analysis and physio-chemical evaluation of the data was carried out and observed the effect during storage. On the basis of investigation it was concluded that better quality candy can be obtain by steeping of the fruit pieces in 2% lime solution and blanching with erythrosine colour T1 followed by syruping. The maximum T.S.S. was found in T7 (78.52) followed by T6 (78.45) after 60 days of storage period. Maximum ascorbic acid was recorded in T7 (5.56 mg/100g) in fresh candy followed by T6 (5.54 mg/100g). Significant loss of ascorbic acid was noted during storage from 0 days (5.56 mg/100g) to 60 days (4.07mg/100g). Maximum acidity was recorded in T4 (0.132%) followed by T3(0.129%). Acidity was found to be reduced from 0.132% to 0.073% during storage period. Maximum reducing sugar in fresh candy was recorded in T7(42.93%) followed by T6(42.54%). It was found to be increased from 42.93% to 55.41% in T7 during storage.

  232. Rajesh Shrivastava and Vipin Kumar Sharma

    This paper is investigated a common fixed point theorem in a metric space which generalizes the result of Jha (2007), using the weaker conditions such as Weakly compatible mappings and establish a unique common fixed point theorem for four self-mappings satisfying Lipschitz type contractive condition.

  233. Toktar, G., Gaig E. Banks and Bayeshov, A. B.

    In this article, by electrochemical method obtained monosulfide solution and its electrochemical properties has been studied for the first time using the method of removing the anodic and anodic-cathodicpotentiodynamic polarization curves on rhodium electrodes. The influences of temperature for oxidation process of monosulfide ions was investigated. The resulting polarogram presented in oxidation reaction of monosulfide ions to elemental sulfur process. This shows that monosulfide-ions in electrolyte at anodic polarization were oxidizedto elemental sulfur, this formed active sulfur ions oxidized to sulfite ions then sulfate ions. The effective activation energy was calculated which equals 13.43Kj/mol, indicating the oxidation reaction of monosulfide ions occurred in diffusion mode.

  234. Ambedkar, V. R. and Dr. Nagakrishna, N.

    Gas Tungsten Arc Welding [GTAW] of aluminum requires high skill due to high thermal conductivity. In this research, pulsed mode welding is carried out to find out the best possible parameters for obtaining high tensile strength and maximum weld quality. Here AA5083 is considered for it large area of applications. It is welded with AA 5183 filler wire by pulsed mode at different pulse frequencies like 5 pulses/sec, 10 pulses/sec, and 15 pulses/sec, this report investigates the weld quality through nondestructive testing (NDT) to study the porosity and surface cracks and also the mechanical properties like, ultimate tensile strength (UTS), and elongation. To find the weld joint efficiency of the welds and hardness test have been critically analyzed and the properties were summarized correlating with microstructure.

  235. Gayathri, N. and Suresh, M.S.

    Three vanadyl complexes of bidentate Schiff bases from vanillin with anthranilic acid (VA), 4-aminoantipyrine with vanillin (4AV) as well as 4-aminoantipyrine with furfural (4AF) have been synthesized and characterized using elemental analysis, FTIR, UV-Vis, ESR spectroscopic methods, magnetic susceptibility, molar conductivity measurements and thermal analysis. These complexes have the general molecular formula [VO (VA)2.H2O], which is found to be a non-electrolyte, while the others with general molecular formula [VO(L)2.(H2O)]SO4, where L= 4AV or 4AF were 1:1 electrolytes. The infra red spectra reveals the involvement of coordination of azomethine nitrogen and oxygen atom of carboxylate ion from VA to oxovanadium (IV) while azomethine nitrogen and oxygen atom from cyclic keto group present in pyrazoline ring are coordinated to VO (IV) from 4AV and 4AF. These complexes have a distorted octahedral geometry and yield V2O5 as a stable residue during thermal decomposition in static air atmosphere with loss of H2O molecule in the first step. These complexes have been screened for their antibacterial activity against organisms like E.Coli, S.aureus, Serattai SP, P.aeruginosa and B.Cereus.

  236. Ali Jumah Ahmed and Dr. Pratibha Tiwari

    This paper proposes a Harmonic Reduction with Transformer Connected Multilevel Inverter arrangement employing a series connected transformer to suppress 7th, 11th &13th order harmonics (generated by non-linear loads).In the proposed scheme sinusoidal PWM signal generation technique is used for three phase multilevel VSI in conjunction with series connected transformer .The proposed model eliminates the need of output filter inductor. With this control strategy harmonic components of output voltage and switching losses can be minimized considerably. A simulation result verifies the proposed concept and indicates that the transformer is capable of reducing the harmonics in the line. In multilevel inverter development for 3-phase applications, total number of transformer in the circuit can be reduced by using of cascaded 3-phase transformer circuit instead of single-phase transformer circuit. In the scheme, total number of switching components in the circuit is still a drawback to achieve lower cost and smaller size of the inverter compared with conventional multilevel inverter. This paper includes a challenging method to reduce total switching components in the multilevel inverter by adopting common-arm structure.

  237. Jayaramappa, N. and Rekha, H.B.

    Deterioration of structure is occur due to poor workmanship, poor maintenance, adverse atmospheric effects, natural calamities and etc. The aim of this paper is to assess strength of corroded reinforce concrete beams by using Non-Destructive Test (NDT) methods such as half shell potential test, Rebound hammer test, and ultrasonic pulse velocity test . These experimental results are compared with Artificial Neural Network. Total six reinforced concrete beams (150x150x1000) mm were considered. An impressed current was induced to beams with two different degree of corrosion (5%. &10%) in order to accelerate corrosion in reinforcement. Electrochemical measurements were carried out to obtain open circuit potential. Result show that the linear regression analysis is the best fit for the compressive strength prediction relationship by using Rebound hammer and Ultrasonic pulse velocity test at compression as well as tension side of reinforced concrete beam with two different degree of corrosion(5%, &10%) . In continuation with experimental, Artificial Neural Network (ANN) is used to predict corrosion, Four layered ANN pattern is selected, Back propagation algorithm has been used for training. A learning rate constant of 0.9, error tolerance 0.001, and 6000 cycles are used for training ANN. Delta rule is used for adjusting the weights. It is found that a four-layer network (6-8-8-2) consists of 6 input neurons , two hidden layers of 8 neurons each and two output neuron is efficiently converges almost close to experimental results with an allowable error range.

  238. Vignesh, L. and Kaliappan, S.

    This paper deals about the Power Factor Correction (PFC) in Brushless motor drives by comparing various DC-DC converter. Power factor corrected converter is essential to improve the Power quality (PQ). Speed control is done by Voltage Source inverter (VSI). In order to reduce conduction loss and number of components, diode bridge rectifier is eliminated. It is used to operate in DICM mode. The Brushless DC motor is fed by bridge rectifier with a elevated rate of DC-link capacitor. It consequences in extremely pulled supply current and a poor power factor. To achieve power factor near to unity is used to new bidirectional bridgeless isolated CUK converter. When compared to conventional Converters Circuit efficiency is further improved.

  239. Dr. Elumalai, N., Manikandan, R. and Habibunisha, S.

    Some properties of conjugate secondary k-normal bimatrices are introduced. Some of the equaivalent conditions on con.sk-normal bimatrices are given.

  240. Dr. Pamela Muriungi

    This paper presents the interrelatedness between poverty and disability in Kenya. Poverty causes disability through malnutrition, poor health care and poor living conditions. This leads to secondary disabilities for people who are already disabled. Disabled people in Kenya are among the poorest due to stigmatization and discrimination as they cannot fully participate in the economic and social life of the community. This paper reviews the legal framework on disability in Kenya by focusing on the Kenyan constitution and the Disability act of 2003 in order to assess their impact in improving the lives of the disabled people in Kenya. Section one defines and gives a background of disability in Kenya. Section two presents a review of legal documents on disability in Kenyan and an assessment of their implementation. Section three discusses education for the disabled persons in Kenya. Section four discusses transition and employment for people with disabilities and section five forms the conclusion.

  241. Shweta Chaudhary and Prof. Sunita Mishra

    The increased generation of food waste is a global and national problem. It has several facets, all of which can benefit from a clear understanding of the size and nature of the food waste generated across all phases of food production and consumption cycle. Food donation is the best and easiest method to reduce food waste and reduce the global issue of hunger. The objective of this paper is to review the waste of food, to reuse food waste in simple and easy method in order to reduce food waste to maintain healthy environment.

  242. Onkar Singh and Atinderpal Kaur

    One of the major factors influencing educational product is parental behavior. Infact, parental influence on the child’s personality remains throughout life, the most pervasive of all influence. The study was conducted with the 200 students of Senior Secondary class (male and female) from Navodaya Vidyalaya selected randomly from two Districts. Standardize Tool was used for data collection. Findings of the study predicted that parental involvement and academic achievement for the whole sample was positively correlated. There exists significant difference in academic achievement of boys and girls having high parental involvement. There was no statistically significant difference in academic achievement of boys and girls having low parental involvement. There was no statistically significant difference in academic achievement of arts and science group students having high parental involvement. There was no statistically significant difference in academic achievement of arts and science group students having low parental involvement.

  243. Thirumal Selvan, S. and Dr. Francis, C.

    This article is about Presently HR departments are becoming Strategic Partners in the organization. The role of HR, examines specific strategic activities that HR leaders can engage in choosing strategy options, designing the organization structure to support strategy, and evaluating merger and acquisition opportunities. It means how certain HR skills, activities and organization design elements offer unique opportunities for enhanced contributions in specific strategy areas for them to be an effective Strategic Partner.

  244. Thamilarasan, T. and Sankar, K.

    In the present study, the chemical characteristics of groundwater with respect to drinking and irrigation water quality in Arasalaru Sub-Basin have been studied. 50 groundwater sample were collected and analyzed for pH, Total Dissolved solids, Total Hardness, Calcium, Magnesium, Carbonate, Bicarbonate, Chloride, Sodium, Potassium, Sulphate etc. The values analyzed were evaluated in detail and compared with WHO water quality standards. It is observed that, for most of the groundwater quality parameters, the values are not potable for drinking and irrigational use. To understand the spatial distribution of unsuitable zones, ArcGIS was employed. Attributes were linked and spatial interpolation mapping was done. Inverse distance weighted interpolation technique was followed for raster and vector mapping. Finally the overlay analyses were also carried out to locate the worst quality zone.

  245. Mohammed A.H. Altigani, Siddig M. Elzien and El Shiekh M. Abdel Rahman

    Detailed documentation for the mineralized quartz veins and the wall-rock alteration zones at the Abu Khalag region reveals that the mineralizationoccurs along narrow discontinuous shear zones, and mostly hosted by green-schist assemblages. Shearing processes and retrograde metamorphism are one of the causes of remobilizing the auriferous quartz veins and re-deposit them at the appropriate physiochemical traps. The spatial array of Abu Khalag auriferous reefs, the zonal nature of the associated wall-rock alteration, and the structural/lithological evidences suggest that the mineralization is related to developed fluid flux during deformation/metamorphism. Gold nuggets morphology is sub to euhedral, and uneven grains, tabular and plated textures are common. Their color in all the placers is dull yellow to reddish brown and greenish yellow, reflecting (Fe, Cu) existence. Their surface is mainly medium to moderately coarse-grained. The euhedral nuggets reflect insitu formation at high temperatures with possible role of bacteria. No dendritic patterns for gold were observed. Abu Khalaggold-bearing quartz veins are associated with disseminated pyrite, arsenopyrite, chalcopyrite, pyrrhotite, galena, and iron ores. The deposition of gold was contemporaneous to retrogressive metamorphism and the rejuvenation along the shear zones during D2. The auriferous quartz reefs are variable in colour, size, and are preferably hosted in the metasediments, especiallyamphibolites and calc-silicate rather than quartzites and gneisses, suggesting that gold mineralization is also lithologically controlled. The primary occurrence of gold grains is free-lodes in silicates and/or inside the disseminated sulphides in the quartz reefs. The Au-quartz veins showing two main groups/ phases. Phase one is concordant with schistosity of the bedrocks, showing sacaroidal textures, banded structures, and usually occur as discontinuous isolated patches (pinch and swell). The size of these veins ranging from few centimetres (stringer, veinlet) to more than half a metre. The Au-grade in this group ranging between 0.05 and 1.9 ppm. The second phase of quartz veins is massive formed by ductile dextral shearing, and is in the tension gashes. The concentrations of gold in this type ranging (0.05-0.4) ppm, and have average 1 metre thickness. The geochemical, lithological, structural, and mineralogical features with the style of wall rock alterations of the Au-bearing quartz veins suggest that they belong to mesothermal (orogenic) gold type.Gold also found as placer deposits, which covered vast parts of the study area. Associated gangue minerals with gold in the stream sediments are quartz, calcite, sericite, siderite, ankerite, dolomite, K-feldspars, zircon, rutile, tourmaline, epidote, and graphite. Gold nuggets shapes and sizes reflect that quartz reefs are not the only mineralized source in the study area. The gold background value in the fine-fractions of stream sediments is 0.21 ppb, the threshold is 2.91 ppb, and the anomalous value is 3.0 ppb. Cu and Zn are the main pathfinder elements for gold based on stream sediments geochemistry.

  246. Ashwin, H. S., Irappa N Nagaral, Ashok S. Alur and Nagaraj, M. S.

    An extensive Soil survey was conducted to study the effect of irrigation water on soil sodification, in terms of soil Residual sodium carbonate (RSC) and sodium adsorption ratio (SAR), in a typical black soil of Karnataka and it was carried out in Bilagi and Bagalkot taluk of Bagalkot district. The soil SAR and RSC varied greatly up on different sources of irrigation water. The values of SAR ranged from 1.78 in canal + borewell irrigated soils to 19.08 in lift irrigated soils. Most of the studied soils (117 samples) were found to be safe from sodicity hazard with < 10 SAR values. In terms of RSC of soils ranged from-17.60 meq/l in lift irrigated soils to +7.30 meq/l in dryland soils. Majority of the black soils of Bilagi and Bagalkot taluk (62.5%; 101 samples) were found safe with low RSC values (< 1.25 meq/l) while, 28.1 per of 36 samples recorded higher RSC of > 2.5 meq/l.

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