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June 2020

  1. Dr. Himanshu Singh, Dr. Kundendu Arya Bishen and Dr. Shatakshi Sharma

    Corona virus are well known group of enveloped viruses. They are known as single stranded RNA genomes. Human Corona virus chiefly cause respiratory disease. As the Covid disease rolled out across all over the world, we must prepare for the threat which is directly related to this pandemic. Rapid diagnosis and isolation is considered as very important in case of Covid diseases. In this review, we are trying to give the basic information about the Corona virus.

  2. Dr. Harsha P Panchal and Dr. Roshni Dasgupta

    Background: During initial months of 2015 an epidemic of novel Influenza A (H1N1) virus emerged in the western part of India especially in Ahmedabad, Gujarat and parts of Rajasthan. A similar surge in influenza cases were again noticed during the initial months of 2019. We are describing the clinical characteristics and mortality indicators of hospitalised cancer patients in our institute. Methods: We reviewed the case records retrospectively, of our patients who were hospitalized during the 2015 epidemic period and during the initial months of 2019. Patients with cancer and a microbiologically confirmed diagnosis of Seasonal Influenza A (H1N1) were evaluated. The demography, clinical parameters, laboratory reports and outcome data were collected, analyzed and presented here. A total of 24 and 22 hospitalized cancer patients, during 2015 and 2019 respectively, with confirmed H1N1 Influenza infection were studied. One patient was infected twice during the 2019 season. None of our patients were previously immunised with influenza vaccine. In the year 2015 out of the 24 patients 17(70.8%) were male and 7 (29.2%) were females, and that in 2019 12 (54.5%) were male and 10 (45.5%) were female. Haematological malignancies were present in 19 (79.2%) during 2015 epidemic, and in 19 (86.4%) patients in 2019. Number of patients with solid malignancies were 5 (20.8%) and 3 (13.6%) in 2015 and 2019 respectively. During both the episodes pneumonia was the most common manifestation in the hospitalized patients, bilateral being more common than a unilateral presentation. Oseltamavir was started within 48 hours of suspicion of influenza in 17 (58.3%) patients in the previous epidemic of 2015, and in 9 (39.2%) patients in the current year of 2019. Co-morbidities were present in 6(25%) and 6 (27.3%) patients in the two episodes respectively. Associated infections were present in 8 (33.33%) and 5 (21.7%) patients. Absolute lymphocyte count of less than or equal to 1000/microL was observed in 14 (58.3%) and 15 (65.2%) patients in 2015 and 2019 respectively. Altered biochemical parameters in the form of deranged LFT was found in 9 (37.5%) and altered RFT in 5 (20.8%) in the cohort of 2015, and the same were found in 5 (21.8%) and 4 (17.4%) patients observed during the 2019 study period. During the 2015 study, 13 (54.2%) and during 2019, 17 (74%) patients required intensive care. The overall hospital mortality in our cohort was 8 (33%) patients in 2015 and it increased to 15 (65.2%) patients in 2019. Adverse outcome in the patients was closely related to factors like presentation in the form of bilateral pneumonia, development of ARDS, time of commencement of oseltamavir (neuraminidase inhibitor), associated co-morbidities and infections, underlying malignancy and ongoing chemotherapy, absolute lymphocyte count of less than 1000 and multi organ failure. Presence of hypoxemia, bilateral pneumonia, and CURB 65 score more than equal to 3, timing of starting Neuraminidase inhibitors beyond 48 hours of presentation and lymphopenia were predictors of requirement of mechanical ventilation and death. Conclusion: Seasonal Influenza A infection in patients with cancer can cause severe illness, resulting in bilateral pneumonia, ARDS and death. Hypoxemia, bilateral pneumonia, CURB 65 score of more than equal to 3, timing of starting Neuraminidase inhibitors following symptoms, and lymphopenia were predictors of adverse outcome. Cancer patients are prone to develop more severe disease and require longer course of therapy with Neuraminidase inhibitors than the general population. Therefore, a larger study is needed to identify predictors for early suspicion and unfavourable evolution of influenza infection in these patients.

  3. Dr. Abhishek Chaubey, Dr. Jyoti Goyal, Dr. Vipul Mishra,Dr. Paramjeet Singh Bhatia, Dr. Karunesh Prasad Singh. Dr. Utpal Sharma, Dr. Amit Singh, Dr. Rahul Chand

    Jaundice in pregnancy can be caused by many conditions which can be either related to or not related to pregnancy. Intra hepatic-cholestasis of pregnancy (ICP), HELLP syndrome, and AFLP are diseases associated with pregnancy. Acute viral hepatitis with or without Liver failure, worsening of any underlying chronic liver disease or any tropical fever syndromes are the conditions which can occur during pregnancy but are not peculiarly associated with pregnancy. Acute Fatty Liver of Pregnancy is a rare disorder of pregnancy occurs in 1 in more than 10,000 deliveries with high mortality rate of approx. 12.5-18% ( Ch’Ng, 2002; Rajasri et al., 2007). It usually occurs in 3rd trimester or in immediate post-partum period. Diagnosis is usually made on exclusion of other potential causes and is usually clinical. Urgent diagnosis is important as timely intervention with early delivery and supportive care, improves the maternal and fetal mortality and morbidity.

  4. Erdenetsetseg Ch, Bayartsetseg, А., Ganbayar, G., Ganbayar, L., Davaalkham, D., Zorig, D. and Puntsag, Ch

    Acute appendicitis is the common cause of surgery for acute abdominal pain in children. The diagnosis of acute appendicitis in pediatric patients remains a challenge internationally. This disease is most common among patients between the age of 10 and 19 years old. The aim of the study was to evaluate whether neutrophil-lymphocyte ratio (NLR) and ultrasound (US) results on admission could aid the diagnostic accuracy of the Pediatric Appendicitis Score (PAS) in pediatric patients with suspected acute appendicitis. Our study was performed on 480 children admitted for suspected acute appendicitis and underwent appendectomy at the MCHHC, Ulaanbaatar Mongolia, between May 2019 and December 2019. Patients were categorized into three groups based on the value of their PAS. The diagnosis of appendicitis was confirmed postoperatively with a histological study. Negative (NPV) and positive predictive values (PPV) of PAS, NLR and ultrasound were calculated. In the diagnosis of acute appendicitis in pediatric patients, the NLR and ultrasound methods are equivalent in terms of diagnostic accuracy. In children with a PAS value of 4 and 5, it more effective to use a combination of ultrasound and NLR to diagnose accurately.

  5. Armindo Paixao, Fernando Maia, Maurício Miguel, Cristóvão Simões and Aires Walter

    O objectivo deste trabalho foi de relacionar as plantas medicinais com a doença covid-19 no que se refere as acções farmacológicas, tendo como base a composição em metabólitos secundários e alguns dos mecanismos de acção destes metabólitos que se encontram referenciados em literatura.

  6. Faten Khanfir, Wiem ben amor, Mohamed Tlili, Ali Hamrouni, RihabKraiem, Mohamed Salah Khalfi, Adel Ben Amor and Faten Ben amor

    Lasers were introduced into the field of dentistry as they are a precise and effective way to perform many dental procedures. Treatment with lasers provides a hope of overcoming the disadvantages of conventional dental procedure, the purpose of this article is to describe three cases illustrating the application of Diode laser on soft tissue as gingival recontouring, lingual frenectomy and disengagement of healing abutment.

  7. Dr. Ankita Gahlot, Dr. Jyotsna Vyas and Dr. Ekta

    Introduction: The American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists (ACOG) describes a hypertensive emergency in pregnancy as acute-onset, severe hypertension persisting for 15 min or more in setting of preeclampsia or eclampsia. Aim: To study the feto-maternal outcome in hypertensive emergencies in pregnancies. Material and methods: The study was conducted in Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, SMS Medical College, Jaipur from June 2018 to August 2019. It was a hospital based descriptive study conducted on 80 pregnant women with hypertensive emergency fulfilling inclusion criteria and exclusion criteria. Goal was to achieve a target BP of less than or equal to 150/100 mmHg. Any Side effects of drugs were noted in both the groups. Monitoring of fetal heart rate was done continuously by electronic cardiotocography until BP remained stable (continuous CTG monitoring). In case of non-reassuring maternal or fetal status the trial protocol was abandoned and appropriate measures were taken. Continuation or termination of pregnancy was decided according to gestational age, maternal and fetal condition. Fetal outcome was noted in terms of number of NICU admission, apgar score. Results Most of the patients were primigravida between age group 18 to 25 years with mean age of 25.83± patients were between 28 to 36 weeks of gestation. There was significant decrease in blood pressure after treatment with mean SBP before and after treatment was 185.5±20.18 and 135.37±9.4mmHg respectively. Also the mean DBP before and after treatment was 117.12±13.3 and 85.62±6.5 mmHg respectively. Among the study subjects , about 37.5% delivered vaginally while caesarean section was done in 25% women (table 5).32.6% had APGAR score <7 and number of NICU admission reported in study was 21.1%. There was no perinatal mortality reported in this study. Conclusion A timely intervention of hypertensive disorders complicating pregnancy and provision of specialized systemic antenatal maternal care could reduce the impacts of such complications.

  8. Dr. Smriti Pandey, Dr. Lipsa Das, Dr. Brajesh Gupta and Dr. Kiran Misra

    Introduction: A balanced or equilibrium condition of Dosha, Dhatu , Mala, agniandhappy state of Atma, indrya, and Mana constitutes Swastha purusha . In this context Dhatu is an essential constituent of the body. In the course of Saptadhatus, Meda dhatu is the fourth dahtu of the body which is in semisolid form and lies in the free space of the muscle tissue, below the skin or a subcutaneous fat. As the saar is used to evaluate the status of the dhatu and satva in the body, the vishuddhameda dhatu expresses itself with certain characters in an individual. On the other side Sthaulya is the disorder of improper Meda dhatu metabolism. Objectives: This research is an attempt to assess the Medasaar purusha along with the Sthaulys purusha by the cardinal symptoms given in Samhita. Objective parameters and Anthropometric measurements to clear the doubts and confusion regarding the two states of Meda dhatu is done to form a standard criteria to establish the two healthy and diseased conditions of Meda dhatu. Method: The study was conducted on a sample of 60 individuals divided inti two groups on the basis of BMI. For this purpose, the study was conducted after careful clinical history, examination and laboratory investigations as per proforma, volunteers were selected and screened for their suitability of getting enrolled as per specific inclusion and exclusion criteria. Results: In between Medasaar and Sthaulya purusha study various differences were found in the normal and diseased condition. There is significant difference in Anthropometric measurements, body fat percentage, visceral fat as well as muscle fat percentage. Conclusion: The results found were highly significant and further studies can be performed taking a large sample size so that more accurate results can be seen to prove the hypothesis and giving a standard criterion in understanding of Medasaarnd Sthaulya.

  9. Abhimanyu Sharma, Sana Chawla, Shibani Grover, Gitanjali Chawla and Preeti Bala Sharma

    As the world is struggling with a Pandemic after a long time, most of the human race is having its first experience with the same. Scientists across the nations are working day and night to understand the causative virus better to find a cure. Though the signs and symptoms of this disease are known and recognised along with its effect on human body but somehow its effect on human psychology is largely ignored. Authors believe that the pandemic and its consequences such as lock down phenomena, restrictions and daily reporting of mortality on social media along with economic set back have caused a great impact on our psychology in general.

  10. Abhimanyu Sharma, Gitanjali Chawla, Shibani Grover, Sana Chawla and Jyoti Ahlawat

    The term Pandemic has been used to describe the global spread of an infectious disease across multiple countries and involving multiple continents. Such an international health crisis may prove catastrophic for nations worldwide in terms of overburdening the healthcare system as well as causing economic stagnation. Halting & controlling the spread of a worldwide disease outbreak requires time bound strategic interventions from the authorities at National, sub national and international levels along with joint cooperative efforts from private and public sectors. Majority of pandemics arise from cross species transmission of pathogens, wherein the microorganism mutates or transforms itself to jump from animals to humans and then disease spreads via human to human transmission at an accelerated rate. The current paper outlines the history of major pandemic outbreaks starting from the Antonine Plague of 165 – 180 AD to the current COVID – 19 pandemic.

  11. Abhimanyu Sharma, Sanjiv Nair, Shibani Grover, Pritham Shetty and Lokesh Chandra

    Cancer is one of the leading cause of death worldwide. Oral cancer is highly prevalent in south Asian countries. Delay in diagnosis of the same eventually lead to delay and complexity in treatment plan with compromised results and reduction of survival rate of patients. Patient awareness stands as a huge factor in early and proper diagnosis of cancer. Sometimes even on timely reporting of a questionable lesion it may not get diagnosed exactly due to highly operator dependent reporting of the results. It is the need of time to get these lesions diagnosed not just at an early stage but also with higher rates of true positive results. Various recent advanced in the field of diagnosis of oral cancers appears to be promising but still are unpopular.

  12. Abhimanyu Sharma, Raksha Gupta, Puneet Ahlawat, Mansi Atri and Jyoti Ahlawat

    The Corona Virus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) is a disease caused by a previously unidentified strain of corona virus family which emerged in Wuhan, Hubei, China in December 2019. Since then the outbreak has transformed rapidly into an extensive global crisis, overburdening the healthcare systems worldwide as well as creating economic instability. Prime mode of transmission in humans include droplet or contact transmission. Healthcare professionals are the frontline warriors who are working tirelessly in order to manage the ever increasing number of patients with each passing day. Such a pandemic is bound to have a lasting impact on the mental and physical health of Doctors and paramedical staff for a long time. This paper is an attempt by the authors to examine and understand the perspective of Medical Professionals related to the obstacles they may be facing in these challenging times from the government and the public in general patients

  13. Susmita Saxena, Abhimanyu Sharma, Jitin Kharbanda and Jyoti Ahlawat

    This article is a genuine attempt by authors to collect literature available in forensic sciences and the its bridging with epidemiology and virology to come up with the importance of forensics in dealing with outbreak of COVID19 in its own exclusive mechanism. As the sudden outbreak of Pandemic COVID-19 has jeopardised healthcare sector across the globe because of its high infectivity, mortality rate and absence of any certain vaccine so far, a look into importance of Forensic virology may crack the code and make it easier for not just the scientific community but the global administration to untie many mysterious knots.

  14. Dr. Ashvini A. Meshram, Dr. Seema Pattanaik and Dr. Bikash Pattanaik

    Dental fluorosis is one of the most common colour disorders which results in discoloured teeth, with white or brown spots. The aspect may be different depending on the severity of the fluorosis and the degree of the damage of the enamel and dentine. This article describes different approaches to treat a dental fluorosis. It is suggested that mild-to-moderate fluorosis be treated by microabrasion and bleaching, while severe fluorosis, with loss of some surface enamel, is managed by veneering and crowning. This option allows us to totally remake the patient’sunpleasant smile.

  15. BARBI Mathieu, DJOUKA NEMBOT Pélagie Marcel and NJOYA MOYOUWOU Amadou

    The study aimed to investigate on the physicochemical and functional properties of tubers (D. bulbifera and C. esculentus) “bugumdjigordi” purchased from the Garoua (Katasko market) and Maroua (Central market) markets. The physical characteristics (weight, diameters and length) of tubers were measured and the physicochemical properties (dry matter, protein, starch, sugar, minerals and polyphenols) as well as the functional properties (water absorption capacity, swelling rate, solubility) of flour from tubers were analysed. From the results, Physical parameters were generally affected by the site of collection except the mass which was not affected by the collection site and species. The starch and crude protein contents showed a significant difference (p<0.05) with respect to site of collection and D bulbifera had significantly (p<0.05) high total and free sugars contents. The highest (p<0.05) total ash, calcium and iron contents was obtained with C. esculentus. However, C. esculentus from Garoua showed the higher (p<0.05) phosphorus content. Polyphenols, phytates were unequally distributed according to species and site and, total oxalates considering to species. Flour from C. esculentus had better functional properties than that of D. bulbifera except the flour density which was similar (p˃0.05). Tubers from C. esculentus could be more appropriated for infants’ food preparation.

  16. Hany A. Saleh, Ehab M. Almetwally and Hisham M. Almongy

    Aims: The main aim is to determine the optimal orientation of retention rates and then determine reinsurance shares for the various insurance branches in the Saudi insurance market by building statistical modelling with model parameters by which risk factors can be monitored according to the insurance branch, as well as forecasting growth or possible contraction in retention rates by Insurance branch in the Saudi insurance market. Place and Duration of Study: Retention rates by insurance activity in the Saudi insurance market for the year 2018 and up. Methodology: Weibull Generalized Exponential distribution parameters based on censored samples have been discussed by using Maximum Likelihood, Bayesian Estimation based on the Markov Chain Monte Carlo method. Results: An increase in the risk factors for instability in the retention rates with the most extreme values, whether the rate is more extreme, increased, or decreased. Represented in branches; Health insurance, Energy insurance, Vehicle insurance, Protection and savings, an increase in the rate of retention for branches; Energy insurance and Aviation insurance, insurance branches whose retention rate is expected to decrease are Health insurance followed by Vehicle insurance, Bayesian Estimation is better and more efficient than the MLE and MPS estimation. Conclusion: In approximately most of the situations, we notice that the measures of Bayesian estimates are preferable than the measures of MLE estimates. As the data of retention limits by activity in the Saudi insurance market are fitting to the model and how the schemes work in practice, effectiveness in determining retention limits “Reinsurance” ensures balanced financial performance and stable profitability level

  17. Echchikhi Meryem, Edderai Meryem, Rachida Saouab, Ennouali Hassan, Boumdin Hassan, Radouane Bouchaib, Mahi Mohamed, el Fenni Jamal, Jidal Mohamed

    Variant Creutzfeldt–Jakob disease is a rare pathology that represents the infectious form of prion disease. We report the case of a 38-old man presenting the variant Creutzfeldt–Jakob disease reveled by an atypical clinical presentation and evoked thanks to MRI. Brain MRI has a crucial role in the detection of prion disease and to guide biological tests for diagnosis confirmation.

  18. Sonali Talwar, Pinki Narwal, Smridhi Bhanot, Amit Sood, Simarjit Singh and Pardeep Mahajan

    Increase in the life expectancy and the health care has led to the rising of the elderly numbers in the populations. With the increase in the life span, chronic diseases play a significant role and the dental diseases are the most prevalent chronic condition . The dentist, therefore, has an essential role in maintaining and improving dental health as part of total healthcare services available to the elderly.Root canal therapy is an essential phase of such treatments. Elderly patients may exhibit one or more systemic conditions that require special care, in addition to other changes that occur within the dentition and oral mucosa as a result of aging. These make root canal treatment in elderly patients a great challenge.This article reviews the role of endodontics in helping older adults achieve the goal of retaining healthy teeth and satisfactory oral function into old age.

  19. Adel M. Torieh, Nevine A. Youssef, Omneya M. Moharam and Yara M. Ibrahim

    Country of Origin (COO) can be defined as the total of all descriptive, inferential, and informational beliefs buyers shape about a country versus others. In the marketing literature, the COO effect is known to determine the activation of associations (positive or negative) in the consumer’s mind, which then affect the consumer’s propensity to buy (or not buy) products from that specific COO. The COO effect is exercised primarily through the country’s image. Accordingly, this research will examine the COOI impact on the evaluation stage of mature Egyptian buyers for a new car, and how the COVID-19 pandemic will affect this relationship. The research will apply qualitative research through a focus group of 61 Egyptians in Cairo and Alexandria. The results show that there is a strong relationship between the quality of passenger cars and (Stability Economy as well as Governmental Management);moreover, there is aweak relationship with (Social Discipline as well as Political Response.

  20. Laxman M. Ahire, Venkatesan, P. Bharat S. Sontakki and Vijender Reddy, P.

    This study was conducted to find out the training utility and training effectiveness based on the theme specific training programmes conducted by ICAR-NAARM (National Academy of Agricultural Research Management) under Learning and Capacity Building programmes as sub-component of National Agricultural Innovation Project (NAIP). The main focus on training effectiveness and training utility as perceived by the participants. The trainee participants of different seven theme specific training programmes were selected by using purposive sampling method. It was observed majority of the participants from all the three training effectiveness dimensions such as ‘Training Utility Index’ (78.50%), Theme Specific Impact Index (64.29’%) and ‘Perceived Training Preparation / Participation and Transfer Behaviour Index (73.33%)’ were in medium level of index categories. Based on the training effectiveness dimensions calculated, overall training effectiveness indicated that majority (73.33%) of the participants were in the medium level of training effectiveness category.

  21. Tsewang Norboo

    Sheep and goat are the important component of the changthang nomade in respect to their rural economy and livelihood particularly changthang a semi-arid and mountain area of Himalaya in ladakh territory where climate is too harsh temperature -30 degree in winter and 30 degree in summer. Due to harsh winter season and lack of proper shelter cause death of 1090 kids/adult sheep and goat which is 23.81% of total mortality from different sources, which consist (62.9%) i.e. 2879 Lamb/kids and (37.09%) i.e. 1698 adult sheep and goat. By considering all this figure there is need to be improvement in to the shelter system so that mitigate some sort of economic loss, since sheep/goat do not need much expensive building to house and a very less number of man power is required to handle it. The shelter is not confined to sheep/goat kept but it have some alternative use in the summer season too, almost 100% household respond that yes there is alternative use of lambing shed, (93.3%) i.e. 56 household out of total 60 household use it for green house purpose, (3.3%) i.e. 2 household use it for Kitchen garden and rest (3.3%) used it for storage purpose.

  22. Jyothsna and Saurabh Sambhav

    In this paper we have discussed everything about light fidelity (Li-Fi) like working principle, application, advantages, limitation etc. The comparison with Wi-Fi has also been discussed in latter part of paper. The fifth generation mobile communication technology (5G) has already being launched in different countries. The speculative study towards 6G technology has been started by many researchers. After 10 years or more than 10 years, we could assume that 6G might be the reason of the drastic change in the field of data speeds and mobile networks. For the successful deployment of 6g, LIFI technology will be come out as an effective solution for many industries. In the era of 6G technology, we will have more IoT devices, driverless car which enable road safety and new ways of health monitoring, here LIFI act as fundamental in 6G. LEDs bulbs of LIFI will help to serve thousands of applications in enabling smart cities and smart homes. In this paper we have studies how LIFI technology will help and support the 6th generation mobile communication technology.

  23. Da’am, E. H., Ph.D, Wungakah S. J. MSc, Kanma Rengun Data M.Sc. and Bikalsoem, Daniel Kwalne B.Sc

    The purpose of the study was to assess the solid waste management practices in Jos Metropolis of Plateau State, Nigeria. To achieve the purpose of this study, five research questions were formulated A Cross-sectional research design was utilized for the study. The population of the study consisted of all households and commercial centres in Jos Metropolis. The sample size population for the study comprised one hundred and fifty (150) respondents gotten through purposive sampling technique. The instrument used for data collection was questionnaire. Descriptive statistic of frequency counts and percentages were used to analyze the data collected for the study. The findings of the study revealed the types of solid waste generated in Jos Metropolis similar to solid waste in any developing nation of the world. The findings also showed solid waste management practices, materials used for solid waste storage, transportation and methods of disposal as well as the Roles Played by Government Agencies in Solid Waste Management and private sectors. The study recommended among others that public private partnership should be encouraged in the management of solid waste in the State

  24. Rubi Rani, Om Prakash, Saurabh Nimesh

    Huntington’s disease (HD) is an incurable, inherited, progressive, neurodegenerative disorder that is characterized by a triad of the motor, cognitive, and psychiatric problems. Despite the noticeable increase in therapeutic trials in HD in the last 20 years, there have, to date, been very few significant advances. Prevalence in the Western populations is estimated at 10.6 to 13.7 individuals per 1 lakh. The mean age at onset of symptoms is 30 to 50 years. In some cases, symptoms start before the age of 20 years with behavior disturbances and learning difficulties at school. Diagnosis is based on clinical symptoms and signs in an individual with a parent with proven HD and is confirmed by DNA determination. Pre-manifest diagnosis should only be performed by multidisciplinary teams in healthy at-risk adult individuals who want to know whether they carry the mutation or not. Until now an actual remedy for the HD is not available. Management should be multidisciplinary and is based on treating symptoms to improve quality of life. In this review, we discuss the status of and supporting evidence for, potential novel treatments of HD.

  25. Azizur Rahman, Harun-Or-Roshid and Md. Fazlul Hoque

    In this paper, we reveal a (3+1)-dimensional nonlinear evolution equation to determine interaction between lump waves and kink soliton. In this regard, we cast the model into it Hirota bilinear form firstly. We offer periodic lump wave through a test function in-terms of exponential and periodic cosine functions. We also consider test function as a combination of a general quadratic polynomial with exponential function to reveal interaction of lump wave and kink soliton. Finally, the interactions of solitary waves and lump waves are presented with an entire analytic derivation. Some graphs are incorporated to visualize the dynamics of the obtained wave solutions.

  26. Gitanjali Devi

    In India, Ashwagandha (Withania somnifera Dunal) is a popular medicinal plant since time immemorial. Ashwagandha contains various alkaloids, steroidal lactones and saponins, and has been used for its supposed antistress, antitumor, anti-inflammatory and antiarthritic properties. This review reveals the important phyto-chemicals, various health benefits of Ashwagandha and its cultivation practices.

  27. Komi Michael Fulbert Adanlemegbe, Kokou Agbékonyi Agbodan, Kodjo Selom Evenamede, Kossi Issa Saloufou, Nagba Yendoubé Gbandjaba, Oudjaniyobi Simalou, Essowè Badenèzi Potcho1, Kafui Kpegba and Pakoupati Boyode

    Cleome viscosa L. is a plant widely used to treat various diseases and grows on degraded or marginal agricultural lands. This study is aimed to investigate the phytochemical screening and anti-radical activity of Cleome viscosa.An ethnobotanical survey was conducted. Alkaloids were checked using BOUCHARDAT reagent and flavonoids were detected using SHINODA reagent. The 1,1-Diphenyl-2-Pycril Hydrazil (DPPH) free radical scavenging and the Ferric-Reducing Antioxidant Power (FRAP) assays were used to highlight the antioxidant activities. The ethnobotanical investigations conducted show that women (57%) uses more Cleome viscosa than men (47%) to fight diseases. Phytochemical screening revealed that Cleome viscosa contains alkaloids, flavonoids, saponins and tannins.The DPPH free radical value is 16.18± 0.024 mg of quercetin per gram of plant material and the FRAP value is 986.88± 0.012 μmol/L equivalent in Fe2+ per gram of plant material. Our result shows that Cleome viscosa possesses phytochemical compounds and anti-radical activity.

  28. Srinivasa Murtby, K.

    The different agroecological regions of Western Ghats of Karnataka were surveyed to assess the diversity of termites. The distribution revealed occurrence of 12 species of termites in the regions studied. The Macrotermitid Odontotermes holmgren occurred predominantly in the Malanad region (17.39- 34.78%). Odontotermes obesi was confined to Udupi (27.5%) and Mangalore regions (21.73%). Nausitermes sp. was exclusively recorded in the Sirsi region (20.08%). Species richness and abundance was determined by the diversity indices. Higher Shannon's Weiner diversity index (1.72) was registered during 2016-17. The diversity of termites in the regions is discussed in terms of the prevailing cropping pattern and soil type.

  29. Dr. Fozia Amin Patigaroo, Dr. Waseem Iqbal, Dr. Rajiv Gulati, Dr. Zehra Mohsin and Dr. Suhail Amin Patigaroo

    Background: Preeclampsia is a multisystem disorder of pregnancy hypothesized to be due to endothelial cell dysfunction that increases the maternal and fetal morbidity and mortality. Although intensive research has been done, the etiopathogenesis of preeclampsia (PE) remains uncertain. Inflammatory cytokines are thought to be involved in the pathogenesis of preeclampsia.Preeclampsia occurs in two stages. In the first stage there is reduced placental perfusion because of abnormal implantation and development of the placental vasculature. In the second stage there is widespread inflammation resulting in maternal endothelial cell dysfunction. TNF alpha is an inflammatory cytokine expressed by neutrophils, monocytes and macrophages. Material and methods: The present study isa non-randomized prospective case control study comparing the serum levels of TNF alpha in thirty preeclamptic and thirty normotensive pregnant women during third trimester of pregnancy. Preeclamptic women were divided according to severity (BP and level of proteinuria) into mild (n=15) and severe (n=15). TNF alpha estimation was done by ELISA. Results: TNF alpha levels were significantly higher in preeclamptic women compared to normotensive pregnant women (p=0.001). Serum TNF alpha levels were higher in severe preeclampsia than mild preeclampsia (p=0.043). These results suggest that normal pregnancy is a state of mild inflammation which becomes exaggerated in preeclampsia. Conclusion: The levels of TNF alpha are related with severity of preeclampsia. TNF alpha can be used as a predictive marker for preeclampsia.

  30. Nishant kumar, Hina Chadha and Seema Mahor

    Carrier technology provides an interesting as well as an intelligent approach for the delivery of the drug. Some general methods of delivery of the drug are by coupling the drug to a carrier particle such as microsphere, nanoparticles, liposome’s, etc. Microsphere constitutes an important part of this particulate drug delivery system because of their small size and other efficient properties. Among all these drug delivery system mucoadhesive microsphere are new technology as it provide better drug absorption as they get adhere to the mucosal surface and release are drug for prolonged time the article reviewed about the new technologies and methods for preparation of mucoadhesive microsphere in brief.

  31. Dr. Paul Aloyo, Dr. Solomon Mwaniki, Prof. Caleb Mirerii Dr. Peter Kamau, Kamau and Dr. Dennis Karanja

    Globally, stakeholders in learning institutions have strived to improve schools’ physical environments in an attempt to enhance learning outcomes. It is not known whether the physical environment in public secondary schools in Nairobi County have been mainstreamed to positively influence learning outcomes. The objective of the study was to explore the quality of the physical environment in public secondary schools in Nairobi City County, Kenya The study applied a case study design. A sample size of 39 was proportionally allocated by gender and geopolitical location resulting in 9 boys’, 12 girls’ and 18 mixed schools. A revised Commonwealth Association of Physical Environment questionnaire was used to collect data. The overall average quality of mixed schools’ index (126) was lower than that of boys’ and girls’ schools (134 for both). A framework of funding improvement of school facilities including the building stock and associated infrastructure is proposed.

  32. Pedro Bregola de Barros, Adriano Silva, Nelise Coelho, Janete Lane Almadei

    Cross-sectional study conducted on patients of the Brazilian National Health System (Sistema Único de Saúde– SUS) who make use of the Consórcio Público Intermunicipal de Saúde do Setentrião Paranaense– CISAMUSEP5, for specialized medical appointment in orthopedics. Its aim is to estimate the prevalence of medication use and its association with sociodemographic factors, lifestyles and pain scales. An instrument was deployed in three parts: 1. Socio-epidemiological and demographic data (age, gender, weight, education level and family income) and analysis of NSAIDs (medicines and their pharmaceutical form used, time of use, frequency, place of obtaining); 2. Validated pain assessment – McGill Pain Questionnaire (Portuguese version); 3. Nordic musculoskeletal questionnaire. 86 SUS patients served by CISAMUSEP’s orthopedics were evaluated. The outcome was 53.5% female patients and 46.5% male patients. The majority, 48.8%, were between 30 and 60 years old. The prevailing time of schooling was 9 to 12 years (40.7%). Regarding the referred income and converted into minimum wages in effect in May 2015, 47.7% of the patients received one salary. In the correlation between the gender of the interviewees and the variables, a statistically significant association among gender and type of medicine purchased, type of pain, Current Pain Index (CPI), accompanying symptoms, sleep, activities and food intake was made evident. The patients are not the same in representing their problems and necessities.

  33. Dr. Mangala Sonavani Borkar, Dr. Shailaja V Rao, Dr. Zeba Firdous Shaikh, Dr. Mahesh Shrikrishna Patil, Dr. Ashish Rajan and Dr. Shruti Shreyas Karnik

    Chloroquine and Hydroxychloroquine have been in use for more than 75 years with a satisfactory safety profile, for malaria and autoimmune disorders. They have been repositioned for the prophylaxis or treatment of emerging viral disorders like SARS Co-V, MERS and now in SARS-CoV2, which ,in a few months, has caused havoc globally. Drugs used in earlier epidemics are being tried again and HCQ is in the forefront for its anti-viral and immune modulatory properties. It has shown good results in vitro and few observational studies, but there are objections that it has not been proved in randomised control trials, which was difficult in the initial pandemonium .However, more than 150 trials have now been registered and the picture will be clearer. HCQ has stood the test of the controversies and must be the most trending molecule currently-whether the fanfare from the President of America or it’s temporary suspension and re-inclusion in the WHO Solidarity trial! The apex body of India, ICMR, has stood by it through thick and thin and has expanded its advisory for the prophylactic use of HCQ in SARS-CoV2.It has also started a trial for evaluating its use in prophylaxis. Most of the reports so far are related to its therapeutic utility, but the doses used globally are variable. This article reviews the profile of HCQ and its status in preventing infection or severity of SARS-CoV2 and focuses on its prophylactic role.

  34. Sathyamurthi, K., Agalya, S., and Anjana, M.

    Substance abuse or drug abuse is a patterned use of a drug in which the user consumes the substance in amounts or with methods which are harmful to themselves or others, and is a form of substance-related disorder. Most adolescents who use drugs do not progress to become drug abusers, or drug addicts in adulthood, drug use in adolescence are a very risky proposition. Typically, school and relationships, notably family relationships, are among the life areas that are most influenced by drug use and abuse. In terms of public health, adolescent substance use disorders have social and economic ramifications. The numerous adverse consequences associated with teenage drinking and substance use disorders include fatal and nonfatal injuries from alcohol- and drug-related motor vehicle accidents, suicides, homicides, violence, delinquency, psychiatric disorders, and risky sexual practices. Ahmad Nadeem (2009) study highlights the epidemic of substance abuse in young people has assumed alarming proportions in India. Changing cultural values, increasing economic stress and dwindling supportive bonds are leading to initiation into substance use. This study aims to investigating the frequency of habits, attitudes and practices related to substances and to determine the biological, psychological and socio economic characteristics of the adolescents by adopting descriptive research design through a Quantitative method and the primary data was collected through a semi structured interview schedule. The main focus of the study is to know the usage and its impact on individual, family and community at large and to suggest an appropriate social work intervention method for the adolescents to cope up their dependency on substance.

  35. Vinodkumar, K

    Clinical Quality management of health care sector is one of the index of the development of a country. It is an indication of the efficiency of the health care of a country having upcoming relevance in the present era. The clinical quality management includes all the processes in the management of the healthcare and it is legally compulsory in some countries. The hospitals in developed countries are complying the Clinical Quality Management efficiently and effectively. The clinical quality management is compulsory by law in United Arab Emirates and all the hospitals in this country are complying the process of all the facets of the Clinical Quality Management.

  36. Assoc. Prof. Dr. Seda Topgul

    Non-governmental organizations are actors who are concerned with social problems and are becoming increasingly important in current societies. They are a regulatory tool in the participatory processes based on legal framework in the institutional arrangements of the society carried out by other than the state. They are also defined as organized structures that develop relationships with the society other than the state. Social service provides "aid and support" to the groups with special requirements in these social structures with service works. Social workers increase the life quality of the individuals by empowering them with the aid and support provided. Factors such as workload, organizational pressure or low income and wage problems of the social workers affect their personal and professional power perceptions. Therefore, it is important to present the power perceptions of the social workers trying to empower the people that they provide support to. The aim of this study is to present the personal and professional power perceptions of the social workers employed in non-governmental organizations. "Personal and Professional Power Perceptions of Social Workers" scale adapted by Kırlıoğlu and Karakuş (2019) was used. Surveys were sent to 107 social workers employed in non-governmental organizations by convenience sampling method. In conclusion, having previously worked in a non-governmental organization does not affect the personal and professional power perception.

  37. Arti Devi and Dr. Amandeep Kaur

    Introduction: The caregiver is the person who takes primary responsibility for someone who cannot carefully for himself or herself. The caregiver may be a family member, a trained professional or another individual. Depending on culture there may be various members of the family engaged in care. Methodology: In this survey, the data was analyzed from the previous conducted researches regarding the caregivers burden and the quality of life of caregivers who are providing the care to the chronically ill patients or orthopedic client. Result: The result shows that the common problems faced by the caregivers while providing care to the chronically ill patients or orthopedic client are insufficient time, emotional and physical stress, lack of privacy, financial burden, lack of sleep, being afraid to ask for help, depression and isolation. Discussion: The result shows that the common problems faced by the caregivers while providing care to the chronically ill patients or orthopedic client can be solved with proper guidance, support of family and cooperation.

  38. Dr. Kalpana Hari Krishnan, Dr. Joyson Moses, Dr. Sharanya Ravindran, Dr. Rangeeth Bollam Namalwar and Dr. Sharmili Velchamy

    Probiotics are a valuable adjunct for the prevention of oral diseases. These are dietary supplements containing potentially beneficial bacteria or yeast. Probiotics have come to play a vital role in the shift of paradigm of treatment from the age old practice of specific bacteria elimination, to alteration of bacterial ecology. Aim: The aim of the study is to assess the awareness, knowledge and attitude about probiotics among pediatric dentists in Chennai. Material and Methods: This study recruited pediatric dentists (n=51) in Chennai city. The subjects completed a questionnaire that aimed to assess the awareness, knowledge and attitude about probiotics through online survey. The collected data were summarized in the MS Excel and subjected to statistical evaluation using SPSS. Results: 88.2% of the pediatric dentists were aware of the use of probiotic in dentistry while 58.8% willing to prescribe it to their patients in that 20.8% will do to reduce the incidence of dental caries. Commonly prescribed probiotics formulation was 41.2% milk products and least was 3.9% drops. 80.4% were not aware about probiotic side effects. Conclusion: Therefore, this study revealed awareness about probiotics among pediatric dentists was moderate. Though beneficial, lack of adequate knowledge regarding probiotics limited its usage among pediatric dentists in Chennai.

  39. Ashwani Kumar Katotra, Mohinder Singh Chib and Manish Singh

    Introduction: Orthopaedic surgeons are significantly predisposed to musculoskeletal injury, and these injuries can have negative effects on surgeon function and patient outcomes. While this phenomenon has been studied in the non-Asian population of surgeons, no study has been carried out in the local or regional Asian setting. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence, characteristics and associations of occupational injuries in orthopaedic surgeons and residents, and to assess its functional impact. Materials and Methods: The Nordic Musculoskeletal Questionnaire was sent out to all orthopaedic consultants and residents at two institutions in Jammu, via an email link to an online survey. Separately, further questions on symptom description, severity and treatment were surveyed. Additional information like age, gender, height and weight were obtained as well. Results: A total of 87.5% respondents have at least one injury. Neck symptoms (66.1%) were the most prevalent, and back symptoms had the highest median severity score (4.5/10). The 74.1% of these injuries were reported as directly attributable to work. Age was found to be associated with an increase in the total number of anatomical areas affected (p = 0.016). A seated operating position was associated with more severe back pain (p = 0.040). Conclusion: There is a high prevalence of occupational injuries sustained in our population of orthopaedic surgeons. Neck symptoms, followed by back and wrist symptoms, were the predominant symptoms in our population. Targeted ergonomic interventions may be considered to prevent specific musculoskeletal injuries in our population of orthopaedic surgeons.

  40. Dr. Venkatesh Balaji Hange, Dr. Shishir Mohan Devki, Dr. Raunak Manjeet, Dr. Amit Kumar and Dr. Swati Srivastava

    The most prevalent impacted teeth are the mandibular third molars, maxillary canines, mandibular second premolars, and maxillary central incisors. Maxillary canines are the 2nd most commonly impacted teeth encountered during orthodontic treatment. Studies by Johnston WD have shown that about two-thirds of maxillary canines are impacted on palatal side, one third are impacted labial side.(1) during the ages of 11 and 12 years permanent maxillary canine usually erupts into the oral cavity; but approximately 1-3% of the population has missing one or both the cuspids.(2) The incidence of impacted canine has been reported between 0.92% to 1.7% in the literature review .Dachi and Howell reported an incidence of 0.92%, Ericson and Kurol also reported an incidence of 1.7%,commonly seen in females (1.17%) than in men (0.51%) with a ratio of 2:1.4 .Bilateral impaction is rare seen in approx 8% of people with maxillary impacted cuspids.(3,4,5) Yamaoka et al, suggested that there was no difference in the incidence of completely impacted canines in the edentulous as compared with the maxillary arch having teeth.(6) Dewel concluded that the maxillary canines have not only the longest duration of evolution, but also the longest and perhaps most tortuous route to migrate from their point of origin, lateral to the piriform fossa, before they reach the point in full-occlusion .developmental point of view the crowns of the permanent canines is in close contact with the roots of the lateral incisors.(7) The management of a impacted cuspid commonly comprises of a surgical procedure to enable the tooth to be aligned via orthodontics. Two techniques of surgical exposure are given: An ‘Open’ exposure, which involves raising a mucoperiosteal flap, followed by removal of bone and mucosa overlying the tooth and placement of a surgical pack. The cuspid is subsequently aligned above the mucosa by orthodontics. shorter treatment time, and improved hygiene during treatment ,minimal effects on the periodontium are one of the advantages of open exposure. A ‘Closed’ exposure, comprises of raising a mucoperiosteal flap, limited removal of bone and instead of excision of the overlying mucosa, an attachment is bonded to the crown of the exposed cuspid, enabling proper alignment of the tooth from below the mucosa (2,8)

  41. Dr. Dharmendra Bhadouria, Dr. Anjali Bhadouria and Dr. Himanshu Singh

    Corona virus family is a group of enveloped viruses. They are single stranded RNA genomes. Novel Corona virus mainly causes respiratory disease. As the Corona virus disease rolled out across the world, we must prepare for the threat which is related to this pandemic. Rapid diagnosis and isolation is very important in case of Corona virus diseases. In this review, we are trying to provide as much as possible the basic information about the Corona virus.

  42. Agisha Raaje, P., Evansal Ranj, J., Pallavi Chandrasekhar, Arul Pari, M., Sharanya Ravindran and Joyson Moses

    Aim: The aim of the study is to compare and assess the knowledge, attitudes and practices of government and private primary school teachers towards oral hygiene and preventive dental health care, in Mogappair, Chennai. Materials and Methods: Government primary school teachers (n=21) and private primary school teachers (n=31) were recruited in this study. The subjects completed a questionnaire that aimed to evaluate teacher’s knowledge, attitudes and practices on oral hygiene and preventive dental health care. Results: The overall awareness among teachers regarding oral hygiene and preventive oral healthcare was less, and has to be increased. Private primary school teachers were better informed and correctly answered most of the questions in the questionnaire, when compared to government primary school teachers, thus proving that they have comparatively more awareness regarding oral hygiene and preventive oral healthcare than government school teachers in Mogappair, Chennai.

  43. Preveena Subbian, S.

    In this paper, I introduce the concept of a multipliers on bipolar-valued fuzzy d-algebra and obtain some properties and results on it.

  44. PAULA, Cácia Régia de, OLIVEIRA, Jéssica Assis de, BARBOSA, Maria Alves, REIS, Meillyne Alves dos, MATOS, Marcos André, PELAZZA, Bruno Bordin, MEIRELES, Gláucia Oliveira Abreu Batista, MELO, Lígia Braz, ARAÚJO, Reila Campos Guimarães de, LIMA, Flávio Henr

    Avaliar o conhecimento dos enfermeiros da atenção primária sobre sífilis gestacional. Estudo de intervenção tipo antes e depois, realizados com enfermeiros de Unidades Básicas de Saúde de um município do interior do sudoeste goiano no ano de 2017. Foi realizado em três etapas. A primeira consistiu na aplicação do instrumento (pré-teste), para identificar o conhecimento prévio dos enfermeiros sobre o tema. A segunda, foi a realização da ação educativa. Por fim, a terceira etapa aconteceu em um intervalo de seis meses após a realização da intervenção, com reaplicação do mesmo instrumento (pós-teste) para avaliação do impacto da atividade educativa. Os acertos pré e pós-intervenção foram avaliados por meio dos testes não paramétricos de qui-quadrado e Wilcoxon. O nível de significância adotado foi p<0,05. Dos enfermeiros 90% referiram participação em treinamentos anteriores sobre o tema. Após a intervenção educativa, observou-se um aumento significativo do quantitativo total de acertos (p=0,001), bem como na questão que continha afirmações referentes aos meios de transmissão da sífilis gestacional, com valor de p 0,014. A intervenção contribuiu para o aumento dos conhecimentos dos enfermeiros, no entanto, destaca-se a necessidade de capacitações contínuas sobre o tema visando garantir a qualidade do atendimento na atenção primária.

  45. Mitali Jain and Dr. Rita Kant

    The present research paper is focused on understanding the purchasing practices of male to female transgenders living in Chandigarh. It also studies the perspective retailers of apparel stores have towards transgender customer. Keeping this in view two sets of questionnaires were prepared to collect data. One focused on responses from male to female transgenders and second focused to collect reaction of retailers of apparel stores towards their transgender customers. 31 transgender respondents and 30 retailers of apparel stores were approached to fill the questionnaires. Sample of retail store respondents was further divided into two; 15 respondents from market place of Manimajra Chandigarh and 15 respondents from Sashtri Market, Sector 22 Chandigarh were taken. These markets were selected on the basis of the response of transgenders regarding the places where they liked to shop for apparel. The responses showed that the transgender community is becoming comfortable in the society. They do not feel threatened by people around them. 25.80% of the transgenders are of the opinion that the society is friendly towards them. They reported that social media had a role to play in their social acceptance and also help 67.74% of them to gain knowledge about the fashion trends as they feel interested. Majority of the transgenders like their garments to have a personal touch and therefore 54.83% of them design and get them tailored. On being asked about their wanting exclusive apparel store for transgenders, mixed reactions were received. 42% strongly agreed with the idea and 32% strongly disagreed. Comfort and fitting of garments were observed to be the two main factors affecting the apparel buying decision of transgender customers with 45.16% and 41.93% respectively. 74.18% of the transgender respondents found shopping to be stress relieving and fun. It was also seen that like male and female genders, 35% transgenders also end up spending more than their planned budget, showing that exhibiting impulsive buying behaviour was human nature. 55% retail store respondents treated their walk-in transgender customers like any other customer visiting their shops. 30% of the transgender customers visited their stores to buy party wear and 32% casual wear clothing. The store respondents never faced any difficulty in attending other customers in presence of transgender customers. They did not exhibit awkward behaviour and did not embarrass the store attendant asking for discounts.

  46. Vipula, Dr. Saahil Arora and Sujata Sharma

    Recently, the research focus is shifting towards replacing classic surfactants with colloidal particles in stabilizing emulsions. This review gives an overview of utility of metallic nanoparticles as emulsion stabilizers. The emphasis is on the use of metallic nanoparticle stabilized Pickering emulsions as carriers for antibiotics. It’s an established fact that metallic nanoparticles possess antimicrobial properties themselves and can be a good choice for formulating drug delivery systems. Additionally, they have a capability to evade drug resistance mechanisms in bacteria. Metals like gold, silver, copper, iron, manganese etc are used extensively. So, combining plant based antimicrobials and a metallic nanoparticle into one drug delivery system, with an add-on of the recommended antibiotic seems a promising possibility.

  47. Kunjummen T Tharian and Abhijith V Menon

    The study relating to the Interpersonal relations and work motivation in Public Sector Human resource management is concerned with a very wide field of activities. This is does not concern itself with providing with merely welfare activities for the workers. This includes any activity which gives the workers confidence in the management and improves their morale and efficiency. Hence, under this, can be included all those activities for the management which are connected with recruitment, terms of employment, wages, industrial relations, welfare activities, prevention of accidents, education and training, joint consultation, research human resource development etc. Among the various factors affecting industrial efficiency, the most important ones are technical factors, economic factors, organisational factors, geographical factors, psychological factors and so on. How important a role the psychological factors play in determining the efficiency in an industry is evident from the fact that in industrially advanced countries, many of the industrial corporations employ professionally trained psychologists on full time basis. The psychological factors usually exercise their impact in an indirect manner. These factors help the workers to strengthen their aptitude for a particular work, offer a suitable outlet to the instinctive behavior of the workers, provide necessary incentives and disincentives and make factory environment pleasant and agreeable.

  48. Dr. Ambika Bhatt and Santoshi Chauhan

    COVID-19 has affected human life completely and obviously the education sector is also not untouched from it, in this situation this article is bringing the picture of present days’ classrooms which are running on a virtual mode i.e. as online mode and how this online mode of education has changed the practices of teaching, learning and evaluation. The review of situations is describing and presenting the scenario of today’s classrooms, which has come into practice after the lockdown implemented for maintaining social distance as a prevention measure from corona affect. The present situation has emerged up as a challenge in education sector not only for the students but for teachers also, that how to continue teaching as well as learning in realistic and fruitful manner. Where teachers are dealing with the good teaching-learning and evaluation practices for the students, simultaneously students are also facing challenges with their real learning situation. Because the traditional mode has been completely closed during and after the lockdown, in this mode students were habitual to direct interaction with their teachers regarding educational matters and whereas nowadays students' community is completely dependent on the online mode. The study has concluded with the drawbacks as well as some positive sides of this online education mode during lockdown period especially in respect to the education and teaching-learning process.

  49. Sutar Kanchan and Sutar, P. M.

    With the increased need for conservation of biological resources, the need of biodiversity assessment during the last few years has been increased. The development of an area of biosphere is dependent on its vegetation. The vegetation of Dandoba hill is protected and declared as reserved forest by the forest department, Sangli, Government of Maharashtra. It represents mainly tropical dry, deciduous forest and scrub jungle. The present paper is based on our survey of plants since last two years in earlier published dicotyledonous floristic diversity from same locality [Sutar, 2018 (IJCR),11(2)] which included 110 species. Now the present paper is based on additional 41 dicot species. This floristic diversity of Dandoba hill is now available for the first time with this publication.

  50. Padmini Habbu, N. Ananthi and Abdul Kayyum shaikh

    Background: Colorectal cancer (CRC) is the third most common epithelial malignancy in the world. Colorectal cancer develops slowly from removable precancerous lesions, detection of lesion can reduce the incidence and mortality of this malignancy. Hence the present study was under taken to relate the TIMP-1 and MIF protein analysis that are non- invasive, which may enable us to detect colorectal cancer quite early. Study design: Case control study. Aims and objectives: The present study included total 120 patients diagnosed with colorectal cancer. They categorized as- Group I – included 10 patients with disease dissemination (stage I-IV with recurrences); Group II – 110 patients with non dissemination (stage I-IV without recurrences) and Group III – 120 age and sex matched healthy controls. To rule out the risk of colorectal cancer CEA, Ca 19-9 and fecal hemoglobin were analyzed. Genetic and prognostic markers like, TIMP-1 and MIF protein were analyzed. All statistical analysis was performed by using SPSS software and expressed as mean ± standard deviation, p˂0.005 was considered as statistically significant. Correlations between the parameters were analyzed. Results: The concentration of CEA, Ca19-9, TIMP-1, MIF protein, level were significantly higher in patient group then in controls group (p˂0.005). A significant correlation between CEA and CA19-9, TIMP-1 and MIF were observed. Conclusions: In this study the level of TIMP-1 and MIF expression exhibits an upper moderate diagnostic value in CRC, and this result could offer new approaches in the diagnosis, prognosis and monitoring risk factors in colorectal cancer.

  51. Ayushi Khurana

    Prostate cancer is the most frequently diagnosed cancer in males and the second leading cause of cancer related death in men. The successful management of prostate cancer requires early detection ,appropriate risk assessment and optimum treatment. The routine tools for early diagnosis and localization of cancer with the prostate include digital rectal examination and assessment of serum prostate specific antigen followed by trans rectal ultrasonographically guided biopsy. However because of the low sensitivity and specifity of these detection techniques a substantionalefeeort has been made to develop and evaluate new diagnostic techniques. Compared with the results of transrectal US, magnetic resonance imaging results have demonstrated a much higher sensitivity. With the recently published national institute of clinical excellence guidelines, it is more generally accepted that MRI is the imaging method of choice for staging prostate cancer in patients for whom radical treatment is being considered.MRI can locate the site of intraprostatic disease which may prove useful in planning disease, targeting therapies currently being developed. The advantage of this technique include the direct depiction of tumor vascularity and possibly obreation of an endorectal coil .This article reviews the current applications MRI in clical practices and discuss the promise of these modalities for improving prostate cancer management.

  52. Dr. Monika Koul, Dr. Anil Singla, Dr. Vivek Mahajan, Dr. Indu Dhiman and Dr. Sabiyata Khajuria

    Introduction: The precise identification of skeletal maturity with regard to the onset of the pubertal growth spurt has major clinical implications in treatment efficacy and efficiency. Different methods in an attempt to determine the best indicator of maturity have been evaluated. But still researches are being done to assess the maturity of an individual in relation to chronological age. Aims and objectives: To evaluate the correlation of maxillary sinus area and frontal sinus area as growth indicator with chronological age to assess the maturity of an individual in Himachali Population. Material and Methods: 150 lateral cephalograms of subjects were divided into three groups of 50 each based on chronological age and each group was further subdivided into 2 subgroups of 25 males and 25 females: group I (8-10) years of age), group II(10-12)years of age and group III( 12-14)years of age and measurements were recorded ; the chronological age was correlated with the area of maxillary sinus and frontal sinus using SPSS software. Conclusion: maxillary sinus was found to be highly correlated with the chronological age.

  53. Mohammed Imran, Shravan Kumar D.R., Syed Afroz Ahmed and Shahela Tanveer

    Fixation is the critical step in the preparation of tissues for routine histopathology in which Formalin is the universal fixative. The fundamental advantage stems from its continuous and almost universal use for over 100 years and all the accumulated scientific knowledge on it. Also, formalin is readily available, economical, fairly convenient to store, allows long-term storage, preserves lipids well, and has been accepted the perfect fixative, with no clear “all purpose” alternative found to date. However, formalin has well known disadvantages like high toxicity and classified as a human carcinogen. It binds severely to DNA, RNA and proteins, which makes them difficult or impossible to extract in a useful form for molecular tests. However we explored more economical, eco-friendly and readily available substances like sugar, honey and jaggery which have shown to have the potential to preserve compounds without any harmful effects. They are advantageous in that they are non- hazardous, compatible with routine processing, staining, do not require additional equipments and are easily available at any place. Hence the present study is undertaken with an aim to compare the tissue fixation abilities of honey, sugar syrup and jaggery syrup with that of formalin followed by H & E staining in order to determine the best fixative.

  54. Dr. Nageswara Rao Thadvuai, Dr. Anitha Lourdu James and Endalkachew Niguse

    The fast changing financial environment exposes the banks to various types of risk. Effective risk management is critical to any bank for achieving financial soundness. In view of this, aligning risk management to bank’s organisational structure and business awareness has become integral in banking business. Strategic plans and different financial techniques must have implement by the banks to avoid the financial uncertainty. Collecting up to date market information and providing sufficient training to the employees as well as management became a strategic part to every bank. In that process, this study was done in Wolkite towns, in Gurage Region, with the main objective of assessing the risk and implementing training methods for effective risk management practices of Commercial Banks. Accordingly, qualitative and quantitative study methods were employed and a total of seventy two respondents representing different sections of the banks were purposively selected and contacted. In doing so, great efforts were made to applying the bank exposure, financial and managerial skills and knowledge compositions of these respondents. The tools for data gathering were structured open and close ended questions.

  55. Dr. Loukas Moustakas and M.Ed. Danae-Sofia Pyliou

    The present study attempts to investigate the views of educators of people with special needs on the barriers faced by people with disabilities in their education. Quantitative research was conducted with questionnaires on participants / educators of adults working in five different public and private educational institutes in Attica. The results of the research showed that the educators consider lifelong learning vital because of the multiple positive elements it offers at each level of the life of the program participants, while also demonstrating a number of barriers related to economic factors, such as expensive program fees. Regarding the factors that influence and differentiate to a great extent the views of the educators in this specific research, they distinguished the educational level and their work sector.

  56. Dr. Purushottam Bhawre,

    India the ambient atmospheric conditions have progressively deteriorated due to urbanization, industrial development, lack of awareness, poor maintenance of motor vehicles, and poor road conditions. Transport vehicles and industrial emissions are the major sources of pollutants in the earth’s atmosphere. Among the various air pollutants from various sources particulate matter, sulfur dioxide, oxides of nitrogen, carbon monoxide are having a significant role in affecting the air quality and thereby causing harm to human health. Hence, these parameters were considered to determine the air quality of India. The objective of this paper is to provide insight details about the current situation of air quality across various cities present in India, along with countless origins and effects of air pollution. An attempt is made to make people aware about various types of gases and particulate matter present in air highlighting their effects on the environment along with the various ways of overcoming this situation during the lockdown COVID19 period, which was started on 22March2020, using the Air Quality Indexis proposed for the seven major cities of India, for simplified public information and data interpretation. The 24-hourly average concentrations of six major criteria pollutants, viz. Particulate matter PM10, PM2.5, Sulfur Dioxide (SO2), and Nitrogen Dioxide (NO2) carbon monoxide and two meteorological parameters, e.g., Humidity and Temperature for the year 2018, 2019, 2010 (January, February, March and April). During the study of the meteorological parameter we observed that, there are no changes in temperature, the humidity level is also not getting any significant changes in the overall cities. Particular Matter (PM10 and PM2.5) both parameters are decreasing overall selected cities, especially in March and April month. Ozone activities are also decreasing as compared with 2018 and 2019 data, during the study of all cities. Nitrogen dioxide levels is decreasing for all cities during these periods. The sulfur dioxide level is decreasing for all cities exceptional Bengaluru city their sulfur dioxide level is very low. The carbon monoxide level is decreasing overall cities during the March and April month.

  57. Nada Al-Qallaf, Aisha Al-Baroud and Hussain Al-Kandari

    During the Gulf War in 1990-91, more than 700 oil wells in Kuwait were ignited, leading to the largest environmental and ecological disaster in Kuwait’s history. The damaged oil wells spilled crude oil across the land surface and created ‘Oil lakes’ in low lying land. These oil lakes affected approximately 114 km2 of land in the northern and southern oil fields of Kuwait. The crude oil released has negative short-term and long-term impact on the physical characteristics of the soil, vegetation, and wildlife, threatening precious groundwater resources. These oil lakes are mostly dry in nature. Some features, however, still contain semi-liquid, and oil/sludgy material and are referred to as wet oil lakes. Today, over 29 years since the oil fires, these contaminated features (~26 million cubic meters of heavily oil contaminated soils) still exist in KOC oil field areas. The United Nations Compensation Commission (UNCC) awarded monetary funds to the State of Kuwait as per its Decision 258 guidelines to establish the follow-up program to monitor the technical and financial progress of the environmental remediation works of contaminated soil resulting from the Iraqi Aggression and 1991 Gulf War. In addition, in June 2006 the Government of Kuwait formed the Kuwait National Focal Point (KNFP) with authority to plan and supervise the implementation of projects and act as a liaison between UNCC and affected parties/stakeholders (e.g. KOC) for KERP program. In order to efficiently remediate the contaminated soil, the Total Remediation Strategy (TRS) was developed as more sustainable and environmentally friendly approach to replace the initial strategy, which required construction of a large number of landfills. The implementation of the TRS will ensure remediation through more sustainable environmental approaches, including a variety of treatment options, recovery/re-use and use of the Risk Based Approach (RBA) on the majority of these materials, thereby reducing the number of landfills. The TRS comprises alternative remedial solutions and relies on treating ranges of Total Petroleum Hydrocarbon (TPH) contamination levels with the most appropriate remediation techniques.

  58. Priyanka Kundu

    In India most of the people almost 70% of the total population inhabits in rural villages. Rural development depends on rural infrastructural facilities. Poverty can be elevated from society by improving rural basic infrastructural facilities. Despite several Government initiatives, the development in rural villages in terms of rural basic infrastructure facilities shows unsatisfactory results. The article evaluates rural infrastructure facilities in 125 villages of Tufanganj C.D Blocks of Coochbehar District. The village development index has been prepared on the basis of six basic indicators education, health, transport, communication, access to drinking water and electricity. The result suggests that Government should give more priority for the investments in the rural infrastructure development in terms of health, transport, educational institute, communication and drinking water facility.

  59. Vijayalakshmi, KR., Suman, B., and Anju Redhu

    Central giant cell granuloma (CGCG) is a benign intraosseous lesion predominantly involving the mandible in young females. Exact etiology of this lesion is controversial and remains unknown. However, three competing theories are prevailing which states that it could be a reactive lesion, a developmental anomaly or a benign neoplasm. CGCG has been grouped into non-aggressive and aggressive variants on the basis of clinical, radiographic and histopathologic features. This paper reported a case of 29 year old female patient, presented with complain of pain and swelling in right vestibule region for one and half month. Based on clinicoradiologic findings, provisional diagnosis of aggressive CGCG was given and the lesion was surgically intervened. Histopathological report revealed central giant cell granuloma. The healing was uneventful and no complication noted till date. The purpose of this article is to review the clinical, radiological, histopathological features and management of aggressive CGCG and highlight the importance of early diagnosis in management of aggressive CGCG.

  60. Ms. Sunita Singh, Mrs. Kumari Nutan and Dr. Jaiswar, S.P.

    Background: Cesarean section is a major abdominal surgery and may entail more discomfort, longer recovery and difficulty returning to normal activity than vaginal delivery. Early mobilization was the most significant nursing intervention for improving post-operative outcomes including enhancing pain relief, promoting wound healing, prevention of deep vein thrombosis, reducing hospital stay, and expediting recovery and return to normal activity. Objective: The current study was undertaken to assess the effectiveness of early ambulation on post-operative recovery among caesarean mothers. Materials and Methods: The research design was quasi-experimental post-test only control group design. Total 80 caesarean mothers were enrolled by simple random sampling technique, 40 in each study and control group. The intervention early ambulation at 6 hours after caesarean section was given for 3 consecutive days to study group whereas control group was ambulated as per routine care. Data were collected one time everyday for 4 consecutive days after given intervention. Post-operative recovery was assessed in both groups by using observation Schedule including wound healing, fundal height and activity of daily living. Pain score was assessed with numeric pain rating scale. Results: The results revealed that there was significant difference between the mean post-operative pain score from POD 0 to POD 3 after ambulation among study and control group as shown by p-value (p=0.001 to p<0.001). On wound healing parameter there was significant difference seen in discharge, redness, swelling at p-value 0.002, 0.029,0.017 respectively except separation as p-value was 0.317. Similarly fundal height had been significantly decreased from POD 1 to POD 3 at p-value (p=0.010 to p=0.001). In activity of daily living highly significant difference were seen from POD 0 to POD 3 at p-value (p<0.001). Statistically no significant association was found of post-operative recovery among caesarean mothers with selected demographic variables and obstetrics characteristics at (p>0.05) level. Conclusions: Therefore the study concluded that early ambulation was effective in postoperative recovery among caesarean mothers.

  61. Pinki Narwal, Smridhi Bhanot, Sonali Talwar, Fatinderjeet Singh, Poonam Narwal and Pardeep Mahajan

    One of the keys to successful root canal therapy is adequate obturation of the prepared root canal space. Three dimensional obturation provides hermetic seal to prevent ingress of bacteria and their toxins into the periapical tissues and when this is not achieved by an orthograde approach, then a root end filling technique is used. The purpose of a root-end filling is to establish a seal between the root canal space and the periapical tissues. A number of materials have been suggested for use as root-end fillings, including gutta-percha, amalgam, Cavit, intermediate restorative material (IRM), super EBA, glass ionomers, composite resins, carboxylate cements, zinc phosphate cements, zinc oxide-eugenol cements and mineral trioxide aggregate (MTA). This article reviews different root end filling materials and compare their biocompatibility, sealing ability and microleakage.

  62. Dr. Preeti Awari

    Knowing about anatomical variations in the terminal branching pattern of popliteal artery is of great clinical importance for the endovascular surgeons while planning for the endovascular interventions and also to minimize the post operative complications as hemorrhage. For the same reason author has notified a case of bilateral presence of trifurcation of popliteal artery in a adult male cadaver and explained embryological basis of the same.

  63. Dr. Ayushi Bhatnagar

    Since December 2019, a series of unexplained pneumonia cases have been reported in Wuhan, China. On 12 January 2020, the World Health Organization (WHO) temporarily named this new virus as the 2019 novel coronavirus (2019‐nCoV). On 11 February 2020, the WHO officially named the disease caused by the 2019‐nCoV as coronavirus disease (COVID‐19). The COVID‐19epidemic is spreading all over the world, especially in China. Based on the published evidence, we systematically discuss the characteristics of COVID‐19in the hope of providing a reference for future studies and help for the prevention and control of the COVID‐19epidemic ( Pengfei Sun, 2020). After 80 days of lockdown still number of cases increases day by day. Data was taken from Ministry of family and welfare of India sites on 11thJune 2020 after 80 days of lockdown. 277648 number of cases of COVID‐19on 11thJune 2020 was reported. Active cases are around 128517 and Recovered cases are around 141029. Death cases are around 8102.Considering that a large number of cases are asymptomatic (or present with very mild symptoms) and that testing has not been performed on the entire population, only a fraction of the SARS-CoV-2 infected population is detected, confirmed through a laboratory test, and officially reported as a COVID‐19‐19 case ( number of actual cases is therefore estimated to be at several multiples above the number of reported cases. The number of deaths also tends to be underestimated, as some patients are not hospitalized and not tested. Mortality rate of Gujrat is 6.3 which is highest all over India. Maharashtra has largest number of deaths around 3438 and Delhi has 1347 death reported. These two states has largest number of death and increases day by day. Decrease number of active cases and increase recovered cases.

  64. Dr. Deepti Diwakar, Dr. Arun Krishnan, Dr. Vijay Ebenezer and Dr. Balakrishnan, R.

    The word 'LASERS' is an acronym for " Light Amplification by stimulated emission of radiation." Since the advent of lasers in the 1960's by Theodore Maiman, lasers have been an important treatment modality in the field of dentistry. It has revolutionized treatments in all fields of dentistry, such as periodontal treatments, dental implants, oral and maxillofacial surgery etc. Several new technologies have been innovated in the field of lasers. The objective of this article is to emphasise the applications of lasers in oral and maxillofacial surgery.

  65. Dr. Deepti Diwakar, Dr. Arun Krishnan, Dr. Balakrishnan, R. and Dr. Vijay Ebenezer

    Temporomandibulardisorders (TMD’s ) refers to all the conditions affecting the TMJ, or the masticatory muscles and the associated structures such as teeth, ears, cheeks and forehead. TMD’s occurs 1.5-2 times more in women. It is one of the most common causes for non – dental pain. The reasons for TMD’s are multiple, but hasn’t been clearly understood such as, muscular imbalance, TMJ dysjunction, malocclusion, parafunctions and postural alterations. It is often misdiagnosed and hence treatment is not very efficient. Some of the treatment modalities suggested are trigger point acupuncture, stabilizing appliance, counseling of pain, anaesthetic blockage etc.

  66. Dr. Bakshi Om Prakash Sinha, Shrija and Vastuti Garuryar

    Current situation of Corona Virus in the United State has been proven to be the biggest failure in American history. Past & recent briefings of President Trump on combating corona virus shows the incompetence of the federal government as well as state government. Anyone can see that this COVID-19 is something which cannot be taken lightly as there are no vaccines or immunization present in the laboratory which will lower the number of the spread, but social distancing is just a huge step trying to be enforced around the world to give some time to the health sector, researchers, scientists etc to come up with vaccines and immunizations"

  67. Dr. Mahesh Dave, Dr. Mayank Sharma, Dr. Lakhan Poswal, Dr. VikramBedi, Dr. Narendra Deval and Dr. Rahul Vijayvargiya

    Background: The entire world is struggling with novel corona virus (Covid-19) and pandemic is still not under control.The aim of our study is to understand various epidemiological factors, clinical presentation and outcome of Covid-19 patients, who were admitted in Dedicated Covid Hospital, attached to RNT Medical college Udaipur Rajasthan. Methods: This was a prospective, observational study conducted over 224 ,RT-PCR confirmed Covid-19 patients, over a period of one month from 1st May 2020 to 31st May 2020. Epidemiological, clinical, laboratory and radiological data were collected and analysed of all these patients. Results and Discussion: We observed that Covid-19 virus affects all age group but the most commonly affected patients were younger adult of 16-49 year age. Most of the patients were male (58.10%), residing in urban area (74.10%) and were from middle socioeconomic class (75%). Most of patients were asymptomatic (73.66%),Among symptomatic most common symptoms was cough (81.35%)&fever (59.33%).Approximately 30.35%had comorbidities and most common comorbidities was hypertension (17.85%). Leukopenia, lymphopenia, thrombocytopenia along with altered LFT was observed as most common laboratory finding. The most common complication observed was ARDS and kidney injury, outcome was observed good and case fatality rate was 2.23%. Conclusion: From present study we conclude that it affects younger adult, male, from urban area and middle socioeconomic class people. Most common symptoms were cough & fever and common complications were ARDS, kidney injury, MODS & myocarditis.

  68. Ahangar, M. A. and Ahangar, I. A.

    Pomphorhynchus kashmirensis Kaw, 1941 is the first of 09 species of Pomphorhynchus Monticelli, 1905 described from freshwater fishes in the Jammu-Kashmir region of the Northern Indian subcontinent. It was originally well described from Nemachilus kashmirensis Hora, 1922 (Balitoridae) in Kashmir but many of its features could not be adequately visualized or confirmed. Histopathological aspect of Pomphorhyncus species (Acanthocephala) infecting Schizothorax species was studied. The parasite- Pomphorhynchus bores deeply with proboscis into the intestinal wall with ensheathed proboscis floating freely in the coelom and part of trunk lying in the lumen of intestine. The histopathological studies showed that whole organisation of the normal intestine was found to be disrupted. The neck and proboscis were surrounded by a layer of compact rounded fibroblasts and scattered connective tissue. These layers extended across the entire gut wall and into the capsule that enclosed proboscis outside the gut wall. The formation of fibrous capsule evoked by the penetration of intestine by Pomphorhyncus species of Acanthocephala was found to be one of the most significant parasites responsible for fish morbidity and mortality.

  69. Om Prakash, Saurabh Nimesh, Dakshina Gupta

    Momordica charantia Linn. (M. charantia) commonly-known as karela, bitter melon, or bitter guard is tropical and subtropical areas around the world, mainly in Asia, India, China, and Brazil, where it is traditionally used as a medicinal plant, and the fruits of some varieties of M. charantia are consumed as food. Ancient days to now a day, it possesses many uses as anti-diabetic, carminative, anthelmintic, anti-malarial, anti-microbial, anti-viral, anti-carcinogenic, contraceptives, immunostimulant, laxative, antioxidant, insecticidal and also indicates in skin treatment (eczema, acne, mycoses, scabies, and hemorrhoid). Herbalism has a long tradition of use outside of conventional medicine. It is becoming more main-stream as improvements in analysis and quality control along with advances in clinical research show the value of herbal medicine in the treating and preventing disease. In this paper, we revealed the medicinal potency and pharmacological activity of M. charantia.





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