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IJCR is following an instant policy on rejection those received papers with plagiarism rate of more than 20%. So, All of authors and contributors must check their papers before submission to making assurance of following our anti-plagiarism policies.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

August 2014

In this age of information, everybody expects to get timely, reliable and precise information that they want to acquire. In the wake of rapid technological advancement, the library has to function in accordance with the changing needs. Today libraries are undergoing tremendous changes in their functioning by adopting latest technology. Ayurveda medical college libraries goal is to provide the student, staff, the scholar and the workers with the maximum tools acquired for the advancement as for as acquisition of knowledge.

The fact that the periodontium is anatomically interrelated with the dental pulp by virtue of apical foramina and lateral canals creates pathways for exchange of noxious agents between the two tissue compartments when either or both of the tissues are diseased. Proper diagnosis of the various disorders affecting the periodontium and the pulp is important to exclude unnecessary and even detrimental treatment. This is a clinical case report of an enododontic-periodontic lesion in relation to upper left central incisor.

Introduction and Need: The prevention of pain is important because repeated painful exposures can have deleterious consequences on preterm neonates. Facilitated tucking is a non-pharmacological comfort measure that can relieve procedural pain in very low birth weight (VLBW) infants. The nurse or care givers can effectively implement facilitated tucking for reduction of pain in any setting as it is a very simple technique. Therefore, the investigator taken up the study.

In the present study, breeding information spread over a period of 14 years from 1995 to 2008, was collected from the history-cum-pedigree sheets and milk yield registers of Murrah buffaloes maintained in four centres of Network Project on Murrah Buffalo Improvement (National Dairy Research Institute, Karnal; Central Institute for Research on Buffalo, Hisar and Guru Angad Dev Veterinary and Animal Sciences University, Ludhiana and Choudhary Charan Singh Haryana Agricultural University, Hisar).

Background: This study was carried out to determine the prevalence of WNV IgG and IgM among multi blood transfused patients in Khartoum, State Sudan. Material and Methods: Ninety one sera samples were collected from multi blood transfused patients from Khartoum teaching Hospital during the period from August to November 2013 and subjected to Enzyme Linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA) to detect WNV IgG and IgM antibodies. Results: Out of ninety one 50(54%) were positive for WNV IgG antibodies, while 11(12.1)% were positive for WNV IgM antibodies.

Background: polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS), one of the most common causes of infertility with increased incidence of inflammatory state and oxidative stress. Apelin is unique among adipose tissue hormones in being up regulated in the obese state and exert antioxidant activity. Objective: This research aims to evaluate serum apelin Levels in Rat models of letrozole induced PCOS and asses its relation to oxidative stress markers, TNF- hormonal state, and insulin resistance. Design: 48 Adolescent healthy female albino rats were used.

The best method to confirm diagnosis of carcinoma of urinary bladder is cystoscopy and biopsy. Urine cytology is a non-invasive method of detecting carcinoma bladder. We aimed to evaluate the sensitivity and specificity of urine cytology to detect bladder carcinoma as a screening test. All patients with suspicion of carcinoma bladder with risk factors like increased age, symptoms of painless haematuria, dysuria and frequency attending the Urology out-patient department (OPD) of Patna Medical College and Hospital over a period of 3 years were screened.

Sputum cytology is a simple, accurate, reliable, cost effective and non-invasive procedure for the diagnosis of pulmonary lesions including preinvasive and invasive malignancies. BAL (Bronchoalveolar lavage) is a valuable diagnostic and research tool in pulmonology. Aims: To compare the efficacy of Sputum cytology with BAL in the diagnosis of lung cancer. Material and Methods: 2 year study was carried out. Sputum cytology, BAL and bronchoscopic biopsies were done in 97 cases. Comparison of effectiveness of Sputum cytology and BAL in diagnosing lung cancer is done with ‘z’ test.

Because of the advent of new technologies of information and communication, teaching methods are changing in medical schools. The use of video for teaching anatomy is an interesting innovation, because studies show that it improves the performance and motivation of students. A few months after the introduction of the use of video for anatomy lectures and praticals, we evaluate this method with our first year medical students. This evaluation was conducted on several aspects through a Likert scale. This work highlights the interest of using video to our students.

According to WHO, self-medication is defined as obtaining and consuming drugs without the advice of a physician either for diagnosis, prescription or surveillance of treatment. Self medication is very helpful if the suffering person is economically poor or not able to bear the expenses if he shows his illness to the concerned expert doctor. Many times self-medication gives self confidence of handling minor illnesses on their own. Self medication is the choice when there is lack of accessibility to an expert doctor due to various reasons.

Background: Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is a chronic liver disease, ranges from simple steatosis to nonalcoholic steatohepatitis, fibrosis and cirrhosis. Several adipocytokines such as leptin and adiponectin have been implicated in the pathogenesis of NAFLD. However, there are only few data concerning visfatin. Objective: This study is aimed to evaluate the relationship among circulating visfatin and proinflammatory cytokines in NAFLD. Material and Methods: The study includes 64 NAFLD and 22 healthy controls with no evidence of liver disease were included.

Nasal index is a regional and racial sensitive anthropometric index. It is also one of the important anthropometric parameter for classifying the race and sex of an individual in the world. This study was carried out in 250 south Indian populations. The result shows the mean nasal breadth in males is 49.28mm while in females its 38.02mm, nasal height in males was found to be 58.04 and 56.12 in females, also nasal index was found to be 84.91 in males and 67.75 in females. All the measurements are found to be higher in males than females.

Diabetes Mellitus is a common metabolic disorder seen in all age groups. Gandhaga chooranam (GC) has been employed as a traditional remedy for Diabetes mellitus which is a herbo mineral formulation. As a mandate, steps were taken to evaluate safety profile of GC in rats following OECD guidelines.

Myocardial infarction is a major consequence of coronary artery disease. In addition to the traditional risk factors of myocardial infarction, hyperhomocysteinemia has emerged as major factor. Plasma homocysteine level was determined in 30 myocardial infarction patients and 20 age matched healthy individuals. Statistically significant differences (p<0.01) were observed in the mean of plasma homocysteine concentrations between the acute myocardial infarction patients (25.89 ± 6.18mM/L) and normal healthy individuals (13.83 ± 3.51 mM/L).

The present investigation was carried out to study the effect of Plant Growth Regulators (PGRs) on b iochemical constituents of Cassia angustifolia. The foliar application of PGRs like Gibberellic acid (GA3), Indole acetic acid (IAA) and the growth retardant Abscisic acid (ABA) were applied at the concentrations of 25, 50 and 100 mg/L as foliar spray at 45 DAS up to the flowering stage at the interval of fifteen days. The physiological analyses were carried out on pre-flowering stage (75 DAS), flowering stage (90 DAS) and post-flowering stage (120 DAS).

In every day dumping of municipal solid wastes (MSW) as a result of urban extension, over population, industrial developments and commercialization (vegetables, fruits and supermarket waste) caused a serious cause to the environment air, water (ground and stream water contamination) and land (soil pollution: heavy metals, heat generation). In the present investigation an attempt has been made to convert the municipal solid waste (MSW) into manure using the earthworm Lampito mauritii under cultured in conditions.

Root and tuber crops form the major subsistence staples in larger parts of sub-Saharan Africa. However, in Nigeria, root and tuber production relies mainly on smallholders that have multiple practices to choose from while considering crops to be included in their cropping systems. This study examined factors influencing the inclusion of root and tuber crops in the cropping systems among farmers in Oyo state. Data were collected from 360 farmers randomly selected using a structured interview schedule. Frequency counts, percentages and Chi-square were used for the data analysis.

Background: Immunization is an essential public health intervention for maintaining good health status in the population. It is not only one of the best indicators to evaluate the health outcomes and services distributed across social spectrum but also one of the most cost-effective intervention to prevent a series of major illnesses, particularly in environments where children are malnourished/ undernourished and die from preventable diseases. Objectives: (1).To find out the socio demographic profile of selected respondents. (2).

In India, Women constitute about 21 percent of the total software work force, which is higher than their participation in the national economy. Owing to the target oriented time schedules, the effort to be put in by the software professionals, especially women in highly strenuous. This new work culture is paving way to a new set of health problems, along with emotional and social problems. Technopark at Trivandrum housing 104 IT and ITES companies, providing employment to more than 12,500 software professionals, was selected as the locale for the study.

The present study concerns monthly variations of phytoplankton species composition, population density, species diversity during September 2012 to March 2013 in Ukkadam, Kuruchi and Singanallur Lakes Coimbatore, Tamil Nadu, India. The total of 20 (Ukkadam Lake), 34 (Kuruchi Lake) and 26 genera (Siganallur Lake) were identified under phytoplankton diversity in studied three lakes. Present study revealed maximum species composition of Chlorophyceae (15 species), Bacillariophyceae (12 species) and Euglenophyceae (6 species) were recorded at Kuruchi Lake.

This paper reports the effect of mycorrhiza as a biofertilizer and different concentrations 5%, 10% and 15% of phosphorus on seed germination, nodulation and growth of Vigna radiata (L.). A significant increase was observed in all parameters over control. At 15% concentration of phosphorus, the Vigna radiata (L.) showed favourable effect on seed germination, seedling growth and production of fresh and dry matter as compared to 5 and 10%.

In the present study, Molecular docking was done in order to find out whether the chemical compounds of Hippo-08 an ayurvedic formulation, were docked into the active sites of cytochrome p-450 2E1 and cytochrome p-450 3A4 using Accelrys Discovery studio2.1. These two enzymes were increased several folds after ethanol consumption, and these are the major source of free radicals or reactive oxygen species (ROS) causing oxidative stress in the liver. Based on the Dock score the compounds could be ranked for their activity against the protein.

The present study was carried out to establish the properties of leaf extract of Vitex negundo was tested for larvicidal activity against early 4th instar larvae of Culex quinquefasciatus mosquito using standard WHO technique. The mortality rate was observed at 5 to 200 ppm, after 12, 24, 36 and 48 hrs of the treatment. And no mortality rate was observed in control. The methanolic extract of V. negundo was found effective and 100% result was observed in this treatment.

Biofertilizers are defined as preparations containing living cells or latent cells of efficient strains of microorganisms that help crop plants' uptake of nutrients by their interactions in the rhizosphere when applied through seed or to soil. They accelerate certain microbial processes in the soil which augment the extent of availability of nutrients in a form easily assimilated by plants.

Endophytic microbes are often associated with the internal parts of plant tissues. Endophytic fungi were isolated from the surface sterilized root fragments of herbaceous culinary leafy vegetable and spices viz., Coriandrum sativum, Anetham graveolens, Spinacea oleracea and Trigonella foenum-graecum. 533 isolates were obtained from the plating of root fragments. Important fungi were identified as Myrothecium roridum, Chaetomium fumicola, Heterosporium alli, Fusarium oxysporum and Aspergillus tereus. The dominant endophyte documented was M. roridum (29.85%) from the roots of T.

The aim of this research was to evaluate the antimicrobial activity of Terminalia arjuna bark extracts was aimed to investigate against three gram-positive, two gram-negative bacteria and one fungi causing respiratory infections. Dried plant materials were crushed and extracted in petroleum ether, acetone, methanol and water by using Soxhlet apparatus. The agar well diffusion method was adopted to examine antimicrobial activity of extracts against test organisms. Phytochemical analysis was done for plant extract also.

Obesity is a pandemic, spread throughout world and is attributing largely to industrialisation with reduced physical activity, increased screen timings and lack of adequate sleep. Overweight and obese children from affluent class schools were screened, their sleeping pattern, screen time and outdoor and indoor gaming time was studied. Two thousand four hundred and ninety nine children were screened for overweight and obesity on the basis of BMI cut-off given by IOTF. Children were categorized as normal (57.94%) overweight (20.89 %) and obese (5.20%).

The present work aimed to estimate the effect of different concentrations of CdCl2 on biochemical parameters of freshwater fish, Anabas testudineus. Electrophoresis of the blood serum, Liver RNA extraction and agarose gel electrophoresis were done. 96-h LC50 of CdCl2 was 7ppm. Levels of liver protein, AST and ALT and serum glucose content showed significant change after 14 days of exposure to different concentrations of CdCl2 (2ppm, 3ppm and 4ppm).

This study was done for the aim to bring notice to local people about the reason of degrading wetlands and suggestion to develop this degraded wetland to get benefits. Submerged plants are the generator of oxygen in the aquatic system. Siltation being the major cause, the beel turns into unproductive areas with extensive weed cover.

The study was conducted to assess the phytosociological studies of weed species in rice fields of Visakhapatnam District, Andhra Pradesh. The survey has been carried out at 100 randomly selected rice fields and well explored covering all the geographical areas of Visakhapatnam district, to identify the weed flora, species composition, density, frequency and importance values index (IVI). A total of 80 plant species, belonging to 75 genera and 29 families were identified. Among the 29 families have been recorded, out of these 16 families are representing each species.

Coronary artery disease (CAD) is the leading cause of death worldwide. Many recent studies have shown that anomalies in circulating lipid levels are a predisposing factor for coronary heart disease. Oxidative stress has been implicated in the patho-physiology of CAD. Lipid peroxidation measured as malondialdehyde (MDA) is an indication of the extent of free radical mediated tissue damage.

An incubation study was carried out to assess the quality of the vermicompost and farmyard manure in terms of total nutrient content and microbial population count following inoculation of various microbial cultures. Azotobacter, Azospirillum and phosphate solubilizing bacteria (PSB) culture @ 0.2 % each was inoculated in different consortia to farmyard manure (FYM) or vermicompost and incubated for thirty days in a completely randomized design laboratory experiment maintaining moisture content at about 25±1 % (w/w).

The delivery systems of bioactive food components through nanoencapsulation provide maximum stability, protection and permit the release of encapsulated compound during mastication and digestion for efficient absorption into the body system. Bioactive compounds are secondary metabolite of plant which forms the constituent of foods or dietary supplements responsible for the health benefit other than provision of basic nutrition. They are grouped into isoprenoids, fatty acids, proteins and amino acids, polysaccharides and minerals.

An experiment was carried out on influence of organic, inorganic and bio fertilizers on yield and economics of cucumber grown under field condition during spring and autumn 2013.

The study was planned to prepare chicken noodle with the incorporation of refined flour. Two types of chicken noodles were prepared. Method of preparation of chicken noodles was same. (Sample A) was without fried chicken noodles, (sample B) was fried chicken noodles. Chicken Noodles were evaluated for physicochemical and sensory properties. Ratio of chicken and refined flour was 50%. Results showed that a fried noodle (sample B) was showed good results on all attributes.

The aim of the study was to investigate genetic polymorphism in leptin receptor gene, (LEPR) and the risk of bladder cancer through a retrospective case-control analysis that consisted of 270 cases of bladder cancer and 252 controls. For the LEPR Gln223Arg polymorphism, no significant differences were observed in the genotype frequencies with regard to bladder cancer. The interaction of LEPR Gln223Arg polymorphism also did not show any significant associations either with environmental factors or with histopathology.

An investigation was conducted during April, 2013 to study the response of fertilizers and training systems on parthenocarpic cucumber var. Dinamik under NVPH. The whole experiment was arranged over 12 treatments consisting of 4 levels of fertilizers [F1-60:50:50 kg/ha (RDF through Conventional method), F2-50% RDF (Fertigation), F3-100% RDF (Fertigation), F4-150% RDF (Fertigation)] with common dose of micro-nutrients and 3 training systems having system specific spacing [P1-‘Umbrella’ (60 x 60 cm), P2-‘V’ (60 x 60 cm), P3-‘Single Stem’ (60 x 45 cm)].

Because of its high vulnerability, seed germination is considered to be the most critical phase in the plant life cycle. In an attempt to find the possible reason for extremely fast decline in population of Salvadora oleoides in north-west India; the experiments were conducted on seed germination, seedling growth and vegetative propagation. Seeds were sown in different soils types. Desert sand was best in terms of higher percent seed germination and also a shorter time taken for germination.

In many cities of the developing countries, the ability of housing authorities to provide housing and services for large number of poor people is limited. This is because cities are about opportunities, and across the world people have moved to cities in increasing numbers, especially poorer people seeking a new life with greater employment or livelihood opportunities whether real or perceived, and as such, slums develop. Slums pose a significant threat to the green agenda; and at the same time the brown agenda for those living in the slums is seriously compromised.

The kinetic studies of oxidation of 3-methylindole (3-MI) by Peroxodisulphate (PDS) has been carried out in ethanol medium. A total second order, first order first order each with respect to [3-MI] and [PDS] has been observed. The reaction was unaffected by increase of [H+]. Increase of percentage of ethanol decreases the rate. Variation of ionic strength had no influence on the rate. Activation and thermodynamic parameters have been calculated from kinetic values. A suitable mechanism scheme based on these observations is proposed.

The basic concepts and theorems of k-Hermitian doubly stochastic, s- Hermitian doubly stochastic and s-k- Hermitian doubly stochastic matrices are introduced with examples.

Mercury and its chemical compounds are considered very toxic for plants and human beings. Nevertheless, mercury compounds are used in cosmetic and drug products, and particularly in whitening creams in Eastern countries. Mercury is used as a preservative (antifungal and antiseptic) in pharmaceutical liquid or cremates products, even in eye, ear and nasal drops. Creams containing mercury have been manufactured and used despite their confirmed health risks. These products are widely available in pharmacies and beauty aid stores in Albania.

Selenium in its oxyanion form is major cause of contamination in mining aqueous waste streams. The aqueous oxyanions are rather more toxic than elemental form of selenium. Excessive intake of Selenium can cause dizziness, fatigue, irritations of the mucous membranes, collection of fluid in the lungs and bronchitis. Therefore, research is required to explore efficient methods for abetment of excessive toxic Selenium from contaminated water.

In this paper, a deteriorating inventory model with time-varying demand, time-varying deterioration is analyzed. The general time-proportional backlogging rate and general form deterioration rate is also discussed.

In this paper, a deteriorating inventory model with time-varying demand, time-varying deterioration is analyzed. The general time-proportional backlogging rate and general form deterioration rate is also discussed.

The ZnO and 1%, 2% copper doped ZnO nano particles were synthesized, by using the chemical precipitation method. The resulting nano particles were characterized by X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, UV visible spectroscopy. Photo catalytic degradation of methyl orange in aqueous solution by ZnO and Copper doped ZnO under UVC (464 nm) irradiation was studied. The Scherrer equation for X-ray diffraction spectra was used to determine the crystallite sizes of ZnO and Cu-ZnO nano particles.

Here, the concept of fractional linear programming problem is extended to Multi objective Fractional Linear programming problem (MOFLPP) in crisp as well as fuzzy sense. Procedures for also solving Multi objective fractional linear programming problems are provided for both crisp and fuzzy cases. A new idea for solving a MOFLPP in both crisp and fuzzy sense is also given. A numerical example is provided to illustrate the proposed methods.

In this paper, we proposed a new approach that can obtain a minimum path in a network using Triangular Intuitionistic Fuzzy number (TIFN). The path labelling algorithm is illustrated with the help of numerical example. The minimum paths obtained from one node to each node of a network can be helpful to decision makers as they make decision to use minimum number of nodes.

Solar energy is an alternative to fossil fuels for more sustainable and reliable energy options; with a huge potential to meet many times the present world energy demand. Readily available solar radiation data is a key to design and simulation of all solar energy applications. In this project, only sunshine hour data is considered which were obtained from the meteorological Department, Entebbe. The sunshine hour’s data got were measurements from 2007 to 2012, from three stations of Jinja, Soroti and Kasese.

Out of known 104 naturally occurring elements some are very useful, rather essential for human life, while a few others inclusive of cadmium are toxic and dangerous. Cadmium is mainly used in the industries for coating steel, glass, plastics etc. and also for the production of Ni-Cd battery and automotive tyres. Cadmium is much dangerous due to its long half life and it can exert toxic effects on almost all systems of the human body. The intake of cadmium depends on its concentration in natural sources such as air, land and water and should not exceed 20 mg per day.

The paper appraised the media vis–a–vis press freedom with specific implication for a developing country like Nigeria. Based on the discussions surrounding the assumptions of the concept of press freedom which the media are supposed to enjoy in the course of their watchdog role and accountability to the masses and to which they have always lived without, it becomes pertinent to see how with the passage of the freedom of information bill into law can help things move well for the Nigerian journalist as he carries out his responsibilities.

Laboratory investigations were ascertained to determine the comparative studied of bacteria on fermented yoghurt and locally available fulani nono (Diary product) within Samaru Zaria. Standard plate count (SPC) method was carried out in eight milk samples four from local Fulani nono (A1,A2,A3,A4) and four from yoghurt (B1,B2,B3,B4,) the microbial colonies were found to be high in Fulani nono samples than the yoghurt (B1,B2,B3 and B4) samples.

An investigation was undertaken to isolate poly β hydroxylbutyrate (PHB) producing bacteria from Tannery waste sludge reservoir In Mario Jose Kano. A total of six isolates were purified, only three sp were selected for the production of PHB viz: Alkaligen sp Bacillus megategarium and Clostridium sp. PHB extraction was carried out by sodium hypochlorides digestion method.

Ahimsa has had a place in Indian religions since ancient times. It has evolved in meaning within and among different religious groups. Ahimsa is the highest law. It is the very essence of human nature. Gandhi gave the practical message of spirituality, love, truth and non-violence, but he did not enunciate any system of philosophy. From his early childhood he loved truth and as he grew up truth and non-violence became his sole objects. He became the apostle of Ahimsa. In other words, he perfected the art and science of Ahimsa. Nehru’s attitude towards non-violence is interesting.

Delivering services quality is a vital strategy for success of an organization in today’s highly competitive business context. Globalized competition has stressed the strategic importance of product quality and loyalty in the battle for winning consumer preferences. Since winning customer is not an easy task in highly spirited business context, more marketers attempt to enhance customer loyalty and remain customers by delivering services quality. In the services business context, the telecommunications industry is a high velocity industry throughout the world.

The problem of Micro-level regional disparities in the levels of social and economic development is a universal phenomenon. Educational status of the population in a region determines its standard of living and overall socio-economic development. India is committed to reduce its considerable inequalities in education sector through various programmes. In Jaisalmer district there are considerable inequalities among three physiograpic units with respect to literacy level and availabilities of facilities for primary, secondary and higher education.

Instructional resources or materials including human and audio-visual are essential components of a curriculum. They are designed to help the teachers to understand and implement the ideas contained in the new curriculum. The main purpose of the study was to investigate the factors that affect the teaching and learning of life skills curriculum in secondary schools within Eldoret East District. This paper evaluates the instructional resources used by teachers.

A field experiment was conducted at the Central Sugarcane Research Station, Padegaon, Dist. Satara (M.S.) to study the effect of briquette on sugarcane ratoon for cane yield, nutrient uptake and soil health during 2009-10 to 2011-12 for three years. The results indicated that application of 100 % RD NPK through briquette recorded significantly highest cane yield and CCS yield and it was at par with application of 75 % RD NPK through briquettes.

Businesses rely on Accounting Technology (AT) to provide relevant and reliable information to internal and external users with for decision making. As a response to new governance requirements, Information Technology (IT) governance has been under development for several years. Just as business management is governed by generally accepted good practices, IT, including AT, should be governed by practices that help ensure an enterprise’s IT resources are used responsibly, its risks are managed appropriately and its information and related technology support business objectives.

India has traditional producer, consumer and exporter of spices, there are about 109 spices listed by international organization for standardization. India grows about 60 of these spices almost all the state in India produce one or other spices. India is considered as the home of spices as no country in the world grows as much kind of spices as India. India exports spices to more than 120 countries in the world. Main objective of the present study is to examine export performance of selected spices in India during 2001to 2010 by using average growth rate and compound annual growth rate.

Niger (Guizotia abyssinica L. Cass.) is an important traditional oilseed crop of India, cultivated mainly in hilly and tribal areas. Inspite of high oil content and a wide range of adaptability, little attention has been paid towards maximization of this oilseed crop. Among the agronomic practices, fertilizer, thinning, weeding and plant protection play important role in maximizing the seed yield. Keeping in view all facts, the study of performance of niger as influenced by resource constraints was formulated in RBD design in three replications with 12 different treatments.

Numerous of previous studies on language learning strategies are found to discuss the importance of adapting language strategies to help individuals improve their language learning. SILL inventory was developed by Oxford in 1990; since then it has been used to investigate the language learners’ strategies used at different study groups around the world. Many studies indicated that English majored students have better strategies applied into their language learning.

In this study an attempt has been made to study the wicking behavior of micropolyester cotton blended yarns. 100% micropolyester, 65/35 micropolyester/cotton, 50/50 micropolyesrer/cotton, 35/65 micropolyester/cotton and 100% cotton were used for this study. The yarns were treated with hot water, dried and then subjected to wicking behavior in distilled water. Among the selected yarns, 100% micropolyester showed better wicking performance.

The term Commercial Co-operative Banks (CCOB) not formally defined same as Urban Co-operative Banks. It may defined as “The Co-operative banks works in urban area and providing all services same as commercial banks and controlled by RBI, Banking regulation act 1949 and State Governments as per the provisions of respective State Acts.” The main functions of these banks to provide short term loan to businessman, traders, entrepreneurs etc.

The regimented institution of the military is designed and established to be professionally well trained in the process of national defense and protection of the citizenry against external aggression and invasion. But this institution (the military) had for the past century been involved in political participation through an illegal and unconstitutional modus-operandi. This paper examines the historical background of military as an institution in Africa, revisiting the hitherto pre-colonial African militaristic structure.

The present study aims at investigating the zoning of Tehran according to the most severe polluted days. In this regard, 100 days with the highest pollution level recorded by the stations were selected from 2004 to 2008 in five selective stations around the city and the zoning progress was done based on them. In respect to co.PM10 and SO2 level, Azadi station was the most polluted and Sarkhehesar and also Ray town were the cleanest regions. Considering the NO2, Ray station was the most polluted and Sarkhehesar station was the cleanest one.

Milk has an outstanding nutritional quality, but is also an excellent medium for bacteria growth and an important source of bacterial infection when consumed without pasteurization. This study was conducted to evaluate the hygienic quality of packaged milk and identify predominant bacteria in milk marketed in Zaria. Two hundred packaged milk samples were bought from five locations (forty samples from each) in Zaria. Isolation and identification of the bacteria species were carried out using standard bacteriological procedures.

Man’s various activities have resulted in increase in greenhouse gas emissions which is causing global warming and climate change. In order to keep this earth fit for our future generations to survive there is a dire need to reduce our carbon footprint. The carbon footprint is a measure of the total amount of carbon dioxide (CO2) and methane (CH4) (primarily) emissions of a defined population system or activity, considering all relevant sources, sinks and storage within the spatial and temporal boundary of the population, system or activity of interest.

Introduction: The liver is supplied by hepatic artery and portal vein. The knowledge of the hepatic veins opening into the retro hepatic part of IVC will help in understanding the causes for bleeding in injuries of liver, pathology of Budd – Chiari syndrome, spread of tumors and surgical excision in case of tumor resection. Scope: To provide morphologic & morphometric data of retro hepatic segment of inferior vena cava (RHIVC) and hepatic veins openings into it.

A retrospective descriptive analysis of 43 leprosy patients who attended the leprosy clinic in Dr. SMCSI Medical College was carried out. The male: female ratio was equal. The maximum number of patients were in the age group of 21-40 years. A childhood incidence of 9.3% was noted. Multibacillary (MB) cases were more than paucibacillary (PB) cases and more men had MB cases than women.

Background: World Health Organization has identified violence against children as a growing public-health issue with a global magnitude. However, control-trial studies on using abuse focused CBT in treating child victims of domestic violence in Iran is lacking. Method: 99 urban students (aged 8-12 years old) who fulfilled the inclusion criteria, randomly assigned to each CBT or control group.

The ABO and Rh blood groups are the most important blood group systems in humans with tremendous variability among different races and ethnic groups. Their clinical importance is evident in blood transfusion and hemolytic disease of the newborn. A number of associations have been reported between diseases and blood group systems. This study aimed to determine the frequencies of Rhesus blood group phenotypes and probable genotypes of major Sudanese tribes. Following informed consent, one thousand venous blood samples were collected from unrelated individuals from ten Sudanese tribes.

Introduction: Ventilator associated pneumonia (VAP) is a type of nosocomial pneumonia which occurs in patients who receive mechanical ventilation (MV). In India, occurrence of VAP among intensive care unit (ICU) patients varies from 9% to 24%. Global crude mortality rate of VAP ranges from 24% to 50%. Aims and objectives: To determine the incidence rate, bacteriological profile and antibiotic sensitivity pattern of VAP. To determine Multidrug resistance pattern among the isolates.

Stature is the height of the person in the upright posture. It is an important measure of physical identity. Establishing the identity of an individual from mutilated, decomposed and amputed body fragments has become an important necessity in recent times due to natural disasters like earthquakes, tsunamis, cyclones, floods and man-made disasters like terror attacks, bomb blasts, mass accidents, wars, plane crashes etc.

Background: At the end of 2008, 3 people out of 1000 between 15 to 49 years of age were affected with HIV in India. Commonly used prognostic markers like CD4 count and viral loads for HIV monitoring are expensive and sophisticated. Anemia is a frequent complication that occurs in 20-80% of HIV infected persons and is associated with faster disease progression and mortality. Therefore we aimed to determine the changes in Hb concentration and its correlation with CD4 counts and also to determine whether Hb alone can be used as an indicator for disease progression.

The entity of double carcinoma in a single patient of different pathologies is not encountered commonly in clinical practice, especially in Indian subcontinent. Lack of medical insurance and poverty often compels treating surgeons To use minimum of diagnostic tests for the workup of malignancies. This leads to under diagnosis and reporting of such occurrences. Here we present a case report of 60 year old female with a painful swelling of left breast and a left lower neck swelling.

Aim: To assess the accuracy of C-reactive protein in predicting the severity of acute pancreatitis. Method: In this study 20 patients with acute pancreatitis were included. Ranson’s criteria were fulfilled and C–reactive protein level was estimated at the time of admission. Result: Out of 20 patients of acute pancreatitis, 12 were having severe disease with CRP level between 96-192 mg/L, while in mild disease 7 patients were having severe disease with CRP level between 24-48 mg/L and only 1 patient was having normal CRP level i.e. below 6 mg/L.

Background: The most common and significant cause for morbidity following appendicectomy is surgical wound infection. There are conflicting reports regarding the optimal duration of antibiotic prophylaxis in interval appendicectomy. The efficacy of prolonged prophylactic antibiotic treatment in preventing wound infection for appendicectomy is poorly defined. Objective: The objective of this study was to compare length of hospital stay, the rate of wound infections, post-operative fever for open interval appendectomy between no antibiotic group(A) and antibiotic group(B).

The palmaris longus (PL) is one of the most variable muscle reported up to 90% of humans. The characteristic of this muscle is shown by its short belly and long tendon. The belly soon gives way to a long slender tendon of variable length that inserts adherent across the front of the flexor retinaculum to the palmar aponeurosis. This study is done by using 200 upper limbs of 100 cadavers. The overall prevalence of absence was 16% (16 subjects).

Quality refers to excellence of a product or a service, including its attractiveness, lack of defects, reliability, and long-term durability. Quality assurance provides the mechanisms to effectively monitor patient care provided by health care professionals using cost-effective resources. Quality is defined as the extent of resemblance between the purpose of healthcare and the truly granted care. The main function of the quality department in a hospital is to implement quality system & to establish quality and safety culture.

The dynamic aspects of insect reproduction has received more attention in recent years. Insect reproduction is an essential physiological process from the view point of propagation due to the fact that, its processes are so intimately associated with other systems and are controlled by both intrinsic and extrinsic factors. The male and female reproductive system generally consists of paired gonads connected to a median duct leading to the gonopore. Insect ovaries are composed of several ovarian tubes termed ovarioles.

Widespread poverty is a stable crisis and poverty alleviation has been a key component in development plan. Poverty is a complex set of problems, and that poverty alleviation can only be accomplished by a portfolio of policies and programs customized to explicit aspects of the problem. It recognizes that poverty alleviation efforts must reflect the best practices in public management, including the specification of concrete goals, the assessment of the strategies and the ability to learn and improve.

Genetic divergence was studied using Mahalanobis D2 statistics in a set of 68 bread wheat genotypes using 14 quantitative traits. On the basis of which, these genotypes were grouped into 10 clusters. Inter-cluster distances ranged from 4.67 (cluster III and VI) to 15.33 (cluster VIII and IX) and were more than intra-cluster distances which ranged from 0 (cluster X) to 9.25 (cluster II).

In the present study, rhizospheric soil samples were collected from Cajanus cajan cultivated field from Hailakandi district of Assam, India. A total of thirteen (13) bacterial strains were isolated and identified on the basis of their morphological and biochemical characteristics and classified as Pseudomonas sp., Klebsiella sp., Bacillus sp. and Staphyllococcus sp.. All the strains were unable to solubilize phosphate and showed sensitivity against different antibiotics such as amikacin, tetracycline, streptomycin and gentamycin.

In this technologically savvy world, we witness mushrooming of sophisticated line of softwares that are extensively used for predicting epitopes towards developing vaccines and therapeutics. However, most softwares also generate bulky junk data along with data of interest. Here we devised a combined usage of B cell epitope prediction softwares- ABCpred along with additional online tools such as CLUSTAL W and Sequence Manipulation Suite for stringent selection of B cell epitopes.

Experiment was conducted in field to study the influence interaction of B. subtilis bacteria and T. harzianum fungi with AM fungi G. mosseae in growth and yield parameters of cucumber Cucumis sativus. The present study showed that the relationship between B. subtilis and T. harzianum with G. mosseae was positive due to getting a significant increase in the number of spores and the percentage of colonization and the infection index of AM fungi and interaction among (G. mosseae + B. subtilis + T. harzianum) give highest increase in the number of G.

The effect of three fungicides namely Indofil, Bavistin and biofungicide on mitotic index, chromosomal abnormalities, seed protein content, radicle-plumule length variation on lentil (Lens culinaris Medik) were assessed through a seed treatment experiments. Seeds treated with different doses (0.5%, 1%, 2%) of the three fungicides (above mentioned) solution along with control set. The systemtic fungicides (indofil & bavistin) treated seeds have the ability to induce mitotic abnormalities in large number at 2% concentration, in contrast to biofungicide, which is less toxic.

Sugarcane (Saccharum spp. complex) is an important cash crop of sugar industry. It is generally grown in tropics; however its productivity depends on the varieties cultivated from different maturity group, the agro-climatic conditions of the region and cultural practices followed. The subtropical region for sugarcane cultivation occupies about 50 per cent of the national area.

Chromolena odorata roots are used by traditional healers in Western Ghats for treating inflammation and tumor suppression. Hence the study tries to validate the use, by invitro antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and inovo anti-angiogenic activities. Virtual screening of active constituents of C.odorata was done using admet SAR an online web tool followed by molecular docking using autodock. Plant extract had a total phenol content of 30mg/g GAE.

The study was designed to prepare whey herbal spice mixture, which was used as constituent of Pani Puri. Pani puri a spicy food item liked by many Indian peoples and it is popular throughout India. Puri is puffed made round, made up of wheat flour which is consumed after filling it with sour, hot and spicy chilled water known as pani. Pani is consumed with Puri utilizing whey at the place of water, by adding some flavor of whey. Whey is a by-product obtained during coagulation of milk by using acid.

Neutrophil from the malarial (Plasmodium yoelii) infection was isolated by Ficoll-Hypaque and Dextran sedimentation method, the viability of neutrophil was assessed by trypan blue to be 95-98%. The viable neutrophil follows apoptosis and modulates the myeloperoxidase (MPO) activity. Our data suggesting that, the malarial infection inhibits MPO activity of neutrophil. During P. yoelii infection, the induction of apoptosis was found in neutrophils using FACS.

Vegetation is a vital component of the natural environment. Terrestrial vegetation includes natural ecosystems, such as native forests and woodlands, shrub lands, grasslands and wetlands. Information on land cover is fundamental to many national/global applications including watershed management and agricultural productivity. Thus, the need to monitor land cover is derived from multiple intersecting drivers, including the physical climate, ecosystem health, and societal needs. Tropical forests have undergone rapid land cover changes especially in the last few decades.

The attitude of an industry towards environment protection is influenced by the manner its constituents are organized. Dominated by small-scale units, with limited technical expertise and financial resources, the tanning industry is insular by nature. To address these issues, a study with pilot plant results were addressed to identify the reasons for high organics, particularly, the COD in the treated effluent remaining higher than the desired limits of membrane manufactures.

Rhodamine B (RhB), one of the toxic dyes which are extensively used for dyestuffs, textile, paper and plastics industries. RhB does not easily biodegrades in aqueous medium and show harmful effect on aquatic as well as human life. In the present work adsorption studies of RhB onto cardboard (CB) was examined in aqueous solution at 28ºC with the effect of pH, dye concentrations and contact time. Highest 68% uptake efficiency recorded was for 10 mg/L solution concentration onto 25mg of cardboard.

Sauerkraut fermentation is usually carried out in the presence of high sodium chloride amounts. However, nowadays consumers who prefer to consume a healthy product would opt for a low sodium content food with additional health benefits. Therefore, in the present study, sauerkraut was fermented with the addition of 0.5 % garlic, 0.1 % pepper and of 1.5 % non-iodized sodium chloride. The phytochemical and antioxidant activity of reduced salt spicy sauerkraut was evaluated. Results indicate that the pH of sauerkraut brine ranged between 5.0 to 3.57 over a period of 28 days fermentation.

The corrosion and inhibition behaviour of mild steel in 0.5M H2SO4 in the presence of Sodiumlignosulphonate (SLS) has been investigated. The inhibitor effect of this naturally occurring SLS on the corrosion of mild steel in 0.5M H2SO4 was studied by weight loss , potentiodynamic polarization and electrochemical impedance spectroscopic methods. The inhibition efficiency of SLS on corrosion of mild steel in 0.5M H2SO4 is very good. The result of the different techniques confirmed the adsorption of SLS on the mild steel surface as the cause for the inhibition effect.

Spring back is the major issue in the bending of tubes. Presently trial and error methods are followed in the production of components for compensating the spring back problem. This takes an ample amount of time and money for the industries. More quantity of components gets rejected due to this problem. So this makes the companies to go for a solution to this problem. In this project the spring back analysis of hollow cylindrical tubes of various thickness and diameter is made.

Removal of cadmium ions from aqueous solution using burned palm tree leaves powder (solid) was performed through batch studies. pH, contact time, metal concentration, dosage of solid and particle size of solid were studied to investigate the optimum conditions for removal percent and the maximum removal capacity of CdII. High removal percent was achieved at best parameters determined as follow: pH = 8.9, solid particle size= 75 µm, contact time= 120min, shaking rate= 300 rpm and cadmium concentration (Co)= 90ppm.

The present paper examines the Depth to Groundwater levels and stage of the groundwater development in the study area of Kalyandurg, Anantapur District of Andhra Pradesh. The Depth to Water levels (DTW) for pre and post monsoon period of 2000 and 2012 year assessed.

Bi2S3 thin films have been prepared with different deposition time and temperature by chemical bath deposition method. The influence of deposition time and temperature of Bi2S3 films on I-V characteristics are investigated. The current increase with increase of the film thickness and current is directly proportional to the applied voltage. The decrease in resistivity is due to the improvement in the crystallinity of films, which increases the conductivity. It exhibits semiconducting nature of the films.

Molecular Dynamics (MD) simulations is computational methods of studying physical movements of molecules, atoms in Nitrogen body. Montecarlo method of simulating the molecules are more common and widely used for bio-molecules on other hand it is numerical methods of predicting the realistic motion of the atoms in biological system. In this current study ,collagen the commercial important peptides were chosen for the molecular modeling studies in Insilco analysis.

In the present work, three esters were prepared by esterification of acrylic acid with alcohols having long different alkyl chain length. The structures of the prepared compounds were confirmed by Infra Red Spectroscopy. Three polymeric compounds were prepared by free radical polymerization of the different acrylate ester with vinyl acetate. All the prepared copolymers were soluble in lube oil. The molecular weights of the prepared compounds were determined by Gel Permeation Chromatography.

The aim of this paper is to examine the relationship between provision of sufficient physical and human resources and academic performance in primary schools. The paper is based on a study conducted in Central Nyanza Region, in the Counties of Siaya and Kisumu. The study employed the mixed methods approach and was conducted using descriptive survey design. The instruments used to collect data included questionnaire, interview guides and observation checklist. The sample was selected using stratified and simple random sampling.

A unique feature of African Architecture is that buildings derive entirely from, or are products of their immediate environment. This architecture has often been dubbed primitive, retrogressive and belonging to the poverty-stricken. This derision, mostly by Africans themselves, has not helped the development of African Architecture; nor its rightful contribution to international architecture. Is the philosophy and content of African architecture so terribly at variance with the so-called modern aspiration?

The occurrence of some events as development of global competition, progress of IT and access to cheap information systems in recent years and the attempt of economic unit to achieve the global rank and entering the international markets and the customer satisfactison attitude has made the activities of management necessary. Indeed, the success of continuance of the activity in new competitive environment required using new methods of putting business in the global rank.

Sputum Desirable governance includes principles such as transparency, governance of law, equity, efficiency and capability and believes that if the above elements are achieved, it will result in increasing efficiency and ability of governance system leading to a comprehensive development and democracy. Iran’s administrative system must appropriately adopt itself and provide its implementation. For example, the administrative system must refrain from unilateral decisions in the light of the governance of law and provide the ground for participation in the administration of the country.

This research paper examines the service quality delivered by four major airlines in India on the backdrop of stiff competition in the airline service sector. The analysis results will serve as the basis for airlines to improve their service Strategies in response to customer needs. The main purpose of this study is to the proposed method has been applied in the India’s International AIR market analysis through a comprehensive passenger survey.

Industrial development has immense potential for providing decent work for a large number of people. Particularly, the textile industry creates ample jobs for urban dwellers. In the context of Ethiopia, there have not been adequate studies that investigated the role of the textile and garment industries in providing decent work to people. The objective of this paper was to examine the role of Almeda Textile Factory (ALTEX) in providing decent work to its employees.

This research has been conducted to assess factors affecting customers’ attitude towards foreign brand footwear products. And it is discovered that customers’ have positive attitude towards foreign footwear products. Different factors have contributed for the customers to have positive attitude towards such products.

The study sought to assess the perception of quality of the electoral process in Ghana using the Tamale Metropolis as a case study. This was achieved by measuring and comparing the expectations and perceptions of voters using the SERVQUAL scores. 179 voters responded to the questionnaires used in the survey. The results showed that voters’ expectations about quality election were very high. The voters’ perception on the performance of the electoral commission was also found to be below their expectations. The study recommended improvements across all the five dimensions.

Entrepreneurship is one of the most important inputs in the economic development of a country or a region. Entrepreneurship development among women is considered as a possible approach economic empowerment of women. In India women entrepreneurship are considered as “necessity entrepreneurship” rather than “opportunity entrepreneurship” The main aim of livelihood promotion is to increase household income the initial stage is forming hamlet level Self-Help Groups with rural poor women to save women from financial exploitation.

This papers aims to examine the knowledge and use of contraceptives among tribal women and also to investigate the impact of spatial, socio-economic and demographic variables on the knowledge and use of contraceptive methods. This study is based on the primary data, collected from the 800 ever married tribal women of ten districts of South-East Rajasthan. SPSS 19.0 has been employed for the analyses purpose. Bivariate analysis reveals that knowledge of various contraceptive methods varies across the socio- cultural and economic strata.

Pterocarpus marsupium belonging to the family Fabaceae is distributed in deciduous forest throughout the India. Germination of fresh seeds was reported to be low due to their hard fruit coat. Experiments were conducted on the role of fruit coat in restriction of germination and to test whether the seeds have any physical dormancy. Imbibition test was performed to determine water uptake of seeds with intact fruit coat, scarified fruits, and extracted seeds. No significant difference in percentage increase in mass was observed between scarified and non-scarified fruits.

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