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December 2015

  1. Fariba Tabari, Morteza Khaghanizade, Nahid Dehghan Nayeri and Soheil Najafi Mehri

    Introduction: One of the challenges of the elderly population is the increasing number of elderly people. Over time, elder lies face problems in social relationships. The lack of social interaction and isolation may influence the quality of life of elder lies. The purpose of this study is to identify these concerns of Iranian elder lies by a qualitative approach. Methods: This study is a qualitative research based on a qualitative content analysis in the form of contractual approach. Data is collected by in-depth semi-structured interviews face to face with elder lies living in Tehran. The interviews are digitally recorded and transferred to MAXQDA. For data analysis, qualitative content analysis is used in the form of contractual approach. Results: Data analysis shows concerns of the participants in two themes: human dignity and self-care. These themes are extracted from basic propositions and semantic classifications under the main classes. The subcategories of the themes show concerns of the elder lies. Conclusions: The results on the concerns of the elderly, the need to explain two important phenomena in old age: one of them "elderly dignity" and other "self-care" program. Maintaining the dignity of elder lies is the duty of all members of society, including the families and health givers.

  2. Sh. Fathizadeh, Hamidi, R., Gheysvandy, E., Amirsardari, M., Akbarzade, A., Alipour, M and Azadbakht, M.

    Introduction Importance of children's mental health issues at personality evolution and the impact of dysfunctional behavioral responses during this period make it clear that there is a need to interpretation. Hence, in this field, assessment and screening is a one of the fundamental solution in order to identifying the problems. The present study was designed and conducted to assess the behavioral responses. Methods :This descriptive-analytic study was conducted with random and available sampling of 240 students (both girl and son) in the range of 9-16 years old (from Tehran preps and secondary schools-2015) using the scale of dysfunctional behavior, feeling and thoughts. The ANOVA, Kruskal-Wallis, Chi-square, Fisher and U Mann – Whitney tests, were used for analysis. Findings Results have shown that intensity of dysfunctional behavioral, emotional and intellectual responses were observed in 61.6% of the samples. The frequency and intensity were higher in girls than boys. This situation was true about 73.7% of girls and 50% boys. Conclusion: As for involving the large number of students with dysfunctional behavioral disorders, screening seemed to be necessary for identifying these individuals and referrals them to consulting centers because of diagnosis disorder, and interventions – educational treatment.

  3. Kirupakar, B.R., DR. Vishwanath, B.A., Padma Sree, M., Shwetha, R and Prasanna Sagar

    A number of novel drug delivery systems have emerged by various routes of administration, to achieve controlled and targeted drug delivery, magnetic drug delivery system being one of them which include magnetic microspheres, magnetic liposomes, magnetic nanoparticles, magnetic resealed erythrocytes, magnetic emulsion and others. Magnetic microspheres& molecular magnetic labels have been used for great number of application in various areas of biosciences, targeted drug delivery, imaging and in bioseparation technology. This review summarize about application of magnetism in targeted non invasive drug delivery system of magnetic microspheres. Over the years, magnetic drug delivery system have been investigated for targeted drug delivery especially magnetic targeted chemotherapy due to their better tumor targeting, therapeutic efficacy, lower toxicity and flexibility to be tailored for varied desirable purposes.

  4. Paramasivan, S. and Geetha Ramesh

    The pituitary gland and mammary glands of 30 Madras red ewes of different age groups were utilized for the current study. Two types of acidophils were identified in the pars distalis adenohypophysis. The size of type I acidophils (orangeophils) ranged from 9.30 ± 0.22 µm in dry animals to 9.90 ± 0.28 µm in pubertal animals. The number of these cells was more in pregnant (1866 ± 95.85 cells/mm2) and lactating (1687 ± 62.41 cells/mm2) animals when compared to dry (1650 ± 108.92 cells/mm2) age groups in sheep. The size of type II acidophils (carminophils) ranged from 9.15 ± 0.26 µm in prepubertal age to 10.05 ± 0.29 µm in lactating sheep. The average number of type II acidophils in prepubertal sheep was 550 ± 34.88 cells/mm2 which increased gradually upto lactation (2043 ± 107.48 cells/mm2) but showed marked decrease in dry animals (1269 ± 117.71 cells/mm2). The alveolar size was 39.88 ± 1.39 µm in pregnant sheep, 106.05 ± 14.70 µm in lactating sheep but decreased significantly to 32.45 ± 1.64 µm in the mammary glands of dry sheep. The increased number and size of the lobulo-alveolar system in mammary glands of pregnant and lactating sheep may be correlated with the corresponding increase in the number and secretory activity of somatotrophs in adenohypohysis of hypophysis cerebri of Madras red sheep.

  5. Abdulrahman Alrizqi, Yahia H. Mohammed and Roula Albounni

    Background: The concept of smile design represents complex interaction between skeletal, dental and soft tissue structures of the face. Facial appearance of an individual’s smile is net interaction of these components. Aim: Purpose of the study is to highlight traditionally accepted smile design concepts with additional newer parameters incorporated in the esthetic treatment of the patients. Methods: Literature search was carried out by using various search engines (Pubmed, Google scholar, EBESCO) and articles reporting general facial analysis, dento-facial analysis, dento-labial analysis, dento-gingival analysis and dental analysis were appraised. Conclusion: Smile design is an individualized concept requiring consideration of many parameters. Therefore, careful diagnosis, analysis of various hard and soft tissue parameters should be part in the treatment of smile design while keeping in mind the esthetics and function. Multi-disciplinary approach towards smile design in consultation with different dental specialties can aid in better designing of smile and facial esthetics

  6. Dr. Firdous Ansari

    According to World Health Organization (WHO) prevalence of diabetes will be increase 35% between 1995 and 2025, worldwide. Various studies documented that Asian countries too have the highest prevalence of gestational diabetes mellitus, which have its effect on Maternal-fetal outcomes. This study is a review of studies, concerning with outcome of pregnancies of mothers with and without exposure of diabetes.

  7. Evaluation of diagnostic efficacy of Creatine Kinase and Lactate dehydrogenase in Thyroid disorders

    Thyroid hormones are involved in controlling various metabolisms in the body and imbalance in their production causes many metabolic processes to slow down and affects the entire metabolism. Present study was conducted at S.M.S Medical College, Jaipur aimed to evaluate biochemical parameters Creatine kinase (CK) and Lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) in diagnosing thyroid disorders along with thyroid-stimulating hormone [TSH], tri-iodothyronine [T3] and thyroxine [T4]. 50 hypothyroid and 50 hyperthyroid patients were compared with 75 age, sex and socioeconomic status matched healthy controls. In Hypothyroid patient significant increase in level of CK and LDH were found compared to control while in Hyperthyroid patient CK and LDH were on lower side. These findings suggest that Creatine kinase and Lactate dehydrogenase can be used as parameters for screening along with thyroid profile.

  8. Amita Tiwari, Shukla, P.C., Devendra Kumar Gupta, Baghel, R.P.S., Varsha Sharma and Jitendra Shivhare

    The present work was aimed to study the seroprevalence of contagious agalactia in goats. For this study, total 705 lactating goats belonging to organized and unorganized sectors of in and around areas of Jabalpur (M.P.) were screened by slide agglutination test over a period of 12 months i.e. from April 2014 to March 2015. The overall seroprevalence of contagious agalactia was 9.50%. Seroprevalence of contagious agalactia in organised goat farms was observed higher (19.65%) than in unorganised sector of goatry (4.62%). The age wise seroprevalence of contagious agalactia revealed a non-significant variation among various age groups. However, breed wise seroprevalence of contagious agalactia showed significant variation (p<0.05) among various breeds of goats but comparatively lower prevalence was observed in those breeds of which were reared in unorganized sector.

  9. Manimaran, A., Vasudevan, R., Murugan, S., Pugal, U., Rajan, K.P., Muhammed Khaleel, A. and Rajaraman, P.

    Background: Tuberculosis is one of the biggest enigma facing mankind and it is the 5th most common cause of death worldwide. The present study aims at: 1.Studying the patients knowledge about tuberculosis, 2.Estimating the time taken for the patients to approach any health care system after their onset of symptoms, 3.Estimating the time taken by the health care system to process the samples collected and confirm the diagnosis of tuberculosis,4.Estimating the time taken by the health care system to start the treatment regimen once the patient has been diagnosed with tuberculosis. Methods: Patients of seriously ill pulmonary & extra pulmonary tuberculosis those who are admitted in Thoracic Medicine department Ward , in Thanjavur Government Medical College Hospital, were confirmed by sputum smear examination , chest X ray and CT chest. Results: A total of 50 tuberculosis patients were involved in this study. The patients were asked to answer a set of questions from a standard questionnaire (USAID TB Care - II ).The study identified that only 32% had some awareness about tuberculosis, its causes, symptoms, mode of spread, diagnostic facilities and the treatment modalities available for it. The remaining 68% didn't have awareness about tuberculosis. It is observed from the study that 26% of the patients took 1-2 weeks to approach a health care system after the onset of symptoms , 32% of the patients took 2-4 weeks and 42% took more than 1 month. For26% of the patients, the health care system took 1-6 days to confirm the diagnosis of tuberculosis , for 32% it took 1-4 weeks and for 42% it took more than 1 month. About 6% of people are presented with severe life threatening condition like hydropneumothorax and 60 % of people were consulted first in government health provider in that only 32 % people only got the information regarding tuberculosis , remaining 68% of people are unaware about the symptoms and TB treatment . Poor Accessibility for TB diagnosing health facility (per 1 lakh population), for that people have to travel minimum of 10-15 km to reach the GH/ Block PHC /CHC. Conclusion: The present study findings clearly indicates that the knowledge about tuberculosis among patients is not sufficient and this was the cause for delay in the patients to approach the health care system after the onset of symptoms. There was also a delay in the health care system to confirm the diagnosis of tuberculosis in the patients. However, majority of the health care Provider are not giving the adequate information regarding Tuberculosis and Follow up. Thus, the study emphasizes the 1).Need for creating awareness about tuberculosis among the public, right from school level.2).Should create awareness through media (cinema theatres & TV) like Tobacco control.3).Should create the facility for diagnosis of Tuberculosis in all primary health centre level and immediately starting the treatment their itself.

  10. Kaushal Kishore Chandrul and Bhuwanendra Singh

    Aim of the study is to explore the biological as well as chemical potentials of the solanum xanthocapum and to focus that drug still needed some more attention for identifying its new chemical constituents and medicinal values. In this research drug is studied more extensively regarding their macroscopic and microscopic characters (organoleptic & histological evaluation), as well as phytochemical and physicochemical examination to standardize the drug, and its concluded that drug contain different chemical compounds such Alkaloid, carbohydrates, amino acids, flavanoid, etc.

  11. Engy Mohamed, SamaaTaha, Mona Atwa, Gehan El-Hadidy and Hesham Nada

    Our case-control study was conducted at dermatology clinics and microbiology laboratory at Suez- Canal University Hospitals, Ismailia, Egypt to determine the microbial agents involved in the acne vulgaris, the prevalenceof P. acnes strains isolated from acne patients and healthy control groups and their antibiotic susceptibility patterns. Thirty eight acne patients (study group) were assessed according to the Acne Global Severity Scale (AGSS).The control group included 20 healthy subjects with matched age, gender and swab location of the study group. The samples were obtained by a sterile swab and then inserted into a transport medium. In the microbiology lab; microbial agents and P. acnes were isolated, identified and antibiotic susceptibility of each isolate was determined by disk diffusion method. According to AGSS,34.2% of the patients had mild acne, 42.1% had moderate acne, 15.8% had severe acne and 7.9% of them had very severe acne. The most frequent detected microorganisms in patients and controls were S. epidermidis (71.1% versus 35%, respectively), followed by P. acnes (18.4% versus 10%, respectively) and then S. aureus (10.5% versus 5%, respectively).There was significantly higher incidence of P. acnes in moderate (57.1%) and severe (28.6%) cases of acne in comparison to mild cases (14.3%) (p=0.0005). The most sensitive antibiotic was doxycycline (76.3%), followed by azithromycin (65.8%), tetracycline (60.5%), erythromycin (52.6%) and lastly clindamycin (50%). Selection of appropriate antibiotics is highly important in order to decrease antibiotic resistance rates and treatment failure.

  12. Shah Alam, Mohammad Akhtar Siddiqui and Mohammad Maaz

    Chronic diseases have become a major public health problem accounting for 60% of all deaths worldwide. In India, the projected number of deaths due to chronic disease was around 5.21 million in 2008 and is expected to rise to 7.63 million in 2020 (66.7% of all deaths). Globally, chronic kidney disease (CKD) is the 12th cause of death and the 17th cause of disability, respectively. Unani medicine is an ancient system of medicine which advocates the treatment of chronic disease with drugs of natural origin. Ancient Unani physician Hippocrates (460-375BC) recognized for the first time kidney as a vital organ responsible for urine formation [3]. Unani literature described kidney disease in detail based on ancient pathology of disease along with complete management which is still in practice. As per Unani concept kidney has been provided by four ordinary powers viz. Quwwate Jazibah (absorptive power), Quwwate Hazimah (digestive power), Quwwate Masikah (retentive power) and Quwwate Dafiah (power of expulsion) and one unique power i.e. Quwwate Momaiyazah (power of discrimination) upon which normal functioning of kidney is based. Also, there are four types of abnormalities that take place in kidney viz. Amraz Sue Mizaj, Amraz Sue Tarkeeb, Amraz Sudda and Amraze Tafarruque Ittesal which forms the basis of all renal diseases. The term Zauf-e-kuliya is used to describe deranged kidney functions resulting into bol-e-ghussali (proteinuria). This paper is an attempt of understanding the ancient Unani patho-physiological concept of chronic kidney disease for finding an alternative solution of the problem.

  13. Manisha Bhatt Dwivedi, Saranjeet Singh, Thakur, J. R. and Muskan Dogra

    Introduction: Local anaesthetic agent when injected intrathecally provides excellent anaesthesia and analgesia. The aim of our study was to investigate the efficacy of dexmedetomidine as an adjuvant to local anaesthetic bupivacaine, given intrathecally for intra-operative as well as for post-operative analgesia. Method: A total of Hundred adult patients of ASA grade I&II, undergoing lower limb and lower abdominal surgeries under sub-arachnoid block were selected. Group A(n=50) were given 2.5ml of 0.5% hyperbaric Bupivacaine and 1ml of 0.9% normal saline intrathecally. Group B (n=50) were given 2.5ml of 0.5% Bupivacaine and 10micrograms of Dexmedetomidine. In both groups total volume of drug was 3.5 ml. Time for onset of sensory block, time taken to peak sensory block, total duration of analgesia and time taken to maximum motor blockade were noted. Haemodynamic parameters were also assessed. Result: Statistically significant decrease in mean heart rate, systolic and mean diastolic B.P was seen in group B. Fast onset of sensory blockade, fast achievement of peak sensory blockade, prolong duration of analgesia and less time to achieve maximum motor blockade are statistically significant in group B as compared to group A. Conclusion: Addition of Dexmedetomidine to Bupivacaine for intrathecal injection leads to fast and dense neuraxial block and the hypotension is within physiological limits.

  14. Maajid Shabeer Peerzada, Nayyaran Dildar Malik and Sulaiman sath

    Background: Medial epicondylitis is a common disorder, although less common than tennis elbow but difficult to treat than lateral epicondylitis and as of now no consensus exists as to the most appropriate management strategy for medial epicondylitis. Aim: To compare the outcome of different nonsurgical treatment modalities in medial epicondylitis. Conclusion: In this study, although corticosteroid showed an early advantage but long-term follow-up results were better for autologous blood group.

  15. Dr. Jonna Uday Bhaskar, Dr. Parth A. Vaishnav, Dr. Holebasu Ballur and Dr. Rohini R Pattanshetti

    Joubert syndrome is a rare autosomal recessive disorder characterized by abnormal respiratory pattern and eye movements, hypotonia, ataxia, developmental retardation with neuropathologic abnormalities of cerebellum and brainstem including inherited hypoplasia or aplasia of vermis. The reported prevalence is less than 1 in 100,000. Cross-sectional axial imaging demonstrates isolated abnormality of the cerebellum, consisting of: • small dysplastic or aplastic cerebellar vermis • absence of fibre decussation in the superior cerebellar peduncles and pyramidal tracts , which can be assessed by diffusion tensor imaging • abnormal inferior olivary nucleus • dysplasia and heterotopia of cerebellar nuclei The posterior fossa typically shows a bat wing 4th ventricle and prominent thickened elongated superior cerebellar peduncles giving characteristic molar tooth sign like appearance. In a minority of cases minor lateral ventriculomegaly (6 - 20% of cases), and corpuscallosal dysgenesis (6-10% of cases) is also present.

  16. Kadidiatou Raissa Kourouma and Sagou Patrick Olivier Yayo

    Introduction: In a context of constrained health-care resources, the use of generics medicines is an opportunity for savings. The study, with multifaceted purpose, aimed to investigate among generalist physician, the perception, use and prescription of generics and also identify the factors influencing their decision of prescribing generic medicines. Materiel and Methods: This is a descriptive, cross-sectional study was conducted in the health region of Abidjan 2, with 170 generalist physician selected at random and working in private or public sector. A face to face questionnaire was drawn up with closed and opened questions. All the collected data were entered into EPI INFO 7. Results: Two-thirds of the respondents expressed that they believed in generics medicines effectiveness, bioequivalence, quality and safety. The main information source about generic medicine was pharmaceutical sales representatives. In their practice, the generalist physician working in public sector prescribed more generic medicines (p=0.041). The cost of medicines was the most important factor taken into consideration about generic prescription. Conclusion: Even if the study demonstrated good perceptions of generics medicines, health authorities should promote towards policies the rational use of generic medicine notably in the private sector.

  17. Sanjeev Kumar, Ashima Badyal and Annil Mahajan

    Osteoarthritis (OA) is considered the most common disorder of the musculoskeletal system and the greatest cause of disability in both developed and the so-called emerging countries. Since the population is aging, the prevalence of OA has increased, and its consequences have a great socio-economic impact. This study is aimed at assessing the frequency of the association of comorbidities in patients, as well as the impact of such associations on the physical function of patients. The present prospective study was conducted on 100 such patients, presenting with signs and symptoms of knee OA attending Medicine and Orthopaedics OPDs in the Government Medical College, Jammu for a period of one year. All the routine investigations along with x-ray of knees were done and graded on Kellgren-Lawrence Grading Scale. Hypertension was the common comorbidity present in the study population followed by obesity, dyslipidemia, diabetes mellitus, etc. Majority of the patients were having two comorbidities and 82% of the patients were having, at least, one comorbidity. The presence of comorbidities increased physical disability in OA patients. The treatment of such comorbidities in OA patients would, thus, be crucial to reduce the impact on physical disability, and, consequently, enhance the quality of life of the individuals.

  18. Richa Mahajan, Chitra Kataria and Kshitija Bansal

    Background: Neck pain is a common problem which can lead to difficulty in activities. There is lack of evidence to allow conclusions to be drawn about the effectiveness of Muscle energy technique (MET) when compared with stretching exercises on neck disability index. It would be interesting to study if these two techniques yield comparable outcomes and if one technique is superior to the next which should be the alternate choice of therapy. Subjects and methods: 45 patients with subacute mechanical neck pain were randomly assigned to group1, group 2 and group 3. Intervention: Group 1 received 6 sessions of Muscle Energy Technique and 10 sessions of conventional physiotherapy. Group 2 received 6 sessions of static stretching and 10 sessions of conventional physiotherapy. Group 3 received 10 sessions of conventional physiotherapy. All groups were treated for 2 weeks. Outcome measures: Neck disability index scores (NDI). Results: Paired t-test was used for within group analysis. ANOVA followed by post hoc analysis was employed for between group comparisons. No significant difference (p > 0.05) was found on NDI scores between the 3 groups. Statistically significant improvements were found in all the 3 groups for NDI scores (p < 0.05). Discussion and conclusion: The results of this study indicates that both the muscle energy technique and static stretching are equally effective in reducing the neck disability as there is no significant difference between two groups. The MET and static stretching groups demonstrated superior treatment effects to the conventional physiotherapy group on NDI scores.

  19. Shraddha Mondal

    In the last two decades a huge repertoire of research on the anticancer activity of organo sulfur compounds derived from Allium sativum (Garlic) has provided critical insight about the potential of garlic as a potent anticancer agent. Allyl sulfur compounds from garlic not only has been shown to be a chemotherapeutic compound but also, based on a number of in-vitro, in-vivo and case controlled population based studies, that it has a chemo preventive activity and showing inverse relation with the intake of garlic and incidence of cancer. Garlic has been shown to have inhibitory effect in different types of cancer that include carcinoma, sarcoma, myeloma and leukemia, having same molecular targets in the respective phase of regulatory and cell demise events, a feature highly desirous of current and future anticancer drug. Garlic has basically been shown to arrest cell cycle at the G2/M check point and induce apoptosis by cell cycle dependent or independent manner. This review contains the brief highlight of the chemistry of the organo sulfur compounds (OSC) from garlic that have anticancer property and detailed elucidation of the function of G2/M cell cycle checkpoint regulating molecules (Cyclin B1, Cdc25, Cdk 1, p53, Microtubule), apoptosis regulators infesting multiple signaling pathways that include cell survival pathway (Bcl-2, Bcl-xL, XIAP), mitochondrial pathways, and protein kinase pathway (JNK, Akt) and how these event regulators are modulated by the allyl sulfur compounds of the garlic culminating in the cell cycle arrest and apoptosis of the immortal cells.

  20. Dana Katia Meschede, Gabriele do Prado Borges, Eli Carlos de Oliveira, Marli de Moraes Gomes and José Roberto Pinto de Souza

    Sunn hemp (Crotalaria juncea L.) is a tropical legume that could be an important summer cover crop, it has the potential for suppressing both crops and weeds. The objective of this study was to evaluate the allelopathic effect of sunn hemp in different spacing intervals and densities, in the germination of corn, beans, rice, soybeans and weeds. The study was conducted in Cáceres/MT and Paraguaçu Paulista/SP. Sunn hemp was planted to obtain matter for the extraction of allele chemical compounds and the suppressive effect from growing sunn hemp on the weeds on the crops in the field. The corn, bean, rice, soybean and bitter grass seeds were the bio-indicators. There were two spacing intervals (0.25 m and 0.50 m) and three densities (25, 40 and 50 plants m-1) evaluated the sunn hemp height, density, dry weight of weeds (g/m2) and the germination and root length of the planted specie seedlings. The reduction of sunn hemp plant spacing reduces the growth of weeds in the field that directly interfere in the germination and growth of seedlings. The crops display different sensitivity to the concentration of sunn hemp extracts, bean extract displays the greatest sensitivity to the extract, even at the lowest concentration, when compared to corn and rice, as it also affects the root. No significant interference was present in soybean extracts. Bitter grass has reduced germination from the extracts and increased numbers of abnormal plants.

  21. Srinivasa Murthy, K., Syeda Lubna, Kumar, A.R.V., Venkatesan, T., Jalali, S.K. and Abraham Verghese

    The root grubs Holotrichia serrata Fabricius, Holotrichia consanguinea Blanchard, Holotrichia reynaudi Blanchard, Leucopholis lepidophora Burmeister and Anomala dimidiata Hope ,were reared on sliced carrots under laabortory conditions. Ambient temperature of 26+10C and 65% RH with food availability ad-libitum provided for successful rearing of the grubs. Biological attributes varied among the different species and the grub stage had three instars irrespective of the species. The average life cycle of L.lepidophora and A.dimidiata was completed in 291.8 and 301.9 days, respectively as compared to the Holotrichia species, where the duration ranged between 110.2 to 218.3 days. H.consanguinea had the highest average longevity of 38.6 days followed by H.reynaudi with 32.4 days. Fecundity of the root grubs ranged from 30-56 eggs/female. The benefit of laboratory rearing for taxonomic delineation of grub species and bioassay studies are discussed.

  22. Yasmin, F., Chutia, B.C., Nath, C., Sultana, S. and Borkataki, S.

    The quality of food has got a direct influence on the health, growth, development and survival of silkworm. Most of the food plants may contain all the nutritional requirements but the quantity of each nutrient may not be well balanced for proper growth and development of silkworm. The nutritional status as well as growth and development of insect varied on different host plants. The present investigation deals with rearing of Antheraea frithi M. and foliar constituents of Terminalia arjuna Roxb., a newly reported host plant for A. frithi. The foliar constituents of Terminalia arjuna, viz. total nitrogen (2.88 ± 0.04 %), total soluble protein (12.77 ± 0.38 %), crude protein (18 ± 0.70 %), phosphorous (22.02 ± 0.36 ppm/gm), potassium (18.8 ± 0.46 ppm/gm), crude fiber (33 ± 0.59 %), cellulose (12.33 ± 0.40 %), total ash content (12.33 ± 0.40 %) moisture content (68 ± 0.71 %) were recorded during the rearing season i.e. July-August. Although A. frithi is a wild temperate tasar silkworm and so far not commercially exploited, hence, there is an ample scope to introduce Terminalia arjuna as a new host plant along with other host plants and it will accomplished the conservation of silkworm as well as host plant at significant level.

  23. Systemic studies on the different germplasms of turmeric (Curcuma longa L) in West Bengal

    The present investigation entitled “Systemic studies on the different germplasms of Turmeric (Curcuma longa L ) in West Bengal” was conducted at Horticultural Research Station, Mandouri, Bidhan Chandra Krishi Viswavidyalaya, Nadia, West Bengal during 2013-14 and 2014-15. The design adopted was Randomised Block Design (RBD) having 3 replications with 13 treatments. The germplasm under evaluation were RCE-3, Rajendra Sonia, Duggirala, Alleppy Supreme, Roma, NH-l, Suranjana, BSR-2, Pratibha, Kedaram, Rashmi, Megha Turmeric, Midnapur local. The investigation revealed that Maximum plant height (1.29 mt) was recorded in Rajendra Sonia and it was minimum(0.8 mt) in Midnapur ( local cv.). Leaf production varies from 9.09-18.61 and it was highest in Roma. Maximum leaf length was recorded in Rajendra Sonia (48.58cm) and it was minimum in Midnapur (local cv.) (27.77cm). The result obtained in this investigation clearly showed that maximum weight of mother rhizomes per clump(120.23gm),primary rhizome per clump( 143.83 gm), minimum weight of mother rhizome per clump(74.22gm), primary rhizome per clump(80.67 gm) .On the other hand maximum yield per ha was obtained in the germplasm Rajendra Sonia (31.965 ton/ ha) and it was minimum in Midnapur( local cv.) (14.285 ton/ha). In qualitative character the curcumin percentage was recorded highest with germplasm RCE-3 (4.21%) followed by Rajendra Sonia(4.075%) and it was minimum in Kedaram( 1.015%)

  24. Dineshraj, D. and Ganesh, P.

    Polythene wastes accumulating in the environment are posing an ever increasing ecological threat. Naturally colonized microorganisms play a vital role in biodegradation of polyethylene, depending on the environmental conditions. This study represents biodegradability of native bacterial strains in the municipal waste landfill sites. Samples from various landfill sites of polyethylene films were collected from Cuddalore district. The morphological characteristics of various colonies of bacteria were observed, the isolated were screened for the biodegradability and were identified using staining, biochemical characterization and 16SrRNA sequencing techniques. Twenty different bacterial strains were isolated among these, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, (37.56 %) recorded maximum weight loss were observed followed by Bacillus sp. (32.70 %), Alcaligens sp. (31.33 %), Bacillus anthracis (26.83 %) and Shigella sonnei (25.30 %) were estimated. Two novel bacteria Bacillus sp and Alcaligens sp. were ultimately degraded polyethylene films and posing important role in polymer degradation.

  25. Subhash Kumar, Priya Bhatt, Garima Gulati, Poonam, Dr. Meena, Mrs. Kanchan Ahuja, Dr. Reba Chhabra and Dr. Surinder Singh

    Quality control (QC) is a critical component of Laboratory Quality Management System for reliability of testing results.1Batch release by manufacturer of blood Grouping Reagents is mandatoryonly after products QC performance. The laboratory has evaluated a total number of 1320batches of different Blood Grouping Reagents types by haemagglutination technique. Out of 1320 batches, 275 were indigenous manufacturers and 1045 were imported. 242 of 275 indigenous batches were recommended and 33 were not recommend. 1003 of 1045 imported batches were recommended and 42 were not recommended. 94.3% of total 1320 batches were recommended and 5.7% were not recommended. The most serious risk is an acute haemolytic transfusion reaction caused by blood type-incompatible transfusion. Blood type-incompatible transfusion is one of the leading causes of transfusion-related deaths. The incidence of ABO-incompatible transfusion is estimated to be 1:38,000 to 1:100,000 units of RBCs in the United States, 1:16,500 to 1:100,000 units of RBCs in the United Kingdom, and around 1:100,000 units of RBCs in Canada.1Laboratory diagnostic services play a critical role in all health-related decisions both of an individual as well as of the population.

  26. Sunita Verma and Khan, J. B.

    The present study were carried out on traditional used aquatic plant biodiversity of Birla Talab. Various parts of plants (roots, stem, leaves, fruits, seeds etc.) or whole plant is used for medicinal purpose for various ailments. Free questionnaire surveys, participatory observation and field visits were planned to elicit information on the medicinal plants used by local community. Several of these plants are very sensitive to the fluctuations in the normal physico-chemical parameters of the Talab. A slight alteration or degradation of the Talab may result in the disappearance or the extinction of these plants. This will ultimately result in large-scale economic loss in terms of the medicinal products synthesized from these plants. Conservation strategies to protect and conserve aquatic life are necessary to maintain the balance of nature and support the availability of resources for future generations.

  27. Priya N Joshi, Anilkumar Hegde and Vinay Kumar Hegde

    Garcinia indica, endemic to Western Ghats is a multipurpose tree of high priority for conservation. Garcinia (kokum) fruit is viewed as a Wonder berry and is known for its food, medicinal and commercial value. In vitro propagation, an ex situ conservation strategy, provides new means for conservation and mass propagation of economically important plants. The aim of the present study was to examine the main aspects of in vitro culture initiation and propagation of Garcinia indica, an endemic wild plant species. Successful initiation of tissue culture of garcinia was achieved from immature seeds. Germination was best achieved on half MS supplemented with 1.5mg/l GA3. Murashige and Skoog (MS) medium supplemented with 6-benzyl amino purine (BAP) 3 mg/l along with Naphthalene acetic acid 0.5 mg/l produced shoots from the nodes within 4-5 weeks. Repeated and periodic sub culturing yielded better growth and further multiple shoots on the same medium. In vitro rooting was obtained on the half strength MS agar gelled medium supplemented with 2g/l activated charcoal 0.5mg/l NAA+1.5mg/l indole-3-butyric acid. The micro propagated plantlets were successfully acclimatized with survival rate 70%.

  28. In vitro tissue culture of Catharanthus roseus using Vermicompost extract and Coelomic fluid - An innovative and novel approach

    The study was initiated to develop callus using vermicompost extracts and coelomic fluid of earthworm Eudrilus eugeniae on in situ development of medicinal plant Catharanthus roseus. Vermicompost extract without any hormone supplements supported 100% callus induction. Vermicompost extract with 0.5mg/L BAP, 1mg/L NAA and 1mg/L IBA have supported 70% callus induction. Vermicompost extract with 1mg/L 2,4-D and 1mg/L KIN have shown 60% callus induction. Suspension culture was successfully developed using vermicompost extract and coelomic fluid in the 3:1 ratio. Phytochemical analysis has shown Total Phenol Content to be less in in vitro callus when compared to in vivo (86.88±0.12 mg/g) plants and flavonoids were higher (1.74±0.15 mg/gram) in callus. TLC and HPLC analysis have shown the presence of alkaloids in the plant calli and suspension cultures of C. roseus. Alkaloids recovered from the suspension media have indicated that certain important alkaloids can be obtained from the media itself without sacrificing the cells and the plants for pharmaceutical purposes. Vermicompost extract alone has given the best result. By standardizing the technique, it is possible to develop the plants through micropropagation in an economical way.

  29. Rima Kumari and Singh, D.P.

    The metal accumulating ability of plants (hyperaccumulators) has previously been used to detoxify and environment clean up of metal contaminants from different site. However, the full potential of this process is now being explored via reuse of these hyperaccumulators in nanotechnological practices. This short review article is devoted to the ability for hyperaccumulator plants to form metallic nanoparticles by reusing the toxic metal accumulated in these plant for their positive utilization in novel nanoparticle synthesis. This approach inspires the search for new strategy of eco-benign, cost effective way on the synthesis of nanoparticle by using non renewable cost effective, eco-sustainable resources.

  30. Sravanthi Pammi S. S., Padmavathi T. V. S. and Archana Giri

    Anti-microbial activity of root, stem and leaf extracts of Phyllanthus amarus were studied with polar solvents such as ethyl acetate, dimethyl Formamide and non-polar solvents such as chloroform, dichloromethane and n-Hexane extracts against Gram positive bacteria viz. Bacillus cereus ,Bacillus subtilis and Gram negative bacteria viz. Pseudomonas aeruginosa,, Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae using Agar well diffusion method. Root, stem and leaf extracts of Phyllanthus amarus were evaluated separately to determine the best explant source for potential antimicrobial effect. Amikacin and Nitrofurantoin were used as positive control. Leaf extracts in dimethyl formamide and dichloromethane exhibited better antimicrobial activity compared to root and stem extracts. The extracts were further subjected to GC-MS analysis for identification of compounds responsible for anti-microbial activity. MIC and MBC studies were carried out by macro-dilution method. The assessment of anti-microbial activity of this plant helps in correlating the ancient and modern way of disease treatment for large scale testing of novel pharmacopeia.

  31. Djabali Nacira and Taif Hanane

    This work involved a random sample of the population of the region of El-Tarf. A total of 200 people were surveyed. The study of smoking status is given by the terms of prevalence; it specifies standardized proportion by age and sex of people who smoke cigarettes daily or occasionally. The information collected in our investigation led us that smoking is a real problem in our region, the results show: • High prevalence of smokers to 70%. • The majority of these smokers are young men aged 21-30 years. • The average age of onset of cigarette consumption is between 16 and 20 years. • The average consumption is 5-10 cigarettes a day. • Smoking prevalence is higher in administrative areas, and free works among security officers, compared to the education sector. • The prevalence of smokers is lower than that of non-smokers in the different levels of education (if any has in primary schools is remarkable among high school students). • The prevalence of active smoking is higher among people suffering from diabetes, hypertension, anemia, kidney failure and cardiovascular disease.

  32. Balamurugan, S., Vasiga, D. and Gokulanathan, L.

    The underframe assembly of rail coaches is manufactured with the help of metal active gas welding process. Both ends of the austenitic stainless steel plate are welded to corten steel on the floor assembly of the coaches. The butt weld is done to the joint. Floor assembly is subjected to massive corrosion environment which weakens structural stability on carrying loads, since coaches are designed in a fashion to bare heavy loads on loading condition and also accidental proof for safe journey. Hence mechanical properties are to be optimized for the joint. Weathering steel which turns orange in time, special fillers are required for thicker section so the weld weathers like the plate. Consumables are chosen to match or exceed the chromium content of the parent metal. Weld by very commonly used are welding processes MAG, with optimal filler metal for stainless steel welding chosen based on adequate corrosion resistance for intended use to match base metal content with respect to Alloying elements, e.g. Cr, Ni & Mo.

  33. Vasiga, D., MuthuKrishnan, P. and Prabhu, C.

    The compressor is mechanical equipment which is used to increase the pressure with the help of the piston. Need to improve the performance of compressor by several methods. The main aim of the project is to make tri-cylinder air compressor to generate large amount of air with less power and low vibration. In tri cylinder air compressor the three cylinders are kept at 120 degree to each other. The three cylinders are placed radically and equally apart such that the cylinder opening tends to meet on a common triangular compression chamber. The three pistons are made to compress air simultaneously on to common tri angular chamber over shorter stroke and the isothermal efficiency will be better than single cylinder with one piston. The motor is connected to the chain drive to drive the three crank shaft which is used to move the piston. If space is smaller the pressure will be more and bigger the lower. If compressor is made to work at 1400 rpm air taken will be147.18 × 1400 = 206052 litters at 7 atmospheres pressure .The advantage with triangular compressor will be low vibration, smaller unit giving more output and so cheaper to make, ideal for air compressor is Air conditioning and Refrigeration, Vacuum pumps and general purpose usage.

  34. SupriyaTripathi, Dr. Zadgaonkar, A. S. and Dr. Tripathi, N.

    An electric power system comprises of generation, transmission and distribution of electric energy. Transmission lines are used to transmit electric power to distant large load centers. The rapid growth of electric power systems over the past few decades has resulted in a large increase of the number of lines in operation and their total length. These lines are exposed to faults as a result of lightning, short circuits, faulty equipment, mal-operation, human errors, overload, and aging. The un-interrupted and reliable power supply in the need of the today world. Faults cause short to long term power outages for customers and may lead to significant losses especially for the manufacturing industry and nation`s economy as a whole . Fast detecting, isolating, locating and repairing of these faults are critical in maintaining a reliable power system operation. The symmetrical faults (LG, LLG, LLL/LLLG and transients) are most commonly occurring faults in power system. Amongst the all the faults discussed above the behavior of the transient in power system is most unpredictable. This paper aims to provide an insight for the recognition of the transients fault in the power system using FFT analysis.

  35. Abdil Karakan, Yüksel Oğuz and Bahtiyar Uslu

    Electricity has an essential place in the life of humanity with the rapidly developing technology. It has been seen that the use of fossil fuels for electrical energy production harms the environment. People have turned to renewable energy sources that have the least damage to the environment in order to meet the needs of electricity. The systems that produce electricity from solar (photovoltaic systems) are the most preferred renewable energy sources. Because there is no the payment of fees to the raw energy sources and staff expenses are little during operation. Also the low maintenance costs due to the small parts are among the advantages. In this study, monocrystallinesolar panel installation was conducted in Afyonkarahisar. Solar panels have been placed at an angle of approximately 45o. The solar panel production data (voltage and power) were instantly monitored from the PC and recorded to Access database at 10 second intervals by the help of micro-controller control board and C# software. Energy production of the solar panels is determined using the one-year data.

  36. Abdil Karakan, Yüksel Oğuz and Bahtiyar Uslu

    Electricity has an essential place in the life of humanity with the rapidly developing technology. It has been seen that the use of fossil fuels for electrical energy production harms the environment. People have turned to renewable energy sources that have the least damage to the environment in order to meet the needs of electricity. The systems that produce electricity from solar (photovoltaic systems) are the most preferred renewable energy sources. Because there is no the payment of fees to the raw energy sources and staff expenses are little during operation. Also the low maintenance costs due to the small parts are among the advantages. In this study, polycrystallinesolar panel installation was conducted in Afyonkarahisar. Solar panels have been placed at an angle of approximately 45o. The solar panel production data (voltage and power) were instantly monitored from the PC and recorded to Access database at 10 second intervals by the help of micro-controller control board and C# software. Energy production of the solar panels is determined using the one-year data.

  37. Vrushali R. Charde and Nitin S. More

    Cloud computing is an important platform for the data owners to store their data from local sites to commercial public cloud providing high flexibility and economic savings. But the cloud storage systems are most vulnerable for the data security due to their internal data sharing among the servers. By applying strong cryptography techniques, data is stored in the cloud. But eventually this doesn't solve the problem of storing process as cloud provides big storage capacity, so performing the search on this huge encrypted data in the cloud is posing a real challenge. To solve this problem, many ideas are proposed to perform the search over the encrypted data, but no system is providing complete accuracy as this mainly depend on the document content. Here, some novel approaches are discussed and also an idea of constructing a special tree-based index structure is constructed that proposes a “Greedy Depth-first Search” algorithm that provides efficient multi-keyword ranked search.

  38. Rajib Sarkar and Lakshmi Sivaramakrishnan

    Urbanisation is a global phenomenon that leads to rapid change in land use and land cover. This change significantly alters surface material from pervious to impervious concretized material. Changes in surface material introduce hike in surface temperature. Biological resources such as vegetation not only act as a sink to CO2 but also help to reduce surface temperature by providing shades to surface materials. To understand such relation a study has been conducted on land surface temperature of Kolkata based on landsat satellite data. In this study, land surface temperature is measured from thermal image of using landsat Thematic Mapper satellite sensor. To calculate land surface temperature a method developed by Artis and Carnahan is adopted. The surface temperature shows that temperature is higher in north Kolkata in comparison to south Kolkata. In the process to calculate surface temperature, normalised temperature vegetation index (NDVI) has also been calculated using Near Infrared band and red band of the same satellite. The NDVI shows a negative relationship with surface temperature.

  39. Mahadevappa Muttalageri

    Constraints in production and marketing of organic vegetable growers in Belagavi district of Karnataka. The primary data were collected from 120 organic vegetable growers through structured questionnaire method for the study. Cent per cent of the respondents had expressed problem of lack of literature or package of practices on organic vegetable production followed by low yield comparatively conventionally growing (96.66%). Majority of the organic vegetable growers noticed that lack of support from the government agencies and other relevant departments in the farm of subsidy and financial assistance (92.50%). All the respondents expressed the problem of lack of minimum support price for organically grown vegetables, followed by non availability of market exclusively for organic produce (96.66%). Majority of them noticed that absence of premium price for organic vegetables in local market (78.33%) followed by inability to identify marketing networks for organic vegetables (60.83%). All organic vegetable growers suggested that the intensive research on organic farming and networking of research information, followed by supply of organic inputs at subsidized rate (97.50%). Majority of the vegetable growers were suggested that multiplication of indigenous seeds material (85.83%) for further production. Similarly, 68.00% of the respondents suggested that co-ordination with animal husbandry department to increase the local cattle population for compost production. The entire organic vegetable growers had suggested that government has to fix minimum support price for organically produce vegetables followed by encourage setting up exclusive organic vegetable marketing centres (94.16%). Majority of the growers had suggested that developing organic vegetable supply chain system (90.00%).

  40. Dr. Jeelan Basha, V.

    The research on asset volatility in financial market is the foundation of finance. To measure and predict asset volatility accurately, Bollerslev built a generalised ARCH (GARCH) model based on the ARCH model. The GARCH process is often preferred by financial modeling professionals because it provides a more real-world context than other forms when trying to predict the prices and returns of financial instruments. It is the general process for a GARCH model involves three steps. The first is to estimate a best-fitting autoregressive model; secondly, compute autocorrelations of the error term and lastly, test for significance. The objective of the study is to GARCH (1,1) model for the volatility of Infosys stock returns and factors influencing the volatility in the returns of Infosys stock returns. The study covers monthly data ranging from Sept. 2009 to Nov.2015 having 98 observations. The empirical investigation considers returns of closing prices of all variables namely Infosys Stock Return as dependent and S&P CNX Nifty and Dow Jones Industrial Average as independent variables. Data for all variables are collected from the official websites of and E-Views is used to analyze the data. It is concluded that despite there is a weakness of this student’s t distribution model about its non-normality of residuals, many suggest that non-normality in the residuals may not be that serious problem for estimation. Hence this model will be used for forecasting.

  41. Devanathan, R. and Dr. Ravisankar, A. K.

    Malnutrition not only blights the lives of individuals and families, but also acts as a major barrier to social and economic progress In India, particularly in the Empowered Action Group (EAG) States. Under this backdrop, this study aims to assess the degree of chronic energy deficiency and its determinants. Data drawn from the National Family Health Survey-III, conducted 2005-06, on body mass index of 26,728 currently married women, ages 15-49 years. Jharkhand, Bihar and Chhattisgarh reported significantly higher profession of chronic energy deficiency than the rest of the EAG states (around 40percent each). Socio-economic and demographic bi-variate analysis shows that low-BMI (<18.50) women are found in higher proportion among families with poorest wealth index (50.2percent), ST women (49.2percent), women working in agricultural sector (42.5percent), rural areas (40.8percent), illiterate groups (41.percent), and women who ate fruits, and milk occasionally or never (around 40percent each). In addition, the data discloses state differentials Jharkhand show the highest incidence rate of underweight (39.7 percent) and the Uttaranchal recorded the lowest incidence of CED (25.5 percent). The burden of chronic energy deficiency indicates that there is a need for special public health programs that are able to address chronic energy deficiency.

  42. Anti-bacterial activities of lawsoniainermis and camellia sinensis against some human pathogenic bacteria

    Background: Nowadays there are several bacteria show resistant to many antibiotics, therefore the discovery of new and more efficient antibacterial agents is essential. Objective: to evaluate the antibacterial activities of Lawsoniainermis (henna) and Camelliasinensis (green tea) against some pathogenic bacteria. Methodology: Fresh plants Lawsoniainermis and Camelliasinensis were collected with assistant by a plant taxonomist at the medicinal and aromatic plants research institute in the national center of research in Khartoum, Sudan. Then the plants were chapped into small slides and shade dried. By using Cup plates method; different concentrations of Ethanolic, Methanolic and boiling water extracts of plants were examined against different micro-organisms including clinical isolates and laboratory standard bacterial strain of Staphylococcusaureus ATCC 25923, Escherichiacoli ATCC 25922, Proteusmirabilis ATCC 49565, Klebsiellapneumoniae ATCC 35657, Pseudomonasaeruginosa ATCC 27853. Clinical isolates of these strain obtained from patients attending the Omdurman teaching hospital, Sudan. Results: Lawsoniainermis show various antimicrobial activity against standard bacteria ranges from 9.9 mm to 22.9 mm, whilst against isolated organisms methanolic extract provide sensitivity zone ranging 4.6 mm to 12 mm for all isolates, whereby ethanolic and boiling water extract act only against S. aureusfrom 8 mm – 15 mm. Camelliasinensis show various antimicrobial activity against standard bacteria ranging 7.2 mm – 24 mm except against P.mirabilis ATCC 49565 the boiling water extract show no activity, whereas against isolated organisms provide activity ranging from 3.6 mm to 19.8 mm with exception again no activity against P.mirabilis. Also antibacterial activities of different antibiotics against both standard bacteria and isolated bacteria show various result from 0 to 38 mm. Conclusion: The present studyclarify the antibacterial activities of used plants. Therefore these results supply the use of theseplant as antibacterial agent.

  43. Multidetector computed tomography in various pathology of paranasal sinuses - case series

    After the introduction of CT into clinical practice in 1972, the soft tissue extension from paranasal sinuses lesions could be visualized. The anatomical relationship of paranasal sinuses with surrounding structures could be directly appreciated. CT has capability of showing soft tissue detail relative to the osseous walls and air spaces of the paranasal sinuses. Such information is indispensible for determination of operability and planning of radiotherapy as well as for assessment after therapy. The latest generation of scanners such as MDCT, which have high resolution, thin sectioning and specific techniques for bone evaluation have established MDCT as overall best method for evaluation of patients who are suspected of having an aggressive lesion of the paranasal sinuses.

  44. Sandeep Rindhe, Shrinivas Uttamrao Suryavanshi, Kakasaheb Kalyanrao Khose, Kotagiri Ravikanth, Adarsh and ,Ankush Reothia

    An experiment was carried out on 135 day old Vencob straight run commercial broiler chicks for a period of 42 days (6 weeks). The chicks were randomly divided into three groups (n=45) of three replicates each. Untreated control group (T0) was fed standard basal diet without any supplement, treatment group T1 was supplemented with AV/LAP/19 at the rate of 1ml/100 birds/day from 0-14 days, 2ml/100 birds/day from 14-28 days and 3ml/100 birds/day from 28-42 days in water and treatment group T2 supplemented with synthetic ascorbic acid@100g/tonne of feed. Record of temperature were maintained on daily basis with mean maximum daily temperature of 39±2°C, relative humidity (RH) 82.57 ± 1.40 % (Recorded twice daily at a fixed time by hygrometer). AV/LAP/19 is a polyherbal formulation containing natural vitamin C and bioflavonoids, scientifically well known for their anti-oxidant and free radical scavenging activities. During present experiment, growth and performance parameters were recorded at weekly intervals. Hematological and biochemical parameters were analyzed at 3rd and 5th week of study. The mean live body weight (gm) mean weekly feed consumption (gm) on 42nd day was significantly (P<0.05) improved in AV/LAP/19 supplemented group T1 birds (2572.72 and 1108.69, respectively) as compared to control group (2385 and 1179.44, respectively) and varied non significantly from synthetic ascorbic acid supplemented group T2 birds (2527.16 and 1211.95, resopectively). FCR on 42nd day was significantly (P<0.05) better in AV/LAP/19 supplemented group T1 birds (2.05) than synthetic ascorbic acid supplemented group T2 birds (2.12) and control group (2.25). Hematological and biochemical parameters, which were altered under stressful conditions, also improved in AV/LAP/19 supplemented group T1 birds.

  45. Dr. Narkhede, Y.D.

    Rotator cuff injuries are the worse to treat as Shoulder joint is having complicated structure and many organs involving in Rotator cuff are prone to get injured in major or minor trauma to joint. Modern medical sciences recommend operative reconstruction surgery for rupture injuries of rotator cuff. But outcome of surgery many times lead to restriction of movements. So an Ayurvedic management was done in case of Supraspinatus rupture with Hirudotherapy (Leech Application), as the major reason for non-healing of these ruptures is less blood supply to these organs. Leech enhances blood supply to the site. So results obtained in this case was very much satisfactory.

  46. Dr. Sakshi Khattar, Dr. Mayur Kaushik, Dr. Nitin Tomar and Dr. Amit Wadhawan

    Morphology of the peri implant soft tissue adjacent the implant component plays a pivotal role in displaying the implant esthetics. Creating an implant restoration that cannot be distinguished from the rest of the natural dentition is the ultimate goal. The ability to preserve the architecture, modify and even improve the soft tissue contours lies in the hands of the periodontists and greatly influence the overall restorative result. The main approach of the periodontist is to establish and accomplish natural soft tissue dimensional architecture without formation of any scar tissue on labial gingival interface and most importantly preserve the interproximal papillae. There are various innovative methods for promoting and preserving the soft tissue profile around the implants. Second stage surgery should be given emphasis and not just thought as a process of uncovering the coverscrew. A whole lot can be done and is an excellent opportunity to give finesse to the soft tissue profiling around implant components. Implant therapy Specially in the anterior maxilla is challenging for the clinician because of the esthetic demands of patients and difficult pre-existing anatomy

  47. Mohammad Ayoob Lone and Akhtar Neyaz Bhat

    This present study was conducted to provide insights regarding the possible gender differences in the male and female students at University level in term of information and communication technology use. The research was a descriptive in its nature. The objective of the study was to analyze the opportunities of access to Information and communication Technology (ICT) for male and female students at the university level. The population was the male and female students of University of Bangalore, India. The purposive sampling technique was used to gather data from the faculty of social sciences. Data were collected by administering a questionnaire based on a Likert scale. The data were tabulated, analyzed and interpreted. The percentage, mean and one way analysis of variance were applied to analyze the data. The results of the analyzed data revealed that gender differences existed regarding access to ICT among university students. Provision of necessary support for equal access to female students in ICTs through expansion of ICT infrastructure in the educational institutions particularly in universities, Computer Assisted Instructions (CAI) system and awareness about the use of ICTs is essential to overcome the identified gender inequality.

  48. Hind Manaa Alkatan

    Residency Training in the medical field has been the focus of Health education organizations. Such training is dependent to a high degree on the involved trainers within their respective fields. Several studies have tackled the factors that will have an impact on trainees thus the success of their training program. In this review, we highlight theses factors, define them into 3 main categories: skills, behavior and generation, then focus on what we believe is the most important nowadays, which is the issue of the so called: “Generation gap”. Solutions related to this issue are also summarized based on the most recent literature within this field with suggested future studies that are peculiar to our local medical training.

  49. Postextraction socket grafting using combination of demineralized freezed-dried bone allograft and platelet rich fibrin (PRF) –A Case Series

    Alveolar ridge bone resorption is a biologic phenomenon that occurs following tooth extraction and cannot be prevented. Newer techniques are evolving in restorative dentistry and periodontics to treat these defects to improve the esthetics, form and functions of the dentition. Alveolar bone augmentation remains the holy grail of periodontal tissue engineering.21The purpose of this paper was to evaluate the efficacy of β- Tri Calcium Phosphate (β-TCP) and Platelet Rich Fibrin (PRF) in post extraction socket preservation. The patients presented with periodontally compromised tooth due to trauma with no labial cortical bone present which was confirmed by pre operative CBCT and was treated by extractions along with augmentation of the alveolar bone. The patient's blood was centrifuged to obtain PRF. Allograft bone graft was mixed with PRF particles and applied to fill the defect. After 6 months a Cone-Beam Computed Tomography was performed to evaluate bone regeneration. The use of PRF as cover membrane permitted a rapid epithelisation and represented an effective barrier. After 6 months the site appeared precociously healed and the bone volume increased. This new approach represents a predictable method of augmenting deficient alveolar bone.

  50. Dr. Murali Mohan, K. T. K., Dr. Monica, P., Dr. Butola, K. S., Dr. Leena, P. and Dr. Avinash, K. S.

    Background: Sir Veer Chandra Singh Garhwal Government Institute of Medical Sciences and Research Centre is a tertiary referral Centre for Eastern Garhwal Region which caters to the medical needs of Chamoli, Rudraprayag and Pauri-Srinagar Districts of Uttarkhand, North India. H.N. Bahuguna Government Base Teaching Hospital is attached to the above institution is located near Srinagar town in the Alakananda Valley at 579 meters above the sea level. The patients who are referred here come from Kedarnath and Badrinath valleys lying at an altitude of 1500 to 3500 meters above the sea level. Aims and Objectives: This is an observational study undertaken to study the clinical presentation, risk factors, neurological presentation, pattern of brain strokes, areas of brain affected as per CT scan findings in the adult population coming from the high altitudes of Eastern Garhwal region of Uttarkhand State in North India during the period from January to December 2013.Materials and Methods: All the adult admitted cases in the hospital were examined clinically for hypertension, Diabetes and systemic and neurological examination were conducted followed by laboratory investigations, which included routine urine and blood examination, ECG, X-Rays, CT-Brain plain and contrast and CSF analysis, when indicated. Observations: Out of the 336 cases of stroke studied during the period from 1st January 2013 and to 31st December 2013 in our hospital, 61.3% were having hypertension, 20.5% were smokers, 10.11% were having diabetes mellitus, and 7.44% were having cardiac disease. Over all incidence of stroke was 28/100,000 population with male to female ratio 7:4. Clinically, unilateral weakness was seen in 58.6%, unilateral sensory impairment in 19.9%, conjugate deviation of eyes in 16.4%, impaired cognitive function 37.2%, impaired consciousness in 21.4%, aphasia in 13.4%, dysphasia in 19.6%, dysphagia in 11.6%, dysarthria in 27%, ataxia in 5.4%,headache 16.1%,vertigo in 8.6%and seizures 12.5%. Ischemic infarctions were 58.65%, hemorrhages were 25.89%, transient ischemic attacks were 12.5%, subarachnoid hemorrhage were 1.78% and cortical vein thrombosis 1.91% as revealed by CT scans reports. Recurrent strokes were 5.95%. Mortality in the study was 8.3%.

  51. Hari Krishna, M., Nataraj, A. R., Murali Poduval, Patro, D. K., Jagdish Menon and Ali Mohammed, P.

    Introduction: Bone strength is related to bone mineral density (BMD) as well as other properties of bone that are often termed bone quality .BMD correlates highly with fracture risk and allows the clinician to determine the need for pharmacological intervention. Vitamin D is vital for bone health because it assists in the absorption and utilization of calcium. There are various studies in elderly females with hip fractures correlating the Vitamin D levels with BMD. But very few studies have evaluated the serum Vitamin D levels and BMD in males more than 50 years. Materials and Methods: Present study was conducted in the JIPMER Pondicherry between August 2012 and August 2013. A total of 41 male patients aged more than 50 years with fracture neck of femur and Intertrochanteric fracture were included. Blood samples were taken stored, processed and evaluated for vitamin D total (D2 and D3).BMD measurements were done in B/L hip region. The Values of Vitamin D obtained are shown into three groups as 0-20ng/ml-deficiency, 20-30ng/ml as insufficiency and>30ng/ml as normal Reference. BMD reference values were taken as T score <2.5 is osteoporosis. Results: On analysis of Vitamin D we found that out of total 41 patients 9(22%) had vitamin D level <20ng /ml, 15(36%) had levels between20ng-30ng/ml and 17 (41%) had >30ng/ml. Of the 21 patients with Neck of femur fractures Vitamin D<20ng/ml are6(28.6%),20-30ng/ml are 9 (42.9) and >30ng/ml are 6(35.3).Vitamin D levels in 20 intertrochanteric fractures are<20ng/ml in 3(15%), 20-30ng/ml in 6(35%) and >30ng/ml in 11(55%). Conclusion: We found 24 patients (58%) have vitamin D level <30ng/ml, more in patients with neck femur fracture than intertrochanteric fractures. Present study found that there is no statistically significant correlation between the vitamin D level and BMD in Hip fractures in elderly males (p=0.489).

  52. Tabassum, Das Saumya and Mazumder Avijit

    The use of medicinal properties of plant is called herbal medicine. Plants have the ability to synthesize a wide variety of chemical compounds that are used to perform important biological functions and to defense against attack from insect, fungi, bacteria etc. Hemidesmus indicus R.Br. is being used widely in ayurvedic medicine. The roots have a sweet smell like camphor. Medicinal plants are being widely used, either as single drug or in combination in health care delivery system. Hemidesmus indicus R.Br. is the most widely used traditionally and has been distributed by humans throughout the tropics. Hemidesmus indicus R.Br. is used for treatment of cancer, viral, lithic, hypotensive, fungal, bacterial and also used in diabetes. With all these potential benefits, this plant is not widely utilized. The most useful part of Hemidesmus indicus R.Br. is root which shows different activity like antimicrobial activity, anti-enterobacterial activity, anti-acne activity, anti-oxidant activity, natriuretic and saliuretic activity, renoprotective activity, anti inflammatory activity, anti-venom activity.

  53. Niels Ove Illum, MD and Kim Oren Gradel, PhD

    Aim: To examine the possibility of joining ICF-CY body functions b codes and activity and participation d codes to create a common disability variable Study design: Open field pilot research study Methods: The parents of 332 children with spina bifida, spinal muscular atrophy, muscular disorders, cerebral palsy, visually impairment, hearing impairment, mental disability and disability following treatment for brain tumours were visited and 47 body functions b codes and 57 activities and participation d code qualifiers were scored. Each code had 5 qualifier levels. Following Rasch analysis, 33 b codes and 39 d codes were retrieved. Fifty four of these were selected to cover the full spectrum of disability in the best possible way. After joining them, they underwent psychometric and Rasch data analysis to create a disability variable based on both ICF-CY coding systems. Results: The mean score of the joined b and d codes was 0.96, with SD 1.00 and range 0.28–2.15. Variance was 1.69, range 0.49–3.13 and Cronbach’s alpha 0.98. Inter-code correlation was 0.67, range 0.10–0.98. Rasch analysis documented good coverage on the whole range of the disability variable. The lowest score was −4.97, and the highest was 4.86. The mean location was −1.52. The joined codes were ordered. Furthermore, the distribution of the b and d codes on the child-code map documented a better measure of disability with d codes, in children with relatively less disability. Conclusion: Separate ICF-CY body functions b codes and activities and participation d codes underwent previous selection after Rasch analysis and then were joined to cover the whole spectrum of disability in childhood, which it did well. As such, the codes can be implemented to register and monitor the total severity range of childhood disability and can be a common disability variable for children with 8 different disabilities. It is hoped that the ICF-CY codes thus selected, when added to ICD-10 diagnosis registering, can contribute to better information on disability across health sectors for both individual children and groups of children.

  54. The study of hsCRP in type 2 diabetic melltus & its complications

    Background and objectives: Diabetes Mellitus (DM) is an inflammatory atherothrombotic metabolic disease. In patients with type 2 diabetes, low grade inflammation is characterized by increased plasma levels of several biomarkers of inflammation such as high sensitivity C-reactive protein (hsCRP). This prospective observational study was designed to assess serum levels of hsCRP in type 2 diabetes and determine correlation between hsCRP and complications associated with diabetes. Methods: A total of 60 subjects were enrolled in the study as per the inclusion and exclusion criteria. Results: Hypertension (36.7%), duration of diabetes (14 years), urine microalbunuria (46.7%), serum creatinine, hsCRP and diabetic retinopathy (40%) were higher in DM patients with complications. Intermediate and high risk levels of hsCRP were higher in patients with diabetic complications. Correlation of hsCRP levels and other findings suggest that there was no significant correlation whereas the propensity of having abnormal ECG increases with rise in hsCRP levels. Rise in hsCRP levels were significantly associated with increase in serum creatinine, microalbuminuria and abnormal ECG. Interpretation and Conclusion: The results of this study revealed that there is a significant association between hsCRP and complications of DM. Abnormal ECG findings suggest the linkage amongst DM, cardiovascular complications and hsCRP. The role of hsCRP in metabolic abnormalities cannot be neglected as it may be very essential biomarker to detect associated complications.

  55. Dr. Mutaz SabahAhmeid

    Background: The clinical significance of leptin hormone in predicting pregnancy after controlled ovarian hyperstimulation (COH) protocols for intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) is still poorly understood. Several reports exist on the prospects of hormonal profile in the luteal phase for the diagnosis of early pregnancy. Objectives:This study was designed to investigate the role of follicular fluid leptin in predicting pregnancy in women underwent ICSI cycle. Materials and Methods: This study included 54 women aged 16–44 years who underwent their first ICSI cycles in Baghdad IVF infertility centre in the period between December 2014 and May 2015, they have normal ovulatory cycles, and without any evident endometrial pathology.All patients received mid-luteal long-protocol down-regulation with GnRH- agonist. Each patient was monitored for ovarian follicular development by transvaginalsonography and series of serum E2 level. Women were given human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG), Serum E2 level was estimated on the day of hCGadministratin. Intracytoplasmic sperm injection procedure was done by the embryologist. Chemical pregnancy will be defined at the 14th day after embryo transfer by elevated serum β-hCG level, then, progesterone supplementation was continued up to 12 weeks’ gestation. Evaluated Follicular fluid leptin at day of oocyte retrieval. Results:The results of this study showed that 11 women achieved pregnancy(20.37%) and was defined as pregnant group, while 43 women failed in achieving pregnancy(79.63%) who defined as non pregnant group after they underwent their first ICSI –ET treatment cycles. There was no significant difference in follicular fluid Leptin at day of Oocyte retrieval between the pregnant and non-pregnant group. A significan positive correlation between follicular fluid leptin with BMI in pregnant pateints. A significant positive correlation between follicular fluid leptin with BMI in non-pregnant women. Conclusion:Evaluation of follicular fluid leptin level was not a promising diagnostic and prognostic parameter for the prediction of pregnancy in ICSI-ET treatment cycles.Follicular fluid leptin vary between the pregnant patients based on maternal BMI.

  56. Dr. Kirti Vinayak Kinge and Dr. Amit Chandrakant Supe

    This study has been undertaken to find association between hypertension and diabetes mellitus in perimenopausal women in an urban slum of Mumbai. The cross-sectional community-based descriptive epidemiological study was conducted in slum area during the period of January 2012 to June 2013. 29.5% diabetic subjects and 17% non-diabetic subjects had hypertesion. There was significant statistical association between hypertension and diabetes mellitus among perimenopausal women in an urban slum.

  57. Sharma Bhawna, Dr. Sangeeta Dey and Dr. Udayan Ganguli

    Introduction: Reproductive Tract Infections (STI/RTI) are a common public health problem. RTIs often cause discomfort and lost economic productivity. Aims: to ascertain the bacterial, fungal and parasitic causes of RTI in women attending Obstetrics and Gynaecology OPD, to co-relate the causes of RTI with various epidemiological and clinical parameters, to co-relate the occurrence of RTI with infertility. Results: Out of 93 samples 62 showed growth and 31 were sterile. Out of 62 positive samples 35 were Candida species (28 pure species and 7 grown with others) and 27 were as follows- Gardnerella vaginalis (4), Trichomonas vaginalis (8), Trchomonas vaginalis with others (enterobacteriaceae family) (4) and mixed bacterial growth (11). NoNeisseria gonorrhoeae was isolated. Out of Candida isolate, Candida albicans was the most common one (80%). RTI was most prevalent in 21-30 years age group women having poor hygiene. Most women were multiparous and having complain of curdy discharge. Conclusion: Most female patients were unaware of or ignorant about vaginal discharge and pain lower abdomen that will lead to PID. Proper education, moral support and examination of vaginal discharge irrespective of their ignorant complain will definitely lower the morbidity of female RTI.

  58. Jisme Mathew, Dr. Padmavathi Nagarajan and Dr. Vikas Menon

    Aim: The study was aimed to assess the effect of psychoeducation on knowledge, attitude and burden of caregivers of clients with bipolar affective disorder. Methods and materials: One group pre-test, post-test design was adopted for the study. Forty caregivers of bipolar affective disorder (BPAD) who fulfilled the inclusion criteria were recruited for the study. A pre-test was conducted to assess their level of knowledge, attitude and burden. Following this, a structured teaching programme regarding BPAD was administered to the study subjects in two sessions of 45 minutes each. A post-test was conducted after seven days. Results: The study results revealed that majority of care givers possessed adequate knowledge and neutral attitude. The educational programme was found to be effective in improving the knowledge, attitude and reducing the burden (p<0.01) of caregivers of bipolar affective disorder.

  59. Dr. Prateek Jain, Dr. Anup, N., Dr. Vikas Jeph and Dr. Priyanka Sontakke

    Tobacco is a plant within the genus Nicotiana of the Solanaceae (nightshade) family. While there are more than 70 species of tobacco, the chief commercial crop is N. tabacum. The more potent species N. rustica is also widely used around the world. The public responded, and soon sales were booming again. Previous lawsuits went nowhere . The present paper aim was to educate people about tobacco facts.

  60. Quality of life of caregivers of stroke patients by questionnaire method

    Aim: The study was aimed to assess the quality of life (QoL) of caregivers of stroke patients and to identify the factors associated with their QoL. Methods and materials: By using a cross-sectional descriptive design, 84 care givers of stroke patients were recruited as per inclusion criteria. Socio-demographic and clinical data sheet was used to collect the data. The quality of life of the caregivers was assessed by WHO QoL-BREF scale. Results: The study results revealed that better quality of life was found in the psychological and environmental domains. There was a significant association between caregivers’ type of family and quality of life in social and environmental domains.

  61. Baladev Das, Raja Ray, Kausik Chatterjee, Kazi Monjur Ali and Debidas Ghosh

    In a pathological laboratory worker may be infected from needle stick injury or by aerosol/droplet exposure of the mucous membranes of the eyes, noses, or mouth called laboratory acquired infections (LAI). To assess the risks of LAI a cross sectional study was performed during the period of 2007 to 2012 after getting ethical clearance. It included randomly selected twenty laboratories from ‘Hooghly’ district out of which twelve laboratories from government and eight laboratories from private sector and from ‘Burdwan’ district twenty two laboratories were included, where nine laboratories from government and thirteen laboratories from private sector. Those clinical laboratories were situated within five kilometer radius surrounding the district/sub-divisional/rural hospitals of ‘Hooghly’ and ‘Burdwan’ districts. Randomly selected 126 technical personnel were of choice. From each person one blood sample was collected for serologic detection of ‘Hepatitis B surface antigen’, ‘anti-Hepatitis C virus antibody’ and ‘anti HIV-1 & 2 Antibody’. By this way, sixty personnel (34 from government and 26 from private sector laboratories) from ‘Hooghly’ and sixty six personnel (27 from government and 39 from private sector laboratories) were included from ‘Burdwan’district. Results revealed that in ‘Hooghly’ district HBsAg (two cases), anti-HCV antibodies (one case) were found positive in government sector. In private sector positive reports were obtained in 1 case for each of HBsAg and anti-HCV Ab. The anti-HIV antibody was found negative for both the government and private laboratory personnel. For ‘Burdwan’ district, in government sector positivity were found for HBsAg 3.70%, anti-HCV antibody 3.70% out of total 27 laboratory personnel where as the anti-HIV antibody was found nil. In case of the private laboratories of the said district positivity rate for HBsAg was 2.56%, anti-HCV antibody 2.56% and anti-HIV antibody was found negative. Inter district comparison showed insignificant (p>0.05) variation in both government and private sectors laboratories for said factors. Risks of LAI can be minimized by introducing practice of standard precautions for bio-safety.

  62. Dr. Venkidesh, K.

    Neurenteric cysts of the spine usually occur at the lower cervical and upper thoracic spine. Neurenteric cyst of the Craniovertebral junction is extremely rare. They are believed to arise from persistent abnormal communication between endodermal and neuroectodermal tissues in the embryonic phase. On T2-weighted MR images, appear as hyperintense cystic lesions without edema is generally observed. An immunohistochemical study is the key to diagnosis and demonstrates the endodermic origin of the lesion. The neurenteric cyst shows epithelial membrane antigen, cytokeratin, and carcinoembryonic antigen. Here we present a rare case of Neurenteric cyst of the Craniovertebral junction diagnosed during third trimester of pregnancy, its management, and outcome with review of literature.

  63. Plasma: A Novel Bioengineering Concept-A Review

    Plasma is the fourth state of matter which comprises 99% of the universe. Plasma is cutting edge technology, which involves interdisciplinary partnerships in Medicine, Dentistry, Physics, Engineering, Chemistry and Biology. Novel advances in Dental technology are often sporadic; therefore, the discovery of the biological effects of Plasma which are suitable for oral applications has been a major finding. The emergence of low temperature atmospheric pressure Plasma is becoming a ground breaking field of research for treating a myriad of Medical and Dental conditions. Dental application of Cold Atmospheric Plasma (CAP) includes: Dental caries management, sterilization, elimination of Biofilms, root canal disinfection, increase in bond strength at the dentin composite interface and bleaching. Plasmadent is evolving into a dynamic field of research. Plasma technologies are very important in the modern Dentistry; we will try to focus on these technologies, their scopes and its broad interdisciplinary approach.

  64. Makau, D., Matole, A., Gitari, A., Karoki, B. and Tutu, D.

    A case of acute respiratory distress syndrome following treatment of Babesiosis was reported in a 2 year old male Maltese terrier. The patient was admitted to the clinic following a history of anorexia and dullness with preferred recumbence. Main presenting signs on admission were severe pallor, prolonged clotting time, and dyspnoea, lethargy. Blood smears obtained from the ear revealed multiple Babesia parasites, severe regenerative anemia, neutrophillia and monocytosis. After meticulous clinical therapy for 5 days patient was discharged having become more active and with improved appetite. Within 24 hours of discharging form the clinic patient developed sudden dyspnoea. Patient went into respiratory shock within 2 hours of the onset of dyspnoea the patient died before arrival at the clinic.

  65. Mohamed Maali Gumaa Mohamed and Suad Mohamed Ali

    Introduction: prostate cancer is the commonest cancer in elderly males. It has growing incidence with late stage incurable presentations. Screening andearly detection is the main strategy to compact this disease. Males knowledge and attitude is mandatory to practice screening. The aim of this study is to assess males knowledge, attitude and practice about screening and early detection of prostate cancer via prostate specific antigen (PSA). Materials and Method: This is descriptive, community based cross sectional study. 100 males were recruited in East nile locality in Khartoum state on household basis. 45 years old or more married males were invited to participate. Questionnaire was used to collect data on different variables to assess knowledge, attitude and practice. Results: Knowledge about Ca. prostate nature, symptoms and availability of screening tests was poor. Main source of knowledge was community itself. Attitude about risk and need for screening was good, but very poor screening practice was reported. Conclusion: poor knowledge, fair attitude and very poor practice were found among studied males. Health care providers were the least source of information. Raising awareness about prostate cancer, its risks and necessity of screening and early detection is a shared responsibility between decision makers and health care providers.

  66. Ganbold Yandagiin and Otgonjargal Ulziibaatariin

    Reparations and medicaments derived from grasshoppers are mostly used for curing such diseases as respiratory disorders /65%/, wounds /16%/, poisoning /8%/, and trauma /11%/ in the forms of simple extract /35%/, boiled extract /21%/ and bolus /35%/ via swallowing /9%/, drinking /80%/, topical use /14%/ and fumigation /6%/. Specimen as raw materials of medicine from grasshopper can be annually collected from 8 through 10. In total 8 species of grasshoppers of therapeutic values belonging to 4 genera have been identified. Caloric value of raw material 1351,2 joule and contains up to 60..proteins, 16 amino acids, vitamins and various minerals. Toxicity of grasshoppers preparation is 8,1 ml/kg and the preparation has no adverse effects on animal body. The preparation exerts such effects as relieving the severity of edematous pneumonia, prolonging the life span, minimizing the concentration of nitrogen oxide during inflammation as inhibitor, stopping the oxidation and adaptability during oxygen deficiency and thermal exposures.

  67. Dr. Nilay Chakrabarti, Dr. Shalaka Indap, Dr. Ratnakar Shetty and Dr. Mugdha Kowli

    Endoscopic Retrograde Cholangio Pancreatography (ERCP) with biliary stenting is one of the most commonly performed endoscopic procedures for preoperative biliary decompression in obstructive jaundice of benign or malignant etiology. In patients with concomitant calculous cholecystitits, a laparoscopic cholecystectomy is performed soon after, and in the absence of a specific indication to the contrary, most such stents are removed 6-8 weeks later. In malignant disease however, the duration of stenting would be dictated by considerations related to the specific treatment modality used. However, some patients are lost to follow up for a stent removal having got almost immediate symptomatic relief from biliary obstruction, blissfully unaware of the complications that may ensue due to an unremoved stent. Retained stents may remain asymptomatic for years, or more commonly, present with blockage and delayed complications requiring another, and often more difficult intervention. Complications related to forgotten biliary endoprosthesis have been documented, some left behind for even as long as 10 years. Prevention is the best option in tackling this situation and detailed instructions to the patient along with thorough documentation of the indwelling stent can go a long way in achieving this. Creating a Stent Registry has also been suggested in this context. The recent invention of the biodegradable biliary stent, one which disintegrates in the biliary tree after a predetermined period and therefore does not require removal, can provide an answer in this scenario. While research has identified Poly-L-Lactic Acid (PLLA) as the material of choice for manufacture of such a stent, use of this device is limited at present with cost and availability being the main hurdles preventing its widespread use. However the way forward undoubtedly lies in its wider use thus preventing a perfectly avoidable complication arising out of a "forgotten stent".

  68. Manoj Kumar Rajput, Mohit Sharma, Devendra, Aakanksha, Tripti, Subhash Kumar, Praveen, Reba Chhabra and Surinder Singh

    The objective of this study was to reveal the shif of various diagnostic centres towards chemiluminescent immunoassays from colorimetric immunoassays for diagnosis of HBV, HCV and HIV. National Institute of Biologicals (NIB) carries out quality evaluation of enzyme linked immunoassays intended to be used for diagnosis of HBV, HCV and HIV. The batches of these assays are forwarded to NIB by drugs regulatory authority of India. The number of batches of both types of immunoassays received from the year 2011 to October 2015, clearly showed that the demand for chemiluminescent immunoassays have increased and these assays are occupying the space of traditional colorimetric immunoassays. In the year 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014 and 2015 (till October 2015) the number of batches of colorimetric immunoassays received were 174, 89, 112, 163 and 112 respectively, while the number of batches of chemiluminescent based enzyme immunoassays received were 0, 4, 39, 48 and 89 respectively. The reason for this shift may be their higher sensitivity, uniform linear range and need of lesser sample.

  69. Hassan A. Atef., Hanan K. Mahmoud, Taha Hesham, Rasha M.H. Sayed El-Ahl and Mahmoud, H. H.

    Herbal biosynthesis of zinc oxide nanmoparticles )ZnONPs) using extract of Corriandrum sativum plant leafs and evaluation of their antimicrobial potential against some fungal and bacterial causes of skin affection in buffaloes were investigated. Out of 100 buffaloe cases that showed skin lesions and 30 apparently healthy cases, the fungi of Trichophyton verucosum, T. mentagrophytes and C.albicans were recovered from (50%, 31% and 15%) of hair and from (65% ; 37% and 13%) of skin scales samples of affected animals, respectively. The apparently healthy animals had comparatively lower rate of infection that ranged from 0.3-1%. On the other hand, bacterial species of Dermatophilus congolensis and S. aureus were recovered from 15% and 13% of hair samples and from 17% and 14% of skin scales samples of the affected animals, respectively. Whereas, in case of apparently healthy animals, all cases were not affected by Dermatophilus congolensis and only 1.8% of hair and 6 % of skin scraping samples were affected by S. aureus, respectively. The ZnONPs was synthesized using extract of Corriandrum sativum plant, identified and characterized by visual inspection; in a UV-visible spectrophotometer and Scanning by transmission electron microscope (TEM) and scanning electron microscope (SEM) for detection of their particle size and the purity of the prepared powder. The particle size of prepared ZnO nanoparticles was 50 nm. The antimicrobial potential of prepared ZnONPs was evaluated by broth microdilution methods against recovered microbial species from skin affection of buffaloes. As the concentrations of ZnONPs increased, the optical density and turbidity of treated spore suspension decreased and reached 100% transmittance and clear medium at the MIC of ZnONPs. The MIC that inhibited 50% of the growth of T.verucosum and T.mentagrophytes was 11 -12 mg/ml and it was 17 and 14 mg/ml for MIC 100%, respectively. The MIC that inhibited 50% of the growth of D.congolenesis, S. aureus species was 12.5-25 ug/ml and it was 150 ug/ml for MIC 100%, respectively. The treated fungal and bacterial cells were subjected to SEM, the damage and rupture of their cell wall was detected or membrane damage and some pits that have been caused leakage in inter cellular components and finally cell death. Further studies are needed to investigate the efficacy of pharmaceutical preparation of ZnONPs as ointments, skin lotions and synergistic therapy with other traditional antibiotics in the treatment of animal skin diseases.

  70. Faiz Mohammed

    Aggression has been recognized as a near-universal behavior with substantial influence on and implications for human and animal social systems. It can be a significant problem since escalated aggression may result in serious damage to others and can reveal itself as a symptom of psycho- pathologies. It is often considered to be the product of environmental stressors, health problems, pain, psychiatric morbidity or behavioral stressors. There are different forms of human aggressive behavior which can depend on the triggering factors, social context or individual genetic predisposition. Nevertheless, the multiple etiologies, pathogenesis, and psychopharmacology of aggression in humans have not been identified and well recognized yet although certain factors are understood to increase risk for persistent aggressive behavior. The drug–aggression relationship exists in a complex manner often manifested as either direct or indirect. Importantly, alcohol is frequently cited for aggressive behavior in addition to its adverse medical or social consequences. It is also believed that there is a strong correlation between aggression and stress. There is a general agreement that stress in early life can lead to behavior disturbance although both genetic and epigenetic factors may influence exposure to stressful life events. Generally, aggression has been identified as a key area for research and pharmacological intervention since scientifically expressing its context is one of the greatest and most challenging problems in society. So, study on aggression has to be a ‘hot topic’ in scientific investigations for many specialists from different disciplines.

  71. Dr. A. Hosalli, Dr. A. R.Metgudmath, Dr. V. B. Metgudmath, Dr. R. Badiger, Dr. V. Munavalli, Dr. Ashwin, Dr. Dinesha and Dr. Abhishek

    The frequency of ACS is increasing as the population ages, and therefore, knowledge of knowing who are at high risk is essential. This study was aimed at exploring the risk factors among acute coronary syndrome (STEMI, NSTEMI, Unstable Angina) patients. This cross-sectional study was carried out in the Department of Medicine and Cardiology, KLES Dr. Prabhakar Kore Hospital and Medical Research Centre, Belgaum. A total of 400 patients of age more than 18 years who presented with Acute Coronary Syndromes were included in the study. Patients were subjected to various clinical examination, as well as some required investigations including . The data obtained was coded and entered into the Microsoft Excel Spreadsheet. The data was analysed and the final results and observations were tabulated. The results reveled that majority of the patients were male as well as MI patients (75.75%). In the present study risk factors attributed were non hypertensives (60.5%), diabetics (60.5%).,Age less than 65 years, not on anti platelet therapy outside(89%), not thrombolysed (94.5%), non smokers (84.75%), Non tobacco chewers (89.25%). But the factors which showed significant association were male gender, age <65years. Conclusion: Males are more commonly affected compared to females. The commonest presentation are chest pain alone, chest pain with breathlessness, atypical presentations like syncope, epigastric pain/ burning sensation/etc. Cases of MI were more as compared to that of Unstable Angina in spectrum of Acute Coronary Syndromes.

  72. Sarah Salah Gaafar, Sybel Mokhtar Moussa and Nayera Abd El-Sallam Mokhless

    Introduction: Root canal instrumentation achieves chemical and mechanical preparation before obturation. However instrumentation may result in dentinal defects, decreasing the strength of endodontically treated teeth. Objectives: This study was designed to evaluate dentinal defects formed after root canal instrumentation by two single file systems using reciprocating and rotation motion versus manual instrumentation. Methodology: This study was conducted on 45 mesial roots of mandibular first molars. Teeth were divided into three groups of 15 specimens each. Pre-instrumentation cone beam computed tomography images were taken to identify defects possibly present in the specimens, to have an objective comparison with post-instrumentation images. Root canals were instrumented as follows; Group (1): reciprocating primary Wave One instrument, Group (2): rotary One Shape instrument, Group (3): manual instrumentation with K-Flexofiles. Post-instrumentation cone beam computed tomography images were used to assess dentinal defects formed. Results: The three groups showed dentinal defects formation after instrumentation, with the highest number of defects found in group (2) (One Shape group), however no statistically significant difference was found between the three groups. Conclusions: Dentinal defects formed as a result of instrumentation weren’t affected by the instrumentation technique used.

  73. Dr. Paresh Patil, Dr. Gaurang Chanchpara, Dr. Kiran Gaonkar, Dr. Nishant Gaonkar, Dr. Jayesh Pawar, Dr. Mihir Solanki and Dr. Prashant Alwani

    Introduction: Subtrochanteric fractures result from high energy trauma in young patients and most cases are associated with multiple injuries. In elderly patients, this fracture is often caused by low energy trauma because of osteoporosis and Surgical treatment is the preferred method for subtrochanteric femoral fracture and two main categories of implants are used which are Extra medullary and Intramedullary. Aims and Objective: To study the outcome of subtrochanteric hip fractures treated with extra medullary & intramedullary devices. Materials and Methods: Sixty patients with subtrochanteric fractures were divided into two groups. Thirty patients in group A & thirty patients in group B. Group A was treated with intra medullary device (PFN) and group B was treated with extra medullary device (DCS). Follow-up was done at 6 weeks, 3 months, 6 months, 9 months and 12 months post operatively for clinico-radiological assessment. Results: In Group A (PFN), Excellent results were seen in 47% of cases, good in 40% of cases and fair in 12% of cases with lesser duration of surgery and blood loss. In group B (DCS), excellent results were seen in 33% of cases, good in 27% of cases and fair in 40% of cases. Conclusion: Intramedullary devices used in Subtrochanteric femur fractures has high rates of union, minimal soft-tissue damage, minimal blood loss, lesser hospital stay with biological and biomechanical advantage.

  74. Bassam Afram Hanna

    This study was performed to determine the effect of two polishing system ,Aluminum oxide disk (opti-4dental AZ) and Silicon rubber bur (SJK dent) on the surface roughness of two color restorative materials (Microhybrid composite (Filtex Z 250 USA) & Nanofilled composite (Supereme XT). Sixty samples were prepared (A,B,C, Microhybrid) & (D,E,F, Nanofilled). Groups (A, D) with no surface treatment as a control groups, while (B,E) were polished by SJK dent system and(C, F) polished by Opti4 dental AZ system. Surface roughness of each samples were investigated by Digital Portable Tester (RP-100Instrutherm, pocket).Then the result were analysis by Mean value of each group, bar chart, and comparison between groups by using student t test. In relation to the tooth color materials used the result showed less surface roughness for nanofilled composite than that of Microhybrid composite in all groups, while it were less in roughness for both controlled groups than other treated groups, and although the comparison were non-significant in differences between Silicon rubber system and aluminum oxide system but it were less in surface roughness for Aluminum oxide than that of Silicon rubber. The result of this study give information that the Nanofilled composite is better than the Microhybrid composite in relation to the surface roughness, also the aluminum oxide polishing system give more acceptable smoothness than the Silicon rubber system.

  75. Dr. Deepa Kala

    Pregnancy shows high incidence of vaginal candidiasis because of increase in oestrogen levels. But persistence of symptomatic candidiasis late in puerperium not responding to treatment is rare. Vaginal itching in puerperium may be related to persistent vaginal infection along with other causes. Vaginal discharge culture and sensitivity should be performed in patients who are not responding to multiple courses of oral and vaginal treatment as is evident from this case of Fluconazole resistant vaginal candidiasis

  76. Dr. Sonali Sharma, Dr. Sudesh Sharma, Dr. Mohammad Azhar ud din Darokhan, Dr. Omeshwar Singh, Dr. Rehmat Ali

    Supracondylar fracture of humerus is the second most common fracture in children which account for 60–75% of all fractures around the elbow. There are various treatment modalities for type-III fracture, i.e., closed reduction and casting, skeletal traction, close reduction and percutaneous pinning and open reduction and internal fixation. This study was conducted to see the outcome of open reduction and internal fixation after failed closed reduction.
    Methods: This study was conducted in the Orthopaedics Departments of G.M.C. Jammu on 30 children from June 2013 to June 2015. Patients included were of either gender with age range from 4–12 years with displaced supracondylar fracture (type-III) after failed closed reduction. All fractures were fixed with K-wires by open reduction and internal fixation by lateral approach. The patients were assessed both clinically and radiologically and results were tabulated according to Flynn criteria. Results: Twenty-eight patients had excellent results while two had good results according to Flynn criteria. None of the patients had either fair or poor result.
    Conclusion: Open reduction and internal fixation is a good and reliable method after failed closed reduction and gives stable fixation with anatomical alignment.

  77. Maajid Shabeer Peerzada

    60 patients in the age group 20-50 years with open phalangeal fractures of hand were treated with 'gantry fixation' from jan 2013 to jan 2015. There were 50 males and 10 females. Right hand was involved in 35 and left hand was involved in 25 paticnts. All fractures were operated in emergency operation theatre. The patients were allowed supervised ROM exercises of the adjacent joints and were followed up for 24 weeks.54 (90%)patients had good to excellent results, while as 5(8.33%) patients had fair and 1(1.66%) patient had poor results. It was observed that gantry fixation of phalangeal fractures is easy safe and reliable method of treating fractures of the hand.

  78. Effect of 4% gelatin and dextran-40 on blood glucose levels during surgery under subarachnoid block

    Background & Aims: Stress response to surgery induces hyperglycemia to limited extent. An additive hyperglycemic response, secondary to the metabolism of intravenous fluids, can thus prove detrimental to the well-being of the patient, if ignored. Our study aimed to examine and compare the effects of 4% gelatin and dextran-40 on blood glucose levels during surgery under subarachnoid block and their potential to induce hyperglycemia. Methods: Sixty ASA grade I and II patients were randomized into two groups, 30 patients in each. Group 1 patients were preloaded with 4% Gelatin (10ml/kg) and Group 2 patients were preloaded with Dextran-40 in normal saline (10ml/kg), over a period of 30 minutes (min). Just prior to preloading, base line capillary blood glucose (CBG) level was noted this is followed by subsequent readings at 20 min interval until 100 min from base line reading. All patients received normal saline (0.9%) as a maintenance fluid. Under strict aseptic precautions, subarachnoid block using 15 mg of hyperbaric bupivacaine at L3-L4 or L4-L5 level was given after preloading. Results: Both groups are comparable in age, weight, sex and age wise distribution. The CBG levels in both the groups were within physiological limits. In group 2, the maximum mean blood glucose level of 94.53 ± 14.57 mg/dL was found at 60 min from onset of preloading, which was found to be statistically significant (p=0.017), when compared with corresponding blood glucose level (86.50 ± 10.44mg/dL) in group 1. Conclusion: Preloading the patients prior to subarachnoid block with 4% gelatin or dextran 40 do not raise CBG levels significantly above the physiological limits.

  79. Dr. Navneet Kumar, Dr. Sami Anwar Khan, Dr. Shalu Gupta, Dr. Jeevan Kankaria, Dr. Pradeep Tanwar, Dr. Deepesh Kalra and Dr. Nitin Kumar

    A young female is presented in OPD with abdominal lump n wage abdominal pain on CT it has solid and cystic component with internal hemorrhage n necrosis. Exploratory laparotomy was planned, on per- op finding large mass globular lobulated varying consistency soft firm and hard somewhere. Young age no lymph nodal disease intra op diagnosis was made of suedopancreatic tumor it was arising from the tail of pancreas so spleen preserving distal pancreatecomy was done an HPE report came as we expected solid cystic tumor. so if we aware of the condition we can diagnose this on imaging preoperatively or intraoperatively cam manage patient with less aggressive resection because of less malignant and good prognosis of this condition.

  80. Ahmed Samir Abo Halima, Hanan Mahmoud Badawy, Adel Ahmed Mahmoud Youssef, Engy Yousry and Hossam Samir ElBaz

    Introduction: Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is one of the most common and lethal cancers in the world. More than one million cases of HCC occur in the world each year (Jain et al., 2010). Clearly, the available screening methods are inadequate for early detection and follow up of HCC, so there is need for other markers have to high sensitivity in early diagnosis of HCC as well as the specificity in differentiation between HCC and benign lesions (Padma et al., 2009). Human HCC is a highly angiogenic tumor with several studies showing a strong correlation between tissue VEGF levels and HCC (Semela and Dufour, 2004). The aim of the work: •To study the clinical significance of serum VEGF in hepatitis C cirrhotic patients with HCC as a diagnostic marker before intervention and a prognostic marker after intervention to improve the outcome of HCC diagnosis and treatment • To study the VEGF correlation with hepatocellular carcinoma in hepatitis C cirrhotic patients as a simple non invasive tool Patients and Methods: This study was carried on 80 subjects at the Internal Medicine Department of Ain Shams University Hospitals. classified into 3 groups: Group I was 40 patients with hepatocellular carcinoma and liver cirrhosis, subclassified into Group 1A: Included 20 patients with HCC had been subjected to Radiofrequency ablation Group 1B: Included 20 patients with HCC had been subjected to Transarterial chemo-embolization, Group II was 20 patients with liver cirrhosis only without HCC, Group III was 20 healthy subjects served as control group. HCV related liver cirrhosis and HCC diagnosis were confirmed based on clinical, laboratory and radiological data in addition to serum alpha-fetoprotein (AFP) and Measurment of serum vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) Results: The sensitivity and specificity of VEGF has been shown to vary with the different cutoff values used. According to these results the sensitivity and specificity of VEGF for selective detection of the HCC group over the cirrhotic group were 97.5% and 95% respectively, at a cut-off value of 118pg/ml In addition, the accuracy of VEGF was 96.7%, similar to that of AFP 96.7%. Conclusion: Plasma VEGF is a sensitive and specific serum marker for the diagnosis of HCC, also VEGF may play a prognostic marker in HCC management.

  81. Dr. Saba Firdos and Dr. Sheema Aleem

    It appears that women face considerable stress throughout their life cycle. This becomes more complex after marriage particularly after the birth of a child. Women face unfairness, right from the childhood. A gender disparity in nutrition from infancy to adulthood has been reported by studies. Generally, girls have a less amount of breastfeeding during the period of early years. Sex compositions of offspring have been recognized as one of the prominent factor which are creating the negative impact on adjustments. Adjustment in terms of Home, Health, Social and Emotional aspects of women. With this objective the present study was designed to assess adjustment pattern of homemakers and career women having male offspring only, female offsprings only and offsprings of both sexes. Mohsin-Shamshad Hindi adaptation of Bell Adjustment inventory (Modified form 1987)was used for the purpose of the study. Findings reported that main effect of women were found significant on three dimensions (Home, Health and Emotional) adjustment except only on health adjustment as well as total adjustment also reported significant by women. No significant difference were highlighted among offspring’s however interaction effect (Women x Offspring’s) were found significant on emotional adjustment.

  82. Bibu John Kariyil

    Cancer, which is one of the most dreaded diseases of the century with the number increasing yearly, is a highly complex process which requires various in vivo models to elucidate the mechanism of action of the newly developed chemotherapeutic agents and or isolation of lead phytomolecules along with other in vitro experiment protocols, before entering into clinical trial phase. This review article deals with some of the in vivo cancer models that may help in this process which include various murine models, spontaneous tumour models, laying hen models, drosophila models, chorioallantoic membrane models, zebra fish models etc.

  83. Comparative study between drinking water and distilled water as solvents for extender of buck semen

    This study was conducted to determine the effect of drinking water as solvent for extender on motility of buck sperm. Semen was collected by artificial vagina from five bucks. Four different source of drinking water (Zamzam, Hana, Nova and Aqafina water) and distilled water were used as solvents in Tris-egg yolk extender. So five extenders were formed Zamzam, Hana, Nova, Aqafina and distilled extenders. Sperm have the longest life and motility when using Zamzam extender (12 days). While, the use of distilled extender caused reduction in survival rate and motility of sperm (5.5 days). drinking water such as Zamzam water might be use as solvent in Tris-egg yolk extender for chilled semen of buck. So, we have to reconsider the composition of extender such as solvents and elements (calcium and potassium).

  84. Acute oral toxicity study of Curculigoorchioides in female albino Wistar rats

    The methanolic extract of Curculigoorchioides Gaertn.(Family: Hypoxidaceae) was evaluated for its acute oral toxicity by administering as a single oral dose to female albino Wistar rats. The plant extract was administered orally in a sequential manner to five female rats at the limit dose level of 5000 mg/kg body weight. On the day of dosing, all the animals were observed for mortality and clinical signs for first 10 min, 30 min, 1 h, 2 h, 4 h and 6 h after dosing and thereafter twice daily for mortality and once a day for clinical signs, for 14 days. The body weight of rats was recorded and weekly body weight gain was calculated. After the observation period of 14 days, the surviving animals were sacrificed and subjected to complete necropsy. All treated animals survived throughout the study period. The animals did not show any major adverse clinical signs. The overall weight gain of animals during the 14 day observation period was found to be normal. On necropsy, no major gross pathological changes were observed. Based on the findings of the present study, the methanolicextract of Curculigoorchioides, after oral administration as a single dose to female albino Wistar rats was found to be safe upto 5000 mg/kg body weight.

  85. Jayanta Kumar Poddar, Pradip Kumar Das and Jayanta Debnath

    In this study we investigated students’ opinion of the impact of electronic presentations (PowerPoint) in lectures of undergraduate level compared to chalk and talk which is a traditional and nonelectronic approach. Students who were about to complete their second year MBBS course were included in the study. A questionnaire pertaining to different aspects of lecture and overall satisfaction of the students with the method of lecture delivery was circulated to all the students of that particular batch. Students were supposed to choose one of the two methods for each aspect of the lecture, to know their preference for a particular type of teaching methodology; chalk and board or power point. Out of 107 students present in the class, 100 questionaire forms were included which were properly and duly filled up without any error according to our specifications. The results of the present study suggest that chalkboard teaching has the advantage of a better recall besides being the most preferred aid among second year medical students. Students place greater value on lecturing skills in their learning experience than on whether or not technology is intensively used in the classroom.

  86. Hima John, Padmashree, S., Sridhar, L., Rema Jayalekshmy, Padma Pandeshwar and Lekshmy, J.

    Background & Objectives: Destructive periodontal diseases (PD) have been associated with increased risk of atherosclerotic complications, including acute myocardial infarction (AMI) and stroke. The ability of Periodontitis to produce systemic C-reactive protein (CRP) level elevations may represent the link with cardiovascular events. Hence, the aim of this study was to compare the serum levels of CRP in AMI patients (with and without periodontitis) and a control group. This study also explored the possibility of using CRP levels in patients with periodontitis as a possible risk marker and a screening tool for predicting future cardiovascular disease independent of the conventional risk factors. Methodology: 40 cases of AMI were taken as cases and 40 age and sex matched healthy individuals were taken as controls. Community Periodontal Index (CPI) score and Loss of Attachment (LOA) score were determined, as well as CRP level estimated from blood for every individual examined. Results: It was noted that CRP levels were higher in the individuals with PD both in cases and controls. CRP levels in the AMI patients with PD were much higher than the CRP levels in healthy individuals with a positive correlation of CPI, LOA and CRP. A cut off value for CRP level was determined using the ROC curve and noted that values above 0.45mg/L are at a higher risk. Conclusion: The assessment of CRP levels in the individuals with PD would therefore work as a screening tool and help us in educating the patient about the adverse effects of periodontal ill health.

  87. Prevalence of dental disorders in working donkeys in Egypt

    A total of 100 working donkeys of both sexes and different ages (between 2 and 10 years) was subjected to field clinical dental examinations. A modified flexible low costed industrial endoscope, attached to a laptop facilitated detailed examination of the occlusal and caudal surfaces of the cheek teeth. All of the presented donkeys were found suffering from different varieties of dental disorders despite their owners' histories devoid of any dental complaints. The recorded prevalent dental disorders were dental tartar or calculus (97%), Gingivitis and periodontal disease (80%), focal dental overgrowth (55%), sharp enamel points (28%), fractures(18%), gingival recessions (18%), caries (10%), diastema (5%) and brachygnathism (4%).

  88. Rasha A. Eldeeb, Shifan Khanday, G. and Rawoof Khan

    Introduction and objectives: Grapefruit juice is recommended daily for normal individual and patients with obesity, dyslipidemia, insulin resistant, cancer with a promising hope of its beneficial effect. This study investigates the effect of daily intake of grapefruit on body weight, lipid profile and cerebellar function. Material and Methods: 40 Albino rats divided into four groups and followed up for 14 days. Control group (Cgp) took pure water; Experimental group (E. gp1, 2, 3) took 10 ml, 20 ml and 30 ml of grapefruit juice daily respectively. Body weight, lipid profile and motor coordination of the groups were assessed as well as the histological study of the cerebellum. Results: daily consumption of grapefruit /14 days in rat showed a non- statistical reduction in body weight, cholesterol, triglyceride, LDL levels and an increase in HDL level; accompanied by atrophy in the granular layer of the cerebellum and a decrease in the number of Purkinje cells. Conclusion and recommendations: daily consumption of grapefruit juice reduced body weight, improved lipid profile in rats yet affected their motor coordination. We recommend further research at the cellular and molecular level with large sample size before we can generalize the findings.

  89. Dr. Siddhartha Chatterjee, Dr. Srikanth Bitra, Dr. Zuhaib, Dr. Pradeep Sharma and Dr. Sanjiv Nair

    Ameloblastic carcinoma is a malignant lesion with characteristic histological features and behaviour. In this case report we presented a case of massive Ameloblastic Carcinoma occurring in the mandible of a 34year old Nigerian female. Its typical clinical features, aggressive behaviour and differential diagnosis is discussed in detail. We treated the patient with radical resection and reconstruction with composite/double flaps using free fibula & anterolateral thigh flap as a single stage procedure. Reconstruction using double flap is rare but need of hour of treating huge defects, makes our treatment plan unique.

  90. Jayanta Kumar Poddar, Nirmalya Saha and Jayanta Debnath

    The medical students are under constant stress as the academic course they are entering needs a lot of dedication and emotional involvement. Cadaver dissection is an emotionally charged issue. The effects are both physical and psychological. The emotions can interfere with the educational task. The present study was conducted to evaluate the physical and psychological effects among first year medical students towards cadaveric dissection and the impact on them. A predesigned questionnaire of 21 items including socio-demographic characteristics, physical & emotional reactions and mixed feelings, attitudes of students, was prepared & distributed among 100 first year medical students. All the participants (100%) had suffered from some physical and psychological symptoms after entering and leaving the dissection hall. All (100%) of them experienced some formalin odour with the symptoms after first encounter with cadaver in dissection hall. Nausea (40.0%) was the most common physical and fear (26.7%) was the most commonest psychological effects among the participants. All the participants had opined that cadaveric dissection was important in anatomy learning and for that all of them did not want to replace the cadaver dissection. The emotional issues and its impact on first year medical students should be paid due attention, so that students can prepare themselves to cope up with the physical and psychological reactions regarding cadaver dissection.

  91. Gupta, D. K., Nidhi Gupta, Shukla, P. C., Amita Tiwari, Jitendra Shivhare and Arun Mourya

    Swine influenza is a contagious disease that is caused by the influenza virus. The influenza virion, RNA enveloped virus consist of glycoprotein named HA (hemagglutinin) and NA (neuraminidase). Swine flu produces almost the same symptoms in pigs, as human flu produces in people. Infection with the H1N1 influenza virus can result in severe illness and life-threatening complications in human beings. The most common cause of death is respiratory failure. Although swine influenza is rarely fatal to pigs but fatalities are more common in children and elderly people. The CDC recommends real time RT-PCR as the method of choice for diagnosing H1N1. In the year 2009, WHO raised the worldwide pandemic alert level to phase- 6 for swine flu, which is the highest alert level. A little treatment beyond rest and supportive care is required in case of pigs However, in human beings if the patient is tested positive for swine flu, treatment needs to be initiated immediately. The anti‐viral medicines oseltamivir (Tamiflu/Fluvir) and zanamivir (Relenza) are recommended. Swine flu is very contagious in nature hence the vaccination and strict import controls are the only specific preventive measure. Good sanitary and hygienic practices, freedom from stress particularly due to crowding and dust help to reduce losses.

  92. Dr. Sheikh Mohd Saleem, Dr. Adnan Firdaus Raina, Dr. Mohammad Salim Khan S. and Dr. Shah Sumaya Jan

    Objective: Kashmir has a high incidence of urolithiasis. This study was undertaken to understand the urinary composition, symptomology, diagnostic modality and relation of urolithiasis to water source in patients admitted in a tertiary care hospital of Kashmir division. Methods: A total of 186 24 hr urinary samples of patients with urolithiasis from a tertiary Care hospital were analyzed by enzymatic and spectrophotometric technique to measure the concentration of calcium, magnesium, oxalate, citrate, uric acid and phosphate. Results: Most of patients enrolled were in the age group of 15-39 yrs ,126 patients (67.7%) of study group. The youngest patient was 14 yrs old and the oldest was 67 yrs old. Most of the patients enrolled for study were males 119(64%) and females were 67(36%) .Patients enrolled were from different districts of Jammu and Kashmir, but most of the patients belonged to rural areas. Most of the patients had flank pain as a predominant presenting symptom (78%), UTI with or without obstruction (11.8%) and incidental asymptomatic patients with urolithiasis (10.2%). Most common diagnostic modality used was USG (83%), Plain X-ray KUB (8.6%),IVP (8.1%)in patients with PUJ/VUJ small calculi. On metabolic evaluation of 24 hour urinary constituents in our study group of 186 patients,113 (60.8%) patients were having hypercalciuria as predominant urinary abnormality with Mean ± SD 9.41±2.07 which was persistently higher than normal. However there was no significant variation on the basis of gender. Hypocitraturia was the second most common abnormality found in 112 (60%) stone formers with Mean ±SD of 1.32±0.18 which is usually not found normally, but was predominately found among males (62.2%) of our study group. Significantly increased concentration of uric acid were seen in 48(25.8%) stone formers which were again found to be statistically significant and their propensity was more in male gender. Urinary phosphate and oxalate concentration were raised in stone formers in 88 (47.3%) and 42 (25.3%) patients with Mean ± SD of 42.32±1.87 and 41.58±5.45 respectively. Hypomagnesuria was seen in 94 (50.5%) patients more in females as compared to males. Conclusion: The findings of the present work indicate that urolithiasis in the Kashmir division represent common urological problem and is correlated with the nutritional, environmental and genetic factors.

  93. Integrated School Health Screening Program in khan Sahab, District Budgam (J&K)

    Background: Screening program in schools are designed to identify children who have early signs of health problems. This study provides information about the findings of integrated school health screening program in rural block khan sahib, District Budgam. Aims and Objectives: To screen for the behavioural, visual disorders, pediculosis, nutritional status and physical examination of school going children in rural block of Khan Sahib, District Budgam. Design: Community based cross-sectional study Methods: This Integrated school health screening program was conducted by the Department of SPM, Govt. Medical College and Srinagar. This program had two major parts including 1) Screening of behavioural, visual disorders, pediculosis and calculating body mass index and 2) physical examination of students, conducted by primary care physicians. All services were offered free of charge. The students' parents were informed about the health status of their children. Statistical analysis used: SPSS v 20.0. Results: The screening program conducted in Aug.2015‐Sep.2015 included 201 students from 2 schools, age 5 yrs to 16 yrs who were studying in Government Middle and Secondary schools. Of total students studied, 89.05% had weight disorders, i.e. body mass index <3rd percentile or > 95th percentile. 27.86% had visual disorders, 3.95 % had head lice, and 2.24% had behavioural disorders. On physical examination 15.92% had upper respiratory tract infections, 33.83% had abdominal cramps and 23.87% had fungal skin infection. Conclusion: In addition to its benefits to the students' health status, the results of this screening program help health policy makers to design interventions for prevention and or early detection and treatment of the most common disorders documented among school students.

  94. Ali Mohammed, P, Deep Sharma, Dilip Kumar Patro, Jagdish Menon and Pooja Dhiman

    Background: Despite many recent advances in the field of orthopedic surgery, the early diagnosis of SSI is still a challenge to orthopedic surgeon as there is lack of reliable bio marker of infection. In this regard we aimed to find out the diagnostic power of PCT as a marker of SSI and its kinetics in patients who have undergone orthopedic surgical procedure. Material and Methods: After getting informed consent, patients who had undergone orthopaedic surgery were included in this study. It was a prospective study. Those patients who developed post-operative wound discharge were followed up for the development of SSI and wound complications. Serum levels of procalcitonin was measured pre operatively, POD1, POD3. First wound check was done on POD4.So at the end of the study, patients were classified into 3 groups: Group 1 -with SSI: Group 2- wound discharge, Group 3-No wound discharge. The serum levels of PCT was compared among above three groups and results were drawn. Results: Group 1 had higher mean PCT levels than Group 2 (p < 0.05), Group 2 had higher mean level of PCT than Group-3(p < 0.05), Conclusion: A persistent level of PCT is predictive of SSI and wound complications Level of evidence-4

  95. Parasuraman, P. and Dr. Manikandan, T.

    Antibacterial activity of Excoecaria agallocha. L. (Euphorbiaceae) was investigated. Leaf extracts of Acetone and Petroleum ether were tested against five bacteria viz. Staphylococcus aureus MTCC3381, Escherichia coli MTCC739, Bacillus cereus MTCC430, Pseudomonas aeruginosa MMTC424, Klebsiella pneumoniae MTCC432. The results of antibacterial activity of acetone extract was highly effective when compared with petroleum ether extract.

  96. Shivani Chowdhury Salian Modh

    Background: The flour mill workers work in a very unhygienic environment for 6-8 hours a day and perform a duty of loading and unloading a plastic bags or boxes or sacks of flour into the mill. The job demands a high intensity of physical strength. Material and Method: A sample 100 Flour mill workers at Thane and Chembur were surveyed for the potential risk for (work related musculoskeletal disorders) WRMD's and hazards of work environment using a Pre-Mapping assessment tool provided by EPM. Work related hazards were used to assess the qualitative risk of biomechanical overload of manual handling, pollutants and repetitive movements. Quantitative analysis of risk of work related musculoskeletal disorder was assessed using NIOSH Lifting Equation. Results: This research aimed to preliminarily assess the risk of biomechanical overload of activity in flour mill workers using the EPM pre-mapping tool. Flour Mill workers do work in extreme awkward postures at their workplace which makes them vulnerable to health hazards they have high risk of being inflicted with Low back injuries (Spine), either cumulative or acute in nature. SPSS version 14 was used to analyse the data. Frequency tables and percentile values were computed from the collected data. On Pre-mapping of priorities for biomechanical overload from EPM (Ergonomic of posture and movement) it was observed that 100 % of the workers were subjected to repetitive movements, continuous lifting of heavy objects, had issues with climatic conditions and pollutants. Also 100 % of the workers faced vibration at work place. 94 % of the workers exhibited a high level of risk with Biomechanical overload- load of manual transport. When assessed for biomechanical overload for spine and lower limb awkward posture, 50% and 47% of workers fell in the High and Very High level of risk factors respectively i.e., postures having a very harmful effect on musculoskeletal system for which corrective action should be done as soon as possible. Environmental factors like working in poor lighting, noisy environment and particulate (flour) pollutants did increase the risk of work related health disorders. NIOSH lifting equation showed High Measures of Lifting index in 69 mill workers indicating that flour mill workers work at High level of risk of acquiring low back problems-which may expose a significant proportion of the working population to risk of injury. A prompt action is needed to rectify their postures to prevent WRMDs. Conclusion: Pre-mapping of potential risks of WMSDs show that the workplace environment comprising poor lighting, vibrations, microclimatic conditions and pollutants (flour dust) affect the working conditions negatively. NIOSH equations denote high lifting indices making it evident that the Lifting index and the load lifted by the flour mill workers in the flour mills are the highest risk factors in the job demands of flour mill workers which could lead WMSD's. The results suggest that the tasks should be redesigned ergonomically to eliminate the risk factors that may cause low back injuries.

  97. Bernadett Kiss and Áron Németh

    In biotechnological experiments the development and kinetics of the microbial culture are crucial information. Therefore researchers made lot of efforts to develop different cell measuring systems. Classically offline methods were widely used but they do not give real-time and reliable results enough. Among them some are able to follow even the living cell-number, which has probably the highest importance. A new, innovative online living-cell measurement sensor (InCyte (Hamilton) were received from Hamilton Bonaduz AG to test it with different art of microorganism. In the present investigation we elaborated a method for preliminary sensor application test, which is more fast and simple than testing this sensor directly in real cultivations. We already tested InCyte sensor with a prokaryotic lactobacillus (Lactobacillus sp.) and with eucaryotic yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) furthermore with a microalgae strain (Chlorella vulgaris), which latter is also eukaryotic as well. We could confirm, that in some cases only high cell density could result high signal enough for the sensor, but according to our findings, InCyte sensor is applicable even for microalgae. Furthermore via conductivity measurements it can give information on product formation, too

  98. Enzymatic and physiological alterations of lines maize seeds submitted to different Temperatures

    During seeds germination period, the temperature is an important factor, which influences the seedling establishment in the field. Thus, tolerant cultivars at both low and / or high temperatures in these phases are fundamental in plant breeding programs. The objective in this work was to verify the enzymatic and physiological alterations of lines maize seeds submitted to different temperatures. We used maize lines (L30, L64, L63, L91) from the maize breeding programs of the company Geneseeds Genetic Resources Ltda. Seeds from this lines were submitted to germination test, first count of germination, root protrusion and emergence test at different temperatures of 15, 20, 25, 30 and 35°C. We also calculated the emergence speed index (ESI) and the expression of catalase, esterase, malate dehydrogenase, alcohol dehydrogenase and α-amylase enzymes, for all treatments. The experimental design was completely randomized, in factorial scheme of 4x5, with four lines and five temperatures. The maize lines 30 and 64 are susceptible to high temperatures of germination. The temperature variations compromised the physiological quality of lines maize seeds. There is variation in the expression of ADH, MDH, catalase, esterase and alpha amylase enzymes in maize lines of the evaluated lines.

  99. Dr. D. Victor Arokia Doss, Mohanasundaram Sugumar and Prasad Maddisetty, P.N.

    Senna alata (L) is an ornamental flowering plant which is mostly used as antifungal agent as an oral preparation by traditional practitioners. The juice of fresh leaves of Senna alata is universally recognized by local healers as a remedy for parasitic skin disease and is used in the treatment of many eruptive and pustular skin condition by simply rubbing the crushed leaves either alone or mixed with oil on the skin. Root is taken in Nigerian and Guinea Bissau to regulate menstrual flow. Decoction with rock salt and other dry medicinal plants is taken in Nigeria thrice weekly on an empty stomach for effective treatment of chronic gonorrhoea. Though it has much therapeutic options traditionally, the most of these information are still under research for experimental evidences. There are some more research is going on to screen and to understand the existence of bioactive compounds with free radical scavenging activity, anticancer property and antidiabetic potency. In this critical time, we have sum up almost all the details of current and completed research on this plant as review here for the idea about Senna alata (L).

  100. Kavitha Maheswari and Geethanjali Santhanam

    Aim: Adolescence is a period of tremendous physical and cognitive changes. It is considered a nutritionally vulnerable period because of the increased needs for all nutrients and changes in lifestyle and food habits that affect nutrient intake. The study aimed to assess the prevalence rate of anemia and its associated risk factors among adolescents. Methods: The research design adopted for this study was ex-post facto in nature. Sample of hundred adolescent girls were selected random sampling technique. Survey method was followed and data was collected by using interview schedule with constructed questionnaire. Results: The prevalence of anemia was measured by estimating the blood hemoglobin level of the respondents by chynomethomoglobin method. Among the 100 adolescent girls everyone was suffered from anemia. It shows that 100 percent prevalence rate among the study group. Conclusion: Among the study population 59 percent of respondents were in mild anemic condition, the 41 percent were in moderate level. Anemic girls were found higher physiological problems.

  101. Sureshkumar, M., Ganesh, S. K., Sakila, M., Dinakaran, D. and Senguttuvan, T.

    Rice is one of the most important and widely cultivated food crops of the world and the majority of rice (90 per cent) is being produced in Asian countries with China and India being the major producers (IRRI, 2013). Rice varieties, parental lines of the hybrids and the hybrid in general are susceptible to several biotic stresses such as bacterial blight (BB), blast, brown plant hoppers (BPH) and Sheath blight (ShB), resulting into dramatic reduction in the yield as well as the quality of rice (Singh et al., 2011). ShB is the soil-borne fungal disease caused by Rhizoctonia solani Kuhn, which alone accounts to 25 per cent of yield losses (Kumar et al., 2009). Wide host range of the ShB pathogen makes the management of the disease a difficult task. Till date, no rice germplasm in the world has been found to be completely resistant to this fungus as the resistance is typically governed by polygenes (Sha and Zhu, 1989). Six parents viz., FL 478, IW Ponni, BPT 5204, IR 64, RNR 57979 and TETEP utilized in the present study were subjected to screening for Sheath Blight resistance along with susceptible check, T (N) 1. Screening was done both under field as well as in screen house with artificially inoculated condition. The screen house facility that was available at Department of Plant Breeding and Genetics, ADAC and RI, Trichy was utilized for artificial screening of diseases and the entries in the present study were evaluated for sheath blight disease.

  102. Roopa, R., Maruthi Prasad, B. V. and Vishwanath, H. L.

    Introduction: Serum cholinesterase has been shown to be associated with DM, coronary artery disease, hypertension and also its shown to have role in lipid metabolism in previous studies where in its activity has been positively correlated with serum lipids and lipoprotein levels. However, only few studies have examined the association between serum cholinesterase and risk of cardiovascular disease in type 2 DM patients in relation to body mass index and their findings are not consistent. Aim: a) To measure serum cholinesterase levels in diagnosed type 2 Diabetes mellitus patients. b) To assess the correlation between serum cholinesterase and lipid indices in the above patients with respect to their BMI. Method: Data of 30 out-patients with diagnosed type 2 DM (cases) and 30 age and sex matched healthy individuals from general population (controls) were collected and their blood drawn for serum cholinesterase, Fasting blood glucose (FBG) and lipid profile analysis in Beckman coulter Biochemistry auto analyser. Results: Serum Cholinesterase was higher in cases compared to controls. Serum cholinesterase in cases was 9480.7 ± 1439.04 and in controls was 7092.9 ± 985.46 with t score of 7.4986 with P value of 0.0001 which is statistically very significant. Serum cholinesterase showed positive correlation with each of lipid indices namely total cholesterol (r score:0.8542 p:0.00001), triglycerides (r score:0.4334 p:0.05), LDL-C(r score:0.6939 p:0.0069), total cholesterol to HDL-C ratio (r score:0.4513 p:0.045) and negative correlation with HDL-C (r score:-0.447 p:0.0481) in the over-weight and obese patients of Type 2 DM as compared to their levels in the controls. Conclusion: The results of this study indicate that serum cholinesterase may serve as a potential risk assessment marker of cardiovascular disease in type 2 Diabetes Mellitus.

  103. Ousmane SARR, Jean FALL, Malick DIOUF, Abdoulaye LOUM and Mariame SAGNE

    The present study was conducted in the hatchery of the graduate school of fisheries and aquaculture located at the Department of Animal Biology, Faculty of Science and Technology of University Cheikh Anta Diop. It is a contribution to the development of aquaculture feeds using natural binders. A growth performance test was conducted using four isoproteic diets of 30 ± 0.50% differentiated from each other by a binding agent: A: 20 g of Adansonia digitata leaves meal, B: 20 g of Corchorus tridens leaves meal, C: 20 g of arabic gum meal and D : the control containing 20 g of Carboxy-Methyl-Cellulose were fed to a duplicate of Oreochromis niloticus fry for 45 days, with an initial weight of 5.74 ± 0.01g/fish in an isolated system consisting of 8 plastic tanks of 50 liters with a density of 13 fish per tank. The results showed that the best survival rates were obtained with the fish fed B and C diets and the lowest with those fed A and D diets. The specific growth rate (SGR) was higher in the fish fed diet B (1.90 ± 0.1) and lower in fish fed diets (A (1.47 ± 0.1), C (1.46 ± 0.1) and D (1.41 ± 0.1)). The best feed conversion rate (FCR) (2.43 ± 0.01) was obtained in the fish fed diets B. Diets A (3.21 ± 0.02), C (3.56 ± 0.01) and D (3.75 ± 0.01) gave the lowest FCR. The best protein effeciency ratio (PER) was observed with the fish fed diet B (1.34 ± 0.05). The lowest PER were noticed in the other diets. Encouraging results, although preliminary, were obtained at the end of the study. Therefore, these results suggest that the Corchorus tridens leaves meal is likely to replace the Carboxy-methyl-cellulose in feed formulations tilapia diets as binder.

  104. Nikolay Tsenov and Todor Gubatov

    The housing conditions are a major factor to change all the traits of bread wheat pertaining to the quality and yield of grain. Whether this is true for the growing season of winter wheat, which is one of the longest in agricultural crops. The aim of this study was to establish the influence of contrasting environmental conditions on the change of basic periods of vegetation, which have a direct connection with the grain yield. Thirty varieties of winter wheat grown in production were studied. They have all the necessary variety of traits and properties of wheat to obtain the maximum possible yield of grain in the country. Cultivars are tested in four consecutive seasons 2007, 2008, 2009 and 2010 in the five locations of Bulgaria, covering all possible variety of soil and climatic conditions for growing wheat. The characters of ear emergence date [EED], grain filling period [GFP] and vegetation period [VP], as major periods of whole wheat vegetation are studied. Data were analyzed using a number of specialized software programs to establish the genotype with the environment interactions. At all traits strong interaction of genotype with the environment is found. The values of the three characters change fairly heavily under the influence of environmental factors. Especially noticeable is the effect of location for vegetation period (VP) and the period of grain filling. In general, the date of the ear emergence change more strongly by the terms of the season and the effect reaches about 50% of the total variation of the trait. Although trait means in the tested varieties are very close, they change the background of the various combinations between the two factors of the environment is so strong that it reaches almost 20% in GFP. The last one is changed greatly in both studied factors. Therefore, it is very convenient for a precise assessment in response to specific genotype in clarifying its impact on the formation of yield and grain quality.

  105. The study on the marketing channels, projected exports of organic coconut in Coimbatore district of Tamil Nadu

    Organic farming is gaining gradual movement across the world. Growing awareness of health and environmental issues in agriculture has demanded production of organic food which is emerging as an attractive source of rural income generation. India is bestowed with lot of potential to produce all varieties of organic products because of its various agro climatic regions. Oceania has the largest share of organic agricultural land (37%), followed by Europe (24%) and Latin America (20%). The proportion of organically compared to conventionally managed land, however, is highest in Oceania and in Europe. India ranks last among the top ten countries in terms of cultivable land under organic certification. The certified area includes 10% cultivable area (0.50 million ha) and rest 90% (4.71 million ha) is forest and wild area for collection of minor forest produces. India produced around 1.34 million Metric tonnes of certified organic products which includes all varieties of food products namely sugarcane, cotton, coconut, Basmati rice, pulses, tea, spices, coffee, oil Seeds, fruits and their value added products.

  106. Pulping qualities of six year old clones of eucalyptus tereticornis, SM

    Cell size and relative fiber dimensions have a major influence on the quality of pulp and paper products and solid wood products. Since many of the wood properties are strongly heritable (Zhang and Jiang, 1998), there is a possibility for improving these traits through tree improvement programmes. Eucalyptus tereticornis is commercially planted as a source of paper pulp yet the wood properties show considerable variation among the clones. The present study was mainly intended to understand the wood properties of different clones and their suitability for pulping. The clones were compared for the pulping indices like Felting coefficient, Runkel’s ratio, Isenberg coefficient, coefficient of fiber flexibility, inverse of fiber diameter and the amount of solid cell wall materials in the fibers. Clones were categorized based on their suitability for pulping. The clones Et 027, Et 093, Et 147, Et 148, Et 086, Et 082, Et 006 and Et 122 were identified as superior clones for good quality paper production due to their longer and thinner fibers. Clones Et 001, Et 128, Et 003, Et 142 and Et 071 were highly inferior in terms of pulp production due to their shorter and thicker fibers but they are suitable as a source of fuel wood. The clones like Et 111, Et 135, Et 114, Et 032, Et 084, Et 004 and Et 137 were having thinner but shorter fibers while Et 099, Et 105, Et 130, Et 100, Et 007, Et 010, Et 138, Et 132, Et 074 and Et 052 were having longer but thicker fibers. Correlation studies showed a significant positive correlation between height with fiber length and fiber wall thickness and a negative correlation with lumen diameter. Diameter also showed a significant positive correlation with fiber length but an inverse relation with fiber diameter and lumen diameter. The results indicate that during plus tree selection programme due importance must be given to growth traits that would definitely improve other desirable wood traits.

  107. Swaroopa Maralla and Bharathi, D.

    Thyroid dysfunction is extremely common in women, as women are five to eight times more likely to have thyroid dysfunction than men, and has unique consequences related to menstrual cyclicity and reproduction. Both hyperthyroidism and hypothyroidism may result in menstrual disturbances. The most common manifestations are hypomenorrhea and oligomenorrhea. The thyroid dysfunction is also frequently associated with other menstrual disturbances including amenorrhea and anovulation. Hyperthyroidism occurs in about 0.2-0.4% of all pregnancies and Hypothyroidism is also common in pregnancy with an estimated prevalence of 2-3% and 0.3-0.5% for subclinical and overt hypothyroidism respectively. In pregnant women, even minimal hypothyroidism can increase rates of miscarriage and fetal death and may also have adverse effects on later cognitive development of the offspring. Hyperthyroidism during pregnancy may also have adverse consequences. Women often overlook their symptoms or mistake them for symptoms of other conditions. For example, women are at particularly high risk for developing thyroid disorders following childbirth. Symptoms such as fatigue and depression are common during this period, but these are also symptoms of thyroid disease. The American Thyroid Association (ATA) estimates that more than half of thyroid conditions remain undiagnosed. Accordingly, Thyroid-stimulating hormone or thyrotropin (TSH) determination is warranted for all women planning pregnancy or those already pregnant.

  108. Dr. Siddeswari, R., Dr. Suryanarayana, B., Dr. Srinivasa Rao, N., Dr. Prabhu Kumar, C.H. and Dr. Madhavi, P.

    Nevirapine (NVP) a Non Nucleoside reverse transcription inhibitors (NNRTI) commonly used in Highly Active Antiretroviral Therapy (HAART) regimens for treatment of HIV infections in National Aids Control Organisation because of its efficacy and good tolerability. Stevens- Johnson syndrome may occur 0.3% with nevirapine, 0.1% with efavirenz. We are here with submitting a case report of nevirapine induced Stevens- Johnson syndrome in a HIV patient who was on zidovudine + lamivudine + nevirapine, which has resolved completely after changing the regimen and with supportive treatment.

  109. Gender difference in attitude about information and communication technology among university student

    The Ebola virus (EBOV) genome encodes for several proteins that are necessary and sufficient for replication and transcription of the viral RNAs; NP, VP30, VP35, and L. VP30.VP30 binds to the RNA at the first gene start signal to initiate transcription. In the present study we used different In Silico tools and technique to analyze protein sequence of VP30 protein retrieved from major protein resources, prediction of three dimensional structures and its binding site prediction. However, we predicted the three dimensional structure of VP30 protein by Swiss model server and Ramchandran Plot analysis. Our work suggests that VP30 protein can acts as target for the inhibition of Ebola virus. The further study of VP30 protein used in the molecular docking and structure based drug designing to inhibit in Ebola virus .

  110. Shiragave, P. D

    It is very rich in plant Biodiversity. About 264 plant species belongs to 218 genus and 77 families has been recorded from Ramling hill stations around Arjunnagar. Further, detailed study is required for understanding the flora of this sacred grove. This data gives idea about the plant biodiversity and importance of sacred groves in conservation of flora

  111. Mrinmay Ghorai, Patra, B.C., Utpal Kumar Sar, Manojit Bhattacharya, Harek. Jana and Avijit Kar

    Kolaghat Thermal Power Station is situated on right pool of the river Rupnarayan in Purba Medinipur district. Presently its total power generating capacity is 1260MW, with six units, 210 MW each. The plant generates around 7500-8000 metric tons fly ash which disposed mixed hot waste water on the river and consequently it has an adverse impact on the said river. The fish diversity of the river in relation to physico-chemical parameters was studied by monthly samples taken from May, 2013 to February, 2014. Traditional cast net and craft (Poukia) was used for fish sampling collection. The results of present investigation reflected the occurrence of 27 fish species belonging to 9 order, 18 family and 20 genera. Among the collect species, order Siluriformes (32%) was a good number abundant in all sites besides this order Cypriniformes (20%), Perciformes (17%), Clupeiformes (12%), Mugiliformes and Polynemiformes both (7%), Pleuronectiformes and Symbranchiformes each (2%) respectively. The Simson’s index of diversity (1-D) was highest at Site-1(S1) is 0.951 followed by Site-2(S2) is 0.947 and Site-3(S3) is 0.932. This indicated the greater fish biodiversity in site-1 when compared to other two centres. Further, another index such as Shannon Weiner index (H) was also used to assess the richness of fish diversity of all three sites. In this study an effort has been made to evaluate the fish species diversity in the region and suggests mitigating measures.

  112. Fate of bifenthrin and Λ -cyhalothrin in water

    The distribution of synthetic pyrethroids in the surface waters was assessed by measuring the concentration in water samples. For this purpose water was collected from the nearby canal of agricultural field CCS HAU, Hisar. Water samples (200 mL) were treated with bifenthrin and λ-cyhalothrin at levels of 0.5mgL-1 and 1.0 mgL-1 separately. Liquid-liquid partitioning was used for the extraction of the pyrethroid from the water. Analysis of the pyrethroids extracts was done with gas chromatography equipped with electron capture detector. In case of bifenthrin residues persisted up to 90 days with half-life 10.38-12.04 while in λ-cyhalothrin the residues reached below detectable level (0.001 mg L-1) within 60 days after treatment with half-life 7.16-7.52 days.

  113. Dibya Sundar Kar, AnitaMohanty and Pravasini Behera

    Collar rot is a serious disease of tube rose (Polianthes tuberose L.) caused by Sclerotium rolfsii Sacc. reported in Odisha. The malady is rapidly gaining momentum inflicting heavy damage to this commercial ornamental crop. To study about this disease, with a chain of operations like planting material collection, isolation of pathogens, sterilisation of glassware, preparation of different media and inoculation in the media were conducted. Out of seven inoculation methods compared, artificial inoculation was highly successful, when inoculums mixed in top 2-3 cm soil and covered with leaf debris of tuberose. Ground nut shell and Sorghum grain media supported maximum Sclerotia and mycelia growth of the fungus.

  114. Uday Jayaramaiah, Samapthkumar Shankarnaryan, Huchech C Hoolegeri and Hosagavi Puttegowda Puttaraju

    Estimation of phosphate in Wolbachia Surface Protein (WSP) will explore the link between Phospholipid hydrolysis and Wolbachia. It is hypothesized that, the proteins with phosphate groups can actively participate in phosphate hydrolysis. In the current study, an improvised novel our approach has been adopted to quantify the presence of phosphate in WSP.

  115. Hamdy A. Ibrahim, Kadeam A. Al-Shumisay, Mohamed F. Abouel-Nour, Tahany A. Mohamed

    Radiation contamination can occur from natural radiation or from man-made sources, such as radiation for medical research or for nuclear weapons manufacture, and this one of the major problems facing the ratio biologists is how to infer the biological bad effects resulting from γ- radiation exposure. The aim of the work is to investigate the effects of γ-radiation exposure on the blood picture, liver function, kidney function and TNF-α of albino rats, and using mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) to treatment these effects. The animals were divided into 5 groups: Control, γ-irradiation (6 grays), stem cells, γ-irradiation treated with stem cells post-irradiation and the 5th groups for preparation of mesenchymal stem cells for engrafting after one week and two weeks post-irradiation. The present study was undertaken to examine the effects of two dosages of MSCs on the survival of rats exposed to lethal doses of total body irradiation (TBI), and to explore the mechanisms by which MSCs in significantly improve gamma radiation effects.

  116. Apocryptes caudalis, a new species of mudskipper from Paschim medinipore, West Bengal, India

    A new freshwater Indigenous fish species, Apocryptes caudalis sp. nov. , has been described from Pingla, Paschim Medinipur, West Bengal, India. The species has been described after detailed morphological examination and careful comparisons with it’s congener. Present species is easily distinguished from its congener, Apocryptes bato (Hamilton, 1822) by the presence of long caudal fin, short standard length, number of fin rays in second dorsal fin, presence of more vertical bars, greater head length.

  117. Tabinda Sehar, Zargar, M. Y. and Baba, Z. A.

    Earthworms were collected from three different locations (Wadura, Shalimar and Gulmarg). Mature earthworms and their cocoons collected from various sites at each location were pooled together forming a composite sample. The earthworms from each location were identified at (Centre of Research for Development, P.G. Department of Environmental Science, University of Kashmir) and mass multiplied in appropriate media. The species Eisenia foetida, Apporectodea rosea and Apporectodea caliginossa were identified from Wadura, Eisenia foetida and Apporectodea caliginossa were identified from Shalimar and Eisenia foetida and Apporectodea caliginossa were identified from Gulmarg. Preliminary screening of the identified worms from each location was carried out on the basis of vermicomposting potential to select the best isolate for further studies. Apporectodea rosea, Eisenia foetida and Apporectodea caliginossa from Wadura, Shalimar and Gulmarg were selected for vermicomposting process. An experiment was carried out in vermibeds of 3 x 10 feet at vermicomposting unit to develop the nutrient and microbe rich vermicompost using locally isolated earthworms and standard species, Eisenia foetida. The experiment was laid in completely randomized design which comprised of 16 treatments of 4 waste combinations including cow dung and mixture of organic wastes (kitchen wastes, municipal waste, crop residues, sheep/poultry manure, apple pomace) cow dung (24 kg) and organic waste (60 kg). The ratio of waste combinations was maintained as: 0:1 = (0% cow dung + 100% organic waste); 1:1 = (50% cow dung + 50% organic waste); 1:2 = (33% cow dung + 67% organic waste); 1:3 = (25% cow dung + 75% organic waste). The results indicated that the Eisenia foetida isolated from Shalimar proved to be having the best vermicomposting potential due to its individual capability and better adaptability to the local temperate conditions as compared to standard Eisenia foetida and other local isolates.

  118. Yadak, SafaaMajedAbdAlkareem

    The study aimed to explore the metacomprehension level among a sample of Al-Qassim university postgraduates in light of gender, academic level, major (scientific or literary) and the achievement level. Schraw and Dennison (1994) test modified for the Arab environment by Jarrah and Obeidat (2011) was employed. Content validity is established by examining what each item tests, sources of obtaining items, formation of items and methods of arbitrating items. Correlation coefficients between the scores of Yadak (2011) tests and the current one employed is calculated to ensure test reliability. The sample included (1102) students registered for the first semester in the academic year 2014/ 2015 at Al-Qassim University, college of arts and sciences- Al Rass, from different educational levels; 1st, 2nd, 3rd, and 4th years. It was found that the students have a high level of metacomprehension on each dimension and on overall test. Statistically significance differences are found at (α=0,05) based on; gender in favor of the females; achievement level in favor of high level achievement students and on the dimension of knowledge organization based on major in favor of literary majors. But no significant differences based on educational level and major are found.

  119. Jisha Krishnan, E. K. and Sebastian, C. D.

    Ceriagrion coromandelianum commonly called ‘Coromandel Marsh dart’ or ‘Yellow Waxtail’ is a widely distributed damselfly species in South Asia. It acts as a natural ‘biocontrol’ agent against paddy pests like leaf hopper, planthopper, midges and flies. The partial sequence of cytochrome oxidase I gene of C. coromandelianum was analysed by PCR and the result yielded a gene product of 573 bp length. Phylogenetic tree constructed by Maximum likelihood and Neighbour joining method supported with the bootstrap value, taxonomically confirmed the relationship of this species with other damselflies and depicted that it is closely related to C. nipponicum than other Ceriagrion members. Evolutionary divergence and tree reveals that all the Ceriagrion members are having a monophyletic ancestry originating from a common clade with maximum divergence for C. whellani followed by C. nipponicum, C. coromandelianum and C. glabrum and it occurred mainly due to the transitional change of nucleotides.

  120. Comparative study on the occurrence of renal failure among Sudanese people

    The kidneys are important organs responsible for filtration, reabsorption and excretion of waste from the body. Renal failure (RF) is mainly determined by a decrease in glomerular filtration rate (GFR); the rate at which blood is filtered in the glomeruli of the kidneys. The decrease of filtration rate is detected by a decrease in or absence of urine production or determination of waste products (creatinine or urea) in the blood. Hematuria (blood loss in the urine) and proteinuria (protein loss in the urine) may be noted in relation to this failure. This study was aimed to compare the occurrence of renal failure among Sudanes people. Eighty patients with renal failure (RF) registered at hospitals in Khartoum State agreed to participate in this study between April - May / 2015. Data was collected from each patient using a specific questionnaire designed for this purpose. Results: revealed that the high percentage of RF was among men (62.5%) compared to 37.5% among females. Moreover, 40% of these patients were found to smoke cigarettes. Regarding family history, 35% of those having high percentage of RF had a family history while 65% without family history. Also of these patients 65% were reported suffering from chronic diseases before RF onset and 35% did not show any sign of disease before it. The chronic diseases included hypertension (58%), diabetes mellitus (30.7%) and heart disease (3.7 %%). In the meantime, 5% of those reported with renal failure was observed to be susceptible to other diseases. Conclusion: The study concluded that chronic disease was found to be main causes of RF and the disease was higher among officials and that a high percentage of it was reported among males and most of them without family history and non -smokers

  121. Kanikaram Sunita, Somaiah, K., Brahmam, P. and SreeRekha, N.

    The present study was carried out to investigate the toxicity of commercial grade Phenthoate effects on biochemical parameters in an Indian major carp Labeo rohita under the controlled laboratory conditions. The median lethal concentration value (96 h LC50) of Phenthoate was found to be 2.1 mgl- 1 by using Finney’s Probit Method. Fish were exposed to sublethal concentration of 1/10th 96 h LC50 (0.21 mgl-1) for the period of 1 and 10 days respectively and the changes were assessed by using various methods. A significant increase in aminotransferase (AST), activity was observed in muscle (83.77% - highest), kidney (47.53% - lowest), ALT activity was noticed in muscle (61.65% - highest) and in kidney (1.84% - lowest), the ACP activity level elevated was observed in intestine (21.36% - highest) and in gill (0.78% - lowest). The acetyl cholinesterase (AChE) enzyme decreased was observed in gill (53.33% - highest) and in kidney (1.20% - lowest) for 1day. Similarly, during 10 days sublethal exposure, AST activity elevated in kidney (69.10% - highest) and muscle (18.82% - lowest), ALT activity also increased in muscle (36.77% - lowest) and (131.74% - highest) in intestine tissues. The ACP percent change was noticed in brain (36.44% - highest) and in muscle (20.20% - lowest). The AChE activity decreased in muscle (70.04% - highest) and (47.68 % - lowest) in brain compared to the control group fish (P < 0.05) during the experimentation. Hence, the percent change of biochemical constituent’s has gradually increased or decreased due to disruption of internal organ in all tissues. This might be due to enhanced enzyme turnover under pesticide stress. The decreased levels of AChE enzyme possibly due to the activity of the organophosphorus compound with the active site of AChE followed by phosphorylation of the phosphorus of the organophosphate to the oxygen of the hydroxyl group of serine at the active site.

  122. Mr. Mahadevappa Muttalageri and Dr. Mokshapathy, S.

    A study on production practices being followed by organic tomato growers in Bailhongal taluk of Belagavi district of Karnataka. The primary data were collected from 60 organic tomato growers / farmers through structured questionnaire method for the study. Adoption of seedling preparation practices in cultivation of organic tomato crop. It was noticed that 93.33 per cent of the respondent farmers adopted the raised bed method followed by 91.66 percent of the farmers followed raise the beds with 1 m width and 3 m length with a height of 20 cm. It was noticed that 80.00 per cent of the respondent farmers practiced to apply of 20-25 kg well decomposed FYM, Trichoderma harzianumat @ 4g per kg of FYM and 1-2 kg of neem cake per bed. 83.33 per cent of the respondent farmers used the correct rate of seedlings @ 7-8 thousand per acre. It was found that 86.66 per cent of the farmers were used to dip the roots of tomato seedling in suspension of 1-2 kg of Azatobacter or Azospirillum and PSB per 5-10 liter of water for 20-30 minutes before transplanting to the main field. It was noticed that 93.33 per cent of the farmers were following practices of growing green manure like sunhemp and sesbania rostrata etc. It was found that cent per cent of the organic vegetable growers applied recommended quantity of farm yard manure (5-10 t/acre) once in a year for tomato crop. It was found that 63.33 per cent farmers applied Phosphate solubalizers @ 1kg/acre for improving the soil fertility. The cent per cent of the farmers practicing the deep summer ploughing and crop rotation with non solanaceous crops like pulses / legumes for breaking the life cycle of the insects and pests. It was found that 91.66 per cent of the respondent farmer’s collection and destruction of affected plants and shoots. Majority of vegetable growers (98.33%) in tomato crop were found to use Neem Seed Kernel Extract (NSKE) at the rate of 2-5 ml / lit of water to control worms and whiteflies. 98.33 per cent of the farmers expressed that timely or regular weeding required for removing harmful weed from the field. 78.33 per cent of farmers got yield of organic tomato around 10-20 t / acre.

  123. Mamatha, K., Vidya Sagar, G. E. Ch., Laxmi Narayana, P. and Padmaja, G.

    A field experiment was conducted at college farm, college of agriculture, Rajendra nagar during kharif season of 2014 to study the effect of different levels of sulphur on growth, yield and yield attributes of kharif sesame with application of farmyard manure. The experiment was laid out in split-plot design with two main treatments viz., M1- RDF (40-60-40 kg NPK ha-1), M2- RDF along with application of 25% N through farmyard manure and three sub treatments viz., S1- 10 kg S ha-1, S2- 20 kg S ha-1 and S3- 30 kg S ha-1. Application of RDF along with 25 % N through FYM recorded highest plant height, dry matter production, number of branches plant-1, number of capsules plant-1, number of seeds capsule-1, seed and stover yield over application of RDF alone. Among sulphur levels application of 30 kg sulphur ha-1 recorded highest number of capsules plant-1, number of seeds capsule-1, seed and stover yield over application of sulphur @ 10 and 20 kg ha-1.

  124. Physico-chemical characterization of water from forest covered Gavase wetland of Kolhapur District, Maharashtra (India)

    The present investigation deals with the characterization of physic-chemical parameters of water from Gavase freshwater reservoir of Ajara tahsil, Kolhapur district, Maharashtra (India). The investigation was carried out during July 2011 to June 2012 for the analysis of physical parameters like air temperature, water temperature, transparency, electric conductivity and pH while chemical parameters like free CO2, alkalinity, total hardness, calcium, magnesium, chlorides, total dissolved solids, dissolved oxygen and biological oxygen demand. The study revealed that all parameters were within the permissible limit for drinking, agricultural and domestic purposes. On the basis of present investigation, the entire reservoir water supports many biological entities as their feeding and breeding ground.

  125. Rita Bhandari, Veena Choubey and Arjun Shukla

    An Odonata survey on downstream of Sone River was conducted in the surrounding of Bansagar dam in Madhya Pradesh from December, 2014 to November, 2015. The purpose of this one year investigation was to provide information on the diversity and abundance of Odonata. The study revealed that in catchments of river Sone, 22 species of 6 families under 2 sub orders of Odonata were encountered where family Libellulidae was the most diverse with 10 species in contrast to local reference sites of river. The increase of Odonata in the surrounding of river throughout the study period was best highlighted by the presence of biological pollution indicator species.

  126. Studies on Heterosis for various qualitative and quantitative characters in Tomato (Lycopersicon Esculentum L.)

    An experiment on heterosis for yield and other component characters of 50 F1 hybrids of tomato derived from the crosses between 10 lines and 5 testers through line x tester technique was conducted at the Research Farm of the Department of Vegetable Science, CCS Haryana Agricultural University, Hisar during 2012-13 and 2013-14. The analysis of variance indicated significantly higher amount of differences among treatments for all the characters studied, suggesting the presence of genetic variation among the studied genotypes. In this study, among crosses, the cross combinations in favourable direction was observed for EC 620380 x Punjab Chhuhara. The cross BBWR-11-1 x Palam Pink recorded significantly maximum heterosis for days to 50% flowering and number of fruits per plant and the cross Punjab Varkha Bahar-2 x Hisar Lalit (0.400), EC 620383 x Palam Pink (0.383) and BBWR-10-3-18 x Hisar Lalit (0.382) for higher early fruit yield per plant (kg) as compared to standard checks. The cross EC 620380 x Punjab Chhuhara (0.133 kg) produced the minimum early yield and the cross EC 620391 x Punjab Chhuhara (0.886 kg) the maximum total yield per plant, manifesting higher heterosis for yield per plant. Similarly, the cross Punjab Varkha Bahar-2 x Hisar Lalit (0.88%) registered acidity more than the standard check Hisar Arun.

  127. Zubair Azad and Arjun Shukla

    Fish diversity of River Narmada was studied during June 2015 to December 2015. Total 23 species are discussed here in Altogether, 23 fish species belonging to 16 genera and 10 families less than 6 orders were collected from four sampling stations spread along the river Narmada which revealed Cyprinidae was the most diverse family among all. The present study attempted to reveal the study and status of fish diversity for better conservation action plans and their modern management.

  128. Vikash Kumar, Dhankhar, S.K., ChandanshiveAniket Vilas, Rajesh Kathwal and NehaYadav

    The experiment comprised of three spacing & fertilizer levels and two varieties was conducted during spring summer season of 2013-14 at Research Farm of Vegetable Science, CCS Haryana Agricultural University Hisar to study the effect of spacing and fertilizers on seed yield its attribute seed quality in okra. The seed yield and yield attributes were significantly affected by spacing, fertilizer and varieties. The maximum seeds per fruit, test weight, seed yield (q/ha), germination (%), seedling length (cm), seedling dry weight (g),seed vigour index I and II, tetrazolium test (%), dehydrogenase activity (OD), electrical conductivity (dSm-1)and seed density (g/cc) were achieved in variety HisarUnnat at spacing of 30 x 15 cm with the fertilizer levels of 187.5 kg N + 75 kg P2O5 + 60 kg K2O per hectare. However, maximum length and diameter of mature fruitwere observed in variety HBT-49-1 atspacing of 30 x 15 cm with fertilizer levels of187.5 kg N + 75 kg P2O5 + 60 kg K2O per hectare.

  129. Manjula Kiran, Shalini Tewari, Jaipal Meena, Farha Hasan, Pragnya Shree Rath, Rashmi Srivastava, Gurminder Bindra, Subhash Chand, Harit Kasana, Neeraj Malik, Gul Raj Soni and Surinder Singh

    Purpose: Efficacy of live viral vaccines is dependent on proper attenuation of vaccine virus. In addition to attenuation, cold chain maintenance also becomes essential to ensure vaccine quality till it reaches the end user. The transport of vaccines with required cold chain in tropical countries like India is comparatively difficult due to its hot and humid environment. The present study was carried out to see the trend analysis of 95 batches of measles vaccine stored at 2-8°C and their thermo stability after exposure at 37°C for 7 days, as such no study is published from India. Methods: All the vaccines included in the study were tested in triplicates against reference vaccine as per the WHO method. The number of wells positive for syncytia formation was counted and titres were calculated using Spearman-Karber Method. The geometric mean titre was calculated for the triplicate readings. The assay is considered valid only if confidence limits (P=0.95) of the logarithm of the virus concentration is greater than ±0.3. WHO criteria state that minimum virus concentration should be 103.0 CCID50 per human dose for both exposed and non-exposed measles vaccine. Also, after incubation the loss in titre should not be more than 101.0. Results: The potency and thermo stability titres of all the batches tested were found to be 103.45 to 104.5 and 103.11 to 103.65 respectively and were within prescribed specifications of WHO. Conclusions: Potency and thermo stability of the measles vaccine tested were found in the acceptable range indicating measles vaccine is quite potent, thermostable and suitable for country like India.

  130. Dr. Surekha Kashyap

    Background: Item analysis is the validation of a MCQs after it has appeared in a question paper. This post validation is done by analyzing the student’s answer to each item. When formalized, the procedure is called item analysis. Aim & objectives: To study MCQs of subject Hospital Administration among Post graduate doctors and carry out item analysis and to review MCQ’s and suggest improvements for defective items and also to list the uses of item analysis. Study design and methods: Cross-sectional questionnaire based study carried out among 300 post graduate doctors in a period of one year. Results: Analysis of data was done on 3 factors i.e. difficulty index found to be 50 %, discrimination of the question to be 0.4 and the distract or effectiveness to be 10%. Conclusion: Result of the study concluded that item analysis can be used for the evaluation of the MCQs indicating the strength of questionnaire through difficulty level.

  131. Padmavathy, A., Dr. Ravindernath, A. and Smt. P. Sahithi

    Nucleic acids control heredity on a molecular level and enzymes like L-asparaginase catalyses the conversion of L-asparagine to L-aspartate. L Asparaginase catalyzes the hydrolysis of the non-essential amino acid L-Asn to L-Asp and ammonia and is widely used for the treatment of hematopoietic diseases such as acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) and lymphomas. In the present work, we focus on the characteristic of the enzyme (family of glycosidase) L-Asparaginase that bears E.C.No and its properties. Acute lymphoblastic leukemia is a cancer that starts from early version of white blood cells called lymphoblastic leukemia in the bone marrow and in silico tools were employed in the present study for the phylogenic analysis of the enzyme L-Asparaginase like CLUSTAL X, CLUSTAL W, GENE BEE, EMBOSS NEEDLE, MEGA and insilico docking studies of ligand structures obtained from Pubchem. Database 3.3 version, a new version of Easy Modeller (Easy Modeller 4.0) has been used for the modeling analysis. The target sequence utilized is a hypothetical human L-Asparaginase sequence bearing accession no: AAM28434.1. Four species were examined rat, chimpanzee, fruit fly & human with fish with percentages obtained as Humans with mouse = 92-94 % identity, Humans with chimpanzee =98 % identity, Humans with fruit fly = 42% identity &Humans with fish = 63 % identity. Ramachandran plots were analyzed via procheck and model no.3 was the best model plot.The data generated for the Insilico analysis of ALL (acute lymphoblastic leukemia) can also find further scope in other dreadful diseases.

  132. Vijayasree. Bandikolla and Chinnari Harika, V.

    Pregnant women have been widely recognized as a vulnerable group from health point of view. They need more food than normal person for the proper nourishment of the growing fetus. The field of nutrition of the pregnant women, particularly in rural area, has been sadly neglected. Against this backdrop, the study was carried out among 70 pregnant women from Guntur District, Andhra Pradesh, India. A semi qualitative interview scheduled were used for the collection of Clinical and Health symptoms, Psychological factors; 24 hour recall method of diet survey was applied for the collection of dietary information. It was found that the mean energy, protein, iron, calcium, carotene and folic acid were much lower than the RDA standards.

  133. Svilen Raikov and Krasimira Tanova

    The examination is performed in the proving grounds of the Agricultural Institute – Shumen, for the period from 2013 to 2014. The influence of some selective soil herbicides of sugar beet on the rhisosphere microflora was established in the proving grounds. Suppression of the soil bacteria by the herbicide S metalochlor in dose (2000 ml/ha) was observed. A total suppression of the microflora in dose 3000 ml/ha was observed as well. The herbicide propisochlor (2000 ml/ha) influences the quantity of the rhisosphere microflora.

  134. Svilen Raikov and Krasimira Tanova

    The examination is conducted in the Phytopathology Laboratory of the “Episkop Konstantin Preslavski” University of Shumen – Shumen. The influence оf the indolyl acetic acid (IAA) on the growth and aggressiveness of the agent, causing the root decay in the sugar beet (Rhizoctonia solani Kuhn) has been examined under in vitro conditions.

  135. Pawan Kumar Singh and Pradeep Shrivastava

    Water quality analysis is one of the most important aspects in surface water studies. Assessment of water quality is a critical factor for assessing the pollution level. Water sample were collected from 12 disfferent sampling stations for evaluate the water quality status of river Narmada during September-2010. A total 16 water quality parameters were analyzed. During the present investigation the minimum and maximum value of air temperature, water temperature, turbidity, pH, electrical conductivity, total dissolved solids, free carbon dioxide, total alkalinity, chloride, total hardness, Calcium Hardness dissolved oxygen, nitrate, orthophosphate, biochemical oxygen demand, chemical oxygen demand were noted as 25 and 31.3 °C; 22.4 and 29 °C ; 8.6 and 40.2 NTU; 7.63 and 8.76; 230 and 398 μs/cm; 146 and 274 mg/l; 4 and 22.4 mg/l; 112 and 226 mg/l; 12.38 and 44.56 mg/l; 104 and 212 mg/l; 63.84 and 118.44 mg/l; 4.16 and 8.8 mg/l; 0.542 and 4.824 mg/l; 0.112 and 0.546 mg/l; 4.16 and 19.2 mg/l; 10.4 and 46 mg/l respectively. The objective of present study was to understand the water quality of river Narmada at Hoshangabad District. (M.P).

  136. Shilpa Patel

    Photocatalytic waste water treatment process has potential as a low cost environment friendly treatment technique which has an additional advantage of sustainability and zero waste scheme. This advanced oxidation technology removes persistent organic compounds and microorganisms in water / waste water. I have performed experiments by using Titanium dioxide and Zinc oxide photocatalysts to compare their effect on waste water of reactive turquoise blue dye industry with UV-C light 66W and discussed results.

  137. Shilpa Patel

    If we use multitubular reactor in place of conventional multibed reactor in manufacturing of Ethylbenzene, we do not need to use heat exchangers (reaction is extremely exothermic) So, here we can save capital cost and operating cost of around three to four heat exchangers. Hence, we can ultimately save energy and money. Here, we used HTRI programme for heat exchanger. We had to carry out manual calculations for design of heat exchangers to find out capital cost. We found out energy saving also. So, here attempt is made to give a thought of changing process or equipment during we decide our project and we can save energy and money.

  138. Vidadi Hasan Musayev, Natig Etibar Huseynov and Ziraddin Amirahmed Qasimov

    The developed methods and algorithms of calculating transition processes of the main oil pipelines are presented in the paper in an example of MOP, taking into account adjusting devices in the pumping station (PS), with a continuous regulation of operation (performance) of the PS.

  139. Mehdiyeva, G., Ibrahimov, V. and Imanova, M.

    It is known, that many phenomena of neutrality are reduced to solving ordinary differential equation (ODE). There are several papers dedicated to solving ODE. In this paper, which compares many known algorithms applied to solving differential equations, also suggested an algorithm that uses hybrid methods and give a procedure for constructing higher order of accuracy hybrid methods. Concrete methods are constructed, and their advantages are indicated. In particularly suggested stable methods with the order of accuracy using two mesh points (for )

  140. Sayak Konar, Md. Abdur Rahaman, Debasrita Roy and Shameek Mukhopadhyay

    When machine learning algorithms are applied to data collected from the huge amount of data in the universe, it is generally accepted that the data has not been consistently collected. The absence of expected data elements is common and the mechanism through which a data element is missing often involves the informative relevance of that data element in a specific purpose. Therefore, the absence of data may have information value of its own. In the process of designing an application intended to support a heart diseases system where we can predict the probability of heart attack of a patient on basis upon certain condition. Bayesian Classification is commonly used for presenting uncertainty and covariate interactions in an easily interpretable way. Because of their efficient inference and ability to predict the missing value in a database, it is an excellent choice for medical decision support systems in diagnosis, treatment, and prognosis. In applying this we will be able to predict whether the data is present in the database or not and give some idea about the probability of heart-attack to the patient.

  141. Parul K Patel and Yamini S Patel

    This paper is based on project carried out at one Chemical unit at vatva, AhmedabadIt describes the recovery of waste heat from exhaust stream to preheat Spray-Dryerinlet air and designing of Heat Pipe Heat Exchanger as a waste heat recoverysystem. The total cost of the Heat Pipe Heat Exchanger with installation is 5, 00,000INR. It is proposed that the implementation of the heat recovery system will save190.6 KJ/Sec energy. The payback period of this heat recovery system come to be4 months, this is very attractive. In the Vatva industrial Estate more than 30Spray Dryers are installed for various applications, which show the potential of theheat recovery system for Spray Dryer in the small & medium scale units in thevarious industrial estates.

  142. Nidhi Joshi, Hetal Pathak and Rajesh Deolalikar

    In this project, design of dual polarised MIMO sector antenna array is proposed to achieve high Gain of about 16dBi.The antenna is design for 4.9GHz to 5.9GHz Frequency band. It is design to achieve VSWR 1.9 for full band, return loss is of 15dB and isolation between 2 port is 28dB.A substrate material FR4 is used whose dielectric constant is 4.4. In practical it can be helpful to our hand-held device called mobile phones since there is a need of array of antenna in base stations. This antenna can be applicable to the wireless communication areas such as Wi-Fi and Wi-MAX. The parameters such as return loss, VSWR, mutual coupling, directivity and gain has been simulated and analysed.

  143. Pavleen Bali, Sanchita Raghav, Dr.Raghav, A. K., Dr. P B Sharma, Shuvam Gupta, Harivansh, K., Ankur Siwach and Gaurav Puri

    With the rise of a global knowledge economy, universities and industry pool resources. This has resulted in a piling on the need for strategic alliances that go beyond the customary funding of distinctive research endeavours. Top notch research universities are at the facade of pioneering such collaborations. Such universities are intended to trot extensively by added investment, clearly stated visionary objectives, and pound the competiveness of industry, universities and vicinities. Such exertion by universities renovates the task of research universities for the 21st century, putting back into working order as central nodal centre of competence to help confront challenges and bring out research outcome coadjuvancy. This paper examines various roadblocks of joint forces of academic institutions and industry with focus on the temperament of resources and immanency of the stakeholders from the perspective of contending knowledge. This paper also investigates barriers of industry-academia interaction. It recognises credible areas for constructive symbiosis of industry’s participation with academia. Lastly, this paper charts down primarily for the Indian set up the proposition of integrative retreats of new possible collaborations to reinforce of industry-academia periphery.

  144. Semwal, H. K and Bhatt, S. C.

    The ultrasonic wave velocity in different composition of ternary liquid mixtures of water formic acid and butyric acid at different frequencies, at room temperature has been measured with the help of ultrasonic interferometer and for whole composition range isentropic compressibility (Ks), acoustic impedance (z) and relaxation time (Ʈ) have been calculated for these ternary mixtures.

  145. The structure of hazardous industrial wastes

    The aim of this paper is to evaluate the structure of wastes from non-ferrous metals. Wastes from the production of metals were selected namely waste from the production of aluminum - red mud and the waste from the production of nickel - black nickel mud. Morphology of samples was documented by scanning electron microscope, phase analysis using diffraction techniques and the content of elements was determined by EDX analysis. The influence of pre-treatment of these wastes on the structure was also investigated. Activation of red mud and black nickel mud has increased the size of their specific surface area, which may have the positive influence of adsorption or catalysis. The pre-treatment of wastes has changed the surface properties mainly electrostatic, hydrophobic and hydrophilic. Activation creates a new surface structure and thus affects its properties. Activation has created a new surface structure. EDX analysis of the samples confirmed the higher percentage content of Fe and Al.

  146. Pratiksha Vitthalrao Padmane and Pritee R. Rane

    Many approaches have been proposed for solving the stability problems found in power system operation. Interphase Power Controller (IPC) is new concept of controlling power flow Within AC network. Interphase Power Controller provide a solution for high short situations .The application is based on the series connection of impedances between different phases of the two (synchronous) sub networks to be interconnected. Interphase Power Controller provides passive solutions for normal and contingency conditions. Interphase power controller control the power flow and act as fault limiter. Interphase Power Controller is equipped with the Phase Shifting Transformer (PST) which Control the output power. The Interphase Power Controller can provide reactive power support for the adjustment of voltages. The purpose of this technology is to facilitate the supply of loads in flexible and rapid fashion, while providing optimal management of Electrical networks. Here, the basic theory and operating characteristics of the Interphase Power Controller are discussed. The Interphase power controller system is modeled and simulation is done in MATLAB.

  147. Revathi, M., Saravanan, R. and Rathi, K.

    In this paper a new approach is proposed to solve travelling salesman problem under fuzzy environment. The travelling distance from the city i to city j is considered to be not certain and is taken as triangular fuzzy numbers. In the proposed method a yager’s ranking technique is used to transform fuzzy travelling salesman problem into crisp travelling salesman problem and it is solved by using classical Hungarian method. Numerical examples are given to validate the proposed method.

  148. Kartik, K. Patel, Mitresh, A. Modi and Jayesh, B. Patel

    In 2012, the International Energy Agency are publish that electricity consumption for lighting is about 20% of the total global electricity consumption, being about 49% of the total electricity consumption for lighting of the sector service. Around two thirds of the lighting systems nowadays are based on technologies developed before 1970, and they have lower performance that the current technology. A complete change of the lighting system and the implementation of control and regulation systems can provide relevant energy savings. In many of places or buildings are use only artificial lighting scheme. The daylight are reduces the cost of energy consumption with lighting load. In case of cloudy condition there is less availability of daylight. Thus for proper visualization of objects, manage lighting scheme with artificial as well as daylight harvesting. This paper describes the flooding lighting in the collage building when conventional light is use. This light is placed at different points in collage. Using DIALUX software reduces the unwanted shadow and glare effect in building. Thus paper aim is design building with proper and efficient lighting scheme with control action of sensor on combination of artificial and daylight with saving of electrical energy cost.

  149. Anilesh Kumar Yadav, Nitin Gupta, S. M. Nafees, K. K. Gupta, and Kalpana, S.

    To assess the impact of seasonal trends on groundwater quality, samples were collected during pre-monsoon, post-monsoon, spring and winter seasons from selected locations of Itawa tehsil of Kota District of Rajasthan state (India) from 2011 to 2013 and determined physicochemical parameters like pH, TDS, specific conductivity, total alkalinity, magnesium, nitrate, sulphate, phosphate, potassium, sodium, hardness, chloride, and fluoride. Standard research techniques were used to evaluate the quality of groundwater and its suitability for irrigation and drinking purpose. Results of investigation showed that conductivity, alkalinity and hardness parameters have higher values during the post-monsoon season than in the spring season. The average values for groundwater in pre-monsoon, post-monsoon, spring and winter seasons of the pH was 7.3 - 8.1, EC (Electrical Conductivity) 910 - 1313 µs/cm, TDS (Total Dissolved Solid) 659 - 911 mg/L, TA (Total Alkalinity) 205 - 407 mg/L, TH (Total Hardness) 120 - 312 mg /L, Ca (Calcium) 79 - 185 mg/L, Mg (Magnesium) 43 -125 mg/L, Na (Sodium) 109 - 183 mg/L, K (Potassium) 5 - 11 mg/L, Cl (Chloride) 54 - 107 mg/L, SO42- (Sulphate) 64 - 125 mg/L, NO3- (Nitrate) 19 - 41 mg/L, PO43- (Phosphate) 0.28 - 0.55 mg/L. The results were compared with the World Health Organization (WHO, 2006) guideline limits for drinking water1. The study suggested that the majority of the groundwater samples were unsuitable for irrigation in post-monsoon compared to that in pre-monsoon.

  150. Mohamad Yusuf and Manvinder Kaur

    A series of new N-thiocarbamide-bispyrazolines 2(a-g) have been synthesized from the cyclization reactions of bischalcones 1(a-g) with thiosemicarbazide by refluxing under KOH and dry alcoholic conditions. The structures of these compounds were analyzed on the basis of their detailed IR, ¹H-NMR, 13C-NMR and ESI-MS spectral parameters. The prepared bispyrazolines were screened for their antimicrobial potencies against seven bacterial and five fungal strains. Most of the compounds displayed significant activity against tested microorganisms.

  151. Igor Bokov and Elena Strelnikova

    The behavior of a plate of the functionally graded material under concentrated loads was under consideration. Using the method of decomposition of the desired functions in series by Legendre polynomials on the transverse coordinate, three-dimensional problem for plates was reduced to a two-dimensional one. This approach has allowed us to take into account the transverse shear and normal stresses. On the basis of received equations, using the two-dimensional Fourier integral transform and the generalization method that was built with a special G-function, the fundamental solution was found. Numerical studies demonstrated the behavior patterns of the stress-strain state components depending on the elastic constants of functionally graded material were performed.

  152. Naba Jyoti Saikia, Hazarika, J., Das, P. K. and Hussain, S.

    The measure of malaria incidence on the basis of stratification of the population under study with respect to host and environmental factors is essential to know about the impact of causative/predictive factors. Therefore, to develop a suitable model based on causative/predictive factors on malaria incidence is most important. Here, we developed polynomial regression model to trace the impact of environmental factors on incidence of malaria cases in Lakhimpur district of Assam. Here, LogSPR is considered as explained variables whereas population, maximum temperature, minimum temperature, humidity and average rainfall are considered as explanatory variables. However, lag values of LogSPR at lag one is also considered as one of the explanatory variables. The study reveals that variables minimum temperature, maximum temperature, average rainfall and population play an important role in predicting malaria incidence cases.

  153. Doha M Beltagy, Mohamed S Elghareeb, Rofaida A Mohamed and Tarek M Mohamed

    Egypt contains the highest prevalence of hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection in the world. The goal of this study was to elucidate where tissue inhibitor metalloproteases-1 (TIMP-1) acts as a diagnostic biomarker of HCV infection and studying the effect of the treatment of interferon for different intervals on TIMP-1 levels with studying the relation of TIMP-1 with different liver markers. This study was carried out on 65 blood samples divided into six groups. TIMP-1 and different liver markers were assessed in all groups. There was significant increase in mRNA expression of TIMP-1 levels, all liver enzymes and bilirubin in HCV patients. Albumin, total protein and A/G ratio showed significant decrease. AFP showed insignificant increase in all groups. Treatment with interferon for 24 weeks caused good regression in TIMP-1 levels to nearly normal ranges which indicate the improvement effect of interferon on HCV patients. TIMP-1 had significant correlations with different liver markers. TIMP-1 can be considered as a diagnostic biomarker for HCV infection which can monitor the liver status.

  154. Parvinder Singh

    Self-concept is the sole perspective from which one can understand an individual's behaviour. Academic performance is a complex student behavior and underlies several abilities, e.g., memory, previous knowledge or aptitude as well as psychological factors such as motivation, interests, temperaments or emotions. Home-environment or family environment refers to climate prevailing in the home, which varies from culture to culture, society to society and family to family. In this study attempt has been made to find a relationship between self-concept and home-environment with academic achievement in mathematics and also to find the interactional effect of self-concept and home-environment on academic achievement in mathematics.

  155. Evaluation of phytotoxic activity of blechum pyramidatum, a weed of panamanian coffee crops

    The coffee production is a high-value activity for the economy of the Chiriqui province highlands, Republic of Panama, being of particular importance for the development of the rural communities, as well as for indigenous groups. Frequently, this activity is affected by several factors, including weeds, pests, climate change, among others. Weeds provoke great economic losses for coffee producers by interference with the growth and development of the coffee in the cultivated area. Because of Blechum pyramidatum significantly affects coffee plantations in Santa Clara, Chiriquí, this plant was selected to evaluate its in vitro phytotoxic effect. The results revealed that a B. pyramidatum organic extract did not possess significant phytotoxic effect, this finding allows us to propose that negative effects against coffee provoked by B. pyramidatum might be by competition for water and nutrients available in cultivation. Finally, we evaluated the effect on the modulation of alpha glucosidase function of primary fractions from this plant.

  156. Singh, U. T.

    This paper introduces Supercritical Fluid and the factors are considered why it is used for Extraction. This describes the classification and study of various models used for predicting solubility of solid solutes in Supercritical Fluid. Correlating and Predicting of solid solubility can be done by Semi-empirical Equations and different Equations of State. Due to the various limitations of empirical equations a more exact approach is to treat the calculation of solubility in a supercritical fluid just as any other phase equilibrium calculation. Thermodynamic equilibrium is assumed to exist between the two phases, thus, they are assumed to be at the same temperature and pressure. Further, the chemical potential (or equivalently, the fugacity) of each component must be equal in each phase. Cubic Equations of State cannot be applied for associating molecules so we are approaching molecular thermodynamics which include SAFT(Statistical association Fluid Theory) and ESD(Elliott-Suresh-Donohue ). For all these we need various physical parameters like Tc, Pc, ω, Ps at for some solid solute it is given in the literature but for complex solutes like pharmaceutical drugs and dyes etc. It is not given in literature so we will calculate it by various different Group Contribution Methods like Joback’s , Constantino-Gani method, Ambrose-method, Lydersen Method. I had done this for various solutes. I had done calculation for pharmaceutical drugs like Flubiprofen, Ketoprofen, Naproxen, Ibuprofen and various anthraquione dyes and its derivatives

  157. Jaya Pal and Vandana Bhattacherjee

    Development of software quality, development effort etc is a common application of software metrics. A new tool as Fuzzy Logic offers a good technique for building models for software quality prediction. This paper illustrates the practice of estimation at a personal level using projects and presents the results obtained with a fuzzy rule based system and an ordinary multiple regression. Result shows that the value of MMRE applying fuzzy logic is smaller than MMRE applying multiple regression; while the value of Pred (0.25) and Pred (0.05) applying fuzzy logic is higher than Pred (0.25) and Pred (0.05) applying multiple regression. Thus Results demonstrate that fuzzy logic can be used as alternative for predicting the software quality.

  158. Kocaman, I., Kurc, H. C. and Avci, H.

    The aim of this study was to investigate and evaluate the construction characteristics of traditional water buffalo barns around Istanbul, considered as a pilot district in Turkey, regarding animal welfare. The research was conducted at 31 different administrations of Istanbul Water Buffalo Breeders Association. The 35.5 % of the investigated farms were small scale administrations whereas 64.5% of them were classified as medium scale. It was determined that 80.7% of the administrations were placed within the settlement areas while the remaining 19.3% were 200 to 500 m away from the settlement areas. Conducted surveys by interviewing with the farm owners face to face revealed that the existing barns were constructed through traditional methods without any technical projects. All barns were constructed in stall type and the values of inside volume, resting and walking area per animal differed from each other. These values were between 4.50 and 17.60 m3, 2.00 and 3.87 m2 and 1.03 and 9.81 m2, respectively, for inside volume, resting and walking area per animal. Natural ventilation system was generally preferred but 38.7% of the barns had no vent stacks, instead, windows were used for air entrance and outgoing. The window areas for lighting changed between 0.66 and 4.80% of barns ground area, varying from barns to barns. When evaluating all these data with the climate characteristic of the district and literature, it may be concluded that neither optimum climatic environment required by the buffalos nor the animal welfare for the traditional water buffalo barns cannot be fulfilled.

  159. Ashby Montoeli Rantlo and Gavin Fraser

    The paper has attempted to determine how the situation of property rights arable land affects the development of smallholders in the Kat River Valley. To capture data, a questionnaire was administered through face-to-face interviews. Institutional analysis and ANOVA were used for descriptive analysis to describe the property rights situation, security of property rights and the impact of property rights on the development of smallholder farming. The results show that individual land rights holders have secure rights to land resources while communal small holders and farmers on the invaded state land have insecure rights to land resources. The results from institutional analysis show that the situation of property rights negatively affects development of all smallholder farmers in the Kat River Valley. There are various institutional factors that negatively affect development of smallholder farmers in the Kat River Valley. Based on the research findings, some policy recommendations are made. These include consideration of the local context and strengthening of the protection of property rights.

  160. Ashby Montoeli Rantlo

    The paper examined the impact of trade liberalization and deregulation on the wheat-flour-bread value chain and specifically the impact on the industry and poverty via three channels namely: price transmission; enterprises (employment and profits); and the government’s fiscal position. The industry is very sensitive to exchange rates and international prices given that Lesotho is a net importer of wheat. The impact has been negative for local producers (commercial and emerging). While substantial employment losses occurred in the primary wheat producing areas, gains were experienced elsewhere in the value chain. Prices for both white and brown bread have been increasing despite decreases in wheat prices in real terms. This is significant as bread forms an increasingly important component in the poor consumers’ basket. Price transmission has generally been inefficient and consumers have not benefited from the liberalization process in the current environment of subsidized world prices. The bakers and retailers have benefited most from the policy change. Mechanisms that curb disproportionately high prices by some players should be devised and put in place but if they already exist their enforcement and efficiency as well as compliance in the value chain should be considered.

  161. Historia de la Computación en República Dominicana.

    This paper provides a summary of issues related to the evolution of computing Dominican Republic. Computers emerged in our society due to the relentless pursuit that man has to discover and develop new items for today's world. At first man enough to use your fingers or pebbles to count, but as he grew intellectually realized that was not enough with that system. That led him to create systems such as Abacus. The Arabic number system and the concept of zero are examples of the evolution of human thought, with a profound impact on our society. The history of computing in the Dominican Republic, back in 1955 with the arrival of the first computer UNIVAC 120, this time at the Fair of peace of the free world gave calculation service to geographic institute. Although earlier this year electromechanical equipment calls tabulation systems were used, which were part of an automated system. Despite his arrival in 1963, it was in early 1964 when the UNIVAC installed for operation in the Central Romana Corporation, soon to be hired by the Ministry of Finance, Directorate General of Internal Revenue, Dominican Institute of Social Security. UNIVAC the Universal Automatic Computer represented the first commercial computer can process numeric and textual data. His ability made her run large quantities operational and effective transportation of data. The UNIVAC consisted of 5,000 vacuum tubes and had a capacity of 1000 Perform calculations per second. In his appearance on the market it came despite 16,000 pounds and its price was around US $ 1.5 million

  162. Dr. Kolandavel Natarajan

    Agriculture development in developing countries hinges on the sustained adoption of improved agriculture practices evolved by agriculture research system. The agriculture extension agencies across the world act as a bridge between the agriculture research system and farming community facilitating the flow of information between them. Farmers’ training is an important component of transfer of technology. Extension workers are required to choose training methods to reach out to geographically dispersed smallholder farmers in short period of time in a cost efficient manner without compromising on the training effectiveness. Method Demonstration has been an important training method used to transfer knowledge and skill to farmers in India and other developing countries. In spite of its proven effectiveness the manual intensive group teaching process involved in the Method Demonstration limits it potential to transfer knowledge to mass of smallholders in short period of time, especially before planting season to quickly transfer agriculture innovation for mass adoption. An experimental study was conducted in South Indian villages to test the suitability of Video Teaching as an alternative to Method Demonstration to convey the agriculture message as effectively as Method Demonstration. Given its amenability to duplicate the content and play the content in multitude of places across geographies, Video Teaching might be an alternative, provided its effectiveness is tested empirically. The research study used the sophisticated Randomized Block Experimental Design to compare the effectiveness of Video Teaching and Method Demonstration in effecting Knowledge Gain among the subjects (farmers). The results showed that Video Teaching is comparable with Method Demonstration, implying that it can be used to transfer knowledge across geographies. Treatments exposed to the subjects had the rank order of effectiveness as: Video Teaching + Method Demonstration, Method Demonstration and Video Teaching in terms of Knowledge Gain.

  163. Dr. Enyi Gabriel Sunday and Igbokwe Innocent, C.

    The current study seeks to investigate the gender differences in ego identity status of adolescents’ students’ in secondary schools in Enugu State. The normative survey design has been adopted for the present study. The population of the adolescents’ students in secondary schools in the SSIII in the six education zones in Enugu State was 2,000. The samples of the study were 800 adolescents’ students randomly selected from one education zone. The sample includes 410 boys and 390 girls. The ego identity scales was constructed by the researcher, and validated by experts. This scale includes four identity status namely, identity achievement, identity moratorium, identity diffusion and identity foreclosure. It consists of 40 items, 10 items in each identity status. It is a four point scale. The findings of the study indicate that the means scores of both boys and girls is very high in identity achievement rather than other statuses such as identity moratorium, identity foreclosure and identity diffusion it further indicates that the overall identity status of girls is higher than the boys. The boys and girls differ significantly only in the identity foreclosure and identity diffusion, they do not differ significantly in other states. The mean score of girls is higher than the boys with respect to identity foreclosure and identity diffusion.

  164. Rasnika Amra and Shalini Agarwal

    The aim of the study is to understand the different aspects of bullying behavior in young children, in both genders with the varied socio-economic status. The focus is on various ways of bullying resiliency to make the children resilient against bullying during early childhood with the help of teachers and parents. This paper ascertains the types of bullying done by the children and how much they know about this behavior. Also, it reviews that it is not a job of teachers and parents to trying to intervene or making resilient the children against bullying, but a social duty because children/students are country’s futures. This is done to increase their self-esteem and to minimize the effect of anti- social behaviors on others. The sample for the study comprises of three hundred children, aged between three to six years, who express bullying behavior of any kind. Such sample has considered from the cities of Uttar Pradesh- Lucknow and Hapur (150 each). The peers, parents and teachers of these children have also studied, and thus include in the sample. In- depth interview schedule, observation, and sociometery will be used to collect data from the whole sample. The data obtained will be descriptive in nature and is subjected to content analysis.

  165. Pooja Yadav and Subhash Anand

    India is among the fastest growing countries with many metropolitan cities (e.g. Delhi, Mumbai, Chennai, Pune etc.). During last two-three decades more and more people migrated from rural areas to the metropolitan cities in India. Increased the urban populations enhanced the pressure on urban eco-system and eco-services. There are many urban issues and challenges and abysmal state of sanitation in the country is big critical problem. Sustainable development presents one of the most significant service delivery challenges related to sustainable sanitation and healthy life to people. Government of India implemented Swacch Bharat Abhiyan to fight with sanitation. Among all the metropolitan cities, Delhi being most preferred destination by migrants and around 49 per cent of total population lives in slums. The thrust of this research paper is to investigate the socio-economic and environmental conditions of the Indira Camp, slum in Vikaspuri in west Delhi. The research paper summarises and analyses the findings from empirical field survey of few randomly selected persons within the study area by the use of open ended questionnaire, direct observation, housing demographic variables including socio-economic profile, source of water supply and environmental aspects. The finding clearly depicts the area as a typical slum environment by nature. Overall socio – economic and environmental conditions are poor and this particular area need immediate action on the part of government for their inclusive development in order to maintain urban sustainability.

  166. Dr. Hisham Ali Shatnawi, Dr. Hamdi Barkat and Dr. Shaker Al Haj

    This research can be summarized as follows: This study clarifies the theoretic bases that medicinal promotion is based on as well as the specific quality of this product, and unveiling the most important affecting elements of promotions to choose the mixture of drug promotion, which might help to follow a right and beneficial promotion policy to market the Jordanian therapeutic products. It introduces the promotion activity in the Jordanian drug firms and identifies the most important elements and promotion procedures in order to inspect all the obstacles that prevent following the suitable promotion policy. It also compares what does exist with what should be existed, so as to extract the results and give some suggestions which can activate the promotion spirit in marketing the Jordanian therapeutic products.

  167. Mohamed A.K. Barakat, Abd El-Gawad, E. A., Gaber, M. A. Wahab, Lotfy, M., Ahmed A. Elnazer, Doaa A. Mousa and Ahmed, A. Abd El Ghany

    Oil shales in Egypt are widely distributed in the Western Desert, Eastern Desert and Sinai. They cover a wide age spectrum from middle Jurassic to upper Cretaceous. In this study different sample from El-Nakheil mine analyzed using X-ray diffraction, clay mineralogy organic geochemical analysis and bitumen extraction, to evaluate these oil shales. The investigated samples have shown very good organic richness TOC: ranged from 24.8 % to 35 %), very good hydrocarbon, generating potential (pyrolysis S2: 154.74mg HC/g rock), with type II/I kerogen and thermally immature as its T max ranges from 416 - 421°C.

  168. Abubakar Sadiq Ahmed and Elizabeth Aishatu Matankari-Bature

    From the standpoint of the clamour for debt relief which lately, has become the preoccupation of Developing World and especially those whose economies have been overwhelmed by external debt, to the emerging mantra called reform agenda (this appears to have taken centre-stage in the lexicon of the Developing World and, in countries undergoing the politics of democratic transition); which formed the fulcrum leading to the grant of debt relief to Nigeria. Most often, such reforms are largely seen as politically and in fact, externally motivated. This thus, has imposed the need to ask the questions, reform for what and for whom? By way of further interrogating these questions, this paper, using qualitative data and rooted in the dependency framework of analysis; proceeded to argue, amongst others, that ensnared within Obasanjo’s reform agenda, owing to the onslaught occasioned by the global financial meltdown, a grand design at providing liquidity-cum bailout for global capital. While the paper concludes that debt relief and indeed the reform agenda must both be seen as responses to externally induced agenda, especially aimed at allowing the country’s continued exploitation by the West; part of the paper’s recommendation is on the need for caution in the way the country fraternizes either with foreign economic assistances, foreign aid and external loans; this is in view of their long term implications.

  169. Badr TOUZI, Charif MABROUKI, Abdelmajid FARCHI

    This paper aims to develop a performance measurement model that can be used to obtain an overall rating of the performance of a company with the inclusion of four dimensions which are, economic, environmental, social and operational. This model measures the fields of each dimension to allow an overall score. Which permit identification of areas where there is need for improvement, and thus manage overall performance of the company while having a detailed view. The tool can provide very useful interpretations for both researchers and practitioners. The model we propose has a double originality on the one hand it is multidimensional, and because of this it allows you to have a single performance measurement system to evaluate the overall performance of the organization. On the other hand while this model is suitable for measuring the performance of road transport companies, it is a generic model it can also be used to measure the performance of any other Sectors it is sufficient to identify the input items. This model will allow companies operating in the road freight transport to have an easy model to use while measuring four dimensions to get an overall score. A case simulation shows the applicability of the model, and the variation in results can greatly influence the overall rating of the performance measurement.

  170. Vijayakumar, S. and Dr. Shahin Sultana, A.

    The impact of web based peer editing is an under researched area in L2 writing. International literature in writing pedagogy suggested that such kind of study is not carried out before. To investigate this phenomenon third semester students N=14 were randomly chosen with a control group of N=7 and an experimental group of N=7.Both the groups were subject to pretest, posttest treatment. Both wrote an argumentative essay before the intervention. The control group was exposed to manual peer editing and the experimental group was subjected to the web based tool paper rater. Both the groups’ resubmitted their revised essays. A paired sample‘t’ test was employed to measure the performance levels of the revised scripts. The results revealed that the experimental group outperformed the control group in terms of conventions and style. Perhaps, a single online tool is sufficient and efficacious than hours spent on manual peer editing.

  171. Firafis Haile and Dr. A. Mahendran

    The study was conducted in sululta city, finfine liyu zone, North shoa of Oromia regional state, Ethiopia. The purpose of this study was to investigate the impact employee satisfaction and work motivation: the case of sululta city, finfine liyu zone civil servants. The data was collected and administered by means of a structured questionnaire based on the job satisfaction questionnaire. The survey was conducted in three purposively selected office which having the maximum number of respondent by selecting 30 sample through systematic random sampling technique. Structured interview schedule and other secondary sources were used to collect primary and secondary data respectively. Key informant interviews and focus group discussions mainly helped to generate the necessary qualitative data. The collected data were analyzed by employing simple descriptive statistics (frequency and percentage). Findings indicated that the overall level of employee motivation and job satisfaction of the staff in case of sululta city, finfine liyu zone civil servant was showed that organizational factors such as satisfaction, educational level, salary, training and development, workload, work motivation, benefits and job security work significantly influenced employee satisfaction and work motivation in sululta city, finfine. Thus, it emphasizes that there is still a need to conduct additional research to filling the gaps that have not been solved in the current study. The study recommends strategies of how management can utilize achievement, recognition and work itself as a tool to keep employees motivated and satisfied in their jobs and that the concerned authorities should launch a number of policies or concerns to increase the job satisfaction level of the staff. It also recommends ways by which management can eliminate low motivation and job dissatisfaction amongst employees by improving management skills, knowledge and competencies of managers, building relations between managers and subordinates and also improving the quality of internal communication with employees especially on policy and administrative matters. The biggest improvement is needed in the field of the financial rewards, because most of the employees are not showing high satisfaction with it. The conclusions made regarding the research are only valid for sululta and cannot be generalized for other organizations.

  172. Meshram, P.B., Poonam Verma, Alka Patel and Verma, R. K.

    Pulse beetle, Bruchus bilineatopygous is one the key insect pest of Albizia lebbeck and causes about 80% damage to seeds. Thirteen entomopathogenic fungi viz., Absidia corymbifera, Aspergillus amtelodami, A. niger, Fusarium oxysporum (3 strains), F. solani (4 strains), F. udum, Myrothecium roridum, and Trichoderma harizanum were isolated from the A. lebbeck seed borer, B. bilineatopygus and identified. Out of 13 entomopathogenic fungi, F. oxysporum followed by Absidia corymbifera was found to be the most effective against B. bilineatopygus after 5 days of application in laboratory condition. Application of entomopathogenic fungi as a potential microbial tool in the insect management programme for sustainable management systems.

  173. Totok Wahyu Abadi, Nunung Prajarto and Budi Guntoro

    This study discusses the accessibility of e-government based public information and its effect on people's participation in development. Respondents in this mixed methods research are 233 users of Through a simple random sampling technique, primary data were taken through the distribution of questionnaires were processed and analyzed using path analysis and interactive from Miles-Huberman. This study shows that community participation in development simultaneously and partially influenced by the e-government, quality public information, and accessibility. e-Government has a direct influence on the accessibility and public information and indirectly on community participation in development. The new thing in this study is the e-government based public information is a major determinant in improving community participation; e-government are not necessarily able to increase community participation but must be supported by a quality public information. Accessibility of public information, which consists of security and comfort to acquire and convey the aspirations, needs and expectations; openness; availability of the website and the information media; and the ease of the procedure has influenced on community participation in development. The higher the accessibility of e-government based public information, the lower public face to face participation.

  174. Hashem Alisufi and Zohre Safaiee

    The present study examines the role of intellectual capital in firm value and the transparency in the company's reported earnings. For this purpose, the companies listed in Tehran Stock Exchange were examined and 207 running within 2003 to 2012 were selected as the ultimate samples of the study. Multiple regressions were used to test assumptions and the company's size as well as its financial leverage variables was chosen as control variables. The results reveal that companies with a higher intellectual capital were of higher value. However, the results did not show a significant relationship between intellectual capital and transparency. Results did not show a significant relationship between the size of the firm, firm value and transparency. According to the findings of the study, companies with higher financial leverage were less valued. The study found no significant relationship between financial leverage and transparency.

  175. Dr. Abbas Sadeghi and Maryam Babaeei

    This research was conducted for investigating the relationship between emotional divorce and marital satisfaction among Rasht teachers, statistical Society of this research was included all working teachers in Rasht that with regard to statistical Society size (6311 persons) based on Krejcie and Morgan’s table (1970) were selected first by stratified sampling method of schools in both Rasht school districts. Finally, 400 questionnaires were distributed in these schools based on Sample manifestation (married teachers). Instruments for gathering information of this research has been a questionnaire of 24 emotional divorce questions and a questionnaire of 35 marital Satisfaction questions. Research results showed that there is a significant relationship between emotional divorce and marital satisfaction components (p<0/01) and this relationship is negative and reverse. That is, the emotional divorce is expected to increase when the amount of the marital satisfaction decreases. Also, there was a significant relationship between City of Rasht teachers in relation to emotional divorce and amount of marital satisfaction from gender, number of children and spouse job perspective. But there was no meaningful relationship from age, marriage duration respondents’ education level, type of employment (teacher, Office personnel) and spouse education level.

  176. Prabha, D., Dr. Ravi Kumar Theodore, Dr. Karthikeyan, C. and Dr. Sivakumar, S.D.

    A study was conducted to assess the ‘Impact’ of beneficiaries and non-beneficiaries of e-Velanmai (e-Agriculture) project implemented by the Tamil Nadu Agricultural University (TNAU) from 2007 to 2013. It was found that none of the beneficiary respondents (100 .00 %) had used ICT tools after completion of the e-Velanmai project. All the beneficiary respondents (100.00 %) desired that the e-Velanmai project should be continued. Almost all (98.90 %) of the beneficiary respondents had preferred TNAU for providing e-Velanmai services in case it is continued, and none of the beneficiary respondents (100.00 %) had preferred neither State Department of Agriculture nor State Department of Agriculture + IT Company. With respect to the constraints faced by beneficiaries, an overwhelming percentage (94.40 %) of the beneficiary respondents had expressed that they faced no constraints regarding the e-velanmai project, while a small percentage (5.50 %) indicated that there is no direct contact with TNAU Scientists’, and no follow-up visit by Field Coordinators after giving advice (1.10 %). The beneficiary respondents have suggested that ‘Number of Field Coordinators may be increased’, ‘Day-to-day market information may be provided’, and ‘Post Harvest Technology / Value Addition information for coconut and other crops may be provided’, so as to further improve the e-Velanmai services.

  177. Jennifer K. Munyua and Christopher K. Wanjau

    The purpose of this study was to investigate perceived challenges and solutions in traffic management strategies of commercial motorcycles in Uasin Gishu County in Kenya. This was in light of concern of continuous reports of disorderliness and increased cases of accidents involving commercial motorcycles. Two research questions guided this study; what challenges were perceived in traffic management of commercial motorcycles and what perceived solutions would assist in the traffic management of commercial motorcycles. A Survey was conducted on 200 passengers, 60 motorcyclists and 4 government officials. A questionnaire was used for data collection. Data was analyzed using descriptive statistics. The study established that informal training of motorcyclists (75%), drunk cycling (66.2%) and lack of specific rules and regulation for commercial motorcycles (64.2%) were perceived as the main challenges. Perceived solutions included; introduction of alcohol blow gadget to test for alcohol toxicity (83.1%), training on safety measures (77.3%) and refining of traffic rules and regulation (75.3%). The study recommended training of motorcyclists, toxicity tests and refined traffic rules could reduce disorderliness of commercial motorcycles and related accidents.

  178. Dr. Belilew Molla

    Cooperative learning is widely endorsed as a pedagogical practice that promotes student learning. Recently, the research focus has moved to the role of teachers’ discourse during cooperative learning and its effects on the quality of group discussions and the learning achieved. Although the benefits of cooperative learning are well documented, implementing this pedagogical practice in classrooms is a challenge that many teachers have difficulties accomplishing. The subjects of this study were 52 randomly selected English language teachers who teach in three different Zones of Southern Nations, Nationalities and peoples’ regional State namely Gedeo, Sidama and Segen peoples’zones. Questionnaire and semi-structured interview were used to collect the required data. The quantitative data were analyzed using descriptive methods and the qualitative data were analyzed using narrative techniques. The findings of the study revealed that majority of the teachers did not have clear understanding of the principles and feature of cooperative learning. Among the interviewed 12 teachers, only two had a detailed understanding of the terms and features. The study indicated that the extent to which factors were perceived as barriers to cooperative learning, or issues that could be effectively managed by teachers, differed depending on the teacher’s knowledge of cooperative learning features and function. The study revealed that lack of training on how to successfully implement cooperative learning, lack of students’ accountability for their learning and the learning of others, lack of motivation, students’ reservation to get actively involved in cooperative learning, lack of awareness and absence of clear guidelines for assessments, students’ competition to score better grades, and negative attitude of teachers towards the instructional approach were the major challenges.

  179. An analysis on the financial support of Korean successive Government and the Organizational scale of Environmental NGO

    The purpose of this study is to analyze the financial support method for environmental NGO and the change of organizational scale in environmental NGO at successive government time. And this study approached from the standpoint of new institutionalism. Kim Young-sam Government applied the method of direct financial support for environmental NGO. The organizational capacity of Korean Federation for Environmental Movement enlarged significantly at this time. Kim Dae-joong Government applied the method of direct financial support by public offering type. Local organization in Korean Federation for Environmental Movement showed the increase of 25.0 %p at this period. Rho Moo-hyun Administration adopted the method of direct financial support for environmental NGO. The increased speed of local organization in Korean Federation for Environmental Movement fell rapidly in comparison with previous Kim Dae-joong Administration time. The relationship between government and environmental NGO influenced financial support at Lee Myung-bak Administration period. Similar to Rho Moo-hyun Administration period, the increased speed of local organization in Korean Federation for Environmental Movement fell rapidly in comparison with previous administration. The result of this study showed that there was not obvious difference in the financial support method for environmental NGO at successive administration time. This phenomenon is due to the fact that support system for NGO including financial support method retains low variabiliy so has tendency to pass down the form of previous period. The partial change of financial support method influenced the organizational scale of environmental NGO directly and indirectly.

  180. Peterson Ondieki Osero, Dr. Charles Omoke and Dr. Calleb Owino Gudo

    The term inclusive education has come to refer to a philosophy of education that promotes the education of all pupils in mainstream schools. Under the inclusion model, students with special needs spend most or all of their time with non-disabled students. In schools where inclusive education is offered, both special needs children and those who are less challenged, regular children, are taught in the same classroom. In some countries, inclusive education is thought of as an approach to serve special educational needs children within general education settings. Inclusive education in Kenya is still at the grass roots. The purpose and objective of the study was to evaluate teaching and learning strategies used in the implementation of inclusive education in primary schools, Nyamira County. The study used a descriptive survey design. The study targeted all teachers, 4000 and 5 education officers in Nyamira County. They are also involved in the implementation and delivery of the curriculum. The head teachers were targeted because, apart from being classroom teachers, had administrative role of coordinating and supervising teaching and learning activities in the schools. The study used simple random sampling which gives an equal chance to every item in the population to be selected as a sample for a research study. The study used teacher questionnaire, interview schedule for head teachers and educational officers and observation schedules. Piloting was carried out in two schools in the County. The study concluded that there were a wide range of strategies used in communicating the learning experiences to learners in the process of implementing inclusive education. The study concluded that the strategies were appropriate for disseminating learning experiences to learners in inclusive education. The study recommended that teachers should use research for appropriate strategies that would yield higher achievements; they should improvise teaching and learning materials and use locally available materials as much as possible; teachers and educational officers to sensitize parents to accept to take children with disabilities to school to be trained to independent and useful in future.

  181. Nitu Sindhu, P. Seharawat, S. and Malik, J. S.

    There are requirements for the application and management of agricultural waste on farms. However, the primary reason behind managing agricultural waste is to make good sense both environmentally and economically. This paper will highlight strategies that can be adopted in the agricultural waste management so that the farmers become aware and take full advantage of the various possibilities of plant waste recycling and further utilization for increasing economic. This paper includes wastes generated from crops like paddy, wheat, sugarcane, mustard and cotton. It is very important to fully exploit various methods of utilizing agricultural wastes. The result shows that majority of the farmers had very high level of awareness regarding the management of waste of crops like paddy, wheat, mustard, cotton and sugarcane. It was noticed that farmers knew about almost all the applications of crop wastes. It was also noticed that in spite of high percentage of awareness the farmers failed to take full advantage of the wastes on their farm. Thus there was need to suggest some waste management strategies for all the important crops grown in Haryana. After analyzing what all different ways the crop wastes can be used waste management strategies for paddy, wheat, cotton, mustard and sugarcane were developed. These strategies should be implemented on the farms so that farmers can take full advantage of various possibilities of managing the waste generated on their farm and earn more money. Systematic utilization of agricultural waste also helps to improve environmental conditions by reducing pollution caused by disposal of astronomic agricultural waste.

  182. Benjamin Owuor Ombok, Mohamed S. Mukras, Ndiro, Tabitha and Marucha Molline Atieno

    Commercial Banks apply Forward Integration Credit Risk Mitigation Mechanisms (FICRMMs) to promote credit access, security and productivity for various sectors. Credits make a significant portion in business’ capital structure and performance; and are notably the main business product for the Commercial Banks. The agribusiness sector contributes 53% employment in developing countries, and over 80% in Kenya, while commercial banks’ credits to the sector has registered decreasing trends between 2005 and 2014; ranging from 6.8% to 3.9% of the entire commercial banks credit portfolio. Whereas the agribusiness sector has immense investment potential as credit demand hub, the decreasing investment to the sector requires attention. This paper seeks to determine the effect of the Forward Integration Credit Risk Mitigation Mechanisms (FICRMMs) on profits, return on equity and capital growth of the agribusiness entrepreneurs in the Nyanza region. Using Ordinary Least Square (OLS) Single period Regression analysis, the study results established an R2 of 0.439 to profit, 0.571 for return on equity, 0.531 to capital growth, implying that FICRMMs account for 44% of profits, 57% of ROE and 53% of capital growth, all significant at p<0.05. The lagged VAR results provides R2 of 0.735 for profit, 0.813 for return on equity and 0.651 for capital growth; all significant at p<0.05, revealing that over time, the explained variable is affected by its own lagged evolution and the lags of other endogenous variables, thereby accounting for 73.5% of profits, 81.3% of ROE and 65.1% of capital growth. Hence H0(1-5): r=0 are rejected and H1(1-5): r≠0 are accepted. In conclusion, FICRMMs are significant for agribusiness performance both at single and lagged period, although credits to the sector are low. It is recommended that sensitivity analysis of the variables be done, establish implementation level of FICRMMs, improve information system, and restructure the mitigation parameters. These results may help in

  183. Manisha Kol and Dr. Meshram, P. B.

    A review is given on documentation of insects of Order Odonata .Data indicates that very less no. of insect faunal diversity have been documented of order Odonata from Pachmarhi Biosphere Reserve Madhya Pradesh, India. Current status, of documented species of Order- Odonata are17 in nos. including Dragonfly and Damselfly from PBR.

  184. Sharma, C. L., Sharma, M., Singh, L., Gogoi, B. and Kaur, M. J.

    Leaves of Taxus wallichiana Zucc. from NE and NW Himalayas were studied to determine the variation in anatomical characteristics of both regions. The present study revealed that the leaves of NE Himalayas were larger in size than that of NW Himalayas. Anatomically, the spongy parenchyma of selected sites (except Morsing) of NE Himalaya did not contain pigmented cells. The number of palisade layers, stomatal bands and stomatal density were greater in leaves of NE Himalayas. Also, palisade cell size and vascular bundle size were larger in leaves of NE Himalayas as compare to NW Himayalas. Statistically, there were significant differences in palisade cell size, stomatal density and diameter of vascular bundle among selected sites of both regions.

  185. Adewumi Ojeniyi Durodola, Isaac Olusayo Amole, Adenike Adeniran and Olufemi Timothy Awotunde

    Introduction: The current increase in the use of motorcycles in Nigeria has been associated with an increased incident rate of motorcycle road traffic accidents (MRTAs). The family and social features of victims might give an insight to the impact on the society. Aim and Objectives: To determine the family and social demographics of victims of motorcycle road accidents Materials and Methods: A prospective, hospital-based descriptive study was conducted and eligible patients that presented to the Emergency Department were enrolled as subjects. Data was recorded in a structured recording schedule and analyzed using SPSS 16. Proportions were determined and statistics presented in tables. Results: There were 72 riders (46.2%), 54 passengers (34.6%) and 30 pedestrians (19.2%) seen. The mean age was 34.33±16.48 years and students were most affected (21.2%). Most passengers were between twenty to forty years (55.6% of pillion riders), just like the riders (68% of riders). Although most victims were married, 46.8% were yet to have children but majority of them (50.6%) had at least one dependant. Conclusion: Although 20-29 age group was the most seen, it was not only the victims of MRTA that were affected by the accidents, the whole family and the community in general were affected.

  186. Dr. Vasudha Nikam, Dr. Niranjan Patil and Dr. Balkrishna Kitture

    Thoracic kidney is a rare anomaly; the rarest of all renal Ectopia types. Patients with thoracic kidneys are usually asymptomatic and the condition is discovered during radiological evaluation for other conditions. Here we describe a case of thoracic kidney in an 8 year old female who came with a history of pain in right iliac fossa; The Ultrasonography of abdomen showed the evidence of renal Ectopia on right side. No other anomalies were noticed.

  187. Dr. Vasanth, R., Dr. Sandhya Cherkil, Dr. Bindu Menon and Dr Sowmiya Ravi

    Background: Lot of research has focused on working memory (WM) deficits as trait markers and endo phenotypes in schizophrenia. Acute and transient psychotic disorders (ATPD) have on the other hand been traditionally viewed as completely remitting good prognosis psychosis and very little research has focused on whether cognitive deficits similar to schizophrenia are present in such patients. No study is available on WM in such patients in remission or on their relatives. Aims and objectives: The current study aims at mapping working memory deficits in patients of acute and transient psychotic disorders in clinical remission and their non affected first degree relatives. This will help to determine if cognitive deficits exist in ATPD and if they are underlying genetic markers and endo phenotypes for ATPD Methods: The study is of prospective cross sectional design carried out on a sample of 17 of which 6 were patients and 11 were first degree relatives. The measures of Working memory were Visual and Verbal N back memory, and Rey's Complex Figure Test with exposure & copy and immediate & delayed recall Statistical Analysis: Kruskall-Wallis test was used to find the difference between performance of the patients and relatives with the normative data. Significant difference was found between the sample performance and the normative data on Visual 1 back hit (0.04) and error (0.01), Verbal 1 back hit (0.02) and error (0.00) and Rey- Osterrith Figure exposure and copy (0.00). However, no difference was found between the performance of patients and their relatives Results: Patients of ATPD show significant deficits in working memory even when symptoms have completely remitted as do their asymptomatic first degree relatives. Conclusions: Working memory deficits may be considered to be endo phenotypes in ATPD.

  188. Naik Reena, Panda Kishori, M., Tirkey Anil Kumar and Naik Vinod

    Marjolin’s ulcers (MU) are rare malignancies arising from chronically inflammed, or scarred skin especially in burn wounds. Persistence of burn ulcer, induration or elevation of margin of such ulcer, ulceration or nodule formation over a burn scar may indicate malignant transformation. The commonest malignancy arising in MU is squamous cell carcinoma (SCC). Common clinical presentation is flat indurated ulcer and less frequent presentation is exophytic papillary growth. Diagnosis is made by tissue biopsy from multiple sites including the margins of the lesion. These tumors are aggressive and have poor prognosis. Here we report a case of MU in a 45 year female, who presented with non healing ulcer in a neglected burn wound after short latent period i.e. within six months of burn injury and biopsy taken from multiple sites from the ulcer showed a well differentiated SCC. Wide surgical excision was advised, but the patient lost to follow up.

  189. Arun Sinha, Vibha C. and Vishwanth H. L.

    Background: Acute inflammatory conditions are one of the most common problems faced in the clinical setting. Plasma cholinesterase has been shown to have variable correlation with chronic inflammatory conditions like Diabetes, Alzheimer’s etc. This study aims to assess its correlation in acute inflammatory conditions like sepsis Objective: To assess the usefulness of Cholinesterase as a marker in Acute Inflammatory conditions. Methodology: The correlational case control study involved 30 patients admitted in the surgery & medicine departments with complaints of fever, abdominal pain & cough. Total leucocytic count (TLC) and plasma cholinesterase were determined and the results were compared with 30 ages and sex matched healthy people taken as controls. Results: There was a moderate negative correlation between CHE & TLC in cases (r= -0.567, p< 0.05). Unpaired students t test (T= 3.194, p< 0.05) showed a significant difference in CHE values in cases in comparison to controls. Finally the ROC analysis showed that AUC for CHE in cases was 0.7, indicating a fair test with sensitivity of 50% and a specificity of 100%. Conclusion: In our study it was found that the correlation of plasma cholinesterase was more with the cases than for the controls. Because the correlation is not very strong, doing cholinesterase in isolation for sepsis is not recommended. Also it was found that even though CHE levels had moderate sensitivity but had high specificity enabling us to at least rule out acute inflammation.

  190. Srikanth Bitra, Mohammed Zuhaib, Siddhartha Chatterjee, Pradeep Sharma, S. C., Nair, K. and Balasubramaniam

    Cleidocranial dysplasia is a congenital anomaly that is clinically characterized by complete defect or hypoplasia of the clavicle and abnormal ossification of the skull. In the maxillofacial region, it has various abnormalities such as reversed occlusion with hypoplastic midface, persistence of deciduous teeth with delayed eruption of permanent teeth, supernumerary teeth and malalignment. A case of cleidocranial dysplasia in a 17-year-old female visited our hospital. After the preoperative orthodontic treatment for 2 ½ years, Le Fort I osteotomy and Bilateral sagittal split osteotomy for the hypogrowth of the maxilla was performed to advance it anteriorly and set back the mandible. Her midface appearance and the occlusion were remarkably improved after the surgery.

  191. Adnan. M Jassim, Sadiaq, A. Almansory, Sohaad J. Hadi, Ghasson A. Alkareem

    The first step of the research is the synthesis of a new agent derived from This is done by its conversion into phenyl hydrazine. At this point a number of products may be derived; addition of fructose results in the formation of X23, addition of D-ribose results in the formation of X3, whilst addition of C6H5CHO results in the formation of F57. Furthermore, addition of NaOH produces X2) Our study set out to investigate the analgesic activity of Naproxen (20 mg/kg body weight) and to compareit toa newly modified compound of naproxen by the addition of a chemical group. Analgesic activity done by use of hot plate. Healthy male albino mice (25-30 g) were obtained from animal houses (??) in groups of six in polypropylene cages. After adaptation the mice were randomly divided into six groups (six rats in each group) Group 1labeled as the control group, was given distilled water only, whilst mice from group 2 where given naproxen and 7-6(?? you mean 3-5) given new drugs. Modified naproxen compounds and naproxen drugs significantly (p<0.001) increase analgesic time per second (pain reflex) when compared to control. The Hot plate test useful in the elucidating centrally mediated ant nociceptive responses, which focused mainly on changes above the spinal cord level. All the test and standard drugs significantly (p<0.001) reduced the pain as compare to the control group. The results of pharmacological tests performed in the present studies suggest that all new drugs possess potent analgesic activity. The second aim of our study was to carry out an investigation on the effect of new drugs(you mean the modified naproxen drugs?) on gastric tissue, the result show mice administer with X3 showed less ulcerative effect than naproxen by decrease acidity, and increase gastric juice than naproxen (do you mean; by decreasing acidity and increasing gastric juice as compared to naproxen). This finding may be grounds for further future research. (Examination of the existence of gastric ulcer in mice stomach under dissecting microscope revealed increase number and length of ulcer in mice administrated with alcohol. Groups administered with naproxen, X2, F57 also showed evidence of ulceration however less compared to groups administered with alcohol. Moreover number of ulcers where significantly less in X23 group, while X3 treated animal showed no evidence of ulcers or hemorrhage seen in stomachs after examined under dissecting microscope). Histopathological sections of stomach mice treated orally with 250mg /kg of naproxen,X2, F57 groups and X23 for 5 days show severe distractions of stomach mucosa, necrosis of intestinal villi with inflammatory cell infiltration in lamina properia and severe ulceration and necrosis of intestinal mucosa with congestion of blood vessels. The result of the X3 group was most prominent and revealed small intestine increase in number of goblet cell with increase amount of mucin seen in the lumen with mononuclear cell infiltration with lymphoid tissue that give good chance for increase immune tissue and resistant ulcer.

  192. Yalçın KANBAY, Elif IŞIK and Özgür ASLAN

    Introduction: The present study was planned to assess communication skills of nursing students. Method: The study is a descriptive study. Sample for the study included 202 nursing students attending Artvin Çoruh University Health Academy. “Socio-demographic characteristics form” and “Communication Skills Assessment Scale” were used as data collection tools. Findings: Communication skills mean scores of the students demonstrated differences based on the age group. Mean score for females was 99.797 ± 1.108 and it was 96.405 ± 1.651 for males, and the difference between females and males was not significant. Although communication skills mean scores for the students increased with their seniority, the differences were not statistically significant. More than half of the students (55.5%) graduated from regular high schools, while the rest (46.5%) graduated from other high schools, and there were no significant differences between the groups based on mean communication skills scores. A large portion of the sample lived in city centers (46.5%) and had higher mean communication skills scores compared to those lived in smaller settlements, however the difference was not significant. Although mean communication scores of students that belong to nuclear families were higher than the students who belong to extended families, there was no significant difference between the mean scores of these groups. Majority of the families of the students had middle or high level income (85.6%), while 14.4% had low level income, but communication skills did not differ based on income level. Parents’ educational status was primary, middle school, and college, respectively, however communication skills of the students did not differ based on their parents’ educational background. Result: It was determined that students’ communication skills did not differ based on age, gender, level of the class attended, domicile, high school graduated, type of family, family income level, and parents’ educational background.

  193. Ikram Kammoun, Sonia Marrakchi, Faten Jebri, Nadim Khedher, Ali Mrabet and Salem Kachboura

    Background: Right ventricule(RV) function affects the outcome in valvular heart disease but it less assessed in mitral stenosis. Our study aims to define the incidence of RV dysfunction in patients with moderate to severe rheumatic mitral stenosis using simple parameters and to correlate it with other echocardiographic parameters. Methods: 75 patients with moderate to severe rheumatic mitral stenosis and 24 controls underwent echocardiographic examinations. RV function indices included Tricuspid annular plane excursion (TAPSE), peak S’ velocity at tissue Doppler (S’) and RV fractional area shortening (FAS). Results: compared to controls, patients with MS had significantly lower TAPSE (17±5 vs 20mm, p<0.001), lower FSA (0.43±0.1 vs 0.52±0.2%, p=0.03) and lower S’ (11±3 vs 13±1 cm/s, p=0.002). Right ventricular dysfunction was noted in 38% (by TAPSE), in 37% (by S’) and in 35% (by FSA). A good correlation was noted between these three parameters. RV systolic dysfunction was significantly more frequent in patients with atrial fibrillation (AF) than those in sinus rhythm (60% vs 20%, p<0.001), and left atrial area was significantly higher in patients with right ventricular dysfunction (34.8 cm² vs 31.6 cm², p=0.04). A cut-off value of 34cm² can predict right ventricular dysfunction with 86% sensitivity and 77% specificity. No correlation was found between the three parameters of RV function and systolic pulmonary artery pressure. Conclusion: systolic RV function, assessed by simple echocardiographic parameters, was reduced in 35% of patients with moderate to severe mitral stenosis. RV dysfunction was more frequent in patients with AF and with more dilated left atrium

  194. Dr. Kousik Seth, Dr. Subhash Chandra Biswas, Dr. Keya Pal and Dr. Rahul Deb Mandal

    Background and Purpose: Maternal Vitamin D deficiency is a global public health problem. The main objective of this prospective cohort study is to assess the independent effect of maternal 25-hydroxyvitamin D levels in early pregnancy on the risk of GDM and PIH. Methods: 574 nulliparous mothers with singleton pregnancies attended the antenatal out-patient department of our institution during the study period from July 2013 to June 2014 and were selected after taking proper history and investigations. In the first visit, Vitamin D estimation was done by HPLC method along with other routine investigations. Vitamin D deficient mothers, i.e. serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D<50 nmol/L(20 ng/ml) were taken as exposed and other mothers as non-exposed and followed upto term to study the development of GDM and PIH in the index pregnancy. Only mothers attending OPD on Wednesday were included in our study. Results: Out of 574 mothers, 375(65.3%) were vitamin D insufficient, 47(8.2%) developed GDM and DGGT, and 57(9.9%) developed PIH in third trimester. A significant positive association between low 25(OH) D levels and an increased risk of GDM(p=.01) and PIH(p=.049) was found in our study. A correlation between obesity, maternal vitamin D status and subsequent development of GDM and PIH was also illustrated but were statistically insignificant. Conclusion: Hypovitaminosis D during pregnancy and its undesirable health outcomes is an area of growing concern. As maternal obesity rates increase and incidence of GDM also rises, it is becoming increasingly important to understand modifiable risk factors as vitamin D status. Ultimately, RCTs will be needed to test if vitamin D supplement affects GDM and PIH risk and improves maternal and perinatal outcomes.

  195. Deepak Bhasin

    Emergence of multi drug resistance (MDR) strains of Acinetobacter baumannii (A. baumannii), resistant to most of the available antibacterial drugs is of great concern globally. Management of the infections caused by these MDR strains especially pneumonia is a great challenge for physicians and clinical microbiologists. In the present study, we discuss a case of a 71 year old male patient diagnosed with MDR A. baumannii pneumoniae with known co-morbidities of CKD, hypertension, diabetis mellitus and coronary artery disease (CAD) treated with a newer antibiotic adjuvant entity: Elores (ceftriaxone+sulbactam+disodium edetate) and recovered well.

  196. Maysaa KAl-Malkey, Ahmed AH Abass, Fahema J. Abo-Alhoor and Munira CH Ismail

    Oral squamous cell carcinoma is the most common malignant neoplasm of oral mucosa, representing more than 90%. Tobacco and alcohol has been considered as the classical risk factors. Human papilloma Virus has been proposed as an etiological risk factor since 2007. Thirty five cases diagnosed with OC their ages and gender matched with controls were enrolled in this study. Fifty-five un-stimulated whole saliva samples (35 OC and 20 apparently health subjects) were collected. DNA was purified from exfoliate cells to amplify HPV-DNA using HPV-L1 gene sequence primers by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) method, the genotyping was performed using direct sequencing method. Mean age was 52.23±13.73 years in cases (range: 17-70 years) while in controls was 50.55±12.5 years (range: 24-74 years).Forty-six percent (16/35) of OC patients was positive for detection of HPV DNA (P<0.001). The most frequent type in patient group was HPV-18 type accounting for (31%) of cases (P<0.05). The prevalence rate of HPV was significantly higher among younger ages (<50 years) with P=0.042. In addition the prevalence of HPV was higher with other variables with no significant association: male, tongue tissue, and grade I differentiation, and squamous cell carcinoma (P=0.150, P=0.678, P=0.983, ad P=0.765 respectively).

  197. Anitha, M., Hemapriya, J., Monica Roselin, E., Monisha, D. M. and Swathy, S. R.

    Skin mycoses are caused mainly by dermatophytes, which are fungal species that primarily infect areas rich in keratin such as hair, nails and skin. In most of the dandruff sufferers, hair fall is a very common problem. In our study, we detected the fungal infections associated with dandruff on the Medical students scalp using staining technique and cultura media. Moreover, the preliminary study was planned to identify only fungal infections present in dandruff scalps. Altogether 4 different types of fungi were encountered from 50 samples. The most dominant fungus was Candida albicans (50%), followed by Aspergillus niger (24%), Cryptococcus spp (16%) and Penicillium spp (10 % ) from the dandruff scalp. Our study provides useful information for the prevention of fungal infections. Dandruff is a common disorder affecting the scalp condition. Dandruff cannot be completely eliminated but can only be managed and effectively controlled by proper antifungal agents.

  198. Inflammatory gingival enlargement

    Gingival diseases include a group of complex entities which are caused by various etiologic factors. Every condition displays a characteristic set of signs and symptoms. However, these may overlap in different conditions and may be further complicated by the presence of dental plaque, presence of other local etiologic factors and their severity. In the present case series, two young female patients reported with swelling and bleeding from the gums in the mandibular anterior region, which, on examination was found to be associated with ill-constructed prosthesis in Case 1 and mild crowding and plaque accumulation in Case 2. Both cases responded well to Phase I therapy which included thorough scaling and root planing and oral hygiene maintenance instructions. However, surgical treatment was indicated for the enlargement that persisted following Phase I therapy. Internal bevel incision gingivectomy procedure was performed. One month follow up revealed no recurrence. In conclusion, it can be said that, although gingival enlargement can be effectively treated by surgical and non surgical methods and their combination. However, not one method exists that prevents recurrence of the condition and long term follow is necessary.

  199. Dr. Himashree Bhattacharyya, Adorinia Nongrum and Dr. Apurba Marak

    Introduction: Opioid overdose occurs when a person takes opioid or opioid in combination with other drugs, in quantities that body cannot handle. Overdose is one of the commonest causes of death among opioid users. With the rising number of drug users in our state, incidences of drug overdose is bound to increase. Objectives: 1. To find out the number and profile of overdose cases presenting to different Health Care institutions under this study.2.To find out the knowledge and practices of Health Care Providers on overdose management. Methodology: The present study is a cross sectional study conducted in selected districts of Meghalaya for a period of one year. A total of 20 centres were taken up for data collection. Doctors, nurses and para medical staff were the study respondent. Pre-designed questionnaire was used for data collection. Results: From the 20 centers, a total number of 114 respondents were enrolled for questionnaire section. Regarding the knowledge on overdose 101 (88.59%) could properly define the meaning of overdose. Only 41(36%) of the respondent had treated overdose cases. Only 66 (58%) respondents were aware about the correct dosage of naloxone Regarding the drug used to revive an overdose case most of the respondents 61 (53%) replied that they would use Naloxone. However Only 21 (18%) of respondents had undergone any training on overdose management. There are about 80 reported cases of overdose with the mean age of 28 years. Out of the 80 overdose cases 17 (21%) cases were fatal. Only 25 (31%) overdose cases were reported to the police.

  200. Kalpana Mangal and Manju Yadav

    Liver is acommon site for many primary as well as secondary diseases which may be symptomatic or remain silent and diagnosed only on autopsy many times. The present retrospective study was conducted in department of Pathology during the period of 3.7yr i.e. (January 2012 to September 2015).Total1348 cases were examined. This cross-sectional study was aimed to know the incidence of various (symptomatic or silent) liver diseases and also to find out the type of liver diseases in relation to age and sex of the studied cases. The liver may get involved secondary to cardiac, metabolic and social problems like alcoholism. Section from different representative areas of liver were studied with the help of H&E and special stains wherever required. In this study various hepatic lesion were venous congestion (48%), steatosis (21.30%), cirrhosis (5.11%) hepatitis (3.62%), necrotic diseases (1.70%), granulomatous hepatitis (0.95%), metastatic malignancies (0.38%) and primary malignancies (0.15%). Venous congestion was the commonest finding followed by steatosis.

  201. Patel Rajas, Shinde Digvijay, Pendse Manish and Patil Smita

    Scimitar syndrome or pulmonary venolobar syndrome is a rare, complex and variable cardio-pulmonary malformation, characterized by partial anomalous pulmonary venous connection. It can present in neonatal period as well as later in life. We present a case of 13 year old female who presented with DKA in type 1 diabetes mellitus and was diagnosed with pulmonary venolobar syndrome. Considering the rareness of the syndrome and its unusual form of presentation, this case is reported. Scimitar syndrome is a congenital deformity which consists of abnormal right side pulmonary venous drainage in the inferior vena cava, right lung hypoplasia, dextraposition of heart, and anomalous systemic arterial supply from aorta or one of its branches to the right lung. This syndrome has varied presentations, from an asymptomatic state to severe pulmonary hypertension and/or heart failure. A 13 year old female child presented with vomiting, abdominal pain & breathlessness and was diagnosed with DKA who was a known case of type 1 diabetes mellitus on insulin therapy. Detailed examination and routine work up was done. Chest skiagram (PA) showed scimitar sign formed by anomalous vein with right sided lung hypoplasia and shift of trachea and heart to the right side. Electrocardiography was normal except R/S >1 in V1. Transthoracic echocardiography showed no evidence of any septal defect or other abnormality. HRCT thorax was performed which showed, hypoplastic right lung with complete non visualization of the right upper lobe and anomalous drainage of the right middle & lower lobe veins into the sub-diaphragmatic, supra hepatic portion of the inferior vena cava. No medical management or surgical interventions was required as patient was asymptomatic.

  202. Dr. Swati Sonawane and Dr. Mahesh Jambure

    Road traffic accidents (RTA) have been the bane of the modern civilization accounting for considerable loss to the nation. Head injuries are leading causes of death from vehicle crashes with many deaths occurring despite optimal use of the available treatment facilities. Hence the present study was conducted to know the patterns of head injuries in fatal accidents involving vehicles. This study was conducted from 1st sept 2013 to 1st sept 2014 at MGM Hospital attached Mortuary, Aurangabad. The present study entirely focuses on the patterns of head injuries in fatal accidents who were autopsied during this period. A total of 100 cases of deaths due to vehicular accidents were reported for the autopsy. Most victims were male (89%). The age span of 20–60 years comprises 83% of all road traffic accident deaths. The deaths in road traffic accidents were more among married persons, (64%). It was observed that majority of victims involved in road traffic accident 23 cases (62%) were addicted to alcohol. It was observed that incidents leading to maximum number of deaths occurred during 06 PM to 9 PM and 06 AM to 9 AM. Abrasion + contusion +laceration+ crush was the most common combination of injuries sustained by the victims observed in 37cases (37%), Fissured fracture Was commonest pattern of fracture observed in 58% in these accidents. Extradural and subdural hemorrhage was the most common and present in 27 (24.57%) cases.

  203. Hope for a hopeless tooth – Intentional reimplantation- A case report

    Aim: Maintaining the integrity of the natural dentition is the central goal of dentistry. Intentional re-implantation is defined as intentional removal of tooth and reinsertion into extraction socket before or after endodontic treatment. It aims at most conservative option that satisfies individual esthetic and functional requirements while retaining the natural teeth and smile. Materials and Methods: The patient was examined and subjected to periapical radiograph. After completion of phase I therapy and root canal treatment, intentional re-implantation was done in a traumatized and grade III mobile right central incisor. Tooth was splinted with fiber reinforced resin splint and patient was placed in a maintenance recall program. Results: The patient was clinically and radiographically monitored for 1year with follow-up radiographs showing the tooth in the alveoli without sign of ankylosis or re-implantation resorption. Conclusion: Intentional re-implantation of the same tooth can be done when the patient want to retain natural dentition instead of going for artificial prosthesis. It provides an alternative treatment option, instead of extraction for a tooth with hopeless prognosis.

  204. Nareet Bajwa, Prabhjot Saini, Harpreet Kaur, Shivani Kalra and Dr. Jasbir Kaur

    Background: Disturbed sleep and sleep deprivation is common among ICU patients. Use of eye masks and ear plugs may be a valuable to patients attempting to sleep in intensive care units. This randomized control trial aims to assess the efficacy of ear plugs and eye mask in improving the sleep pattern among critically-ill patients. Method: The study was conducted in January 2014 in selected ICUs of a tertiary care hospital. 100 patients were selected by convenience sampling and were randomized to control and experimental group using parallel group design. The perception of patient’s sleep with and without usage of ear plugs and eye mask was evaluated Using Verran and Snyder-Halpern Sleep Scale consists 16 items that include three main sleep sub scales: disturbance, effectiveness, and supplementation. Results: The study revealed statistically significant difference in mean scores among experimental and control group as per sleep fragmentation (14.6±3.44 vs 4.19±3.58), sleep latency (6.05±1.88 vs 1.70±1.66), sleep quality (10.5±2.52 vs 2.14±2.29), sleep length (8.95±2.47 vs 2.36±2.46), sleep supplementation (11.8±3.26 vs 4.10±2.33). Conclusion: Findings of the study revealed that ear plugs and eye mask has significantly increased the quality of sleep among critically ill patients at all three subscales (disturbance, effectiveness, and supplementation).

  205. Dr. Asha M. L., Dr. LaboniGhorai, Dr. Mahesh Kumar H. M., Dr.BasettyNeelakantamRajarathnam, Dr. Lekshmy J. and Dr. SrilakshmiJasti

    Head-and-Neck cancer is the sixth most common cancer worldwide, accounting for 5−6% of all cancer cases. Surgical resection and/or radiotherapy have long been regarded as the standard treatment, while chemotherapy can be added as an adjunct. However, conventional chemotherapy has certain drawbac7ks like non-specific distribution, short circulation time and tumour resistance. Recently, targeted therapeutics with nanoparticles have emerged as promising alternatives to overcome these drawbacks of conventional approaches and among the diverse classes of nanomaterials, Carbon Nanotubes (CNTs), due to their unique physicochemical properties, have become a popular tool in cancer diagnosis and therapy. CNTs are tubular materials with nanometer-sized diameters and axial symmetry, with the unique properties such as ease of cellular uptake, high drug loading and thermal ablation which render them useful for cancer therapy. The important biomedical applications of CNTs include their contribution in the field of drug delivery, thermal therapy, photodynamic therapy, gene delivery, biological detection and imaging. More recently, they have also been used as vehicles for antigen delivery, a novel immunization strategy against infectious diseases and cancer. These multifunctional and multiplex nanoparticles are now being actively investigated and are on the horizon as the next generation of nanoparticles, facilitating personalized and tailored cancer treatment. However, concerns over certain issues such as biocompatibility and toxicity have been raised and warrant extensive research in this field.

  206. Dr. Arundhati Shashank Pande

    Purpose: Childhood cataract is a debiliting condition with social burden. If it is not treated early and properly it may lead to permanent blindness due to amblyopia. Purpose of this study is to discuss results of early management of cataracts with etiologies like congenital, trauma in children. Methods: Ten eyes in eight children with cataract were studied in detail at ophthalmology OPD. All children were operated by same surgeon under general anesthesia. Phacoemulsification with Intraocular lens implantation was done. Main tunnel was sutured by 10-0 viacryl. A weekly follow-up was maintained for a month and refraction was given at the end of month. Result: Eight patients were in the age group of three years to twelve years with mean age of nine years. Seven were male while one was female. Five patients had blunt trauma, one had sealed penetrating injury by thorn and two had bilateral congenital cataract. Preoperative vision varied from PL+ PR+ to 6/24. Seven patients showed good post-operative visual recovery in the range 6/18 to 6/9. One patient of long standing congenital cataract did not improve after surgery due to severe amblyopia. Out of seven patients, one patient had developed choroidal detachment on day one, however he recovered gradually by wait and watch method, while another patient had developed posterior capsule opacification after three month, so he was treated by Nd YAG capsulotomy and subsequently regained 6/9 vision. Conclusion: Children with cataract can have normal vision post cataract surgery if operated early with special care. If cataract is not operated early, then it might lead to blindness due to amblyopia. Declaration of interest: No

  207. The Palatogingival groove is a developmental, anatomic aberration of variable extent and depth, that often leads to a combined Endodontic-Periodontic lesion. Management of such developmental anomalies stand a clinical challenge to the operator. This article aims to brief a case of type-III Palatogingival groove which was otherwise indicated for extraction, was treated successfully with Intentional reimplantation. With proper understanding of Clinical procedures and strict adherence of Surgical Protocol, Intentional reimplantation can serve as a predictable & cost effective method in the management of Class-III Palatogingival groove.

  208. Achla Prasad, Sanjay Mendiratta, Saurabh Jaiswal, Preeti Sharma, Surinder Singh and Mahendra Kumar Agarwal

    The high prevalence of patients with asthma caused by cockroach allergens has been reported around the world as well as in India (30%). The crude non-standardized cockroach extracts are still used for diagnosis and treatment. Commercial cockroach allergen extracts are reported to vary in protein content and electrophoretic banding patterns indicating to batch to batch variations and pose a challenge to the clinicians for accurate diagnosis and efficacious immunotherapy (Gaur et al., 2009; Burastero 2011; Özdemir 2014). The batch to batch variation in cockroach extracts may be minimized by an appropriate dialysis method and using electrophoresis and biochemical techniques for quality control.

  209. Ouma E. Ochieng and Gudu Samuel

    Low available phosphorus (P) still remains a major limitation to maize (Zea mays L.) productivity in low P soils. The objectives of this study were to (i) determine the extent of genetic variation in P efficiency among selected Kenyan maize under low P soils (ii) select P efficient maize experimental hybrids. A total of 32 experimental hybrids were evaluated for variation in tolerance to low P at high P (36kgP/ha) and low P (6kgP/ha) conditions across four locations using split plot arrangement in RCBD replicated three times. Mean grain yield was significantly lower (2.49 t/ha) across the low P treatment compared to the high P treatments (4.78 t/ha). Relative yield reduction was comparable across the four locations except at Sega where it was a little higher (59.4%). A 48.9% mean yield reduction was observed at the low P treatment compared with the high P treatment across the locations. Eighteen out of the 32 experimental hybrids exhibited Agronomic Efficiency (AE) above the locational mean > 44.8 kgkg-1 P. Mean phosphorus efficiency ratio (PER) of 546.7 kgkg-1 P was obtained across the four locations with Migori exhibiting the highest mean (556.5 kgkg P-1). Majority of the experimental hybrids (57%) had higher phosphorus acquisition efficiency (PAE) than the average of all the genotypes. A mean phosphorus efficiency (PE) of 71.6 % was recorded across the locations. In most cases, genotypes showing higher P efficiency traits (PE, PAE, PUE, AE, PER) had higher grain yield production under low P supply. The genetic variation observed among the maize genotypes demonstrates the potential for maize improvement which will facilitate efficient acquisition and utilization of the limited Pi fertilizers.

  210. Debanand Das, Kshetrimayum Sumita, Th. Sunita Devi and Deepika Rai

    Root-knot nematode, Meloidogyne is one of the most devastating nematode pests of crops with its more than 5500 host crops. This a polyphagus nematode pest distributed all over the tropical, subtropical as well as temperate regions of the globe. As more the number of species is pouring down under this genus Meloidogyne, proper identification is very much essential for its management either through conventional or biotechnological way. The nematode was described under different genus time to time by various authors. This article tries to compile the available literatures on the taxonomic categorization of this important nematode pest in order to reduce the confusion on its nomenclature.

  211. Kulloli, S. K., Sreekala, A. K. and Pandurangan, A. G.

    Impatiens grandis Heyne ex Wallich is an evergreen, perennial shrubaceous balsam species facing a severe threat in the nature due to various factors. One of the factor is it own reproductive inefficiency and progeny recruitment. Hence the present investigation focused on floral biology and breeding systems of the species enlightening on phenology, pollen biology, pollen-pistil interaction, pollinators and breeding system to unravel the possible reasons for its rarity and endangerment. Flowers blooms between 0300-0500 h and anthers dehisced one day before anthesis confirmed the protandry. Pollen viability by FCR yielded 82% pollen grains are viable on the day of anthesis. Stigma showed 60% receptivity on the 3rd day of anthesis. Pollinators behavior in the wild confirmed honeybees made maximum visit (40%) followed by hawk moths (30%), butterflies (20%) and flies and ants (10%). The fruit set rate in natural pollination was very poor (30%) but artificial cross-pollination through xenogamy enhanced the fruit set up to 65%. Thus it is concluded that the plant is an obligate out-crosser and partially self-incompatible. Therefore, protandry, self-incompatibility, delayed stigma receptivity, pollinator’s scarcity, bottlenecks in reproduction and other ecological factors could be the reasons for narrow distribution in the Western Ghats.

  212. Cheniti-Abed, K., Dekhili, M. and Bouharati, S.

    Despite the diversity of species of annual forage legumes that may be grazed in Algeria, few have been used to feed livestock. The use of these forages can improve livestock nutrition in the context of sustainable development. The valuation of plant genetic resources and knowledge of species and research pastoral interest in food is of paramount importance hence the choice of this work aimed at the agro-morphological characterization of three species of vetch ((Vicia ervilia, V. narbonensis and V. sativa) in the semi-arid region of Setif - Algeria-. Since data on these variables are characterized by uncertainty, vagueness and complexity, we found it useful to analyze them with an artificial neural network system as a technique of artificial intelligence. We propose in this reading performance of the study a package rates. It is then necessary to relate the parameters species, variety and quantitative variables that the input space to the study area in terms of actual measured values. The function mapping input parameters performance is adjusted by the network from a set of real measured values of pitch. After learning all random variables introduced at the input used to read the expected yield of the output

  213. Odelu, G.

    Aquatic systems suitable for variety of primary producers, animals, birds, may native or migratory, fishes and all related biotic and abiotic components. They form different food chains, food web and mineral cycling ways as well as responsible several biological products. Phytoplankton species produce above the half of earth’s primary productivity. Kalvala reservoir located near to mandal Veena vanka of Karimnagar district, Telangana. 50 algal species occurred, 6 from Bacillariophyceae with 12%of total species contribution, 26 species from chlorophyceae, 18 species from class Cyanophyceae. Filamentous forms contribution to 36%. If diatoms species diversity more it can indicate that the water physico-chemical parameters are so good. Due to the urbanization resulted to pollution, which imbalance the ecosystems Phytoplankton species distribution causes disturbance to reregulated aquatic system.

  214. Navnath G. Kashid and Subhash B. More

    The pollen sterility revealed an increasing trend with increasing concentrations of mutagen in both the cultivars of chickpea. Both the cultivars of chickpea namely BDN 9-3 and PG-5 demonstrated a more or less similar response as regards pollen sterility with increasing concentrations of the two mutagens. The maximum sterility could be seen at 0.15% EMS and 0.03% SA in both the cultivars of chickpea. The results in the present study demonstrated that the frequency of pollen sterility was more in EMS treatments in both cultivars of chickpea.

  215. Hematological and serum biochemical parameters in two types of fishes collected from different habitat

    The haematological and serum biochemical studies has been carried out in two types of fresh water fishes collected from different habitat. The fresh water fish, Notopterus notopterus collected from a river and Channa marulius collected from a pond. The fish, N.notopterus is a continuously moving fish and frequently comes to the surface for gulping air and also respires through gills. The fish, Channa marulius remains in the bottom of pond and spends more time, very occasionally comes to the surface for gulping air. The haematological and serum biochemical parameters determined in these two fishes exhibited marked difference. All the parameters observed were on the higher side in the fish Channa marulius compared to that of the fish, N.notopterus. Indicating that behavioural pattern and habitat influence the blood parameters in fish

  216. Vijayaraghavendra, R. and Basavanagoud, K.

    Studies on seasonal incidence of sapota fruit borer, Phycita erythrolophia Hampson (Pyralidae: Lepidoptera) infesting sapota Manilkara achras (Mill.) Forsberg were carried out in sapota orchard of Agriculture College, Dharwad, University of Agricultural Sciences, Dharwad, Karnataka, India during 2013–2014. Observations were recorded from four sapota genotypes viz., Cricket ball, Kalipatti, DSH-1 and DSH-2. The fruit borer was active throughout the year with a varying degree of infestation. Among four different genotypes of sapota, the incidence of fruit borer damage was more in cricket ball (10.24 %) followed by Kalipatti (9.64 %) varieties whereas on hybrids it ranged from 7.33 to 8.07 per cent. Across the genotypes, the mean percentage of fruit damage was ranged from highest incidence of 16.42 % in March and lowest in August 3.79 %. Pest incidence was more during dry period i.e. from November to April and less during rainy season (July to October). A study on correlation of fruit borer with weather parameters indicated that there was a significant and positive correlation between fruit borer damage and maximum temperature in all genotypes. Rest of the weather factors viz., minimum temperature, relative humidity and rain fall had no influence on pest population during the period of study.

  217. Ahmad Mehraban and Seyed Mahdi Javad Zadey

    Agriculture has a significant effect on the environment. Declining water quality, loss of wildlife habitat, reduced biodiversity, and emissions of greenhouse gases are some of the major concerns specifically linked to agriculture. Contamination of soil, water and air, fragmentation of habitats and loss of wildlife, loss of biodiversity, increased flooding and drought, soil erosion and increasing greenhouse gases may be inappropriate practices agriculture and land use. Well as agricultural streams and rivers affect water Quality. Intensive farming has serious consequences on the environment. Thus increasing concerns about excessive environmental impacts agriculture has led to the introduction of agri-environmental schemes. The purpose of this research was to examine factors affecting to agri-environment in Southern Khorasan Province, East of Iran. This study used qualitative research methods. The research method was multiple-case study and purposive sampling method was used. The main instrument for data collection was a questionnaire. The results showed that factors affecting to agri-environment consist of: Facilitating factors include motivations and profits. Health and safety, environmental, Ideological and philosophical and economic motivations are the most important motivating factors mentioned. Barriers to conversion to agri-environment include challenges and costs. Lack of knowledge, lack of government supports, fear of the future and production are mentioned as the most important challenges of the conversion to agri-environment. The main objectives of this paper are to provide the broad agri-environmental context, examine the state of agri-environmental information, current agri-environmental statistics developments and future directions.

  218. Azra Kamal

    Mahua (Madhuca longifolia) belongs to Sapotaceae family. The flowers of Mahua tree are fermented to produce an alcoholic drink called Mahua, country liquor. The cost of dried mahua flowers is quite less in comparable to other raw materials source. Tribal men and women consider the tree and Mahua drink as a part of their cultural heritage. They consumed this liquor in all the social gatherings and ceremonies. It is cheaper than IMFL (Indian Made Foreign Liquors) and other country liquors so for a common public, it is quite available, and they consume a huge amount. Madhuca longifolia has found many important properties yet its several other potential have to be finding out or fully explore by research workers along with the people of tribal community so they may have more and valuable knowledge . Further studies are needed to find out the comparative economics of ethanol production from the mahua flower and other cheap carbohydrate sources.

  219. Abbas Torabi

    Earth’s seasons are characterized by differences in temperature and day length. Four different seasons spring, summer, autumn and winter that are exist only in temperate zones. These zones are widespread between latitudes 23.5 degrees of North (and south), 66.5 degrees of North (and south). In tropical or subtropical regions there is no significant seasonal changes and there are only two seasons, wet and dry seasons. Polarize zones have just two seasons, light and dark seasons. We will start our research on this topic and would like to say that there is symmetry between different temperatures. It means that the temperature that creates the spring is the same as the temperature that creates winter and our planet earth has only one season that in temperate regions, it is divided into four seasons and these four seasons emerge in the quantity of a quarter 1/4. Among the nine planets in solar system, only in the planet earth there is symmetry between the sun heat and the frigidity that we will show this symmetry in our planet earth with a simple equation.

  220. Priyanka P. Patil and Pandurang B. Mohite

    Experiments were conducted to find out the efficacy of newer insecticides as foliar spray against leaf eating caterpillar in soybean in farmer’s field during kharif season 2013-14. Foliar sprays of newer molecules of insecticides viz., flubendiamide 480 SC @, spinosad 45 SC @ 187.5 ml/ha, lambda cyhalothrin 5 EC @ 40 g/ha, emamectin benzoate 1.9 EC @ 200 ml/ha, methomyl 40 SP @ 1 kg/ha, chlothianidin 50 WDG @ 250 g/ha, indoxacarb 14.5 SC @ 200 ml/ha and thiodicarb 80 DP @ 400 ml/ha offered excellent protection against leaf eating caterpillar, S. litura infesting soybean. Result indicated that all the treatments as foliar sprays recorded significantly higher yield as compared to untreated control. The treatment with flubendiamide 480 SC @ 200 ml/ha recorded 2100.10 kg/ha yield which is significantly superior over rest of treatments. The treatment with emamectin benzoate 1.9 EC @ 200 ml/ha, spinosad 45 SC @ 187.5 ml/ha, lambda cyhalothrin 5 EC @ 40 g/ha, methomyl 40 SP @ 1 kg/ha, chlothianidin 50 WDG @ 250 g/ha, thiodicarb 80 DP @ 400 ml/ha and indoxacarb 14.5 SC @ 500 ml/ha were next in order of yield. And also indicated that new molecules of insecticides as seed dressers as well as foliar sprays did not have any detrimental effect on natural enemies of soybean ecosystem.

  221. Prabhjot Kaur, Kavita Marriya and Radha Kashyap

    Lean has become a buzz topic in today’s arena of competition. Looking at the increasing ability of lean to provide answers to the problem of global warming, this study was planned with the aim to comparatively assess the environmental performance among lean and non-lean initiated apparel units of National Capital Region (India) in terms of environment performance indicator ‘Carbon footprint’. Apparel units were selected using inclusion or exclusion criteria from the member list of Apparel Export Promotion Council, Gurgaon, India. Carbon footprint emission sources were identified and calculations were done as per the standards of ISO- 14064-1 and Green house gas Protocol under Scope I and II emissions. The results revealed that the lean initiated apparel units had significantly lower carbon foot print in comparison to non- lean initiated units. Calculation of carbon footprint in this study is a valuable initiative towards reducing climate change impact.

  222. Padmini, T., Karpagavalli, B., Vijayalakshmi, R. and Jesupriya Poornakala, S.

    Fruits and vegetables are valued for not only the nutrients but also for the nutraceuticals like antioxidants in them. They are the most important dietary sources of nutraceuticals that are valued for preventing lifestyle diseases like cancer, diabetes and cardiovascular disease. Such foods should be cooked/processed in a way to retain the goodness of nutraceuticals. Retention of antioxidants during cooking such as boiling, pressure cooking, microwave cooking, stir-frying and frying of vegetables was investigated. Fresh and cooked vegetables were analysed for ascorbic acid content (AA), total polyphenols (TP), total flavonoids (TF), tannin and total antioxidant activity by 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) and ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) assays. Results showed that the AA, TP, TF, tannin and antioxidant activities were affected by cooking methods, the retention varying among individual compounds. Boiling, pressure cooking and microwave cooking brought about appreciable reduction in AA, TP, TF, tannin and antioxidant activity in vegetables, while frying and stir-frying showed less losses. The highest antioxidant retention was observed in frying followed by stir-frying, microwave cooking, pressure cooking and boiling. The study indicated that short time heat treatments such as frying and stir-frying help to retain the antioxidant properties of vegetables.

  223. Monika Pandey, Arjun Shukla, Saket Mishra and Shivani Rai

    Zooplankton diversity is one of the most important ecological parameters in water quality assessment. Zooplankton is good indicator of the changes in water quality because they are strongly affected by environmental conditions and due to their short life cycle, these communities often respond quickly to environmental change and water quality. They occupy an intermediate link between phytoplankton and fish. Hence qualitative and quantitative studies of zooplanktons are of great importance. Zooplankton formed important quantitative component of net plankton of the four parts; Copepoda dominantly contributed to their abundance while Rotifera > Cladocera > Protozoan were sub-dominant groups. Samples were collected during January 2014 to December 2014 from three sampling sites of river Narmada. A total of 42 species were found in sampling stations. Among these, Copepods comprise of 14 species (33%), Rotifera of 12 species (29%), Cladocera of 9 species (21%) and 7 Protozoan species (17%). The study aims to conserve the zooplanktons which are declining day by day.

  224. Genesis Acaye, Julius, C. W. Odongo and David Ocan

    Different cultural packages were assessed to determine their effectiveness in controlling diamondback moth (DBM) infestation on Copenhagen market cabbage variety. ‘Neem leaf extract+tomatointercrop+manure+mulch’; ‘Tomato intercrop+manure+mulch’; and ‘Neem leafextract+manure+mulch’ treatments were compared with commercial pesticide i.e. dimethoate and unsprayed treatments (control). Field experiments laid in Randomized Complete Block Design (RCBD) with three replications were carried out from August to December 2013 and July to December 2014 at Koro and Bungatira Sub-counties, respectively, in Gulu district. There were significantly (P < 0.05) lower number of larvae infestation in plots treated with Dimethoate; and ‘Neem leaf extract+tomatointercrop+manure+mulch’ as compared to other treatments. Generally, ‘Neem leaf extract+tomatointercrop+manure+mulch’ treatment performed close to commercial dimethoate pesticide in the control of DBM. By adopting this package, farmers will reduce pesticide sprays targeting DBM pests and gain from higher yield and chemical free products, also extra money from the tomato intercrop.

  225. Dessy, Wee Lixuan Armanda, Charmaine Ann Celine Lloyd, Choy Weng Keong and Julia Gandhi

    Probiotics, due to their beneficial gut effects, are widely sold in combination with a variety of food products such as infant feeds and health beverages. An in-vitro study was carried out to test three commonly used Asian food supplements - brown rice (BR), white rice (WR), American ginseng (AG) and casein hydrolysate (CH) for their influence on the growth on three probiotic bacteria Lactobacillus acidophilus, Lactobacillus bulgaricus and Streptococcus thermophilus. The viable cell counts of the probiotics grown in the presence of 1.5% concentrations of the food supplements were plotted against time for 20 hours and were compared with that of a known prebiotic Inulin (PI) and a growth control (GC). No significant variation in growth data was observed on L.acidophilus when grown in the presence of BR, WR, G and CH. An inhibitory effect on S.thermophilus could be observed only with BR and PI. Supplement AG had an inhibitory effect on L.bulgaricus, whereas, PI, CH and BR improved its growth performance. This study reflects the need to study the survival rate of probiotic strains in the presence of combination ingredients in health food, as some of them might reduce or help to enhance the probiotic potential of the final marketed product.

  226. Kirti M. Patil and Pandurang B. Mohite

    The investigations were carried out to study the efficacy of entomopathogenic agents against third instar larvae of Plutella xylostalla (L.) under laboratory conditions. The experiment was laid out in a complete randomized block design with 9 treatments replicated three times. The treatments comprised of M. anisopliae @ 2g/L, M. anisopliae @ 4g/L, M. anisopliae @ 6g/L, B. bassiana @ 2g/L, B. bassiana @ 4g/L, B. bassiana @ 6g/L, H. indica @ 100 IJs/L, S. carpocapsae @100 IJs/L and untreated control. Among the various entomopathogenic agents tested for their efficacy against third instar larvae revealed that B. bassiana @ 6g/L was found to be most effective. The treatment with M. anisopliae @ 6g/L was next best treatment in order of their efficacy. Remaining treatments were equally effective. The per cent larval mortality recorded was 78.99 and 67.79 per cent against third instar larvae of P. xylostella.

  227. Arjun Shukla, Saket Mishra and Shivani Rai

    A pioneering study was conducted to reveal the spider diversity in surroundings of river Narmada in central India. The objectives of the present study were to explore the diversity and abundance of spider fauna at different habitats. In total 26 species of spiders belonging to 10 families were observed. Thus family Araneidae was the most dominant family exploring 35% of species. The Narmada Valley area is home to several species rich endemic flora and harbors different species of fauna. The area prevail humid and moderate rainfall and climate. The high species diversity of spiders in river Narmada surrounding can be attributed to the high diversity of plants and insects.

  228. AbdElgadir, M.

    In this paper, the utilization and potential effect of natural medicinal plants as antioxidant and antimicrobial in meat is reviewed. Lipid oxidation and microbial are well-known as the main causes of quality loss in meat and its products. Lipid oxidation occurs due to generation of free radicals reactive oxygen species (ROS) and reactive nitrogen species (RNS) from fractions of both lipid and protein. However, different bacteria such as mesophile, psychrotrophic, psychrophile and thermophile are the most types that able to survive under various processing conditions of meat and its products causing spoilage of these products. The presence of natural antioxidants and antimicrobials in some medicinal plants are considered as the major constituents that could be used successfully in meat and its products to inhibit both oxidation and microbial deterioration leading to safer meat with better shelf life.

  229. Rewaida Abdel-Gaber, Fathy Abdel-Ghaffar and Abdel-Rahman Bashtar

    Members of superfamily Lepocreadioidea are of considerable interest biologically as they comprise important groups of worms in range of marine habitats. In the present study, morphological characterization of Proenenterum myripristiae (Family: Lepocreadiidae), a new digenetic trematode infecting the intestine of Pinecone soldierfish Myripristismurdjan, was described using light microscopy for the first time from Coasts of Red Sea at Hurghada City, Egypt. Fish samples were trapped alive during the period of August 2014–May 2015 and necropsied for any helminth parasites. Out of 50, examined fish specimens, only 16 (32.0%) were found to be naturally infected. The large-sized fish reaching ˃30 cm and ˃110 g were more intensively infected than the smaller ones. The present species has all the characteristic features of the genus Proenenterum and characterized by elongated body with anterior pointed and posterior broad ends, two well-developed muscular suckers with ventral larger than oral one, caeca united posteriorly to form cyclocoel, two lobed testes, cirrus sac largely pre-acetabular, lobed ovary, vitelline fields reach to the ventral sucker and excretory vesicle is I-shaped. The present species morphology resembles the previous recorded species from Beryciformes, but with less dimensions of different body parts. Molecular characterization based on 28S large subunit ribosomal DNA gene was done to confirm the obtained morphological and morphometric results. A preliminary genetic comparison between LSU rDNA of this parasite and other species of Lepocreadioidea places the present specimen as a putative sister taxon to P. ericotylum and P. isocotylum.

  230. Muneesh Kumar and Mansa Ram

    Heavy metals are a major problem because they are toxic and tend to accumulate in living organisms. This study was carried out with the aims of studying on histopathology of Zn(SO4) toxicity on gill and liver tissues of catfish Clarias batrachus within the period of 96 h. Totally, 140 fishes with mean weight 60 ± 10 g were stocked in 12 aquariums with capacity of 200 L water and divided in to 3 trails including control, 4 ppm and 8 ppm of Zn with 3 replicates. Tissue samples were fixed by bouin’s solution and sectioned in 7 μm based on histological regular method and stained with Hematoxylin and Eosin (H & E) method for microscopic study within the period of 96 h. Results showed some damaged such as hyperplasia, telangiectasis and edema, necrosis of second filaments, jerky movement, aneurism, hyperaemia and fusion of second filaments in gills; and cell atrophy, necrosis, fatty degeneration, hyperaemia and bile stagnation at different treatments in comparison with control. Gill and liver tissue damages were severed with the increase of Zn concentration and days. Therefore, Zn had acute toxicity effects on gill and liver tissues in Catfish at 4 and 8 ppm concentrations.

  231. Jayashree, G. V. and FarhathKhanum

    Patulin is one of the most evasively considered yet extensively studied mycotoxins in apple juice. This survey on the presence of the mycotoxin-patulin, was conducted from 2013-2014 on commercial apple products which were purchased from the supermarkets and retail shops in Mysore. In this study, a total of 42 samples of apple products were analysed for patulin content, including apple juices, apple-based baby foods, apple-based jam, and mixed fruit juices. 38 samples had patulin below detectable limits. Total 4 samples were higher than 50µg/L that had patulin concentrations ranging between 85.32-877µg/l respectively. The results of this study indicate apple juices, apple-based baby foods and mixed fruit juice had shown less detectable patulin contamination. The low incidence of patulin in Mysore city commercial apple products indicate that the quality control of the industry highly standards.

  232. Chakraborty, S. and Mondal, P.

    Pulses (grain legumes) are the second most important group of crops worldwide. Globally, 840 million people are under nourished mainly on account of inadequate intake of proteins, vitamins and minerals in their diets. Under stored conditions , pulses suffer maximum grain loss due to dreaded stored grain bruchid pests. Studies on the biology of pulse beetle Callosobruchus chinensis (Linn) (Coleoptera: Bruchidae) on the stored cowpea revealed that the insect completed six generations from April to October. The total developmental period of bruchid was 33 days during July- August while it was 37.3 days during April- May. On average duration of incubation period was 7.13±0.34 and 6.04±0.78 while larval + pupal period was 28.51± 2.06 and 28.12±2.08days in two successive generations. The adult life span for male was 4.76±0.64 days and 6.01±0.13 where as for female 8.36±0.12 and 9.13±0.09 days. The total life span of male and female was 34.24±2.16 days in average. The pre- oviposition, oviposition and post- oviposition periods were 6.36±0.36 hours, 4.21±0.16 days and 4.15±0.42 days, respectively in first generation while these parameters recorded as 5.36±0.16 hours, 5.75±0.64 days and 4.69±0.57 days, respectively in second generation. The average eggs laid by female was 96.4 and 102 while hatchability of eggs recorded as 92% and 95.5% and sex ratio of male and female was 1: 1.04 and 1:1.12 in two successive generations.

  233. Dr. Sunita R. Paradkar, Dr. Swati Pardhi, Dr. L. D. Lanjewar, Dr. Sandip Vaidya and Dr. Danga S. K.

    Ageing is the natural degenerative last phase of human being. In old age Vata dosha remaining the dominant factor in carrying out various physiological activities if not taken care of by adopting in required life style and dietary habits then it induces fasten degenerative process especially in already immune compromised person. Neurological disorders need greater attention as the age advances. Many neurological disorders such as Dementia, neuromuscular disorders (Paralysis) affect the geriatric population. Stroke is medical emergency. It is also known as brain Attack. Sometimes referred to by the older term cerebrovascular accident (CVA) is the rapid loss of brain function due to disturbance in the blood supply to the brain. At age 80, brain blood flow decreases by 20-28% & this parallels a decline in a cerebral metabolic rate. In addition, increase in cerebro Vascular resistance with cerebral arteriosclerosis, vessel fibrosis & endothelial involution is seen with ageing. Stroke is a disease of middle aged & elderly individuals. In elderly the common cause of stroke is atherosclerosis (hardening of arteries). Plaque made of fat cholesterol, Calcium, & other substances builds up in the arteries. It is one of the third most common causes of death in the developed world after cancer & IHD.

  234. Swathi, G., Durga Rani, CH.V., Jamal-Oddin, Arun Prem Kumar, N., Vanisri, S., Sheshu Madhav, M., Sundaram, R.M. Ranjith Kumar, N., Laha, M. S., Krishnam Raju S., Bhuvaneshwari, V. and Satyanarayana, P.V.

    The present study focus on developing new Bacterial Blight resistant rice lines, using markers assisted backcrossing (MABC). A total of 536 SSR markers covering all / distributed throughout the 12 rice chromosomes were screened between the two parents for polymorphism, out of which 81 markers were found to polymorphic and all the 81 markers were screened in the breeding population. For each backcross generation of JGL1798/B95-1, the confirmed plants were screened with 81 polymorphic markers distributed on 12 chromosomes. From BC1F1 generation, two plants P28 and P44 with highest recipient alleles were chosen for the further backcrossing. From BC2F1 plants with the recipient alleles were selfed to produce BC2F2 and In BC2F2, fifty two plants were analyzed through phenotypic assays with different BLB cultures at two locations west Godavari and ARI Hyderabad. Five BC2F2 progenies possessing two BLB resistance genes in homozygous condition (xa13xa13Xa21Xa21) showed BLB resistance along with Jagitial Sannalu Characteristics. These five plants were chosen as the breeding lines for result of Bacterial Blight introgression.

  235. Manjare, S. A.

    The present attempt has made to study the diversity of zooplankton with special reference to quality and quantity from vadgaon freshwater reservoir from Kolhapur district of Maharashtra, India. The study revealed that 16 species of zooplankton were noted belonging to 4 groups namely, rotifers, cladocers, copepodes and ostracods. Qualitatively, roifers and cladocers were observed dominant while quantitatively rotifers were dominant. All four groups have shown monthly variation during both the years and noted lower during monsoon season while higher during winter as well as summer season. Cladoceran group was an only exhibited its presence throughout the study period. Based on the present investigation it can be concluded that the water from the reservoir is clear and pollution free.

  236. Lilia-Baby, Suman, K. T., Krishnan, S. and Indira, V.

    In a rapidly changing world, with altered food habits and stressful life styles, consumers are demanding nutraceutical foods that contain basic nutritional properties with additional health benefits. Resistant starch is defined as the total amount of starch and the products of starch degradation that resists digestion in the small intestine. Resistant starch (RS) is one of the most abundant dietary sources of non-digestible carbohydrates and has a number of physiological effects beneficial for health. Starches that were able to resist the digestion will arrive at the colon where they will be fermented by the gut microbiota, producing a variety of products which include short chain fatty acids that can provide a range of physiological benefits. Resistant starch positively influences the functioning of the digestive tract, microbial flora, the blood cholesterol level and assists in the control of diabetes. This review analyzes the physiological effects of resistant starch consumption.

  237. Priyanka Shivshankar Kannurkar

    In the digital world copyright protection and authentication have become more significant, in order to achieve this digital different watermarking techniques are introduced for the security. We propose an algorithm in wavelet domain using wavelet transformation for a digital invisible watermarking is to embedded into a QR code image. In our method we embed a binary image logo considered as watermark embedded into one of selected wavelet subband. The experimental results show that our method has more robustness to attacks in different considerations and it can achieve a viable copyright protection and authentication.

  238. Muhammad Saad, Dr. Hajira Tahir and Fakhra Shaheen

    The current studies emphasises the synthesis of SnO-CoO nanocomposites by bottom up approach adopting sol gel method. These nano particles were effectively employed as nano adsorbent for the treatment of tartrazine (TR) dye assisted simulated waste water under the influence of variable conditions to achieve best adsorption capacity. The effect of adsorbent amount, adsorbate concentration, stay time and pHpzc were studied. Adsorption isotherm models of Langmuir, Freundlich, Dubinin Radushkevich and Temkin were also employed to check the feasibility of the adsorption process. Adsorption capacities ‘KF’ of the adsorbent were determined at 298K, 313K and 323K respectively. Thermodynamic studies were conducted and the values of ∆Ho and ∆So were found to be 3113.32 J. mole-1 and 56.712 J.mole-1K-1 respectively. The spontaneity of adsorption process was affirmed by ∆Go values. The experimental data was also fitted to various kinetic equations to determine rate constant and order of the reaction like pseudo first order and pseudo second order, intraparticles diffusion model, Boyd’s kinetics model and Elovich model. The adsorption data represent pseudo second order kinetics is followed with the major mode mass transfer mode to be diffusion. The surface morphology of nanocomposites was studied by SEM and FTIR techniques. Such recycling methods effectively implemented at industrial scale and therefore assess the challenges posed by them in the environment and public health.

  239. Rabab S. Youssef, Abd El Fattah A. Mahmoud, El – Mossalamy, S. M. and Makram, N.

    Sound absorbing materials can be used to attenuate sound travelling in ducts. Typically, sound absorbing materials are used to line the internal surfaces of ductwork or are used in splitters in packaged attenuators. A duct system was constructed to test various materials such as rockwool, polyurethane and polyisoprene where the expansion chamber that filled with these materials has different diameters 16, 20 and 24 cm. The acoustical parameter that evaluates the effectiveness of these materials are the sound attenuation, which can easily be measured and give a general idea of the frequency response of the silencer. In this study, the selective acoustic attenuation achieved through the use of different thicknesses of the material means that an innovative technique can be adopted for the design and construction of sound mufflers.

  240. Effects of crack on modal frequency of cantilever beam

    Finite Element Method is used to determine the natural frequency of beam whereas the experimentation is performed using Fast Fourier Transform analyser. In experimentation, cantilever beam with crack are considered. The experimental results are validated with the results of FEM software. This formulation can be extended for various boundary conditions as well as varying cross sectional areas. A crack in a structural member introduces local flexibility that would affect vibration response of the structure. i.e., a crack causes a reduction in the stiffness and an increase in the damping of the structure. These changes of physical properties cause a reduction in the natural frequencies and a deviation in the mode shape. Therefore it is possible to predict the crack depth and crack location by measuring changes in the vibration parameters. Changes in the natural frequencies are more often considered than deviation of mode shapes, since frequencies can be measured more easily than mode shapes, and they are less seriously affected by experimental errors. This property may be used to detect existence of a crack together with its location and depth in the structural member. In this analysis the natural frequencies obtained from experimental analysis and finite element analysis are used to obtain the crack location and crack depth.

  241. Pooja Chaudhary, Abhishek Bharadwaj, Thiruthara Pappu Baburaj, Amir Chand Bajaj, Medha Kapoor, Laxmi Prabha Singh, Rajinder Kumar Gupta, Usha Panjwani and Shashi Bala Singh

    Benefits of submaximal exercise in maintaining good health and in prevention of diseases are well known. However, there is conflict of studies reporting interaction between submaximal exercise and pro-oxidant/antioxidant balance. Generation of excess free radicals is known to impair many physiological and biochemical functions resulting in overall performance decrement. Therefore to address this issue, various oxidative stress parameters were estimated in plasma samples of unacclimatized human participants who were challenged with submaximal exercise accompanied with mild dehydration of 2% body weight at 450C in human climatic chamber. Exposure of unacclimatized human volunteers to submaximal exercise and dehydration at 450C in human climatic chamber resulted in significant increase in various oxidative parameters. Malondialdehyde, marker of lipid peroxidation was significantly increased (from 0.74±0.08 µmol/l to 1.01±0.11 µmol/l, p<0.001) post exercise. Similarly, a significant increase in hydroperoxide (p<0.001) and advanced oxidation protein products (p<0.01) was also observed. Though there was a significant increase in antioxidant level (GSH; p<0.001), the overall ratio of GSH/GSSG decreased implicating an increased oxidative stress. Submaximal exercise accompanied with mild dehydration in heat is associated with increased oxidative stress in unacclimatized human subjects.

  242. Gianfranco Borrelli, Giovanna Avellis and Stefania Pinnelli

    The Living Labs approach represents a new way to address the research activities where innovations, such as new services, products or application enhancements, are validated in empirical environments within specific regional contexts. Apulia Region decided to foster this approach in Apulian ICT Living Labs and the follow-up programme Living Labs Smart Puglia 2020 to facilitate the growth and the development of Apulia SMEs specialized in the Information and Communications Technology (ICT) field, digital services and contents implementing the Apulian ICT Living Labs as a regional policy to improve ICT industry and services in the region. This paper introduces the Living Lab approach and stresses its key principles. It aims to describe how this approach has been implemented in two projects, namely ASTRO and ROBIN, which provide a humanoid robot for autism spectrum disorders (ASD) and dyslexia. The developed advanced tools for education and rehabilitation, are useful in terms of socialization of children, reducing stress due to emotional inference. Fundamental role of end users in the co-design of the learning module through computer interaction between children and robot is underlined. The module also includes a platform of learning management system, based on use of Tablet, PC, Smartphone and robotic multimedia systems for individual learning and for the contents production aimed at students with learning disabilities, in particular students with dyslexia.

  243. Krimech, F., Sayouri, S., Zouhairi, M., El ghadraoui, El. and Elbasset, A.

    In this work, barium iron niobate, Ba (Fe1/2Nb1/2) O3 powder has been successfully synthesized by the sol-gel method. The formation of the perovskite structure of BFN was followed with the help of X-ray diffraction (XRD), and has shown a crystallite size at a nanometric scale. The pure perovskite phase was obtained at relatively low temperature (900°C /8 h) compared to the conventional solid-state reaction. Moreover, dielectric measurements showed strong relaxation and diffuse phenomena, and a maximum of the dielectric permittivity at a temperature lower than those reported in the literature, together with resonance phenomenon at high frequency values. Impedance parameters were extracted from the permittivity analysis and enabled us in particular, to determine the coefficient charge of the sample.

  244. Gogo, Tamuno-Omie

    This research work is headed towards deriving a relation between the number of teams and the total matches played in the entire season. The method uses the graphical approach using excels spread sheet and the diagonal square matrix. For league planners, it is relationships that will enable them plan the league effectively.

  245. Switched boost inverter for standalone dc Nanogrid applications in power systems

    Switched boost inverter (SBI) is a single-stage power converter derived from Inverse Watkins Johnson topology. Unlike the traditional buck-type voltage source inverter (VSI), the SBI can produce an ac output voltage that is either greater or less than the available dc input voltage. Also, the SBI exhibits better electromagnetic interference noise immunity when compared to the VSI, which enables compact design of the power converter. Another advantage of SBI is that it can supply both dc and ac loads simultaneously from a single dc input. These features make the SBI suitable for dc nanogrid applications. In this paper, the SBI is proposed as a power electronic interface in dc nanogrid. The structure and advantages of the proposed SBI-based nanogrid are discussed in detail. This paper also presents a dq synchronous reference-frame-based controller for SBI, which regulates both dc and ac bus voltages of the nanogrid to their respective reference values under steady state as well as under dynamic load variation in the nanogrid.

  246. Hiba Abdalla Mahgoub

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are a large group of organic pollutants with related to their structures and properties. Strong interest in the field of PAHs is mainly due to the large scale of environmental contamination and the mutagenic and carcinogenic activity of these pollutants which proved in many studies. Foodstuffs can be contaminated by PAHs that are present in air, soil and water or are formed during food processing and cooking. Extraction procedure is a key factor that affects the analysis of PAHs present and it is the most time consuming step during analysis. Choosing the suitable and effective extraction method for the right application requires a consideration of the features of the matrix and of the correct analytes. Suitable methods for extracting PAHs from different food samples have been highlighted in this review; the aim is to provide an overview of current knowledge and information in order to assess the need for further analysis and quantification of these toxic compounds in food.

  247. Separation of Ethanol Water by Hybrid Distillation Pervaporation System

    As separation techniques, pervaporation occupies a special place in the chemical industry. It is the only membrane process primarily used to purify the chemicals. Pervaporation, in its simplest form, is an energy efficient combination of membrane permeation and evaporation. Separation of the alcohol-water mixture by hybrid distillation pervaporation has received increasing attention in industry. Normally Conventionally azeotropic distillation is used to remove the water from an azeotropic ethanol/water mixture. The aim of this paper is to show the comparative study of pervaporation over a conventional azeotropic distillation for the separation of ethanol water mixture. It shows how pervaporation is better option over a conventional method due to its various factors like lower operating costs resulted from lower energy consumption, reduced waste water treatment and the absence of a chemical entrainer, reduction in capital cost and operating cost. All this aspects are pushing the development and adoption of new better technology over a conventional one. Despite the fact for the adoption of new technology like pervaporation, chemical engineers will need all of their skills to select the very best application and maximize the benefits to their plant.

  248. Orooba Ismaeel Ibraheem Al-Farraji

    The new algorithm based on substitution cipher and transposition cipher, we replace the plaintext by another characters but in new method based on delete some bits from plaintext after convert it in binary code and put this bits in another place in plain text And traced back to the text, the algorithm is simple and use two keys.

  249. Seismic control of structures using shape memory alloys

    There has been an increase in the use of concentrically braced frames, damage during past sesmic effects suggests that braced systems may perform poor due to limited ductility and energy dissipation, failure in the connection between the braces and the frame and asymmetric in tension and compression. One way of improving the performance of CBF systems in terms of limiting inter story drifts is the use of smart materials in the bracing system. Shape Memory Alloys (SMAs) are a novel functional material which can exhibit little residual strains under cycles of loading and unloading even after passing the yield zone. They have the ability to remember a predetermined shape even after severe deformations which enable them to be widely used in numerous applications in the area of smart materials or intelligent materials. In this study, the behaviour of steel braced frames and SMA braced frames are compared by performing time history analysis. The effect on displacement and stress distribution was analyzed and discussed. SMAs possess properties which are not present in materials earlier utilized in engineering practice. Accordingly, their use opens the possibility of designing and proposing innovative commercial products based on their unique characteristics.

  250. Classification of result analysis for recognition image using preceptron model & text using adaptive resonance theory 1 algorithmic approaches

    In this paper works focuses of an application that performs handwritten English character recognition in hand and an image visible by the human eye. The objective of this type of character recognition is a process which is used to recognition the pattern to make the use of visual capabilities to extract handwritten English character and image recognition is taken to further process by preprocessing technique which is based on the recognition with the help of Adaptive Resonance Theory.

  251. Aditi Acharya and Dr. Om Prakash Gupta

    The study investigated the perception of job satisfaction among the executives of Bhilai Steel Plant, a public sector employer in Indian steel industry. Quantitative research design was used to investigate the magnitude of job satisfaction through survey technique. In all, 548 questionnaires were answered in full in which there were 445 males and 103 females. The data collected was analyzed using Microsoft Excel and R. Multiple regression analysis and Pearson Product Moment Correlation Coefficient were used to examine the relationship between job satisfaction and the independent variables. The findings highlighted the significance of working conditions, interpersonal relations with peers and seniors, nature of work, level of salary and opportunity to participate in organizational decision making for job satisfaction of officers. The demographic variables of gender, age group and tenure in the organization had no noticeable impact on job satisfaction.

  252. Vijayan, S. N. and Sendhil Kumar, S.

    Refrigerated air dryers are basically a refrigeration system which is used to remove water vapor from compressed air. Refrigerator, heat exchanging unit are to be placed in a canopy which is affected by static and dynamic stresses acting on it. In this paper the load carrying capacity of canopy base has been analyzed using finite element analysis method with various approaches for the same loading condition. From the analysis results it is concluded that the deformation value of the canopy base varies with respect to overall weight of the refrigerated air dryer and thickness of base plate. By introducing circular disc on the bottom of the canopy, base can obtain high withstanding capacity of canopy base comparing with other two approaches.

  253. Sathiaseelan, P. and Arulselvan, S.

    This experimental project was to study the structural behavior of a scaled three bay four storey RCC frame with brick infill in the central bay under cyclic loading. Normally brick infill contributes as shear wall up to failure and subject to diagonal failure. An attempt was made to extend the reinforcement from the columns of the frame to the brick layers and embed with concrete to form a monolithic RCC strip to strengthen the interface of infill walls and RCC frame and thereby diagonal cracks were prevented in the infill. The frame was subjected to cyclic loading to stimulate the earthquake. The effect of infill on load carrying capacity, deflection and energy dissipation were investigated. The crack pattern showed that the potentially adverse effect of the infill was nullified and the frame was ductile in nature and dissipated high energy at the plastic stage.

  254. Sandeep Shrivastava, Deepak Uttam and Dharmveer Singh Rajpoot

    In Full- occluded vehicle only detection can perform, to detect the full-occluded vehicle evaluate the width of vehicle and evaluate the ratio of length and width of vehicle. Un-occluded vehicle is classified on predefined attribute. Partial occlude vehicle first detection is perform by using convexity, second resolving is performed by intersecting line which separate the occluded object into individual part, at last classified the resolved object according to the predefined attributes.

  255. Ahmad Hanafie, Hammada Abbas, Lawalenna Samang and Sumarni Hamid

    This study was aimed at assessing; the level of ergonomic values of public utility vehicles from the side of anthropometry, the level of ergonomics public transport from the side of anthropometry, and reviewing QFD (quality function deployment) the priority of the technical dimension based on the attributes of vehicles utilities and facilities of the public transport. Data collection is done by measuring the level of interest, satisfaction, and future expectations. Anthropometric data and the level of improvement priority are examined by modifying GFD matrix. Ergonomic level results presented that 95% of users satisfied, safe, and comfortable. Vehicles utility and load-unloading facilities of public transport with a confidence level of 95% shows the anthropometric dimensions; hangar doors 104.78 cm high, 49.53 cm tall ladder first, second ladder 49.53 cm high, 24.25 cm wide staircase, seat width of 36.21 cm, 44.45 cm seat height, backrest height 27.08 cm, length seat 224.4 cm. QFD assessment based on the attribute utility Cohen’s scale and load-unloading facilities of the vehicles representing the order of improvement priorities; (1) facilities stop, (2) material seat, (3) access to up / down, (4) high chairs, (5) the sidewalk, (6) street lighting, (7) high-hangar door, (8) the quality of material , (9) air circulation, (10) the lighting in the room, (11) traffic signs.

  256. Belilew Molla

    Alternative assessment methods under proper conditions significantly improve learners’ language skills. However, under improper practices alternative assessment methods can be the vehicle of dependency, inequality of individual’s contributions to the task and unfair grading. The subjects of the study were 11 teachers and 95 students. The study was designed to see the extent of teachers’ use of alternative assessment methods in EFL classrooms; and to examine problems in using alternative assessment methods in Dilla University. To gather data for the study, questionnaire and interview were used. The result showed that EFL teachers use a limited number of alternative assessment methods from many assessment tools that can be made use of in language classes. Teachers reported that class size, teaching different courses in multiple sections, lack of clear guidelines, and other responsibilities and lack of agreement to use similar assessment tools among teachers teaching the same course are the main factors that hindered them from properly practicing alternative assessment methods. Students in their parts listed lack of explicit criteria of assessment, lack of transparency in marking that leads to unfair grading, lack of feedback and excessive tasks that are mainly given in groups for a course as major problems they have perceived in their teachers’ use of alternative assessment methods. Lack of organization and commitment of teachers in selecting assessment tools and in assessing students’ work were also problems observed by students. As to the students, teachers’ use of alternative assessment methods encouraged dependency of students on others’ effort and work.

  257. Dr. John Egharevba and Osayande Iyobo Eric

    The quest for the effective methods of teaching social studies in Nigerian schools is a continuous one. This research is designed to investigate the effects of integrated group based mastery learning Approach in the teaching of social studies in Junior Secondary Schools in Benin Metropolis. The problem of learners’ poor performance and underachievement in social studies has been a major issues of concern and interest in the Nigeria educational sector. Two research questions were raised with two corresponding hypotheses to guide the study. A quasi-experimental design of non-equivalent control group was adopted. Two mixed secondary schools were purposively selected from Benin City, out of which, two in-tact classes were selected. The instrument used for the data collection was the Social Studies Achievement Test (SSAT). The data collected were analyzed using t-test of independent sample. The result showed that there was a significant effect of treatment on social studies students achievement. This means that the integrated group based mastery learning model was more effective than the traditional expository method. It is recommended that through in-service training, seminars or other forms of on-the-job training to employ mastery learning models.

  258. Joseph, Rugai and Joy-Telu Hamiliton - Ekeke

    The importance of healthful school environment in the enhancement of effective teaching and learning cannot be overemphasized. It is a fact that adequate physical structures in a school not only enhance greatly the efficiency and proficiency of teachers but also facilitate good understanding and comprehension on the part of the learners. Thus, a good and healthful school environment enhances effective learning, imperative for the realization of educational objectives and, therefore, economic growth and development and social transformation of the society. Based on this, this paper considers: the concepts of teaching and learning, healthful school environment, and the relationship between healthful school environment and effective teaching and learning. It then recommends that professional educational planners should be involved in school planning; that educational policies should not be mated up with political interests; and that non-government organisations should assist the government to provide adequate structures for effective teaching and learning.

  259. Dr. Meghna Sharma and Prachi Trivedi

    Turn the tap off while brushing your teeth. Switch the lights off while walking out of the room. Recycle, reuse and reduce. Make donations and participate in worthy causes. Think of various ways of how you can make daily contributions to lessen the carbon footprints and making this planet a better place to live. Today, it is everyone’s responsibility to save the environment and make it sustainable for our coming generations. It is considered as everyone’s duty to act in a socially responsible way. And today’s consumers are of the view that corporations and business firms are not an exception. CSR is also known as Conscious Capitalism and Corporate Citizenship. Now, the question arises whether consumers actually care about corporate citizenship and are willing to pay extra cost when it comes to actual buying? A study done by 2004 Cone Corporate Citizenship stated that about 90% of the people favour to switching over to the brands and products that have a good corporate citizenship reputation (2004 Cone Corporate Citizenship Study). Another survey by Nielson on CSR found out that most of the global respondents are willing to pay a premium for the products and services that comes from socially and environmentally responsible company (Nielson Global Survey). This paper examines how Green Marketing is a new tool to CSR. How companies are taking Green Marketing as a Social Initiative. Companies are making strategies that help save the environment and building their image as an eco-friendly company. Is it a strategic CSR? Or Are they really engaged in fulfilling their social responsibility? A take on Strategic CSR of companies by adopting Green Marketing is the main discussion of this paper.

  260. Imaji Zekeri Ojonumiache Sule, Dr. Yahya Saleh Ibrahim and Dr. Tijjani Halliru

    This paper examines the interplay between insurgency and counter-insurgency elements within north-eastern Nigeria as a result of the activities of Boko Haram insurgents that emerged since 2002 with the sole aim of implementing the Islamic Sharia in the country. Other factors also assist in the emergence of the Islamic fanatism such as socio-economic and political factor. We examined the effectiveness of security force operations as the main strategy adopted to counter the insurgent group and its effectiveness or otherwise. Qualitative method of data collection was adopted which includes interview of stake holders, use of journal materials, newspapers government reports and internets also formed sources of data collection as well. The findings of this study shows that the military approach adopted in countering the insurgents has been ineffective due to poor performance of the military arising from obsolete arms, inadequate training and corruption within the military and the country as a whole. This paper then went on to recommend the alternative strategies such as carrot and stick and winning hearts and minds through human security approach.

  261. Julia Situma

    One of the main objectives of the secondary school 8-4-4 system in Kenya is to prepare students for self-reliance, further training and further education. Christian Religious Education in secondary schools in Kenya occupies a key position in the curriculum. This is so because it enables the learners to integrate all subjects of the curriculum into a more mature view of themselves, their relationships with their environment, both physical and cultural, their fellow human beings and God. The purpose of the study was to establish factors that challenge use of audiovisual resources for teaching Christian Religious Education (CRE) in Kimilili Division, Bungoma County in Kenya. Based on the study, this paper examines the level of availability and use of audiovisual resources for teaching CRE in the schools selected for study in the area. The study adopted a survey research design. Simple random sampling was used to select both CRE teachers and students who participated in the study while stratified sampling was used to select the schools that participated in the study. The sample was drawn from secondary schools in Kimilili Division of Bungoma County in Kenya. The sample population was 266 subjects comprising 242 CRE students and 24 CRE teachers in the Division. The instruments used for data collection were questionnaires and observation schedules. The study used two sets of questionnaires; one for CRE teachers and another for students. Data collected was quantitatively analyzed by descriptive statistics and presented using tables and graphs. It was discovered that the greatest challenge to the teaching of CRE using audiovisual resources is the unavailability of audiovisual resources in schools in Kimilili Division. Consequently, it was recommended that curriculum planners and schools should endeavour to avail audiovisual resources to schools for teaching CRE.

  262. A pragmatic analysis of commissives in some selected American political texts

    The four commissive acts (promise, threat, guarantee, pledge) are found in most languages. They are considered as important acts in maintaining the social relationships between individuals in any society. These acts can be performed in different fields of life, such as: social, religion, and political relationships, whether they can be used explicitly or implicitly. But, sometimes, an ambiguity may arise in applying the previous acts in political speeches because these acts happened between the presidents and their peoples. Thus, in order to clarify this ambiguity, the best way is to analyze the text pragmatically. This paper aims to analyze specific commissive acts (promise, threat, guarantee and pledge) in Some Selected American Political Speeches. A language studies the speeches of four American presidents: George Bush, Bill Clinton, George W. Bush and Baraq Obama. This study deals with the problem of applying the Speech Acts Theory in political speeches. It also attempts to reveal the overlapping of these acts in political speeches. In order to suit the objective of the work, this study attempts to modify John Searle's Felicity Conditions and semantic rules of promise for the acts of threatening, guaranteeing and pledging by extracting some semantic rules for the Speech Act of threatening, guaranteeing and pledging and taking into account the general framework that is proposed by John Searle. This study also proposes a specific classification for these acts, in order to overcome the overlapping and ambiguity.

  263. Preeti and Sunita Mishra

    Many student entering community colleges are referred to one or more levels of developmental education. Enrollment is the process through the student is reach their goals and regular student are more active then the part time of student. It should be noted that employment opportunities, which is a unique item on the career-community college survey and included in the chart, was the top enrollment reasons for attending these community college, with most percent of students indicating it was important or very important to their decision. The purpose of this paper is to analyze the percentage of enrollment of student in community college. The dataset was conducted in lucknow district of Eastern Uttar Pradesh. 80 sample was collected from the two community college by apply the purposive sampling techniques. Result indicate the percentage of skip the classes, reasons attending the community college, and what is the strength of student in community college.

  264. Ga. Dheebakaran, Jagannathan, R., Paulpandi, V. K. and Kokilavani, S.

    “Timely sowing results in half the production” is an important quote of rainfed agriculture and preparedness for that depends on how accurately we predict the monsoon. Rainfall is highly variable in both temporal and spatial dimension. The dependency of rainfall forecast can be increased by using higher resolution rainfall data in both space and time. The existing pre-monsoon sowing week of Tamil Nadu was calculated long back at Agro Climatic Zone level and which is only seven for entire Tamil Nadu state. In order to ascertain the impact of changing climate on the onset of monsoon, an attempt has been made at Tamil Nadu Agricultural University under UGC sponsored scheme “Revalidating premon soon sowing week with higher resolution for changing climate of Tamil Nadu”. To identify the shift in the rainy season and for fixing the pre-monsoon sowing week at block level, observed rainfall over the period from 1951 to 2010 has been utilized. Daily rainfall observed at 18 TNAU research stations, 47 locations from State Ground and Surface Water Data Centre and 700 locations from district level State Documentation department were utilized in this study. As these observed records are available only for the period from 1970-2011, the APHRODITE's gridded data sets of daily rainfall was utilized to fill the gaps from 1951 and also used the PET data sets from CRU-TS 3.1 monthly climatology for the present analysis. The agro-climatic variable viz., the length of growing period and pre-monsoon sowing week were estimated using Jeevananda Reddy’s 14-week moving average technique. To predict the shift over the 60 years period, four period analyses were made for each of the 30 years from 1951 leaving a decade behind for the subsequent analysis. The differences in the onset have been observed over these periods in Tamil Nadu and are more pronounced by an earlier onset in southern districts and delayed in coastal part of Tamil Nadu where North East Monsoon is the case.

  265. Dr. Moly Kuruvilla and Nisha, P.

    In the age of globalization, adolescent girls often struggle with certain specific challenges not experienced beforehand. Issues such as gender discrimination, eve teasing, alcoholism, drug abuse, trafficking, early marriage, adolescent pregnancy, rape and cybercrimes are quite rampant today. In order to understand various challenges of adolescent girls a study was conducted among the sample of 600 adolescent girls from 15 schools of Malappuram district in the state of Kerala. Analysis of the present study reveals that adolescent girls face many challenges related to gender role perception, conflict of emotions, safety issues, lack of role models, peer pressures, confusions regarding inter personal relationship, accepting bodily changes, menstrual hygiene and reproductive health, curiosity regarding sex and sexuality, choice of career, educational aspirations, gender discrimination and usage of ICT. Among these, safety issue is the most pertinent challenge faced by girls and other challenges follow them. The study highlighted the need to think about long term action plans with a feminist perspective for addressing these challenges with cooperation from every segment of the society.

  266. Impact of institutional credit on the farm economy in Karnataka, India

    The present study was conducted to examine the effects of institutional credit on cost, returns and profitability in the Tumkur district of Karnataka State during 2008-09. A sample of 120 respondents was selected in which sixty were the borrowers and sixty were non-borrowers the same area. Sample t-test was used to compare the production and income of beneficiaries. The analysis revealed that the income of beneficiary farm category was higher than that of non-beneficiaries. With credit for paddy, ragi, groundnut, pegionpea, arecanut and coconut was more compared to the non-beneficiaries and which showed a significant difference in yields except coconut yield. The cost and return structure of major crops, viz, paddy and ragi revealed that the total cost of cultivation was to Rs.12045.11 and 11715.84 per acre respectively on borrower farms compared to Rs. 9991.4 and 10056.44 per acre on non-borrowers farms. The net returns derived from paddy and groundnut were Rs. 16,124.33 and 14,809.88 (on borrower farms) and Rs.11, 132.22 and 8,771.34 (on non-borrower farms), respectively. Farm credit has positive impact on the per acre yield of crops under study and also on farmers income.

  267. Dr. ADEGBUYI, O. A., Dr. AJAGBE, M. A., Dr. KEHINDE, O. Joseph, ADEGBUYI Abimbola Abidemi and AKANDE, A. O.

    Branding according to empirical literature is the creation of three dimensional characters of a product. It is further described in terms of name, packaging, colours and symbols that help to differentiate the products from its rivals. And also helps the customers to develop a relationship with the product. The practice of product branding is very crucial in determining the degree of sales performance of business organisations. The purpose of this study is to find out the benefits of product branding and the impact on sales performance of manufacturing firms. This study adopts both secondary and primary sources of data collection to gather information. The primary source of data was collected through survey method with the use of structured questionnaires. The questionnaires were directed to 150 respondents who are members of staff of a Coca-Cola Company plant located in Lagos, Nigeria as well as consumers of a particular Coca-Cola brand. Secondary data was gathered from journals, conference articles, internet sources, textbooks and unpublished works. Linear regression was chosen as the method of statistical analysis. The linear regression was chosen because it works well with the Likert scale measurement style which was used to draw up the questionnaires. The study finds that product branding is very significant to improving sales performance of manufacturing firms. Hence decision makers in the manufacturing sector in Nigeria and elsewhere are advised to consider brandingas an essential ingredient to enhanced brand performance.

  268. Unpaid Women Worker as Disguised Exclusion: Investigating from Rural Varanasi

    Traditionally, men spend most of their time on tasks for which payment is received or tasks that are clearly within the realm of economic activity. However, while a large number of women work outside the home and are remunerated for the work they do, most women spend several hours doing work for which no payment is received. This seems as a disguised exclusion of rural household women from the mainstream of economy. The effort of the present paper is to only investigate this fact from the rural Varanasi in Eastern Uttar Pradesh of India.

  269. Pawan Kumar Singh

    Herbicide is just a category of pesticide. Pesticide is used to rid an area of unwanted pests while herbicide is used to get rid of unwanted plant life, like weeds, brush, unproductive bushes or trees, and other growth that takes nutrients away from crops and other useful plants. History shows that in industrialising countries in the past, including United States, Germany, Japan and South Korea, the same phenomena have occurred as workers have left agriculture and herbicides have been adopted. The objective of this research paper is to evaluate the relationship between use of herbicides and shortages of labour and cost effectiveness of herbicides in India after launching MGNREGA. Uses of herbicides are increasingly being adopted around the world as a substitute of weed management labour. Generally MGNREGA provides 100 day wage employment in a year to every rural household who is ready to do unskilled manual work. This unique feature of the programme has not only provides job to labour having no employment but also the labours working earlier in the agriculture fields. After coming of MGNREGA in 2006 Indian agriculture sector is suffering from two major problems that is shortage of labour and high wage rate. Therefore use of herbicides in India is being rapidly adopted. It is interesting to note that the real farm wages increased by 3.7 percent p.a. during 1990s compared to only 2.1 percent p.a. during 2000s and then rapidly rising by 6.8 percent p.a. during 2007-08 to 2011-12 in India. Due to MGNREGA raises the real wage rate of unskilled worker by 20 percent, create 70 million new work opportunities. FAO data shows that the use of herbicides has moved up from 2121.66 tonnes in the 2008 to 6334.98 tonnes in 2010. This shows use of herbicides has increased significantly after MGNREGA due to shortage of labour and cost effectiveness.

  270. Lingadevaru, D. C., Govindaraju, Jayakumar, P. D. and Govindaiah, S.

    Flood is a relatively high flow of water that overtops the natural and artificial banks in any of the reaches of a stream. When banks are overtopped, water spreads over flood plain and generally causes problem for inhabitants, crops and vegetation. The present study aims to estimate Flood hazard zonation for Thungabhadra and Hagari river sub catchments based on multi criteria assessment using remote sensing data (Fused data of Cartosat-1 PAN and Resourcesat-2 LISS-IV Mx images) in a GIS environment. The factors which are limited for the study are land use, slope, soil, Lith-Geom (Lithology-Geomorphology), drainage density, size of sub watershed and rainfall distribution. The weighted overlay analysis method is adopted to generate the Flood hazard zonation map. The resultant flood hazard zonation map of the study area depicts the total area is subjected to five categories such as very high hazard (17%), high hazard (32%), moderate hazard (30%), low hazard (14%) and very low hazard zones (7%). The results of this study can initiate appropriate measures to mitigate the probable flood hazard in the study area.

  271. Habil Otanga, John Ogembo and Jayne Mwangi

    The purpose of this study was to examine the prevalence of non-consensual sexual experiences and attitudes towards transactional and inter-generational sex among female students. Participants included 201 female secondary school students aged 15-25 in Kwale County, Kenya. Consistent with previous research, students were required to report self and others' experiences of non-consensual sexual experiences and personal attitudes towards transactional and inter-generational sex. Though most girls responded favourably towards self, they indicated that their friends experienced non-consensual sexual contact, both verbal and physical. This came in the form of colleagues blocking their way in doors and corridors, being fondled and even sexual intercourse with fellow students and teachers. Age was found to explain differences in reports of experiences and attitudes. Implications of the findings are discussed.

  272. The central arguments of critical realism and positivism approaches and an evaluation of their impact upon a proposed research

    This paper performs a comparative analysis of the Positivist and Critical Realist paradigms and investigates the impact of both on a proposed research study. An overview of each philosophy is provided in terms of their origins and applications and the core tenets of each are presented. Positivism and Critical Realism are then analysed collectively in order to highlight the strengths and weaknesses of each research philosophy. The impact of both Positivism and Critical Realism on a proposed research study is addressed with particular reference to how each philosophy would benefit the research outcome. Based on this discussion, the Positivist approach is chosen as the most suitable research philosophy for the present study given the scope and nature of the project and the phenomena being observed.

  273. Effect of Fertilizers, Biochar and Humic Acid on Soil Enzymes at Different Stages of Maize Growth

    A field study was carried out at college farm, College of Agriculture, Rajendranagar, Hyderabad, Andhra Pradesh during Kharif 2013 to find out the influence of humic acid and biochar on soil enzymes of maize rhizosphere at different stages. The experiment was laid out in a Randomized Block Design and replicated thrice with three factors comprised of factor-I (fertilizers- 100 % RDF and 75 % RDF), Factor-II (biochar levels- 0, 5 and 7.5 t ha-1) and Factor-III (humic acid levels of 0 and 30 kg ha-1). Dehydrogenase activity at 30 DAS was significantly higher the activity being 16.19 μg TPF g-1 soil day-1 with 75% NPK in combination with humic acid. While, at 60 DAS and harvest, significantly higher activity was noticed with biochar @ 5 t ha-1 along with 100 % NPK and 75% NPK respectively with the corresponding activities of 20.72 and 5.594 μg TPF g-1 soil day-1. Combined application of 75% NPK, 7.5 t ha-1 of biochar and 30 kg ha-1 of humic acid could result in a significantly higher acid phosphatase which was on par with recommended NPK along with biochar @ 7.5 t ha-1 at all the stages of assay. Alkaline phosphatase activity highest at 30 and 60 DAS (48.93 and 158.6 μg p-nitro phenol g-1 soil h-1) with 100 % NPK along with biochar @ 7.5 t ha-1, while at harvest stage higher activity (37.31 μg p-nitro phenol g-1 soil h-1) was shown by 75% NPK alone.

  274. Dr. K. Manivannan

    Kadar one of the aboriginal tribes of Tamil Nadu live in groubs in the Anamalai Hill region of the Coimbatore District. This hill is situated in Pollachi Taluk of Coimbatore District and is surrounded by Kerala State in the West and South and Udumalpet Taluk in the East. Etymologically the word Kadar derived from the Tamil word Kadu which means forest. The Kadars are those who reside in the forest territory and rely up on the forest area for their livelyhood requirements. In Tamil Nadu according to the census of India, the total population of Kadar was solely living in Coimbatore District, Chennai, Chengalpet, Villupuram, Salem and remaining persons are living in the districts of Tanjore, Erode and Vellore. As already noted Kadar are also found in Kerala. According to Parthas. Arathy, the Kadar are basically a food gathering tribe and they are non-vegetarians and eat mostly the same. The study of Socio Cultural background of the Kadar is both innevitable and new attempt. In social organization, the Kadar observes strict community endogamy and Widow remarriage is permissible within the family. The Kadar did not perform child marriage. The custom of working in father in law’s house for one year before marriage is prevalent among the Kattu Nayaks, Paliyans, Irular and Kadar etc.,

  275. Harpreet Kaur

    The launch of ‘Make in India’ campaign by the PM, Mr. Narendra Modi is going to uplift the poor performance of the manufacturing sector of India. The government of India has started taking various initiatives to provide ease of doing business in India to encourage the investors for the success of the campaign. The progress of the sector will accelerate the employment in India. The government has a target to create more than 100 million jobs by the end of 2022. Also, India is one of the countries with a big percentage of young population in the age-group of 15-59 years that further provides an initiative to the investors to invest in India. But the problem that arises is regarding equipping such a huge population of India with some sort of employable skills so that they get absorbed in the jobs. Although the government of India has started the ‘Skill India’ programme for this purpose, but there are various obstacles that can drag the performance of the campaign. This paper intends to focus on the challenges the Government of India can face in the way of providing skills to the labour of India in the coming years.





Rosane Cavalcante Fragoso, Brasil


Chief Scientific Officer and Head of a Research Group

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Hasan Ali Abed Al-Zu’bi
Fredrick OJIJA
Firuza M. Tursunkhodjaeva
Faraz Ahmed Farooqi
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