Subject Area

  • Life Sciences / Biology
  • Architecture / Building Management
  • Asian Studies
  • Business & Management
  • Chemistry
  • Computer Science
  • Economics & Finance
  • Engineering / Acoustics
  • Environmental Science
  • Agricultural Sciences
  • Pharmaceutical Sciences
  • General Sciences
  • Materials Science
  • Mathematics
  • Medicine
  • Nanotechnology & Nanoscience
  • Nonlinear Science
  • Chaos & Dynamical Systems
  • Physics
  • Social Sciences & Humanities

Why Us? >>

  • Open Access
  • Peer Reviewed
  • Rapid Publication
  • Life time hosting
  • Free promotion service
  • Free indexing service
  • More citations
  • Search engine friendly

Plagiarism Detection

IJCR is following an instant policy on rejection those received papers with plagiarism rate of more than 20%. So, All of authors and contributors must check their papers before submission to making assurance of following our anti-plagiarism policies.













December 2015

Introduction: One of the challenges of the elderly population is the increasing number of elderly people. Over time, elder lies face problems in social relationships. The lack of social interaction and isolation may influence the quality of life of elder lies. The purpose of this study is to identify these concerns of Iranian elder lies by a qualitative approach. Methods: This study is a qualitative research based on a qualitative content analysis in the form of contractual approach. Data is collected by in-depth semi-structured interviews face to face with elder lies living in Tehran.

Introduction Importance of children's mental health issues at personality evolution and the impact of dysfunctional behavioral responses during this period make it clear that there is a need to interpretation. Hence, in this field, assessment and screening is a one of the fundamental solution in order to identifying the problems. The present study was designed and conducted to assess the behavioral responses.

A number of novel drug delivery systems have emerged by various routes of administration, to achieve controlled and targeted drug delivery, magnetic drug delivery system being one of them which include magnetic microspheres, magnetic liposomes, magnetic nanoparticles, magnetic resealed erythrocytes, magnetic emulsion and others. Magnetic microspheres& molecular magnetic labels have been used for great number of application in various areas of biosciences, targeted drug delivery, imaging and in bioseparation technology.

The pituitary gland and mammary glands of 30 Madras red ewes of different age groups were utilized for the current study. Two types of acidophils were identified in the pars distalis adenohypophysis. The size of type I acidophils (orangeophils) ranged from 9.30 ± 0.22 µm in dry animals to 9.90 ± 0.28 µm in pubertal animals. The number of these cells was more in pregnant (1866 ± 95.85 cells/mm2) and lactating (1687 ± 62.41 cells/mm2) animals when compared to dry (1650 ± 108.92 cells/mm2) age groups in sheep.

Background: The concept of smile design represents complex interaction between skeletal, dental and soft tissue structures of the face. Facial appearance of an individual’s smile is net interaction of these components. Aim: Purpose of the study is to highlight traditionally accepted smile design concepts with additional newer parameters incorporated in the esthetic treatment of the patients.

According to World Health Organization (WHO) prevalence of diabetes will be increase 35% between 1995 and 2025, worldwide. Various studies documented that Asian countries too have the highest prevalence of gestational diabetes mellitus, which have its effect on Maternal-fetal outcomes. This study is a review of studies, concerning with outcome of pregnancies of mothers with and without exposure of diabetes.

Thyroid hormones are involved in controlling various metabolisms in the body and imbalance in their production causes many metabolic processes to slow down and affects the entire metabolism. Present study was conducted at S.M.S Medical College, Jaipur aimed to evaluate biochemical parameters Creatine kinase (CK) and Lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) in diagnosing thyroid disorders along with thyroid-stimulating hormone [TSH], tri-iodothyronine [T3] and thyroxine [T4]. 50 hypothyroid and 50 hyperthyroid patients were compared with 75 age, sex and socioeconomic status matched healthy controls.

The present work was aimed to study the seroprevalence of contagious agalactia in goats. For this study, total 705 lactating goats belonging to organized and unorganized sectors of in and around areas of Jabalpur (M.P.) were screened by slide agglutination test over a period of 12 months i.e. from April 2014 to March 2015. The overall seroprevalence of contagious agalactia was 9.50%. Seroprevalence of contagious agalactia in organised goat farms was observed higher (19.65%) than in unorganised sector of goatry (4.62%).

Background: Tuberculosis is one of the biggest enigma facing mankind and it is the 5th most common cause of death worldwide. The present study aims at: 1.Studying the patients knowledge about tuberculosis, 2.Estimating the time taken for the patients to approach any health care system after their onset of symptoms, 3.Estimating the time taken by the health care system to process the samples collected and confirm the diagnosis of tuberculosis,4.Estimating the time taken by the health care system to start the treatment regimen once the patient has been diagnosed with tuberculosis.

Aim of the study is to explore the biological as well as chemical potentials of the solanum xanthocapum and to focus that drug still needed some more attention for identifying its new chemical constituents and medicinal values. In this research drug is studied more extensively regarding their macroscopic and microscopic characters (organoleptic & histological evaluation), as well as phytochemical and physicochemical examination to standardize the drug, and its concluded that drug contain different chemical compounds such Alkaloid, carbohydrates, amino acids, flavanoid, etc.

Our case-control study was conducted at dermatology clinics and microbiology laboratory at Suez- Canal University Hospitals, Ismailia, Egypt to determine the microbial agents involved in the acne vulgaris, the prevalenceof P. acnes strains isolated from acne patients and healthy control groups and their antibiotic susceptibility patterns. Thirty eight acne patients (study group) were assessed according to the Acne Global Severity Scale (AGSS).The control group included 20 healthy subjects with matched age, gender and swab location of the study group.

Chronic diseases have become a major public health problem accounting for 60% of all deaths worldwide. In India, the projected number of deaths due to chronic disease was around 5.21 million in 2008 and is expected to rise to 7.63 million in 2020 (66.7% of all deaths). Globally, chronic kidney disease (CKD) is the 12th cause of death and the 17th cause of disability, respectively. Unani medicine is an ancient system of medicine which advocates the treatment of chronic disease with drugs of natural origin.

Introduction: Local anaesthetic agent when injected intrathecally provides excellent anaesthesia and analgesia. The aim of our study was to investigate the efficacy of dexmedetomidine as an adjuvant to local anaesthetic bupivacaine, given intrathecally for intra-operative as well as for post-operative analgesia. Method: A total of Hundred adult patients of ASA grade I&II, undergoing lower limb and lower abdominal surgeries under sub-arachnoid block were selected. Group A(n=50) were given 2.5ml of 0.5% hyperbaric Bupivacaine and 1ml of 0.9% normal saline intrathecally.

Background: Medial epicondylitis is a common disorder, although less common than tennis elbow but difficult to treat than lateral epicondylitis and as of now no consensus exists as to the most appropriate management strategy for medial epicondylitis. Aim: To compare the outcome of different nonsurgical treatment modalities in medial epicondylitis. Conclusion: In this study, although corticosteroid showed an early advantage but long-term follow-up results were better for autologous blood group.

Joubert syndrome is a rare autosomal recessive disorder characterized by abnormal respiratory pattern and eye movements, hypotonia, ataxia, developmental retardation with neuropathologic abnormalities of cerebellum and brainstem including inherited hypoplasia or aplasia of vermis. The reported prevalence is less than 1 in 100,000.

Introduction: In a context of constrained health-care resources, the use of generics medicines is an opportunity for savings. The study, with multifaceted purpose, aimed to investigate among generalist physician, the perception, use and prescription of generics and also identify the factors influencing their decision of prescribing generic medicines. Materiel and Methods: This is a descriptive, cross-sectional study was conducted in the health region of Abidjan 2, with 170 generalist physician selected at random and working in private or public sector.

Osteoarthritis (OA) is considered the most common disorder of the musculoskeletal system and the greatest cause of disability in both developed and the so-called emerging countries. Since the population is aging, the prevalence of OA has increased, and its consequences have a great socio-economic impact. This study is aimed at assessing the frequency of the association of comorbidities in patients, as well as the impact of such associations on the physical function of patients.

Background: Neck pain is a common problem which can lead to difficulty in activities. There is lack of evidence to allow conclusions to be drawn about the effectiveness of Muscle energy technique (MET) when compared with stretching exercises on neck disability index. It would be interesting to study if these two techniques yield comparable outcomes and if one technique is superior to the next which should be the alternate choice of therapy. Subjects and methods: 45 patients with subacute mechanical neck pain were randomly assigned to group1, group 2 and group 3.

In the last two decades a huge repertoire of research on the anticancer activity of organo sulfur compounds derived from Allium sativum (Garlic) has provided critical insight about the potential of garlic as a potent anticancer agent. Allyl sulfur compounds from garlic not only has been shown to be a chemotherapeutic compound but also, based on a number of in-vitro, in-vivo and case controlled population based studies, that it has a chemo preventive activity and showing inverse relation with the intake of garlic and incidence of cancer.

Sunn hemp (Crotalaria juncea L.) is a tropical legume that could be an important summer cover crop, it has the potential for suppressing both crops and weeds. The objective of this study was to evaluate the allelopathic effect of sunn hemp in different spacing intervals and densities, in the germination of corn, beans, rice, soybeans and weeds. The study was conducted in Cáceres/MT and Paraguaçu Paulista/SP. Sunn hemp was planted to obtain matter for the extraction of allele chemical compounds and the suppressive effect from growing sunn hemp on the weeds on the crops in the field.

The root grubs Holotrichia serrata Fabricius, Holotrichia consanguinea Blanchard, Holotrichia reynaudi Blanchard, Leucopholis lepidophora Burmeister and Anomala dimidiata Hope ,were reared on sliced carrots under laabortory conditions. Ambient temperature of 26+10C and 65% RH with food availability ad-libitum provided for successful rearing of the grubs. Biological attributes varied among the different species and the grub stage had three instars irrespective of the species.

The quality of food has got a direct influence on the health, growth, development and survival of silkworm. Most of the food plants may contain all the nutritional requirements but the quantity of each nutrient may not be well balanced for proper growth and development of silkworm. The nutritional status as well as growth and development of insect varied on different host plants. The present investigation deals with rearing of Antheraea frithi M. and foliar constituents of Terminalia arjuna Roxb., a newly reported host plant for A. frithi. The foliar constituents of Terminalia arjuna, viz.

The present investigation entitled “Systemic studies on the different germplasms of Turmeric (Curcuma longa L ) in West Bengal” was conducted at Horticultural Research Station, Mandouri, Bidhan Chandra Krishi Viswavidyalaya, Nadia, West Bengal during 2013-14 and 2014-15. The design adopted was Randomised Block Design (RBD) having 3 replications with 13 treatments. The germplasm under evaluation were RCE-3, Rajendra Sonia, Duggirala, Alleppy Supreme, Roma, NH-l, Suranjana, BSR-2, Pratibha, Kedaram, Rashmi, Megha Turmeric, Midnapur local.

Polythene wastes accumulating in the environment are posing an ever increasing ecological threat. Naturally colonized microorganisms play a vital role in biodegradation of polyethylene, depending on the environmental conditions. This study represents biodegradability of native bacterial strains in the municipal waste landfill sites. Samples from various landfill sites of polyethylene films were collected from Cuddalore district.

Quality control (QC) is a critical component of Laboratory Quality Management System for reliability of testing results.1Batch release by manufacturer of blood Grouping Reagents is mandatoryonly after products QC performance. The laboratory has evaluated a total number of 1320batches of different Blood Grouping Reagents types by haemagglutination technique. Out of 1320 batches, 275 were indigenous manufacturers and 1045 were imported. 242 of 275 indigenous batches were recommended and 33 were not recommend. 1003 of 1045 imported batches were recommended and 42 were not recommended.

The present study were carried out on traditional used aquatic plant biodiversity of Birla Talab. Various parts of plants (roots, stem, leaves, fruits, seeds etc.) or whole plant is used for medicinal purpose for various ailments. Free questionnaire surveys, participatory observation and field visits were planned to elicit information on the medicinal plants used by local community. Several of these plants are very sensitive to the fluctuations in the normal physico-chemical parameters of the Talab.

Garcinia indica, endemic to Western Ghats is a multipurpose tree of high priority for conservation. Garcinia (kokum) fruit is viewed as a Wonder berry and is known for its food, medicinal and commercial value. In vitro propagation, an ex situ conservation strategy, provides new means for conservation and mass propagation of economically important plants. The aim of the present study was to examine the main aspects of in vitro culture initiation and propagation of Garcinia indica, an endemic wild plant species.

The study was initiated to develop callus using vermicompost extracts and coelomic fluid of earthworm Eudrilus eugeniae on in situ development of medicinal plant Catharanthus roseus. Vermicompost extract without any hormone supplements supported 100% callus induction. Vermicompost extract with 0.5mg/L BAP, 1mg/L NAA and 1mg/L IBA have supported 70% callus induction. Vermicompost extract with 1mg/L 2,4-D and 1mg/L KIN have shown 60% callus induction. Suspension culture was successfully developed using vermicompost extract and coelomic fluid in the 3:1 ratio.

The metal accumulating ability of plants (hyperaccumulators) has previously been used to detoxify and environment clean up of metal contaminants from different site. However, the full potential of this process is now being explored via reuse of these hyperaccumulators in nanotechnological practices. This short review article is devoted to the ability for hyperaccumulator plants to form metallic nanoparticles by reusing the toxic metal accumulated in these plant for their positive utilization in novel nanoparticle synthesis.

Anti-microbial activity of root, stem and leaf extracts of Phyllanthus amarus were studied with polar solvents such as ethyl acetate, dimethyl Formamide and non-polar solvents such as chloroform, dichloromethane and n-Hexane extracts against Gram positive bacteria viz. Bacillus cereus ,Bacillus subtilis and Gram negative bacteria viz. Pseudomonas aeruginosa,, Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae using Agar well diffusion method. Root, stem and leaf extracts of Phyllanthus amarus were evaluated separately to determine the best explant source for potential antimicrobial effect.

This work involved a random sample of the population of the region of El-Tarf. A total of 200 people were surveyed. The study of smoking status is given by the terms of prevalence; it specifies standardized proportion by age and sex of people who smoke cigarettes daily or occasionally. The information collected in our investigation led us that smoking is a real problem in our region, the results show: • High prevalence of smokers to 70%. • The majority of these smokers are young men aged 21-30 years. • The average age of onset of cigarette consumption is between 16 and 20 years.

The underframe assembly of rail coaches is manufactured with the help of metal active gas welding process. Both ends of the austenitic stainless steel plate are welded to corten steel on the floor assembly of the coaches. The butt weld is done to the joint. Floor assembly is subjected to massive corrosion environment which weakens structural stability on carrying loads, since coaches are designed in a fashion to bare heavy loads on loading condition and also accidental proof for safe journey. Hence mechanical properties are to be optimized for the joint.

The compressor is mechanical equipment which is used to increase the pressure with the help of the piston. Need to improve the performance of compressor by several methods. The main aim of the project is to make tri-cylinder air compressor to generate large amount of air with less power and low vibration. In tri cylinder air compressor the three cylinders are kept at 120 degree to each other. The three cylinders are placed radically and equally apart such that the cylinder opening tends to meet on a common triangular compression chamber.

An electric power system comprises of generation, transmission and distribution of electric energy. Transmission lines are used to transmit electric power to distant large load centers. The rapid growth of electric power systems over the past few decades has resulted in a large increase of the number of lines in operation and their total length. These lines are exposed to faults as a result of lightning, short circuits, faulty equipment, mal-operation, human errors, overload, and aging. The un-interrupted and reliable power supply in the need of the today world.

Electricity has an essential place in the life of humanity with the rapidly developing technology. It has been seen that the use of fossil fuels for electrical energy production harms the environment. People have turned to renewable energy sources that have the least damage to the environment in order to meet the needs of electricity. The systems that produce electricity from solar (photovoltaic systems) are the most preferred renewable energy sources. Because there is no the payment of fees to the raw energy sources and staff expenses are little during operation.

Electricity has an essential place in the life of humanity with the rapidly developing technology. It has been seen that the use of fossil fuels for electrical energy production harms the environment. People have turned to renewable energy sources that have the least damage to the environment in order to meet the needs of electricity. The systems that produce electricity from solar (photovoltaic systems) are the most preferred renewable energy sources. Because there is no the payment of fees to the raw energy sources and staff expenses are little during operation.

Cloud computing is an important platform for the data owners to store their data from local sites to commercial public cloud providing high flexibility and economic savings. But the cloud storage systems are most vulnerable for the data security due to their internal data sharing among the servers. By applying strong cryptography techniques, data is stored in the cloud. But eventually this doesn't solve the problem of storing process as cloud provides big storage capacity, so performing the search on this huge encrypted data in the cloud is posing a real challenge.

Urbanisation is a global phenomenon that leads to rapid change in land use and land cover. This change significantly alters surface material from pervious to impervious concretized material. Changes in surface material introduce hike in surface temperature. Biological resources such as vegetation not only act as a sink to CO2 but also help to reduce surface temperature by providing shades to surface materials. To understand such relation a study has been conducted on land surface temperature of Kolkata based on landsat satellite data.

Constraints in production and marketing of organic vegetable growers in Belagavi district of Karnataka. The primary data were collected from 120 organic vegetable growers through structured questionnaire method for the study. Cent per cent of the respondents had expressed problem of lack of literature or package of practices on organic vegetable production followed by low yield comparatively conventionally growing (96.66%).

The research on asset volatility in financial market is the foundation of finance. To measure and predict asset volatility accurately, Bollerslev built a generalised ARCH (GARCH) model based on the ARCH model. The GARCH process is often preferred by financial modeling professionals because it provides a more real-world context than other forms when trying to predict the prices and returns of financial instruments. It is the general process for a GARCH model involves three steps.

Malnutrition not only blights the lives of individuals and families, but also acts as a major barrier to social and economic progress In India, particularly in the Empowered Action Group (EAG) States. Under this backdrop, this study aims to assess the degree of chronic energy deficiency and its determinants. Data drawn from the National Family Health Survey-III, conducted 2005-06, on body mass index of 26,728 currently married women, ages 15-49 years.

Background: Nowadays there are several bacteria show resistant to many antibiotics, therefore the discovery of new and more efficient antibacterial agents is essential. Objective: to evaluate the antibacterial activities of Lawsoniainermis (henna) and Camelliasinensis (green tea) against some pathogenic bacteria. Methodology: Fresh plants Lawsoniainermis and Camelliasinensis were collected with assistant by a plant taxonomist at the medicinal and aromatic plants research institute in the national center of research in Khartoum, Sudan.

After the introduction of CT into clinical practice in 1972, the soft tissue extension from paranasal sinuses lesions could be visualized. The anatomical relationship of paranasal sinuses with surrounding structures could be directly appreciated. CT has capability of showing soft tissue detail relative to the osseous walls and air spaces of the paranasal sinuses. Such information is indispensible for determination of operability and planning of radiotherapy as well as for assessment after therapy.

An experiment was carried out on 135 day old Vencob straight run commercial broiler chicks for a period of 42 days (6 weeks). The chicks were randomly divided into three groups (n=45) of three replicates each. Untreated control group (T0) was fed standard basal diet without any supplement, treatment group T1 was supplemented with AV/LAP/19 at the rate of 1ml/100 birds/day from 0-14 days, 2ml/100 birds/day from 14-28 days and 3ml/100 birds/day from 28-42 days in water and treatment group T2 supplemented with synthetic ascorbic acid@100g/tonne of feed.

Rotator cuff injuries are the worse to treat as Shoulder joint is having complicated structure and many organs involving in Rotator cuff are prone to get injured in major or minor trauma to joint. Modern medical sciences recommend operative reconstruction surgery for rupture injuries of rotator cuff. But outcome of surgery many times lead to restriction of movements. So an Ayurvedic management was done in case of Supraspinatus rupture with Hirudotherapy (Leech Application), as the major reason for non-healing of these ruptures is less blood supply to these organs.

Morphology of the peri implant soft tissue adjacent the implant component plays a pivotal role in displaying the implant esthetics. Creating an implant restoration that cannot be distinguished from the rest of the natural dentition is the ultimate goal. The ability to preserve the architecture, modify and even improve the soft tissue contours lies in the hands of the periodontists and greatly influence the overall restorative result.

This present study was conducted to provide insights regarding the possible gender differences in the male and female students at University level in term of information and communication technology use. The research was a descriptive in its nature. The objective of the study was to analyze the opportunities of access to Information and communication Technology (ICT) for male and female students at the university level. The population was the male and female students of University of Bangalore, India.

Residency Training in the medical field has been the focus of Health education organizations. Such training is dependent to a high degree on the involved trainers within their respective fields. Several studies have tackled the factors that will have an impact on trainees thus the success of their training program. In this review, we highlight theses factors, define them into 3 main categories: skills, behavior and generation, then focus on what we believe is the most important nowadays, which is the issue of the so called: “Generation gap”.

Alveolar ridge bone resorption is a biologic phenomenon that occurs following tooth extraction and cannot be prevented. Newer techniques are evolving in restorative dentistry and periodontics to treat these defects to improve the esthetics, form and functions of the dentition. Alveolar bone augmentation remains the holy grail of periodontal tissue engineering.21The purpose of this paper was to evaluate the efficacy of β- Tri Calcium Phosphate (β-TCP) and Platelet Rich Fibrin (PRF) in post extraction socket preservation.

Background: Sir Veer Chandra Singh Garhwal Government Institute of Medical Sciences and Research Centre is a tertiary referral Centre for Eastern Garhwal Region which caters to the medical needs of Chamoli, Rudraprayag and Pauri-Srinagar Districts of Uttarkhand, North India. H.N. Bahuguna Government Base Teaching Hospital is attached to the above institution is located near Srinagar town in the Alakananda Valley at 579 meters above the sea level. The patients who are referred here come from Kedarnath and Badrinath valleys lying at an altitude of 1500 to 3500 meters above the sea level.

Introduction: Bone strength is related to bone mineral density (BMD) as well as other properties of bone that are often termed bone quality .BMD correlates highly with fracture risk and allows the clinician to determine the need for pharmacological intervention. Vitamin D is vital for bone health because it assists in the absorption and utilization of calcium. There are various studies in elderly females with hip fractures correlating the Vitamin D levels with BMD. But very few studies have evaluated the serum Vitamin D levels and BMD in males more than 50 years.

The use of medicinal properties of plant is called herbal medicine. Plants have the ability to synthesize a wide variety of chemical compounds that are used to perform important biological functions and to defense against attack from insect, fungi, bacteria etc. Hemidesmus indicus R.Br. is being used widely in ayurvedic medicine. The roots have a sweet smell like camphor. Medicinal plants are being widely used, either as single drug or in combination in health care delivery system. Hemidesmus indicus R.Br.

Aim: To examine the possibility of joining ICF-CY body functions b codes and activity and participation d codes to create a common disability variable Study design: Open field pilot research study Methods: The parents of 332 children with spina bifida, spinal muscular atrophy, muscular disorders, cerebral palsy, visually impairment, hearing impairment, mental disability and disability following treatment for brain tumours were visited and 47 body functions b codes and 57 activities and participation d code qualifiers were scored. Each code had 5 qualifier levels.

Background and objectives: Diabetes Mellitus (DM) is an inflammatory atherothrombotic metabolic disease. In patients with type 2 diabetes, low grade inflammation is characterized by increased plasma levels of several biomarkers of inflammation such as high sensitivity C-reactive protein (hsCRP). This prospective observational study was designed to assess serum levels of hsCRP in type 2 diabetes and determine correlation between hsCRP and complications associated with diabetes. Methods: A total of 60 subjects were enrolled in the study as per the inclusion and exclusion criteria.

Background: The clinical significance of leptin hormone in predicting pregnancy after controlled ovarian hyperstimulation (COH) protocols for intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) is still poorly understood. Several reports exist on the prospects of hormonal profile in the luteal phase for the diagnosis of early pregnancy. Objectives:This study was designed to investigate the role of follicular fluid leptin in predicting pregnancy in women underwent ICSI cycle.

This study has been undertaken to find association between hypertension and diabetes mellitus in perimenopausal women in an urban slum of Mumbai. The cross-sectional community-based descriptive epidemiological study was conducted in slum area during the period of January 2012 to June 2013. 29.5% diabetic subjects and 17% non-diabetic subjects had hypertesion. There was significant statistical association between hypertension and diabetes mellitus among perimenopausal women in an urban slum.

Introduction: Reproductive Tract Infections (STI/RTI) are a common public health problem. RTIs often cause discomfort and lost economic productivity. Aims: to ascertain the bacterial, fungal and parasitic causes of RTI in women attending Obstetrics and Gynaecology OPD, to co-relate the causes of RTI with various epidemiological and clinical parameters, to co-relate the occurrence of RTI with infertility. Results: Out of 93 samples 62 showed growth and 31 were sterile.

Aim: The study was aimed to assess the effect of psychoeducation on knowledge, attitude and burden of caregivers of clients with bipolar affective disorder. Methods and materials: One group pre-test, post-test design was adopted for the study. Forty caregivers of bipolar affective disorder (BPAD) who fulfilled the inclusion criteria were recruited for the study. A pre-test was conducted to assess their level of knowledge, attitude and burden. Following this, a structured teaching programme regarding BPAD was administered to the study subjects in two sessions of 45 minutes each.

Tobacco is a plant within the genus Nicotiana of the Solanaceae (nightshade) family. While there are more than 70 species of tobacco, the chief commercial crop is N. tabacum. The more potent species N. rustica is also widely used around the world. The public responded, and soon sales were booming again. Previous lawsuits went nowhere . The present paper aim was to educate people about tobacco facts.

Aim: The study was aimed to assess the quality of life (QoL) of caregivers of stroke patients and to identify the factors associated with their QoL. Methods and materials: By using a cross-sectional descriptive design, 84 care givers of stroke patients were recruited as per inclusion criteria. Socio-demographic and clinical data sheet was used to collect the data. The quality of life of the caregivers was assessed by WHO QoL-BREF scale. Results: The study results revealed that better quality of life was found in the psychological and environmental domains.

In a pathological laboratory worker may be infected from needle stick injury or by aerosol/droplet exposure of the mucous membranes of the eyes, noses, or mouth called laboratory acquired infections (LAI). To assess the risks of LAI a cross sectional study was performed during the period of 2007 to 2012 after getting ethical clearance.

Neurenteric cysts of the spine usually occur at the lower cervical and upper thoracic spine. Neurenteric cyst of the Craniovertebral junction is extremely rare. They are believed to arise from persistent abnormal communication between endodermal and neuroectodermal tissues in the embryonic phase. On T2-weighted MR images, appear as hyperintense cystic lesions without edema is generally observed. An immunohistochemical study is the key to diagnosis and demonstrates the endodermic origin of the lesion.

Plasma is the fourth state of matter which comprises 99% of the universe. Plasma is cutting edge technology, which involves interdisciplinary partnerships in Medicine, Dentistry, Physics, Engineering, Chemistry and Biology. Novel advances in Dental technology are often sporadic; therefore, the discovery of the biological effects of Plasma which are suitable for oral applications has been a major finding. The emergence of low temperature atmospheric pressure Plasma is becoming a ground breaking field of research for treating a myriad of Medical and Dental conditions.

A case of acute respiratory distress syndrome following treatment of Babesiosis was reported in a 2 year old male Maltese terrier. The patient was admitted to the clinic following a history of anorexia and dullness with preferred recumbence. Main presenting signs on admission were severe pallor, prolonged clotting time, and dyspnoea, lethargy. Blood smears obtained from the ear revealed multiple Babesia parasites, severe regenerative anemia, neutrophillia and monocytosis.

Introduction: prostate cancer is the commonest cancer in elderly males. It has growing incidence with late stage incurable presentations. Screening andearly detection is the main strategy to compact this disease. Males knowledge and attitude is mandatory to practice screening. The aim of this study is to assess males knowledge, attitude and practice about screening and early detection of prostate cancer via prostate specific antigen (PSA). Materials and Method: This is descriptive, community based cross sectional study.

Reparations and medicaments derived from grasshoppers are mostly used for curing such diseases as respiratory disorders /65%/, wounds /16%/, poisoning /8%/, and trauma /11%/ in the forms of simple extract /35%/, boiled extract /21%/ and bolus /35%/ via swallowing /9%/, drinking /80%/, topical use /14%/ and fumigation /6%/. Specimen as raw materials of medicine from grasshopper can be annually collected from 8 through 10. In total 8 species of grasshoppers of therapeutic values belonging to 4 genera have been identified.

Endoscopic Retrograde Cholangio Pancreatography (ERCP) with biliary stenting is one of the most commonly performed endoscopic procedures for preoperative biliary decompression in obstructive jaundice of benign or malignant etiology. In patients with concomitant calculous cholecystitits, a laparoscopic cholecystectomy is performed soon after, and in the absence of a specific indication to the contrary, most such stents are removed 6-8 weeks later. In malignant disease however, the duration of stenting would be dictated by considerations related to the specific treatment modality used.

The objective of this study was to reveal the shif of various diagnostic centres towards chemiluminescent immunoassays from colorimetric immunoassays for diagnosis of HBV, HCV and HIV. National Institute of Biologicals (NIB) carries out quality evaluation of enzyme linked immunoassays intended to be used for diagnosis of HBV, HCV and HIV. The batches of these assays are forwarded to NIB by drugs regulatory authority of India.

Herbal biosynthesis of zinc oxide nanmoparticles )ZnONPs) using extract of Corriandrum sativum plant leafs and evaluation of their antimicrobial potential against some fungal and bacterial causes of skin affection in buffaloes were investigated. Out of 100 buffaloe cases that showed skin lesions and 30 apparently healthy cases, the fungi of Trichophyton verucosum, T. mentagrophytes and C.albicans were recovered from (50%, 31% and 15%) of hair and from (65% ; 37% and 13%) of skin scales samples of affected animals, respectively.

Aggression has been recognized as a near-universal behavior with substantial influence on and implications for human and animal social systems. It can be a significant problem since escalated aggression may result in serious damage to others and can reveal itself as a symptom of psycho- pathologies. It is often considered to be the product of environmental stressors, health problems, pain, psychiatric morbidity or behavioral stressors. There are different forms of human aggressive behavior which can depend on the triggering factors, social context or individual genetic predisposition.

The frequency of ACS is increasing as the population ages, and therefore, knowledge of knowing who are at high risk is essential. This study was aimed at exploring the risk factors among acute coronary syndrome (STEMI, NSTEMI, Unstable Angina) patients. This cross-sectional study was carried out in the Department of Medicine and Cardiology, KLES Dr. Prabhakar Kore Hospital and Medical Research Centre, Belgaum. A total of 400 patients of age more than 18 years who presented with Acute Coronary Syndromes were included in the study.

Introduction: Root canal instrumentation achieves chemical and mechanical preparation before obturation. However instrumentation may result in dentinal defects, decreasing the strength of endodontically treated teeth. Objectives: This study was designed to evaluate dentinal defects formed after root canal instrumentation by two single file systems using reciprocating and rotation motion versus manual instrumentation. Methodology: This study was conducted on 45 mesial roots of mandibular first molars. Teeth were divided into three groups of 15 specimens each.

Introduction: Subtrochanteric fractures result from high energy trauma in young patients and most cases are associated with multiple injuries. In elderly patients, this fracture is often caused by low energy trauma because of osteoporosis and Surgical treatment is the preferred method for subtrochanteric femoral fracture and two main categories of implants are used which are Extra medullary and Intramedullary. Aims and Objective: To study the outcome of subtrochanteric hip fractures treated with extra medullary & intramedullary devices.

This study was performed to determine the effect of two polishing system ,Aluminum oxide disk (opti-4dental AZ) and Silicon rubber bur (SJK dent) on the surface roughness of two color restorative materials (Microhybrid composite (Filtex Z 250 USA) & Nanofilled composite (Supereme XT). Sixty samples were prepared (A,B,C, Microhybrid) & (D,E,F, Nanofilled). Groups (A, D) with no surface treatment as a control groups, while (B,E) were polished by SJK dent system and(C, F) polished by Opti4 dental AZ system.

Pregnancy shows high incidence of vaginal candidiasis because of increase in oestrogen levels. But persistence of symptomatic candidiasis late in puerperium not responding to treatment is rare. Vaginal itching in puerperium may be related to persistent vaginal infection along with other causes. Vaginal discharge culture and sensitivity should be performed in patients who are not responding to multiple courses of oral and vaginal treatment as is evident from this case of Fluconazole resistant vaginal candidiasis

Supracondylar fracture of humerus is the second most common fracture in children which account for 60–75% of all fractures around the elbow. There are various treatment modalities for type-III fracture, i.e., closed reduction and casting, skeletal traction, close reduction and percutaneous pinning and open reduction and internal fixation. This study was conducted to see the outcome of open reduction and internal fixation after failed closed reduction.

60 patients in the age group 20-50 years with open phalangeal fractures of hand were treated with 'gantry fixation' from jan 2013 to jan 2015. There were 50 males and 10 females. Right hand was involved in 35 and left hand was involved in 25 paticnts. All fractures were operated in emergency operation theatre. The patients were allowed supervised ROM exercises of the adjacent joints and were followed up for 24 weeks.54 (90%)patients had good to excellent results, while as 5(8.33%) patients had fair and 1(1.66%) patient had poor results.

Background & Aims: Stress response to surgery induces hyperglycemia to limited extent. An additive hyperglycemic response, secondary to the metabolism of intravenous fluids, can thus prove detrimental to the well-being of the patient, if ignored. Our study aimed to examine and compare the effects of 4% gelatin and dextran-40 on blood glucose levels during surgery under subarachnoid block and their potential to induce hyperglycemia. Methods: Sixty ASA grade I and II patients were randomized into two groups, 30 patients in each.

A young female is presented in OPD with abdominal lump n wage abdominal pain on CT it has solid and cystic component with internal hemorrhage n necrosis. Exploratory laparotomy was planned, on per- op finding large mass globular lobulated varying consistency soft firm and hard somewhere. Young age no lymph nodal disease intra op diagnosis was made of suedopancreatic tumor it was arising from the tail of pancreas so spleen preserving distal pancreatecomy was done an HPE report came as we expected solid cystic tumor.

Introduction: Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is one of the most common and lethal cancers in the world. More than one million cases of HCC occur in the world each year (Jain et al., 2010). Clearly, the available screening methods are inadequate for early detection and follow up of HCC, so there is need for other markers have to high sensitivity in early diagnosis of HCC as well as the specificity in differentiation between HCC and benign lesions (Padma et al., 2009).

It appears that women face considerable stress throughout their life cycle. This becomes more complex after marriage particularly after the birth of a child. Women face unfairness, right from the childhood. A gender disparity in nutrition from infancy to adulthood has been reported by studies. Generally, girls have a less amount of breastfeeding during the period of early years. Sex compositions of offspring have been recognized as one of the prominent factor which are creating the negative impact on adjustments. Adjustment in terms of Home, Health, Social and Emotional aspects of women.

Cancer, which is one of the most dreaded diseases of the century with the number increasing yearly, is a highly complex process which requires various in vivo models to elucidate the mechanism of action of the newly developed chemotherapeutic agents and or isolation of lead phytomolecules along with other in vitro experiment protocols, before entering into clinical trial phase.

This study was conducted to determine the effect of drinking water as solvent for extender on motility of buck sperm. Semen was collected by artificial vagina from five bucks. Four different source of drinking water (Zamzam, Hana, Nova and Aqafina water) and distilled water were used as solvents in Tris-egg yolk extender. So five extenders were formed Zamzam, Hana, Nova, Aqafina and distilled extenders. Sperm have the longest life and motility when using Zamzam extender (12 days). While, the use of distilled extender caused reduction in survival rate and motility of sperm (5.5 days).

The methanolic extract of Curculigoorchioides Gaertn.(Family: Hypoxidaceae) was evaluated for its acute oral toxicity by administering as a single oral dose to female albino Wistar rats. The plant extract was administered orally in a sequential manner to five female rats at the limit dose level of 5000 mg/kg body weight. On the day of dosing, all the animals were observed for mortality and clinical signs for first 10 min, 30 min, 1 h, 2 h, 4 h and 6 h after dosing and thereafter twice daily for mortality and once a day for clinical signs, for 14 days.

In this study we investigated students’ opinion of the impact of electronic presentations (PowerPoint) in lectures of undergraduate level compared to chalk and talk which is a traditional and nonelectronic approach. Students who were about to complete their second year MBBS course were included in the study. A questionnaire pertaining to different aspects of lecture and overall satisfaction of the students with the method of lecture delivery was circulated to all the students of that particular batch.

Background & Objectives: Destructive periodontal diseases (PD) have been associated with increased risk of atherosclerotic complications, including acute myocardial infarction (AMI) and stroke. The ability of Periodontitis to produce systemic C-reactive protein (CRP) level elevations may represent the link with cardiovascular events. Hence, the aim of this study was to compare the serum levels of CRP in AMI patients (with and without periodontitis) and a control group.

A total of 100 working donkeys of both sexes and different ages (between 2 and 10 years) was subjected to field clinical dental examinations. A modified flexible low costed industrial endoscope, attached to a laptop facilitated detailed examination of the occlusal and caudal surfaces of the cheek teeth. All of the presented donkeys were found suffering from different varieties of dental disorders despite their owners' histories devoid of any dental complaints.

Introduction and objectives: Grapefruit juice is recommended daily for normal individual and patients with obesity, dyslipidemia, insulin resistant, cancer with a promising hope of its beneficial effect. This study investigates the effect of daily intake of grapefruit on body weight, lipid profile and cerebellar function. Material and Methods: 40 Albino rats divided into four groups and followed up for 14 days. Control group (Cgp) took pure water; Experimental group (E. gp1, 2, 3) took 10 ml, 20 ml and 30 ml of grapefruit juice daily respectively.

Ameloblastic carcinoma is a malignant lesion with characteristic histological features and behaviour. In this case report we presented a case of massive Ameloblastic Carcinoma occurring in the mandible of a 34year old Nigerian female. Its typical clinical features, aggressive behaviour and differential diagnosis is discussed in detail. We treated the patient with radical resection and reconstruction with composite/double flaps using free fibula & anterolateral thigh flap as a single stage procedure.

The medical students are under constant stress as the academic course they are entering needs a lot of dedication and emotional involvement. Cadaver dissection is an emotionally charged issue. The effects are both physical and psychological. The emotions can interfere with the educational task. The present study was conducted to evaluate the physical and psychological effects among first year medical students towards cadaveric dissection and the impact on them.

Swine influenza is a contagious disease that is caused by the influenza virus. The influenza virion, RNA enveloped virus consist of glycoprotein named HA (hemagglutinin) and NA (neuraminidase). Swine flu produces almost the same symptoms in pigs, as human flu produces in people. Infection with the H1N1 influenza virus can result in severe illness and life-threatening complications in human beings. The most common cause of death is respiratory failure. Although swine influenza is rarely fatal to pigs but fatalities are more common in children and elderly people.

Objective: Kashmir has a high incidence of urolithiasis. This study was undertaken to understand the urinary composition, symptomology, diagnostic modality and relation of urolithiasis to water source in patients admitted in a tertiary care hospital of Kashmir division. Methods: A total of 186 24 hr urinary samples of patients with urolithiasis from a tertiary Care hospital were analyzed by enzymatic and spectrophotometric technique to measure the concentration of calcium, magnesium, oxalate, citrate, uric acid and phosphate.

Background: Screening program in schools are designed to identify children who have early signs of health problems. This study provides information about the findings of integrated school health screening program in rural block khan sahib, District Budgam. Aims and Objectives: To screen for the behavioural, visual disorders, pediculosis, nutritional status and physical examination of school going children in rural block of Khan Sahib, District Budgam.

Background: Despite many recent advances in the field of orthopedic surgery, the early diagnosis of SSI is still a challenge to orthopedic surgeon as there is lack of reliable bio marker of infection. In this regard we aimed to find out the diagnostic power of PCT as a marker of SSI and its kinetics in patients who have undergone orthopedic surgical procedure. Material and Methods: After getting informed consent, patients who had undergone orthopaedic surgery were included in this study. It was a prospective study.

Antibacterial activity of Excoecaria agallocha. L. (Euphorbiaceae) was investigated. Leaf extracts of Acetone and Petroleum ether were tested against five bacteria viz. Staphylococcus aureus MTCC3381, Escherichia coli MTCC739, Bacillus cereus MTCC430, Pseudomonas aeruginosa MMTC424, Klebsiella pneumoniae MTCC432. The results of antibacterial activity of acetone extract was highly effective when compared with petroleum ether extract.

Background: The flour mill workers work in a very unhygienic environment for 6-8 hours a day and perform a duty of loading and unloading a plastic bags or boxes or sacks of flour into the mill. The job demands a high intensity of physical strength. Material and Method: A sample 100 Flour mill workers at Thane and Chembur were surveyed for the potential risk for (work related musculoskeletal disorders) WRMD's and hazards of work environment using a Pre-Mapping assessment tool provided by EPM.

In biotechnological experiments the development and kinetics of the microbial culture are crucial information. Therefore researchers made lot of efforts to develop different cell measuring systems. Classically offline methods were widely used but they do not give real-time and reliable results enough. Among them some are able to follow even the living cell-number, which has probably the highest importance. A new, innovative online living-cell measurement sensor (InCyte (Hamilton) were received from Hamilton Bonaduz AG to test it with different art of microorganism.

During seeds germination period, the temperature is an important factor, which influences the seedling establishment in the field. Thus, tolerant cultivars at both low and / or high temperatures in these phases are fundamental in plant breeding programs. The objective in this work was to verify the enzymatic and physiological alterations of lines maize seeds submitted to different temperatures. We used maize lines (L30, L64, L63, L91) from the maize breeding programs of the company Geneseeds Genetic Resources Ltda.

Senna alata (L) is an ornamental flowering plant which is mostly used as antifungal agent as an oral preparation by traditional practitioners. The juice of fresh leaves of Senna alata is universally recognized by local healers as a remedy for parasitic skin disease and is used in the treatment of many eruptive and pustular skin condition by simply rubbing the crushed leaves either alone or mixed with oil on the skin. Root is taken in Nigerian and Guinea Bissau to regulate menstrual flow.

Aim: Adolescence is a period of tremendous physical and cognitive changes. It is considered a nutritionally vulnerable period because of the increased needs for all nutrients and changes in lifestyle and food habits that affect nutrient intake. The study aimed to assess the prevalence rate of anemia and its associated risk factors among adolescents. Methods: The research design adopted for this study was ex-post facto in nature. Sample of hundred adolescent girls were selected random sampling technique.

Rice is one of the most important and widely cultivated food crops of the world and the majority of rice (90 per cent) is being produced in Asian countries with China and India being the major producers (IRRI, 2013). Rice varieties, parental lines of the hybrids and the hybrid in general are susceptible to several biotic stresses such as bacterial blight (BB), blast, brown plant hoppers (BPH) and Sheath blight (ShB), resulting into dramatic reduction in the yield as well as the quality of rice (Singh et al., 2011).

Introduction: Serum cholinesterase has been shown to be associated with DM, coronary artery disease, hypertension and also its shown to have role in lipid metabolism in previous studies where in its activity has been positively correlated with serum lipids and lipoprotein levels. However, only few studies have examined the association between serum cholinesterase and risk of cardiovascular disease in type 2 DM patients in relation to body mass index and their findings are not consistent. Aim: a) To measure serum cholinesterase levels in diagnosed type 2 Diabetes mellitus patients.

The present study was conducted in the hatchery of the graduate school of fisheries and aquaculture located at the Department of Animal Biology, Faculty of Science and Technology of University Cheikh Anta Diop. It is a contribution to the development of aquaculture feeds using natural binders.

The housing conditions are a major factor to change all the traits of bread wheat pertaining to the quality and yield of grain. Whether this is true for the growing season of winter wheat, which is one of the longest in agricultural crops. The aim of this study was to establish the influence of contrasting environmental conditions on the change of basic periods of vegetation, which have a direct connection with the grain yield. Thirty varieties of winter wheat grown in production were studied.

Organic farming is gaining gradual movement across the world. Growing awareness of health and environmental issues in agriculture has demanded production of organic food which is emerging as an attractive source of rural income generation. India is bestowed with lot of potential to produce all varieties of organic products because of its various agro climatic regions. Oceania has the largest share of organic agricultural land (37%), followed by Europe (24%) and Latin America (20%).

Cell size and relative fiber dimensions have a major influence on the quality of pulp and paper products and solid wood products. Since many of the wood properties are strongly heritable (Zhang and Jiang, 1998), there is a possibility for improving these traits through tree improvement programmes. Eucalyptus tereticornis is commercially planted as a source of paper pulp yet the wood properties show considerable variation among the clones. The present study was mainly intended to understand the wood properties of different clones and their suitability for pulping.

Thyroid dysfunction is extremely common in women, as women are five to eight times more likely to have thyroid dysfunction than men, and has unique consequences related to menstrual cyclicity and reproduction. Both hyperthyroidism and hypothyroidism may result in menstrual disturbances. The most common manifestations are hypomenorrhea and oligomenorrhea. The thyroid dysfunction is also frequently associated with other menstrual disturbances including amenorrhea and anovulation.

Nevirapine (NVP) a Non Nucleoside reverse transcription inhibitors (NNRTI) commonly used in Highly Active Antiretroviral Therapy (HAART) regimens for treatment of HIV infections in National Aids Control Organisation because of its efficacy and good tolerability. Stevens- Johnson syndrome may occur 0.3% with nevirapine, 0.1% with efavirenz. We are here with submitting a case report of nevirapine induced Stevens- Johnson syndrome in a HIV patient who was on zidovudine + lamivudine + nevirapine, which has resolved completely after changing the regimen and with supportive treatment.

The Ebola virus (EBOV) genome encodes for several proteins that are necessary and sufficient for replication and transcription of the viral RNAs; NP, VP30, VP35, and L. VP30.VP30 binds to the RNA at the first gene start signal to initiate transcription. In the present study we used different In Silico tools and technique to analyze protein sequence of VP30 protein retrieved from major protein resources, prediction of three dimensional structures and its binding site prediction.

It is very rich in plant Biodiversity. About 264 plant species belongs to 218 genus and 77 families has been recorded from Ramling hill stations around Arjunnagar. Further, detailed study is required for understanding the flora of this sacred grove. This data gives idea about the plant biodiversity and importance of sacred groves in conservation of flora

Kolaghat Thermal Power Station is situated on right pool of the river Rupnarayan in Purba Medinipur district. Presently its total power generating capacity is 1260MW, with six units, 210 MW each. The plant generates around 7500-8000 metric tons fly ash which disposed mixed hot waste water on the river and consequently it has an adverse impact on the said river. The fish diversity of the river in relation to physico-chemical parameters was studied by monthly samples taken from May, 2013 to February, 2014. Traditional cast net and craft (Poukia) was used for fish sampling collection.

The distribution of synthetic pyrethroids in the surface waters was assessed by measuring the concentration in water samples. For this purpose water was collected from the nearby canal of agricultural field CCS HAU, Hisar. Water samples (200 mL) were treated with bifenthrin and λ-cyhalothrin at levels of 0.5mgL-1 and 1.0 mgL-1 separately. Liquid-liquid partitioning was used for the extraction of the pyrethroid from the water. Analysis of the pyrethroids extracts was done with gas chromatography equipped with electron capture detector.

Collar rot is a serious disease of tube rose (Polianthes tuberose L.) caused by Sclerotium rolfsii Sacc. reported in Odisha. The malady is rapidly gaining momentum inflicting heavy damage to this commercial ornamental crop. To study about this disease, with a chain of operations like planting material collection, isolation of pathogens, sterilisation of glassware, preparation of different media and inoculation in the media were conducted.

Estimation of phosphate in Wolbachia Surface Protein (WSP) will explore the link between Phospholipid hydrolysis and Wolbachia. It is hypothesized that, the proteins with phosphate groups can actively participate in phosphate hydrolysis. In the current study, an improvised novel our approach has been adopted to quantify the presence of phosphate in WSP.

Radiation contamination can occur from natural radiation or from man-made sources, such as radiation for medical research or for nuclear weapons manufacture, and this one of the major problems facing the ratio biologists is how to infer the biological bad effects resulting from γ- radiation exposure. The aim of the work is to investigate the effects of γ-radiation exposure on the blood picture, liver function, kidney function and TNF-α of albino rats, and using mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) to treatment these effects.

A new freshwater Indigenous fish species, Apocryptes caudalis sp. nov. , has been described from Pingla, Paschim Medinipur, West Bengal, India. The species has been described after detailed morphological examination and careful comparisons with it’s congener. Present species is easily distinguished from its congener, Apocryptes bato (Hamilton, 1822) by the presence of long caudal fin, short standard length, number of fin rays in second dorsal fin, presence of more vertical bars, greater head length.

Earthworms were collected from three different locations (Wadura, Shalimar and Gulmarg). Mature earthworms and their cocoons collected from various sites at each location were pooled together forming a composite sample. The earthworms from each location were identified at (Centre of Research for Development, P.G. Department of Environmental Science, University of Kashmir) and mass multiplied in appropriate media.

The study aimed to explore the metacomprehension level among a sample of Al-Qassim university postgraduates in light of gender, academic level, major (scientific or literary) and the achievement level. Schraw and Dennison (1994) test modified for the Arab environment by Jarrah and Obeidat (2011) was employed. Content validity is established by examining what each item tests, sources of obtaining items, formation of items and methods of arbitrating items. Correlation coefficients between the scores of Yadak (2011) tests and the current one employed is calculated to ensure test reliability.

Ceriagrion coromandelianum commonly called ‘Coromandel Marsh dart’ or ‘Yellow Waxtail’ is a widely distributed damselfly species in South Asia. It acts as a natural ‘biocontrol’ agent against paddy pests like leaf hopper, planthopper, midges and flies. The partial sequence of cytochrome oxidase I gene of C. coromandelianum was analysed by PCR and the result yielded a gene product of 573 bp length.

The kidneys are important organs responsible for filtration, reabsorption and excretion of waste from the body. Renal failure (RF) is mainly determined by a decrease in glomerular filtration rate (GFR); the rate at which blood is filtered in the glomeruli of the kidneys. The decrease of filtration rate is detected by a decrease in or absence of urine production or determination of waste products (creatinine or urea) in the blood. Hematuria (blood loss in the urine) and proteinuria (protein loss in the urine) may be noted in relation to this failure.

The present study was carried out to investigate the toxicity of commercial grade Phenthoate effects on biochemical parameters in an Indian major carp Labeo rohita under the controlled laboratory conditions. The median lethal concentration value (96 h LC50) of Phenthoate was found to be 2.1 mgl- 1 by using Finney’s Probit Method. Fish were exposed to sublethal concentration of 1/10th 96 h LC50 (0.21 mgl-1) for the period of 1 and 10 days respectively and the changes were assessed by using various methods.

A study on production practices being followed by organic tomato growers in Bailhongal taluk of Belagavi district of Karnataka. The primary data were collected from 60 organic tomato growers / farmers through structured questionnaire method for the study. Adoption of seedling preparation practices in cultivation of organic tomato crop. It was noticed that 93.33 per cent of the respondent farmers adopted the raised bed method followed by 91.66 percent of the farmers followed raise the beds with 1 m width and 3 m length with a height of 20 cm.

A field experiment was conducted at college farm, college of agriculture, Rajendra nagar during kharif season of 2014 to study the effect of different levels of sulphur on growth, yield and yield attributes of kharif sesame with application of farmyard manure. The experiment was laid out in split-plot design with two main treatments viz., M1- RDF (40-60-40 kg NPK ha-1), M2- RDF along with application of 25% N through farmyard manure and three sub treatments viz., S1- 10 kg S ha-1, S2- 20 kg S ha-1 and S3- 30 kg S ha-1.

The present investigation deals with the characterization of physic-chemical parameters of water from Gavase freshwater reservoir of Ajara tahsil, Kolhapur district, Maharashtra (India). The investigation was carried out during July 2011 to June 2012 for the analysis of physical parameters like air temperature, water temperature, transparency, electric conductivity and pH while chemical parameters like free CO2, alkalinity, total hardness, calcium, magnesium, chlorides, total dissolved solids, dissolved oxygen and biological oxygen demand.

An Odonata survey on downstream of Sone River was conducted in the surrounding of Bansagar dam in Madhya Pradesh from December, 2014 to November, 2015. The purpose of this one year investigation was to provide information on the diversity and abundance of Odonata. The study revealed that in catchments of river Sone, 22 species of 6 families under 2 sub orders of Odonata were encountered where family Libellulidae was the most diverse with 10 species in contrast to local reference sites of river.

An experiment on heterosis for yield and other component characters of 50 F1 hybrids of tomato derived from the crosses between 10 lines and 5 testers through line x tester technique was conducted at the Research Farm of the Department of Vegetable Science, CCS Haryana Agricultural University, Hisar during 2012-13 and 2013-14. The analysis of variance indicated significantly higher amount of differences among treatments for all the characters studied, suggesting the presence of genetic variation among the studied genotypes.

Fish diversity of River Narmada was studied during June 2015 to December 2015. Total 23 species are discussed here in Altogether, 23 fish species belonging to 16 genera and 10 families less than 6 orders were collected from four sampling stations spread along the river Narmada which revealed Cyprinidae was the most diverse family among all. The present study attempted to reveal the study and status of fish diversity for better conservation action plans and their modern management.

The experiment comprised of three spacing & fertilizer levels and two varieties was conducted during spring summer season of 2013-14 at Research Farm of Vegetable Science, CCS Haryana Agricultural University Hisar to study the effect of spacing and fertilizers on seed yield its attribute seed quality in okra. The seed yield and yield attributes were significantly affected by spacing, fertilizer and varieties.

Purpose: Efficacy of live viral vaccines is dependent on proper attenuation of vaccine virus. In addition to attenuation, cold chain maintenance also becomes essential to ensure vaccine quality till it reaches the end user. The transport of vaccines with required cold chain in tropical countries like India is comparatively difficult due to its hot and humid environment. The present study was carried out to see the trend analysis of 95 batches of measles vaccine stored at 2-8°C and their thermo stability after exposure at 37°C for 7 days, as such no study is published from India.

Background: Item analysis is the validation of a MCQs after it has appeared in a question paper. This post validation is done by analyzing the student’s answer to each item. When formalized, the procedure is called item analysis. Aim & objectives: To study MCQs of subject Hospital Administration among Post graduate doctors and carry out item analysis and to review MCQ’s and suggest improvements for defective items and also to list the uses of item analysis.

Nucleic acids control heredity on a molecular level and enzymes like L-asparaginase catalyses the conversion of L-asparagine to L-aspartate. L Asparaginase catalyzes the hydrolysis of the non-essential amino acid L-Asn to L-Asp and ammonia and is widely used for the treatment of hematopoietic diseases such as acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) and lymphomas. In the present work, we focus on the characteristic of the enzyme (family of glycosidase) L-Asparaginase that bears E.C.No and its properties.

Pregnant women have been widely recognized as a vulnerable group from health point of view. They need more food than normal person for the proper nourishment of the growing fetus. The field of nutrition of the pregnant women, particularly in rural area, has been sadly neglected. Against this backdrop, the study was carried out among 70 pregnant women from Guntur District, Andhra Pradesh, India.

The examination is performed in the proving grounds of the Agricultural Institute – Shumen, for the period from 2013 to 2014. The influence of some selective soil herbicides of sugar beet on the rhisosphere microflora was established in the proving grounds. Suppression of the soil bacteria by the herbicide S metalochlor in dose (2000 ml/ha) was observed. A total suppression of the microflora in dose 3000 ml/ha was observed as well. The herbicide propisochlor (2000 ml/ha) influences the quantity of the rhisosphere microflora.

The examination is conducted in the Phytopathology Laboratory of the “Episkop Konstantin Preslavski” University of Shumen – Shumen. The influence оf the indolyl acetic acid (IAA) on the growth and aggressiveness of the agent, causing the root decay in the sugar beet (Rhizoctonia solani Kuhn) has been examined under in vitro conditions.

Water quality analysis is one of the most important aspects in surface water studies. Assessment of water quality is a critical factor for assessing the pollution level. Water sample were collected from 12 disfferent sampling stations for evaluate the water quality status of river Narmada during September-2010. A total 16 water quality parameters were analyzed.

Photocatalytic waste water treatment process has potential as a low cost environment friendly treatment technique which has an additional advantage of sustainability and zero waste scheme. This advanced oxidation technology removes persistent organic compounds and microorganisms in water / waste water. I have performed experiments by using Titanium dioxide and Zinc oxide photocatalysts to compare their effect on waste water of reactive turquoise blue dye industry with UV-C light 66W and discussed results.

If we use multitubular reactor in place of conventional multibed reactor in manufacturing of Ethylbenzene, we do not need to use heat exchangers (reaction is extremely exothermic) So, here we can save capital cost and operating cost of around three to four heat exchangers. Hence, we can ultimately save energy and money. Here, we used HTRI programme for heat exchanger. We had to carry out manual calculations for design of heat exchangers to find out capital cost. We found out energy saving also.

The developed methods and algorithms of calculating transition processes of the main oil pipelines are presented in the paper in an example of MOP, taking into account adjusting devices in the pumping station (PS), with a continuous regulation of operation (performance) of the PS.

It is known, that many phenomena of neutrality are reduced to solving ordinary differential equation (ODE). There are several papers dedicated to solving ODE. In this paper, which compares many known algorithms applied to solving differential equations, also suggested an algorithm that uses hybrid methods and give a procedure for constructing higher order of accuracy hybrid methods. Concrete methods are constructed, and their advantages are indicated. In particularly suggested stable methods with the order of accuracy using two mesh points (for )

When machine learning algorithms are applied to data collected from the huge amount of data in the universe, it is generally accepted that the data has not been consistently collected. The absence of expected data elements is common and the mechanism through which a data element is missing often involves the informative relevance of that data element in a specific purpose. Therefore, the absence of data may have information value of its own.

This paper is based on project carried out at one Chemical unit at vatva, AhmedabadIt describes the recovery of waste heat from exhaust stream to preheat Spray-Dryerinlet air and designing of Heat Pipe Heat Exchanger as a waste heat recoverysystem. The total cost of the Heat Pipe Heat Exchanger with installation is 5, 00,000INR. It is proposed that the implementation of the heat recovery system will save190.6 KJ/Sec energy. The payback period of this heat recovery system come to be4 months, this is very attractive.

In this project, design of dual polarised MIMO sector antenna array is proposed to achieve high Gain of about 16dBi.The antenna is design for 4.9GHz to 5.9GHz Frequency band. It is design to achieve VSWR 1.9 for full band, return loss is of 15dB and isolation between 2 port is 28dB.A substrate material FR4 is used whose dielectric constant is 4.4. In practical it can be helpful to our hand-held device called mobile phones since there is a need of array of antenna in base stations. This antenna can be applicable to the wireless communication areas such as Wi-Fi and Wi-MAX.

With the rise of a global knowledge economy, universities and industry pool resources. This has resulted in a piling on the need for strategic alliances that go beyond the customary funding of distinctive research endeavours. Top notch research universities are at the facade of pioneering such collaborations. Such universities are intended to trot extensively by added investment, clearly stated visionary objectives, and pound the competiveness of industry, universities and vicinities.

The ultrasonic wave velocity in different composition of ternary liquid mixtures of water formic acid and butyric acid at different frequencies, at room temperature has been measured with the help of ultrasonic interferometer and for whole composition range isentropic compressibility (Ks), acoustic impedance (z) and relaxation time (Ʈ) have been calculated for these ternary mixtures.

The aim of this paper is to evaluate the structure of wastes from non-ferrous metals. Wastes from the production of metals were selected namely waste from the production of aluminum - red mud and the waste from the production of nickel - black nickel mud. Morphology of samples was documented by scanning electron microscope, phase analysis using diffraction techniques and the content of elements was determined by EDX analysis. The influence of pre-treatment of these wastes on the structure was also investigated.

Many approaches have been proposed for solving the stability problems found in power system operation. Interphase Power Controller (IPC) is new concept of controlling power flow Within AC network. Interphase Power Controller provide a solution for high short situations .The application is based on the series connection of impedances between different phases of the two (synchronous) sub networks to be interconnected. Interphase Power Controller provides passive solutions for normal and contingency conditions. Interphase power controller control the power flow and act as fault limiter.

In this paper a new approach is proposed to solve travelling salesman problem under fuzzy environment. The travelling distance from the city i to city j is considered to be not certain and is taken as triangular fuzzy numbers. In the proposed method a yager’s ranking technique is used to transform fuzzy travelling salesman problem into crisp travelling salesman problem and it is solved by using classical Hungarian method. Numerical examples are given to validate the proposed method.

In 2012, the International Energy Agency are publish that electricity consumption for lighting is about 20% of the total global electricity consumption, being about 49% of the total electricity consumption for lighting of the sector service. Around two thirds of the lighting systems nowadays are based on technologies developed before 1970, and they have lower performance that the current technology. A complete change of the lighting system and the implementation of control and regulation systems can provide relevant energy savings.

To assess the impact of seasonal trends on groundwater quality, samples were collected during pre-monsoon, post-monsoon, spring and winter seasons from selected locations of Itawa tehsil of Kota District of Rajasthan state (India) from 2011 to 2013 and determined physicochemical parameters like pH, TDS, specific conductivity, total alkalinity, magnesium, nitrate, sulphate, phosphate, potassium, sodium, hardness, chloride, and fluoride. Standard research techniques were used to evaluate the quality of groundwater and its suitability for irrigation and drinking purpose.

A series of new N-thiocarbamide-bispyrazolines 2(a-g) have been synthesized from the cyclization reactions of bischalcones 1(a-g) with thiosemicarbazide by refluxing under KOH and dry alcoholic conditions. The structures of these compounds were analyzed on the basis of their detailed IR, ¹H-NMR, 13C-NMR and ESI-MS spectral parameters. The prepared bispyrazolines were screened for their antimicrobial potencies against seven bacterial and five fungal strains. Most of the compounds displayed significant activity against tested microorganisms.

The behavior of a plate of the functionally graded material under concentrated loads was under consideration. Using the method of decomposition of the desired functions in series by Legendre polynomials on the transverse coordinate, three-dimensional problem for plates was reduced to a two-dimensional one. This approach has allowed us to take into account the transverse shear and normal stresses. On the basis of received equations, using the two-dimensional Fourier integral transform and the generalization method that was built with a special G-function, the fundamental solution was found.

The measure of malaria incidence on the basis of stratification of the population under study with respect to host and environmental factors is essential to know about the impact of causative/predictive factors. Therefore, to develop a suitable model based on causative/predictive factors on malaria incidence is most important. Here, we developed polynomial regression model to trace the impact of environmental factors on incidence of malaria cases in Lakhimpur district of Assam.

Egypt contains the highest prevalence of hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection in the world. The goal of this study was to elucidate where tissue inhibitor metalloproteases-1 (TIMP-1) acts as a diagnostic biomarker of HCV infection and studying the effect of the treatment of interferon for different intervals on TIMP-1 levels with studying the relation of TIMP-1 with different liver markers. This study was carried out on 65 blood samples divided into six groups. TIMP-1 and different liver markers were assessed in all groups.

Self-concept is the sole perspective from which one can understand an individual's behaviour. Academic performance is a complex student behavior and underlies several abilities, e.g., memory, previous knowledge or aptitude as well as psychological factors such as motivation, interests, temperaments or emotions. Home-environment or family environment refers to climate prevailing in the home, which varies from culture to culture, society to society and family to family.

The coffee production is a high-value activity for the economy of the Chiriqui province highlands, Republic of Panama, being of particular importance for the development of the rural communities, as well as for indigenous groups. Frequently, this activity is affected by several factors, including weeds, pests, climate change, among others. Weeds provoke great economic losses for coffee producers by interference with the growth and development of the coffee in the cultivated area.

This paper introduces Supercritical Fluid and the factors are considered why it is used for Extraction. This describes the classification and study of various models used for predicting solubility of solid solutes in Supercritical Fluid. Correlating and Predicting of solid solubility can be done by Semi-empirical Equations and different Equations of State. Due to the various limitations of empirical equations a more exact approach is to treat the calculation of solubility in a supercritical fluid just as any other phase equilibrium calculation.

Development of software quality, development effort etc is a common application of software metrics. A new tool as Fuzzy Logic offers a good technique for building models for software quality prediction. This paper illustrates the practice of estimation at a personal level using projects and presents the results obtained with a fuzzy rule based system and an ordinary multiple regression.

The aim of this study was to investigate and evaluate the construction characteristics of traditional water buffalo barns around Istanbul, considered as a pilot district in Turkey, regarding animal welfare. The research was conducted at 31 different administrations of Istanbul Water Buffalo Breeders Association. The 35.5 % of the investigated farms were small scale administrations whereas 64.5% of them were classified as medium scale.

The paper has attempted to determine how the situation of property rights arable land affects the development of smallholders in the Kat River Valley. To capture data, a questionnaire was administered through face-to-face interviews. Institutional analysis and ANOVA were used for descriptive analysis to describe the property rights situation, security of property rights and the impact of property rights on the development of smallholder farming.

The paper examined the impact of trade liberalization and deregulation on the wheat-flour-bread value chain and specifically the impact on the industry and poverty via three channels namely: price transmission; enterprises (employment and profits); and the government’s fiscal position. The industry is very sensitive to exchange rates and international prices given that Lesotho is a net importer of wheat. The impact has been negative for local producers (commercial and emerging).

This paper provides a summary of issues related to the evolution of computing Dominican Republic. Computers emerged in our society due to the relentless pursuit that man has to discover and develop new items for today's world. At first man enough to use your fingers or pebbles to count, but as he grew intellectually realized that was not enough with that system. That led him to create systems such as Abacus. The Arabic number system and the concept of zero are examples of the evolution of human thought, with a profound impact on our society.

Agriculture development in developing countries hinges on the sustained adoption of improved agriculture practices evolved by agriculture research system. The agriculture extension agencies across the world act as a bridge between the agriculture research system and farming community facilitating the flow of information between them. Farmers’ training is an important component of transfer of technology.

The current study seeks to investigate the gender differences in ego identity status of adolescents’ students’ in secondary schools in Enugu State. The normative survey design has been adopted for the present study. The population of the adolescents’ students in secondary schools in the SSIII in the six education zones in Enugu State was 2,000. The samples of the study were 800 adolescents’ students randomly selected from one education zone. The sample includes 410 boys and 390 girls. The ego identity scales was constructed by the researcher, and validated by experts.

The aim of the study is to understand the different aspects of bullying behavior in young children, in both genders with the varied socio-economic status. The focus is on various ways of bullying resiliency to make the children resilient against bullying during early childhood with the help of teachers and parents. This paper ascertains the types of bullying done by the children and how much they know about this behavior.

India is among the fastest growing countries with many metropolitan cities (e.g. Delhi, Mumbai, Chennai, Pune etc.). During last two-three decades more and more people migrated from rural areas to the metropolitan cities in India. Increased the urban populations enhanced the pressure on urban eco-system and eco-services. There are many urban issues and challenges and abysmal state of sanitation in the country is big critical problem. Sustainable development presents one of the most significant service delivery challenges related to sustainable sanitation and healthy life to people.

This research can be summarized as follows: This study clarifies the theoretic bases that medicinal promotion is based on as well as the specific quality of this product, and unveiling the most important affecting elements of promotions to choose the mixture of drug promotion, which might help to follow a right and beneficial promotion policy to market the Jordanian therapeutic products.

Oil shales in Egypt are widely distributed in the Western Desert, Eastern Desert and Sinai. They cover a wide age spectrum from middle Jurassic to upper Cretaceous. In this study different sample from El-Nakheil mine analyzed using X-ray diffraction, clay mineralogy organic geochemical analysis and bitumen extraction, to evaluate these oil shales.

From the standpoint of the clamour for debt relief which lately, has become the preoccupation of Developing World and especially those whose economies have been overwhelmed by external debt, to the emerging mantra called reform agenda (this appears to have taken centre-stage in the lexicon of the Developing World and, in countries undergoing the politics of democratic transition); which formed the fulcrum leading to the grant of debt relief to Nigeria. Most often, such reforms are largely seen as politically and in fact, externally motivated.

This paper aims to develop a performance measurement model that can be used to obtain an overall rating of the performance of a company with the inclusion of four dimensions which are, economic, environmental, social and operational. This model measures the fields of each dimension to allow an overall score. Which permit identification of areas where there is need for improvement, and thus manage overall performance of the company while having a detailed view. The tool can provide very useful interpretations for both researchers and practitioners.

The impact of web based peer editing is an under researched area in L2 writing. International literature in writing pedagogy suggested that such kind of study is not carried out before. To investigate this phenomenon third semester students N=14 were randomly chosen with a control group of N=7 and an experimental group of N=7.Both the groups were subject to pretest, posttest treatment. Both wrote an argumentative essay before the intervention. The control group was exposed to manual peer editing and the experimental group was subjected to the web based tool paper rater.

The study was conducted in sululta city, finfine liyu zone, North shoa of Oromia regional state, Ethiopia. The purpose of this study was to investigate the impact employee satisfaction and work motivation: the case of sululta city, finfine liyu zone civil servants. The data was collected and administered by means of a structured questionnaire based on the job satisfaction questionnaire. The survey was conducted in three purposively selected office which having the maximum number of respondent by selecting 30 sample through systematic random sampling technique.

Pulse beetle, Bruchus bilineatopygous is one the key insect pest of Albizia lebbeck and causes about 80% damage to seeds. Thirteen entomopathogenic fungi viz., Absidia corymbifera, Aspergillus amtelodami, A. niger, Fusarium oxysporum (3 strains), F. solani (4 strains), F. udum, Myrothecium roridum, and Trichoderma harizanum were isolated from the A. lebbeck seed borer, B. bilineatopygus and identified. Out of 13 entomopathogenic fungi, F. oxysporum followed by Absidia corymbifera was found to be the most effective against B.

This study discusses the accessibility of e-government based public information and its effect on people's participation in development. Respondents in this mixed methods research are 233 users of Through a simple random sampling technique, primary data were taken through the distribution of questionnaires were processed and analyzed using path analysis and interactive from Miles-Huberman.

The present study examines the role of intellectual capital in firm value and the transparency in the company's reported earnings. For this purpose, the companies listed in Tehran Stock Exchange were examined and 207 running within 2003 to 2012 were selected as the ultimate samples of the study. Multiple regressions were used to test assumptions and the company's size as well as its financial leverage variables was chosen as control variables. The results reveal that companies with a higher intellectual capital were of higher value.

This research was conducted for investigating the relationship between emotional divorce and marital satisfaction among Rasht teachers, statistical Society of this research was included all working teachers in Rasht that with regard to statistical Society size (6311 persons) based on Krejcie and Morgan’s table (1970) were selected first by stratified sampling method of schools in both Rasht school districts. Finally, 400 questionnaires were distributed in these schools based on Sample manifestation (married teachers).

A study was conducted to assess the ‘Impact’ of beneficiaries and non-beneficiaries of e-Velanmai (e-Agriculture) project implemented by the Tamil Nadu Agricultural University (TNAU) from 2007 to 2013. It was found that none of the beneficiary respondents (100 .00 %) had used ICT tools after completion of the e-Velanmai project. All the beneficiary respondents (100.00 %) desired that the e-Velanmai project should be continued.

The purpose of this study was to investigate perceived challenges and solutions in traffic management strategies of commercial motorcycles in Uasin Gishu County in Kenya. This was in light of concern of continuous reports of disorderliness and increased cases of accidents involving commercial motorcycles. Two research questions guided this study; what challenges were perceived in traffic management of commercial motorcycles and what perceived solutions would assist in the traffic management of commercial motorcycles.

Cooperative learning is widely endorsed as a pedagogical practice that promotes student learning. Recently, the research focus has moved to the role of teachers’ discourse during cooperative learning and its effects on the quality of group discussions and the learning achieved. Although the benefits of cooperative learning are well documented, implementing this pedagogical practice in classrooms is a challenge that many teachers have difficulties accomplishing.

The purpose of this study is to analyze the financial support method for environmental NGO and the change of organizational scale in environmental NGO at successive government time. And this study approached from the standpoint of new institutionalism. Kim Young-sam Government applied the method of direct financial support for environmental NGO. The organizational capacity of Korean Federation for Environmental Movement enlarged significantly at this time. Kim Dae-joong Government applied the method of direct financial support by public offering type.

The term inclusive education has come to refer to a philosophy of education that promotes the education of all pupils in mainstream schools. Under the inclusion model, students with special needs spend most or all of their time with non-disabled students. In schools where inclusive education is offered, both special needs children and those who are less challenged, regular children, are taught in the same classroom. In some countries, inclusive education is thought of as an approach to serve special educational needs children within general education settings.

There are requirements for the application and management of agricultural waste on farms. However, the primary reason behind managing agricultural waste is to make good sense both environmentally and economically. This paper will highlight strategies that can be adopted in the agricultural waste management so that the farmers become aware and take full advantage of the various possibilities of plant waste recycling and further utilization for increasing economic. This paper includes wastes generated from crops like paddy, wheat, sugarcane, mustard and cotton.

Commercial Banks apply Forward Integration Credit Risk Mitigation Mechanisms (FICRMMs) to promote credit access, security and productivity for various sectors. Credits make a significant portion in business’ capital structure and performance; and are notably the main business product for the Commercial Banks. The agribusiness sector contributes 53% employment in developing countries, and over 80% in Kenya, while commercial banks’ credits to the sector has registered decreasing trends between 2005 and 2014; ranging from 6.8% to 3.9% of the entire commercial banks credit portfolio.

A review is given on documentation of insects of Order Odonata .Data indicates that very less no. of insect faunal diversity have been documented of order Odonata from Pachmarhi Biosphere Reserve Madhya Pradesh, India. Current status, of documented species of Order- Odonata are17 in nos. including Dragonfly and Damselfly from PBR.

Leaves of Taxus wallichiana Zucc. from NE and NW Himalayas were studied to determine the variation in anatomical characteristics of both regions. The present study revealed that the leaves of NE Himalayas were larger in size than that of NW Himalayas. Anatomically, the spongy parenchyma of selected sites (except Morsing) of NE Himalaya did not contain pigmented cells. The number of palisade layers, stomatal bands and stomatal density were greater in leaves of NE Himalayas. Also, palisade cell size and vascular bundle size were larger in leaves of NE Himalayas as compare to NW Himayalas.

Introduction: The current increase in the use of motorcycles in Nigeria has been associated with an increased incident rate of motorcycle road traffic accidents (MRTAs). The family and social features of victims might give an insight to the impact on the society. Aim and Objectives: To determine the family and social demographics of victims of motorcycle road accidents Materials and Methods: A prospective, hospital-based descriptive study was conducted and eligible patients that presented to the Emergency Department were enrolled as subjects.

Thoracic kidney is a rare anomaly; the rarest of all renal Ectopia types. Patients with thoracic kidneys are usually asymptomatic and the condition is discovered during radiological evaluation for other conditions. Here we describe a case of thoracic kidney in an 8 year old female who came with a history of pain in right iliac fossa; The Ultrasonography of abdomen showed the evidence of renal Ectopia on right side. No other anomalies were noticed.

Background: Lot of research has focused on working memory (WM) deficits as trait markers and endo phenotypes in schizophrenia. Acute and transient psychotic disorders (ATPD) have on the other hand been traditionally viewed as completely remitting good prognosis psychosis and very little research has focused on whether cognitive deficits similar to schizophrenia are present in such patients. No study is available on WM in such patients in remission or on their relatives.

Marjolin’s ulcers (MU) are rare malignancies arising from chronically inflammed, or scarred skin especially in burn wounds. Persistence of burn ulcer, induration or elevation of margin of such ulcer, ulceration or nodule formation over a burn scar may indicate malignant transformation. The commonest malignancy arising in MU is squamous cell carcinoma (SCC). Common clinical presentation is flat indurated ulcer and less frequent presentation is exophytic papillary growth. Diagnosis is made by tissue biopsy from multiple sites including the margins of the lesion.

Background: Acute inflammatory conditions are one of the most common problems faced in the clinical setting. Plasma cholinesterase has been shown to have variable correlation with chronic inflammatory conditions like Diabetes, Alzheimer’s etc. This study aims to assess its correlation in acute inflammatory conditions like sepsis Objective: To assess the usefulness of Cholinesterase as a marker in Acute Inflammatory conditions.

Cleidocranial dysplasia is a congenital anomaly that is clinically characterized by complete defect or hypoplasia of the clavicle and abnormal ossification of the skull. In the maxillofacial region, it has various abnormalities such as reversed occlusion with hypoplastic midface, persistence of deciduous teeth with delayed eruption of permanent teeth, supernumerary teeth and malalignment. A case of cleidocranial dysplasia in a 17-year-old female visited our hospital.

The first step of the research is the synthesis of a new agent derived from This is done by its conversion into phenyl hydrazine. At this point a number of products may be derived; addition of fructose results in the formation of X23, addition of D-ribose results in the formation of X3, whilst addition of C6H5CHO results in the formation of F57. Furthermore, addition of NaOH produces X2) Our study set out to investigate the analgesic activity of Naproxen (20 mg/kg body weight) and to compareit toa newly modified compound of naproxen by the addition of a chemical group.

Introduction: The present study was planned to assess communication skills of nursing students. Method: The study is a descriptive study. Sample for the study included 202 nursing students attending Artvin Çoruh University Health Academy. “Socio-demographic characteristics form” and “Communication Skills Assessment Scale” were used as data collection tools. Findings: Communication skills mean scores of the students demonstrated differences based on the age group.

Background: Right ventricule(RV) function affects the outcome in valvular heart disease but it less assessed in mitral stenosis. Our study aims to define the incidence of RV dysfunction in patients with moderate to severe rheumatic mitral stenosis using simple parameters and to correlate it with other echocardiographic parameters. Methods: 75 patients with moderate to severe rheumatic mitral stenosis and 24 controls underwent echocardiographic examinations.

Background and Purpose: Maternal Vitamin D deficiency is a global public health problem. The main objective of this prospective cohort study is to assess the independent effect of maternal 25-hydroxyvitamin D levels in early pregnancy on the risk of GDM and PIH. Methods: 574 nulliparous mothers with singleton pregnancies attended the antenatal out-patient department of our institution during the study period from July 2013 to June 2014 and were selected after taking proper history and investigations.

Emergence of multi drug resistance (MDR) strains of Acinetobacter baumannii (A. baumannii), resistant to most of the available antibacterial drugs is of great concern globally. Management of the infections caused by these MDR strains especially pneumonia is a great challenge for physicians and clinical microbiologists. In the present study, we discuss a case of a 71 year old male patient diagnosed with MDR A.

Oral squamous cell carcinoma is the most common malignant neoplasm of oral mucosa, representing more than 90%. Tobacco and alcohol has been considered as the classical risk factors. Human papilloma Virus has been proposed as an etiological risk factor since 2007. Thirty five cases diagnosed with OC their ages and gender matched with controls were enrolled in this study. Fifty-five un-stimulated whole saliva samples (35 OC and 20 apparently health subjects) were collected.

Skin mycoses are caused mainly by dermatophytes, which are fungal species that primarily infect areas rich in keratin such as hair, nails and skin. In most of the dandruff sufferers, hair fall is a very common problem. In our study, we detected the fungal infections associated with dandruff on the Medical students scalp using staining technique and cultura media. Moreover, the preliminary study was planned to identify only fungal infections present in dandruff scalps. Altogether 4 different types of fungi were encountered from 50 samples.

Gingival diseases include a group of complex entities which are caused by various etiologic factors. Every condition displays a characteristic set of signs and symptoms. However, these may overlap in different conditions and may be further complicated by the presence of dental plaque, presence of other local etiologic factors and their severity.

Introduction: Opioid overdose occurs when a person takes opioid or opioid in combination with other drugs, in quantities that body cannot handle. Overdose is one of the commonest causes of death among opioid users. With the rising number of drug users in our state, incidences of drug overdose is bound to increase. Objectives: 1. To find out the number and profile of overdose cases presenting to different Health Care institutions under this study.2.To find out the knowledge and practices of Health Care Providers on overdose management.

Liver is acommon site for many primary as well as secondary diseases which may be symptomatic or remain silent and diagnosed only on autopsy many times. The present retrospective study was conducted in department of Pathology during the period of 3.7yr i.e. (January 2012 to September 2015).Total1348 cases were examined. This cross-sectional study was aimed to know the incidence of various (symptomatic or silent) liver diseases and also to find out the type of liver diseases in relation to age and sex of the studied cases.

Scimitar syndrome or pulmonary venolobar syndrome is a rare, complex and variable cardio-pulmonary malformation, characterized by partial anomalous pulmonary venous connection. It can present in neonatal period as well as later in life. We present a case of 13 year old female who presented with DKA in type 1 diabetes mellitus and was diagnosed with pulmonary venolobar syndrome. Considering the rareness of the syndrome and its unusual form of presentation, this case is reported.

Road traffic accidents (RTA) have been the bane of the modern civilization accounting for considerable loss to the nation. Head injuries are leading causes of death from vehicle crashes with many deaths occurring despite optimal use of the available treatment facilities. Hence the present study was conducted to know the patterns of head injuries in fatal accidents involving vehicles. This study was conducted from 1st sept 2013 to 1st sept 2014 at MGM Hospital attached Mortuary, Aurangabad.

Aim: Maintaining the integrity of the natural dentition is the central goal of dentistry. Intentional re-implantation is defined as intentional removal of tooth and reinsertion into extraction socket before or after endodontic treatment. It aims at most conservative option that satisfies individual esthetic and functional requirements while retaining the natural teeth and smile. Materials and Methods: The patient was examined and subjected to periapical radiograph.

Background: Disturbed sleep and sleep deprivation is common among ICU patients. Use of eye masks and ear plugs may be a valuable to patients attempting to sleep in intensive care units. This randomized control trial aims to assess the efficacy of ear plugs and eye mask in improving the sleep pattern among critically-ill patients. Method: The study was conducted in January 2014 in selected ICUs of a tertiary care hospital. 100 patients were selected by convenience sampling and were randomized to control and experimental group using parallel group design.

Head-and-Neck cancer is the sixth most common cancer worldwide, accounting for 5−6% of all cancer cases. Surgical resection and/or radiotherapy have long been regarded as the standard treatment, while chemotherapy can be added as an adjunct. However, conventional chemotherapy has certain drawbac7ks like non-specific distribution, short circulation time and tumour resistance.

Purpose: Childhood cataract is a debiliting condition with social burden. If it is not treated early and properly it may lead to permanent blindness due to amblyopia. Purpose of this study is to discuss results of early management of cataracts with etiologies like congenital, trauma in children. Methods: Ten eyes in eight children with cataract were studied in detail at ophthalmology OPD. All children were operated by same surgeon under general anesthesia. Phacoemulsification with Intraocular lens implantation was done. Main tunnel was sutured by 10-0 viacryl.

The Palatogingival groove is a developmental, anatomic aberration of variable extent and depth, that often leads to a combined Endodontic-Periodontic lesion. Management of such developmental anomalies stand a clinical challenge to the operator. This article aims to brief a case of type-III Palatogingival groove which was otherwise indicated for extraction, was treated successfully with Intentional reimplantation.

The high prevalence of patients with asthma caused by cockroach allergens has been reported around the world as well as in India (30%). The crude non-standardized cockroach extracts are still used for diagnosis and treatment. Commercial cockroach allergen extracts are reported to vary in protein content and electrophoretic banding patterns indicating to batch to batch variations and pose a challenge to the clinicians for accurate diagnosis and efficacious immunotherapy (Gaur et al., 2009; Burastero 2011; Özdemir 2014).

Low available phosphorus (P) still remains a major limitation to maize (Zea mays L.) productivity in low P soils. The objectives of this study were to (i) determine the extent of genetic variation in P efficiency among selected Kenyan maize under low P soils (ii) select P efficient maize experimental hybrids. A total of 32 experimental hybrids were evaluated for variation in tolerance to low P at high P (36kgP/ha) and low P (6kgP/ha) conditions across four locations using split plot arrangement in RCBD replicated three times.

Root-knot nematode, Meloidogyne is one of the most devastating nematode pests of crops with its more than 5500 host crops. This a polyphagus nematode pest distributed all over the tropical, subtropical as well as temperate regions of the globe. As more the number of species is pouring down under this genus Meloidogyne, proper identification is very much essential for its management either through conventional or biotechnological way. The nematode was described under different genus time to time by various authors.

Impatiens grandis Heyne ex Wallich is an evergreen, perennial shrubaceous balsam species facing a severe threat in the nature due to various factors. One of the factor is it own reproductive inefficiency and progeny recruitment. Hence the present investigation focused on floral biology and breeding systems of the species enlightening on phenology, pollen biology, pollen-pistil interaction, pollinators and breeding system to unravel the possible reasons for its rarity and endangerment. Flowers blooms between 0300-0500 h and anthers dehisced one day before anthesis confirmed the protandry.

Despite the diversity of species of annual forage legumes that may be grazed in Algeria, few have been used to feed livestock. The use of these forages can improve livestock nutrition in the context of sustainable development. The valuation of plant genetic resources and knowledge of species and research pastoral interest in food is of paramount importance hence the choice of this work aimed at the agro-morphological characterization of three species of vetch ((Vicia ervilia, V. narbonensis and V. sativa) in the semi-arid region of Setif - Algeria-.

Aquatic systems suitable for variety of primary producers, animals, birds, may native or migratory, fishes and all related biotic and abiotic components. They form different food chains, food web and mineral cycling ways as well as responsible several biological products. Phytoplankton species produce above the half of earth’s primary productivity. Kalvala reservoir located near to mandal Veena vanka of Karimnagar district, Telangana. 50 algal species occurred, 6 from Bacillariophyceae with 12%of total species contribution, 26 species from chlorophyceae, 18 species from class Cyanophyceae.

The pollen sterility revealed an increasing trend with increasing concentrations of mutagen in both the cultivars of chickpea. Both the cultivars of chickpea namely BDN 9-3 and PG-5 demonstrated a more or less similar response as regards pollen sterility with increasing concentrations of the two mutagens. The maximum sterility could be seen at 0.15% EMS and 0.03% SA in both the cultivars of chickpea. The results in the present study demonstrated that the frequency of pollen sterility was more in EMS treatments in both cultivars of chickpea.

The haematological and serum biochemical studies has been carried out in two types of fresh water fishes collected from different habitat. The fresh water fish, Notopterus notopterus collected from a river and Channa marulius collected from a pond. The fish, N.notopterus is a continuously moving fish and frequently comes to the surface for gulping air and also respires through gills. The fish, Channa marulius remains in the bottom of pond and spends more time, very occasionally comes to the surface for gulping air.

Studies on seasonal incidence of sapota fruit borer, Phycita erythrolophia Hampson (Pyralidae: Lepidoptera) infesting sapota Manilkara achras (Mill.) Forsberg were carried out in sapota orchard of Agriculture College, Dharwad, University of Agricultural Sciences, Dharwad, Karnataka, India during 2013–2014. Observations were recorded from four sapota genotypes viz., Cricket ball, Kalipatti, DSH-1 and DSH-2. The fruit borer was active throughout the year with a varying degree of infestation.

Agriculture has a significant effect on the environment. Declining water quality, loss of wildlife habitat, reduced biodiversity, and emissions of greenhouse gases are some of the major concerns specifically linked to agriculture. Contamination of soil, water and air, fragmentation of habitats and loss of wildlife, loss of biodiversity, increased flooding and drought, soil erosion and increasing greenhouse gases may be inappropriate practices agriculture and land use. Well as agricultural streams and rivers affect water Quality.

Mahua (Madhuca longifolia) belongs to Sapotaceae family. The flowers of Mahua tree are fermented to produce an alcoholic drink called Mahua, country liquor. The cost of dried mahua flowers is quite less in comparable to other raw materials source. Tribal men and women consider the tree and Mahua drink as a part of their cultural heritage. They consumed this liquor in all the social gatherings and ceremonies. It is cheaper than IMFL (Indian Made Foreign Liquors) and other country liquors so for a common public, it is quite available, and they consume a huge amount.

Earth’s seasons are characterized by differences in temperature and day length. Four different seasons spring, summer, autumn and winter that are exist only in temperate zones. These zones are widespread between latitudes 23.5 degrees of North (and south), 66.5 degrees of North (and south). In tropical or subtropical regions there is no significant seasonal changes and there are only two seasons, wet and dry seasons. Polarize zones have just two seasons, light and dark seasons.

Experiments were conducted to find out the efficacy of newer insecticides as foliar spray against leaf eating caterpillar in soybean in farmer’s field during kharif season 2013-14. Foliar sprays of newer molecules of insecticides viz., flubendiamide 480 SC @, spinosad 45 SC @ 187.5 ml/ha, lambda cyhalothrin 5 EC @ 40 g/ha, emamectin benzoate 1.9 EC @ 200 ml/ha, methomyl 40 SP @ 1 kg/ha, chlothianidin 50 WDG @ 250 g/ha, indoxacarb 14.5 SC @ 200 ml/ha and thiodicarb 80 DP @ 400 ml/ha offered excellent protection against leaf eating caterpillar, S. litura infesting soybean.

Lean has become a buzz topic in today’s arena of competition. Looking at the increasing ability of lean to provide answers to the problem of global warming, this study was planned with the aim to comparatively assess the environmental performance among lean and non-lean initiated apparel units of National Capital Region (India) in terms of environment performance indicator ‘Carbon footprint’. Apparel units were selected using inclusion or exclusion criteria from the member list of Apparel Export Promotion Council, Gurgaon, India.

Fruits and vegetables are valued for not only the nutrients but also for the nutraceuticals like antioxidants in them. They are the most important dietary sources of nutraceuticals that are valued for preventing lifestyle diseases like cancer, diabetes and cardiovascular disease. Such foods should be cooked/processed in a way to retain the goodness of nutraceuticals. Retention of antioxidants during cooking such as boiling, pressure cooking, microwave cooking, stir-frying and frying of vegetables was investigated.

Zooplankton diversity is one of the most important ecological parameters in water quality assessment. Zooplankton is good indicator of the changes in water quality because they are strongly affected by environmental conditions and due to their short life cycle, these communities often respond quickly to environmental change and water quality. They occupy an intermediate link between phytoplankton and fish. Hence qualitative and quantitative studies of zooplanktons are of great importance.

Different cultural packages were assessed to determine their effectiveness in controlling diamondback moth (DBM) infestation on Copenhagen market cabbage variety. ‘Neem leaf extract+tomatointercrop+manure+mulch’; ‘Tomato intercrop+manure+mulch’; and ‘Neem leafextract+manure+mulch’ treatments were compared with commercial pesticide i.e. dimethoate and unsprayed treatments (control).

Probiotics, due to their beneficial gut effects, are widely sold in combination with a variety of food products such as infant feeds and health beverages. An in-vitro study was carried out to test three commonly used Asian food supplements - brown rice (BR), white rice (WR), American ginseng (AG) and casein hydrolysate (CH) for their influence on the growth on three probiotic bacteria Lactobacillus acidophilus, Lactobacillus bulgaricus and Streptococcus thermophilus.

The investigations were carried out to study the efficacy of entomopathogenic agents against third instar larvae of Plutella xylostalla (L.) under laboratory conditions. The experiment was laid out in a complete randomized block design with 9 treatments replicated three times. The treatments comprised of M. anisopliae @ 2g/L, M. anisopliae @ 4g/L, M. anisopliae @ 6g/L, B. bassiana @ 2g/L, B. bassiana @ 4g/L, B. bassiana @ 6g/L, H. indica @ 100 IJs/L, S. carpocapsae @100 IJs/L and untreated control.

A pioneering study was conducted to reveal the spider diversity in surroundings of river Narmada in central India. The objectives of the present study were to explore the diversity and abundance of spider fauna at different habitats. In total 26 species of spiders belonging to 10 families were observed. Thus family Araneidae was the most dominant family exploring 35% of species. The Narmada Valley area is home to several species rich endemic flora and harbors different species of fauna. The area prevail humid and moderate rainfall and climate.

In this paper, the utilization and potential effect of natural medicinal plants as antioxidant and antimicrobial in meat is reviewed. Lipid oxidation and microbial are well-known as the main causes of quality loss in meat and its products. Lipid oxidation occurs due to generation of free radicals reactive oxygen species (ROS) and reactive nitrogen species (RNS) from fractions of both lipid and protein.

Members of superfamily Lepocreadioidea are of considerable interest biologically as they comprise important groups of worms in range of marine habitats. In the present study, morphological characterization of Proenenterum myripristiae (Family: Lepocreadiidae), a new digenetic trematode infecting the intestine of Pinecone soldierfish Myripristismurdjan, was described using light microscopy for the first time from Coasts of Red Sea at Hurghada City, Egypt. Fish samples were trapped alive during the period of August 2014–May 2015 and necropsied for any helminth parasites.

Heavy metals are a major problem because they are toxic and tend to accumulate in living organisms. This study was carried out with the aims of studying on histopathology of Zn(SO4) toxicity on gill and liver tissues of catfish Clarias batrachus within the period of 96 h. Totally, 140 fishes with mean weight 60 ± 10 g were stocked in 12 aquariums with capacity of 200 L water and divided in to 3 trails including control, 4 ppm and 8 ppm of Zn with 3 replicates.

Patulin is one of the most evasively considered yet extensively studied mycotoxins in apple juice. This survey on the presence of the mycotoxin-patulin, was conducted from 2013-2014 on commercial apple products which were purchased from the supermarkets and retail shops in Mysore. In this study, a total of 42 samples of apple products were analysed for patulin content, including apple juices, apple-based baby foods, apple-based jam, and mixed fruit juices. 38 samples had patulin below detectable limits.

Pulses (grain legumes) are the second most important group of crops worldwide. Globally, 840 million people are under nourished mainly on account of inadequate intake of proteins, vitamins and minerals in their diets. Under stored conditions , pulses suffer maximum grain loss due to dreaded stored grain bruchid pests. Studies on the biology of pulse beetle Callosobruchus chinensis (Linn) (Coleoptera: Bruchidae) on the stored cowpea revealed that the insect completed six generations from April to October.

Ageing is the natural degenerative last phase of human being. In old age Vata dosha remaining the dominant factor in carrying out various physiological activities if not taken care of by adopting in required life style and dietary habits then it induces fasten degenerative process especially in already immune compromised person. Neurological disorders need greater attention as the age advances. Many neurological disorders such as Dementia, neuromuscular disorders (Paralysis) affect the geriatric population. Stroke is medical emergency. It is also known as brain Attack.

The present study focus on developing new Bacterial Blight resistant rice lines, using markers assisted backcrossing (MABC). A total of 536 SSR markers covering all / distributed throughout the 12 rice chromosomes were screened between the two parents for polymorphism, out of which 81 markers were found to polymorphic and all the 81 markers were screened in the breeding population. For each backcross generation of JGL1798/B95-1, the confirmed plants were screened with 81 polymorphic markers distributed on 12 chromosomes.

The present attempt has made to study the diversity of zooplankton with special reference to quality and quantity from vadgaon freshwater reservoir from Kolhapur district of Maharashtra, India. The study revealed that 16 species of zooplankton were noted belonging to 4 groups namely, rotifers, cladocers, copepodes and ostracods. Qualitatively, roifers and cladocers were observed dominant while quantitatively rotifers were dominant. All four groups have shown monthly variation during both the years and noted lower during monsoon season while higher during winter as well as summer season.

In a rapidly changing world, with altered food habits and stressful life styles, consumers are demanding nutraceutical foods that contain basic nutritional properties with additional health benefits. Resistant starch is defined as the total amount of starch and the products of starch degradation that resists digestion in the small intestine. Resistant starch (RS) is one of the most abundant dietary sources of non-digestible carbohydrates and has a number of physiological effects beneficial for health.

In the digital world copyright protection and authentication have become more significant, in order to achieve this digital different watermarking techniques are introduced for the security. We propose an algorithm in wavelet domain using wavelet transformation for a digital invisible watermarking is to embedded into a QR code image. In our method we embed a binary image logo considered as watermark embedded into one of selected wavelet subband.

The current studies emphasises the synthesis of SnO-CoO nanocomposites by bottom up approach adopting sol gel method. These nano particles were effectively employed as nano adsorbent for the treatment of tartrazine (TR) dye assisted simulated waste water under the influence of variable conditions to achieve best adsorption capacity. The effect of adsorbent amount, adsorbate concentration, stay time and pHpzc were studied. Adsorption isotherm models of Langmuir, Freundlich, Dubinin Radushkevich and Temkin were also employed to check the feasibility of the adsorption process.

Sound absorbing materials can be used to attenuate sound travelling in ducts. Typically, sound absorbing materials are used to line the internal surfaces of ductwork or are used in splitters in packaged attenuators. A duct system was constructed to test various materials such as rockwool, polyurethane and polyisoprene where the expansion chamber that filled with these materials has different diameters 16, 20 and 24 cm.

Finite Element Method is used to determine the natural frequency of beam whereas the experimentation is performed using Fast Fourier Transform analyser. In experimentation, cantilever beam with crack are considered. The experimental results are validated with the results of FEM software. This formulation can be extended for various boundary conditions as well as varying cross sectional areas. A crack in a structural member introduces local flexibility that would affect vibration response of the structure.

Benefits of submaximal exercise in maintaining good health and in prevention of diseases are well known. However, there is conflict of studies reporting interaction between submaximal exercise and pro-oxidant/antioxidant balance. Generation of excess free radicals is known to impair many physiological and biochemical functions resulting in overall performance decrement.

The Living Labs approach represents a new way to address the research activities where innovations, such as new services, products or application enhancements, are validated in empirical environments within specific regional contexts.

In this work, barium iron niobate, Ba (Fe1/2Nb1/2) O3 powder has been successfully synthesized by the sol-gel method. The formation of the perovskite structure of BFN was followed with the help of X-ray diffraction (XRD), and has shown a crystallite size at a nanometric scale. The pure perovskite phase was obtained at relatively low temperature (900°C /8 h) compared to the conventional solid-state reaction.

This research work is headed towards deriving a relation between the number of teams and the total matches played in the entire season. The method uses the graphical approach using excels spread sheet and the diagonal square matrix. For league planners, it is relationships that will enable them plan the league effectively.

Switched boost inverter (SBI) is a single-stage power converter derived from Inverse Watkins Johnson topology. Unlike the traditional buck-type voltage source inverter (VSI), the SBI can produce an ac output voltage that is either greater or less than the available dc input voltage. Also, the SBI exhibits better electromagnetic interference noise immunity when compared to the VSI, which enables compact design of the power converter. Another advantage of SBI is that it can supply both dc and ac loads simultaneously from a single dc input.

Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are a large group of organic pollutants with related to their structures and properties. Strong interest in the field of PAHs is mainly due to the large scale of environmental contamination and the mutagenic and carcinogenic activity of these pollutants which proved in many studies. Foodstuffs can be contaminated by PAHs that are present in air, soil and water or are formed during food processing and cooking. Extraction procedure is a key factor that affects the analysis of PAHs present and it is the most time consuming step during analysis.

As separation techniques, pervaporation occupies a special place in the chemical industry. It is the only membrane process primarily used to purify the chemicals. Pervaporation, in its simplest form, is an energy efficient combination of membrane permeation and evaporation. Separation of the alcohol-water mixture by hybrid distillation pervaporation has received increasing attention in industry. Normally Conventionally azeotropic distillation is used to remove the water from an azeotropic ethanol/water mixture.

The new algorithm based on substitution cipher and transposition cipher, we replace the plaintext by another characters but in new method based on delete some bits from plaintext after convert it in binary code and put this bits in another place in plain text And traced back to the text, the algorithm is simple and use two keys.

There has been an increase in the use of concentrically braced frames, damage during past sesmic effects suggests that braced systems may perform poor due to limited ductility and energy dissipation, failure in the connection between the braces and the frame and asymmetric in tension and compression. One way of improving the performance of CBF systems in terms of limiting inter story drifts is the use of smart materials in the bracing system.

In this paper works focuses of an application that performs handwritten English character recognition in hand and an image visible by the human eye. The objective of this type of character recognition is a process which is used to recognition the pattern to make the use of visual capabilities to extract handwritten English character and image recognition is taken to further process by preprocessing technique which is based on the recognition with the help of Adaptive Resonance Theory.

The study investigated the perception of job satisfaction among the executives of Bhilai Steel Plant, a public sector employer in Indian steel industry. Quantitative research design was used to investigate the magnitude of job satisfaction through survey technique. In all, 548 questionnaires were answered in full in which there were 445 males and 103 females. The data collected was analyzed using Microsoft Excel and R. Multiple regression analysis and Pearson Product Moment Correlation Coefficient were used to examine the relationship between job satisfaction and the independent variables.

Refrigerated air dryers are basically a refrigeration system which is used to remove water vapor from compressed air. Refrigerator, heat exchanging unit are to be placed in a canopy which is affected by static and dynamic stresses acting on it. In this paper the load carrying capacity of canopy base has been analyzed using finite element analysis method with various approaches for the same loading condition. From the analysis results it is concluded that the deformation value of the canopy base varies with respect to overall weight of the refrigerated air dryer and thickness of base plate.

This experimental project was to study the structural behavior of a scaled three bay four storey RCC frame with brick infill in the central bay under cyclic loading. Normally brick infill contributes as shear wall up to failure and subject to diagonal failure. An attempt was made to extend the reinforcement from the columns of the frame to the brick layers and embed with concrete to form a monolithic RCC strip to strengthen the interface of infill walls and RCC frame and thereby diagonal cracks were prevented in the infill.

In Full- occluded vehicle only detection can perform, to detect the full-occluded vehicle evaluate the width of vehicle and evaluate the ratio of length and width of vehicle. Un-occluded vehicle is classified on predefined attribute. Partial occlude vehicle first detection is perform by using convexity, second resolving is performed by intersecting line which separate the occluded object into individual part, at last classified the resolved object according to the predefined attributes.

This study was aimed at assessing; the level of ergonomic values of public utility vehicles from the side of anthropometry, the level of ergonomics public transport from the side of anthropometry, and reviewing QFD (quality function deployment) the priority of the technical dimension based on the attributes of vehicles utilities and facilities of the public transport. Data collection is done by measuring the level of interest, satisfaction, and future expectations. Anthropometric data and the level of improvement priority are examined by modifying GFD matrix.

Alternative assessment methods under proper conditions significantly improve learners’ language skills. However, under improper practices alternative assessment methods can be the vehicle of dependency, inequality of individual’s contributions to the task and unfair grading. The subjects of the study were 11 teachers and 95 students. The study was designed to see the extent of teachers’ use of alternative assessment methods in EFL classrooms; and to examine problems in using alternative assessment methods in Dilla University.

The quest for the effective methods of teaching social studies in Nigerian schools is a continuous one. This research is designed to investigate the effects of integrated group based mastery learning Approach in the teaching of social studies in Junior Secondary Schools in Benin Metropolis. The problem of learners’ poor performance and underachievement in social studies has been a major issues of concern and interest in the Nigeria educational sector. Two research questions were raised with two corresponding hypotheses to guide the study.

The importance of healthful school environment in the enhancement of effective teaching and learning cannot be overemphasized. It is a fact that adequate physical structures in a school not only enhance greatly the efficiency and proficiency of teachers but also facilitate good understanding and comprehension on the part of the learners. Thus, a good and healthful school environment enhances effective learning, imperative for the realization of educational objectives and, therefore, economic growth and development and social transformation of the society.

Turn the tap off while brushing your teeth. Switch the lights off while walking out of the room. Recycle, reuse and reduce. Make donations and participate in worthy causes. Think of various ways of how you can make daily contributions to lessen the carbon footprints and making this planet a better place to live. Today, it is everyone’s responsibility to save the environment and make it sustainable for our coming generations. It is considered as everyone’s duty to act in a socially responsible way.

This paper examines the interplay between insurgency and counter-insurgency elements within north-eastern Nigeria as a result of the activities of Boko Haram insurgents that emerged since 2002 with the sole aim of implementing the Islamic Sharia in the country. Other factors also assist in the emergence of the Islamic fanatism such as socio-economic and political factor. We examined the effectiveness of security force operations as the main strategy adopted to counter the insurgent group and its effectiveness or otherwise.

One of the main objectives of the secondary school 8-4-4 system in Kenya is to prepare students for self-reliance, further training and further education. Christian Religious Education in secondary schools in Kenya occupies a key position in the curriculum. This is so because it enables the learners to integrate all subjects of the curriculum into a more mature view of themselves, their relationships with their environment, both physical and cultural, their fellow human beings and God.

The four commissive acts (promise, threat, guarantee, pledge) are found in most languages. They are considered as important acts in maintaining the social relationships between individuals in any society. These acts can be performed in different fields of life, such as: social, religion, and political relationships, whether they can be used explicitly or implicitly. But, sometimes, an ambiguity may arise in applying the previous acts in political speeches because these acts happened between the presidents and their peoples.

Many student entering community colleges are referred to one or more levels of developmental education. Enrollment is the process through the student is reach their goals and regular student are more active then the part time of student. It should be noted that employment opportunities, which is a unique item on the career-community college survey and included in the chart, was the top enrollment reasons for attending these community college, with most percent of students indicating it was important or very important to their decision.

“Timely sowing results in half the production” is an important quote of rainfed agriculture and preparedness for that depends on how accurately we predict the monsoon. Rainfall is highly variable in both temporal and spatial dimension. The dependency of rainfall forecast can be increased by using higher resolution rainfall data in both space and time. The existing pre-monsoon sowing week of Tamil Nadu was calculated long back at Agro Climatic Zone level and which is only seven for entire Tamil Nadu state.

In the age of globalization, adolescent girls often struggle with certain specific challenges not experienced beforehand. Issues such as gender discrimination, eve teasing, alcoholism, drug abuse, trafficking, early marriage, adolescent pregnancy, rape and cybercrimes are quite rampant today. In order to understand various challenges of adolescent girls a study was conducted among the sample of 600 adolescent girls from 15 schools of Malappuram district in the state of Kerala.

The present study was conducted to examine the effects of institutional credit on cost, returns and profitability in the Tumkur district of Karnataka State during 2008-09. A sample of 120 respondents was selected in which sixty were the borrowers and sixty were non-borrowers the same area. Sample t-test was used to compare the production and income of beneficiaries. The analysis revealed that the income of beneficiary farm category was higher than that of non-beneficiaries.

Branding according to empirical literature is the creation of three dimensional characters of a product. It is further described in terms of name, packaging, colours and symbols that help to differentiate the products from its rivals. And also helps the customers to develop a relationship with the product. The practice of product branding is very crucial in determining the degree of sales performance of business organisations. The purpose of this study is to find out the benefits of product branding and the impact on sales performance of manufacturing firms.

Traditionally, men spend most of their time on tasks for which payment is received or tasks that are clearly within the realm of economic activity. However, while a large number of women work outside the home and are remunerated for the work they do, most women spend several hours doing work for which no payment is received. This seems as a disguised exclusion of rural household women from the mainstream of economy. The effort of the present paper is to only investigate this fact from the rural Varanasi in Eastern Uttar Pradesh of India.

Herbicide is just a category of pesticide. Pesticide is used to rid an area of unwanted pests while herbicide is used to get rid of unwanted plant life, like weeds, brush, unproductive bushes or trees, and other growth that takes nutrients away from crops and other useful plants. History shows that in industrialising countries in the past, including United States, Germany, Japan and South Korea, the same phenomena have occurred as workers have left agriculture and herbicides have been adopted.

Flood is a relatively high flow of water that overtops the natural and artificial banks in any of the reaches of a stream. When banks are overtopped, water spreads over flood plain and generally causes problem for inhabitants, crops and vegetation. The present study aims to estimate Flood hazard zonation for Thungabhadra and Hagari river sub catchments based on multi criteria assessment using remote sensing data (Fused data of Cartosat-1 PAN and Resourcesat-2 LISS-IV Mx images) in a GIS environment.

The purpose of this study was to examine the prevalence of non-consensual sexual experiences and attitudes towards transactional and inter-generational sex among female students. Participants included 201 female secondary school students aged 15-25 in Kwale County, Kenya. Consistent with previous research, students were required to report self and others' experiences of non-consensual sexual experiences and personal attitudes towards transactional and inter-generational sex.

This paper performs a comparative analysis of the Positivist and Critical Realist paradigms and investigates the impact of both on a proposed research study. An overview of each philosophy is provided in terms of their origins and applications and the core tenets of each are presented. Positivism and Critical Realism are then analysed collectively in order to highlight the strengths and weaknesses of each research philosophy.

A field study was carried out at college farm, College of Agriculture, Rajendranagar, Hyderabad, Andhra Pradesh during Kharif 2013 to find out the influence of humic acid and biochar on soil enzymes of maize rhizosphere at different stages. The experiment was laid out in a Randomized Block Design and replicated thrice with three factors comprised of factor-I (fertilizers- 100 % RDF and 75 % RDF), Factor-II (biochar levels- 0, 5 and 7.5 t ha-1) and Factor-III (humic acid levels of 0 and 30 kg ha-1).

Kadar one of the aboriginal tribes of Tamil Nadu live in groubs in the Anamalai Hill region of the Coimbatore District. This hill is situated in Pollachi Taluk of Coimbatore District and is surrounded by Kerala State in the West and South and Udumalpet Taluk in the East. Etymologically the word Kadar derived from the Tamil word Kadu which means forest. The Kadars are those who reside in the forest territory and rely up on the forest area for their livelyhood requirements.

The launch of ‘Make in India’ campaign by the PM, Mr. Narendra Modi is going to uplift the poor performance of the manufacturing sector of India. The government of India has started taking various initiatives to provide ease of doing business in India to encourage the investors for the success of the campaign. The progress of the sector will accelerate the employment in India. The government has a target to create more than 100 million jobs by the end of 2022.





Rosane Cavalcante Fragoso, Brasil


Chief Scientific Officer and Head of a Research Group

Advantages of IJCR

  • Rapid Publishing
  • Professional publishing practices
  • Indexing in leading database
  • High level of citation
  • High Qualitiy reader base
  • High level author suport













Luai Farhan Zghair
Hasan Ali Abed Al-Zu’bi
Fredrick OJIJA
Firuza M. Tursunkhodjaeva
Faraz Ahmed Farooqi
Saudi Arabia
Eric Randy Reyes Politud
Elsadig Gasoom FadelAlla Elbashir
Eapen, Asha Sarah
United State
Dr.Arun Kumar A
Dr. Zafar Iqbal
Dr. Ruchika Khanna
Dr. Recep TAS
Dr. Rasha Ali Eldeeb
Dr. Pralhad Kanhaiyalal Rahangdale
Dr. Nicolas Padilla- Raygoza
Dr. Mustafa Y. G. Younis
Dr. Muhammad shoaib Ahmedani
Saudi Arabia
United State
Dr. Lim Gee Nee
Dr. Jatinder Pal Singh Chawla
Dr. Devendra kumar Gupta
Dr. Ali Seidi
Dr. Achmad Choerudin
Dr Ashok Kumar Verma
Thi Mong Diep NGUYEN
Dr. Muhammad Akram
Dr. Imran Azad
Dr. Meenakshi Malik
Aseel Hadi Hamzah
Anam Bhatti
Md. Amir Hossain
Mirzadi Gohari