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February 2018

  1. Amany Ezzat Mohammed Mousa, Eman Mohammed Abd El Salam, Eman Abdel Razek, Samar Tharwat and Mohamed Hefny Elsaied Hefny

    Purpose: to evaluate and compare role of grey scale and power Doppler ultrasonography and MRI in the assessment of the extent of damage of hand and wrist joints in rheumatoid arthritis. Material and methods: this prospective study included 25 patients, 20 females and 5 males, mean age 43.48 years±13.64SD. Initial clinical assessment was carried out and Disease Activity Score (DAS28) was used for grading the disease activity; followed by ultrasound and MRI evaluation. Results: Accuracy and validity of US as confirmed by MRI revealed most optimum results in the assessment of tenosynovitis with 100% sensitivity and specificity as well as synovial effusion (100 % sensitivity, 90% specificity). The least sensitivity was encountered in the detection of bony erosions (sensitivity 21.05%, specificity 100%). Significant correlations were found between US parameters for synovial thickening & bone erosions by MRI and DAS28 score. Yet, no significant correlation was found between synovial thickening by MRI and DAS28 score. Conclusion: GS and PDUS are powerful tools for early detection and grading of inflammatory changes and disease follow up. MRI is superior in the estimation of the severity of structural bony changes and recommended as the baseline study for proper treatment and evaluation of treatment outcome.

  2. Celeste A. Orge, Novrina Bigilda A. Orge and Jestoni D. Maniago

    Bullying in nursing has existed for decades and appears to be a growing concern as nurse retention and recruitment become crucial factors in sustaining Philippine’s health care system. International studies have also noted the phenomenon of bullying in nursing workplaces. While varying prevalence rates exist, current research has unanimously demonstrated the negative impact of bullying on staff nurses. But only few explored on the bullying experience of student nurses in the clinical setting. This study is a narrative inquiry about student bullying in clinical setting. The stories were gathered from 15 student nurses who have records of bullying experience in the guidance office. Institutional ethical clearance and informed consent were secured. The guided interview questionnaire was validated by 5 experts in the field of nursing, psychology and language education. The stories unfolded that the feelings of isolation and alienation; enduring negative emotional and psychological effects; and having negative thoughts were the consequences of the bullying experience. Moreover, it was also unleashed that the approaches to bullying-situations were identified as disclosing the bullying experiences, communication/confrontation, and consider dropping and/or leaving the training program. It was also found out that bullying among student nurses is an upshot of face-to-face interactions between members of a diverse groups in the clinical setting. Despite these differences, student nurses still must perform their clinical duties, show respect and value social responsibility. The evidences of bullying among student nurses allows the educational institution and the clinical setting/hospital to create interventions and other measures to deal with the misbehaviors and an opportunity to review the nursing curriculum and design educational offerings to nursing students in dealing with bullying and other related problems. Thus, it was recommended for hospital management and educational institutions to implement the best practices designed towards improving the relationships between members of the health care team and educational institution. Professional development training on managing bullying situations can be integrated to nursing program.

  3. Dr. Himani Gandhi, Dr. Anup Panda, Dr. Manpreet Kaur, Dr. Natasha Shiggaon, Dr. Vaibhav Kotecha and Dr. Sagar Shah

    Introduction: Dental fear and anxiety is a common and potentially distressing problem in children. Managing dental anxiety has been one of the most difficult task for pediatric dentist. The potential effects of essential oils have been associated with decreased anxiety, improved mood and increased sedation. Aim: To determine the effect of lavender oil in alleviating dental anxiety. Material and method: 30 children between 4-6 years were randomly allocated to either a control or an experimental group that received lavender oil before dental procedure. Child’s anxiety level was measured by using CFSS-DS and Facial image scale. Physiological parameters were recorded and assessment of behaviour was carried out with North Carolina Behaviour Rating Scale. Results: Student’s t-test showed a significant reduction in pulse rate(p=0.049) and respiratory rate(p=0.003) in experimental group. Conclusion: The positive effects of lavender oil on anxiety in children can be performed to reduce anxiety in children as appropriate.

  4. Dr. Gaurav Gupta, Dr. Gurpreet Singh Bhatia, Dr. Isha Gupta and Dr. Ashish Garg

    Central venous cannulation is performed for vascular access, total parenteral nutrition, infusion of irritant drugs, measurement of central venous pressure (CVP), cardiac catheterization, pulmonary artery catheterization and transvenous cardiac pacing. Over the past few years, ultrasound has increasingly gained importance and its role in critical care, especially in vascular cannulation, has now become established. Realtime ultrasound guidance has been shown to increase the success rate and decrease the incidence of complications associated with the insertion of a central venous catheter (CVC) among adults. Point-of-care ultrasound machines with different types of transducers are available. These machines are portable and can thus be used anywhere in the hospital. Another advantage is that they can be placed closer to the operator performing the procedure.

  5. Dr. Saima Sultan

    Aim: The aim of this investigation was to conduct a survey among private dental practitioners in Srinagar city concerning their knowledge, attitude and practice of pulp therapy in primary teeth. Methodology: This is a questionnaire based study formulated to determine the knowledge, attitude and practice of general dentists towards endodontic therapy in primary teeth. A total of 100 general dental practioners were selected from various private dental clinics in Srinagar city and were questioned using a 10 item questionnaire. After explaining the purpose of the study questionnaire was distributed among them and results were obtained. Statistical analysis was done using IBM SPSS software version 11.0 and results were obtained. Results: In our study 35% prescribed medication only, as the first line of treatment. Reason given by the general dentists for performing endodontic treatment in primary teeth was Pain elimination (63%). When asked about the materials used for pulp fixation during a pulpotomy procedure, 48% of the respondents preffered Buckley’s formocresol and 60% of them do not use apex locator for working length determination. The most common material used for obturation of deciduous teeth was Zinc oxide eugenol 53% due to the availability of the same material (46%). 54% of the dentists used Hand held reamers as obturation technique of deciduous canals, 23% used Slow-speed lentulospirals and the final restoration preferred for endodontically treated primary tooth was GIC(35%). When asked about the barriers faced by the general dentists in treating children, majority 32% reported difficulty in managing children during treatment, 27% reported time consumption and financial loss as a major barrier in treating children. Majority (87%) of the general dentists wanted to have additional information regarding pulp therapy in deciduous teeth. Conclusion: Limited pediatric dental education and experience in treating children may contribute to negligence towards child’s teeth. Dentists need to update themselves regarding various treatment modalities in primary teeth.

  6. Dott. Cinzia Casu, Luca Viganò, Sofia Drivas and Dott. Matteo Fanuli

    Introduction: Or HSV) infection is one of the most common oral so lation. Many topical and systemic therapies are reported to be effective in lesions treatment. Scientifc Literature reported many cases of recurrent herpes lesions successfully treated with photodynamic therapy (PDT). PDT is based on the interaction of a photosensitizer and light irradiation in oxygenated tissue. This combination leads to arelated bacterial cell damage. Methylene blue (MB) and Toluidine blue are the most used photosensitizers. We want to propose a pilot study with 10 patients for the treatment of Herpes simplex infection with photodynamic therapy effected by a 630nm diode lamp and associated photosensitizer. Materials and Methods: Ten patients are included in this pilot study, 4 of them with herpes simplex lesions on the hard palate, 5 of the them in the lips, 1 in gingival tissues. All patients are treated with single sessions of photodynamic therapy performed by 630 nm length light irradiation and a Toluidine blue solution as a photosensitizer. A Toluidine-based fuid topical preparation was applied over each lesion and was exposed to 10 cycles of 30 seconds of LED light irradiation with long tip, remaining at about 0.5 cm from the lesion. Subsequently, a gauze is used to remove the dye. Results: All patients healed at day 7; 6 of them at day 2 are free of symptoms (3 in hard palate, 1 gum lesion, 2 in lips); 2 of them at the day 4 are completely healed (1 in hard palate, 1 in lip); 2 of them at the day 7 have no signs of lesions (in the lip). Conclusions: In our study we found that the 630 nm diode lamp is safe and effective and reduce the time of healing of herpes simplex virus lesions.

  7. Dr. Osama Abdullah Abdul Raheem and Dr. Osama El-sayed Metwally

    Hernia is a protrusion of abdominal viscera through a defect in abdominal wall. Successful repair of abdominal hernias requires thorough knowledge of anatomy of anterior abdominal wall and all its layers. Ventral abdominal hernia includes all the hernias occurring through the anterior abdominal wall excluding groin hernias (incisional hernia, epigastrichernia, paraumblical hernia) (Stoppa, 1989; Ahmed et al., 1995).

  8. Parag Srivastava, Dr. Ashwini B. Prasad, Dr. Deepak Raisingani and Dr. Aseem Jain

    Any trauma to immature permanent tooth can cause a interruption in dentin deposition and root formation may cease. The endodontic treatment of such teeth will often become complicated with an uncertain prognosis. This case report describes successful endodontic treatment of an immature maxillary central incisor 4 years after trauma. A maxillary right central incisor was treated for periapical abscess in a 14-year-old boy who had met with trauma 4 years back. Considering the age and incomplete root development of the patient regenerative endodontics was performed and PRP and MTA were used to induce root end completion. After 8 months, the tooth was asymptomatic clinically and radiographically, roots continued to develop and the periapical radiolucency showed signs of healing. Considering the continued root development and resolution of the periapical radiolucency it can be concluded that regenerative endodontics is an appropriate treatment method in treating an immature permanent necrotic tooth.

  9. Salva Fatima Heba, Rehab Rafi, Dr. ShahedaSiddiqui, Dr. Nematullah Khan, Safura Sultana, Uzma parveen and Sayeda afshan Jabeen

    Background: Acetaminophen is a non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID) widely used for its analgesic and antipyretic properties. Although it is relatively very safe, it has been associated with hepatotoxicity and other minor gastrointestinal adverse effects. In addition, it has also been reported that some NSAIDs can cause severe cutaneous adverse effects such as leucocytoclastic vasculitis (LCV). Case description: A 35 yearold female patient was admitted intointensive care unit (ICU) with multiple palpable purpura discretely located bilaterally all over the upper and lower limbs. Prior to its onset, the patient had an episode of severe headache and body pains for which she consumed over the counter (OTC) acetaminophen. The lesions worsened abruptly and a skin biopsy confirmed the presence of leucocytoclastic vasculitis. The patient also had a clinical evidence of erosive gastritis. The offending agent was immediately discontinued and the patient was successfully managed with corticosteroids and supportive therapy. However, the patient was not re-challenged with acetaminophen owing to severity of the reaction as well as for ethical reasons. Discussion and evaluation: An extensive review of the current case reveals the occurrence of erosive gastritis and LCV following the over the counter (OTC) use of acetaminophen. A thorough evaluation of patient’s clinical history, physical examination, laboratory and histological examination, confirmed acetaminophen induced LCV along with erosive gastritis. The present adverse drug reaction was classified as probable with a score of 6according to Naranjo’s scale causality assessment and is classified severe (level 5) according to Hartwig’s scale of severity assessment. Drug induced LCV is an extremely rare reaction. Although it has been reported with a few NSAIDs such as naproxen and Ibuprofen, to best of our knowledge, acetaminophen has never been associated with LCV. The case is also unique in its presentation of LCV occurring concurrently with erosive gastritis in the same patient. Conclusion: Acetaminophen is the most commonly used OTC drug worldwide. Despite its established safety, it can produce serious adverse effect such as leucocytoclastic vasculitis. Early diagnosis and drug with drawl are crucial to the resolution of the leucocytoclastic vasculitis.

  10. Roberto Dell’Avanzato

    Introduction: In October 2016 I started, as one of the first in Europe, my experience with a new procedure that represents the only FDA-cleared minimally invasive treatment clinically proven to improve the cellulite blemishes for nearly four years in only one session. Materials and Methods: We report our experience after 15 months in 50 patients (48F; 2M) with cellulite treated in a single session. Follow-up were scheduled after 7 days (T7), 14 days (T14), 30 days (T30), 90 days (T90) and 180 days (T150) for all the 50 patients; 13 patients (1M) had a medical check at 12 months and 3 patients (1M) at 15 months. Outcome measures included subject photographs, Cellulite Severity Scale (CSS) and Global Aesthetic Improvement Scale (GAIS) assessment. Patient satisfaction and pain rating were also recorded. The treatment takes 45-60 minutes. Cellulite dimples are marked and the device is applied to stretch and stabilize tissue in a vacuum chamber, while local anesthesia is delivered. Than, a precise minimally-invasive subcutaneous release of the connective bands (TS-GS: stabilized-guided subcision) is performed with a micro-blade, without cuts or incisions. We have safely treated 6 to 45 sites in one session. After treatment, a light compression is applied and patients are able to return promptly to their daily life. Results: The procedure treated successfully the primary structural cause of cellulite blemishes in all the 50 patients. Patient satisfaction was 87% at T90 in 50 patients (48F; 2M), 95% at T180 in 50 patients, 97% at 12 months in 13 patients (1M) and 100% at 15 months in 3 patients (1M). Transient treatment-related adverse events were mild in severity and the most common side effects reported were soreness and bruising. Among 50 patients, 95% had bruising at T7, 23% at T14 and no patient had bruising at T30. Soreness is reported in 100% of patients at T7, 19% at T14, 4% at T30 and 0% at T90. Global Aesthetic Improvement Scale (GAIS) and Visual Analog Scale (VAS) are also reported. Conclusions: This revolutionary FDA-cleared procedure for the cellulite puckering, combines a proven approach with an innovative technology to treat the primary structural cause of cellulite blemishes in posterior thighs and buttocks. This study confirms his safety, and efficacy with vacuum-assisted precise tissue release for the treatment of cellulite, which is also strengthened by patients satisfaction.

  11. Sheetal, S., Sarita Joshi Narayan, Umesh Yadalam, Vijay K. Raghava, Apoorva, M. and Fakeha Hareem

    Hormones are specific regulatory molecules that have potent effects on the major determinants of the development and the integrity of the skeleton and oral cavity including periodontal tissues. It is clear that periodontal manifestations occur when an imbalance of these steroid hormones take place. This review article focuses on how these hormones influence the periodontium at different life stages such as puberty, menstruation, pregnancy, menopause and postmenopause. Hormonal influences may appear in oral tissues before other systemic manifestations are apparent. Therefore, it is the clinician's responsibility to recognize, customize and vary periodontal therapy based on the individual female and the stage of her life cycle.

  12. Enisa Hodzic and Enio Kapetanovic

    Introduction: Depression is common as a comorbidity with anxiety disorders and physical ailments. The aim of the study was to investigate whether the patients who had survived myocardial infarction (MI) develop symptoms of depression and anxiety more frequently than a healthy population. Methodology: The research was conducted as a retrospective-prospective, comparative, analytical, study on 108 subjects, of which 69 were male and 39 were female. The patients were divided in two groups: patients with confirmed MI diagnosis, and control group - reference population without previous myocardial infarction. Results: Thirty-seven percent of patients with diagnosed MI had depression symptoms compared to 9.3% in the control group (p = 0.003). 42.6% of subjects after MI were positive for anxiety and 18.5% in the control group (p = 0.001). Participants with higher scores on depression hada lower left-ventricle ejection fraction (p = 0.0001), as well as a higher score on anxiety (p = 0.007). Conclusion: MI is a precipitating factor for the development of depression and anxiety. Most patients who develo p depressive symptoms after MI develop depression and anxiety, which does not spontaneously resolve after MI. The lower ejection fraction (EF) after MI is a predictor for depression and anxiety. Interventional and surgical procedures are not protective factorsagainst the development of depression and anxiety.

  13. Dr. Aveek Mukherji, Dr. Margee Desai Sharma, Dr. Lipi Sisodia, Dr. Hardik Ajmera and Dr. Chitti Mengji

    Oral Health, which is an essential component of the overall health of the mother and the foetus, undergoes significant changes during pregnancy. This article speaks about the physiological changes and oral diseases encountered by a pregnant patient and discusses the ideal treatment planning of such patients in a dental clinic. During pregnancy, dental treatment may be modified but need not be withheld, provided that the risk assessment is made properly for both the patient and the foetus.

  14. María Laura Arias Echandi, Eduardo Castro Arias and Heriberto Fernández-Jaramillo

    Arcobacter butzleri, is an emerging potential foodborne zoonotic pathogenthat has been classified as a serious hazard for human health by the International Commission on Microbiological Specifications for Foods (ICMSF). In Costa Rica, there are several reports about Arcobacter, nevertheless there is scarce information about the adhesion, invasion and pathogenic features of this bacteria, or the virulence genes associated. Also, information regarding its susceptibility to antibiotics is controversial due to a lack of a standardized technique and interpretation guidelines. The aim of this work was to determine the antibiotic susceptibility and presence and frequency of several virulence genes in 26 strains of A. butzleri previously isolated in Costa Rica. There was an 87,5% resistance to nalidixic acid, and 8,3% resistance to gentamicin and ampicillin. Also, one strain was multiresistant showing simultaneous resistance to ampicillin, gentamicin and nalidixic acid. Gene cadF was the most prevalent one, being present in 10 of the 26 isolates analyzed, followed by genes ciaB and irgA that showed a 23% frequency. Genes mviN and tlyA were the less prevalent ones, being isolated just from one strain each. Eight isolates did not present any of the genes analyzed. Further research shall be done in order to establish a standardized technique for the determination of antibiotic susceptibility and interpretation guidelines for this bacteria as well as in the correlation among the presence of virulence genes and its expression.

  15. Dr. Ashwini Bakde and Dr. Prajwalit Gaur

    Background & Objectives: Ultrasound elastography is a non-invasive method for determining tissue mechanical properties. The aims of were to study: 1. The sensitivity and specificity of ultrasound elastography in the detection and characterization of various breast masses. 2. The role of ultrasound elastography in differentiating benign and malignant breast masses with FNAC and /or histopathology correlation. 3. Determine an optimal cut-off value for the traced area ratio by receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis for differential diagnosis in future applications. Methods: It is a Hospital based prospective study carried on Philips iU22 ultrasound machine with high frequency probe, colour Doppler, and sono-elastography for 2.0 years on 116 cases. Patients presenting with small palpable breast lesions and those incidentally detected lesions on mammography were included in the study. Patients not willing for Ultrasonography & FNAC or Histopathology were excluded from the study. Results: Among the benign nodules the common lesions were fibroadenoma 22 (19%) cases. Among the malignant lesions, the most common lesion was ductal carcinoma (invasive) 34 (29.3%). The mean elasticity score for benign lesions was 1.90 and 4.21 for malignant lesions. A sensitivity of 83.9% and a specificity of 91.7% was obtained for elasticity score with a cut-off point of 3. A sensitivity of 91.1% and a specificity of 88.3% was obtained for strain ratio with a cutoff point of 2.94. Interpretation & Conclusions: The present study shows elasticity score (qualitative) and strain ratio (quantitative) methods in ultrasound elastography are good for the diagnosis of benign and malignant breast lesions with high sensitivity as well as high accuracy rate.

  16. Ajlan A. AlShehri, Dr. Mohammed Saeed Alamri and Dr. Humariya Heena

    Objective: Time management (TM) is important for allied health professionals (AHPs), as it affects patient safety and the quality of provided services. This study was conducted to identify obstacles to the ability of AHPs to manage their time effectively and to determine the tools they use to organize their work. Methodology: A descriptive quantitative design study design was used and a convenience sample of 297 AHPs at a tertiary hospital in Riyadh was studied. A total of 251 self-administered questionnaires were returned, which represented a response rate of 84.5%. Result: The questionnaire included 5 items on demographic characteristics, 22 items on the obstacles to effective TM, and seven items regarding the tools used to organize work time. The majority of participants were male (63.3%), 29.1% were aged 26–30 years, 29.5% had a bachelor’s degree, 49% had more than 7 years of experience, and 76.9% were in subordinate positions. Conclusion: This study identified 22 obstacles to the ability of AHPs to organize their time; the primary ones were poorly organized work, and undefined goals and priorities. On the other hand, the most common tools for managing time effectively were through emails and mobile phones.

  17. Gitari Anderson and Vijay S Varma

    This report presents a case of intestinal volvulus in a 3 year old thoroughbred horse. The horse was diagnosed clinically with severe acute abdominal pain, distended small intestine, right dorsal displacement of the large colon and suspected large colon impaction. Blood results showed increased erythrocytes count, heamoglobin concentration, hematocrit count, low mean corposal volume (MCV), high mean corposal hemoglobin concentartion (MCHC), increased neutrophili count,high glucose and high lactate. On post mortem examination pathological changes in the small intestine were observed with torsion of the jejunum without large colon impaction. This case demonstrates the difficulty in making a clinical diagnosis of intestinal torsion in a horse and the importance of blood results as prognostic indicator in the treatment of colic in horses.

  18. Gitari Anderson and Vijay S Varma

    This report presents a case of intestinal volvulus in a 3 year old thoroughbred horse. The horse was diagnosed clinically with severe acute abdominal pain, distended small intestine, right dorsal displacement of the large colon and suspected large colon impaction. Blood results showed increased erythrocytes count, heamoglobin concentration, hematocrit count, low mean corposal volume (MCV), high mean corposal hemoglobin concentartion (MCHC), increased neutrophili count,high glucose and high lactate. On post mortem examination pathological changes in the small intestine were observed with torsion of the jejunum without large colon impaction. This case demonstrates the difficulty in making a clinical diagnosis of intestinal torsion in a horse and the importance of blood results as prognostic indicator in the treatment of colic in horses.

  19. Atheer K. Ibadi, Titi R. Hamedon and Abdulkareem A. Mahmood

    Objectives: To determine the effectiveness of health intervention in improving the knowledge and attitude on toxoplasmosis among pregnant women with toxoplasma infection. Methods: Using randomized control trial study on pregnant women who attended the three randomly selected obstetric and gynecological clinics governmental hospitals in Al-Najaf. Respondents are divided into two groups; the Experiment and Control group. Data collection used self-administered questionnaire in the Arabic language and result analyzed using SPSS Version 21. Results: Out of a total 340 respondents, majority of them have low knowledge on almost all question items. There was not significant statistical difference in the level of knowledge between the two groups at baseline stage. At first post-test and second post-test, the knowledge score for the Experimental Group become better for all question items, compared to the Control Group. The difference in score improvement between the two groups was statistically significant. As for the attitudes, at baseline, the Experiment Group have more positive attitude compared to the Control Group (Experiment 52.4% and Control 47.6%), and there was not statistical significant difference between groups. At first post-test and second post-test, the level of attitudes for the Experimental Group become better, compared to the Control Group. The difference in the levels improvement between the two groups was statistically significant. Conclusion: Health intervention given to the Experimental Group was effective in increasing the score of knowledge and improve the attitude on toxoplasmosis compared to the Control Group.

  20. Amitha, G. L., Brijesh Shetty, Pranav V. Mody, Manoj Kumar, A. D. and Ashwini, H. V.

    Introduction: Currently due to the increase in price of Cobalt-Chromium and Nickel-Chromium alloys and its allies owing to increase in demand, complete or partial recasting have become a necessity for economic reasons and to avoid the exploitation of natural resources. Methodology: A total of 30 specimens of Cobalt-Chromium alloy were fabricated and divided into 3 groups of 10 specimens each for determining the effect of recasting on hardness, tensile strength and modulus of elasticity using Universal Testing Machine and Vickers Hardness testing. Statistical analysis was done using ANOVA and POST HOC TUKEY TEST. Result: The results revealed that there is significant difference in the mechanical properties of Cobalt-Chromium alloys. (p=0.0001) In case of tensile strength and modulus of elasticity and hardness, ANOVA exhibited a difference in mean among Group I, II & III which is significant. Conclusion: There is significant difference in the mechanical properties of Cobalt-Chromium alloys, indicating that there is deterioration of properties when the content of reused alloy is 50% or more. But taking the environmental and economic factors into consideration, addition of less than 50% reused alloy to new alloy is acceptable clinically.

  21. Salman Ahmad, Ramsha Mazhar and Muhammad Aamir Ghafoor Chaudhary

    Background: Continuous use of dentures requires regular hygiene maintenance, a task which is often neglected by the patients. The objective of this study was to assess the level of awareness/knowledge grade among partial and complete denture wearers regarding oral and denture hygiene maintenance, and to establish any association of this knowledge with different demographic variables including age, gender, socioeconomic status, education, and type of denture. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional survey was carried out through consented interviews using a self-designed close-ended questionnaire based on 9 relevant items. Afterwards, a simple numerical calculation was done to derive the final score, ranging from 0 upto 9, which was then used to categorize the knowledge grade into 5 groups: Extremely poor (score of 0 or 1); Relatively poor (score of 2 or 3); Moderate (score of 4 or 5); Relatively good (score of 6 or 7); and Extremely good (score of 8 or 9). Results: A total of 112 patients were included, with a mean score of 4.92 ± 1.89. There were only 6 (5.4%) patients with extremely poor and 8 (7.1%) patients with extremely good knowledge grade. Almost 37% patients had moderate level of knowledge. Chi-square test remained highly significant for age groups (P<0.001), socio-economic status (P<0.001), education level (P=0.010) and type of denture (P<0.001). For gender, the test remained non-significant (P= 0.117). Conclusions: Denture hygiene knowledge and practices of denture wearers is strongly related to demographic variables of age, socio-economic status, education level and the type of denture being worn.

  22. Dr. Mehamil Abdul Najeeb Jameela, K.V., Dr. Sathish Balaji, E., Prof. Dr. Vijayanarasimman and Dr. Lionel john

    Thoracolumbar spine fractures are common injuries that can result in significant disability, deformity and neurological deficit. Controversies exist regarding the appropriate radiological investigations, the indications for surgical management and the timing, approach and type of surgery. This study provides an overview of the epidemiology, biomechanical principles, radiological and clinical evaluation, classification and management principles for burst fractures in thoracolumbar spine operated by posterior approach. Biomechanically the thoracolumbar spine is predisposed to a higher incidence of spinal injuries. Computed tomography provides adequate bony detail for assessing spinal stability while magnetic resonance imaging shows injuries to soft tissues (posterior ligamentous complex [PLC]) and neurological structures. Different classification systems exist and the most recent is the AO spine knowledge forum classification of thoracolumbar trauma. Treatment includes both nonoperative and operative methods and selected based on the degree of bony injury, neurological involvement, presence of associated injuries and the integrity of the PLC. Significant advances in imaging have helped in the better understanding of thoracolumbar fractures, including information on canal morphology and injury to soft tissue structures. The ideal classification that is simple, comprehensive and guides management is still elusive. Involvement of three columns, progressive neurological deficit, significant kyphosis and canal compromise with neurological deficit are accepted indications for surgical stabilization through anterior, posterior or combined approaches.

  23. Dr. Kaushik Roy, Sujana Biswas, Dr. Md. Asif, Dr. Poulami Basu and Dr. Saroj Halder

    For decades, a synergistic combination of EBRT and Intracavitary Brachytherapy (ICBT) has been the widely accepted primary modality of treatment for carcinoma cervix. As already stated, concomitant chemoradiation using Cisplatin has become the accepted standard treatment for locally advanced cases. Although concomitant chemoradiation is the standard care, it cannot be administered safely in elderly patients and those with certain comobilities. An alternative radiation schedule, without chemotherapy, that can reduce treatment time is therefore required, especially in those patients who have contraindications to chemoradiations . Yoon SM et al have shown that in patients in whom chemotherapy cannot be used, radiation alone with 6 fractions per week instead of 5 have equivalent results without major toxicities. The aim of this study was to evaluate the feasibility and compare the efficacy of 6 fractions per week of external beam radiotherapy with conventional fraction size with interdigitated brachytherapy starting from third week of EBRT (a total of 5 fractions of interdigitated brachytherapy, each fraction comprising of 6 Gy each). In the test arm, accelerated EBRT is given to a total dose of 46 Gy in 23 fractions (Monday to Saturday 6 days a week) and interdigitated brachytherapy 6 Gy × 5 fractions. From the third week interdigitated brachytherapy is started and on that day EBRT was not given. On the control arm EBRT was given to 50 Gy in 25 fractions followed by intracavitary brachytherapy 7 Gy × 3 fractions. Concomitant Cisplatin was added along with EBRT. The main aim of the study is to assess and compare the response and safety of accelerated EBRT with interdigitated brachytherapy to concomitant chemo-radiation, which is the accepted standard today. The overall response was comparable in both arms at end of treatment and during the period of follow up. Although the percentage of complete responses were slightly higher in the chemo-radiation arm, this was not statistically significant. Moreover the difference in CRs seemed to diminish with time during follow up.The treatment time was also prolonged in the test Arm as most of the patients had repeated treatment breaks. An important aspect of our study was to assess the overall treatment time. It was found that a majority of patients in the study arm did not complete treatment within the stipulated time whereas many in the chemo-radiation arm had delays also. The rationale for accelerated fractionation (AF) is that reduction in overall treatment time decreases the opportunity for tumour cell regeneration during treatment and therefore increases the probability of tumour control for a given total dose. To conclude, findings from this study suggest that accelerated EBRT (six fractions per week) with interdigitatedbrachytherapy is an effective treatment for patients with locally advanced carcinoma of the uterine cervix and can be used as a possible alternative to concomitant chemo-radiotherapy in selected patients keeping in mind about slightly increased rectal and bowel toxicities. The early responses to treatment are non-inferior to concomitant chemotherapy and the acute toxicities lesser but in our study the Test Arm patients had many treatment breaks due to acute toxicities as a result the treatment time got prolonged in the Test Arm. So to conclude accelerated radiotherapy is a great alternative tool but the problem of acute toxicities must be bore in mind while using a conventional radiotherapy machine like Cobalt 60.

  24. Mouhibi Abdallah and Amine Chafii

    The PEEK Medical Polyetheretherketone is a high performance polymer. The materials in this group combine excellent mechanical properties with the highest biological compatibility. PEEK is used in aircraft construction for heavy parts and for medical applications. He has experienced an evolution in the field, especially for the manufacture of dental prosthesis frameworks. The elasticity of the material that is the same as the bone tissue makes it similar to nature since it can compensate for bone torsion, especially in the presence of major implantation work. He replaced titanium because of its properties and qualities. This work to demystify this material in its advantages and limitations as well as its place in the current dentistry.

  25. Salla Surya Prakasarao, Ram Prasad Kadiyala, Suma Pusapati, Kartheek Pyla and Srikanth Gummadi

    Fever is defined as elevation of normal body temperature above the normal circadian variation3. Thrombocytopenia is defined as platelet count <1,50,000/microliter. Infection is the most common cause. Fever with thrombocytopenia narrows the differential diagnosis of the clinical entity. A well organised systemic approach is carried out with an awareness of cause of fever with thrombocytopenia to shorten the duration of investigation and bring out diagnosis. Aims and objectives: 1. To study incidence of various etiological agents for patients getting admitted for fever with thrombocytopenia. 2. To analyse epidemiological data, clinical features, investigations, incidence of complications and outcome of patients. Material and Methods: This is a prospective study done in patients admitted for fever with thrombocytopenia in NRI Institute of medical sciences, Sangivalasa, Visakhapatnam, India, over a period of one year from Jan 2017 to Dec 2017. 100 patients are selected based on inclusion and exclusion criteria. Based on symptoms, signs and investigations etiological factors were analysed and diagnoses were done.. Results: 100 cases were admitted with fever with thrombocytopenia. Out of this 100 cases, 70 cases were male and 30 cases were female with male female ratio of 2.3:1. Most of the cases admitted between age 26 to 35. The mean age for male and female cases was 33.76 and 33.1 respectively. The most common cause is infectious, of which dengue is most common (42%) followed by malaria (21%). Petechiae is common bleeding manifestation. Blood transfusion is not needed for all the cases even when platelet is below 20,000. Acute renal failure is the common complication. Mortality is 8%. Conclusion: Fever with thrombocytopenia is one of the most challenging problems in field of medicine. Infection is the most common cause. Dengue, malaria, leptospirosis still present clinically in atypical and occult form, making diagnosis more difficult. So specific tests like rapid spot test, IgM ELISA for dengue, IgM ELISA leptospirosis antibodies, widal test etc are required for correct diagnosis. Spontaneous bleeding was noted in patients with platelet count <20,000. Platelet transfusion is not needed for all the cases. Overall mortality for fever with thrombocytopenia is 8%.

  26. Dr. Shweta Kulkarni, Mayuresh S. Gore, Dr. Ujwal l. Yeole and Dr. Devika Bhide

    Background: Studies showed that supervised exercises at hospital level have more significant improvement in the QoL in stroke survivors than the non-supervised exercises at the community level. Hence the purpose of the study was to study the effect of community-based monitored home exercise programme in stroke survivors to improve the motor performance and the functional independence. Aim and Objectives: To study the effect of home exercise protocol on quality of life in stroke survivors and find effect of home exercise protocol on quality of life in stroke survivors using the Functional Independence Measure (FIM) and Functional Assessment Measure (FAM). Methodology: Total 70 Individuals were evaluated and taken for the home exercise protocol which were independent and was one year old or more suffering from stroke. Amongst these 30 individuals satisfying inclusion criteria were qualified for the project topic. Study Design: experimental, Study Setting: stroke society,Target population: stroke survivors, Sample population: stroke patients, Sampling method: random, Sample size: 30 Results: FIM results: 6Paired t test is done P value is< 0.0001, considered extremely significant =13.001 with 29 degrees of freedom. Pre: 49% post: 80% improvement: 31% FAM results: paired t test done P value is 0.2551, considered extremely significant =1.150 with 56 degrees of freedom. Pre: 48% post: 80% improvement 32% Conclusion: The designed home exercise protocol works efficiently and helps the patient to move towards the better life and towards independency. There is intense positive effect of home exercise protocol on quality of life in stroke survivors.

  27. Dr. Somdutta Mitra, Prof. (Dr). Sanchita Kundu, Dr. Rudra Prasad Chatterjee, Dr. Swagata Gayen and Dr. Santosh, T.

    Fungal infections are common globally with varied clinical presentations. Among them, Aspergillosis is the second most common opportunistic fungal disease and is difficult to diagnose. Immuunocompromised patients are mostly affected by invasive aspergillosis. Spores of the aspergilli are inhaled or ingested which if left untreated will disseminate in the lungs, paranasal sinuses, cranium and orbit, leading to cough, dyspnoea, ulceration, loss of vision, fever, meningitis etc. Early diagnosis and prompt treatment is therefore necessary for improvement of the survival rate. We present a case of invasive aspergillosis involving the maxillary sinus in an uncontrolled diabetic patient with the emphasis on early diagnosis, as delay in the initiation of treatment could be detrimental due to the dissemination of the disease process.

  28. Dr. Deepika Joshi, Dr. Ashok Kumar Bairwa, Dr. Sourav Shristi and Dr. Mahima Panwar

    Marfan syndrome is a rare autosomal dominant disorder of the connective tissue, with skeletal, ligamentous, orooculofacial, pulmonary, neurological and the most fatal, cardiovascular manifestations. Pulmonary involvement occurs less frequently. We report a case of a 26-year-old male suffering from hours of sudden onset, progressive shortness of breath and right-sided chest pain. On physical examination, he presented decreased breath sound on the right side of chest, together with marfanoid habitus. The chest X ray revealed right sided pleural effusion and pleural fluid was drained by thoracocentesis. This case indicates that pulmonary symptoms like spontaneous pleural effusion, pneumothorax, emphysema can manifest as initial symptoms of undiagnosed Marfan syndrome.

  29. Khalid Mohidin, Irfan Ahmad Bhat, Arif Rashid and Hardeep Singh

    Background: COPD is the most frequent pulmonary disease .It is generally known that dyspnoeaand Exercise intolerance occur in the advanced stage of the disease as a result of bronchial patency disturbance progression and development of pulmonary Hypertension.The significance of RV performance is one of the factors determining the clinical course and prognosis in COPD,a potential role of LV is however less studied. Aim: To evaluate the left ventricular Systolic and Diastolic functions in COPD. Material & Methods: A total of 150 patients were studied. All the selected patients were staged according to GOLD criteria.Echocardiographic assessment of Right ventricular and left ventricular functions were done using left and right ventricular chamber size, ejection fraction and diastolic function. Results: On echocardiography left ventricular diastolic was observed in 29 (19.3%) patients, systolic dysfunction was observed in 5 (3.3%) patients.There was good correlation between the frequency of left ventricular function abnormalities and severity of COPD.Pulmonary hypertension was present in 63 patients,out of these 31 patients (49.%) had mild,20 patients (31%) moderate and 12 (19%) had severe pulmonary hypertension. Conclusion: We conclude that LV ventricular functional abnormalities had a good correlation with the severity of COPD and suggest that LV functions should be evaluated in COPD especially in acute exacerbation.

  30. Dr. Rattilal Meena, Dr. Sourav Shristi, Dr. Neera Samar, Dr. Yogesh Mishra, Dr. Satish Kumar, Dr. Rohit Jain and Dr. Deepika Joshi

    Split Hand/split-Foot Malformation (SHFM) is a congenital anomaly with failure of development of the central digital rays of hand or foot to a variable extent. It is characterized by hypoplasia/aplasia of the phalanges, toes, metacarpals and metatarsals. The presentation may be an isolated anomaly or may be associated with syndrome and thus have variable pattern of inheritance. SHFM may occur as an isolated entity or as part of a syndrome. Both forms are frequently found in association with chromosomal rearrangements such as deletions or translocations.

  31. Venipriyadharshini, L. and Sabitha, N.

    Cardiovascular disease is a condition in which it is deals with irregular performance of the heart due to single or several reasons. It is epidemic in India and also one of the major causes of the death of the people. The experiment was carried out to assess the nutritional status of the selected subjects with cardiovascular disease and creation of static website for its management. Area and subjects were selected by the investigator. Nutritional status, Socio economic status, REAP, frequency consumption of common foods, of the selected subjects were assessed and observed. A static nutritional website was created by gathering material from various sources to overcome the problems of the subjects. The website was launched with the help of a programmer. The questionnaire which comprised of 30 questions was framed to assess the nutritional knowledge attitude and practice (KAP) of the selected subjects. Nutrition education was given by using oral posters, catalogues and the created static nutritional website. Before and after valuation KAP of the subjects were done by using questionnaire to assess the progress of the subjects. The mean score 13±2.15 obtained in pre test was increased to 21±3.04 after imparting nutrition education. The gain in nutritional knowledge scores was 8±0.63 and the quantum of improvement was 1.80 times.

  32. Anurag Bhushan, Sarita Magu, Nitin Yadav, Seema, Perdeep Singh Gahlot and Rohtas K Yadav

    Objective: To evaluate a CT head radiation dose reduction protocol in children using anatomical delineation, diagnostic confidence and imaging quality of CT brain as parameters. Method: The study prospectively reviewed head CT studies of 100 children, 50 with normal protocol and 50 with reduced radiation protocol. Image quality was assessed using five point grading scale based on anatomical delineation, diagnostic confidence and overall image quality. Results: The relative dose reduction between normal and reduced radiation protocol was approximately 15%. There was no statistically significant difference (p>0.05) in overall image quality by both observers. Conclusion: Pediatric CT dose can be reduced by approximately 15% while still maintaining anatomical delineation, diagnostic confidence and overall image quality.

  33. Dr. Aishwarya Rao, Dr. Pronob Sanyal and Mr. Mahesh Kadam

    Attachments in prosthodontics are the means of stress equalizing for any rigid connector prosthesis. These attachments may be custom made or prefabricated. Prefabricated attachments are highly precise and need technical dexterity to achieve optimum results. Custom made attachments or the Semi-precision attachments are cast in the laboratory and specially made for each patient. This case report describes an inexpensive technique to rehabilitate an intermediate abutment case using acrylic and pen refills as their attachment.

  34. Dr. Vinod Kumar, Dr. Jitender Singh, Dr. Shankar Kumar Gupta and Dr. Aishwarya

    Primary solitary musculoskeletal hydatid cyst is a rare entity with only few such cases reported till date. A proper approach to this disease is lacking. Hydatid cyst should always be kept in the differential diagnosis of slow growing soft tissue lesions in patients from endemic areas. We report a case of 37 year old female suffering from primary hydatid cyst of thigh and managed successfully by surgical excision and antihelminthics.

  35. Tabishur Rahman and Ghulam Sarwar Hashmi

    Oral cancer has very high incidence in India. The reasons for this high incidence is lack of awareness and late presentation which is further complicated by lack of adequately trained medical and dental professionals. We studied the level of awareness related to oral cancer among general public in a hospital based survey in a northern Indian state. We hypothesized that people with higher education will be more aware when it came to knowledge about oral cancer than people who could not afford college education. Our study proved otherwise with results which were extremely disappointing highlighting the failure of our education system regarding a disease which has been shown to be growing at an exponential rate in this part of the globe.

  36. Dr. Monali Ghodke, Dr. Smita Kamtane, Dr. Chitra Patil and Dr. Vijeta Jadhav

    Objective: This study was conducted to determine the most prevalent root canal configuration and the incidence of a second mesio-buccal (MB2) canal in maxillary first molar root in an Indian sub-population of Pune, Maharashtra, India by reviewing cone-beam computed tomographic (CBCT) images. Methods: Patients who had undergone CBCT scanning for various treatment modalities were retrospectively viewed for the presence of second MB2 canal in the permanent maxillary first molar. Scanning was performed at Peraden & Elite CBCT, Pune, Maharashtra, India. Each tooth was assessed in 1 mm axial and 0.5 mm sagittal sections, to evaluate the presence of a MB2 canal. The images had been evaluated by a maxillofacial radiologist. Results: In total of 117 teeth examined, MB-2 was present in 79 teeth. The prevalence of MB-2 in maxillary first molar was found to be 67.5% in an Indian subpopulation. As far as root canal morphology is concerned, Vertucci Type I was the most common type. Conclusion: Knowing the incidence of presence of MB2 canal in the first maxillary permanent molar is very essential for the success of the root canal treatment & CBCT is very vital to serve this purpose.

  37. Dr. Alok Patel, Dr. Neha Biradar, Dr. Sanket Kunte, Dr. Shweta Zingade, Dr. Amol Kamble and Dr. Sneha Desai

    Aim: The purpose of this study was to identify factors that may motivate children to practice good oral hygiene. Method: A cross-sectional survey was conducted. A questionnaire was given to 150 school going children regarding their histories with caries, perceived confidence in brushing, self-perceived susceptibility and vulnerability for caries and/or poor oral health, and perceived benefits and barriers to practicing oral hygiene. Results: Most children thought good oral health as being central to their overall health; however, some viewed poor oral health as occurring only in the old age. A greatest motivator for brushing was good esthetic appearance of teeth. The greatest barriers to performing oral hygiene were lack of time and limited access to toothbrushes and dentifrice when away. Conclusions: To motivate children in this age range, emphasis should be placed on the positive aspects of maintaining good oral hygiene for its contribution to appearance.

  38. Vanvisa Sresumatchai, Surasak Taneepanichskul and Suporn Apinuntavech

    The general consensus is that behaviorally oriented parent training procedures used with the general population, and to some extent with developmentally disabled populations, are effective for parents of children with ASD. The efficacy of parent training is activities therapy for development children with disruptive behavior from preschool through adolescence were supported by over 30 years stringent evaluation. Parent training is an empirically truth with supported intervention for children with disruptive behavior uncomplicated by ASD. Parent training provides parents with use specific techniques to management behavioral problems in children. Therefore, the abilities of parent for take care at home are very critical and important to support the development of autistic outcome. This study was designed as a mixed-method sequential describe approach for the objective and subjective information in parent training with healing touch massage. The fellow-up explanation healing touch massage model used to describe the quantitative results. The describe approach sequential was two-phase mixed methods design that begin with gathering parent and analysis of quantitative data that followed by the collecting and analysis of quantitative data for explain and enhance the quantitative finding for development of autistic children. The data were two phase in qualitative and quantitative for the data analysis and interpretation, generalized binomial logistic regression analysis will be conducted prior to the statistical analysis of the quantitative behavior of autistic. The study focus on the mix-method research methodology in research parent training with healing touch technique for take care autistic children. Five major themes of pare experiences using healing touch massage with support for development in behavior from the interviewed data. The themes could be described as follows: Learning and following Healing Touch Massage Technique, Facing difficulties when returning home, Unavailable the healing touch massage in every day, and some parent have difficulty for frequently to the massage. Healing touch massage technique was tools for training parent to healing problem behavior and development for autistic children. A qualitative research is suggested to further investigate both autistic individual symptom behavior factors and family take care in relation to parent using healing touch massage technique in autistic children.

  39. Mr. Shaunak Lohite, Dr. Vidya Arjunwadkar, Dr. Sunil Bhamare, Dr. Sandhya Khadse and Dr. Renu Bharadwaj

    Background: Candidemia is one of the most significant causes of morbidity and mortality in hospitalized neonates and pediatric patients especially in intensive care units. Objective: The present study was planned to assess the prevalence of candidemia in neonatal and pediatric patients admitted to P.I.C.U. Method: A cross-sectional prospective study was carried out in pediatric patients admitted to the P.I.C.U of Sassoon General Hospital. A total of 485 blood samples from clinically suspected cases of blood stream infections of pediatric age group collected over six months were included in the present study. Candidemia was diagnosed by isolation of a pure culture of Candida spp. from at least one blood culture with supportive clinical features. Result: From 485 clinically suspected cases of blood stream infections; a total of 5 (1.03%) cases were confirmed as candidemia. All the confirmed cases of candidemia were observed in neonates. Presence of intravascular catheter was the most common risk factor associated with all (100%) the cases followed by low birth weight (80%). Four (80%) cases of candidemia belonged to non-albicans Candida, whereas only one was caused by Candida albicans. Interpretation and Conclusion: Prevalence of candidemia among clinically suspected cases of blood stream infections was 1.03%. All the confirmed cases of candidemia belonged to age group of 0 to 12 months. Presence of intravascular catheters was the most important risk factor followed by low birth weight. A shift observed in the etiological agents from Candida albicans to non-albicans Candida. It is important to identify the species as non-albicans Candida are more likely to be resistant to antifungal agents

  40. Dr. Sriram Christopher

    Acute appendicitis is most common diagnosis in patients with abdominal pain for which most patients land up in open or laproscopic appendectomy. Ovarian torsion is uncommon diagnosis in patients of abdominal pain and it is difficult to ruleout from other causes of abdominal pain. Any abdominal emergencies presenting together is rare alike acute adnexal pathology with appendicitis, with only few cases reported in the literature. Reported is a case of gangrenous appendicitis associated with ovarian torsion in a 35-year-old-lady.

  41. Dr. Nirapjeet Kaur, Dr. Navneet Grewal, Dr. Neha Sharma and Dr. Manpreet Singh

    Introduction: Bacteria as Streptococcus mutans have been implicated to play a key role in causation of dental caries. Reducing the bacterial load can aid in prevention of caries. Further the acquisition of Stretococcus mutans is influenced by numerous maternal factors as mother’s SM counts, feeding practices, mode of delivery, oral hygiene, sharing of food and utensils etc. Objective: To investigate the correlation of streptococcus mutans counts with maternal factors as type of feeding practices and mode of delivery. Material and methods: A blind longitudinal Study was carried out on 60 full term healthy infants with normal body weights to assess the Streptococcus Mutans colonization pattern. Salivary samples of infants were taken at birth, 1 month, 3, 6, 9, 12 and 15 months and data regarding type of feeding and delivery was noted through questainaires filled by parent. The non-parametric chi-square test was applied from birth till 9 months on obtained results and parametric ANOVA test was applied on all the obtained results at 12 and 15 months of age. Results: SM counts were seen to increase with increasing age of the infant. Significant association of SM colonization with infants born by C-section upto the age of 12 months was seen. With regards to feeding pattern, significant association at 5% level of significance was seen till 9 months of age in infants taking breast feed or combination of both.

  42. Dr Manikantan N.S., 2r Rajesh C., 3Dr Rajesh Chandran, 4r Dhanya Balakrishnan, Dr Manoj Kumar, Dr Brijesh Shetty and Dr Shiny Joseph

    Background & objectives: In edentulous patient, the replacement of teeth and lost tissues with a complete denture to obtain an acceptable functional and esthetic result remains an important challenge for the practitioner. Retention is that quality inherent in the prosthesis to resist the forces of dislodgement along the path of placement, which is in turn dependent on the “wettability” of denture base materials. There are various types of denture base materials that are used to fabricate the complete denture prostheses. Since wettability influences comfort and retention of complete dentures, a study to comparatively evaluate the wettability property of denture base materials available in our country would be helpful in assessing their role in the success of prosthesis. Method: Mainly five autopolymerising and five heat cure denture base materials are included in this study. The samples (200 in total) were made and the half of them was sand abraded and the remaining half was untreated. The wettability of the samples was checked with Telescopic Goniometer, using artificial saliva as the wetting medium. The wettability of the solid by a liquid is determined by measuring the contact angle () between the drop of the liquid and the plane surface of the solid. A low contact angle indicates good wetting and the high contact angle value indicates poor wetting. The advancing and receding contact angles were recorded and the equilibrium contact angle is measured using the equation. The difference between the advancing and the receding contact angles (Contact angle Hysteresis) were also found which is directly related to the complete denture retention. Results: The statistical analysis was carried out using ANOVA (Analysis of variance - Fishers F test) and Mann- Whitney ‘U’ test (Z) using SPSS version 10. Here mean and standard deviation of contact angle hysteresis and equilibrium contact angle of each group were also taken in to consideration. The present study showed that the surface treatment increases the wettability of the denture base materials. Among the selected five heat-cure and five autopolymerized brands, the DPI heat-cure as well as DPI autopolymerized sand-abraded samples have shown the highest range (11.3 and 10.1 respectively) of contact angle hysteresis compared to their conventional groups and believed to provide more denture retention compared to other brands selected for the study. Conclusion: The increased surface area and the high hydrophilic nature exhibited by the sand-abraded samples is believed to be the main factor which increase its contact angle hysteresis and the increased retention of the complete denture. Among the studied samples from both autopolymerized and heat-cure materials, the DPI sand-abraded samples showed the highest range of contact angle hysteresis.

  43. Dr. Ameya Puranik and Dr. Sangita Totade

    Background: Practice of using OTC drugs is very common among medical students. Since OTC drugs are more easily accessible to them, in this study we intend to analyze knowledge, attitude and practices of second year MBBS students. Aims and Objectives: To assess knowledge, attitude and practices of second year MBBS students towards over the counter drugs, to determine most commonly used OTC drugs and to determine most commonly used over the counter drug. Methodology: A cross-sectional questionnaire-based study was conducted among 2nd year medical students of J.N.M.C., Sawangi (Meghe), Wardha Results: 1) Out if 150 subjects in the study 90% have used OTC drugs. Most commonly used OTCs were cough and cold medication (46 out of 150). Most common indications for use of OTCs is Cough and cold (41/150). 71% think the reason for using OTCs is familiarity with the disease.59% use chose to use OTCs rarely. 88% of the subjects have not experienced any adverse reaction after taking OTCs. 71% subjects said they will suggest others to take OTCs. Source of information for OTCs out of 150 subjects is peers for 41%. 51% think they are aware of medico legal aspects of OTCs. Conclusion: Self medication is a very common practice especially amongst medical students. It is of vital importance to create awareness regarding adverse effects and medicolegal aspects of OTC drugs.

  44. : Sarika Shetly, Nikesh Moolya and Qia Shakir

    Introduction: The accumulation of bacterial biofilm is the main etiological factor of periodontal disease. So scaling and root planing is the mainstay treatment of periodontal therapy. Apart from this, a number of antibiotics like tetracycline, metronidazole, ofloxacin, and chlorhexidine have also been shown to be effective in chronic periodontitis as measured by a decreased pocket depth, attachment level gain, reduction of bleeding on probing and reduction in periodontal pathogens. Aim: The aim of the present study was to clinically and microbiologically evaluate the therapeutic efficacy of controlled release tetracycline fibres as an adjunct to scaling and root planing versus scaling and root planing in the treatment of chronic periodontitis. Material and methods: A total of 25 patients with chronic periodontitis in the age group of 25 to 55 were selected and were randomly divided into test group and control group. The test group included was treated by scaling, root planing and placement of controlled release tetracycline fibers in the periodontal pocket. The control group was treated with only scaling and root planing. The clinical parameters measured were the plaque index and gingival index. The microbial analysis was done for assessment of A. actinomycetemcomitans, P.gingivalis and P.intermedia by anaerobic culture. The clinical measurements were measured at baseline, 30th, 60th, and 90th day while the microbial analysis was done at baseline and on the 90th day. .Results: There was a significant improvement in the clinical parameters as evident from reduction in plaque index and gingival index (p<0.001). The microbial analysis showed significant reduction in prevalence of A.actinomycetemcomitans and P.intermedia though there was no significant reduction in number of P.gingivalis. Conclusion: It can be concluded that tetracycline fibre therapy along with scaling and root planing is more effective than scaling and root planing alone in the treatment of chronic periodontitis.

  45. Vignesh Sundaravadivel, Kandaswamy, D. and Lakshmi Balaji

    Aim: To evaluate if the fracture resistance of endodontically treated mandibular molars can be improved with newer techniques and restoration than that of crown. Materials and Methods: 55 Two rooted mandibular first molar were randomly divided into 5 groups. Group A (N=11) was left intact. Endodontic treatment was done in remaining 5 groups. In Group B (N=11) entrance filling was done with packable composite followed by tooth preparation and PFM crown placement. In Group C (N=11) entrance filling was done with GC everX Posterior Fiber Reinforced composite after Nayyar Core Technique. In Group D (N=11) entrance filling was done with GC everX Posterior Fiber Reinforced composite. In Group E (N=11) entrance filling was done with Packable Composite. The specimens in all five groups were subjected to fracture resistance using Universal Testing machine. Results: The maximum Fracture resistance was observed in Group B and minimal fracture resistance was observed in Group E. A highly significant difference was evident on comparing the mean values of fracture resistance of different group (p<0.01). Inter group comparison within the different groups also revealed highly significant difference (p<0.01). Conclusion: PFM crowns had the highest fracture resistance. Though literature claims that Short Fiber reinforced composites have increased fracture resistance, they could not match the fracture resistance of a crown. Nayyar core technique provided increased fracture resistance as a direct restoration.

  46. Dr. Hana Morrissey and Patrick Ball

    Background: In Australia, 10-16% acute hospital admissions is related to medication. Home medication review is offered to patients using multiple medications, those with narrow therapeutic-index. It is also recommended for people with recent changes to their medication, who were recently discharged from hospital or who have difficulties with their medication. Objectives: The aim of this study was to identify issues that arise during the process and explore the barriers experienced when changes to patient medication regimen are recommended. Setting: All interviews were conducted in Australia in patients’ homes in accordance with the appropriate guidelines. Method: This study used historical data from past consultations conducted in Australia. The audit was approved by the University of Wolverhampton Human Research Ethics Committee. It is based on anonymised historical data. Main outcome measure: This audit explored improvement in patient health outcomes and service satisfaction Results: Out of 28 home medication reviews, only two occasions were the pharmacist’s recommendations, actioned. On eight occasions, the clinic receptionist acknowledged the receipt of the report but it was not actioned and on 18 occasions no response was received from the doctor or the clinic receptionist. Conclusion: This audit suggests four important areas in the home medication review process require review; the initiation of home medication review, the requirement for diagnostics and recent history to be provided prior to the review, the need to for discussion between the doctors and pharmacists around the recommendations and whether they will be actioned or the reason if they will not be actioned.

  47. Umbeli, T., Awatif J Al Bahar, Salah Ismail, Khadiga A Abdalmoula, Suaad Elnour, Afaq Abdelaziz, Sarah A M Musaad and Arafa Sharaf Eldein

    Background: In developing countries men are the main decision makers affecting women access to maternity care. Objectives: To investigate the effect of husbands’ attendance on women access to antenatal care (ANC) at Omdurman maternity hospital (OMH) 2016 Methodology: A descriptive, cross sectional, hospital based study conducted at OMH. A ten percent of women attending ANC at OMH during the study period were included after an informed consent. Ethical clearance was obtained from ethical review committee (ERC) at OMH. Data was collected by trained data collectors using structured format, coded, edited, rechecked and analyzed by trained person using SPSS version 21.0. Results: A total of 2822 women participated in the study. Male attendance in ANC was 1860 (66.0%), 989 (35.1%) of them always accompany their wives, 873 (30.9%) accompany their wives only in private clinics and 960 (34.0%) did not accompany their wives at all. Women accompanied by their husbands; 1430 (76.8%) were urban, while 432 (23.2%) were rural. Those not accompanied by their husbands; 206 (21.5%) of them were urban and 754 (78.5%) were rural (PV = 0.001). Both women and husbands were well educated, only 4.0%-4.2% were illiterate. Husbands’ education has shown a significant difference in male attendance at ANC (PV = 0.0001). Women who were accompanied by their husbands; 1308 (70.2%) of them had regular ANC (four visits or more), while those not accompanied by husbands; only 145 (15.1%) had regular ANC, (PV = 0.001). Barriers affecting men from accompanying their wives for ANC were: work commitment 1259 (68.7%), presence of male affecting other women’s privacy 346 (18.9%) or they consider it not important to accompany women for ANC 228 (12.4%). Most of women 2670 (94.6%) would like to be accompanied by their husbands. However, 1732 (61.4%) were satisfied with their husbands participation in ANC. Conclusion: Women accompanied by their husbands had more regular ANC visits. Male participation in ANC was influenced by urbanization, husband education, and is affected by work commitment and other socio- cultural behaviors.

  48. Tarun Kumar Singh, Rachit Mathur, Deepak Passi, Surender Pal Singh, Jyoti Goyal, Shubha Ranjan Dutta, Purnima Singh and Deepak Bhagat

    A growing body of evidence is demonstrating the possibility for regeneration of tissues within the pulp space and continued root development in teeth with necrotic pulps and open apexes. The immature root with a necrotic pulp and apical periodontitis presents multiple challenges to successful treatment. The purpose of this case report is to present the case of a patient wherein revascularization of the necrotic infected pulp space of an immature permanent maxillary central incisor tooth was induced in vivo by stimulation of a blood clot from the periapical tissues into the canal space. This was achieved after disinfection of the canal space with a topical antibiotic paste followed by a blood clot scaffold induced from the periapical tissues. This treatment approach offers clinicians great potential to avoid the need for traditional apexification with calcium hydroxide or the need to achieve an artificial apical barrier with mineral trioxide aggregate. Furthermore, this treatment approach can help rescue infected immature teeth by physiologically strengthening the root walls.

  49. He-Ping Lin, Xiao-Diao Zhang, Xi-xian Lou and Chang Cai,

    Objective: This study is to investigate the clinical efficacy of EGFR inhibitors on mutations in lung cancer patients with EGFR 19 and 21 exons. Methods: A total of 178 lung cancer patients were selected from January 2012 to September 2016 in this study and their EGFR mutations were analyzed by Real-time PCR. Then the patients were divided into Exon 19 group (n = 89) and Exon 21 group (n = 89) according to EGFR mutation status, and being treated with EGFR inhibitor erlotinib. Finally, the clinical efficacy and safety of the two groups were analyzed. Results: The average age of patients in Exon 19 group was lower than that of Exon21 group (P <0.05). The response Rate (RR) of the Exon19 group was 51.69%, while the RR of the Exon21 group was 48.31% (P> 0.05). The median overall survival (OS) were 56.00 months (95CI%: 54.054,57.946) and 49.00 months(95CI%: 47.682, 50.316)in the Exon 19 group and Exon21 group respectively. The median Progression-free Survival (PFS) were 50.00 (95CI%: 47.529,52.471) and 41.00 (95CI%: 38.738,43.262)in the Exon 19 group and Exon21 group respectively. Furthermore, the incidence of adverse reactions was similar between the two groups (P> 0.05). Conclusion: Lung cancer patients with EGFR 19 exon mutation are younger than those with EGFR 21 exon mutations, which may get more benefits from EGFR inhibitor therapy.

  50. Prashant Monga, Harsimranjit Kaur, Rajiv Tiwari, Pardeep Mahajan, Pratima Sharma and Harshita

    Most of the times, gutta percha cones available in the market are non sterilized. Also there is risk of contamination either by handling or aerosols and from physical sources during the storage process. So if we follow the principles of endodontics, then these GP cones should be disinfected prior to using them for obturation. But most clinicians avoid these procedures even though it has a great role in success of root canal treatment. For a chemical agent to be considered effective in the disinfection of a given material, its ability to eliminate resistant microorganisms at a concentration of about 107- 108CFU ml-1 must be proved. In the present in vitro study gutta percha cones were contaminated with microbes and thereafter left in disinfecting solutions for different times, and their efficacy in disinfection of gutta percha cones was evaluated.

  51. Dr. Savitha Sathyaprasad, Dr. Vinodhini Jyothivelu, Dr. Anjana, A.G., Dr. Sruthy, P. G. and Rekha, R.

    In India prevalence of oral clefts is as common as 1in 500 several cases and several centres for rehabilitation works round the clock to correct the congenital defect to almost as flawless as a normal child. The team effort involves transition from one speciality to the other and a Pedodontist who is well versed with child’s overall knowledge and comprehensive management of child can be a major shareholder & coordinate among different cleft specialists. Aim: To assess the preference of pedodontist by cleft lip and palate team in the multidisciplinary approach in Indian cleft centres. Settings and Design: It’s a cross sectional descriptive study design. Study was conducted in cleft lip and palate centres and all the specialist involved in the rehabilitation of cleft lip and palate were given a questionnaire to fill and it was also mailed for those who could not be reached personally. Methods and Material: It was a questionnaire survey with a set of fourteen open ended and close ended questions. Questionnaires were distributed to all dental and medical professional’s who were involved in rehabilitation of cleft lip palate. The filled questionnaires were collected and was later sent for statistical analysis. Statistical analysis used: Analysis was done using SPSS vertion 16.0 for windows. Results: Results of our study showed that among the complete oral rehabilitation procedures cleft lip and palate team preferred a Pedodontist for the following like behaviour management, parent counselling, restorations, pulp therapies, space management, and interceptive orthodontic procedures. Conclusions: In our study Cleft lip and palate team preferred Pedodontist for the overall oral rehabilitation of deciduous dentition. Hence there is need for change in the existing trends which calls for an active training and participation of pedodontist in the comprehensive management of cleft lip and palate, this study highlights the fact, but in the present scenario there is lack of adequate participation of pedodontists in the management of cleft lip and palate which may be attributed to lack of training as well as motivation on the same.

  52. Vandana Gade, Neelam Rahul, Sanjay Patil, Priyatama Meshram, Sharique Hussain and Jaykumar Gade

    Context: The success of endodontic treatment depends upon through debridement of the root canal system. Q-mix is a novel irrigant which shows smear layer removal as well as antibacterial action. The irrigant can go 0.1 – 1mm beyond the tip of the needle which prevents apical penetration of the solution. The irrigant needs to be activated to allow penetration of the irrigant till the apical third of the root canals. Aim: To evaluate the smear layer removal efficacy of Q-mix 2 in 1 using different activation regimens. Settings and Design: An in vitro randomized control trial study. Methods and Material: 30 sound premolars were decoronated at cement enamel junction. Biomechanical preparation was done till size #F3. For final irrigation regimen teeth were randomly divided into 2 groups as Conventional Needle irrigation (CI), Mannual Dynamic activation technique (MDA). The teeth were then sectioned vertically and examined under scanning electron microscope for smear layer removal at coronal, middle and apical third. Statistical analysis: Kruskal-Wallis test was used for comparison across irrigation techniques. Pair wise comparison of ratings was performed using Wilcoxon rank sum test. Result: Manual Dynamic activation of the irrigant Q mix 2 in 1 significantly improved the smear layer removal ability as compared to Conventional irrigation technique. There was statistically significant difference at middle third between CI and MDA. Conclusion: MDA resulted in significantly less smear layer as compared to conventional needle irrigation group.

  53. Mohammed Ftouni, Mohammed Nassredine, Ali Elhaj, Marale Atachian and Mohamad Abou Haidar

    Objective: The purpose of study was to identify the current research conduct in several teaching hospitals with an Institutional Review Board (IRB) in Lebanon regarding the application of the international codes and regulations Methodology: Quantitative and Qualitative methods allowed an in-depth understanding of hospitals' clinical research, level of respect of safety measures, compliance with the international regulations, understanding challenges and future recommendation to improve the IRB system. A non-random sampling was used. Result: Based on mixed method analyses, it was generally derived that there was a lack of implementation of IRB system in Lebanon with accordance to the international codes and regulations. (17% of IRB committees doesn't have a written waiving criteria nor deception policy, only 33% have an annual training program). Conclusion: The study noticed the lack of application of international research regulations and protocols, while confirmed by the absence of IRB accreditation system. In addition to that, a weak monitoring system was mentioned in the associated hospitals. The teaching hospitals in general apply the IRB requirements partially, while confirmed by the incompleteness of document system, lack of training regarding IRB, the safety and confidentiality not as required according to ethical principles. There are inefficient steps that were established by the MoPH. Efforts should be made to address these concerns and how effective IRBs are at protecting human research participants and to achieve a full monitoring process via clinical research conducted in healthcare organizations.

  54. Dr. Shantanu Choudhari and Dr. Girish Parmar

    Aim: The purpose of the study was to examine the correlation between individual’s salivary, blood lead levels and dental caries in children of age group 3-6 yrs. Materials and Method: It was a cross sectional study with sample size of 100 children in both study and control group. Samples of unstimulated saliva and blood were collected from all subjects and lead estimation was done by ICP-MS method. Unpaired student-t test was used for statistical analysis, with the level of significance set at 0.05. Results: A highly significant correlation was found between salivary lead level and the presence of dental caries. Also, blood lead level showed a positive correlation with dental caries. Conclusion: The salivary and blood lead levels were found to be higher in subjects with dental caries proving the cariogenic potential of lead. Saliva proved to be a better biomarker than blood in analyzing the lead levels. Clinical significance: Pediatric dentist should be aware of environmental pollutants like lead that can adversely affect general and dental health. There is also scope for future research to identify those mixtures of micro-minerals in food or water supplies that exert a cariogenic effect.

  55. Pallvi Dhand Gupta, Pardeep Mahajan, Nitika Bajaj, Harshita, Divya Pipat, Pratima Sharma and Harsimranjit Kaur

    Oral lichenoid reaction, affecting oral mucosa in direct contact with an amalgam restoration, represent a delayed, Type IV, cell mediated immune response to mercury or one of the other constituents of the dental amalgam. The following case report presents a patient who showed such reaction in mucosa adjacent to placement of amalgam. The mucosal lesions underwent a healing process after amalgam was replaced by composite restoration in the teeth that had contact with the lesions.

  56. Priya Malhotra and Vipin Bharti

    Hereditary gingival fibromatosis is a rare benign oral condition which is characterized by slow and progressive enlargement of the maxillary and mandibular arches covering the teeth to various extents. The condition may occur as an isolated disorder or as a part of a syndrome. This condition negatively affects the quality of life. This paper presents a case of 18 year old male with generalized hereditary gingival fibromatosis involving both the dentitions and covering the teeth upto incisal/occlusal third. The excess gingival tissue in this case was removed by sextant wise conventional external bevel gingivectomy under local anaesthesia. The post-operative result was uneventful and the patient’s appearance improved considerably, also improving his mastication, oral hygiene practice and oral health related quality of life as assessed by the reduction in Oral Health Impact Profile (OHIP)-14 scores . After treatment regular recall visits are necessary to evaluate the stability of the treatment.

  57. Dr. B. BhaskaraRao, Dr. Nikitha Kunam, Dr. N. V. N. Gopal and Dr. Aparna Gorijala

    Lemierre’s syndrome is a condition characterized by thrombophlebitis of the internal jugular vein and bacteremia caused by primarily anaerobic organism, Fusobacterium necrophorum following a recent oro pharyngeal infection. This has been an uncommon illness in the era of antibiotic therapy, though it has been reported with increasing frequency in the past 15 years. Lemierre’s syndrome should be suspected in young healthy patients with prolonged symptoms of pharyngitis followed by symptoms of septicemia or pneumonia, or an atypical lateral neck pain. Diagnosis is often confirmed by identification of thrombophlebitis of the internal jugular vein and growth of anaerobic bacteria on blood culture. Treatment involves prolonged antibiotic therapy occasionally combined with anticoagulation. We report a 20 year old female patient who presented to our hospital with Lemierre’s syndrome

  58. Dr. R. D. Patel, Dr. Abhishek B. Rathod and Dr. Nirav M. Kotak

    Introduction: Ultrasound allows precise placement of local anaesthetic agents to the desired site. In our study, analgesic efficacy between ultrasound guided single shot rectus sheath block was compared with epidural analgesia in patients who have undergone surgeries with midline anterior abdominal incisions. Material And Methods: Hundred patients belonging to American society of anaesthesiologist (ASA) class I and II were included in our study, which is a randomised controlled study, and were divided in two groups, group A and group B. In group A, at the end of surgery, ultrasound guided single shot rectus sheath block was administered using 20 ml of 0.25% bupivacaine by supraumbilical approach on either side of midline, above the posterior rectus sheath. In group B, before induction of general anaesthesia, epidural catheter is placed in sitting position by midline approach and received 4ml of 0.125% bupivacaine through it for postoperative pain relief. Postoperative pain assessed using visual analogue scale (VAS) for first eight hours in immediate postoperative period. Analgesic efficacy was then evaluated by comparing VAS scores and need of rescue analgesia, among two techniques. All statistical calculations were done using computer programs Microsoft Excel 2007 (Microsoft Corporation, NY, USA) and SPSS (Statistical Package for the Social Science; SPSS Inc., Chicago, IL, USA) version 21. Results: Group A had better VAS scores in immediate postoperative period for first 30 minutes (mean VAS 3.20 in group A and 3.34 in group B), 30 to 60 minutes (mean VAS 2.72 in group A and 2.56 in group B), 60 to 90 minutes (mean VAS of 2.36 in group A and 2.74 in group B), 90 to 120 minutes (mean VAS of 2.02 in group A and 3.44 in group B), 2 to 4 hours (mean VAS of 1.92 in group A and 3.82 in group B), 4 to 6 hours (mean VAS of 1.92 in group A and 4.10 in group B), 6 to 8 hours (mean VAS 2.40 of in group A and 4.38 in group B) as compared to group B. In group A, out of 50 patients 6 patients which is 12% of the total group A population, received rescue analgesia, with 44 patients which is 88% of the total group A population did not receive any rescue analgesia. While in group B, out of 50 patients, 19 patients which is 38% of total group B population, received rescue analgesia, with 21 patients which is 62% of the total group B population did not receive any rescue analgesia (P value <0.01). Statistically significant difference has also been observed in postoperative pulse rate among group A and group B with P value of 0.026, indicating better pain relief among group A patients.With no complications noted in group A throughout study, while nausea and vomiting in two patients and hypotension among three patients of group B. Conclusion: Ultrasound guided rectus sheath block is a better analgesic modality than epidural analgesia in immediate postoperative period at some timeintervals requiring less amount of rescue nonopioid analgesia without any complications.

  59. Dr. Arun Sinha, Dr. Vibha C. and Dr. H. L. Vishwanath

    Aim: Asses the significance of elevated serum lipase in Diabetic ketoacidosis Methadology: Serum sample of a female patient known to have Diabetes Mellitus, presenting to ER with complaints of recurrent episodes of vomiting, abdominal pain was taken and routine biochemical tests including a spot urine dipstick test, an arterial blood gas analysis along with serum amylase and lipase was sent. Patient was subjected to ultrasound imaging. The results obtained were analysed. Result: It was found that along with the presence of an elevated blood glucose (304mg/dl), urine was positive for ketone bodies with low bicarbonate levels. The serum amylase was found to be normal but significantly the serum lipase was found to be three times the upper reference range (180 U/L). The abdominal ultrasound was found to be normal without any evidence of pancreatic inflammation. Conclusion: Diabetic ketoacidosis is one of the most common complications of diabetes mellitus (especially type 1). It can often be the presenting symptom in a previously undiagnosed patients. Though occurance of pancreatitis is uncommon phenomenon in the setting of DKA but it is not rare either. Studies conducted have shown that both DKA can precipitate pancreatitis and vice versa. But a very significant finding has been that in 16-25% of patients having DKA can have an elevated serum lipase (≥ 3 times the URL) which is considered diagnostic of acute pancreatitis with or without an elevated serum amylase.

  60. Dr. Pournima Pawar, Miss. Akanksha Kolekar and Dr. Ujwal Yeole

    Objective: Insufficient strength of muscle causes fatigue and affects the basic activities. The IMT is the device (POWER breathe KH1) which is recently developed, which has an electronically controlled valve which provides resistance. Resistance training provides constant oxygen delivery at pretraining levels which improve strength. Methods: The lawn tennis players were selected according to the inclusion and exclusion criteria and those who were willing for treatment. Then Queens Step test was evaluated of all participants from which Pulse rate and VO2 max was calculated before and after treatment. 1RM reading was taken with help of IMT device (POWER breathe KH1). Then after that by taking 40-50% of 1RM the treatment was given with same device for 5days for 4 weeks. Result: In the beginning 1RM was checked which showed the mean 2.3± 0.7022 then after treatment it was 8.17± 0.9499. The mean of queen’s college’s step test that isVO2max before treatment showed 52.428± 9.588 and after treatment showed 54.621±10.350. Conclusion: There is significant improvement in cardiovascular endurance and strength in lawn tennis players after progressive inspiratory muscles training.

  61. Veerabhadrappa, K. V., Raveendra Reddy, J., Padmanabha Reddy, Y., Narayana, G., Pradeep Kumar, B., Haranath, C., Sanjeeva Kumar, A. and Sudir, A.

    Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is a primary malignancy of the liver and occurs predominantly in patients with chronic liver disease and cirrhosis. A better knowledge of molecular Hepato carcinogenesis provides today the opportunity for targeted therapy. Most of the existing anti-cancer produces side effects such as fever, hallucinations, low blood pressure, bone marrow problems, paralysis, coma, liver problems, and kidney problems. The present study aimed. The herbal extract were prepared in solvents like ethanol and screened for ant cancer activity. MTT assay is a colorimetric assay used for the determination of cell proliferation and cytotoxicity, based on reduction of the yellow colored water soluble tetrazolium dye MTT to formazan crystals. Mitochondrial lactate dehydrogenase produced by live cells reduces MTT to insoluble formazan crystals, which upon dissolution into an appropriate solvent exhibits purple color, the intensity of which is proportional to the number of viable cells and can be measured Spectro- photo metrically at 570nm. Viability of cell decreasing with increasing dose and 450 ug/ml of the extract shows 60% viability count and shows good anticancer activity compared to standard drug, Aim: The present study was aimed to investigate Pharmacognostical, Phytochemical screening and Anti-cancer activity in hepatocellular carcinoma cell line HepG2 from folklore plant Materials and Methods Assay controls: • Medium control (medium without cells) • Negative control (medium with cells but without the experimental drug/compound) • Control (medium with cells treated with a known drug, Metformin; 5uM) HepG2 200 μl cell suspension without the test agent. Allow the cells to adhere to the culture plate for about 24 hours. Add test agent incubate 37°Cin a 5% CO2 atmosphere. Add MTT reagent incubates for 3 hours. Then add solubilisation solution (DMSO) in an amount equal to the culture volume. Gentle stirring in a gyratory shaker will enhance dissolution. Occasionally, pipetting up and down may be required to completely dissolve the MTT formazan crystals especially in dense cultures. Read the absorbance on a spectrophotometer or an ELISA reader at 570nm. Results and Conclusion: Folk plant extract after treated with HepG2 cell Viability decreasing with increasing dose and 450 ug/ml of the extract shows 50% viability count and shows good anticancer activity compared to standard drug.

  62. Dr. Rafi Shaik, Dr. P. Nagarjuna, Dr. Sameeulla Shaik, Dr. Sai Praveen, K. N. V., Dr. Dandu Siva Sai Prasad Reddy and Dr. Sharath Kumar, P.

    Introduction: Dental diseases are generally not self-limiting. If untreated, dental conditions may affect the person’s well-being and overall quality of life. Aim: To assess the level of utilization of dental health care services and to determine barriers that prevent utilization of dental health care services among the white-collar port workers in Nellore, India. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional study was carried out among 300 port workers aged 30 years and above, who were willing to participate during the month of May 2017 in Nellore District. A multistage sampling method was followed. The source of data was primary in nature and it was obtained through self-administered questionnaire. Data obtained were analyzed using descriptive statistics chi square test, regression analysis using SPSS version 20. Results: Only 36% of patients had visited the dentist in the last 12 months. The most common reported reasons for the last dental visit were pain or a dental emergency (71%), followed by restorative treatment (17 %) and other reasons by (12 %).The most commonly reported reasons for not seeking dental care were “Not needed unless have pain” by 360 (60%), “I do not think dental diseases are very serious” by 304 (51%), “I have fear of dental procedures” by 290(48.6%),“Lack of time” by 235(45.6%), “Dental treatment is expensive” by 200(33.3%),“The dentist is at a long distance” by 158(26.8%). Conclusions: Our findings suggest that only a small portion of population visited dentist in previous year. Most of them believe that visiting dentist is necessary only for pain relief.

  63. OUATTARA Zié Adama, ABE N’Doumy Noel and DOUDOU Dimi Théodore

    In Ivory Coast, the LLIN is the prevention tool highly promoted by the National Malaria Control Program. But its use by the people is not yet a given. Research has focused on problems related to its adoption in households. This study examines the difficulties of adopting this tool within malaria care services. The study is qualitative and of ethnographic type. It was carried out in the malaria management services of 10 districts in the health regions of Gkêkê, Tonpki and Kabadougou in Ivory Coast. Several observations were made in these services and documented. In addition, about 20 semi-directive interviews were conducted with health workers and in population about the influence of malaria treatment services on people's attitudes towards LLIN. The results show that malaria care and observation services are a "bad example" for users of LLIN use. The rationalization theorization test at work in the decision not to use the LLIN shows that the image of the LLIN projected to the populations in these places often induces the refusal to use it. The lack of hygiene, the unavailability of LLINs, their use for other purposes are factors that influence the decision of populations. This text invites the actors of malaria care services to consider these places as opportunities to raise awareness among the population, in order to encourage the adoption of the LLINs not only within these services but also at home.

  64. Dr. Shruti Gupta, Dr. Kamlesh Garg, Dr. Sumit Jain, Dr. Ankita Sinha and Dr. Shikha Singh

    18-year female patient presented skeletal class I jaw base with unilateral Class II molar relationship with minor crowding in upper and lower arch. Unilateral distalization was planned in upper arch to correct end on molar relation and palatally block out permanent canine followed by extraction of deciduous canine and impacted third molar with respect to upper left quadrant. Pendulum appliance was used to distalize upper left molar. With Pendulum appliance distalization was achieved by 4 mm within the duration of 4 months. Bilateral Class I molar and canine relationship was achieved in a span of 18 months. Thus Pendulum appliance was proved to be simple, efficient and non complaint.

  65. Dr. Ashish Choudhary, Dr. Manish Kumar, Akash Vashisth and Md. Sharique Shakil

    The main objective of this study was to depict the occurrence of neck pain, shoulder pain and back pain among dentists and to evaluate the risk factors affecting them. Sixty-eight dentists from Patna were interviewed utilizing pretested questionnaires in January 2018. Back pain was the most common complaint affecting almost 75% of the study population, followed by neck pain (52%) and shoulder pain (48%). The recurrence of shoulder pain among female dentists was nearly double that of males (P=0.009). The mean days of neck pain among males was altogether higher as compared to females (P=0.048). The study proposesthat musculoskeletal complaints are common among dental specialists; however they are not of severe nature. There is a scope for further decreasing the prevalence and seriousnessof these disorders by performing regular specific exercises.

  66. Pablo Fossa, Yerko Molina, Natalia Awad, Fabián Ramos and Sofía de la Puerta

    The present article reports the results of a descriptive-correlational study that tried to return to the theory of thought with images and without images with the objective of exploring the relevance of environmental stimulation in its elicitation. The purpose of this work was to explore whether environmental stimulation influences the forms of symbolic nature of thought (images and without images) or, even if, the iconic nature of thought is independent of environmental stimulation. Fifty university students participated, who were individually subjected to two thought elicitation events: an instrumental music and a story. After each stimulus, a video-assisted qualitative interview was carried out with the objective of monitoring the thoughts of the participants. The categories of thought were codified and analyzed through a descriptive statistical analysis, Z test for the comparison of proportions and a Bayesian analysis (BF). The results show that the nature of the stimulus does not determine the emergence of one type of thinking over another; however, when stratifying by sex, differences appear. It is concluded that the denotative and imaginative thinking fluctuates permanently in the experience, independent of the environmental stimulation. The emergence of a thought in images and without images does not depend on the characteristics of the social and cultural context, but on what these stimuli remove in the individual consciousness, so it is possible to think that thought transits by different forms of expression, according to the interaction between environmental stimulation and the internal motivations of human consciousness.

  67. Sara Mascaretti, Carlo Masciocchi, Giulio Mascaretti and Eva Fascetti

    Backround: There are several inclusion and exclusion criteria of patients affected by symptomatic and asymptomatic, single and multiple uterine fibroids, among them the interposition of bowel that do not allow the access to the ultrasound beam (Mascaretti et al., 2016). The use of the inversion bench before the treatment is a method that allows the inclusion of some patients. Methods: from May 2016 to April 2017, 22 patients aged between 23 and 51 affected by single and multiple uterine fibroids (sized between 2 and 14 cm) have been placed on the inversion bench which allowed 15 of them to access the Magnetic Resonance-Guided Focused Ultrasound, since after a 15 minutes positioning on the inversion bench, an acoustic window was created, thus enabling the safe passage of the focused ultrasound beam. Results: In our operating unit, 22 patients have been placed on the inversion bench. Of these, 15 after the Magnetic Resonance-Guided Focused Ultrasound (MRgFUS) treatment for single and multiple uterine fibroids. Patients have been closely evaluated by means of a complete gynecological examination, a transvaginal ultrasound, an MRI with and without contrast agent. After these specialized evaluations, it is possible to determine if the patient actually is an eligible candidate for the ultrasound treatment and if there is any bowel interposition that could interfere with the treatment. The symptom evaluation has been conducted by the means of the UFS-QOL questionnaire. All the evaluations have been carried out for the selection of patients that had to undergo the focused ultrasound treatment and after the treatment, a 3 months, 6 months and 9 months follow-up has been made. The use of the inversion bench allowed 15 patients to the treatment, who otherwise would have been excluded from the Magnetic Resonance-Guided Focused Ultrasound. They have been thus treated with success and avoiding any inconvenience. Conclusions: The use of the inversion bench allowed the inclusion in the Magnetic Resonance-Guided Focused Ultrasound treatment of patients who otherwise would have been excluded. After the clinical evaluation, these patient were treated without any accident, exactly like the other patients (Mascaretti et al., 2016; Spies et al., 2002; Mascaretti et al., 2017).

  68. Prashant Chauhan, Kalpana Dixit, Bhargavi Basavaraju, Malik R. K. and Kaiser Jamil

    Consumers’ demand and market potential of fermented food and dairy products calls for innovation in food and dairy processing and needs novel starter strains to boom food industry. Nine strains of bacteriocin producing Streptococcus thermophilus with sound technological properties isolated from milk and milk products were evaluated for in-vitro acid and bile tolerance in simulated gastro-intestinal environment, adherence to cell surface and antibiotic sensitivity profile. All the nine strains were found to be acid and bile tolerant with some degree of variability. The percent hydrophobicity of studied strain was ranging from 5% to 33.5% with all the tested hydrocarbons. All the strains of S. thermophilus were sensitive to antibiotic ofloxacin, vancomycin, polymixin B and ciprofloxacin while showed variable behavior towards remaining 19 antibiotics. Three strains namely PMD9, PMK20 and PMl31 were found to possess appreciable probiotic properties in all respect and could be novel agents for their exploitation as functional dairy starters. Further use of these products could be for fortifying these products in yoghurts for health benefits, or countering antibiotic resistance.

  69. Dr. Narinder Sharma, Dr. Preeti Jamwal, Dr. Anita Sharma

    Introduction: Fracture of Humerus shaft in adults can be managed conservatively with braces or operatively with plates or with intramedullary nails. Humerus intramedullary nailing is done either using humerus interlocking nails or Enders nails. In this study we analyse the outcome of humerus shaft fractures (upper and middle third) managed with closed antegradeintramedullary titanium elastic nailing in terms ofunion rates, union time, functional results and complications. Materials and Methods: A retrospective study of 25patients treated with ante-grade intramedullary titaniumelastic nailing was done during the period of january 2016 toJanuary 2018 at our tertiary care centre. Skeletally maturepatients with closed and acute fractures of the upper andmiddle shaft humerus of both sexes were included in thestudy. Results: Twenty-five (100%) fractures united with anaverage consolidation time of 14.98 weeks (10-32 weeks), and no fractures had non-union. Nail impingement wasseen in two (8%), shoulder stiffness in one (4%). Functionalresults were excellent in 22 (88%), moderate in two (8%) andpoor in one (4%). There were 17 males and eight femaleswith an average age of 39.08 years (range: 18-65 years). Theaverage duration of hospital stay was 3.84±2.30 days. Conclusion: Closed ante-grade intramedullary titaniumelastic nailing offers a safe and reliable method of fixingfractures of upper humeral shaft in adults. This methodprovides early fracture union, high union rates and lesscomplications, in addition to early rehabilitation and reducesthe hospital stay.

  70. Savitri Verma, Archana Bamaniya and Rattilal Meena

    Aim: Hepatitis E. viruses (HEVs) are single stranded RNA viruses that cause large epidemics of acute viral hepatitis especially in developing countries and cause adverse maternal and foetal outcome. It affects males and females, both pregnant and non-pregnant. However, in pregnant females HEV infection is more severe often leading to fulminant hepatic failure (FHF) and death. Methods: This study is a prospective study conducted at Pannadhai Mahila Chikitsalaya, R.N.T. Medical College, Udaipur over a period of 3 years from January 2015 to December 2017 to find out the maternal and foetal outcome in HEV infected pregnant females. Results: A total of 60 symptomatic anti- HEV IgM positive patients were included in this study and their maternal and foetal outcomes were assessed. The maternal mortality was higher as compared to mortality due to other types of hepatitis. The mortality was 11.6%.Prematurity was 70%, IUD 15% and early neonatal deaths were 6.66%. Conclusion: The aim of the study is to make aware the tribal population about the diseases and to increase awareness of proper sanitation, food hygiene and safe drinking water. Variation in maternal morbidity and mortality between different studies need to subtype the viral genotype according to its virulence.

  71. Dr. Tilakraj, K. and Dr. Sathish Balaji, E

    High-energy tibial plateau fracture poses a significant challenge and difficulty for orthopaedic surgeons. Fracture of tibial plateau involves major weight bearing joint and may alter knee kinematics. AnatomicReconstruction of the proximal tibial articular surfaces, restoration of the limb axis (limb alignment) and stable. Fixation permitting early joint motion is the goals of the treatment. In cases of complex bicondylar tibial plateau fractures, isolated lateral plating is frequently associated with varus malalignment and better results have been obtained with bilateral plating through dual incisions. However sometimes a complex type of bicondylar tibial plateau fractures is encountered in which medial plateau has a biplanar fracture in posterior coronal plane as well as sagittal plane. In such fractures it is imperative to fix the medial plateau with buttressing in both planes. One such fracture pattern of the proximal tibia managed by triple plating through dual posteromedial and anterolateral incisions is discussed in this case report with emphasis on mechanisms of this type of injury, surgical approach and management.

  72. Dr. Kirti Yadav and Dr. Tushar Sahasrabuddhe

    Even after being aware of the various harmful effects of the mosquito repellents it is very commonly being used in the developing countries. Many studies in the past have been done on exploring the effects of smoke of mosquito repellants, emissions of irritating compounds and carcinogenic compounds and other pollutants, which suggests that the rate at which emission takes place can help predict the concentration in domestic setup and to assess the health risks. Human health is one of the biggest issues now a days, our aim of researching on this topic is to make people aware regarding the hidden health problems associated with the use of mosquito repellent. Much of our community doesn’t know what hazards mosquito repellents can do to our body. In this study, we evaluated short term impact of mosquito mats on respiratory tract assess them through inflammatory markers (Tlc, neutrophils count, C-rp) PFT and other relevant investigation.

  73. Tesfaye Dejene and Zerihun Yemataw

    Enset, Enseteventricosum, is a crop that contributes to food security for more than 20 % of Ethiopia’s population. The objective of the present study was to understand farmers’ knowledge to enset diversity management and their response to EXW. A total of 80 farm households were surveyed using individual household interviews. Sixty-five cultivar names were recorded for the study area. The number of cultivars cultivated on individual farms ranged from 4 to 10 (with mean of 9.3). Farmers primarily prefer cultivars with good kocho and bulla yield and quality and 10 enset cultivars having merits of it were encountered on above 50% of the farms visited. Farmers as tolerant to enset bacterial wilt identified seven cultivars. Farmers identified various enset production constraints in their locality. 30% of farmers reported the existence of EXW in their fields. Most farmers’ understanding of how disease is caused had no basis in scientific fact, citing birds, insects, wind and highly fermented dung during wet season as the causal agents of the bacteria, while nearly 25% said they did not know. An understanding of cultivar distribution and selection criteria will assist future germplasm conservation to ensure continued food security. Therefore, in order to maintain enset genetic diversity and to reduce the likelihood of incursion of EXW in enset crops, a systematic operational approach to the management of EXW should be adopted.

  74. Shende, Sumit, Ansari, Salman, Gattani, Deepti, Bhutada, Girish, Meshram, Sneha and Jirafe, Sanjana

    Abscesses in the periodontium always poses a unique challenge for a clinician as they are associated with severe bone loss, intrabony defects and deep periodontal pockets. Periodontal abscess is multifactorial in nature as gram negative organisms predominated over gram positive organisms. It is the third most common dental emergency. Periodontal abscess is associated with non periodontitis periodontal lesions and in patients with periodontitis. Diagnosis of periodontal abscess depends upon source of infection, prognosis, clinical signs and symptoms, clinical history, radiographic and histologic findings. Treatment of periodontal abscess is confined to its control of acute conditions and management of preexisting lesions. Treatment of periodontal abscess also includes systemic antimicrobial therapy in patients with general symptoms like fever, chills and rashes. As, It is a mixed infection, broad spectrum antibiotics like Metronidazole, Augmentin and Tetracyclines are used.

  75. La Sarido

    Micro and Macro Fertilizer Test on growth and yield of cayenne pepper (Capsicum frutescens L). Research were used a faktorial randomized design, first factor is micro fertilizer (K), consisted of 4 levels And secon factor is macro fertilizer (P) treatment consisted 4 levels, finally cannot be maximum utilized by plants, the best growth and yield obtained on application of micro fertilizer with a dosage 4 g L-1 of water (K2) for plant height ranges from 5-22 cm, number of leaves 6-69 strands, started flowering an aged 30,94 days, harvesting aged 64 days, and weight of fruit per plant in each harvest time 10,99 grams. On macro fertilizer treatment showed non significant effect in the initial growth, that on the plant height and number of leaves at aged 15 Days After Planting (DAP), highly significant effect on plant height aged 30 DAP and the number of leaves aged 30 and 45 DAP, as well as for harversting age and weight of fresh fruit in each harvest time, and for plant height aged 45 and 60 DAP, number of leaves aged 60 DAP and flowering age showed highly significant effect. The best growth and yield obtained on application of macro fertilizer with a dosage 10 gr polybag-1 (P3) which is for plant height ranges between 5-24 cm, number Of leaves 6-83 strands, flowering started on age 27,5 days, harvesting age 63,31 days and the results obtained 13,744 grams plant-1 in each harvest time.

  76. Dr. Mohammad Danish and Dr. Gulam Sarwar Hashmi

    Background: Mandibular fracture is the second most common fracture in the maxillofacial region. Various classification systems for mandibular fractures exist in the literature, some are incomplete and some are very complex. The purpose of this study was to present an unusual mandibular fracture and simplified classification system to include such fractures. Method: We report an unusual case of mandibular fracture in which the fracture pattern could not be classified according to any of the classification system except the one given by WHO. Open reduction and internal fixation was done under general anaesthesia with fixation of two miniplates and occlusion was achieved. Conclusions: As WHO classification is very complex and do not generally used in clinical practice. So we are proposing a modification in the existing AO classification of mandibular fractures so that such cases can be included.

  77. Hoon Hur, Gun Hong Lee, Pyoung Su Kim, Dong Nyeok Hyun and Yu Ri Kim

    Riehl’smelanosis (RM) is apigmented contact dermatitis characterized byreticulated dark brown-gray-bluish pigmentation on the face and neck. Treatment of RM is challenging because there is no a golden standard of treatment yet .Therefore, the authors introduce a new treatment of RM using Dr. Hoon Hur's Golden Parameter Therapy(GPT) with a high fluence 1064nm Q-switched Nd: YAG laser(QSNL) without side effects. In this study, Dr. Hoon Hur'sGPT with a high fluence 1064nm QSNL proved to be a safe and effective treatment for RM. We suggest that Dr. Hoon Hur'sGPT with a high fluence 1064nm QSNL is a new, safe and good option for treating RM.

  78. Mallikarjun B. Guddad, Vaibhav P.Ugare, Soumya R. Patil, Dheeraj K. V. and Pulikeshi M. Biradar

    Ants are small, insignificant and quite powerful intelligent eusocial insects. The social organization is very remarkable one in ants, so that they cannot be distinguished from one another, it is mysterious for us that ants are able to recognize their companies, of course they don’t have ears, some of them are blind, but they have a great sense of smell. Ants interact with one another through chemicals, called ‘pheromones’. These chemicals may vary from one species to another species. When they find a food, leave a pheromone trail, which is sensed by other ants, and that in turn leads to the food source. They have the capacity to find the shortest route from food source to colony so that they can collect maximum food. Ants are one of the few groups of animals, which modify their immediate environment to suit their needs. They often build elaborate nests in a range of situations, sometimes, expending huge amount of energy in their construction. Ant nests vary from small, simple chambers under rocks, logs, twigs, branches using leaves or in trunks of tress on the ground to extensive excavations extending a meter or more into the soil. Ants perform tasks ranging from nest building, finding food and shortest route to food source with excellent communication skills and even help in waste management.

  79. Venkatesh Balakrishnan, Karumaran Chellaswamy Savrimalai, Anil Kumar Ramachandran, Rajasekaran Meenakshi Sundaram, Shankar Padmanabhan and Anu Priya Guruswamy Pandian

    Horizontal Root Fractures (HRF) are uncommon consequences of traumatic dental injuries. Although anterior tooth are primarily involved, HRF can occur in posterior tooth as well. From a therapeutic stand point middle and apical root fractures are considered to have a favourable prognosis while cervical root fractures are considered least favourable. This article reports on successful management of cervical, middle and apical third HRF by conservative treatment approaches. Authors suggest an accurate diagnosis followed by reduction, fixation & endodontic therapy can lead to favourable outcome in HRF patients.

  80. Mrs. Arul Nisha, S., Abdulmunaf, M., Aruna, J., Jayandy, B., Nirajamohan, R.S., Preetha, C., Sathya Jothy, G. and Sridharan, V.

    Background: The incidence of oral cancer is highest in India, south and Southeast Asian countries. In India, 90 -95% of the oral cancers is squamous cell carcinoma. The international agency for research on cancer has predicted that India's incidence of cancer will increase from 1 million in 2012 to more than 1.7 million in 2035. This indicates that the death rate because of cancer will also increase from 680000 to 1- 2 million in the same period. In India, 20 per 100000 population are affected by oral cancer which accounts for about 30% of all types of cancer. Over 5 people in India die every hour everyday because of oral cancer and the same number of people die from cancer in oropharynx and hypo pharynx (Varshith, 2015). Aim: The present study aims to identify the level of knowledge on Oral cancer among general public Methods: The cross sectional descriptive study conducted in 297 samples. The subjects were selected based on convenient sampling technique. Results: The level of knowledge on oral cancer out of 297 participants, 27(9.09%) had poor knowledge, 109(36.7%) have good knowledge, 102 (34.34) had average knowledge, 56(18.85%) had very good knowledge and 3 (1.01%) had excellent knowledge. The mean value for the knowledge on oral cancer among the study participant was 8.29. Conclusion: From this study out of 297 participants 109(36.7%) have good knowledge 102(34.34 %) have average knowledge, 56(18.85%) have very good knowledge, 27(9.09%) have poor knowledge and 3(1.01%) have excellent knowledge. It was found who had history of tobacco chewing, smoking habits and alcohol consumption was found poor knowledge about the causes of oral cancer. The results were statistically significant.

  81. Elia K. Georgieva, Nikolai M. Hristov and Peshka A. Pesheva

    During medical education students are faced with various factors that affect their resilience. High levels of academic stress, poor role modelling and abuse are often associated with depression and a wish to quit studying medicine. This study was conducted to define the factors that affect the resilience of students at Medical university-Sofia. The results from our study showed that medical student’s mental health resilience suffers by poor role modelling, abuse, high levels of academic stress, lack of mentoring, etc.

  82. Malik Tafazul Rashid., Yadav A.S. and Shabir A. Lone

    The present study was designed to carryout the prelimnary photochemical screening and to assess the anti-bacterial potential of ethanolic leaf extract of Clerodendrum searratum LINN. Phytochemical investigation revealed the presence of alkaloids, phenolics, carbohydrates, proteins, carbonate and glycoside. In-vitro anti-bacterial activity was evaluated using disc diffusion method. The microorganisms used for anti-bacterial activity were staphylococcus hominis ATCC27844, Pseudomonas putida ATCC2021, Proteus vulgaris ATCC13315, Bacillus subtilis ATCC2063 and Escherichia coli ATCC2065. The most susceptible gram negative bacteria found were Pseudomonas putida ATCC2021 and Escherichia coli ATCC2065 with zones of inhibition ranging from 10±0.47mm to 23±0.22mm whereas the most susceptible gram negative bacteria found were staphylococcus hominis ATCC27844 followed by Proteus vulgaris ATCC13315 and Bacillus subtilis ATCC2063 with zones of inhibition ranging from10±0.23 mm to 20±0.23 mm. It was observed that with an increase in the concentration of the extract, there was an increase in the zone of inhibition and thus activity was found to be concentration dependent. Therefore, it was concluded from the results that the ethanolic leaf extract of Clerodendrum searratum LINN. Possess potent anti-bacterial activity and hence can be used for the treatment of various ailments caused by test organisms.

  83. Vishal Goel and Ashish Arvind

    The objective of this study was to assess the effect of chemical particle present in cigarette smoke on ventilatory functions on smokers to analyse the extent of impairment in the airways. Parameters recorded were PEFR, FEV1, FVC, FEF25-75% and FEV1/FVC%. For each participant chest X-ray was also taken. We have done comparison of ventilatory functions in non-smokers and smokers. It was observed that the values PEFR, FEV1, FVC, FEF25-75% and FEV1/FVC% significantly decreased in smokers (p value<0.001) when compared to non-smokers. Smokers are at high risk of developing obstructive lung disease. Tobacco smoke contains abundant reactive oxygen “Free radical” which deplete antioxidant mechanism thereby inciting tissue damage. Activated neutrophils also added to the pool of reactive oxygen species in the alveoli. The free radical causes inflammation which results in narrowing of airways.

  84. Dr. Hitesh Kumar and Dr. Raju Patel

    Pseudomyxoma peritonei or mucinous neoplasm of the appendix is a rare clinical condition characterized by the presence of mucinous ascites in which gelatinous material accumulates throughout the peritoneal cavity and pelvis. It usually arises from cystic neoplasm of appendix, ovary and rarely from colon. A 45 year old man presented with right sided abdominal lump and distension. Ultrasound and Computerized tomography diagnosed it as a case of psoas abscess with multiloculated heterogeneous echoic contents. Intraoperatively jelly like material was removed from retroperitoneum. Histopathological examination revealed features suggestive of mucinous adenocarcinoma. Aim in presenting this case is to increase the awareness among clinicians about the rare presentation of pseudomyxoma retroperitonei as a psoas abscess.

  85. Vinay Kumar Hegde, Dr. Anilkumar K. Hegde and Vindhya Hegde

    In the present study, an efficient reproducible protocol for high frequency in-vitro propagation of Banana cultivar Karibale was described. An in-vitro protocol for Cv. Karibale was established by using shoot tip culture. The healthy suckers which were collected from the disease free and high yielding mother plants were surfaced sterilized and initiated on standard MS medium supplemented with different combinations and concentrations of Plant growth hormones. Out of tried combinations, maximum multiplication (95%) was obtained in MS medium supplemented with 4 mg/L BAP, 8 mg/L Adenine Sulphate and 0.5 mg/L NAA, while maximum elongation of shoot (4.2cm) was observed in MS medium supplemented with 3.5 mg/L BAP, 6 mg/L Adenine Sulphate and 0.5 mg/L IAA. Then the micro shoots were transferred to in-vitro rooting medium MS medium half strength, supplemented with 1.5 mg/L BAP, 2 mg/L IAA, 1 mg/L IBA and 2 g/L Activated charcoal. Then excellent acclimatization was observed for transferred plantlets with 90% survival rate.

  86. Dr. Rohit Dureja, Dr. Wilhemina Chauhan and Dr. Vipul Prajapati,

    Background: An important cause of avoidable childhood blindness is retinopathy of prematurity (ROP) in developing countries. The aim of this study is to determine the incidence of ROP among pre-term babies in Civil Hospital (tertiary care hospital) Ahmedabad. Method: All pre-term babies (<37weeks) admitted to the neonatal unit of the Civil Hospital, Ahmedabad in year 2017 were enrolled into the study. Ophthalmologic examinations were started at 6 weeks after birth. All the examinations were performed by a single experienced ophthalmologist. Result: The inci¬dence of ROP was higher with lower gestational age (GA) and lower birth weight (BW). Birth weight <1500 gm and gestational age <32 weeks were the main risk factors for ROP. Conclusion: The incidence of ROP of any stage in Civil Hospital, Ahmedabad was determined to be 11.3% among pre term babies enrolled in this study.

  87. Su Xinxin, Wu Suye, Yu Kang and Chen Ledan

    Objective: To explore the relationship of ABO blood group with the clinical efficacy of chemotherapy in endometrial carcinoma. Methods: The clinical data of 320 patients with endometrial carcinoma admitted in our hospital from February 2010 to July 2014 were retrospectively analyzed. Eighty-two cases of type A blood, 86 cases of type B blood, 94 cases of O type blood and 58 cases of AB type blood were included. The blood type of patients and the follow-up results of chemotherapy were analyzed. And the relationship between ABO blood group and the sensitivity of chemotherapy in endometrial carcinoma was analyzed. Results: The chi-square analysis showed that there was no significant difference between the chemotherapy effect and the sensitivity of chemotherapy in group A, B and AB (P >0.05). However, the chemotherapy sensitivity of endometrial cancer patients with O blood was higher than those of the other three groups (P<0.05). Furthermore, Multivariate logistic regression analysis showed that O-type blood was helpful in improving patient chemotherapy sensitivity (OR = 3.057). Conclusions: Type O blood is helpful to improve the sensitivity of chemotherapy in patients with endometrial carcinoma.

  88. Dr. Sneha S. Puri

    The connective tissue graft is an indispensable therapeutic tool in mucogingival periodontal surgery and implantology from the functional and aesthetic point of view. The harvesting technique as well as the field of application have change and further developed since the first description of free connective tissue grafts three decades ago. Therefore the purpose of this article is to describe various subepithelial connective tissue grafts harvesting technique in detail.

  89. Amitabh Kumar Upadhyay, Pankaj goyal, Nidhi Gupta, Rakesh kumar Gupta and Sandeep kukkar

    A 54 years female presented with 6 months history of dyspnea and 2 months history of haemoptysis. She was evaluated with CT thorax which showed 22×16×15 mm sized hypodense soft tissue lobulated lesion in right lower trachea extending inferiorly into right side of carina, up to origin of right main bronchus. Brochoscopic guided biopsy was done which was S/O adenoid cystic carcinoma, grade 1. Patient was treated with definitive concurrent radiotherapy (IMRT 66Gy/33#/6.3 weeks) and weekly chemotherapy with Cisplatin. Post treatment CT thorax showed 16×15 mm sized heterogeneously enhancing soft tissue enhancing lesion at right side tracheal bifurcation. She was started on tab Gefitinib 250 mg once a day, tolerating it well since 19 months with minimal residual disease as per CT thorax. Tracheal tumors are very rare with an incidence less than 0.2 per 100,000 persons per year. Squamous cell carcinoma is most common followed by adenoid cystic carcinoma. It’s a very indolent tumor with prolonged clinical course with a tendency for local recurrence and late metastasis. Adenoid cystic carcinoma is not associated with smoking as causative factor unlike squamous cell carcinomas. It has got better prognosis than squamous cell carcinomas. Most of these tumors are detected in middle age in 4th and 5th decade and it has got almost equal distribution in both sexes. It is asymptomatic initially when the size is small, but as the size grows, it may cause hoarseness, cough, hemoptysis, wheezing, chest pain, dysphagia etc. Most of these patients are treated for bronchial asthma or bronchitis for a long time, before getting detected. There are 2 definitive treatment modalities, surgery and radiotherapy. Surgery is the treatment of choice with adjuvant radiotherapy in resectable tumors. Radiation is used in multiple indications like adjuvant after surgical procedure, definitive treatment of unresectable tumors and palliative treatment of tumor for symptomatic relief.

  90. Majedah Alkharji, Hang Liu and Mayyada Al Hammoshi

    Advancements in technology have positively influenced the higher education in terms of delivering instructions and other services. However, as more organizations continue to embrace technology in their online operations, the risk of information security attacks cannot be underestimated. Higher education institutions have a risk of information security attacks since they have the least secure environment to protect information resources and systems. In addition, colleges, universities, and non-profit groups are very vulnerable to security breaches especially those which entail identity theft. Thus, most hackers prefer to use university and college information systems to hide their identities especially when they intend to launch attacks on commercial systems. The attackers target information systems from these institutions because they contain personal and financial information for students, alumni, employees, and other relevant stakeholders. Failure to safeguard these information systems could or have already resulted in the loss of reputation and finances of the affected individuals and institutions. A questionnaire was distributed to information technology department administrators at higher educational institutions in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia and further analyzed. This paper aims at discussing the analysis results which include security threats that face these institutions, as well as the security systems they use.

  91. Dr. Mahesh Basarge, Dr. Parvindar Singh and Dr. Ashok Thakkar

    Background: Despite the prevalent use of drug-eluting stents (DES) in current clinical scenario, many coronary artery disease (CAD) patients are still treated with bare-metal stents (BMS). Aim: The purpose of this registry was to assess the clinical performance and safety of the ultra-thin (65 μm) strut cobalt-chromium Osum™ BMS for the intervention of CAD patients in real-world clinical practice. Materials and Methods: This was an observational, non-randomized, retrospective, single-arm registry with a target of evaluating safety and performance of 467 consecutive patients who underwent treatment for CAD by Osum stent implantation from January 2012 to October 2016. The mean follow-up duration of this study was 2 years. The endpoint of the study was to observe major adverse cardiac events (MACE), which includes myocardial infarction (MI), cardiac death, and ischemia-driven target lesion revascularization (ID-TLR). Results: A total of 512 lesions were treated in 467 enrolled patients (mean age: 56.57 ± 11.02 years) with 28.12 ± 7.89 mm average stent length and average stent diameter of 2.88 ± 0.40 mm. An average of 1.08 ± 0.27 study stent was implanted per patient. Out of 467 patients, 370 (79.23%) were males, 119 (25.48%) were diabetics and 206 (44.11%) had hypertension. At 2.0 ± 1.5 years follow-up, the total incidence of MACE occurred in 36 (7.71%) patients which include 2 (0.43%) MI, 30 (6.42%) cardiac deaths and 4 (0.86%) ID-TLR. There were no cases of stent thrombosis (ST). Conclusions: This study demonstrated that Osum BMS is associated with a low rate of major adverse cardiac events with an absence of stent thrombosis at a mean follow-up of 2 years in real-world coronary artery disease patients. Trial registration: This study is registered at clinical trial registry of India with CTRI number: CTRI/2017/11/010531

  92. Dr. Netika Tharwani, Dr. Mirza Aumir Beg and Dr. Alok Ramesh Patel

    Background: The present in-vitro study was a scanning electron microscope (SEM) study conducted in primary teeth in order to evaluate the erosive potential of two commonly used pediatric liquid medications (PLMs), the anti-biotics and the analgesics. The commonly used antibiotic in the study was Mox-redimix, Ranbaxy and Ibugesic Plus, cipla was choosen for the analgesic group. Materials and Methods: Thirty extracted teeth were randomly divided into 2 groups viz. Control group and Test Group. Control group (n=10) samples were immersed in 10 ml of artificial saliva whereas the Test Group was divided in to 2 subgroups viz. Antibiotic Group (n=10) and Analgesic Group (n=10). The teeth from the Test Group were maintained in the pediatric liquid medicines for 8 hours at 37 C. After 8 hours, the samples were rinsed with running water and observed under scanning electron microscopy (SEM) under the environmental setting of the microscopy. Results: Deciduous enamel treated with pediatric liquid medicaments at 8 hours was observed under SEM. Surface mapping was done according to Sharma et al. Control group samples, which were treated with artificial saliva, did not show any changes on the primary enamel. In the test group, i.e. the antibiotic and analgesic groups the SEM micrographs showed that the surface was smooth, etched and outlines of scales were seen. The enamel rods were clearly opened.In most of the samples of the analgesic group, the surface topography could be related to the Type III etching pattern, which is generally associated with an aprismatic type of enamel. While the samples of the antibiotic group, showed crater like formation. Conclusion: The pediatric liquid medicines are acidogenic in nature and their frequent use should be discouraged, unless absolutely necessary. Preventive protocol should be advised along with the use of pediatric liquid medicines eg., ingestion at mealtime if possible, avoid ingestion at bed time.

  93. Shrikrishna, H Gurlhosur, Sreekanth, B., Shashidhar, N., Rajeshwari Desai, Amruta Bhusanur, Chaitanya Puranik and Sri SaiTejaswini, P.

    Due to the infinite size of nanoparticles, the surface area is relatively large and as a result, they usually have high reactivity and sorption to various heavy metals. In this work, we synthesized Fe3O4 nanoparticles by cost effective Co-precipitation method. The prepared nanoparticles were characterized using Scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray powder diffraction (XRD) and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). The results from SEM, XRD & FTIR reveals that the synthesized nanoparticles Fe3O4 were having spherical shape with the particle size ranging between 8.69nm-56.58nm (<100nm). We investigated the adsorption behavior of the iron oxide (Fe3O4) nanoparticles and its applicability in the removal of toxic heavy metals like Copper (Cu-II) and Chromium (Cr-VI). A batch experiment was performed in which 100mL of aqueous solutions contaminated with each metal were artificially prepared from their standard stock solutions and treated with the nanoparticles under different conditions of pH, contact time, dosage Fe3O4, metal concentration and temperature. The adsorption behavior was studied using UV-VIS spectrophotometer by changing one of the conditions while keeping the others fixed. According to the results, maximum metal removal Efficiency (%) for Cu(II) & Cr(VI) were obtained at: pH=6 for Cu(II) and pH=2 for Cr(VI); Contact time=60minutes; dosag Fe3O4 e=0.2grams; Temperature=30°C; Metal concentration=10ppm for Cu(II) & 20ppm for Cr(VI). Langmuir isotherm fits the data having R2=0.997 for Cu(II) & R2=0.996 for Cr(VI) with maximum adsorption capacity (Qo) of 31.25mg/g for Cu(II) and 55.56mg/g for Cr(VI).

  94. Sameer Priyadarshi, Manpreet Singh, Manoj Chaudhary and Pratibha Sharma

    A study was undertaken to compare the effects of different routes of administration of dexamethasone, namely intra-space injection of Twin mix, intraoral-submucosal, intramuscular, intravenous and per-oral administration, on post-operative sequel after mandibular impacted third molar surgery. The study was carried out on 60 patients presenting with class II position B impaction of mandibular third molars. Ten patients were randomly allocated to each of the six study groups. A ten-point visual analogue scale was utilized to assess the pain intensity, and specific facial measurements were measure to assess the postoperative facial edema. Maximal mouth opening was measured inter-incisally, pre and post-operatively, to evaluate trismus. All dexamethasone groups demonstrated better outcomes than the control group. The intraoral submucosal group showed least edema, & least reduction in mouth opening, and also, most favorable result, for pain control on 1st & 3rd post operative day. Pre operative use of submucosal dexamethasone proved most potent in reducing the post operative swelling and trismus demonstrating statistically significant results. From our study, we can conclude that single pre operative dose of submucosal dexamethasone effectively improves the post operative outcomes in the surgical management of impacted mandibular third molars.

  95. Amrita Nayyar, Prashant M. Battepati, Anand K. Tavargeri and Vijay Trasad

    Background: Parenting is a composite activity. Parenting styles may have an impact on the coping mechanisms adopted by the child in stressful situations. Parents are responsible towards the overall health of the child. Thus, the oral health and the risk of dental disease development in children may also be influenced by different parenting practices. Aim: To study the association of parenting styles with caries status, caries risk, socioeconomic status (SES) and behavior of child in dental operatory. Materials & Methods: The present analytical cross-sectional study was carried out in 200 parent-child pairs. A trained, calibrated and blinded post graduate student performed initial examination for caries status, risk assessment and oral prophylaxis in children aged 3-6 years reporting for their first dental visit. Another blinded examiner not involved in rendering treatment assessed the behavior of children at the time of treatment. Questionnaire was filled to assess the parenting styles and socioeconomic status of parents. Results: A statistically significant association was noted between parenting styles and caries status (χ2=137.0361, p=0.0001*), parenting styles and caries risk (χ2=149.5972, p=0.0001*), parenting styles and behavior of children in during first dental visit (χ2= 41.0532, p=0.0001*) and parenting styles and socioeconomic status (χ2=121.9572, p=0.0001*). Conclusion: When parenting was of authoritative type children had less caries (7.83%), low caries risk (86.09%), and more cooperative behavior in the dental operatory (76.52%) in comparison to children of parents with permissive and authoritarian parenting style. Higher socioeconomic status was associated with authoritative (66.09%) and permissive parenting (52.08%).

  96. Gopal Shankar Narayan, Loganathan Kavitha, Balakrishnan Venkatesh, Meenakshi Sundaram Rajasekaran, Anu Priya Guruswamy Pandian and Anil Kumar Ramachandran

    The dental handpiece is a sophisticated combination of precision parts moving in perfect synchronization at extremely high speed. The handpiece is a device that requires diligent maintenance protocol to keep it running properly and safely. Handpiece delivers a smooth powerful cut that allows the clinician to remove tooth structure in an efficient manner with little discomfort in contrast to earlier days which was done with hand cutting instruments and electric belt driven instruments with top rotational speeds of 50000 rpm. The leap from belt driven to air driven hand piece was a major breakthrough because it overcame slow speed, time spent on tooth preparation, pressure and vibration of belt driven handpieces. The selection of an appropriate handpiece and appropriate burs is the key for safe and effective removal of dental hard tissues and caries in an efficient manner. The overall goal of this article is to provide information on the evolution, internal parts, mechanism of belt and air driven handpieces and classification of air driven handpieces.

  97. Ambaga, M. and Tumen-Ulzii, A.

    Our first imagination was that the evolution history of development of lifeprocesses in our planet during last billion year should build the full closed cycle of protons, with direct participation of this cycle have been formed more than 100 kg ATP during 24 hours and heat energy, enough to warm the human body until 36-37 Celsius degree, where protons have been recirculated, reutilized, making repeated circulation movement within concrete interval time. At first we had been succeeded to find the end 9-th stage of the full closed cycle of electron, proton conductance, which basic features may be described as entry of oxygen from lung, formation of HbO2, proton combine with hemaglobin (generation of HbH) which promotes the release of oxygen from hemaglobin, oxygen diffusion to all cells conditioning the release of proton, electron from food substrates in the 1-stage, also proton released from hemaglobin promotes uptake of oxygen by hemaglobin, which we named as 9-th stage of the full closed cycle. In this connection it was raised the question as which basic features should be bear the 8-th stage of the full closed cycle. After this, it was became clear that the 8-th stage of the full closed cycle had been distinguished by the diffusion of proton from mitochondrial matrix of all cells in the form of HCO3 as the protonated carbon dioxide, and metabolic water through plasma membrane of red blood cells with participation of aquaporin protein channels and by Na+/H+antiport mechanism, also entry of CO2 from all cells.

  98. : Sumana J Kamath, Sanchitha, G., Nikhilgovind Shenoy

    Background: Diabetes mellitus (DM) and its complications are one of the major health problems in developing world. Diabetic retinopathy(DR) is one of the leading cause of ocular morbidity. Awareness of DR among patients can reduce its complications. Methods: A cross sectional observational study was conducted at the department of ophthalmology, Kasturba medical college, Mangalore. A total of 101 patients with pre-existing diabetes were included in the study. The study duration was from June 15th, 2016 to 31st December of 2016. An 11-point questionnaire was used to collect data including demographics, duration of disease, awareness of ocular complications and presence of ocular symptoms. Results: 60 patients (59.4%) out of 101 had awareness that screening was necessary for DR, whereas 41 (40.6%) were unaware of necessity of screening for DR. The source of awareness were exclusively doctors in majority of patients (n=46). Statistically significant association was seen between literacy and awareness regarding screening for DR (‘p’ value=0.009). Significant association was seen between control of diabetes and eye problems (‘p’ = 0.005). There was no statistically significant relationship between duration of disease and presence of eye symptoms. Conclusions: There is a need for awareness of DR among patients to minimize ocular complications. Health care personnel along with including internet and television have a major role in spreading awareness but role of mass media. Also, improvement in health care system is necessary for prevention/treatment of diabetes related complications.

  99. Dr. Jayati Nath

    Term Premature rupture of membranes (PROM), also called Prelabour Rupture Of Membranes, is classically defined as rupture of membranes, at term, before labour and accounts for 0.8-0.9% of all pregnancies at term. This study was conducted over a period of 14 months (from January 2017 to January 2018) in a tertiary care medical college in North India. A total of 100 term PROM patients were recruited in our study – and divided into two groups randomly--50 (Group A) patients were managed conservatively and 50 (Group- B) patients underwent induction of labour. Both these patient groups were studied to compare the feto-maternal outcome. Group-A (conservative management group) patients were observed to await the spontaneous onset of labour pains for at least 24 hours. Patients in group B were induced with either - PGE1 tab (misoprostol) 25 µgm 4 hourly orally or iv oxytocin infusion. The PROM-delivery interval was < 12 hours in 72 % of induced groups (Group B) and 10% (5) in group- A (conservative or expectant group). LSCS rate was 10 % in group-A (expectant group) &15 % in group –B (induced group). Sepsis rate, maternal and fetal, hospital stay, NICU admission & duration of NICU stay were notably higher in group – A (expectant management group). Therefore, from our study we concluded that immediate induction of labour in term PROM cases shortens the PROM- delivery interval, hospital stay, NICU stay and reduction in both maternal & neonatal sepsis.

  100. Anita Sharma, Kanupriya Vashishth, Sharma, Y.P., Gaurav Gupta and Dr. Devendra Kumar Singh

    Percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) with stent placement is a standard treatment for coronary artery disease (CAD). Despite the use of drug eluting stents (DESs), restenosis remains a challenging clinical problem. Restenosis is the maladaptive response of the coronary artery to injury. Oxidative stress, inflammation and neointimal hyperplasia have been implicated in the process of restenosis. However, the molecular and biochemical pathways of restenotic process are not fully understood yet. Furthermore, as restenosis is assumed to be a multigenetic process and genetic predisposition is considered an important risk factor, analysis of the genome-wide gene expression is recommended for better insight of the phenomenon along with comparison among different study groups.

  101. Berneece Herbert, Lady Kassama and Colmore S. Christian

    Food security, a condition in which “… all people, at all times, have physical, social and economic access to sufficient, safe and nutritious food that meets their dietary needs and food preferences for an active and healthy life” (FAO, 2006), is one of several conditions essential to a healthy and well-nourished population (Coleman-Jensen, 2013). This research focused on food access and sources of food, along with the roles of local food systems in North Alabama, one of the fastest growing regions in Alabama. The overall goal was to develop a geographic picture of the Huntsville Metro region and the cities at risk for food insecurity. By noting places with high food insecurity risk and comparing them to places where food is available, analysis indicates areas of unmet need. The methodology was adapted from a study by Wauchope and Ward (2012) of the Carsey Institute using census tracts as a proxy for neighborhoods. Results indicate that inthe Huntsville Metro region, one of the wealthiest regions in the State of Alabama, 55 percent of the population had a high risk of food insecurity with 45 census tracts identified as high risk and 71 percent with poverty rates greater than 10 percent. However, seven census tracts located in the City of Huntsville were observed to be hot spots for having significantly high percentages of its population that were located beyond 1 mile for urban areas from a supermarket.

  102. Ravi Kumar, H., Sai Kalyan Guptha.Achuta and Chandrasekhar, D.

    Introduction: Prophylactic administration of antibiotics can be used to avoid surgical site infections, which are the primary cause of morbidity and mortality in patients. In spite of modern standards of preoperative preparation and refinements in anaesthetic and operative techniques, postoperative wound infections remain a serious problem. Objective: • To evaluate the incidence of surgical site infections following clean and clean contaminated operations. • To identify the common organisms detected in above scenario. • To identify the risk factors for postoperative wound infections. • To study the clinical profile of patients with clean and clean contaminatedoperation scenario. Methods: It is a hospital based cross sectional study of 200 patients tertiary care hospital over a period of one year and seven months from June 2015 to December 2016.Risk factors and post-operative wound infection rate was analyzed. Results: Out of 200 cases 14 cases got infected in both clean 12 (6.6%) patients and clean-contaminated 2 (11.11%) patients. In our study, out of 14 cases, infected 4 patients had no associated risk factors. Conclusion: Single dose of Cephalosporins can be used in clean operations and single dose of Cephalosporins and Metronidazole can be used for clean contaminated operations.

  103. Dessalegn Ayele and Tesfaye Awas

    The Ecology of vascular epiphytes was studied in agro forestry system of Gedeo Zone, Southern Nation, Nationalities and Peoples National Regional State of Ethiopia at an altitude of 1370 -3100m. Systematic sampling method was employed during data collection. Different software’s like CANOCO, TWINSPAN, PAST and SPSS were used to analyze the data and also qualitative analysis was followed depending up the raw data collected. Eleven species of vascular epiphytes were recorded from nine host (phorophyte) species in the study area. The analysis by TWINSPAN and ordination showed as there are two plant community associations without vegetation disparity among the zone and ferns were the species rich group. The species diversity of vascular epiphyte is greatly influenced by the host tree biophysical factors, such as vertical gradient of host, bark texture, size, age, and surface area. The changing forest structure across altitude provides different quantities and qualities of substrate to epiphytes that resulted in decreasing number of epiphyte species with increasing elevation. The altitudinal distribution of epiphytes may be influenced by altitudinal factors like temperature and moisture. The vertical distribution of vascular epiphytes along the vertical gradient of the host trees indicated that most species were localized at the intermediate height. The vertical ecological gradients (i.e. solar radiation and humidity differences from the forest floor to the canopy) may be relevant for the distribution of epiphyte floras. The host tree specificity of vascular epiphytes was not exhibited by the current study. The species richness of epiphytic plants varies depending up on the season. Therefore one who wants to conduct further research on the aspect of epiphytic plants should be care of the season at which the study is conducted.

  104. Lakhani Krishna, Kolamkar Yogesh, Misra Sonal and Patel Khushbu

    Background: Influenza like illness caused by influenza A (H1N1), a quadruple reasserted influenza virus. It is an orthomyxovirus responsible for outbreak that occurred in state, Gujarat, India in year 2017. During the 2009 H1N1 pandemic, pregnant women had higher morbidity and mortality comparing to non-pregnant women. Aim: To study the Obstetric care and Management of H1N1 pregnant women during an outbreak of H1N1 influenza. Methods: Retrospective data of 11 pregnant women with signs & symptoms corresponding to influenza like illness was collected and subjected to throat swab testing for H1N1. Epidemiological characteristics were analyzed in terms of clinical presentation and outcome. Results: 6 (45%) patients out of total 11 patients were confirmed (positive) for H1N1. Maximum 3 (60 %) patients were in third trimester of pregnancy and 2 (40%) patient was in second trimester of pregnancy. Fever (100%) and cough (100%) were common presenting symptoms. 1 (20 %) patient was put on mechanical ventilator but unfortunately she didn’t survive. Conclusion: Pregnant women might be at increased risk for complications from outbreak of H1N1 virus infection. Fever and cough were the most common symptoms in these pregnant women. Severe acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) and late presentation were a poor prognostic indicator in these patients. Early treatment with effective antiviral drugs like oseltamivir will decrease the mortality in H1N1 patients

  105. Bambang Suprijadi and Yenik Pujo Wati

    After the prevailing of local autonomy and also general election for local leader (Pemilukada), it seems that managerial procedures for development in Indonesia have been forced to change. Local autonomy successfully makes some regencies and cities to feel more empowered. Indeed, the locals now have more discretions to determine direction of development implemented in their jurisdiction.This study is conducted to detect failure threat of development as early as possible. It also attempts to examine the design of evaluation on the management of regency development in current days. The study also tries to describe the ideal design of evaluation, which, in this case, is a design that can stimulate Local ApparatusTask Unit (SKPD) to improve their performance on Madura Island Region. Good evaluation on governmental management must not only emphasize on measuring current success (ex post), but also predict possible success in the future (ex ante). It is expected that recommendations given by result of evaluation would be useful. This study makes every endeavor to create a design of evaluation on governmental management implementation for development process at regency level in Madura Island Region. The rule for evaluating governmental management implementation has been stated in Law No.32/2004 on Local Government, particularly in Chapter VII about “Local Development Planning”, Article 150-154. This law is followed-up then with Government Regulation No.8/2008 on “Stage, Procedure of Making, Control, and Evaluation on Implementation of Local Development Plan” andInternal Affair Minister Decree No.54/2010 on “Implementation of Government Regulation No.8/2008 on Stage, Procedure of Making, Control, and Evaluation on Implementation of Local Development Plan”.Based on result of evaluation on governmental management implementation in Madura, especially in Sumenep and Bangkalan, some Local Apparatus Task Unit (SKPD)do not implement good governance due to internal and external factors influencing each SKPD. However, the Preparation Committee of Madura Province Establishment (P4M) perceives that natural resource (SDA) and human resource (SDM) are ready to be used.

  106. Vimala Gandhi, S., Swathi Joseph and Preethi, B.

    Rhizobium-legume symbiosis is one of the most well-established symbiotic nitrogen-fixing systems for agronomic studies. The effect of salt stress on the growth and nitrogen assimilation of Arachis hypogea (groundnut) was investigated. Root nodules were collected from healthy plants of A.hypogaea from the agricultural fields of Perambalur, Tamil Nadu, India. The Rhizobiaisolates obtained from pure cultures were subjected to standard biochemical tests. A. hypogea cultivated in pots were treated with saline water at 40mM, 80mM, 120mM and 160Mm. Plants not treated with saline water served as control. The plants inoculated with Rhizobiumcan grow and survive at high salt concentrations compared to control plants. In order to further understand the nitrogen fixing capability, the nitrogenous activity and leghaemoglobin content was determined. It was observed that the plants inoculated with Rhizobium showed increased nitrogenase activity and leghaemoglobin content. The overall conclusion is that appropriate legume and Rhizobia inoculants can increase the Nitrogen fixing capacity which further helps in improved food production even under stressed environmental conditions.

  107. Leunita Makutsa Makila, Dr. Ann Marecia Sirera and Dr. Christine Wasanga

    Academic competence is indispensable in influencing resilience among children acting as a buffer that protect them from psychological distress. This study examined the role of academic competence in enhancing resilience in school adaptation among children in post war context using a sample of children aged 9 to 21years. Resilience Models and Social Cognitive Theory (SCT) were used to guide the study. Academic competence was measured at by Interviews, Focused group discussions and teacher reportsto capture children’s’ narratives on war experiences and academic competence. Children’s academic competence were assessed using Academic competence Scale (ACS), adapted and modified. Descriptive t-test was used to analyze quantitative data while qualitative data was analyzed thematically by use of interpretative phenomenological analysis and presented in verbatim form. The results showed that majority of the children were low in academic competence at 95% confidence level. Only four items, namely; “I can work hard”, “I can do well in school”, “I can improve my reading ability”, and “I know how I want to be”, found to be at 95% confidence level. The study indicated that depleted personal resources as a result of experiencing traumatic events early in life (such as war), can pose a tremendous challenge in school adaptation. The study illustrated the necessity of interventions in post war context.

  108. Amrita Nayyar and Anand K. Tavargeri

    Background: Oral health is often neglected. Over the years, there has been an increase in the practice of self-medication (SM) with non-prescription (over-the-counter) drugs for dental problems. With regard to paediatric patients, such practices are entirely under the control of the parent. Pharmacokinetics of drugs vary in children due to their unique physiology. Therefore, it is of utmost importance to select appropriate medication and dosage for children, as dosing errors in paediatric patients may cause fatal complications. Aim: To assess self-medication practices by parents in children for various dental conditions. Method: A cross sectional questionnaire survey was carried out in parents of patients aged up to 14 years reporting to the outpatient department of Pedodontics and Preventive Dentistry. Data was collected using a self-structured questionnaire to record demographic information and various aspects of self-medication by parents in children for dental problems. Results: 61% of the parents self-medicated their children for dental conditions. A statistically significant relation of self-medication practice with age (χ2=135.4105, p=0.0001), gender (χ2=105.8601, p=0.0001) and socioeconomic status (SM) (χ2=220.0210, p=0.0001) was found. Self-medication was most prevalent in the females, age group 4-8 years and in the lower socioeconomic status. Conclusion: SM is widely practiced by parents for treating dental conditions in their children. Thus, the need of the hour is to create awareness among the parents and thereby encourage appropriate drugs usage in children.

  109. Ms. Anmol Kohli, Dr. Sukhraj Kaur, Dr. Pashaura Singh Sandhu and Dr. Mridula Mahajan

    Background and Aim: Diabetes mellitus is one of the most common metabolic disorders with increasing prevalence. Associated thyroid dysfunction is 2.2-17% with women more frequently affected. Subclinical hypothyroidism is an important risk factor in development of complications of diabetes. The aim of the study was to evaluate thyroid profile in diabetics with and without complications and find a correlation if any amongst the complications and levels of thyroid hormones. Design and Methods: In this study apart from the base line biochemical parameters fT3, fT4 and TSH were estimated in 200 diabetic individuals which included both diabetics with complications and diabetics without complications. 100 individuals were recruited to serve as controls. Statistical analysis: Data collected is presented as mean± S.D. student t test was used to compare means and Pearson’s coefficient of correlation was calculated to study the correlation between different parameters. Results: Sub clinical hypothyroidism is prevalent in diabetic complications like Nephropathy, CAD and Hypertension. Levels of fT3 are negatively correlated with fasting plasma glucose. Levels of fT4 and TSH correlated positively with LDL and VLDL and negatively with HDL Conclusions: Prevalence of sub clinical hypothyroidism is an important risk factor in development of diabetic complications. A small deviation from the normal levels of TSH should be taken into consideration and treated accordingly so as to prevent complications of diabetes.

  110. Aseel M. Almansour

    Objective: The objective of the study was to contribute to the literature by investigating how HIV spread differ with the demographics, and socio-economic factors among the population in Zambia. Introduction: Sothern Africa is considered worst affected by Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) and still home to an estimated 6.3 million people living with HIV in 2013. In an attempt to determine the factors that associated with HIV we investigated the demographic and socio economic elements. Methods: In order to estimate the infection of HIV and its associated risk factors using Zambia ZDHS 2014 survey data, the univariate and multivariate logistic regression analysis were applied. Results: The models showed that marital status, residence type, education level, wealth index were statistically significant. Where having electricity, television, radio, and using internet were not positively associated with HIV prevalence. With 83058 respondents from the Zambia Demographics and Health Survey (ZDHS) the HIV test showed higher percentage of HIV infection of 6.4% for female than male (3.6%). Conclusions: In order to prevent the infection from increasing continuous investigation of the transmission determinants is needed. The outcome of this study will help the policy maker to update their current knowledge of HIV infection for an effective prevention program.

  111. Dr. Pardeep Mahajan, Dr. Monika Vashisht, Dr. Nitika Bajaj, Dr. Prashant Monga, Dr. Mona Mehra and Dr. Harleen Kaur

    Endodontic treatment may directly involve contact with saliva, blood and infected pulp tissue. So, cross infection is the major issue in endodontic treatment. All instruments should be cleaned prior to sterilization using methods like pre-soaking and ultrasonic cleaning. Contaminated instruments are pre-soaked prior to ultrasonic cleaning. This study investigated the effect of pre-soaking of instruments prior to ultrasonic cleaning on sterilization. Endodontic files were divided into 10 groups. Group 1 to Group 4 includes pre-soaking and ultrasonic cleaning with different time intervals. Group 5 to Group 8 includes no pre-soaking but ultrasonic cleaning with same time intervals as above groups. Group 9 and 10 were control groups. Group 1-4 instruments were pre-soaked before ultrasonic cleaning. Then all instruments from Group 1-8 were subjected to ultrasonic cleaning. Then all instruments were sterilized using autoclave. Visualization and scoring of debris is done at tip and blade of the file. There was no significant difference with pre-soaking of instruments before ultrasonic cleaning but ultrasonic cleaning has significant effect on cleanliness of files with time intervals of 5-10 mins. There were no further improvement upto 1 hr. This was concluded that there is no improvement in cleanliness of instruments with pre-soaking and optimum ultrasonic cleaning time was 5-10 mins.

  112. Vinita Susanti

    This paper discusses the knowledge of Environmental Crime taught in Criminology. A contemporary crime, which deals with the criminology view of environmental crime, by looking at elements of environmental crime: perpetrators, victims, law and enforcement. By recognizing what is meant by environmental crimes, is expected to realize environmental justice. For more details, Lapindo Case is used, as a trigger of environmental crime, by giving choice to the reader, is it an environmental crime or a natural disaster event.

  113. Nandita Kujur

    Introduction: Surgical repair of hernias is the most commonly performed surgical procedure in the world. Despite a large number of clinical studies, no consensus has been achieved on surgical technique of inguinal hernias. This study aims at evaluating the conventional Lichtenstein’s tension free repair versus transabdominal pre-peritoneal placement of mesh, in terms of morbidity, number of days of stay and post-operative pain. Methodolgy: This study evaluates the Lichtenstein’s tension free hernia repair versus TAPP. The study was conducted between November 2015 to August 2017 and total of 60 patients admitted with inguinal hernia, in the department of general surgery, Bangalore medical college, who met the inclusion criteria were included. The data was collected and appropriate statistical analysis was done. Results: Duration of hospitalization in the patients who underwent TAPP was lesser as compared to the patients who underwent LTF repair. Post-operative complications in the LTF group were also more as compared to the TAPP group though the duration of surgery was longer in the TAPP group as compared to the LTF group. Conclusion: Though TAPP is a newer method of hernia repair but result in terms of post-operative outcomes are comparable to the conventional LTF repair and in terms of postoperative pain and complications, seems to be superior to LTF. Hence TAPP can be considered at par with the conventional LTF repair and in some ways better.

  114. Kannan C.S. Warrier, John Prasanth Jacob Rekha R Warrier and V. Sivakumar

    An attempt was made at the Institute of Forest Genetics and Tree Breeding, Coimbatore to understand the anatomical differences in tissue characteristics between juvenile and adult materials as well as male, female and monoecious trees in Casuarina equisetifolia. Traditionally, the transition from juvenile to adult phase has been explained as a change in the reproductive competence but it also is marked by species specific changes in a variety of vegetative traits including leaf shape, leaf anatomy, adventitious root production, disease resistance and a number of secondary compounds. However, attempts to identify sex of the plants based on morphological and physiological parameters have not been consistent. In recent years, there have been serious efforts to understand the genetic basis of sex determination in plants and to develop methods to identify sex at an early stage by using molecular / biochemical markers. Phylloclad cuttings collected from four different positions from lower (juvenile) to upper (mature) parts of 9 years old male, female and monoecious trees were subjected to the anatomical investigations.Various anatomical parameters including pith diameter, thickness of the phloem tissue, number of xylem vessels per unit area, diameter and area of the xylem vessels, roundness, aspect ratio and fullness ratio of the xylem vessels were measured using an Image Analyser.Anatomical studies carried out in the present study revealed significant differences between the juvenile and adult tissues. Pith diameter and thickness of phloem tissue varied among the stem cuttings obtained from the four different positions. A decreasing trend was observed from position 1 to position 4 for pith diameter. A reverse trend was observed for the thickness of phloem tissue. Similar was the trend for diameter of the remaining area (excluding pith and phloem), which was observed to decrease from position 4 to position 1. None of the other parameters examined in this study could be used to distinguish juvenile and adult materials at the anatomical level. Pith diameter, diameter of the area excluding pith and phloem, diameter, area, roundness and aspect ratio of the xylem vessels varied significantly among the male, female and monoecious trees. Pith diameter was found to be maximum for monoecious trees followed by female and male trees. A reverse trend was noticed for diameter of the remaining area. Average diameter and area of the xylem vessels were higher for the male trees than the female and monoecious individuals. With reference to the shape of the xylem vessels, male trees exhibited better roundness than the female and monoecious trees.

  115. Dr Mansurali, A., Dr Swamynathan, R. and Joel Ratnam, J.

    The Selfie is taking a photo of yourself, sharing it on social networks, waiting for feedback, rinse and repeat. The proliferation of mobile phone technology combined with the popularity of social media applications has made ‘selfie’ as Word Of the Year, 2013. People who take Selfies can be grouped into two categories: the Chronic Abuser or the Occasional Poster. Chronic Abusers take Selfies multiple times a day. The Occasional Poster, meanwhile, tends to only snap a Selfie when the occasion presents itself to be favorable. The PEW Research Centre reported that 91% of teenagers have taken ‘Selfie’, which might suggest a divided perspective between generations. A new disorder has been identified by APA (American Psychiatric Association) due to selfie among the selfie addicts known as “Selfitis”. Few reports have mentioned that the morale of people has changed because of selfie. Selfie, a new medium of self-expression and self-representation is usually posted in social media like Facebook, Twitter or Instagram. These environment of social media influences a person’s mood and attitude. This study analyses such influences made by selfie and the positive and negative impacts created by it. It examines the business opportunities introduced by selfie in various sectors. This selfie culture has brought incredible creativity in taking photographs by bringing out new poses and unimaginable location choices from people. It has also brought innovations in mobile applications and technological advancement in front camera. Selfie also accounts for the emergence of safe-selfie campaigns, rehab and counseling centers due to its negative impacts. This study answers the major two questions, why are selfies taken and how do brand capitalize this trend.

  116. Amitabh Kumar Upadhyay, Pankaj Goyal, Prasanta Kumar Dash, Parveen Jain, Chaturbhuj Agrawal and Venkata Pradeep Babu Koyyala

    Colorectal cancer (CRC) is an important health problem both globally and in India. It is the third most common malignant tumor and the fourth most common cause of cancer death in the World. In Indian population, there is paucity of literature on efficacy and toxicity profile of conventional vs targeted therapy plus chemotherapy in recurrent and metastatic colorectal malignancies. Present study was prospective study done to evaluate the Response rate and Progression free survival of conventional chemotherapy compared to that of Targeted therapy plus chemotherapy in first line setting in cases of recurrent or metastatic colorectal malignancies and also to assess the toxicity profile and overall survival on these drug combinations. Patients were enrolled from September 2013 to August 2014 and the date of last follow up was 20th June, 2015. Histologically or radiologically proven patients of recurrent and metastatic colorectal malignancies were enrolled for the study. A total of 70 patients were then enrolled into the study arm which received targeted therapy plus chemotherapy. 70 patients of similar demographic profile and disease status were randomly selected who received chemotherapy alone. The median PFS was 4 months and mean PFS was 5.51 months in the chemotherapy arm. The median PFS was 8 months and mean PFS was 7.21 months in the targeted therapy plus chemotherapy arm (p=0.001). The median OS was 19 months and mean OS was 18.03 months in the targeted therapy plus chemotherapy arm (p value <0.001). The overall response rate was 42.85% in chemotherapy arm and 62.85% in targeted therapy plus chemotherapy arm which was statistically significant. The rates of grade III and IV hematological adverse effects was comparable in both arms. There was 27.14% neutropenia, 12.85% thrombocytopenia, 14.28% anemia requiring transfusion and 14.28% cases of febrile neutropenia in chemotherapy arm. There was 30% neutropenia, 10% thrombocytopenia, 17.14% anemia requiring transfusion and 12.85% cases of febrile neutropenia in targeted therapy plus chemotherapy arm. The differences were not statistically significant.

  117. Keshab Babu Koirala, Ajanahalli Ramaiah Sadananda, Tirtha Raj Rijal, Ghanashyam Bhandari, Bandhu Raj Baral and Balram Bhandari

    High yielding, nutritionally superior maize varieties, generally referred to as quality protein maize (QPM), compared to its normal counterpart helps not only to increase food security but also to enhance feed, fodder and nutritional security. Five QPM varieties including farmers' popular variety were evaluated at five and eight sites in Arghakhanchi, Dailekh, Dang and Surkhet districts using various schemes of participatory variety selection (PVS) like mother-baby trials, minikits and large plot variety cum production demonstrations during summer season of 2013-14 and 2014-15. Two sets of mother trials, one with recommended dose of fertilizers and second with farmers' practice of fertilizer application were planted at each site in both the years. Combined results of mother trials showed increased grain yield of the tested genotypes under recommended dose of fertilizer than in farmers' practices. Babies and minikits were managed by farmers, and mother trials and demonstrations by researchers. Highly significant differences for grain yield were recorded for location and fertilizer, significant for genotype, and genotype × location; and non-significant for location × fertilizer, fertilizer × genotype and location × fertilizer × genotype. Variety wise yield increment ranged from 10.16 (S03TLYQ- AB-01) to 27.21% (farmers' popular variety) when combined over locations. District wise yield increment was in between 4.38 (Arghakhanchi) and 51.67% (Chitwan). Feedback from babies and minikits was collected through household level questionnaire (HLQ) and focus group discussion (FGD). Most of the improved varieties were preferred by farmers compared to their popular variety because of higher grain yield, stay green character, better taste and tolerance to lodging, and better diseases and insect-pests tolerance. Based on experimental results and feedback from farmers and other stakeholders S99TLYQ-B was released as Poshilo Makai-2 in 2017 for commercial cultivation in Terai and inner Terai (up to 800 meter) during winter and mid-hills (800-1800 meter) during summer season. Thus, participatory variety selection can be used as complementory approach to conventional plant breeding.

  118. Dr. Sourabh Kuvera, Dr J S Sabharwal, Dr.Nidhi Gupta, Dr. Gaurav Gupta and Dr. Devendra Kumar Singh

    Acute renal cortical necrosis is a rare cause of acute renal failure secondary to ischemic necrosis of the renal cortex. It accounts for only 2% of all causes of acute renal failure in developed countries (Grünfeld et al., 1981), but occurs more frequently in developing world (Chugh et al., 1976; Chugh et al., 1983; Hassan et al., 2009; Parkash et al., 1995). The obstetric complications are the commonest (50 – 70%) cause of renal cortical necrosis (Hassan et al., 2009), non-obstetric causes account for 20-30% of all cases of cortical necrosis. The classic description of this condition by Sheehan & Moore (1952) still holds true to this day. They described the lesion at different stages in evolution as seen in autopsy material. The pathogenesis of cortical necrosis is far from clear, and probably many factors are involved. Acute renal failure as a result of acute cortical necrosis cannot be distinguished readily from other forms of acute renal failure such as acute tubular necrosis and renal biopsy is the only sure way of making the diagnosis during life (Lauler & Schreiner, 1958). Partial recovery of renal function has been reported and it is likely that recovery is governed by the extent of the lesion (Walls et al., 1968).

  119. Joash Mark Olenja, Enose M.W. Simatwa and Maurice A. Ndolo

    Globally, countries have made major strides in education in increasing enrolment to achieve Universal Primary Education. In Kenya, the Government reintroduced Free Primary Education in 2003 to enhance access, retention, participation, progression and completion. In 2002 dropout rates in Vihiga, Sabatia, Emuhaya and Hamisi Sub Counties were 1.8%, 1.6%, 2.5% and 1.4% respectively. In 2007, out of 7,967 pupils admitted in class I only 4,097 completed class 8 in 2014. This means that 48.83% of the pupils had dropped out. In Emuhaya dropout rates were high before introduction of Free Primary Education funding and even after introduction of Free Primary Education funding the dropout rates experienced were still generally high. The objective of this study was to determine the extent to which Free Primary Education funding can predict dropout rate in public primary schools in Kenya. The study established that there was a strong negative relationship between Free Primary Education policy and dropout rates with coefficient of -0.743 which was significant at p value of 0.05 (r= -0.743, N=65, p <.05). It accounted for 54.4% of the variation in dropout rates. This means that increase in Free Primary Education funding reduced dropout rate by 54.4%. The study concluded that Free Primary Education policy had reduced dropout of pupils in public primary schools in Emuhaya Sub County. The study recommended that Free Primary Education fund be disbursed on time to schools.

  120. Rebeka Sultana Supti, Md. Khairul Alam, Alam, M.J., Salahin, N. and Md. Sadique Rahman

    The study was conducted in the upazilla namely Keraniganj of Dhaka, Bangladesh during 2015 to assess the profitability, resource use efficiency and factors affecting eggplant cultivation. Primary data collection was carried out at Keraniganj upazilla of Bangladesh.Cobb-Douglas production function was applied to determine the effects of inputs on eggplant production. Human labour, seeds, murate of potash (MoP), urea, power tiller, pesticides and irrigation had significant impact on eggplant production. The most important factors for variation in costs as identified were human labour and chemical fertilizers cost. Net return and cash margin of eggplant production were USD4780.9 and USD4968.8 ha-1, respectively, while the rate of return was 2.60. Thus, eggplant cultivation is a highly profitable enterprise. In all cases, resources are underutilized, so there is more scope to utilize the resources more efficiently in case of eggplant production.

  121. Rabaa Mahmoud Abo-Bakr and Rasha Ibrahim Ramadan

    Background: Evidence Based Dentistry (EBD) is a patient-centered approach to treatment decisions, which provides personalized dental care based on the most current scientific knowledge. Many dental professionals in Egypt did not study critical evaluation of research material in Dental Schools. Objectives: The purpose of this study was to determine knowledge, attitude and barriers of dental practitioners towards EBD. Materials and Methods: This is a questionnaire based cross-sectional study which was conducted at The School of Dentistry, Mansoura University. The questionnaire was divided into four parts; the first part included demographic data, the second one included questions about participants' EBD knowledge, the third part included questions about participants' attitude, and the forth one included questions about participants' barriers toward utilization of EBD. Results: there was no significant difference between males and females concerning their familiarity with EBD (p=0.987), also increasing age of participants did not affect their familiarity (p=0.083). The most familiar category was those with doctoral degrees (20.8%), and practitioners with 6 to 10 years experience were more familiar than others (20.5%). The most familiar evidence terms were case series and case reports; however the least one was hierarchy of evidence. There was no significance difference between participants who depended on clinical experience and those who depended on EBD (0.806). About 31 % of the participants depended on electronic databases to get their information. Greater than 50% of the participants had positive attitude toward EBD. Time was the greater barrier against EBD. Conclusion: it is highly recommended to include EBD into undergraduate curriculum of all Dental Schools in Egypt.

  122. Dr. Nandini Manjunath and Dr. Rosh Shalom Raphy

    Background: General health cannot be attained or maintained without oral health. The mouth is regarded as the mirror of the body and the gateway to good health. The services of nurses are also required in promoting the oral health knowledge among the general public Objective: The study was carried out to assess awareness regarding oral and systemic health amongst nursing professional of A.J Medical College, Mangalore. Materials and Method: A cross sectional study was conducted among the nursing professionals of A.J Institute of Medical science, Mangalore. A self constructed questionnaire was distributed to 250 nursing staff. The survey questionnaire consisted of questions that were categorized broadly to two parts. The first part evaluated oral hygiene practices including the knowledge. The second part of the questionnaire consisted of evaluating their knowledge regarding the relationship between oral health and systemic health. Results: The result of this study shows an lack of oral hygiene awareness and limited knowledge regarding the relationship between systemic health and oral health. Conclusion: Nurses and associated health care providers are focused on educating patients regarding diet, exercise, medications with the goal of reducing long term complications but oral health is not emphasized. In this regard, effort should be made to increase the awareness among the nursing professionals regarding oral health.

  123. Joash Mark Olenja, Maurice A. Ndolo and Enose M.W. Simatwa

    In Kenya, the Government reintroduced Free Primary Education in 2003 to enhance access, retention, participation, progression and completion. In 2002 repetition rates were 9.8%, 8.0%, 10.8% and 8.4% respectively. In Emuhaya dropout rates were high before introduction of Free Primary Education policy and even after introduction of Free Primary Education policy repetition still persisted. The objective of this study was to establish the impact of Free Primary Education policy on repetition rate in public primary schools in Kenya. The study established that there was a strong negative relationship between Free Primary Education policy and repetition rates with Pearson’s r correlation coefficient of -0.832 which was significant at p value of 0.05. It accounted for 68.7% variation in repetition rates. This means that increase in free primary education funding reduced repetition rate by 68.7%. The study concluded that Free Primary Education policy had reduced repetition rates of public primary schools in Emuhaya Sub County. The study recommended that Free Primary Education fund be disbursed on time to schools. The findings of this study are useful to stakeholders in education as it informs them on the need to assess implementation of Free Primary Education so as to achieve its objectives fully.

  124. Mateus Bravo de Aguiar and Tiago Luiz da Costa

    The present research deals with the pathologies that happen in the civil construction of floors and ceramic tiles, as well as their causes, preventions and solutions to cure them. The main pathologies of floors and ceramic coatings, whose purpose is to protect the concrete against chemical and mechanical attacks, giving greater ease of cleaning, are delamination, cracks, fissures, efflorescence and deterioration of joints. The damages, in ceramic coatings and floors, are also important from an economic and user satisfaction point of view. The user's concern is usually with the cost of repairing the flooring and also with the unpleasant feeling of being in an environment where the floor is visually damaged and damaged. The objective of the research is to study these pathologies and to present case studies demonstrating the problems and the solutions applied in each case.

  125. Raghavendra Rao, M.V., Sireesha Bala, A., Samir Fatteh, Krishna Sowmya, M., Ramanaiah Chowdary, J., Amin Fatteh, Sivaprakash, Abraham Nayakanti and Sateesh Arja

    When the heart stops the blood supply to the brain is quickly cut off – and in operating theatres this moment would be recorded as the official time of death. But studies show that the dead person’s mind and consciousness continue to work, at least for a short time – meaning the deceased can recognize their own death. Stem cells can remain alive in human corpses for at least 17 days after death, researchers say. Indeed there is some evidence to suggest the ‘dead person’ may even hear their own death being announced as they lie on the operating theatre table. Stem cells are self-renewing, undifferentiated, non-committed, primitive cells till they receive a signal to develop into specialized cells, a stem cell cannot work with its neighbour to pump blood nor it can carry oxygen but it can differentiate into those cells that does this function. Stem cells have the remarkable potential to develop into many different cell types in the body during early life and growth in addition in many tissues they serve as a sort of internal repair system, dividing essentially without limit to replenish other cell as long as the person or animal is still alive. When a stem cell divides each new cell has the potential either to remain a stem cell or become another type of cell with a more specialized function, such as a muscle, a red blood cell or a brain cell. Research on stem cells continues to advance knowledge about how an organism develops from a single cell and how healthy cells replace damaged cells in adult organisms. Stem cell research is one of the most of the fascinating areas of contemporary biology, but as with many expanding fields of scientific inquiry, research on stem cells raises scientific questions as rapidly as it generates new discoveries.

  126. Preethi, A., Dr. N. Mohana Priyaa, Santhosh Kumar, D., Sowmiya, A., Nandhini, M. and Anurekha, S.

    The robustness of power systems can be ensured by steady state security regarding power grid contingencies based on a steady state model. An overview of contingency analysis methods which consider steady state security of power system with stability margin index is provided in this paper. Traditional methodologies of contingency analysis for power systems, steady state security include full AC power flow analysis, approximate methods and contingency ranking. Methods are investigated to speed up the full AC power flow algorithm and improve the accuracy of approximate techniques. The indices for contingency ranking, such as performance index and voltage stability margin, are discussed in detail.

  127. Uttam Aryal

    The government of Nepal proposed the introduction of a computer for selected students in Primary schools since 2008. With the project OLPC (one laptop per child), the aim of the Ministry of Education in Nepal was to help each student of a class with a lap top computer from their first to their last year at Primary schools. Given the enormous cost of this programme, it was very important that schools would make the best use of ICT. My study therefore, is designed to find out whether this was so and if not why not. I chose as subjects of the study English language teachers in Makawanpur District, based on the hypothesis that any problems which might arise with the implantation of the plan would be found principally in the negative attitudes of teachers involved. This work aims at establishing the reasons for the failure to normalize the use of computers in the English language classroom analyzing in depth the data proceeding from the interviews carried out among sixteen teachers of English from public Primary Schools.

  128. Chantal MAKITA, Geraud Charles Fredy NGANGA GABOU, Reinette Christelle KOULIMAYA and Bénédicte DIATEWA

    The objective of this study is to determine the profile of ocular pathologies observed in children under 15 years old. Methods: This retrospective study included 4307 children aged from 0 to 15 years old, consulted in Ophthalmology Department of Teaching University Hospital of Brazzaville (Congo) from January 2014 to December 2016. Results: During this period, 751 children had unilateral or bilateral ocular involvement. They were 409 boys (54.5%) and 342 girls (45.5%) for a ratio of 1.19. The middle age was about 8.2±4.6 years (range: 6 days-15 years). The age group from 6 to 15 years was the most representative with a total of 591 children (78.7%) and 160 from 0 to 5 years (21.3%). The clinical symptoms involving a consultation were dominated by the decline in visual acuity (34.8%), followed by itching (20.9%), pain (10.9%), and redness (9.3%). The main pathologies were represented by ametropia (38.2%) among which astigmatism accounted for a prevalence of 29.9% of all types, followed by conjunctival pathology represented largely by 27.9% of tropical endemic limbo-conjunctivitis (LCET) and 14.4% of infectious conjunctivitis, orbitopalpebral diseases (7.4%) and corneal affections (2.8%). Binocular blindness was reaching 1.2% of children (n = 9), low vision accounted for 0.8% (n = 6).

  129. Padlia Parakasi Yufiarti

    An investigation on the effect of the Azadirachta indica on the gills of Heteropneustes fossilis was carried out in the laboratory. fishes were exposed to sub-lethal concentrations of Azadirachta indica for 24,48,72 and 96 hrs. The LC50 values of Azadirachta indica calculated for Heteropneustes fossilis for 24, 48, 72 and 96 hours are 10.5, 8.5, 7.0 and 6.5 ml/L respectively. The gills were removed for histological examination. The results showed that in normal gills of Heteropneustes fossilis shows Primary gill lamella, secondary gill lamella, Inter lamellar space and epithelial cells were observed but with increase exposure, the damage or separation of secondary gill lamellae, epithelial cell hyperplasia, fusion of secondary gill lamella, swelling of secondary gill lamellae and edema, necrosis, hyperplasia, degeneration of cartilaginous bar was observed.

  130. Vidyashree, S., Siva Subba Rao patange, Raja, S., Aravindu, B. and Dhanalakshmi, L.

    This paper demonstrates the real time obstacle detection using ultrasonic sensor onarduinouno board in micro aerial vehicle (MAV). Ultrasonic sensor (HC-SR04) is used to measure the distance of an object (Prashanth et al., 2013). An algorithm is developed for obstacle detection, which is embedded on an Arduinouno that acts as control board. Four ultrasonic sensors are placed in all the directions. The four green LEDs and four red LEDs are interfaced to arduino board through jumper wires. Obstacle is considered with different colors and the ultrasonic sensor was fixed at a point. Measurements are marked upto 4 m as the range of ultrasonic is 400 cm. It is connected to the laptop containing arduino IDE software. Obstacle distance is considered with two colors it shows how a color is varying with different distance when obstacle present. Green LED indicates when obstacle is detected from an ultrasonic sensor for larger distance between 30-40 cm. Red LED for lesser range upto 20 cm when sensor detects the obstacle and the corresponding sensor will be activated and blinks the LED. It is concluded that the algorithm implemented is useful in obstacle detection for mini aircraft applications (Jeffery, 2005).

  131. Dr. Indranil Sen and Dr. Sandipan Mukherjee

    Tuberculosis is one of the commonest maladies which have plagued developing countries like India with its various clinical manifestations. Here we describe a case of disseminated tuberculosis with involvement of brain and lymphoreticular system in form of generalized lymphadenopathy, splenomegaly and testicular mass. After biopsy confirmation he was started on Antitubercular treatment to which he responded adequately. However the same patient suffered from slowly progressive weakness and muscle wasting of bilateral upper and lower limbs symmetrically. On further investigations he was found to have Anterior Horn Cell disease a common type of motor neuron disease. Simultaneous occurrence of both these diseases in same individual has been seldom reported in scientific literature.

  132. Geetanjali Darna, Reddy Sudhakara Reddy, Rajesh Nallakunta, Sruthi Rayapureddy, Tungala Navya Teja and Veera Kumari M

    Introduction: Dermatoglyphics has been studied in many diseases for underlying genetic susceptibility. Most of the people are affected with potentially malignant disorders (PMDs) of the oral cavity like oral sub mucous fibrosis (OSMF), oral leukoplakia (OL), and lichen planus. It seems likely that a genetic predisposition could be an underlying mechanism. Aim: The present study aims to determine the association between dermatoglyphics and occurrence of potentially malignant disorders. Materials and methods: Finger prints and palm prints were studied on 40 subjects who were divided into four groups: Group 1 consisted of 10 patients without any evidence of oral lesions that served as controls. Group 2 had 10 patients with lichenplanus. In group 3, 10 patients with presence of oral submuocus fibrosis and group 4, 10 patients with leukoplakia were included. Finger and palm prints were taken by the ink method. Results: Krusk-wallis test, Mann Whitney test was performed to compare finger print patterns and ATD angle between cases and controls. It was observed that the whorl patterns (47%) were pre-dominant with a decrease in arch pattern (11%) in group 1when compared with the other case groups. The study group demonstrated decreased ATD angle as compared to the controls and the result was found to be highly significant (P < 0.01). Conclusion: Dermatoglyphics can be implemented as a screening tool in patients with PMDs. It may act as an adjunct tool in screening patients who are at increased risk of developing potentially malignant disorders.

  133. Mamedov, G.A. and Sh.Ismaylov, R.

    The work is devoted to the construction of the basic equations of hydromechanics of two-phase flows with external mass transfer. The flow of a two-phase liquid is regarded as a continuum consisting of a large number of different groups of particles. The derivation of the phenomenological equations of motion is given taking into account both the external attached (or detachable) mass and the phase transitions within the medium. By applying fundamental conservation equations, the equations of mass, momentum and energy transfer for individual phases and the medium as a whole are obtained. It is shown that from the obtained systems of equations, in the absence of sources (sinks) of mass, momentum and energy, as a particular case, the known equations of hydromechanics of two-phase flows follow. The obtained equations of motion are valid for describing the component of the mixture and the medium with any physical and mechanical properties. For closure them, one can use thermodynamic and rheological equations of state, as well as expressions for the heat flux, interphase forces, the mass of phase transitions, and heat transfer between phases.

  134. Nilima Landge, Ketaki Kanade, Priyanka Agarwal, Amit Chaudari and Pramod Waghmare

    Marginal tissue recession represents a common condition in periodontology. Gingival recession associated with root surface exposure is a complex phenomenon that may present numerous therapeutic challenges to the clinician. Recession may be accompanied by root caries or abraded surfaces, and patients may complain of esthetic defects or root hypersensitivity. One goal of periodontal therapy is to regenerate the lost attachment apparatus of the teeth. Accordingly, it has become evident during the past decade that a variety of regenerative procedures have the potential to correct gingival recession defects via augmentation of the width and height of keratinized or attached gingiva, as well as to obtain partial or complete root coverage. The majority of these procedures consist of periodontal plastic surgical (mucogingival) graft techniques, either alone or in combination with guided tissue regenerative procedures. In this case, a 28-year-old male patient came to the Department of Period ontology with chief complaints of sensitivity to cold food/fluids in lower front tooth for last one year and an unpleasant look. Recession coverage was done by sub epithelial connective tissue graft. Results were good and appreciable. The procedure is discussed in the following article.

  135. Robertoes Koekoeh Koentjoro Wibowo and Siswoyo Soekarno

    An anthropometric study of male Indonesian who use economy class train in East Java was conducted. Fifty eight body dimensions, age, body weight, and hand squeeze strength for chair design importance were measured for 200 Indonesian males, comprising Javanese (100) and Madurese (100) tribes. The two tribes were compared to identity similarity and contrast existing in their respective body dimensions. Descriptive statistics provided mean, standard deviation, percentile value and coefficient of variance of each population. The survey also revealed that the mean values of Relative Sitting Height (RSH), body surface area (BSA), and hand squeeze strength of Javanese male farmers were higher than the Madurese have. However, their body mass index (BMI) of Javanese ware lower than Madurese BMI. For ergonomically design for train passenger seats are as follows seat height 37.9 cm, seat depth 40.2 cm, seat width per passenger 40.0 cm, height of back rest 86.2 cm, angle of tilt back rest is 105° to 115°, width of backrest is 43.3 cm, height of armrest is 18.2 cm, length arm of armrest is 26.7 cm, footrest width is 4.4 cm, legroom is 54.1 cm.

  136. Dr. Parag V Hawaldar and Dr. Kavita P Hawaldar

    Laparoscopic surgery has become popular during the last decade, mainly because it is associated with fewer postoperative complications than the conventional openapproach. The goal of the present study is to evaluate whether laparoscopic closure of perforated pepticulcer is as safe as conventional open correction in peripheral setup. The study is based on retrospective analysis of cases of duodenal ulcer perforation operated laparoscopically in peripheral set up. Cases of early duodenal perforaton with ASA (American standards for Anaesthesia) grade I and II are included in this study (n = 50). All cases were operated with simple closure of perforated ulcer. Mean Hospital stay was 6 days. All patients ambulated early and pain killer requirement was less.

  137. Kumaresan, C. and Duraimanickam, M. C.

    Kinetics of Polymerization of N,NʹMethyleneBisacrylamide (MBA) initiated by Ce(IV) – Vanillin redox system, was carried out two different temperatures 30oC & 36oC in dilute sulfuric acid medium under nitrogen atmosphere. The rate of oxidation of Vanillin by Ce (IV) in the presence and absence of β-CD were studied. The effect of various concentrations of monomer [MBA], oxidant [Ce(IV)], reductant[van], medium[H+] and varying ionic strengths NaHSO4 on the rate of polymerization, rate of Ce(IV), consumption (-RCe) and the percentage monomer conversion were studied. The rate of polymerization (Rp)in the presence and absence of β-CD has been investigated The kinetic study of Michelis-menton mechanism for formation of intermediate complex between reactants allows the oxidation data to be calculated from the plot of Line Weaver-Burk. The rate of polymerization(Rp) was also calculated by iodometry method. On the basis of experimental results a suitable mechanism has been proposed.

  138. Bibhash Nandi, Anita Chakravarti, Preena Bhalla, and Premashis Kar

    Introduction: Hepatitis B Virus (HBV) genotypes A and D are well documented from different parts of India, while genotype C in addition to mixed genotype A and D (A/D) has been reported and characterized from Eastern India. HBV genotyping is a useful tool for understanding the epidemiology of HBV infection. HBV genotype is not only predictive of clinical outcomes but has also been associated with response to interferon treatment. Material and methods: The HBV genotype was identified by using PCR-RFLP analysis of the S gene in 50 HBsAg positive adult patients. Restriction enzyme digestion was carried out by using AlwI, HphI, NciI, NlaIV and EarI nuclease enzymes to see the different patterns of cleavage that would occur at the specific sites. Results: The most common HBV genotype was D (31/50, 62%), followed by genotype A (15/50, 30%) and mixed A/D genotype (4/50, 8%). Conclusions: These findings suggest that Genotypes A, D and A/D exist in chronic hepatitis B patients in New Delhi, and among these Genotype D is the commonest.

  139. Amit Sharma, Bharat Prashar and Pankaj Arora

    Many plants are important to cure various human ailments. India has a rich source of naturally occurring herbal plants which have huge as well as great pharmacological functions. A lot of medicinal plants are used in treating various disorders. Herbal medicines play a vital role in Ayurvedic, homeopathic, Oriental and Native American Indian medicine. Various pharmaceuticals companies conducting extensive research on plant materials which have high potential value. Cedrus deodara commonly called as cedar is precious plant belonging to family pinaceae. Cedrus deodara is a medicinal herb with a lot of beneficial as well as pharmacological activities which prove to be a boon in solving various health issues

  140. Nagaraja, K.

    India stands second highest in density of population, in which 49% of female form a major human resource next to men. The role of women empowerment is always related with education. In fact higher education for women plays a vital role in making women an empowered. Here the words of Pandit Jawaharlal Nehru are relevant to discuss. According to his words if a woman is educated, can able to make her family educated, thereby can become empowered. Indian women have undergone various problems like illiteracy, lack of support, gender bias, etc. in spite of many provisions in the constitutions of India such as mentioned about equality for women in its Preamble, fundamental rights and like. There has been dearth of women participation in public life even after the successful launch of Liberalisation, Globalisation and Privatisation concept. Hence, the present paper focuses on Indian women and their empowerment through higher education. For empowering women, higher education will play a vital role.

  141. Mahmoud A Saleh and Nour Elden A Abdelhalim

    Purpose: To evaluate outcome and describe the management of inferior oblique inclusion associated with recurrent strabismus. Methods: Twenty two patients reoperated upon lateral rectus muscles for correction of horizontal deviation (residual or recurrent exotropia or esotropia) with abnormal vertical deviation (hypotropia or hypertropia) that suspect inferior oblique inclusion or diagnosed during reoperation. Each patient was managed with release of inferior oblique along with appropriate horizontal muscle surgery. Results: After release of the inferior oblique muscle the vertical deviation reduced in primary positions from 15±7.3 PD to 7.5 ±4.3 (P<0.001) in patients with hypotropia and from 16±6.3PD to 8.5 ±3.6 (P<0.001) in patients with hypertropia, with stability of ocular alignment for a minimum of 6 months. Inferior oblique muscle was released only without recession or anteriorization in 8 patients (36.2%) and recessed from1mm to 4mm in 7patients (31.8%) and anteriorization was done in 7 patients (31.8%). Conclusion: Release of inferior oblique from lateral rectus had good favorable outcome was achieved only in cases with partial inclusion with low scores of fibrosis. Limitation of vertical movement could not be completely resolved in cases with total inclusion with marked fibrosis. Inferior oblique inclusion is preventable complication if taken in consideration during surgery on the lateral rectus muscle.

  142. He Xiao and Zhe Yin

    In this paper, based on feedback effects between the floating population, economic growth and the fog haze in Beijing, by constructing dynamic equation around the lagging items and the system GMM, to analyze the long-term equilibrium relationship and dynamic effect mechanism between the floating population, economic growth and haze .Based on the obtained data, the system GMM method is used for the empirical test. Therefore, this paper studies the correlation between the floating population, economic growth and haze in Beijing.

  143. Nour Elden A Abdelhalim and Mahmoud A Saleh

    Purpose: To evaluate femtosecond assisted implantation of MyoRing and Corneal Collagen Cross-Linking in an Intrastromal Pocket in One Session for management of progressive post Lasik ectasia. Methods: In this study, 20 eyes of 14 patients with progressive post Lasik ectasia a MyoRing (Dioptex, GmbH, Austria) was implanted using a femtosecond laser and Corneal Collagen Cross-Linking in an Intrastromal Pocket in One Session. Uncorrected and corrected distance visual acuity, refraction, keratometry, central corneal thickness, corneal biomechanical profile, and corneal aberrometry were evaluated preoperatively and at 1, 3, and 6 months, and 1 year postoperatively. Results: Twelve months postoperatively there was a statistically significant improvement in Uncorrected distance visual acuity and Corrected distance visual acuity (1.01 ± 0.31, 0.50 ± 0.11 to 0.29 ± 0.01, 0.3 ± 0.14 respectively) (P<0.001). Mean keratometry changed significantly from 51.18±4.82 to 42.91±2.91 (P< 0.001), and sphere (-4.97± 3.06 diopters Improved to -0.55 ±1.63 diopters (P 0.001). Cor¬neal hysteresis and corneal resistance factor showed no significant change during follow up Mean ± SD follow-up was 13±5 months. Conclusions: Combination of these two minimally invasive MyoRring and Corneal Collagen Cross-Linking in an Intrastromal Pocket in One Session procedures had the capability in halting the progression of post Lasik ectasia and can be considered an acceptable method to achieve corneal remodeling and alternative to lamellar or penetrating lamellar keratoplasty.

  144. Olive Taabu Baraza

    Parents and particularly mothers are the primary educators and trainers of children in African families. They are therefore responsible for shaping of children’s behaviour whereas fathers succeed them as the children grow up and eventually takeover as children enter into their adolescent stage. This means that enhancing of discipline among children is enhanced by both parents. Nevertheless single parenting is highly suspected to be less effective in dealing with discipline of children as opposed to dual parenting. In Kakamega East Sub County between 2006 and 2011 many cases of student delinquency had been reported. That is, behaviour such as smoking bhang, smoking cigarettes, chewing miraa, fighting, absenteeism, truancy, theft, sneaking out of school were prevalent in schools. In some cases they had resulted in juvenile crime. This has led to establishment of rehabilitation centres countrywide such as Kakamega Rehabilitation centre, Mary immaculate Rehabilitation centre, Bahati Rehabilitation centre, Dagoretti Rehabilitation School among others. One hundred percent of the schools had experienced cases of delinquency and the gravity of delinquency was high as it led to dropout of students and high repetition rate. Thus, it affected completion rates and quality of graduates. The objective of this study was to establish the perspectives on influence of single parenting on student delinquency in secondary schools in Kakamega East Sub County. The study established that respondents disagreed marginally on the view that single parenting influences student involvement in student delinquency. The study concluded that single parenting had influence on student delinquency. The study recommended that school administrators should involve single parents in dealing with cases of student delinquency.

  145. Olive Taabu Baraza

    In Kenya according to countrywide survey students as young as 13 years of age are subject of drug abuse. According to National Authority for the Campaign Against Alcohol and Drug Abuse (NACADA) students use all tricks possible to abuse drugs during school visits, during school entertainment or at night in their dormitories. Children initiate alcohol and substance abuse at the age of 13 both at home and school. The commonly abused drugs are alcohol, khat (miraa), tobacco, bhang, kuber and even heroin in some quarters. This is mainly revealed when students engage in drinking sprees and sex orgies. It is commonly alleged that children of single parents are easily lured into use of drugs. In Kakamega East Sub County, between 2006 and 2011, eighty percent of the schools had experienced cases of drug abuse. Therefore, the objective of this study was to establish the influence of single parenting on student involvement in drug abuse in secondary schools in Kakamega East Sub County. The study established that respondents disagreed marginally on the view that single parenting influences student involvement in drug abuse as overall percentage for disagreed was 45.9, agreed 42.2 and undecided 11.4. The commonly abused drugs were alcohol, khat (miraa) and cigarettes. The less commonly abused drugs were bhang’, kuber, spirits and inhalants. The study concluded that single parenting had influence on student involvement in drug abuse. The study recommended that school administrators should involve single parents in dealing with cases of drug abuse.

  146. Mammadov, V. T. and Abdulaliyev, A. M.

    The article describes the study of natural bending oscillations in packer systems used on strings in offshore production wells. To do so the Lagrange's variational method has been applied. This study is performed on the first approximation using some simplifying assumptions to analyze elastic bending deformations of the packing elements in the down hole packer systems (which isolate production strings with two packers set on a vertical section of the string and horizontal section of the string) and to study natural bending oscillations in the packer systems operated in directional offshore production wells.

  147. Zeeshan Farhaj, Li Hongxin, Guo Wenbin, Zhang Wen-Long, Zhang Hai-Zhou, Fei Liang, Yuan Gui-Dao, Geoffrey Joseph Changwe and Cheng-Wei Zou

    Background: There are few reports on peratrial device occlusion of large secundum atrial septal defect in adults and long term follow-up post occlusion. Objectives: This study aims to provide evidence of safety, efficacy, feasibility and simplicity of peratrial device occlusion of large secundum atrial septal defects in adults. Method: Ninety patients with maximum diameter of ≥ 30mm of secundum atrial septal defects underwent peratrial device occlusion. A 2 to 3cm incision was made in right 4th parasternal intercostal space. The pericardium was suspended. A specially designed short delivery sheath loaded with device was advanced through the purse-string sutures placed on projecting part of right atrium. The device was deployed under transesophageal echocardiographic guidance. Results: The procedure was successful in all patients. The age ranged from 18-70 years (mean 40.6 ± 13.6). The body weight ranged from 43 - 87 KG (mean 61 ± 10). The maximum diameter of ASD ranged from 30 – 43 mm (mean 32 ± 2.4). The one of rims was short (≤5mm) in 19/90 patient and sufficient in remaining 71/90 patients. The mean size of implanted devices was 36 ± 2.7 for all patients. The device was replaced with a smaller and larger size in 7/17 and 10/17 patients respectively. The total intracardiac manipulation time was 8.1±7.9 minutes. The total procedural time was 57±14 minutes. The total occlusion rate was 91% immediately after occlusion, 97% at 6 months, 98% at 1 year, and 100% at ≥2 years follow-up. There were no early or late complications during the follow up period of 6-72 months (mean 54 ± 36months). Conclusions: Peratrial device occlusion of large secundum atrial septal defect is safe, effective, feasible and simplest of atrial septal defects’ procedure. The long term results are very promising. The short rim and consequent selection of larger device had no negative effects on outcomes.

  148. Dimpal Jangra

    With the advent of Globalization, the use of Electronic tools within HRM has increased a lot over the recent years. The word e-HRM was coined in the 1990’s; it is the submission of information technology for networking and supporting at least two individual or combined actors in their shared performing of Human Resource Management activities. In this paper we offer a conceptual framework of e-HRM effectiveness on organisational performance

  149. Dr. Beenish Ashraf, Dr. Yu-yan Ma and Dr. Muhammad Shahbaz

    The aim of this study is to evaluate the maternal and foetal outcomes of patients whose pregnancies were complicated by Preterm Premature Rupture of Membranes (PPROM) over a period of three years. In this retrospective study, 135 pregnant patients with PPROM were selected (PPROM). Among them 126 pregnancies were singletons and 9 were twin pregnancies. Patients’ age ranges from 20 to 44 years and mean age was noted to be 31 years. The gestational age of the patients at the time of PPROM ranges from 21 to 36+6 weeks (before 37 completed weeks). The mean gestational age at the onset of membrane rupture and at the time of delivery was 31+4 and 33+2 weeks, respectively. Neonatal outcome was determined by the following four parameters: perinatal mortality, weight of the newborn, Apgar score, and last but not least, admission to Paediatric Intensive Care Unit (PICU). Similarly, maternal outcome included: maternal morbidity including puerperal pyrexia and clinical chorioamnionitis, mode of delivery, and maternal mortality. Of the 135 patients, 96 (71.1%) of them had frequent hospital visits. In this study, a large number of patients delivered after one week of preterm premature rupture of membranes (PPROM), and, most importantly, no maternal mortality was witnessed. Overall, perinatal mortality was shown to be 9%.

  150. Dr. V. Judia Harriet Sumathy and Ms. Ida Poornima

    Vermicompost an age old technology of composting using various worms, usually red wigglers, white worms, and other earthworms to create a heterogeneous mixture of decomposing vegetable or food waste, bedding materials, and vermicast had not lost its significance. Vermicast, also called worm castings, worm humus or worm manure, is the end-product of the breakdown of organic matter by an earthworm. These castings have been shown to contain reduced levels of contaminants and a higher saturation of nutrients than do organic materials before vermicomposting. Containing water-soluble nutrients, vermicompost is an excellent, nutrient-rich organic fertilizer and soil conditioner. This process of producing vermicompost is called vermicomposting. With an eye to all benefits, increasing attention is being focused of late on breeding of earth worm and subsequent preparation of rich manure. Agriculture based only on chemical fertilizers and other chemical inputs is not desirable because constant use of such inputs causes soil infertility and affects productivity. “Compared with 10-15 years back, many farmers are now becoming increasingly aware about the harmful effect of chemical use to grow their crops, and are moving towards alternative sustainable solutions. This Project sanctioned by Tamil Nadu State Council for Science and Technology under the DIT Scheme (Dissemination of Innovative Technology) has helped us to implement this Age old but all time welcomed technique by farmers in our adopted Village at Thirukandalam.

  151. Cüneyt Seydioğlu

    The aim of this study is to determine the factors that prevent the participation of the students of Istanbul Developmental University School of Physical Education and Sports in their leisure time activities and determine whether they differ according to some demographic variables. For this purpose, 250 students from School of Physical Education and Sports who are trained at Istanbul Gelişim University's departments of Coach Traning, Sports Management, Recreation, and Exercise and Sport Sciences constitute the sample of the study. The data collection tool used in the study consists of 2 parts. In the first part, a personal information form was developed by the researcher to reveal the demographic characteristics of the participants. In the second part, ''Leisure Constraints Scale'' developed by Alexandris and Carroll (1997) and adapted to Turkish by Karaküçük and Gürbüz (2007) was used as data collection tool to determine the participation constraints of students on recreational activities. SPSS 21 packaged software was used to analyze the obtained data. The data were collected and then analyzed by coding with the SPSS 21 packaged software. T-Test and ANOVA Test were used while analyzing the data. As a result of the study, the factors that constrain the leisure time of the students according to gender, age, department, class, and monthly income variables were correlated and factors preventing the participation of the students in the leisure time activities were determined.

  152. Luana Della Giustina, Juliane Costa Cabral, Aisy Botega Baldoni and Leonarda Grillo Neves

    Brazil nut (Bertholletia excelsa Bonpl.) is an Amazonian Forest species, which is acknowledged for the commercialization of its almonds. It is an endangered species, fact that reinforces the need of conducting conservation studies. Molecular markers are tools that may be used in conservation studies and the primordial stage preceding the use of molecular markers lies on DNA extraction. A well-designed protocol allows isolating DNA in sufficient amount and quality to conduct molecular studies. Thus, the aim of the current study is to adapt a total DNA extraction protocol to be applied to Brazil nut plants. Tests were conducted at different CTAB (2% and 4%) and β-Mercaptoethanol (0.2%, 0.8% and 1.4%) concentrations; washes using chloroform: isoamyl alcohol (CIA) were performed (one or two washes). The extraction products were confirmed in 0.8% agarose gel and quantified in spectrophotometer (in ng μL-1). Plant tissue (vascular cambium and leaf) was collected from 30 Brazil nut individuals in order to confirm the efficiency of the protocol adapted to the species. Samples were subjected to PCR amplification using 10 microsatellite markers. CTAB and β-Mercaptoethanol at concentrations 4% and 0.2%, respectively, along with one wash using CIA, showed the best results when the quality of the extracted material was assessed through its absorbance ratios. The vascular cambium oxidized more easily than the leaf during the DNA isolation process. Thus, it is essential taking some precautions at the time to handle it during collection and storage to assure process efficiency.

  153. Habtamu Mengistu

    Crop residues, the fibrous by-product of harvested crops has significant implications for current and future socio-economic and environmental outcomes. It is a precious and/or scarce resource that applied for multipurpose use, although competing applications of crop residues has been creating multifaceted challenges in Ethiopia. This review paper aimed to gather and compile scientific findings and facts about crop residues use in different parts of country. Having multiple determinants, the type and use of crop residue is quite different from region to region and place to place. The types of residues used are mostly field crop left overs, legumesand pulse haulms. Smallholders used their crop residues for animal feed, fuel, construction, soil amendment and for sale with varied proportion. Many literatures confirmed that, crop residue use in Ethiopia is mostly for livestock feed and biofuel source. Decline in natural pasture accompanied by loss of its valuable species and shortage of firewood, inaccessibility of alternative energy source at rural areas are the major causes of using crop residues for livestock feed and fuel source at the expense of soil fertility management in Ethiopia. In one way or another, competitive use of crop residues without retaining adequate amount on farm resulted in poorsoil biological, physical, and chemical properties thus; decline in soil nutrient status and aggravated soil erosion which in turn decrease crop productivity and worsening food security at large. Obviously, theproduct of crops and animals as well as energy isconsistentlydemanded. From the sustainability stand point of views, mixed type of farming should be operated in complimentary way. Based on the existing trend in crop residues use in Ethiopia, smallholders should allocate and retain proper share of their crop residues for soil fertility management purpose and above all, theuse of crop residues should be viewed from conservation agriculture (CA) practice.

  154. Roshini, S., Sonali Suchismita Behera and Upasana Mohapatra

    The paper describes the implementationof e- NAM and its progress in India. e - NAM is a pan-India electronic trading portal which creates a unified national market especially for agricultural commodities and provides single window service by networking existing APMCs (Agriculture Produce Marketing Committees). About 90 commodities are notified for trading on e –NAM platform. Hitherto 13 states were covered under this scheme whereas Uttar Pradesh tops the list with 100 markets andUttarkhand hits the bottom line with 5 markets. In trading, Gujarat is leading with 7441.7 tons of quantity traded amounting to a total trade value of 14117.05 Cr followed by Uttarkhand while Odisha is lagging with 0.63 tons of quantity traded amounting to a meager 1.11 Cr of trade value.e- NAM enhances the quality of marketing by reducing the regional barriers throughout the nation to achieve the “one nation one market” goal of the government.

  155. El-Khatib, A. A., Amany aboelkassem and H. Elzayat, M.H.

    Contamination of environment by radionuclides in territories under urboecosystem conditions is an actual problem. The search for new express methods for radioactivity determination of environment is an important task of research. The present work evaluated the ability to use Eucalyptus globulus leaves to act as bio-monitor for environmental radionuclides air pollution. The accumulation features of radionuclides (226Ra, 232Th, 40K) in the leaves of camphor trees (Eucalyptus globulus Labill) growing in areas near Al-Nasr quarry for phosphate production, Upper Egypt during the physical year 2016 have been considered. The activity concentration of 226Ra, 232Th and 40K in samples of soils, plant leaves and deposited dust have been compared. These activities were measured using high resolution gamma- spectroscopy (Hyper Pure Germanium detector) with consideration for the background level. On the basis of radionuclides analysis, leaves of E. globulus exhibited different accumulation coefficients according to the distance from the quarry. The relationship between the radionuclides concentrations in leaf deposited dust and soil samples was estimated by Pearson coefficients to resolve two main mechanisms of radionuclide accumulation, atmospheric deposition, and root uptake. Differences in local conditions at the sampling sites were not significant. E. globulus physiological responses due to radionuclides stress were determined. The results of investigation recommended the use E. globulus leaves as an indicator of radioactivity air pollution.

  156. Dr. Chelliah, S.

    This article is a humble attempt to show how the women novelists in English developed a style of their own in terms of dealing with men and matters through a world of expressions and experiences by making a remarkable contribution to poetry and fiction in Indian English Literature in general and in particular, how Ruth Prawar Jhabvala has made a notable contribution to Indian English fiction in particular with a focus on her fictional forte and artistic vision, especially her skill in the portrayal of her female protagonists as suffering selves.

  157. Dr. Jyotsnarani Panda

    India is the large and second most populous country in the world. It has a large population with low literacy levels and constituently low level of awareness and HIV/AIDS is one of the most challenging public health problem ever faced by the country. HIV has had a unique impact on women as well as adolescent girls, as women are more vulnerable to HIV infection due to the gender disparities in the society and to their biological susceptibility. A report by UNAIDS (2004) In our country there are 8.3 crores girls in the age group of 11 to 18 years which constitute 17% of the total female population of 49.69 crores among them 39% (9.3 Lakhs) of HIV positive(Unicef). New infections in females are occurring faster than in males. The dreaded AIDS virus has been spreading like wildfire in Aska Block, around 415 AIDS patients have been found the total of 30,176 HIV affected people, in the Odisha State, Ganjam district tops the list of most HIV victims in the state of Odisha with 12,017 people (2017). The research design adopted is quantitative, descriptive and cross sectional. The study attempts to describe female adolescents’ knowledge, understanding and attitude towards HIV/AIDS. More than half of the adolescents under study have negative attitude towards people living with HIV/AIDS (PLWHAs) and had very bitter feelings towards them even they believe that they should be boycott because it was very tedious to include them in the mainstream in the society. One fifth of the adolescents believe that they should be killed. The levels of understanding of adolescents with regard to HIV/AIDS and the people are affected with is to be raised significantly. Innovative non-classroom tools and techniques like peer educators, street plays, film screening could be used.

  158. Dr. D. R. Agarwal and Suruchi Kapur

    Economics has emerged as a very important field of study helping individuals, firms, industry, government, nations etc. in order to allocate scare resources to their alternative uses to satisfy the maximum possible needs. Traditionally all the social science subjects including economics were studied without or with a very less application of mathematics (mostly limited to graphs and diagrams), but now a days mathematics has become an essential and integral part of economic theories and economic theories and economic models. Mathematical economics has become a very popular subject worldwide. Mathematics, economics and statistics are considered complimentary disciplines today. This case study is an outcome of actual class room teaching of Economics, where students did not have a background of mathematics. This case study also gives an idea that knowledge, understanding and application oriented skills for the solution of real life situation and problems are considered as the necessary outcome of a particular course.

  159. Joseph Jonathan, Wama Binga Emmanuel, Houmsou Robert S., Zira Joshua D. and Bature, A. A

    This study investigated the effects of season on malaria parasite prevalence, morbidity in Taraba state, Nigeria. Using a retrospective study design, the study relied on secondary data obtained from Meteorological Station Taraba State and Health facilities from 2005 2014. The research findings showed that season greatly influence malaria transmission. Rainfall plays an important role in the distribution and maintenance of breeding sites for the mosquito vector. The mean rainfall from 2005-2014 were 1885.80mm, per 1000 mean malaria morbidity was 228.90. Years with peak malaria morbidities (years 2006, 2011 and 2014) had least annual rainfalls (1488.20-1677.00mm). Monthly malaria morbidity had a significantly negative linear relationship with rainfall (r = - 0.827, p 0.001). Malaria morbidity for the decade increased at rates 0.298%.This study provide information on the malaria situation in Taraba State which will be useful to the National Malaria Control Programs and publichealth service providers in formulating policies that may promote the mitigation of malaria in Taraba State, Nigeria.

  160. Kayode, S. J., Adebayo. O. S. and Babalola, M. O

    Three vegetables, Brassica oleracea (cabbage), Lactuca sativa (lettuce), and Cucumis sativus (Cucumber) were purchased from various markets in Ondo State (Akungba, Ikare, Ore, Akure and Owo), Nigeria and examined to determine their level of bacterial contamination and safety for human consumption. In this research, gram positive bacteria were isolated from these vegetables and the bacterial isolates were tested for antibiotic susceptibility. The Gram positive bacterial isolates from the vegetables include Brevibacillus laterosporus and Lactobacillus spp from cabbage, Enterococcus faecalis, Bacillus licheniformis, Staphylococcus condimenti, and Bacillus lentus from lettuce, and Bacillus cereus, Staphylococcus aureus, and Streptococcus faecalis from cucumber. Out of the three selected vegetables, cabbage had the highest bacterial levels with total viable count of about 155 x 10-4 while cucumber had the lowest with about 74 x 10-4. All the isolates were sensitive to gentamycin while all the isolates were resistant to augmentin except Bacillus cereus. Since some of these bacteria are antibiotic-resistant and may likely transfer the resistance gene in natural habitat, this constitute a food safety concern. However, with increasing discoveries of microbial contamination of fresh vegetables, consumers need to be aware of the potential risk involved with their consumption specifically in immune compromised individuals.

  161. Boniface Muriithi Wanjau, Willy Mwangi Muturi and Patrick Ngumi

    There are dozens of rules and regulations pertaining transparency that have been set due to the increasing need to ensure timely and reliable disclosures of information that companies must meet. With recent collapse of companies and fall in market value of companies, corporate transparency is emphasized to curb corruption that inevitably happens when only a chosen few have access to important information. Therefore, the current study sought to examine the moderating effect of firm size on the influence of corporate transparency and financial performance of listed companies in East Africa. The study adopted correlation research design. Both correlation and multiple regression analysis were used to analyse the data. Results of the study revealed that there was positive relationship between financial transparency, risk transparency, governance transparency and social transparency and financial performance. Firm size had inverse relationship with financial performance. Moreover, it had no significant moderating effect on financial transparency, risk transparency, governance transparency and social transparency.

  162. Garba, L. C., Chintem, D. G. W., Anuye, R. J. and Joro, A. A.

    The aim of this study was to test the larvicidal efficacy of stem and leaf extracts of Azadirachta indica on Anopheles mosquito larvae. Leaf and stem of A.indica were pulverized and sieved. The sieved stem and leaf were extracted with methanol and water respectively and evaporated in a Rotary evaporator. The extracts were tested against Anopheles mosquito larvae in 24 hours each in replicate of 24 to 100mg/l,150mg/l,200mg/l and 250mg/l. The percentage mortality of methanol extract of stem bark at 86.6%at 250mg/lwhile methanol extract of leaf was96.5% at 250mg/l. The LC50 of the methanol leave was the lowest at 1.031mgl-1 and LC90 of 3.56mgl-1 with a relatively more toxic characteristic. This shows that A. indica has high mortality potentials on the larvae of Anopheles mosquito and hence can be used to control malaria vectors.

  163. Dr. Binoy, T. A.

    Surrogacy tourism or infertility tourism is a type of medical tourism in which couple with infertility travelling to other countries for hiring wombs of woman. There were lots issues in India when surrogacy tourism was a boom. This paper aims to provide a torch to the surrogacy tourism in India before the introduction of "The Surrogacy Tourism Regulation Act 2016" and evaluate the provisions of "The Surrogacy Tourism Regulation Act 2016." This paper is prepared based on secondary data collected from various sources.

  164. Snikdha, V., Aniel Kumar, O. and Nagamani, S.

    Gymnema spp studied in the present research are G. latifolium, G. elegans, G. hirsutum and G. sylvestere. They are important woody climber of family Asclepiadaceae, grows well in tropical and subtropical forests of Indian subcontinent. The plants were used in folk and Ayurvedic system of medicines for the treatment of diabetes, additionally, the plants also possesses antimicrobial, hepato protective and sweet suppressing activities and also used for the treatment of asthma, inflammations, and snake bite. The various reports on its multiple uses attracted attention fortilization of the plant for the major bioactive principle gymnemic acid. Therefore, an initiative has been taken to estimate the level of diversity and genetic relationship among the selected four Gymnema spp. 10 random decamer primers were used for RAPD analysis and Rbcl region of ribosome were also used. Among the 10 primers used only 5 primers produced reproducible and consistent banding pattern, those are OPA-17, OPE-14, OPE-15, OPE-17 and OP0-16. In that OPE-14 produced height 24 bands. And OPA-17 produced 16 bands and in that 14 were polymorphic bands and the percentage of polymorphism was 87.5%.PCR success rate for rbcl loci was 100% and sequence success rate was also 100% success. BLAST results revealed that the three species sequences for rbcl loci was 98% similar. The dendrogram revealed the phylogenitic order of the species.

  165. Diah Ratna Sari Hariyanto

    Penal mediation as an alternative to settlement of criminal cases in Indonesia has not been regulated in the Law. However, such concept actually has existed long time ago along with the existence of customary court in Indonesia. In addition to its natural beauty, Bali also has a steady and unique tradition in solving its community’s problems. Hence, philosophically, it is very interesting to study the existence of penal mediation in Balinese customary community tradition in order to see their ways to solve criminal cases thus leads to an ideal concept of penal mediation which can be applied in Indonesian positive Laws. This study employs normative legal research by starting its analyses from the existence of empty norm. Based on the analyses it is noted that the penal mediation concept in Bali can be found in awig-awig or pararem (Balinese customary law) of the Balinese customary village (desa adat pakraman). It is carried out by deliberation of consensus in a village meeting (sangkepan or paruman) which results in peaceful settlement and can also be sanctioned as an attempt to restore balance or correction due to the crime. In this regard, the mediator may be in the form of trusted individual or Village Official (the Head of Village/Perbekel, kepala dusun) or Customary Village Officials (customary village administrators (Prajuru Desa Pakraman: Bendesa, Klian Banjar)). Therefore, the applicable principles in customary law need to be adopted to achieve ideal applicable future concept of penal mediation in Indonesian positive Laws.

  166. Moussounga, J.E., Dzondo Gadet, M., Pambou Tobi, N. P. G., Tamba Sompila, A. W. G., Zassi-Boulou, A. G., Diaboua, J. F. and Desobry, S.

    In order to enhance the Python sebae fat used as a traditional remedy to treat the boils, hemorrhoids, joint pain, etc., in the Congolese traditional medicine, we realized a physicochemical characterization of this fat. Studied fats come from three locations: Dolisie, Kindamba and Brazzaville. The indices of acid vary between 2,38 and 127,6%, the rate of oxidation of our samples is between 0,28 and 5,75 meq. O2/Kg; the detergent and foaming power varies between 157.99 and 178.73; the iodine value shows a high level of creation of the order of 127.12. The fatty acids profile reveals 39.19% SFA, 54.15% MUFA and 6,65% PUFA. The main components being (49.47%) oleic acid, Palmitic acid (28,51%), stearic acid (9.38%) and linoleic acid (5.85%). The viscosity of our samples varies between 65.88 and 949.7 mPa.s and a melting point between 38-40 0C. An ointment from the grease and a few ingredients was created, whose virtues have potential: antimicrobial, analgesic and anti-inflammatory.

  167. Arit Okonobong Atakpa

    At the pre-primary school level in Nigeria, different languages are being used as the medium of instruction. It was observed that while learners in a particular school adopt language of immediate community, another one in another location use English language to learn. On the basis this that the languages use by pre-primary school learners in Nigeria was conceived. Vygotsky’s sociocultural learning theory was used to understand the study under investigation. Qualitative approach was adopted. This was followed by interpretive paradigm. Eight teachers with a sound knowledge of pre-primary education were purposively selected. Semi-interview question was developed to gather information from the teachers. The data was subjected to thematic analysis. From the study, it was revealed that teachers used language of immediate community, mother tongue and English language to teach in the pre-primary school. Additionally, that language was used to identify, present, discuss on object in the class and also development of literacy skills of the children.

  168. Lakshmi Girish and Sharda Vaidya

    Acalypha wilkesiana Muell. Arg. commonly known as Irish petticoat belongs to the family Euphorbiaceae. It is widely used in Nigeria as a traditional medicine to cure various diseases. Various phytochemical compounds such as saponins, tannins, alkaloids, phlobatanins, phenolics, cardiac glycosides, sesquiterpenes, monoterpenes, triterpenoids, polyphenols, gallic acid, corilagin, geraniin, quercetin 3-O-rutinoside, kaempferol 3-O-rutinoside and anthroquinone have been reported. Due tothe presence of these phytoconstituents the plant has been reported to possess antibacterial, antifungal, anti-oxidant, anti-obesity, anti-diabetic, anti-hypertensive, anti-cholesterol and anti-arrhythmic, anti-malarial, hypnotic and anticonvulsant, antiemetic, anti-cancerous, anti-parasitic and analgesic activity, diuretic and anti HIV activity and hepato protective activity. The present paper explores the medicinal uses, phytochemical and pharmacological effects of Acalypha wilkesiana Muell. Arg. and tried to compile information that may help researchers for further investigation.

  169. Venkataramana Reddy, N. R. and Kalpalatha, Ch.

    Agricultural mechanisation implies the use of various power sources and improved form tools and equipment, with a view to reduce the drudgery of the human beings and draught animals, enhance the cropping intensity, precision and timelines of efficiency of utilization of various crop inputs and reduce the losses at different stages of crop production. The end objective of farm mechanisation is to enhance the overall productivity and production with the lowest cost of production. Agricultural mechanisation is also an important input to agriculture for performing timely farm operations; reducing the cost of operation; maximizing the utilization efficiency of inputs, improving the quality of produce; reducing drudgery in form operations; improving the productivity of land & labour and for improving the dignity of labour. The present study examined the relevant background information on population dynamics, socio economic status, status and availability of form power and machinery and cropping intensity towards agricultural mechanisation in India and reveals the facts that the mechanisation technologies were first adopted by the large formers (over 10 ha form size) followed by medium scale formers (with 4 to 10 ha form size). The sale of tractors and power tillers in India has shown exponential increase over years. The combine share of agriculture workers and drought animals in total form power availability in India reduced from 60.8% in 1971-1972 to 10.10% in 2012-2013. The form power availability and productivity increased from 0.25 to 1.84 Kw/ha and from 0.52 to 1.92 t/ha, respectively over the years from 1971 to 2012. Therefore, India adopts a policy of selective mechanisation under diverse conditions, which makes the agriculture mechanisation a challenging task.

  170. Robert O. Kibongolo and Larama M.B. Rongo

    Introduction: Increased diarrhea incidences is mainly associated with inadequate or poor household water, sanitation, and hygiene (WaSH) practices in flood prone areas. This study aimed at assessing water, sanitation and hygiene practices associated with diarrhea prevalence among households’ members in flood prone areas of Kilombero Valley. Methods: Cross sectional study was carried out in the early August 2017. A total of 384 heads of households were interviewed from 16 Villages within five wards situated in flood prone areas along Kilombero Valley to determine the prevalence of diarrhea and their associated WASH practices. Results: The prevalence of diarrhea was 30.6%. WaSH characteristics among households interviewed shows that, 56.8% reported to use improved water sources, 35.2% treated their drinking water, 48.7% used improved sanitation facilities, 3.6% practiced open defecation and 6.3 have good hygiene conditions. Treating drinking water (AOR=2.729, 95%CI 1.169-6.370, p=0.020), Sanitation status (AOR=6.749, 95%CI 1.602-28.434, p=0.009) and use of pit latrine without slab (AOR=8.213, 95%CI 2.070-32.587, p=0.003) increased the risk of diarrhea. Also, use of good storage facilities (AOR=0.272, 95% CI 0.099-0.742, p=0.011), and handwashing after using toilet (AOR=0.513, 95% CI 0.229-0.881, p=0.015) were associated with reduced risk of diarrhea. Conclusion: The study reveals that, households’ members in the flood prone areas are more susceptible to diarrhea incidences associated with poor WaSH practices. The Local Government Authority and NGOs should set an integrated intervention towards improving household water treatment and storage (HWTS), sanitation facilities and hygienic conditions in the flood prone areas along Kilombero Valley in order to reduce the burden of diarrhea.

  171. Simagegnew Melaku, Tsegaye Dobamo and Mulugeta Tilahun

    The study was carried out to assess the constraint and opportunities of bee keeping in Ilu Abba Bora Zone, Oromia Regional State, South western Ethiopia. Eight districts were selected for the study following random sampling approach with the sample size of 544. Both primary and secondary data were used to generate qualitative and quantitative information. The data was analyzed using appropriate Microsoft excel and presented in table, bar graph and pie chart. The results of this study indicated that beekeeping in the study area has been practiced as sideways with other agricultural activities. The average amount of honey harvested per hive per year in the district from traditional, transitional and modern hive was 9.17kg, 19.81kg, and 29.05kg respectively. Majorities (33.26%) of beekeepers were used traditional bee keeping system, whereas few (15.69%) used modern bee keeping system. All respondents (100%) were used honey as the main hive product and service and 49.92% of the respondents were used honey and bee wax in combination while the least percentage of the respondents (1.43%) were used honey and bee brood in combination. The modern and transitional hives give more honey production annual as compared to traditional hive. The major constraints in the study area were pest and predator, pesticide application, high cost of modern hives, lack of hive equipments and lack of training. Highbeecolony, high coverage of honey flora, good climate condition, support from nongovernmental organization, increasing price of honey, support from extension worker and availability of local materials for hive making were the opportunities observed in the study for beekeeping development. Further studies are needed on the quality of the honey in the districts.

  172. No-Geon Jung, Yoon-Woo Chang, Wan-il Kim and Jae-Moon Kim

    The companies in the world have being continuously trying to export railway vehicle parts to overseas. However, it is difficult to gather information on related laws and technical specifications of export target countries, and it is difficult because of procedural problems. Therefore, it is necessary to compare and analyze the railway related laws of various countries.In this paper, the railway related law systems of Korea, Japan, Europe analyzed and systems are compared for the reliability system guideline.

  173. Dr. Vaishali S. Panchwate

    The side-effect of Azadirachta indica (A. Juss) on certain biochemical parameters of a freshwater catfish, Heteropneustes fossilis was studied for a period of 24, 48, 72, and 96 hr, at sublethal concentration. During the exposure period the protein and glycogen content in the liver, muscle and intestine of treated fish showed decreasing trend.The alterations of these biochemical parameters can be effectively used as nonspecific biomarkers against plant extract toxicity stress and also help safer usage of plant extracts in aquaculture farms.

  174. Dr. Vaishali S. Panchwate Tinkhede, Dr. Tantarpale, V.T.

    An investigation on the effect of the Azadirachta indica on the gills of Heteropneustes fossilis was carried out in the laboratory. Fishes were exposed to sub-lethal concentrations of Azadirachta indica for 24,48,72 and 96 hrs. The LC50 values of Azadirachta indica calculated for Heteropneustes fossilis for 24, 48, 72 and 96 hours are 10.5, 8.5, 7.0 and 6.5 ml/L respectively. The gills were removed for histological examination. The results showed that in normal gills of Heteropneustes fossilis shows Primary gill lamella, secondary gill lamella, Inter lamellar space and epithelial cells were observed but with increase exposure, the damage or separation of secondary gill lamellae, epithelial cell hyperplasia, fusion of secondary gill lamella, swelling of secondary gill lamellae and edema, necrosis, hyperplasia, degeneration of cartilaginous bar was observed.

  175. Elsayda-Nafesa El-Shamy

    Biological degradation affected different types of organic materials that located in museums, storages and libraries. According to their hygroscopic and sensitive properties towards the environment conditions, the microorganisms are activated resulted in different deterioration aspects on the organic materials. Leather artifacts represent most of these organic materials in museums. It is known that the tanned leather is more resistant to the bio-deterioration than untannedleather. But it was noticed thatchrome tanned leathers are more resistant than the vegetable tanned leathers when both exposed to bio-deterioration. Chromiumleathers were being used primarily in the form of leather artifacts e.g.sandals, luggage and other such items.This study aims tomake a comparison between both types of tanned leather;explain what is discriminatethe chrome-tanned leathers resistance towards microbiological deterioration according to chrome toxicity; also measuring the mechanical properties (tensile strength – elongation)of the samples under microbiological accelerated ageing cycle; and finallyaddress a surveyof most common microorganisms that infected the archaeological vegetable/chrome tanned leathers in museums.

  176. Politis, D., Margounakis, D., Aleksić, V., Kyriafinis, G., Constantinidis, J. and Paris, N

    High quality audiovisual performances are deeply rooted in traditional patterns. The scenery, the lighting, the garments, the postures, the kinetic elements and many more subtle sensations comprise synaesthetic elements. In kinaesthetic terms, theatrical stages, musical scores, hymnography or the texts of plays are factors that conceptually elicit neurophysiological potentials. This research attempts to decipher how tradition and renewal mingle in historical buildings and surroundings, based on well documented and amply commented musical credentials within the diachrony of the last 8 centuries.

  177. ALIO SANDA Abdelkader, SAMNA SOUMANA Oumarou and BAKASSO Yacoubou

    In sub-Saharan Africa, Salmonella cause of acute gastroenteritis and invasive disease. The aim of this study was to assessthe diversity the distribution and antibiogram profile of Salmonella isolates in two cities of Niger. Salmonella strains isolated from patients duringthe period 2015-2016 were biotyped using Api20E and serotyped withspecific antisera. All strains were subjected to a set of 18 antibiotics to study their antibiogram, using the Baeur–Kirby disk diffusion method.Biochemical analysis revealed ten (10) phenotypic clusters. Serotyping resulted intoseventeen (17) different serotypes with Paratyphi A as the most prevalent (14.75%) of all Salmonella strains followed by Paratyphi B (11.48%), Typhimurim (9.84%), Typhi (6.56%), Paratyphi C (3.28%), Poona (3.28%).The proportion of Paratyphi A in infants (< 5 years old) represented 50%.Overall, high resistance to ampicillin (49.06%), amoxicillin (47.06%), trimethoprime-sulfamethoxazol (45.60%); chloramphenicol (35.30%);colistin (20.75%) and amoxicillin + clavulanic acid (20.60%) was observed.This study showed the diversity of Salmonella biotypes, serotypes and antimicrobialssusceptibility.The level of the antimicrobial resistance in Salmonella in Niger is quite high. Therefore, there is an urgent need to establish a close monitoringof resistance in Salmonella in Niger to assist in recommendations on the use of antimicrobials in both human and animals.

  178. Novelina Tampubolon, Ricky Avenzora and Rachmad Hermawan

    The high cost of global climate mitigation and amelioration, which has now reached a temperature rise of 1.1o Celcius, never can be fully funded by developing countries in many cases, so an effort to raise funds for community participation needs to be systematized. Related to the unique characteristic of Bandar Lampung as a valley area of Bukit Barisan Mountainous Strips of Sumatera Island, thus the Bandar Lampung City has been choosen as an important area to conduct this study that aim to: 1) analyzing people's perception on climate change; 2) analyzing the value of Temperature Humidity Index (THI); and 3) analyzing the Willingness To Pay (WTP) to improve the quality of the environment. The data were collected using a closed ended questionnaire designed with One Score One Criteria Scoring System (Avenzora, 2008), followed by Kruskal Wallis and Dunn Test, and multiple linear regression analysis. The results of the study show that the people of Bandar Lampung City have perceived significantly the increase of temperature and humidity, which is caused by the increase of population, vehicle emission, land conversion and decrease of RTH (Green Open Space) as the main causal factors. This perception is supported by the study of the THI value of more than 27, which means included in the uncomfortable qualification. In terms of community WTP value, the study results indicate that there is a community's ability to contribute with an average value of 15.620 IDR/household/month; so that the estimated potential of community participation of Bandar Lampung City can be stated as 4.018.034.720 IDR per year. If correlated with the population in 416 districts and 98 cities in Indonesia, then the estimated potential of Indonesian urban community participation to be self-sufficient in overcoming the global climate is 22.626.269.846.080 IDR per year.

  179. Vidya Sagar, G. V., Sunitha, S., Ravi, B. V. and Nisarga, R.

    Uric acid is elevated in type1 diabetes mellitus. It has also been associated with diabetic complications. Objectives were to study the significance of glycemic control and serum uric acid levels in Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus and to correlate between duration of diabetes and serum uric acid levels in Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus. 50 cases with type 1 diabetes mellitus with 50 age and sex matched controls were selected and Serum uric acid (SUA) levels were estimated by the uricase method. Our results showed significantly increased levels of SUA levels in type 1 diabetic cases mean 3.62mg/dl compared to controls mean 2.11mg/dl. SUA was also significantly increased in poor glycemic control (HbA1c >10) mean 4.33mg/dl. The mean SUA levels in diabetes with more than 10 years duration is 5.16±1.89. It was concluded that increased levels of serum uric acid levels are seen in type 1 diabetic patients irrespective of age and sex. In poorly controlled diabetics the serum uric acid was significantly increased. There was significant increase of serum uric acid in diabetic patients of more than 10years duration indicating chronic complications. So large number of studies is required to conclude that serum uric acid can be an early marker for diabetic complications, but this can be used as a prognostic marker along with other markers.

  180. Shamim Shaikh Mohiuddin

    Aim: Pathogenesis of type 2 diabetes is observed to be associated closely with acute phase response which is predominately cytokine-mediated. By estimating circulating acute phase proteins in type 2 (T-2) diabetic patients, I tried to establish this hypothesis. Method: Newly diagnosed 25 T-2 cases and 25 T-2 cases under oral hypoglycemic agent for at least 5 years were chosen and were estimated the level of α1- antitrypsin, α1- acid glycoprotein, ceruloplasmin and fibrinogen. These all parameters are well known acute phase reactants and very important tools for diagnosis for low grade chronic inflammatory reaction. Thirty normal controls were also studied. The levels of these proteins were correlated with their random plasma glucose values and BMI. Results: In the T-2 patients (p<.00001) in comparison with the controls, the values of all the four proteins studied were significantly elevated. Conclusion: By the above results and findings is can be definitely postulated that a low grade inflammatory process is associated in the pathogenesis of type 2 diabetes. This can be further explored for diagnosis, management and follow up.

  181. Samundeeswri, S. and Lakshmi, S

    Heavy metal pollution due to industrial effluents is gaining worldwide attention. Tannery industry is common in many parts of the world and major sources of heavy metals, it pollutes groundwater and ecosystems and produce major heavy metals and sodium chloride. Our study showed the effect of tannery effluents on two halophytes Suaeda maritima (L.) Dumort. and Sesuvium portulacastrum L. grown in pot experiment conditions. The aim of this work was to investigate some biochemical systems response of these plants to tannery effluent treatments. Analysis was carried on biochemical constituents, photosynthetic pigments, carotenoids, protein, phenol, amino acids and proline contents of S. maritima and S. portulacastrum leaves. Four months after sowing, plants were subjected to different concentrations of tannery effluents (0, 30%, 60% and 90%) and samples were analyzed at intervals of 30, 60, 90, 120 days. Results demonstrate that all the biochemical parameters increased progressively with increasing concentrations of tannery effluent. These results indicate that stress of tannery effluents induced biochemical changes in both halophytes with stimulation of heavy metal concentration. This study suggests that, when compared to Sesuvium portulacastrum, Suaeda maritima plants can be a good source for the phytoremediation of heavy metal polluted tannery effluent contaminated areas.

  182. Pallavi P. Banavasi and Koppad, A. G.

    The study was carried out in the watershed areas (5B1A5 and 4D4F5) of Sirsi taluk, Uttar Kannada District during the year 2016-2017 to assess the quantity of available deadwood in the forests which could be used as fuel-wood by the nearby villagers. Five villages in each of the watershed were selected and transect line (100 m  10 m) one near the the village and the other away from the village were laid. Total of 20 such plots were laid with 0.01 per cent sampling intensity. The volume of dead and fallen wood found available in the village forest was 1.8 m3 in watershed 4D4F5 and 0.5160 m3 in watershed 5B1A5. It was 1.4340 m3 in transects away from the villages and 0.979 m3 in transects near the villages of both the watersheds. The study concludes that the availability of the dead and fallen wood in the forests of the selected watersheds is insufficient in meeting the demand of fuel-wood from the nearby villages.

  183. Mammadov Vasif Talib and Damirova Javida Rizvan

    In the paper stability losses of the packer with a girdle construction have been investigated by taking into account compactness mechanism. Expanding and constricting cases of conical surface of the packer with a girdle construction have been studied, stability problem of the packer has been solved via numerical estimation by using finite differences method. With this purpose, continuity condition of the deformation has been written for packer construction (cylindrical and conical surface of the packer) and added to stability losses condition. In the first approach the solution has been carried out in boundary and junction nodes of the packer (where cylindrical and conical surfaces combine), however, in the second approach by finite differences method. During packing process stability losses limit has been studied for the first time for a girdle construction.

  184. Singh Sarbjit

    This paper focuses on one of the most used techniques of operations research i.e. linear programming. The linear programming is a mathematical method to provide an optimal solution for the problems where objective and the requirements both are linear. The linear programming technique came to limelight during the Second World War. The rapid use of linear programming in various fields started after the Second World War. This study provides insights on the assumptions and properties of the linear programming. It also explains the process of formulating any problem as a linear programming problem if all the assumptions are satisfied. The limitations and mathematical formulation are also explained. Some practical applications of linear programming are discussed. This study also provides insight on the latest applications of linear programming problem in various fields like sports, lean manufacturing, financial planning and radiotherapy.

  185. Sreedhar Rao, R., Gyananath, G., Shewdikar, S.V. and Ashok Kumar E.N.

    The present investigation was carried out to assess the prevalence of water borne diseases & water quality of Godavari River and Reservoirs of Nanded District in Maharashtra. The quality of water consumed and incidence of disease is based on perceptions by the respondents where the various stakeholders were considered. The water quality of the reservoirs and associated water borne diseases appeared to be dependent on different attributes such as the age, literacy and resources used by the tourists visiting the shrine during the peak festive season and residents of the villages for consumption of water. A correlation of water quality of the reservoirs and the growing incidence of water borne diseases among local residents largely depends on multiple factors like the hygiene, education/literacy, proper resources of water supply and treatment and economic conditions of the villagers etc. In order to prevent the frequent recurrence of water borne diseases among the pilgrims and local residents, proper measures in terms of health enforcement and strict norms needs to be adopted while delivering tap and water services that is abstracted from the reservoirs for the visitors and public at large.

  186. Van Der Burgt, M. J.

    A cold start of the universe is proposed where two spherical agglomerates collide. Each agglomerate contains the same amount of densely-packed, basic particles of Planck dimensions. One agglomerate contains “neg” particles with a charge of one-third of the charge of an electron, and the other “pos” particles with a charge of one-third of the charge of a positron. The first particles formed upon collision are very high-energy, static photons consisting of a neg and a pos. By colliding a small part of the photons with 1-3 neg’sor 1-3 pos’s, proto quarks and leptons are formed resulting in the formation of equal amounts of neutral matter and antimatter. The symmetry of proto quark combinations proves a good indicator for the stability of hadrons. In the model photons are dumbbell shaped spinning particles that are essential for the formation of fields. The vector sum of the rotational and the translational velocities of a photon is almost equal to the velocity of light in vacuum. Even the highest energy photons in cosmic gamma rays have a translational velocity very close to this velocity. Both mass and energy are manifestations of the polarisation of photons around bodies which explains their relation.

  187. Gayathri, T., Aarthy, S., Abirami, A., Ajmalkhan, A. and Monisha, R.

    The epidemic growth of wireless technology and mobile services in this era is creating a great crash on our life style. Some early efforts have been taken to utilize these technologies in surveillance. The purpose of this project is to built a intelligent transport system using LoRa, GPS, Movable sensor and cloud computing. LoRa is a advanced protocol used to transmit data to the cloud server.This technology will enable public or multi-tenant networks to connect a number of applications running on the same network. It can track buses in city by placing LoRa in the buses along with GPS, and speed sensor. The cloud server for the city receive the location information, and alerts the forth coming bus stops in the route of the bus, of the bus’ number, route and expected time of arrival, which are displayed in mobile application. This system thus describes is a cost effective and easy to implement for tracking buses in real time by using IOT.

  188. Conte, M.J. and Roşca

    In the new EVTD2 physics is described that the black body photonic emission is generating the gravitational field and, thus, it is actually quantic (in hv). This paper follows the last [1-3] concerning the correlations between the consequences of Newton’s relation and the black body emittance of objects’ surfaces. In [2] was proposed a new relation for the gravitational force through the equivalent black body temperatures Te of the each considered bodies. In the specific case of the bodies free falling, this new formulation is slightly transformed by taking into account only the Te of celestial bodies’ grounds receiving the fall. Falling mass and its Te are no more used. Was suggested the presence of mini black holes (MBH) in the zero resulting potential intermediary to two masses and thus, the gravitational effects can be assimilated to those of a siphon in haling (sucking up) the surface of a groundwater, e.g. two floating bodies which are pulled. The gravitational fields of two bodies overlap and are associated to the liquid, considered analogically, as being quantic in little dimensions (H2O molecules). Floating bodies’ accelerations towards the siphon are dependent on respective estrangements with regard to the position of this one: they are induced by the variation of speed of the in haled stream. Thus the gravity, in this context, is closer to an electromagnetic force, which is directly connected with the considered masses themselves.

  189. Ugboma C. J. and Ugboma C. D.

    Environmental sensitivity index corrosion mapping of Ndoni river, Ahoada river, New Calabar river, Tombia river, Buguma river and Bonny estuary was carried out with the aim of developing an environmental analysis index corrosion map of the shorelines as well as corrosion rates of the different shores comprising of fresh water, brackish water and estuarine environment. Methods developed by National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) and Nigerian oil Producing Trade Sector (OPTS) was useful in this study.8 ESI types were found in the area which includes 1b, 3a, 4a, 6b, 9b, 9c, 10a and 10b.Animal biodiversities prominent in these shores include Sea turtle, White crab, Shorebirds, Crocodile, Iguana, Snail, Toad, Frog, Millipede, Earthworm, Tilapia and Jellyfish. The relationship between number of socioeconomic features and biological species along the shores using Spearman’s correlation coefficient (r) value is 0.93. The corrosion rates of the metal coupons in the various shores of Ndoni river, Ahoada river, New Calabar river, Tombia river, Buguma river and Bonny estuary is 0.053g, 0.059g, 0.109g, 0.125g, 1.630g and 2.680g respectively. The results from this study can serve as a good decision support program for environmental managers because it can provide information on socio-cultural and corrosion rates of the environment.

  190. Savitha, A.L. and Dr. B.C. Nagendra Prasad

    The objectives of this study are to analyze the underground water quality of Bommanahalli zone by water quality index. Eleven physico-chemical parameters such as pH, Electrical Conductivity Calcium, Magnesium, Chloride, Sulphate, Total Hardness, Fluoride, Nitrate, Total Dissolved Solids, Iron and Alkalinity collected from 10 different locations in a pre-monsoon period of 2017. In this study 90% water samples were found poor quality and only 10% water samples falls under moderately good category. The water quality index ranges from 39.03to 453.90. Therefore there is a need of some treatment before usage and also required to protect that area from contamination.

  191. Mr. Shashikant S. Nagdive and Dr. Prashant N. Chatur

    Uploading anonymous data over untrustworthy cloud service providers (CSP), the privacy and security concerns emerge over the authenticity of the query answer and the leakage of the Data Owner (DO) identity. Providing signature of data owner is always a good solution but the signatures can reveal identity of data owner. In this paper we try to review some techniques and methods which can be used collaboratively to satisfy the aforementioned requirements. These techniques are ring signature scheme for anonymous data upload, Merkel Hash Tree (MHT) for data authentication and non-repudiable service protocol using online trusted authority (TA). To protect trading behavior between the user and the cloud service provider, non-repudiation protocol is used during the transmission of the query answer and the verification object (VO).

  192. Dr. Sudha, M.

    Every week nearly 2,650 people get killed and 9,000 get injured due to traffic accidents. In 2017, latest year for which data is available, 137,423 people died and 469,900 people got injured due to road accidents in India. Thus it is very essential that we understand the knowledge level of the college students and the practices and thus identify the gap if it exists. Objective: To study the knowledge of the respondents on Road Safety and practices and identity the existing gap between knowledge and practice. Methodology: A cross sectional study was done with semi structured questionnaire was used to obtain data from 420 students who drive two wheelers were taken in the study. Government colleges with co -education were selected to collect the data. SPSS version 20 was used for data entry, cleaning and analysis. Results: The knowledge level of study participants regarding road signs was considerably high especially in case of what do the traffic signal lights indicate (95%), not to horn (75%) zebra crossing (94%) and pedestrian prohibited (84%). All the students agreed that driving without a valid license is an offence and chance of accidents increase when driving bikes without a helmet 8% of the students did not feel that using mobiles while driving was offense. 77% of the respondents agree to the fact that they travel in triples to college and majority (55%) of them were males. Conclusion: Good knowledge about road safety did not lead into prudent traffic practices by younger generation. More concentration on sensitisation programs are needed.

  193. Obeid, H.A., Saeed, A.E.M. and Khalid, H. S.

    Sonchus oleraceus (moleita) from the family Asteracae was investigated for its antioxidants activities. The ethyl acetate extract of the plant showed 89% radical scavenging activity (RSA). The extract was subjected to column chromatography. Solvent mixtures were used from least to highest polarities (petroleum ether till methanol). 12 fractions showed high antioxidant activity. Radical scavenging activity was tested with DPPH (1,1-Diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl). The structures were identified with modern spectrum techniques as 1H NMR, 13CNMR, 2D proton NMR(cosy),HSQC (heteronuclear single quantum correlation) and IR frequencies. Compound (1) is 7-hydroxy, 6 –C-glycoside, 3’ hydroxyl pyridine-flavon (0.530 gm). Solvent system for isolation was (Tol: Eth.Acet: Formic Acid). Compound (2) is tannic acid dimer (0.11 gm). Solvent system for isolation was Ethyl Acetate: Methanol (4:6).

  194. Sujata Kumari, Harpinder Kaur and Sharanbir Kaur Bal

    Burnout is described as feeling of emotional exhaustion, depersonalization and reduced personal accomplishment. It is well-known that burnout is a major problem for many professions. Nurses are considered to be particularly susceptible to this. Measuring burnout among nurses is important because their well-being has implications for stability in the healthcare workforce and for the quality of care provided. Therefore, the present study was undertaken to find out the various tasks performed by nurses in the hospitals of Ludhiana,to find out facilities provided for nurses by the hospital administration,to assess the burnout level of nurses by using subjective scales. Results showed that while performing different activities nurses faced psychological stress due to long working hours, shift work etc. Therefore, some remedial measures are provided by hospital management to reduce the burnout level of nurses.

  195. Binod Bihari Jena, Ananta Basudev Sahu and Manoj Kumar Raut

    Background: The prohibitive cost of hospitalization is one of the causes of impoverishment in India. Every year, about 2-3 percent population of India is being pushed into below poverty line because of out-of-pocket expenditure on hospitalization (Garg and Karan, 2009). Presently, around two-thirds of the total health expenditure in India is out of pocket (NHA, 2013-14). Therefore, the study on cost of hospitalization is paramount important from a policy perspective. Study Objectives: The objectives of the study were to examine the inter-state disparity in the cost of hospitalization, to study the gross and net differentials in the cost of hospitalization and to examine the source of finance for hospitalization in India. Materials and Methods: This paper is based on the unit level data of NSSO 71st round survey. NSSO is the main survey agency at national level in India and responsible for collecting data on socio-economic and health for the purpose of planning and policy making. The present survey was based on a sample size of 65,932 households across the country. Both bi-variate and multi-variate statistical techniques were used for data analyses using Stata and SPSS. Results: In India, the cost of hospitalization is rising over the years. The average total cost of hospitalization in nominal terms has increased more than two and half times both in rural and urban areas during the decade of 2004 to 2014. The net differential in the cost of hospitalization among various sub groups of population was relatively lower than the gross differentials. In 2014, the gross total cost of hospitalization in private facilities was nearly 4.5 times that of public facilities. Household income/saving and borrowing were the two major source of finance for hospitalization for nearly three-fourth and one fifth households in India, respectively. Conclusions: Strengthening public health sector in the country is the need of the hour. The increasing use of the low cost public health facilities would help in achieving the twin objective of the new national health policy: reduction of out-of-pocket spending on health care and reduction of poverty. Ultimately it is a step forward to attain the objective of ‘universal health care’ as envisaged in the SDGs.

  196. Pamella Ambiyo Ananda, Maurice A. Ndolo and Enose M.W. Simatwa

    Studies in some parts of the world had established that remedial tuition was perceived by stakeholders in education to influence utilization of educational resources which in turn influence quality education in primary schools. Remedial tuition is teaching and learning processes organized outside normal class time for enhancing utilization of educational resources and quality education. Quality education in Kenyan schools is measured in terms of performance in national examinations. The desire for excellent performance in Kenya Certificate of Primary Education examination is the driving force behind remedial tuition. However, in Kisumu City the 2005 to 2011 mean scores were just slightly above average, that is; 258.44, 263.31, 273.27, 279.70, 265.00, 267.46, and 272.65 respectively despite the provision of remedial tuition. The objective of this study was to establish stakeholder’s perceptions on influence of remedial tuition on utilization of educational resources in public primary schools in Kisumu city. The Conceptual Framework showing the influence of remedial tuition on provision of quality education as perceived by stakeholders was used. The study established that stakeholders were of the view that remedial tuition highly influences utilization of educational resources as the overall mean rating was 3.04 respectively. These findings mean that the stakeholders perceived remedial tuition as having high influence on utilization of educational resources and quality education in Kisumu city. The study recommended that remedial tuition should continue to be embraced by all schools to enhance utilization of educational resources and provision of quality education.

  197. Abeer A Alawad, Donia M Bettaieb, and Raif B Malek

    With the development of the Internet and the abundance of sources available to students, plagiarism has become more prevalent and widespread in the academic community. There are now a number of special software recognition programmes which can detect academic misconduct and plagiarism. Many scientific studies have been conducted investigating the possible reasons behind why plagiarism is being employed more readily by students. The afactors and therefore it is a complex system. Research states that there are five elements which can result in undergraduate student’s plagiarism. These are known as the five ‘S’s: Student, Supervisor, Syllabus, System, and Society. Each of these elements affects the student in one way or another either negatively or positively and can lead to academic dishonesty. This research tries to review these studies to consider the reasons that motivate student plagiarism and ultimately to create a framework which empowers decision-makers and educators to prevent students plagiarising during their university studies.

  198. Thierry S. Maurice. K.Y., Magloire PAKOUZOU, Boureima DIANDA, Moctar OUSMANE and Sié KAM et Dieudonné J. BATHIEBO

    This publication deals with the heating of air in a fixed hemispherical concentrating system. It differs from other systems that heat first a black plate with fins or not, and then the heat is recovered from the plate with a fluid by convection. The device that we propose uses the sunspot corresponding to the actual image of the sun formed in the focus of a hemispherical concentrator which by effect of concentration, generates a very hot zone. The heat from that zone can be directly transmitted to the circulating air. The recovery zone was gradually reduced to strips (or bands) by 4 mm mirrors to reduce the amount of air to be heated by the spot. There is no receiver to dispose, rather the assumption is made that recuperation of air directly from the sun-spot is more efficient than air-plate convection. The results obtained lead to the following observations: The more bands we have, the higher the temperature of the bands, allowing to suppose that the temperature can still rise with the increase of the number of bands. The bands take the maximum value in turn, indicating the position of the hot spot. The shape of the temperature curves follows the pace of the daily irradiation. By way of example, for a division of the 4-band concentration zone, temperatures in the hottest band are obtained which range from 44°C at 9h 36 min and rise to 102°C at 13 h 35 min, then go down to 60° C at 15h 36min. The maximum irradiation value of the day is 830 W/m2 for the day of March 16, 2016. The main advantage of such a system is that it produces warmer air, without any sun tracking system, and is even better than natural convection systems.

  199. Mohammad Husscein Zaki, Ahmad Mahrous Mohamed and Ashraf Samy Ghanem

    Background: endoscopic assisted open reduction and internal fixation (EAORIF) viatransoral incision was introduced as alternative to the traditional retromandibular approach with least intra, early and long term complications. The intraoperative and long term complications such facial nerve injury and facial scar respectively was proved to be less likely with EAORIF. However, the early complications in terms of edema and pain were not compared. Aim: The current study aimed to compare EAORIF versus conventional ORIF regarding early postoperative complications interms of pain and edema. Methodology: 12 patients suffering unilateral extracapsular condylar fractures were included in our study. Patients were divided in to two groups according to surgical approach used for ORIF (group 1: retromandibular approach. Group 2: EAORIF via transoral incision). Postoperatively pain and edema were evaluated through 2 weeks then compared among two groups. Results: Most patients of both groups suffered moderate edema as well as pain that relived gradually through 2 weeks without statistical significant difference between the treatment groups. Conclusion: EAORIF via transoral incision did not have an advantage over the retromandibular approach in minimizing edema or pain following open treatment of condylar fractures.

  200. Hassan Shahid and Zuo Xiuli

    Background: To human health, the significance of Gut Microbiota is highly cherished. The core goal of this research was to do the comparison between the gut microbiota of healthy Chinese and foreign students in Shandong, China. Methods: Fecal samples were collected from 11 healthy Chinese students and from 31 healthy foreign students in Jinan city, Shandong. DNA was extracted, and 456 bp segments comprising hypervariable regions 3 and 4 of the 16S rRNA gene were amplified, barcoded and sequenced. Results: A total of 1,599,407 good quality reads were obtained for evaluating bacterial diversity. Firmicutes was the highest abundant phylum trailed by Bacteriodetes and Actinobacteria. Clostridium constituted the most abundant genus in two groups, but its ratio was higher in foreign students group than Chinese students. The genera Prevotella was in high ratio in foreign students group and genera bacteriodes was in higher ratio in Chinese students group. Although clearvariation between individuals were detected, a huge amount of phylotype is still shared in each group by the healthy microbiota, signifying that a principal microbiome is present in each healthy habitat. However, the diversity and richness showed no difference, the structure of gut microbiota was significantly different between Chinese and foreign students. Conclusion: Phylum Firmicutes and genera Prevotella and Bacteroides constituted the bulk of the human gut microbiota, while there were prominent alterations in composition between the two groups probably because of place, diet and lifestyle.

  201. Sarah Mohammed Al shahrani, Ali Mubarak, Mai Abdullmain Alkhaldi, Samaher Mamdoh Alsukhiri and Sultanh Abdullah Al zahrani

    Diabetes Mellitus (DM) is one of the most common chronic diseases in nearly all countries, and continues to increase in number and significance. As the prevalence of diabetes increases, the prevalence of long-term diabetes-related complications is also likely to increase especially diabetic foot ulcer. An overall aim of diabetes care is that people should be able to live a good life despite having diabetes. Several somatic diseases, such as diabetes, commonly coexist with anxiety and depression, and these mental disorders are often comorbid. This picture becomes even more complex, as evidence suggests a bidirectional association between depression and diabetes. Aim of the study: Assess the prevalence of comorbid depression among diabetic foot outpatients. The data were collected from 103 diabetic foot patients during follow up at Diabetic Center in Prince Mansour Military Hospital, Taif Region, KSA. Cross sectional study design was used and The Patient Health Questionnaire 9 (PHQ 9) was used to evaluate depression status of patients. Conclusion: Depression is significantly associated with diabetes from incidence to mortality; especially diabetic foot ulcer. It may thus be recommended that all patients with diabetes should be screened for depression. The depression and diabetes are causally related and deserves attention from clinicians to ensure better management and improve diabetic patient quality of life.

  202. Laila Mahmoud Montaser, Ahmed Abd EL-Rahman Sonbol, Ahmed Sabry EL-Gammal and Asmaa Shaban Abo El-Yazeed

    Objectives: To detect the relation between the circulating endothelial progenitor cells (CEPCs) and stages of breast cancer patients. Background: Breast cancer is a major cause of death. Immunocytochemistry and RT-PCR have been widely used for the detection of circulating endothelial progenitor cells (CEPCs) in patients with breast cancer but their specificity is limited. Our purpose was to utilize a convenient and specific technology to detect CEPCs in breast cancer patients. Given a potential, predictive and therapeutic value of EPCs in breast cancer, level of CEPCs in breast cancer would correlate with extent of the disease. Material and Methods: This study included 75 newly diagnosed patients with breast cancer females, their ages ranged between 19 and 65 years old. Twenty age and sex matched healthy females were included as controls. All patients were subjected to: full history taking, clinical examination, radiological investigations, histopathological examination of the breast mass for surgically removed breast cancer tissue: Estrogen Receptor (ER), Progesterone Receptor (PR), human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2), routine laboratory investigations including liver and renal function tests, complete blood picture, alkaline Phosphatase, prothrombin time (PT) and routine breast tumor markers Carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA), Cancer Antigen 15-3 (CA15.3), and flow cytometry detection of CD14, CD133, and VEGFR2 (vascular endothelial growth factor receptor 2) positive CEPCs in the peripheral blood. Results: In this study, there was statistically significant increase CEPCs numbers in breast cancer patients when compared with control (2.05 ± 0.6x103 CEPCs/5x106 PBMC). The level of CEPCs was significantly correlated with the stage of breast cancer. The least significant was stage I < II < III < IV (7.71 ± 1.40 <8.67 ± 1.65 <30.01 ± 9.74 <76.19 ± 13.25 x 103 CEPCs/5x106 PBMC) Also, there was highly statistically significant increase of CEPCs mean fluorescence intensity (Mx, My) with disease progression respectively (31.18 ± 3.38<37.80 ± 8.02<65.78 ± 9.51<85.50 ± 9.15) (54.24 ± 8.81<65.0 ± 11.44<101.28 ± 19.83<190.40 ± 45.92) as compared with controls (27.70 ± 5.54) (42.20 ± 8.61). Conclusion: CEPC elevation in the blood of breast cancer patients established as a useful marker of tumor angiogenesis and progression. From existing research data, it is apparent that CEPCs monitoring is efficient, specific and reproducible as early predictors of metastatic potential in breast cancer patients with sensitivity 100 and specificity 100% at 52850 /5x106 PBMC as a cutoff point.

  203. Udit Lahoti and Sumit Pahwa

    Carbon Fibre Reinforced Concrete (CFRC) beam width examination has been analysed in the latest study. CFRC materials are the commonly used material in the structures more than other materials to determine the problems in concrete structures. They give strength and stiffness to concrete beam. ANSYS tool has been employed in the current study to solve concrete problem. Result of thickness of the CFRC has been defined in the current paper by studying the deformation and strain generated. Four different set has been designed all having the same outer dimensions. To change the thickness of CFRC concrete beam dimensions has been decreases and results have been compared with the beam which is made of concrete only. Base beam dimensions are 350×300 mm2 and length is 3500mm. Three thickness of CFRC have been assumed 2mm, 3mm and 4mm. From the results it has been found that beam with beam with 4mm thickness CFRC shows less deflection with respect to the other beams, which indirectly means CFRC beam, has higher strength with respect to simple concrete beam. Weight comparison of all the beam has also been conceded out which represents that with 4mm thickness CFRC is lighter in weight compared to the others.

  204. Arvind Jayant and Janpriy Sharma

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to introduce and provide an overview of the Multi Criteria Decision Making techniques PROMETHEE, ELECTRE, VIKOR and TOPSIS and suggest further scope and direction of research in this emerging field. Design/Methodology/Approach: The work relies on step wise method, case studies, application and other literature related to MCDM techniques PROMETHEE, ELECTRE, VIKOR and TOPSIS. Literature has been segregated to understand various issues and work related to MCDM techniques PROMETHEE, ELECTRE, VIKOR and TOPSIS. A detailed review is used to sort out the literature and develop the research direction of the study. The review is focussed on development and improvement of MCDM techniques PROMETHEE, ELECTRE, VIKOR and TOPSIS including all those research which is relevant to the implementation of these methods in various sectors including energy, transportation etc. A literature seems to be a valid approach, as a necessary step in structuring a research field. Findings: The objectives of this paper are to identify major research work conducted on MCDM techniques PROMETHEE, ELECTRE, VIKOR and TOPSIS and to classify them to identify gaps in literature and opportunities for future research. The paper has provided an integrative framework for study, improvement and implementation of MCDM techniques PROMETHEE, ELECTRE, VIKOR and TOPSIS. The findings also identify a number of issue that need to be addressed. Research limitations/Implications – Implication of the work is that the knowledge of the research gap can to be used to focus efforts on key areas so as to ensure speedy and comprehensive implementation of MCDM techniques PROMETHEE, ELECTRE, VIKOR and TOPSIS. Practical implications: The paper may prove to be a very useful source of information to decision makers in various fields to select the best alternatives/solution and in implementation of MCDM techniques. Originality/Value: This paper provides some of the very first insights into development and implementation of MCDM techniques PROMETHEE, ELECTRE, VIKOR and TOPSIS. This methodological review will provide better understanding of the current state of the research in the discipline

  205. Neha Patil, Dhanashri Yadav, Vishakha Pagare and Karuna Tikare

    Every systemneed to maintain record of events of everything that happen.We should call it Logs. Thislogs are useful in auditing the system & troubleshooting problems. Most of the system & platforms uses Linux based OS to provide their services because of higher availability & open source. The Linux based syslog protocol generates & collect the syslog messages & writes them in text files with their priority, facility & security. This text files (log files) are in normal text format. We convert them to relational database format with sequence of date & time for our convenience to find or search Specific meta data.

  206. Mr. Ravi Palankar and Mr. Kotgi Kotresh

    Manufacturing of differential housing includes many process namely shot blast, welding, swaging, facing, cooling etc. where after each process the change in dimensions of the component is seen and hence gives rise to change in axis of axle and runout is generated. The main aim of study is to identify the change in runout after every process and identify the maximum runout creating process. Cold swaging process has major effect on runout when done before welding cover on the housing. Therefore the effect of cold swage process before and after welding cover is being discussed in the paper. Housing part number R145.7 QC667 is being studied over this study.

  207. Dr. Orabi Al Rawi and Suliman Abu Amara

    The quality evaluations for the field works concerning previously conducted site exploration studies in Jordan were deeply investigated through this research; where the major aim was to provide recommendations regarding the improvement of the quality for these works, and consequently to improve the performance of the residential project that to be carried out at the study site. The methodology of this research included implementing several activities. The first of these was reviewing for the international standards in implementing the field works related to site investigations, in addition to collecting several previous reports concerning site investigations for residential buildings in Jordan. The second activity was the design and distribution of the questionnaire that included opinions in performing the field works for these investigations in accordance with the international standards. The third activity was related to analyzing the collected data using SPSS Software for the purpose of quality evaluations. And the last activity was the submittal for conclusions and recommendations. Based on the analysis of results regarding the conducted survey, this research concluded that many factors may affect the quality of the field works related to site investigations in Jordan. In general, the most of these were the lack of commitment with the requirements of the Jordanian Code of Site Investigation, in addition to the lack of commitment to carryout field tests based on the latest specifications. Accordingly, it was recommended that site investigation offices should accurately perform the Jordanian site investigation code for the purpose of raising the level of performance and quality of their products. It is also recommended that site investigations offices should review and update the engineering specifications of the field and laboratory tests in order to upgrade their performance towards the international standards.

  208. Faizal, M., Saidur, R. and Ahamed, J. U

    The current works examines the detailed thermodynamics models for naturally aspirated gasoline and alternative fuel to spark ignition internal combustion engines. A comparative study based on the first and second laws of thermodynamics are discussed here. The key parameters for analysis were considered as mean effective pressure (MEP), power, torque, exergetic efficiency, second law efficiency, and irreversibility. Air standard assumptions were taken consideration for the analyses. MEP, power output and torque for all alternative fuelled engines, are higher compared to that of a gasoline engine. Exergy due to heat and work were also discussed. For heat exergy, only hydrogen exceeds gasoline while other alternative fuels have lower heat exergy than gasoline. But work (mechanical) exergy for all the alternative fuelled engines are higher than the gasoline engine. The Irreversibility or losses for the alternative fuelled engines are significantly lower than a gasoline engine. Alternative fuel engines have lower specific fuel consumption than the gasoline engine. Hence the 1st law and second law efficiency of the alternative fuelled engines are higher compared to that of gasoline. This is also due to having a high compression ratio associated with alternative fuelled internal combustion engine. Exergy by heat transfer of alternative fuelled internal combustion engine is higher due to having high heat generation during combustion.

  209. Dr. Naveen Kumar

    In this chapter, we have considered a bulk service queueing model with removable serve. We have discussed a Markovian queueing system with a single server and units / customer serve in batches. The server is removed from the system as soon as the system becomes empty for a duration which is exponentially distributed randomly. We derive the time dependent solution of mean number of arrivals in the system or exactly ‘i’ customer arrive in the system. The study state solution is also discussed.

  210. Vinod Kotwal, Prof. Santosh Satya, and Prof. S.N. Naik

    Street foods are ready-to-eat foods and beverages prepared and/or sold by vendors and hawkers especially in streets and other similar public places. Street food vendors may be stationary, semi-mobile or mobile. This food sector plays a significant role in providing livelihood to millions of street food vendors, meeting the nutritional requirement of a large section of the society; However there have been concerns associated with the safety of street food primarily due to poor hygiene practices adopted by the street food vendors, lack of potable water, waste disposal facilities and the location of their carts. In India, petty manufacturers including street food vendors have to be registered under the Food Safety and Standards (Licensing and Registration of Food Businesses) Regulation 2011 and to comply with the sanitary and hygiene requirements that have both controllable and non-controllable requirements. Most of the studies on street food vendors have focused on urban setting, the status in rural areas not given much attention. Thus, in a marked departure from conventional studies, present investigation compares the food safety and hygiene practices amongst urban as well as rural vendors. Based on a survey of 300 vendors in urban Delhi and rural areas of Haryana and Uttar Pradesh (around Delhi) it was observed that in both the milieus street food vendors do not vary too much in their personal hygiene practices. But do so in regulatory compliances, garbage collection, garbage disposal practices, and other environmental factors. A triangular collaborative approach focusing on different stakeholders can improve the safety and quality of street-vended food.

  211. Adithya Ballaji and Akshith Monnappa, K.

    The evolution of Electronic gadgets and high performance electronic devices are primarily dependent on the battery of the device. Though with the advancement of technology, it seems that it’s quite difficult in remote places where electrification is still a distance dream and emergence of solar energy has paved way for the use of these electronic devices even in remote places. In this paper design and development of a solar powered Buck Converter using MC34063 for 5V battery charging has been presented. The built prototype is a low cost, compact, and portable with good efficiency which can be easily built for even general application. The hardware implementation along with software and experimental results are presented in this paper.

  212. Rina Yadav and Rajesh Bansode

    The start of this research thought is to create shrewd well-being focuses in India. The proposition fundamentally misuses the possibility of Internet of things and intends to utilize the current innovation and foundation. The work has been spurred by the way that India is deficient as far as number of well-being focuses comparing to the number of inhabitants in nation and in towns particularly. All the more unmistakably if a well-being focus is accessible, Doctors for the most part either are not willing to serve the country territories or they are not accessible 24x7 prompting provincial populace swinging to urban areas notwithstanding for easygoing illnesses. This adds to long lines in clinics and parcel of irritation to patients. Keeping in mind the end goal to maintain a strategic distance from previously mentioned constraints, the proposed demonstrate plans to address the patient without even physically going by the well-being focus and furthermore solution can be produced without Doctor. It is normal that such a shrewd framework would encourage debilitated as well as will add flourishing in a roundabout way to towns. The proposed structure would get a huge change the social insurance area of India.

  213. Harshitha

    In data communication, security is the most important issue in today’s world. This project is a combination of stegano graphy and cryptography, which provides a strong backbone for its security. This present work focus is enlightening the technique to secure data or message with authenticity and integrity. In this project work, the secret message is encrypted before the actual embedding process starts. The entire work has done in MATLAB. The hidden message is encrypted using a simple encryption algorithm using secret key and hence it will be almost impossible for the intruder to unhide the actual secret message from the embedded cover file without knowing secret key. Only receiver and sender know the secret key.N-bit LSB substitution technique is used as embedding and extraction method. We propose that this method could be most appropriate for hiding any secret message (text, image, audio, video) in any standard cover media such as image, audio, video files (Harshitha, 2012). And also performance factor such as PSNR, Utilization factor are computed and performance analysis has been made by plotting graph of these factor against no of LSB bits replaced during embedding process.

  214. Najaf Tahmasbipour and Farzaneh Ghiasvand

    The aim of the study is to investigate the relationship between emotional intelligence and self-efficacy and resilience among Olympiad students in Iran. The study is a correlation research. The population consisted of Olympiad high school students of which 172 students (male and female) were selected through census sampling. Sherer self-efficacy questionnaire (1376) and Connor and Davidson resilience scale (2003) and Trait Meta-Mood Scale (Salovy et al., 1995) were used to collect information. To analyze the data, the mean and standard deviation were used as descriptive statistics and Pearson correlation and regression analysis were used as inferential statistics. The results showed that there are positive and significant relationships between emotional intelligence and resilience and also between self-efficacy and resilience among the Olympiad students.

  215. Shefali Singh and Dr. Kavita Koradia

    Personality is dynamic organisation, which creates a person's characteristic patterns of behaviour, thoughts, and feelings on the other hand Adjustment is a very important factor for better academic achievement and for effective educational pursuit. As more and more cases of depression, drug abuse and suicide are increasing among college going student, this study aimed to analyze and compare the Personality with level of adjustment of college students residing in hostels. Both, college and society in this period plays an important role in shaping and moulding the personality of the adolescents. The research was conducted in Pune city, Maharashtra, India. The sample consisted of 120 hostellers of Graduation (1st year) irrespective of their age. The sample was divided into two groups. The first group comprised of boys (60) and the second group comprised of girls (60) Hostellers. The tool used in the study was "Adjustment Inventory by H.S. Asthana and 16 PF Test for measuring Personality type. Results revealed that boys hostellers were more outgoing, intelligent, emotionally stable, enthusiastic, persistent, venturesome, socially bold, self sufficient where as girls are more apprehensive, insecure, worrying, troublesome, overprotected, tense and dependent and boys score higher than girls on their various adjustment level.

  216. Razak Wahab, Mohd Tamizi Mustafa, Norashikin Fauzi, Ros Syazmini Mohd Ghani, Mohammad Saiful Sulaiman, Nasihah Mohktar and Tina Kim Sem

    The anatomy and physical properties of cultivated four (4) years-old bamboo Bambusa vulgaris were studied in order to determine their strength. The matured 4 year-old culms of the bamboo were randomly selected and harvested from the Bambusetum Plot located in the Forest Research Institute Malaysia (FRIM) in Kepong. The anatomy study focussed on the vascular bundles and fibres found at the internodes and nodes eight at the outer, middle and inner cross-section of the bamboo. The sizes of the vascular bundle's length, width, fiber length, diameter, fiber lumens diameter, fiber walls thickness and fiber Runkle’s ratio were measured for internodes, nodes, located in the cross-section of the bamboo culms. The physical study focussed on the moisture content, basic density and dimension stability. The strength study focused on the tensile parallel to the grain and shear tests. All studies on the anatomical, physical and strength were conducted on internodes and nodes eight of the B. vulgaris.

  217. Dr. Irin Sutha, A.

    The present study focus on the Impact of effective teaching learning among the students, Analytical and descriptive method applied to measure the relationship. Descriptive and Inferential techniques adopted.

  218. Dr. Elizabeth Chacko and Ms. Rashmi, R

    The major changes in the Indian economy in 1991 have brought in vibrant and remarkable socio-economic changes. The flow of foreign direct investment into Indian economy has created enormous opportunities for Indian population and businesses. These significant changes i.e. growth and opportunities have resulted in Indian workforce having a greater impact on global business operations. Increasing work and educational opportunities have resulted in women entering the formal workforce thereby grab the opportunities. According to Hindu Business Line, dual income families are expected to rise by 2.5 million every year. Many of the women have to change roles to play like spouse, mothers or expect to be in the near future. Many companies have begun to study how an increased female workforce can affect their organizations and thus participate in diversity councils whose main focus is on gender inclusion these councils opined that female employees require additional childcare support to be successful. This led to the emergence of day care centres, crèches etc in most of the metropolitan cities. In this article, an attempt is made to understand and analyze the views and opinions of working mothers on childcare having children belonging to the age group of 02months – 6 years by daycare centres. This paper helps in identifying and understanding the effectiveness of working women. Primary and secondary data are collected with the help of the questionnaire, articles, case studies and various journals. The analysis of the study will be done using statistical tools. The scope of this article will be to Government bodies, Corporates, UNICEF, Family courts, HRD ministry, parents and day care centres. This paper also aims at identifying the various facilities to be provided by daycare centres. Suggestions will help them to improve the facilities to be provided for children at day care centres and thereby meet the expectations of working mothers.

  219. Ranak Lince

    Creative thinking skills in mathematics are widely recognized for their critical importance in terms of learning a range of mathematical contents through problem-solving approaches. As fundamental means of developing mathematical knowledge, such skills should therefore be of serious concern and have a prominent role in the education of K-12 students, Junior High School students in this regard. This research presented efforts, by applying Numbered Heads Together (NHT) as a cooperative learning alternative, which enabled such a wide range of students in different environments to sufficiently comprehend such skills and later to extend them. Quasi-experimentally designed with Control Group Pre-Test and Post-Test Design, this research sampled 130 8th grade students of two schools in Ambon, with each representing high-ranked and medium-ranked schools. The hypothesis, that NHT set off such skills, was tested at 95% significance level. The research ultimately found that; (1) the students’ creative thinking skills were different in the experimental class and control class; (2) learning with NHT was better than conventional method.

  220. Dr. Basil Q. Muhammad

    In the light of modern techniques of the Communicative Approach in teaching, it is crucial to find better ways to introduce English literature to non-native students at university level, instead of the traditional methods that are built on giving them terminology and definitions to learn, and then names of writers, schools, movements and literary works, as well as dates, to memorise. Observably, the old methods are prone to risk students’ interest in the study of literature, especially that this field of study commonly has its own difficulties and challenges even for native speakers. The present paper attempts to set a methodology, based on the author’s personal experience in teaching English literature at different universities worldwide for over two decades. The proposed methodology allows students to enjoy, and then participate in, their own act of learning English literature. By means of this methodology, psychological links are built between students and the literature of the foreign language. The proposed methodology makes students enjoy short, uncomplicated and familiar literary works in the target language. Next, classroom discussion and activities enable students to feel at home with this field of study, and enable their instructor to feed them smoothly and gradually with new literary concepts and terminology as tools that enhance students’ enjoyment and understanding of the texts at hand.

  221. Godwin Chigozie Okpara, A.N. Onoh, B.M. Ogbonna, Eugene Iheanacho and Iheukwumere Kelechi, J

    This paper explored the extent to which financial instability impacts on sustainable economic growth in Nigeria. Specifically, it identified the particular financial instability indicators that severely impede the growth of the economy. To evaluate the objectives, the variables were tested for stationarity and since they were not integrated of the same order, Vector Autoregression, impulse response and variance decomposition analyses were appropriately employed. The result of the analyses shows that broad money velocity (M2/GDP) and money supply errors (MSERROR) significantly reduce the growth of the economy. In other words,the growth of the economy is a negative and significant function of broad money velocity and CBN money supply errors while stock market prices, Exchange rate, Inflation mis-targeting and banking system return on asset (ROA) exert negative but insignificant impact on economic growth. The result of the impulse response analyses suggest that the level of money stock velocity has dominantly made negative significant impact on real GDP and also revealed that RGDP responds negatively to a shock in CBN money supply mismatch. Thus, all indications emanating from our findings reveal that instability in the Nigerian financial sector impct negatively and insignificantly on economic growth. In other words, financial instability deteriorates the growth of the economy. The researchers therefore call on the Central bank of Nigeria not only to adopt appropriate broad money velocity for the country, but to also narrow its money supply mistargeting if financial instability in Nigeria should be reduced to boost economic growth.

  222. Rev Dr. Steven Grose and Professor Ronald S. Laura

    From 1793 to 1848, education was provided solely by the Church of England, as the First Fleet chaplain, Rev. Richard Johnson, stated "If any hopes are to be formed of any reformation being affected in this Colony, I believe it must begin amongst those of the rising generation". Australia’s establishment as a penal colony focused attention on the need for moral education. Samuel Marsden, who succeeded Johnson as chaplain, agreed. "The future hopes of this colony depend upon the rising generation. Little can be expected from the convicts who are grown old in vice, but much may be done for their children under proper instruction". Both men came to Australia as missionaries of the Church of England Society for the Propagation of the Gospel in Foreign Parts (SPGFP). As early as 1795, the opinion was recorded in the minutes of the Society that: "The most likely means of effecting a reformation must be by paying all the attention that can be to the instruction and morals of the rising generation". Implicit within these polarisations is the concept of indoctrination within education. Whatever the stance one takes, Protestant, Catholic or Secularist, one will find supporting arguments from one’s own epistemology that seem utterly convincing that one’s epistemology must be indoctrinated into public education. And by necessity the dominant epistemology will provide direction for moral education, with undisputed antagonism between those holding other epistemologies.

  223. Umar Abubakar Nasarawa and Anas Mhuammad Yaqub

    This paper focused on Secondary student’s perception of causes of conflicts between students and their colleague, also between students, school Management. Two research questions and two hypotheses were formulated for the study. The sample comprised two-hundred and thirty (230) students. A structured questionnaire titled ‘Causes of conflicts among secondary school Questionnaire (COASSQ) was used to collect data. Mean and t-test statistics were used to answer the research questions and test the hypotheses formulated. The study revealed that, causes of students-students conflicts included, corporal punishment by senior Students, rape and drug abuse, stilling of students properties disputes over a female students friend ships, socio economic class of student. Some of the identified causes of student to School management conflicts were lack of qualified teaching Staff, lack of social amenities, bad relationship with students and Staff, lack of School counselor, and indiscipline of students. All the forms of conflict can be resolved through the counseling to resolve students-student conflicts and to resolve. Students to management conflicts:

  224. Anas Mhuammad Yaqub and Umar Abubakar Nasarawa

    This paper focused on the prevalence of almajirai (students) involvement in violent crimes in Sokoto Metropolis almajirai schools. Two research questions and two hypotheses were formulated for the study. Sokoto metropolis state was divided in to two south and north. The sample of the study was 300 almajirai students (130 from the south and 170 from the north), randomly drawn from almajirai students population of 14,470 in Sokoto State Mora (2008). A researcher developed an instrument titled, “Almajirai Violent Crimes Questionnaire” (AVCQ) was employed to collect data. The questionnaire was subjected to validation by an expert and its reliability determined using Cronbach Alpha. This yielded a correlation coefficient of 0.76. The data collected were analyzed using mean and standard deviation. The findings of the study revealed that the prevalence of violent crimes was high in the study area. The violent crimes commonly committed by the almajirai (students) included, steeling, post election violence, pickpocket, violent victimization, purse snatching, findings of the study, recommendations of the study were highlighted and conclusion drawn.

  225. Mithra, J. and Bashkaran, R.

    Land use means the surface utilization of all developed and vacant land on a specific point at a given time and space. This change may be due to two most probable reasons. Firstly, the requirements of the society may be the cause for bringing change in the land use. Secondly, the technological impact also promotes changes that an individual as well as the society is able to maximize the advantage. “Land use leads one back to the village farm and the farmer to the fields, garden, pastures, fallow land, forest and to the isolated farms lead as geography deals with spatial relationship between these aspects and planning (T.V. Freeman 1968)”. It is due to the land use changes to meet the variable demands of the land by the society in its new ways and conditions of life. A Geographical Analysis on General Land Use Pattern in Thiruvarur District of Tamilnadu for the years between 2010 and 2015. Out of the total geographical area, 64% to 77% area occupies under Net area sown. Forest is identified only in Thiruthiraipoondi Taluk without any change.

  226. Aditya Kovvali, Madhav Mahajan and Chaitanya Joon

    In a rapidly changing world since long there has been a need in the global economy for speed, innovation and low costs in all business functions. This is especially true for the banking industry, which is the back bone of any successful country. In the start-up sphere, due to the growing need to reduce costs there has been rapid strides in innovative ways to reduce the costs for different business functions. This has led to the development of Speed hiring, which makes use of a 12-minute test to test the cognitive ability of prospective candidates after which suitable candidates are chosen. This paper studies speed hiring by using pre-existing literature to scrutinise it. It is concluded that speed hiring works best for small firms and the tool for evaluation should take into consideration more elements as well as use some of the modern trends in hiring to ensure a more comprehensive view of the employee, leading to a better hiring choice. This could in turn help the right talent to be employed by the company, in turn aiding the banking industry to grow through well deployed human capital.

  227. Renante A. Egcas

    This paper offers a doable framework to repackage the Agriculture and Fisheries programs to be more attractive to achieve a remarkable number of enrolees and graduates. This also aims to redeem the programs from the stigma of being low paying, back-breaking professions into economically-sustainable careers. This paper is a product of a higher education innovation and transformation project for the Philippine Higher Education Career System – Executive Development Program. The paper conceptualizes curriculum in a systems approach which establishes three processes attuned to the most important phases of the student lifecycle management. These are the ‘Take-in process’ – introducing the 3G marketing and recruitment strategy which intends to make the programs more attractive and well-subscribed; the ‘Take care process’ - innovating curricula into outcomes-based and interdisciplinary, ICT-integrated and entrepreneurship-infused as it adopts the ‘parable-of-talents concept’; and the ‘Take-out process’ – innovating support programs for income opportunities and employment of graduates. The innovative and transformative concepts presented in this paper are outcomes of series of round table discussions, interviews, consultations, focus group discussion (FGD), benchlearning, university dynamics laboratory, and immersion. The paper also draws on relevant literature on the previous initiatives of curricular reinvention. The stakeholder-participants are the SUCs leaders, agriculture and fisheries professionals, students (prospective and enrolled), parents, faculty, staff, guidance counsellors, government officials, industry partners, and community folks.

  228. Olive Taabu Baraza

    In Kenya cases of bullying in schools are shocking and the vice has persisted for decades. It is shocking because this has led to students dropping out of schools due to stigmatization and in some cases physical injury to the extent that some have been maimed. According to the World Health Organization- backed Global School Based Student Health Survey violence among adolescents in Kenya is highly widespread in schools. The survey a collaborative surveillance project with United States Centres for Disease Control (CDC) ranks Kenya among countries with the highest level of bullying. These are countries with prevalence rates of between 43% and 74% among adolescents aged 13-17 years reporting being the target of bullying at least once in two months. Boys were found to be more victims than girls. In Australia bullying prevalence lies between 15 and 20% while in the USA between 15 and 30%. Victims of bullying are normally insecure, anxious, suffer low esteem and rarely defend themselves. Most of them are socially isolated, physically weaker and tend to be close to their parents who are in turn over protective. But at the same time they rarely tell their parents, teachers or other adults about their bullying incidence, instead preferring to confide in their closest friends. Parents play an important role in influencing student discipline. Studies in some parts of the world have shown that some students from single parent families tend are undisciplined. It is envisaged that single parents have little time for their children and in the process children develop habits that are prone to indiscipline. Hence when they join school, they display antisocial behaviour that encourages bullying. In Kakamega East Sub County, between 2006 and 2011, many cases of indiscipline were experienced in schools, bullying accounting for 28(80%). The objective of this study was to establish influence of single parenting on student involvement in bullying in secondary schools in Kenya. A conceptual framework showing influence of single parenting on student discipline was used to guide the study. The study established that single parenting had influence on student involvement in bullying. However the influence was marginal this means that children of single parent did not influence much bullying in schools. Nevertheless, children of single parenting were both perpetrators and victims of bullying. The study recommended that school administrators should involve single parents in dealing with cases of bullying among other vices.

  229. Dr. Sudhira Chandel, Prakhar Rathore and Dr. Shweta Bhalla

    Sixteen female footballer (n=16) who represented India in ISF World School Championship held at Prague, The capital of Czech Republic from 21st May to 29th May 2017 were selected as the subject for the present study and there range of mean age, mean height and mean weight was 17.5 ±.84 years, 152.8 ± 4.60 cm and 49.7 ± 6.45 kg respectively. Videography technique was employed in order to register the performance of the subjects in In – Step Kick for the study. Selected kinematics variables (table 2 and table 3) and four selected phases (Figure 1) of whole skill i.e. of Initial phase, Hip extension phase, Knee extension and ball touch phase and Follow through phase were analysed. The selected phases and the stick figures of the selected movements and the centre of gravity of different phases were located by Kinovea software. The selected angular kinematic variables were obtained at Initial phase, Hip extension phase, Knee extension and ball touch phase and Follow through phase. Angles of selected joints were measured by the help of Kinovea software at the nearest of degrees. The performance of each subject of In – Step kick was collected on the basis of three judge’s evaluation. The average of three judges was considered as the final point obtained by each footballer. Further, to easy calculation it was reduced out of ten points. The finding showed, the linear and angular kinematic variables showed significant relationship in Shoulder joint (Knee extension and ball touch phase - .954, Follow through phase - .614), Hip joint (Hip extension phase - .578) and Knee Joint ( Hip extension phase - .644) found more than the tabulated value other than that all the variables in remaining phases were less than the tabulated value. The findings of table 3 also showed significant relationship in Center of gravity at Hip extension phase (.918), Center of gravity at Knee extension and ball touch phase (.511) and Total time of execution of the skill (.941) and other remaining variables were found insignificant with the performance.

  230. Rahul Kumar Singh, Ajeet Kumar Negi, Kaiser Iqbal, Showkat Aziem and Karonga, S. S.

    About 90 NTFP species belonging to 47 families of different life forms were recorded from the present study. The NTFPs were reported to be used for different quotidian uses with homogeneity of knowledge was found maximum for handicraft (ICF: 0.79), medicinal use (0.72), food (0.67) and perfumes/cosmetics (0.66). The fidelity value (FL) of 100 % was expressed by plant used for construction materials and maximum value was calculated for Quercus leucotrichophora (0.83) which is chiefly used for fodder purpose and that reveals direct pressure on the forest; followed by Rhododendron arboreum (0.47) as its leaves are feeded as fodder and flowers are harvested for beverages and natural colour and Arundinaria falcata (0.45) is used for fodder. The local communities are strongly dependent on NTFPs to fulfill their basic needs of food, fodder, shelter, storage articles and other quotidian needs. Most of the requirements are met from nearby forests than from agriculture thus enhancing the pressure on the forest. The work also sumarrizes the new recorded information of exotic plants viz., Rosa damascena mill L.: Rosmarinus officinalis L. for livelihood improvement.

  231. Ugboma, C. J. and Ugboma, C. D.

    Corrosion rate of stainless, mild and carbon steel coupons in New Calabar River and Ndoni River was monitored monthly for a period of one year. Corrosion rate was determined by weight loss. Carbon steel had corrosion rate of 72g/yr, mild steel 39g/yr, stainless steel 1.3g/yr in New Calabar River while carbon steel had corrosion rate of 44g/yr, mild steel 27g/yr, stainless steel 0.64g/yr in Ndoni River. Micro-organisms isolated include Sulphur reducing bacteria, Iron bacteria and Sulphur bacteria. In New Calabar River weight loss of stainless, mild and carbon steel showed these trend for rainy season (April-October) respectively; (0-0.112)g, (1.864-2.139)g (2.113-4.230)g. The dry season (November-March) showed these trend respectively; (0.117-0.141)g, (2.147-8.001)g, (4.272-15.171)g. In fresh water weight loss of stainless, mild and carbon steel for rainy season (April-October) respectively showed the following trend (0-0.030)g, (0.695-1.568)g, (1.000-2.316)g, while the dry season (November-March) respectively showed these trend (0.044-0.111)g, (1.586-5.771)g, (2.325-9.131)g. In New Calabar River corrosion rate of stainless, mild and carbon steel showed these trend for rainy season (April-October) respectively; (0-0.016)g/month, (1.864-0.306)g/month, (2.113-0.604)g/month. The trend for dry season (November-March) respectively was (0.014-0.012)g/month, (0.268-0.667)g/month, (0.534-1.264)g/month. In Ndoni River, the corrosion rate of stainless, mild and carbon steel for rainy season (April-October) respectively showed these trend (0-0.004)g/month, (0.695-0.244)g/month, (1.000-0.331)g/month while the dry season (November-March) respectively showed these trend (0.006-0.009)g/month, (0.198-0.481)g/month, (0.291-0.761)g/month. Total Dissolved Solids, Total Suspended Solids, Total Organic Carbon, Biochemical Oxygen Demand, Conductivity, Salinity, Oil and Grease, Chloride, Sulphate Sulphite, Temperature, pH were monitored for rainy season and dry season in both New Calabar River and Ndoni River. The study was able to show that corrosion rate was higher in New Calabar River than Ndoni River in same steel types comparatively especially in the dry seasons. Stainless steel if not yet in use should be encouraged in pipeline work in oil industries and other related works since it is less bio- corrosive in both New Calabar River and Ndoni River. Lots of emphasis should be laid on microbial influenced corrosion since it has proved to be a menace in corrosion.

  232. Nikolai Kobasko

    In the paper an alloyed low hardenability steel to be used for any size and form of steel components is considered which is patented in Ukraine and can be used for providing an optimal hardened layer in product after its intensive quenching. This steel is often called as an optimal hardenability steel which provides high surface compressive residual stresses smoothly passing into smaller tensile stresses at the core of steel components. A fundamental correlation is proposed to compose chemical composition of optimal hardenability steel depending on size and form of product and grains of material’s micro – structure. By painstaking experiments, it was established that during quenching often cracks occur if chemical composition of steel is not tolerant to size and form of a product. The paper also discusses the nature of extra surface hardness (3 – 6 HRC extra units) generated by compressive residual stresses on the surface of steel parts. It is underlined the importance of establishing correlation between compressive residual stresses and extra surface hardness that can be used in the future for controlling the correctness of designed chemical composition of steel which depends on size and configuration of quenched product. A method for simulation quenching processes of large steel components in lab condition is proposed that allows correct composing chemical composition of steel depending on dimension of product, form and grain size of material’s micro – structure.

  233. Marco Aurélio Oliveira Santos

    Survive: the great challenge throughout the centuries. Food was considered the restrictive law of man since the earth was not able to produce all the necessary food. Meanwhile, wars have bloomed a new model of agriculture based on mechanization, on the use of fertilizers and agrochemicals, and on extension. However, it brought risks to the farmer's health. The purpose of this study is to draw a parallel between the extension, its reflexes and the challenges regarding the education of the farmer about the dangers of the use of agrochemicals in a market society. Taken from secondary data, it was observed that the classic model of extension fulfilled its role by diffusing a productive model to the capitalist model. In addition to neoliberal policies, this process limits extension services in Brazil, increasing the dangers to the farmer's health and the chances of biomagnification.

  234. Dhanabalan, T., Shanthi, R. and John Peter, A

    Indian banking sector is facing the problem of Non Performing Assets (NPAs) in the recent years. Years before, Indian banking sector was in booming condition, but due to various social and economical issues, financial strength of the banks got worse and leads to the problem of NPAs. Though, Indian banks have concentrated more on controlling NPAs, miserably they have failed to do it. Hence, this study analyses the growth rate of NPAs of different banks of Indian banking sector. For analysing the data, non parametric methods of Mann Whitney U test and Kruskal Wallis test have been used. The research data were collected from the annual reports of Reserve Bank of India (RBI). The results of the analysis showed that growth rate of NPAs of over the previous year, differences between and among the growth rate of NPAs of different banks of Indian banking sector.

  235. Dr. Kusuma, A. and Prof.Sivasankar, P.R

    Economic development projects brought innumerable benefits but also had unintended detrimental effects on people and natural resources. Human activities have resulted in the disruption of social and communal harmony, the loss of human livelihood and life, the introduction of new diseases, and the destruction of renewable resources. These and other consequences can go against the positive benefits of economic development. Social impacts are the impacts of developmental interventions on human environment. The impacts of development interventions take different forms. While significant benefits flow in from different development actions, there is also a need to identify and evaluate the negative externalities associated with them. Such impacts not only need to be identified and measured but also need to be managed in such a way that the positive externalities are maximized and the negative externalities are minimized. In view of this, the present paper focuses on the principles and applications of Social Impact Assessment in detail.

  236. Sravana Jyothi, D. and Dr. Bakyaraj

    Karnad’s concern is with the life of the modern man that is very complex and lacks in wholeness. The employment of the old tales is to focus on the absurdity of modern life with all its elemental passions and conflicts. In this way the folk tales becomes vehicles for modern living under the impact of western ideologies and systems of knowledge viewing human behaviour from different angles. His outlook towards the present is coloured by prevalent thinking impelled by Marxism, Freudianism and existentialism, symptomatic of a fundamental change in the outlook of the modern man to wars human life and its origin. It cuts man adrift from his metaphysical origin and questions the moral and spiritual values, which hinder human freedom. Man is projected as living in a human society acting and reacting with other fellow beings. In Girish Karnad these modern theories are show operating in the traditional tales. It is under the influence of these ideologies and systems of thought that a sort of Oedipus complex appears to mark all mother-son relationships. All the major characters appear to support from existential alienation to obviate which they indulge in violence and cruelty, and, the idea of god and religion is symptomatic of their helpless condition and neurotic mind only. The historical events in Karnad mirror the current political, religious and social happenings.

  237. Dr. Narinder Sharma, Dr. Preeti Jamwal and Dr. Anita Sharma

    Several case series have discussed the outcomes of the operative management of AFFs. Weil et al reviewed clinical data from 15 patients with 17 AFFs associated with long-term BP use who were treated surgically. Fracture healing after the initial procedure among patients treated with intramedullary nails was 54%, with 46% of patients requiring reoperation. The authors attributed this high failure rate to qualitative bone defects caused by long-term BP use.

  238. MIRANDA, Maria Geralda de Miranda, FRIEDE, Reis and AVELAR, Katia Eliane Santos

    The "Quilombo of the Independence field", located in the municipality of Paraty, in the state of Rio de Janeiro is the subject discussed in this essay. It was sought, initially, to show the importance of public policies developed in Brazil to support the Quilombolas from 1988. Then the way the inhabitants of the Quilombo struggle to preserve the traditions, such as the rituals of historytelling by women, the gastronomy held in the restaurant of the Quilombo and the use of medicinal plants for the treatment of various diseases. And, still, the reverence for the Council formed by the elders, instantiates greater relevance for decision making of the community. The main conclusions of the study are the realization that important aspects of African oral culture brought to Brazil at the time of slavery continue to be preserved and remeaned in that space.

  239. Hai-bin Zhou

    On the basis of theory of planned behavior, this paper investigated local residents from four dimensions and analyzed their individual perceptions and behavioral intentions from such dimensions, starting from individual perception of environment. In addition, the study is conducted relative to an intermediate mechanism, i.e., environmental behavioral intentions. The conclusions of the research help ascertain the key influential factors of the environmental perception and behavior of local people and provide crucial guidance for improving the environmental perception and behavioral intentions. The current study also provided case support for examining the relationship between the local residents and the economic development or environmental changes and can facilitate the resolution of the currently prominent environmental problems in China.

  240. Patil, N. A., Suryawanshi, D. S. and Bhosale, Y. M

    Climate change and its consequences present one of the most important threats to water resource systems which are vulnerable to such changes due to their limited adaptive capacity. Water resources in semi- arid drought – prone study region is vulnerable to the potential adverse impacts of environmental and climate change. Besides climatic change, current demographic trends, economic development are exerting pressures and have direct impacts on increasing demands for water resources and their vulnerability. In this study, vulnerability assessment was carried out using guidelines prepared by United Nations Environment Programmed (UNEP) and Peking University to evaluate four components of the water resource system: water resources stress, water development pressure, ecological health, and management capacity. The calculated vulnerability index (VI) was high, indicating that the water resources are experiencing levels of stress. Ecosystem deterioration was the dominant parameter and management capacity was the dominant category driving the vulnerability on water resources. The vulnerability assessment help in developing long-term strategic plans for climate change mitigation and implement effective policies for sustainable water resources management. The region itself is considered one of the world’s most water-stressed. In the last three decades, most tahsils in the study region have undergone dramatic demographic and socio-economic transformation, resulting in a substantial increase in water demand. These demands have been driven mainly by the implementation of agricultural policies aimed at achieving national food security and escalating urbanization, leading to immense pressures on the limited water resources in the region.

  241. Ramil C. Moroscallo

    Multicultural education creates equal educational opportunities from diverse gender, religion, social, and ethnic groups. This study assesses the experiences of students towards situations of multicultural education in Jose Rizal Memorial State University (JRMSU) System as basis for development of educational equity policy framework. Actual situations and practices rendered to students were the main focus of the study. The quality of these situations and practices was assessed using five areas, i.e., equality in learning, culture, faculty, curriculum and students. Descriptive research was used with the survey questionnaire as the main tool in gathering the data needed for this investigation. Descriptive statistics such as frequency and percentage were used in describing the data. In measuring the difference between the groupings of the respondents was analyzed through the use of Chi-square test w/ Yates’ Correction. Findings reveal that majority of the respondents rated YES, which means that they experienced positively the situational practices of multicultural education in JRMSU in terms of Equality in Learning, University Culture, Faculty, Curriculum, and Students. Furthermore, result found that there is no significant difference in student respondents’ experiences when they are grouped according to ethnicity and religion. To maintain the positive reactions of students on the equality that they enjoyed in JRMSU, an educational equity policy framework was proposed. The University would enhance its national and international reputation maintaining students with exceptional achievement and maximizing their potentials for equity outcomes. This benefits the creative and intellectual life of the University, and support engagement with the University’s diverse communities.

  242. Ahmed El Salous and Alina Pascual

    In Ecuador, wheat production is not enough for national consumption or for the demand of the bakery, so this situation requires looking for other sources of vegetable flour to be used in the bakery industry. On the other hand, the cocoa industry produces a high quantity of cocoa shells considered as agro-industrial waste from the Nacional Arriba and CCN 51 cocoa. These shells were processed to obtain flour that could be used in the baking process, evaluating the sensory quality of the breads made with a dosage of 10% and 20% of each flour. The sensory evaluation was performed by untrained judges, using a hedonic scale from 1 to 5, with criteria ranging from "I like it a lot" to "I dislike a lot" to evaluate color, smell, taste and texture. The results confirm the sensory acceptance of the breads, which is considered the use of flour, from the shells of the two varieties of cocoa, both the National Cacao Arriba and cocoa CCN 51, as an alternative source of vegetable flour to be used in the baking processes.

  243. Dr. Rubilyn Marcellana Latido

    This study aimed to assess the level of preparedness in and acceptance of the Experiential Learning Courses (ELC) implementation in compliance with the National Competency-Based Teacher Standards (NCBTS). It focused on the assessment of four groups of respondents: namely, the school heads, the cooperating teachers, the graduates and the faculty of the College of Teacher Education of Batangas State University. Weighted mean, ANOVA and Scheffe Test were used in the study. Results show that the faculty members were fully prepared on the ELC implementation and acceptance of the ELC implementation was high. A proposed management plan was then conceptualized.

  244. Sathiraju Venkata Satyanarayana and Asma Hashil Salim Al-Fulaiti

    Any area which experiences average annual rainfall less than 600mm becomes desert in due course. The average annual rainfall of Sultanate of Oman is 100mm. That is how the Sultanate of Oman lands became desert soils. The climate change and temperature affect the growth and yield of food grains crops. The climate from October to February is very pleasant and best suitable for agriculture. The evapotransmission losses of plants are minimum. The aim of this research project is to convert desert land suitable for agricultural purpose. The desert soil samples were collected from AL Wahiba. The soil was conditioned by adding cow dung, vermin compost, chemical fertilizers and biochar. Water was sprinkled occasionally to maintain soil moisture 15 to 20 %. The corn seeds are planted at a distance of 300mm each. The growth of corn plants was very encouraging.

  245. Dr. Rubilyn Marcellana Latido

    This study aimed to assess the level of preparedness in and acceptance of the Experiential Learning Courses (ELC) implementation in compliance with the National Competency-Based Teacher Standards (NCBTS). It focused on the assessment of four groups of respondents: namely, the school heads, the cooperating teachers, the graduates and the faculty of the College of Teacher Education of Batangas State University. Weighted mean, ANOVA and Scheffe Test were used in the study. Results show that the faculty members were fully prepared on the ELC implementation and acceptance of the ELC implementation was high. A proposed management plan was then conceptualized.

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