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March 2021

  1. Dr. Ufaque Muzaffar and Dr. Rehana Rashid

    Human milk is uniquely superior for infant feeding and represents the perfect example of individualization in Pediatrics. Human milk is not a uniform body fluid but a secretion of the mammary gland of changing composition. Foremilk differs from hindmilk, and colostrum is strikingly different from transitional and mature milk. Milk changes with time of day and during the course of lactation. Extensive research has demonstrated health, nutritional, immunologic, developmental, psychological, social, economic and environmental benefits of human milk. Breastfeeding results in improved infant and maternal health outcomes in both the industrialized and developing world. Some specific topics will be discussed such as the preventive effect of human milk on infections, overweight, obesity and diabetes, malignant disease, neurodevelopmental outcomes, reduction of necrotizing enterocolitis. Important health benefits of breastfeeding and lactation are also described for mothers. Finally, contraindications to breastfeeding and supplementation of breastfed infants are presented. Interventions to promote breastfeeding are relatively simple and inexpensive. Infant feeding should not be regarded as a lifestyle choice but rather as a basic health issue.

  2. Bhabani Shankar Panda, SS Kalikinkar Mahanta and Syed Nikhat Ahmed

    Plastic pollutants have become conceivably the most critical warning for the marine ecosystem which could especially problematic and cause huge treatment challenges. Plastics have been intermittently revealed in the aquatic ecosystem by researchers as ahead as 1930s. Consistently every year plastic wastes enters to the ocean around 8 million tons which is the outcomes of its large-scale growth of production. These ubiquitous particles when ingested indirectly or directly by the aquatic organisms, enters the assorted food web which can cause unfavourable impacts on organisms. The tradition of micro plastics contamination in the aquatic ecosystem today may stay for quite a long time to come because of the constancy of these materials. The physico-chemical properties of microplastics encourage the sorption of pollutants to the surface of the molecule, treating as anintermediate host of toxins to organisms following absorption. The detail networks and consequences of large food web for upper tropic organisms in the marine ecosystem were not describe till now. Therefore, the utilization and resulting release of micro plastics should be definitely decreased as a component of a worldwide inventiveness even prior to the accessibility of exploration studies illustrating the long-term risks included. The principalobjectives were to consider the proof for the trophic bioaccumulation of micro plastics and the future exploration address the technique to decrease of micro plastics.

  3. Dr. Shashi Rekha M, M.A, M.Phil., Ph.D.

    Numerous studies on early childhood education indicate a positive effect on the child's cognitive and social development. The Mozambique study infers that preschool education improves cognitive and fine motor development, leading to higher school readiness levels, significantly increasing the primary schools' enrolment. A Chicago based research demonstrates that economically backward children with early childhood experience are better prepared for school entry. Reviewing the effects of early childhood education in three continents, Berger claimed that early intervention enhances children's capacity to learn, improving their later elementary school performances. However, the positive results of early childhood education observed worldwide are not evident in India. The Indian Early Childhood Education Impact Study and the ASER 2019 Early Years revealed that the four and five-year-old children are far below the required cognitive and language domains, the preschools severely academic and concentrate heavily on teaching 3R's. The extreme academic burden on the children led to the prevalent assumption that westernised preschool education may not be suitable for the Indian condition. Hence, the conservatives advise the schools to get back to the Vedic Gurukula system. The current article presents the history of early childhood education from the hunter-gatherers to the Indian colonial era.

  4. Aindala K, Kurugodu J, Dheeraj and Das I

    Mesenteric panniculitis is a rare, benign and chronic fibrosing inflammatory disease that affects the adipose tissue of the mesentery of the small intestine and colon. The specific etiology of the disease is unknown. The diagnosis is suggested by computed tomography and is usually confirmed by surgical biopsies. Treatment is empirical and based on a few selected drugs. Surgical resection is sometimes attempted for definitive therapy, although the surgical approach is often limited. We report a 44-year-old male with a past medical history of hypertension, and alcohol abuse presented with complaints of nausea and abdominal pain. CT scan of the abdomen was done which showed fat stranding around mesentery, representing mesenteric panniculitis.

  5. Lelisa Mamo Abdisa and Wandimu Keno Debelo

    This seminar paper was Analysis of Gender Equality in Economic Development in Leka Dullacha Woreda, Oromia State, Ethiopia. The objective of this review was Analysis of Gender Equality in Economic Development in line with contributes significantly to increasing women's role in economic development in all multi-dimensions. It has also some theoretical and empirical findings with more evidence. Gender roles are affected by age, class, race, culture, ethnicity and religion, and by the geographical, economic and political environment. Gender analysis is a tool to diagnose the differences between women and men regarding their explicit activities, circumstances, needs, access to and control over resources, and access to development and decision-making. It is important to delineate the source causes of male dominance in order to comprehend gender inequality and inequity. Since cultures have their own controlled systems, which determine how constituents of that particular culture behave towards each other and towards their environment, they have the possible of empowering or disempowering men and women. It analysis the linkages of these and other factors in the larger social, economic, political and environmental context. A main way that gender equality can donate to economic development is through rising the stock of human capital. Human capital is defined as the skills, knowledge and physical capabilities, which allow the labor force to be economically productive. As some researcher's findings assess gender equality affected by culture, so that other policy should be formulate to adjusting these bad culture, which are cause women, men inequality, and in turn negative impact on the economic development.

  6. Jimmy Hyuha-Haumba, Madinah Nabukeera and Godfrey Ejuu

    Background: Innovation in education is found to improve human capital with relevant knowledge and skills in schools. Innovation in education maintains competitive advantage for an individual, a dominant discourse of knowledge, and a source of productivity. Governments have now embraced innovation in education as an approach to create more efficient education systems. The objectives of the study are; To identify strategies of innovation in education that improve human capital development; To examine the effectiveness of innovation in education that improve policies of human capital development and, to identify the challenges to innovation in education that affect human capital development. Methods: The study explore the human capital theory, this postulates the significance of education and training as elements of educational investment that encourage the competitiveness of human capital. The study identified and evaluated data from 2015 to 2020 that followed the systematic literature review method which used a documented research process for inclusion and exclusion of selected articles, and created evidence to suit the research objectives. Results: The results indicated that innovation in education implored employee’s education and training, professional development, total quality management and adoption of digital technologies. Conclusion: The study recommended that education institutions should implore innovation in education to increase knowledge, skills, and competencies for human capital development.

  7. Sharma, R.S. and Himmat Singh

    Risk assessment was carried out for vector borne diseases (VBDs) in displaced persons of Rohingya refugees camps, Bangladesh to control the danger posed by these diseases . This paper brings together the latest malaria surveillance data of the affected Cox Bazar district where one million refugees settled from Mynamar. Risk assessment for Rhingya refugee camps on the basis of abiotic and biotic factors revealed that Low risk for dengue due to no storage practice in Refugees camp and Population largely immune . There was moderate risk for malaria in refugee’s camps with potential for epidemic transmission in absence of interventions and active surveillance in the coming transmission. Rice field with water nearby camps is one of risk factor for transmission of Japanese Encephalitis. But pigs and birds population are not available in refugees camps and catchment area. Thus there was pig cycle or Bird cycle not possible for Japanese Encephalitis. The risk of transmission of malaria is a function of crowding in the refugees camps and might be more in post moon season. At present breeding places are few in these camps so Anti larval measures should carried out by Temphos application which will look after mother foci of primary vectors of malaria and dengue and no more proliferation possible during raining season to mitigate the risk. Entomological surveillance revealed that competent vectors for malaria and dengue are not present now, but vector activity will high during coming transmission months when environmental conditions may become permissive.

  8. Dr. Sumit Dhope, Dr. Komal Warghane, Dr. Shweta Kolhe, Dr. Shraddha Ambadkar, Dr. Kanchan Sahwal

    Flabby maxillary ridge is the most commonly encountered clinical condition during routine dental practice. The presence of these displaceable denture-bearing tissues often poses difficulty during fabrication of complete dentures resulting in compromised support, retention and stability. Many impression techniques and materials have been proposed in various literatures to help overcome this difficulty. These techniques vary in philosophies but are often quite time-consuming to perform, and rely on materials not commonly in use in contemporary dental practice. The purpose of this paper is to describe an impression technique for flabby ridges, using conventional impression material.

  9. I. Șerban, B.C. Braun, C. Drugă, M. Conte and I. C. Roșca

    The present paper propose a phenomenological explanation of the accelerated universe expansion. In the first part, scientific achievements that present the deep observation of the phenomenon and the results are reviewed, including those recognized for the 2011 Nobel Prize in Physics. But until now there is no suitable proposal that would explain the guiding physical principles that would generate this acceleration of the reciprocal distances of certain distant galaxies and, this, contrary to the current understanding of gravity only attractive. Further, are briefly presented the principles of a new model in physics, based on the theory of quantum and energetic entities EVTD2 structuring all space-time, wherefrom emerges that gravity of dual form: attractive and repulsive simultaneously. Gravitational repulsion can take precedence over attraction in cases of very large reciprocal distances of the masses and then the repulsive form, even specifically very weak, manages to be superior in relation. Thus, the spacing of the widely spaced galaxies would go so far as to provoke an accelerated expansion of these astral masses. In the last part is proposed a relationship of the quantum repulsion and the resulting global gravity form in EVTD2.

  10. Mrs. Sibi Riju, Dr. Sanjeev Sinha and Ms. Tsering Lamo

    Introduction: Obstructive Sleep Apnea (OSA) is the most common form of Sleep Related-Breathing Disorder worldwide and is characterized by frequent episodes of upper airway collapse during sleep, causing recurrent arousals, intermittent hypoxemia, sleep fragmentation and poor sleep quality (Lam J et al., 2010) ; and Continuous-Positive Airway Pressure (C-PAP) Therapy is recognized as the first line treatment. The estimated global prevalence of OSA is in the range of 1 billion people. Demographic and other factors are likely to increase the prevalence of OSA over time, which indicate the need of considerable ongoing efforts to raise awareness/knowledge regarding the disease and benefits of treatment and prevention (Benjafield A et al., 2018). It is very well known that patients’ knowledge and attitudes/beliefs regarding their illnesses influence their health variables including compliance to treatment (Golay A et al., 2006). But as per the researcher’s knowledge very few or possibly no studies on assessment of knowledge and attitude/belief, among OSA patients have been done so far in India and worldwide, focusing on developing an informational booklet for the patients. Materials and methods: It is a cross-sectional descriptive study with a sample of 100 OSA patients from Sleep Clinic, Department of Medicine, AIIMS, New Delhi, India. Data were collected from July – Dec 2018, by using Modified-Apnea Knowledge Test (M-AKT) and Modified-Apnea Belief Scale ((M-ABS). Respondents who were diagnosed as OSA via Polysomnography and had undergone C-PAP titration in sleep lab were enrolled in the study. Sociodemographic and clinical profile followed by M-AKT (Smith S et al., 2004) and M-ABS (Smith S et al., 2004) was administered, which took around 15-20 minutes. The reliability of M-AKT and M-ABS was 0.81 and 0.79 respectively. Results: Mean knowledge score of respondents was 11.84± 3.37 and the majority of respondents (80%) had fair knowledge. The highest mean percentage was “52.3%” in the Sleep Hygiene domain followed by “49.8%’’ in the area of OSA and “37.7%’’ in the domain of C-PAP therapy. Mean attitude score of respondents was 64.3±9.83 and the majority of respondents (57%) had a Neutral Attitude. There was a significant positive correlation between knowledge and attitude regarding OSA and C-PAP Therapy (r = 0.23, p = 0.01). A significant association was found between knowledge regarding OSA and C-PAP Therapy with the educational level of respondents (p= 0.02). A significant association was also found between attitude regarding OSA and C-PAP Therapy with the gender of respondents (p=0.03). Conclusion: This study concluded that OSA patients had fair knowledge and neutral attitude regarding OSA and C-PAP Therapy. Therefore, the study suggested that there is a need of reinforcement among OSA patients through information booklet which will enhance the understanding of the patients regarding disease condition and its treatment. Contribution to the society: Information booklet will impart knowledge to patients and caregivers, regarding OSA and C-PAP Therapy; and will influence their practices and treatment outcomes. Acknowledgement: The researcher appreciates all those who participated in the study and helped to facilitate the research process.

  11. Alejandro Córdova Izquierdo, Gustavo Ruiz Lang, Jorge Saltijeral Oaxaca, Juan Eulogio Guerra Liera, Edmundo Abel Villa Mancera, Ma de Lourdes Juárez Mosqueda, Armando Gómez Vázquez, Pedro Sánchez Aparico, Carlos J. Bedolla Cedeño and Jaime Olivares Pérez

    In this work, fresh semen from four different races was analyzed, viability, and acrosomal integrity were evaluated. With the objective of assessing the effect of the breed on the quality of freshly preserved dog semen. The races used were Pitbull, Pomerania, Chihuahua, and Creoles. Obtaining as results. The viability of the sperm ranges from very good to regular, with 65% in all three repetitions, in the Pitbull breed with an acrosomal integrity of 75 ± 5% of whole sperm. In the Pomeranian breed, 63.3 ± 12.5% were observed in acrosomal integrity. In the Chihuahua breed, 83.3 ± 5.7% in acrosomal integrity, while in Creole dogs, 71.6 ± was obtained and in acrosomal integrity 71.6 ± 18.9%. In conclusion it can be said that there is no effect of breed on the quality of freshly preserved dog semen.

  12. Ese Anibor, Chukwuedu Ojebor and Olisemeke Christabel

    Background: Hair morphology is one of the distinctive traits with human variations. The shape of the hairline may be curved or straight. The curved hairline has a presentation of a V shape, descending from middle of the head just above the forehead. This presentation can also be called a widow’s peak. Objectives: To determine the prevalence of widow’s peak among the Urhobo people, to investigate if there is a significant association between sex, age and the presentation of widow’s peak among the Urhobo People. Methods: The sample size for the study was made up of 400 subjects of Urhobo origin, comprising of 200 parents and 200 offspring (100 fathers, 100 mothers, 100 first offspring and 100 second offspring). Data was collected by means of a well detailed data sheet. P values lesser than 0.05 was considered to be statistically significant. Results: Results showed higher frequencies of subjects having straight hairline in both the parents, the first and the second offspring (71% versus 29% in fathers, 79% versus 21% in mothers, 66% versus 34% in first offspring, and 75% versus 25% in second offspring). There was no significant association between sex, age, and type of hairline presented (p>0.05). Conclusion: The straight hairline showed more prevalence among the Urhobo people. There was also no significant association between the age group of subjects and type of hairline. Furthermore, no significant association occurred between type of hairline in offspring and type of hairline presented in parents among the Urhobo people.

  13. Cornelious Omwando Nyakundi Joseph Kipsigei Koske, John Muindi Mutiso and Isaac Tum Kipkosgei

    In higher order five period cross-over designs with two treatments, thirty two possible treatment sequences can result; AAAAA, BAAAA, ABAAA, AABAA, AAABA, AAAAB, BBAAA, BABAA,BAABA, BAAAB, ABBAA, ABABA, ABAAB, AABBA, AABAB, AAABB and their duals. Higher-order cross-over designs allow; estimation of treatment effects even in the presence of carry-over effects, provide estimates of intra-subject variability, and draw inference on the carry-over effects. This paper considers four designs; Design 1: BABAA and its dual, design 2: BAABA and its dual, design 3: BABAA, ABABB, BAABA, ABBAB, and design 4: BAAAB, ABBBA, ABBAA, BAABB. The methods for estimating direct treatment effects and treatment carry-over effects are outlined using best linear unbiased estimation method (BLUE), where atraditional modelthat specifies a first order carry-over effect is assumed.

  14. Dr. Anju Kumari, Dr. Anuradha Pathak and Dr. Haridarshan Singh Sidhu

    Background: The oral infections are polymicrobial and mixed in nature that occurs due to imbalance in the normal commensal flora. Antibiotics are used to control the infection phase. Inappropriate and irrational use of antimicrobials creates favorable conditions for resistance of organisms which do not respond to the standard treatment. Therefore, antibiotics should be prescribed and administred based on the overall intended benefit along with taking into consideration of the attendant side effects.

  15. Maria Vasilievna Kushnareva

    Material and methods: We investigated the microbiological efficacy of intravenous immunoglobulins (IVIG) in 34 premature newborns (birth weight was from 960 to 2750 g) with respiratory distress syndrome, those who were on hardware artificial ventilation of the lungs. The infectious complications did not develop in 20 infants (group I), and tracheobronchitis developed in 14 infants (group II). The infants in group II, along with basic therapy, received IVIG from the second day of life for three consecutive days. Results: The use of IVIG showed a high microbiological efficiency, which was in 86% of patients within a day from the start of treatment. The greatest inhibition of growth is observed in relation to bacterial microflora and intracellular microorganisms. The lowest effect was shown in relation to Candida albicans. A stable effect of IVIG was observed in all newborns within three days after the course of immunotherapy.

  16. Qiang Jin, Ying Wang and Afsar Sadiq Shinwari

    China proposed the “Belt and Road” initiative in 2013, which received positive responses from many countries around the world and became one of the hot spots in domestic and overseas reports. Iran is China's important strategic partner in West Asia. China and Iran have always maintained good-neighborly and friendly exchanges. This paper selects six mainstream media in mainland China (People's Daily, Xinhua, China Network, China Daily, China News Agency, and CCTV) reported on Iran from September 1, 2013 to December 31, 2019. Based on the statistical analysis of the communicators and communication regulation, content and text discourse, channel layout and reporting capacity, and presentation mode of Iranian reports, this paper summarizes the advantages and disadvantages of the mainstream media in mainland China in foreign reports. In the future, it will strive to be more balanced and diversified in the reporting theme, more in-depth and insightful in the content, and use scientific and technological innovation in the reporting form.

  17. Isha Kumari, Madhusudan S, Bhawna Walia and Gitika Chaudhary

    Rauwolfia serpentina (Sarpagandha) is a significant medicinal plant, which is described in Ayurvedic literatures and in current science because of the presence of its number of remedial properties. Thismedicinal plant is used against variety of diseases due to the presence of various phytochemicals like alkaloids, starches, flavonoids, glycosides, phlobatannins, phenols, resins, saponins, sterols, tannins, and terpenes. The plant parts like root, and rhizome have been utilized for hundreds of years in Ayurvedic medications for relieving countless diseases, for example, high blood pressure, mental disturbance, epilepsy, injuries, fervor, schizophrenia and mental conditions like insanity. The major therapeutic properties associated with Rauwolfia serpentinaare hypoglycemic, anti-diarrheal, anti-bacterial, anxiolytic. The present study is an overview of Rauwolfia serpentinap hytochemistry, its therapeutic properties and its utilization in Ayurveda and Folk system of medicine.

  18. Shirurkar D. D., Danai-Tambhale S. D. and Randive, K. R.

    Survey was conducted on cultivated angiospermic plants of Annasaheb Magar Mahavidyalaya campus. In all total 160 species representing 124 genera and 55 families were reported. From these 45 Dicots and 10 monocot families were reported. Apocynaceae, Euphorbiaceae and Caesalpiniaceae from Dicots; Araceae from monocots were found to be dominant.

  19. Serene Liza Thomas

    The Covid 19 pandemic has affected the Islamic banking sector tremendouslyjust like the conventional banking sector. The magnitude of damage has been much larger and widespread across the world when you compare it with the 2008 subprime loan crisis. TheIslamic Development Bank group has been taking sincere efforts to uplift the member countries from the adverse effects of the pandemic with the products of Islamic finance.The study aims to finds out the efforts taken by the Islamic Development Bank Group (IsDB) to revive the member countries from the crisis. The paper delves in detail the 3R (Respond, Restore and Restart) programme of IsDB and the funding mechanismof the group to quickly recover from the down phase.

  20. Juhi Tiwari, Zahid Imam, Sarth Nagar, Shallu Singh, Shalini Gaur, Jyotasna Verma, Rohit Kumar, Neha Singh, Manisha Yadav, Shubham Gupta and Bably Singh

    Background: The COVID 19 epidemic as a rapidly spreading disease has given rise to a range of negative cognitive reactions and emotions in at-risk populations. The COVID-19 epidemic is likely to have chronic psychotic manifestations such as depression, anxiety, panic disorder, and psychosomatic manifestations. The aim of the study is to find out the association between the perceived stress and coping strategies of GNM 3rd year students. Methods: A study to assess perceived stress and coping strategies for COVID19 among GNM 3rd year students in Integral College of Nursing, Lucknow, U.P. Level of stress assessed with Perceived Stress Scale and Brief Coping Scale. Socio-demographic is also obtained from the students by using a semi-structured socio-demographic proforma. Results: The study revealed that majority of students (92.1%) were in the age group of 19-25 years. Result showed that only (2.6%) has mild perceived stress, (97.4%) had moderate perceived stress and most of the students reported moderate coping strategies (97.4%). There was no significant correlation (0.291) between perceived stress and coping strategies mechanism of GNM 3rd year nursing students. Conclusion: Perceived stress and coping strategies associated with GNM 3rd year students suggest that perceived stress may be a very important factor influencing in GNM 3rd year students. Majority of students had mild stress and average coping, in order to prepare them to cope up with any stressful situations.

  21. Dr. Imtiaz Shah, Dr. Yasir Aaffaaq Ahmed Mir, Dr. Momin Shah and Dr. Hafsa Shah

    56 years old male patient who was treated for mild pain in the left lumbar area and ultrasound revealed hydronephrotic kidney with thin parenchyma with RUS at PUJ with non-functioning kidney on intravenous urography (IVU) and renal scan confirmed non-functioning kidney with zero percent function on left side. Patient underwent left nephrectomy and histopathology report revealed kidney full of pus and tuberculosis.

  22. Gajbhiye A.V., Bagul V.R., Palwe S.D., Kadam V.V. and Mahale B.N.

    Flavonoids has been important constituents of plants and fruits. Its basic structure consists of C6—C3—C6 rings with different substitution patterns to produce a series of subclass compounds. Flavonoids acts as health promoting and disease preventing dietary supplements. Flavonoids are necessary for plant growth development and reproduction and also flavonoids are major class of plant secondary metabolites. Flavonoids has a biochemical effect on enzymes, hormones. Flavonoids acts as anti-oxidant, anti-bacterial, anti-viral, anti- inflammatory. Flavonoids has been an indispensable part of nutraceutical, pharmaceutical, medicinal, cosmetic and other applications Flavonoids act as a growth stimulating compound. This review highlight importance of flavonoids in terms of medicinal properties and also as dietary constituents which will help to redirect the use of flavonoids in the various sectors like medicine, food science and also agriculture.

  23. Dr. Abhishek Verma, Dr. Tanya Chhauda, Dr. Garima Harbola, Dr. Deepika Gehlot and Dr. Ram Kiran, K.S.

    Introduction: -The purpose of this case presentation is to convey the importance of anesthetic plan in pediatric Kawasaki disease patients who present with severe left ventricular dysfunction. Case: A 2 year old male presented with an episode of respiratory failure of unknown etiology. The patient was transferred from an outside facility to our institute for respiratory failure of unknown etiology with cardiomegaly in chest x- ray. Management and outcome: Following initial stabilization the patient remained dyspneic. In the emergency department a bedside chest x-ray demonstrated cardiomegaly. A formal cardiac transthoracic echocardiography was obtained which demonstrated findings of coronary vessel aneurysm and hypokinetic myocardium. The patient was transferred to pediatric cardiothoracic surgery after confirming left anterior descending artery(LAD) occlusion with retrograde filling form right coronary artery. His abnormality was ultimately repaired by arterial grafting. Discussion: The majority of congenital heart diseases are diagnosed near the time of birth but may present suddenly in otherwise well pediatric patients. Clinical suspicion for heart disease should be in the differential diagnosis of an unresponsive pediatric patient without cardiac murmur and respiratory failure. We review the presentation and clinical findings in patients with Kawasaki disease with severe left ventricular dysfunction.

  24. Dr. Tirthankar Debntah, Prof. Dr. Debaprasad Das, Prof. Dr. Asim Bikash Maity, Prof. Dr. Anirban Bhattacharyya and Dr. Gayatri Majumder

    Background: The biggest limitation in the restorative dentistry is the squalor property of the adhesive dentin layer interface which further includes non-organization between the collagen and resin from the inter-fibril space. An important challenge to the dentin bond durability is degradation of collagen from the matrix‑bound proteases, namely matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) and cysteinecathepsins. Pretreatment of the bonding substrate with agents that inhibit the activity of MMPs might improve bond durability. Chlorhexidine (CHX) is reported to be a strong MMP inhibitor. Riboflavin helps in collagen cross‑linking by its ability to produce free radicals when photoactivated with spectral range from ultraviolet to visible light.(6) In addition to cross‑linking, reinforcement of the collagen can be achieved by incorporating biopolymers such as chitosan that can be cross‑linked with collagen fibrils. Recent studies have shown that a PA-based cross-linker agent (grape seed extract) increased the mechanical properties of demineralized dentin matrixand enhanced the resin–dentin bond strength after one hour treatment. Objective: The objective of this study was to evaluate the influence of chlorhexidine (CHX), riboflavin/chitosan, grape seed extract (GSE) modification on shear bond strengthof composite resin to dentin after thermocycling. Methods: Sixty extracted human mandibular secondpremolars were used and a flat surface was then prepared by removing the occlusal one‑third to expose the mid-colonal dentin. The teeth were randomly assigned into four groups ‑ Group A in which self‑etch adhesive was applied and Groups B, C, D were pretreated with 2% CHX, 1% riboflavin/chitosan and 6.5% GSE, respectively, before the application of self‑etch adhesive. Composite build‑ups were constructed and subjected to thermo cycling. The shear bond strength was evaluated using the universal testing machine. Data were analyzed using one‑way analysis of variance and Tukey’s test. Results: The mean shear bond strength values for Group A(control), Group B (CHX), Group C (riboflavin/chitosan) and Group D (GSE) modification) were 22.26, 28.76, 26.57, 24.87 MPa, respectively. A stastically significant difference was found between the shear bond strength of all the groups (P<0.05) of 2% CHX, 6.5% GSE, 1% Rivoflabin/chitosan when compared with the control group. Conclusions: Pretreatment with CHX, rivoflabin/chitosan and GSE leads to a significant increase in shear bond strength of composite resin to dentin.

  25. Lei Feng and Liping Chen

    Hepaticportal venous gas (HPVG)has traditionally been considered an inevitable harbinger of death. Recently, an increasing number of cases of HPVG have been reportedin patients with various clinical conditions. We herein report the case of a patient inwhom HPVG developed after radical resection of esophageal cancer.Abdominal CT revealed a massive amount of gas in the hepatic portal venoussystem and extensively throughout the small intestinal wall, especially in the wall of the small intestine in the pelvic cavity. This case report provides a deep understanding of HPVG.HPVG is not always associatedwith profound abdominal sepsis requiring surgical intervention.

  26. Dr. Shakuntala B. S., Dr. Navin H.K., Dr. Richa Rachel Jobji and Dr Sharon Jose

    Dental neglect is defined by the American Academy of Pediatric Dentistry (AAPD) as failure of caregivers to provide prerequisites of proper oral function via seeking and timely dental treatment services necessary to be free from pain and infection.. In some cases after pulp therapy, pulp and peri radicular inflammation steadily progresses without any signs or symptoms; thus, long term follow-up of these treatments in primary teeth is essential. But most practicing dentists fail to emphasize the importance of follow up to the parents and patient ,they also fail to report back after their primary dental concern is resolved. Here we are discussing a case of passive dental neglect following pulp therapy in primary teeth which lead to the development of radicular cyst and its corresponding treatment and follow up.

  27. Soumana Boubacar and Ali Mahaman

    Description of the subject: Moringa oleifera is a multipurpose plant. Its leaves are commonly eaten in Niger. It is a plant with great nutritional and economic potential. Its promotion can help improve nutritional status and increase the income of local communities. Goals. The aim of this study is to analyze the profitability of processing moringa. The study focuses on financial profitability as processors rely only on equity. Method. An inventory of products resulting from processing in local markets and surveys of 62 actors involved in processing were carried out mainly in four (4) main villages in terms of processing. Results. The study revealed two types of processing of moringa leaves in the commune, namely pre-cooked moringa and dried moringa. In fact, 62.9% of transformation actors are women. The latter, whose average age is 54, are 70% illiterate. Moreover, economic analysis has shown that the investment is profitable whatever the season. However, this financial profitability is higher in the hot dry season. The margins are 6600F and 868F per 100.kg bag respectively for precooked and dried moringa in the rainy season, while they are 15400F and 3259 FCFA in the hot dry season. Indeed, this same trend can be observed at the level of added value. However, these products are often not of good quality, reducing their competitiveness against fresh moringa leaves among some consumers. Conclusions: The boom in Moringa oleifera processing requires improved processing techniques to improve the quality of products currently sold.

  28. Akansha Mishra and Bhaskar Behera

    The present study aimed to assess the toxic effect of lead and mercury on aquatic sources as it indirectly or directly affects human beings. A freshwater Catfish Clarias batrachus was chosen as an ideal model for the experiment, as it can survive in unfavourable conditions. Sub lethal toxicity studies of lead and mercury on the Indian freshwater Catfish revealed significant changes in the biochemical constituents of the fish like total protein and glucose after 15 days of exposure to different lead acetate concentrations i.e. 0.2mg/l, 0.6mg/l and 1mg/l; the mercury chloride concentrations i.e. 0.0002mg/l, 0.002mg/l, and 0.02mg/l. Liver, kidney, gill and muscle tissues of control of treated fishes were taken for the protein estimation and blood samples of control and treated fish were considered for estimation of glucose. Depletion of protein was observed in various tissues of the treated fish as compared to the controlled fishes. The progressive elevation of plasma glucose level was observed in treated fish as compared to the controlled fishes in case of both lead and mercury treatment. The current findings suggest that the fish treated with lead have faced a serious metabolic crisis that also observed as nearly equivalent to the fish treated with a very low concentration of mercury.

  29. Dr. Savitha Sathyaprasad, Dr. Ramesh R., Dr. Irfana Ilyas, Dr. Aravind, A. and Dr. Sai Santhosh

    Inter- professional collaboration is defined as "when multiple health workers from different professional backgrounds work together with patients, families, caregivers, and communities to deliver the highest quality of care,with the triple aim of improving patient experience and satisfaction, improving the health of the population, and reducing costs.1 However, IPC is where health care is still not a reality right now and IPC is the exception, not the rule. It is the need of the hour for each of the health professions to shift its focus toward collaboration, partnerships, and sharing, rather than operate in silos. pediatric dentistry is one such domain of health sciences which needs intricate and interdependent treatment planning and delivery as many specialties come under this branch and unequivocally children in growing age needs monitoring by different specialists and an orchestral confluence of treatment that cascades in a flawless and seamless way,as any wrong doing in this age can spoil the masticatory as wellas complete general health including the psychological aftermath,it is of great importance asin casepatients are "handed off" with each transition, there is increasing risk for error to the patient with each handoff so with efficient transfer of essential information; IPC can mitigate some of the risk associated with these transitions. However there are several challenges that include traditional culture of healthcare training and practice to work in silos, Professionals are not used to working collaboratively across disciplines; hence there is little exposure to each other's role and perspective, this fosters miscommunication, mistrust, conflict, and a lack of coordinated care. 2Also physicians historically have been autonomous and dominant of other health professions, rather than collaborative. Lastly patients themselves have traditionally not been a part of the decision making related to their care. With the greater challenge that is resistance to change, as health professionals may be reluctant to adopt an IPC culture. Despite all these the benefits of IPC stands tall so it is time to take a call. In this paper we showcase inter- professional case-centered collaborative practice focusing onpediatric population.It is all about how we can collaborate inter-professionally? What opportunities exist to collaborate inter -professionally? What disciplines outside of ourspecialtycould you collaborate with? What cases in pediatric dentistry comes under whom could you collaborate with? Examplesare provided to assist in showing the conditions for collaborative teamwork to develop in an institutional and hospital setting, this series will emphasize why inter - professional collaboration (IPC) is important, and it will provide concrete examples of how to make IPC work in pediatric multiple settings.

  30. Pretty Paul, Dr. Poonam Joshi, Ms. Rimple Sharma and Dr. Rajni Sharma

    Background: Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus (T1DM) is one of the most common chronic pediatric endocrine illnesses. Diabetes education is an integral part of the ambulatory management of T1DM. Purpose: To find out the gaps in knowledge and practices of caregivers related to management of T1DM. Methods: In a cross-sectional survey, knowledge and practices of 90 caregivers of children with T1DM were assessed using pre-validated and tested structured knowledge and practice questionnaires and observation checklists. Results: There were 48 girls and the mean age of the children was 9.5±2.8 years. Majority of caregivers were mothers (72.2%) with the mean age of 36.7±2.8 years. Majority of children had either sub-optimal or poor glycaemic control (41.6% and 39.3%) with the mean HbA1C value of 8.9±1.8. Most of the caregivers had fair knowledge (64.4%) and practices (56.7%) with the mean knowledge and practice scores of 16.1±2.9 and 18.1±2.0 respectively, and demonstrated excellent technique of insulin preparation and administration. There was no significant correlation between knowledge and overall practices (r=0.106, p=0.321), knowledge and technique of insulin administration (using pen/syringe) (r=0.218, p=0.141, r=0.093, p=0.553). A significant relationship of overall practices of caregivers of children with T1DM with glycaemic control (p<0.009) and gender of caregivers (p<0.04) was observed. Conclusion: There exists gap in knowledge and practices of the caregivers related to T1DM attributing to poor or suboptimal glycaemic control in children. Implication: Diabetic nurse educator should be placed in indoor and outdoor facilities to draw the maximum output to provide quality care to children.

  31. Niania, S., Adamu, B., Abdullahi, S., Saidu, S. G. and Raymond, C.

    The research was conducted to determine the Effects of different Levels of Amino Acid Inclusions in Sprouted Masakwa Sorghum (Sorghum bicolor (l.) moench) Based Diet on the Performance of Broiler Chickens. One hundred and fifty day-old (Anak 200) broiler chickens were used for the study, and were randomly allocated to five dietary treatments of thirty broiler chicks per treatment. Each treatment was replicated three times with ten birds per replicate in a completely randomized design (CRD). Five experimental diets were formulated at varying supplementation levels of methionine at 0.20%, 0.25%, 0.30%, 0.35%, and 0.40% of the diets with maize used as a control diet. The growth performance of the birds at the starter phase for the average daily feed intake (ADFI) ranged 93-100.33g, average daily weight gain (ADWG) ranged 33.03 to 42.70g, were significantly (P<0.05) different across the treatment diets, while the feed conversion ratio (FCR range from 2.34-2.38g, total weight gain (TWG) ranged from 991.66 to1173.33g and the final weight (FW) ranged 1221.66 to 1316.66g were significantly (P< 0.05) different among the treatment groups. At the finisher phase, the average daily feed intake (ADFI), average daily weight gain (ADWG), feed conversion ratio (FCR) and the total weight gain (TWG) were all significantly (P <0.05) influenced across the treatment groups. The result of the study indicated that methionine could be a good supplement for a sprouted germinated masakwa in broiler diets and can be included in their diets at 0.30%, 0.35% and 0.40% levels for improved performance of birds. The research was carried out at the Department of Animal Science and Range Management Teaching and Research farm Modibbo Adama University of Technology, Yola, Nigeria.

  32. Akshay Tiwari, Shalini Singh, Anubhav Dubey and Yatendra Singh

    The current pharmacological research work was to explore the anti-hyperlipidemic and antipyretic potential of Cinnamon Oil (25 miligram-kilogram/ or 50 miligram-kilogram/, p.o).hyperlipidemia is a largly growing disease. The predominance of hyperlipidemia in the United States is near 30 million and future projections anticipate that, if present patterns endure, one out of three grown-ups could have diabetes by 2050. Dexamethasone and Triton induced hyperlipidemia model was used to evaluate the anti-hyperlipidemic activity. In case of hyperlipidemia (50 miligram-kilogram/, p.o) is more effective comparison to 25 miligram-kilogram/p.o. Research outcome indicates that Cinnamon Oil (25 miligram-kilogram/p.o or 50 miligram-kilogram/ p.o) is having significant anti-hyperlipidemic potential.

  33. Kratika Mohan, Shashwat Saxena and Jyoti Bisht

    Leukemias are considered to be potentially lethal diseases in which there is neoplastic proliferation of bone marrow white blood cells. It presents varied clinical and oral manifestations. Thus the present review was aimed to describe the oral manifestations of leukemia and their dental management. This might be useful in early diagnosis of condition and improving patient outcomes.

  34. Prof. Ranjita Devi, Mrs Reshma Tamang, Ms. Lamu Dolma Sherpa, Ms. Marmu Lama , Ms. Pema Khandu Sherpa, Ms. Pema Yangchen Bhutia , Ms. Diki Sherpa, Ms. Menuka Sundas, Ms. Bipasha Sharma, Ms. Susmita Gurung Ms. Ritika Tamang, Ms. Ripla Namapa, Ms. Lhamu

    Background: Smoking is the leading cause of preventable diseases and premature death. Smoking can increase the risk of cardiovascular disease, respiratory disease and 10 different form of cancer. Starting smoking at a tender age causes more problems. Health care professionals who smoke are less likely to recognize their role as health educators and they are less likely to effectively counsel smokers on quitting. Therefore it is necessary to reduce the number of smokers and harm done to the society. Objectives: to assess the knowledge on hazards of smoking among health care and non health care students, to identify the attitude towards smoking among health care and non health care students and to compare the knowledge and attitude on smoking among health care and non health care students. Methods: Non experimental descriptive comparative survey design and a purposive sampling technique for data collection was used.After obtaining informed consent from each of the participants, Personal profile were collected using a Structured Questionnaire, a 4 point Likert Scale was used to assess the attitude on smoking and Semi Structured Questionnaire was used for assessing the Knowledge on hazards of smoking among 100 health care and 100 non health care students in selected colleges of Gangtok, East Sikkim. Result: The findings of the study reveals that among health care students, 24% had good knowledge, 76% had average knowledge and 100 % had favorable attitude towards smoking. Whereas among non–health care students, 8% had good knowledge, 87% had average knowledge, 93% had favorable attitude and 7% had unfavorable attitude towards smoking. There was a significant difference in the knowledge on hazards of smoking and their attitude towards it between health care and non-health students. Conclusion: Knowledge on hazards of smoking and attitude towards it among the health care students were found to be adequate whereas it was found inadequate among the non-healthcare students. Therefore disseminating knowledge and awareness on hazards of smoking with the help of pamphlet among the non-health care students was found to be fruitful.

  35. Bagul, V.R., Mahale, B.N., Palwe, S.D., Gajbhiye, A.V. and Kadam, V.V.

    Aqueous and acetone extracts of the plant Butea monospema flowers of the family Leguminosae - Papilioneae.were prepared by adding 25 g of fresh flowers to 100 ml of these solvents. The constituents were extracted by soxhlet extractor for 24 h. After incubation, the extracts were collected and stored at 4°C.In the present study, all the seven groups of the important phytocompounds, viz., cardiac glycosides, steroids, alkaloids, flavonoids, terpenoids, tannins and saponins, were screened from the plant Butea monospema flowers. Their presence was confirmed through in vitro phytochemical screening of aqueous and acetone extracts of flower. The analysis for the same was carried out by qualitative tests for which the standard protocol was followed. The presence or absence of the phyto-constituents depended upon the solvent used and physiological property of the flowers. From these results, it can be concluded that the B. monosperma flower extracts may be used as broad-spectrum bioactive agents after extensive investigation.

  36. Dr. Nanita Berry, Parul Sharga and Sourabh Dubey

    The field experiments were conducted under Gmelina arborea based agroforestry system at experimental plot of TFRI, Jabalpur, M.P. The Zingiber officinale (Ginger), a shade loving commercially cash crop was grown under seven year old plantation of Gmelina aborea. The observations were recorded on growth and yield parameters of Z. officinale during the study period. The study revealed that growth and yield of Zinger crop was higher under intercropping system and lower in monoculture (Sole) system. Ginger oil was found maximum in monoculture (Sole) system while it was lower in intercropping system. The study indicates that Gmelina shade favours only yield of Ginger not for its active ingredient i.e. essential oil, which is important component in several medicinal drugs.

  37. Ms. Sabornee Karmakar, Dr. Payel Talukdar, Prof (Dr) Arunansu Talukdar, Dr. Boudhayan Bhattacharjee and Dr. Pramit Ghosh

    Background: The present scenario all over the globe involves dealing with COVID-19 and the pandemic situation. Despite tremendous efforts, the future of this pandemic is still unknown. Aim: The present study was conducted to assess the awareness levels about COVID-19 and the psychological impact it has had on the lives of the residents of West Bengal. Settings and Design: A cross-sectional analytical survey was conducted across the region of West Bengal. Methodology: During the tenure of April to November, 2020, the sample comprising of 784 (N = 784) participants were administered a self-designed questionnaire across online medium. The question was divided into four parts which included questions related to basic awareness levels people have about the disease and also the psychological impact the disease has had on their lives. Statistical Analysis: Analysis of the data was done using SPSS version 23.0 using chi-square and descriptive statistics. Results: Overall, the results revealed that 82.3% of the respondents were aware of the fact that COVID-19 is a viral disease. 93.7% of the respondents were aware of the basic symptoms of the disease. Around 39.8% of the respondents were not sure about how they would cope with the pandemic. Conclusion: Majority of the participants were aware about COVID-19. Future implications of the study include widening the avenues of health education and training programmes to include measures for people to be able to handle the ongoing crisis.

  38. Jocelyn V. Diaz, Joan S. Cañares, Cathy R. Pagalan, and Marilyn R. Miranda

    The ongoing developments in societies and their provision of education are reflected in the roles, recruitment and development of school leaders. This also examines how, as a result of these developments, the role of school leaders is changing. It then examines if school leaders can strengthen the recruitment, development and retention of teachers, as well as lift student outcomes. It is concluded that school leaders remain of crucial importance for continued improvement of education. The key relationships in the ways school leaders strengthen teacher recruitment, development and retention were shown to include factors such as teacher satisfaction, school effectiveness, improvement, capacity, teacher leadership, distributive leadership, organizational learning, and development. School leaders can be a major influence on these school-level factors as well as help buffer against the excesses of the mounting and sometimes contradictory external pressures. In a rapidly changing era, educational change as well as school leadership, has become one of the crucial tasks for better student performance in the schools. Potential and innovative leadership in schools is needed to keep up with fast-pace of change, and to achieve better learning results for students. In this research paper, we will be enumerating possible results with the constant changing of school administrator.

  39. Dr. Anand Chauhan

    The women in distress always look for some ones help to minimize the problems. This happens, most often, when her husband throw her out and the children becomes much more worse for her decent life. The psychology of men are changing in relation his sexual life. This kind of mental makeup results in disowning of wife and children. Hence, the society though shows the sympathy towards her conditions, however, no one can put her life as near as to normal except by judiciary. So the Judiciary in India is very pro-woman in their approaches. There is a saying that Indian law is pro-women. In many such cases where men neglect, try to divorce their life partners with an intension of denying financial aid to the women and the children. Under these situation, the judiciary extends its loving hands to the women and projects her financial life with considerable comfort. The following is the exposition of such cases, wherein, the judiciary decided the cases as per the law and protected the women in most of the cases in India.

  40. Giulio Tarro

    The history of influenza viruses teaches that influenza originates from volatile, generically aquatic animals, and then passes to man through the "jump" in pigs. The promiscuity of the farms, as it is used in Asia, determines this passage and then the spread. This gave rise to the Spanish flu (1918, H1N1), the Asian flu (1957, H2N2), that of Hong Kong (1968, H3N2) and so on. The strains spread in some years may also present relationships with those of other years. The swine origin influenza virus (S-OIV) detected in April 2009 in Mexico, Canada and USA exibthed an unique genome composition not shown before. According to the flu vaccinations compaign influenza vaccine is produced before the start of the flu season, which means that the virus almost never coincided with does tested early to produce the vaccine. The main componet of the viral family for human pathology was the agent of the small pox, the first disease to be eraticated by a vaccine.

  41. Abel Isaías Barrial-Lujan, Fredy Taipe Pardo, Mary Luz Huamán-Carrión, Maria del Carmen Delgado-Laime, Yobana Rodrigo-Cabezas, Gilberth Rodriguez-Paucar y David Choque-Quispe

    La quinua es un alimento andino con alto contenido aminosidico, importante en el metabolismo humano. El objetivo de la investigación fue cuantificar e identificar el perfil de aminoácido de la quinua de las variedades blanca y rosada de Junín. la quinua procedió de zona alto andina del distrito de Santa Maria de Chicmo, cultivadas a 3680 m s. n. m. de altitud, la harina de quinua fue desgrasada con éter de petróleo; se extrajo el aislado proteico a través de solubilizacion con NaOH 1N y precipitación con HCl 1N, la identificación y cuantificación de aminoácidos se realizó a través de cromatografía líquida de alta performance (HPLC) acoplado a masa, se logró detectar el perfil de aminoácidos, siendo estas 9 aminoácidos esenciales (lisina, leucina, isoleucina, fenilalanina, metionina, treonina, valina, histidina y arginina) y 6 aminoácidos no esenciales (ácido aspártico, acido glutámico, Alanina, prolina, serina y glicina). Los aminoácidos más abundantes y el incremento porcentual de la muestra harina desgrasada en comparación con el aislado proteico para la variedad blanca Junín fueron cuantificados la metionina (293.98 % +/- 0,005), valina (283.55 % +/- 0,003) y leucina (254.36 % +/-0,003); análogamente, para la variedad rosada Junín se cuantificaron la fenilalanina (591.38 % +/- 0,101), arginina (438.43 % +/- 0,046) y leucina (376.82 % +/- 0,112) respectivamente.

  42. Fredy Taipe Pardo, Abel Isaias Barrial Lujan, Nidia Garcia Nauto, Jaime Laqui-Estaña and David Choque Quispe

    Los aceites esenciales se han convertido en parte integral de nuestra vida, cuya extracción puede enriquecer o reducir la presencia de algunos componentes. por esta razón,investigó el efecto de diferentes niveles de presión de extracción (6, 10 y 14 psi) con vapor de agua sobre el rendimiento del aceite, las características físico-químicas y los compuestos químicos para el aceite esencial de punamuña (Satureja boliviana). El mayor rendimiento se obtuvo utilizando una presión de extracción de 10 psi (0,38%). La densidad, la acidez, el índice de peróxido y el índice de refracción fueron influenciados significativamente por la presión de extracción. Se identificaron 32 compuestos químicos utilizando las tres presiones de extracción: pulegone, isomentol y menthone a 6 psi; L-menthone, menthone y pulegone a 10 psi; y pulegone, timol y p-mentona a 14 psi. Los aceites esenciales están influenciados por la presión de extracción; aquí se observó que se obtiene un mayor rendimiento y número de compuestos químicos a 10 psi, lo que a su vez también da como resultado características físico-químicas adecuadas, como la densidad, la acidez y el índice de peróxido, que también estarían relacionados con los químicos extraídos del compuesto.

  43. Dr. Praveen Pandey and Dr. Vinit Mishra

    Laparoscopic cholecystectomy has revolutionized gallbladder surgeries and it has now become the “gold standard” of cholelithiasis. It offers many benefits than conventionalcholecystectomy, and has been promoted, as a“gentle surgery”. Laparoscopic cholecystectomy combines the benefits of completely removing the gall bladder with the advantages of shorter hospital stays, more rapid return of normal activities, less pain associated with small limited incision and less postoperative ileus compared with the open laparotomy technique. However, this procedure is not risk free.In fact it produces significant hemodynamic changes. Pain is as old as human being and is becoming more and more troublesome to mankind with greater incidence of medical surgeries. Breaking the pain cycle at an early stage may prevent central sensitization and, consequently, chronic pain. A second objective is to improve surgical outcome with the goals of enabling early ambulation and recovery of gastrointestinal function which in turn reduce cardiopulmonary morbidity, psychological stress, anxiety and insomnia. Butorphanol is a synthetic opioid derivative possessing agonist-antagonist activity at opioid µ2-receptors and additional agonist activity at opioid κ-receptors. preventing a poor learned response to future pain episodes.

  44. Suchandra Dutta and Shreyasi Halder

    Plant compounds such as carotenoids, betalains, anthocyanins, anthoxanthin, chlorophylls or carminic acid present in fruits and vegetables as natural colorants have been well characterized to possess bioactive properties. The colouration of the food is a key factor in identifying its nutritional integrity and also gives an estimate about the level of processing it has undergone. For example, refined and processed food that has turned brown from extreme heat or high pressure is devoid of the colorful, magical phytonutrients which the natural whole food ingredients possess – and which a body needs to stay truly healthy. Phytonutrient study is one of the most appealing areas of nutritional research being undertaken today and is expanding our knowledge of the health benefits of food much beyond the macronutrients and micronutrients. Also, food security is a major area of concern worldwide. Amongst the many issues of food security, providing access to adequate nutritious food at nominal charges is a challenge yet to be fulfilled. Naturally pigmented foods with their multiple health benefits are a good fit for alleviating the food security scare.

  45. Dr. Aashna Bhardwaj

    The geographic variation is primarily the changing pattern experienced in the quality and quantity of healthcare needs of patients which is directly proportional to the geography or area in which a person/patient is currently living. This is very common in developing countries which defines the inefficiencies of the healthcare system of a government in that area. Objective of the study: In this paper, we as a medical tourism company would like to talk about the reasons for this inefficiency and suggest possible options to overcome and improvise it.

  46. Tsewang Norboo

    Ladakh a cold arid desert lie in the lap of trans Himalaya where temperature drop down more the minus 30°c in pick winter and in summer temperature scale up more than plus 30°c. such area is mainly accompany with cold climate where heat stove is the major essential commodity for inhabitant. Since existence of livelihood stove is the closed and major essential commodities of area. Cow dung and locally produce woods are the major source of fuel, with the passage of time and technology new modified and fuel efficient stoveswere developed one of which is Himalayan rocket stove which become highly popular and effective from last two to three year. This study examined comparative time saving, energy saving efficiency, purpose serve and heat lasting between traditional and modern modified rocket stove. The analyzed result reviled that in term of time saving traditional stove is better than modern stove (time taken by modern rocket stove to boil 2 lit of milk = 25 minute whereas traditional stove took 15 minute), Energy saving / fuel consumption is concern modern rocket stove is better than traditional stove (1050 gm of cow dung and 150 gm of wood consume to boil 2 lit of milk whereas rocket stove consume hardly 700gm of cow dung and 100 gm wood. In the case of heat lasting modern modified rocket stove is far batter then traditional stove may be better utilization of material, but multi-purpose serve is concern traditional stove serve much purpose then rocket stove. The study finding both the stove have their own limitation and advantage but can be improved by doing few modifications for better utilization.

  47. Isha Kumari, Madhusudan, S., Bhawna Walia and Gitika Chaudhary

    Ginger is utilized globally as a spice and herbal drug. Ginger, a plant of Zingiberaceae family, is a culinary flavor that has been utilized as a significant plant with therapeutic, and healthy benefits in traditional frameworks of medication like Chinese Medicine System, Ayurveda, Siddhia, Yunani, Folk arrangement of medication for a long time. Many phytochemical constituents are present in ginger. It exhibits some extraordinary medical advantages too. Ginger and its overall phytochemicals, for example, Fe, Mg, Ca, flavonoids, phenolic mixes (gingerdiol, gingerol, gingerdione and shogaols), sesquiterpenes and paradols have been utilized as herbal medication to treat different ailments like torment, cold indications and it has been appeared to have anti-inflammatory, anti-cancer, anti-pyretic, anti-microbial, anti-oxidant and anti- diabetic. It has been generally utilized for joint pain, cramps, sore throats, stiffness, muscle pain, torments, vomiting, obstruction, heartburn, hypertension, fever and irresistible sicknesses.

  48. Dr. Vandana Govindan, Dr. Veena Umesh, Shincy M.R., Dr. Venkatesha V.T. and Dr. Ravi Kumar K.L.

    Background: The current gold standard for the detection of SARS-CoV-2 is the RT-PCR test. The RT-PCR tests are not rapid (it typically takes 3–4 h for results), and it requires specialized laboratory equipment and skilled technicians. Timely and accurate COVID-19 testing is an essential part for surveillance. The aim of the study is to assess diagnostic accuracy of CE-approved POCT, the STANDARD Q COVID19 Ag for the detection of SARS CoV-2 nucleoprotein in NP swabs in comparison with the gold standard RT-PCR. Methods: RT-PCR (EURO Real Time SARS-CoV-2 RT PCR test) and Rapid Antigen testing (STANDARD Q COVID-19 Ag test) was performed following manufactures instructions. Results: The STANDARD Q COVID-19 Ag Test showed a sensitivity of 97.11% and a specificity of 100%. There were no Invalid Test results while using Standard Q Covid-19 AgTest. Conclusion: The rapid test provided comparable results with RT- PCR in terms of sensitivity, specificity, accuracy, negative and positive predictive values

  49. Mohamd Jumaa and Shukri Adbar

    Modeling and simulation of photovoltaic (PV) systems represents an essential task for the integration of PV panels in current power applications. At the present time, there are sizing tools of photovoltaic systems available on the market, taking into account the proposed energy consumption, site localization and system cost. this paper aims to simulation of a stand-alone system for two types: fixed system and non-fixed system in Alkhums city _ Libya using the PVsyst software. The sizing and simulations developed using PV modules based on two different technologies: Monocrystalline and polycrystalline silicon, Results show that the non-fixed system is more efficient than fixed system and the Monocrystalline silicon is more efficient than polycrystalline silicon where the solar fraction was 0.981,performance ratio was 0.653 and energy supplied to the user was 1259.8 kWh/year.

  50. Sakkariya Kalamkandy

    NRI constitute a main target market segment. In NRI Familiesthe children’s play an important in making decisions relating to the entire family unit and it has encouraged researchers to direct their efforts to study the power of children’s. NRI dependent children make decisions in their family purchase purposes because their father’s migration for work. The amount of influence exert by the children varies by product group and stage of the decision making process. For some products, they are active initiators, information seekers, and buyers; whereas for other product categories, they influence purchases made by the parents. The purchasing act is influenced by socialization process. Family, peers, and media are key socializing agents for children’s in which family-specific characteristics such as parental style, family’s Sex Role Orientation (SRO), and patterns of communication play key roles. The changes takes place in the socio-cultural environment in India due to migration (then they become single parent families) involve that dimensions of children’s influence in family purchase decision making. Indian society very much differs from the West in terms of family composition and arrangement, values, norms, and behavior, which have an effect on the role that children’s play in purchase decision making in families. Hence, the aim of this paper is to explore the research findings of previous researchers in India and Western countries.

  51. Dr. Ruchi Mitra, Dr. Prajapati, V.K.

    Supernumerary teeth can present in any region of the oral cavity. Their presence may give rise to a variety of clinical problems. They may remain undiagnosed and remain impacted. This article aims to present 4(four) cases with the presence of supernumerary teeth in different positions and their complications. Thus the clinician needs to diagnose it by thorough clinical and radiographic examination at the earliest to avoid any further complications.

  52. Atchuta Raju, K. and Sowjanya Roy, G.

    The study was conducted in Krishna district of Andhra Pradesh. A total of 120 farmers were selected from twelve villages of three mandals were selected for the study purpose. A well structured schedule was used for this study. The results of the study revealed that majority of the respondents gave more importance for training needs in the main areas of black gram cultivation such as plant protection, weed management, water management, fertilizer management, seeds and sowing, post-harvest technology and land preparation respectively. This result was attributed by the significant relationship of training needs with selected characteristics of the farmers.

  53. Mohammed Nazrul Islam, Mohd Rasheeduddin Imran, Sayeeda Anjum, Shaik Karimulla and Ram Lochan Yadav

    Objective: To determine the prevalence of obesity indices and investigate their association with cardiometabolic risk factors in overweight and obese adolescents. Materials and Methods: A total of 90 adolescents with matched sex and age -14(2) years were selected for the study and divided into three groups: Normal weight (NW), Overweight (OW) and Obese (OB) based on the BMI (body mass index) percentile for age and sex. Weight, BMI, BMI percentile and waist circumference (WC) were measured to evaluate their association with cardiometabolic parameters. Fasting blood sugar (FBS), glycated haemoglobin (HbA1c), total cholesterol (TC), high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), very low density lipoprotein cholesterol (VLDL-C), c-reactive protein (CRP), serum uric acid (SUA), T3, T4 and thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) are considered as cardiometabolic risk factors. The obesity and cardiometabolic parameters were compared between groups using Mann Whitney U test and the association between these parameters were evaluated by Spearman correlation test using SPSS V.20. Results: The obesity parameters - BMI, BMI percentile and WC for age and sex were statistically significant (p<0.001) between NW Vs OW, NW Vs OB and OW Vs OB groups. Cardiometabolic parameters - TC (NW Vs OB, p<0.05) and its fractions HDL-C (NW Vs OW, p<0.001 and NW Vs OB, p<0.001), LDL-C (NW Vs OW, p =0.03 and NW Vs OB, p=0.009) were statistically significant. Nevertheless, other cardiometabolic parameters like VLDL-C, TG, FBS, HbA1c, CRP, T3, T4, and TSH are statistically insignificant between the three groups. The obesity measures were positively correlated to TC and LDL-C levels and inversely related to HDL- C levels (Wt: rho = -0.325, p=0.002; BMI: -0.343, p<0.001; BMI percentile: rho= -0.361, p<0.001; WC: rho= -0.402, p<0.001) with statistical significance. The obesity indices are negatively correlated insignificantly to TSH levels. Conclusion: Findings revealed that poor lipid profile measures with elevated TC and LDL-C levels and lowered HDL-C and TSH levels were able to identify adolescents that are at risk for early onset of cardiometabolic diseases. FBS, HbA1c, TG, CRP, SUA, T3 and T4 measures are not correlated with obesity indices. Hence, our study concluded that in adolescents, obesity/overweight parameters are partially associated with cardiometabolic parameters to the fulfillment of criteria for metabolic syndrome.

  54. Dr. Savitha Sathyaprasad, Dr. Aravind, A.,Dr. Irfana Ilyas and Dr. Shainitha, C.M.

    Anticipatory guidance is to educate adolescents on the detrimental effects associated with these risky behaviours in hopes that they may elect not to participate in these activities when pressured by their peers. Childhood often takes place at home, and parents, being the primary role models, have a major influence on their children’s oral hygiene and dietary practices. . A child’s oral health begins in utero. Bacteria causing Early Childhood Caries (ECC) are easily transmitted from parents/ caregivers to child and when left untreated can lead to ain, infection, as well as difficulty in eating, speaking, and even learning. By applying Anticipatory Guidance to dental preventive education in an organized way by all pedodontists will bring the attention of parents and be more successful in preventive dentistry.

  55. Sugunadevi Govindasamy, Suresh Kathiresan and Sangavai Chinnadurai

    The present investigation the protective effect of Mosinone-A on cellular integrity by measuring the status of lipid profile, osmotic fragility and membrane bound enzyme activity in 7, 12-Dimethylbenz (a) antharacene (DMBA) induced oral carcinogenesis. A total number of 24 golden Syrian hamsters were randomized into 4 groups of 6 animals in each. Group I animals were served as untreated control. Groups II and III animals were painted with 0.5% DMBA in liquid paraffin three times per week for 14 weeks on the left buccal pouches. Group III animals were orally administered with Mosinone-A (2 mg kg-1 b.wt) starting one week before the exposure to the carcinogen and continued on days alternate to DMBA painting, until the sacrification of the animals. Group IV animals were received Mosinone-A alone throughout the experimental period. We observed altered levels of lipids and membrane bound enzyme activity in DMBA painted hamster. Oral administration of Mosinone-A 2mg/kg b.wt significantly prevented the tumor formation as well as normalized the above said biochemical variables in DMBA painted hamster. Mosinone-A has potent efficacy to exert their anticarcinogenic effect by modulating the status of lipid, integrity of cell membrane in DMBA induced hamster buccal pouch carcinogenesis

  56. Lawali Moussa Laminou and Md Ibrahim Bhuyan

    In the high earthquake era, the efficient performance evaluation of reinforced concrete building structures has become a key issue. In this paper, based on the nonlinear dynamic evaluation method of structural seismic performance atwenty-storey reinforced concrete building structure seismic assessment was carry out. the building structure was considered to be built in Akhalia, Sylhet Bangladesh. Four recorded ground motions were matched with Bangladesh National Building Code (BNBC) 2017response spectrums and scaled to PGA of 0.25g,0.30g and 0.35g. Therefore, nonlinear dynamic time history analyses were carry out using the matched and scaled ground motions and the seismic performance of the structure was analyzed. It can be seen that the seismic performance of the selected project of twenty-storey reinforced concrete frame structure is excellent. Thus, the platform based on the concept of seismic evaluation structures demonstrates a general agreement that an efficient and accurate assessment of reinforced concrete frame structures can be achieved.

  57. Lucong Wang

    Poverty is not only the low level of income, but also the lack of development ability and opportunities in education, health, working conditions, living standards and other aspects. Therefore, in order to measure the current situation of poverty more comprehensively, based on the " capability" poverty theory of Amartya Sen (1999), combined with the calculation method of multidimensional poverty, we use the CFPS data from 2010 to 2018 to construct a multidimensional poverty indicator, analyzed the current situation of multidimensional poverty in China's ethnic minority areas from five aspects, decomposed the multidimensional poverty index according to the indicators and individual characteristics, and explored the root causes of multidimensional poverty. The research results show that when threshold is 30%, the multidimensional poverty index of ethnic areas is 0.2836, which 63.85% of individuals will be in multidimensional poverty, and their poverty degree index is 0.4442. The multidimensional poverty index of women is higher than that of men, and the elderly are more likely to fall into multidimensional poverty. With the increase of education level, the incidence of poverty is gradually decreasing. The years of education, income level and mental health status are important reasons for multidimensional poverty in 2018.

  58. Arif Rizvi and Javed Iqbal

    The Fascial Manipulation along with conservative treatment is more beneficial than only conservative treatment. But there is no satisfactory physiological explanation for this. This study was performed on a small group. There were total 30 patients out of them there are 15 in group A and group B each. The mean age of patients in group A is 28.33± 3.15 while the mean age of patients in group B 30.66 ± 4.01. The t-test result shows that there is no significance difference in mean age of patients in two groups. The Fascial Manipulation along with conservative treatment is more beneficial than only conservative treatment. In the present study, the effectiveness of Fascial Manipulation along with conservative treatment in jumper’s knee was established till the end of the study. However there is a need of follow up further.

  59. Eben Ezer Kalala Mwepu, Jacques Nkulu Katyibulaya, Zarack Kiluba Makabwe, Prudance Nkulu Kanzonzongolo, Nadine Zaliya Muyumba, Yumba Nshimbi Kitunga and Citadin Mukubu Lusa

    Chaque année les autorités provinciales de la République Démocratique du Congo (les gouverneurs) décident, par voie d’arrêté, la fermeture de la pêche dans le fleuve Congo, les rivières et leurs affluents y compris tous les lacs se trouvant dans les différents endroits qui composent chaque province, pendant les périodes que les poissons doivent se reproduire. Après la fermeture, pour permettre aux bébés poissons de grossir afin de servir à une bonne alimentation, l’autorité qui a décrété la fermeture de la pêche l’ouvre sur toute l’étendue concernée, tout en interdisant certaines mailles des filets et certaines méthodes et pratiques à la mode utilisées pour attraper les bébés poissons et /ou pour surexploiter les poissons de tout genre. Mais, sur terrain, le respect de toutes ces dispositions sur la pêche est difficile compte tenu des facteurs socio-économiques et politiques précaires.

  60. MOHAMMED ALQATQAT and Ma Tie Feng

    Production and consumption electric prediction under the influence of temperature, interesting and challenging research topic Developed countries' economies are measured according to their power economy. Currently, the temperature is considered to be an illustrious scientist field because in many result it gives different. The temperature with its huge and dynamic information sources is considered as a suitable environment for data mining and business researchers. In this paper, we applied k-nearest neighbor algorithm and Vanilla RNN Model Suggested Method approach in order to predict Production and consumption electric prediction to assist investors, management, decision makers, and users in making correct and informed investments decisions. According to the results, the Vanilla RNN Model Suggested Method is robust with small error ratio; consequently the results were rational and also reasonable. In addition, depending on the Production and consumption electric data; the prediction results were close and almost parallel to actual Production and consumption electric prediction data.

  61. IBATA Anatole, EWAMELA Aristide, ENTSIRO François, IP-BIVH and MBEMBA François

    Objectives: This article was produced with the dual aim of determining the functional status and evaluating the physical condition of seniors (PCS), the Little Sister of the Poor House (LSPH). Methods: the study focused on pepeole of both sexes combined residing in the Little Sister of the Poor House and having signed the informed consent form, namely 21 men and 33 women, or a total 54 subjects for the first part of our study. They were all submitted, (to the senior’s fitness test developed by Rikli andal, 2001)[1]as part of this study, the statistical processing of the data was carried out using SPSS version 22software (IBM, United states). For the calculation of the maximums, minimums averages and standard deviations we have opted for descriptive statistics. Regarding the comparison of means, after checking for homogeneity and normality, non-parametric statistical tests were retained. However, multiple comparisons between different age groups were made using the Kruskal Wallis test. [2]. Results: It emerges from this work that the subjects of this age group presented the minimum values of 150cm and the maximum value of 167cm with regard to size with an average of 150.50 ± 8.75 cm. As for the weight of the subjects of this age group, the minimum value presented is 49kg and the maximum value is 58kg i.e. 51.75 ± 4.19kg their body mass index was 18kg.m-2 while the maximum value of this data was 22.22kg.m-2 for an average of 21.50 ± 0.72 kg.m-2. It should be noted that the values of the series were homogeneous insofar as they are around the mean with CV <10%.CONCLUSION. This study made it possible to determine the functional status and assess the physical condition of the seniors. The results obtained showed that there is no autonomous man among the residents of the Little Sister of the Poor House (LSPH). In sum, these results indicate that no significant difference appeared between the sizes of subjects of different age groups. However, the weight and BMI IMCof independent seniors in the 70-74 age group were significantly higher compared to their colleagues in other age groups.

  62. Anatolii Pavlenko

    Fundamental, applied and technological research in the field of torsion fields is at the beginning of the journey. Like any new direction in science and technology, it is vulnerable to criticism, since the number of emerging questions is much greater than the answers to them. In addition, as in past centuries, the difficulties of the formation of new ideas are generated by inertia and conservatism of thinking. There are a lot of examples of this at all times. Suffice it to recall Lavoisier's stubborn denial of the existence of meteorites, or the words of Pauli, who called the idea of spin in the works of Uhlenbeck and Gudsmith a "stupid idea", which, however, did not prevent him from formulating one of the fundamental principles of quantum mechanics, named after him, a little later. However, even the existing theoretical and experimental base of the paradigm of torsion fields, including those presented in already known publications, allows us to consider torsion fields as the same reality as electromagnetism and gravity, and also instills confidence in the great future of this direction of science. This is the beginning of the path to comprehending the nature of the real world. Perhaps this goal will never be achieved. But it may be that a theory will appear that will give us an understanding of what we call "reality".

  63. Rakesh Mia, Vijay Panchal and Puri A.C.

    As we know, forensic science is most important for the analysis of crime scene evidence to move our Indian judiciary forward. Many people commit crimes for their own interests, violence, mental behaviour, family problems, etc. But we need forensic science experts to solve a particular criminal case. An expert only solves any crime depends on their working experience or educational background experience. When becoming an expert it’s necessary to first complete Study level, then we see the job opportunity to join any forensic fields. Many forensic experts in this field have postgraduate and PhD degrees but are not given any opportunity to join the laboratory and police station for crime scene analysis. Forensic Expert Posted as a Forensic Specialists are coming in some Basic BSc and MSc pass and Forensic Science field but BSc Forensic Science and MSc Forensic Science with PHD holder easily does not offer any post in Forensic Laboratory and Police Station. So in this article, we have explained about forensic experts and their education and why there is a need for experts in every police station in India.

  64. Dr. Vikash Kumar Singh and Ms. Bhartee Singh Baghel

    The present paper endeavors to analyze the role of big data as a potent measure to resolve complex tribal issues and facilities to promote multifaceted development of tribal communities. Big data technically refers to data sets so large and complex that traditional tools like relational databases are unable to process them in an acceptable time frame or within a reasonable cost range problems occur in sourcing, moving, searching, storing and analyzing the data, but with the right tools these problems can be overcome. Big data with the combination of predictive, analytics use / behavior analytics, or certain other advanced data analytical methods can play vital role with respect to the problems of tribal communities which comprise land alienation, poverty, indebtedness, health, nutrition and education. Big data with advanced tools can process the data related to these problems and reveal meaningful information which will definitely make policy formulation and decision making easier and more accurate.

  65. Panchal Pushpanjali Anantrao

    Phonology of English has an important part in teaching-learning process of English as a second language or foreign language. However, the approaches of teaching phonology of English have not been studied and properly dealt by the teachers. Many times approaches of teaching of phonology have been neglected. The paper is an attempt to bring these approaches to the notice of the users of English, particularly teachers who have been teaching phonology of English for so many years now. Conclusively, the paper shows that despite end number of problems in teaching-learning process, pronunciation becomes the priority. It also concludes that techniques and approaches used to teach pronunciation playa significant rolein the achievement of target language goals. It also concludes that teachers should be trained to be role models for the learners. To achieve this target, teachers should use appropriate approaches in pronunciation to teach more effectively by the means of recent technological developments.

  66. Haimanot Beruk

    Maize is a major cereal crop for human nutrition in Ethiopia. For communities that rely heavily on maize as the staple, development of maize cultivars with enhanced quality protein can be one means to fight protein malnutrition. Development of single cross hybrids significantly boosted up the grain yield potential of maize. Estimation of combining ability is main step in the development and evaluation of hybrids. Thus this study was conducted to estimate general combining ability (GCA) of parents and specific combining ability (SCA) of the crosses of quality protein maize (QPM).The crosses were made during 2016 by 6x6 half diallel mating design which produced 15 F1 single crosses. These single crosses along with three checks were evaluated in two replications of the alpha lattice design at Bako and Arsi Negelle during the 2017 main cropping season for their grain yield (GY) and related agronomic traits. Significant mean squares due to general combining ability (GCA) were observed for plant height, ears per plant, thousand kernel weight, ear length, ear diameter, kernel rows per ear and grain yield in across location results; indicating the importance of additive gene action in the inheritance of these traits. Inbred lines L3, L4 & L6 had high positive GCA effects for grain yield. Furthermore, the finding of this study indicates the possibility of developing high yielding QPM varieties for the mid-altitude agro-ecology of Ethiopia from the QPM inbred lines included in this study.

  67. Attar Sayara Bashir and Rajendra D. Joshi

    Heavy metals containing industrial effluent cause health hazards to plants, animals, aquatic life and humans increasing pressures on the flora and fauna. In this study heavy metal degrading bacteria from effluent discharge of metal processing industries were studied. The microbiological analysis total of 6 industrial effluents samples were collected from various industries, and total of 42 isolates were obtained among these isolates were screed for heavy metals tolerance/resistance. The ICP-AES analysis of the isolates incubated for the 24hr shows that the isolate SR3a and SR2c have the removal efficiency of 44 and 45 percent respectively. Isolate SR5c, can remove the heavy metal with removal efficiency of 52 percent. All the three remaining isolates such as SR6a, SR3f and SR4g have the same removal efficiency of the heavy metal mercury, copper, and nickel respectively, which was calculated as 55 percent. All these isolates from metal industrial effluents showed the heavy metal resistance against Copper, Nickel, Cadmium, Zinc and Mercury. the isolate SR6a identified as Achromobactor sp. was able to tolerate the heavy metal up to 3000 ppm concentration and can be very useful for the application in the environmental bioremediation.

  68. Sevilay GÜL

    The aim of this study is to determine the botanical composition and to determine nutritive value of pastures in three locations in Van district. Samples were collected from 21 June (of flowering period) 2004. According to the results of the research, the ratio of Gramimineae, Leguminoseae and other plant species was determined as 41.81%-25.32%-32.87%, 34.57%-36.14%-29.29%, 31.19%-31.05-37.7% for Arısu, Edremit and Kurbaş pastures. The DM and CP contents of Arısu, Edremit and Kurubaş pastures were respectively 24.02%, 24.14%, 18.84%; 11.54%, 9.60%, 11.77% (P<0.05). In conclusion the Gramineae were the predominant flora of pasture. According to crude protein value, roughage obtained grasses were determined medium qualified.

  69. Aniruddha Haldar and Amit Prakash Multaniya

    This study analyzed the association between COVID-19 and climate indicators in Chhattisgarh State in India. On 19 March, 2020 fast cases of SARS-CoV-2 was recorded in Chhattisgarh, State. On March 24, the Union government ordered a nationwide lockdown for 21 days and then the lockdown has been extended many times with gradual lifting of restrictions. Limiting the movement of people in India as a preventive measure against the COVID-19 pandemic. The climate indicators include the study are Land Surface Temperature, Air temperature, Aerosol optical Depth, Sulfur dioxide, Nitrogen dioxide, Carbon Monoxide, Methane, Ozone. Authors used Satellite Image from online web portal “Giovanni” and “Landsat-8” Satellite Data. Geospatial technology is used to calculate Land Surface Temperature and Web-GIS used to measure air temperature and other Greenhouse gases. Air temperature, AOD, SO2, NO2, CO and O3 concentrations have reduced significantly after commencing lockdown. Only CH4 significantly increased during shut down in Chhattisgarh state in India. The partial lockdown can improve the quality of environment but negative impacts on social aspects. The authors applied statistical and quantitative analysis of the relationship between air pollution and to estimate the impact of the condition, air pollution.

  70. Stela Racovita, Svetlana Capcelea, Veaceslav Mosin, Svetlana Hadjiu, Ninel Revenco, Stanislav Groppa and Mariana Sprincean

    Introduction: Male infertility has a heterogeneous etiology, most commonly caused by spermatogenesis disorders. Genetic factors explain about 30% of cases of male infertility associated with azoospermia and severe oligozoospermia. Y microdeletion is the most frequent known molecular genetic cause of severe impairment of spermatogenesis. The Purpose: To evaluate the frequencies and types of Y chromosomal microdeletion of the AZF regions, before Assisted Reproductive Techniques (ART) and to compare our results with other reports. Materials and methods: Infertile men were investigated during genetic counseling among infertile couples referred for ART treatment. The study group consisted of 98 men with azoospermia. They were between 21 and 44 years old (median age - 33 years). Semen analysis in all infertile men was assessed according to WHO, 2010. G-banding of metaphase chromosomes karyotype analysis were performed in all azoospermic patients. Genomic DNA was isolated and used to analyze AZF microdeletions by PCR. The regions and sequence-tagged sites of AZFa (sY84, sY86, DBY1, sY620), AZFb (sY117, sY127, sY134, SY143), and AZFc (sY254, sY255, sY153, SY158) were sequenced by multiplex PCR. The detections of sY14 (SRY) and ZFX/ZFY were employed as internal controls. Ten non-obstructive azoospermic men had Y chromosomal microdeletions. Six Y-microdeleted men underwent microsurgical observation of testicular architecture and quantitative histology of spermatogenesis in a strip of testicular tissue. The results were compared with the different type of Y microdeletion. Results: Deletions of Y chromosome were revealed in 10 (9,8%) of 98 patients with azoospermia. Deletions of AZFc - sY153, sY158, sY254 and sY255 locus were observed in five of ten azoospermic patients 50%. In two patients of ten 20% were detected with deletion of AZFb region, deleted markers were sY117, sY127, sY134, sY143. Deletions affecting both AZFb and AZFc loci were found in two patients 20%, with non-obstructive azoospermia. In only one case (1/10) 10% were detected microdeletions in each region of AZF: AZFa-sY84, sY86, sY620, DBY1; AZFb- s Y117, sY127, sY134, sY143; AZFc- sY153, sY158, sY254, sY255; and presence of the SRY gene, in the patient with XX male syndrome. AZFa deletions have not been detected in either patient. In all men with AZF microdeletions of the Y chromosome we found severe spermatogenic defects: however, we also didn’t found, in all of them, mature sperm sufficient for ICSI. The patients were advised to use sperm from the donor for ICSI and IVF. Conclusions: Y chromosome microdeletions screening is important to define the aetiology of men with severe spermatogentic defects. This is important to provide a firm diagnosis and more effective solutions to couples with longstanding infertility, before ART.

  71. Salwa Mrayyan

    The study aimed to study the effectiveness of the Cooperative learning method of sixth-grade students' achievements in the decimals unit. A pilot study of forty-five sixth-graders students, arranged into three groups of fifteen students each, for two weeks. One-way analysis of variance shows that there was a statistically significant difference between all group’s achievement in the posttest, and applying (Student-Newman-Kaul's)test indicate that there was a statistical significance at (0.05) of the students' achievement between the traditional method and Cooperative teaching method, no significant difference between Cooperative learning groups.

  72. Dr. Koyel Mukherjee, Dr. Rudra Prasad Chatterjee, Dr. Mousumi Pal, Dr. Sk. Abdul Mahmud and Dr. Mehebuba Sultana

    Ameloblastoma is a locally aggressive, benign odontogenic neoplasm of ectodermal origin comprising of about 1% of the tumors and cysts of the jaws commonly appearing in the third to fifth decades of life. The most common site of occurrence is mandibular molar-ramus region. Despite being a benign entity, the tumor frequently shows local invasion with occasional metastasis. Amelobastoma in young persons are thought to be a rare entity which includes approximately 10-15% of all ameloblastomas. Plexiform amelobastoma with an unusual large size in a 20years old female is presented here, with its clinicopathological, radiological and histological features along with brief review of literature.

  73. Dr. Akshay Sharma, Dr. Kunwar S D S Guleria, Dr. Deeksha Sharma and Dr. Padam Negi

    Pentalogy of Cantrell is a rare syndrome which was first described in 1958 by James R Cantrell. As this syndrome is rare, it becomes more important for the radiologist to know about wide range of anomalies that can be easily detected by ultrasonography leading to early diagnosis and appropriate management. We present here a case of 23 year old primigravida whose ultrasound abdomen was done for fetal well being which showed anterior thoracoabdominal wall defect in fetus with herniation of the heart, liver and gut loops into the amniotic cavity.

  74. Dr. Durga, E.

    There are so many factors influence the mental state of the pregnant lady and that will in turn affect the foetus. A pleasant and happy mood is conducive to the health of the foetus whereas unhappiness, worry and other emotions like anger and anxiety of the pregnant lady will affect the foetus badly. It is said that depression and anxiety will be transferred to the foetus and will later hamper the mental health of the child. The maternal circumstances and a well planned regimen with dietetic follow ups along with developing a specific mental force i.e. Desire and temperamental disposition of mother gives desired effects on the coming child in respect of its constitution, colour,sex and to some extend its psychological trends. These all-physiological bases for prenatal child development should be studied in detail with its modern psychological views.

  75. Dr. Akshay Sharma, Dr. Deeksha Sharma and Dr. Pranav Pandoh

    Groove pancreatitis (GP) is a rare form of chronic pancreatitis that imitate pancreatic malignancy specifically adenocarcinoma. Groove pancreatitis involves pancreaticoduodenal groove which is potential space between the head of the pancreas, duodenum and common bile duct (CBD). Accurate radiological diagnosis of groove pancreatitis is a challenging task because of overlapping imaging findings with the pancreatic head neoplasm. Common radiological findings in groove pancreatitis include duodenal wall thickening, CBD stricture, enlargement of pancreatic head, pancreatic duct dilatation. In this paper we report a case of male patient with groove pancreatitis diagnosed on computed tomography and also review clinical and imaging features of groove pancreatitis.

  76. Dr. Santhi, B., Dr. Rao, B.L., Dr. Satyanarayana, T.S.V., Dr. Sravanthi, T.L.G., Dr. Satya Sai Sruthi, Y. and Dr. Parvathi, P.S.H.L.

    Aim of the study - To assess the incidence of different Kennedy's partially edentulous classification in the two Godavari districts and find its relationship with age, gender in 10 years at Lenora Institute of Dental Sciences, Rajanagaram. Objectives of the study: To evaluate the incidence of various Kennedy's classification of partial edentulous conditions, assess the gender ratio among the partially edentulous subjects and the epidemiological features of partial edentulousness in the age group 15-30,31-45,46-60 and above 60 years at Lenora Institute of Dental Sciences, Rajanagaram based on the post-treatment of Kennedy's classification situations. Materials and methods: Examined post-treatment patient records for various Kennedy's classes of partial edentulism in the department of prosthodontics, Lenora Institute of Dental Sciences, Rajanagaram, from 2010 to 2019. Results: A total of18046 post-treated patient records were found, out of which males were 9308 and females 8738. Patients with Kennedy's Class III were found more in number, and class IV was less. Conclusion: Kennedy's Class I was less in number thanClass III, whereas in females, Class I was more than other classes.

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