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June 2015

  1. Gusiyska, A.

    The root canal treatment is one of the most common dental procedures, the aim of which is to save natural teeth and prevent the need for dental implants or bridges. With contemporary advances in endodontic techniques, increasingly complicated cases are undertaken of general dental practitioners —with variable results. Unfortunately, as a consequence the majority of procedures carried out by endodontic specialists today are retreatments. The aim of this review article is to focus on some problems of endodontic treatment and their management.

  2. Dr. Dakshita Joy Sinha, Dr. Ashish Amit Sinha, Dr. Agrima Vasudeva and Dr. Natasha Jaiswal

    Introduction: Biocompatibility is fundamentally important to ensure the health of patients, dental staff members (including laboratory personnel) and practitioners themselves. Furthermore, the legal liability of dentists is often linked to biocompatibility issues. Practitioners should understand enough about biocompatibility testing methods to critically judge advertising claims and ask relevant questions of manufacturers. Data: Articles from 1942-2014 were studied and relevant articles were included in this review. Sources: The PubMed database search revealed that the reference list for biocompatibility of dental materials featured 1965 articles. A forward search was undertaken on selected articles, author names and contemporary dental material text. Study selection: Only articles on biocompatibility of commonly used dental materials were included. Review articles on biocompatibility were included. Articles from 1942-2009 (Oct 2014) were considered. Conclusions: Ultimately, each dentist must determine whether the benefits outweigh the risks for the patient under consideration. To avoid all risk is to deny the patient the tremendous benefits that materials have to offer.

  3. Animesh Biswas, Saidur Rahman Mashreky, Abu Sayeed Md Abdullah and Koustuv Dalal

    Background: Fall injuries are a major cause of morbidity and mortality. In the Bangladesh capital, Dhaka, there are numerous manholes and ditches in the road, which are a very dangerous hazard for anyone who falls in them. In many cases, these dangers are not protected or covered over. Objective: To explore the issue of urban falls, how the emergency rescue process is initiated and what the lessons learnt are from the tragic event involving a four year old boy who fell down an unprotected well. Methods: We are describing a case report for a four year old boy who fell into a pipe measuring 17” in diameter and 300ft in depth, which was on the roadside for a deep well water pump. Content analysis was captured and analyzed from the local and international media sources. Results: The Bangladesh Fire and Civil Defence Service responded and on the scene within 30 minutes after the disaster occurred. They tried to rescue the child in many ways, but sadly after 23 hours of trying, the child was finally rescued but had already died. Conclusions: An unusual case of a fall related injury of a child who died due to drowning in this study. The experience and lessons learnt from the tragic event is useful for the development of strategy to treat emergency management in low income settings.

  4. Rigoberto Fimia Duarte, Rolando Esteban Mondelo, Natividad Hernández Contreras, Zulema Menéndez Díaz, Lisvette Cruz Camacho and Raissa Alvarez Valdés

    Biological control, as alternative of confrontation of vector organisms, is becoming more necessary every day due to the development of resistance to insecticides. The objetive of this investigation consisted in identifying the species of copepods and fishes that inhabit in the fluvial ecosystems of Sancti Spíritus province, with emphasis in the species with best bio regulators qualities about larval populations of culicids. The investigation comprised the period 2000-2011. In the case of copepods, they are reported new records of the genus Mesocyclops from Cuba, where the species identified possess good bio regulators qualities; in especial, about the first immature phase or stage of mosquitoes. In relation to fluvial fishes, there were carried out six samplings in 90 fluvial ecosystems of eight municipalities from the province, where 15 species of fishes grouped in 12 geneses and six families were identified. It was demonstrated high bio regulator capacity of the species Gambusia punctata and Gambusia puncticulata, giving evidence of changes in the populations of the provincial current fluvial ictiofauna.

  5. Hegde Chethan, Shetty Ganaraj and Krishna Prasad, D.

    Temporomandibular muscle pain disorder comprise a broad array of peculiar disorder that produces symptoms of unpleasant feeling, discomfort and pain of temporomandibular joint and muscles of mastication. Self management instructions routinely inspire patients to restrict movement and rest their masticatory muscles by intentionally limiting their usage, the self management instructions also promote cognizant and encourage patients to reduce their parafunctional habits. The aim of this in vivo study is to evaluate the effectiveness of the moist heat fomentation therapy in relieving the symptoms of temporomandibular muscle pain dysfunction and to establish therapeutic value of a non invasive self managed treatment modality for temporomandibular joint muscle pain dysfunction.

  6. Pratibha Mehta and Rishi Mehta

    Introduction: The goal of cataract surgery has changed from mere restoration of vision to attaining spectacle independence. While the introduction of phacoemulsification and foldable monofocal IOLs led to spectacle free vision only for distance, multifocal IOLs led to complete spectacle independence for both distance as well as for near, but with its own set of drawbacks. Material and Methods: A prospective interventional study consisting of 50 eyes of 50 patients divided into two groups of 25 each. Group A underwent monofocal IOL implantation while group B underwent multifocal IOL implantation. Results: Group A didn’t experienced glare, haloes, reduction of contrast sensitivity and complete spectacle independence. Group B experienced glare and haloes in 12 (48%) patients, reduction of contrast sensitivity in 25 (100%) patients, and spectacle independence in 12 (48%) patients. Conclusion: Multifocal IOLs can lead to complete spectacle independence but associated with disturbing phenomenon of glare, halos and reduction in contrast sensitivity. Further improvement in design of multifocal IOLs is suggested.

  7. Muhammad Kashif, Sadia Minhas and A. H. Nagi

    Objectives: To determine the clinicopathological features and histopathological grading of oral squamous cell carcinoma in local patients. Material and Methods: A total of 127 patients presenting with various histological subtypes and grades of Oral Squamous Cell Carcinoma were recruited. Clinical and gross examination findings including age, gender, laterality, site of tumor and ulceration had been recorded. Microscopically tumour subtype and histological grading according to Anneroth’s grading system was carried out. Results: The mean age of patients was 51.46±12.286 years and male to female ratio was 1.5:1 with 76 (59.8%) males and 51 (40.2%) females. The most common presenting complaint was non healing ulcer which was present in n=84 (66.1%) patients. Out of 127 patients well differentiated and moderately differentiated tumours were seen in (n=57, 44.9%) in each grade respectively whereas only (n=13, 10.2%) were poorly differentiated. The predominant site of involvement was tongue (46%) followed by buccal mucosa (39%). The statistical relation between gender and site of involvement it was found to be significant (p=0.01). Conclusion: The most common sites for OSCC are tongue and buccal mucosa. The most common histological subtype is conventional squamous cell carcinoma while well differentiated and moderately differentiated tumours form the largest number.

  8. Fatemeh Montazer, Farshad Naghshvar and Samaneh Ranjbar

    A 60 years old man with a past history of right renal stone 10 years ago presented with right flank pain for 1 year and gross Hematuria. CT Scan shows right renal mass. Nephrectomy was done. Specimen was subjected for histopathology which confirmed findings of high grade TCC in renal pelvis that extended into renal parenchyma and reach to renal capsule.

  9. Kashi, Giti

    Consumption of drinking water with high concentration of sulphatewas resulted in osmotic diarrhoea, especially in infants. The aim of this applied-analytical study was to investigate sulphate removal from urban drinking water using batch reactor electrochemical. I examined sulphate removal efficiency in different operating cases of the variables current density (1 to 8 mA/cm2), electrodes material (aluminium, copper, iron, steel, and zinc), pH (6 to 8), and time (5 to 40 min). I determined sulphate according to procedure detailed in standard methods. Batch experiments showed that the maximum sulphate removal obtained using zinc-copper as the anode-cathode electrode arrangement. The increase in current density from 1 to 8 mA / cm2 in at optimum electrode and pH increased sulphate removal from 71 to 100%. The increase in time from 5 to 40 min at optimum electrode and pH increased sulphate removal from 67 to 100%.

  10. Birhanu Hailu, Getachew Gari, Tadele Tolosa, Belay Beyene and Teshale Teklue

    Lumpy skin disease is one of economically important cattle diseases in small holder farmers and livestock industries. A study was carried out between October 2011 and February 2012 in selected districts of Afar and Tigray regional states to assess financial impacts of lumpy skin disease and benefits obtained from control interventions. Structured questionnaires were used to collect data on the epidemiological variables and production losses of the disease. Purposive sampling was used to select households who experienced the LSD during the last one year in their respective herds, and willingness of the livestock owners to participate in the study. Financial estimation was done in four study districts which consist of 15 kebeles where clinical LSD affected herds were reported. A total of 267 questionnaires were administered to the herd owners which owned totally 3442 animals and out of which 379 animals were affected by the disease. The cumulative incidence and mortality rate of LSD in the study group were found to be 11% (95% CI: 0.99-12) and 2 %( 95% CI: 1.5-2.3) respectively. The percentage of production losses associated with the disease was estimated to be 3.26%, 2.52% and 1.2% for milk loss, draft power loss and beef loss respectively. The production losses per head of cattle were 11USD and the net benefit of the control through annual vaccination per head was 4USD. Thus, the herd owners should use annual vaccination against LSD in order to sustain and secure their production and productivity.

  11. Ibrahim, A. G., Aliyu, S., Tahir M. B. and Zarami, A. B.

    Background: Stone – associated squamous cell carcinoma is rare unlike other urothelial tumours, and it is a disease of neglect seen in the elderly harboring stone for a long time. It is usually aggressive with fatal outcome. Patients and Methods: The study reviewed all patients with stone – associated squamous cell carcinoma of the urinary bladder managed in the University of Maiduguri Teaching Hospital, State Specialist Hospital Maiduguri, and Specialist Hospital Damaturu between January 2005 and December 2014. Emergency presentations were resuscitated with analgesics, antibiotics, intravenous fluids, blood transfusion, and hemodialysis where necessary. Operable patients had surgery under general anesthesia. Results: A total of 13 patients were studied age ranged from 33 – 88 years, with a mean of 69.08 years, and male to female ratio of 3.33: 1. Duration of symptoms ranged from 2 – 27 years. Complications at presentations were UTI in 92.31%, anemia in 84.62%, impaired renal function in 61.54%, and vesico- cutaneous fistula in 15.38%. The clinical stages (Marshall’s) at presentation were stage 2 in 15.38%, stage 3 in 53.8, and stage 4 in 23.08%. Histology revealed squamous cell carcinoma in all patients, 38.46% were moderately differentiated, and 30.77% poorly differentiated. The postoperative complications were acute renal failure in 23.08%, and metabolic acidosis in 30.77%. There were 23.08% mortalities. The one year survival rate was 46.15%. Conclusion: Stone – associated SCC occur in patients with long - standing bladder stone that had no access to healthcare or neglected.

  12. Ibrahim, A. G., Aliyu, S., Tahir, M. B and Babayo, U. D.

    Background: Vesical calculus is fairly common especially in the arid and semi arid regions of the World especially in the developing countries where is associated with lower socioeconomic status. Majority of vesical calculi occur on a background lower urinary tract obstruction. The study aimed at evaluating the pattern, presentation, and management outcome. Patients and Methods: The study reviewed all patients with bladder calculi between January 2010 to December 2014 in University of Maiduguri Teaching Hospital (UMTH). The diagnosis of vesical calculus was made by clinical evaluation supported by laboratory investigations. Patients with concomitant obstructive uropathy (Benign prostatic enlargement, urethral stricture, and bladder neck stenosis) were thoroughly evaluated and planned for definitive treatment during which bladder stone were extracted. In children open cystolithotomy was combined with definitive treatment for posterior urethral valve, impacted urethral stone, and meatal stenosis. Results: A total of 116 patients were studied age ranged from 18 months to 97 years with male to female ratio of 27: 1. Seventy four, 63.79% were farmers, and 25.86% were children. The peak age groups were children under ten years accounting for 25.86. The presenting clinical features were poor urinary stream, and strangury/pain occurring in 100% of the patients. Others were Hematuria in 32.76%, passage of stone in 15.52%, and improvement in urinary stream with change in posture in 27.59%. Complication at presentation was acute urinary retention (AUR) in 47.41%, and urinary tract infection (UTI) in 19.83%. ` Majority of the stones occurred as a result of obstructive uropathy with prostatic enlargement accounting for 34.48%. The largest stone recorded weighed 1.45kg. The postoperative complications were surgical site infection, and vesicocutaneous fistula in 3.45% each. Conclusions: Vesical calculi are fairly common in the extreme of ages, majority of which are associated with obstructive uropathy making open cystolithotomy a formidable option enabling the surgeon to deal with the obstructing causes at the same sitting.

  13. Ibrahim, A. G., Aliyu, S., Ali, N. and Lawan, A. M.

    Background: Infertility is a major concern in clinical practice due to its impact on the psychosocial life of the patient. Varicocele has been established as a leading cause of infertility. The study reviewed varicocele associated infertility and the outcome of its management. Aim: To review varicocele associated infertility and the effect of varicocelectomy on the outcome of management. Patient and methods: All patients with varicocele associated infertility managed in UMTH between January 2007 and December 2011 were studied. Results: Forty seven patients were analysed. Age ranged from 21 – 53 years with a mean of 37.28 years and SD of 6.89, with peak age group 31 – 40 years. Associated medical conditions were hypertension, diabetes and obesity. Bilateral varicocele was seen in 37. Seminal fluid analysis showed normal in 27.66%, oligospermia in 32.30% and azospermia in 34.04%. Hormonal assay revealed normal findings in 44.68%, hyperprolactinaemia in 23.40%, low testosterone in 19.15% and both hyperprolactinaemia and low testosterone in 12.76%. Testicular biopsy showed normal 6.38%, arrest of spermatogenesis at various stages in 14.89%, while in 12.77% there was no evidence of viable spermatogenesis. Responses to treatment were complete in 34.04%, partial in 38.30%, while 27.66% did not respond to treatment. The optimum response was seen 18 months after varicocelectomy.

  14. Ekta Gupta and Dr. Rosy Lekharu

    Thyroid dysfunction is an endocrine disorder commonly associated with Type-II Diabetes mellitus though their correlation is yet to be clearly understood. This study was conducted to establish a correlation between blood glucose level and thyroid profile in type-II Diabetic Mellitus patients. The study involved two groups: Case group and Control group. 50 patients of type-II Diabetes Mellitus having high circulating levels of Thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) were considered as Case group and 50 non diabetic, healthy individuals having normal thyroid level were taken as the Control group. The study was conducted at Gujarat Cancer Society Medical College, Hospital and Research Center, Ahmedabad. Serum Glucose and thyroid hormones- thyroxine and triiodothyronine (Total T4 and T3) and thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) were measured. Determination of serum hormones concentration was carried out using highly sensitive RIA technique. The results indicated a strong interrelation between recognition and treatment of thyroid dysfunction and management of Type-II Diabetes mellitus patients as this condition affects glycemic control.

  15. Dr. Rita Mittal, Dr. Santosh Minhas and Dr. Suresh

    PRES develops frequently in patients of eclampsia/severe PET. Hypertension is absent in ∼25% of patients and, when present, does not typically reach the level of failed autoregulation.When neurological symptoms occur in a patient of eclampsia or severe PET,MRI/CT should be requested to make early diagnosis of PRES for effective treatment and thus complete recovery.

  16. Imran Gattoo, Khurshid Ahmad Wani, Altaf Hussain Kambay, Mumta Chauhan and Tajamul Sherrazi

    This case report describes a pediatric patient with congenital prolidase deficiency, a rare, autosomal recessive metabolic disorder with severe dermatological manifestations, particularly ulcers of the lower extremities. While this condition has been very rarely reported with around 70 cases reported in literature till recently, it may be more common than previously acknowledged. Our case report is about a fifteen year-old girl with prolidase deficiency presenting with ulcerations on the feet and lower legs and her other sib with a similar history of recurrenr ulcerations predominantly on lower extremities. Clinical presentation and the pathogenesis of prolidase deficiency are also discussed.

  17. Yasir Hamadna-Allah Ahmed, Nazar Omer Ahmed, Hager Osman Mohammed, A. and Nasr Eldin M. A. Shrif

    Background: Gonadotropin (FSH) and testosterone abnormalities are usually associated with abnormal spermatogenesis. Aim: This study aimed to evaluate Follicle stimulating hormone and Testosterone among Sudanese infertile population. Methods and Materials: The frequent descriptive cross-sectional study was conducted during the period from October 2014 to March 2015 in which a total of ninety infertile men all over three years of infertile condition and ten age-matched controls with proven fertility were selected for the study. Follicle stimulating hormone (FSH) and testosterone levels were estimated by fully automated AIA 360 (TOSOH) using the manufacturer kits. The participants' semen sample were collected and proceeded according to WHO manual guidelines. The data and the hormonal results were analyzed using SPSS version 16. Results: A hundred participants volunteered in this study, ten of them were fertile and ninety were infertile. All of the participants fall into age ranged from (25-60 years). Out of 90 infertile males, 69(76.7%) were azospermic and 21(23.3%) were oligospermic. In comparing FSH and Testosterone levels of infertile and fertile group, it's appear that there is a significant statistical relationship (P value = 0.000). When comparing the means of FSH, and Testosterone regarding infertile subgroups of azospermia and oligospermia it found that there was statistical significant relationship of Testosterone hormone (P value = 0.01), unlike FSH hormone which revealed insignificant relation (P value 0.54) Conclusion: Elevation levels of gonadotropin (FSH) hormone and decreasing levels of Testosterone hormone will directly affect the spermatogensis process leading to condition known as infertility.

  18. Saima Hussain, Anoop Bhushan, Vaibhav Joshi, Shobhit Arora and Nada Ali

    The evolution of periodontal plastic surgical techniques allowed the clinician to meet growing expectations and demands of today's dental patient. Newer techniques are evolving in restorative dentistry and periodontics to treat these defects to improve the esthetics, form and functions of the dentition. Aims: to determine the stability of the horizontal augmentation of the anterior maxilla using particulate bovine allograft under a membrane. The hypothesis to be tested was that bovine particulate graft material is effective for augmenting the narrow ridge of the anterior maxilla and can maintain its augmentation dimension over time. Case description: A 18year old boy presented with periodontally compromised maxillary central incisors due to trauma with no Buccal cortical bone present which was treated by extraction of the insiciors with augmentation of the alveolar bone using bone graft under a gtr membrane. Long term growth and development of clinical research in soft tissue and hard tissues has provided a means of treating problems of inadequate alveolar ridges necessary for restorative procedures. Multiple surgical procedures may be required to achieve predictable results. The technique described in this case report allows the gtr membrane over the graft to be folded before it is placed under the vestibular flap, favoring the gain in tissue volume with promising results without any postsurgical complication. Conclusion: soft tissue ridge augmentation resulted in 100% restoration of the ridge defect in anterior dentition. Clinical significance: As the thickness of connective tissue graft is limited in anterior palatal region, this technique is predictable for all types of ridge defects and can be used for routine patients.

  19. Dr. Swathy Moorthy

    Hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis is an unusual syndrome characterized by fever, splenomegaly, jaundice and the pathological finding of hemophagocytosis (phagocytosis by the macrophages of erythrocytes, leucocytes, platelets and their precursors) in bone marrow and other tissues.HLH may be diagnosed in association with malignant, genetic or autoimmune diseases but is also predominantly linked with Ebstein-Barr Virus (EBV) infection. Hyperproduction of cytokines including interferon gamma and tumour necrosis factor-alpha by EBV infected T lymphocytes may play a role in the pathogenesis of HLH. Here we present a young female who presented with HLH associated with EBV infection. The rapid deterioration of clinical condition with multisystem involvement mandates a strong suspicion for the possibility of HLH. Such a clinical scenario in the presence of high ferritin and triglycerides with low fibrinogen helps in timely diagnosis and prompt initiation of immunosuppressant therapy; thereby improving the outcome of a fatal disease.

  20. Aziz Uz Zama, Sushil Yadav and Rahul P. Kotian

    Background: Computed radiography which can capture a latent analog images, which is been then digitized in the Reader. During the translation process there is a chances were artifacts can be produced in the image which can result in non-clinically acceptable for diagnosis. Aim: The aim of this study is to evaluate the CR artifacts, with frequency of occurrence and the types of artifacts occurring with remedial measures. Materials and Methods: Sampling was done by convenience sampling method considering inclusion and exclusion criteria and a sample of 550 was taken frequency of images with artefact and without artefact was calculated Further the artefacts were categorised in two groups as Image processing artefacts and Image Acquisition artefacts and their frequency of occurrence was calculated and statically analyzed. Result: Out of 550 images with artefact were 184 (33%) and without artefact was 366 (67%). Among 184 images with artefacts, 102 images were with image acquisition artefacts which form 55.4% and 82 images were with image processing artefacts which form 44.5% of total images with artefacts. Conclusion: Appropriate periodical maintenance and QA may be helpful to produce optimum quality image and quality patient care, decreasing CR artefacts and avoiding repeat radiographs thus optimizes the radiation exposure to patient and radiographer.

  21. Abhinaya, J., Sudar Codi, R., Yuti Nakhwa and Manimekalai, K.

    Background: Acne vulgaris, a common skin disorder is treated by multitargeted approach. There is scarce data evaluating adapalene in combination with other drugs. Objectives: We compared the efficacy and safety of efficacy of topical combination of 1% Clindamycin and 0.1% Adapalene with 2.5% Benzoyl peroxide and 0.1% Adapalene in mild to moderate acne. Methods: 80 patients, attending outpatient department of dermatology with mild to moderate acne vulgaris as per Indian Acne Alliance grading were randomised into two groups with 40 patients in each group. Group A received topical 1% Clindamycin and 0.1% Adapalene and group B received 2.5% Benzoyl peroxide and 0.1% Adapalene. The efficacy of the drugs was evaluated at 4, 8 and at 12 weeks follow up by spot counting of acne lesions on face. The number of inflammatory lesions (pustules, papules) and non inflammatory lesions (open and closed comedones) were noted and compared between the two groups. Results: The mean number of lesions namely comedones, papules, pustules and nodules were counted for each group during each visit and compared between the groups. There was no statistically significant difference in the reduction of lesions between both the groups (p > 0.001). There was slightly higher irritation with the adapalene benzoyl peroxide group but was statistically insignificant. Conclusion: Hence both the combinations can be safely prescribed to the patients.

  22. Mohd Faizal, A., Soon R., Narwani H. and Suhaila A.

    Objective: To compare the efficacy and safety between transcervical Foley catheter and hygroscopic mechanical dilator for induction of labour in women agreed for vaginal birth after caesarean section (VBAC) with unfavorable cervix at term. Study Design: This is a prospective randomized controlled trial conducted at a tertiary hospital on 60 women who agreed for trial of vagina delivery after cesarean section and required induction of labour due to various indications. The first group, 30 women underwent induction with 60 ml Foley catheter whereas the second group, 30 women had underwent induction with laminaria tent. The monitoring and induction procedure was standardized between both groups. Outcomes that were measured after 24 hours of induction were the obstetrics outcome of both devices such as Bishop’s score changes and successful induction rate in term of vagina delivery. Others outcomes were maternal and fetal complication related to delivery such as post partum hemorrhage, infection and immediate Apgar score for neonate upon delivery. The economic outcome was also compared for both devices in relation to cost of induction and total cost of hospital stay. Results: Among 60 patients, 30 patients were induced with Foley catheter whereas another 30 patients were induced with laminaria tent. All demographic data were comparable between both groups (P>0.05). There was no statistical significant increase in the Bishop score for all cases with the mean were 1.57(0.87) for the entire cohort (Foley’s: 4.20 to 5.77; Laminaria: 4.10 to 5.26; P>0.05). The rate of successful induction was 55% with vaginal birth accounting for 53.3% whereas the rate of caesarean section was 46.7% of all cases (Foley’s: SVD; 18 (60%) /CS; 12(40%), Laminaria: SVD; 14(46.7%) / CS; 16(53.3%), P>0.05). The incidence of complication such as post partum hemorrhage was recorded in 10 cases (16.7%) (Foley’s: 6 (10%); Laminaria: 4 (6.68%); P>0.05). and Apgar score less than 9 was observed in 3 cases (5%) (Foley’s: 2 (6.7%); Laminaria: 1 (3.3%); P>0.05). Higher mean total economic cost (induction and hospitalization) was observed in laminaria group (Foley’s: RM 105; Laminaria: RM163) although not statistical significant (P>0.05). None of the patients and newborn showed any clinical signs of infection during the study period. Implication for practice: This study concluded that both devices are equally safe and efficacious as induction agent with no increase risk of infection and uterine rupture in women with previous caesarean section. Foley catheter would be an effective and cheaper alternative for induction agent in places where laminaria are not available especially in rural area in Sabah.

  23. Zahra Mehrani, Ali Khaneh Keshi and Mohammad Kazem Fakhri

    The purpose of this study was to examine the effectiveness of life skill training on mental health, positive thinking and marital adjustment of married women in mobilization bases of Karaj city. The study was an experimental one with pre-test-posttest control group design. The data were collected by running the General Health Questionnaire (Goldberg and Hiller, 1979) , Munch's scale of happiness (Kuzma and Stones, 2000) and marital adjustment scale (Spanir , 1976 ) on 265 women who were selected through random clustering method. Out of 265 women, 138 persons were at a lower level at the same time in terms of the mentioned variables. Then, 80 participants were selected through simple random sampling technique and assigned into experimental and control group randomly. Experimental group was subjected to life skills training in 10 session including3 skills of self-awareness, effective communication, and problem-solving. At the end of training, a posttest was conducted on two groups, and the number of participants was 60 after falling and dropping. Data were analyzed using multivariate analysis of covariance. Results showed that the effect of life skill training on the combined dependent variable and also dependent variables was significant independently. The findings indicated the improvement of mental health, positive thinking, and marital adjustment of married women due to the impact of skill life training. Effect size analysis showed that skill life training affected positive thinking more.

  24. Ilankoon Mudiyanselage Prasanthi Sumudrika Ilankoon, Christine Sampatha Evangeline Goonewardena, Poruthotage Pradeep Rasika Perera and Rukshan Fernandopulle

    Early detection of pathological vaginal discharge is important to prevent complications of underlying diseases which can severely compromise women’s health, fertility and survival. A review of the published literature was performed to describe health seeking behaviours and cultural practices related to vaginal discharge among women in reproductive age group. This review involved searching databases using the search terms such as vaginal symptoms/ discharge, reproductive disorders, health seeking, self-management. Twenty six original articles which included in to the study were regarding reproductive tract infections involving women aged 15 to 49 years and published in English between 1990 and 2014. The most commonly reported reproductive tract symptom was vaginal discharge. Majority of women consider stress, body weakness, poor personal hygiene, body heat, eating hot foods and bad luck as causes for vaginal discharge. Women’s lack of knowledge regarding the causes leads to inability in differentiating normality of vaginal discharge. Many women expressed that embarrassment, anxiety and shame related to disclosing vaginal discharge leads to use of variety of home remedies. Women’s lack of knowledge on the pathological vaginal discharge and use of different cultural practices make them delay in seeking medical advice for pathological vaginal discharge. Culture specific health education programmes and strategies need to be designed to provide effective health care towards prevention of consequences of untreated pathological vaginal discharge.

  25. Wade, M.R. and Sapcota, D.

    Aflatoxins (AF), the toxic secondary metabolites produced by Aspergillus flavus and Aspergillus parasiticus, are a major concern in the poultry production. The dietary aflatoxins reduce weight gain, feed intake, and increase feed conversion ratio. Aflatoxicosis significantly reduced the carcass traits. Affected birds show poor vaccine response and low antibody titre, as both cellular and humoral immunities are affected .Although numerous detoxification methods have been tested, none seems able to fulfill the efficacy, safety, safeguarding of nutritional elements and costs requisites of a detoxification process. This paper reviews the detoxification methods by using esterified glucomannan (Mycosorb) in aflatoxicated birds

  26. Raghuwanshi Gajendra and Aggarwal Sumit, S.

    Introduction: The goal of fracture treatment is to obtain union of the fracture in the most compatible anatomical position which allows maximal functional restoration of the extremity. The increase in stability provided by Locking Compressive Plates (LCP) is most helpful to surgeons treating a fracture in poor-quality bone, a comminuted bicondylar fracture. Aims: To show efficacy and outcome of Locking Compression Plate (LCP) implantation in lower limb fractures (mainly in femur and tibia). Study design: Prospective descriptive study. Methodology: Study was conducted in Department of orthopedics, Government Medical College and Hospital, Akola (Maharashtra, India) from January 2013 to December 2013. All patients of lower limb fracture (femur and tibia) treated by LCP implantation were included in the study. Result: Supracondylar femur fracture (38.4%) found to be most common fracture among lower limbs fractures. Majority of the cases 55 (70.5%) were injured due to road traffic accident (RTA). Majority of cases of distal femur fracture, distal tibia fracture, and proximal tibia fracture had shown excellent results. Conclusion: Complications associated with the plate were few and the functional outcome was excellent. Thus, many of the common complications of the conventional plating can possibly be avoided. We therefore recommend the use of locking plate, especially in elderly patients with osteoporotic bone and comminuted fracture.

  27. Betty Lebona, G. and Radhika, M.

    Today’s children are tomorrow’s citizen. A healthy child is a priceless asset of the country. The normal growth of a child is dependent on the knowledge of their parents, especially of their mothers. Growth is nothing but the physical maturation of the child. During childhood, growth is a complex process. Unless better understood, parents feel anxious and can’t deal with it. Methodology: A descriptive- cross sectional study was undertaken to assess the knowledge of mothers of school children, Nellore. The sample size was 200 mothers of school children and the Non-probability convenience sampling technique was used for selection of the subjects. Semi structured questionnaire was used to assess the knowledge of mothers. Results: The results regarding knowledge of mothers regarding normal growth revealed that with regard to knowledge of mothers regarding normal growth 25 (12.5%) have poor knowledge,106 (53%) have average knowledge, 69 (34.5%) have adequate knowledge. With regard to socio-demographic variables, 89 (44.5%) were between 27-30 years, 70 (35%) studied higher secondary education, 101 (50.5%) had more than two children, 90 (45%) were private employees, 80 (40%) earn Rs.6500-9000, 134 (67%) were residing in rural area, 149 (74.5%) are non-vegetarians, 96 (49%) got information from relatives. Conclusion: The mothers of school going children have inadequate knowledge regarding normal growth.

  28. Dr. Chinmay Gandhi and Dr. Padmanabh Inamdar

    Aim/Objectives: Major concern of inguinal hernia repair is recurrences and chronic groin pain. Aim of this study is to know the delayed complications like recurrence and chronic groin pain after Lichtenstein hernioplasty and to share our experience of Lichtenstein hernioplasty. Methods: We conducted Observational study of 150 unilateral groin hernias operated in our institute with Lichtenstein technique. Data was collected after indoor case paper review and after postoperative follow-up in Outpatient department and by telephonic conversation. Duration of study was between September 2011 to September 2014. At the end of study our data was compared with the other published data. The comparison was done in percentages of recurrence and percentages of chronic groin pain. Results: End point in our study was recurrence and chronic groin pain after minimal 3 months of surgery. There was 0.66 % recurrence and 10.6% mild chronic groin pain. There was mild chronic pain in all cases, relived by mild analgesics. There was not a single case of moderate to severe pain requiring nerve block or surgical intervention. Conclusion: Least recurrence and least chronic groin pain can be achieved with Lichtenstein hernioplasty.

  29. Gigini George and Kanmani Job

    Purpose: The study focused on identifying the precipitant factors related to the onset of seizure attack in person with epilepsy (PWE) and to develop a teaching module on preventable precipitating factors (PF). Materials and Methods: A semi structured interview schedule was used to assess the seizure PF among 100 patients with epilepsy in the last and past seizure attack attending the epilepsy clinic of Amrita Institute of Medical Sciences, Kochi. (AIMS) Descriptive and inferential biostatistics was used to analyse the data. Results: 72% of the participants identified at least one PF. The first three PF reported in the last seizure attack and past attack were sleep deprivation 58(58%), missing anti epileptic drug 34(34%) emotional stress 21(21%), and sleep deprivation 45(45%), missing anti epileptic drug 21(21%), emotional stress 17(17%) respectively. Conclusion: Prompt recognition and management of seizure precipitants has practical implications for treating patients with refractory epilepsy. Such patients can be counselled to avoid the specific seizure precipitants.

  30. Dr. B. Manjulatha, Dr. P. Padmasri and Dr. T. Prathibha Sravanthi

    Anemia is directly or indirectly responsible for 40% of maternal mortality in India. In spite of National anemia control programme the prevalence of Iron deficiency anemia in pregnant women continues to be high in our country. The present study was conducted in Government Maternity Hospital, S.V. Medical College, Tirupati to compare the efficacy of Oral iron and Intravenous iron sucrose. Intravenous iron sucrose administration showed statistically significant improvement in hemoglobin level of 2.95gm/dl and PCV rise of 7.34% within a short time, compared to oral iron. Target level of hemoglobin i.e. 11gm% was achieved in 34% of women given intravenous iron sucrose, compared to none in oral group within a period of six weeks. In view of the failure of oral iron in the correction of anemia to significant extent in pregnant women with moderate anemia intravenous administration of iron under supervision is a better alternative for women with moderate anemia.

  31. Dr. Abhinav Aggarwal and Dr. Aakriti Kapoor Aggarwal

    Cystic hygromas are manifestations of early lymphatic failure. They appear as simple or multi-septated fluid collections, most commonly at nuchal region. Prenatal diagnosis of cystic hygroma can be made within 2nd trimester of pregnancy. Hydrops fetalis is defined as accumulation of fluid in serous cavities and/ or edema of soft tissues in the fetus. Incidence of fetal hydrops is approximately 1 in 2500 to 3500 neonates with incidence co-existence of hydrops and cystic hygroma even rarer. We here present a case of a fetus of 14 weeks gestational age with diagnosis of large cystic hygroma complicating to fetal hydrops.

  32. Prasanna Ramana, A., Vineetha, K. R., Nagarathnamma, T. and Sathyanarayan, M. S.

    Klebsiella spp. are commonly encountered bacterial pathogens. β-lactamases produced in Klebsiella spp are mainly AmpC and Extended spectrum β-lactamases (ESBLs). ESBLs, confer resistance to penicillins, cephalosporins and monobactams but are inhibited by clavulanic acid. AmpC β-lactamases confer resistance to oximino cephalosporins, alpha methoxy beta lactams and monobactams. In the present study, a total of 100 isolates of Klebsiella spp. from various clinical specimenswere processed in the Department of Microbiology, Bangalore Medical College and Research Institute, Bengaluru for detection of antibiogram pattern, ESBL and AmpC production. Antimicrobial susceptibility testing by Kirby-Bauer technique was done according to Clinical Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI) 2012 recommendations and detection of ESBL production was performed by Phenotypic confirmatory method recommended by CLSI. AmpC production was initially screened using Cefoxitin resistance and later confirmed by the use of an inhibitor based method employing Boronic acid. 32 Klebsiella spp. isolates were found to be pure AmpC producers and 2 isolates were noted to have co-existence of ESBL and AmpC. The study revealed a high prevalence of AmpC producing Klebsiella spp. in our hospital, being most susceptible to Piperacillin - Tazobactam. A multidisciplinary approach to infection control with greater emphasis on detection of antimicrobial resistance among Gram negative bacteria accompanied by rational antimicrobial usage is needed to counter the infections of ESBL and AmpC producing pathogens.

  33. Dr. Puneet S. Shirbur and Dr. Vishal S. Nimbal

    Fahr’s syndrome is a rare condition presenting with symmetrical bilateral intracranial calcifications. A 62 year old female presented with psychosis and generalized tonic-clonic seizures. Her neurological examination was normal. Computerized Tomography of brain revealed extensive symmetrical calcifications in bilateral basal ganglia, thalami, bilateral centrum semiovale subcortical white matter, pons and dentate nuclei.

  34. Dr. Santosh Kamble, Dr. Prakash Mane, Dr. Jondhale, P. B., Dr. Rohani, S. G. and *,Dr. Shende Krushnadev Laxman

    Amavata is disease caused by vitiation of Vata by Ama, which is the product of incomplete digestion and metabolism. Agni in Ayurveda includes the digestive processes of gastrointestinal tract as well as the metabolic processes in the tissues. Ama could therefore be produced by flawed digestion in gastrointestinal tract or in the tissues by defective metabolic processes. Ama thus produced is said to circulate and block the vessel of the joints and get deposited there causing inflammation by producing symptoms such as stiffness, swelling, and tenderness in small and big joints, making a person lame. The symptoms of Amavata are identical to rheumatism, which include rheumatoid arthritis and rheumatic fever. It is observed that rheumatism is an autoimmune disorder, which is among the collagen disorders having strong and significant parlance with Amavata. Various drug trials were already carried out on Amavata, yet there is a lacuna in the management of Amavata. Hence, in the present clinical study, 30 patients were selected and kept on ‘Alambushadi Churna. All the patients were investigated for complete blood count, RA titer, ASO titer, CRP titer, urine routine, and microscopic, before and after treatment. The collected data was distributed according to age, sex, and prakruti, and a t-test was applied for the clinical assessment of the subjective and objective parameters of ‘Alambushadi Churna.

  35. Dr. Gautam Rawal and Dr. Sankalp Yadav

    Sepsis and severe sepsis are one of the leading causes of significant morbidity and mortality among the critical patients despite the use of broad spectrum antibiotics and fluid resuscitation therapies. Microbiological cultures which are considered the gold standard to diagnose sepsis require time. The rapid diagnosis of sepsis still remains a challenge for the clinicians thus requiring the role of a biomarker for early and rapid detection and also the prognosis in septicemia. Procalcitonin has been proposed as sepsis biomarker as it rises early in sepsis and has also been found to have a significant role in antibiotic stewardship and monitoring the efficacy of the treatment. The level of procalcitonin along with the clinical and other laboratory parameters can help in early detection and management of sepsis. This short review intends to provide an overview of the procalcitonin and its importance.

  36. Vijayashree Shivprasad, Vijaya A Naik, Mahantshetti, N. S. and Javali, M. S.

    Introduction: The prevalence of Low Birth weight in India is 28% as compared to 6-7% among developed countries, the major burden being Intra Uterine Growth Retardation. Low Birth weight (<2.5kg) babies pose an increased risk of Morbidities and leads to impairment in growth and development. There are numerous factors contributing to low birth weights, which includes maternal, paternal and socio-demographic factors. Objectives: To study the prevalence of low birth weight in a rural community and to study the association of various factors on the prevalence of low birth weight. Methods: A cross sectional study in a rural community of South India. Study population constitutes 285 babies born during study period in the primary health center area of Vantamuri. Results: Out of 285 infants, 13.68% of the children were low birth weight (<2.5 kg). Maternal factors associated with low birth weight includes mother’s education, iron intake during pregnancy, birth order, maternal age and pregnancy induced hypertension (P<0.05). Paternal factors associated with low birth weight were literacy status, occupation and number of dependents (p<0.05). Conclusion: Majority of the factors associated with Low birth weight are preventable. The focus should be on health education and periodic monitoring of pregnant women.

  37. Dr. Adnan Bashir Bhatti and Muhammad Usman

    Obesity has emerged as one of the leading medical challenges of the 21st century. Obesity occurs as a result of imbalance between energy input and output and is tightly linked with metabolic diseases. Hypothalamus, a critical portion of the brain, regulates varied number of physiological processes including energy balance and nutrient metabolism. One of many theories explaining obesity proposes that weight gain is caused by dysfunction of the hypothalamic neurons that regulate energy homeostasis. A possible cause of neuronal dysfunction is inflammation. This inflammation has been implicated in leptin and insulin hormone resistance resulting defective food intake. An epidemic of obesity has forced us to evaluate the role of hypothalamic inflammation in the health implications of obesity.

  38. Dr. Adnan Bashir Bhatti, M. D. and Muhammad Usman

    Asperger’s syndrome is grouped under the umbrella of Autistic Spectrum Disorders (ASD). This syndrome is usually undermined and remains undiagnosed despite its high prevalence among the psychiatric population. Such individuals usually find it difficult to establish social interactions and are involved in repetitive and sometimes futile activities. One point of concern is the tendency of such individuals to get involved in acts of violence and sexual offence. It has been reported, by a number of studies and case reports, that people suffering from Asperger’s syndrome are more likely to be involved in acts of violence and sexual abuse as compared to the general population. The quality of research available in this regard is not satisfactory and data available is scanty. But, based on the information we’ve so far, it can be safely assumed that there exists a positive correlation between Asperger’s and these variables (acts of violence and sexual offence). The plausible mechanism for such behavior in suffers of this syndrome is the lack of Theory of Mind (TOM). More research is needed in order to confirm these preliminary findings. Moreover, research is also needed to successful identity and rectify the risk factors and causes that might trigger such behavior in Asperger’s suffers.

  39. Campanale, M., Calabrese, A., Montanaro, A and Capozzi, R.

    Research findings of microbial monitoring at the archaeological site of Monte Sannace have indicated high levels of bacteria, especially on the inner walls of the painted tombs, as tomb no. 8 (range: 16 - 56 CFU/ml). Tomb no. 105 was rich in organic matter (range: 10.34 - 16.33 g/Kg), organic carbon (range: 6 - 9.47 g/Kg) and biological growth was not very high (range: 0 - 15 CFU/ml). Research findings have demonstrated that deterioration in each kind of tomb was very different. In no. 8 deterioration was caused by natural agents and, at the same time, by anthropogenic factors: the roof as well as chemical products used for conservation has helped speed microorganism growth. Principal aim of this study was to provide information on the degradation processes and to predict areas at risk in conservation. We also studied potential risk of biological colonisation of newly exposed rock samples. Surveys were performed in three stages: before, during and after restoration.

  40. Dr. Sukhada Shinde

    Shortage of water leads to drought stress. Drought stress causes generation of activated oxygen species (AOS) in plants. To overcome water shortage problem plants shows some adaptive mechanism such antioxidant defense and accumulation of osmolytes or osmoprotectants against “AOS”. Activity of enzymes such as catalase (CAT), proxidase (POD) and amylase, protein content and accumulation rate of osmoregulants such as proline and carbohydrate were studied in different Durum Wheay cultivars. The results suggest that water stress increased the activity of enzymes and rate of accumulation of proline and carbohydrate in both cultivars. But out of these two cultivars rain fed cultivar showed significant response during drought stress.

  41. Keremoole Subraya Tulsi Naik, Anjana Raj, Siddamaddappa Chandrashekaran and Kirgandur Manjunath

    A cancer biomarker refers to a substance or process that is indicative of the presence of cancer it may be a molecule secreted by a tumor or a specific response of the body to the presence of cancer. Background: The aim of the present study is to investigate the feasibility and potential of the molecules Cytokeratin 20, Cytokeratin 17, Cytokeratin 10 and Anillin as tumor specific markers to rapidly detect cancer. Materials and Methods: The expression of biomarkers was analyzed by preparing RNA and synthesized cDNA. Specific primers were synthesized for the biomarkers Cytokeratin 10, Cytokeratin 20 Cytokeratin 17 and Anillin and semi quantitative gene expression was carried out using mMLuv reverse transcriptase. Results: All the three biomarkers showed an enhanced expression compared with normal fibroblasts while the expression of cytokeratin 10 did not show much expression in HCT116 while Cytokeratin 20 and Anillin showed better expression in both cell lines. Conclusion: All the biomarkers showed comparatively good expression indicating the use of these genes as potential makers for detection of cancer.

  42. Hossain, M. T., Modise, D. M., Rong, I. H. and Anis Mahomed Karodia

    This article has been extracted from the PhD thesis of the principal author, who submitted the study to the University of South Africa in the year 2013. Pathogenicity of three representative isolates of each Fusarium anthophilum (MRC 5519, MRC 5520 and MRC 5806) and Fusarium fujikuroi (MRC 5807, MRC 5808 and MRC 5809) obtained from naturally infected rice plants in the fields with bakanae symptoms were tested. All isolates of both F. anthophilum and F. fujikuroi were able to cause bakanae symptoms on seedlings of four different rice cultivars and lines. This is the first report of the occurrence of bakanae disease of rice in South Africa and both F. anthophilum and F. fujikuroi are new records as pathogens of rice in South Africa. Fusarium anthophilum has not been reported before from any country in the world as a pathogen of rice (Oryza sativa) and as a causative fungus of bakanae disease.

  43. Omonona, A. O.

    This investigation was undertaken to elucidate the toxic effect of carbendazim CBZ and the role of garlic supplementation in wildlife sentinels. Forty quails were acquired comprising two and four week’s old birds (20 per age group). The quails were placed in to 5 different groups (each for 6 & 8 weeks) comprising 4 birds each. Pesticide dosage was 1.25mg/g body weight. 1 gram of garlic was administered per bird. Blood samples were analyzed using the microhaematocrit and cyanmethaemoglobin methods. Cholinesterase (AchE) was quantified as butyryl cholinesterase activity, oxidative stress markers assayed and tissue changes examined microscopically. The quails treated with CBZ were alopecic. There was paralysis in the six week old quail. Poor egg quality was observed in the 8 week old quails Age differences were observed in the haematological parameters. There was increase lipid peroxidation (MDA), demyelination and gliosis in the brain, villi atrophy and cryptal hyperplasia of the intestine. Testicular hypoplasia and disruption of the tubular basement membrane in the testis. These changes were moderately ameliorated by garlic. This study confirms the chronic low dose treatment of Carbendazim in quails.

  44. Zeyede Teshome and Teklay Girmay

    Small mammals are one of the most successful and diverse groups of mammals which inhabit a wide range of habitats in different area of the world, and most of them are rodents. Small mammals with their arthropod ectoparasites which live near to human’s inhabitation play a significant role in the transmission of diseases to humans and domestic animals. The transmission of pathogens to humans is influenced by climatic variability such as, flooding, change in rainfall pattern and increase in temperature which may cause small mammals with their ectoparasites of disease vectors to be displaced from their natural habitats. As a result, bring them into closer contact with humans and domestic animals which increase potential zoonotic disease transmission. Moreover, climate change may also result changes in human lifestyles, such as an increase in outdoor activities which increase human-wildlife contact leading to potential human exposure for pathogens and their vectors in the small mammals reservoirs. Therefore, identifying the type and extent of vector distributions of public health concern in response to climate change will enable us to deploy better and more accurate management strategies against zoonotic disease spread.

  45. Aluko Eniola and Dr. Michael Ajide Oyinloye

    The aim of this article is to examine the location as well as the pattern of patronage of bus stops in Ilesa. The objectives of the study were to identify the location of bus stops, examine the impact of these locations on traffic flow, examine the level of patronage and the appropriateness of these locations to planning standard. Data were located using random sampling and hierarchical sampling for the commuters and operators respectively. The GIS technique was also used to site the location of bus stops in the study area. The data were analyzed using SPSS package and ArcGIS 9.3. The results of the findings show that the bus stops were sparse in some areas while other areas were closely located in terms of spatial location. It also revealed that occupation type and distance of residence to work place of the respondents influenced the patronage of the bus stops. It was recommended that the accessibility to bus stops should be considered by standard spacing and walking distance. It also recommended that the master plan (if existing) must incorporate the location pattern of bus stops if the living standard of the people is to be substantially improved upon.

  46. Ankita Das, Tanushree Tulsian (Samanta) and Anilava Kaviraj

    Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt), a Gram positive soil bacterium is a well known biocontrol agent. Its pest specific toxicity arises from crystalline inclusion comprising of one or more polypeptides called insecticidal crystal proteins (ICPs) or delta endotoxins produced in the sporulating cells. Any strain of B. thuringiensis may have more than one gene for toxic proteins. Development of B. thuringiensis as a microbial insecticide followed from better strains, increased efficiency in production and quality control lead to the development of formulations with high activity and improved characteristics of sprays. In the present study, four new strains i.e. 1953, 6941, 4714 and 4715 of Bacillus thuringiensis have been taken and characterized using morphological studies, growth curve analysis, different staining methods and several biochemical tests and antibiotic susceptibility test. The four strains showed similar results in some tests as they are all Gram positive, endospore-forming, crystal forming and sporulating at the same interval of growth phase whereas the results of the different biochemical tests like starch hydrolysis test, catalase test, lecithinase production test, fermentation test, esculin hydrolysis test and Voges-Proskauer tests were quite similar among three strains out of the four strains studied. Antibiotic susceptibility test shows that most of the strains were resistant to Ampicillin.

  47. Koli P. B. and Kapadnis K. H.

    In the present article an attempt has been made to analyze large scale production of tobacco mixed gutkha and panmasala by several spectroscopic techniques. In the Asian countries like India the materials used by the peoples at the extreme level as their regular diet. Due to their regular consumption and addict numerous disadvantage has been come out in the light. Number of research article flaunting that in the materials like tobacco and panmasala (Raj Shrestha Ashwini Kumar et al., 2012) such as rajngandha etc. trace amount of heavy metals and transition metals are present, presence of these metals has adverse effect on human health. This article summarizes recent efforts to estimate and amount t hazardous substances present in these materials (1, 2). In primary investigation the metals present in tobacco and panmasala (1, 2) were quantitatively estimated, then the metals were characterized by AAS. Some organic substances are estimated by using HPLC. Tobacco is a plant within the genus Nicotiana of the Solanaceae (nightshade) family. Harmful effects of tobacco consumption can derive from the thousands of different chemicals in the smoke, including cadmium nickel, arsenic, iron, zinc many other transition and heavy metals. The heavy metals were estimated by using AAS from both samples (1,2). HPLC data used for the characterization of samples and indicates presence of organic hazardous chemicals including polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (such as benzopyrene), formaldehyde, tobacco-specific nitrosamines (TSNAs), phenols, and many others (Supadminidevi et al., 2012). Tobacco also contains beta-Caroline alkaloids.

  48. Hussein, M. A. M. and Sedky, H. A. Hassan

    Egypt is one of the largest countries of onion production; thus, possibility of ethanol production from onion residues by fermentation process was investigated. Onion residues of some Egyptian cultivars, including Giza 6, Giza 20, Giza red and Shandaweel1, were used for ethanol production by Saccharomyces cerevisiae as a biocatylast under different parameters, such as temperature, pH and using Botrytis cinerea as biodegrading bioagent. The results showed that the total sugars content of plants juice was 43.14 for Giza 6, 36.0 for Giza 20, 41.5 for Giza red, and 32.1 g/L for Shandaweel1. The optimal fermentation conditions for ethanol production from onions juice were found to be 6.0 for pH and 30 °C for temperature. Under these conditions highest ethanol production rate of 86% (6.4 g\L\hour) was obtained from Giza 6 cultivar residues treated with B. cinerea.. Based on these results, onion residues which is an agricultural waste is a promising alternative source for bioethanol production by S. cerevisiae.

  49. Sarma, D. K., Barua, P. M., Ahmed, K., Saikia, G., Kakati, P and Barua, S.

    One 7-years-old, three days postpartum, 3rd lactating, approximately 375 kg body weight jersey (Bos Taurus) cow was diagnosed as toxic metritis with mastitis following rectal examination and isolation of Arcanobacter pyogenes, Staphylococcus aureus and E. Coli organisms both in uterine discharge and milk samples besides pyrexia (107⁰C), anorexia, reduced milk yield with hot inflamed udder, copious dark reddish, fetid uterine discharge. On 4th day after treatment cow was confirmed to be suffered from intra-erythrocytic babesiosis and theileriosis based on clinical investigation (pyrexia with pre-scapular, pre-femoral and subcutaneous lymphnodes swelling) and revealing of organisms in blood smear.The cow was treated with Ceftiofur (@2.2mg/kg b.wt. daily for 7 days IM), NS (@20ml/kg b.wt. daily till fever persisted), Megludyne (@2.2mg/kg b.wt. daily for 3 days IV) and Anistamine (@15ml daily for 3 days IM) injection against toxic metritis and mastitis along with intra-uterine and intra-mammary infusions of Lenovo AP (@60ml daily for 3 days) and Cefoperazone sodium (@10ml as single dose) respectively. Diminazine aceteurate (@7mg/ kg b.wt.IM) and Buparvaquone (@2.5mg/ kg b.wt. IM) was given to control the babesiosis and theileriosis. The cow was found recovered normally without recurrence till one month of treatment.

  50. Prem Chand, Rishi Pal and SVS Rana, R.

    Although sophisticated processes have been developed to prepare the leather goods, handcrafts methods still remains an industry giving the high quality products. The job is performed by cutting, gluing, sewing, dyeing and buffing or polishing various leather products. Entire process involves the occupational exposure to toxic chemicals like benzene, toluene, styrene, n-hexane and metallic compounds like chromium and certain organic dyes. There exists a health risk of neuro-psychiatric disorders and behavioral changes after chronic toluene intoxication in these workers. Present investigation describes the magnitude of exposure to chromium and toluene in workers engaged in leather cottage industry, around Meerut, India. Urine samples were collected from a selected group of leather workers. The urine samples were examined for the metabolites of toluene and urinary chromium by spectrophotometer. These results show that excretion of hippuric acid, a metabolite of toluene was influenced by certain confounding factors i.e. cigarette smoke and food habits. It was also influenced by age and work experience. Presence of chromium in the urine samples denominates chromium toxicity in selected population of workers. It may lead to different health problems including lung cancer. Chromium concentration was found to be high in smokers, alcoholics and in non-vegetarians. With the current situation of industrial hygiene, exposure of leather dust, glues and chromium like metals amongst these workers needs continuous monitoring.

  51. Fokam Zéphyrin, Nana Paul Alain, Ngassam Pierre, Bricheux Geneviève, Vigues Bernard, Bouchard Philippe and Sime-Ngando Télesphore

    Soil containing the earthworms (Alma nilotica), host of the target ciliate Dicoelophrya nkoldaensis Fokam, 2012, was dug monthly for six months. Worms where counted in situ to establish earthworm’s volumic density (VD) and subsequently dissected to evaluate ciliate abundance (AB). Ten soil physicochemical parameters were analyzed: Cation Exchange Capacity (CEC), Mg2+, Ca2+, Available Phosphorus (AP), K+, Na+, organic carbon (OC), organic matter (OM), total nitrogen (TN), Moisture (M), and pH. The studies reveal that, the mid gut was noticed to be the preferential zone of for Dicoelophrya nkoldaensis. Correlations between mean ciliate abundance in the worm’s foregut and physicochemical parameters demonstrated a significant negative correlations with TN (r = -0.360; P < 0, 05), AP (r = -0.328; P < 0, 05), K+ (r = -0.334; P < 0, 05) and pH (in H2O) (r = -0.401; P < 0, 05). In the mid gut, a significant positive correlation with (M) (r = 0.356; P < 0, 05), a highly significant positive correlation with Ca2+ (r = 0.553; P < 0, 01) and a negative highly significant correlation with TN (r = -0.4277; P < 0, 01). In the hind gut, a negative significant correlation was observed with TN (r = -0.564; P < 0, 05) and a positive highly significant correlation with Ca2+ (r = 0.456; P < 0, 05). Correlations of soil physico-chemical properties with worm VD demonstrated a highly significant positive correlation with CEC (r = 0.634; P < 0, 01) and Mg2+ (r = 0.443; P < 0, 01) a significant negative correlation with both OC (r = -0.314; P < 0, 05) and OM (r= -0.312; P < 0, 05) and a significant positive correlation with potassium (r = 0.350; P < 0, 05). These results suggest that the preferential zone of Dicoelophrya nkoldaensis in the digestive tract of earthworms, considered as a microhabitat, is influenced by the physicochemical parameters of the soil ingested.

  52. Barnali Bera, Sanjukta Mondal (Parui) and Amal Kumar Mondal

    Pollen of Datura metel has been found to have a role in causing allergy in sensitive patients. The present paper reports the comparative protein profile of the pollen of D. metel at different stages of development. The pollen was collected both before and after anthesis and the change in protein profile and concentration studied for both immature (before anthesis) and mature (after anthesis) stages, as well as in different seasons. There was an increase in the protein concentration during the summer months and in general the protein content in case of immature pollen was found to be greater than that of mature pollen. The SDS-PAGE protein profile showed a total of 20 protein bands designated as d1 to d20 between the molecular weight range of 29 kDa to 205 kDa and two protein bands beyond 205 kDa. There was also a variation in the protein profile between immature and mature pollen with the number of protein bands being more in case of immature pollen.

  53. Usha Adiga and Sachidananda Adiga

    Problem-based learning (PBL) has become the most significant innovation in medical education of the past 40 years. In contrast to exam-centered, lecture-based conventional curricula, PBL is a comprehensive curricular strategy that fosters student-centered learning and the skills desired in physicians.PBL is an effective way of delivering medical education in a coherent, integrated program and offers several advantages over traditional teaching methods. It is based on principles of adult learning theory, including motivating the students, encouraging them to set their own learning goals, and giving them a role in decisions that affect their own learning. Predictably, however, PBL does not offer a universal panacea for teaching and learning in medicine, and it has several well recognized disadvantages. In this article we discuss about the definition of PBL, stimulus for this type of learning, role of the facilitator, advantages and disadvantages of PBL.

  54. Sanjeev Kumar and Sakshi Gupta

    Now, agricultural sector of India has undergone a major shift from traditional crops to modern high value crops and got a tremendous potential to push overall agriculture growth. The pattern of crop diversification of India has been analyzed by using secondary data from 1980-81 to 2011-12. Simpson Index of Diversification (SID) and regression analysis have been used to analyze the patterns and determinants of crop diversification in India. This study reveals that India is moving from food grain crops to non-food grain crops. After economic reforms, change in cropping pattern from low priced food grains crops to high priced non-food grain crops has been the engine of agricultural output growth. The result also shows that irrigated area as percentage of gross cropped area, consumption of fertilizer, cropping intensity, agricultural export, education, direct institutional credit for agriculture and size of average land holdings has been found the main determinants of crop diversification in India. Therefore, the study suggested that policy supports, in terms of price protection, insurance coverage, expenditure on agriculture research & education, subsidized inputs and technology should be extended to them. Further, public--private participation needs be encouraged to step up agriculture infrastructure facility in India.

  55. Velanganni Selvaraj, M. and Krishna, M. S.

    The quality of food intake by an organism play an important role in maintenance of health and fitness. Nowadays the trend towards health, figure and fitness has increased. Therefore, in the present study D. melanogaster reared on different sugar based media used to test the effect of artificial sweeteners on locomotory activity (larval crawling and adult climbing). It was noticed that larvae fed on artificial sweetener had significantly lesser crawling activity than those larvae fed on normal and Sucrose based media. Similar trend also was found in adult climbing ability as there is increase in age of flies of fed on different sugar based media. Further, it was noticed that flies fed on Sucrose had the least quantity of whole body glucose and highest quantity of lipid compared to other sugar based media. In contrast, flies fed on artificial sweeteners and normal based media had a greater quantity of glucose and the least quantity of lipid. Thus, this study suggests that artificial sweeteners have less calories, however, when it is consumed with the normal diet it affects the locomotor ability. Therefore, it is not suggestive to take the artificial sweetener to maintain the fitness of an organism.

  56. Julius Cudjoe Ahiekpor, Edward Antwi, Edem Cudjoe Bensah and Joseph X.F. Ribeiro

    The study is based on primary data collected from 507 randomly selected households in 52 towns in the Kumasi metropolis in Ghana in an attempt to investigate the factors that influence primary cooking fuels option in urban homes in Ghana and suggests alternative measures to improve the use of sustainable alternative fuels and cleaner cooking. Graphical and cross-tabulation methods are applied to data drawn from a survey conducted in the metropolis. Though woodfuel (charcoal and firewood) is found to dominate the household fuel portfolio with 43.2 %, the use of LPG in the metropolis is very high representing 40.4% which is above the national average of about 20 %. However, 89% of households that patronise liquefied petroleum gas (LPG) also use charcoal as back up fuel due to the frequent and erratic shortages of LPG in the metropolis. The study indicates that low income prevents households from adopting cleaner fuels and efficient cooking options which involve high upfront costs. Also, affordability, availability of fuel and cooking rate of fuel and stove plays significant role in the type of fuel chosen.

  57. Dr. Lakshmi Rajeswari, M., Dr. Lakshmi Narasamma, V. and Dr. Sepuri Madhuri

    Study background: There is an increased incidence of Type-II Diabetes and Coronary artery disease (CAD) in the Indian subcontinent during the past few decades.1 Abnormalities in the Lipid profile considered to be atherogenic include hypertriglyceridemia, low HDL-Lipoprotein and hypercholesterolemia. Recently sub-fractions of the Lipoproteins are found to be predictive of CAD especially in type-II Diabetic patients. Aim of study: The present study consists of estimating Apo-A1 lipoprotein levels in Diabetic patients with CAD and without CAD. Study type: comparative study. Study sample: includes 60 type-II Diabetes patients with or without CAD from King George Hospital, Visakhapatnam. Result of study: Apo-A1 levels are found to be significantly lower in type-II Diabetes patients than normal controls. Apo-A1 levels are also lower in those with CAD than those without CAD in type –II Diabetes patients.

  58. Archana G. Nair, Nikhila, G. S., Sangeetha, G. and Swapna, T. S.

    An attempt was made to investigate the antioxidant activity of the methanolic extract of Diplazium esculentum. Antioxidant activity of D. esculentum was evaluated using DPPH (1, 1- Diphenyl -2- picrylhydrazyl) and Ferric reducing power along with superoxide, hydroxyl and nitric oxide radical scavenging assays. The methanol extract showed the most potent radical-scavenging activity in DPPH with 85.43 % at a concentration of 12.5µg/ml, whereas the reducing power of the standard ascorbic acid was found to be only 58.3 %. The IC50 value of the extract was found to be 25.72 μg/ml. The extract manifested significant reducing power (0.98) which exceeded even that of ascorbic acid (0.772) at a concentration of 200 μg/ml. At a maximum concentration of 200 μg/ml, the extract showed 62.4 % inhibition of hydroxyl radical, 51.8% inhibition of superoxide radicals and 87.6 % of nitric oxide radicals respectively. The present investigation suggest that the methanolic extract of D.esculentum has significant antioxidant activity, so can be used as a promising food supplement or it may be utilized as a potential source of therapeutic agent.

  59. Dr. Lakshmi Rajeswari, M. and Dr. Lakshmi Narasamma, V.

    Aim: Assesment of serum Calcium and enzyme concentrations in sickle cell disease in patients nearKing George Hospital in Visakhapatnam in Andhra Pradesh. The levels are in blood samples during stable state as well as during the crises state. The values are compared clinincal manifestations during in both conditions of Sickle cell patients. Methods: 50 sickle cell patients were selected for study and blood samples for estimation of Serum calcium, uric acid, total bilirubin, lactate dehydrogenase, hydroxybutyrate dehydrogenase, and haemoglobin and also estimated in 28 of these patients during the Crises. 30 Normal persons were taken as control. Results: Serum calcium tended to be lower in sickle cell patients than in healthy controls, while uric acid was higher. Crises did not make any difference to serum calcium but they increased the uric acid level significantly. All the other variables measured were significantly abnormal and more so during crises. Conclusions: The variations in these cases compared to normal controls and also increase in their levels during Crises could be having Diagnostic value as well as for monitoring the disease in these patients (Nduka et al., 1995).

  60. Dr. Lakshmi Rajeswari, M. and Dr. Lakshmi Narasamma, V.

    Aim: Assesment of serum Calcium and enzyme concentrations in sickle cell disease in patients nearKing George Hospital in Visakhapatnam in Andhra Pradesh. The levels are in blood samples during stable state as well as during the crises state. The values are compared clinincal manifestations during in both conditions of Sickle cell patients. Methods: 50 sickle cell patients were selected for study and blood samples for estimation of Serum calcium, uric acid, total bilirubin, lactate dehydrogenase, hydroxybutyrate dehydrogenase, and haemoglobin and also estimated in 28 of these patients during the Crises. 30 Normal persons were taken as control. Results: Serum calcium tended to be lower in sickle cell patients than in healthy controls, while uric acid was higher. Crises did not make any difference to serum calcium but they increased the uric acid level significantly. All the other variables measured were significantly abnormal and more so during crises. Conclusions: The variations in these cases compared to normal controls and also increase in their levels during Crises could be having Diagnostic value as well as for monitoring the disease in these patients (Nduka et al., 1995).

  61. Deepthi, K. and Mrinalini Menon

    Seed germination inhibition in green gram (Phaseolus radiatus) by compounds inhibitory to cell division has been previously shown to be an in vitro assay mechanism for the screening of antimitotic drugs with anticancer potential. While these studies sought to demonstrate the retardation of cell growth and proliferation as a function of drug treatment, the inhibition of selected hydrolytic enzymes in germinating seeds as a means to further substantiate the biochemical efficacy of these drug molecules forms the objective of the present study. The enzymes selected include amylase and alkaline phosphatase- both of which are enhanced during seed germination as well as in different human metabolic disorders. Treatment with Kokilaksha (abbreviated as K-drug), a herbal drug derived from Asteracantha longifolia, resulted in significant dose-dependent reduction in the specific activities of both the hydrolytic enzymes within the germinating seeds. Further, significant inhibition of water uptake by imbibition as well as delayed morphogenesis was observed in the K-drug treated seeds, monitored over 24-120h. Similarly the effects of vincristine against these parameters were also studied, for comparison. Since the K-drug shows promise in treatment of human metabolic disorders, involving the elevation of amylolytic and alkaline phosphatase enzymes, the same deserves clinical investigation.

  62. Thirupathi, M. and Karthikeyan, S.

    This study aims to assess and evaluate the number of traditional commercially important medicinal plants of the Sirumalai hills of Eastern Ghats, Tamil Nadu, India. Based on a field survey this documentation has been studied during 2014. Purpose of this documentation was to identify and quantify the most important medicinal plants used for the general health of the indigenous people of Sirumalai Hills. Due to the modern civilization most of the places ethnomedicianal information was gathered through questionnaire from the tribal and non-tribal people of Sirumalai hills in Tamil Nadu. In the present study, we have reported 20 species of medicinally important pteridophytes plants belonging to 12 families distributed in 18 genera. Our study concluded that, the wealth of traditional ethnomedicinal knowledge of Pteridophytes, population of certain medicinal plant species to a great potential for research in the discovery of new drugs to fight diseases.

  63. Nidhi Sharma, Nautiyal, M. C., Satish K. Sharma and Savita Duhan

    Chemical dip treatments viz; Calcium Chloride @ 0.25%; 0.5 % and Neemexcel @ 500 and 1000 ppm along with control (dipped in plain water) coupled with two different storage conditions i.e. Zero Energy Cool Chamber (ZECC) and Ambient storage were evaluated for postharvest rotting and quality of fruits for the extension of shelf-life and fruit quality of apple cv. Red Delicious, for 120 days. Results reveals that on farm storage of apples was highly successful by ZECC as fruits treated with 0.25% CaCl2 and 1000 ppm Neemexcel showed 6.21 times lesser weight loss, with minimum rotting, changes in physico- chemical traits up to acceptable as compared to their counterparts in ambient storage, with a benefit of Rs. 2.33, and lowest PLW (6.80%) and maximum flesh firmness (5.01 kg/cm2) in fruits with least rotting incidences. Therefore, this technology holds promise for the resource poor farmers in India.

  64. Alwyn D’souza and Krishna, M. S.

    Organisms require energy for growth, development, reproduction, resistance to environment variables. In the present study effect of synthetic and natural energy drinks on resistance to starvation has been studied using D.melanogaster. It was noticed that larvae fed on natural drink consumed significantly greater quantity of food compared to larvae fed on synthetic energy drink and normal media, Further larvae and flies grown on natural energy drink based media had significantly greater resistance to starvation than those larvae and flies grown in synthetic energy drink and normal media, furthermore larvae and flies first treated with sub lethal temperature (37˚C for 15min) and cold treatment (-4˚C for 15min) then subjected to resistance to starvation also yielded similar results, Females had greater resistance to starvation than unmated . In mated flies males had significantly greater resistance to starvation than females while the reverse trend was noticed in unmated flies. Thus, these studies suggest that natural energy drink has beneficial over synthetic energy drink in D. melanogaster

  65. QIYAN WANG

    Sustainability transformation as a powerful concept has become “hot spot”. Although recent studies on sustainability transformation are mostly based on resilience theory and/or transition theory theoretically and empirically, its conceptual grounds, theoretical development and practical relevance are still in infancy. In this explorative theoretical paper, based on the premise of ensuring consistency between ontology, methodology and practice, I try to face these challenges to synthesize and integrate ecological resilience theory, transition theory, realist social theory, and social-ecological theory to develop and build theory on sustainability transformation in SES to uncover specific conditions, mechanisms and patterns underlying sustainability transformation. My first step to explore this theory is to re-develop and re-conceptualize resilience thinking theory (resilience as adaptability, as transformability, and as persistence) so as to liberate resilience thinking theory from “capacity” to “dynamic process”, from “passive and negative regime shift” to “positive and active regime shift”, from “non agents of agency” to “agents of agency”. I propose Social-Ecological Transitional Resilience Thinking Framework, that is, resilience as adaptation, as transformation and as transition. The second attempt is to integrate this framework with the morphogenetic approach to constructMorphogenetic Social-Ecological System Framework (MSES)with the purpose of furnishing a theoretical framework for transformative change and process onto SES.

  66. Rekha, K., Neenu, A. Santhosh and Deepa Chandran

    The study assessed the cytotoxic effect of two heavy metals, Cadmium and nickel in Allium cepa, L and antigenotoxic potential of Moringa oleifera, Lam. leaves extract against these heavy metals. Bulbs of A. cepa were exposed to20, 40, 60, 80 and 100 ppm of Cadmium and Nickel supplied in the form of CdCl2 and NiCl2. A gradual decrease in the germination percentage, mitotic index and increase in the frequency of aberration were observed with increasing concentrations of the heavy metals. Chromosomal stickiness and c- mitosis were found to be common aberrations due to metal exposure. Of the two heavy metals used in the study, Cd was found to be more toxic to A.cepa compared to Ni. The investigation also establishes the antigen toxic potential of M.oleifera leaves, as there was an increase in germination percentage and mitotic index and a decrease in the frequency of aberrations in both the metal treated cells on exposure to 0.5% aqueous extract of M. oleifera leaves. The recovery action was more pronounced in Cd exposed cells compared to Ni.

  67. Keshav Shinde, Deepak Thakare and Rajeshri Ghorpade

    Exopolysaccharides (EPS) are high molecular weight polymers with long chain composed of sugar residues and secreted by microorganisms into the surrounding environment. Bacterial EPS has a complex mixture of macro molecular poly electrolytes including carbohydrates, proteins and sometimes nucleic acids, each comprising variable molecular mass and structural properties. Stem and root nodulating isolate of Aeschynomene indica plant was identified by 16S rRNA sequencing as Rhizobium mayense. Efficiency of Rhizobium mayense was studied using Yeast Extract Agar as a basal medium with different carbon sources and the incubation was done at 30⁰ for 48 hours. The dry weight of EPS was found to be 1.4119 gm /100 ml in Yeast Extract Mannitol Agar. Surface topology of EPS was found smooth by Scanning Electron Microscopy. Alcohol precipitated EPS was further purified using Sephadex G200 and Sephadex G100 gels. The physicochemical characterization of purified EPS was studied and the structural characterization was confirmed by FT-IR, 2D NMR, HPLC and GC-MS analysis.

  68. Gayathri, V. and Anusuya, S.

    An assessment was done to investigate the effect of farmyard manure, DAP, neem cake and leaf extract on biochemical (viz., chlorophyll, protein and carbohydrate) parameters of paddy seedlings. The biochemical parameters were measured on 30th and 45th day. The values indicated that the chlorophyll ‘a’, chlorophyll ‘b’ and total chlorophyll contents were higher in T4 on 30th day and 45th day. Similarly, the protein content was higher on 30th and 45th day in 0.5 ml extract of T4 plants. In 1 ml of sample, on 30th day, the protein content was higher in T1 and on 45th day, it was higher in T4. The carbohydrate content of plants also increased in plants supplied with leaf extracts.

  69. Gayathri, V. and Anusuya, S.

    An assessment was done to investigate the effect of farmyard manure, DAP, neem cake and leaf extract on biochemical (viz., chlorophyll, protein and carbohydrate) parameters of paddy seedlings. The biochemical parameters were measured on 30th and 45th day. The values indicated that the chlorophyll ‘a’, chlorophyll ‘b’ and total chlorophyll contents were higher in T4 on 30th day and 45th day. Similarly, the protein content was higher on 30th and 45th day in 0.5 ml extract of T4 plants. In 1 ml of sample, on 30th day, the protein content was higher in T1 and on 45th day, it was higher in T4. The carbohydrate content of plants also increased in plants supplied with leaf extracts.

  70. Neha Soni and Saroj Behal

    Spread spectrum modulation technique is different from the conventional communication system. A good correlation property and large linear period of Pseudo-random sequence is the basis of spread spectrum communication systems intern CDMA (code division multiple access communication systems). Out of several techniques to implement direct sequence spread Spectrum (DSSS), one technique PN (pseudo noise) sequence/ code which is referred as the high rate digital code is generated on MATLAB. This generated m-sequence is then converted into polar format. Finally, in this paper we examine bit error rate of PN sequence, GOLD sequence in respect of modulation order.

  71. Awatef M. Elmaghraby, Ibrahim A Mousa, Rasha A. Nabil, and Abd El-Fattah A. Harb

    In ethanolic medium and in the presence of the basalt and gabbro as new naturally reusable heterogeneous catalysts, an easy and efficient one-pot multicomponent protocol, 6-amino-5-cyano-4H-pyrans 1 were synthesized. Also, we report here that compounds 1 are useful and easily available as starting materials for the preparation of functionalized azines in a series of ring transformation in which the amino group furnishes the required nitrogen rings. Structures of the all isolated products 1 - 22 were established based on their elemental and spectroscopic analysis.

  72. Dr. Balakrishna Reddy, V.

    This project presents a power-factor corrector (PFC), which is mainly composed of two phase transition-mode (TM) boost-type power-factor correctors (PFCs) and a coupled inductor. By integrating two boost inductors into one magnetic core, not only the circuit volume is reduced, but also the operating frequency of the core is double of the switching frequency. Therefore, both the power-factor value and the power density are increased. A cut-in half duty cycle can reduce the conduction losses of the switches and both the turns and diameters of the inductor windings. The advantages of a TM boost PFC, such as quasi-resonant (QR) valley switching on the switch and zero-current switching (ZCS) of the output diode, are maintained to improve the overall conversion efficiency. The hardware design is implemented by a PIC16F877A controller circuit.

  73. Souleyman A. Issaka, Abdurahman H. Nour, and Rosli M. Yunus

    The breaking (demulsification) of 50-50% w/o petroleum emulsions of two oils (A and B) by Green (chemical and centrifuge) methods were studied in comparison to conventional (chemical) method. The green methods consisted of silicon based chemical demulsifiers and high-speed centrifuge operated at 12,000 RPM, while the conventional method consisted of Amine group based demulsifiers. In chemical method, the concentrations were varied (0.5%, 1.5% and 3%), while in centrifuge method, the processing time was varied (10 and 30 minutes). The efficiency of these methods was determined by measuring the amount of water separated from the emulsion after being treated. The maximum separation efficiencies for Silicon demulsifiers were 93 and 88% for oils A and B respectively, and that of Amine group demulsifiers were 72 and 86% for oils A and B respectively, While centrifuge demulsification gave maximum separations of 39 and 24% for oils A and B respectively. Based on these results, Silicon based demulsifiers are very effective and reliable method to treat emulsions for different types of oils with different composition, and have the potential to be used as an alternative method in the demulsification or breaking of water-in-crude oil emulsions.

  74. Ravinder, O. and Ravinder, M.

    Due to increasing in demand of faster data transmission speed in the future telecommunication systems, the multiple antenna systems have been actively investigated and successfully deployed for the emerging broadband wireless access networks. Multiple Input Multiple Outputs (MIMO) takes the advantage of multiplexing to increase wireless bandwidth efficiency and range. MIMO-OFDM is a technique to increase channel capacity without using additional transmit power or spectral bandwidth. MIMO-OFDM is an attractive air-interface solution for next generation wireless LAN’s, Wireless MAN’s & 4G mobile cellular wireless systems. The major drawback of MIMO is required higher amount of circuits. To avoid that drawback we use antenna selection technique. In this paper we are using three types of selection antennas. They are Optimal, ascending or descending and Orthogonal Space Time Block Code (OSTBC) antenna selection. Then we are investigating channel capacity with antenna selection. The channel capacity increases with the numbers of antennas added to the system due to the more diversity gain of alamouti code. Finally we evaluate BER performances of alamouti OSTBC scheme with antenna selection.

  75. Surekha Lanka and Uzma Hashmi

    In my paper I will evaluate features for processing Map reduce of Data science which ensures business alignment, growing skills, share knowledge and manage best practices and also cost effectiveness of the Hadoop. Data science is about to build data products not just answering the questions and products empower others to use the data. May help communicate your results, may empower others to do their own analysis actually data science is able to take data and able to understand it, to process it. To extract value from it, to visualize it, to communicate it that’s going to be a huge imprint skill

  76. Abu Bakr El-Bediwi, Amira El-Shafei and Mustafa Kamal

    Our research contained thermal behavior (DSC thermographs and thermal parameters), wetting properties (spreading behavior and contact angles), microstructure (x-ray analysis and scanning electron micrographs) and empirical solder applications (photo graphs of soldering electronic device) of new ternary tin- bismuth- X (X= Cu and Ag), quaternary tin- bismuth- X (X = Zn-In, Zn-Cu, Cu-In, Sb-In and Ag- In) and penta tin- bismuth- X (X=Ag-In-TiO2) solder alloys. Also it contained all measured physical properties (thermal, mechanical, electrical and soldering properties) of new tin- bismuth based alloys. The SnAg3.5Bi30In2 and SnAg3.5Bi30In2 (Tio2)1.5 alloys have best properties such as low coast, lower melting temperature (174 °C) contact angles (15 and 13°) and high strengthens (elastic modulus and Vickers hardness) compared to tin- lead commercial solder alloy for electronic industry. Significant decreased in melting temperature (~ 60 °C)of SnAg and SnCu alloys after adding alloying elements. Also all new tin- bismuth based lead free solder alloys have low melting temperature, high strengthens and adequate wetting behavior compared to tin- lead commercial solder alloy.

  77. Anupam Swami, Sarla Pareek, Singh, S. R. and Ajay Singh Yadav

    In this article, an inventory model is developed under the situation in which a credit period is offered by the supplier to the purchaser. It is assumed that deterioration rate is a function of time and demand rate in the power law form of the price is considered. Shortages are allowed and are partially backordered with an exponentially decreasing time dependent backlogging rate; moreover variable holding cost and the effect of inflation are also taken into consideration. The model is illustrated with numerical experiments and convexity of the total average costs are revealed graphically, additionally sensitivity analyses with respect to the changes in system parameters are also discussed.

  78. Hamid Sadeq Mahdi

    It seems cleverer to look into any TSP first by learning from its historical background in order to grab the fundamentals of the task usually required in such kind of exercises. TSP problems are described shortly as easy model to understand but actually hard in solving process. Thus, simply remember that TSP under the category of [problem having more to do with the called hard-problems; they are non-polynomial based problems (i.e. No polynomial time algorithms known) in most cases. In fact, TSP initially (1800-1832) did not involve math concepts. However, despite the scarcity of direct algorithms for such TSP situations, there are still ways to solve the problem of course not to its exact required solutions but, to the (nearer/most) acceptable level. This solving process is about finding some approximation methods and the solution series labelled optimization, which are both more subject to human understanding than the machines’ one, hence the need for heuristic decision in regular and hard problems. Therefore, the papers review in this article is about analysing through TSP exploration, the general algorithms or standard methods, then attempting to classify the use of each relatively to TSP domains of application, mainly based on the research literatures.

  79. Syeda Tasneem Fathima, Naduvinamani, N. B. and ShivaKumar, H. M. and Hanumagowda, B. N.

    Derivation of modified Reynolds equation is obtained for the hydromagnetic squeeze films with lubricant additives on the basis of hydromagnetic flow model and Stokes Microcontinuum fluid model. An example of porous rough rectangular plates is used to guide the Stochastic modified Reynolds equation with lubricant additives and MHD effects. The equations are solved analytically using the stochastic method developed by Christensen. It is found that, there exists a critical value of the aspect ratio above which the roughness effects are more pronounced due to size effect of the lubricant additives in the presence of transverse magnetic field. Further, this critical value is dependent on the microstructure size of the additives and magnetic parameter. The coarser the microstructure, higher is the critical value of the aspect ratio in the presence of magnetic field. It is found that the squeeze film characteristics are more pronounced for rough porous rectangular plates with increasing values of magnetic parameter.

  80. Diawara Daouda

    Generally boxes made from characteristics of the insured and the vehicle, are assumed to be homogeneous in terms of claims. The presence of large claims in a class is not only disrupting this homogeneity assumption of the boxes, but also the stability of risk indicators such as the pure premium. The extreme value theory provides a rigorous probabilistic mathematical basis on which we can build statistical models to predict the intensity and frequency of extreme events. Our method provides a comparison between the variance of a single threshold and that of a convex combination. Acceptable threshold is the threshold which will have a smaller variance.

  81. Dr. Sanjay Sharma

    Heart is a pumping organ, it pumps blood in the arteries which is circulated throughout the various parts of body. The blood pressure is the force with which blood moves through arteries (the vessels which carry blood from heart to the rest of body). When heart muscle pumps, the force of the blood against artery walls it is called the systolic blood pressure. When heart relaxes between beats, the force of the blood decreases and blood pressure drops, this is called the diastolic blood pressure. When blood pressure is higher than normal value, it is called hypertension (High blood pressure). The high blood pressure has many damaging effects on vital parts of body. There are many reasons for the hypertension and in most of cases the exact diagnosis remains challenge. With the invention of new techniques, it would be possible to diagnose specific cause of blood pressure and it would be possible to develop selective therapies with fewer adverse effects, resulting in effective blood pressure reduction.

  82. Arjun and Nethravathi, K. A.

    In this paper new feature is added to the Hardware Automation PC at the automation Service Class User (SCU) end to communicate and collect the image, logs and other details from the CA1000 PACS Workstation, Service Class Provider (SCP) for further reliability analysis of the Healthcare IGS systems. There are further performance improvements done to the XMLRPC server Image Processing unit (IPU) and the Hardware Automation PC socket Communication programs for a reliable communication between them.

  83. Sonia Arora

    5G is a technology used in research papers and projects to denote the next major phase of mobile telecommunication standards beyond the 4G/IMT-Advanced standards. 5G is not officially used for any specification or official document yet made public by telecommunication companies or standardization bodies such as 3GPP, WiMAX Forum, or ITU-R. New standard releases beyond 4G are in progress by standardization bodies, but at this time not considered as new mobile generations but under the 4G umbrella. To develop an application for Character Recognition on Android based Mobile Phones. An image which is containing some text is given or can be captured by the camera and our task is to extract text from the image.

  84. Sharaf, S., Abd El-Hady, M. M. and Farouk, A.

    This study reports the development of Novel electrically conductinghydrogel polymerthat is shown to combine both electro-properties and hydrogel characteristics. First carboxymethylcellulose (CMC) hydrogel with excellent swelling behavior was prepared by using succinic acid (0.5%), then (CMC\polyaniline) conducting hydrogel was fabricated by in situ polymerization of aniline within the matrix of CMC hydrogel. The influence of initiator as well as aniline monomer concentration on the conductivity of hydrogel was investigated. Morphology of the developed hydrogelwas evaluated by scanning electron microscopy analysis. To consider the potential of electrically conductive hydrogel in biomedical applications, biocidail activity of the aforementioned conductive hydrogelas well as gram positive, gram negative bacteria were studied.

  85. Bakkialakshmi, S. and Bhavani, B.

    Life time measurements for Egg Allumin [EA] with two different anti-viral drugs Amantadine [A] and Quercetin [Q] in SPAN40 have been carried out by Time resolved fluorescence spectrofluorimeter. The decay parameters have been calculated. The average lifetime (τ) and χ2 values have also been calculated and tabulated.

  86. Chala Dechassa

    Safe, adequate, and accessible supply of water together with proper sanitation are surely basic needs and essential components of primary health care and vital resources in which access to safe and reliable water supplies has received increased government attention in Ethiopia. As a result, the national coverage rate for this service has gradually improved. Yet still some central and peripheral areas of urban l do not get drinking water from an improved water source. While expanding improved water source schemes is generally essential, it is equally important to ensure that the schemes have increased users’ satisfaction with water quality and availability for everyday use. Using household survey, and interviews, focus group discussion and customer forum were the main data of the study. The main aim of the study was to investigate the challenges of urban water supply in Addis Ababa with particular reference to Bole and Kolfe Keranyo sub cities and the effect of access to an improved water source on users’ satisfaction with both quality and availability of water.

  87. Ephias Gudyanga, Sarah Moyo, Anna Gudyanga, and Richard Susa

    The study was premised on a comparative analysis of institutionalised and non-institutionalised orphaned children with reference to their wellbeing .A sample of 5 rural primary school teachers, where most of the institutionalised orphans learn and another purposively selected 5 primary school teachers where most of the non-institutionalised orphans learn, was made. Another part of sample comprised 10 orphans, 5 from the local orphanage centre and another 5 from non-institution. All the 20 participants were individually interviewed and audiotape. Data was transcribed and thematically anaysed. It was found out that non-institutionalised orphaned children had worse academic challenges and were often burdened by problems and chores at home and their keenness to learn was hindered by absenteeism and sometimes coming to school on empty stomachs thereby losing concentration. They lacked resources to meet the basic needs, education and health care all of which resulted in poor school attendance and educational achievement was negatively impacted upon. Orphans from both institutions reported being abused emotionally, physically, and sexually by the caregivers, school teachers and the guardians (relatives). Poor health and malnutrition negatively affected orphaned children. Other children looked down upon orphans and in the process disassociating themselves from them (orphaned children) and this negatively affected their intention to be in the same academic groups when they are marginalized, sidelined especially when sharing materials. This negatively affected their self-perception and image. It was concluded that non-institutionalised orphaned children were marred with more challenges than the institutionalised orphaned children. It was recommended (among others) stiff penalties to be applied by Government on child abuse perpetrators.

  88. Dr. Mounir Ben Zid

    The present study aims to promote an applied global ethic and adopts a religious posture that, instead of nurturing differences, teaches children to appreciate universal human principles. Based on examples of core religious values from various backgrounds and faith traditions, the paper suggests a paradigm different from one of mere religious diversity and maintains that a key strategy to heal the current division between different faith traditions and promote an inter-faith dialogue among children is not in diversifying books or designing new laws or policies to protect children's religious rights, but rather in vaccinating children with universal glocal values from infancy to early childhood.

  89. Ebenezer Kofi Agbeko

    This article evaluates the General Framework Agreement for Peace in Bosnia and the critical roles played by the United Nations Mission in Bosnia and Herzegovina (UNMIBH) that sought to sow the seed of peace and democratic governance in the Balkans. The article discusses the structural fissures that spawned the conflict in Bosnian-Herzegovina and the contemporary developments that spurred the outbreak of the civil conflict and its concomitant devastation in the Balkan enclave. The first section introduces the structural context of the Bosnian conflict whiles the second part evaluates the General Framework Agreement for Peace in Bosnia-Herzegovina. Examination of the performance of the United Nations Mission in Bosnia-Herzegovina (UNMIBH) as well as the Dayton Peace Agreement constituted an integral part. The last compartment of this article unearthed how to apply the lessons learned in the Bosnian Peacekeeping Mission to achieve political resolution in other conflict-plagued regions.

  90. Stephen T.F. Poon

    Lifestyle brands are created, built and established based on cultural values, attitudes and living arrangements of a specific group of target audience. As branding activities are aimed at generating awareness and communicating information that ultimately relates to the overall purpose of marketing, the creation of lifestyle brands is to enable target audiences or target market sectors to identify and associate with the elements of the specific lifestyle contexts they practice, prefer, and aspire to. Lifestyle branding adds value to consumers from its powerful enabling role as an interactive mechanism, being the name and symbolic associations for products and services which not only serves functional benefits, but communicates the symbolisms behind consumer choices with factors that are culturally inherent or meaningful. More than promotional tactics and marketing, lifestyle branding strategies shape the interaction habits and activities that the consumer may seek, prefer or engage in daily. The embrace of digital media, web-based and mobile technologies, and a tandem growth of interest in the urban shopping culture have become important catalysts in the development and management of successful lifestyle brands. This paper provides a set of possible cultural determinants of Malaysia’s urban consumer segments, while proposing ways in which brand marketers and designers can respond innovatively to their needs by aligning brands with consumer perceived measures of brand equity. Using scales of measurement on the brand equity model to analyse the underlying determinant conditions, four case studies of food and beverage brands in the Malaysian service industries will be provided to gather insights on brand equity, and these will be discussed in-depth to understand what consumers seek in brand experiences. The research will conclude by factoring in the designer’s role in the marketing of lifestyle brands that are relevant, recognised and respected.

  91. Dr. Saima Hussain, Dr. Vaibhav Joshi, Dr. Shobhit Arora, Dr. Nada Ali

    An organized and systematic approach is required to evaluate, diagnose and resolve esthetic problems predictably. It is of prime importance that the final result is not dependent only on the looks alone. Our ultimate goal as clinicians is to achieve pleasing composition in the facial aesthetics by creating an arrangement of various esthetic elements. Treatment planning according to the facial architecture and dental configuration allows function and harmonious aesthetics to be improved. The primary objective of aesthetic dental treatmentis to generate a natural healthy appearance for an otherwise damaged dentition. In order to fulfill this complex task, an interdisciplinary approach is required to synchronize periodontal, orthodontic, restorative and occasional plastic surgical treatment modalities which results in comprehensive treatment plan. A detailed diagnosis of the given facial architecture and dental configuration with analysis of the individual patient aesthetcs are required to initiate the treatment plan. This article reviews the various principles that govern facial aesthetic.

  92. Ateeque Ahmad and Shabina Hussain

    Tourism is emerged as a large service-sector industry in the modern world which has become a global instrument of economic, cultural and social development. The country India, which have plenty of natural beauty and resources like cultural heritage, archaeological remains, historical ruins, bio-diversity, heritage site etc. enough scope for the tourism promotions. Manipur, “the Land of Jewels”, is one of the smallest and easternmost states in India having a geographical area 22,327 sq.km with salubrious climate, exotic greenery and rich flora besides its rich culture. Moreover the Wildlife sanctuaries and floating National parks of the state can attract the tourists all over the world. The state has over 50 tourists’ spots. It is the treasure house of various economic resources like natural scenic tourist spots, rich culture and ethnic heritage. Tourism has the greatest potential for generating income and employment opportunities in the state because Manipur is not only characterized by the blending of floras and faunas; it is also exceptionally rich in bio-diversity. Because of her natural assets, ethnic diversity and the societal ethos of hosts, tourism holds high potential in the state. This paper is mainly focussed on the problems and challenges of the state as well as the pitfalls in the tourism development in Manipur.

  93. Dr Mamta Mohan and Misbah Jahan

    Last few weeks have seen a frenzy of debate taking place around the topic of Net Neutrality. While customers accuse the service providers (ISPs and telecom companies) of trying to “control Net” through their new “Zero Pricing Plans”, the service providers have been adamant that the new regulations are meant for the optimization of bandwidth. The topic of Net Neutrality needs to be explored from various angles; then and only then alone would it be possible to reach a fair conclusion regarding the issue. The aim of this paper is to put these various perspectives (regarding the issue) in place.

  94. Magwa Simuforosa

    Child sexual abuse (CSA) is a widespread problem that can affect victims’ well-being and functioning across the lifespan. It is a concern of society because the physical and mental harm endured by children is extremely destructive. Children of many different backgrounds have been forced to engage in unwanted sexual behaviour because CSA is not isolated to one demographic class. In order to help stop this scourge there is a need for a thorough understanding of the factors that place children at risk for becoming sexually abused at various levels. This paper reviews contextual factors associated with CSA. Most studies address individual characteristics and few consider broader ecological contexts. In this paper, the causes of CSA are framed using the ecological systems model.

  95. Omar Iván Gavotto-Nogales, Lidia Isabel Castellanos Pierra, Priscilla MaríaMongeUrquijo and Leonardo David GlassermanMorales

    The aim of the research was to analyze the attention of university teachers participating in a continuing training program. The research was conducted in October 2014. It consisted of recording the sustained attention of 30 teachers in a training process in a public university in Mexico, using the technique of participant observation. On average seven out of 10 teachers who receive training pay attention to the teacher's presentation during the first hour of class and do only six in the second hour. It concludes that teachers take literally very similar to the contemporary university student role, serving a variety of ways during exposure teacher trainer. Several teachers are indifferent to the work of his colleague.

  96. Dr. Parveen Banu, K. and Pon Karthika, S.

    Pregnancy can be fascinating phase with so many changes taking place and so many things to look forward to such as the needs for comfortable maternity clothes. (Cumming and Cunning, 1960) Maternity wear has gained lot of importance in the recent years. The reason can be attributed to the fact that there is an increase in the number of pregnant women who are carrying out their routine activities during this period. Each woman is unique and each pregnancy is different as well. (Basavanthappa, 2006) Nursing pads, also called breast pads, are a very useful breastfeeding accessory that prevent embarrassment, and protect clothing from stains. Most importantly, wearing wet garments against the breasts and nipples can contribute to inflammation and infection. (http://www.wisegeek.com/what-are-nursing-pads) This paper explores the possibility of designing and constructing maternity Kurtis with nursing pads for the convenience of lactating women.

  97. Rosa Espinoza Toalombo, Hugo Campos Rocafuerte and Helena Jordán Baque

    The electronic money, in the strictest sense, is a revolutionary financial service that provides great advantages to its users. Itsuse in the social masses incorporates it in the financial system creating real opportunities for development and social inclusion. It attends to all population stratification from any economic situation requiring financial services toorderits economy efficiently.

  98. Dr. Th. Nandalal Singh and Harmandeep Kaur

    The purpose of the present study was to compare the blood pressure and pulse rate among selected national level male football, basketball and hockey players. For the purpose of the study, sixty (N=60) national level male players (twenty for each game) from Chandigarh (UT) were selected as subjects of the study by using stratified random sampling technique. The age of the subjects ranged between 19-25 years. To find out the significance differences selected national level male football, basketball and hockey players, one way ANOVA was used with the help of SPSS software. Further Scheffe’s post-hoc test was applied to see the direction and significance of differences where ‘F’ ratio was found significant. The level of significance chosen was .05. There were no significant differences obtained on blood pressure and pulse rate among national level male football, basketball and hockey players on blood pressure (systolic and diastolic) and pulse rate.

  99. Ganesh, K. M., Suryanarayana, G. and Chelli Janardhana

    There has been an unprecedented increase in groundwater withdrawal around the world on account of tremendous agricultural and industrial expansion leading to severe degradation of groundwater quality and quantity. There is an imminent need to implement efficient water management systems aided by effective water quality monitoring programs. Tools like Water Quality Index (WQI) which represents the combined influence of individual water quality parameters supported by the Geographical Information System (GIS) helps the environmentalists and policy makers to make effective predictions and decisions. The objective of the current study was to monitor, evaluate and classify the water types based on WQI and GIS mapping to assess the drinking water quality in Kothacheruvu mandal of Anantapur District, Andhra Pradesh. The physico-chemical analysis of bore-well water samples were done and compared with the drinking water standards set by the World Health Organization (WHO) and the Bureau of Indian Standards (BIS). The latitude and longitude of the sampling location were taken to develop geospatial maps on the GIS platform. Fluoride and Nitrate were found to be the main contaminants in the region. WQI calculations revealed that 83.3% of the groundwater in the study area was unfit for drinking purpose without appropriate water pre-treatment.

  100. Maria Pavlova, Anna Starshinova, Irina Chernokhaeva, Ludmila Archakova, Nadezda Sapozhnikova, Pavel Gavrilov, Viacheslav Zhuravlev and Piotr Yablonskii

    Treatment of tuberculosis in pregnancy always presents certain difficulties and should consider not only the condition of pregnant woman, but also a child. Recently tuberculosis and pregnancy were considered incompatible. Presented clinical case demonstrates possibility of treatment during pregnancy with good clinical outcome and recovery of specific process in the mother and adequate development of the child. Adequate complex therapy, taking into account the sensitivity of isolated Mycobacterium tuberculosis, as well as continuous monitoring of condition of pregnant woman/mother and fetus/newborn child by both physician specialist in TB and obstetrician – gynecologist should be used. All period of therapy consist 12 month.

  101. Dr. Rema V Nair, Dr. Shwetha B. R., Dr. Saranya Andal Kishore and Dr. Prashant V Solanke

    RCH I - The program was formally launched on 15 October 1997 RCH phase I I began from 1st April 2005. Maternal Health • Strategies • Essential Obstetric Care • Emergency Obstetric Care

  102. Nwakaudu, M. S., Nkwocha, A. C., Madu, I. K., Enwereji, C. B and Ireaja, I. E.

    Vitamin C (ascorbic acid) is one of the most important and popular vitamins, and is contained in most fruits and vegetables; the problem with vitamin C is its easy degradation during storage. In this study, the degradation kinetics of vitamin C was determined in tomato and pawpaw, and the market storage methods considered were: open air (ambient) storage and sack (jute bag) storage for six days. Iodometric method of analysis was employed in analyzing the concentration of vitamin C in fruit samples. The vitamin C content of the fruit samples during storage were determined daily for the duration of 6days. The rate constants were calculated for both fruits under the two storage methods using the integrated law method; half-life was also calculated. Loss of ascorbic acid in tomato and pawpaw under the two storage conditions followed the first-order kinetic model, as the coefficient of determination (R2-value) was greater than 0.95. The rate constant of ascorbic acid degradation for pawpaw stored in open air and jute bags were 0.1909day-1 and 0.1963day-1 respectively; while the rate constant for tomato stored in open air and jute bags were 0.1331day-1 and 0.1969day-1 respectively. The half-life of both fruits ranged from 3 – 6days. The most appropriate method of storage is open air because the rate constants depicted from the model equations were lower, and the half life longer, hence, slower rate of degradation.

  103. Veerabhadrappa, K. V., Pradeep Kumar, S., Sudheer, A., Somasekhar Reddy, K., Raveendra Reddy, J. and Haranath, C.

    Diabetes mellitus is a metabolic disorder that is rapidly becoming a major threat to population all over the globe. Diabetes is due to either the pancreas not producing enough insulin or because cells of the body do not respond properly to the insulin that is produced. Antidiabetics from natural source play a key role in treatment of diabetes. Herbal plants are power house of sources for anti-diabetic principles. The present study aimed the anti-diabetic activity of combined extract of liquorice and jatamansi. Liquorice previously proven for anti-diabetic activity. But in this study carried Synergistic ant diabetic actions of combination extract liquorise and jatamansi in Alloxan induced diabetic rats. The overnight fasted non diabetic rats are treated with alloxan monohydrate 50mg|kg body weight among them rats with plasma glucose level >150mg|dl were selected for diabetic study. The liquorice & jatamansi extract which is prepared in solvent ether is administered for test group along with glibenclamide for standard group which is sulfonyl urea’s for about 7days. Test sample showed significant decrease in blood glucose level of diabetic rats at the dose 200mg|kg body wt. compared to diabetic controlled rats. Glibenclamide also showed decrease in blood glucose level at the dose 5mg/kg body wt. Hence our present study revealed the synergistic action of liquorice & jatamansi near to the standard and minimal side effects and less cost with easy available of drugs

  104. Swetha, C., Suchitra, M. N. and Sahana, B. N.

    Objective: To assess the knowledge, attitude and practices of first aid in BSc nursing students of a MVJ Nursing College, Bangalore. Methodology: A rapid assessment of first aid knowledge was done on 100 female BSc nursing students aged between 17 to 19 years by using pretested structured questionnaire. Results and Conclusion: Nursing students had inadequate knowledge regarding first aid at the beginning of their nursing career. Therefore initiatives should be taken to train them at an early stage.

  105. Sanchita Roy, Ajanta Haldar, Pritha Pal, Atreyee Dutta and Shanoli Ghosh

    Iso-chromosome of long arm of X chromosome i(Xq), which occurs due to abnormal transverse cleavage of the centromere during cell division, found in some cases Turner Syndrome. The aim of this study is to estimate the prevalence of isochromosome X in patients with short stature with or with- out primary (PA) and secondary amenorrhea (SA) in our population. An observational study done comprised of female patients who had been referred to our cytogenetic outdoor of Vivekananda Institute of Medical Sciences (VIMS), Kolkata, India with the history of short stature with or without amenorrhoea between 2012, January-2014, December and designed as original article. The female patients aged between 10-25years having short stature with or with-out primary or secondary amenorrhea who were referred to the cytogenetic outdoor for chromosomal analysis from the departments of Pediatric medicine, Endocrinology, Gynaecology from different hospitals of Eastern India were included in the study. Lymphocyte culture depended karyo typing done using conventional method. We have documented seven such cases of is chromosome Xq among 50 female patients presented mainly with short stature with or without primary or secondary amenorrhea. Our study re-emphasizes the importance of chromosomal analysis in short stature female patients with or without primary or secondary amenorrhea to remove the diagnostic dilemma of the clinician.

  106. Abd Alla, A. Mohamed, Jbireal, M. Ali Jbireal, Elfatah, M. Elnifro and Asadig, E. M. Alghoull

    Hepatitis C virus (HCV) is a major cause of chronic liver disease worldwide. It is associated with the development of end-stage liver disease and hepatocellular carcinoma. Studies have shown that patients infected with different genotypes of HCV may respond to different antiviral therapy differently and thus HCV genotype information is very important in helping physicians to better managing their patients. The aim of the study was to evaluate a real time PCR HCV genotyping assay against a nested RT PCR. The results indicated that real time PCR is feasible, easier and more sensitive than the nested RT PCR. A total of 96 samples were genotyped by both methods. Both methods detected HCV genotype 1 in 32 samples, genotype 4 in 39 samples, HCV enotype 3 in 19 samples, HCV genotype 2 were detected by nested RT PCR in 2 samples and 6 samples by real time PCR. The results showed that 100% sensitivity of HCV genotypes was observed with real time PCR technique and only 95.8% sensitivity of HCV genotypes was observed with nested PCR technique. The most commonly detected genotypes in 96 positive HCV plasma samples was genotype G4 (40.6 %), followed by genotype G1 (33.3%) with the predominant subtype 1a (21.8%) and subtype 1b (11.5%). The genotype 2 was detected in 6% of patients, HCV genotype 3 was detected in 19.8% of the tested plasma samples. Real time PCR seems to be reliable diagnostic method for genotyping of HCV isolates.

  107. Umar Younus, Hanief Mohamed Dar, Insha Hamid, Mudasir Hamid Buch and Varun Dogra

    Testicular torsion is a surgical emergency. Early diagnosis and timely intervention salvages the testis. Methods; 50 patients of acute scrotum were admitted in general surgery department who were ≤25 years of age. After Detailed history, thorough examination, relevant investigations and Doppler ultrasound, patients were divided into two groups. Group A included patients who required immediate surgical intervention and Group B included patients who were managed conservatively. Type of surgical procedure, Postoperative period, hospital stay and follow up findings were noted. Results: Youngest patient was 10 months old and eldest was 24 years old. Most common presentation was scrotal pain seen in 49 patients followed by scrotal swelling in 48 patients. All patients underwent baseline investigations and Doppler untrasound scrotum. Group A pncluded 27 patients; 23 testicular torsion, epididymo-orchitis 1 patient, torsion of testicular appendage 1 patient, incarcerated inguinal hernia 1 patient and traumatic haematocele 1 patient. Average Hospital stay in this group was 4 days. On follow up at 3 weeks all patients were symptom free and wound was healthy. Group B included 20 patients of epididymo-orchitis, 2 patients of torsion of testicular appendage and one patient of idiopathic scrotal edema. They were provided rest, antibiotics, antnflamatory drugs and proteolytic enzymes. All patients in group B resolved by conservative management and were discharged at average of 3 days. At follow up all patients were settled and symptom free. Conclusion; Early diagnosis and timely intervention prevents gangrene and hence loss of testis.

  108. Supriya, B. G., Syed Mukkurram Zia and Srikanth, N. S.

    Chronic Suppurative Hidradenitis is an apocrine glands inflammation present in the skin adnexa over theaxillary, anogenital and perineal region. It occurs due to obstruction and inflammation of the draining duct with sinus formation .Obligate anaerobes contribute to mixed skin flora and they are known to causepolymicrobial synergistic infection along with facultative anaerobes. Obligateanaerobes usually cause deep seated necrotic infection with foul smelling discharge. Here is a case of an unmarried women presenting with a lump in the breast with a foul smelling discharge since 2 years. A final diagnosis of Chronic suppurativehidradenitis was made and treated with localised surgical excision and antibiotics. An aspirated pus was sent for aerobic and anaerobic culture which revealed polymicrobial obligate anaerobic infection due to Peptostreptococcusspp, Fusobacteriumspp, Prevotellamelaninogenica and Eubacteriumspp grown in synergism with aerobic Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Patient recovered and no recurrence has been seen as of now. Hence it is an unusual case of chronic suppurativehidradenitis with superficial degenerative infection caused by Polymicrobial obligate anaerobes.

  109. Sharma Vinaysagar, Ananth G, Jagannath P. M., Varadaraju D. N., Shashwath Kumar and Kishan Anantha

    The proliferating trichilemmal tumor is an uncommon neoplasm presenting as a solitary lesion over the scalp. It is usually a benign neoplasm. We describe a case of proliferating trichilemmal tumor which presented as an ulcerated solid swelling of the scalp over the vertex, with bony erosion reaching the superior sagittal sinus.

  110. Dr. Ishani Bora, Dr. Wihiwot Valarie Lyngdoh, Dr. Vikramjeet Dutta, Dr. Purnima Rajkhowa, Dr. Stephen L. Sailo and Dr. Annie Bakorlin Khyriem

    Background and Objectives: Urolithiasis is a frequently occurring urological disorder associated with multiple etiological factors, out of which bacterial infection is one .A definite relationship is seen between the presence of bacteria and activity of bacterial urease in development of stones .This study was thus undertaken to analyse the renal stones and their association with different bacteria. Materials and Methods: The study was conducted in a tertiary care center in North East India. 95 stones were collected intraoperatively. Upon removal, the stones were placed immediately in a sterile container and bacteriological analysis was performed by standard conventional methods. Results: Among the 95 stones analysed from 95 patients and 35% belong to age group 21-30 years with male: female ratio was 1.2:1 and 60% showed growth of organism and from one stone 2 organisms were isolated. Preoperative urine analysis showed growth in 52% of the patients and among these renal stone culture was positive in 82.2%. .Urease splitting organisms isolated from pre operative urine was 42.2% and that from renal stones was 60%. Conclusion: Infection of renal calculi with multiple drug resistance strains might reflect treatment failure. Bacteria present within the calculi may not be detected by urine culture, and may act as foci of persistent infection of the urinary tract.

  111. Dr. Anjali Swami, Dr. Saiprasad Patil, Dr. Badhuli Samal and Dr. Jayanthi Shastri

    Background: Surgical site infection (SSI) is a potentially preventable complication. The aim of this study was to detect the incidence of surgical site infection in clean surgeries, risk factors involved, and organisms isolated. Study design: From June 2009 to January 2010, patients admitted for surgery under General, Orthopedic, and Cardiovascular surgery departments in a tertiary care Hospital were included in the study. The exclusion criteria included, age less than 18 years and more than 80 yrs. The parameter studied were age, sex, presence of diabetes, congestive heart failure, chemotherapy, tobacco use, remote site infection, length of preoperative stay, antimicrobial prophylaxis and duration of surgery. Appropriate sample from suspected sites of infection were cultured and antimicrobial susceptibility of cultured organism was tested. Patients were followed up after discharge telephonically. Results: Two hundred and seventy patients were studied. Of these 10(3.7%) developed SSI. The cases were Mastectomy (11.11%), Inguinal hernia (7.24%), Hip replacement (4.76%), Laminectomy (4.34%),CABG (3.33%). Organisms isolated were Staphylococcus aureus (4), CoNS (2), E.coli (2), Pseudomonas sp. (2). Preoperative hospital stay was associated with significantly higher infection rate (p-0.001). Underlying chemotherapy, diabetes, remote infection, duration of surgery were associated with increased risk of surgical site infection. Discussion: Preoperative hospital stay was found to be the most important factor leading to surgical site infection. Diabetes, chemotherapy, congestive heart failure, duration of surgery, though not statistically significant, appeared to be important. Half of the isolates were multiresistant strains, they could be hospital acquired. Preoperative “Higher” antibiotics do not lower postoperative infection rate.

  112. Dr. Shylla Mir and Dr. Huma Habib

    Objectives: (i) To assess whether oligohydramnios is associated with adverse pregnancy outcome and (ii) to compare the pregnancy outcome in this study group with a control group and determine the difference in outcome between the two groups. Methodology: This prospective study was conducted over a period of 1 year (Jan 2014 to Jan 2015). The study was conducted on 80 pregnant women with gestational age > 34 weeks and they were divided into a study group of 40 patients having oligohydramnios and a control group of 40 patients without oligohydramnios. Amniotic fluid assessment was done by ultrasound. The selected end points which were used to judge the pregnancy outcome in both groups of patient were rate of cesarean section for fetal distress, rate of induced labor, presence of meconium in amniotic fluid, apgar score of baby, rate of still birth and intrauterine growth retardation. The outcome of pregnancy in study group was compared with that of control group. Results: The ultrasound examination of patients was done and an amniotic fluid index of 5cm or less was taken as the criteria for diagnosis of oligohydramnios. The indications of ultrasound examination were similar for cases and controls. They included suspected IUGR, maternal hypertension and decreased fetal movements. There was a significantly higher rate of induced labor, cesarean section, IUGR babies, still births, low apgar score and meconium-stained amniotic fluid in the study (oligohydramnios) group as compared to control group. Conclusion: The results of present study indicate that the risk of adverse pregnancy outcome is increased in patients with oligohydramnios. So, its management warrants increased antepartum surveillance for early detection of pregnancy complications and fetal scanning to diagnose malformations or growth restriction.

  113. Valli Kumari, R. V. and Venkateswar Rao, P.

    A rapid, simple, selective and sensitive LC-MS/MS method was developed for the determination of Teicoplanin in human plasma using Imipramine as internal standard (IS). The method was developed with turbid ion spray (TIS) in the positive ion and multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) mode. The assay procedure involves a simple liquid – liquid extraction of Teicoplanin and Imipramine from human plasma by using methyl-tert-butyl ether. The mobile phase was acetonitrile: 10mM ammonium formate, pH 4.5 in the ratio of 90:10%v/v. Chromatographic separation was achieved on Gemini C18 (50×4.6mm,5µ) column with a flow rate of 1.0ml/min. The MRM transitions monitored for Teicoplanin and Imipramine were 324.70/108.90 and 280.80/86.00 respectively. The developed method was validated as per FDA guidelines. Linearity was observed from 306.022- 199205.354pg/ml with correlation coefficient of 0.9969. The percent recovery for the drug and IS was found to be 78.31 and 64.96% respectively. Stability studies like freeze thaw, bench top, short term and long term were performed and the results were found to be within the acceptance limits according to FDA guidelines.

  114. Nasir A. M. Al Jurayyan

    Background: Congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH) is a group of autosomal recessive disorders resulting from the deficiency of one of the five enzymes required to synthesis cortisol, and hence, increased production of adrenocorticotrophin releasing hormone (ACTH) which leads to adrenal hyperplasia. In 11--hydroxylase and 17--hydroxylase deficiencies, the accumulation of the mineralocorticosteroids or 11-deoxy-cortisol can lead to hypertension. Design and settings: A retrospective, hospital based study, was conducted at King Khalid University Hospital (KKUH), Riyadh, Saudi Arabia, during the period January 1989 and December 2014. Methods: Medical records of children who were diagnosed to have congenital adrenal hyperplasia were retrospectively reviewed. Data included age, sex, clinical presentation and results of the relevant laboratory and radiological investigations. Results: During the period under review, 95 Saudi patients with CAH were diagnosed. Of these 76 (80%) were due to 21--hydroxylase deficiency, 15 (15.8%) patients with 11--hydroxylase deficiency, and 4 (4.2%) patients were due to 3--hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase deficiency. Six (40%) patients with 11--hydroxylase deficiency developed persistent hypertension during the course of follow-up. Conclusion: Hypertension is common occurrence in congenital adrenal hyperplasia due to 11--hydroxylase deficiency and should be considered in the differential diagnosis of hypertension.

  115. Fahima Mohammed Hassan, Doaa Mahmoud Elian, MahaAbd El-Rafea Albasyony and Walaa Ali Afifi

    Objective: To determine the frequency of HP seroprevalence and infection in ß-TM patients both symptomatic and asymptomatic for RAP and to compare between ß-TM patients and controls presenting with RAP. Materials and Methods: The study included 2 groups group I consists of forty ß-TM patients Aged (3 – 18) years. They were subdivided into Group Ia (symptomatic for RAP) and Group Ib (asymptomatic for RAP) each group consists of 20patients. Group II (control group) consists of 20 children complaining of recurrent abdominal pain with no chronic illness whose ages and gender were compatible. Serum samples were examined for anti-HP antibody using HpIgG ELISA test. Stool antigen test (qualitative immunochromatographic assay containing momoclonal antibodies) was applied to seropositive patients to assess the rate of associated active infection. Results: The overall prevalence of HPIgG (+ve) was equal in ß-TM and controls (45%). compared to stool results which was higher in thalassemia (37.5%) than controls (30%) but not statistically significant. Withstool antigen test, statistically significant difference regarding pain site, splenectomy and serum ferritin. Conclusion: HP seroprevalence was similar in thalassemic and controls. active infection was higher in thalassemic than controls and affected with splenectomy and high serum ferritin.

  116. Antifungal activity of crude extracts from tridax procumbens l. against potentially pathogenic fungal species

    Background: The Tridax procumbens plant is well known for its traditional medicinal values. The present study deals with evaluation of antifungal activity of the extracts obtained from Tridax procumbens L. Method: Different extracts of the parts like leaf, stem, flower and roots were prepared in five solvent systems of polar and non-polar origin. The antifungal activity was assayed using agar well diffusion method. Results: All extracts of different parts responded variedly. The methanolic root extract of Tridax procumbens was found to be most potent for the Candida species. The most susceptible fungi were found to be Candida albicans (MTCC 3017), Candida albicans (MTCC 227), Candida glabrata (MTCC 3019) and Saccharomyces cerevisiae (MTCC 170). The highest antifungal activity of methanol root extract with 16 mm inhibition zone was measured against the Candida glabrata (MTCC 3019). Conclusion: The present study concluded that, the plant had significant antifungal potential for the tested Candida species and other assayed fungi. The study validates the use of this plant as antifungal agent.

  117. Dr. Ritu Mehta, Dr. Sanjeev Agarwal, Dr. Gagan Jaiswal, Dr. Neha Singh Agrahari and Dr. Abhishek Bhargava

    Background: Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) is the most commonly used imaging modality in the evaluation of knee injuries. So, this study was planned to use MRI in determining the incidence of knee lesions in traumatic knee patients and their relation with the age and sex of the patients. Materials and Methods: This prospective study was performed for a period of 1 year after taking the permission from institutional ethics committee in a tertiary care teaching hospital. Patients referred to the Department of Radiology with post traumatic knee joint symptoms were recruited. Patients’ socio-demographic data, clinical history and physical examination findings were recorded to correlate the findings. MRI Acquisition Knees were imaged by using Siemens Avanto MR machine with a superconducting magnet and field strength of 1.5 tesla using dedicated knee coil (Flex). Results: Total 63 patients were examined by MRI and the most common age group was found to be 21-30 years. 88.89% knee lesions were found in male. Joint Effusion was found to be most frequent lesion in symptomatic knee constituting 94.64%. Amongst the ligament injury, ACL was found be highest approximately 50% in patients with complete tear in 57.14%. Amongst the menisci injury medial meniscus injury was found be highest approximately 72.72 % with grade III in 43.75%. Conclusion: MRI was found to be good diagnostic tool for evaluation of traumatic knee lesions.

  118. Siraj Ahmad, Mazher Maqusood, Hepsi Natha and Mohd. Izharulhak

    Background: Tuberculosis (TB) is a treatable and curable disease. Junior doctors and nurses working in health-care settings are often the first to identify and manage TB cases. Hence, a thorough knowledge regarding TB disease and its management under Revised National Tuberculosis Control Programme (RNTCP), and recent guidelines on Directly Observed Treatment Shortcourse (DOTS) strategy is crucial for health care professionals. Objectives: To assess the knowledge regarding tuberculosis, RNTCP and DOTS among health care professionals at a tertiary care hospital. Methodology: This cross-sectional, observational, descriptive, and institution based study was done among health care professionals in a tertiary care hospital. Results: Out of 183 participants, 47.5% were junior doctors and 52.5% were nursing staffs. 79.3% of junior doctors and 58.3% of nursing staffs had good knowledge of tuberculosis. 96.6% of junior doctors had received training on RNTCP. 65.5% of junior doctors and 55.2% of nursing staffs had good knowledge regarding treatment monitoring and follow-up of patients. Conclusion: Junior doctors and nursing staffs had a good knowledge regarding TB and recent RNTCP guidelines. RNTCP sensitization should be the part of regular activity of all medical colleges and hospitals to train the health care professionals.

  119. Sohair Mabrouk Mohammed and Gehan Mohammed Diab

    Nursing students are valuable human resources. Detection of potential fear of negative evaluation among nursing students is crucial since it can minimize the quality of life. Fear of negative evaluation is the apprehension and distress arising from concerns about being judged negatively, despairingly or hostilely by others. Quality of life means satisfaction with life or satisfaction of needs. Aim of the study to examine the impact of fear of negative evaluation on quality of life, among faculty nursing students. Design: This study demonstrates a descriptive co-relational design. Setting: The study was conducted in Faculty of Nursing, Menoufia University, Egypt Governorate. Subjects: A convenience sample of all undergraduate nursing students accepts participation enrolled in first and fourth in the above mentioned setting. Tools: Two tools were used for data collection. Tool 1: consists of two parts; part (a) to collect socio-demographics data and part (b) Fear of Negative Evaluation Scale. Tool 2: Quality of life Scale. Results: Indicated that the highest percentages of fourth grade students (85.5%) had moderate level of fear of negative evaluation. Conversely, the majority of first grade students (68.7%) had moderate level of fear of negative evaluation. They were highly statistically significant, strong negative correlation between students’ overall level of state fear of negative evaluation from one side and their overall level of quality of life (r = -0.355, p<0.001). Conclusion: the study concluded that fear of negative evaluation have an effect on students quality of life. There was statistical significance difference between first and fourth grade students regarding fear of negative evaluation and quality of life Recommendation: Designing and implementing an educational program about fear of negative evaluation for nursing students. Further research could be looking to see if the students’ attributions affect the fear of negative evaluation. Further research to study the effect teachers' role on allays anxiety and fear of negative evaluation among faculty nursing students.

  120. Dr. Supriya Mahajan

    Objectives: Postdate pregnancy is the most common indication for Antepartum fetal heart rate testing because of its increased perinatal morbidity and perinatal mortality. It has long been recognized that the risk of adverse fetal outcomes, such as stillbirth, meconium aspiration, asphyxia, and the dysmaturity syndrome, is increased as gestational age progresses beyond 42 weeks. Materials and Methods: 55 patients with pregnancy beyond 40 weeks attending antenatal out-patient department of the Rajiv Gandhi medical college in the period between October 2014 to march 2015 were included. In present study, patients were monitored with twice weekly NST. In those with either NST nonreactive, induction was done. Cases with normal results were monitored till 42 weeks when routine induction was done. Results: A reactive nonstress test in prolonged pregnancy has good negative predictive value – i.e. adverse outcomes are unlikely to occur in the setting of a reactive non-stress test – but that the positive predictive values are low. Out of 55 patients, 71.2% went into spontaneous labour and remaining were induced. Five were induced when they reached 42 weeks, remaining were induced for abnormal NST. LSCS was done in 9 Cases (60%) in induced group. There was high incidence of caesarean section in induction group as compared with those who went into spontaneous labour. Out of 55 patients, 33 delivered vaginally (60%) of which most (50.9%) had spontaneous vaginal delivery. In three patients forceps was applied for prolonged second stage and in two patients prophylactic forceps for previous LSCS. Caesarean section was done in 22 patients (40%). Three were elective LSCS, one for breech presentation and two for previous LSCS. Most common indications for caesarean section were fetal distress (12 cases) and failure to progress (7cases) Of 72 NST, performed on 55 patients, 16 (22.3%) were nonreactive and 56(77.7%) were reactive. Reactive NST is reassuring and indicates fetal wellbeing. butnon reactive NST alone cannot be taken as an indicator of fetal jeopardy. The sensitivity and specificity of NST is 60% and 82.5% for Apgar<7 at 5 minute, 66.6%and 78.2% for NICU admission, 55% and 82.5% for Apgar<7 at 5 minute, 66.6% and 78.2% for NICU admission, 55% and 85.7% for meconium staining respectively. NST reactivity is statistically significant in predicting Apgar>7 at 5 minute, necessity of NICU admission and meconium passage. Conclusion: Reactive NST is reassuring and indicates fetal wellbeing, but non reactive NST alone cannot be taken as an indicator of fetal jeopardy. Although individual randomized trials do not show significant differences in perinatal mortality between women electively induced at specific gestational ages and women followed with antepartum testing, data shows significant increase in abnormal fetal outcome after 41 weeks.The presence FHR decelerations during and NST was associated with a less favourable outcome for the fetus.

  121. Dr. Nirmala, B. C., Dr. Sindhu Sabapathy, Dr. Manju Vijayan and Dr. Faliya Mitesh

    Study Objective: To compare the clinical effects of 3.5ml of 0.5% isobaric bupivacaine and 3.5ml of 0.5% isobaric levo-bupivacaine intrathecally in total abdominal hysterectomies. Design: A prospective randomized study. Materials and Methods: 100 patients belonging to ASA physical status I & II (each group 50 patients n=50) were randomly selected for the study. The time of onset of sensory and motor block, hemodynamic status, duration of analgesia and adverse effects if any were compared in both the groups. Group I patients received 3.5ml of 0.5% isobaric Bupivacaine. Group II patients received 3.5ml of 0.5% isobaric levo-bupivacaine. Results: The time of onset of sensory block of levobupivacaine was 8± 3.5 and bupivacaine was 7.2± 2.6 min (P< 0.05). Onset time of motor block of levobupivacaine was 12 ±1.5 and bupivacaine was 10±1.7 min (P< 0.01). Hemodynamic changes did not differ in patients of either group (p >0.05).The duration of analgesia in group I was 280±40 minutes and in group II was 248±46 minutes which was statistically significant (p<0.001). The side effects were minimal in both the groups. Conclusion: Intrathecal administration of isobaric bupivacaine 0.5% produces rapid onset of anesthesia, longer duration ofanalgesia compared to isobaric levo-bupivacaine.

  122. Helena Aminiel Ngowi

    Porcine Taenia solium cysticercosis causes taeniasis in humans, the source of neurocysticercosis that causes life-threatening epileptic seizures. The current drug of choice cannot kill parasite larvae in the brain of pig. In addition, meat inspection in most countries does not include inspection of the brain. A questionnaire was administered to 74 smallholder pig farming households in porcine cysticercosis endemic villages of Mbulu district, northern Tanzania, to explore about pig brain consumption habits as compared to those of pork. While approximately 89.2% (95% CI: 79.8, 95.2; n = 74) of households consumed pork, only about 29.7% (95% CI: 18.9, 42.4; n = 64) admitted that they consumed pig brains. Nevertheless, 40.6% (95% CI: 28.5, 53.6; n = 64) of the households indicated that pig brains were consumed in the village. Males were approximately two times more likely to indicate that pig brains were consumed than females. While frying was the preferred method of cooking pork, boiling in water was the preferred method of cooking the brain. More studies are needed to ascertain local perceptions, adequacy of cooking methods in destroying T. solium larvae as well as the need for routine inspection of pig brains in porcine cysticercosis endemic areas.

  123. Jha Shobhana

    Use of diaper among infants and children is essential and universally accepted. However, many children face difficult condition by developing diaper dermatitis. Development of technology helps substantially lessen the severity of diaper dermatitis, but additional care and improvements are essential. Etiology includes overhydration, irritants, friction, diarrhoea, antibiotic use, increased skin pH, and increase duration of use of diaper. Early identification and treatment decreases associated morbidity and mortality. The important factor is awareness of parents and care takers regarding etiology and management of this condition. A literature search was conducted using key words diaper rash, diaper dermatitis, nappy rash, irritant contact dermatitis, perineal skin breakdown, zinc oxide, baby powder, and cornstarch through Google Scholar, Pubmed, CINAHL, Ovid and other relevant sites. Similarly, different relevant literature published in English language were also reviewed. The literature search yielded numerous articles dating from 1985 to 2015 of which we evaluated the refined ones. This review provides the scientific basis of etiology, contributing factors, comparison of diaper types and recent developments of diaper types and management.

  124. Dr. S. Sudha, Dr. R. Vindoha and Dr. R. Girija

    Cigarette smoking remains the leading cause of preventable premature morbidity and mortality in many countries around the world. It has been established that one of the constituents of tobacco i.e Nicotine has considerable influence on increasing the lipid levels in blood. Derangement of cholesterol metabolism leads to increased triglyceride concentration in blood. This study was undertaken in Thanjavur medical college to evaluate lipid profile in young cigarette/bidi smokers in Thanjavur, and compare it with nonsmokers in fasting state. It rules out whether any correlation exists between chronic smokers and lipid level. This study was conducted on 40 healthy male cigarette/bidi smokers and compared with 40 nonsmokers. The smokers must have smoked minimum of daily 3-5 cigarette/bidi for 2 years duration. The study group includes male smokers within the age group of 25-35 years. Age and weight matched non-obese, nonsmokers served as control. The lipid profile parameters include serum Total cholesterol, LDL, HDL and Triglycerides. The tests were carried out in a semiautoanalyzer. Alterations in the lipid profile are statistically significant in chronic smokers. They have significant increase in serum level of Total cholesterol, LDL, TG and decrease in HDL. So chronic cigarette smoking makes definite change in lipid profile.

  125. Dr. Manoj Kumar Gupta, Dr. Mandira Chakraborty, Dr. Indrani Bhattacharyya, Dr. Sangeeta Das Ghosh and Dr. AbhisekMitra

    We are reporting a case of HIV 2 infection from Kolkata, West Bengal, India. There are case reports of HIV 2 infection from western and southern parts of India, but reports from Eastern India are rare. Also this is an isolated case of HIV 2 infection in which diagnosis to death was very rapid. The patient was admitted with a diagnosis of HIV-2 infection and CD4 count of 42. He was diagnosed to have Pulmonary Tuberculosis and anaemia. The patient was discharged with proper treatment. He was admitted after one month with extreme deterioration in his condition and some more opportunistic infections. He succumbed. Total period of contact with us from diagnosis of HIV-2 to death was a little above one month.

  126. Dr. Jeevan, H. R., Dr. Nandeesh, H. P., Dr. Deepak Suvarna, Dr. Vidya, G. S., Dr. Chandra Babu, D. and Dr. Indrajit Suresh

    Background: Spontaneous ascitic fluid infection (SAI) is an acute infection of ascitic fluid. SAI has three subtypes; SBP, CNNA, MNB. The prototype is Spontaneous bacterial peritonitis (SBP). SBP is a frequent and serious complication in patients with cirrhosis leading to significant mortality and morbidity. Diagnosis of SBP is mainly established by elevated polymorphonuclear leukocyte count and positive ascitic fluid bacterial culture. Methodology: Records of patients with suspected diagnosis of Spontaneous ascitic fluid infection were analyzed in the present study. Patients admitted in the last one year i.e., between January 2014 to December 2014 with ascites secondary to cirrhosis were included. All patients with decompensated cirrhosis had undergone ascitic fluid paracenetesis after admission to the hospital. Ascitic fluid was centrifuged and analyzed for Total protein, Albumin, Total and Differential leukocyte count. Ascitic fluid was cultured by using BacTec method to determine the growth of microorganism. Antimicrobial test was performed using disc diffusion method. The data were tabulated and analyzed using SPSS version 16.0. Conclusion: SAI was detected in 15.7% of the patients. The most common organism isolated was enteric gram negative bacilli. The leading cause of cirrhosis among patients admitted was alcohol consumption

  127. Dr. Lakshmi Narasamma, V., Dr. Leela, K. V., Dr. Murali Krishna and Dr. Satyanarayana, V. V.

    Aim of present study was to compare the adenosine deaminase (ADA) activity and Lactic Dehydrogenase (LDH) in various types of arthritis conditions with synovial effusion. No. significant difference was observed in ADA activity in synovial fluid of control and study groups in various arthritic conditions. The highest value of ADA activity and LDH was observed in synovial fluid of patients with tubercular arthritis followed by rheumatoid, septic, osteo and post traumatic arthritis. Thus measurement of ADA activity and LDH in synovial fluid can be used as a parameter of differential diagnosis of arthritis and monitoring the disease activity.

  128. Dinesh Kumar, Raj Bahadur, Sharma, M. K. and Ravleen Kaur Bakshi

    Domestic violence particularly, Intimate Partner Violence (IPV) is a universal phenomenon with deep rooted socio-cultural causes having regional differentials in its potential correlates. Objectives: (1 To ascertain the prevalence and patterns of intimate partner violence (IPV) in study area.2) To investigate socio-demographic risk factors of IPV. Methods: Community-based survey conducted among 624 married women in the reproductive age selected by WHO-30 cluster sampling. Results: About 24% women sometimes during married life suffered from intimate partner violence. Lower age, working of women, nuclear family and having no male child were found significant risk factors of IPV. Maximum respondents reported to suffer from sexual (11.5%) violence of some forms followed by physical violence (10.9%) by their respective intimate partners. Among 149 (23.9%) IPV victims of all 624 women, percentage of sexual violence victims was found to be 48.3% and 18.1% of IPV victims suffered from some form of psychological violence sometimes since marriage. Conclusions: Intimate Partner Violence (IPV) should be dealt with as a public health problem and some psycho-social interventions are also desired to combat with IPV apart from medical interventions for wellness of reproductive lives.

  129. Dr. Shruthi H Attavar, Dr. Prasanna Latha Nadig and Dr. Sujatha, I.

    Aim: To evaluate and compare the sealing ability of a new material, biodentine with MTA when used as a furcation repair material. Material and method: Thirty recently extracted mandibular molars with non-fused well developed roots were collected and intentional furcation perforations were made with a bur. The perforations were repaired with MTA andbiodentine. These specimens were then immersed in 2% methylene blue dye. After their removal, they were sectioned and examined under stereomicroscope to evaluate dye penetration. Results: Demonstrated that furcation perforation repaired with MTA showed decrease in microleakage compared with that of biodentine, However there was no statistical significant difference between the two groups. Conclusion: Both MTA and biodentine showed good sealing ability when used as furcation repair material.

  130. Dr. Shivendra Chaudhary

    Hallervorden-Spatz Disease is a rare inherited CNS disorder that is characterized by abnormalities in the globus pallidus. 32 year old man presented with unsteady gait and progressive generalized motor difficulty associated with dysarthric speech since two years. MR studies demonstrate iron storage in the basal ganglia in patients

  131. Dr. Balaji Arumugam, Aravind Prasad and Saranya Nagalingam

    Background: Psychological stress is a major cause of lost working days in the world and can lead to stress related disorders among the productive age group. Knowledge on the impact burden of work related stress and the stressors like physical, psycho social environment is important in improving the mental health of the working population. Objectives: This study was done with the objectives of assessing the burden of work related stress and its risk factors among various working population. Methods: This study was carried out as a community based cross sectional study among different occupations like doctors, police personnel, IT professionals, bank employees and teachers in the field practice area of department of community medicine using standardized questionnaires USDAW and PSS – 10 item questionnaires by personal interview after getting informed consent. Results: This study was done among 415 working population from different occupations and the study revealed moderately high prevalence of work stress among all occupations but medical and paramedical professions showed more than other occupations which was statistically significant. The stressors significantly associated with work related stress were physical environment, shift work, inadequate break times, lack of control on their work, repetitive work and overcrowding. Conclusion: The findings of the study suggest that the physical and psychosocial environment is not conducive in many of the occupations. There is an urgent need for the employers to take care of the felt needs of the working population an increase the awareness to reduce the future burden of stress related disorders and to promote the mental health of the workers. What this paper adds?? 1. Increasing trend of Workplace related stress 2. To assess and compare the burden and risk factors associated with workplace related stress among different occupations 3. Surprisingly Software professionals had less stress and teaching and nursing professionals had maximum stress in this study 4. This study included various occupations which was very less done by other Indian studies 5. Awareness on stress management is the basic requirement in all occupations.

  132. Monal, M. Kukde, Deepak, S. Selokar, Rahul, R. Bhowate, Silpi Basak and Shirish, S. Degwekar

    Objectives: To detect the prevalence of asymptomatic Candidal colonization among HIV positive and Healthy individuals and to investigate the relationship of asymptomatic Candidal colonization of oral cavity and CD4 T-lymphocyte count and to assess antifungal drug susceptibility for Candida species by Fluconazole and Voriconazole in vitro. Methods: Asymptomatic candidal Colonization of oral cavity were investigated in total 50 HIV positive patients having CD4T- lymphocyte count < 500 cells / cu. mm and absence of antifungal treatment at Acharya Vinoba Bhave Rural Hospital Wardha, India. Fifty healthy controls were selected to ensure comparability. Oral swabs were collected from tongue and palate, Candidal species isolated and antifungal susceptibility testing had conducted based on disk diffusion procedures. Results: Prevalence of Candidal colonization was 52% among the cases which was significantly higher than the healthy control(8%) (p=0.00001). There is no association between asymptomatic Candidal colonization on tongue and palate with decreasing CD4 T lymphocyte count statistically (P=0.3454, P=0.7279). Antifungal susceptibility, among cases, Candidal colonization, 78.8% and 71.1% were sensitive and 17.3% and 26.9 % were resistant to Fluconazole and Voriconazole respectively. Conclusions: High prevalence of Candidal colonization found among HIV positive individuals. Asymptomatic oral Candidal colonization is not related to CD4 T- lymphocyte count. Antifungal drug sensitivity must be done.

  133. Parvez Ahmed, Imran Ahmad Gattoo and Shafat Ahmad

    Background: Nosocomial infections are an important cause of morbidity and mortality in neonatal intensive care units (NICUs). A Nosocomial outbreak of neonatal septicemia occurred in theNICUs of a tertiary care hospital in Kashmir during Nov-Dec 2008. Aims and objectives: The present study was undertaken to study various aspects of this nosocomial infection outbreak. Materiel and Methods: This was a retrospective observational study carried out in NICU of a tertiary care referral pediatric hospital in Srinagar Ja nd K, India.Total of 31 patients who developed nosocomial sepsis during the study period of 2 months were taken as subjects. The neonates whose diagnosis at admission was probable sepsis or who were obviously septic were excluded from the study. Cultures from all the newborns were obtained by sterile vein puncture technique and incubated for 24-48 hours for identification of the organism and determination of sensitivity pattern by disc diffusion method. Antibiotics tested included cephalosporins, aminoglycosides, aminopenicillins, vancomycin, sulbactam and quinolones. Routine investigations like Haemogram, urine culture, CSF exam and culture, X-ray chest, CRP and liver and renal function tests were done when indicated. Results: 31 neonates developed sepsis during the hospital stay. Klebsiella was the predominant organism isolated in 25 cases (81%).Acinetobacter was isolated from 2 cases (6.5%) E-coli from 2 cases (6.5%) and Pseudomonas and Staph.aureus in one case each. All the cases that grew Klebsiella from blood had thrombocytopenia (platelet count<50,000) with the predominant presentation being purpura and upper GI bleed. Cholestasis was frequently seen associated with Klebsiella sepsis. All the isolates were uniformly resistant to aminopenicillins. Aminogylcoside resistance was also very high i.e. 90%. Cephalosporin’s showed an intermediate resistance pattern with some showing 80-90 %( cefotaxime-ceftriaxone) and some showing only 30-40% resistance (cefperazone-salbactam and ceftazidime). The outbreak was caused by Klebsiella which was multi drug resistant with sensitivity only to quinolones. The number of neonates infected was thirty one and the mortality was 55%. Majorty of the neonates had thrombocytopenia and cholestasis. The outbreak was traced to a common source of an intravenous solution used for diluting drugs. Our study helped to change nosocomial infection control policy in this hospital. Conclusion: The outbreak was caused by Klebsiella which was multi drug resistant with sensitivity only to quinolones. The number of neonates infected was thirty one and the mortality was 55%. Majorty of the neonates had thrombocytopenia and cholestasis. Our study helped to change nosocomial infection control policy in this hospital.

  134. Manu Chaudhary and Anurag Payasi

    This study was carried out to know the prevalence of aminoglycoside and quinolone resistance among the collected isolates and to analyze the antibiotic susceptiblity patterns of various drugs against these isolates to find which drug offers the best solution against multidrug resistant Gram negative pathogens. Total 1824 clinical samples were collected from patients suspected of bacterial infection between March 2013 to May 2014. These samples were subjected for bacterial identification. The prevalence of aminoglycoside and fluoroquinolone among these isolates and antibiotic susceptibility testing were carried out according to the recommendations of Clinical Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI) guidelines. Among the samples analyzed, 82.2 % (1499/1824) samples showed the growth of organisms of which 22 % (400/1824) were Gram positive and 60.2 % (1099/1824) were Gram negative and included in this study. Further analysis of Gram negative organisms revealed that 46.7% (513/1099) were aminoglycoside and 53.3% (586/1099) were quinolone resistant. Among Gram negative organisms that identified were E. coli (n=302), P. aeruginosa (n=230), Acinetobacter species (n=217) K. pneumoniae (n=150), Proteus species (n=109) and Citrobacter species (n=91). Of the drugs tested, cefepime plus amkacin (Potentox) showed the highest activity against quinolone and aminoglycoside resistant Gram negative organisms with average susceptibility of >86% against all pathogens. Resistance to cefepime was 55%-74%, to tobramycin 20.8%-70.2%, to gentamycin 40%-65.6%, to levofloxacin 32.9%-62.4%, to moxifloxacin 40.1%-47.7%, to ofloxacin 29.9%-48.6%, to imipenem plus cilastatin 30%-60%, to ciprofloxacin 52.3%-75.7%, to ceftazidime 50.3%-60%, to azithromycin 40.5%-86%, and to amikacin 40.4%-79.7% among all isolated Gram negative bacterial pathogens. In conclusion, the results of this study strongly suggest the superiority of Potentox over other drugs and can be of effective alternative to treat infections caused by multi drug resistant Gram negative bacteria.

  135. Sabiha Baby, Ilyas Khan, M. and Muzafar Hussain Kawa

    Quality of life (QOL) is a vague concept. It is multidimensional and theoretical in nature. It incorporates all aspects of individual’s life. The main aim of the present study is to explore the sociodemographic correlates (i.e. gender, marital status, socioeconomic status, religion, educational status and social support) of quality of life. The World Health Organization Quality of Life Questionnaire, short version (WHOQOL-BREF) was administered to 100 adults. WHOQOL-BREF comprised of four domains i.e., physical health, psychological health, social relationships and environmental domain. Independent t-test was used to analyze the data. Result indicated that male (29) and female (71) subjects did not significantly differing on overall QOL. Significant differences were found between married (31) and unmarried (69) people on overall QOL as well as all the four domains (physical health, psychological health, social relationships and environmental domain) of WHOQOL-BREF. Significant differences were found between higher socioeconomic status (59) and lower socioeconomic status (41) subjects, and Muslim (87) and Hindu (13) on overall QOL and its three domains (physical health, psychological health, and environmental). Literate (45) and Non-literate (55) subjects differed significantly on physical health and Environmental domain. Significant difference was found between low social support group (51) and high social support group (49) only on psychological health domain.

  136. Muzafar Hussain Kawa, Mohd Ilyas Khan, Sabiha Baby, Mohd Owais Khan and Mahvish Fatima

    The present study was conducted in Kashmir (India) in September 2014. The present study examined influence of self regulation on mental health among the academic arrangement staff of the Govt. Degree Colleges of the District Srinagar. The sample comprised 100 academic arrangement staff members, of which 50 were males and 50 were females selected randomly from the different degree colleges of the district Srinagar. The age of the sample group ranged from 24 to 30 years. Mental Health Inventory by Veit and Ware (1983) and Self-regulation Scale of Brown, Miller and Lawendowski (1999) were used. Data were analysed by frequency method, pearson correlation method and t-test. The dimensions of mental health scale were also taken into consideration during analysis of the data. Obtained results indicated that males were more depressed and anxious as compared to females.

  137. Lee-Chun Tang and Huei-Chuan Sung

    Background: The concept map (CM) has been documented as a learning tool in nursing education. However, there is no instrument available to assess how nursing students perceive its assistance in problem based learning (PBL). Aim: The aim of this study was to develop an instrument to evaluate the perception of CM used in PBL for nursing students. Methods: A cross-sectional survey was conducted which used a self-report questionnaire. Data from 213 nursing students in a PBL course was gathered. Results: The CM-PBL scale was developed, and contains 33 items with five subscales: 1) increase of learning efficiency; 2) integration of knowledge in a holistic view; 3) presentation of individuality; 4) enhancement of learning motivation; 5) promotion of learning satisfaction. CM-PBL has an explained variance of 59.386 %. Cronbach’s alpha coefficients and intra-class correlation coefficients for the overall and subscales were above 0.8. The CM-PBL scale presents to be a reliable and valid instrument to evaluate the perception of CM used in PBL for nursing students.

  138. Isoe Moraa Everlyne, Teepica Priya Darsini, D., Kulandhaivel, M. and Srinivasan, P.

    The study was carried out to ascertain the functional groups present in Piper longum, and to assess its ability to disrupt biofilms caused by throat infectious methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) strains. Ethanol extract of Piper longum was subjected to fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) analysis which revealed the presence of different pharmacologically active functional groups. Two strains of methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MH4 throat isolate and MTCC 96 standard strains) were used. Minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) was performed by micro dilution assay on a 96 microtitre well plate (OD 600 nm) and was found to be 1 mg/ml for both isolate MH4 and MTCC 96. This was further confirmed by agar well diffusion assay and growth curve analysis. Biofilm inhibition assay was performed at sub-MIC concentrations using microtitre plate (24 well plates) assay. The highest biofilm disruption was observed at 0.5 mg/ml concentration for both strains. This study revealed potential antibiofilm activity exhibited by the ethanol extract of Piper longum against the ever rising methicillin resistance in Staphylococcus aureus infections.

  139. Dr. Komala, N. and Dr. Jayanthi, K. S.

    Aims and objectives: Accurate functioning of the papillary muscles and their chordae is very essential to maintain good competence of the valves. Their dysfunction can lead to valvular incompetences. A comparative study of papillary muscles of ventricles of human, sheep, goat, cow and pig is done. Through this comparative anatomic approach, the morphology of the human tricuspid valve complex, its similarities and differences to those of the animal hearts studied becomes more apparent. Methods: The hearts were opened to view the interior of the ventricles. Diameter of the tricuspid valve was measured in all the hearts. The number of papillary muscles, their positions, length and thickness in man and other mammals were noted. The number of chordae tendineae attached to each papillary muscle and the cusps along with their attachment to different zones of the cusps were observed and counted. Results: The number and position of the papillary muscle was similar in all the specimens but the number of bellies of each papillary muscle varied. Length and thickness of the papillary muscles were more in cow and least in pig. Chordae tendineae number attached to the papillary muscle and to the cusp was more in pig and man. It was least in sheep and goat. Interpretation and Conclusion: The internal structure of the heart differs from species to species. Although some differences exist, the heart of pig appears very similar to man.

  140. Dr. Sangeeta Das Ghosh, Dr. MandiraChakraborty, Dr. AbhisekMitra and Dr. Indrani Bhattacharyya

    Onychomycosis caused by nondermatophyte molds are rare. Here we are reporting 2 cases of onychomycosis in apparently immunocompetent individuals, caused by Penicillium marneffei –the fungus which is generally considered either as a contaminant or an opportunistic pathogen capable of producing disease only in immunocompromised individuals. Previous therapy with Griseofulvin, assuming that the infection might be due to one of the members of dermatophytes, was proved to be unsuccessful and after initiation of Ketoconazole therapy gradual recovery occurred both clinically and microbiologically.

  141. Nabila El-Sayed Saboula and Dina Rifaat Al-sharaki

    Background: Osteoarthritis) OA (is one of the most common chronic disability diseases which affect patients with high prevalence especially women in Arab world. Aim of the study, first, to evaluate the effectiveness of integrated home-based nursing intervention on osteoarthritis outcomes among women with knee osteoarthritis versus hospital care intervention. Second, to examine the relationship between work activity levels and osteoarthritis scores among studied women. Subjects and Methods: A Quasi-experimental study was used .It conducted in physical medicine and rheumatology outpatient clinic in Menoufia University Hospital. A simple random sample of 150 women with bilateral knee osteoarthritis was included. These women were divided into three groups randomly and matched for age. Results: Regarding to total WOMAC scores, an improvement was among the three groups, however, the improvement was statistically significant was noticed among group II (hospital group). But using walk and balance scales, the improvement of walk and balance scores were much higher in group III (home group). Concerning work activity levels for hospital group, the total WOMAC and balance scores improved among women those with high activity. But women with sedentary life activity scored high in walk scale. While for home group, the total WOMAC and walk, balance scores were improved among women those with high work activity. Conclusion: Although Home-based interventions and Hospital care interventions were successful programs in caring of women with knee osteoarthritis, however, continuation with integrated Home-based nursing interventions after hospital care interventions were efficient programs in managing pain, sign and symptoms for women with knee osteoarthritis. Recommendation: Health education sessions for osteoarthritis patients in out-patient clinics implemented by nurses are needed. Design an illustrated booklet to demonstrate different interventions and modalities for osteoarthritis patients. Demonstrate the patient's role in managing osteoarthritis at their homes.

  142. Therraddi Muthu, R. M., Sumathi, C. and Jayantha Padmanabhan

    Objectives: The present review explores the multifactorial etiologies of Chlorodontia (Green teeth) and aims to create awareness among dentists and dental hygienist who deal with the patient directly on use of safe medicine to prevent green discoloration of teeth. Materials and Methods: Data has been collected from various sources which include review and research articles published in reputed journals, (pubmed, google scholar, scopus etc) web pages and books to accomplish meaningful solutions through different treatment strategies. Results:Various factors involved in green discoloration were analyzed and the appropriate management strategies have been discussed. Tooth discoloration is usually aesthetically displeasing and psychologically traumatizing which can erode the sparkle from a smile. Green teeth is an uncommon condition that is associated with bilirubin deposits, degraded products of hemoglobin and elements like calcium, sodium, magnesium, phosphorous potassium etc in dental hard tissues and the side effects of immunosuppressive drugs in patients with a liver transplant. Discoloration is mainly observed in primary dentition. Treatment of green discoloration based on the etiology has been goal to our study. This paper will be dual beneficiary as green discoloration can be prevented in patient as well will be useful for dentist to initiate the proper therapy.

  143. Datar, R. A., Sahu, K. K. and Pai, R. R

    Introduction: Neuroendocrine (NE) differentiation can be documented by immunohistochemistry (IHC) with the use of synaptophysin (SYN) and chromogranin (CGA) in some lung carcinomas with conventional non-small cell morphology. These tumors are referred as non-small cell lung carcinomas with neuroendocrine differentiation (NSCLC-ND) or non-small cell lung carcinoma with occult neuroendocrine differentiation. The finding of NE differentiation in some NSCLC has led to the hypothesis that these tumors may form a subgroup with a prognosis and response to treatment between NSCLC and SCLC. (Pelosi et al., 2003; Wick et al., 2011; Howe et al., 2005) Aim: To find occult NE differentiation in NSCLC using CGA and SYN. Materials and Methods: The IHC markers, CGA and SYN were done on 37 NSCLC cases which compromised of 23 Squamous cell carcinomas (SCC) and 14 adenocarcinomas. Semiquantitative assessments of staining intensity and percentage of tumour cells positive were made. An Intensity Distribution (ID) score of > 1 with any marker was used as the criterion for evidenceof NE differentiation. Results: NE differentiation was seen in 40.54% of NSCLC. 50% of adenocarcinomas and 34.8% SCC showed NE differentiation. SYN and CGA positivity was seen in 29.7% and 24% NSCLCs respectively. Adenocarcinoma showed significant immunoreactivity for SYN (p=0.042) while SCC showed significant immunoreactivity for CGA (p=0.035) Conclusion: In our study, 40.5% of NSCLC showed NE differentiation. NE differentiation was seen more in adenocarcinoma than in SCC. Synaptophysin showed significant association with adenocarcinomas and chromogranin with SCC.

  144. Soni Laxman Kumar, Purohit Gopal, Choudhary C. R., Vyas Sunil and Soni Priyanka

    Background: Lung cancer is one of the commonest and most lethal cancer throughout the world. Tobacco smoking continues to be the leading cause of lung cancer worldwide. An increase incidence of lung cancer has been observed in India. Objective: The aim of this study was to find out the demographic and clinico-pathological and radiological profile of diagnosed lung cancer patients and its relation to smoking habit in area of western Rajasthan, Jodhpur, India. Materials and Methods: We performed a retrospective analysis of histo-pathologically proven cases of lung cancer in our hospital from 2012 to 2014. Results: Out of 310 patients, male 278 and female 32, 83.2 % were smoker and only 7.41 % were ≤40 years of age. Smoking was the major risk factor for lung cancer. The most frequent symptom was cough (59.35) followed by chest pain (50.32). The most common radiological presentation was mass lesion (30.96%), followed by collapse in (30.22%). Squamous cell carcinoma (50.32%) was most common histopathological type followed by adenocarcinoma (32.90%). Conclusion: It was found that squamous cell carcinoma was the most frequent histopathological type. Adenocarcinoma was the predominate type below 50 years and squamous cell carcinoma was more common in age above 50 years. Smoking still remain the major risk factor.

  145. Caser Ghaafar Abdel and Chinur Hadi Mahmood

    Nader, Paris Island and Marul lettuce cultivars grown on polyethylene mulch and bare soils treated with either Nitrobein, Rhyzobactrein, or Hupotas. The objective of this study was to evaluate the responses of these cultivars to mulching and organic substance treatments. The obtained results revealed that lettuce grown on mulched soil significantly reduced IAA, GA3, ABA, CK, N, K, Ca, B, Na, and Fe in varying lettuce tissues. Owing to the increased root zone temperatures caused by polyethylene mulching in late summer. However, during ensuing winter mulched lettuce recovered and substantially improved yield, head fresh weight, TSS, Chlorophyll, seed yield and weight of 1000 seeds. Organic substances highly improved the growth performance of lettuce, particularly Rhyzobactrein, which sowed the best-performed yield and most other detected parameters. Nader was the most potent cultivar, where Paris Island and Marul failed to perform folded heads. Bitterness, Tip burns and Cu were not detected in all treatments and lettuce tissues. Dual and treble interaction treatments included in results and discussion sections

  146. Shimbahri Mesfin Gebreslase

    Ethiopia is endowed with 22 lakes and many reservoir water resources that can be developed and utilized for the wellbeing of the people. However, improper human interference exerted pressure on lakes, reservoirs and rivers draining into them. Lake Hashenge one of the lakes is suffering from excessive sediment loads that have been caused by deforestation, soil erosion, land use change and improper watershed management. The main objectives of the study were to characterize Hashenge catchment, estimate annual sediment accumulation in the lake and estimate the life span of the lake. Hashenge catchment was characterized using field GPS data and topographic maps. Bulk density of the sediment accumulated in the lake was done in a laboratory. Annual sediment yield in the lake was estimated by using HR Wallingford method based on a catchment characterization procedure which combines qualitative factors describing soil type, vegetation cover and signs of active erosion and quantitative information on slopes, rainfall and catchment area. The result revealed that different maps (to develop different maps like location map, drainage map, land use/cover map, texture map, slope map and altitude map) were developed and an annual sediment yield of 45,865 ton or (6.9 ton ha-1 year-1) is accumulated in the lake every year. The average bulk density of the sediment accumulated in the lake was found to be 1,725 kg/m3. The volume of sediment accumulated in the lake every year would, therefore, be 26,588.4 m3. The corresponding average annual depth of sediment deposition in the lake was estimated to be 3.5 mm. The annual sediment yield observed in this study was found to be comparable with studies conducted in reservoir sediment assessment in the other parts of the region. If the sediment accumulation continues like the current situation, the lake could completely be disappeared after 5,714 years.

  147. Agnès Kouakoubla Ama KOUADIO, Pamphile Bony Kouadio KOFFI, Aw Sadat, Soumaila DABONNE, Nogbou Emmanuel ASSIDJO and Lucien Patrice KOUAME

    The presence of mycotoxins in cocoa beans and chocolate products is emerging as an important public health. There is a réal need for more information about the occurrence of mycotoxigenic fungi in cocoa beans. The mycoflora of cocoa beans in two producing regions was assessed and its potential for ochratoxin A (OTA) production was evaluated. A total of 37 fungal strains were isolated by plating method. Six species of moulds belonging to four genera were isolated from all cocoa samples tested: Absidia, Rhizopus, Aspergillus niger, A. carbonarius, A. ochraceus, A. flavus, A. versicolor, A. clavatus, Penicillium chrysogenum. The OTA content producing for ochratoxigenics species was also determined. Three OTA-producing strains were isolated, belonging to the species Aspergillus carbonarius, Aspergillus niger and Aspergillus ochraceus OTA was detected in medium, up to 54.04 µg/kg. The highest content of ochratoxin A was observed with the species A. ochraceus. The results of this study highlight the risk associated with the presence of ochratoxinogenic in cocoa from Côte d'Ivoire.

  148. Adeleke Gbadebo Emmanuel, Adedosu Olaniyi Temitope, Badmus Jelili Abiodun, Adaramoye Oluwatosin Adekunle, Olajuemo Tobi Samuel and Rasheed Saheed Oluomo

    Betulinic acid (BA), a novel pentacyclic triterpene, widely distributed in plants .This study examined possible protective potentials of Betulinic acid on antioxidant parameters and histology of testis and epididymis of glyphosate-treated rats. Glyphosate significantly elevated Malondialdehyde (MDA) in testes and epididymis by 41.8 % and 49.5%, respectively, compared with controls.BA significantly decreased MDA by 47.8% and 34.0%, respectively, compared with glyphosate group. Superoxide dismutase (SOD) was significantly reduced by 66.7% and 73.7% in testes and epididymis, in glyphosate group, whereas BA supplementation significantly elevated (p < 0.05) SOD by 77.8% and 72.2% respectively. Catalase (CAT) activities were reduced in glyphosate group by 29.2% and 21.7% in testes and epididymis, while BA elevated CAT activities by 23.8% and 28. 0% respectively. Glyphosate reduced, Reduced Glutathione (GSH) level by 35.2% in testes, compared with controls, while BA supplementation significantly increased (p < 0.05) GSH level by 43.8%, compared with glyphosate group. Glyphosate induced cellular degeneration and deformity in testis and epididymis, and supplementation with BA was observed to reverse these effects. From the results, glyphosate disrupted the antioxidant defense system and histological features of testicular and epididymal tissues, while Betulinic acid exhibited the potential to prevent these toxic effects in male rats.

  149. Nisha Kanbar, Deptee Warikoo and Kapil Garg

    Study Objectives: To check whether Does breathe held at maximal expiration could decrease pain and improve the range of motion, QOL and breathing function in non specific low back ache patients. Low back pain is a very common problem in general population. 70-85% of people have back pain at some time in their life. (Andersson, 1997) Low back pain is defined as pain localized between the 12th rib and the inferior gluteal folds, with or without radiation to legs. (Thompson et al., 2000) The mechanism of low back pain may be due repetitive loads on back causes decrease in the elasticity of disk. (Thompson et al., 2000; Andreas Prescher, 1998) Fissures and tears occur within annular fibers, which decrease the ability of the disk to provide stiffness during movement. Available literature demonstrate the definite impact of low back pain on psychological and functional status affecting health related quality of life of patients. (Kovacs Francisco et al., 2004) Some authors have evaluated the cause or effect relationship between the altered biomechanics of spine leading to back pain. (Lane et al., 1993; O’Neill et al., 1999) In addition, recent evidences suggest that diaphragm contribute biomechanically to maintain trunk stability It has been found that diaphragm by activation of the phrenic nerve resulted in an increase in intra-abdominal pressure with subsequently enhanced spinal stiffness. (Hodges et al., 2005) Diaphragm plays two roles - acts as trunk stabilizer and help in respiration. (Hodges and Gandevia, 2000) Valsalva maneuver has several effects that improve spinal stability. Design: An Experimental Study. Methods: A total of 40 subjects were recruited for the study on the basis of inclusion and exclusion criteria after obtaining informed consent. The subjects were divided into two groups Group A (Breathe Held at Maximum Expiration n=20), and Group B (Traditional Core Stability Exercises n=20). Outcome Measure: Pain using Visual Analogue Scale, ROM using SLR and Breathing function using SEBQ and Quality of Life using WHO QOL-Bref Scale. Results: Analysis of Pain, ROM, Breathing Function and QOL showed that both the group proved to be effective in decreasing the Pain, ROM, Breathing Function and QOL level independently. When results were compared between the groups, Group A showed better improvement than Group B. However the results were statistically insignificant. Conclusion: This study depected that breathe held at maximum expiration technique is effective on decreasing pain, improving ROM and breathe function along with QOL in patients with LBA.

  150. Dr. Sarika Manhas and Arpana Roshan

    Human beings tend to form attachment with their primary caregivers since the very beginning of life. Attachment theory has particularly interesting applications for understanding adolescent’s development, because it is during this time that children explore intimate, supportive relationship outside the family. The present study analyses and compares the attachment adolescents of Jammu city share with their mothers, fathers, and peers. Attachment was evaluated in three dimensions namely, degree of mutual trust, quality of communication and level of anger and alienation. The sample for the study comprised of 160 school and college going adolescents in the age group of 12-19 years. The sample was selected through random sampling technique. The tool for data collection was the IPPA scale (Inventory of Parent and Peer Attachment) designed by Arms den and Greenberg. The results reveal that most adolescents shared high degree of mutual trust with their mothers, fathers and peers. Comparatively more adolescents were highly attached with their respective father and mother than their peers. Similarly, most adolescents shared higher levels of communication with their mothers, fathers and peers. There was no significant difference in the sample adolescents’ communication pattern. On the dimension namely anger and alienation most adolescents scored moderately with parents as well as peers. The adolescents weren’t overly detached or angry with neither their parents nor the peers. The findings indicate that most adolescents shared healthy attachment with not only their mothers and fathers but also with their peers.

  151. Nitin Kamboj, Sandeep Kumar and Anup Kumar Chaubey

    The current experimental study was carried out to determine the physico-chemical parameters of Solani River at Roorkee district Haridwar, Uttarakhand. For this purpose three sampling sites were selected to analyze various parameters like temperature, pH, total solids, total dissolved solids, total suspended solids, dissolved oxygen, biochemical oxygen demand, chemical oxygen demand, total hardness, free carbon dioxide and chloride. Among these parameters TDS and BOD was observed beyond the desirable limits of BIS at all the sampling sites. Maximum value of TDS (847.23 mg/l) was found during March month at the sampling site SS1 and maximum value of BOD 4.7 mg/l was found during April month at the sampling site SS1. The present study concluded that the TDS and BOD in water sample were above the desirable limit and rest all other parameters were within the desirable limits.

  152. Miguel Tiago de Oliveira, Jorge Ramos, Karim Erzini and Miguel Neves dos Santos

    In the present study, we estimated the value of marine biodiversity off Sal island (Cape Verde) through a contingent valuation methodology, where tourist divers, who had recently dove off Sal island, were asked about their willingness to pay (WTP) for the protection of local marine biodiversity through donations, fees, or other forms for the creation of a trust fund. Of 347 respondents,32% stated they were unwilling to contribute (protest bidders). Of those respondents who said they would be willing to contribute, 50% chose “fee” as the option where they were willing to pay less, whereas the “combined” option (i.e. including “donation”, “fee” and “souvenir”) was the one where respondents were willing to pay more, with around €1-7 and €0-800, respectively. We discuss the potential of trust funds as potential revenue sources to support marine biodiversity conservation and improve resilience of both local diver operator businesses, other tourist enterprises, and the local community as a whole.

  153. Chitra, P.

    Type 1.5 diabetes also known as latent autoimmune diabetes in adults (LADA) is an important form of diabetes which occurs in about 10% of patients classified as type 2 diabetes and not initially requiring insulin. β- cell dysfunction in type 1.5 diabetes is caused mainly by Glutamic acid decarboxylase antibody (GADA). β- cell stress results in an induction of Heat shock protein 90 (Hsp90) expression, where Hsp 90 is a regulator of Class II antigen processing and presentation. In silico docking studies and drug likeliness analysis have shown that docking target protein Hsp 90 α with the ligand mangiferin had a protective role against autoimmune destruction. This study paves way for treating the autoimmune diabetes at the immunity level.

  154. Dr. Nirmala Babu Rao and Sita Kumari, O.

    Stevia rebaudiana is an herb with a very high medicinal value. It has more than 100 phytochemicals. It is used as sugar substitute. The extracts from leaves are used for the microbial assay and study the antimicrobial activity. The microbes used for the testing the activities are E.coli, Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus subtilis, Salmonella typhi, Aspergillus niger, Candida parapsilosis, Trichophyton rubrum. With different concentrations of the extracts starting from 2.5µg/ml, 5.0µg/ml, 7.5µg/ml, 1.0µg/ml and the highest activity is shown by Staphylococcus aureus and Candida parapsilosis.

  155. Fatemah Bensaheb, Halima Bano, Ola Mohammed, Shalini Behl and Hany Bakr

    Type 2 Diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is a highly prevalent chronic degenerative disease, which is indicated by insulin resistance (IR) in insulin-target tissues, and aberrant insulin secretion from pancreatic β-cells. Several common polymorphic genetic variants have been concerned in type 2 diabetes and insulin resistance, though the results of previous researches performed on different ethnic groups and populations are greatly contradicting. Two of the most common polymorphisms studied widely are the Ala54Thr variant of Fatty Acid Binding Protein 2 (FABP2) gene, and the Pro12Ala variant of Peroxisome Proliferator Activated Receptor Gamma (PPARγ) gene. A number of other non-genetic factors also significantly affect insulin resistance, like body composition, regular levels of physical exercises, gender and age. In this review, we discuss both genetic and non genetic factors, the relationship between insulin resistance and T2DM, how the polymorphisms in two candidate genes FABP2 and PPARγ affect the T2DM, IR and other diseases in different populations and ethnic groups.

  156. Patel, R. P., Pandey, G. N., Gyanendra Tiwari, Patidar H. and Patidar, D. K.

    During the survey of plant disease 2013 and 2014, powdery mildew disease was found on sandalwood. Pseudoidium santalacearum (U.braun and Hosag.) U.Braun and R.T.A. Cook. was identified as the causal agent of a powdery mildew disease occurring on sandalwood Santalum album L. in Mandsaur and Indore districts of Madhya Pradesh India on the basis of symptoms, morphological characters and host range. This disease was observed in leaf of sandalwood tree located in the boundary area of Panchayat bhawan Mandsaur and Agriculture College campus, Indore. Floury small, circular white patches were seen on both sides of leaf surface in initial stage and these spots increased in size and spread all over the surface of leaves. The mycelium of Pseudoidium santalacearum are epiphytic, amphiphyllous, thick coating, hyaline, conidia formed singly (not in chain). This disease was noticed for the first time in Madhya Pradesh, India. The pathogenecity was confirmed by dusting of conidia on healthy leaves.

  157. Raghad S. Jaafar, Amin A. Al-Sulami, Asaad M.R. Al-Taee and Faris J. Aldoghachi

    In the present study heavy metal resistant bacteria were isolated from soil collected from the FaoUm-Qasr district in Basra governorate, South of Iraq. On the basis of morphological, biochemical, and 16S rRNA gene sequencing and phylogeny analysis, the isolate was authentically identified as Bacillus thuringiensis. The minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) of the isolate against cadmium (Cd) and lead (Pb) was determined on solid medium. B. thuringiensis showed significant resistance to high concentrations of Pb of 1800 mgl-1 and 50 mgl-1for Cd. The bioaccumulation capabilities of B. thuringiensis for Cd and Pb were monitored at different ion concentrations andcontact times. The transmission electron microscope study confirmed the accumulation of (Cd) and (Pb) by B. Thuringiensis causing morphological changes, including speculation.

  158. Savinprakash, V. and Krishna, M. S.

    The genus Drosophila represents an unprecedented model system, it has been initially used to understand basic genetics i.e.., Pattern of inheritance, speciation and evolution, comparative experimental research and to study human diseases. Further, many of the mechanisms from the cellular level to molecular levels were very well conserved both in Drosophila and human beings. Therefore, information on the biodiversity of genus Drosophila is limited. Many species of the genus Drosophila are endemic to certain regions and a few are cosmopolitan, dispersed vastly in association with human activities. Hence the present investigation has been undertaken biodiversity of Drosophila in Biligirirangana Hills. This study revealed that altitudinal variation in Drosophila species of B.R. hills in Karnataka, which is present in between eastern ghats and western ghats. Post monsoon studies of this area revealed that a total of 1739 Drosophila flies belonging to 10 species of 3 sub genera were collected at altitudes of 300m, 700m, and 1200m. Further there are about 8 different species belongs to sub genus Sophophora where as in subgenus Drosphila and Scapto Drosophila represent one species each. The population density varied in all the altitudes and its sequence is as fallows: 300m>1200m>700m. The least population density was found in 700m. This shows effect evolution on population density. The diversity of the Drosophila community was also assessed by applying the Simpson, Shannon-wiener, and Berger-parker index and cluster analysis to asses the Biodiversity in B. R. hills.

  159. Papa Kusuma, B., Lakshmi Kalpana, V. and Sudhakar, G.

    Back ground: Because of the incidence and the health –related problems of post- menopausal osteoporosis it has become a social problems requiring appropriate management strategies. The present study is an attempt to estimate the levels of calcium, phosphorous, magnesium, sodium, potassium, alkaline phosphatases and vitamin D of post-menopausal osteoporotic women. The present study was carried out to find out the association of minerals with post-menopausal osteoporotic women. Methods: 100 post- menopausal osteoporotic women and 90 non osteoporotic women of age and sex matched healthy controls were obtained from King George Hospital, Visakhapatnam during the period January 2015 to April 2015. The levels of calcium, phosphorous, magnesium, sodium, potassium, alkaline phosphatases and vitamin D were estimated by using kits (Calmagite Method) (For invitro diagnostic use). The data was analyzed by online free calculator(quantpsy.org.) Med calculator (www.open epi.com). Results: The odds ratio shows only small risk for 75-85 years age group of post- menopausal osteoporotic and non osteoporotic women. The odds ratio p-value shows statistically insignificant result with the age of post-menopausal osteoporotic women. For calcium and alkaline phosphotases statistically significant mean p-values were obtained. Conclusion: The study confirms findings of earlier studies carries out in India and other countries. The present study reveals that serum calcium levels are significantly reduced in post-menopausal osteoporotic women than non osteoporotic women, whereas serum ALP levels are significantly increased.

  160. Asifa, K. P. and Chitra, K. C.

    Cichlid fish, Etroplus maculatus was used in the present study in order to evaluate the median lethal concentration of bisphenol A. Seven different concentrations of bisphenol A at 4 mg, 6 mg, 7 mg, 8 mg, 10 mg, 12 mg and 15 mg/ L for 10 animals per group were exposed for 96 h maintaining a control group. Physico-chemical parameters of water as pH, hardness, dissolved oxygen, and temperature was maintained during the treatment period. LC50 was then determined by probit analysis and it was found to be 6.48 mg/ L concentration. Body weight of all treated groups remained unchanged throughout the experiments as compared with the control animal. However, mucous deposition was significantly increased in bisphenol A-treated groups at all concentrations. Bisphenol A treatment altered normal architecture of liver and gill as revealed by irregular or enucleated hepatic cells and degenerated gill epithelium above 6 mg/ L concentrations. Bisphenol A showed altered behavioural changes as erratic activity followed by restricted movements, haemorrhagic on entire body surface, reddening of fins and finally loss of equilibrium. The study disclose that 96 h LC50 value of bisphenol A is 6.48 mg/ L and the changes in normal behavioural pattern and histopathology of gill and liver demonstrates the acute toxicity of the compound on Etroplus maculatus.

  161. Ignatius Antony, Subin K. Jose and Madhu, G.

    Tropical forest ecosystems are one of the richest terrestrial ecosystems which support a variety of life forms and maintain huge global biodiversity. The phytosociology is one of the important aspects for analyzing the structure, composition and phytodiversity for thoroughly understanding the vegetation dynamics. Both structure and diversity of vegetation have strong functional role in controlling ecosystem processes like biomass production, cycling of water and nutrients. Phytosociological studies revealed that the southern hill top tropical evergreen forest has high species richness and diversity. The study of plant community implies knowledge of structure and composition of the component species. The combined influence of plant height, basal area, density and number of species on ‘complexity index’ is the evaluation of vegetation physiognomy. The present study analyses the compositional attributes of Neyyar wildlife sanctuary. The phytodiversity is one of the important aspects for analyzing the structure, composition and for thoroughly understanding the vegetation dynamics. Both structure and diversity of vegetation have strong functional role in controlling ecosystem processes like biomass production, cycling of water and nutrients.

  162. Chandan Singh Ahirwar and D. K. Singh

    Adoption of horticulture, both by small and marginal farmers has brought prosperity in many regions of the country as India is endowed with a wide variety of agro-climatic conditions & enjoys an enviable position in the horticulture map of the world. In spite of its great importance, it facing a lot of constraints like photo-stress, moisture stress, temperature stress, weed growth, deficiencies in soil nutrients, excessive wind velocities and atmospheric carbon-dioxide. These constraints can be alleviated by adopting a unique, specialized hi-technology known as protected cultivation. The intent is to grow crops where the extreme conditions are existed and plant could not survive by modifying the natural environment. Protected cultivation of vegetable offers distinct advantage of quality, productivity and favorable market price to the growers. With the increase in population of our country and improvement in the dietary habits, the consumption of vegetable has improved. People realize the importance of vegetables in their diet as vegetables have high nutritive values which are the vital for the body. Since, vegetables are treated as high value crops and their regular supply in the market as in fresh condition is essentiality. It increases their income in off- season as compared to normal’s season. Off season cultivation is one of the most profitable technologies under Northern Plains of India. Virus free cultivation of Tomato, Chilli, Sweet pepper, cucumber, Bitter Gourd and other vegetables mainly during rainy season.

  163. Bharathi, L. and Sindhu S.

    Moringa leaves have been known as a potential protein source. Moringa plants could be an alternative source of protein with the potential to overcome the problems of malnutrition. This is because the flour has a protein content of Moringa leaves which are three times higher than milk powder. Hence an effort was undertaken to evaluate the efficacy of Moringa oleifera Leaf Protein Concentrate (MLPC) on the health status of moderately anemic adolescent subjects. MLPC was prepared and made into capsules and supplemented to experimental group I (n=5) and standardized MLPC incorporated recipe was given to experimental group II (n=5) for a period of 15 days and the control group (n=5) was not given any supplementation. The result revealed that experimental group I who received the MLPC capsules has showed significant raise in haemoglobin than experimental group II. Therefore, Moringa oleifera Leaf Protein Concentrate was recommended for the improvement in the health status of moderate anemic adolescent girls.

  164. Megha, B. G. and Krishna, M. S.

    Drosophila (L.) (Diptera: Drosophilidae) is a very good model organism since the time of Morgan it has been used to understand the pattern of inheritance, variation, speciation and evolution. In addition to this basic research work, it has also been utilized to understand many of human metabolic disorders due to availability mutants and conserved physiological mechanism in both of it. Further species of Drosophila not only show cosmopolitan nature but also exhibits. Complexities in species compositions form good model to study the eco-distributional patterns of various species. This study analysed the altitudinal variation in Drosophila species of hadya, of Western ghats, Karnataka state, India. A total of 2548 Drosophila flies belonging to 11 species of 4 subgenera were collected at altitudes of 800, 1000 and 1200 m a.s.l. The subgenus Sophophora was predominant, with 8 species. Subgenus Drosophila, Dorsilopha and Scaptodrosophila were represented by 1 species each. Population densities and relative abundances of the different species at different altitudinal variations were studied. The diversity of the Drosophila community was assessed by applying Simpson’s diversity index. Diversity of species of Drosophila was more at altitude 800m and it started decling with increasing altitude. The results suggest the distributional pattern of a species Drosophila at different altitude was uneven in space and time.

  165. Sakshi Kuchhal

    Quick Service Restaurants are a key segment of the organized Indian Food Services market and have expanded rapidly over the years. This is because the young population of India(356 million as per a UN Report, Nov 2014) is brand conscious and these fast food chains provide quality food at affordable prices. They have become an aspiration for the rural masses as with the penetration of mobile phones and internet, even they are aware about international brands and cuisines and are a regular hangout place for the urban lot. The present paper focuses on the factors that will trigger growth in this segment, challenges that the businesses in this trade will have to overcome, the level of competition and the kind of investments being made, etc. All these factors would help in understanding the Quick Service Restaurants segment in a refined manner and provide insight in framing a winning strategy for the players in this sector.

  166. Verma, Poonam, Shirin, Fatima and Verma, R. K.

    Mahua (Madhuca indica) is a multipurpose tree used in food, medicine, timber, etc. For plantation purposes seedling of this important species were raised in nursery. A root rot disease caused by Fusarium solani in nursery was observed during rainy season (July – September) for the first time from central India. Soil drenching with 0.2% ridomil at fortnightly intervals fully controlled the disease.

  167. Rajib Majumder and Anilava Kaviraj

    Static bioassays were conducted in laboratory to evaluate variation in acute toxicity between technical grade (92 % a.i) and commercial formulation (10 % EC) of cypermethrin to four freshwater organisms viz. the crustacean Cyclops viridis, the oligochaete worm Branchiura sowerbyi, the gastropod Pila globosa, and one week old tadpole larva of the toad Duttaphrynus melanostictus. Commercial formulation (F) of cypermethrin was found more toxic than the technical (T) grade cypermethrin. Based on 96h LC50 values of T and F cypermethrin C. viridis was found most sensitive (0.08 and 0.04 μg/L) and P. globosa as most tolerant (1416 and 545 μg/L) to cypermethrin. Toxicity of T cypermethrin in water existed up to 48h except for C. viridis and B. sowerbyi, in which toxicity existed till 72h exposure. Toxicity of F cypermethrin existed till 96h in all species except C. viridis in which F cypermethrin became non-toxic after 72h. It was concluded from this study that acute toxicity of cypermethrin to aquatic organisms varied with the formulation and 10% EC of cypermethrin remained viable in freshwater aquatic ecosystem for longer period.

  168. Rahul Shivaji Patil, Sachinkumar R. Patil and Sonali Subhash Sathe

    The present investigation was undertaken to design and develop efficient filter with coast effectiveness and easy handling for juice shopkeepers. The filter was designed with easily available materials and the physico-chemical parameters of water were analyzed to verify the alterations. Mean while total coliform, fecal coliform, Standard Plate Count (SPC) and Most Probable Number (MPN) of juices along with water sample were estimated so as to confirm the reduction in microbial load. The study revealed that physico-chemical parameters of water remains unaltered while all microbial estimations shown considerable reduction in contamination. Hence, present filter is efficient in removal of contamination with an average 62.75 % with coast effectiveness.

  169. Rajib Majumder and Anilava Kaviraj

    Static bioassays were conducted in laboratory to evaluate variation in acute toxicity between technical grade (92 % a.i) and commercial formulation (10 % EC) of cypermethrin to four freshwater organisms viz. the crustacean Cyclops viridis, the oligochaete worm Branchiura sowerbyi, the gastropod Pila globosa, and one week old tadpole larva of the toad Duttaphrynus melanostictus. Commercial formulation (F) of cypermethrin was found more toxic than the technical (T) grade cypermethrin. Based on 96h LC50 values of T and F cypermethrin C. viridis was found most sensitive (0.08 and 0.04 μg/L) and P. globosa as most tolerant (1416 and 545 μg/L) to cypermethrin. Toxicity of T cypermethrin in water existed up to 48h except for C. viridis and B. sowerbyi, in which toxicity existed till 72h exposure. Toxicity of F cypermethrin existed till 96h in all species except C. viridis in which F cypermethrin became non-toxic after 72h. It was concluded from this study that acute toxicity of cypermethrin to aquatic organisms varied with the formulation and 10% EC of cypermethrin remained viable in freshwater aquatic ecosystem for longer period.

  170. Imana Pal, Kazi Layla Khaled and Santa Datta (De)

    Oxalis corniculata Linn. has been found in many traditional systems of medicine for treating various human ailments. Studies revealed that this underutilized plant possesses anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, antimicrobial, antifungal, antiamoebal, antihelminthic, antiscorbutic, anxiolytic, anticonvulsant, antidiarrhoal, anticancer, antiulcer, antiseptic, anti- diabetic, hepatoprotective, hypolipidemic, abortificiant, and wound healing properties. It is consumed by the tribal communities as emergency food. The study was conducted to estimate the minerals content of Oxalis corniculata leaves which may be helpful in finding the beneficial effect related to the trace element content of the leaves. The findings revealed that Oxalis corniculata leaves contain high amount of calcium, iron, magnesium and zinc and trace amount of copper, lead and phosphorus. Thus it can be concluded that this plant can be incorporated in the diet as a low cost food to obtain its therapeutic benefits.

  171. Rathy, M. C., Annie Mathai, Usha K. Aravind and Thomas, A. P.

    Vector control is an essential requirement in control of epidemic diseases such as malaria, filariasis, dengue, etc. that are transmitted by mosquitoes. Excessive use of synthetic pesticides causes emergence of pesticide resistance and harmful effect on non-target organisms. This has necessitated an urgent search for development of new and improved mosquito control methods that are economical and effective as well as safe for non-target organisms and the environment. Herbal insecticides of plant origin become a priority in this search. The present study is to evaluate the larvicidal activity of both aqueous and solvent extracts of twenty two plants were tested against mosquito larvae (Culex quinquefasciatus). Mortality percentages and LC50 were calculated. Among plants under experimentation, Spilanthes calva and Adenocalymma alliaceum were potentially effective.

  172. Makwana, R. J., Alka Singh, Neelima Palagani and Sumathi Tatte

    A study was conducted to find out the effect of pre and post storage treatments on polypropylene sealed packed cut roses with different cold storage (2o) durations viz., 5, 10, 15, 20, 25 and 30 days. PP packed flowers treated with pre and post storage vase solution consisting of 5% sucrose + 8 HQC 300 mg/l + α-lipoic acid 200 mg/l, cold stored up to 20 days showed promising results with maintained flower quality. In general the trend showed decrease in water uptake, foliage intactness and vase life as well as higher bent neck with increase in storage duration. However, the treatment of pre and post storage showed maintained foliage intactness, higher water uptake, low bent neck with vase life of 6.69 days in cut roses stored up to 20 days. Whereas the flowers stored up to 15 days without any pre and post storage treatment with PP sealed packing maintained quality with vase life of 5.62 days.

  173. Pavana Jyotsna, K. and Ramakrishna Rao, A.

    Earthworms are eco-friendly and play a variety of roles in agro ecosystem. The gut of earthworm is the factory to manufacture the beneficial microbial densities and their products. The excreted nutrients enrich thousand times more than the surrounding soil. Experiments have proven that crops grown in earthworm inhabitant soils had increased the yields from 25% to over 30% than in earthworm free soils. Researchers had reported that bacteria living in the gut of worms would breakdown many hazardous chemicals such as hexachloro cyclohexane (HCH) into detoxified forms maintaining the biological buffering of the soil. Most of the agricultural lands are recorded for lower abundance of earthworms (or) leading to abandon the croplands due to the lack of favorable conditions influencing the growth of plants. Investigation of the interaction of actinomycetes with soil invertebrates is one of the ways to study the development in biogeocenoses. The earthworm gut is favorable for the development of actinomycetes due to neutral pH, optimal humidity and temperature. Cellulose is considered as one of the most important sources of carbon on this planet. Cellulose degradation and its subsequent utilization is important for global carbon sources. The value of cellulose as a renewable source of energy has made cellulose hydrolysis as the subject of intense research and industrial interest. The bioconversion of cellulosic materials has been receiving attention in recent years. It is now a subject of interest for the contribution and to the development of a large-scale conversion processes beneficial to mankind. Agricultural waste and in fact all celluloses can be converted into products that are of commercial importance such as ethanol, glucose and single cell protein. Cellulase enzyme has been reported as one of the commercialized products from the bioconversion of cellulosic materials. The role of microbial activity in the earthworm gut, cast and soil is very essential for the degradation of organic wastes for the release of nutrients to plants. During vermicomposting organic matter undergoes, physico-chemical and bio-chemical changes by the combined effect of earthworm gut flora and also other microbial activities. Earthworm transforms the constituents of organic waste into a more useful vermicompost initially by grinding and digestion by aerobic and anaerobic microflora. Much of the research on vermicomposting had been focused on the changes in the chemical parameters.

  174. Ram Naresh Saraswat

    Information divergence measures and their bounds are well known in the literature of Information Theory. In this research article, we shall consider a new non-symmetric information divergence measure. Upper and lower bounds of non-symmetric divergence measure in terms of Kullback-Leibler divergence measure have been studied. Numerical bounds of new divergence measures are also discussed.

  175. MD. Abdul Mottalib, Sazzad Hossain Somoal, MD. Saiful Islam, Muhammad Nur Alam and MD. Nurul Abser

    Tanning industries produces large quantities of waste water which on direct discharge causes severe environmental pollution. Basic chromium sulphate used in the tanning process is not consumed fully and about 30-40% of it is washed away to the environment and thus creates severe environmental problem especially to the aquatic system. Here a simple method is developed to remove the chromium content of the tannery waste water. Waste water discharged from tannery has different character (pH) at different stages of the tanning process. The chrome liquor (discharged during chrome tanning process) has pH of about 3.5 to 4.0 while the lime liquor (discharged during lime tanning process) has pH of about 11 to 13. Neutralization of these liquors through mixing with each other results precipitation of chromium which was removed by simple filtration. Neutralized liquor was found to have chromium content 2 ppm while the original chrome liquor had 3600 ppm.

  176. Entesar, A. Hassan and Salem, E. Zayed

    The C-S-Metal complexes were synthesized via a simple and satisfied method by reaction of ketene gem-dithiol with transition metal salts, NaAuCl4.2H2O, NiCl2.6H2O, CoCl2 and HgCl2. The products were investigated against some microorganisms e. g. Bacillus subtilus, Staphylococcus and Lactococcus. A satisfactory inhibition was observer especially for gold complex.

  177. Maria Neagu and Gabriela Mazilu

    This study aims was simultaneous identified and quantified, used a HPLC method, eight active pharmaceutical ingredients, Cyanocobalamin (Vitamine B12), Benzyl alcohol, Chloramphenicol, Prednisolone, Tylosin A, Tylosin B, Tylosin C and Tylosin D. In a very short time, and with very low cost, all eight compounds was separated and quantified used this HPLC method (UV-VIS detection). The method is enough sensitive to quantified and monitorised related substances/degradation product according to VICH GL 11(R). The method can be easily applied in any analytical laboratory, because it uses common reagents, a chromatographic column frequently used, octadecylsilylsilicagel (C18) and common equipments in pharma laboratories (HPLC, multiwavelengths UV-VIS detection).

  178. Ezhil Pavai, R. and Indhira, M.

    B2O3-K2O-MgO glasses with different concentrations of MgO (0-20 mol. % in the steps of 5) were prepared by melt quench technique. Structural characterizations of these glasses were conducted through FT-IR, DTA and density measurements. The amorphous nature of the glasses was checked by X-ray diffractometry (XRD). The transformation of BO3 trigonals to BO4 tetrahedral units has evidenced from the FT-IR spectra of the prepared glass samples and the BO4 units increases with an increasing concentration of MgO content. The transition temperature (Tg), melting temperature(Tm) and crystallization temperature (Tc) have been identified using DTA measurements. The transition temperature (Tg) increases with an increase of MgO content. Density of the glasses increases whereas molar volume decreases which reveals the compactness of the glasses. The structural properties of these glasses were discussed in terms of the relative proportion of potassium and magnesium oxides.

  179. Dr. Mohammed Hamza Abdulsada AL-Hashimi

    Swirl flame stabilisation of lean premixed fuels has been studied and applied to gas turbines for a number of years, giving considerable benefits in terms of reduced pollutant emission, especially of NOx. However, there are still problems that can occur during the combustion process including those related to flashback (especially with hydrogen enriched fuels) and combustion induced instabilities. Swirl of the primary system is optimised to minimize pressure drop, flame contact with the injectors and swirl system, whilst avoiding flashback. Pure hydrogen or hydrogen enriched fuels give rise to especial problems owing to the high flame speed of hydrogen, potential for flashback in conventional or simply modified combustors and often requirement for multi fuel operation. Solutions adopted commercially are normally compromised, leaving considerable room for improvement. This paper describes a combined practical and modelling approach to study and reduce the effect of flashback in practical swirl burners using both a flexible experimental combustor, coupled with extensive Computational Fluid Dynamics modelling to guide experimental progress. The results proved that by adding CO2 the flashback limits can be improved, whilst H2 enriched flames are more difficult to control. Several varied CRZs developed in the field as a consequence of the nozzle configuration, showing high dependence not on the Swirl number, but the type of flow expansion. It was confirmed that the flame can be manipulated to avoid physical contact with the burner solid surfaces, the Swirl number being a particularly important parameter. The size and shape of the CRZ can be readily manipulated to satisfy particular requirements.

  180. Mudasir Ashraf, Anu Radha, C.Shakeel Ahmad, Sajad Masood, Ramasubramanian, V. and Yadagiri Reddy, P.

    Since the creation of the universe, natural radioactivity has been an integral part of our environment and all living things are living and have to live in a sea of radiations. The natural radioactivity is caused by γ-radiation originating from the uranium, thorium series and K40. In the present study the activities of Ra226, Th232, and K40 have been measured in the lignite samples of the of Nichahoma Lignite belt of the Kashmir valley, India using NaI(Tl) Gamma ray spectrometer. The measured specific activity concentration of Ra226 and Th232 was found to be higher than the Indian coal mines, the data presented by Germany, USA, and UK. The radiation Hazard indices are also calculated and reported.

  181. Ahmed Bentajer, Abou El Mehdi Karim, EL Fezazi Said and Hedabou Mustapha

    Swirl Infrastructure as a Service (IaaS) is a form of cloud computing where the Cloud Service Provider (CSP) provides virtualized computing resources through the internet. A client may ask for an IaaS service, deploy the image of its Virtual Machine (VMi) which contain sensitive computation. However, the customer have no means of verifying that its VM run in a secure environment. To address this problem we propose a design of Trusted VM deployment (TVMD) model, in which the customer can deploy its VMi into a set of trusted Node (N) on the IaaS perimeter and enhance backend attacks. This paper show how clients can gain trust into services provided by the CSP by leveraging trust in a neutral third party : an External Trust Coordinator (ETC) that certify that the Node (N) run in a set of trusted node in the IaaS perimeter secured by the ETC through a Trusted Module Platform (TPM).

  182. Shakeel Ahmad, Mudasir Ashraf, Sajad Masood, Munazah Majeed, Safeena Maqbool, Anu Radha, C., Akhtar Rasool, Ramasubramannian, V. and Yadagiri Reddy, P.

    The present study was aimed at the determination of specific activity of locally manufactured and commercially available five cement types used as building material in Kashmir valley, India by using a NaI (Tl) gamma ray spectrometer. The study envisages that the mean values of specific activity concentrations in the different analyzed cement samples were found to vary from 44.4±0.81 to 51.02±2.3 Bq〖kg〗^(-1) for 226Ra; 20.11±3.60 to 36.91±2.9 Bq〖kg〗^(-1) for 232Th and 25.29±1.42 to 55.78±2.81 Bq〖kg〗^(-1)for 40K, the mean value specific activity for 226Ra in all the investigated cement brand were above the world average of 32 Bq〖kg〗^(-1). The radiation hazard indices determined are well below the limits and all the analysed cement brands used in Kashmir valley meet the safety requirement and do not pose any radiological hazard to human health.

  183. Ann Elizabeth Silviya, Kavitha, G., Narayanan Kutty, K. and Krishnan Namboori, P. K.

    The natural polysaccharide chitosan has been extensively studied for predicting its efficiency as drug delivery systems for tumor. The ‘smartness’ of chitosan to release drug molecules specifically near to the tumor sites; makes it different from other drug carriers. The computational modeling and simulation technique has been adopted to predict the efficiency of the drug delivery system with different anti-cancer drugs. Interaction profile, stability profile, surface profile, potential profile and drug-release profile have been studied. The results highlight the efficiency of chitosan in using as a drug delivery system for anticancer drugs.

  184. Anil Barnwal

    In today’s modern era Grid computing has become a very important research topic within computer science. Grid Computing is mainly focus on how to coordinate and share the use of diverse resources in today‘s distributed environments. The multi-departmental and dynamic nature of these environments introduces some challenging security issues, which include interoperability with different “hosting environments”, integration with existing systems and technologies, and trust relationships among interacting hosting environments. Here we need to know the different technical approaches to handle these challenging issues. During the recent years, many prominent companies and research institutes have proposed and implemented several architectures for grid and grid security. The main goal of this paper is to provide an user friendly programming environment for small and medium sized distributed supercomputing on the heterogeneous grids.

  185. Narendra Kumar, T. Naresh, V. and Kishor Kumar, K.

    The natural fiber-reinforced polymer composite is capturing view in many industrial applications like automotives and many other human centric oriented frugal innovation products and fundamental research. Fiber reinforced polymer composites have a wide variety of applications as a class of structural materials because of their advantages such as ease of fabrication, relatively low cost of production & superior strength as compared to neat polymer resins. The fiber which serves as a reinforcement in polymers may be either synthetic or natural. Although synthetic fibers such as glass, carbon, nylon, polyester etc [1]. Possess high specific strength; their fields of applications are limited because of their higher costs of production. Recently, there is an increasing interest in hybrid composites that are made by reinforcement of two or more different types of fibers in a single matrix, because these materials attain a range of properties that cannot be obtained with a particular kind of reinforcement. Further, material costs can be reduced by careful selection of reinforcing fibers. Natural fibers have been proven substitute to synthetic fiber in transportation domain such as automobiles, railway coaches and aerospace because of their low thermal expansion, high tensile strength, high strength to weight ratio. Other applications include military, building, packaging, consumer products and construction industries for ceiling paneling, partition boards [2]. Currently, the Mechanical treatments of the fibers are carried out as they further enhance the properties of the composites. This paper deals with review of fiber treatment on mechanical properties of different natural fibers reinforced polymer composites.

  186. Anish Ghuraiya, T.R., Thapak, Arpan Bhardwaj, Tripti Kamalpuria, Nayma Siddiqui

    Dichloroarsenic (III) benzoyl and p-substituted benzoyl piperidyl thiocarbamyl and Chloroarsenic (III) di benzoyl and p-substituted di benzoyl piperidyl thiocarbamyls of the type AsCl2(C13H14N2OSX) and AsCl(C13H14N2OSX)2 have been synthesized in acetone by the reaction of AsCl3 and benzoyl and p-substituted benzoyl piperidyl thiocarbamyls in 1:1 and 1:2 molar ratios at room temperature [C13H14N2OSX, X= H in compound 1,5, OCH3 in 2,6, OH in 3,7 and Cl in 4,8 respectively]. These newly synthesized derivatives have characterized by elemental analysis (C, H, N, Cl, S, O and As), molecular weight measurements and spectral (IR, 1H NMR, 13C NMR) studies. All compounds screened against different bacteria and fungi show moderate antibacterial and antifungal activities.

  187. Deepa, M. and Premlatha, D.

    Manufacturing sector is the backbone of any economy. It fuels growth, productivity, employment, and strengthens agriculture and service sectors. Astronomical growth in worldwide distribution systems and IT, coupled with opening of trade barriers, has led to stupendous growth of global manufacturing networks, designed to take advantage of low-waged yet efficient work force of India. HR practitioners believe that the engagement challenge has a lot to do with how employee feels about the work experience and how he or she is treated in the organization. It has a lot to do with emotions which are fundamentally related to the bottom line success in a company. There will always be people who never give their best efforts no matter how hard HR and line managers try to engage them. But for the most part employees want to commit to companies because doing so satisfies a powerful and a basic need in connect with and contribute to something significant. The study helps to gain an understanding of employee engagement measures, factors affecting employee engagement, practices to improve employee engagement and advantages of having engaged employees. This study includes the procedure as: Visiting the company and discussing with HR and Preparing an appropriate Questionnaire for identifying Employee Engagement within the organization.

  188. Mohd Nor bin Yahaya and Jegak Uli

    Human dimension plays a critical role in determining budget outcomes. The managers performance in budget setting will indicates the extent of the organizational success. As budget represent the important tool in translating the planned strategies into action, it is therefore critical for the managers to adapt the correct behavior that could significantly shape and lead them into good performance. This paper presents the examination of the ‘Trail Model’ in determining a manager’s performance in budget setting. The model suggest that managers performance is improved by influential factor of and the integration effect of human dimension of fairness, commitment and satisfaction with budget performance. The dimension of fairness, which is represented by procedural fairness is investigated. The result of the study on 128 budget managers in mechanistic public organization via survey questionnaire found to be favorable, positive and significant. The paper suggests the usefulness of Trail Model as behavioral guidance instrument of human dimension in budget setting.

  189. Endang Siswati, DBA

    The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of technology, work experience, education and training, both simultaneously and partially on the performance of production workers in East Java, and the most dominant variable affecting the performance of production workers in East Java. In this study, there are three independent variables consisting of technology, work experience, education and training, as well as the dependent variable is the performance of the production workers. The analysis performed in this study involved testing of research instruments, classical assumption test, multiple linear regression analysis, and hypothesis testing. Calculation of multiple linear regression analysis produces coefficient determination R2 = 0.320 that has a probability value of F calculated equal Sig. F = 0.000. Because ρ ≠ 0 and the probability F test is smaller than the research test level (Sig. F <α ie 0.000 <0.05), then Ho is rejected and Ha accepted which means the simultaneous effect of variables of technology, work experience, and education and training on the performance of labor production in East Java is significant. Partially, two independent variables consisting of technology and work experience have a positive and significant impact on the performance of production workers in East Java, while education and training variables negatively affect the performance of production workers in East Java. The most influential variable is the dominant technology with variable t value for 6.517, greater than the t value of other variables.

  190. Alok Sen and Manidip Roy

    Fisheries sector plays a very important role in socio-economic development of the state of Tripura. In spite of different measures being taken by the Government of Tripura to make the state fish self-sufficient, a large amount of fish are still being imported from neighbouring states and Bangladesh. This indicates existence of positive gap between demand and supply which can be filled up if appropriate policy measure towards strengthening the condition of fishermen is undertaken. Any policy measure to be successful needs a clear understanding of the status of its stakeholders. The fish farmers are the key stakeholders of fisheries sector. Hence, to address the issues related to development of fisheries sector of the state, the status of fish farmers of the state needs to be understood. Present study is an effort towards this direction. Using multi-stage random sampling 256 farmers are selected from two major fish producing districts of the state for the present study. The study reveals that fish farmers in the state are economically poor with average per capita annual income (Rs. 24,940/-) significantly lower than the average per capita annual income of the state as a whole (Rs. 69,705/-). Though the literacy rate among the farmers and their spouses are reasonably good (90%) but overall level of education is found to be very poor with majority having only secondary level of education. Majority of the farmers (55%) is found to be residing in the houses of kachha structure, though the basic amenities like drinking water facility, electricity, defecation etc is found to be reasonably good. The study, after examining all the indicators, comes to the conclusion that overall situation of the fish farmer stakeholders of the state is miserable which needs to be improved with appropriate policy initiatives.

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