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April 2018

  1. Anitha Victoria Noronha, Nisha P Nair, Blessymol T M, Jisna Jose, Laxmi Wasti and Sruthi Pramod

    Nursing process is a critical thinking process that professional nurse used to apply the best available evidence to care giving and promoting human function and response to health and illness. It is the fundamental blue print for how to care for patients. The nursing process is also standard of practice, which when followed correctly protects nurse against legal problems related to nursing care. Nursing diagnosis is a clinical judgement about individual, family or community response to actual or potential health problem or life processes. Nursing diagnosis provides the basis for selection of nursing intervention to achieve outcomes for which the nurse is accountable. Aims and objectives: The study was aimed to assess the knowledge regarding nursing diagnosis among staff nurses, to determine the effectiveness of structured teaching programme regarding nursing diagnosis among staff nurses and to find out the association between level of knowledge regarding nursing diagnosis of staff nurses and their selected personal variables. Approach and design: Pre experimental one group pre test post test was used Sample and sampling criteria: The samples consist of 60 staff nurses who are working in medine,surgery and critical care units in JSS Hospital, Mysuru were seleccted by non probability convenient sampling technique. Tools and techniques: Tools consit of proforma for selected personal variables, self administered structured knowledge questionnaire and Structured Teachinng Proogramme regarding nursing diagnosis. Results: Descriptive and inferential statistics were used to analyze the data.Findings in the present study shows that majority 28 (46%) of staff nurses participated in the study belongs to the age group 26-30 years. The majority 40 (66.6%) of staff nurses were females and 20 (33.3%) were males.The majority 23 (38.3%) of staff nurses having 4-7 years of experience, 21 (35%) of staff nurses are having 1-3 years of experiences, 13 (21.6%) of staff nurses are having 8-11 years of experience and three (5%) are having more tthan 12 years oof experience.And majority 31 (51.6%) of staff nurses were attended inservice education.The mean difference between the mean pre test and mean post test knowledge scoore was 7.33 with a standard deviation differences for 0.14. The pre test knowledge score, the median value was 13.2 and post test knowledge score was 21.25. The paired 't' test 10.94 ,which was significant at 0.05 level of significance and it could be interfere that the post test knowledge score of staff nurses who attended the structured teaching programme regarding nursing diagnosis was significantly higher than their mean pre test knowledge score. The computed Chi-square value of association between the pre test level of knowledge of staff nurses was found to be statistically significant at 0.05 level for educational qualification. Conclusion: Post test knowledge score of staff nurses who attended the structured teaching programme regarding nursing diagnosis was significantly higher than their mean pre test knowledge score. It shows that Structured Teaching Programme was efffective in improving the knowledge of staff nurses regarding nursing diagnosis.

  2. Dorsaf Bengaied, Antonio RIBEIRO, Mohamed Amri, Daniel scherman and Philippe Arnaud

    Doxorubicin (DOX) has been used in the treatment of variety of cancers but its administration is limited by a dose-dependent toxicity. Its cytotoxic effects on malignant cells, have shown an increase in the risk of cardiotoxicity, hepatoxicity, renal insufisance. Antioxydants have been explored for both their cancer preventive properties and chemodulatory of DOX toxicity. Resveratrol (RSV) is a polyphenolic constituent of several dietary mainly of grapes and wine origin recently its anti-cancer potential has been extensively explored, revealing its anti-proliferative effect on different cancer cell lines, both in vitro and in vivo. RSV is also known to have modulatory effects on cell apoptosis, migration and growth via various signaling pathways. Though, RSV possesses great medicinal value, its applications as a therapeutic drug are limited. Problems like low oral bioavailability and poor aqueous solubility make RSV an unreliable candidate for therapeutic purposes. Additionally, the rapid gastrointestinal digestion of RSV is also a major barrier for its clinical translation. Hence, to overcome these disadvantages RSV-based nanodelivery systems have been considered in recent times. Nanodelivery systems of RSV have shown promising results in its uptake by the epithelial system as well as enhanced delivery to the target site. Herein we have tried to bring new new insights into the molecular mechanisms of DOX toxicity with respect to DNA damage, free radicals and whether RSV can be a playmaker as chemomodulatory of DOX

  3. Ramesh, A.S. and Dr. Vinoth Kumar, S.

    Background: Die for making indirect restoration is vital. Die silicone material is user friendly and fast. But does it compare to Die Stone in accuracy. Aim: to compare the accuracy of reproduction of details between Die stone and Die Silicone. Methods: A metal die with known dimensions is made. Impressions are made with Polyether impression material. Dies are made out of Die Stone and Die Silicone. The Dimensions of the reproduced details are measured and compared. Results: Both Die Stone and Die Silicone produce comparable results. Conclusion: As Die Silicone is fast setting and easy to use, when Dies are required at the earliest, like during making of indirect restoration on the Chairside, Die Silicone can be the material of choice.

  4. Dr. Khiste, J. A., Dr. Kurdukar, M. D., Dr. Pandit, G.A. and Dr. Kokate, P. S.

    Objective: Present study was aimed at evaluating the degree of severity of atherosclerosis by morphologic and morphometric indices. Study was also undertaken to correlate morphological grades with morphometric parameters. Materials and Methods: Present study comprised of 80 heart specimens from consecutive medicolegal autopsy cases. Detailed gross examination of heart and four coronary arteries viz right coronary, left coronary, left anterior descending and left circumflex artery was done for evidence of infarction and atherosclerosis respectively. All the four arteries were assessed morphologically for 6 numerical grades as per the American Heart Association criteria. Thickness of intima, thickness of media, diameter of lumen and diameter internal to the media was measured under 400X using MICAPS software. Two morphometric parameters viz percentage of luminal narrowing and intima to media thickness ratio (IMTR) were evaluated for severity of atherosclerosis. Result: Atherosclerosis was present in 81.87 % of cases. Females outnumbered males. Eccentric atheromas were seen in 67.81% of arteries. Left anterior descending artery had severe degree of atherosclerosis. Both parameters were directly proportional to the grades of atherosclerosis in all the four coronary arteries. Myocardial infarction was predominantly observed in grade VI atherosclerosis. Conclusion: Comprehensive analysis of both morphologic and morphometric evaluation of arteries is a reliable tool to assess the severity of atherosclerosis.

  5. Giorgio Maria Paolo Graziano, Antonio Di Cataldo, Giovanni li destri and Antonino Graziano

    Indroduction: surgical radicality in rectal tumors is synonymous with local neoplasm control with increased survival. In the name of these objectives the quality of life has been sacrificed in the past, but with the evolution of surgical techniques and the greater knowledge of the mechanisms that regulate neoplastic disease, today we have arrived at a culture that places integrity in the foreground. and the psychophysical equilibrium as irremocratic elements in the complete realization of the present man. (Ferlay, et al., 2012; Smith et al., 2013; Brenner et al., 2012; Hewitson, et al., 2008,) Materials and methods: From January 2010 to December 2017 consulted the database of the AOU "G Rodolico" University of Catania Department of surgical and specialist medical sciences II 111 patients suffering from rectal neoplasia and undergoing surgery were treated. Surgical therapy implemented was a "tailored surgery", (treatment in relation to the stage) Stage 0 (carcinoma in situ) The treatment consisted of local resection to remove all the tumor. In cases of recovery, the patient must perform serious CHRONIC checks every 3 months in the first two years, Stage I (T1 / N0 / M0) local resection external radiotherapy with or without chemotherapy if the neoplasm resists treatment with external radiotherapy, radiotherapy was performed internal in case of failure we proceed to the abdominal-perineal resection sec. Miles Results: From the 111 patients underwent surgery. In 18 cases (17%) there was a complete histo logical response (pT0). In 95 patients (95.5%) an operation was performed with the preservation of the sphincter apparatus. Discussion: Only surgery in cancer has healing effect exclusively in the initial stages, historically the abdomino-perineal amputation sec. Miles was the choice therapy with survival of 50-70% at 5 years. Great progress has been made in the surgical treatment of ultra-low rectal tumors with a more widespread tendency to techniques to preserve the sphincter function avoiding the final ostomy packaging. Conclusion: The technical and scientific progress achieved in recent years has shown that neoadjuvant therapy offers the possibility of complete responses with total regression of the neoplasm with the aim of obtaining an effective cure of the disease without resorting to surgery. mesorectal excision have led some authors to question the routine use of RT in reference to the initial forms even if the RT Endocavitary used for tumors with a diameter of less than 3 cm has achieved successes around 95%.

  6. Milankumar Senjaliya

    Background - Cleland first described the anomaly later referred to as the Arnold-Chiari malformation, in 1883.78 Chiari and Arnold in 1891 and 1894 respectively,79,80 reported their descriptions and students of Arnold later used a single eponymic term to describe the various abnormalities.81 More recently, Peach82,83,84 and Carme| 85,86,87 have reviewed these early reports and others,88,89,90 and clearly delineate the anatomical features of the Chiari malformations. In both the Chiari I and Chiari II anomalies, the cerebellar tonsils are displaced downwards below the foramen magnum to variable levels of the upper cervical cord. The Chiari II anomaly, better known as the Arnold-Chiari malformation, usually includes caudal dislocation of the medulla, inferior vermis and/or the fourth ventricle and may involve dorsal kinking of the cervicomedullary junction. The upper cervical nerve roots course rostrally. In both Chiari I and II malformations, hydrocephalus and syringomyelia may be present. Aim - To study the outcome of surgical treatment in patients with Chiari type I malformation with and without syringomyelia Methods and Material - We conducted a retrospective review of the medical records of patients having Chiari type I malformation with and without syringomyelia who were treated in our hospital, Shri Sai baba hospital, shirdi, between January 2011 and December 2017. Their age, sex, initial presentation, extent of syrinx, duration of follow up, syringosubarachnoid done or not, complication, second surgery done or not and outcome were reviewed. This is a retrospectively analyzed consecutive series of 66 patients (mean patient age 15 years, range 1–53 years). The uniform posterior craniovertebral decompression consisted of a small suboccipital craniectomy, a C-1 laminectomy, microsurgical reduction of the cerebellar tonsils, and dural closure with a synthetic dural graft to increase the cerebrospinal fluid space at the craniocervical junction. The presence of a large syrinx, with significant thinning of the spinal cord tissue and obliteration of the spinal subarachnoid space, particularly when combined with syrinx-related symptoms, was an indication for the placement of a syringosubarachnoid shunt. Results - In 32 patients Chiari I malformation alone was present, and 34 in patients it was present in combination with syringomyelia. Clinical findings included pain, neurological deficits, and spinal deformity. The presence of syringomyelia was significantly associated with the presence of scoliosis (odds ratio 74.4 [95% confidence interval 8.894–622.4]). All patients underwent a posterior craniovertebral decompression procedure. In 22 of the 34 patients with syringomyelia a syringosubarachnoid shunt was also placed. The mean follow-up period was 24 months (range 3–95 months). Excellent outcome was achieved in 54 patients (82%) and good outcome in 12 (18%). In no patient were symptoms unchanged or worse at follow-up examination, including four patients who initially required a second operation for persistent syringomyelia. Pain was more likely to resolve than sensory and motor deficits after decompressive surgery. Radiological examination revealed normalization of tonsillar position in all patients. The syrinx had disappeared in 15 cases, was decreased in size in 17, and remained unchanged in two. Conclusion - Posterior craniovertebral decompression and selective placement of a syringosubarachnoid shunt in patients with Chiari I malformation and syringomyelia is an effective and safe treatment. Primary placement of a shunt in the presence of a sufficiently large syrinx appears to be beneficial. The question of if and when to place a shunt, however, requires further, preferably prospective, investigation.

  7. Nilotpol Kashyap, Brij Kumar, Soumendu Bikash Maiti, Nilesh Bhanawat, Pallavi Pawar and Rashi Dubey

    Introduction: Sleep-disordered breathing (SDB) is a collective clinical term encompassing primary snoring, upper airway resistance syndrome (UARS), and obstructive sleep apnea (OSA). These syndromes currently are regarded to fall along a spectrum of severity concerning the same pathophysiological condition. Material and method: The study was conducted on 60 participants with 18 males and 12 female participants in study group and 16 males and 14 female participants among control group. Cephalogram and panoramic radiographs of each study individual were made using X MIND PANO D+ X ray unit and results were analyzed using Digora software. Four parameters (length, width of soft palate, distance to pharynx from maximum width and width of tongue) related to soft tissue were analyzed. Results: Observations reveal that the length and width of the soft palate was more among snorers in comparison to non snorers and was statistically significant. The posterior superior pharyngeal space was found to be less among snorers as compared to non snorers and was found to be statistically highly significant it was also found that the maximum width of tongue was slightly more among snorers as compared to non snorers and was found to be statistically non significant. Conclusion: This method of detecting snoreres from non snorers may help in deriving definite parameters to identify the risk and/or arriving at the diagnosis of snoring and its management, helping snorers and the sufferers to lead a better life and have a good sleep.

  8. Zeynep Özbek Karadeniz, Sabire İşler, Şeyma Alpkılıç and Değer Öngül

    Background: The aim of this in-vitro experimental study was to evaluate the shear bond strength between the base metal Co-Cr alloy and laboratory-cured composite with mechanic retention, chemical treatment and the combination of both treatments on a metal framework. Materials and Methods: 200 alloy discs (Co-Cr) were prepared, half of the specimens were prepared with retention beads and the other half was grind. All test specimens were divided into 5 groups; control, sandblasted, sandblasted and Metal primer II (GC Co., Tokyo, Japan), sandblasted and Metal photo primer (Shofu, Kyoto, Japan), Rocatectribochemical silica coating system (3M ESPE, Seefeld, Germany) are used for each group. Then; Gradia opaque and Gradia indirect laboratory composites (GC Co., Tokyo, Japan) were applied to all groups. Half of the specimens are subjected to thermal cycling (TC) after the application of Gradia. Shear bond strength of each specimen was tested in an universal testing machine and fractured specimens were examined with SEM. Results: While the lowest bond strength was obtained in with both control groups of retention beads with TC or without TC (1.37 MPa, 1.19 MPa), the highest bond strength was obtained in group that used Metal primer II with TC (21,45 MPa). Conclusion: Indirect laboratory composites shows higher shear bond strengths when first sandblasted and then used metal primer for bonding.

  9. Dr. Amit Kalra, Dr. Ashish Jain, Dr. Gaurav Jasoria, Dr. Saurabh Singh Parihar, Dr. Arun Kumar Gupta, Dr. Ankur Matta, Dr. Arpit Shrivastava and Dr. Prateek Jain

    Introduction: In the world of orthodontics, to find the sagittal discrepancy between maxilla-mandible varities of cephalometirc analyses with numerous angular and linear measurements have been proposed, since the introduction of radiographic cephalometry in 1934 by Hofrath (GERMANY) & Broadbent (USA).Sometimes inaccuracy have been found out in these cephalometric analyses because the factors they are relying came to be inconstant. So the purpose of this study is to find the co-relation between the most commonly used parameters for finding sagittal discrepancy (ANB angle, WITS appraisal and BETA angle) and newly introduced parameters (W angle) & (HBN angle) in Gwalior (M.P.) population. Materials and method: The sample consisted of 50 pre-treatment lateral cephalograms of orthodontic patients selected randomly who reported for treatment in the Department of Orthodontics and Dentofacial Orthopaedics of Maharana Pratap College of Dentistry and Research Centre, Gwalior (M.P.).These samples were divided into following three groups: Group I – Class I skeletal pattern , Group II – Class II skeletal pattern and Group III – Class III skeletal pattern according to the inclusion criteria selected. Results: Pearson coefficient test was performed which showed statistically significant relationship in class II cases between W angle – ANB (p=0.001) and HBN angle - ANB (p=0.003).In class III cases statistically significant relationship between W angle – WITS (p=0.017), HBN angle – WITS (p=0.01) & HBN angle – BETA angle (p=0.025). Conclusion: Result showed strong correlation in class II cases between W-angle –ANB angle as compared to HBN angle – ANB. In class III cases strong correlation existed between HBN angle – WITS & HBN angle – BETA angle as compared to W angle – WITS & W angle – BETA angle respectively. As per these results we can conclude that W angle is better to identify class II cases whereas HBN angle is better to identify class III cases

  10. Pandey, K., Verma, S., Arya, S., Verma, A.K., Bhagoliwal, A. and Lal, P.

    Background: WHO (2008) defines Maternal Near-Miss mortality cases as “a woman who nearly died but survived a complication that occurred during pregnancy, childbirth or within 42 days of termination of pregnancy”. This study was conducted to evaluate the prevalence and impact of acid-base imbalances in near-miss mortality in obstetrics patients. Material and Methods: A prospective cohort study was conducted from November 2015 to May 2017 at Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, GSVM Medical College, Kanpur. A total of 200 near-miss mortality cases were evaluated for acid-base imbalances and managed accordingly. It was further correlated with various outcomes during their hospital stay. Results: Out of 200 patients,78.5% severe anemia,46.5% hypertensive disorder,30.5% haemorrhage,7.5% sepsis,12.5% previous LSCS,5% obstructed labour. Acidosis was far more common than alkalosis with almost 2:1:1 ratio among Metabolic acidosis, Respiratory acidosis and Respiratory alkalosis. The presence of acid-base imbalance was significantly related to need of ICU care (p value <0.0001, odd’s ratio-3.31, 95% confidence interval = 2.31-4.73). The need of blood component transfusion was statistically significant (p value- 0.0082, odd’s ratio-1.45 and 95% confidence interval = 1.10-1.91). Conclusion: Prompt diagnosis and correction of acid-base imbalance along with ICU care and blood transfusion in near-miss mortality cases can reduce maternal mortality.

  11. Suresh, V., Gowrishankar, M and Ponrajkumar Vivek M.

    Meniere’s disease is a syndrome complex which consists of fluctuating low frequency sensorineural hearing loss, episodic vertigo lasting upto 24 hours, low pitched tinnitus and aural fullness which affects the endolymphatic system primarily and secondarily. It is managed by various treatment modalities. Surgical treatment is decreased recently following failures. Long term medical management is being followed mostly but it is not useful in acute episodes (1). Intratympanic injection of gentamicin is now the effective method of treatment in patients who have failed medical management and not fit for surgery (2).

  12. Tanjila Hasan, Nipul Bairagi, Md. Monir Hossan, Md. Saddam Hossain, Chandan Nath, Sharmin Chowdhury and Pranab Paul

    Background and Aim: Canine parvovirus (CPV) infection is the most highly infectious and contagious viral disease in dogs. Dogs of all age groups are susceptible but puppies of age less than 3 months are highly susceptible than adults. The current study was based on hospitalized patients, so a comprehensive study including all the dog population is required to precisely conclude about the prevalence and risk factors of CPV infections both in Bangladesh and India. Design and Methods: The hospitalized dogs were considered as study population. In CVASU and VCRI-MVC about 50 and 110 dogs of different breeds (indigenous and exotic breed i.e. Spitz, Pug, Doberman, Rottweiler and GS were clinically examined respectively during the study period. Total no of dogs were separated into different categories such as age, sex, breed and vaccination status. Statiscal analysis: All the data including categorical variables –age, sex, breed, vaccination status, dehydration, bloody diarrhoea and diagnosis were entered into MS excel (Microsoft Office Excel-2010). Then the data was finally analyzed using statistical software STATA Version-11 (STATA Corporation, College Station, Texus). Results: Prevalence of CPV infection was higher in India than Bangladesh. Among different risk factors young, unvaccinated puppies, female dog, exotic breeds were more prone to CPV infection. Conclusions: Canine Parvovirus is an infectious and highly contagious viral disease of dogs. Dogs of all age groups are infected but puppies age less than 3 months are highly susceptible than adults. CPV infection was mainly diagnosed by taking clinical history from owner and by observing the clinical findings. If confirmatory diagnosis was done then the result would be more precise.

  13. Dr. Shamila Shetty, Dr. Megha Vanasi, Dr. Nandini Manjunath, Dr. Nidha Begum and Dr. Thasneem, A.A

    Aim: The aim of this study was to compare and evaluate the antibacterial activity of commercially available 10% carbamide peroxide bleaching agents on periodontal pathogenic bacteria with 0.2% chlorhexidine gluconate. Material & Methods: Two commercially available bleaching materials containing 10% Carbamide peroxide were selected for the study against Chlorhexidine solution (0.2%). Different bacterial stock were used. Wells each with a diameter of 5 mm were punched into each of the agar plates and filled with either one of the commercial bleaching materials or with Chlorhexidine solution (0.2%) to test for susceptibility test. All plates were incubated for 24 to 48 h at 37°C in a candle jar. The diameter of each zone of inhibition was measured, and the mean was calculated. Results: Susceptibility tests were performed on disk sensitivity (DST) agar used routinely for antibiogram tests showed that Chlorhexidine group showed the highest mean value of Prevotella intermedia (23.67) and least in Actinobacillus actinomycetem comitans (20.33) with p value of 0.869. Opalescence Group using one way ANOVA test showed the mean value of Fusobacterium nucleatum (18.33) and least in Porphyromonas gingivalis with test value of 3.777 and p value of 0.027. Dr.collins group showed the highest mean value of Fusobacterium nucleatum (12.67) and no against Prevotellaintermedia (0) with a test value of 169.7 and p value of <0.001. Conclusion: Chlorhexidine (0.2%) displayed higher antibacterial effects on the periodontal pathogens with the highest mean value against porphyromonas gingivalis at 23.67 than both the tested bleaching materials containing 10% carbamide peroxide in this in-vitro study showing that chlorhexidine would thus be more beneficial for the prevention of periodontal diseases.

  14. The impact of body mass index on the spinopelvic parameters in asymptomatic young adults

    Objective: Obesity is recognized as a major public health problem and is associated with various musculoskeletal disorders including impairment of the spine. The initial aim of this work was to investigate the correlations between body mass index (BMI) and spinopelvic parameters (pelvic tilt, sacral slope, and pelvic incidence) in a large population of healthy young adults. Materials and Methods: This study analysed a total of 156(105 male and 51 female), healthy adult adults. For each subject, a record was made of age, gender and BMI (weight in kilograms divided by the square of height in meters). Standing lateral radiographs of the lumbosacral region were taken to obtain the spinopelvic parameters of pelvictilt, sacralslope, and pelvic incidence. The correlations between BMI and spinopelvic parameters were analysed. Results: The intra observer concordance was calculated for each measured parameter and was found to be excellent, giving an intra class correlation coefficient of 0.97. The mean age of the patients was 26.8 ± 5.2 years. The mean BMI was25.80 ± 4.02 kg/m2. Sixty three (40.4 %) patients were normal weight, 72 (46.2%) patients were overweight, and21(13.4 %) patients were obese (BMI >30). A statistically significant difference was found between the pelvictilt, pelvicincidence and sacralslope measurements and BMI measurements (p<0.01). Conclusion: Obesity is associated with a statistically significant increase in the spinopelvic parameters that reach statistically significant difference. Preventing obesity may also prevent the degenerative problems associated with excessive loading on the lumbosacral junction.

  15. Narayana Prasad, P., Tarun Kumar, Tarun Sharma, Gaurav Chaudhary and Ritika Gupta

    Introduction: Topical agents GC Tooth Mousse and Toothmin toothpaste show promise in their ability to prevent enamel demineralization during orthodontic treatment, however clinical data comparing the efficacy of these remineralizing is lacking. Therefore, the purpose of this in – vivo study was to investigate the efficacy of remineralizing agents available commercially which claim to reduce demineralization when applied topically adjacent to orthodontic brackets. Materials and Methods: The total study sample comprised of sixty sound premolar teeth from thirty subjects that will undergo fixed orthodontic mechanotherapy involving extraction. Data collected by scoring of the SEM images. The clinical scanning electron microscope study includes comparison of individual right side (subgroup a) and left side (subgroup b) Group (Control Group) along with overall comparison of statistics with each other (Group 1 and Group 2). Results: It was observed that the topical application of GC Tooth Mousse , Group 1 subgroup a and Toothmin toothpaste, Group 2 subgroup a was associated with a significantly statistical variation in the reduction of mean surface roughness when compared with the control Group 1 subgroup b , Group 2 subgroup b samples indicating that both GC Tooth Mousse and Toothmin toothpaste can be used by the orthodontic patients as a remineralising agent for the prevention of development of white spot lesions. Conclusion: The ability of Toothmin toothpaste in preventing demineralization was similar to that of GC Tooth Mousse. Topical application of the remineralizing agents – GC Tooth Mousse and Toothmin toothpaste was effective in preventing enamel demineralization.

  16. Mamat, Irna Trisnawati

    Introduction: Pre Menstrual Syndrome (PMS) is a collection of symptoms that often appear and occur in young women, including in school-age girls who often interfere in the process of learning activities. Providing knowledge about the definition, symptoms, and cause to reduce symptoms, is expected to eliminate or reduce symptoms. Objective: The purpose of this research is to know the effectiveness of counseling with leaflet media on knowledge and its relation to behavior and its impact on reducing Prementual Syndrom (PMS) symptoms on student. Method: The research design used quossi experiment with sampling technique by Accidental sampling. The collection is done by questionnaire using a checklist format. Data processing using SSPS program Version 19. The analysis is done by univariat and bivariate with independent t test (Un-Paired) and Chi-Square test, with α (p = <0,05) at 95% Confident Interval (CI). Results: The results of this study of 98 respondents showed the most symptoms complained at the time of PMS is menstrual pain (77.8%) and feelings want to get angry (82%). The mean score of post-test knowledge in study group was 5.9 points greater than the control group (78 ± 10.58 vs 72.15 ± 16.5). The calculation of t test statistic Un-paired value of t = 3.049 with p = 0,038 indicating that there is a significant difference. The measurement of the 2nd menstrual cycle (3 months post-intervention) showed a correlation between knowledge with behavior, with a p value of 0.035 with POR (Prevalence Odds Ratio) of 2.81 (95% CI: 1.16 - 6.79.) . On the measurement of symptoms within the next 3 months, the percentage of symptom reduction was reduced to 83.3% from 59.7% with a p value of 0.02 with POR value of 3.431 (95% CI: 1.28 - 9.22). Conclusion: counseling with media leaflets (study groups) is more effective than counseling with in-focus media (control groups). The behavioral of PMS symptoms and the effect on the reduction of PMS symptoms are seen after 3 months post-intervention.

  17. Vishnu H Lal, Rajesh Kumar, Beniwal, S., Akanksha solanki, Trupti Kothari, Murali Paramanandan, Kumar, H.S., Neeti Sharma and Jhakar, S.L

    Background: At the outset of olanzapine gaining popularity as a drug for Chemotherapy induced nausea and vomiting(CINV). Study was conducted with the aim to compare to antiemetic regimes Olanzapine, Ondansetron, Dexamethasone (OOD) with Aprepitant, Palonosetron, Dexamethasone (APD) in patients receiving highly emetogenic chemotherapy. Method: A double bind randomized control study was performed to compare the two antiemetic regimes in patients receiving HEC (Cisplatin>70mg/m2 or Doxorubicin>50mg/m2 and Cyclophosphamide>500mg/m2) with complete response (CR) defined as no vomiting and no rescue (till 5 days post chemotherapy) as the primary endpoint. 270 patients initially allotted to the study of which finally 230 were available for evaluation Results: The primary endpoint of CR was 75% for overall period (92% early period and 75% delayed period) for the OOD arm whereas overall was 70% (81% early period and 70% delayed period) for the APD arm where early period is defined as first 24 hours and delayed as day 2 to day 5 .Nausea control as per MD Anderson Symptom Inventory (MDASI) based questionnaire was better in OOD (60%) vs APD (53%) arm. There was no statistically significant difference between the arms (P>0.05).hence OOD was comparable with APD for prevention of CINV Discussion: study points out an significantly cheaper yet effective option in managing CINV which is a major adverse effect of chemotherapy with repercussions in quality of life and adherence to treatment. The cost factor is of greater significance for a developing country like ours.

  18. Dr. Aparna Kodre, Dr. Dileep Mane, Dr. Dattatraya Patil and Dr. Digvijay Shinde,

    Vascular thrombosis is a rare but well-recognized extra intestinal manifestation of ulcerative colitis. Thrombosis usually involves the peripheral veins and less commonly the cerebral veins and the arterial system. A case of a 26-year-old woman is presented with an acute flair of ulcerative colitis and developed extensive arterial thrombosis. Good clinical improvement was achieved after treatment with steroids, sulfasalazine, and anticoagulation with enoxaparin followed by warfarin. Early recognition of thrombotic complications is essential in initiating lifesaving therapy.

  19. Dr. Manisha Dharashive and Dr. Pramila Menon

    Background: Appropriate infant and young child feeding practices are essential for optimal growth, cognitive development and overall wellbeing in early vulnerable years of life. (WHO) World Health Organization recommends exclusive breast feeding up to six months, addition of complementary feeds after completion of six months onwards and continued breast feeding till two years of life. Apart from exclusive breast feeding initially, time of introduction, content and consistency of complementary feeds are critical for early nutrition. Inadequate and inappropriate (IYCF) practices lead to malnutrition, followed by growth retardation and fatal outcomes. Methods: A cross sectional study was conducted at immunization OPD at Aundh civil hospital ,a tertiary care centre in Pune over a period of one month of September.63 mother with children of 0 to 2 years dyads were included in study .A pretested ,validated questionnaire adapted from BPNI IYCF questionnaire was used. Assessment of IYCF practices and nutritional status of children (length, weight and MUAC) was done. ICFI score (Infant Child Feeding Index) was used as a single indicator for complementary feeding practices in 6 to 24 months children. Length, weight were compared with Z score charts of WHO. Result: 31 male and 32 participants of age 0 to 24 months were included in study.23 participants were of 0 to 6 months age and 40 participants in 6 to 24 months age group. Children delivered by caesarean were 26(41.3%).Children delivered in government setup were 26(41.3%). Prelacteal feed was given in 31(49.2%) of which honey was given in 5(7.9%) and formula milk was given in 23(36.9%) newborns .Initiation of breastfeeding within one hour was done in 28(44.4%) participants. Exclusive breastfeeding was done in 29 (44.4%) participants. Complementary food introduced at completion of 6 months in 34(85%) participants. Total number of bottle fed children was 3(4.8%). (IFCI) infant child feeding score of six was seen in 45% children. Assessment of children in study group had showed stunting in 6(9.5%) participants and wasting was seen in 7(11.11%) children.6 (9.5%) were underweight and moderate acute malnutrition was seen in 7(11.11%) children. Place of birth was statistically significant (p value <0.001) with respect to type of delivery, feed, early initiation of breast feeding and exclusive breastfeeding. An odd of early initiation of breastfeeding was 15 times greater in government hospital, and that of exclusive breastfeeding was 7 times greater in government hospital. Conclusion: IYCF practices were found to be good in children delivered in government setup as compared to private setup. ICFI score did not found statistically significant with nutritional status of children in study group. Stunting was seen in 6(9.5%) children. Moderate acute malnutrition was seen in 7(11.11%) and 6(9.5%) were underweight and wasting was seen in 7(11.11%) children.

  20. Dr. Masaraddi Deepak K. and Dr. Talikoti, D.G.

    Background: Spinal and epidural anaesthesia are regional anaesthesia methods that are widely used, especially in lower abdominal and lower extremity operations. Bupivacaine is the widely used local anaesthetic in regional anaesthesia. Stereoisomers of the agent are being developed for use instead of the isomers, in order to avoid the toxic side effects of local anaesthetic agent. Bupivacaine is available in a commercial preparation as a racemic mixture (50:50) of its two enantiomers, Levo-Bupivacaine, S (-) isomer and Dextro-Bupivacaine, R (+) isomer. Several central nervous system and cardiovascular adverse reactions reported in the literature have been linked to the R (+) isomer of Bupivacaine. Aim : To evaluate the clinical efficacy of 0.5% Levobupivacaine with 0.5% Bupivacaine in epidural anaesthesia without adjuvant medication in patients undergoing elective for lower abdominal and lower limb surgeries with respect to onset of action of sensory block, duration of analgesia, onset of action and duration of motor block, hemodynamic changes and side effects. Materials and Methods: A prospective randomized clinical trial on 100 patients aged between 18-60 years scheduled for elective lower abdominal or lower limb surgery under epidural anesthesia belonging to ASA grade I and II were included in this study. All patients were randomly allocated into two groups. Group B (n=50) patients receiving 0.5% isobaric Bupivacaine 17 ml. Group L (n=50) patients receiving 0.5% isobaric Levobupivacaine 17ml. Following parameters observed - onset time of sensory block, highest level of sensory block, duration of sensory block, duration of sensory analgesia, onset time of motor block, degree of motor block, duration of motor block, hemodynamic changes and side effects such as hypotension, bradycardia, nausea, vomiting. Results: Both groups are comparable with respect to age, sex, weight and duration of surgery. Group-L has similar onset time of sensory block and highest level of sensory block reached as compared to Group-B. Group-L has a longer duration of sensory block as compared to Group-B. Mean Time to two segment regression / Duration of sensory block in Group-L being 132.46 minutes and Group-B being 89.28 minutes. P-value=0.000. Group-L has longer duration of sensory analgesia as compared to Group-B. Mean Time of sensory analgesia in block in Group-L is 326.5 min and in Group-B is 284.42 min. P-value= 0.000. Group-L has a slower onset of motor block as compared to Group-B. Mean Time to onset of motor block in Group-L is 19.6 min and in Group-B is 17.74 min. P-value= 0.000. Group-L has shorter duration of motor block as compared to Group-B .Mean Duration of motor block in Group-L is 197.4 min and in Group-B is 203.3 min. P-value= 0.017. Group L has similar degree of motor blockade as compared to Group B. No statistical difference was found between Group-L and Group-B with respect to variability in systolic blood pressure, diastolic blood pressure, heart rate and oxygen saturation at various time intervals. Conclusion: Levobupivacaine has a similar onset time and longer duration of sensory blockade and slower onset and shorter duration of motor blockade, with comparable quality of analgesia and hemodynamic parameters as compared with Bupivacaine. Owing to its better safety profile, Levobupivacaine is a good alternative to Bupivacaine.

  21. Agbo, OJ., Allagoa, DO. and Ugboma, HAA.

    Background: Preeclampsia is one of the commonest complications of pregnancy. Calcium deficiency is implicated in the development of preeclampsia especially in developing Countries. There is paucity of studies on the role of serum levels of calcium in preeclampsia in Southern Nigeria. Objective: The main objective of this study was to determine the serum level of calcium in women with preeclampsia and those without preeclampsia. Methodology: This was a comparative study in which 52 preeclamptic and 52 non preeclamptic women who satisfied the eligibility criteria were recruited for the study. Data entry and statistical analysis was done using statistical software (IBM SPSS® for windows version 21.0.) Data were analyzed for mean and standard deviation. Comparison of serum levels of calcium between the two groups was performed by student t-test and P value < 0.05 was considered as statistically significant. Results : The serum calcium level was statistically lower in women who had preeclampsia compared to those who did not (8.37±0.91 mg/dl vs 9.33±1.15mg/dl respectively, p<0.001).The systolic and diastolic blood pressure showed a significant negative correlation with serum calcium level in those that developed preeclampsia Conclusion : This study showed that women with preeclampsia demonstrated a significantly reduced serum calcium level. This support the hypothesis that hypocalcaemia is a possible aetiology of preeclampsia.

  22. Dr. Raghu K, Dr. AlaguveL Rajan M, and Dr. Ramsay Muthukumar

    Bilateral mandibular angle fracture is one of the common fractures that occur in a Road traffic accident. In which intra oral plating is always challenging when it comes to impacted third molar in the line of fracture that interferes the treatment plan weather to remove the tooth or not? In our case report the third molar in the line of fracture is not removed at the time of surgery but plating done over the tooth in the fracture line planned for second surgery at the later stage, to remove the plate along with the tooth.

  23. Dr. Mohd. Nawaz, Dr. Ankita Prakash, Dr. Rashmi prakash and Dr. Nitin Ashok John

    There has been an increase incidence of hypertension and metabolic disorders in the community of people of both developed and developing countries. The complications of hypertension at times are coupled with those of patients of diabetes and obesity. Neuropathy, retinopathy, autonomic dysfunctions and nephropathy are the common complications in hypertension as well as diabetes mellitus. The changing life style and stress in jobs in this world of the surrival of the fitness further increase in incidence of hypertension in adult population is in evitable. In this context adequate preventive measures such as exercise, diet and life style modifications are in demanding state for management of these ailments. But understanding the root cause of especially causation of primary hypertension needs to be evaluated, understood and needs to be put into practice. Along with kidney there is increasing importance of the GI hormones in the regulation of sodium balance, and consequently on blood pressure as sodium homeostasis is the prime contributors towards raised Blood Pressure. The recent modern school of thought belief in the fact that the GI tract hormones and peptides regulate the autocrine functions of renal hormones and are critical in affecting renal functions including sodium excretion. Hence we decided to explore the literature and review the role of GI Tract hormones in regulating the blood pressure and its implication in management of blood pressure. Increased understanding of the role of the gastro‐renal axis in the regulation of renal function may give us a novel insight into the pathogenesis of hypertension and provide a new treatment strategy for hypertension.

  24. Priyatama V Meshram and Vikas S Meshram

    Background: Research has been carried out to develop biocompatible restorative materials that can preserve the health of the pulp and maintain the tight seal between the tooth and the restorative material. One of the outcomes of these studies is an alkasite restorative material, Cention N (Ivoclar Vivadent). To check it’s adaptability to Class V cavities compared with the established flowable composites resins that are used routinely to restore class V cavities. Objective: To evaluate micro leakage at enamel-restoration and dentin-restoration interface of class V cavities restored with two different flowable composite resins and new alkasite restorative material-Cention-N. Method: Thirty Class V tooth preparations were divided into three groups of ten cavities each(n=10): Group-I restored with alkasite material- Cention-N (Ivoclar Vivadent), Group-II restored with micro hybrid flowable composite resin- Tetric-N-Flow (Ivoclar Vivadent) and Group-III restored with nanohybrid injectable composite resin- Gaenial Universal Flo (GC, Tokyo). All samples were subjected to 200 themocycles between temperature baths at 50 C and 550 C. The teeth were sectioned longitudinally through the center of the restorations with the help of Isomet diamond saw under water coolant. The sections were then observed under a binocular stereomicroscope at a magnification of 20X. The depth of dye penetration at tooth-restoration interface was blindly scored by two independent investigators. Results: Microleakage seen in increasing order at the enamel-restoration junction is Alkasite material-Cention N followed by Tetric-N-Flow and Gaenial universal Flo. Microleakage seen in increasing order at dentin-restoration junction is Tetric-N-Flow then Cention N and Gaenial Universal flo Conclusion: Microleakage at enamel-restoration interface was less than microleakage at dentin-restoration interface of each group, but the difference was not statistically significant. Least microleakage at the enamel-restoration junction was seen with Cention-N with Adhesive followed by the flowable composite and least microleakage at dentin-restoration interface was seen with flowable composite followed by Cention N with adhesive. More microleakage was seen with Gaenial universal Flo at both enamel/dentin –restorative interface.

  25. Dr. Sharmila Priyanka, B., Dr. Narsimha Rao, V.V. and Dr. Ch. Radha Rani

    Background/Introduction: Irrigation of root canal system is one of the most important steps in endodontic treatment. Combining different irrigants may modify the efficiency of the irrigation in removing organic and inorganic debris during biomechanical preparation. Aim/Objective: The aim of the study was to determine the chemical interaction that occurs during combination of various irrigating solutions and its effect on tissue dissolution. Materials : Muscle tissue samples of equal dimensions with their initial weights were taken and the samples were immersed in saline, sodium hypochlorite, ethylene diamine tetra acetic acid(EDTA), etidronic acid/1-hydroxyethane 1,1-diphosphonic acid(HEDP), ethylene glycol bis –N N N N’ – tetraacetic acid(EGTA)separately and in combinations of these agents for 5, 10 & 15 minutes. Results: Maximum tissue dissolving capacity was shown by sodium hypochlorite followed by sodium hypochlorite and HEDP combination, sodium hypochlorite and EGTA combination, sodium hypochlorite and EDTA combination. HEDP, EGTA, EDTA, and saline solutions when used alone did not show any tissue dissolving property. Conclusion: Sodium hypochlorite either alone or in combination with HEDP and EGTA maintains adequate available chlorine which could be the reason for its high efficiency.

  26. Dr. Shesha Prasad, R., Dr. Anuradha Pai and Dr. Anisha Yaji

    Oral submucous fibrosis (OSMF) is a potentially malignant collagen metabolic disorder affecting the oral cavity due to the imbalance in collagen production and breakdown mediated by transforming growth factor beta (TGF-β). Numerous modalities ranging from behavioural therapy, physiotherapy, steroids, enzymes, nutritional supplements, antioxidants, interferons, turmeric, ayurveda to various drugs have been tried with weak evidence requiring better documentation of the studies performed with standardized criteria. One drug perfinidone (5-methyl-1-phenyl-2-(1H) pyridine) a novel antifibrotic agent used extensively in lung, cardiac and liver fibrosis has still not been tried in OSMF. This drug mainly exerts it action blocking the action of TGF-β. A positive outcome with prolonged research and numerous clinical trials, evaluating the systemic and topical uses of pirfenidone in OSMF with can give a ray of hope to these patients, helping them achieve a better quality of life. This paper aims at proposing this drug in the treatment of OSMF which can be beneficial in managing this progressively debilitating disease, significantly improving quality of life.

  27. Betül Kocamer Şimşek, Başar Aksoy and Yunus Baydilek

    Objectives: Laparoscopic procedures have reduced postoperative pain. Nevertheless, incision-site pain still occurs. Although opioids are the cornerstone of postoperative pain management they have side affects. Moreover increased pain is self-reported at incision sites and abdominal wall. The aim of this study was to evaluate the role of trocar site infiltration with local bupivacaine and lidocaine mixture for pain control after laparoscopic sleeve gastrectomy (LSG). Materials and Method: Forty-six patients undergoing laparoscopic sleeve gastrectomy operation were included the study (23/23). Patients received dexketoprofen trometamol 50mg and tramadol 0.5mg/kg before closure. In Group C, pethidine 100mg was administered additionally. In Group L, patients received 28ml (8 ml for liver elevator site and 5 ml to each trocar site) local anesthetic (LA) mixture (50-50% bupivacaine 5mg/ml-lidocaine %2) before suturation. All patients received PCA with 400mg/100ml tramadol. Opioid consumption, VRS, rescue analgesic, mobilisation time were evaluated. Results: VRS was lower in Group L at 30 minutes, other times were similar. Aldrete scores were higher in Group L at all points. Mobilisation time was shorter, rescue analgesic time was longer, and opioid consumption was less in Group L. Conclusion: LA infiltration to trocar sites in LSG provided good recovery and better pain management with improved patient comfort.

  28. Dr. Shweta Chaudhary, Dr. Sumedha Baghel, Dr. Chetan Bhat, Dr. Rahul Lodaya, Dr. Preetam Shah and Dr. Smita Patil

    Introduction: Glass ionomer cements (GIC) are commonly used in restorative and pediatric dentistry for their long term fluoride release and ease of use. However, disadvantages related to glass ionomers; such as lack of strength, prolonged setting time, moisture sensitivity, dehydration, and poor esthetics have been reported. Due to these disadvantages of the conventional GIC, hybrid versions of the material were introduced. Among these, resin modified glass ionomers (RMGIs) that can be photocured is said to have better physical characteristics. Aim: the aim of this in vitro study is to evaluate the microleakage of nano filled resin modified glass ionomer in comparison to high viscosity glass ionomer cement. Materials and Methods: Extracted primary teeth will be collected from the patients who are advised extraction. A class II cavity was prepared in each tooth which were divided into two groups randomly. The specimen in each group were restored using the allotted restorative material and thermocycled. Microleakage was evaluated using basic fuschin dye and stereomicroscope. Conclusion: Glass ionomer cements (GIC) are commonly used in restorative and pediatric dentistry for their long term fluoride release and ease of use. However, disadvantages such as microleakage, have been reported. Due to these disadvantages of the conventional GIC, hybrid versions of the material were introduced. Among these, resin modified glass ionomers (RMGIs) that can be photocured is said to have better physical characteristics.

  29. Dr. Pratibha Choudhary, Dr. Abhilasha Dixit, Dr. Deepak Raisingani, Dr. Harshit Srivastava and Dr. Akshay Arya

    Background: As it is rightly said, ‘Prevention is always better than cure’. But the question is, how prepared are we to prevent? Mishappenings never knock doors. When they happen, they become a nightmare which neither the doctor nor the patient soon forgets. The purpose of this study was to evaluate that how prepared the dentists are, to manage medical emergencies at their dental offices. Materials and methods: A study was conducted in Rajasthan with 560 dental graduates to determine their knowledge and ability in the management of medical emergencies and assess availability of emergency drugs and equipments in dental offices in India. The questionnaire consisted of thirteen objective questions out of which, six required an answer in yes/No and seven had multiple choices. An informed consent was taken from all the participants. Results: The results of our study showed that 77% of our surveyed dentists took medical history from the patients and 74% got a health history Performa filled. Only 8% had attended a workshop on emergency training or management program. 64% of the clinicians reported of having an emergency kit at their dental office but only 58% could agree that they would be able to manage an emergency condition. A very small number of the participants were confident about administrating IV/IM injection. Majority of the clinicians said that they would keep the patient in trendelenburg position and use an ammonia inhalant in the case of syncope. 65% said that they would ask the patient to cough, examine the mouth and local area and do a Heimlich/triple maneuver if patient is cited with airway obstruction during dental treatment due to aspiration of foreign body.54% said that their immediate action if somebody would not respond to shaking and shouting would be CPR and 27% said EMS. 45% of the dentists chose to give antibiotic prophylaxis before extraction of a tooth in patients with prosthetic heart valve. 63% of the dentists said that dental radiographs, orthodontic brackets and RPDs are procedures can be performed in patients with prosthetic heart valve without giving antibiotic prophylaxis. When asked about the location of chest compression during CPR, 51% marked xiphisternum. 38% of the dentists said that mouth to mouth respiration with nose pinched is the way to give rescue breathing in infants while 33% stood in the favour of mouth to mouth and nose. Conclusion: The knowledge of management and preparedness of dentists surveyed showed a poor and an alarming result.

  30. Dalia A. Nigm, Azza A. Abo Elfadle, Marwa A.A. Galal, Khalid A. Nasif, and Mohamed Z. Abd Elrahman

    Objectives: Low serum C- Reactive Protein (CRP) has been implicated in Systemic lupus Erythrematosus (SLE) pathogenesis, so we studied the CRP rs1205 polymorphism and its role in the risk association of both SLE and Lupus nephritis (LN). Methods: DNA from 90 patients who met the ACR criteria for SLE and 40 healthy controls was genotyped for CRP 1468G>A rs1205. Genotyping was performed using PCR-RFLP. Serum CRP levels were measured using particle enhanced immunonephelometry. Results: We Found the genotype distribution of CRP rs1205 G>A polymorphism was In SLE: AA, 6 (12%), GA, 9 (18%) and GG, 35 (70%), in LN: AA, 9 (22.9%), GA, 17 (42.5%) and GG, 14 (35%)(p value=0.041). Carriers of the rs1205 A allele were characterized by low serum CRP levels compared with major homozygotes 2.5(1.55 - 11.35) vs. 9.55(6.45 - 14.83)mg/L; p = 0.029). Conclusion: Our data indicates that rs1205 variant allele predisposes to SLE and LN, potentially being a genetic risk marker of disease progression.

  31. Görker Sel, Adile Yeşim Akdemir, Müge Harma and Mehmet İbrahim Harma

    Introduction: Heterotopic pregnancy (HP) is defined as the coexistence of intra- and extra uterine gestations. We report a heterotopic triplet pregnancy with intrauterine twin gestations, presenting as hemoperitoneum, formerly misdiagnosed as corpus luteum. Materials and Methods: A 33-year-old pregnant admitted to the emergency room (ER) with cramping pelvic pain. Physical examination revealed diffuse abdominal tenderness. Hemoglobin was 6.1 mg/dl. Ultrasound revealed twin IUP with positive fetal cardiac activities and hemoperitoneum ascending to liver. Results: Laparoscopic investigation diagnosed the source of hemoperitoneum was left ampullar ruptured HP. Salpingectomy was performed. She was discharged after IUP viability was confirmed. Unfortunately, 4 weeks later, she admitted to ER, diagnosed as missed abort. Dilatation and curettage was performed. Discussion: IVF has been associated with an increased risk of both EP and HP. The incidence of HP is estimated to be 1 in 30,000 in spontaneous pregnancies. Early diagnosis of HP is often difficult because of the absence of clinical symptoms. However it is prudent to be suspicious in case of ART with pelvic pain, otherwise negligence lead to maternal mortality. In the literature case of triple heterotopic pregnancy comprising one tubal ectopic and twin IUP is really rare, our case comprises this rarity.

  32. Dr. Anupama Deka, Dr. Brajesh Kumar and Dr. Arjun Deb

    Background: Japanese encephalitis (JE) is the most prevalent and significant vector-borne viral encephalitis in human, with an estimated 30,000 to 50,000 of cases and 10,000 - 15,000 deaths annually worldwide. Mortality of JE is about 20% to 30% and 30–50% result in permanent neuropsychiatric sequelae. Aims and objectives: To determine the clinical profile and for a better understanding predictors of mortality of JE in children hospitalized with AES cases. Materials and methods: All cases admitted with symptoms suggestive of AES were included in the study. A detailed history was taken and investigations like CBG, CBC, electrolytes, peripheral smear were analyzed. Neuroimaging done was analyzed and abnormal findings documented. CSF analysis was done after taking consent from the parents. CSF was sent for cytology, biochemical analysis, AFB and gram stain. Viral analysis was done in CSF, which included antibodies for JE. The outcome of the patients was recorded at the time of discharge. Results: Most common age group was 5 – 12 years. There was no significant difference in death among the infants or older children. Male to female ratio was1.13:1. Common presentations were fever 64 (100%), seizures 52 (80.25%), dysglycemia 22 (34.37%) and found statistically insignificant with mortality. Twenty three JE patients (35.93%) presented with GCS<8, the mortality was significantly high (P<0.001).Those group of patients who had shock and required inotropes and the group of patients who had hyponatremia 21(32.81%), the mortality was significantly high (P <0.001 and p = 0.0017 respectively). Outcome at discharge was recorded for 64 patients. Among the 64 confirmed JE patients, 37(57.81%) were recovered completely, while 14 (21.8%) cases had neurological sequelae at the time of discharge. 13 (20.32%) patient died in the hospital Conclusion: The case fatality rate was observed 20.31% mortality due to JE in children admitted with AES. In the present study, Predictors of mortality in JE patients were GCS <8, hyponatremia, shock and use of inotrope significantly associated with mortality.

  33. Mrs. Shanthi, S. and Mrs. Shambhavi

    Background: Parent who spent much of their time working outside of the home tend to cause a sense of more loneliness in their children. Therefore there is a serious concern over the harmful effects brought upon the children due to decline in the amount of quantitative and qualitative time parents spent with them. Children who are left alone have poor cognitive development also. So keeping all in this view, the present study aims to correlate the loneliness and cognitive development of latchkey children (age between 10-12 years). Method: Descriptive correlational research design was adopted for this study .A sample of 100 latchkey children was selected by purposive sampling technique from three selected schools of Mangalore A demographic data, Screening questionnaire, UCLA Loneliness scale and Cognitive questionnaire was used for data collection. Result: The result revealed that there is a significant negative relationship between level of loneliness and cognitive development of latchkey children (r = -0.13) at p < 0.05. Result showed that there is a significant association between level of cognitive development of latchkey children ( 10-12) with religion and also found that there was no significant association between the level of loneliness of latchkey children ( 10-12 years ) with age, sex, religion and educational status. Conclusion: The study concluded that latchkey children (age 10-12yeras) feels frequent lonely and have average cognitive development.

  34. Pradeepa, S., Elango, S., Melvin Priya, J., Manikandan, S., Meenakshi, M.

    Background: Family planning services have the potential to improve the quality of lives of people and their economic welfare. Increasing population growth is a worldwide problem today and our country with growth rate 16 million each year is second most populous country. Population growth is major obstacle to overall progress of nation. Objective: To assess the awareness and practice of family planning methods among married women of reproductive age group living in rural and urban Trichy. Materials and Methods: A descriptive cross sectional study was conducted among married women attended opd in urban health centre samayapuram and rural health centre sirugambur Trichy. The study period was Feb to March 2017 and the study sample was 200 married women belonging to reproductive age group (15-45yrs). Data was collected by using predesigned prestructerd questionnaire on socio-demographic profile, knowledge and practice among married women in urban and rural Trichy .Data was analyzed by using spss ver 16. Results: Majority of study population belong to age group of 26-35yrs in urban samayapuram and15-25yrs in rural sirugambur. Most of them in urban(26%) have completed middle school, in rural(41%) have completed primary school. Majority of the study population belongs to upper lower class in urban (62%), rural(35%) .99% of urban study population and 86% of rural population in study group have awareness about family planning methods. 96% of urban study population and 76% of rural study population were aware about spacing between two children. But usage of contraceptives is only 63% in urban study population and 44% in rural study population. Main reason for not using contraceptives in urban is need for more male children(14%) and in rural it is due to lack of knowledge(20%). Conclusion: This study concludes that although the awareness of married female is favorable for family planning methods, but the actual practice lags behind than the requirement.

  35. Pazit Azuri and Mahdi Tarabeih

    Topic: When an organ is harvested from a dead donor, how should transplant coordinators handle the issue of contact between the donor’s family and the organ recipient? Methods: The authors—qualified by extensive practical experience and philosophical investigation— conduct a systematic discussion of the problem, setting out both the bioethical issues and the practical dilemmas which have to be faced and resolved. Results: They then recommend a strategy for coordinators to decide both their own thought-through stance on the issue and how they will respond in practice to the needs and wishes of the parties. Conclusions: The professionals handling the transplant process need tailor-made training in the bioethics relevant to the challenges likely to confront them. This training must go beyond theoretical and ethical guidance to include simulations designed to disclose each staff member's own personal belief system and make them aware and reflective of their individual biasses.

  36. Datuk Dr Mahamad Zubir Seeht Saad

    The business context in which companies currently exist in has significantly changed over the years forcing organizations to change their competitive strategies in order to survive and compete favorably. International market penetration in itself is a competitive strategy, offering alternative options to the company on which direction to go to achieve maximum advantage. This paper highlights the concept of international business strategies, beginning out with the common reasons why organizations decide to go international. Existing entry strategies are discussed in detail, painting a picture of the alternatives available to firms in case of the need to v enture into an international market. Special focus is made on penetration strategies to China, an emergent economy considered favorable for most business ventures. The various strategies discussed are evaluated in regards to their suitability within the Chinese market and their advantages and disadvantages highlighted.

  37. Dr. Shah Rahi Rajeshkumar, Dr. Hirenkumar N. Parsana, Dr. Miloni Mehta, Dr. Shivam Himanshubhai Mehta, Benil Patel and Mrunal Dave

    Candida is one the most common fungi species of the normal oral flora consisting more than 150 species. Although, Candida exists harmlessly in mucus membranes-It is also considered as a common opportunistic organism- when marked imbalance in the oral flora. Candida infection have high prevalence with the increasing age and is also considered as most commonly encountered oral condition. Hence, knowing its risk factors and lab investigation is very essential for a dental physician. This review article will enlighten the brief knowledge of candidiasis, its risk factors and diagnostic methods which are realistic for the basic clinical setups.

  38. Dr. Nithi N. Rajadhyaksha and Dr. Shilpa S. Naik

    In general gingival overgrowths are one of the most frequently encountered lesions in the oral cavity. These are caused by various etiological factors and every lesion displays a characteristic set of features. Irritation fibroma is a common benign exophytic oral lesion that develops secondary to tissue injury and is among the most common benign reactive lesions. It is extremely rare during the 1st decade of life. The present article reports a rare case of an Irritation fibroma present on the buccal aspect of the gingiva in lower anterior region in a 10 year old boy which was removed with a diode laser. The case was followed up with thorough scaling and oral hygiene maintenance instructions to eliminate the cause of reoccurrence.

  39. Dr. F.H. Gauri, Dr. Shyam Lal Meena, Dr. Bal Kishan Gupta, Dr. R.B. Panwar, Dr. Sadik Panwar, Dr. Jigyasa Gupta and Eesh Dadheech

    Background: The dyslipidemia of diabetes in the postprandial phase is a major determinant of the atherogenicity. Postprandial high LDL and TG may account for up to fivefold increase in atherosclerosis in the diabetic patients. Objective: In this study we investigated the correlation of postprandial dyslipidemia with angiographic severity of CAD in type -2 diabetic patients. Methods: 50 type-2 diabetic patients (37 male, 13 female) were screened for glycemic control (HBA1C), WHR (waist hip ratio), BMI (body mass index), fasting and postprandial lipid Profile. CAD was evaluated in terms of vessels involved, site of lesion, percentage of coronary stenosis and morphology of the lesions. Result: The mean TG levels in diabetic with CAD and without CAD were 168.41±20.32 and 145±16.33, in fasting state (p <0.001) and 190.25±19.08 and 154.54±21.50 in postprandial state, respectively (p<0.0001). Postprandial hypertriglycerdemia is associated with more severe CAD in terms of number of vessels involved, and type, number and morphologic severity of lesions on angiography. Conclusion: We concluded that there is a definite correlation between severity of CAD and postprandial hypertriglyceridemia in diabetic patients.

  40. Dr. Debolina Chowdhury, Dr. Soumita Samanta, Dr. Monojit Roy, Dr. Priti Desai and Dr. Das, U.K.

    Cracked tooth syndrome is a very common and well documented condition. Many morphologic, physical and iatrogenic factors predispose posterior teeth to an incomplete fracture. A cracked tooth is a tooth in which there exists a partial or incomplete fracture of a stress plane that commonly occurs in that tooth. A tooth stress plane results from occlusal forces that are commonly imposed on that tooth that may cause, during a masticatory cycle, an incidence of higher energy to occur within the stress plane lead to incomplete fracture. Epidemiologic data revealed that splits or complete or incomplete fractures are the third most common cause of tooth loss, indicating the high clinical significance of this syndrome. Diagnosis of such tooth is a difficult task because the patient often presents with various symptoms. These case reports describes the treatment of patients presenting with variable complaints of pain associated with biting and sensitivity of teeth. The prognosis of those teeth depends on the location and extent of the crack. Early recognition and treatment is the key for proper management of cracked tooth and preservation of tooth for function.

  41. Dr. Roohi Ashraf, Nissar A.Naikoo, Haamid Bashir, Iqra Farooq, Dr. Rakesh Kumar Koul, Prof. Dr. Sabhiya Majid and Dr. Shabhat Rasool

    Background: Water comprises 45% - 60% of the body weight and total body water being divided into intracellular fluid (ICF) and extracellular fluid (ECF). The principal electrolytes in the ECF are sodium, chloride and bicarbonate, with other ions (such as potassium, calcium and magnesium) in much lower concentrations. In the ICF potassium and magnesium are the primary cations with phosphate and sulfate being the major anions and other ions in lower concentrations. Materials and Methods: A total of 3231 patients over 18 years of age and gender matched participated in the study. Lab investigations like Serum Electrolytes (Na/K), Kidney function test (KFT) and Blood sugar was done on fully automatic Siemens Biochemistry Analyser (Germany) in the casualty lab of Biochemistry, SMHS Hospital Srinagar. Results: Hyponatremia was observed overall in 21.4% patients with 22.2% males and 20.5% females. Hypernatremia was seen in 1.1% of the studied group among whom 0.8% were females and 1.3% were males. Hypokalemia was observed in 32.2% of the patients among whom, 32.8% were females and 31.7% were males. Hyperkalemia was found overall in 8.0% of the patients with 8.4% males and 7.4% females. In this study 59.8% patients were found to have normal levels of potassium with equal percentage of 59% in both males and females. Discussion and Conclusion: Patients admitted to the emergency department with electrolyte imbalance requires close evaluation and frequent lab draws depending on the duration and severity of underlying disease states. This being important not only to monitor the symptomatic improvement or signs of the disease state, but also to track the rate of correction (and prevent over-correction).

  42. Dr. Seba Abraham,*Dr. Dhanya. B.N., Dr. Arunima, P.R. and Dr. Reeja Mol, M.K.

    The human oral cavity is similar to an ecosystem and interactions among oral bacteria is important for the development of oral biofilm. For survival in the bio film, these microorganisms may express intra and/or inter species communication mechanisms by means of physical contact, signaling molecules, exchange of genetic material or metabolic products etc. This article deals with the process of quorum sensing which enables the bacteria for coordination of their behavior at a population level by the synthesis, release and subsequent detection of small diffusible molecules known as auto inducers and various approaches to inhibit this communication to control the diseases caused by bacteria. New approaches to treat periodontal disease using quorum sensing inhibition need to be explored as a future treatment strategy.

  43. Neelam shah

    Introduction: Child abuse continues to be one of the primary threats to the child’s emotional and social well-being globally. As students spend maximum time in school, teachers need to be trained to recognize physical and behavioural changes associated with abuse in order to confidently determine the cause and plan interventions appropriately. The inadequate knowledge and information lead to gap in the crucial role of teachers in identification and early assistance of an abused child.
    Objectives: The objectives of the study were to assess the knowledge of the school teachers on child abuse, to determine the attitude of school teachers on identification and reporting of child abuse and to find the association between the knowledge and attitude with the selected demographic variables.
    Methods: A descriptive survey design was used to conduct the study. Study was conducted among 200 school teachers from selected schools, in Sehore district. The instruments used for data collection were a structured knowledge questionnaire on child abuse and the attitude scale on identification and reporting of child abuse.
    Results: Majority of the school teachers (84%) had average knowledge on child abuse whereas, all the teachers had favourable attitude towards identification and reporting of child abuse. With regard to association between knowledge and selected demographic variables, there was no significant association found except for previous knowledge on child abuse (p <.05).
    Conclusion: Child abuse is a global issue and children face abuse in many forms and more awareness will help in combating the issues and problems with abuse. The knowledge of the school teachers needs to be enhanced by conducting awareness program on child abuse.

  44. Karollyne Renata Souza Silva, Tamires Borges de Oliveira, Milena Pantoja de Moraes, DielleThainá de França Teixeira, Raimundo Thiago Lima da Silva, Wander Luiz da Silva Ataide, Jéssica Taynara da Silva Martins, Vitor Resende do Nascimento, Ismael de Jesu

    The aim was to evaluate metabolic and enzymatic activity in young plants of soursop (Annona muricata) subjected to water deficit. The experiment was conducted in a greenhouse. The experimental design was completely randomized with two water conditions: control and water deficit, with 15 repetitions, totaling 30 experimental units. The parameters analyzed were relative water content, nitrate reductase activity, glutamine synthetase, concentrations of nitrate, starch, sucrose and proline. The suspension of irrigation for 40 days provided significant changes in all parameters being sufficient to change and to promote a decrease in metabolic pathways and enzymatic of young plants of soursop, reducing the relative water content, levels of nitrate, nitrate reductase activity and glutamine synthetase, but raised the free ammonium levels, proline, sucrose and starch in the evaluated parts. Therefore, these changes indicate that these plants probably has moderate resistance to water deficit.

  45. Zeinab H. and Fatma E. A. Bayaumy

    Herein, the medicinal action of a novel spiro-derivative compound ((2R,3R)-4-(4-bromophenyl)-2-(1,7,7-trimethylbicyclo[2,2,1] heptan-2-on-3-yl)-4-oxobutanoic acid, PSp-B) was tested against Blastocystis hominis (B. hominis) with enhancing its curativeness via being immobilized onto multi-walled carbon nanotube (MWCNTs). The infected mice were treated by 50 mg/kg/day drug dosage for five days. The parasitological, physiological and histopathological studies for B. hominis diseased albino mice were explored. Both PSp-B and PSp-B@MWCNTs showed considerable reduction in the number of B. hominis trophozoites in the intestinal content displaying 63.2 % and 76.2 %, respectively. Also, the number of cysts/gm stool in infected mice treated by PSp-B and PSp-B@MWCNTs were highly reduced by 84.7 % and 88.1 %, respectively. The serum Glutathione Reduced (GSH), Lipid Peroxide (MDA) and Nitric Oxide (NO) levels in PSp-B and PSp-B@MWCNTs treated group were ameliorated when compared to negative control group. The histopathological examination of the small intestinal sections in treated groups showed nearly similar character to that of positive control. It is plausible to mention that PSp-B@MWCNTs exhibited privilege Blastocystosis therapeutic performance rather than PSp-B. However, much more studies should be conducted to explore the mechanistic action of these drugs against such and alternative parasites.

  46. Shamim Shaikh Mohiuddin and Poornima Manjrekar

    Aim: Fibrinogen is an inflammatory marker which is an acute phase protein, plays a key role in the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis and complication of atherothombosis disease. Pathogenesis of type 2 diabetes mellitus is closely related with acute phase response which is predominately mediated by cytokine. By estimating circulating fibrinogen in type 2 (T-2) and type1 (T-1) diabetic patients, I tried to establish this hypothesis. Method: Freshly diagnosed twelve T-1 cases, twenty-five T-2 cases and twenty-five Type-2 cases under oral hypoglycemic agent for at least 5 years were selected and were estimated the level of fibrinogen. Thirty normal controls were also selected. Result: Freshly diagnosed T-1 and Type-2 cases showed significantly higher levels of the fibrinogen in compare to control. T-2 cases had slightly elevated values of fibrinogen in compared to the T-1 cases. There are no significant change of fibrinogen level is found in T-2 cases after treating by oral hypoglycemic drugs in compare of T-2 cases. Conclusion: By evaluating the plasma level of fibrinogen in different categories it can be postulated that a low grade inflammatory process is definitely implicated in the pathogenesis of both type 1 and type 2 cases. This line of pathological basis should be further explored for diagnosis, management and follow up.

  47. Prasanna Kumar, B., Dr. S. Triveni, Dr. R. Subhash Reddy and Dr. A. Vijaya Gopal

    Compost is mixture of organic residues contain animal dung and urine along with other residues, such as fodder ruminant, stubble, weeds and leaves. Composted organic material can be used as a source of important nutrients for sustainable crop productivity. Therefore the investigated study was designed to evaluate the maize straw to integrated management of composting and vermicomposting. Experimental trial was carried out at Agricultural college, Rajendranagar, Hyderabad. The experiment was laid out in Randomized Block Design (RBD) having three replications and four treatments. Cellulose degrading microbes were isolated from different soil samples, efficient cellulose degrading microorganisms was identified, the outstanding isolates were used for the pretreatment of agricultural waste (maize straw). The elevated temperatures found during the thermophilic phase are essential for rapid degradation of lignocellulose. Vermicomposting results in significant decreased in pH, Total organic carbon (TOC), electrical conductivity (EC) and C:N ratio while significant increase in total Kjeldahl nitrogen (TKN) available phosphorus, exchangeable potassium and calcium in vermicomposts/vermiwash. This study clearly indicates that vermicomposting of animal, agro/kitchen wastes not only produced a valuable vermicompost/vermiwash but also increased level of plant growth supplements in final vermicompost.

  48. Aminou Illia, M. N., Bako Aminatou, M. and Sabo Haoua, S.

    Background and objectives: Dietary practices play a vital role in the nutritional status of children. In fact, it has been established that inadequate nutrition is one of the direct causes of malnutrition in children. The objective of this work is to make a comparative analysis and study the impact of infant and young child feeding practices on moderate acute malnutrition. Method: Thus, a quantitative survey based on a questionnaire was carried out in two groups of 75 mother-child couples malnourished and normonutris. Results: At the end of this study, it appears that the practice and mode of breastfeeding are identical in both groups (P> 0.05). There is no significant (NS) link between breastfeeding practice and the nutritional status of children. However, we found a statistically significant (P <0.05) relationship between the nutritional status of children and the timing of introduction of complementary foods. In fact, 75% of normonutris children consumed a complementary food from the 6th month against 50% of the children of the malnourished group. It is the same between the weaning practice and the nutritional status of children. The study shows that of the 25 children weaned, 96% (24 children) are in moderate acute malnutrition. Regarding the age of weaning, 12% were weaned before the age of one year and 88% before two years. Weaning was brutal in 36% of children for various reasons (mother-to-child distance, lack of breast milk). Conclusion: At the end of this study, we find that MAM begins with the introduction of complementary foods and continues until weaning in children fewer than 2, compared to normonutris. It is therefore necessary to introduce good dietary practices for a better growth of children.

  49. Alaa Abbas Ibadi, Hassan Thamir Abdulsahib and Dawood S. Ali

    Objective: to determine the difference in serum Molybdenum and Malondialdehyde levels among Myocardial Infarction (MI) patients and healthy control subjects. Methods: 60 MI patients and 60 healthy volunteers as control were included in this study. Serum levels of Molybdenum was determined using Electro thermal atomic absorption spectroscopy (ETAAS), whereas Malondialdehyde (MDA) level was measured using UV-VIS spectroscopy. Results: highly significant differences in serum Mo and MDA levels were observed between the (MI) patients and healthy control (P<0.0005) Conclusion: our study found that the highly increasing of Mo concentration in (MI) patients sera maybe used as a marker for Myocardial Infarction depending on its relationship with xanthine oxidase, which recently considered as a biomarker for Myocardial Infarction

  50. Narasimha Rao, Y., Prasada Rao, M., Nagalakshmi, K., Sailajaamani, T., Akhila, C.H. and Triveni, A.K.

    The Uddanam region that lies in north-coastal Andhra consists of the mandals of Kaviti, Sompeta, Kanchili, Itchapuram, Palasa and Vajrapukotturu, accounting for more than 100 villages in total. As of 2015, It was estimated that more than 4500 people had died in the last ten years, and around 34,000 people were suffering from kidney diseases in this area alone. Mainly uddanam people are effected with chronic kidney failure. It was reported that each family in the area had at least one person suffering from a kidney ailment. The cases had first mysteriously surfaced in the early 90s.Symptoms included hypertension and diabetes, followed by a long asymptomatic period, and later diagnosed with excess proteins in the urine, decreased red blood cell count and high levels of uric acid in the blood.

  51. Sir Elkhatim K. Abbouda, Adam Bush Adam, Mohamed Abdel Mahmoud Elsheikh and Zuhier Yassien Mohamed

    The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of conservation tillage systems and water saving on the productivity of wheat and barley crops. The experimental work was conducted at Tamboul Testing and Training Centre, Sudan located at 150km south east of Khartoum during two different seasons (1995 -1996) in a heavy clay soil with an area of 2.4ha. The treatments were deferent tillage systems (zero tillage, ridging, shallow harrowing, heavy harrowing, disc ploughing, discing+harrowing, split ridging and ridging thrice). These treatments were arranged in randomized complete block design (RCBD) with four replications. A computer program (SAS statistical package) was used to analyze the data while the variations among the means were checked by the least significant difference (LSD).The parameters tested were soil physical properties, crop water requirements (mm/day) and crop productivity (kg/ha). The results showed that, conservation tillage systems significantly (P ≤ 0.05) affected clearly soil physical properties. Discing+harrowing decreased the bulk density (1.3g/cm3) as compared to zero tillage system (1.5g/cm3). The highest moisture content was recorded under zero tillage (28 cm/m). The use of crop water requirement technique resulted on saving the amount of water applied at the winter season by 13.2% compared with the summer season. The amount of water increased as irrigation decreased up to the 5th irrigation then decreased in final stages of the crop development. Crop productivity significantly affected by the water saving and conservation tillage systems. Discing+harrowing gave the highest mean values crop productivity of wheat (1305kg/ha) and barley (1011kg/ha) as compared to zero tillage which ranked the least (680.7kg/ha). It is concluded that for increasing the productivity, water saving and soil conserving should be followed and adopted as one of the most important technical packages.

  52. Tsegaye Tadesse Tsega

    Energy, entropy and exergy concepts come from thermodynamics and are applicable to all fields of science and engineering. Therefore, this article intends to provide background for better understanding of these concepts and their differences among various classes of life support systems with a diverse coverage and a study of these connections and a comprehensive and critical view on the most recent studies on this topic is presented. It also covers the basic principles, general definitions and practical applications and implications in various fields and its characteristic has been discussed and different forms of exergy have been derived. The exergy of an energy form or a substance is a measure of its usefulness or quality or potential to cause change. Exergy is naturally related to the concept of quality of energy. Therefore, exergy analysis has been widely applied in parallel with energy analysis in order to find the most rational use of energy. Also a brief comparison between energy and exergy analysis has been done. Finally, conclusions regarding the usability of the exergy method as a tool to promote a more efficient use of available energy sources are also derived.

  53. Suman Lata, Swati Vardhan and Lokesh Gupta

    Today ayurvedic medicines gain popularity world wide, as a safer therapy. The demand of herbal drugs is increasing day by day due to their excellent efficacy, fewer side effects and good faith by Indian community on herbal medicines and also their products. Rasashastra is a branch of learning of Ayurveda pharmaceutics, specially dealing with the mercury, minerals, metals and animal origin drugs having therapeutic and alchemical importance. In ayurveda, all metals, minerals, gems, animal products and plant products etc.are not used as such. They are subjected to certain pharmaceutical processes like shodhan (purification), marana (incineration) etc. to convert the drug into suitable compound form. The drug selected for the study is Sankha bhasmas. Bhasma, the herbometallic formulation is prepared by a special process known as Bhasmikaran by which the toxicity is reduced or diminished to a negligible amount. Shankha bhasma is an Ayurvedic preparation commonly used for peptic ulcer, piles, cough and for some types of gastrointestinal disorders. It is the shell of a marine creature called Turbinella pyrum. The chemical composition is CaCO3.In the present study, shanka bhasma was prepared by traditional methods and note effects of shodhan and marana process on sankha.

  54. Ravi Kumar Kamarajugadda, G. Babul Reddy and Sukumar Karuganti

    Cunninghamella sp. was isolated from Leaf Litter samples and partial identification was done by using the morphological characteristics. Production medium optimization studies were carried out in submerged fermentation and 4 different media compositions were designed among these CP03 showed high yield. Different parameters like pH, Residual sugar estimation, Dry cell weight, Oil content and harvesting time were evaluated. CP03 media showed highest dry cell weight (17.3 g/L) and Oil content (1.77g/L at 96 Hrs) followed by CP01 with 12.36 g/L of dry cell weight and 1.38 g/L of Oil content at 96 Hrs. Qualitative estimation for the extracted γ- Linolenic acid was done by using Gas chromatography and the results showed 12.9894% for the γ- Linolenic acid extracted from CP03 media & 12.5145% for γ- Linolenic acid extracted from CP01 media.

  55. Hamwar Aziz, Hana Morrissey and Patrick Ball

    Digital Social Entertainment and Media is a broad term that covers multiple aspects which people use to interact with each other. The aim of this study was to explore the perception of students in higher education on the effect of digital social entertainment on their well-being. The study was a qualitative, questionnaire based included close-, case-based and open-ended questions. The questionnaire was administered to 112 University students who are studying at the University of Wolverhampton. The results showed that 93% used social media and most common reason was to contact family/friends. Most students responded to social media communications after midnight and 77% said they felt relaxed after watching a period of television for more than one hour. Music was also high ranked as a mean to improve mood. Most participants indicated that they would close all social media connections when affect their emotional well-being. This study concluded that DSEM is a common source affect lives of many people to different levels and extent, however the 57% of participants had positive experience on scale of 4 and 5 out of 5. They described it as the mean to remain connected to their loved ones, as important source for their learning and motivates people to change e.g. go to the gym. Fewer participants (29%, on scale of 4 and 5 out of 5) reported negative effects due to online pressure, bullying and reduction in face-to-face communication. Further larger scale study is required to confirm these findings.

  56. Ashenafi Emiru Teka, Eyasu Gebrie Ajebe and Teshale Assefa Biru

    Accumulation of heavy metals and their uptake by different plant parts depend on the concentrations available heavy metals in the soil and form of metals. In the present study the levels of some selected heavy metals (Mn, Zn, Cr, Ni, Cu, Cd and Pb) in onion and irrigation water sampled from selected Woredas of Gurage Zone (i.e.Meskan, Mareko, Sodo, Muhir Aklil and Cheha Woredas), Southern Region, Ethiopia were analyzed. The onion samples were weighed to determine the fresh weight and dried in an oven at 80 oC for 72 hours to determine their dry weight. The dry samples were then grounded in a mortar and the resulting powder digested by weighing 0.5g of oven-dried ground and sieved (<1mm) into an acid-washed porcelain crucible and then incinerated at 500 oC in a muffle furnance. The crucibles were removed from the furnance and cooled. The ashes were then solubilised in concentrated HCl for analysis. The contents of the minerals in the digests were analyzed using flame atomic absorption spectrometer (FAAS). The following concentration ranges (mg/kg) were found in onion: Zn (11.55 - 24.91), Cu (ND – 6.63), Mn(12.23 - 49.22), Cr (ND-54.57), Ni (0.87 - 8.45), Pb and Cd were ND( i.e. Below method detection) in all woreda samples. In this study, all heavy metals were not found (below method detection limit) in water samples. However, levels of heavy metals in onion samples were found in appreciable amount. The level of heavy metals in onions samples determined in this study could be put in the following order Mn > Zn > Cr > Ni > Cu. However, Cd and Pb were not detected in onion samples. The concentrations of heavy metals in onions were found below the permissible limit prescribed by different standards. However, the amount of Cr determined in onion was found above allowable limit recommended by WHO.

  57. Maliha Samiullah and Farhat Iqbal

    Climatic variability for a region is referred to prolonged modification in precipitation, humidity, temperature, wind, evaporation and other parameters of metrology. Quantification of climate variability is essential to identify the change that has already occurred, as this will not only assist to make prediction but also lead to a better preparedness for natural disasters. The purpose of the present study was to examine the variability in rainfall occurred in the Nari River Basin of Balochistan, Pakistan from 1962 to 1993 by analyzing monthly and yearly precipitation data of 12 stations. The variability in monthly trends of the zones was represented through graph. Analysis of variance technique was used to determine any significant difference among the three sub-basins of both North and South zone of the basin. Significant differences were observed among the three sub-basins of both zones. Highest monthly precipitation recorded was 250.2 inches in the Northern zone and lowest 19.3 inches in the South zone. Linear regression analysis revealed no statistically significant trend for yearly and monthly rainfall data in both zones. The Mann-Kendall test revealed a statistically significant upward trend in some months in the South zone.

  58. Diomandé Massé, Coulibaly Siendou, Koko Anauma Casimir and Bohoua Louis Guichard

    The objective of this study is to evaluate the botanical origin and the physicochemical properties of honey obtained from hives installed in cashew orchards in Séguéla (Ivory Coast). The present study on honeys derived from modern beekeeping in Séguéla made it possible to know the botanical origin of these honeys and their physicochemical properties. Pollen analysis of the four samples revealed that three honeys are multifloral (MC, MF, MW), while only one (MB) is monofloral (Lannea acida). In addition, this pollen analysis identified 73 plant taxa belonging to 32 families pollinated by bees. Species richness ranges from 1 to 31 taxa per honey sample. The most dominant plant families are Fabaceae, Euphorbiaceae and Asteraceae. The physicochemical analysis of the honeys analyzed showed that the pH varies from 3.7 ± 0.1 to 4.77 ± 0.06. The total acidity is between 16.67 ± 2.89 and 33.33 ± 2.89 meq / kg. Glucose contents range from 41.71 ± 6.54 to 45.5 ± 00%. The density is between 1.06 ± 0.069 and 1.22 ± 0.089 g / cm3. The ESR ranges from 24 ± 0.10 to 21 ± 0.44%. All its physicochemical parameters comply with the standards proposed by the Codex Alimentarius Commission. It is therefore clear that honeys from modern beekeeping in Séguéla meet the quality criteria required for the marketing and consumption of honey.

  59. Rehan Muzammil

    Software defined radio (SDR) seems to be a solution for communications for rapid changes in the communication standards. Detector is the most important component of radio receiver. This paper describes the implementation of QAM-4 transceiver using very simple sampled matched filter detection technique. The advantage of using sampled matched filter is maximizing the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) at the output of the matched filter. The Transceiver also uses Forward Error Correction (FEC) in the form of Reed-Solomon (7, 3) coding and decoding. This design is tested using a model based development platform for Software Defined Radio. The whole system consists of a Front-End or DSP model and a Back-End or FPGA model. FPGAs are chosen due to their high re-configurability and design flexibility when compared with Digital Signal Processors. Because of this the complete base-band processing of the transceiver is performed at the FPGA model. The coding for the front end is generated in C-language whereas the coding for the Back-End model is generated in VHDL.

  60. Helena Yeboah

    The HIV/AIDS prevalence rate in Zimbabwe is among the highest in Africa, wherefore higher number of orphans and vulnerable children. These children face enormous problems ranging from economic, education, health, nutrition, psychological and emotional effects resulting from the stigma and discrimination which has warranted various projects from the government of Zimbabwe and other organizations to help them meet their needs. Although these interventions are making impacts in the lives of the OVCs, there are still challenges that impede their development. There is therefore the need to measure for efficiency while tailoring implemented projects to suit their local needs. This paper reviews the situation of HIV/AIDS and OVCs in Zimbabwe, risk factors, interventions and challenges.

  61. Dr. Raghavendraswamy, K.R., Dr. Akash Puri, Dr. Anil Kumar Gujjari and Dr. Dhakshani M.R.

    Aging is associated with loss of teeth, residual ridge resorption and reduced tonicity of the facial muscles, leading to sunken cheeks causing a negative psychological impact on patient’s well-being. Slumped cheeks are unaesthetic and add to the person’s age. Disfigurement of face in patients in need of complete dentures can be improved with the help of cheek plumper to support the cheeks. Literature has well evidenced the extensive usage of magnets as attachments, but it has been shown that magnets lose their magnetic property over a period leading to failure of treatment, thus push buttons/press stud fasteners were used in this case, to increase the longevity and durability of the check plumper appliances. This article describes a simple, non-invasive technique of fabricating a complete denture with detachable cheek plumper using push buttons, thereby restoring the slumped facial musculature for the purpose of improving aesthetics, function and psychological profile in such patients

  62. Kouassi Koffi Justin

    The purpose of this study is to evaluate the impact of the integration of ICT at the University Felix Houphouet Boigny of Abidjan - Cocody, in terms of uses. The introduction of ICT in our universities for a decade has had a qualitative impact on training. In our context where ICTs are gaining more and more weight in our dailies, this new technology can significantly reduce failure rates and significantly reduce massification. Our sample of 69 individuals, including 25 teachers, 39 students and 05 members of the university administration, was subjected mainly to the techniques of inquiry and observation. The majority of respondents have a good appreciation and knowledge of ICT. At the level of uses, there is a diversity among them. However, we come to divide them into three categories according to whether they are commonly accepted, so "prescribed", prohibited, so "diverted" and finally, "innovative" because unforeseen. If difficulties and misuses are observed, the fact remains that measures must be taken to make the integration of ICTs into the UFHB sustainable and promote good practices.

  63. Saba Kaynat, Hafsa Niaz, Tabinda Iqbal, Rizwan Anjum Mughal and Muhammad Afzal Randhawa

    Introduction: Diarrhea is an increase in frequency of bowel movements or an increase in the liquidity (greater looseness) of stool. Although changes in frequency of bowel movements and looseness of stools can vary independently of each other. Changes often occur in both. Acute diarrhea (including gastroenteritis) remains one of the commonest causes of death among infants and children in developing countries where poor sanitation, deficiency of clean drinking water, poverty and illiteracy are key factors. Viral infection remains another very important cause. In Europe, most cases take a mild to moderately severe course, and fatal outcomes are extremely rare. Objective: To find out the frequency of diarrhea in infants less than six months of age cross-sectional study (Descriptive study). Methods: A hospital based descriptive study was conducted from 1st December to 1st February 2018 in Pediatric Unit of BVH Bahawalpur. Source of population were 100 children under six months of age. Data analysis was made manually and frequency of diarrhea was calculated. Results: The frequency of diarrhea was more in infants 0-2 months. The frequency was low in infants who were on exclusive breast feed the diarrheal frequency was high in infants of rural areas. Female were showing resistance to diarrhea as compared to male. Hand washing before weaning or breast feeding and clean water supply caused a reduction in the frequency of diarrhea. Conclusion: Breast feeding, clean drinking water, proper hygiene and literacy must be promoted to prevent diarrhea.

  64. Ma. Betty P. Decin

    Phonemic awareness is the ability to hear, identify, and manipulate individual sounds-phonemes in spoken words. Before children learn to read print, they need to become more aware of how the sounds in words work. Numeracy complements literacy and is sometimes called “mathematical literacy”. It is the ability to reason and to apply simple numerical concepts. Sibol is one of the seven Gawad Kalinga programs centered on Child Youth and Development. It provides value based education for pre‐school children, ages 3 to 6 years old through its program called SIBOL, which means “to grow” in the Filipino language. The study aimed to determine the level of Phonemic awareness and numeracy skills of 30 Sibol learners– Miatan Subanen Community of the school year 2014-2015.ANOVA was used to determine the significant difference among the Sibol learners’ skills in oral reading readiness indicator and t-test to determine the significant difference between the male and female oral reading skills. Male and female Sibol learners were Less Skillful in Oral Reading Readiness both in Phonemic and Numeric Skills with respect to different indicators. It has been realized that there is a significant and noticeable difficulty of these identified learners in terms of oral reading activity.

  65. Udechukwu Jonathan and Samuel, G.K.

    This study assessed the impact of tramadol abuse on academic performance of undergraduate students in Ignatius Ajuru University of Education, Port Harcourt. Two research questions were formulated to guide this study. Multi-stage random sampling procedure were adopted for the study. The population for the study was 5117 students in the university. The sample size was 400 students. The instrument for data collection was the structured questionnaire which comprised section A and B for demographic characteristics, and items related to research questions. The reliability of the instrument was determined using Pearson Product moment Correlation Coefficient (PPMCC) with a reliability coefficient of 0.86. Data was analyzed using statistical package for social science Descriptive statistics comprising of mean, percentage, frequency and standard deviation were used for demographic and answering of research questions. The result showed that the mean age of the respondents was 24.5+ 4.5 years, 57.6% were male, 42.4% were female from the selected faculties, 35.3% were year 1, 30.2% were year 2, 19.3 were year 3, and 15.2% were year 4. The result also indicates that the grand mean value 2.98 is greater than the criterion referenced mean 2.50 depicting that tramadol abuse posed a negative impact on the respondents. The study concludes that tramadol abuse are more injurious to academic activities of students in tertiary institutions than any other drug. The study recommends that healthy lifestyle choices and developments of skills needed in making informed and responsible decision to resist tramadol abuse among undergraduates should be emphasized by health personnels in the facilities at the point of their admission into the institution.

  66. Njipouakouyou Samuel, Charfadine Mahamat Ahmat and Adoum Abakar Garba Bourkou

    This study on the yearly means of some meteorological parameters in some localities of Chad solves the problem of lack of meteorological data which is very crucial in developing countries. The main idea is to treat by the least square method the existing chronological series to establish regression functions for further use in the problems of interpolation and extrapolation. Our decision is based on the comparison of the degree of fitnessε of these functions and their corresponding standard deviation s. When|ε|< s we conclude that the function is useable for interpolation and extrapolation in order to find missing meteorological data. For the interpolation we have obtained good results. What concerns the extrapolation, it should be done with care particularly for the relative humidity of the air because of its high variability and also when the interval of time in sufficiently long.

  67. Dr. Suresh Babu, P., Dr. George Skariah, Dr. Dain C Pearl, Dr. Naveen Kumar Jain and Dr. Sangeetha Shivaji

    Fibromyxoma represents a rare benign neoplasm that mostly affects the posterior region of the mandible. It represents 0.5 to 17.7 % of odontogenic tumors: the third most frequently occurring type. This case report represents a patient with fibromyxoma of left mandible. A 42 year old female was referred for the evaluation and management of non-tender swelling on left face region that had gradually increased in size over 4 months duration. The examination revealed a palpable firm mass. Mild blanch mucosa with no ulceration was observed over swelling. Preoperative radiographs and computed tomography shows well defined multilocular expansile lesion. Surgical segmental resection of mandible under general anesthesia was performed via the extra oral approach followed by reconstruction with Titanium Recon plate of 2.5 mm. A histopathological examination confirmed the diagnosis of fibromyxoma. In conclusion, the radiological examination by means of CT and MRI plays an important role in the diagnosis of a fibromyxoma and in the differential diagnosis from other pathological entities such as the ameloblastoma. Patients must be monitored for at least two years postoperatively in order to diagnose possible recurrence.

  68. Dr. Hernando Avilez Pineda, Dra. MA. Elvia Chavarría Solís, Dra. Teresa de J. Rivas Pérez, Mtro. Ángel de J. Jaimes Compeán and Dr. Jorge E. Muñoz Sánchez

    Tourism activity supports the economy of many countries and regions; in the state of Guerrero tourism has been its potential for the last 70 years. Efforts to promote greater tourist flows for an offer that exceeds 30 thousand hotel rooms in the three consolidated destinations of the state: Acapulco, Ixtapa-Zihuatanejo and Taxco; have not been sufficient to maintain the hotel occupancy that guarantees the desired profitability, so that the implementation of a tourism observatory, currently in the making, would strengthen the knowledge of the tourist reality of Guerrero. As such, the objective of the research was the implementation of the Tourism Observatory, which generates the information that will help to establish competitive strategies. The methodology adopted consisted in the documentary review of the execution and operation of international and national observatories, in analyzing their structures for the collection of consistent, comparable, periodic and timely statistical data. Data collection instruments were developed, structured according to the particularities of coastal destinations and magic villages. Eight categories with 99 variables are evaluated. The results of the survey allow to know the opinion of the demand, which will provide decision-makers, public and private sector with the tools to innovate, adapt and monitor the trends of the issuing markets, which is expected to motivate a solid and growing interest in the destinations of the entity. It will be relevant to monitor the demand, making it possible to know the whole tourism of the host spaces of the state, impelling it to renew its image and competitiveness.

  69. Elias Makhoul, Joe El Mir, Tania Loutfi and YaraAssaf

    The hiatus hernia is defined by the permanent or intermittent protrusion of elements of the abdominal cavity into the chest through the diaphragmatic esophageal hiatus. The migration of the stomach may be accompanied by various other abdominal organs such as colon, splenic flexure, small intestine, omentum, pancreas. Although the majority of hiatal hernias are asymptomatic and incidentally discovered, life –threatening complications may occur. Pancreatitis is one of the complications. Its pathogenesis results from the obstruction of the distal pancreatic duct after the sliding of the pancreas into the thorax. In general asymptomatic hernia are treated supportively and symptomatic hernia are treated surgicaly according to the recommendations. We decribe a case of24 year old symptomatic patient who was admitted with acute pancreatitis secondary toa massive incarcerated paraoesophageal hernia with pancreatic herniation. Following laparotomy and adequate therapy, she has recovered and has been discharged.

  70. Dr. Madhumita Dhundiraj Kurdukar, Dr. Chetna Kishorrao Nikhar and Dr. Pandit G.A.

    Introduction: In the recent years, there is an upward trend in the incidence of soft tissue tumors due to advances in diagnostic modalities. Histopathology is the reliable guide for diagnosis, but immunohistochemistry and cytogenetics provide greater accuracy. Aims and Objective: The present study was aimed at evaluation of spectrum of soft tissue tumours and to categorize them into revised WHO classification of soft tissue tumours 2013. Study highlights common type of tumours, age and sex distribution. Materials and Methods: The present study is a retroprospective study of 276 specimens. Tissue was processed as per the standard protocol. Pertinent clinical data were retrieved from case records. Thorough microscopic examination was done. A panel of immunostains was applied as per the merit of the case for final diagnosis. Data were analyzed and tumours were categorized as per WHO classification 2013. Results: Major contributors were benign consisting 91.3% of cases, followed by intermediate 5.44% and malignant tumours 3.26%. Adipocytic tumours were the commonest subtype (70.23%), followed by nerve sheath tumours (17.46%). Amongst malignant category, wide ranges of tumours were found. Conclusion: Light microscopy is indispensible but greater accuracy can be achieved by performing ancillary techniques like immunohistochemistry, cytogenetics and electron microscopy for definitive diagnosis. IHC has therapeutic implications in sarcomas like rhabdomyosarcomas, epithelioid sarcoma, clear cell sarcoma, desmoplastic round cell tumour and gastrointestinal stromal tumours

  71. The benefits of functional endoscopic sinus surgery (fess) in management of chronic sinusitis & middle meatus Diseases

    This study was carried out to observe the efficiency of endoscopic sinus surgery in the management of middle meatus diseases. The study was done in our private clinics & in the ENT department of AL-yarmouk Teaching Hospital Baghdad - Iraq. This effort represent prospective study of 100 patient with sinonasal diseases who were underwent functional endoscopic sinus surgery. The main presenting symptoms of patient were nasal obstruction (76%), anterior nasal discharge (67%), headache (56%), facial pain (62%), hyposmia / anosmia (30%), post nasal drip (53%). Most of the patients have got partial or complete symptomatic relief. Minor complications of FESS occurred in (22%) which includes adhesions, minor epistaxis, infection and periorbital ecchymosis it was concluded that FESS is a safe & efficient method for dealing with different sinonasal diseases. Aims of the study: To evaluate the efficiency of functional endoscopic sinus surgery (FESS) in management of middle meatus diseases. Concept: The introduction of nasal endoscope has revolutionized the planning & treatment of nose & paranasal sinus diseases. In the 1960s Messerklinger began his work with endoscopic diagnosis and surgery of sinuses. The main indications for functional endoscopic sinus surgery are recurrent acute sinusitis that does not respond to medical therapy. Endoscopic nasal surgery have grown far beyond FESS & now include other nasal, orbital and anterior skull base procedures.

  72. Patne, SS., Gadgil, PA., Pandit, GA. and Mahamuni, NM.

    Uremic cardiomyopathy is responsible for high morbidity and mortality rates among patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) or end stage renal disease (ESRD) even though the patients on dialysis. Among dialysis patients with left ventricular hypertrophy (LVH) are more than two thirds die from heart failure or sudden cardiac death. Present case is about a case of CKD on dialysis who died due to myocarditis and cardiomyopathy.

  73. Dr. Hernando Avilez Pineda, Dra. MA. Elvia Chavarría Solís, Dra. Teresa de J. Rivas Pérez, Mtro. Ángel de J. Jaimes Compeán and Dr. Jorge E. Muñoz Sánchez

    Tourism activity supports the economy of many countries and regions; in the state of Guerrero tourism has been its potential for the last 70 years. Efforts to promote greater tourist flows for an offer that exceeds 30 thousand hotel rooms in the three consolidated destinations of the state: Acapulco, Ixtapa-Zihuatanejo and Taxco; have not been sufficient to maintain the hotel occupancy that guarantees the desired profitability, so that the implementation of a tourism observatory, currently in the making, would strengthen the knowledge of the tourist reality of Guerrero. As such, the objective of the research was the implementation of the Tourism Observatory, which generates the information that will help to establish competitive strategies. The methodology adopted consisted in the documentary review of the execution and operation of international and national observatories, in analyzing their structures for the collection of consistent, comparable, periodic and timely statistical data. Data collection instruments were developed, structured according to the particularities of coastal destinations and magic villages. Eight categories with 99 variables are evaluated. The results of the survey allow to know the opinion of the demand, which will provide decision-makers, public and private sector with the tools to innovate, adapt and monitor the trends of the issuing markets, which is expected to motivate a solid and growing interest in the destinations of the entity. It will be relevant to monitor the demand, making it possible to know the whole tourism of the host spaces of the state, impelling it to renew its image and competitiveness.

  74. Dr. Panna Mangat, Dr. Sahil Rohilla, Dr. Anil K Tomer, Dr. Afnan Raina, Dr. Anushree Gupta and Dr. Anila Krishna saxena

    Aim: To evaluate the efficacy of M two, Protaper D Files, and R endo retreatment files to remove filling from root canal using stereomicroscope. Materials and Methods: Thirty extracted human single rooted teeth, having a single canal were selected. The teeth were cleaned and shaped using a crown-down technique to a size 40 and filled with gutta-percha and a zinc oxide-eugenol-based sealer using a lateral compaction technique. Teeth was assigned into three group according to the system used for removing the root filling material Group 1- M Two Files , Group-II - Protaper D files and Group III - R Endo files. The amount of remaining filling material after the retreatment procedure was assessed utilizing a stereomicroscope. Results: Statistical analysis revealed that Group 2 (Protaper D Files) showed highest efficiency in removing guttapercha.

  75. Dr. Smt. Babita Dubey and Vijaylaxmi Singh

    The purpose of the present paper is to study the relationship between the use of information and communi¬cation technologies (ICT) and student performance in higher education. So far, economic research has failed to provide a clear harmony on the effect of ICT investments on student’s achievement. The second hypothesis advocates that ICT uses need a change in the organisation of higher education. While ICT equipment and use rates are growing very fast in the Chhattisgarh, the adoption of complementary orga¬nisational designs is very slow and differs from one institution to another. This may explain the observed differences in students’ achievement.

  76. Jane T. Aquino

    Coconut shells and fibers are valuable aggregates as potential alternative for commercialization in concrete production. Fibers control cracking due to shrinkage while shells are hard stony endocarp but lightweight. Tests of sieve analysis, specific gravity, moisture content, mechanical property and the comprehensive test in accordance with the ASTM (Standard Test Method for Sieve Analysis of Coarse Aggregate, 2011) were employed to the hollow block-coco shell /fiber (HBsf).With the same curing age of 28days, HBsf is much darker than the (CHB) concrete hollow block. Both textures are rough and have the same dimension of 100mm x 400mm x 800mm. HBsf has a density of 1213.59 kg/m3 while CHB has a density of 1529 kg/m3. CHB reached a load of 11.65 KN to 17.58 KN and stress capacity of 0.57 MPa to 0.8 MPa while HBsf has reached a load of 34.42 KN to 43.5 KN and a stress of 1.82 MPa to 2.11 MPa .It implies that the thermal conductivity of HBsf for cold and warm temperature resist freezing and heating. The average modulus of elasticity of CHB is 525 MPa, while HBsf is 1400 MPa. HBsf has greater modulus of elasticity than CHB. It is a good indicator as fire resistant thus sturdy to crushing, absorption and surface moisture. It suggests fabricating shredder to mechanically separate the strands into individual fibers and grinder for coconut shells to have uniform sizes of particles (pea size). The mass production of HBsf is recommended to test the mechanical properties.

  77. Hassan Sarfaraz, Arifa Hassan, Christeena Joseph, Kamalakanth Shenoy, K.

    An ocular prosthesis is an artificial substitute of an enucleated eye ball. Defects of the eye can result in removal of a part or the entire orbit. This is accompanied with patient becoming visually, aesthetically and psychologically handicapped. The loss of tissue can be congenital or traumatic, or from malignancy or radical surgery. Restoring the defect with a silicone‑ or acrylic based prosthesis restores aesthetics and confidence to the patient. It is a challenging endeavour for a prosthodontist to fabricate a maxillofacial prosthesis exhibiting compromised tissue-bed conditions. This case report explains a simple sequence of steps in the construction of an ocular prosthesis and the artistic technique employed in the fabrication of a successful prosthesis.

  78. Zulfakar and Fahruddin

    Research supports emotional social learning in schools that show many benefits for students, including academic achievement improvement and social and emotional competence. Advocates of social and emotional learning often characterize the narrow and narrow edges of basic and secondary education. While research that supports the adoption of social-emotional learning does not have a clear concept on ethical competence. The lack of clarity of the problem for two reasons. First, contribute to the incorporation of social, emotional, and ethical competencies. Second, as a result, not enough attention only in the field of payments to related parties. But in social-emotional and ethical education, supporting emotional social learning, we critique the assumption of uniformity between social-emotional and ethical literacy and argue in the importance of educational programs to support ethical competence in social-emotional learning, including educating children to develop orientation autonomous ethics. Doing so will advance the efforts of educators to provide education for all children.

  79. Dr. Sunita Singhal, Dr. Premlata Mital, Dr. Richi Ainani, Dr. Alka Batar, Dr. Priya Sonkhya, Dr. Renu Jain, Dr. Monika Agarwal, Dr. Aditi Gupta, Dr. Kavita Chaudhary and Dr. UrmilaKharbas

    Ovarian tumours commonly present as adnexal masses which could be benign or malignant. To predict nature of ovarian tumours preoperatively is a great challenge for the gynaecologists preoperatively because of their bizarre and atypical behaviour. The present study was done to compare performance of Risk of malignancy Index 2, 3 and 4 in preoperative discrimination between benign and malignant ovarian tumours. Methods: 175 women with ovarian tumours were included after obtaining informed written consent in the study. Risk of malignancy index 2,3 and 4 were calculated by their respective formulas using USG score, menopausal score and serum CA 125 level. Performance of these three indices were compared. Results: The sensitivity of RMI 2, RMI 3 and RMI 4 was 58.06%, 54.84% and 61.3% respectively. The specificity of RMI 2, RMI 3 and RMI 4 was 98.61%, 98.61% and 99.31% respectively. The positive predictive value and negative predictive value of RMI 4 were more than RMI 2 and RMI 3. Diagnostic accuracy of RMI 4 was 92.6% and that of RMI 2 and RMI 3 were 91.43% and 90.86% respectively. There was no significant difference in the performance of these three indices (p-.98) Conclusion: RMI is a simple, cost effective and easily applicable method to evaluate nature of ovarian tumours preoperatively. RMI 4 is slightly better than RMI 2 and RMI 3 in our study.

  80. Maria Nancy Quinco-Cadosales, PhD

    The study described the aspects of the student teaching program of the Bachelor of Elementary Education curriculum in a Teacher Education Institution. The aspects of the student teaching program include the objectives, content coverage, and pedagogical practices. The study employed the descriptive research method, which utilized questionnaire and open ended questions. There participants of the study were the 68 elementary student interns. The student teaching program had developed the student interns’ personal and professional competencies. In the aspect of objectives, the student teaching program developed the affective competencies of the student interns like their attitudes; diligence; resourcefulness; values; and open-mindedness. In the aspect of the content coverage, the student teaching program helped the student interns on the delivery of content knowledge. The coverage of the student program helped the student interns to understand the University’s vision-mission; application of theories, techniques and principles of teaching; and competence and skills in lesson. In the aspect of pedagogical practices, regular meetings and conferences were the best practice followed by writing of good lesson plans, delivering the lesson, suggesting appropriate teaching strategies, and constructing good test. However, there are measures that need to be addressed in the plan of actions to enhance the student teaching program of the university.

  81. Syaifuddin Iskandar, IekeWulan Ayu, Heri Kusnayadi and Soemarno

    Empowerment of communities around the forest area conservation village of Bangkat Monteh done to improve the welfare of life through active participation in the activities of utilization, safety and preservation of the community achieve independence. This study aimed to conservation village development planning models. The research method used descriptive qualitative approach, with the determination of research subjects using snowball sampling. The results showed that the implementation of development planning model of conservation village, in the village of Bangkat Monteh conducted through nine phases: build understanding with stakeholders, develop the institutional level of the village, preparing facilitators, training Participatory Rural Appraisal (PRA), the implementation of the pre, capacity building society, the development of productive economic activities, building partnerships and business networking, monitoring and evaluation.

  82. Prachi Jha

    The purpose of this study is to understand the role of social capital in avoiding resettlement. The methodology used in this study is case study. This research is about the settlement in Delhi known as Kathputli colony, where dwellers were avoiding the resettlement. This study is based on the Bourdieu’s theory of social capital i.e. social capital as “the actual or potential resources which are linked to a durable network which provides each member with their mutual support of the collectivity-owned capital with ‘credential’.”(Bourdieu, 1986). The finding indicates that in the implementation process it had affected and damaged their livelihood. In this study social capital plays an instrumental role in avoiding resettlement.

  83. Jeevitha Loganathan, Dharani Eswaran, Saraswathi Uthamaramasamy and Malathi Mangalanathan

    Background: Bougainvillea spectabilis and Bougainvillea alba are used for the treatment of diarrhoea, stomach acidity and fertility control. Objective: The aim of this research was to examine the anti diabetic activity of Bougainvillea spectabilis and Bougainvillea alba flowers. Methods: To study the in vitro anti- diabetic effect α-amylase inhibition, glucose diffusion and non-enzymatic glycosylation of hemoglobin assay was performed. Result: The Bougainvillea spectabilis extract showed good glucose tolerance and exhibit anti diabetic effects than Bougainvillea alba and it is validated by traditional claim of this plant.

  84. Tuna EMİR, Tuğrul VAROL, Halil Barış ÖZEL and Selda ERGİN

    With the development of industrialization over time, occupational accidents and diseases have appeared more than ever and the subjects “providing occupational health and security” and “their constant improvements” have gained importance. One of the working areas having serious risks in terms of occupational health and security is the forestry sector involving the facilities which process the non-wood forest products. Various methods exist for risk assessment and FMEA (Failure Mode and Effects Analysis) is one of these assessments. The core idea of FMEA is to prevent failures and risks before they appear instead of detecting them afterwards. Also, unlike other risk assessments, prior detection of accidents in this one is a distinctive advantage. In this study, the failure types, the potential reasons for them and their possible effects were determined through FMEA analysis in an enterprise that process non-wood forest products (bay leaves) and Risk Priority Number (RPN) acquired by multiplying the severity, probability and dete ctability values of failure type was calculated and the necessary measures were taken according to the values in the order of priority. Then, the required improvement activities were made by determining the proposed measures to be taken against the risks and the pre and post application values were compared by revealing the changes in RPN values. In summary, this study leads to a significant progress for assuring a system security at the enterprise.

  85. Morsina Çipa, Elda Marku and Aurel Nuro

    One of the major environmental problems today is hydrocarbon contamination related to the petrochemical industry. This study investigated the spatial distribution of 13 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and 10 aliphatic hydrocarbons in soil and surface water nearby a petrochemical industrial region in Albania. All analyze were performed by gas chromatography/flame ionization detection. The sum of PAHs’concentrations ranged from 5.73ng g-1 dry weight to 198.57 ng g-1 dry weight and from 44.43 mg L-1 to 466.95mg L-1 in soils and surface waters, respectively. The results showed that total aliphatic hydrocarbons concentrations varied from0.19ng g-1 dry weight to 79.73 ng g-1 dry weight in soils and 2.32mg L-1to 25.25mg L-1in surface waters. The composition pattern of PAHs by ring size was surveyed, as well. 4- and 5- rings PAH were dominated in soils and surface waters. The levels of PAHs in the petrochemical area of Ballsh were relatively higher in water in comparison with those reported around the world for similar studies. Likewise, the aliphatic hydrocarbons profile was predominated mainly from heavier n-alkanes in all sampling station. The origin of hydrocarbon contamination of the analyzed samples of Ballsh industrial area is related to the industrial activity and discharges.

  86. Dr. Naheed Anjum Chishti

    The main theme of the research is to analyse the Sustainable Developmental Goals (SDGs). The study focuses on the 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development. The research also discusses the objectives tools and methods used to achieve the goal. It also focuses on the possibilities and future prospectus in this regard. The research analyse the different factors involved directly and indirectly during process to achieve sustainable development. The approach of the study is analytical and descriptive. The Primary and secondary sources have been used.

  87. Nasreen Anjum, Satyanarayana, CH., Sharma, G R K. and Srinivas, D.

    Organic Dairy Farming is a way for increasing the export of dairy products and also to strengthen the rural farmers. India the number one milk producer in the world, to compete in the global market India has to improve its standards and quality systems. To provide a focused and well directed development of organic agriculture and quality products, Ministry of Commerce and Industry, Government of India, launched a National Program on Organic Production (NPOP) in the year 2000, which was formally notified in October 2001 under the Foreign Trade and Development Act (FTDR Act). But this has to be hastened and standardized form the very beginning by clear policy support and strategic direction from the Government of India. As, India has the potential to explore in the organic dairying, as more than 70 per cent of the practices followed by the farmers are as per organic production standards except for some of the requirements like feeding organically certifiable feed to animals, maintaining records, maintaining animals in organic holding since its birth, providing bedding materials, providing animals vitamins, trace elements and supplements from natural origin are to be fulfilled.

  88. Erwin Nursin

    This research aims to find out how big the influence of human resources development against the competence of employees in the service of the population and the civil registry of the Regency of Banggai , For the collection of research data, the author uses the method of circulate a list of question or questionnaire, and field research or observations. While the data analysis technique used is qualitative in nature, i.e. by holding processing the data obtained, and to search for influence between each variable, then the author uses The regression Liner is simple to find influence between each variable research. The population in this research is the entire employee population and the civil registry office of the County Taken with total number of 41 people consisting of a head of Department, head of Department, Secretary, head of Section, elements and functional elements of the staff. As for the research of sampling in research using the technique of saturated Samples with a total overall sample was 41 people. From the results of the research can be concluded there are positive influences between the human resource development Department employee competencies against the population and the civil registry District of Banggai 0.075 with cohesion determination of R ² is 7.5%. This means the average value of 7.5% employee competence is determined by the process of manuisa resources development at the service of the population and civil registration District of Banggai, through regression equation Y = 2.674 0.166 + X, the remaining 92.5% is determined by other factors, and the value t calculate is 1.882 whereas t of 2.25, table larger than t count. This means that there are no significant effects between the human resource developments of the variable (X) and (Y) employee competencies.

  89. Amira M. Shokry

    The greeting interest of consumers to preserve their crops in order to beat food deficiency and attain food security was a target to investigate a way to maintain red beet so as to use all over the year. The influence of oven, sun and microwave drying methods on nutrional values, total phenol, vitamin C, color and rehydration ratio of red beet root were studied. All the drying methods under investigation decreasing moisture content with enhancing the nutrional contents and resulted in dried red beet with excellent color and rehydration ratio. Microwave drying treatment improve both total phenol and vitamin c contents where the sun drying treatment outcome dried beet samples with perfect total phenol content but with a shortage in vitamin c content. The oven drying treatment produced dried red beet with a sensible total phenol and vitamin c contents. Finally, it could use the drying methods under investigation in preserving red beet and obtain dried red beet which can be used in food preparation especially infant food, also it could be consumed as a substitute of traditional snacks.

  90. Dr. Ishrat Jahan

    This article deals about migration and its effects in two villages of south-western Bangladesh, named Char Khankhanapur and Degree Charchandpur. In this article I intend to explore the economic and social consequences of migration at Char Khankhanapur and Degree Charchandpur and investigate whether or not migration really means development and wellbeing for the people of the villages. My focus is to know whether the impact of migration is uniform for family members left behind by the migrants or varies according to the members’ position in relation to the migrants. My quest is hence to find the answers of certain queries: a) what types of people generally migrate at the villages? b) why do they migrate c) do they return and c) whose development does migration finally mean? In doing so, I shall draw here portraits of some migrant families from both the villages, based on my empirical findings during the fieldwork from 2010-2013 in Bangladesh. Additionally, I shall highlight the recent trend of female migration at the villages and its effect on women themselves and their families (particularly husbands and children).

  91. Saya Lee

    The five representative offerings that appear in the Old Testament are burnt offering, meal offering, peace offerings, sin offering and compensate offering. Of the five great sacrifices, the peace offerings (zebachselamim) have two distinctive characters that cannot be found in other sacrifices. From the perspective of co-eating, the peace offerings was supposedly the favorite of many of the sacrifices of the Old Testament. Because it was a kind of feast for those who participated in the sacrifice after having sacrificed sacrifices to God and sharing the portion of the sacrifice happily. The common meals and co-ownership of the Early Church in the book of Acts are the active aspects of that fellowship. The purpose of this study is to examine the uses of the peace offerings in the Bible, especially in the Old Testament, and to explore the true meaning of the peace offerings for our time. Modern Christianity and the church must continue to have the true meaning of peace offering even in times when the sacraments of the Bible are no longer necessary.

  92. Arti Bakhshi and Shabila Wani

    The purpose of the study was to examine the gender differences in marital adjustment and psychological well-being among the dual- career couples. The sample of the study consisted of 70 dual-career couples (70 male and 70 female). Marital adjustment was assessed by using marital adjustment inventory by Deshpande (1988) and psychological well-being scale by Bhogley and Prakash (1995). Results revealed significant gender differences in martial adjustment whereas no significant gender differences were found in psychological well-being of the dual- career couples.

  93. Dr. Fred Jonyo

    This paper discusses the essence of regional integration. The central question is to interrogate why countries join or form regional economic blocs. The key objective is to examine the imperatives that compel countries to regionalism. Functionalism and federalism theory offer insights as to what process and path countries need to take in order to integrate. Baregu equally notes that regionalism is driven by imperatives which include; affection, gain, threats and forces of globalization. The paper concludes that despite challenges to integration, it remains a valuable avenue through which countries could collectively achieve sustainable development.

  94. Pitchiah Kumar, M. and Sankaranarayanan, S.

    Traditional systems of medicine have been in trend for treating numerous ailments in many develop and development countries such as India, China, Japan and Korea, Tavian since age-old time. Siddha system of medicine is one of the ancient traditional system of India and practiced mostly in its southern part of India for treating different diseases including even chronic conditions. Nathai choori chooranam composed of five plant equal composition (Borreria hispida seed, Zingiber officinale Rhizome, Cassia auriculata flower, Anddry fruit and Eleusine coracana seed). Plants offer us bioactive molecules those may serve as safer therapeutics to combat existing new world ageing related diseases, and obesity is the major concern among them. Pancreatic lipase inhibitors from plant sources may prove as promising side effects lacking anti-obesity therapeutics, present study was conceived with the objective of anti-lipase, antiradical and DNA cleavage protector activities of Nathai choori chooranam decoction. Phytochemical constituents were screened quantifications of total phenolics, tannins, flavonoids, were done by taking tannic acid, quercetin, as reference molecules. Antiradical activities were evaluated by using different free radicals (ABTS, lipid peroxidation, metal chelating, superoxide and nitric oxide scavenging activities). Also effect of Nathai choori chooranam decoction on DNA cleavage induced by H2O2 UV-photholysis. The antiradical activity of Nathai choori chooranam decoction was proved to be better than the standard ascorbic acid. Antilipolytic function of Nathai choori chooranam decoction was assessed using porcine pancreatic lipase (PPL; triacylglycerol lipase, EC 3.1.1.3) in an in vitro assay system with p-nitrophenyl palmitate (p-NPP) as a substrate. From the data of the results obtained, maximum percentage of lipase inhibition was shown by Nathai choori chooranam decoction (78.92 %) than standard drug. In addition, they showed a protective effect on DNA cleavage.IC50 value were calculated using the logarithmic regression of the dose-response curve after subtraction of both blank and inherent sample fluorescence values. In all cases, the coefficients of determination of the regression (R2) were greater than 0.95. IC50 are the means ± standard deviations of three determinations.

  95. Dr. Rumki Sarkar

    At world level population-development-environment relationship has great environmental significance. Population, environment and development are inseparable. Resources, both physical and human create the physical as well as cultural environment. Physical environment provides the essential survival elements to human population as well as to the world community. Cultural environment, prepared by us determines the existence of other population groups. Population size, generally determined by the environment influences the environment again. Population and environment maintain their coexistence by feedback process. Development refers to the social upliftment. This trio-relation has created great debate from last few decades. Scholars are made attempt to solve the controversy and try to come in conclusion. Literature survey has been made to give light on this relation.

  96. Srija and Jambulingam Subramani

    In this paper, some ratio cum median based modified ratio estimators with known quartiles of the auxiliary variable have been proposed. The performance of the proposed class of estimators is assessed with that of simple random sampling without replacement (SRSWOR) sample mean, ratio estimator and modified ratio estimators in terms of variance/mean squared errors. The performance of proposed class of estimators is illustrated with the help of certain natural population available in the literature. The percentage relative efficiency of the proposed class of estimators with respect to SRSWOR sample mean, ratio estimator and some of the existing modified ratio estimators are also obtained.

  97. Nagendran, V.

    Precise and Reliable Temperature Measurement is CRITICAL Particularly in High Temperature (eg. 1200°C to 1500°C) Processes like Steel / Metallurgical / Glass / Ceramic etc. Periodic Calibration of the High Temperature Sensors used for such Measurements is Essential to Counter the Effect of Ageing and Drift. Article Describes Innovative Techniques of Achieving Fast, Reliable and Accurate Calibration of these High Temperature Sensors.

  98. Ruchika Sodhi, Meera Sikka, Mrinalini Kotru and Gurubachan Singh

    Background: Hemostatic abnormalities have been frequently reported in patients with traumatic brain injury. These changes are reported to predict outcome. This study aimed at evaluating the association between coagulopathy detected within the first 12h and outcome in Indian patients with isolated head trauma. Methods: One hundred patients admitted within 12h of head injury were enrolled in the study. Based on the GCS, head injury was classified as mild (GCS13-15), moderate (GCS 9-12) and severe (GCS 3-8). Complete blood count including platelet count, Prothrombin time (PT) and Activated partial thromboplasin time (APTT) were done in all patients. Based on the value of PT (11sec) and APTT (28sec) of laboratory controls, coagulopathy was defined as prolonged PT (>14sec) and/or APTT (>34sec). Patients were followed up till the time of discharge/death. Results: The prevalence of coagulopathy was 39%.Associated thrombocytopenia was observed in 30/ 39 (76.9%) patients while 18 patients had isolated thrombocytopenia. The mortality was 26%.Platelet count was significantly (p<0.001) lower and PT and APTT significantly (p<0.001) higher in non survivors as compared to survivors. The mortality was significantly (p<0.001) higher in patients with thrombocytopenia and coagulopathy as compared to patients in whom these parameters were normal. Conclusion: Hemostatic parameters in patients with isolated head trauma at admission may be used to identify patients with a poor outcome.

  99. Kodanda Dhar Naik, Saumya Ranjan Mishra and Mavuduru Mahita

    Genetic algorithms (GAs) are stochastic search algorithms inspired by the basic principles of biological evolution and natural selection. GAs simulates the evolution of living organisms, where the fittest individuals dominate over the weaker ones, by mimicking the biological mechanisms of evolution, such as selection, crossover and mutation. GAs have been successfully applied to solve optimization problems, both for continuous (whether differentiable or not) and discrete functions. The Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP) is a theory of measurement through pair wise comparisons and relies on the judgments of experts to derive priority scales. The judgments may be inconsistent, and how to measure inconsistency and improve the judgments, when possible to obtain better consistency is a concern of the AHP. By reducing complex decisions to a series of pairwise comparisons, and then synthesizing the results, the AHP helps to capture both subjective and objective aspects of a decision. In recent years it has been observed that cloud computing has laid strong market. Recently, cloud computing emerged as the leading technology for delivering reliable, secure, fault-tolerant, sustainable, and scalable computational services, which are presented as Software, Infrastructure, or Platform as services (SaaS, IaaS, PaaS). Moreover, these services may be offered in private data centers (private clouds), may be commercially offered for clients (public clouds), or yet it is possible that both public and private clouds are combined in hybrid clouds. The provisioning of cloud resources, as to execute or carry out various tasks in critical tasks, as the number of users increases. Generally the parameters that are being taken into consideration are not always same, i.e. they may vary. Moreover, there is no specific immigration method which could be applied to the tasks which are taken into consideration. As the number of task also increases the provisioning of the virtual machines should be such that the throughput will be maximum .In order to achieve the above situation genetic algorithm and AHP are taken into consideration and applied in this paper. The paper is divided into five parts. Part I introduces various concepts that have been used in this paper. Part II consists of background knowledge and all the assumptions that were considered while applying genetic algorithm. Part III consists all the steps of genetic algorithm applied and how it is implemented in the process of executing the cloudlet. Part IV consists the final conclusion of the research where the default allocation of virtual machines is compared with genetic algorithm applied. Part V consists of various reference works used.

  100. Akash Orum, Niraj Kunkulol, Surabhi Naidu, Neeraja Prabhudesai, Arun S. Thakare and Mr. Balasaheb Pawar

    Every component adds up to the machine’s performance. For effective working of a machine, every component needs to have proper dimensions and without any kind of impurities on it. The main objective of this work is to design and manufacture washing and cleaning unit. Whenever a manufacturing process takes place, it includes contact with oil, coolant and some amount of burr will accumulate on the surface of the component. These things are not acceptable when the component goes for further operations. To minimize the errors due to the presence of these impurities, a machine is designed and manufactured to clean the connecting rod with the help of water and air nozzles. Pneumatic cylinders are used to achieve smooth and noise free operation.

  101. Conte, M.J. and Roşca, I.C.

    Attributing the existence of three black holes on the two mass centers of gravity axis allows a more refined understanding of the gravity phenomenon. In the New Physics EVTD2 is the objects’ blackbody photon emission that actually creates photonic quantum fields, called gravitational in classical physics, who can generate mini black holes (MBH) that are electromagnetic effects. They appear, on the one hand, inwardly of the body in their centers of gravity (with pseudo-symmetry), and secondly, to the outside space, in zero resulting potential O between the two masses. So, the three MBH combine their effects, based on electromagnetism, in generating gravity of the general case but, also for the more particular, the free fall of bodies. Thus gravitation could link to electromagnetism and it no longer represent an independent force, but to attach, through its electromagnetic context, to the association electro-weak force. The uniqueness of the bodies’ free-fall case consists in almost juxtaposition of point O with the mass center of gravity of falling body, so it is inside of it. Therefore, the falling body mass itself does not matter for the acceleration of fall: indeed the balance is then in the attraction of MBH, for example those of the Earth on the other MBH, almost confused in the falling mass.

  102. Vipin Rawat and Ram sringar verma

    Encryptions and Decryptions are done using the public key and private key. These both keys are not stored on the client side or server side but only in the users devices like mobile, tablet in the form of Quick Response (QR) codes. This quick response codes can be used to Decrypt the users information and data. The Cloud computing standard as a new computing model which aim to provide reliable, Custom and quality of service certification in dynamic computing for the end users. Cloud computing enables customers with limited computational resources to out resource with their Big computational workload to the cloud, and storage, bandwidth power and even relevant software that can be shared in pay- per –use way. In this paper we must design a mechanism for protect information or data by using the encryption and decryption technique. And also protect the customers data and information from malicious Attacks or Behaviors.

  103. Humphrey Danso

    Impacting the skills required in producing soil blocks to building block manufacturers is important to ensure that high quality blocks are produced. This study evaluates the opinions of block manufacturers who were trained on the manufacturing process of fibre reinforced soil blocks. The study used a questionnaire to survey the views of the participants of workshop training organised for adobe block manufacturers in Ghana. It was found that: the cost of the fibre reinforced soil blocks houses will be affordable for those in the low-income bracket, the manufacturing of fibre reinforced soil blocks has little effect on the environment, and fibre reinforced soil blocks are useful to the society and can be used to produce durable houses. Furthermore, the process of producing the fibre reinforced blocks will be somehow difficult due to the manual process of preparing particularly the fibres. It was also found that the fibre reinforced soil blocks will be more useful in the rural areas where earthen construction is common. It is recommended that governments of developing countries should promote the use of fibre reinforced soil blocks in order to reduce housing deficit.

  104. Fardos M. Bokhari, Modi A. Alenisan and Amal B. Shori

    The effect of probiotic bacteria (Lactobacillus delbrueckii and Lactobacillus rhamnosus) on the growth of two toxigenic fungi Aspergillus flavus and Aspergillus parasiticus were investigated in vitro by the well-disc diffusion method. The concentrated and un-concentrated cell-free extracts were examined, and it was found that the effect was non significant on the growth of fungi. The effect of the metabolites produced by the probiotic bacteria affect the growth of, A. flavus on solid medium and exhibited inhibition zone of 16 mm (p ≤ 0.05) in the presence of L. delbrueckii and L. rhamnosus separately. However, the inhibition zone of A. parasiticus varied from 16-17mm (p ≤ 0.05) in the presence of L. delbrueckii and L. rhamnosus, respectively. Also, both bacterial strains showed a reduction of pH in the presence of A. flavus after the addition of L. delbrueckii (4.17-4.00) and L. rhamnosus (4.27-4.09), while in the presence of A. parasiticus, the pH decreased in the existence of L. delbrueckii (4.18-4.01) and L. rhamnosus (4.06-3.96). In addition, the lactic acid concentration of L. delbrueckii and L. rhamnosus were measured in the presence of the two tested fungi individually. It was noted that the acid concentration in the existence of A. flavus was 2.4% while in the existence of A. parasiticus was 2.3%. Furthermore, a significant decrease was observed in the counts of fungal spores of A. flavus and A. parasiticus after the addition of L. rhamnosus and L. delbrueckii, separately. Also, the probiotic strains significantly affect the morphological structure and reduced aflatoxin production of the tested fungi. These probiotic bacteria showed excellent properties for the possibility of using it to prevent fungal contamination to reduce economic loss of agriculture products as well as increase the nutritional value and therapeutic properties of food.

  105. Aditya Das

    This work is a standalone automatic fan speed controller that controls the speed of an electric fan according to our requirement. Use of embedded technology makes this closed loop feedback control system efficient and reliable. Microcontroller (ATMega8 / 168 / 328) allows dynamic and faster control. Liquid crystal display (LCD) makes the system user-friendly. The sensed temperature and fan speed level values are simultaneously displayed on the LCD panel. It is very compact using few components and can be implemented for several applications including air-conditioners, water-heaters, snow-melters, ovens, heat-exchangers, mixers, furnaces, incubators, thermal baths and veterinary operating tables. ARDUINO micro controller is the heart of the circuit as it controls all the functions. The temperature sensor LM35 senses the temperature and converts it into an electrical (analog) signal, which is applied to the microcontroller. The sensed and set values of the temperature are displayed on the 16x2-line LCD. The micro controller drives Transistor to control the fan speed. This project uses regulated 12V, 2A power supply. This project is useful in process industries for maintenance and controlling of Boilers temperature.

  106. Priti Khaire

    In this paper software defined optical networks (SDON), the centralized control plane may encounter numerous intrusion threatens which compromise the security level of provisioned services. In this current research paper, the issue of control plane security is studied and two machine-learning-based control plane intrusion detection techniques are proposed for SDON with properly selected features such as bandwidth, route length, In this paper, with the coordination of SDON and cloud platform, a multi-domain SDON architecture based on cloud control plane has been proposed, which is composed of data centers with database (DB), path computation element (PCE), SDON controller and orchestrator. In addition, the structure of the multidomain SDON orchestrator and Open Flow-enabled optical node are proposed to realize the combination of centralized and distributed effective management and control platform. As the focus of network security, Intrusion Detection Systems (IDS) are usually deployed separately without collaboration. They are also unable to detect novel attacks with limited intelligent abilities, which are hard to meet the needs of software defined 5G.

  107. Tshering Doma Lepcha and Robin Chettri

    Geomorphology sub-fields of physical geography which studies landforms on the earth’s surface. Geomorphic processes and its landforms are the major domain of the subject. Although, various types of landforms glacial, arid, aeolian, fluvial, etc have its own processes and system. Fluvial processes are conscientious for the frequently change the earth landscape compared to other processes. The fluvial landscape is dynamic in nature, river affects a land in three ways i.e. erosion, transportation, and deposition, with the help of fine to coarse-grained erosional tools viz. sand, pebbles, boulders, etc, these three activities of the river are inter-related. Study of fluvial landforms is out most important owing to major human activities are found on the river bank. Nonetheless, river valley of Tista has numerous urban settlement, rural settlement, transport, and industries. Being the valleys lies in the IV Zone of seismic zonation map of India, valleys are more vulnerable to natural extreme events.

  108. Dr. Dioscoro Y. Mancao, Jr

    The study aimed to utilize the waste crushed concrete pavement as recycled or processed coarse aggregate for base course in concrete roads. Specifically, it aimed to determine the physical properties of the processed aggregate derived from waste crushed concrete pavement in terms of gradation, abrasion loss, Atterberg’s Limits, Compaction test, California Bearing Ratio and Field Density Test. The study used the 65%/35% and the 50%/50% processed aggregate – natural aggregate proportioning and compared their physical properties with the natural aggregates in terms of the aforementioned parameters using ANOVA. A cost analysis was also conducted to determine the feasibility of the study. The 100 percent processed waste crushed concrete pavement aggregate passed the Particle size analysis test but failed in the Abrasion test. The 65 percent processed waste crushed concrete pavement aggregate blended with the 35 percent natural Daguitan aggregate y weight passed all the tests except the California Bearing Ratio test. The 50 percent processed waste crushed pavement aggregate blended with the 50 percent natural Daguitan aggregate by weight passed all the laboratory tests required of Item 201 (Base Course) materials. It can therefore be utilized as coarse aggregate for base course. The cost of obtaining one cubic meter of natural base course material is P850.00/cubic meter which is obviously more expensive than the processed aggregate which will cost only P600.00/cubic meter to process.

  109. Nancy Awadallah Awad

    Organizations are becoming increasingly vulnerable to potential cyber threats which defined as network intrusions. Intrusion Detection is basically providing the security or managing the flow of data, information, managing the access of the system to only authorized user. In adaptive false alarms filter a combination of machine learning algorithms is used to increase the classification accuracy of the system. The experimental results in this research show that the proposed J48, Decision Table and k-star techniques reducing the false alarm rate and improving the accuracy. The new NSL-KDD dataset is used, which is applied with WEKA tool.

  110. Promi Halder, Mukta, K. N. and Mamun, A. A.

    This research focuses on the " Quality of service The nonlinear propagation of electron-ion (El) acoustic solitary waves in a degenerate quantum plasma (containing relativistic magnetized quantum electrons and light ions in presence of stationary heavy ions) have been theoretically investigated. The Korteweg-de Vries (K-dV) and modified K-dV (mK-dV) equations are derived by adopting the reductive perturbation method. Their stationary solutions are derived and analyzed analytically as well as numerically to study some new basic fea¬tures of the El acoustic solitary structures that are commonly found to exist in degenerate quantum plasma. It is found that the basic properties (viz. amplitude, width, and phase speed, etc.) of the El acoustic waves are significantly modified by the effects of relativistic ally degenerate electrons and light ions, quantum pressure, number densities of plasma particles, and external magnetic field, etc. The results of this theoretical investigation may be useful for understanding the formation and fea¬tures of the solitary structures in astrophysical compact objects like white dwarfs, neutron stars, etc.

  111. Jiji Rossi

    Background And Objective: The objective of this study was to access the stress patterns in the periodontal ligament of a central incisor with different root morphologies on different orthodontic loads, using the linear, non-linear and viscoelastic finite element analysis and to quantify the optimal force levels for roots with different root morphologies. Materials and Method: A finite element model of a maxillary central incisor with different root morphologies was taken and 60g of tipping forces were applied. The stress patterns and magnitude in the periodontal ligament was observed for linear, non-linear and viscoelastic properties of the PDL and were compared with the optimal stress range (0.012-0.020 MPa). Results: It was observed that, the stress patterns produced in the PDL on tipping were similar for linear, nonlinear and viscoelastic properties of the PDL. The magnitude of stress, varied for all three analyses. For 60gms of tipping forces, it was seen that, the stress produced were least in linear and highest in viscoelastic analyses. The force applied was decreased in increments of 0.1 gms by iteration, to obtain an minimal stress in the periodontal ligament (0.012 Mpa). It was observed that the force levels had to drop down by two fold in viscoelastic analysis in tooth with different root morphologies. Conclusion: From the results obtained, it was observed that the force levels required to produce the same amount of stresses in the PDL of a upper incisor, were the least in viscoelastic analysis, followed by non linear and the maximum in linear analysis. The optimal force levels recommended for tipping in central incisor with normal root morphology is in accordance with the normal values given by Profitt, but optimal force levels varies in tooth with different root morphologies. Considering that the viscoelastic properties depicts a more realistic behaviour of the PDL, the force levels have to be closely monitored when teeth with different root morphologies is encountered.

  112. Manvinder Singh, and Misra, S.N.

    The aim of this paper is to study the market phenomena of demonetization in India. We are using a phenomenological approach to study this phenomenon as it focuses not on event or causes and factors responsible for it but on the way it is perceived and experienced by people from various walks of life in India. For this paper we used a narrative research approach and interviewed a sample of 6 people in India from various walks of life and social status. Most past research on market phenomena which is financial in nature is biased towards analysis of broader economic factors. But we decided to explore the phenomena as experienced by people as we believe that phenomenological approach can give us new insights on the events and the understanding the event as it is. Phenomenological research methods are more effective in looking at non-normative factors which can challenge conventional wisdom.

  113. Dr. Ahmad Musseng, SE, M.Si,

    This study aims to determine the accountability analysis of accounting for cash receipts in cash PT. Prima Unggul to control system that is system of authority and responsibility especially to accountancy function and perform all phases of a transaction to give adequate protection to wealth, debt, income, and cost (Library Research). Data analysis using descriptive analysis method, that is by analyzing data from research object to describe or give description of the object under study. The results showed that accountancy accountability as cash receipt is quite good and in accordance with procedures at the company PT. Prima Unggul the implication of this study is that the elements involved in accounting the cash recipient accountability to the completion stage of accounting maximally.

  114. Karunarathne, M.S.H.U

    The power struggle between India and China is significant in contemporary world politics.Since2009 military victory of Sri Lankan government against separatist movement of Tamil minority, its relationship with India turned out to be controversial as the latter emphasized for political solution while China addresses economic development of the county which was more attractive for then government and majority Sinhalese masses. On above context it is expected to find out the implications of China and Sri Lanka relationship on Indian aspirations and one of the main objectives is to identify India and China’s geostrategic interests and another objective is to identify China’s strategies and their implications on India. To that end documentary analysis and descriptive analysis has been used on secondary data gathered from data triangulation method. Descriptive statistics describe main features of the data in the study providing simple graphical analysis. China invested heavily in Sri Lanka and other rim states to achieve all round opening up and establishing landscape of economic cooperation. China’s overwhelming intimacy with Sri Lanka in terms of trade, investments and diplomatic relations creates fear psychosis in India so as to consider China as a threat to India. Indian continuous emphasis on political solution for Sri Lanka’s ethnic crisis resulted Sri Lanka’s tilt towards China who dint interfere its domestic politics. Indian aspirations over Sri Lanka indicate comparatively unstable condition with China. Sri Lanka needs to reevaluate Chinese projects and should have second thought on the role of India for a balanced triangular relationship.

  115. María José Flores Tena

    The project that I intend to plan, implement and evaluate will have the purpose of carrying out an intervention to promote a mediation program of gender education; with which it would seek to improve relations between peers influenced by gender stereotypes, by providing models of the relationship between men and women based on equal opportunities and mutual recognition and respect. With the design and implementation of this project I intend, ultimately, to advance in the achievement of a student body and, in general, of a future society more sensitive to values that are unavoidable to the human being such as gender equality. Of the students in the first place because it would be carried out within a group of students of a Program of prevention, monitoring and control of school absenteeism, within their daily work. The profound sociocultural changes that have taken place in recent decades in Western societies, which are related to the conception of men and women that has dominated our culture and, especially, to the progress made in the situation of women as subjects with rights.

  116. Bindhu, V.M.

    Family Apostolate Training and Research Institute (FATRI) stands for the families. It has a significant role for uplifting the families in the society today. In 1987, the congregation of Holy Family started FATRI at Velur, Kerala in order to equip the members more adequately to respond to the challenges of the modern world by empowering the family. FATRI is grateful to the people who molded it into the form of today. FATRI implies the families towards Holiness and Wholeness. In the current scenario, families are sick and unhealthy due to various reasons. FATRI diagnoses and researches the problems of family, guides and directs towards a blissful family, motivates and inspires to live a model family, empowers and strengthens the relationship of the family and helps to harmonize and unite the people. FATRI has contributed its share to wipe out the tears of the people, reinforce to practice new ways of life and steer to uplift the spiritual life of the modern man. FATRI provides a range of training courses in family apostolate, counselling, and psychology which helps the individual to cope better with life.

  117. Şaban ACAR and Dr. Mustafa Zahit SERARSLAN

    The purpose of this study is to assess whether the continuous running, which has an important place in the planning of soccer training, to be implemented by a 16-year-old football player at the beginning and at the end of the training in terms of the endurance development of the athletes. Target population of the study is 16 years old football players in Turkey. However, the material universe was designated as the Feriköy Sports Club operating in Istanbul. An example of this study in this context is the Feriköy Sports Club-16, which operates in Istanbul, and the samples are volunteers among the athletes. Sample individuals consist of a total of 28 people in two groups of 14 persons. This research is designed according to the relational screening model. It has been implemented over 8 week period. In the year 2016, months of ...; training of first group was provided at the start of the first group training, while the other group was subjected to continuous running tests at the end of the training. The obtained data were analyzed with the help of SPSS program and expressed in tables. As a result of this evaluation, it was observed that the continuous running at the beginning of the training and the continuous running at the end of the training affected the endurance of the athlete. Continuous running at the end of the training was evaluated to be more efficient in terms of endurance development.

  118. Sathish Kumar, R. and Dr. Sathyamurthi, K.

    Substance Use Disorder is conquering the younger generation of our world with a mighty hand of Multi Substance prevalence. The problem of substance use disorder is universal and in India, nearly 55,000 Adolescents per day are drawn into tobacco usage (Child Line). Substance Usage is high not only in the urban cities of India but also in villages. Substance has penetrated even the farthest corners of India. This Study attempts to compare the prevalence of substance use disorder among adolescents of an Urban Slum and a Village. The study was carried out in two areas (one urban slum – Chetpet and one Village – Vengal) with 30 respondents from each area selected through snowball sampling. The study finds that adolescents of the study areas are very much vulnerable to substance usage due to high availability of substance and varied influences and exposure to substance. It describes the physical, psychological and social issues faced by the substance using respondents. This paper gives a comparison of the prevalence and consequences of substance use disorder among adolescents of an urban slum and a village.

  119. Kisman Karinda

    This research focuses on the " Quality of service Bureaucracy against the Behavior of population in Luwuk Banggai Regency, Subdistrict "research activities is expected to contribute to the assessment of the quality of service Bureaucracy Behavior of population in Luwuk Banggai Regency, Sub district. This Research Method using descriptive eksplanatori. This research uses techniques of quantitative analysis obtained by the respondent's statement contained on the questionnaire data, and for checking the accuracy of the data is done also interviews, observation and documentation. Whereas in describing data obtained quantitatively used descriptive statistics, this was done in this study to obtain the correct information. Based on the results of the spread of the now questioner to the respondent that the quality of service Bureaucracy against the Behavior of population in Luwuk Banggai Regency, Sub district belongs well with gains average score was 75.24%.

  120. Dr. Chelliah, S.

    This paper throws light upon Structuralism and its place in New Literary Criticism. Structuralism provides innovative grounds for the analysis of literature. It represents an attempt to rethink everything in terms of linguistics. It aims to reveal the universal structure of language as a constructed system of rules. Structuralism is built on the founding stone of Saussurrean linguistics. Bringing back home, Structuralism as sign a new role to the reader in the process of reading which makes a sense in the activity of reading.

  121. Dr. Sk. Shahida Saheb and Dr. CH. Venkata Krishna Reddy

    The researcher starts this study to find a solution on the country’s banking industry credit risk management. The researcher evaluates this banks credit risk management practice by the credit risk management principles Basel committee on bank supervision. Because if the banks can manage their credit risk the availability of finance will be better and initiate the investors to invest more. The researcher tailored the methodology well framed and persistent to the objective. Normative natured comparative study was conducted targeting two specific banks, with a mixed approach. data was planned to be from primary and secondary sources by wise use of purposive sampling. To find better practice that suit the country’s economy and market the author compare two banks and identified their good practices and their gaps, and tip them with best practice of Central bank of Malaysia. The researcher learns there is even lesson to learn from one bank to other more than going outside to get best practices. And it seems NBE is playing a crucial role on providing directives and supervising their performance. The increase and volatility of NPL indicates there is lack of skill and knowledge in the banks to shape their strategy. And the increase in NPL exposes the bank to deterioration of their profit because NBE obliged them to hold provision by different percent in each classification of NPL. The banks are better to evaluate the payback culture and ability of borrowers rather than relying on collateral. The researcher recommend the banks to tailored their policy, strategy, procedure and manual according to their banks complexity.

  122. Silva, D. P. M., Bertollino, M. and Gunathilake, K. V. K

    Background: Marine sponges are well renowned for producing bioactive secondary metabolites with drug leads. Screening of anti-inflammatory compounds from marine sponges is highly appreciated in the field of marine pharmacognosy due to their effectiveness and specificity over the most of synthetic non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs. In vitro models to test anti-inflammatory activity are considered obligatory prior to pre-clinical studies. Objective: To evaluate in vitro anti-inflammatory effect of crude extracts of five marine sponge samples (N=5), collected from Dehiwala, Colombo, Sri Lanka. Methodology: Identification of sponge species were based on morphology, spicule and skeleton analysis, using light microscopy. Each sponge crude extract (SCE) was tested for selected zoo-chemicals and against the denaturation of albumin to assess the anti-inflammatory activity. Diclofenac sodium was used as the reference drug. Results: Sponge samples were identified as 1) Stylissa sp, 2) Stylissa carteri, 3) Axinella sp., 4) Phakellia sp. and 5) Family Axinellidae. Zoo-chemical analysis indicated the presence of alkaloids, saponins, terpenoids, and sterols in sponge extracts in varying degree. Heat induced egg albumin denaturation was inhibited by 4 SCEs specifying marked anti-inflammatory activity. Accordingly, the 3 sponge crude extracts were more potent (IC50 = 22.74 for Sp. 02, 3.98 for Sp. 03 and 63.665µgmL -1for Sp. 05) than the of standard reference drug, Diclofinac sodium (IC50=147.02 µg/mL). Conclusions: Thus, the present study for the first time investigated in vitro anti-inflammatory activity of crude extract of 5 selected marine sponge species from Sri Lanka, out of which 3 were more potent than the reference diclofenac sodium. Therefore, isolation and characterization of bioactive compounds which are responsible for anti- inflammatory activity will lead to discover novel marine derived anti-inflammatory drugs in the future.

  123. Adya Jain, Shikha Singh, Kautily Rao Tiwari, Neeraj Kumar and Radha Tomar

    This protocol deals with novel method for the synthesis and characterization of Zeolite Linde type- L by hydrothermal method using PTFE-lined stainless steel autoclave. The synthesized zeolite LTL was used as catalyst for the Hantzsch reaction mechanism for the synthesis of Acridine-1, 8- dione derivatives. Efficiency of Zeolite-LTL has been observed at various parameters (i.e. different solvent, temperature, catalyst concentration, time interval and catalytic recycling) over the percentage yield of various derivatives. Synthesis of 9, 10-Diarylacridine-1, 8-dione was carried out by single-pot Hantzsch condensation reaction, which includes three component reactants i.e. aldehyde, amine and 5, 5-Dimethyl-1, 3- cyclohexanedione (dimedone). Expeditious with excellent Yield of synthesized drug intermediates from H-LTL was found to be 98.88% in ethanol at 90ºC. The synthesized zeolites sample were characterized by the help of FT-IR, XRD, BET Surface Area Analysis and SEM while the synthesis of drug derivatives were confirmed by FT-IR, 1H-NMR and LC-MS.

  124. Tsegaye Tadesse Tsega

    The study of functions, characteristics and phenomena observed in the living beings, in order to apply such knowledge in the conception of new techniques and in the creation of new devices and machines. Having parts of the body that are electronic, and therefore able to do things that are not possible for normal humans. For such conception of knowledge we use two terms Bionics and Biomimetics. Bionics is Application of biological information to machines: the study of biological function and mechanics, and their application to machine design. Use of electronically operated replacement organs: the use of electronic devices to replace damaged limbs and organs, the study and the construction of systems that function like (part of) living beings. Biomimicity is imitating their models, or valorizing their knowledge, or changing the paradigm of just extracting, by learning from nature, or by doing the things in the way that nature does. Now these knowledge is grown unto; developing tissue and organ in the lab, creating artificial human, and increasing the live of the human being or even live forever.

  125. Yashit Kumar, Manoj K Verma and Munish K Mishra

    The Drug trade is a highly organized and creates a global black market economy that is responsible for the crime. However, in case of individuals who consume drugs excessively and commit crimes. These issues play an important role in understanding the risk of crime and drug use. Most addicts should be held liable for most criminals motivated by addiction, but that addiction can affect one’s capacity for self-control over one’s action. Drugs in the form of powders, tablets and capsules, living plants or dried vegetable matter and in liquid are encountered in the Forensic Science Laboratory as Suspected Drugs. The aim of this paper is to describe the most common methods for testing suspected drugs like benzodiazepines, opium, marijuana, etc by physio-chemical method, and recommend the most appreciate analysis by Thin Layer Chromatography for the determination of its purity through Rf value. Drug analysis serves as a formal reference for forensic consideration to identification of suspected drugs that are commonly abused and help the court to determine appreciate sentencing.

  126. Dorcas, M., Mehtab Yasmeen and Amena

    Study of microbial diversity is important to understand the microbial ecology and their impact on human and other living beings in the ecosystem. In this study an attempt is made on how the solid waste is becoming breeding ground for the microorganisms thereby causing unpleasant atmosphere to the living beings. Physical properties of the soils pH, soil temperature and soil moisture is recorded and correlated with the microorganism inhabiting the wastes. The mean pH ranges from 6.5 to 7.7, average temperature was from 250C to 28 0C for both non-dumping and dumping sites and percentage of soil moisture was 1% to 2%.Total bacterial counts in dumpsites were 2.62x106cfu/g, 2.25x106 cfu/g,2.85x106cfu/g, 3.01x106cfu/g and non-dumpsites were 1.28x106cfu/g,1.25x106 cfu/g, 2.85x106, 2.42x106cfu/g, The total fungal counts in the dump sites5.21x103cfu/g, 4.64x103cfu/g, 2.84x103cfu/g, 4.42x103cfu/g and non-dump sites were3.68x103 cfu/g, 2.22x103 cfu/g, 3.21x103 cfu/g, 2.82x103cfu/g. Some of the bacterial species isolated were Bacillus spp., Escherichia coli, Micrococcus spp., Pseudomonas spp.and Staphylococcus spp. Dominant fungal species were Aspergillus niger, A, fumigatus , A. flavus,, A. candidus, Chaetomium spp., Fusarium spp., Phoma spp., Mucor spp., and Yeast.

  127. Jyoti Sharma, Prahlad Dube

    Zooplankton is defined as drifting ecologically important organisms that are an integral component of the food chain and also evaluate the ecological status of water bodies. Ecologically zooplankton are one of the most important biotic components influencing all the functional aspects of an aquatic ecosystem such as food chains, food webs, energy flow and cycling of matter. Zooplankton population is very useful indicator for biological, physical and chemical process of aquatic system because they are strongly affected by environmental conditions and respond quickly to changes in water quality. The most important types of zooplankton include the radiolarians, foraminiferans, dino flagellates, cnidarians, crustaceans (including larvae), molluscs, echinoderm larvae and chordates. Zooplankton are the intermediate link between phytoplankton and fish. Hence, diversity and seasonal variation studies of zooplankton are of great importance in water bodies. The present paper deals with the review of available published literature during the present century and that cover the above mention areas of zooplankton biology. The literature reviewed clearly suggests us to conclude that in spite of such a voluminous work done by many scientists, still there are some gaps in terms of geographical or biological aspects. Considering Rajasthan, and Hadoti region specifically, many river systems need extensive study and it may be safely expected to find out some new genera species and this information can be utilized to solve food scarcity problem in the world.

  128. Maruthi Krishna Goud, K. and Arpitha

    Introduction: Now-a-days the smoking has been increased to a peak level not only in adults but also in youngsters. Smoking has various patho physiological effects among which the effect on hearing sensitivity is one, which has adverse effects on audition. Aim of the Study: To compare the effects of smoking on hearing sensitivity in active and passive smokers. Methodology: The study has been carried out on twenty males who have smoke exposure since 2 years, without any history of other health issues and hearing problems. The twenty subjects were divided into two groups in which one consist of 10 active smokers and other consists of 10 passive smokers. All the selected subjects were administered the conventional pure tone audiometry, speech audiometry, immittance, reflexometry, and Otoacoustic emission and the data were recorded. Results: The following study shows that active smokers have more hearing sensitivity decrement than passive smoking the mean hearing loss in Right ear is 42dB and left ear is 45.5dB in active smokers and in passive smokers 28dB in Rt ear and 23dB in Lt ear. The pure tone audiometric results were correlated with speech recognition thresholds and speech discrimination scores and it shows no much effect on SRT and SDS. Impedance audiometric results also show no effect on middle ear functions and all subjects have shown “A” type tympanogram. Reflexiometric results show that 70% of active smokers are with absent reflexes and 30% of active smokers are with elevated reflexes where as 80% of passive smokers are with elevated reflexes and 20% of passive smokers are with absent reflexes.OAE results show that 50% of the active smokers were passed and 50% were failed where as 80% of passive smokers were passed and 20% were failed. On an average, the active smokers have shown more hearing sensitivity decrement than passive smokers.

  129. Maruthi Krishna Goud, K. and Arpitha

    Metabolic disorder is a flashing issue in aging group. The controlled medication helps the population to lead life easily but the same way increases a factor as high risk to auditory sensory impairment Aim: To evaluate the impact of metabolic impairment on hearing status. Objective • To find the auditory findings in the metabolic disorders. • To estimate the role of audiologist in the metabolic disorders. Methodology: The subjects with metabolic disorders as diabetic, Febry, Auto immune disease and rheumatoid arthritis were taken for this study and undergone the audological evaluation for the estimation of the hearing threshold. The audiological test battery includes the conventional frequency audiometry, immittance audiometry, otoacoustic emissions. Results: Results show that the audiologial evaluation of the metabolic disorders subjects may have various hearing disorders as Progressive hg loss, sudden sensorineural hearing loss, fluctuating hearing loss, idiopathic sudden senseorineural hearing loss.

  130. Ridhima Seth

    The purpose of this study is to critically analyse studies that are related to the use of probiotics to manage common oral diseases like dental caries, gingival and periodontal diseases as well as oral malodour. There is considerable evidence available supporting the fact that oral health has impact on general health and vice versa. Therefore, oral care is an important consideration in maintaining quality of life. Due to the increasing resistance to antibiotics, there is a need to minimise antibiotic use and develop novel treatments for oral diseases that do not involve conventional antimicrobial agents. Preventive approaches based upon the restoration of the microbial ecological balance, rather than elimination of the disease associated species, have been proposed. Thus, there is a desire for more ‘natural’ therapies. Probiotics form the cornerstone of such biotherapy. Probiotics have potential to prevent and control these diseases by more effectively addressing the host-microbial interface to restore homeostasis that may not be achieved with conventional treatments. While this beneficial effect was originally thought to stem from improvements in the intestinal microbial balance, there is now substantial evidence that probiotics can also provide benefits by modulating immune functions. Thus, an accurate characterization of the disease systems and mechanisms of inflammation will not only enable us to measure the impact between multiple diseases and develop new therapeutics, but will also help to develop a “personalized” treatment approach specifically targeting the susceptible individual rather than prescribing the same treatment to all subjects regardless of the underlying cause.

  131. Megha Rastogi, Milind Davane and Basavraj Nagoba

    Asymptomatic bacteriuria is the presence of at least 105 colony forming units/ml of one or two bacterial species in a clean-voided midstream urine sample from an individual without any symptoms of urinary tract infections. The prevalence of asymptomatic bacteriuria is influenced by various risk factors. In the present review, an attempt has been made to review the various risk factors associated with asymptomatic bacteriuria, pathophysiology of asymptomatic bacteriuria and its clinical presentation.

  132. Kra Kouamé Daniel, Toualy Marie Noel Yeyeh and ATTA Diallo Hortense

    The health status of treated banana bunches in three boxes was assessed 48 hours and 21 days of storage for two consecutive years. The colonies grown on bananas after the conservation periods were isolated, identified and counted by fungal genus. Similarly, developed symptoms on bananas have been described. The prevalence of each observed postharvest disease was evaluated. The prevalence of crown rot ranged from 4 to 98% while the necrosis of the epicarp and the decay of the distal end ranged respectively from 0 to 70 and 0 to 61%. A pathogenicity test of fungi associated with the most prevalent disease was performed. Molecular identification of those responsible fungi of the most prevalent disease was done and phylogeny of these isolates was established. White mould was observed on the surface of banana end fingers after 48 hours without noticeable symptoms. However necrosis of the epicarp and crown rots and the distal end of bananas were observed after 21 days of conservation. Banana crown rot was the most prevalent postharvest disease. The pathogenicity test and molecular analysis showed that Phellinus noxius and Botryodiplodia theobromae were identified as the causative agents of banana crown rot disease in Côte d’Ivoire.

  133. Dr. Muneera Qassim Al-Mssallem

    Women in Islamic society have an important position and all their rights should be guaranteed, including the right of education according to the Islamic law. The education of Saudi women has received a great deal of attention since the time of King Abdul Aziz. This paper addresses the role of Agricultural and Food Sciences College at King Faisal University in educating and empowering Saudi women. A descriptive and quantitative analysis was carried out based on secondary data obtained from the annual King Faisal University statistics and Saudi Ministry of Education statistics. The results showed that the number of female students was about 14% for the academic year 1978-1979, and it has grown to 68% for the academic year 2016-2017. The role of the college also opened the door for female students to complete their master degree in 2005-2006. The College has also been keen to employ and recruit highly qualified staff, giving some opportunities for leadership positions. The college staff were confident of carrying the message they received from their college, achieving the vision of the college towards excellence in education, scientific research and community service. This definitely fulfills Saudi’s Vision 2030 through equal opportunities in education and empowerment. This study recommends that it is necessary to ensure the participation of female Saudi staff in promising researches and facilitate their access to the University laboratories and research centers.

  134. Rahangdale, P. K., Jaiswal, M. R., Shende, S. S. and Dhote, P.R

    Resorcinol (R), Semicarbazine (S) and Formaldehyde (F) were taken as starting materials for synthesis of new terpolymer which has been abbreviated as ‘RSF-III’. Acid catalysed condensation polymerization method was adopted for the synthesis. This terpolymer was characterized using modern techniques like FTIR, 1H-NMR, XRD and SEM. On the basis of physicochemical and spectral evidences the most possible chemical structure has been elucidated for the novel polymer. The number average molecular weight of this polymer has been determined with the help of conductometric titration method in non aqueous media. The applicability of this novel polymer under investigation towards its biological (antibacterial) activities has been studied against standards. The experimental biological activities have been compared to draw final conclusion for microbs like E. coli, C. albicans, S. aureus and P. aeruginosa. The polymer under present investigation has been found to possess very good biological activities for above quoted microorganisms.

  135. Dr. Prachi Nayak, Dr. Himanshu Singh and Dr. Sushruth Nayak

    Mast cells play a crucial role in the inflammation phenomenon in oral mucosa. The mast cells show presence of cytoplasmic granules which comprises of heparin, histamine and chondroitin sulphate. Mast cells can be demonstrated by using some special stains like toluidine blue and modified astra blue technique. They perform various functions and also play a major role in various oral diseases.

  136. Tabasum Unnisa and Tanveer Fatima

    Diabetes mellitus is a major metabolic disorder. The acute and chronic complications of diabetes mellitus are major cause of blindness, renal failure, limb amputations, stroke, coronary heart diseases, diabetic foot, hypertension and other complications. Recent studies has provided with an unequivocal evidence for the crucial role of prolonged hyperglycaemia induce damage of the kidneys, eyes, nerves and arteries still remains to be observations. Studies shows that the occurrence and progression of these complications were prevented by the optimal control of blood glucose, hypertension and dyslipidaemia. Lifestyle changes such as weight control, increase physical exercise and smoking cessation are also potentially beneficial in preventing diabetes mellitus. Furthermore, morbidity and mortality caused by diabetes mellitus can be reduced by secondary prevention such as regular screening, early detection and appropriate treatment of chronic complications are improved. Diabetes education is needed among diabetes populations. An adequate healthcare resources were allocated for the primary and secondary prevention of diabetic complications. Compiled data was subjected through graphical representation and statistical analysis. The study was conducted with sample size of 150 among males and female. Questionnaires were used for survey and chi-square test was applied. 57% of the male subjects knew diabetic nephropathy, and the remaining 43% were unaware of the same. Coming to female subjects, 69% of them were of them were aware of diabetic nephropathy and the remaining 31% weren’t aware of it. 72% of the male subjects reported they knew diabetic retinopathy and the remaining 28% of the male subjects were unaware of the same. Coming to female subjects, 57% of them reported they knew about diabetic Retinopathy and the remaining 43% didn’t know about it. 63% of the male subjects were aware that diabetes is the cause for heart diseases while the remaining 37% weren’t. In the same manner 57% of the female subjects were aware that diabetes is the cause for heart diseases and the left 43% were unaware of it. Awareness was created among diabetic people through poster regarding proper dietary habits, regular exercise, regular blood sugar levels and knowledge regarding acute and chronic complications.

  137. Chaitali Pandya and Sharma L. K

    In this review, we present a comprehensive and critical survey on image-based plant leaf disease prediction techniques. Diseases in plants cause major production and economic losses in agricultural industry worldwide. Monitoring of health and detection of diseases in plants and trees is critical for sustainable agriculture. To the best of our knowledge, there is no sensor commercially available for real-time assessment of health conditions in trees. Currently, scouting is most widely used mechanism for monitoring stress in trees, which is an expensive, labor-intensive, and time-consuming process. Molecular techniques such as polymerase chain reaction are used for the identification of plant diseases that require detailed sampling and processing procedure. Early information on crop health and disease detection can facilitate the control of diseases through proper management strategies such as vector control through pesticide applications, fungicide applications, and disease-specific chemical applications; and can improve productivity. The aim of this research is to propose and evaluate a framework for detection of plant leaf diseases. Studies show that relying on pure naked-eye observation of experts to detect such diseases can be prohibitively expensive, especially in developing countries.

  138. Sulthana Begam, M.

    The aim of the present study is to evaluate the in vivo gastro protective and antioxidant activity of the marine red algae Griffithsia Pacifica Kylin (GPK) against indomethacin (IND)-induced gastric ulcer on experimental rats. The results revealed by the ethanolic extract of GPK produced significant reduction in gastric mucosal lesions, malondialdehyde (MDA), and tumour necrosis factor - α (TNF-α) associated with a remarkable increase in gastric juice, mucin content and gastric mucosal catalase (CAT), Nitric oxide (NO), and Prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) levels. The volume and acidity of the gastric juice decreased in pretreated rats. The GPK algae extract was elevated in the gastric juice of rats untreated has showed near normal levels in pretreated rats. The GPK were able to decrease acidity and increase the mucosal defense in the gastric area. Ranitidine (RAN) significantly increased pH value and decreased pepsin activity and gastric juice free and total acidity. The antiulcer effect was further confirmed histologically. Finally the current study justifying the traditional usage of these GPK to treat gastric ulcers.

  139. Biniyam Shimelis, Nigussie Abeye and G. Venkat Reddy

    The aim of this paper to evaluate generalized fractional integral operator involving the product of the general class of polynomials associated with the Aleph-function. Some interesting special cases of our main results are also considered.

  140. Maryam N. Hamad and Saife D. Al-Ahmer

    The staphylococci are most frequently isolated from clinical specimens in the microbiology laboratory. These bacteria are widespread in nature and can be recovered from environment or as commensally inhabitants of the skin, mucous membranes and other body sites in humans and animals. Aim of the current study was to Identify the different coagulase positive (CoPS) and coagulase negative (CoNS) Staphylococcus species includes S. aureus, S. lugdunensis, S. epidermidis, and S. hominis isolated from sinusitis’s patients by multiplex PCR. In this study nasal swabs from 150 patients were used for culture, VITEK 2 system and multiplex PCR analysis. Multiplex PCR was performed with species-specific primers targeted to the nuc gene of S. aureus, S. lugdunensis, S. epidermidis, and S. hominis. The result of the multiplex PCR was compared with conventional culture,VITEK 2 system methods. The positive multiplex PCR product was identified by presence of ~359 bp, ~659 bp, ~251 bp and ~ 177 amplicons of nuc gene for the S. aureus, S. lugdunensis, S. epidermidis, and S. hominis, reaspectively. Conventional methods of Staphylococcus culture, VITEK 2 system, showed that to sum up 100 out of 150 nasal swabs were detected for Staphylococcus species; To sum up 31 out of 100 nasal swabs were detected for S. aureus, 16 out of 100 nasal swabs were detected for S. lugdunensis, 10 out of 100 nasal swabs were detected for S. epidermidis, 6 out of 100 nasal swabs were detected for S. hominis and 37 out of 100 nasal swabs were detected for other Staphylococcus species. Five of the 60 samples that were negative by conventional methods were positive by multiplex PCR. Statistical analysis revealed that the PCR to have a sensitivity of 95.5 % in the detection of Staphylococcus species in sinusitis. This multiplex PCR method provides a sensitive, rapid, and reliable alternative to conventional methods to identify Staphylococcus species isolated from patients clinically diagnosed with sinusitis.

  141. Daida Sharath, Berhe Tekle Tajura and Solomon

    Pyrolysis of waste plastic is a prospective way of conversion of waste plastic into hydrocarbon fuel. The present research is focused on the conversion of waste plastic into hydrocarbon fuel by two processes namely vacuum and catalytic cracking (activated granulated charcoal, activated granulated charcoal with calcium oxide and calcium oxide). Waste plastic materials polyethylene, polypropylene and polystyrene were collected from local convenience store packing materials. Waste plastic material pyrolysis was conducted as individual plastics and as mixed feed in laboratory scale of flask. Hydrocarbon molecules from the basic materials are split under the impact of catalyst inside the flask in 100–267 °C. The reduction of process takes place from 500–600 °C to 267 °C in the presence of catalyst. The analyses of pyrolysis products suggested that it can be used as a viable alternative to motor fuel. The comparison of the GC-FID (TPH) report of the obtained oil with that of the commercial petrol clearly proves that the prepared oil is composed of petrol components.

  142. Dadarao Dhone

    One may see that, planets with no atmosphere like Mars; have not sufficient magnetic field, though whose core is solid nickel iron. And, here is the root of this innovative theoretical paper. We learn that the cause and origin of Earth's magnetic field is its iron core. But, to magnetize an iron core; a magnetic field is to be applied to hot iron in one direction continuously during its smooth cooling process. There is Ionosphere around Earth atop its atmosphere. The ionosphere of Earth contains electrical charges. The ionosphere rotates around Earth in opposite direction of its rotation about its own axis. Then as per electromagnetic laws; the ionosphere must be generating and providing magnetic field passing through Earth's iron core constantly. Then working on this theme electromagnetically, it is found that, the magnetic field of Earth is due to the Earth's Ionosphere. The iron core provides it low reluctance path. The Earth's magnetic field is very complex at its poles, always unstable. This is because of complex nature of ionosphere, containing +ve ions in ionosphere nearer to Earth's surface and -ve charges beyond it. Thus the basic theoretical computational study in respect of the ionosphere and iron core of Earth, and Mars as support to it; is performed in this innovative original paper.

  143. Nikhil, U., Nikhil Chandra, P., Akash Jain and Oshin Sharma

    The objective of this project is to build an air traffic prediction system. The air traffic prediction plays a key role in the air traffic flow management system. The air traffic information in each regional control center is not integrated together in order to utilize complete data stored at each of them. Large collection of data is stored, but there is no effort made to extract useful information from the database to help in the estimation of flight delays, air traffic in any particular sector, etc. Statistics is frequently applied to data mining with various objectives. This project employs statistical analysis of historical data to forecast the air traffic. This project will use these methods to deduce optimal prediction of air traffic.

  144. Moh.Tarom, Nasrul Ilminnafik and Robertoes Koekoeh K. Wibowo

    The output of diesel engine combustion is strongly influenced by the characteristics of the fuel spray. An important role in the process of forming a mixture of fuel and air is to develop the characteristics of fuel spray, which will directly affect the combustion and emissions process. The characteristics of fuel spray depend on fuel injection pressure, fuel viscosity, fuel density, ambient pressure, and temperature. Among the parameters that are very important and directly affect the shape of the spray is ambient pressure. With injection pressure set at 200 Bar and all experiments with spray pressure chamber 1 Bar, 4 Bar, 7 Bar and 9 Bar. This study investigated the effect of ambient pressure on spray characteristics such as spray tip penetration, cone angle, spray time and spray area in constant volume spray chamber by using spray visualization. Biodiesel from nyamplung oil was varied in this study BD 20 (20% nyamplung oil, 80% diesel oil), BD 40 (40% nyamplung oil, 60% diesel oil), BD 60 (60% nyamplung oil, 40% diesel oil) and pure diesel D 0. The record of fuel mixture was immortalized using a high-speed camera, iso speed 800, exposure time 1/125 sec. The results fo the macro-analysis showed that with increasing spray pressure level will cause spray tip penetration decreases but cone angle and spray area will increase. BD 60 gives penetration of the longest spray tip, cone angle and spray area widest while BD 20 and D 0 diesel have similar sprayed characteristics.

  145. Mohammad Okour

    Behavioral health problems are common and have a great impact on the patients. Therefore, delivering the services behavioral health within the main care setting improves access for caring produces improved patient outcomes. This study aimed at studying the followed methods to incorporate behavioral health services into primary care programs in order to build a base for any contributions for innovative models and methods to incorporate behavioral health services into primary care programs. In this study the Primary Care Behavioral Health (PCBH), IMPACT model, Three-component model, Reverse integration and Telemedicine models were reviewed.

  146. Issar Kapadia, Purav Patel, Nilesh Dholiya and Nikunj Patel

    A water tank is a container for storing water. The need for a water tank is as old civilization, to provide storage of water for use in many applications, drinking water, irrigation agricultural, fire suppression, agricultural farming, chemical manufacturing as well as many other uses. A ground water storage tanks (or surface tanks) are used for ground storage of potable drinking water, wastewater, treated water, rainwater collection, etc. And it is designed as crack free structures to eliminate any leakage. An overhead water tank is an efficient water distribution system. The basic purpose of elevated water tanks is to secure constant water supply with sufficient flow to wide area by gravity. Commonly, For Overhead Water Tank, we mostly design against overturning so for this a Ground Water Tank provided to minimise the effect of same and this will meant (performed) as wall. From these things we may achieve more storage as at ground as well at top of water tank. So for this. In this research, considered a new idea that is Combined Rectangular Water Tank in which combination of Rectangular Surface Water tank and Rectangular Overhead Water Tankare taken as together. For the given water tank Design and Analysis is to be prepared with help of STAAD Pro. Software Also the deflected shapes, Pressure exerted are to be described as result.

  147. Pandurang Ingle, Shubham Gaikwad, Pankaj Joshi and Akash Orum

    The exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) system is widely used heat exchanger to meet the emission standard as specified by Euro norms And BS norms. The coolant passes through the shells to cool down the exhaust gas inside the tubes. Mainly EGR system is used to control the Oxides of nitrogen (NOx) emission. The emission reduction is an important task in the development of an internal combustion engine. To limit these emissions it is essential that EGR system should work in safe mode without damage. But due to improper design and manufacturing, failure of EGR system occurs. Such failure leads to increase in Emission level, which affects the environment. Therefore, it is necessary to investigate the probable causes of EGR system failure and find out the techniques for elimination of that failure. It will involve the inspections and finite element analysis (FEA) of the EGR cooler system for detection of failure. This work deals with investigation of failure causes and to provide feasible solution to reduce that failure.

  148. Manas Ranjan Mohapatra, Saismita Mohapatra and Jyoti Ranjan Mohanty

    Intelligent Marketing System (IMS) can be more personalized based on cognitive and affective behaviour. This provides effective communication during e-marketing process. In this paper a MAS architecture for the said purpose is proposed where number of agents manage both cognitive and affective model of the people, that are able to express emotions through emotional agents and to recognize the people’s facial expression in peer-to-peer e-business environments (Ben ammar, 2005).

  149. Kesamreddy Ranga Reddy, Emani Vijayabhaskar Reddy, Lingareddy Sunil and J.V. Shanmukha Kumar

    A commercial scale synthesis of ultra-pure Iopamidol 1 has been achieved using a simple protocol employing with a total of 9 steps and easily isolatable intermediates. The key intermediate (S)-1-((3,5-bis-(chlorocarbonyl)-2,4,6-triiodophenyl)amino)-1-oxopropan-2-yl acetate 7 has been synthesized with high purity. The main advantages of the route include readily available inexpensive starting materials and good overall yield of 78%. The process impurities including chiral analogue have been well controlled without using any resins or chiral separation techniques but with simple chromatographic grade silica treatment. The structures of all intermediates prepared were confirmed by NMR, IR and MS and HPLC analysis.

  150. Petra Perner

    In this paper, we describe how prototype-based classification can be used for knowledge acquisition and automatic image classification. We developed the prototypical methods and techniques of the system in order to serve the special development issues of an expert when starting a new image-based application. Often an expert can present a catalogue of prototypical images instead of a large enough image data base for setting up the system. Starting with the set of prototypical images we can learn the important image features and the concept description of an image class. In this paper, we describe the necessary functions a prototype-based classifier should have. Besides the similarity calculated based on the numerical image features we introduce the experts estimated similarity as new knowledge piece and a new function that optimizes between this similarity and the automatically calculated similarity by the system in order to improve the system accuracy. This function reduces the influence of the uncertainty in the calculated features and the similarity measure and brings the similarity value closer to the true similarity value. The test of the system is done on the study of the internal mitochondrial movement of cells. The basis for the development are fluorescent cell images. The aim was to discover the different dynamic signatures of mitochondrial movement. For this application the expert knows from the literature how the different signatures should look like and based on this knowledge he picks prototypical images from his experiment. We present our results and give an outlook for future work.

  151. Yuji Kishira

    The Goal written by Goldratt and Cox published in 1984 has been a best seller for over 30 years. The scientific management theory introduced in this book is Theory of Constraints (TOC). Since its introduction, TOC has been successfully applied to many different functional areas (production, cost accounting, sales, R&D, IT, logistics, etc.) organization environments (projects, supply chain, etc.) and industrial sectors (manufacturing, government, education, healthcare, etc.). What is remarkable about TOC is that it is simple and robust and brings reproducible, rapid and significant bottom-line results. Goldratt devoted his life to making TOC a “theory” in the social sciences at the same level of rigor as “theory” is understood in the hard sciences. This article examines TOC as a “scientific” theory. The logical “structure of a hypothesis” (SOH) is defined by examining the requirements for a theory to be scientific. Because of its simple, practical and graphical structure this SOH provides researchers the ability to clarify thinking, communication, testing and validation of research in both social and hard sciences.

  152. Bhavana Girigosavi, Avinash Golande, Himani Bhole, Shreya Jadhav and Rutuja Jagtap

    Although kNN search on a road network Gr(graph of mobile network), i.e., finding k nearest objects to letter of the alphabetuery a question user q on Gr, has been extensively studied, existing works neglected the very fact that the q’s social data will play a very important role during this kNN query. Several real-world applications, like location-based social networking services, need such a question. During this paper we tend to study a brand new problem: kNN search on road networks by incorporating social influence (RSkNN). Specifically, the progressive Independent Cascade (IC) model in social network is applied to outline social influence. One vital challenge of the matter is to speed up the computation of the social influence over massive road and social networks. To handle this challenge, we propose three economical index-based search algorithms, i.e., road network-based (RN-based), social network-based (SN-based) and hybrid indexing algorithms. Within the RN-based algorithmic rule, we tend to use a filtering-and-verification framework for grappling the laborious downside of computing social influence. Within the SN-based algorithmic rule, we tend to infix social cuts into the index, in order that we tend to speed up the question. In the hybrid algorithmic rule, we tend to propose associate degree index, summarizing the road and social networks, supported that we are able to get question answers efficiently. Finally, we tend to use real road and social network information to through empirical observation verify the potency and efficaciousness of our solutions.

  153. Dr. Pooja Sharma

    Organizational commitment is the relative intensity of an employee’s involvement in and identification with a specific organization Measuring organizational commitment is an assessment of the congruence between an individual’s own values and beliefs and those of the organization. Rigorous expansion in Technical education of Haryana state started in 1995 with granting of more Engineering colleges and since then the state has not looked back. The present study was aimed to measure the organizational commitment among the teachers of technical education. Data were collected on standardized scale from 1006 respondents and factor analysis and ANOVA was used to ascertain the factors that shape the organizational commitment of teachers in technical education also, the effect of some demo- graphic variables on the factors was also studied. Older teachers and teachers with Doctorate qualification were found more committed. Also, teachers appointed on regular basis had higher organizational commitment.

  154. Anshul Jain and Dr. Dimple

    A good source of energy provides adequate calorific value at normal ignition temperature with no or at least at minimum damage to environment and people. The main objectives of this study are to identify the facts converting the sources of nuclear energy into reasons for future disaster of people, environment and earth. The study also works on the prospects of Energy from Nuclear Fusion. The results of the study disclose that radiation (emitted outside during nuclear fission) , Nuclear waste or Nuclear accidents are not responsible for any type of disaster to this society because they are released in a planned and monitored way thus not resulting in a disaster at all. We can see a bright future in Nuclear Fission and Fusion process if guided by a noble motive of doing welfare to society; not for satisfying one's greed to control others.

  155. Vimala Roselin, J. and Dr. G. M. Nasira

    Big data concern extremely large volume and complex data both structured and unstructured to reveal patterns and trends. The organisation procure large data storage, data delivery on semi-trusted big data sharing platform. An enterprise can obtain huge amount of sensitive data by storing, analysing, processing these data. In digital world, keeping sensitive data secure from theft and vulnerability is very difficult .This abstract proposes a framework for secure sensitive data sharing on a big data platform using effective encryption algorithm. We present an identity based conditional proxy encryption based on heterogeneous cipher text transformation. It protects security of user’s sensitive data on big data platform.

  156. Dr. Doreshor Khwairakpam and Ar. Soundrya Singh

    In the year of 2011-12, 269.3 million of people are poor in India of which 216 million in rural and 52.8 million in urban area (Planning Commission, 2013). The major challenge of poverty eradication is a prime concern for improvement of life quality in India. In this context, paper is address population shared by poverty and comparative study of poverty level at state level in India for both rural and urban. The objectives are identified (1) to study the population shared by Below Poverty Line at state level in India, (2) to study the comparative study of monthly per capita in rural, India and (3) to study the comparative of monthly per capita at state level in urban, India to digest the poverty scenario in India. Research methodology was adopted based on secondary data that available to the public domain.

  157. Joven E. Perey, Ed. D.

    The climax of pre-service preparation is to develop competence and attitude needed by a teacher. Hence, this study has been envisioned to come up with a program designed to enhance the personality of the student teachers. Standardized tests for personality, work values, mental health, IQ and inter-personality relationship were administered. Statistical tools such as frequency count, percentage, mean and multiple regressions were used to summarize and infer the data set. Student teachers from the government and private training institutions in Zamboanga del Norte were the respondents in the study. Results revealed that the respondents have above average IQ, normal mental health conditions but were low in their interpersonal value and the teaching performance is satisfactory. Moreover, multi-level analysis shows a significant relationship between teaching performance and psychosocial dynamics. The findings in the study demonstrate that a student teacher who possesses a wholesome personality indeed would become an effective and efficient teacher. Consequently, enhancement program have been formulated.

  158. Maruthi Krishna Goud, K. and Arpitha

    Introduction: It has been a challenging and interesting task for the hearing professional and medical advisor for the youth group of modern day. The basic terrible effect is “listening is hard”. Youngsters are calling an attention to the audio logical management by being modern and using mobile and MP3. This study aims to bring a awareness in the younger generation and presenting an audiometric outcome of mobile and MP3. Aim: To compare the TTS pattern in mobile users and mp3 users after a continuous exposure of stimulus Methodology: The present study consists of 20 subjects, 10 mobile users and 10 mp3 users in each group. The age group of 20 to 35 years subjects were selected based on inclusion and exclusion criteria. The audiologicaltest battery includes PTA, Speech Audiometry, Impedance and OAE evaluation were carried out before and after a period of continuous exposure of stimulus in both groups. Results: A Significant difference in TTS pattern both in MP3 and Mobile users were seen. Audiological evaluation shows for all the subjects and when compared it has found from the base that the mobile users has normal hearing threshold where as the mp3 users has towards the higher range of normal tending to minimal hearing loss. though both the users has a threshold shift where mobile users has a mean shift of right ear mean 11 to 24,left ear mean 11 to 25.5 and mp3 users right ear mean 13 to 32,left ear mean 15.5 to 37 was showing a significant alterations on the threshold. After exposure though results were not very supportive for reflexometry in impedance audiometry but a significant change in OAE’s, shows a presents of TTS as 3% of Mobile users has diminished OAE’s and in Mp3 users 90% among all the subjects. it was reported subjectively from the mp3 users as presents of low pitched Tinnitus soon exposure, which is tolerable.

  159. Elime Bouboama, A., Mamba Mpele and Ipoule Nguibissa, P. Y.

    In this article, shortcomings of various traditional road sizing methods will be examined and the main conclusion arrived at is the following: they are too simplistic in a set of situations where the elastic layers model cannot be justified. In order to fine tune these methods and make them build on progress made in the domain of geomaterial rheology, it is necessary to use realistic behavioural laws that have been developed in sizing techniques relating to the calculation by the Finished Elements Method for roadway constituent materials. A computation of vertical permanent distortions aggregated over 15 years of traffic on a Cameroonian roadway using the CEBTP-ALIZE method, and then the Finished Elements Method (FEM) was carried out. Results show that distortions derived from the FEM are largely higher than those provided by ALIZE. In order to ascertain the liability of results given by classical methods, it is advisable to confirm them using the Finished Elements Method.

  160. 1Dr. Nidhi Duggal, Dr. Jatinder Kumar, Dr. Sarabjit Kaur and Dr. Kanav

    The success of dental implant therapy depends upon a good amount and quality of bone present around the implant. During the first year of implant placement, most of the crestal bone undergoes resorption and this rate of resorption is 1.5-2mm around the dental implants after the prosthetic restoration which is clinically acceptable. This crestal bone resorption is restricted by many modifications in the implant system. Platform switching is one such concept which can be applied clinically to maintain the crestal bone level and consequently preserving the normal soft tissue contours. Placement of a small diameter abutment on a large diameter implant platform has been proposed as an effective way to control circumferential bone loss around dental implants. The purpose of this review is to discuss the literature dealing with platform switching concept to preserve the crestal bone, the mechanism by which it contributes to maintenance of marginal bone.

  161. Uzma Rasool Khan, Aqsa Jawaid, Safia Rafiq Mukati, Tooba Hameed Paracha

    In the field of business, various factors leading to total quality management in beverages production. In which low wastage rates, efficient use of resources and time and cost saving are the important variables in beverages production. The factors resulting in total quality management and its effect on low wastages rates on the beverages production are very necessary for every organization to make sure its achievement and parallel advancement. Several researches have been completed in the business pitch, linking to the features of better quality management and its effect on beverages production. This study has frequent consideration on the connection between total quality management, low wastages rate, efficient use of resources and time and cost saving, which gives more power and strength to the employee to work effectively and efficiently in the organization. The study is related to “Impact of Total Quality Management in Beverages Production”. For the purpose of research quantitative method is used and around 50 respondents were provided with questionnaire including 8 questions to be answered. Questionnaire method mainly used to collect the primary data. The data gathered is analyzed to reach suitable and valid theoretical findings.

  162. Vilson Menegon Bristot, Leopoldo Pedro Guimarães Filho, Wagner Blaut, Aldo Grundler Lentz Junior, Miquele Lazarin Padula, Vilmar Menegon Bristot and Simone Milioli da Luz

    This article aims to measure the most efficient physical arrangement for the products produced in the process by the company to the rotomoulding machine according to the demand and the capacity of the process. From the study of physical arrangement types and their characteristics, proposals were made to allocate work centers using the load distance procedure to optimize the movement of materials and people involved in the production stages. As the process restriction is in the first moment in the commercialization of the products and later in the capacity of the machine, it was from simulations of combinations of production between the items processed by the company that delimited the condition of feeding of the processes subsequent to the production. This study became relevant in view of the need to dimension the capacity of the machine based on contractual demand, through the teams involved in the activities performed during the manufacturing harmonized to the set of products produced. These two points addressed in the theoretical framework contributed to the size of the most efficient physical arrangement for the process.

  163. Paulos Taddesse Shibeshi and Tilahun Mulugeta

    The structure, elastic, electronic and optical properties of cubic perovskite Bismuth Indium Oxide(BiInO3) were calculated using full-potential linearized augmented plane wave method (FP-LAPW) in the density functional theory (DFT) using WIEN2k software. The calculated crystal structure of BiInO3 revealed that this compound possesses cubic crystal structure with Fd-3m space group. The calculated band structure for BiInO3 with generalized gradient approximations modified Becke-Johnson (GGA-mBJ) revealed the semiconducting behavior with an indirect band gap of 1.16 eV. It was also found that there exists a strong ionic bonding between Bi and O and a mixture of ionic and covalent bonding between In and O. The calculated elastic constants for BiInO3 with generalized gradient approximations-Wu and Cohen (GGA-WC) method indicated that BiInO3 is mechanically stable at ambient condition. To investigate the optical properties of BiInO3 compound, the real and imaginary parts of the dielectric functions, refractive index, reflectivity spectra, extinction coefficient, optical absorption coefficient, electron energy loss function, and optical conductivity were also calculated with GGA-mBJ method in the photon energy range of 0 to 30 eV.

  164. Dr. Vanita Anand and Dr. Vipasha Rana

    Constructivist paradigm describes the process of learning as meaning-making, in which individuals construct mental models that ground their understanding in a deeply personal and unique fashion. Constructivism places the learner at the centerstage. The constructivist approach is relevant to all subjects of study but more particularly to study of History. Students find it hard to retain the concepts and content of History as their interest level in history is often hard to raise, as they tend to see these topics as outdated and distant from their personal interests and concerns. Hence, a need was felt to study the effectiveness of constructivist approach on the student teachers, who can, in turn, apply it in their classrooms. The effectiveness of Constructivist Approach was studied on Retention of the student teachers. 62 students of Kalka Institute for Research and Advanced Studies constituted the sample of the study. A quasi-experimental design was utilized. Students were randomly divided into experimental group and control group. The experimental group was taught using constructivist approach (Inquiry Guided Learning) while the control group was taught using the conventional approach (talk and chalk). The data was analyzed quantitatively and qualitatively. The analysis of data found a significant difference in the level of retention of control and experimental groups after one month of the completion of the experimental intervention. The experimental group was found to have higher level of retention as compared to the control group.

  165. Dhammadip Wasnik, Hari Kumar Naidu and Pratik Ghutke

    The intent of this paper is to know the working principle of variable frequency drive and the performance of VFD. Now a days the use of VFD has been increased. Recently we found the use of VFD not only in equipment but also in HVAC system as well. This paper gives idea to understand basics terms in VFD, operation of VFD, power factor improvement and harmonic mitigation by VFD. Apart from this we will also discuss the development of new technique of tuning of PID controller particularly we will take the review of most recent technique proposed for tuning and designing of PID controllers with their performance.

  166. Muhammad Afzal Randhawa, Hafsa Niaz, Saba Kaynat and Tehseen Shahzad

    Introduction: Gastrointestinal stromal tumors are mesenchymal tumors found in stomach, jejunum and ileum and represent 9% of all small bowel tumors. Their intraluminal occurrence in small bowel is rare phenomenon as they predominantly grow extra-luminally, so rarely causing small bowel obstruction or intussusception. However their intraluminal presence can provide a lead point for intussusception as does the other benign and malignant diseases such as inflammatory bowel disease, post-op adhesions, crohn’s disease, Meckle’s diverticulum, Lipoma, lymphoma, adenocarcinoma, metastatic neoplasm or even presence of intestinal tubes. In adults only 8-20% cases of intussusceptions are idiopathic while rest of cases are secondary to an underlying pathology. In elderly population most cases are of Ileo-colic type of intussusception secondary to malignant disease especially adenocarcinoma and lymphomas. However there is no sufficient data available previously of intraluminal GIST causing ileo-ileal intussusception which makes our case worth presenting to literature. Presentation: An elderly male patient of 67 years age presented with signs & symptoms of small bowel obstruction , weight loss and mild anemia. These symptoms started 3 months back and were slowly progressive. On examination he had a diffuse lower abdominal mass with signs of obstruction. Systemic examination was un-remarkable and patient had no co-morbid conditions. Exploratory laparotomy was carried out after radiological and baseline investigation and a diagnosis of intraluminal growth causing ileo-ileal intussusception confirmed. Primary anastomosis after resection of involved segment done Histopathology showed GIST of low malignant potential with resection margins free of tumors and no lymph node involvement. Discussion: CT-scan abdomen is investigation of choice to diagnose such condition while abdominal erect X-ray provides valuable information. A lower GI endoscopy is also invaluable in such cases. In elderly patients there should be a high index of suspicion for underlying malignant pathology causing intussusception. Conclusion: Surgery i.e. resection and primary end to end anastomosis is treatment of choice in adults in contrast to pediatric group where a trial of air/ barium enema or intra-operative reduction is preferred treatment for intussusception. Involved segment of bowel should not be reduced intra-operatively in such elderly patients to prevent theoretical risk of tumor cells spillage intra-luminally or intra-abdominally. Proper oncological principals must be followed. All abdominal viscera must be thoroughly inspected for metastatic deposits. Complete resection and reconstruction of involved bowel is sufficient treatment. In recurrent or metastatic disease, Imatinib and Gleevac are used as chemotherapeutic agents.

  167. Betül KOCAMER ŞİMŞEK, Başar AKSOY and Soner KARADAŞ

    Background/aim: To investigate the protective role of intraoperative infusion of N-acetylcysteine (NAC), and excess fluid on liver injury and blood pH levels during laparoscopic sleeve gastrectomy. Materials and Methods: Forty-five consecutive patients who underwent laparoscopic sleeve gastrectomy for treatment of obesity between september 2016-june 2017 were randomized into three groups each with 15 patients: Group 1 (control group) was applied neither NAC intraoperatively, Group 2: 10 mg/kg intravenous NAC and 30 mL/kg fluid, and Group 3: 30 mg/kg NAC and 50 mL/kg fluid intraoperatively. The fluid was ringer lactate and normal saline in 1:1 ratio. Biochemical markers of liver function and metabolic acidosis were evaluated. Results: Blood levels of AST, ALT increased significantly with the operation (p<0.001). The increase in AST was significantly higher in Group 3 compared to Group 1 (p=0.046). HCO3 and pH were within normal range preoperatively, but significantly decreased indicating development of primary metabolic acidosis in all groups. The decrease in both HCO3 and pH was significantly less in Group 3 than Group 1 (p<0.05). Conclusion: Intraoperative infusion of 30 mg/kg NAC and 50 mL/kg fluid during laparoscopic sleeve gastrectomy may reduce liver injury and prevent metabolic acidosis, thus should be considered during surgical management of morbidly obese patients.

  168. Dr. Anitha Raghunathan, Dr. Divya Raghunathan and Dr. Poongodi, V.

    Aim: The aim of this case report is to enlighten about an intra oral lesion that had a clinically challenging presentation, which highlights the importance of the differential diagnosis of oral pigmented lesions. Background: Melanocytic nevus is the accumulation of melanocytes predominantly in the dermo-epidermal junction. They are often quite darkly pigmented, mostly macular or very thinly papular with minimal elevation above the skin. They are an acquired lesion and may change characteristic to that of a compound nevus. Though they are benign lesions, they have the potential to transform into malignant lesion. Case description: The following is a case report of a 29 year old female patient who reported with an irregular pigmented growth, which had a slight exaggerated appearance in an unusual site, and on excision proved to be a junctional nevus. Conclusion: Proper visual examination is always necessary as it may reveal pathological cases which are left unnoticed by patients. Clinical significance: As a dental professional, it is important for us to recognise the common as well as rare lesions of the oral cavity to list down a differential diagnosis for a proper investigatory and treatment modality.

  169. Reema and Ritu Gupta

    The present investigation entitled “A study on Health problems among female desktop computer users” was conducted with an aim to assess problems faced by female computer users in Ludhiana. The parameters included were physical characteristics of selected respondents and health problems encountered by them due to work stress. Ergonomic Stress Index worksheet was administered to the respondents in order to recognize the common pain symptoms experienced by the desktop computer users at workplace. Result revealed that majority of the respondents faced headache (61.25%), tiredness (61.25%) and 17 % of the respondents faced the problem of low motivation due work stress. As per Ergonomic Stress Index, the respondents felt moderate to mild pain in head, low back, neck, shoulder and dryness in eyes. So it can be concluded that prolonged hours of sitting in front computer leads to musculoskeletal problems.

  170. Abdullah Aedh

    Background: Venous thromboembolism (VTE) is a serious and fatal disease, that can significantly impair the recovery of the hospitalized patients. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence rate, beside identifying the most common risk factors that associated with VTE among critically ill and hospitalized patients at King Khalid hospital in Najran. Materials and methods: It was a cross sectional study that conducted during the period from October, 2017 up to February, 2018. 194 patients were chosen randomly from 4 areas in the hospital. A questionnaire as a tool was used to collect personal data, while the rest of the information were obtained from the patients' records as well as from the health personnel. Results: The participants' mean age was 35 ±13.6 years old for those with VTE, while the mean age for those without VTE was 33± 14.1 respectively. The majority of patients were above 40 years old, among them 54.6% were male. The results show that most of the studied subjects 156 (80.4%) were hospitalized for various medical illness, while the rest 38(19.6%) had undergone surgery respectively. Moreover, 37.1% of the respondents had been hospitalized for more than four weeks. The overall VTE prevalence was 3.1%. Multiple risk factors had been identified to be associated significantly with VTE. These factors including advanced age that over 40 years old (OR 1.04; CI 0.39 – 2.08), stroke (OR 0.56; CI 0.71-1.53 and P-value 0.04), Renal diseases and on dialysis (OR 0.55; CI 0.63-1.04 and P-value 0.001), Positive personal or family history of VTE (OR 0.81; CI 0.76-2.01 and P-value 0.001), Immobility (OR 1.11; CI 1.16-2.07 and P-value 0.02), as well as malignancy (OR 0.92; CI 1.47-2.35 and P-value 0.03). Patients with renal problems showed the highest prevalence rate in relation to other medical problems among the studied sample (27.8%). Most of respondents (57.7%) had either personal or family history of PE, DVT or both. The findings of the current study show that males have higher prevalence of VTE (2.1%) than females(1%) with (OR 1.89 and CI 0.48- 2.01), while for men (OR 2.06; CI 0.51- 1.99) respectively. On the other hand, sex, length of hospital stay, Diabetes M., hypertension, congestive heart failure, wounds' infection, mechanical ventilation and central vein catheterization were not significantly associated with VTE. Conclusion and recommendation: It was concluded that critically ill patients have an increased risk of developing VTE due to multiple factors. Therefore, adherence to clinical practice guidelines for VTE prophylaxis could have contributed to lower the incidence rate.

  171. Pattan Neeta and Dr. Usha Devi, C.

    Background: Adolescence is a key phase of human development. The rapid biological and psychosocial changes that take place during the second decade affect every aspect of adolescents’ lives. Thus growth spurts, menarche, poor diet and no added iron supplementation puts them into the high-risk category of iron deficiency anemia. Nutrition knowledge and nutrition education is considered a long term approach to combat iron deficiency and anaemia. Objective: Hence an effort made to assess the impact of nutrition education on knowledge level and heamoglobin status among the adolescent girls. Methods: A group of 138 adolescent girls in the age group of 13-16 years studying in 8th, 9th and 10th standard with mild to moderate anaemic status was selected from a Government school. A lecture for 45 minutes was delivered using visual aids followed by discussion and reassessment of knowledge after the nutrition education class. Such classes were conducted thrice a week for 3 months. To assess the nutrition knowledge level of respondents, a schedule of 50 questions was developed and the tool was administered thrice during the study period initial (before education), soon after the nutrition education and three months later. And the respondent’s heamoglobin level was assessed before and after the education intervention programme. Results: Education intervention showed a significant increase in the mean scores on knowledge level from 14.79 before the intervention to 31.38 immediately after the intervention. The improvement in the knowledge level among the respondents after education intervention was found to be significant as there was a shift in the knowledge level of respondents from inadequate (94 %) to moderate (52%) and adequate (25%) levels after the education intervention programme. There was a shift in the heamoglobin level from moderate to mild range among the respondents. Education intervention was found to be an effective method in improving the knowledge level among the respondents, which in turn helped in improving the heamoglobin status. Conclusion: Focused nutritional education intervention, correcting dietary habits in this group results in dietary changes and practices that ultimately improve the iron status.

  172. Hoon Hur, Jie Hoon Kim, Il Joong Park, Chan Hyuk Park, Duck Taik Shim, Sung Il IN, Gun Hong Lee, Pyoung Su Kim, Dong Nyeok Hyun, Seung Goo Kang, Hack Chul Shin, Jong Il Park, Jin Seok Hong, Sung Han Kim, Seung Yong Lee, No Jae Park, Jong Sun Lee, Dong Seo

    The Café-au-lait spot (CALS) is a benign hyperpigmentary skin disorder which may vary in color from light brown to dark brown. Generally, treating CALS with traditional laser therapies including 532nm Nd:YAG laser, 694nm ruby laser and 755nm alexandrite laser can provoke side effects such as purpurae, crusts, post-inflammatory hyperpigmentation (PIH), mottled hypopigmentation and scarring. Unfortunately, there is no golden standard for the laser treatment of CALS yet. Therefore, in order to investigate the efficacy and safety of Dr. Hoon Hur’s Golden Parameter Therapy (GPT) using a high fluence 1064nm Q-switched Nd: YAG laser (QSNL) for treating CALS, this study was performed. Ninety-seven Korean patients with a solitary CALS were treated with a 1064nm QSNL at a one-week interval for 50 treatment sessions of Dr. Hoon Hur’s GPT. The parameters were a spot size of 7 mm, a fluence of 2.4 J/cm2 and a pulse rate of 10Hz with a slow single pass by a sliding-stacking technique over the CALS. At the week of the final treatment, all of the 97 patient with a solitary CALS were achieved the complete clearance of pigmented lesions without any side effects such as purpurae, crusts, PIH, mottled hypopigmentation and scarring. No recurrences were observed in any of the patients after a follow- up of 6-12 months. We suggest that Dr. Hoon Hur’s GPT using a high fluence 1064nm QSNL is a safe and effective method without side effects and recurrences for treating CALS.

  173. Hope Chizolum Opara, Agnes Nonyem Anarado, Chinenye Juliet Ogbogu and Ijeoma Lewechi Okoronkwo

    The study examined the prevalence of non adherence to diet modification, follow up clinic visits and the associated factors among type 2 diabetic adults at a tertiary hospital in Enugu State Nigeria. This descriptive cross-sectional study purposively enlisted 200 respondents who met the inclusion criteria. Data was collected using validated Researcher- developed questionnaire. Analysis used proportions and percentages for descriptive statistics and logistic regression for inferential statistics at 0.05 level of significance. Respondents’ mean age was 60.1±10.6, 29% of the respondents ate less than 3 meals and without in between meal snacks in a given day while 63.5% ate irregularly. 24 hours dietary consumption recall showed that respondents selected food from all classes of food when planning their daily menu using locally available foods. 49.0% missed their clinic visits. Age was associated with non adherence to diet modification. Diabetics ≤ 50 years (p 0.046) were more non adherent than those ≥50years. Non adherence to diet was more among the married (87.4%), employed (67.7%) and those who have had diabetes for ˂4years (65.4%). Cost of transportation (p 0.000), discouraging attitudes of health workers (p 0.003) and late commencement of clinics (p 0.006) were associated with non adherence to follow-up clinic attendance. Screening patients for non adherence, improved time management, communication and patient- provider relationship may help achieve better client satisfaction with services.

  174. Berceste Gülçin Özdemir

    The film Tereddüt was analyzed with the Lacanian psychoanalytical approach. Imaginary period, symbolical period and real period, which constitute Lacan’s argument, were grounds of the study, and the relationships of female characters’ lives were investigated with these periods as a part of the film narrative. Important actions that fall within the narrative and affect female characters’ lives, and also the effect of these actions on the mental worlds of women characters were explained by psychoanalytical facts. Spectators’ feelings about gaze onfemale characters and their identification with them were questioned along with criticisms of feminist film theoreticians on the Lacanian approach. In this context, psychoanalytical analysis of the feelings of female characters in a film shot by a female director was aimed to be opened for discussion also with regard to feminist film practice.

  175. Dr. Kallol Bhattacharjee, Dr. Manish Jain, Dr. Chandra Prakash Thakur, Dr. Dwijen Das and Dr. Soumya Shankar Paul

    Introduction: Anemia is a major public health issue affecting both developed and developing countries. As per WHO report (2011), globally 29.4% of women of reproductive age group and 38.2% of pregnant women are anemic. Same report revealed that 54% of pregnant women in India are anemic. There are various causes of anemia, most common being iron deficiency anemia, followed by nutritional deficiency anemia (folate, riboflavin. Vitamin B12) and many other causes. An anemic pregnant woman is at increased risk of not only of maternal and perinatal mortality but they are also at increased risk of serious impact on fetal health. Aims and Objectives: To evaluate the prevalence and types of anemia in pregnancy and to co relate the feto-maternal outcome with various types of anemia. Materials and Methods: A randomized prospective study was performed among first 5oo pregnant women attending the Obstetrics and Gynecology outpatient department/ emergency labour room during the calendar year 2017 beginning with 1st January 2017. A total of 316 patients were included in study after applying inclusion and exclusion criteria and were subjected to detailed history, clinical workup and various investigations. Results and Observation: Prevalence of anemia was 63.2% among pregnant women. Maximum number of cases was in age group18-25 years of age (33%). Most of them belonged to rural community (63%) and from lower socioeconomic class (57.5%). Most cases had education up to primary level (54.3%) and were housewife by occupation (59.5%). Maximum number of cases was in 2nd trimester (43%) and mostly multigravida (57.5%). Most common presentations were fatigue (83%) and pallor (100%). Most patients were mildly anemic (51.8%) followed by moderate anemia (27.2%) and most common morphological type was microcytic anemia (56.5%). most common etiology noted was iron deficiency anemia (80.3%) followed by combined iron and folate/ vitamin B12 deficiency (11%). In present study preterm delivery, IUD baby and low birth weight baby was seen in 15%, 3% and 7.8% of anemic patients attending labour room. A total of 4.8% mortality was noted among patients attending labour/ emergency room.

  176. Pallavi Kumari, Suma B.S., Garima Mangal

    Introduction: “Tobacco – weapon of mass destruction”– Kendrick Meek. Tobacco is the world’s biggest preventable killer. Our universe is in a state of tobacco epidemic, with larger population of tobacco users, emerging day by day. India is the world’s third largest tobacco growing country, which produces an average of 58,0000 tones every year. According to WHO, tobacco is the second major cause of death in the world due to carcinomas of lips tongue, cheeks, gums and floor roof of the mouth. Other ill effects include cardiovascular diseases, diabetes mellitus, pulmonary diseases, and poor reproductive outcomes. In recent years, there has been a rising trend in tobacco use. This is a matter of great public health concern Aim of the study: To assess the level of knowledge regarding oral health hazards of tobacco chewing amongst dental students. Objectives: 1 .To assess the knowledge regarding ill effects of tobacco on oral health amongst dental undergraduates. 2. To assess the various ill effects of tobacco on oral health. Materials and methods: The data is collected from 150 undergraduate students of Buddha Institute of Dental Sciences and Hospital, Patna. Data was collected by a closed ended structured questionnaire. Data were analyzed by using Graph pad Prism Software, version-5. Chi-square test were used to assess the significance finding at 95% confidence limit. Results: Knowledge regarding ill effects of tobacco chewing was more among Interns and Final year students compared to first, second and third year undergraduates. Conclusion: Health education should be provided to the youths and adolescents with the facts and skills that will enable them to protect themselves from the harmful effects of both active and passive smoking and the tobacco related products. Concurrently other health promotion activities such as legislation, taxation and control of tobacco promotion should be implemented. A more comprehensive preventive approach is therefore needed.

  177. Arvind Lakesar

    Introduction: CRP is shown to be elevated in many malignancies including lung cancer. In patients of NSCLC, elevated CRP levels prior to therapy are related with bad prognosis. Studies have shown that high CRP is also related to advanced stages. CRP level is much higher in malignancy cases than only inflammatory condition like COPD. In cancer, CRP is possibly increased by tissue inflammation and cytokines released by tumor cells indicating a higher tumor burden. Objective: This study was designed to evaluate serum mean hs-CRP levels in advanced stage NSCLC at diagnosis, after every 2 cycles of chemotherapy and to correlate this with treatment response. Baseline hs-CRP with correlated with tumor stage and T size and also compared with baseline levels in patients of COPD and healthy controls. Material and Methods: This Hospital based observational study included 20 newly diagnosed patients of NSCLC (stage IIIB and IV) in good PS, 20 patients of stable COPD and 20 healthy controls. Baseline hs-CRP values were compared among three groups. NSCLC cases were assessed for baseline hs-CRP, tumor size, subtypes, staging and treatment response. After every 2 cycles of chemotherapy, parameters were reassessed and compared. hs-CRP was tested by routine clinical lab test protocols using instrument Labmate and tumor response was assessed using the RECIST 1.1 criteria. Results: Baseline mean hs-CRP values of NSCLC, COPD, controls were 28.11±16.02 mg/L, 8.59±3.53 mg/L,0.60±0.30 mg/L respectively (p<0.001). Squamous Cell Carcinoma (SCC) had significantly higher CRP as compared to adenocarcinoma, and NSCLC-NOS. No statistical significance was found between SCC and large cell ca. After treatment, 15% had CR, 35% had PR, 25% had SD and 25% had PD. Baseline mean hs-CRP values in patients with CR, PR, SD and PD groups were 8.13±.80 mg/L,19.27±2.99 mg/L,29.60±6.2 mg/L and 50.98±8.6 mg/L (p<0.001).This statistical significant difference was also noted post 2nd, 4th & 6th cycle of chemotherapy. Significant difference was noted in baseline mean tumor size and mean baseline hs-CRP (cut off 7cm). Strong correlation was found in change in mean tumor size and mean hs-CRP during treatment in all treatment response groups(r > 0.8). Conclusion: Despite the small number of patients in our study, we conclude the following. A high CRP value could suggest an occult lung cancer in patients of COPD. Higher stages at diagnosis have high level of CRP. Patients with high baseline tumor size have high level of baseline CRP. During treatment change in hs-CRP and change in tumor size have strong correlation. Patients having high baseline hs-CRP level are less likely to respond to chemotherapy and have progressive disease. hs-CRP might be useful for monitoring treatment response in Ca lung.

  178. Dr. Moustakas Loukas

    Experimental research in education is applied when the researcher is asked to conduct an educational experiment and at the same time to check its success. Typically, experimental patterns refer to the comparison of measurements either between different research groups or the measurements of the same research group at different times, but in many cases the research patterns are applied in combination, comparing multiple measurements of different research groups at different stages of the experiment. In the case of multiple measurements, the existing statistical criteria can actually inform the researcher about the statistical significance of the overall progress of the experiment, but they do not provide data on how specific groups of participants behaved in the experiment. When applying the experimental multivariate research method, it is possible with the use of statistical analysis to find out whether the group involved responded positively by improving its average performance or on the contrary if its performance has deteriorated. But there could be no knowledge as to whether this average success or failure is due to the participants as a whole or to specific subgroups. The purpose of the present study is to propose an innovative method of secondary analysis of the multiple measurements of experimental educational research, which enables the researcher to draw conclusions not only about the overall course of the experiment, but also about the participants’ performance i.e. the degree to which individual subgroups of participants, for example participants of different potential, contributed to the success or failure of it . This proposal is developed in two stages, using a chart to identify current trends and a secondary analysis of data with statistical criteria in order to control the significance of these trends, thus providing the researcher with all the necessary data regarding the outcome of the experiment and in particular regarding the behavior and the degree to which all subgroups involved in the experimental process responded. With the implementation of this proposed secondary analysis method it is possible to detect if a mobilization of potential participants as in the case of marginalized groups occurred or did not in the experimental groups involved, which in the typical educational reality would remain indifferent, inert. The present proposal provides researchers of educational research with the potential that is not offered by the application of classical statistical criteria, which are limited to providing information on the overall outcome of the experiment. This proposed method concerns all teachers who apply an experimental approach and wish to further analyze the results of their measurements in depth for example the contribution of each subgroup of the participants to the final outcome of the experiment.

  179. Dr. Dilip Kumar Rayapati, Dr. Shobha E.S., Dr. Prashanth N.T. Dr. Vinod Rangan, Dr. Nikhila G. Dr. Himanshu Soni and Dr. Sourav Sarkar

    Osteomyelitis of the craniofacial skeleton must be uniquely managed and is more difficult to treat than osteomyelitis of other bones of the body, owing to the complex craniofacial skeletal anatomy and associated aesthetic concerns. Though these days, occurrence of osteomyelitis has become less common due to the advent of antibiotics and also the progressively higher standards of oral and dental health, we encountered a case in an otherwise young healthy patient. This articles aims is to present with a case report, and brief and inclusive overview of osteomyelitis, its clinical features, and diagnosis, classification, and treatment modalities.

  180. Dr. Himanshu C Soni, Dr. Raghuveer H.P., Dr. Dilip Kumar R., Dr. Shobha E.S., Dr. Prashanth N.T., Dr. Vinod Rangan and Dr. Nikhila G.

    Introduction: Background and objectives: The purpose of this study was to compare the efficacy of demineralized freeze dried bone graft with platelet rich fibrin (PRF), and demineralized freeze dried bone graft with platelet rich plasma (PRP) and collagen membrane in healing of extraction socket of maxillary and mandibular anterior and posterior teeth. Materials and method: 60 extraction sites were selected and divided into group I and group II. Group I consisted of DFDBG and PRF and group II consist of DFDBG and PRP along with collagen membrane. Each group comprising of thirty extraction sites were subjected to one of the two modalities (DFDBF with PRF and DFDBG with PRP) of treatment for, maxillary and mandibular extraction socket. Post-operatively the patients were evaluated for bone healing, pain and swelling following extraction and bone grafting, and to evaluate the bone height, width and density radiographs were taken at interval of 1st month, 3rd month and 6th month. Results: Results did show statistical differences (p>0.05) for parameters like bone height, width and density with group I, when compared with group II. Radiographically Bone height and Bone density was significantly higher with DFDBG and PRF group when compared with DFDBG and PRP group. Clinically here was no difference in terms of soft tissue healing with both the groups. Interpretation and Conclusion: Our study suggested that even though both modalities used in this study were effective for grafting extraction sockets, DFDBG and PRF group proved to be better in terms of bone height, width and density postoperatively. We conclude that the overall summation of the results of the study showed that DFDBG and PRF seams to offer better significant results both clinically and radiographically than DFDBG and PRP in ridge preservation of maxillary and mandibular extraction sockets.

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