Subject Area

  • Life Sciences / Biology
  • Architecture / Building Management
  • Asian Studies
  • Business & Management
  • Chemistry
  • Computer Science
  • Economics & Finance
  • Engineering / Acoustics
  • Environmental Science
  • Agricultural Sciences
  • Pharmaceutical Sciences
  • General Sciences
  • Materials Science
  • Mathematics
  • Medicine
  • Nanotechnology & Nanoscience
  • Nonlinear Science
  • Chaos & Dynamical Systems
  • Physics
  • Social Sciences & Humanities

Why Us? >>

  • Open Access
  • Peer Reviewed
  • Rapid Publication
  • Life time hosting
  • Free promotion service
  • Free indexing service
  • More citations
  • Search engine friendly

Plagiarism Detection

IJCR is following an instant policy on rejection those received papers with plagiarism rate of more than 20%. So, All of authors and contributors must check their papers before submission to making assurance of following our anti-plagiarism policies.













May 2020

Background: Corona Virus Disease 2019 (COVID‑19) pandemic, which has posed a major challenge to the health care systems across the world. Health care workers especially nurses are committed to serve the society and the biggest challenge they face today is to cure and care for the people affected with COVID‑19. Objectives: This study aimed to identify the challenges faced by Indian nursing professionals working in hospitals and dealing with COVID - 19 patients.

India the ambient atmospheric conditions have progressively deteriorated due to urbanization, industrial development, lack of awareness, poor maintenance of motor vehicles, and poor road conditions. Transport vehicles and industrial emissions are the major sources of pollutants in the earth’s atmosphere. Among the various air pollutants from various sources particulate matter, sulfur dioxide, oxides of nitrogen, carbon monoxide are having a significant role in affecting the air quality and thereby causing harm to human health.

Previously, water was regarded as a free commodity, considered unlimited in quantity and available as required, however, with continued population growth and diversified demands, the resource is becoming increasingly scarce and often of inferior quality due to pollution. The study assessed the water quality of open wells and boreholes in Tolon District. Data was taken at 6 days intervals for a period of twenty-two (22) months. Mean salinity level of open wells and boreholes were in the range of 0.02 ppt to 0.15 ppt and 0.55 ppt to 0.82 ppt respectively.

This research work determined the average bearing capacity for black cotton soil in Numan Federation and selection of suitable foundation for simple structures using Adamawa State Polytechnic, Yola Numan Campus as case study. Series of laboratory soil tests were carried out to analyse the soils sampled collected from the campus. The results for test analyses showed that the bearing capacity of soil is poor in terms of meeting engineering requirement. The consolidation test show that the soil settles deeper than the allowable and the permeability rates of the soil is very low.

The outcome of the radiotherapy depends on how precisional dose deliver to the treatment volume which should not be exceeded more that ± 5% of the prescribed dose. Among the several factors that effects on accurate dose delivery to the tumor, the absorbed dose measurement plays a major role. For the accuracy of dose measurement, several national and international protocols such as TRS-277, TRS-398, TG-51 and DIN-6800-2 are currently being used for the dosimetry of photon, electron and ion beams.

Nitazoxanide is a broad-spectrum, orally active anti-infective initially developed for the treatment of protozoal disease. However, nitazoxanide and its active metabolite, tizoxanide, have demonstrated antiviral activity against a variety of viruses in preclinical and clinical settings. This review of the literature aims to present the pharmacological profile of nitazoxanide, mechanisms of antiviral action, and its demonstrated and potential antiviral applicability.

Pathogenesis of diabetes is complex and there is an interplay between genetic and environmental factors. While it is impossible to change genetic conditions at present, we do have an impact on the environmental ones. Symptoms of both Type 1 & Type 2 diabetes usually increase slowly, and therefore the patient does not pay attention to them for a long time. If diabetes is diagnosed early, and treatment is carefully planned and carried out, it is possible in many cases to achieve recovery from the clinical symptoms.

Sugarcane, being a vegetatively propagated crop, has a low seed cane multiplication rate. Besides, huge quantity of cane seed used for planting may have infested with number of pest and diseases cause decrease in cane yield and quality significantly over the years of its cultivation. A number of cane seed propagation techniques have been adopted successfully by farmers and industry in different sugarcane growing countries. In vitro propagation is the best alternative to overcome such limitations to produce disease free and sufficient amount of planting material.

The outbreak of covid-19 has created a global health crisis that has had a deep impact on the way we perceive our world and our everyday lives and hence causing a significant negative impact on mental health. The uncertainty and low predictability of COVID-19 not only threaten people’s physical health, but also affect people’s mental health, especially in terms of emotions and cognition. The aim of this study is to assess the level of anxiety among general population in India during COVID-19 outbreak.

Gene therapy offers important perspectives in current and future medicine but suffers from imperfect vectors for the delivery of the therapeutic gene. Most preclinical and clinical trials have been based on the use of viral vectors, which have evident advantages but also some serious disadvantages. In the past decade the use of DNA transposon-based systems for gene delivery has emerged as a non-viral alternative. DNA transposon vector engineering remains largely in a preclinical phase but some interesting results have been obtained.

The use of bioindicators in monitoring programmes is helpful to detect environmental status or to evaluate the efficacy of measures taken to improve environmental quality and to anticipate emerging problems. Nematodes are highly diversified group of animals on earth and excellent indicator organism for determination of environmental status at the place under investigation. This review draws the importance of nematode as biological indicator of environmental status.

This study examines Cretaceous to recent sediments from Msufi # 1 well located in Mafia Island, southern Tanzania. A maturity assessment was made using the vitrinite reflectance (% Rv), fluorescence colours, total organic content (TOC) and palynofacies approach. Data results were used to evaluate maturation levels, construct burial modelling and determine the peak and post-oil generation windows. Total organic content TOC in (wt %) contains values ranges from 0.1 - 0.8% implying matured enough for hydrocarbon generation.

Globally, stakeholders in learning institutions have strived to improve the schools’ physical environments in attempt to enhance learning outcomes of learners. The gist of this study was to establish whether the current status of the physical environment in the public secondary schools in Nairobi County have been mainstreamed to positively influence on the learning outcomes.

Introduction: According to the population Reference Bureau, about 17% of all married women in less developed countries would prefer to avoid a pregnancy but are not using a contraceptive method. Country with low pcontraceptive prevalence rates usually has higher unmet need levels for spacing than for limiting births, where as the opposite is usually true in countries with mid and high contraceptive prevalence rates.

Purpose of this research is that the time has come to evaluate our societal structure to preserve the root of our Hindu culture and protect the our Hindu Santana Sanskrit. We are in 21st century, in the Era of Globalization and Hi-Tech Technologies and thus world has become global village in the form of mobile in every human hand. In such a fast changing world, its our duty to preserve our original Root of Santana Dharma, Hindu culture is so Rich and progressive since ages, its traces are found since back 5000 years.

The present study is concerned with tree populations and the attempt was made to study the effect of anthropogenic according to altitudinal height in Dalma Wildlife Sanctuary of Jharkhand, India. We have compared the few tree based species characteristics like density, basal area, diversity, and tree species composition along three altitude based study zones existing between 199m – 603m height creating 54 quadrates, each of size 10m × 10m. The total richness of tree species in the study area was recorded as 2471 individuals of 25 families were reported among the three zones.

When talking about a complex application, the first thought of the majority of developers is splitting the logic into pieces. For building the smaller parts, nowadays micro services architecture is a fast-growing popular choice. But there was a time when people used to rely on a component-based development approach to satisfy the need for building components. Something happened during this interval that shifted the point of view. This article proposes to find out the relation between micro services architecture and component-based architecture.

Introduction: Postmenopausal bleeding (PMB) accounts for 5% of gynaecological Out Patient Department presentations. Generally, 4% to 11 % of postmenopausal women will experience bleeding per vaginum. Although the chances of occurrence reduces , as time since menopause increases. About 71 million people of our population are aged over 60 years and out of these, 43 million are post menopausal women, as per the third consensus meeting of Indian Menopause Society (2008).

L’abcès du cervelet est une localisation peu habituelle des abcès encéphaliques il peut survenir au cours des infections de l’oreille moyenne et mastoïde. La contamination se fait généralement par contiguïté, le germe le plus fréquent est le streptocoque B. Le diagnostic doit être suspecté devant une suppuration otomastoïdienne avec un syndrome d’hypertension intracrânien et un syndrome cérébelleux. L’imagerie est l’examen clé pour le diagnostic et thérapeutique. Le traitement chirurgical doit être choisi en fonction de la taille et le besoin d’identification du germe.

The certainties of this coronavirus infection are it is a new coronavirus with human-to-human transmission. The genome varies up to 12% compared to the original bat coronavirus, <1% of healthy people die from the disease. The antibodies of the healed subjects neutralize the virus also for the other infected. Those who have had the virus perhaps without their knowledge because it is asymptomatic and have overcome it by treating it as a normal flu or even pneumonia, preserve its memory through specific antibodies and are protected. He cannot infect anyone after being healed.

Firstly the novel coronavirus occurred in WUHAN city (CHINA), then it has rapidly spread across China and many other countries. On March 11, 2020, the World Health Organization (WHO) declared the COVID-19 coronavirus disease outbreak a pandemic. The danger of that virus doesn’t lay mostly on its lethality but on its strong transmissibility. The clinical symptoms of COVID-19 patients include fever, dry cough, fatigue and sometimes abdominal pain. The elderly and people with underlying chronic diseases represent a higher risk of complications.

Globally, stakeholders in learning institutions have strived to improve the schools’ physical environments in attempt to enhance learning outcomes of learners. The gist of this study was to establish whether the current status of the physical environment in the public secondary schools in Nairobi County have been mainstreamed to positively influence on the learning outcomes.

In the context of respecting tissue economy, prosthetic implant prosthesis is the first therapeutic choice for the restoration of an anterior edentation, but this treatment option presents numerous medical and surgical contraindications. Therefore, bonded bridge is an interesting alternative rehabilitation. Its design has progressed over time. With the appearance of new ceramic systems, one of the retainers disappeared creating a new type of bonded bridge: “the all-ceramic cantilever bonded bridge”.

It is about a70 year old male patient who underwent right nephrectomy for renal cell carcinoma, excision of the tumor in the left lower lobe for adenocarcinoma and eleven months post procedures underwent successfully redo mini thoracotomy and excision of a tumor in the left upper lobe for small cell lung cancer. Patient he did not receive any adjuvant therapy. It is an interesting case report.

This work aimed at formulating and evaluating the fatty acids and amino acids profile of complementary food developed from African walnut and fermented maize flour. African walnut, turmeric roots and maize grains (Zea Mays) were processed separately into flour and formulated into blends containing 25 to 45% African walnuts. The most preferred blend was evaluated for amino acids and fatty acids profiles using standard methods. The fatty acids result revealed saturated fatty acids (14.25%) and total unsaturated fatty acids (85.75%). The results of amino acids ranged from 0.79-13.18%.

Background: Knee-osteoarthritis (OA) is a degenerative articular cartilage disease, combined with variable and gradually advancing thigh muscle weakness leading to functional impairments. The population worldwide, is ageing and age-related osteoarthritis is the leading cause of disability, radiographically evident in one out of four individuals between 56–84 years’ old.

China and Pakistan regard the CPEC as a new source of potential synergy between their respective national development strategies, which may help the two countries, translate their close political cooperation into multifaceted economic cooperation, attain mutual benefits, and achieve win-win outcomes. For the economic corridor to reach its potential, however, there are security and political challenges in Pakistan that must be addressed. China’s presence in the Global South has increased dramatically over a decade.

Background: To determine the importance of first and second rib fractures upon the causes, sex, age groups, associated injuries, morbidity and mortality. Methods:In a 25 year period a retrospective study took place. Thirty one (31) patients diagnosed with first and second rib fractures in General Hospital of Nicaea-Piraeus Agios Panteleimon Thoracic Surgery Department. Results:Between the years 1995 to 2020 (25years) 31patients diagnosed with first and second rib fractures, 22 male (70,96 %) and 9 female (29,032 %), aged 26-79 years mean age 44 years. Aetiologic Factors.

Cystic lymphangioma is a rare type of tumor of the lymphatic system, benign and typical during infancy, and are generally congenital. They are basically dilated lymph nodes with an endothelial covering, and serous or chylous contents. This tumor is located in the neck in 75% and axilla in 20% of cases. Involvement of the upper limb and particularly the elbow is very rare. We report on a case of macrocystic lymphatic malformation localized at the elbow. It was a 14 years old adolecent.

Langerhans cell histiocytosis is a rare disease progressing by flares which can affect both sexes at any age. The lesions can be localiseted or multifocal; the organs most frequently affected are the bone, the lung, the skin and the endocrine system. We report a case of a young 13-year-old child with single focal clavicular langerhansian histiocytosis kept under surveillance with good clinical and radiological progress.

It is about a 52year old female diagnosed and treated for breast cancer. Presented almost two years post Ca breast treatment with a solidary chest wall mass(single metastasis post breast cancer therapy), involving the right chest wall, the right lateral part of the sternum, who finally underwent successfully mass removal, right hemi sternum excision and mess placement with a unique technique. One year and a half post procedure patient is in good health, free of disease on a regular basis follow up. It is an interesting case report specially the used operative technique.

Background: The first case of COVID-19 was reported in the state of Kerala in India on 30th of January 2020. Since then the Government of Kerala has acted swiftly in preventing the spread of infection. The first wave affected 3 medical students from China, who were treated successfully. The second wave started from 7th of March and till date, about 401 patients have been diagnosed positive. This study was conducted between the first wave and beginning of the second wave to assess the awareness of patients visiting a dental teaching institution.

Introducing a new gene by replacing the mutant gene, is the prime goal of any gene therapy. In the present section, we will understand the mechanism of gene therapy and its types. “A process to recover the normal function of a gene by transferring a gene is known as gene therapy.” Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) is the most common and aggressive primary brain tumor in adults. In the past few decades, many efforts have been made to improve the prognosis of GBM, however, with limited success. Many gene therapy strategies for GBM have been developed and a few have progressed to clinical trials.

Background: Haemophilia is a hereditary X-linked recessive disorder characterized by the deficiency of factor VIII or IX coagulant activity. Internal and prolonged bleeding into the joint space and muscles are the main symptoms of haemophilia which inadvertently results into haemophilic arthropathy and affects the individual’s life. This study was conducted to gain an insight into the impact of haemophilia on the Quality of Life (QoL) of haemophiliac adults.

Introduction: Maxillary labial frenum is a fold of the mucous membrane which connects lip to the alveolar process of the jaw. The upper labial frenum is a normal anatomic structure with inherent morphological variations. Aim: To evaluate the variation in the maxillary labial frenum attachments and its morphology in population. Materials and Methods: This study was conducted on 100 subjects within age group of 15–35 years. Intraoral examination was done to evaluate the maxillary labial frenum attachment location and morphology by direct visual method and photographs were taken.

The lingual abscess is rare, it is important to know how to detect it in time since it can be confused with another type of pathology and is life-threatening. Objective: To present a clinical case of a rare entity that may compromise the airway as well as the most appropriate approach and treatment. The tongue is an area that is considered resistant to infection and that is constantly exposed to trauma.

Pemphigus Vulgaris is a chronic autoimmune intradermal blistering mucocutaneous disease that initially manifests in the form of intraoral lesions, followed by other mucous membranes and the skin. The aetiology of the disease still remains unclear but the presence of auto antibodies is consistent with an autoimmune disease. Systemic corticosteroids remain the treatment of choice but topical corticosteroids are also used for long term non-healing lesions of the oral cavity. In this article, we have discussed a case of a 60-year-old woman showing oral ulceration without skin lesions.

Background: Primary Tuberculosis (TB) of the thyroid gland is an extremely rare condition. In fact thyroid gland was considered immune to the tuberculosis till 1862, when Lebertreported the involvement of the gland in a patient with disseminated tuberculosis. Case report: We report a young lady of 21 years of age who presented to ENT out-patient department with history of pain and swelling neck of 3 months duration. FNAC showed presence of histiocytes, epitheliod and giant cells, and was positive for acid fast staining suggesting tuberculosis.

This article attempts to indicate the benefit of Facebook in learning English as a foreign language. It examines students” perception of using Facebook for practicing their English. It also discusses the opportunity the social media, i.e. Facebook, has for students to learn English. To this end, Three matrixes: language change, self-stem and motivation were used to elicit information from the participants regarding their practices of English Language learning using Facebook .Sixty-five students who were all from Department of English Language and Literature participated in the survey.

Ethiopia has huge amounts of non-timber forest products like bamboos and honey resources, but thecontribution of these resources to the national economy is very low due to underutilization. Thus, this study aims at identifying and understanding the reasons for inefficiencies in the highland bamboo and honey value chains and to identify potential leverage points for improving the performance of the chain: the case of Dawuro.

The purpose of this study was to examine impacts of saving and credit cooperative societies on household wellbeing in Gurage Zone, SNNPR, Ethiopia. Primary and secondary sources were used. The primary data source was collected through direct interviews based on semi structured questionnaires from 90 treated and 112 controlled group plus discussion with three informant group and extra with staffs of two unions .The study was used a cross- sectional survey research design, and the multistage sampling techniques was employed.

Related health international organization there are two principal way of transmission of coronavirus covid- 19: direct contact whit infected subject or by droplets. Other way under deep investigation by researcher is airborne transmission. Related the evidence presented in this work is possible to verify that in indoor settings this is possible. Relevant is the distance considered.

Corona viruses (CoVs) is an enveloped single-stranded RNA virus belonging to the family Coronaviridae that have various types of strain such as SARS-CoV, MERS-CoV, nCoV. After an outbreak of pandemic corona virus (COVID-19) from the Central Chinese city of Wuhan, WHO has been declared a global health emergency in whole world. Now it become a very serious problem even developed countries are worsely affected and because of this pandemic situation above 200 countries are affected and more than 204,987 people are died in the worldwide.

Background: Snakebite is a major public health problem throughout the world and more so in tropical and subtropical countries, where people are more engaged in agriculture work have highest incidences of snake bites. The neutrophilic/lymphocytic ratio (NLR) is one of the valuable test which may be altered in acute infection, acute stress, acute inflammation and hypovolemic shock. Methodology: This was a descriptive case control study which was carried out over all the patients of snake bite admitted to medical wards of Maharana Bhupal Government Hospital, R.N.T.

The Nilgiri hills consist of a well-defined plateau situated at the junction of the two great ranges of hills, Eastern and Western Ghats. Asteraceae is one of the largest families having medicinal and aromatic plants in Nilgiris. The milk thistle plant, Silybum marianum is an annual or biennial plant, native to the Mediterranean area and some parts of the United States; this has now spread to other warm and dry regions. To investigate the phytochemicals, FT-IR and GC-MS analysis of ethanol extracts of Silybum marianum was done.

Acrylic, Poly Methyl Methacrylate (PMMA) based polymers are found in many industrial, professional and consumer products and are of low toxicity, but do contain very low levels of residual monomers and process chemicals that can leach out during handling and use. Methyl Methacrylate, the principle monomer is of low toxicity, but is a recognized weak skin sensitizer. When exposed to MMA in the dental clinic, dentists and other dental staff appear to occasionally suffer hypersensitivity, asthmatic reactions, local neurological symptoms, irritant and local dermatological reactions.

Introduction: Congenital clubfoot is one of the most common congenital anomalies encountered in orthopaedics. Its etiology has been proposed to be multifactorial. We studied the association of various factors, with special reference to consanguinity between parents as the possible etiological factor in the development of this condition.

Cholesterol is an important building block in the formation and repair of cell walls, function of nerve tissue, and the production of hormones such as testosterone, estrogen, and the stress hormone, cortisol. It is important to understand that fat tissue (cholesterol) in itself is not bad, and is actually essential for the body to function properly. The mixing of ama with fat tissue is the main cause of imbalanced cholesterol as per Ayurveda. When meda dhatu mixes with ama, it changes the quality of fat tissue and the quality of cholesterol, making it unhealthy rather than healthy.

Background: Pneumonia is the most common single cause of death among children under 5 years of age in the developing countries, Pneumonia accounts for 16% of all deaths of children under that age, killing 920136 children in 2015. Anemia prevalence in young children continues to remain over 70% in most parts of India and Asia despite a policy being in place and a program that has been initiated for a long time. The major health consequences of anemia include physical and cognitive impairment, as well as increased morbidity and mortality related to infection.

Early diagnosis of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is crucial for disease treatment and control. The clinical characteristics in patients infected with COVID-19 most commonly manifest fever, cough and fatigue, which in some patients can be accompanied by runny nose, headache and other symptoms. Additional symptoms such as diarrhea are less common. All research about the clinical characteristics of COVID-19, none of COVID-19 research mentioned that facial flushing was a clinical feature that could be found.

Osteomyelitis of jaw bone is characterized by inflammatory reactions .Osteomyelitis seems to be related with some systemic diseases like malnutrition and autoimmune diseases. Microbiological culture suggests that staphylococcus aureus along with T.palladium, A.israelli are responsible for osteomyelitis .Various diagnostic methods like ultrasound, CT, MRI etc are seen beneficial in accurate diagnosis of osteomyelitis. Antiobiotics, hyperbaric oxygen, incision and drainage are some useful methods that helps in management of osteomyelitis.

Different viruses have been posing threat to humanity from time to time, and in 2019 a severe respiratory illness (Pneumonia of unknown etiology) reported in Wuhan, Hubei province China, became a major challenge to public health not only in China but also the countries around the world, and is still creating havoc. Despite of intense efforts about how, when and where this disease appeared is still a source of considerable uncertainty.

Background: Post thrombotic syndrome an important chronic consequence of deep vein thrombosis. Severe post thrombotic syndrome including venous ulcer, which develop in 5% to 10 %, the principal risk factors of post thrombotic syndrome are anatomically extensive DVT, recurrent ipsilateral DVT. Recurrent DVT that may occur years later after the initial event is a known risk factor for the development of PTS. 1 (super script done)Post thrombosis of big vein in abdomen (vena cava) or pelvic (iliac vein) leads to development of collaterals in anterior abdominal wall.

The physical-chemical conditions, phytoplankton diversity and zooplankton diversity of the lower Kafue river were studied in January, 2020. The study was aimed at assessing the physical-chemical conditions of the lower part of the Kafue river and determine the phytoplankton diversity and zooplankton diversity in the lower Kafue River. The study sites that were sampled were Muyanganas at Kafue Fisheries Limited and Kasaka Fisheries Training Centre. Kafue Fisheries Limited is an aquaculture habitat while Muyanganas and Kasaka Fisheries Training Centre are non-aquaculture areas.

The development and evolution of classification systems for periodontal diseases have been largely influenced by paradigms that reflects understanding of the nature of periodontal diseases during a given historical period. Based upon definition from the World Health Organization (WHO), periodontal health should be defined as a state free from inflammatory periodontal disease that allows an individual to function normally and avoid consequences (mental or physical) due to current or past disease.

The epidemic of coronavirus disease in 2019 (COVID-19), has become a major public health challenge for countries around the world. The World Health Organization announced that the outbreaks of the novel coronavirus as a public health emergency. A route suggested for human-to-human transmission is through airborne droplets, touching or coming into contact with an infected person or a contaminated surface. Dentists are at higher risk of getting infected and need to take concerned precautions.

The present study was carried out on soybeans (Glycine max), cowpeas (Vignaunguiculata), lima beans (Phaseoluslunatus) and pigeon peas (Cajanuscajan) in order to promote their consumption in Africa by determining their nutritional values. For this purpose, a physico-chemical analysis of each whish was performed reveal that the powders of soyabeans, cowpeas, lima beans and pigeon peas are richer in proteins (pigeon peas : 15.98 ± 0.23% and soyabeans : 30.77 ± 0.83%) and the fibers (lima beans : 20 , 62 ± 0.21% and soyabeans : 29.45 ± 0.07%).

Introduction: Physical self-concept is viewed as basic for acknowledging human potential. A competitor with unsatisfied self-perception may encounter more prominent competition anxiety than his peers who have fulfilled self-perceptions or take part in non-aesthetic games because of the apparent risk of their unacceptable build. Aim: To determine the effect of physical self-concept on competition anxiety of young wrestlers.

Bioceramics are materials which include alumina, zirconia, bioactive glass, glass ceramics, hydroxyapatite, resorbable calcium phosphates. They have been used in dentistry as root repair materials, bony defects repair, apical filling material, perforation repair and help in tissue regeneration. They have certain advantages like biocompatibility, non toxicity, dimensional stability and bio-inertness.

In this study, the aim was to find out the prevalence of sex ratio, preterm birth rate, low birth weight rate, twin birth rate, congenital abnormalities, caesarean delivery rate, morbidity & mortality rate in a group of neonates born alive in a tertiary care hospital in Delhi, India. These neonates (652 singleton neonates & 16 twins) were born alive to 660 mothers (42.73% primigravida & 57.27% multigravida), in Rockland hospital, from 01.01.2012 till 07.08.2014.

In this study, the performance of a mixed mode solar kiln was carried out. The kiln was incorporated with double glazed flat plate solar heat collector with built in paraffin as a heat storage medium. The off-load site study of the kiln during sun shine and no-sun shine periods of the day were carried out in Nsukka (Latitude 7o N), Nigeria. The range of ambient temperatures during the study period was between 18.3–33.2oC. Equally, the daily radiation ranged between 11.8–20.9 MJ m-2. The results obtained showed a maximum cumulative efficiency of 40.7% for the kiln.

This paper presents a criteria for the existence of at least one ψ^αbounded solution on N for the non-homogenous fuzzy difference equation of first order. We also present a criteria for the existence and uniqueness of solutions to non-homogenous fuzzy two-point boundary value problems. 2010 MOS Classification: [34B15], [93B05], [93B15].

Pour ce présent article, il s’agit de concevoir un outil de perception de la confiance par la clientèle afin d’évaluer son influence sur le comportement effectif dans le contexte sénégalais du marché des assurances. Cet outil ainsi élaboré dans ce travail permet de réaffirmer le lien de cause à effet du couple confiance-fidélité.

At this paper we are intended to provide a brief primer in plasma physics, introducing common definitions, basic properties, and typical processes found in plasmas the present paper short discussion and compatible study about classical and quantum plasma and also discuss about the properties and application of plasma.

This study assesses the impact of audit quality attributes on financial reporting quality in Nigeria. The investigation is based on the relationship between the Audit Attributes and Financial Reporting Quality of some selected listed commercial banks in Nigeria. The audit quality attributes proxy used are; Audit committee report, audit firm size, auditors’ remuneration and auditor’s report, which can be regarded as the independent variables, while the dependent variable is the financial reporting quality. Three hypotheses were tested in this study.

This study examined the impact of audit quality on financial performance of consumer goods companies in Nigeria. The specific objectives are: to determine the effect of audit independence, audit tenure, audit firm size on the financial performance of consumer goods companies in Nigeria. The study is theoretically predicated on stakeholder’s theory, agency theory, contingency theory and lending credibility theory.

In this paper, a comprehensive approach to adult education is presented, in particular the range of factors that can prevent adults from participating in any kind of educational program. Quantitative research was conducted with a questionnaire for adults in order to determine which factors influence their participation in lifelong learning. These factors have been found to vary depending on gender, age and marital status. All of these elements play a crucial role in the educational process of adults and their further development.

In the Niger River Valley, as well as in some areas of preference, M. oleifera is most often produced in association with some vegetable crops, including onions. This association can involve significant agronomic and economic effects. Thus, the combined effect of the factors layout and plant cutting level of M. oleifera plants on the yield of Allium cepa (onion) bulbs was studied. These factors include three and two levels, respectively.

Maintenance of primary anterior teeth in a healthy condition is important for the well-being of children, as it ensures proper mastication, esthetics, phonetics, space-maintenance, and prevention of aberrant habits. Primary dentition is more prone to early childhood caries and restoring them becomes inevitable owing to the pivotal role. Posts are utilized when there is inadequate tooth structure remaining to support a traditional restoration or an artificial crown. Post is cemented into a prepared root canal, which retains a core restoration over which the final crown is retained.

A maxillofacial prosthesis are successful treatment modality options such as to restore missing facial parts. Digital technologies and various 3D printing techniques are employed to construct facial prostheses such as ears, nose, eye. This is are view of literature enlightening the technique, materials and various applications of 3D printing that have been used in fabrication of maxillofacial prosthesis and in maxillofacial surgery.

Carcinosarcoma of the ovary is also known as Malignant Mixed Mullerian Tumour. It is an ovarian neoplasm with an incidence of 1-3% of all ovarian neoplasms. Usually, patients are postmenopausal women with a history of low parity. We report a rare case of 44 years old woman who presented with complaints of amenorrhea and pain in the abdomen of three months duration. Per speculum and per vaginum examination showed a mass of size 10x 8 cm in the right iliac fossa. Ultrasonogram and CT scan revealed a neoplastic mass in the right adnexa. CA-125 levels were 714U/ml.

Globally, 600 million people affected with high blood pressure. From Africa around 20 million people suffered with hypertension. In Ethiopia health care reports are incomplete and little is known on its impact. The main purpose of the paper is to Evaluate Cognition, Belief & Habit of clients with hypertension in relation with handling hypertension among Clients Seeking Care in Dessie Referral Hospital. Methods: Institution based cross-sectional study design was carried out. Information collected through interviewer administered questioner.

Introduction Reich and Johnson (1) first used the term “Lady Windermere syndrome”in 1992. They described 6 elderly women who were immunocompetent, had no significant smoking history or underlying pulmonary disease, and developed Mycobacterium avium complex (MAC) pulmonary infection limited to the right middle lobe or lingula. They hypothesized that these women could have had the habit of voluntary suppression of cough, responsible for the inability to clear the secretions from the right middle lobe and lingula.

This study aimed at establishing the efficacy of mindfulness-based cognitive therapy-self-help (MBCT-SH) in managing depression among older clergy. The study was a response to the serious but under-investigated problem of depression among older clergy, whose experiences of ageing and vocational challenges combine to render them susceptible to depression, which can be debilitating. Interventions are needed to tackle this serious and widespread mental health condition.

In this study, the aim was to find out the prevalence of ABO & Rhesus blood groups in a group of persons at two places in North India & one place in Northeast India. In this study, the results showed that the prevalence of different blood groups among one group of 2140 patients evaluated at RH & WCMSRH in North India was approximately: B 35%, O 32%, A 23% & AB 10%. The results also showed that the prevalence of different blood groups among one group of 205 students evaluated at JMCH in Northeast India was approximately: O 35.5%, B 28%, A 27.5% & AB 9%.

The dieback of reforested plantations is a pathology with various biotic and /or abiotic causes. In Cote d'Ivoire, this pathology affects Tectona grandis, Terminalia ivorensis and Terminalia superba in the reforestation plantation. The involvement of macroscopic and microscopic fungi has been studied to investigate the causes of the decline of these forest species. Assessments of land in classified forests of Irobo and Bouaflé and sampling of carpophores, roots, stems and soil were done. The fungi were isolated on standard Potato Dextrose Agar (PDA) and specific P5PARH media.

Rosacea is a common chronic recurrent inflammatory dermatosis of the face that affects more women than men. It is characterized by paroxysmal flushing, persistent erythema and cheek, perioral or nasal telangiectasia, papules or pustules. Ocular involvement is found in more than 50% of rosacea patients, with symptoms including dryness, irritation, blepharitis, conjunctivitis and, more rarely, keratitis that may ultimately compromise eyesight. The specific pathogenesis of this disease is still unknown.

Infectious diseases are not new for the human society. A good number of diseases caused havoc among the people in the past. Many lives were lost due to outbreak of some suddenly starting and quick spreading diseases. As per the evidence available it is seemed that, such type of diseases were considered as curse of the Gods and attack of some evil spirits. Many examples can be cited from the ancient classics of using chanting of some specific verses, offering of some prescribed offers to the lords of the diseases in prescribed methods.

Catatonia is a syndrome having symptoms such as catalepsy, waxy flexibility, stupor, posturing, negativism, mutism and echolalia.1There are numerous causes of catatonia but patients with affective illness and schizophrenia, accounts for 25% of the catatonia population.2 An untreated and prolonged course of catatonic features may lead to life-threatening complications such as the development of pulmonary embolism or aspiration pneumonia, and significantly increased mortality and morbidity.3

The objective of this paper is to study the impact of internal control mechanisms on the financial accountability in the local government system in Nigeria, using Owo local government as a case study. The study employed survey design for the purpose of the research work along with a sample size of fifty (50) respondents which comprises staff of this local government. The statistical tool used for the hypotheses’ test was ordinary least square (OLS) regression analysis.

The eye is a vital organ and an important component of facial expression. Loss of an eye has a crippling effect on the psychology of the patient. Maxillofacial prostheses restore and replace stomatognathic and associated facial structures with artificial substitutes. The objectives of eye prosthesis is to improve the patient esthetics, restore and maintain the health of the remaining associated structures, consequently provide physical and mental well-being.

The physical-chemical conditions, phytoplankton diversity and zooplankton diversity of the lower Kafue river were studied in January, 2020. The study was aimed at assessing the physical-chemical conditions of the lower part of the Kafue river and determine the phytoplankton diversity and zooplankton diversity in the lower Kafue River. The study sites that were sampled were Muyanganas at Rub Road Bridge Kafue Fisheries Limited and Kasaka Fisheries Training Centre.

The main objective of this research, estimated of mean seasonal variations doses biologically active of UV-Bm solar radiation from global broadband solar irradiance over Egypt. The measurements of global solar radiation (G) and biologically effective erythematic radiation (EER) incident on a horizontal surface during the period time 1985 - 2015 at Cairo, Egypt are discussed. The monthly mean variation of slant ozone Z and UV-Bm transmission KtUV-B at the present work are found. The comparison between the two variables slant ozone Z and UV-Bm transmission KtUV-B are found.

Aim: This study aimed to evaluate the knowledge, attitude, skills and preparedness of dental practitioners regarding the concepts of dentistry post COVID-19. Materials and Methodology: A cross-sectional survey was carried out in March 2019 on 100 dental surgeons of dental clinics. A questionnaire was developed using literature and previously administered surveys to assess knowledge, attitude, and skills of dental practitioners regarding post COVID-19. Data were subjected to appropriate statistical measures and analyzed.

This study was conducted in Adola district to identify and document indigenous knowledge related to the use of medicinal plants and their contributions to household services in the district. The study was carried out between February and April 2019.Ethno botanical data were collected by interviewing 120 informants (92 males and 27 females) aged between 25-95 years. Both purposive and simple random sampling methods were employed to select key informants and general informants, respectively. Ethnobotanical knowledge of plants used for human and livestock ailments were addressed.

Introduction: Elastics and elastomers has been extensively used in orthodonticd. Force decay over a period of time is a major problem in the clinical usage of latex elastics and non-latex.

Background: Intraosseous Mucoepidermoid carcinoma(MEC) is a rare tumour in the head and neck region. Its clinical and radiologic features mimic many common lesions in the jaws. The need for an Elective neck dissection (END) along with resection as well as need for adjunctive radiotherapy has been a long standing controversy, thus making treatment modalities a subject of debate. Objective: To formulate a correct diagnosis and treatment plan for this lesion in order to prevent recurrence and failure of treatment which may cost the patient dearly.





Rosane Cavalcante Fragoso, Brasil


Chief Scientific Officer and Head of a Research Group

Advantages of IJCR

  • Rapid Publishing
  • Professional publishing practices
  • Indexing in leading database
  • High level of citation
  • High Qualitiy reader base
  • High level author suport













Luai Farhan Zghair
Hasan Ali Abed Al-Zu’bi
Fredrick OJIJA
Firuza M. Tursunkhodjaeva
Faraz Ahmed Farooqi
Saudi Arabia
Eric Randy Reyes Politud
Elsadig Gasoom FadelAlla Elbashir
Eapen, Asha Sarah
United State
Dr.Arun Kumar A
Dr. Zafar Iqbal
Dr. Ruchika Khanna
Dr. Recep TAS
Dr. Rasha Ali Eldeeb
Dr. Pralhad Kanhaiyalal Rahangdale
Dr. Nicolas Padilla- Raygoza
Dr. Mustafa Y. G. Younis
Dr. Muhammad shoaib Ahmedani
Saudi Arabia
United State
Dr. Lim Gee Nee
Dr. Jatinder Pal Singh Chawla
Dr. Devendra kumar Gupta
Dr. Ali Seidi
Dr. Achmad Choerudin
Dr Ashok Kumar Verma
Thi Mong Diep NGUYEN
Dr. Muhammad Akram
Dr. Imran Azad
Dr. Meenakshi Malik
Aseel Hadi Hamzah
Anam Bhatti
Md. Amir Hossain
Mirzadi Gohari