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November 2012

  1. Sekar, V., Rajasekaran, R., Prithiviraj, N., Muthukumaravel, K. and Oliva. J. Fernando

    In the present study we evaluate the intertidal distribution of polychaete communities allied with the physicochemical parameters and to impact on the ecosystem health to presence of heavy metals contents are influenced with occurrence of the polychaetes. Totally 828 of individuals belonging to eight polychaete genus were collected from the four dissimilar stations of around Vellar estuaries. Among this populations ranged from 8.81 - 17.27%. In terms of species individuals establish all the station varied between 1.57 (S4) - 6.03 (S3) for the responsibility of physicochemical parameters. The sediments compositions of ranged 40±5.50 - 71±0.57, silt 23±0.57 - 37±1.15 and clay 5.6±0.66 - 28±9.2 in the all station. Entire sampling site Fe was maximum and Cd was minimum contents are determine to substantiating the conditions of the ecosystems. The multivariate analyses are concluding the linkage of these factors and animal abundant through the parallel findings and this level was assist to accrue the availability of polychaetes distribution and the environmental variables are strongly correlated with animal population (P< 0.05), in conclusion the species distribution are determine the concentrations of trace metal and defend the ecosystems.

  2. Esther Vanchhawng, S. S. Jayaraj and S. Vincent

    A study was conducted to assess the cytogenetic changes in an air breathing fish, Channa punctatus subjected to the polluted water of River Cooum. A control group of fish was maintained without any treatment. The fishes were exposed to Cooum water as test samples for 96 hours. The opercular movements were counted at an interval of 1 hour, four times a day for both the control and experimental. The tissues of gill and kidney were then subjected for the study of chromosomal aberration. It was found that the fishes which were exposed to Cooum water showed a decreasing rate of opercular movements as compared to the fishes exposed to tap water. Several structural chromosomal aberrations such as chromatid breaks and gaps, fragments, endoreduplication, ploidy were observed in the fishes subjected to Cooum water in comparison to the Control fishes thus indicating induced mutation in fishes subjected to Cooum water.

  3. Vivekanandhan, S. and Kalaiarasu, S.

    In this present study the ability of Gluconacetobacter diazotrophicus in dinitrogen fixation associated with sugarcane suggests that the endophyte is of considerable in cane yields as well as sugar recovery. The endophtic bacterium CDZ-8 fixed about 17.26 ± 0.42 Amount of “N” fixed (mg/g of malate) in our study. All the twenty isolates of Gluconacetobacter were graded into three gategories on the basis of their dinitrogen fixing efficiency of 15 (mg/g of malate), above 10- 14 (mg/g of malate) and below 10 (mg/g of malate). A range of 15 percent of isolate in dinitrogen fixing efficiency of 15 (mg/g of malate), 55% of isolate in dinitrogen fixing efficiency of 10- 14 (mg/g of malate) and 30% of isolate below 10 (mg/g of malate).

  4. Vivekanandhan S. and Kalaiarasu, S.

    In this present study a detailed survey for the occurance of Gluconacetobacter diazotrophicus populations from the rhizosphere of sugarcane coastal saline soils of cuddalore district of Tamilnadu. A total numper of 20 Gluconacetobacter diazotrophicus strains were isolated. The results of the present study also revealed a marked variation in the population of Gluconacetobacter diazotrophicus observed. A range of 0.57 percent to 1.14 percent of the total bacterial population was observed in the survey.

  5. Aarthy, R. S., Sanjeevi, S. and Vijayan, S.

    Our current knowledge on planetary bodies largely depends on remote sensing and rarely by samples investigation. Meteorite fall (fresh sample) is rare to observe. Sulagiri is one such phenomenon that occurred in India recently. In this study an attempt has been made to understand mineralogy, chemical composition and reflectance spectra of Sulagiri meteorite.

  6. Avishek Banerjee

    The slum dwelling women’s are not only economically and socially backward but also a neglected section among the society. The environmental conditions of the slum area affect the health status of the slum dwellers automatically. But there are also other factors that controlled the health status. Women do not get proper food four times. They consume cheap prices low calorie food. There are several matters like early age of marriage, early age of pregnancy, given birth to many children’s, small gap between pregnancies etc. which affect their health a lot. On the basis of data obtained from the selected slums of the Dankuni Municipality area, it may be said that, in the area 40.90%women are mother of more than three children and 54.5% mother gave birth to their first child before 20 years of their age. They also don’t get proper pre natal and post natal care. The place of delivery was not always safe. As the level of education is very low the standard of health awareness is also very low in the area.

  7. Chiraz Chaffei-Haouari, Afef Hajjaji-Nasraoui, Elisa Carrayol, Mohamed Habib Ghorbel and Houda Gouia

    The effects of cycloheximide on the changes in activity of glutamate dehydrogenase-NADH dependent (NADH-GDH) and NAD+-dependent (NAD+-GDH), and glutamine synthetase (GS) were studied during the senescence of tomato seedlings in the presence or absence of cadmium. The GDH and GS1 enzymes seemed to be synthesized at the presence of cadmium. Cycloheximide-treated leaves and roots showed an increase in the expression immunostaining intensity of mRNA band gdh and gs1, suggesting an increase in neosynthesis of enzymes and genes activation. The rate of synthesis of GDH was clearly higher than that of its degradation. Cycloheximide (CHX) delayed the protein degradation processes in the cadmium stress conditions. Cycloheximide treatments produced lower gs1 and gs2 enzyme levels than their respective controls especially in leaves. However, the enzyme activity was lower in cycloheximide treated leaves and roots than in the controls. The results are discussed with reference to the requirement for protein synthesis in the cadmium stress conditions.

  8. Esther Vanchhawng, S. S. Jayaraj and S. Vincent

    In the present study effect of sublethal concentration of lead (0.08 and 0.10 mg/L of 96h LC50 value) on the tissue profile of Clarias gariepinus was studied. Clarias gariepinus when exposed to sublethal concentration of lead for 10 days showed various changes in the tissue parameters. The protein and carbohydrate levels were decreased in higher concentration of lead. The acid phosphatase was increased in muscle and gill but decreased in the liver. The alkaline phosphatase increased and decreased in different concentration of lead. The metallothionein levels increased in the liver, gill and muscle when compare to control samples of catfish.

  9. Okwo, Ifeoma Mary Ph.D, Agu, Charles Ikechukwu and Ugwunta, David Okelue

    This study examined the nature of causality, the impact and relationship between foreign direct investment (FDI), export, and economic growth in Nigeria. Granger causality analysis was used to test the hypotheses causal link between foreign direct investment and economic growth; export and economic growth, while, correlation analysis and Ordinary Least Square (OLS) were used to determine the relationship and the significant effect of FDI and export on economic growth. Our data were extracted from Central Bank of Nigeria (CBN) for a period of 29 years (1981-2010) both years inclusive. After testing for stationarity of the time series, the study revealed no directional-causality between FDI and GDP as well as export and GDP. However, there are evidence of positive relationship between FDI, export and GDP as well as a significant effect of export on GDP. Given the lack of non-directional causality between FDI, export and GDP, Nigerian government should encourage domestic investments through prudent fiscal and monetary policies geared towards achieving economic growth that will attract FDI and encourage exports.

  10. Parameshwari, S., and Nazni, .P

    In the present investigation attempts have been made to develop roasted linseed powder and analyzing its physiochemical properties and proximate composition and to optimize bengal gram flour, roasted linseed powder and gingelly seed powder with other ingredients using Response Surface Methodology (RSM) for acceptable omega 3 rich savory snack (Omapodi) preparation by considering carbohydrate, protein, omega 3 fatty acids and overall acceptability as a response variables. Results revealed that, Response Surface Methodology (RSM) was applied for optimization, the multiple regression was used to get optimum levels and it was found that desirable values of carbohydrate (69.78g), protein (16.35g), omega 3 fatty acids (7.77mg) and overall acceptability (8.93) was obtained for the corresponding optimum quantity of 64g of bengal gram flour 20g roasted linseed powder and 10g gingelly seed powder.

  11. Durgadevi R. and Nazni .P

    In the present investigation attempts have been made to process boiled amaranth grain (amaranthus cruentus) into flour and analyzing the physiochemical properties and proximate composition of flour and to develop fiber rich chapatti by the addition of optimized proportions of Wheat flour (WF), Boiled Amaranth Grain Flour (BAGF) and Water(W) with other ingredients using Response Surface Methodology (RSM) for acceptable Chapatti considering Carbohydrate, Protein, Fat, Fiber, Diameter, Product weight and overall acceptability as a response variables. Combinations of wheat flour, Boiled amaranth grain flour and Water with their lower and upper limits are 80-90g, 10-20g and 60-70g respectively were optimized by varying proportions to result a better quality chapatti. Whereas iodized salt and vegetable oil were kept constant for all formulations. Results revealed that, Response Surface Methodology (RSM) was applied for optimization, the multiple regressions was used to get optimum levels and it was found that desirable values of Carbohydrate (75.83g), Protein (13.16), Fat (3.45), Fiber (2.80 g), Diameter (6.19cm), Product weight (162.99g) and Overall Acceptability (7.30) was obtained for the corresponding optimum condition of wheat flour (80gm), boiled amaranth grain flour (20gm) and Water (70ml). Hence it is concluded that RSM was used successfully to optimize the level of wheat flour and boiled amaranth grain flour for the development of value added Chapatti.

  12. Krishnamoorthy, S. and Govindarasu, A.

    The concept of s-unitarily similar matrices is introduced. Some theorem on s-unitarily similar matrices are given.

  13. Dr. Vikram, S., Dr. Tejaswini, U., Dr. Ramakanth, B., Dr. Ravindra, N. and Dr. Harshagopal, D.

    Giant Pseudoaneurysms of visceral arteries are rare but carry a significant risk of morbidity and mortality if left untreated. We are reporting a case of giant pseudoaneurysm of splenic artery secondary to pancreatitis in a middle aged female patient which was treated successfully by surgical excision with low postoperative morbidity.

  14. Diana Vinodhini, S., and Agastian. P

    Coscinium fenestratum (Gaertn.) Colebr., (Menispermaceae) is a critically endangered, medicinal plant. Mature leaf were used as the explants for the initiation of callus and cultured into three different media, Murashige and Skoog (MS), Woody plant medium (WPM) and B5 medium with varying concentrations of Thidiazuron (TDZ). MS medium was found to have a superior proliferation rate. The frequency of callus formation reached 95% with a mean fresh weight of 2854.76 ± 0.30 mg for explants cultured on MS basal medium supplemented with 0.75 mg/l TDZ. The highest frequency 75% of organogenic callus induction was observed when the calli were subcultured in MS medium containing 0.25 mg/l BAP, which induced an average of 6.71 ± 0.12 adventitious shoot buds.

  15. A. Momoh, T. C. Davies, H. A. Akinsola, B. Iweriabor and M. B Mashao

    This study focused on determination of haemoglobin levels in blood of female geophagists and identification of helminth ova in geophagic materials as a possible route for transmission of helminth infections amongst non-pregnant female geophagists. Sixty eight non-pregnant female geophagists, between the ages of 18 and 49 and 5 non-pregnant women between the ages of 18 and 45 (control group) were recruited for the study. Of the 68 non-pregnant female geophagists that were enrolled for the study, 9% of the women were diagnosed of severe anaemia, 35% were anaemic and 56% were normal. All the women in the control group had their haemoglobin levels within the reference range and were normal. An ovum similar to Ascaris lumbricoides ovum was detected in one of the geophagic material. Decreased haemoglobin level may be due to geophagy and poor availability of iron supplements in food. This study suggests that geophagy is associated with anaemia, but could not be a probable mode for transmission of geohelminth infections in this locality.

  16. Ofoefule, A.U., Okoro, U.C., and Onukwuli O. D

    The effect of batch co-digestion of the wastes emanating from ethanol production process with some animal and plant wastes on the biogas yield was studied. The wastes from the processing of some starch feedstock and from their fermentation wort were utilized for the biogas production studies. The wastes constituted: (i) process wastes from starch extraction (ET) and (ii) fermentation wort (ETP). They were studied alone (ET-A) and (ETP-A) and in combination with some animal wastes (cow dung (CD) and swine dung (SD) and plant wastes (field grass (FG) and glycerol (GL). The biogas production capabilities of the wastes were in terms of (i) biogas yields (ii) onset of gas flammability and (iii) effective retention time. This was carried out for a retention period of 45 days under ambient mesophilic temperature range of 23oC – 38oC and slurry temperature of 38oC to 48oC using 1 liter micro-digesters under anaerobic digestion. Data analysis was carried out using one way analysis of variance (ANOVA). The results of the biogas production showed that the ET-SD had the highest cumulative biogas yield of 3,800.01 ml/kg slurry and average gas yield of 84.4447± 58.6707 ml/kg slurry while the ETP–A had the least cumulative biogas yield of 677.70 ml/kg slurry and average biogas yield of 15.0602± 6.7644 ml/kg slurry. The onset of gas flammability for the ET-SD and ET-CD were on the 6th day (lag period of 5 days), ETP–FG-GL (13 days) while the ETP–A and ETP-FG did not combust throughout the retention period. By the 45th day, all the other variants were still producing gas whereas the ETP-A and ETP–FG had minimal gas production. General results for the biogas indicate that the processing wastes from the bioethanol are better utilized in combination with animal wastes and with glycerol. These are expected to provide effective waste management system.

  17. Ofoefule, A. U., Okoro, U. C and Onukwuli, O. D

    Biogas production from the pure wastes emanating from ethanol production process was studied. The wastes from the processing of some starch feedstock and from their fermentation wort were utilized for the biogas production studies. The wastes constituted: (i) process wastes from starch extraction (ET) and (ii) fermentation wort (ETP). They were studied alone as ET-A and ETP-A. The biogas production capabilities of the wastes were in terms of (i) biogas yields (ii) onset of gas flammability and (iii) effective retention time. This was carried out for a retention period of 45 days under ambient mesophilic temperature range of 23oC – 38oC and slurry temperature of 38oC to 48oC using 1 liter micro-digesters under anaerobic digestion. Physicochemical characterization was carried on the wastes, while microbial analysis was carried out on the waste slurries. Data analysis was carried out using one way analysis of variance (ANOVA). The results of the biogas production showed that the ET-A had a significantly higher cumulative biogas yield of 2,355.49 ml/kg slurry and average gas yield of 52.34±24.23 ml/kg slurry than the ETP–A with a lower cumulative biogas yield of 677.70 ml/kg slurry and average biogas yield of 15.0602± 6.7644 ml/kg slurry (p≤ 0.05). The onset of gas flammability for the ET-A was on the 9th day (lag period of 8 days), whereas ETP–A did not combust throughout the retention period. By the 45th day, both waste variants had minimal gas production. General results for the biogas indicate that the wastes from the processing of starch are better than those from fermentation wort. Their use is expected to provide effective waste management.

  18. Okwo, Ifeoma Mary, Ph.D, Eze, Eugene Chibuzor and Ugwunta, David Okelue

    The debate in economics whether financial development causes economic growth or whether it is a consequence of increase in economic activity seems unending. This paper examined the effect as well as the causal relationship between financial sector development and economic growth in Nigeria. This study focused on two focal variables, depth of the financial sector (M2/GDP) ratio of broad money stock to GDP and level of financial intermediation ratio of private sector credit to the GDP PC/GDP. Ensuring data stationarity using Phillips-Perron test permitted OLS and Granger causality to ascertain relationships, effects and causal relationship. Findings suggest positive long run relationship between government consumption and trade openness while the measures of financial development show negative relationships with economic growth. The outstanding results are true for the two major indicators we used M2/GDP and PC/GDP to capture the development of the financial sector, showing that they actually deepen the financial sector but failed to cause economic growth in Nigeria.

  19. Eneje, Beatrice Chinyere Ph. D, and Udeh, Anastasia Ifeoma ACA

    This study examined the impact of indirect material inventory on the profitability of brewery companies in Nigeria. A sample of two brewery companies listed on the Nigeria stock exchange was used for this study. Regression analysis was applied to annual data sourced from annual report and accounts of the sampled companies for the period 1989-2008. The result indicates that indirect material inventory has significant influence on the profitability of Nigeria brewery Plc and Aggregate Company. It also shows that indirect material has insignificant influence on the profitability of Guinness Nig. Plc. The findings confirm that there is a significant relationship between profitability and indirect material inventory in line with the previous studies. This implies that the brewery companies in Nigeria should ensure adequate use of indirect material inventory as they contribute to the efficient functioning of the production machinery.

  20. Ishfaq Ahmad Milk

    India’s economic progress forecasts an increasing demand of energy to retain its momentum. Being in the category of high energy consumer countries with substantial energy deficit, it obviously requires a dependable and durable resource backbone to support it. Among the many options that can be used and relied upon, Central Asian States, seem to have not only proximity advantage but more importantly resource potential to ensure durability in the Indian economic development. This article examines the possibility and appropriateness of central Asian energy resources and market for India. It delves into the potential of energy different sectors of the region in the background of the potential requirement of energy in India. Many recommendations are added to provide inputs for policy formulation in terms of the peripheral and central issues concerning the tapping of this energy option.

  21. Rajasekara Pandian, M., Vijayarajan, M., Katheresan, S., Mohanraj, R. and Manikandan, M.

    The decomposition efficiency of Eisenia fetida for vermicomposting was evaluated by using a variety of wastes such as Domestic waste, Agricultural waste, Sago waste, cow dung and poultry dropping in different compositions. This paper reports the recycling of nutrients by vermicomposting of employing earthworm (Eisenia fetida). A total of six vermicomposting units were established and dynamics of chemical and biological parameters has been studied for 42 days. The waste mixture containing domestic waste + cow dung in 1:1 ratio and mixed crop residues +Domestic waste + cow dung in 1:1:2 ratio had better fertilizer value among studied waste combinations. At the end of experiment, vermicomposts showed decrease in pH and organic C, but increase in total Kjeldhal N, total available P and total K contents. The C:N ratio of final vermicomposts also got reduced to 10.7–12.7 from 22.8 -56 in different waste combinations.

  22. Mujeera Fathima and Florida tilton

    Rivina humilis L. is a herbaceous plants commonly found in wastelands of gardens and plains. In the present study, preliminary phytochemical screening and in vitro antioxidant activity of ethyl acetate, chloroform and methanolic leaf extracts of Rivina humilis was investigated. Phytochemical analysis of the leaf extracts of R. humilis revealed the presence of carbohydrates, flavonoids, alkaloids, quinones, terpenoids, coumarins, steroids, tannins, saponins and cardiac glycosides. The results showed that the phytochemical properties of the leaves can be used for curing various diseases. The strongest radical scavenging activity (60.13%) was exhibited by the methanolic extract, moderate activity (44-45%) was recorded in chloroform extract and weakest activity (20.06%) was exhibited by the ethyl acetate extract. The IC50 value of ethyl acetate, chloroform and methanolic extracts were found to be 432.78, 173.93 and 61.74 μl/L respectively. The results showed that the methanolic extract at 200 μg has higher total flavonoid content and 200 μg of methanolic extracts showed higher of total tannin content. The data obtained in the present study suggests that the extracts of R. humilis leaves have potent antioxidant activity against free radicals with the presence of active phytochemicals that can be used in disease prevention.

  23. Sheela, S., S. Jayasurya Kingsley, Aravindan Viswanathan, Florida Tilton

    The opportunistic and ubiquitous Aeromonas spp., is receiving growing importance since its implication in a wide spectrum of human diseases few decades ago. The enteric pathogen A.hydorphila, is the most commonly associated pathogen with acute diarrhoea, with a similar prevalence world-wide. While the host susceptibility to the disease depends on various risk factors that includes food and water source contaminations, the myriad of virulence factors- Haemolyin, exotoxins etc., craft the complex pathogenicity of A.hydrophila and thus, extensive studies on this bacteria is imperative, especially in developing nations were hygiene measure controls are often neglected. In the present case-control study, PCR was employed to screen two extensively investigated A.hydrophila virulence determinants-aerA and hlyA genes- in clinical bacterial isolates to ascertain the bacterial strain’s pathogenicity in acute diarrhoea from the chosen geographical region. 107 (20.89%) out of 512 acute diarrhoeal patients screened harboured the enteric pathogen, A. hydrophila, while the asymptomatic control subjects (n=200) showed no faecal carriage of this micro-organism. Consistent with previous reports the clinical A.hydrophila isolates screened carried the aerA+, hlyA+, aerA+ hlyA+-virulent genotypes (albeit at varying frequencies) ascertaining the role of the two toxins –Haemolysin (HlyA) and Aerolysin (AerA)-in influencing the pathogenesis of acute diarrhoea in Southern Chennai (India).

  24. Agu Justina Chioma

    This paper has identified projects as the ‘cutting edge” of development and they represent important and tangible symbols of sustainable change and modernization in an economy. The objectives of this paper include to: explore the concept “project” and it’s cycle; identify the socio-political factors that negatively affects project planning through implementation in Nigeria; highlight tools that facilitates effective project planning, management and implementation; and proffer general recommendations for the effective and efficient planning and implementation of projects in Nigeria. This study employed exploratory and qualitative research methods as we did not test any model in a statistical sense. Data was gathered from multiple sources, including formal interviews, public documents, and the internet. However, there is a strong reliance on interviews because rich insights and contextual information was sought from the key informants. The findings revealed that numerous factors which include poor or no project appraisal; top management lapses; defective contract agreements and awards; and gross failure to apply project management techniques; contracts for projects are awarded without adequate project planning which includes the costing and scheduling as well as the method for successful implementation; a mismatch often exists between project design and objectives on the one hand, and the implementation capacity of the agency or organization or ministry on the other; existence of defective control system, and in some cases, the system of monitoring and evaluation may be completely lacking; where projects are awarded on political considerations little or no attention is given to the recommendations of project appraisals, assuming that such specific studies were undertaken; budgetary constraints occur frequently given the short tenure of governments, reordering of priorities or diversion of fund as time progresses have been identified to impact negatively on project planning through execution in Nigeria.

  25. Agu Justina Chioma

    The non-oil sector in Nigeria is so disarticulated while it’s sectoral linkage to the economy are so weak. Oil and gas dominate national output while the other manufacturing and production sectors that drives export in the economy is decidedly so small in terms of share of gross output, contribution to economic growth, foreign exchange earnings, government revenues and most importantly, employment generation. Descriptive statistics were applied to time series data spanning a period from 1961 to 2010 after testing for stationary to describe the performances of this sector in terms of revenue and contribution to GDP growth. Correlation and regression analysis were applied to highlight the relationship between GDP and certain identified non-oil sector variables and to ascertain the significant effect of these variables on economic growth. Findings reveal the non-oil sector in Nigeria is so insignificant that it contributes insignificantly to Nigeria’s total federally collected revenue and economic growth.

  26. Eneje, Beatrice Chinyere Ph.Da., Nweze, Austine U. Ph.Db., and Udeh, Anastasia Ifeoma ACAc

    Given the important contributions of the brewerysector to the Nigerian economy, this research deems it necessary to evaluate the effect of raw materials inventory management on the profitability of brewery firms in Nigeria. A cross sectional data from 1989 to 2008 was gathered for the analysis from the annual reportsof the sampled brewery firms. Measures of profitability were examined and related toproxies for raw materials inventory management by brewers. The Ordinary Least Squares (OLS) stated in the form of a multipleregression model was applied in the analysis. The study revealed that the focal variable raw materials inventory management designed to capture the effect of efficient management of raw material inventory by a company on it’s profitabilityis significantly strong and positive and impacts on the profitability of the brewery firms in Nigeria. Therefore, efficient management of raw material inventory is a majorfactor to be contained with by Nigerian brewers in enhancing or boosting their profitability.

  27. Roshan Shrestha, Rewati Raman Bhattarai and Surendra Bahadur Katawal

    Gundruk, a typical indigenous vegetable product of Nepal was prepared from leaves of mustard (Brassica juncea) and cabbage (Brassica oleracea capitata) in different fermentation containers viz. glass jar, wooden box, earthenware pots and plastic jars which were evaluated sensorially and analyzed chemically. Sensory analysis revealed higher acceptability for gundruk prepared in glass jar compared to others. The moisture content, crude fiber, ash, calcium and iron contents on dry basis were found to be 7.92%, 14.65 g/100g, 0.68 g/100g, 2253 mg/100g and 86.4 mg/100g respectively for gundruk prepared in glass container. The optimum acidity and pH for gundruk prepared in glass was found to be 1.0% (as lactic acid) and 3.9 respectively on 9th day of fermentation.

  28. Susmita Sengupta and Manika Saha

    Forest provides a means of livelihood for rural communities in the developing countries. It plays a vital role in global food security, providing food, fodder, fuel and medicine. Throughout the developing world, women make a significant contribution to forestry. The present paper attempts to study the organic linkages between women and forest resources. Indigenous women’s knowledge plays an important role in the management, conservation and sustainable use of forest resources. They are the collector, and direct user of the forest resources to sustain livelihood, due to illiteracy, poverty, ill-skilled in technical knowledge and lack of control over land and other resources, they are less benefitted from natural resources from economic perspectives but they are still at underprivileged position in environmental decisions at households as well as society level.

  29. Süleyman AYDIN

    By exploring the Science Teacher program students’ misconceptions, this study is aimed to eliminate their misconceptions about geometric optics with conceptual change texts. At the first stage, the data were obtained by applying a three-tiered multiple choice test containing 19 questions, improved for Agri Education Faculty Science Teaching Department 90 sophomore students and a classic exam related to the subject in autumn season. To determine misconceptions concerning the geometric optics, randomly chosen 10 sophomore students were interviewed with 10 open-ended questions. Findings obtained from the test and interviews showed that students have misconceptions about “propagation of light”, “reflection of light” and “refraction of light”. At the second stage, the sample composed of 90 students was separated into two group as experimental group and control group. The conceptual change texts were prepared then to apply for instructional method in experimental group. By being parallel to each other conceptual change text method for experimental group and traditional lecturing method for control group were applied respectively. Later the test consisting 19 multiple choice test were applied as post-test in both experimental and control group. The data appearing coherent of 35 each of experimental and control group were taken into consideration. Reliability of the test that used as pre-test and post-tests were calculated by Cronbach-Alfa coefficient as 0,69 by using SPSS-11 for Windows. The study showed that the conceptual change texts are more effective than traditional method for instruction to eliminate students’ misconceptions about geometric optics.

  30. Vadanasundari, V. and Priyalakshmi, S.

    The present study is based on the synthesis of silver nanoparticles (Ag NPs) by “cleaner and greener” approach for environmental clean-up. Our way of Green synthesis methods include hydrolysis of protein solid waste, extraction of bio molecule, Synthesis of silver nanoparticle and anti-bacterial application. Proteolysis bacteria isolated from marine environment was identified as Bacillus sp. CJ2 and used for the hydrolysis of protein solid waste, which resulted in bio-molecule rich broth production. From the bio-molecule rich broth, enzymes were separated out by ammonium sulphate precipitation method. Enzyme molecular weight was found to be around 60KDa. Later remaining bio-molecule was utilized for synthesis of silver nanoparticle. Synthesized Nano-particle was found to be stable, which shows the presence of both reducing and stabilizing agent in bio-molecule. The mechanism of the Ag NP bactericidal activity is discussed in terms of Ag NP interaction with the cell membranes of bacteria. The property was found to be positive for the sewage water isolated E coli.

  31. Hai-Yan Sun, Xian-Zhao Liu, Yong Zhang and Yuan Wang

    With the rapid development of economy in Tianjin Binhai New Area (TBNA), the regional cooperation has been strengthened in the Areas around the Bohai Sea. As an important part of the Circum-Bohai economic circle, Shandong Peninsular Urban Agglomeration (SPUA) has the regional cooperation advantages in every aspect with TBNA. So it is important to study the regional cooperation level between them. In this study, the clustering analysis was conducted on the regional cooperation level between 8 cities belonged to SPUA and TBNA by the non-linear mapping. The results indicated clearly that Qindao and Dongying have high competitiveness and low cooperation level with TBNA, and Jinan, Yantai and Weihai show relatively tight co-operative relationship with TBNA, whereas Rizhao, Zibo and Weifang exhibit a high complementarity and good cooperation prospects with TBNA. Finally, the detailed development strategies for regional cooperation in study areas were put forward based on the results of the clustering Analysis. Also the non-linear mapping proposed provides a new method for quantitative analysis of the regional cooperation level.

  32. Arun Kumar, M., Karthik, R., Sai Elangovan, S. and Padmavati, G.

    A highly intense (27,000 cells mL-1) bloom of the nitrogen fixing cyanobacterium Trichodesmium erythraeum was observed in Burmanallah region of Port Blair in South Andaman during summer (March 2012). Hydrographical parameters were studied and nutrients like Nitrate, nitrite, phosphate and silicate were measured. It was found out that an increase in water temperature has initiated the bloom. Increase in salinity was also found to be a factor which had contributed to the bloom.

  33. Anhwange Benjamin, Kaana Asemave, Leke L., and Igbum O.G

    Heavy metals were determined from waste dumpsites in Gboko metropolis, Benue state, Nigeria. The mean pH values of the soil samples were found to be 7.70 and 7.15 for Gboko North and South respectively. The analysis of heavy metals indicate that samples from Gboko North show mean concentrations (mg/kg) of heavy metals as; Pb (0.966), Ni (0.514), Cd (0.298), Al (0.223), Cr (0.092), As (0.051). Samples from Gboko South indicate mean levels of heavy metals as follows; (1.300mg/kg), (0.377 mg/kg), (0.191mg/kg), (0.009mg/kg), (0.18mg/kg), (0.042mg /kg) for Pb, Al, Cr, Ni, As, and Cd respectively. In Nutshell, Ni, and Cd were found to be relatively higher in Gboko north than Gboko south. On the other hand, the levels of Pb, Cr, Al, and As were higher in Gboko South than Gboko North. All the heavy Metals were within the WHO acceptable limits except Cd and Cr which were slightly above these limits in some dumpsites. Although Heavy metal concentration in refuse dumpsites of Gboko metropolis may not appear to pose a very serious environmental problem at the moment, continuous accumulation of these metals in Gboko metropolis may result into some health threat to human and the environment in future.

  34. Deepthi Sankar and Dr. Zakkariya, K. A.

    The Detroit branch of Boston Consulting Group predicts that, by 2014, one-third of world demand for automobiles will be in the four BRIC markets (Brazil, Russia, India and China). What started as an exploration of new markets for car sales in the early 90s has gone on to become the mainstream market of the new millennium. Supported by attractive macro-economic factors such as growing economic activity, urbanization, rising household incomes, and developing credit markets the BRIC countries currently make up for the top 7 automotive markets globally. This paper attempts to analyse the trends and growth patterns in passenger car market in BRIC countries from 2002 to 2011.

  35. R. Emmaniel

    Diversity as “difference, unlikeness, variety and multiformity. Exploration of assumptions, beliefs and attitudes concerning diversity would provide us insights on the preferences of the members of an organization for similarities or differences, homogeneity or heterogeneity, otherness or inclusion. Of course, it is not always necessary that individuals and groups look at them in a dichotomous way and instead feel comfortable with both. The purpose is to explore the existing notions of members of an organizations and examine whether they consider diversity as adversity or advantage. It is possible to hold three views about people: all are alike, some are alike, or not two are alike. The purpose is to explore what is our view and what is the basis governing our own assumptions beliefs and attitudes so that, if need be, we modify them to overcome biases, prejudices and stereotyping.

  36. Julius Gordon Tanui

    Forest Communities (about 28% of Kenya’s population) represent a critical section of Kenya’s overall population. Many of these people interact on a daily basis with forest resources around them. The knowledge about their perceptions and attitudes pertaining to forest resources may make it possible to contextualize their influences on sustainable management of forest resources. The missing link in this paradigm could be the inadequate or little levels of incorporation of community based forest management strategies in planning for sustainable utilization of forest resources. The incorporation of local community’s perception in forest management could therefore be fundamental in reversing the downward trends of forest loss. It is assumed that people are a product of their environment, therefore it can be insinuated that the perception of forest utilization by the forest communities is based on their interactions, traditions, values and attitudes. This paper therefore examines the perceptions of the Kalenjin community living around Nandi Hills Forests (NHFs) and how their perceptions have influenced the utilization practices of NHFs. The study investigates cultural constructs that have had a bearing on the perception and use of these forests and the role of traditional and religious practices.

  37. Rev. Fr. Dr Ndikaru Wa Teresia

    Due to increased pollution activities in the world today, it is important to embrace the sustainable development principle. The principle of sustainable development is that the integration of economic, social and environmental concerns. Sustainable development recognizes that the economy and the environment are closely interrelated. Much economic activity uses up materials and resources, including forests and minerals, and creates waste products. Yet many economic activities, including agriculture, fishing and tourism, are also dependent on a healthy environment. The general objective of this study was to assess the con¬tribution of the community as it formed social groups to combat the pollution problem in Thika Municipality, Kenya. To achieve the objectives of this study, both quantitative and qualitative research methodologies were used. The qualitative phase consisted of face-to-face interviews/administered questionnaires. In addition, the qualitative phases consisted of several focus group discussions and in-depth interviews to selected members of the community. In essence, the qualitative phase was used to provide more insights and findings obtained from the quantitative phase. In order to arrive at the targeted sample of 60 house-holds, the researcher visited the community. Among the major findings, air, water and solid waste pollution were adversely mentioned as the problem the community failed to quantify on pollution awareness. On the other hand, noise pollution was not considered to be harmful in any way to the community. This was due to the limited knowledge of the community. The major effects of pollution enumerated, included the destruction of buildings and other structures.

  38. Viruthagiri, G., and Nirmala, G.

    The IR vibrational spectra of the ceramic test samples were recorded and discussed which servesas the molecular fingerprint to give proof of identity without recourse to any other analytical method and yields basic information on the changes in the interatomic bonding. The possible use of ceramic rejects in the clayey body draws particular attention. The IR assignments of the raw samples are almost alike despite the different compositions and show stretching and bending modes of kaolinite at different absorption frequencies of 3694 cm-1 and 913 cm-1 respectively. The structural changes take place at different calcination temperatures which are interpreted in depth.An analysis of the mineralogical composition during a firing cycle up to 1200 0C has demonstrated that they possess satisfactory characteristics for the desired applications in the ceramic industry.

  39. Srajan Kumar Goyal, Vinayagamoorthy, R., and Anthony Xavior .M

    The main objective of this thesis work is to optimize the machining performance in precision turning operations. In finishing operations, surface roughness is a major concern. Hence, to quantify the machining performance in precision turning operations, the quality of a machined surface is becoming more and more important to satisfy the increasing demands of sophisticated component performance, longevity, and reliability. The objective of this paper is to analyze the performance of precision turning using conventional lathe on Ti6Al4V under dry working conditions. Various parameters that affect the machining processes were identified and a consensus was reached regarding its values. The proposed work is to perform machining under the selected levels of conditions and parameters and to estimate the, cutting temperature and surface roughness generated as the result of the machining process. By finding optimal depth of cut and feed in each segment through the profile, the machining performance in precision turning can be improved. In precision turning, the machining surface can be divided into small segments according. The optimal cutting condition would be different in each segment due to the various effective parameters.

  40. Srajan Kumar Goyal, R. Vinayagamoorthy and M. Anthony Xavior

    The quality of a machined surface is becoming further and more significant to satisfy the increasing demands of sophisticated component performance, longevity, and reliability. The objective of this paper is to analyze the performance of precision turning by means of conventional lathe on Ti6Al4V under dry working conditions. Various parameters that impinge on the machining processes were identified and a consensus was reached regarding its values. The proposed work is to perform machining under the selected levels of conditions and parameters and to estimate the, cutting temperature and surface roughness generated as the result of the machining process. ANOVA is used to find the percentage contribution of each parameter to the surface roughness and cutting temperature.

  41. J. Gokul, S. Suganthan, R. Venkatram and K. Karthikeyan

    Waste management is one of the most common and challenging problems in the world. The steel making industry has generated substantial solid waste. Mild steel slag is a residue obtained in steel making operation. This paper deals with the implementation of mild steel slag an effective replacement for stone or aggregate. Mild steel slag which is considered as the solid waste pollutant can be used for road construction, clinker raw materials, filling materials, etc. In this work, mild steel slag is used as replacement for aggregate or stone, which has highest content in concrete mixture. This method can be implemented for producing hollow blocks, solid blocks, paver blocks, concrete structures, etc. Accordingly, advantages can be achieved by using mild steel slag instead of natural aggregates. This will also encourage other researchers to find another field of using mild steel slag.

  42. Ilechukwu Ifenna and Okonkwo Chinedu

    Ten water samples from six randomly selected boreholes, three natural spring water and one sachet water from Nnewi in Nnewi North Local Government Area of Anambra State, Nigeria were collected. Physico-chemical parameters and heavy metals were determined using standard analytical procedures. The result of the physico-chemical analysis were obtained in the following range; pH (6.38-7.42), temperature (23-260C), conductivity (30.22-222.22 µS/cm), sodium (0.46-23.00mg/l), potassium (0.07-2.49mg/l), chloride (15.57-36.03mg/l), alkalinity (20-110mg/l) and hardness (45-275mg/l). The concentration of heavy metals (mg/l) in the samples were found within the following range; Pb (0.02-0.08), Fe (0.02-0.06), Cu (0.03-0.07), and Zn (ND-0.07). Cadmium was not detected in any of the water samples. Apart from lead that was found to be higher than the recommended limit for drinking water by World Health Organisation, all other results obtained were within the recommended limit.

  43. Abhilash N and K V Ramesh

    Computational assessment of the binding interactions of drugs is essential for enhancing the discovery of new drugs. In this perspective approved drugs for Leukemia Imantinib and Tretinoin and Garcinol a bioactive component of Garcinia indica was docked into inhibitor binding cavity of Nuclear Factor kappa B receptor and Tyrosine kinase receptor to understand their mode of binding interactions in silico. Lamarckian genetic algorithm methodology was employed for docking simulations using AutoDock 4.2 program. The results signify that Garcinol has significant free energy of binding which is close to that of the reference standards Imantinib and Tretinoin. These molecular docking studies in our view will contribute for further development of plant derived anti-leukemic drugs.

  44. K. Jothy and Ms. S. Kalaiselvi

    In the area of Sexual and Reproductive health, the onset of reproductive roles does not entitle the young women to their maternal and child health services or family planning services unless they are married and have children less than five years. High rates of Urbanization in developing countries have produced innumerable slums and squatters with very poor living conditions. The Global disease burden of Reproductive Tract Infections (RTIs), including Sexually Transmitted Infections (STIs), is a major health concern. Research evidences till show that only a few studies have been sophisticated on gynecological morbidity. Similarly the studies that deal with obstetric morbidity are very limited. Hence it is necessary to examine the determinants of RTIs in relation with socio economic and demographic characteristics by making use of appropriate framework. The prevalence of RTIs mainly depends upon the socio economic and demographic status of the people. Such studies will enable policy makers, administrators, health professionals and the academic community to understand the relation between the prevalence of RTIs and various socio economic and demographic characteristics of women. With this background an investigation has been made in this study to analyze the linkages of socio economic and demographic variables of women and the prevalence of RTIs. The association between the socio economic and demographic characteristics and the symptoms of reproductive morbidity has been statistically verified in the following section with the use of Analysis of variance and Chi-Square test. Some Policy measures have also been suggested.

  45. Jasmine, J. and Mahendran J. Venugopal

    Objective: The objective of our study is to develop an expert system for Management of Head Injury Patients (MHIP) to automate treatment planning support for severe head injury patients. Methods: A study was conducted among the Head injury Patients of Government General Hospital (GGH), Chennai, India. The necessary information were recorded and the risk factors were identified by various multivariate statistical models using SPSS package, with all these information together with the opinion of the Neurosurgeon on important clinical factors an Expert system MHIP has been developed. Results: Our study reveals that out of 801 head injury cases, 261 were severe head injury cases (GCS ≤8). It was alarming to observe that around 60% of the severe head injury cases were dead. Risk of Persistent Vegetative State /Death is 2 (95% CI = 1.18 - 4.33) times more in older people than the younger ones. The cases with abnormal respiratory rate had 5 (95% CI = 2.54 - 8.40) times more chances for death than cases with normal respiratory rate of 10-24/min. Thus the older age (P=0.001), abnormal respiratory rate (P=0.003) and lower GCS (P=0.008) were found to be consistent risk factors and significantly associated with the mortality of severe head injury patients. Conclusion: From the perspective of patients’ well being, Persons trained in trauma care in the rich industrialized countries depend a great deal on expensive, sophisticated diagnostic and curative equipment and materials. It will not be possible for most hospital in Low income Countries to obtain and stock such equipment and materials. Therefore an Expert system MHIP, developed in our study would help the neurosurgeon to a greater extent in identifying the patients, whose life can be saved, and which are cost-effective and feasible in such Institutions.

  46. Shanthala A.., and Hiremath M. B.

    Carbamate insecticide, carbaryl (1-naphthyl-Nmethylcarbamate), is highly toxic with a wide range of activity and known to be metabolized by microorganisms belonging to a variety of bacterial genera by interacting with different components. To evaluate its toxicity, the present study was undertaken by using increasing concentrations of carbaryl (10-8 to 10-2M) and evaluated for its toxicity to Escherichia coli with emphasis on enzyme assays such as such as activities of amylase, protease, phosphatase, superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase and peroxidase assay and was further compared to the soil isolate- Pseudomonas aeruginosa at a given periods of 24 to 72 hrs respectively. The results indicated that carbaryl treated groups exhibited a significant (P ≤ 0.05) increase in the enzyme activities of Escherichia coli and Pseudomonas aeruginosa with an increase in dose and duration when compared to the controls. While, in assessment with its free corresponding, the activity was less in immobilized Escherichia coli cells enlightening that immobilized system is less responsive to carbaryl. Present study suggested that carbaryl is a toxicant affecting the synthesis of enzyme activities in of Escherichia coli and Pseudomonas aeruginosa and alteration in these enzymes occurs as an adaptive mechanism to chemical stress or participation of these enzymes in the protection against ROS, thereby impairing the physiological and metabolic activities of the cell.

  47. Mangamuri Usha Kiranmayi, Sudhakar Poda, Muvva Vijayalakshmi

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of agro-waste substrates like banana peel powder and coir powder at varying environmental parameters of pH (4-9) and temperature (20-50ºC) on the cellulase production by Trichoderma reesei. The enzyme production was measured by the amount of glucose liberated in IU/ml by using dinitrosalicylic acid method. The substrates were pretreated with alkaline pretreatment and autoclaved. The maximum activity of the enzyme was assayed at varying pH with temperatures being constant and varying temperatures with pH being constant. The maximum activity of the enzyme was assayed at varying pH was documented at pH 6 for banana peel powder (0.57±0.03 IU ml-1) and coir powder (0.42±0.02) and the highest activity of the enzyme at varying temperature was recorded at 40ºC for both banana peel powder (0.65±0.02) and coir powder (0.47±0.002) after 144h of incubation. Thus the maximum amount of the enzyme was reported at pH 6 and temperature 40 ºC for both banana peel powder and coir powder. Moreover among the two substrates used for the production of cellulases by Trichoderma reesei banana peel powder exhibited maximum enzyme activity at 1.5% concentration (0.69±0.02 IU/ml) than coir powder as substrate.

  48. Ajay Kumar, Neetu Singh and S. S. Gaurav

    Lichen has a remarkable property of absorbing inorganic cations from the natural substrates on which they grow in amounts which are in excess of any expected requirements. We examined 20 sexicolous lichens which are known to fix metal ions found in Hilly areas of Himachal Pradesh of India for their metal fixation property. The mechanism by which Lichens take up cations is of considerable interest. Touminen (1967) proposed that alkali and alkaline metal ion uptake involved a simple ion-exchange process, which can occur inside the thallus cells of lichen by Intracellular ion-exchange mechanism of the proteins metallothioneins. Out of 20 protein samples 16 samples were found to have bound metal ions in considerable amount. These results enabled us to conclude about a similar mechanism of metal fixation in nearly all lichenic species possessing this property.

  49. Dr. Indiran Govender

    Background: HIV/AIDS is a worldwide problem while most of its affects are felt by the poor and the less educated adults. Young adults are at greatest risk given their risky sexual behavior. Discussion: In this paper adult health education and its role in the fight against HIV/AIDS is discussed. Successful programs in other African countries are explored and different approaches to HIV/AIDS adult education are presented. Take Home message Adult health education has a crucial role to play in the fight against HIV/AIDS especially in preventing HIV spread. Adult health education in this aspect has to be culturally and religiously acceptable by the community where the education is taking place.

  50. Peter Otieno Odhiambo, Francis Chisikwa Indoshi and John Agak

    One of the concerns in education sector today is developing effective performance indicators in terms of level of application and importance. The purpose of this study was to establish the performance indicators applied in the management of secondary schools. Its objective was to identify key performance indicators perceived as critical in secondary school management and the level of application and importance in their use. The study population consisted of 200 secondary school managers out of which180 were selected by saturated sampling technique after using 20 for a pilot study. Data were collected using questionnaire. The instrument was constructed by the researchers and validated by three experts in research methods from Maseno University. Secondary school managers demonstrated use of wide range of performance which was financial and non – financial in nature. On financial indicators, revenue achieved (0.76) in level of importance and composite mean of (0.65). In non – financial indicators, enrolment growth was highly ranked and had composite mean of (0.72) and ranking in level of importance was (0.880, followed by parent satisfaction which had composite mean of 0.77 and level of importance was 0.72. The implication is that secondary school management needs to focus more on determinant result indicators.

  51. Pijush Kanti Das and Amal Kumar Mondal

    During the last few years it is noticed that everybody is getting concern about natural dyes. Mainly the sources of natural dyes have three categories viz. plants, minerals and animals, but plants take great role for obtaining the natural dyes. Due to its less pollution and less side effect, natural dyes are used more often in food products as well as other important regular uses. Methanolic extract of different seven dye yielding plant parts like Acacia catechu (L.f) Willd., Basella alba Linn. var. rubra Linn., Beta vulgaris Linn, Bixa orellana Linn., Carthamus tinctorius L., Terminalia arjuna (Roxb.) Wight. & Arn., Terminalia chebula Retz. Were used to investigate the antimicrobial properties and antimutagenic activity. The methanolic extract of the plant parts are tested by agar well diffusion method (AWDM). The investigate showing the positive response against one gram +ve bacteria and three gram –ve bacteria. The result showing the positive response against the all microorganism. The tested plant parts showing the varying level of antimutagenic activity. The concentration dose 25, 50 and 100 µg/plate of dyeing parts of methanolic extract are widely used for this investigation. It was found that the dyeing parts of methanolic extract of the plant a dose 100 µg/plate exhibit inhibition of His+ revertants against acting mutagens, sodium azide (NaN3) induced mutagenicity in Salmonella typhemuium tester strains TA98 and TA100. The over all result showed that the tested methanolic plant extract both have antimicrobial properties and antimutagenic activity. Enumeration includes details about the plant with prospecting proper medicinal value.

  52. Shyamal Dutta

    Today, India has been facing two most vital problems which are directly related to agriculture, the first one is to meet the swelling demand for food and other agricultural products, and the second is enervating the widespread poverty in rural areas by the ever increasing population. The good performance in agriculture can diminish levels of rural poverty and meet increasing demand of agricultural products (Ahluwalia, 1978). Agricultural productivity is a measure of the efficiency with which inputs are used in agriculture to produce an output. When a given combination of inputs produces a maximum output, the productivity is said to be at its maximum. The measurement of agricultural productivity enables a comparison of relative performance of farmers between farms, between the types of farming and between geographical regions. The comparison of productivity goes on to the heart of economic performance and can provide the guidance for planning and development decisions (Kravis, 1976). Present study confined to such an analysis of agricultural development in terms of efficiency and productivity of Hugli District, which is one of the agriculturally prosperous district in West Bengal due to the presence of Gangetic fertile alluvial tract, better irrigation facility and high demand of agricultural products in different agro-based industries. Besides measuring the level of efficiency and productivity at block level, an attempt has been made to find out the major controlling factors of overall agricultural system based on PCA analysis. Finally this work concluded to make some suggestions and management plans to enhance the agricultural output in terms of yield as well as money.

  53. Pappu Rajan, A. and Victor, S. P.

    This is a study on application of Retail Analytics regarding to the retail outlet in Tiruchirappallai, Tamil Nadu , South India using data mining technique. The scope of this paper is using mining technique to identify the products or products of particular category which has association that is products which are likely to buy with other products as a bundle of item sets. This is defined by association rules with the help of support and confidence metrics, thereby finding the frequent market basket bundle item sets. This is done using the point of sales data that is collected in a retail shop and is more of daily transaction data. Using the association rules and market basket analysis, profitable associated product item sets are found. This is also identifies customer’s pattern of buying behavior and it is then used to devise cross selling strategies to improve the sales of the products. Cluster analysis is used to define the relationship between products and identify the factors that influence the buying behavior of the customers. And the results derived is used to draw a visual merchandising technique that will satisfy the customers in terms of service and induce the impulse purchase of products, increasing the profit of the retail outlet and retaining its customers.

  54. Vijay Kumar, Arvind Kumar Anuj Tyagi and P. P. Pathak

    The interactions of electromagnetic waves emitted by radiator with the biological tissues are studied. The photon of electromagnetic waves (EMW) are scattered by the different tissues inside the body and created the phonon. In this process, energy is transferred from one tissue to another and in every step; energy is absorbed by the tissues. In this manuscript, the penetrated electric field of selective tissues of human body and absorption of energy has been calculated and the calculated electric field and specific absorption rate (SAR) are compared with the International permissible limit given by some International Commission of Non-ionizing Radiation Protection (ICNIRP) and World Health Organization (WHO) etc. It is found that penetrated electric field inside the tissues represents that frequency 30-50 kHz are harmful for some tissues while specific absorption rate (SAR) represents that (30-70) kHz are harmful for cerebella spinal fluid, gall bladder bile, and body fluid etc. of the human beings. After analysis, it is concluded that people should keep away from the radiator.

  55. Binukumari, S. and H. Kavitha

    The biochemical components like protein, carbohydrate and lipid were estimated quantitatively in the tissues of liver, kidney, muscle and gill of control and insecticide treated fishes. The fishes were treated with the sublethal concentration of 6.6 ppm for 1, 2, 3, 10and 20 days. The protein, carbohydrate and lipid level of 20 days. The protein, carbohydrate and lipid level of liver, kidney, muscle and gill of the control fish was very high when compared with the treated ones. In treated fish the protein content of liver, kidney, muscle and gill were greatly reduced. Maximum reduction was observed at 20 days exposure. The carbohydrate and lipid content of the liver, kidney, muscle and gill are showed similar declining trend at different exposure periods. Maximum reduction was observed at 3 days and long term exposure periods.

  56. Ben, Etim Udoh and Agu. O. Agu

    The study investigated the strategic management practices of small business enterprises in Cross River State of Nigeria. The objectives of the study are; to determine the relationship between strategic management practices and performance of SBEs; to determine the relationship between strategic management practices and market share of SBEs; To determine factors affecting strategic management practices of SBEs. Cross sectional survey design was adopted. The population of the study was hundred and two (102) owners/managers of the selected organizations. Systematic sampling technique was employed in selecting the organizations from the list of registered companies in the state. Questionnaire was the main instrument for data collection and was designed in a 5- point Likert scale format supported with personal interview. The data collected were analysed with descriptive statistics, while the corresponding hypotheses were tested with Pearson Product Movement Correlation and Chi –square. . The findings indicate that there is significant positive relationship between strategic management practices and performance of SBES; there is significant relationship between strategic management practices and market share of SBEs. Infrastructural factors, macro environmental factors, and socio-cultural factors were found to be the major issues influencing the strategic management practices of SBEs. However, it was recommended that to accomplish the mission and objectives of SBEs in the light of growth and profitability, management need to have a positive rethink towards the use of strategic management.

  57. Cyprian Bankakuu Gandeebo

    At the heart of the success of any school improvement process is teachers' willingness to change and improve their knowledge, attitudes and practices. The role of school leadership is crutial in combining professional and accountability measures for effective collaboration of teachers in this regard. Using a case study design, the study explored the role of school leadership in mediating teacher appraisal for development. A purposive sample of two schools and nine participants were selected for the study. The study established that proactive leadership is key for any teacher appraisal system. The culture and professionalism created in school was found to be essential in creating an effective appraisal system. Furthermore, the existence of on-site and off-site professional development activities are were essential for appraisal system. Finally, the study found that any effective teacher appraisal system requires mediation between externally and internally initiated teacher development activities.

  58. Ben, Etim Udoh and Agu . O. Agu

    The study investigated the impact of transformational and transactional leadership styles on performance of manufacturing organizations in Cross River State of Nigeria. The objectives of the study are; to determine the relationship between transformational leadership style and organizational performance; to determine the relationship between transactional leadership style and organizational performance. Cross sectional survey design was adopted. The population of the study was made up of senior and junior workers of the three selected organizations in Cross River State. Systematic sampling technique was employed in selecting the organizations from the list of registered companies in the state. A sample size of 286 was drawn from the population of 1005 through application of Taro Yamane formular. Questionnaire was the main instrument for data collection and was designed in a 5- point Likert scale format supported with personal interview. The data collected were analysed with descriptive statistics, while the corresponding hypotheses were tested with Pearson Product Movement Correlation Coefficien at 0.05 alpha level. The findings indicate that there is significant positive relationship between transformational leadership style and organizational performance; there is a significant relationship between transactional leadership style and organizational performance. Thus, it was recommended that managers should adopt a leadership style that will enable him or her to successfully integrate and maximize available resource within the internal and external environment for attainment of organizational and societal goals.

  59. Dr. Neeraj Kumar Jain, Dr. Vibha Mangal, Dr. Aditi Mishra and Dr. Ritu

    Objective: To see the prevalence of malnutrition and its severity. Setting & Design: A cross-sectional survey of the nutritional status at HIHT, Rishikesh Branch. Participants: All the patients between the age group of 6 months-6 years who attended pediatrics OPD were included in this study. Results: In the present study 27.38 % children were under weight for their age. Nearly 52% cases were stunted indicating chronic malnutrition, while 17.84% showed wasting therefore a significant number of children failed to gain appropriate weight and height for their age when compared to standard measurements. However, most of them gained weight appropriate for their own height, which itself was not optimum. In children 6 months-6 years 28.48% had malnutrition according to mid upper arm circumference. Conclusion: It was recognized that wide spread malnutrition prevalent among the poor socio-economic groups of our population is largely attributed to economic factor. However it cannot be denied that social and cultural factors also contribute

  60. Dr. Bharat Mishra, and Vivekanand Mishra

    Cloud computing is one of today’s most attractive technology areas due to its many advantages like Highly scalable, on-demand, web-accessed IT resources with major cost / cash and flexibility. Various companies around the world adapting cloud computing as a means to increasing efficiency and reducing cost of their IT services. In this research paper efforts have been made to analyze the use of hybrid cloud computing model with security and scalability in business information system. There are many challenges in using cloud computing. The main challenges are security and because all essential services are generally outsourced to a third party. The outsourcing makes it harder to maintain data integrity and privacy, support data and service availability etc. Using public cloud model only in the business is very risky because of its security reasons and using private cloud only will not solve our purpose because in that case we will not be able to use advantages of public cloud model. To solve these security problems in business information system we can use hybrid cloud computing model where we can use advantages of public cloud and security of private cloud, in which we can elect to store highly sensitive data of the company in the private storage cloud and less sensitive data in public storage cloud. This research paper focused upon the security problems in business information system. Research suggests a hybrid cloud computing model where converging advantages of public cloud and security of private cloud can be used.

  61. U. Dauda and L. K. Ibrahim

    In this research work, data consisting number of pupils enrolment in primary schools, number of students enrolment in secondary schools, number of successful candidates, number of failure candidates, capital expenditure, recurrent expenditure covering 2002-2011 was obtained and analyzed to identify the level of educational achievement recorded under democratic dispensation, using Regression analysis. The result shows a weak correlation between Students performances and capital expenditure and other factors like students teacher ratio, teaching and learning aid, Poor Staff welfare and about 60% of the students are failing their examinations while 40% have the minimum requirement of entry into higher institutions of learning. This is achieved by using T- test. The study concludes that the use of regression analysis provides a suitable tool for assessing the level of education.

  62. N. Patnaik, C. Mahapatra, S. K. Dutta and P. K. Mahapatra

    Treatment of vitamin A (10IU/ml for 72 hours) to the tail amputated tadpoles of the Indian tree frog, Polypedates maculatus led to regeneration of abnormal tails from 20% abnormally regenerated tails ectopic limbs developed. A biochemical investigation revealed an elevation in the specific activity of acid and alkaline phosphatase in the regenerating tail of the control group in comparison to the original tails. In the vitamin A induced abnormally regenerated tails, there was significant increase in the activity of these two enzymes than the respective regenerated tails of the control group. Thus, it is evident that vitamin A induced specific activity of both acid an alkaline phosphatase in the abnormally regenerated tails, a prerequisite for ectopic limb development.

  63. Niraj K. Singh B. P. Singh and Brijesh P. Singh

    In spite of lot of research work in last few years, much information still lacks in our knowledge about migration. Expectancy table procedure gives the expectancy of various demographic events such as to determine the probable life time earnings of a person in a given industry or in a given occupation. Expectancy tables of migration gives information on the expected number of moves a person may make during his remaining life time. In the present study, we have tried to find out the nature and pattern of migration expectancy characterized by age and sex.

  64. Kamaraj A., and S. Padmavathi

    Green gram (Vigna radiate L.) is also known as mung bean or golden bean belongs to the Family Leguminosae. Green gram is a short duration crop and mainly cultivated as a rainfed crop under Rice fallow condition and irrigated crop. The low productivity under rainfed condition is due to soil moisture deficit, uneven rainfall, low soil fertility and poor crop management. To overcome this problem, seed researchers like Henckel as early as 1964 recommended the seed hardening techniques to alleviate the moisture stress condition. The present study will emphasize on the effect of seed hardening using various leaf extract like prosopis, pungam, nochi, neem,umathai, aduthoda, nerium, papaya, bittergourd etc. on seed and seedling characteristics like germination per cent, speed of germination, accumulated speed of germination, mean daily germination, root length, shoot length, seedling length, DMP, SV-I and SV-II of green gram ADT3. From the present study, it could be concluded that green gram seeds should be hardened with 1% prosopis leaf extract for 3 hours @ 1/3 rd volume of solution to enhance the seed and seedling quality characteristics under adverse environment conditions. In addition, green gram seeds may also be hardened with 1% pungam leaf extract to get the similar results.

  65. Suresha, H. R, Krishnappa, M., Raju, G. H, and Pramod, A. F

    The aquatic fungi are commonly found in water bodies’ especially rich biodiversity in lotic water bodies. The selected study sites of water samples and decaying debris were collected in the same study area and kept for screening and incubation respectively. The conidia developing on decaying debris were screened using microscope. The collected water samples revealed aquatic fungi. In this contribution of occurrence and abundance of aquatic fungi were enumerated. A total of 30 species belongs to fifteen genera were identified.

  66. Vem T. S., Pondei J., Nimzing L., Bigwan E., and Abdullahi, A.

    Background: Hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection is a vital health problem in blood transfusion throughout the world. A good number of studies in northern Nigeria were amongst people infected with HIV/AIDS; hence information is very scarce on the prevalence of HBV infection among blood donors in Nigeria. Objectives: The necessity for information about this silent killer among these apparent healthy blood donors was the center for this study. Methodology: Hepatitis–B-surface antigen (HBsAg) latex kit was used to determine the prevalence of HBsAg among 370 voluntary blood donors (age 20-60years) in Jos university teaching Hospital, Nigeria. Result: Three hundred and seventy (370) blood donors were screened for HBsAg and 100 (27.0%) were positive. Males recorded 97 (27.3%) while females had 3 (21.4%). Prevalence of HBsAg according to age showed that, age 20-30 years recorded 33.8%, age 31-40 years recorded 27.9%, while ages 41-50 and 51-60 years recorded 14.5% and 9.1% respectively. Routine screening for HBsAg in blood donors is very important because asymptomatic donors may be chronic carriers. Conclusion: The prevalence of 27.0% HBsAg within the study population shows that it is of public health significance.

  67. John Kipruto and Emily C. Stienei

    Adolescence stage is a period where biological factors are mainly recognized like brain development, increase in height, weight gain, motor skills and hormonal changes in puberty. This is the stage where adolescents’ cognitive development is increased. They are able to memorize many concepts, they become very creative, they reason logically and are very imaginative. Their social development also improves a lot especially in developing relationships with members of opposite sex. Their emotional development changes to aggressive state especially when dealing with adults like their teachers and parents. Adolescence stage is characterized by a lot of adventure on both positive and negative health behaviour and it is the stage which acts as a junction to positive or negative health behaviour. Most of the health behaviours either positive or negative which are experienced in adulthood began in adolescence. The adolescents have little knowledge about health issues and they always imagine that health problems are for old people. This paper seeks to explore some few issues concerning the adolescence stage and it is hoped that all adolescents will benefit from it as well those who work closely with the adolescents.

  68. Preetha Menon, Dr., and Dr. Hemalatha Natesan

    IT careers are often characterized by hard work, long hours and tight deadlines. Coupled with these high stressed careers, personality traits like high ambition, a strong sense of time urgency, hostility, distrust and anger could play havoc on the physical and psychological well-being of the professionals. Managing stress by mobilizing and enhancing internal coping strategies and learning and employing appropriate methods of responding to stressful situations are assumed solutions to the ever increasing demands of IT field. Present study was conducted to assess personality types and stress levels of the selected IT professionals and to examine the relation between their personality types and stress levels. Data were collected from 60 IT professionals employed in four computer software organizations at Bangalore. The results showed that half of the selected IT professionals had stress prone Type A personality and on the whole they had moderate stress. It was found that personality type and stress showed a positive and a significant correlation which indicated Type A personality as more prone to stress. Recommendations and suggestions to improve the coping strategies were discussed to enable the IT professionals manage their stress.

  69. Prabhu N. M., Tamilarasan S., Vaseeharan B., Manikandan R. and Devi K.

    Disease has always been a great topic of concern in aquaculture industry. Antibiotic sensitivity, bacterial resistance is an issue that needs to be considered while treating the disease. Various steps were taken to find out possible alternative methods to minimize the antibiotics use in the aquaculture industry for disease management. Probiotics, feed additive and natural products such as herbals, sea weeds and good management practices in disease control have proposed for better production without having adverse effect. In the present study, five different Vibrio spp. isolated from four different marine fishes Strongylura spp (V1, V5), Sphyraena spp (V2), Lethrinus spp (V3), Carangoides spp (V4) are characterized by Random Amplification of Polymorphic DNA (RAPD) profile. Three primers (TW-3, RBA- 5, OPA-2) were used to distinguish Vibrio spp. by the RAPD profile analysis method. Among three primers RBA-5 showed fewer banding patterns range from 250 bp to 1000 bp. RAPD profiles were clearly distinctive between the five Vibrio isolates (V1-V5). Primer TW-3 and OPA-2 produced greater banding patterns between five Vibrio spp. The antibacterial activities of five important seaweeds namely Sargassum wightii, were screened against five different Vibrio spp isolated from commercially important marine fishes. The zone of inhibition in the crude extract of seaweeds (Sargassum wightii, Caulerpa peltata) was varied from against Vibrio spp. methanol extract of sea weeds shows maximum zone of inhibition against V3 strain and minimum zone of inhibition against V5 strain. The results clearly indicate that the seaweed compounds effectively inhibit the Vibrio spp.

  70. Darling. B. suji and J. Vasanthakumar

    A Study was conducted in Kanayakumari district to find out the efficiency of water use for paddy and banana and the relationship between the characteristics of the respondents and the efficiency of water use. The study reveals that 60.67 per cent of the respondents had low water use efficiency and 25.33 per cent of them had medium water use efficiency in paddy. Only 14.00 per cent of them had high water use efficiency in paddy. This study also shows that 61.33 per cent of them had low water use efficiency followed by medium water use efficiency (21.33 per cent) in banana. Only 17.34 per cent had high water use efficiency in banana.

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