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March 2018

  1. Dr. H. Muh. Tahir Malik

    This study aims to describe, analyze, and interpret the quality of BPJS participants' services in UNHAS Hospital, This research type is qualitative descriptive with phenomenology approach, which examines and expresses the meaning of the concept or phenomenon and individual experience of BPJS in health services improvement, and experienced by individuals based on what happened at UNHAS Hospital. Technique of data collecting was done by interview, observation, and documentation study and source of data was obtained from 10 key informants. Data analysis technique was using Miles model and Huberman (2007): data reduction, data presentation, temporary conclusions and data verification. The results of the study found that the quality of health services for BPJS participants at UNHAS Hospital was not optimal, because there were still BPJS patients' rights that have not been accommodated, especially on the dimensions of responsiveness of hospital staff patients waiting for more than one hour service. Furthermore, the dimensions of responsibility that doctors prescribe drugs are not available in pharmacies. And the hospital room is not sufficient for BPJS patients.

  2. Shameem Iqbal, Tariq Abdullah Mir, Asif Iqbal, Malik, G. M. and Nuzhat

    Background: The functional gastrointestinal disorders (EGID) are the most common condition seen in gastroenterology clinics and they constitute a significant number of primary case visits. FGID symptoms are common in the community, only a small percentage seeks medical attention. The psychosocial factors which play a crucial role in FGID are acute chronic stress, personality structure and coping skills. Objectives: To determine the prevalence of symptoms of chronic functional gastrointestinal disorders. Methodology: A population sample of 500 was taken from each of the six districts of Kashmir valley. An effort was made to keep the population sample similar with respect to age, gender, educational background, smoking, alcohol consumption history of NSAID intake and past history of medical / psychiatric problem. An aliquot of subjects fulfilling the criteria for functional gastrointestinal disorders but with any alarming sign / symptom of bleeding PR, nocturnal pain and / or loss of appetite in any age group but especially in the elderly age group were taken for detailed clinical examination and the following relevant investigations. Results: The difference in the age (years) was statistically non-significant. There was a non-significant difference in distribution of sex in six districts. The prevalence of all functional G.I. symptoms except excessive gas / bloating was higher in females than in males. In Kashmir valley, 20.3% of study population was having abdominal pain before 1990 while as it was present in 48.2% after 1990. Loose water stool recorded an increase from 3. 75 to 9.4% which is statistically significant. Although Nausea / Vomiting also increased from 9.2% to 11.6% but the difference was statistically not significant. Conclusion: We observed sudden clustering of various functional gastrointestinal and non-gastrointestinal symptomatology among the inhabitants of the valley and the paramilitary personnel deployed in this region during this period of turmoil.

  3. Dr. Savitha Sathyaprasad, Dr. Sruthy P.G., Dr. Krishnamoorthy, S. H., Dr. Vinodhini, J., Dr. Anjana, A.G. and Rekha, R.

    Anxiety is an important stumbling block faced by paediatric dentists in routine practice. Paediatric dentists should address these concerns seeking a satisfactory patient/professional relationship and making it easier to provide dental treatment for children. Aim: This study was undertaken to evaluate the effectiveness of colouring exercise in reducing dental anxiety in children and to find out if colouring can be a newer adjunct in behaviour management. Methods and material: Fifty subjects of age group 4-9 years were selected for the study according to Frankl’s behaviour rating scale. Study group was divided into two as Group A: 4-6 years ,Group B: >6-9 years. The anxiety level of children in each group before and after colouring exercise was measured using facial image scale. Statistical analysis used: Analysis was done using Wilcoxon test, mann-whitney test. Results: The mean anxiety score in Group A before colouring exercise was found to be 3.52(4) and after applying this technique the mean score was reduced to 2.44(2) and it was found to be highly statistically significant. In Group B the mean anxiety score before colouring was found to be 2.4(2) and after applying this technique mean score was reduced to 1.48(1) and was found to be statistically significant. Conclusions: According to our findings, children aged 4-6year shows reduced anxiety levels compared to that of >6-9years. This result suggests that there is a correlation between children’s cognitive development and anxiety level. Colouring exercise can be a novel non pharmacological behaviour management method in clinical paediatric dentistry.

  4. Bilal Wani, Mohammadd Ashraf Khan, Nusrat Hafiz and Sunil Kohli

    Background: Diabetes mellitus has become a major health problem worldwide. Through Various Studies it has been have found that diabetes and thyroid disorders mutually influence each other and both disorders tend to coexist. The aim of this was study was to find out the prevalence of thyroid dysfunction in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus attending an outpatient department and medical wards of hamdard institute of medical sciences and research institute new Delhi. Material and methods: The study was conducted on 300 patients of type 2 diabetes mellitus above 30 years of age. All the patients were evaluated for thyroid dysfunction by testing thyroid profile (T3, T4and TSH). The correlation of prevalence of thyroid dysfunction with gender distribution, age distribution, HbA1C was done. The observations and interpretations were recorded and results obtained were statistically analysed. Results: It was found that prevalence of thyroid dysfunction was 17. 3% in diabetic patients, most common was subclinical hypothyroidism (9%). Thyroid dysfunction was found to be more in females 73. 1 %, as compared to males 26. 9%. There was significant association between prevalence of thyroid dysfunction with HbA1c. Conclusion: On the basis of observations of this study it is recommended to routinely screen patients of diabetes for presence of thyroid disorders to prevent long term morbidity and mortality.

  5. Dr. Madhusudhan Gupta, Dr. N. Margade and Dr. Smita Kukudkar

    Ayurveda is a science of life. In ayurveda tawcha is included under “panchdnyanedriya addhistan”. In ayurveda tawacha is described as outermost protective layer of body. Acharya charak and acharya sushruta very minutely described the layers of twacha according to their function & diseases which are related to those layers. Acharya Sushruta had described the process of formation of twacha in the developing feotus. Acharya charak described twacha as a matrujbhava which is one of the six bhavas essential in the development of feotus.

  6. Dr. Siddharth Mahajan and Dr. Nilofer Mujawar

    In present study, aim was to determine the bacteriological profile in Neonatal Sepsis and antimicrobial sensitivity of the organisms in the Neonatal Intensive Care Unit (NICU) of Tertiary care Hospital and to identify risk factors for neonatal sepsis. This study included records of all cases of clinically suspected septicemia in neonates admitted to the NICU from September 2015 to August 2016 (n=101). Result: The risk of sepsis in birth asphyxia and gestational age was about 2 times higher as compared to the control group and p- value was significant at 0.05 levels. Out of the total 95 cases having perinatal fever (n = 95, 94%), 34 (34%) were culture positive and 61 (60%) were culture negative, which was statistically significant. Conclusion: Klebseilla (Gm – ve) (23%) and Staphylococcus aureus (Gm + ve) (15.3%) were the most common organisms causing neonatal sepsis in our settings. Ampicillin and Gentamicin for 1st line, Ciprofloxacin and Piperacillin and Tazobactam for 2nd line, Meropenum and Vancomycin for 3rd line drugs for empirical antibiotic therapy.

  7. Anjali Edbor and Dr. Pankaj Singh

    The aim of the present study is to explore the relationship of emotional intelligence and job satisfaction in post graduate medical students from NKPSIMS and Lata Mangeshkar Hospital. Post graduate medical students tend to become over stressor by pressure of training schedule, studying and dealing with daily life changes in hospital. At these times they are very prone to become emotionally distraught. Irritable, difficulty handling anger followed by frequent anger outbursts, mood swings and declining grades is all signs of emotional disturbance of students under stress. . Sample for the study include 120 Post Graduate Medical Students (55 male, and 65 female) between the age group 22 to 35 years, NKPSIMS and Lata Mangeshkar Hospital from central India Nagpur. The data were analysed with the help of compared “t” test, an analysis of variance showed a mean of male emotional intelligence 125.23, female 124.72, and t- value is 0.153, significant at p-value of 0.05 level Based on this study it shows that positive relationship between emotional intelligence and job satisfaction among Post graduate Medical students. Importantly, in the health care setting Post graduate medical students who are more competent in recognizing emotions, concerns and needs of patients are more successful in treating them. Strongly Emotional intelligence (Social Skills) doctors recognizing and understanding patient’s emotions.

  8. Dr. Pooja Nair, Dr. Rashmi N Shetty, Dr. Sowmya B Shetty and Dr. Neilvel kandaswamy

    Introduction: Dental caries is one among the major health problem affecting 60 to 90% of school children. Early and timely intervention is required to prevent the occurrence of dental caries. It is important that primary dentition is maintained in the dental arch provided it can be restored to function and remain free from disease. The purpose of this study is to explore the dental health knowledge, awareness and attitude of patient’s parents towards pulp therapy of primary teeth. Aim: to access dental health knowledge, awareness and attitude of patients parents towards pulp therapy of primary teeth. Material and Methods: it’s a time bound study which would be conducted for a period of 3 months. The study will be conducted in department of pedodontics and preventive dentistry ajids Mangalore. All the parents of child patients requiring pulp treatment procedure visiting the dental opd over this time period will be personally interviewed with a questionnaire. Their response will be computed and the results will be statistically analysed. Results: in this study pain was the prime reason for the population (59.7%) to make their 1st dental visit. Parents felt the need to save the pulpally involved primary teeth and there was willingness to save the pulpally involved primary teeth 95.5%, very less 4.5% felt it was not required to save the primary teeth as it will be replaced by permanent successors. Conclusion: a norm of regular semi-annual/annual dental check-up has to be set up as the parents get there child to dental clinic when the disease is advanced, hence we need to create awareness among the population about the significance of maintaining a healthy primary dentition.

  9. Dr. Rajaraman Gangadharan, Dr. Raghu K., Dr. Arivunithi K, Dr. Selvakumar, S.R., Dr. Bhavani Sri Krishna Pillai and Dr. Jeyapreetha Pavunraj

    Dental caries with pulpal involvement is a painful condition. In order to eliminate pain, pulp should be extirpated completely, although due to different configuration it remains difficult. This study aims to understand the various types of root canal configuration of maxillary first premolars in Cuddalore district, Tamilnadu based on the independent epidemiological studies. In order to understand the pattern of root canals, a set of 150 orthodontic extracted teeth was collected and its root canal configuration was studied using clearing method (Sharaddha Gupta, 2015). Then with the help of dye its root canal configuration was made visible and studied. According to Vertucci’s classification 1984 among the sample, single root where seen in 82.74%, double root where seen in 16.1% and three root where seen in 1.16% of sample. In single rooted teeth type IV is the most common type of root canal configuration seen in 38.04% of sample followed by type II in 21.24%. In double rooted tooth buccal root shows 6.3% followed by type III, and palatal root shows 7.5% of type I followed by type III, 2% . In triple rooted teeth 1.16% of type I in mesiobuccal root, 1.16% type VI in distobuccal root and 1.16% of type I were seen in palatal root. From the results type IV root canal configuration is the most common type configuration among the permanent maxillary first premolars in Cuddalore district, Tamil Nadu.

  10. Chairin Vita Hutamasari and Heru Kuswanto

    The research aimed to: (1) obtaining physicsmobile learning of local culture-based (Fiddle) with appropriate android assisted (2) improving the verbal representation and (3) the diagram representation abilities of Senior High School students. This research used 4D development model; (a) defining, (b) developing, (c) designing and (d) disseminating. The material was presented in an android application. The learning media feasibility had tested by experts, material experts, media experts, and physics teachers. The main field test subjects were 71 students. The effectiveness of physics learning media was obtained from the gain score of students’ pre-test and post-test. Manova was used in data analysis techniques. The results showed that the learning media categorized as “very good”. There was difference of final score between the experimental class after used the physics learning media product of local wisdom-based (Fiddle) and the control class.

  11. Dr. Rajesh S. Swami and Dr. Prashant M. Battepati

    Aim: To analyse the haematological values in patients with cleft lip and palate and compare it with normal values. Methods: Patient case records (N=821) were accessed to collect the data. The following information was collected from patient records: Age, Gender, type of cleft, Haematological values like Total leukocyte count, Differential leukocyte count, Haemoglobin, Packed cell volume, Erythrocyte sedimentation rate. Pearson’s chi-square test was performed for data analysis. Results: Compared to normal values, in cleft individuals there was increase in parameters like total leukocyte count (in 41.4% cases), neutrophil count (in 7.4% cases), lymphocyte count (in 17.4% cases), Erythrocyte Sedimentation Rate (in 73.4% cases) which were statistically significant and there was a decreased monocyte count (in 99.1% cases), haemoglobin (in 55.5% cases), Packed Cell Volume (in 15.8% cases) which also showed statistical significance. Conclusion: Increased infections and compromised nutrition occurring in the cleft patients due to anatomical deficit may reflect on the haematological values.

  12. Dr. Swaminathan, Dr. Murugan, Dr. Mathew Jose and Dr. Dhineksh Kumar

    Squamous cell carcinoma is the commonest Carcinoma in mucosa. Squamous cell carcinoma is a malignant epithelial neoplasm characterized by variable clinical manifestations metastasis. It most common site in the oral cavity is the lip followed by lateral border of the tongue. Squamous cell carcinoma is radiosensitive and chemo sensitive, but surgery remains the main Modality of treatment. Here we report a successfully treated case of squamous cell carcinoma of left maxilla. Patient was a52 year male who had a swelling in the left palatal region for 6 months. Clinical examination revealed anulceroproliferative lesion involving left palate, alveolus region. Left level 1b (submandibular) lymph node was palpable and hard in consistency with no tenderness. The diagnosis of squamous cell carcinoma was made after incisional biopsy. Treatment of wide excision of tumor, associated cervical lymph node dissection by radiotherapy. The prognosis of squamous cell carcinoma maxilla is high when carcinomatous lesion are diagnosed and treated early. In this instance routine dental examination play an important role in early detection of squamous cell carcinoma.

  13. Rawoof Khan, G., Anwar Mohammed Al Masalmeh, Fayrouz Yasser Metani, Maysoun Mustafa Al Nayef and Sultana Essa Bin haider

    Rupture Diabetes mellitus (DM) is a heterogeneous disease. One of the chief injuries arising from hypergly¬cemia is injury to vasculature, which is classified as either small vascular injury (microvascular disease) or injury to the large blood vessels of the body (macrovascular disease). Moringa oleifera and Hordeumleporinum methanol extract mixture in Microvascular Complications (nephropathy disease).Models of STZ-induced diabetic nephropathy injected once into the tail vein of grouped Wistar rat with STZ 60mg/kg in sodium citrate buffer (1ml/kg). Biochemical assessment of renal injury by urine albumin excretion is considered to be one of the most sensitive markers of renal injury. Blood sample for estimation of creatinine, blood urea nitrogen, uric acid and total protein. Histopathological examination at the end period and Statistical analysis was performed as the mean± standard deviation (SD). Aims and Objective: To evaluate the effect of Moringa oleifera, Hordeumvulgare and their mixture in Microvascular Complications of Streptozotocin (STZ) induced Diabetes Mellitus Wistar rat.

  14. Dr. Jagmohan shrivastava and Dr. Akash shrivastava

    The purpose of the study to examine the behavior problem and effect of behavior modification therapy, and parenting positive enrolment on school going children, and relation to their academic skills. Adolescence (boys and girls) who referred by doctors for behavior difficulties, and poor scholastic performance,(more than 6 months), referred at Shrivastavaclinic, chhindwara Madhya Pradesh were included in the study (N=156). An Analysis of variance showed that the F ratio is larger than the F crit value. The F crit is the critical value as extracted from the f-distribution in statistical tables based on two values of degrees of freedom df of 2 and 465. p < 0.05 significant (Means are different) different means say that there is an effect of level of parenting enrolment and behavior modification therapy help children with behavior difficulties and improve their academic skills. Study showed that positive parenting enrolment and behavior modification therapy program improves positive communication with children, healthy attachment, emotional adjustment, including intelligence, sustained attention, memory, or executive functions; affect activities, including increasing learning and applying knowledge and improving attending and completing tasks; or enhance participation, including moving across educational levels, succeeding in the educational program.

  15. Dr. Pankaj Singh and Dr. Yash Banait

    Parents can benefit from an understanding that how they parent, or their parenting style, provides a basis for many healthy developmental outcomes during adolescence. Understanding the different parenting styles and their impact on the parent-teen relationship and behavior outcome may help parents and their adolescence navigate adolescence more smoothly. Adolescence parents and adolescence (boys and girls) who referred by doctors for behaviour difficulties, poor parenting , and poor scholastic performance , (more than 6 months ), referred at Medical College NKPSIMS and LMH ,Nagpur were included in the study (n=162). An Analysis of variance showed t- value is significant at p < 0.05 significant (Means are different) different means say that there is an effect of level of negative parenting style ,attachment increased the number of behavior difficulties .Present study showed that adolescence behavior depends on parenting style and attachment and maintaining the guidelines for healthy relationships. As a result, most of the parenting style and attachment are lack respect and responsibility in guiding their own behaviors and making decisions that are truly in the best interest of their children, the children are showed different behavior – depression, anxiety, withdrawal, aggression, lack of interest on study, conduct problem, or hyperactivity, and most of the children showed lack of confidence, low Social skills, and low communication.

  16. Giovani, E.M., Baptista, R., Oliveira, F.T., Silva, A.C., Georgevich, R.N., Santos, C.C., Tarquínio, K.C. and Moura, C.M.

    Dental avulsion is a dento-alveolar lesion consisting of the total displacement of the tooth from its alveolus. It causes many functional, aesthetic and psychological damages and constitutes a dental emergency. It presents a dubious prognosis, and is still considered a challenge for dental surgeons. Treatment depends on several factors, however, dental reimplantation should be the first-choice therapeutic possibility when possible. This paper reports the case of a patient with moderate cerebral palsy, who in a skateboard accident had his right upper central incisor fully avulsed. Late dental reimplantation was performed, with therapeutic protocol including high- and low-power laser application, drug endodontic therapy and 4-year proservation. It was concluded that late dental reimplantation is a therapeutic possibility that facilitates, is effective and is recommended for avulsed teeth, rescuing the aesthetics, and psychologically replacing the patient in his social life, mainly because he is a patient with special needs, promoting improvements in his quality of life.

  17. Dr. Revathy, T.G., Dr. Nirupa, S., Dr. Aishwarya, A. and Dr. Mohana

    Introduction: Appropriate awreness of women about certain physical, mental, social and psychological changes that occur following menopause helps them with greater readiness to cope with these changes. Aim: To determine the knowledge and attitude of women toward menopause phenomenon and based on its results we can improve life quality and promote women’s health by various training programs. Materials and Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted on 100 postmenopausal women who attended OBG OPD in SBMCH over a period of 3months. The stratified sampling method was used and participation in this study was based on obtaining informed consent. The data collection instrument was a questionnaire consisting of three parts: demographic information, questions to assess knowledge and attitude investigation questions. Results: In this study, 8% of the subjects had poor knowledge, 71.5% had moderate knowledge and 20.5% had good knowledge. Meanwhile, 81.5% of the women had a positive attitude toward menopause. The correlation test showed that knowledge and attitude are meaningfully related to economic status and education level. Conclusion: Identifying the quality of women's subjective perception of menopause has an essential role in the development of accurate and appropriate programs to promote women's health during menopausal years.

  18. Dr. Pratijya Raj, Dr. Veda Hegde and Dr. Sufia Khan

    Aims: Odontogenic lesions comprise a complex group of lesions of diverse histopathologic types and clinical behaviour. These tumours are characterized by the presence of secretory material. Some of these secetory materials may show calcification. The secretory materials have been attributed to a wide range of material including enamel, dentin and cementum or bone, however the exact nature is still unknown. Methods like IHC though available are expensive, technique sensitive and questionable in certain circumstances. To identify the nature of secretory material in selected odontogenic tumours by using a histochemical stain called modified Gallego’s stain using hard tissues of the tooth as the control. Methods: The study will constitute a total of 12 histopathological proven cases (3 cases each) of various odontogenic tumours like adenomatoid odontogenic tumour, calcifying epithelial odontogenic tumour, calcifying odontogenic cyst and cemento-ossifying fibroma containing secretory material as identified in heamatoxylin and eosin stained sections. The tissue sections from the above cases will be subjected to a histochemical stain called as modified Gallego’s stain using hard tissues of the tooth as the control. Results: Adenomatoid odontogenic tumour, calcifying epithelial odontogenic tumour, calcifying odontogenic cyst we found dentinoid like material and cemento-ossifying fibroma we found bone and cementum like material.

  19. Dr. Apurv Mamidwar, Dr. Surekha Dubey, Dr. Seema Sathe, Dr. BidyabatiHuyam, Dr. SupriyaSawant and Dr. Sonia Aswale

    Aim: The study was aimed to compare the color stability of 3 different types of provisional restorative materials with respect to chromatogens in commonly used Indian foods over a period of 6 weeks. Methodology: This investigation aims at in vitro comparative study of color stability of commercially available different tooth colored provisional restorative materials in commonly used Indian chromatogens. DPI Heat Cure, DPI Cold cure and RevotecLc were the materials subjected to staining with sambhar, tea and tobacco solution. Result: Heat cure was found to be the most colour stable material followed by self cure and revote lc. Sambhar solution stained the most.

  20. Dr. Samina K. Khatib, Dr. Shobha J. Baride and Dr. Syed, S.N.

    Background: This study was envisaged to emphasize the importance and necessity of preoxygenation in all cases before induction. The commonly used 3 minute tidal volume breathing (TV) and 4 deep breaths (DB) in 30 seconds techniques were compared using pulseoximetry. The effect of preoxygenationon vital haemodynamicparameters with these techniques and also the effects, if preoxygenation is not done, were also evaluated. Material and Methods: This randomized clinical study was done in a tertiary care medical college hospital. Ninety adult patients(18-45 years) of both genders, ASA grade I-II, undergoing elective surgery were included and studied in three groups with 30 patients randomly allocated to each group. Group I-Received no preoxygenation, but ventilation was done during apnoea using AMBU with oxygen 2 liters/minute with 4 maximal chest inflations. Group II-Received preoxygenation with 100% oxygen in the form of 4 vital capacity breaths in 30 seconds and ventilation was done during apnoea with 4 maximal chest inflations of 100% oxygen. Group III- Received preoxygenation with 100% oxygen, for 3 minutes in the form of tidal volume breathing and ventilation was done during apnea with4 maximal chest inflations of 100% oxygen. The pulse, blood pressure and oxygen saturation were recorded before induction, after premedication, after preoxygenation, after induction and intubation. The values were compared statistically using paired and unpaired t-test and one-way analysis of variance test as applicable. A p-value of less than 0.05 was considered as statistically significant at 95% confidence interval. Results: During induction there was a fall in saturation in patients of Group I with a meanSpO2 after intubation of 94.71% ±3. 61 and the lowest value recorded being 88%. In the Groups II and III, the SpO2 was maintained at a level of 100% throughout induction. There was a rise in pulse and blood pressure after intubation in all the groups as a result of intubation response. The rise in blood pressure in Group I (mean SBP=144.6±16.8, mean DBP=95. 46±11.49) was higher though not significant, as compared to the other two groups. (Mean SBP in Group II=142.63±13.03, mean DBP in Group II=92. 33±23.72, mean SBP in Group III=136.73±8.1, mean DBP in Group III=93. 4±10.16). (p>0.05).The vitals started approaching the baseline values and blood pressure reached baseline values significantly faster in preoxygenated groups as compared to Group I (p<0.05). Conclusions: Preoxygenation is a must before induction in all patients. Both 3 minute tidal volume and 4 deep breaths in 30 seconds techniques are equally effective in uncomplicated inductions. Ventilation during apnoea provides added oxygen reserve. Besides protection from hypoxia, preoxygenation contributes to hemodynamic stability.

  21. Yesenia Gabriel-Valenzo, Ramón Bedolla-Solano, María Laura Sampedro-Rosas, Benjamín Castillo-Elías and Helinda Gervacio-Jiménez

    To strengthen the Environmental Culture Learning Unit (ECLU) was necessary to design and implement an Environmental Education Program (EEP) attached to the (ECLU). The implementation of EEP was with students of the bachelor`s degree, Educational Intervention at 12 A institution dependent on the Universidad Pedagógica Nacional (UPN), Chilpancingo, Guerrero, Mexico, during february-july, semester, 2016; The EEP basis and methodology were according to the competency model, with a constructivist approach; the activities were carried out, so that the students recognize the environmental problems and analyze them from their environments: natural, social and economic aspects. Didactic Strategies: Formative Learning Project and cooperative work were done during the implementation of this program; Also during the process was carried out the formative evaluation as improvement to the process of teaching-learning; with the purpose that the students were self-critical of their performance, co-evaluation and self-evaluation, achieving strengthening the environmental competencies proposed by Aparicio (2014). The results were satisfactory, according the perception and evaluation students showed responsibility, ethics, commitment in the care of the environment. Students built meaningful learnings and competencies.

  22. Ratobimanankasina, L., Rahanitrandrasana, O., Raobelle, E.N., Randrianarivo, R.F., Rajaonarison, B.H. and Raharivelo, A.

    In Toamasina, our study emphasizes that addiction was really a mask of depression which is in high level in 71% of alcoholic-addicted, in 63% of cannabis-addicted, in 34% of tobacco-addicted and in 78% of people addicted in illicit psychotrop drugs. Even if it was the contrary in some studies on literacy, as far as our studies was concerned, in order to improve taking care of drug-addicted people in Toamasina, and it seems also available to cases the other Malagasy areas, we should even recommend to detect systematically depression mood in them, and if it is the case, it should be treated at the same time as the desintoxication cure properly, in order to prevent committing suicide. According to the epidemio-clinical profile of this association of addiction and depression mood in Toamasina, and also because of their multifactor etiologies, its treatment should need then multidisciplinary concertation (Psychiatrist, General physicians, Psychotherapist, social workers).

  23. Dr. Kanupuru Manaswini, Dr. Smitha, M., Dr. Blessy John, Dr. Saraswathi, K. and Dr. Johnson, W.M.S.

    Introduction: Abnormal Uterine Bleeding is a common phenomenon among women of reproductive age group. However, a thorough evaluation is often necessary to rule out serious conditions of the reproductive system. This study was done to evaluate the validity of diagnostic hysteroscopy in Abnormal Uterine Bleeding. Methods: This cross sectional study was done on 50 patients who presented with Abnormal Uterine Bleeding. Each participant underwent panoramic hysteroscopy and subsequent curettage. The curetted endometrium was sent for histopathological examination. Results: The age group of the patients ranged from 20-60 years. Most of the patients (42%) had symptoms for more than 1 year and most common presenting symptom was Memorrhagia (46%) and Postmenopausal bleeding (32%).Hysteroscopy reported 27 patients (54%) as negative view and 23 patients (46%) as abnormal view. Endometrial hyperplasia (20%) was the most common abnormality, followed by endometrial polyp (14%). The Sensitivity and Specificity for Hysteroscopy was 91.66%, 96.15% respectively and for curettage was 79.16%, 96.15%respectively. Conclusion: The most consistent finding has been the detection of thickened endometrium of various types like simple, cystoglandular, adenoglandular hyperplasia, endometrial polyp and sub mucous myomas with 100% accuracy using hysteroscopy. Hysteroscopy revealed more information than curettage. Hysterscopy may be used as a valid screening tool for diagnosis of Abnormal Uterine Bleeding.

  24. Maheen Nazir, Bashir Ahmad Shah, Shaheen Shahdad, Basit Aslam and Rabiya Amin

    Scapula, the triangular flat bone links the axial skeleton to the appendicular skeleton of upper limb along with clavicle. It shows modifications in its shape in the evolutionary process from quadrupeds to bipeds. Present study was carried out with the objectives of determining important measurements like breadth, length, infraspinous length of scapulae and finding out indices like scapular index and infraspinous index which may help in comparative anatomy and defining the race. The scapular measurements can be used for comparative anatomy and manufacturing of prosthetic products and surgical procedures such as prosthetic positioning. Further in depth studies about scapular measurements, including radiological may help in determining the race just by using the indices. These indices are used both in comparative anatomy and the study of characteristic of race, sex and age in man. This study was carried out in the department of anatomy of Government Medical College, Srinagar Jammu and Kashmir. Total of 60 human scapulae were studied. Data obtained from the study was analyzed and results were calculated. The mean and SD of Scapular breadth were 98.16mm and 11.60 respectively. The breadth range of 100mm-105mm (28.3%) had the maximum number of scapulae while the minimum number were noted in the 115mm-120mm (3.33%) range. The mean length of the scapula and SD observed were 137mm and 20.09mm respectively. Maximum number of scapulae was in the range of 140mm to 150mm while least number was in the 100mm to 110mm range. The Scapular index was in the range of 63.80mm-95mm. Mean and standard deviation were 72mm and 11.41mm respectively. Maximum number of scapula were found in two groups i.e, in the range of 65mm to 70 mm (35%) and 70mm to 75mm (35%), while only 1 was in the range of 90mm to 95mm (1.6%) and no scapula was in the range of 85mm to 90mm.Infraspinous index was in the range of 79.04mm to 125mm. Mean and standard deviation were 92.83mm and 15.86mm respectively. Maximum number of scapula was found in range 85mm to 95 mm (45%) while as minimum number of scapula were in the range of 115mm to 125mm (1.6%). Mean infraspinous length was 106.76mm. Measurements like scapular length, breadth and infraspinous length and indices like scapular and infraspinous index can be used in comparative anatomy.

  25. Tarun Kumar, P., Narayana Prasad, Navid Wani, Tarun Sharma, Gaurav Chaudhary And Prashant Saini

    Aim and Objectives: This study is done to determine the prevalance of mandibular asymmetry in skeletal class II subjects to assess sexual dimorphism, any correlation of mandibular asymmetry with ramus length and width, length of the body of mandible and to evaluate and compare panoramic radiograph and frontal cephalogram radiograph to assess mandibular asymmetry. Materials and Method: Extra oral radiographs were taken of each subjects of age group (Male 18years and above, Girls 16years and above). The lateral cephalogram of subjects were taken and evaluated for Class II skeletal pattern ANB of > 4°and Beta Angle <24°) and for evaluation of growth completion by CVMI staging method. (30 Males and 30 Females) samples with skeletal Class II pattern were selected. Lateral cephalograms, Orthopantomogram and Frontal cephalometric radiographs were taken using a standardised technique The radiographs are traced on fine acetate matte tracing paper. Analysis for assessment of mandibular asymmetry and was sent for statistical analysis. The results thus obtained were subjected to pearsons correlation coefficient, student’s paired t test and independent students t test. Results: Mandibular asymmetry based on length of ramus was observed in 16.8% of the study subjects. Similarly, the incidence of mandibular asymmetry based on length of mandible, length of condyle, gonial angle and length of corpus was found to be 15.7%, 14.5%, 10.6% and 8.6% respectively. In the results for the sexual dimorphism we found that there is statistically significant results seen when we compared values of both males to females. In males we found that the mean value was increased in certain parameters when taken from OPG statistically significant and the mean value was increased in females as compared to males. When correlating the mandibular asymmetry with ramus length, width and length of the body of mandible we found that there are positive correlation in certain parameters taken, in contrast we found there are certain negative correlation seen When comparing the panoromic radiograph (OPG) and Frontal radiograph (PA) we found that there is a significant difference in OPG and frontal cephalogram readings when comparing to length of the ramus, length of corpus and length of the mandible and gonial angle as the results showed statistically significant values, so it can be stated that the OPG and frontal cephalogram cannot be compared with each other for the measurement.

  26. Dr. Kamalakanth Shenoy, Dr. Rajesh Shetty, Dr. Savita Dandakeri and Dr. Tehseen Zakir

    Osteoporosis is a disease of bone which is usually seen in middle aged post-menopausal women. The osteoporotic bones are weak and prone to fractures. Osteoporosis in simple terms means “porous bone”. It is a silent disease. Oral health maintenance for adults with osteoporosis is important. Bone weakness and loss usually affects the ridges that hold dentures resulting in ill-fitting dentures. These patients require new dentures more often than those who have strong, healthy bones. Regular dental visits and a healthy lifestyle is necessary in strengthening and maintenance of good bone health. A well balanced diet with high amounts of vitamin-D & calcium along with regular physical activity is recommended in such patients.

  27. Dr. Pallavi Sirana, Dr. Narendra Kumar, Dr. Kunwarjeet Singh and Dr. Vikram Kapoor

    Aim: This study was undertaken to evaluate the bond strength of different luting cements to zirconium oxide ceramic crowns. Materials and Methods: Thirty extracted human premolar teeth were prepared and used in the study for fabrication of zirconium oxide ceramic copings. These copings were then divided into three groups: - Group I (GC Gold Label), Group II (Calibra) and Group III (Panavia F 2.0), which consisted of ten copings each for cementation. The samples were then subjected to a crosshead speed of 0.5mm/min for dislodgement of copings along the apico-occlusal axis until failure on Universal testing machine. The data obtained was subjected to statistical analysis. Statistical Analysis: The statistical tests used were ANOVA test for difference between the mean values and chi-square test for difference between the proportions. The level of significance was taken at 5% (p<0.05). The F-test is used for comparisons of the components of the total deviation Bonferroni test is used for multiple comparisons. Result: The result showed that the mean retentive force for Group I cement was 126.9 ± 31.52, for Group II cement was 256 ± 58.04 and for Group III cement was 271.4 ± 51.15. Group I cement had the least retentive strength for retaining zirconium oxide copings. Conclusion: It was concluded that Groups II and III are capable of retaining zirconium oxide copings successfully with no additional internal surface treatment other than airborne-particle abrasion with 50-µm aluminium oxide.

  28. Dr. Bajad Payal, D., Dr. Gaikwad Rahul, N., Dr. Preet Jain and Dr. Meetu Jain

    Community-oriented dental education provides variable constructive learning experiences for students while working in real life situation. This type of pragmatic approach of teaching and learning will present a student, acquaintance with genuine and tangible facts and data about individuals and groups. Oral health services are no exception, therefore, it becomes imperative to give all clinical students skill and practice of working in most basic units of health primary care centres and the sub centres. The article highlighted key issues of community based learning (CBL) approaches by providing a brief idea of various thought of CBL, different clinical education models which can be executed in existing health professionals’ curriculum. Further significance of Community-based research seeks to recognise and build on strengths, resources and relationships that exist in the communities. Community based learning approach offers various advantages not exclusively to students, to faculty, staff and community eventually gives a chance to guide values of the dental faculty and students and to orient them towards public services, engagement, ethics and the public health.

  29. Dr. Swanand S Pathak and Dr. Monil Yogesh Neena Gala

    Rupture Background: Alopecia is an age old problem affecting humans since dawn of civilization. While there are commercially available treatment, it’s not for the mass population. The current millennials follow an unhealthy lifestyle and and increasingly rely on synthetic hair products which only aggravates the hair growth and hair fall disorders. This study was conducted to observe the impact of one such factor and determine whether extracts of Hibiscus rosa sinensis can be used to treat such problems. Objective: • To evaluate the hair growth potentiation activity of Hibiscus rosa sinensis flower on wistar albino rats • To evaluate the hair growth potentiation activity of Hibiscus rosa sinensis leaves on wistar albino rats • To evaluate the hair growth potentiation activity of minoxidil • To evaluate the effects of altering the circadian rhythm of wistar albino rats on hair growth • To compare the efficacy of Hibiscus rosa sinensis leaves, Hibiscus rosa sinensis flowers and minoxidil in normal acclimatized rats and rats with disturbed circadian rhythm. Method: After dividing the animals to two groups, they are acclimatized to different environmental conditions. After 7 days, the dorsal skin of the rats is shaved and divided into 4 regions. In both the groups of animals one region kept as control and remaining 3 regions are treated with minoxidil and Hibiscus rosa sinensis extruacts for 30 days. Hair samples were taken at regular intervals and recorded. Results: Hibiscus rosa sinensis leaves extract was more effective in promoting hair growth then the flower extract while minoxidil treated region recorded maximum hair growth. Rats with disturbed circadian rhythm had delayed hair growth initiation as compared to normal rats however the difference was statistically insignificant. After hair growth initiation, the hair growth trend observed in rats with disturbed circadian rhythm was identical to that of normal rats. Conclusion: The active principle of Hibiscus rosa sinensis extract is not clear but with positive results in hair growth, it has a great potential in the drug discovery process with formulae’s derived from its active principle can be used to treat the hair disorder that has plagued mankind.

  30. Rubina Shakya, Soumya Chokraborty Bhattacharya and Shamsher Shrestha

    A considerable amount of clinical and experimental evidence suggests that many biochemical pathways are strictly associated with Phenytoin. It increases the production of Reactive Oxygen Species (ROS) which could be counteracted by the antioxidants such as Vitamin C and E supplementation. In this study, ¬¬Phenytoin was administered at the dose of 80 mg/kg/day in the pregnant rats during fetal organogenesis period. Whereas, Vitamin C and E were supplemented throughout the pregnancy at the doses of 1.60 gm/kg/day and 0.8 gm/kg/day respectively. Phenytoin treatment induced the morphological changes in fetus with flexure defect and unequal sized limbs. It also decreased the fetal body and brain weight. However, Phenytoin plus Vitamin C and E treated group gave birth to normal fetuses with significantly increased body as well as brain weight. Interestingly, Malondialdehyde (MDA) level in the maternal rats was also significantly reduced, one of the possible causes of reduced fetal-tissue damage. So, it strongly suggests that Vitamin C and E as antioxidants possess the protective effect over Phenytoin induced teratogenesis.

  31. Dr. Meghana P. and Dr. Bharathi Muniyappa

    Background: Thrombocytopenia is one of the most frequent causes for hematologic consultation in the practice of medicine. It results from a wide variety of conditions and can produce severe morbidity and mortality. Two main mechanisms involved in the pathogenesis of thrombocytopenia are increased destruction and decreased production of platelets. Recent advances in automated blood cell analyzers have made it possible to measure the various platelet indices and to differentiate the causes of thrombocytopenia as hyper destructive or hypo productive. Methodology: The blood samples were analyzed for platelet count and platelet volume indices using the automated haematology analyzer. Results: The platelet volume indices - mean platelet volume, platelet distribution width and platelet large cell ratio showed significantly higher values in the immune thrombocytopenia cases. Conclusion: The platelet volume indices can be considered as an effective non invasive tool in discriminating immune thrombocytopenia from hypo productive thrombocytopenia.

  32. Dr. Fathimath Nishana, K., Dr. Manjushree Kadam, Dr. Thasneem, A.A., Dr. Faima Banu and Dr. Fathimath Nihala, K.

    Currently regeneration of tooth and periodontal damage still remains a great challenge. Stem cell-based tissue engineering raised novel therapeutic strategies for tooth and periodontal repair. Stem cells for tooth and periodontal regeneration include dental pulp stem cells (DPSCs), periodontal ligament stem cells (PDLSCs), and stem cells from human exfoliated deciduous teeth (SHEDs), dental follicle stem cells (DFSCs), dental epithelial stem cells (DESCs), embryonic stem cells (ESCs) and induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs). To date, substantial advances have been made in stem cell-based tooth and periodontal regeneration. Translational investigations have been performed such as dental stem cell banking and clinical trials. In this review, we present strategies for potential applications of stem cells in periodontal therapy.

  33. Sandhya Deora, Rahul Manchanda and Samina Ashraf

    Adenomyoma of the fallopian tube is a rare entity. We report a rare case of adenomyoma in both the fallopian tubes in a 30-year-old woman, who presented with primary infertility and chronic pelvic pain. Patient underwent laparoscopy, and on gross examination, there were well-circumscribed and well-encapsulated tumours present in both fallopian tubes.Postoperative histopathology showed that foci of endometriosis composed of endometrial glands dispersed in endometrial stroma, were noted within the muscular wall of fallopian tubes suggestive of fallopian tube adenomyoma on both sides.

  34. Dr. Bridget, C. F., Dr. Meena, N., Dr. Adarsh, M.S. and Dr. Ashwini, P.

    Background: The purpose of this study was to evaluate two new formulation tooth pastes (Colgate Sensitive Pro Relief and Clinprotooth Crème) on repairing enamel erosion produced by a soft drink (Coca Cola), using Confocal Microscopy. Methodology: This in vitro study was conducted on 30 extracted premolar teeth which were free of caries and defects. The samples were assigned to 6 groups, each containing 5 teeth. Group 1: intact enamel, Group 2: enamel + soft drink, Group 3: enamel + Colgate Sensitive Pro Relief, Group 4: enamel + soft drink + Colgate Sensitive Pro Relief, Group 5: enamel + Clinprotooth Crème and Group 6: enamel + soft drink + Clinprotooth Crème. Groups 2, 4 and 6 were immersed in 6mL of the soft drink for 2 min at room temperature before rinsing with deionized water. Four consecutive intervals of the immersion procedure were carried out at 0, 8, 24 and 36 h for a total of 8 minutes. The toothpastes were then applied onto the surface of the specimens of groups 3, 4, 5 and 6 without brushing for 3 min at 0, 8, 24 and 36 h and then washed with distilled water. In groups 4 and 6 the toothpastes were applied after demineralization with Coca Cola. The Root Mean square roughness will be obtained from Confocal Microscopy images and statistical analysis was done by ANOVA test. Results: Comparing Groups 4 (Enamel + Soft Drink + Colgate Sensitive Pro Relief) and Group 6 (Enamel +Soft Drink + Clinprotooth Crème) with Group 2 (Enamel+ Soft Drink) a statistical difference (P<0.05) was registered, suggesting effectiveness in protecting enamel against erosion of the products investigated. Conclusion: The application of the tested toothpastes can be considered effective on preventing enamel erosion produced by a soft drink, however Colgate Sensitive Pro-relief appears to be more effective.

  35. Dr. Amina Sultan, Dr. Maryam Siddiqui and Dr. Akanksha Juneja

    Peripheral giant cell granuloma is benign and an unusual lesion that is seen infrequently stemming from the dense irregular connective tissue of the periosteum or periodontal membrane, subsequent to a continuous irritation or persistent trauma of the specific area. Although this lesion has been reported to occur in every sort of age groups, however fifth and sixth decades are the most commonly affected stages of life according to certain documented researches with a small degree of female predisposition. Various clinicians have labeled repeated trauma at site of tumour, deficient oral hygiene and xerostomia as primary indicators which can be responsible for the lesion’s growth and development, that could lead the size of lesion exceeding 5 cm in diameter. The most successful therapeutic management of PGCG involve the surgical resection of the mass including the whole base with every bit of the tissue of the lesion and extinction of the causative determinants that will eventually prevent the recurrence of the lesion. The purpose of this article is to report unusual occurrence of PGCG in the maxillary arch of a 9-year-old male child and discuss the features leading to correct diagnosis and successful management.

  36. Dr. Sunita Kulkarni, Dr. Usha Rathod, Dr. Vaishali Agrawal and Dr. Rucha Pandhripande

    Introduction: Oral submucous fibrosis (OSMF) is one of the most prevalent premalignant conditions in India and difficult to treat. Recently many plants and fruit extract has been used. Tulsi (Occimum sanctum Linn) ‘basil’ is one such plant with many medicinal values. Although the disease is advancing rapidly, its reliable treatment modality for its various stages has not yet evolved. So the aim of the study is to evaluate the efficacy of tulsi and oral antioxidants (SM FIBRO) in the treatment of OSMF. Aim: To evaluates the efficacy of tulsi and oral antioxidants (SM FIBRO) in the treatment of OSMF. Materials and method- A randomized clinical trial of 100 OSMF patients were carried out in the department of oral medicine and radiology to evaluate the efficacy of occimum sanctum (TULSI) and oral antioxidants (SM FIBRO) in the management of oral submucous fibrosis. Result: The result of study showed statistically significant improvement in mouth opening, burning sensation, cheek flexibility and tongue protrusion in tulsi plus antioxidant group. Conclusion: Tulsi and oral antioxidant combination is safe and promising treatment modality for oral submucous fibrosis.

  37. Dr. Zain Ul Abdin, Dr. Ayesha Zubair and Dr. Tayyaba Kauser

    Menstrual irregularities frequently affect the quality of life of females. Such disorders have economic consequences in terms of health care costs due to the consumption of expensive hormonal drugs and laboratory tests. Aims and Objectives: 1. To find out the prevalence of menstrual irregularities among female medical students (first year to final year) of AllamaIqbal Medical College, Lahore. 2. To find the factors associated with menstrual irregularities among female medical students (first year to final year) of Allama Iqbal Medical College, Lahore. Study Design: Cross sectional study Study Setting and Duration: The research was conducted on female medical students (first year to final year) of AllamaIqbal Medical College, Lahore in a duration of one month (April to May). Results: This research shows that out of 200 female medical students 71 (36%) suffer from menstrual irregularities. Of these 71 females 46(65%) have moderate, 9 (13%) low & 16 (23%) high stress score. There were 24 (34%) females who didn't exercise regularly and 18 (25%) didn't exercise at all. 48 (68%) interviewees with irregular cycle length consume junk food 1-2 times/week. Females who didn't consume junk food at all didn't develop menstrual irregularities. Conclusions: The research shows that there is an association of irregular menstrual cycle & more stress, Less exercise and junk food. However no such association could be established with BMI.

  38. Vishwanath Hesarur, Suresh V Patted, Sanjay Porwal, Sameer Ambar and Prasad M.R.

    Percutaneous transcatheter closure is considered alternative to surgery which is technically simple, with shorter procedure time and hospital stay, no median sternotomy scar and faster recovery with comparable rates of complications, Percutaneous transcatheter device closure of ostium secundum atrial septal defect (ASD) was first performed in 1976 by king and mills. However, this method of closure is associated with infrequently rare early and late complications like device embolization, air embolism, cardiac tamponade, arrhythmias and thrombotic complications. Here we report a rare complication of silent embolization of the ASD occluder device into the right ventricle after 24 hours of successful device closure.

  39. Lt Col Rajeena Enoch, Col Arijit Kumar Ghosh, Arya, A.R., Meenu S Babu, Santheni, P., Sanju Kumari and Anju Anthony

    Background: Due to the advancement in preventive treatment modalities, the number of patients receiving LMWH is on rise. Low-molecular-weight heparin (LMWH) a class of anticoagulant, is used in the prevention and treatment of venous thromboembolism (deep vein thrombosis and pulmonary embolism) and various cardiovascular conditions and for prophylaxis and treatment of DVT in surgeries in pre and post op phase .One of the most commonly encountered adverse physiological responses to this intervention is pain and the formation of ecchymosis at the injection site. This creates a challenge for the nurses administering the LMWH to minimize ecchymosis and or patient discomfort during the treatment regimen. Aim: To assess the effectiveness of cold compress on pain and ecchymosis in patients getting subcutaneous LMWH. Methodology: In present study, the researcher selected a single group pre and post intervention (quasi experimental design, n=35). Keeping in view the objectives of the study, the investigator assessed the level of pain and ecchymo sis of patients getting subcutaneous heparin prior to cold compression; followed by assessing the level of pain and ecchymosis on administration of subcutaneous heparin after cold compression. In this study cold compression refers to use of readymade ice packs which were used on patients left arm for a period of 3 min before administering subcutaneous LMWH. Results : Out of 35 samples, without cold compression, majority 62.85%(22) of sample recorded their pain scale in moderate range 4-6 of pain scale , mild range 34.28%(12), severe range 2.8% (1).With intervention (cold compress for 3 mins at the site prior to administration) majority 65.7%(23) sample experienced mild range, moderate range 31.42%(11), severe range 2.85%(1). It implies that there was significant reduction in pain level of the subjects after administration of cold compress which makes it evident that application of cold compress is effective in reducing the pain. Out of the same 35 samples , subcutaneous LMWH was administered without cold compression and ecchymosis scale of grade 0 were 68.57%(24), grade 1 were 25.71%(9), grade 2 were 5.71%(2). With cold compression ecchymosis scale recorded of grade 0 were 91.42% (32) , grade 1 were 8.57%(3), grade2 and grade 3 shows 0%. It implies that there was significant reduction in ecchymosis level after cold compress which makes it evident that cold compression was effective in reducing the ecchymosis. Conclusion: Majority of patient had a decreased perception of pain and showed decreased evidence of ecchymosis [65.7%(23) & 68.57%(24) respectively], by the technique of cold compress application before administration of the injection. Therefore it can be concluded on the basis of this study that ice cold application was effective in reducing pain and ecchymosis and enhancing the comfort of patient.

  40. Dr. Angana Pal, Prof. Dr. Dipanjit Singh, Dr. Atul Bhandari, Dr. Pratibha Rawat, Dr. Tarun Kumar Swarnakar and Dr. Arka Swarnakar

    Immediate Implant placement is becoming a popular treatment modality of modern day implant dentistry. The main challenge for the clinician has been the preservation of the residual alveolar bone and prevention of its resorption following the removal of tooth. The socket-shield technique (SST) represents an alternative approach in which a thin section of the remnant root is retained facially at the time of immediate implant placement to preserve buccal periodontal ligament and bundle bone. This review discusses all the literatures available on the socket-shield technique and judge its clinical prognosis and biological acceptability.

  41. Yucel Yuce

    Objective: As mean life expectancy increases in recent years, it is evident that hip fractures will constitute a severe health problem in future. The number of hip arthroplasties will increase accordingly. We aimed to examine the factors which are related to complications in our patient population. Methods: Retrospective evaluation of the medical reports of hip arthroplasty patients in University of Health Sciences Kartal Dr. Lutfi Kirdar Education and Research Hospital between January 2012 and December 2017 was performed. Age, gender, American Society of Anesthesiology (ASA) grade, clinical comorbidities, anesthesia type, type of operation, length of surgery, blood transfusion requirement, complications, intensive care unit requirement, were documented. Results: During the study period, 1220 patients (530 male, 690 female) were included to the study. Mean age of the patients was 63.1±7.7. Out of 1220 patients, 35.1% (n=428) were operated under general anaesthesia, 29.2% (n=356) under combined spinal-epidural anaesthesia, 22.1% (n=270) under spinal anaesthesia, and13.6% (n=166) under epidural anaesthesia. Mean hospital stay was five days in the general anesthesia group and seven days in the regional anesthesia group. Cox regression analysis showed that ASA, comorbidities, type of operation, length of operation and transfusion were associated with a higher risk of complication (p<0.05). Age, gender, and type of anesthesia had no relationship with risk of complication (p>0.05). Conclusion: The risk factors of complications in hip arthroplasties should be carefully evaluated in surgical preparation of hip arthroplasties, and proper procurement of equipment and medications will be helpful in decreasing mortality rates.

  42. Megha Rastogi, Milind Davane and Basavraj Nagoba

    Urinary tract infections (UTI) are known from antiquity. Population studies throughout the world have shown a rise in the prevalence of asymptomatic bacteriuria (ASB) with age, especially the prevalence of asymptomatic bacteriuria is on rise in diabetic individuals. An attempt has been made to find out the prevalence of asymptomatic bacteriuria in diabetic individuals from rural area of Latur district. A total of 424 clinical samples of mid-stream urine (212 from asymptomatic individuals of diabetes mellitus and 212 from control group) were processed to find out the prevalence of asymptomatic bacteriuria using standard procedures. Of the 212 cases from study group, 35 (16.50%) were positive and among the control group, seven (3.30%) were positive. In a study group, 23.94% were from the age-group 46-65 years and in control group, 4.10% were from 46-65 years. The ASB was found significantly higher in study group (P=0.04). In a study group, the prevalence was higher in females (29.63%) than males (8.40%); however, in a control group the prevalence was higher in males (4.28%) than females (2.10%). The results indicate that the prevalence of ASB is significantly higher in diabetic individuals and is more commonly seen in higher age groups and females.

  43. Nikita Ambegaokar, Dr. Arvind Shetty, Dr. Devanand Shetty and Dr. Janki Shah

    There exists a close relationship between the periodontium and the margins of a restoration. The dimension of the space that the healthy gingival tissue occupies above the alveolar crest is known as the biologic width. Maintaining this area is paramount for prevention of gingival inflammation and secondary periodontal involvement of the tooth. Many a times, the general dentist is not aware of the appropriate dimensions of the biologic width area and the significance of the same when preparing the tooth to recieve a prosthesis. This may lead to inadvertent violation of this healthy zone of gingiva and transform it into an unhealthy, sometimes painful zone. Hence the purpose of this article is to describe the biologic width anatomy, evaluation of its dimension and correction of its violation by different methods.

  44. Rahanitrandrasana, O., Ratobimanankasina, l., Andriamanjato, HMH., Herimanjaka, T., Randrianarivo, RF., Rajaonarison, BH. and Raharivelo, A

    Introduction: Nowadays, drug-addiction realizes one of major public health problem because of its treatments' coasts and its health and families' disturbances. The goal of our study is to describe drug-addicted people profiles viewed in Anjanamasina Madagascar Mental Health Care on 2011 to 2015. Methods: It was a retrospective descriptive and transversal study, carried on 01st January 2011 to 31th December 2015 in Anjanamasina Mental Health Care. Patients' files were checked and on which, wereanalysed: gender, old-group, kinds of drugs, works, living regions, surroundings attitudes and self-insight. Our population wasconstituted by all patients received drug-addiction diagnosis in the end of their care. Results: Thirty cases of toxicomania were found. Cases raised between 2011 to 2012 and then its decreased. 98,5% were men and 1,5% women. They had between 14 to 60 years-old. Youth and adulthood were the most concerned. Teenagers between 15 to 19 years-old represented the 36,19% of cases. They took especially cannabis on 56,52% of cases, alcohol on 26,55%, alcohol and cannabis associated on 16,92%. More than half of them were on joblessness. Thirty-five lived on a rainy and productive land. 95,52% had at least one drug-addicted people in their surroundings. 47,5% came from disturbed families with fighting and violence against their parents and their partners. Thirty percent had difficulty on adaptation and 15% had psychiatric co morbidities. Discussions: Our study shows the same cases as on literacy especially the gender, the important young people touched. Cannabis was the most used product such as worldwide report which would due to joblessness and families’ relationship violence. Summary: Understanding information about the profile of drug-addicted people in Anjanamasina Mental Health Care is important to improve prevention and care against toxico mania in Madagascar.

  45. Nikita Ambegaokar, Dr. Arvind Shetty, Dr. Devanand Shetty and Dr. Prachi Shenoy

    Tremendous advances in metallurgy and chemistry have been made in past decades. In spite of these advances, traditional orthodontic therapy ranges from 1.5 to 3 years. By stimulating and harnessing the innate potentials of living bone, the teeth can be made to move through the bone very rapidly and when the tooth movement is completed the bone around the roots of the teeth rebuilds itself. The Wilckodontics procedure was introduced by Dr. William Wilcko (Orthodontist) and Dr. Thomas Wilcko (Periodontist). It is patented as Wilckodontics. This procedure includes alveolar decortication with/without augmentation bone grafting technique combined with orthodontics and is called periodontally accelerated osteogenic orthodontics or PAOO. This procedure can be employed as a win-win strategy for the orthodontist, periodontist and especially the patient. This Case Report is of a 22 year old female, who post 1.6 years of fixed orthodontic therapy, achieved no closure in the lower premolar areas and was treated using the PAOO technique.

  46. Gupta Lokesh

    Fistula in ano, is mostly a chronic and complicated disease. In a field of surgery, patients faced most frequent problem is fistula in ano. It is notorious disease and having more recurrence rate. In Ayurveda, ksharsutra therapy is very effective treatment for fistula in a no. In ayurveda, It was mentioned as mahagad. Fistula originates from anal glands, which are located between the internal and external anal sphincter and drain into anal canal. If the outlet of these glands becomes blocked, abscess can form which can eventually extend to skin surface. The tract formed by this process is fistua. There are many options available for treatment of fistula in a no but due to lack of knowledge patients undergo wrong treatment and worsen disease so focus is drawn on various treatment described in Ayurvedic Samhita as well as modern science to came certain conclusion for making treatment of specific condition of these diseases.

  47. Richa Mahajan, Rakesh Bahl and Dinesh Kumar

    Background: Road Traffic Accidents (RTAs) have become an issue of national concern. With just 1% of the total vehicles in the world, India contributes to 6% of the global RTAs. Thus, there is an urgent need to have quality data on the various factors associated with RTAs in order to take appropriate action. Aim: To study the various human behavioural risk factors associated with road traffic accidents. Methods: A cross-sectional questionnaire based study on various human behavioural factors leading to RTAs was performed on 500 victims of RTA who reported to Government Medical College and Hospital, Jammu and their responses were noted in the interview schedule and the data was analysed. Results: Majority of the victims in this study were drivers (42.4%), followed by passengers (38.6%) and pedestrians (19%). Out of 240 motorized two wheeler drivers and passengers, 78 (32.5%) were wearing helmets and out of 80 car drivers and passengers, 26 (32.5%) were wearing seat belt at the time of accident. Out of 307 drivers and pedestrians, 69 (22.48%) were alcoholics. Out of 27 victims who were under the influence of alcohol or any drug at the time of accident, 12 (44.44%) succumbed to their injuries. Only 5 cases (6.49%) out of 77 victims, who were not under the influence of alcohol or any drug proved to be fatal. A large proportion of the drivers (44.81%) had a driving experience of 1 to 5 years, followed by 31.13% having experience between 5 to 10 years. Out of 212 drivers, only 21 (9.91%) had received formal training in driving and 116 (54.72%) had a valid driving license. Conclusion: The current study reveals that human factors have a very important role to play in the occurrence of RTAs which are preventable by creating awareness about driving rules and regulations.

  48. Dr. Mahim Mittal, Dr. Minakshi Awasthi and Dr. Raj Kishore Singh

    Background: Microvascular complications are a major cause of morbidity and mortality in diabetic patients and currently their prevalence is increasing in newly diagnosed diabetics1,2,3,4. These complications develop after a long period of asymptomatic hyperglycemia5,6 but are also being diagnosed in newly diagnosed T2DM with varying prevalence. This higher prevalence may be because of delayed diagnosis or earlier development of complications5,6,7, and at present there is limited nationwide data regarding prevalence of microvascular complications in newly diagnosed diabetes patients. Aim: To study the prevalence of microvascular complications in newly diagnosed T2DM patients. Methods: This cross sectional observational study of 150 newly diagnosed type 2 diabetics (<6 months duration) was conducted in department of medicine of BRD Medical College Gorakhpur. Every patient was screened for microvascular complications following standard protocol and detailed clinical evaluation was also done. Results: In the study of total 150 patients with mean age 57.9±11.4 years, prevalence of nephropathy, neuropathy and retinopathy was 41.3%, 31.3%, and 14.7% and these complications were associated with risk factors such as hypertension, positive family history, higher HbA1c level and illiteracy. Conclusion: Our study showed high prevalence of microvascular complications in type 2 diabetics at the time of diagnosis in Indian population. In this view, screening must be done in all diabetics for microvascular complications at the time of diagnosis.

  49. Dr. Sonu Mehta, Dr. Abhinav Bhatnagar, Dr. Deepak Aher, Dr. Shailendra Pandey and Dr. Sameer Rathore

    Introduction: Stress fractures in tibia is not a common finding in patients with knee osteoarthritis (OA). It is mostly seen in advanced disease with a significant varus deformity. The purpose of this case series is to bring forth the advantages of using stemmed knee replacement implants for treating this condition and to highlight the factors contributing to stress fractures in patients with severe knee arthritis. Case Series: 4 patients with grade 4 Kallegren and Lawrence osteoarthritis, all obese, with >20 degree varus deformity, presented with sudden increase in pain around knee joint, with point tenderness in proximal tibia. Diagnosis was confirmed as proximal tibia stress fractures radiologically. All patients were managed by total knee replacement with stemmed tibial prosthesis. 2 patients had posterior stabilized system and 2 had constrained implants. Early mobilization was done in the post-operative period with gradual weight bearing over 2-3 weeks. No complications were noted and fracture united in all by 2 months. Rehabilitation of all the patients was satisfactory and at 6 months follow-up knee society score was comparable to standard knee replacement. Discussion: Although such stress fractures show good union with conservative management, but knee immobilization may aggravate the symptoms of knee osteoarthritis .This case series show stemmed implants as an effective way of simultaneously treating the fracture and osteoarthritis of knee and provide early and quick rehabilitation. Severe osteoarthritis of knee with varus deformity pose a threat for stress fracture development and knee replacement should be considered as an option to prevent stress fractures in severely deformed osteoarthritic knees.

  50. Mohamed Hasan Mansour, and Mamon Aboshosha

    Background: Diagnosing thoracic outlet syndrome (TOS) can be challenging because the symptoms vary greatly amongst patients with the disorder, thus lending to other conditions including a double crush syndrome. Adjunct diagnostic studies frequently confirm the diagnosis of VTOS (venous thoracic outlet syndrome) and ATOS (arterial thoracic outlet syndrome), but not of NTOS (neurogenic thoracic outlet syndrome), so a new diagnostic scale was applied for NTOS. Aim of the study: evaluation of the new diagnostic scale for management of neurogenic thoracic outlet syndrome. Patients and methods: the new diagnostic scale was applied on a forty patients with neurogenic thoracic outlet syndrome. They were selected from Al-Azhar University hospitals between Jan 2008 and December 2017.Conservative treatment was decided for all patients for one month, then surgery for the failed cases, then evaluation after 6 months for all the 40 patients. Results: All patients scored below 5(30 patients= 75%) responded well to conservative treatment. While Patients scored 5 and 6(both are 10 patients =25%) had no response to conservative treatment. So, surgery was done.6 months follow up showed improvement of all the studied cases. So this suggested novel scale helped us to decide when to decide conservative treatment and when to do surgery. Conclusion: This suggested novel scale helped us to decide when to decide conservative treatment and when to do surgery.

  51. Mohamed Hasan Mansour, and Mamon Aboshosha

    Background: An ipsilateral transfrontal entry point provides access to the mesencephalon and midline regions of the pons. A contralateral transfrontal entry point has also been described that allows access to more laterally placed pontine lesions without having to traverse the ventricular system. Both ipsilateral and contralateral approaches allow the patient to remain supine during surgery, in a similar position to that in which images are traditionally acquired thus preventing error due to positional brain shift. In this region, a burrhole can be placed without painful muscle dissection and twist drill holes can be planned to avoid sulci. Objective: The purpose of this study was to study the Amenability of transfrontal trajectory for all midline and brainstem stereotactic surgery. Methods: The study evaluated 60 patients submitted to stereotactic surgery. The most common site of midline lesions was brainstem, in 24 cases (40%) then thalamus in 21 cases (35%) and 10 (16.66%) patients presented by ganglionic lesions (including pallidotomy surgery) and 5 (8.33%) patients presented by craniopharyngioma. The transfrontal approach was used for all patients. Results: Regarding complications of transfrontal approach of stereotactic surgery for midline lesions, the morbidity rate was 3.33% (2 cases) indicating that transfrontal approach is safe and amenable for stereotactic surgery for midline lesions including brainstem lesions. Conclusion: In this study, we provide evidence that the transfrontal approach is a reliable and safe approach to midline lesions of the brain with a high diagnostic success rate and no permanent surgery-related morbidity. Considering some technical issues the approach is simple to perform in a routine procedure without any technical modification.

  52. Sridevi, R. and Dr. Danasu, R.

    Ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP) refers to the development of parenchymal lung infection after a patient has undergone intubation and received mechanical ventilation (MV) for ≥ 48 hours. The Quantitative Research approach was used in this study. Pre-Experimental one group pre-test and post-test research design was selected for this study. The study population consists of all the staff nurses. Out of 300 samples in pre-test 24 (8%) of them had poor knowledge, 174 (58%) of them had average knowledge, 83 (27.7%) of them had good knowledge, 19 (6.3%) of them had Excellent knowledge. There was a significant association found between the level of knowledge and the selected demographic variable such as “monthly income” and “area of experience”.

  53. Vishnu H. Lal, Kumar, H.S., Neeti Sharma, Jhakar, S.L., Beniwal, S., MuraliParamanandan, Rajesh Kumar, Kunal Jain, Abhishek Sharma and Manju lata Yadav

    Background: While HPV has evolved as a significant prognosticator in Carcinoma oropharynx it fails to be so in case of Ca Cervix. The existing literature is divided in this topic mainyowing todemograhic-trends, techniques and HPV subtype-specific epidemiology. So considering the load and mortalitiy associated with the disease in our country a study on the local population to assess for role of HPV status in treatment response and toxicity profile was endeavoured Method: A prospective study was performed on 120 cervical cancer patients meeting inclusion criterion their HPV status was assessed via PCR. Patients were treated with concurrent CTRT in the form of EBRT 50Gy / 2Gy/# / 5 days a week with concurrentweeklyCisplatin 40 mg/m2, followed by brachytherapy.The patients were followed upon regular basis to assess their acute toxicity profile and treatment response Results: The primary endpoint of DFS at 2 year was analysed. There were 21 recurrences in the HPV Positive arm compared to 3 in the HPV negative arm. (P=0.0122). The treatment response at one month after treatment (RECIST Criterion) was analysed there was residual disease in only 2 of the HPV negative cases(10%) compared to 18 in HPV Positive arm(22.5%) (P<0.05). Toxicity profile in terms of both acute and late had no statistical difference among the groups Discussion: The study adds evidence to support the fact that HPV has a definite role as a biomarker in the prognostication and treatment outcome of cervical cancer. But the authors equally respect the outcomes which contradicts this study. As our country is perhaps the capital of cervical cancer, more studies on local population is the need of the hour to throw more light into this dilemma

  54. Dushyant Kumar Sharma and Rakhi Uchchariya

    A study was carried out to assess the phytoplankton diversity of Pagara reservoir of district Morena of Madhya Pradesh from June 2016 to May 2017. During the study period total 20 species, belonging to six families, were identified. Out of these 9 species belonged to Chlorophyceae, 3 species belonged to Bacillariophyceae, 3 species to Myxophyceae,, 2 species to Euglenophyceae and 1 species to Dinophyceae. Chlorophyceae was the most dominant family with 9 species and Dinophyceae was the least dominant family during the study period.

  55. Ajeesh Sebastian, Shahina Begum, Prashant Tapase, Naik, D. D. and Balaiah Donta

    Domestic violence has a negative impact on women’s reproductive health. The objective of the paper is to find out the association between domestic violence and reproductive morbidities among women in urban slums of Mumbai, India. The data was collected from 901 currently married women aged 18 to 39 years, staying with their husbands in two slums, Kajupada and Tunga villages. Information on socio-economic and demographic, domestic violence and reproductive morbidities symptoms such as abnormal discharge from the vagina, pain during intercourse, itching in or around the vagina, genital lesions/sores/ulcers/warts, burning sensation during urination in the last 12 months before the survey was collected using structured questionnaire. Descriptive statistics and logistic regression analysis were carried out to find the association between domestic violence and reproductive morbidities. It was found that reproductive morbidities were 3.0 times higher among women who had experienced domestic violence than their counterparts (95% CI: 2.08-4.32). There is a need to prevent domestic violence and its associated reproductive morbidities in urban slums communities.

  56. Dr. Kundan Singh Rathore and Dr. Anita Khokhar

    Background: It is now generally accepted that Vitamin D Deficiency (VDD) is a worldwide health problem that affects not only musculoskeletal health but also a wide range of acute and chronic diseases. The role of VDD in predisposition of TB has been suspected since a long time. Aim: The aim of the study was to assess the levels of Vitamin D, to find out the prevalence of VDD and the determinants associated with it among newly diagnosed tuberculosis patients attending Directly Observed Treatment Short-course (DOTS) center centre RHTC (Rural Health Training Centre) Najafgarh. Methodology: A cross sectional DOTS center based study was conducted among 400 Tuberculosis patients. The study tool comprised of a pre-designed, pre-tested, semi-structured, interviewer administered questionnaire in Hindi. General physical examination and systemic examination was done for all the study participants.3 ml of blood was drawn from the ante-cubital vein using a 24G hypodermic needle and a 5cc plastic syringe. The Calbiotech, Inc. 25-hydroxy (25-OH) Vitamin D ELISA was used for quantitative determination of total 25-OH Vitamin D in human serum and plasma. The data was entered into Microsoft Excel after preparing a Master-chart. Data analysis was done using SPSS software licensed version 21. Chi-square test and Fischer exact test was used to determine the association. Results: Out of 400 study participants, median age was 31 years ranged from a minimum of 7 years to a maximum of 90 years. Males were 66% and females were 44%. VDD was found in 90.5% patients and VDD was significantly associated with vegetarianism, inadequate consumption of dairy products, inadequate sun exposure and low BMI. Conclusion: VDD was highly prevalent in Tuberculosis patients attending DOTS centre Najafgarh Delhi. Main contributing factors were inadequate sun exposure, vegetarianism, inadequate consumption of dairy products & low BMI.

  57. nil Bukya, Kudale saurabh satish and Langhi Ajay Tukaram A

    This research work was carried out to improve the level of resistant starch (RS), fibre, potassium, vitamin and calcium in uradpapad using unripe banana and sweet potato to investigate the effect of substitution of unripe banana and sweet potato. For urad flouron the texture of papad, dough and characteristic of papad while preparing uradpapad, the urad flour was changed in variation with unripe banana and sweet potato with different degrees of substitutions including 20,25,30,40. The result indicated that substitution of unripe banana and sweet potato significantly affected the hardnes and stickness properties of papad dough. Results found that the papad prepared from 25% unripe banana and 25% sweet potato and 50% urad flour indicated the greatest changeson the textural properties. It also showed that the highest value of sensory evaluation score was observed for 25:25:50- unripe banana: sweet potato: urad flour.

  58. Dr. Divya Damodaran and Dr. D. Sudarsanam

    A DNA barcode is a short DNA sequence from a standardized region of the genome used for identifying species. The essential aim of DNA barcoding is to use a large-scale screening of one or more reference genes in order to assign unknown individuals to species, and to enhance discovery of new species (Hebert et al., 2003). Biological taxonomists apply this principle to species classification. The first application of using the DNA sequences in systematic biological taxonomy (also called DNA taxonomy) was conducted by Tautz et al., (2002) and then , Hebert et al., (2003) proposed the concept of DNA Barcoding and suggested its use for a single mtDNA gene, mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase I (COI), as a common sequence in animal DNA barcoding studies. A unique DNA is a stretch of DNA present in only a single copy in a cell. Genomes contain all the vital genetic solutions discovered by our ancestors in response to all the environmental challenges that they had successfully overcome in the course of evolution. These solutions are maintained by natural selection in the form of unique DNAs. These DNAs give us a chance to successfully overcome similar environmental challenges again and again. The goal of this article is to provide an overview of the rapidly expanding applications of molecular markers (unique sequences within the COX 1 gene) for identifying mosquito species. In the present study, we identify unique sequences in the mosquito COX1 gene using SAS tool.

  59. Mr. Praveen S Pateel and Dr. Balawindar Kaur Butter

    Background; Mosquito borne diseases is a growing ubran problem because of unplanned urbanization, industrialization and excessive population growth coupled with rural to urban migration. For developing a suitable and effective health education stratergy, it is inevitable to understand the level of knowledge of urban women regarding role of eco health in prevention of mosquito borne diseases. Materials & Methods; Non probability sampling technique was used for the present study comprises of 200 women in the age group 20 years and above who are residing in selected urban areas of Bagalkot i,e 100 women from teggi layout vidyagiri Bagalkot will be selected for experimental group and 100 women from vinayak nagar old Bagalkot will be selected for control groups. Results; Findings about the comparison of level of pre-test & post test knowledge regarding role of eco-health in prevention of mosquito borne diseases among women in experimental group shows that, in pre-test the majority (78 %) of women had Inadequate level of knowledge and 22 % percent of them had moderate level of knowledge. In post-test, the most (82%) of women had moderate level of knowledge and remaining 18 percent of them had adequate level of knowledge. Where as in the control group, in pre-test the majority (85 %) of women had Inadequate level of knowledge and 15 % percent of them had moderate level of knowledge. In post-test, most (81%) of women had inadequate level of knowledge and remaining 19 percent of them had moderate level of knowledge.

  60. Dr. Parag Babaji Jadhav

    The storage life of uniform and healthy green Pea pods (Pisum sativum L.) inside a cold storage unit called Ecofrost and at ordinary room conditions was studied from 23 November to 8 December 2016. The pea pods, harvested in the evening session at the horticulture maturity conditions, were then transported within 2 hours and 30 min in an air-conditioned vehicle to the Agricultural Research Laboratory of Ecofrost Technologies Pvt. Ltd., Pune. The selected pea pods were kept in the cold storage unit i.e. Ecofrost. The study was aimed to determine the effectiveness of cold storage conditions (0°C and 93% RH) on the post-harvest weight loss of green peas. The results recorded the lowest average weight loss for the peas (within zip-lock bag with 2% ventilation) inside Ecofrost, around 6.28kg / day / tons for six days of storage. Maximum average weight loss of 113 kg / day / tonne was observed at ordinary room conditions for nearly the same period. Peas stored in the Ecofrost demonstrated a maximum storage life of 12.5 days and became inedible after 15 days (without zip lock bag), to 14 days (within zip-lock bag with 2% ventilation) with very slight (less than 30%) shrivelling and became inedible after 16.5 days.

  61. Dr. Kirti Nirmal, Dr. Vikas Manchanda and Dr. C.P. Baveja

    Vibrio fluvialis is a pathogen commonly found in coastal environs. Considering recent increase in numbers of diarrheal outbreaks and sporadic extra-intestinal cases, V.fluvialis has been considered as an emerging pathogen. Human infections caused by V. fluvialis are rarely reported. The most common clinical presentation of V. fluvialis infection is acute gastroenteritis with diarrhea. Reported extra-intestinal infections caused by V. fluvialis have included wound infection, bacteremia, septicemia, peritonitis, hemorrhagic cellulitis and cerebritis.

  62. Swarnalakshmi, C. S. and Dr. Lovelin Jerald, A.

    The consumption of beverages and ready to drink products have emphasized the need to enhance the research and development of beverage industry. This research work aims at development of a ready to drink Spiced Coconut Milk (SCM) thereby replacing the dairy beverages. From a detailed research on the coconut based products available in the market, this new product have been developed with the incorporation of spices and jaggery. In this research, the Response Surface Methodology (RSM) is applied to optimize the composition and process conditions of the Spiced Coconut Milk. This method is a collection of statistical and mathematical techniques for empirical model building.

  63. Laiba Khalid, Syed Muhammad Imran Haider Zaidi, Nazia Yaqoob, Maham Sadaqat and Hafiza Javairia

    Infertility is one of the leading risk factor to affect relationship satisfaction among married population. Current study aims to measure the association relationship between Relationship Satisfaction and Positivity among Infertile Women. Sample was consisting of 70 infertile women with mean age 41.06±8.60, age ranged from 21 to 57. Participants were approached in outdoors of different public hospitals of Faisalabad. Relationship satisfaction was measured by Relationship Assessment Scale-Urdu and Positivity scale-Urdu used to measure Personal Optimism and External Security. Descriptive statistics and bivariate correlation were run in SPSS 21. Findings indicates that Relationship satisfaction has significant positive relationship with external security at p<0.05. Personal Optimism and External Security are highly and positively associated at p<0.01. So, relationship satisfaction is linked with external security but not with personal optimism among infertile women.

  64. Cipto Winner Simanjutak, Marhisar Simatupang and Djoko Indra Julius

    This study aims to find out how the image of self-acceptance on BatakToba parents who have children with severe autism in Medan. This study was conducted on two families of Batak Toba tribe who have the first son of men and crave heavy autism. The sampling technique used purposive and snowballing sampling. The number of informants consists of 2 (two) families who have the first son of men, autistic people and Batak Toba tribe. The research method used is qualitative research method descriptive approach. Techniques of collecting data using interviews, observation and documentation. Analysis of data used is the analysis at the initial level, at the time of data collection and after completion of data collection. The result of this research is in the first family, when knowing that the first child is autistic, the father of the child does not accept the reality so that the feeling of anger, disappointment, embarrassment with the social community (family name community) and feel unsuccessful in building a household ideal. In this family also often occur quarrel between husband and wife. Husband assumes that the wife cannot keep her pregnancy during childbearing process, so feelings of guilt also arise on the wife. This happened for 5 years. In the next development the father begins to accept that his son is an autistic person, caused by the social support of the family and those skilled in the child with special needs. What strengthens families is that autistic children can also be self-sufficient, successful and equal to children in general.It's the same with the second family that this family feels a huge disappointment. This disappointment arises because for this second family, the first son of a boy is the child who will take their clan and give offspring to them. The family is more concerned that the kinship world (patriarchal system) becomes a force for them. Shyness often keeps them from attending family events and even hiding children into rooms when other families come to visit. This happens for 7 years when doctors declare their child is a severe autistic person.The next stage is the stage where the family has received their status as an autistic family. This stage occurs when the family opens up to see that many children are equal to their children but have achievements in the art. The family also often attends seminars from parents with autism, which ultimately leads to the stage of self-acceptance has deficiencies and advantages in the family. Religious support from relatives also contributes to this second family.

  65. Baztan Maite and Graciela Pucci

    In oil recovery operations, the application of xanthan biopolymers is considered more environmentally friendly than that of synthetic polymers. However, a decrease in the viscosity of xanthan has sometimes been observed. The objective of the present study was to investigate the decrease in the viscosity of xanthan gum caused by bacterial activity in samples from fracturing waters in the Golfo San Jorge Basin, Argentina. To this end, solutions of xanthan gum dissolved in culture medium were studied by means of viscometry and Fourier Transform infrared spectroscopy. The intrinsic viscosity of xanthan in the original sample decreased in 48-72 h, whereas that in two bacterial communities grown in a previous culture medium was not modified.

  66. Laiba Khalid, Syed Muhammad Imran Haider Zaidi, Nazia Yaqoob, Maham Sadaqat and Hafiza Javairia

    Infertility is one of the leading risk factor to affect relationship satisfaction among married population. Current study aims to measure the association relationship between Relationship Satisfaction and Positivity among Infertile Women. Sample was consisting of 70 infertile women with mean age 41.06±8.60, age ranged from 21 to 57. Participants were approached in outdoors of different public hospitals of Faisalabad. Relationship satisfaction was measured by Relationship Assessment Scale-Urdu and Positivity scale-Urdu used to measure Personal Optimism and External Security. Descriptive statistics and bivariate correlation were run in SPSS 21. Findings indicates that Relationship satisfaction has significant positive relationship with external security at p<0.05. Personal Optimism and External Security are highly and positively associated at p<0.01. So, relationship satisfaction is linked with external security but not with personal optimism among infertile women.

  67. Rodrigo Andrés Sarria-Villa, José Antonio Gallo-Corredor, Victor Campo-Daza, Martha Isabel Páez and Ricardo Benitez-Benitez

    Interaction between factors to take into consideration for extraction of bioactive phenolics compounds from Pinuspatula bark was evaluated. Contact time, particle size, temperature, ethanol: water ratio, bark: solvent ratio and revolutions per minutewere evaluated to identify the highest percentage of extraction. The optimal extraction conditions resulting in the highest percentage of phenolics and procyanidins compounds were 6 hours of contact, less than 1.18 mm of particle size, with a temperature of 60°C, and ethanol: water ratio of 30:70, and bark: solvent ratio of 1:10 g:mL, with 250 revolutions per minute. The combination of this factors resulted in 8.56 ± 0.86% of extract of Pinuspatula bark, with 1610 μg/g of total phenols and 560.82 μg/g of procyanidins. Concerning their anti-inflammatory activity, P. patula bark extract exhibited a broad activity towards eicosanoids concentration produced by the polymorph nuclear leukocytes of rats. Results indicated that the hydroalcoholic extract of Pinuspatula bark has anti-inflammatory activity. ANOVA analysis showed significant differences between treatment groups (p < 0.05) receiving drug (Ketoprofen®) versus ethanolic extract (Pinuspatula bark).

  68. Dr. Yugveer Batra, Dr. Vivek Sharma, Dr. Madhu Gupta, Dr. Rachna Jain and Dr. Gagandeep Gupta

    Vaccination is induction of immunity by injecting a dead or attenuated form of a pathogen. Periodontal diseases are one such group of infectious bacterial diseases, against which vaccine research is still going on. The complexities in the etiopathogenesis of the periodontal diseases have been the prime obstacle in the hunt for vaccine. The availability of periodontal vaccine would not only prevent or modulate the course of periodontal diseases, but also enhance the quality of life of people for whom periodontal treatment cannot be easily obtained.

  69. Eric Black and Sidharth Chandra

    Psychiatry residency training in the United States encompasses a 4-year curriculum after medical school, which enables the trainee to practice independently. Despite the breadth and depth of training available, illustrative psychological concepts revealed by famous studies go overlooked. This gap in education can become more pronounced when the trainee previously was educated outside the Western Hemisphere, limiting their prior exposure to experiments that shaped psychological thinking in the western world. Our study sheds light on this phenomenon and proposes remedies to fill this possible gap in education, leading to more well-rounded psychiatrists regardless of their country of origin.

  70. Geeta Rawat

    Telenursing is a very specialized field of Nursing practice that has advanced in response to the introduction of recent new technologies and modalities with in the health care delivery system. Telenursing has been defined as the use of telecommunication technology in nursing to enhance patient care in remote areas. As health care has become more costly and complex now-a-days due to more challenges to access, telenursing is applied to alleviate these types of problems.

  71. Abhilash Joseph, E., Radhakrishnan, V.V. and Mohanan, K.V.

    In order to estimate soluble carbohydrate levels in rice leaves under different salinity stress levels, rice genotypes from both saline and non-saline rice tracts of North Kerala, India were exposed to 0, 10, 30, 50, 70, 100 and 200 mM of NaCl progressively starting from the 45th day after germination. The plants were maintained at the corresponding salinity levels during their further growth periods. Leaf samples were collected separately from the plants of each treatment on 90th day of growth and total soluble sugar content was estimated by phenol sulphuric acid method. Salinity caused accumulation of soluble sugar content in all the cultivars. High total soluble sugar concentration in the shoot of these rice cultivars is probably for adjusting osmotic potential and for better water uptake under salinity. These mechanisms help the plants to avoid tissue death and enable to continue their growth and development under saline conditions.

  72. Carlos Alexandre Oelke, Andréa Machado Leal Ribeiro, Cristiane Casagrande Denardin, Fernando Cézar Veit, Tiago Schreiner and Fabiane Arce Araújo

    When the level of fiber is increased, it is important to evaluate the impact of this addition upon the nutrients digestibility. The present study evaluated the effect of variation in the amount of total dietary fiber in sow diets, provided from 74 to 87 days of gestation, on the digestibility of nutrients. Thirty-three sows were used in a randomized experimental design. The amounts of total dietary fiber in three treatment diets were 15.6; 22.3 and 28.2%. To increase the amount of dietary fiber, rice grain and soybean meal were partially substituted for defatted rice bran and soybean hulls. The daily consumption of nutrients and energy was similar between the 74 to 87 days of gestation, differing only in the volume of ration consumed, which was 2.1; 2.2 and 2.4 kg/day. During gestation, the increase in total dietary fiber resulted in a significant decrease in the apparent total tract digestibility of total dietary fiber, insoluble dietary fiber e soluble dietary fiber. Increasing the amount of total dietary fiber reduced the digestibility of nutrients, mainly of the total dietary fiber and insoluble dietary fiber.

  73. Imran Jamil, Dr. Kausar Perveen and Dr. Imtiaz Ahmad warraich

    This study investigates the constraints that limit women’s participation in politics as a voter in southern areas of Punjab Pakistan, among these constraints are socio-economic and cultural in the main stream of this study. The study engages both primary and secondary sources, including field survey, personal interviews and questionnaire. A total of 600 women were selected from three divisions of southern Punjab including Dera ghazi khan, Multan and Bahawalpur through multi stage sampling technique for the administration of the questionnaires. The study reveals that the patriarchal system and male domination of the society, which relegates women to subordinate role, has created women’s inferiority complex and alienated them from the mainstream politics especially in the field of vote casting. Besides, the stigmatization of women politicians by fellow women discourages the political participation of the former while religious beliefs and institutional arrangements that restrict women to family responsibilities in the country coupled with lack of decisive affirmative action to encourage women’s political participation as a voter, have created a legacy that limit women’s political participation in southern Punjab respectively. Consequently, the study emphasizes the need to address those constraints that entrench women subordination in Pakistan especially in southern part of Punjab. These include, among others, the reformation of all religious, statutory and customary laws and practices that perpetuate women’s subordination in the country and the explicit specifications and modalities of affirmative actions on women’s political participation as a voter and clear guidelines for implementations in the constitution of Pakistan.

  74. Onuoha, S. C. and Okari, K. A.

    This study investigated the effect of aqueous extract of cannabis sativa on lactate dehydrogenase activity (LDH) and creatinine level which are cardiac markers in male Wistar rats. The extract was administered orally at a single dose of 100, 200 and 400 mgkg-1 body weight to the experimental animals daily for 3 weeks. The increase in creatinine level and LDH activity was dose dependent. This present study showes that administration of C. sativa leaf extract at 100, 200 and 400 mgkg-1 increase the activity of LDH and creatinine level which may be deleterious to the heart.

  75. Dr. Shakti Akash Raj, V., Sharon, N.S., Vadivel, M. and Dr. Manikandan B.

    Herbs and their extracts have anti microbial, anti oxidant, anti biofilm and anti inflammatory effects. Certain herbal extracts have two or more combinations of different bioactivity, the reason for which is their possession of a combination of bioactive phytoconstituents. The present review is to throw light on the usage of different crude extracts or isolated phytochemical extracts or the isolated bioactive compound as such in the treatment of Periimplantitis. Besides casual treatment for Periimplantitis which represents the Gold standard for Periimplantitis, the use of crude or phytochemical extracts or the isolated bioactive compound with anti microbial/anti biofilm potential can improve the therapeutic outcome in patients with Periimplantitis.

  76. Peter Haruna, Aaron Tettey Asare, Elvis Asare-Bediako and Francis Kusi

    Cowpea [Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp] is an important food crop with ability to enhance soil fertility. In northern Ghana, cowpea is the second most important crop after groundnut and a cheap source of protein in the diet, hence it is critical to improve production of the crop. This study assessed the demography, farm characteristics and extent of cowpea cultivation in the Upper East region of Ghana. Multi-stage random sampling technique was used to identify 200 respondents, 179 cowpea farmers and 21 agriculture extension officers in five cowpea growing districts involving closed and opened ended questions. Majority of the farmers (60.9 %) were males between the ages of 21 and 60 (85.5 %), who had no formal education (63.1 %). The agricultural extension officers (AEOs) involved in the study were all males, ranging from 21 years to 56 years, with Higher National Diploma (HND) (47.6 %). In all, 79 % of the cowpea farmers had average cowpea farm sizes of 1-5 acres indicating that cowpea cultivation in the region is on small scale, mostly by subsistent farmers. The level of cowpea cultivation is probably on the increase in the region due to recent access to improved seed and ready market. Farmers employ the use of pesticides and crop rotation in controlling pests and diseases on cowpea. Weed control on cowpea farms is mostly by the traditional weeding using the hoe and cutlass and the use of herbicides. The mode of conservation of cowpea grains includes the use of sieved ashes (42.9 %), insecticides (23.8 %) and plant extracts (9.5 %), involving dried powdered neem tree leaves. On the whole, cowpea is a promising economic crop towards food security and income generation but farm sizes are small. Therefore, cultivation of cowpea has to be given the needed priority and support for farmers to expand their farms to increase productivity.

  77. Dr. Sutapa Kumar (Rai)

    Recent study on the uses of medicinal plants for primary healthcare in some periurban areas of North and South 24-Parganas districts of West Bengal revealed widespread use of herbal cures among the local people. A total of 102 plant species were listed from three areas, Amtala and Diamond Harbour in South 24-Parganas and Habra in North 24-Parganas. These herbal medicines are believed to give good results against common ailments like cough, cold, dysentery, diarrhoea, skin problems, cuts, wounds, inflammations and acne as well as difficult diseases like jaundice, diabetes, anaemia, rheumatism, epilepsy, cardiac disorders, hypertension, constipation, bone fracture, insect and snake bites, etc. Often, different parts of the same plant were used to cure different ailments and leaves are the mostly used plant part. The study revealed that the district of 24-parganas (North & South) is rich in medicinal plant wealth and knowledge on their traditional uses. Local people in the periurban areas practice such traditional medicines even today, and if paid attention to, these natural resources can act as important basic materials for sustainable commercial exploitation (178 words).

  78. Dr. Vaishali S. Panchwate (Tinkhede)

    The histological effect of neem oil on the intestinal tissue of the fresh water catfish Heteropneustes fossilis was investigated. Fishes were exposed to sub-lethal concentrations of neem (Azadirachta indica) oil for 24,48,72 and 96 hrs. The normal intestine of Heteropneustes fossilis is characterized by outer peritoneum of serus longitudinal muscle layer, circular muscle layer, submucosa and mucosa. The mucosa is produced into large number vill, but exposure to neem (Azadirachta indica) oil leads to degeneration of columnar epithelium and necrosis of epithelial cells, damage villi, shrinkage of submucosa and necrosis in circular muscle

  79. Purushotham, S.P. and Anupama, N.

    Diatoms in particular are of utmost importance, as potential indicators of water quality due to their sensitivity and strong response to many physical, chemical and biological changes. As a major contributor to primary productivity in the aquatic ecosystem, diatoms play a pivotal role in the food chain. Due to their ubiquitous nature, they are abundantly present in aquatic environments. This paper presents data on the water quality assessment using diatoms in Thonnur and Sulekere lakes of Mandya district, Karnataka, India. Organic as well as anthropogenic pollution indicators were found in both the lakes. Anthropogenic pollution was high in case of Thonnur lake compared to Sulekere lake. Indicators of organic pollution comprised of Nitzschia palea, Gomphonema parvalum and Nitzschia fragalis. Indicators of Anthropogenic pollution were found to be Synedra acus and S. ulna whereas S.ulna was found to be common in all sites of both the lakes because of high anthropogenic activity. About 10-12 species were identified in sulekere lake and 5-6 species in thonnur lake were recorded. Hence, diatoms play an imperative key role in water quality monitoring and also they are important resource for identifying ecological condition of the lake. So our findings highlighted that Sulerkere lake is more polluted than Thonnur lake. Worsening of water quality in both the lakes was due to human activities and organic pollution.

  80. Selvavinayagam, T S.

    Background: The Electronic Health Record known as EHR is the essential document to ensure quality treatment in time to the beneficiary. Normally implementation of EHR involves huge expenditure though it is need of the hour. Our model of EHR known as Minimal Health Record (MHR) under the Chief Minister’s Comprehensive Health Insurance Scheme (CMCHISTN) is being implemented without any additional financial support is being deliberated here. Objectives: Creation and sustaining the EHR model with minimal effort and expenditure using the available information and resources. Methods: The information available in the discharge summary given by the hospitals as a part of claim documents is being used to develop our no-cost EHR i.e. Minimal Health Record (MHR). Results and Conclusion: Our EHR that is called Minimal Health Record (MHR) under CMCHISTN is possible without any additional effort and expenditure, where the individual service provider is generating it as a part of service provision, regulated by standards of the Government and the data is made available to the beneficiary.

  81. Sara Sana Ayesha Khanum, Maaria Gulnaaz, Syeda Batool Safiyya, Syeda Shaista Babar and Maimuna Tabassum

    Addison’s disease is an autoimmune condition causing the destruction of adrenal cortex leading to the production of deficit amount of adrenal hormones. The condition is very severe and rare because the adrenal hormones i.e. Glucocorticoids and Mineralocorticoid that are involved in modulating salt, energy and fluid homeostasis are being altered. Addison’s Crisis secondary to withdrawal of steroid therapy is usually infrequent and said to be due to inappropriate discontinuation or excessive of this therapy. The symptoms happen to correlate with the pathological changes of adrenal antibodies with the endocrine gland and account for its severity. The following manifestations are drawn from it: fatigue, muscle weakness, loss of appetite, fever, nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, hypotension, hypoglycemia and hyper pigmentation of the skin. The diagnosis is usually confirmed by measuring the cortisol level or adrenocorticotropic hormone concentration. Lastly, the treatment involves the replacement of hormones.

  82. Dr. Shashwati Paul and Dr. Kalpajyoti Bhattacharjee

    Animal models have contributed new data and findings in medical sciences, including periodontology. Selection of the ideal animal model depends on the similarity of the periodontium and the disease condition to that of humans. There is no single model which can represent periodontal tissues exactly similar to humans. The most common animal models used are dogs and non-human primates, although other animals (rats, mice, hamsters, rabbits, miniature pigs, ferrets, and sheep) have also been frequently used. Dog models have contributed significantly to the current understanding of periodontology. In this review, we have highlighted few important aspects of animal models with a brief description of models used in periodontology.

  83. Benson Buhuru Mabinda, Gregory S. Namusonge and Mike Iravo

    This study aimed at assessing cashflow as a determinants of corporate investment decisions of firms listed on Nairobi securities exchange in Kenya. The objective of the study was assessing the effect of cash flow on corporate investment decisions of firms listed at the NSE. The study used both primary and secondary data. The study adopted descriptive research design and the target population was 64 firms listed on the Nairobi Securities Exchange (NSE). Data was analyzed using descriptive statistics, correlation analysis and regression analysis using SPSS version 23. The study used simple linear regression models to establish the relationship between dependent and independent variables. The study established that firms had enough cash for its shareholders, the firm had a clear debt management policy. The study concludes that cash flow affects corporate investment decisions of firms listed at the NSE. There was enough cash for shareholders and there was a clear debt management policy. The study recommends that listed firms that have no debt policies should ensure that the management put in place operational debt management policies.

  84. Dr. Sangita R. Phatale, Dr. Siddiqui Mahaiboob Fatima Mohd Sirajuddin, Ahmed Siddiqui and Dr. Pranita M Kadam

    Introduction: The incidence of diabetes mellitus is increasing tremendously throughout the world especially in developing countries. This disease affects various organs like eyes, nerves, kidneys and heart. Pulmonary complications of diabetes mellitus (DM) have been poorly characterized. Moreover, the duration of glycemic control have varied impact on the pulmonary function. Aims and objectives: To study the effect of DM on PEFR and its relationship with duration of the disease. Material and method: The study was carried out in the department of physiology M.G.M Medical College Aurangabad. Total 90 subjects were included in the studies &were grouped in 3 groups of 30 subject in each respectively. Group I consist of 30 age and socio-economically matched apparently healthy non diabetic subject were randomly selected from the OPD mainly the relatives of patients. Group II consist of 30 type 2 DM patients with the duration of 5 to 10 years of disease. Group III consist of 30 type 2 diabetic patients with duration of 10 to 20 years of disease. The PEFR of all the subjects were measured by spirowin, a computerized spirometer. Blood samples were taken for heamatologicl and biochemical parameters. The data were analysed by one way ANOVA, unpaired students “t” and Pearsons correlation coefficient tests. Results: The mean percentage of predicted values of PEFR in non diabetic male was within normal range. But it was significantly (p <0.001) lower in both the groups of type 2 diabetic male compared to those of non diabetic male. PEFR was lower in the patients of longer duration as compared to those of shorter duration. Conclusion: PEFR is lower in type2 diabetic male and is inversely related to the duration of the disease.

  85. Ramakrishna, B., Supriya, P., Venkatalakshmi, V. and Naidu, N.V.S.

    A simple, Accurate, precise method was developed for the simultaneous estimation of the Prazocin and Polythiazide in Tablet dosage form. Chromatogram was run through Std Discovery C18 150 x 4.6 mm, 5m. Mobile phase containing Buffer 0.1%OPA: Acetonitrile taken in the ratio 60:40 was pumped through column at a flow rate of 1 ml/min. Buffer used in this method was 0.1% OPA buffer. Temperature was maintained at 30°C. Optimized wavelength selected was 270.0 nm. Retention time of Prazocin and Polythiazide were found to be 2.316 min and 3.176. %RSD of the Prazocin and Polythiazide were found to be 0.5 and 0.7 respectively. %Recovery was obtained as 100.49% and 100.40% for Prazocin and Polythiazide respectively. LOD, LOQ values obtained from regression equations of Prazocin and Polythiazide were 0.079, 0.240 and 0.03, 0.08 respectively. Regression equation of Prazocin is y = 50050.x + 7773 and of Polythiazide was y = 95434.x + 6175. Retention times were decreased and run time was decreased, so the method developed was simple and economical that can be adopted in regular Quality control test in Industries.

  86. Saurav Dwari and Amal Kumar Mondal

    Cerambycidae is one of the biggest families of Coleoptera. Members are popularly known as Longhorn Beetles, world-widely distributed from sea level to mountains. In the districts of West Bengal diversity, detailed ecology of many species is inadequately documented. Thus, main aims of the present study were documentation of species, habitats and other ecological behaviors in District Howrah, West Bengal, India through regular field survey method. A total of 13 species of Longhorn Beetles belonging to 12 genera of two sub families’ viz., Cerambycinae and Lamiinae were documented in between February 2013- October 2017 from the district Howrah, West Bengal, India. Among 13 Cerambycid species five species are newly recorded from the area, viz., Xystrocera globosa (Olivier, 1795), Apomecyna saltator (Fabricius, 1787), Cremnosterna Aurivillius, 1920, Pseudanaesthetis langana (Pic, 1922) and Rondibilis J. Thomson, 1857. We can conclude from our study that as a non forest district Howrah contain a good number of species of Longhorn Beetles. Our study gives a baseline data for the Longhorn Beetles of Howrah district which will help for further study on them.

  87. Thongchai Taechowisan, Suchanya Chaiseang and Waya S. Phutdhawong

    The antifungal effect of two biphenylcompounds, 3'-hydroxy-5-methoxy-3,4-methylenedioxybiphenyl (1) and 3'-hydroxy-5,5'-dimethoxy-3,4-methylenedioxybiphenyl (2) against phytopathogenic fungi of rice; Bipolaris oryzae, Fusarium semitectum, Fusarium fujikuroi and Curvularia lunata was analyzed. Results of this study showed that compound 1 and 2 exhibited a very strong inhibitory activity against tested fungi with minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) values of ≤128 g/ml. Treatment with these compounds inhibited fungal radial growth, biomass formation, and spore density. The growth inhibition resulted from these compounds is due to the lysis of fungal cells indicated by the size of mycelia, in which the size of mycelia treated with these compounds is obviously smaller than that of control.

  88. Darade, M.S.

    The analysis of dust polluted leaves were carried out .The effect of dust on phenolic and protein contents of plant leaves were determined in different plants .The estimation of Phenolic compounds and Protein compound was carried out in leaves. Total fifteen plants were assayed for the presence of amount of biochemical components in dust deposited leaves. The survey of dust polluted leaves were made in the campus of the Govt. Vidarbha Institute of Science and Humanities in Amravati. It is found that Bauhinia variegata L. has shown minimum amount of phenolic contents in dust polluted leaves (2.212µg/µL) while in Polyalthia longifolia L .(son.).Th. it was found 112.93 µg/µL. The Protein content in dust polluted leaves were found minimum in Bougainvillea spectabilis L (6.55 µg/µL )and maximum in Ficus benghalensis L(178.96 µg/µL ) .It is observed that size and surface texture of leaves affect the capturing of dust particles and maximum dust deposition on the leaves which affect directly and indirectly on the physiological activities taking place in the leaves .

  89. Sonali R Paithane and Laxmikant H Kamble

    In this work, we report the whole genome sequence of the multiply antibiotic resistant Escherichia coli isolated from chicken in Nanded. Sequence analysis showed the assembled genome size to be 4,283,974 bp containing 4497 protein coding genes, 52961 single nucleotide polymorphism, 197 number of insertions and 181 number of deletions.

  90. Arul Sheeba Rani, M. and Mary Josephine, R.

    Urban greening refers to any vegetation effort including the planting of trees, shrubs, grass or agricultural plots whose design is intended to improve the environmental quality, economics opportunity or aesthetic value associated with a cities landscape. For the present study tree Bauhinia purpurea, linn.; were selected for the physico-chemical parameters of tree canopy soil, mineral profile of the litter formed by the selected tree canopy, microbial flora of the selected tree canopy soils were analyzed. Hence, the present study the aim is to improve our quality of life in an increasingly densely populated, fast-living world. People have to find then way back to natural and green open spaces that become more and more important for our personal development, wellbeing and recreation due to increasing urbanization.

  91. Vaishno Devi Karra, Prahlad Dube, Jyoti Sharma and Yati Sood

    Phytoplanktons are microscopic free floating animals which play a vital role in aquatic ecosystem. Phytoplanktons are highly sensitive to environmental variation, as a result change in abudance, species diversity or community composition can provide important indication of environmental health. Phytoplankton diversity is controlled by seasonal variation. In the present paper an extensive review of the literature available on seasonal variation of Phytoplanktons in lotic water of India have been made which is a long felt necessity in this field.

  92. Raphael Kayago Kinara

    Purpose of Study: The purpose of this paper is to review literature on the factors behind Asian firms, an example for emerging African firms to emulate. Design and Methodology: This is a literature review. Research limitations/Implications: The idea of SMEs is an old one, as old as when the first business was thought of by the human race. But the factors, philosophy and strategy behind the SMEs success of Asian firms is unique to Asian firms. The review was limited in terms of the theories that explain the process of success of the small and medium enterprises. Practical Implications: The concept of starting a business has to come naturally from the individual without influence of family members, friends, work associates or government policies. This enables the entrepreneur to stands a better change to persevere when conditions are not favouring business performance. Originality/Value: The paper fills the gap in the literature review in that it highlights what has been done by majority of Asian firms and their success secrets and how the same may be replicated by African start-up and emerging firms.

  93. Nuri Muhammet Çelik, Mehmet Soyal and Cengiz Taşkın

    The purpose of the study: The comparison of years 2014 and 2015 as a result of technical criteria determined by performance and technical analysis of the men’s national under 21 team aged between 15 and 17 that competes in the 21st and 22nd International Nazım Canca European Judo Cup Under 21 Competition in Antalya, 2014 and 2015 . For this study, the total of 352 judo contests in the 21st and 22nd International Nazım Canca Tournament have been saved to the camera and then the video analysis of the competitions have been performed. Points of Turkey men’s national under 21 team racing in the tournament from all of the technical classes and also the points that are lost from the same technical classes have been saved to the computer environment as an excel file then runned to a custom table test in spss and analyzed. In addition, standing techniques (tachi-waza) and ground techniques (ne-waza) also have been shown in the excel tables. In the 21st Nazım Canca Judo Tournament, Turkey men’s under 21 team, with 66 people attended, made a total of 167 matches and achieved 80 wins and 87 defeats.Then in the 22nd Nazım Canca Judo Under 21 Tournament, Turkey men’s under 21 team, with 71 people attended, made a total of 185 matches and achieved 90 wins and 95 defeats. As a result of the technical analysis and examination; Turkey men’s under 21 team in the 21st Nazım Canca Judo Tournament, has made 8 ippon, 14 waza-ari and 19 yuko pointsfrom the Tachi-waza (standing techniques) technical class; thenin the 22nd Nazım Canca Judo Tournament, has made 20 ippon, 20 waza-ari and 28 yuko points from the same technical class. Considering the total of all points, %65 significant increase and success were observed. Also in the 21st Nazım Canca Judo Tournament, the total of 37 ippon, 38 waza-ari and 32 yuko points have been lost from theTachi-waza (ground techniques) technical class, whereas in the 22nd Nazım Canca Judo Tournament, 35 ippon, 38 waza-ari and 32 yuko points have been lost.A %8.5 significant decrease in the values was observed when looking at the points that have been lost. Then again as a result of examination: In the 21st Nazım Canca Judo Tournament, Turkey men’s national team has won only 2 matches and lost 17 matches from Ne-Waza (ground techniques) technical class, Successful matches, has been won by using Osea-Komi-Waza techniques from Ne-Waza (ground techniques) technical class. In the 21st Nazım Canca Judo Tournament, Turkey men’s under 21 team couldn’t win any match with Shime-waza and Kansetsu-waza techniques from Ne-Waza (ground techniques) technical class. In the 21st Nazım Canca Judo Tournament, Matches that have been lost are 4 of them in Kansetsu-Waza techniques and 13 of them in Osea-Komi-Waza techniques from Ne-Waza (ground techniques) technical class. On the contrary, as a result of examination: In the 22nd Nazım Canca Judo Tournament, Turkey men’s under 21 team, with 9 wins from Ne-Waza (ground techniques) technical class,has shown a significant increase as winning five times greater compared to the previous year. At the same time, Turkey men’s national team that has lost 12 matches from Ne-Waza (ground techniques) technical class, has shown %30 significant and successful decrease compared to the lost matches. Also; in the 22nd Nazım Canca Judo Tournament, Turkey men’s under 21 team with the total of 9 wins, has won 2 of them in Shime-Waza techniques,1 of them in Kansetsu-Waza techniques and 6 of them in Osea-Komi-Waza techniques, from Ne-Waza (ground techniques) technical class.

  94. Ranjan Kumar Srivastava, Naveen Kumar Raman and Navnit Kumar Dutta

    Rupture of Measles is highly contagious diseases. It is caused by paramyxovirus, with a secondary attack rate in excess of 80% that usually affects children. WHO (World Health organisation) with NPSP (National Polio Surveillance Project) and Measles Elimination and Rubella Control Programme is working rapidly in the field of measles elimination in the Bihar. Government of Bihar with IDSP (Integrated Disease Surveillance Programme) is also involved in the measles immunization and surveillance. Objective:- The purpose of the study is to study the epidemiology of measles in the Bihar during January 2016 to December 2016. Material and Methods:-Study was carried out between Jan-2016 to Dec- 2016 on the data of WHO-NPSP Measles and Rubella Elimination Programme. Department of Microbiology, Patna Medical College, Patna has WHO accredited Lab for Measles and Rubella Testing. WHO case definition is used to define measles cases / outbreak. Conclusion: -The finding highlighted proper surveillance and routine immunization of measles in Bihar.

  95. Shalan Al-Abbudi

    Background: Several studies indicate that prevalence rates of the individual symptoms: depression, anxiety and stress are growing among adolescents. Objective: to evaluate the extent of depression, anxiety, and stress among secondary school students in Baghdad, Iraq. Method: A school based cross-sectional study was conducted during the school year 2007/2008, from October 2007 to March 2008. The sample included secondary school students in Baghdad, Iraq. Cluster sampling method was used. The students were evaluated by well-trained group of teachers. Data were collected using the Arabic version of the Depression Anxiety Stress Scale (DASS-42) while sociodemographic and environmental data, as well as the presence of associated psychological factors, were collected via a questionnaire devised for the study. Formal consent from students was taken. Statistical analysis was conducted using the Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS, Version 15 for Windows). Results: A total of 48720 secondary school students participated in the study; 62.5% had symptoms of at least one of the three studied symptoms. Depression, anxiety, and stress symptoms were 29.4 %, 40.6% and 51.1% respectively. Statistical analysis showed highly significant findings (P<0.001). Conclusion: High prevalence rates of depression, anxiety and stress symptoms among Iraqi secondary school students indicated exposure to sever ongoing stresses. Psychosocial support and stress resilience reduced the severity of these symptoms.

  96. Dr. Pooja R. Swami, Dr. Pronob Sanyal, Dr. Rakshith Guru and Dr. Abhijeet Kore

    Context: Polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA) is widely used for fabrication of removable dental prosthesis, but it is still insufficient to fulfil the mechanical requirements for dental applications. Aims: Comparative evaluation of addition of carbon nano fillers and graphene and its effect on impact strength and flexural strength of Autopolymerized Acrylic resin. - an in vitro study Methods and Materials: Characterisation of carbon nanofillers (MWCNTs) and graphene were done to check the purity, diameter and size using FT RAMAN & FESEM. Monomer without microaddition acted as control group. Nanofillers by weight were added in monomer in different percentages 0.50% by weight for group b and group c and combination of 0.25% by weight of graphene and 0.25% by weight of carbon for group d. Nanofillers were subjected to probe sonification apparatus for uniform dispersion. Polymer and monomer containing nanofillers were mixed according to the groups and packed in the mold and processed according to conventional method.80 specimens were fabricated and divided into four groups according to the test.The retrieved specimens were kept in artificial saliva before testing. Universal maching and izod impact testing machine was used to check impact and flexural strength. Statistical analysis used: Kruskall Wallis ANOVA and Mann Whitney test. Results: 0.5% by weight of carbon nanofillers showed highest flexural and impact strength of PMMA resin followed by graphene and by combination of 0.25% by weight of carbon and0.25% by weight of graphene nanofillers.

  97. Manoj Kumar Raut, Kirti Warvadekar, Payal Gupta, Md. Ataur Rahman, Mustafizur Rahman, S M. and Deepika Nayar Chaudhery

    Background: Anaemia has been a long standing public health problem in Bangladesh, particularly amongst the children and women. BDHS, 2011 showed that 42% of the women aged 15-49 years (pregnant women 49.6% and 48% lactating women) were anaemic. Nutrition International (Formerly known as Micronutrient Initiative) supported Government of Bangladesh in revitalising IFA as a key component of the ANC package through demonstration of strategies to improve the coverage and adherence of IFA among pregnant women in selected districts with the objective of reducing iron deficiency anaemia. Methods and Materials: The program package consisted of strengthening the supply chain of the IFA supplements; capacity building of health staff in estimation of IFA requirements, monitoring and tracking adherence, behavior Change interventions for increasing adherence with a focus on improved interpersonal counselling, modifying monitoring system to track coverage and improving supportive supervision. The demonstration projects were implemented in Narsinghdi and Satkhira districts of Bangladesh. The program was assessed by a pre-post intervention study design with intervention and comparison areas in the country. Socio-demographically similar districts were considered as comparison areas. Results: In the intervention areas, adherence to 90+ IFA tablets was found to be more than 50% and binary logistic regression revealed that among all women interviewed, those who were exposed to improved interpersonal counseling were 7 times more likely to consume 90+ IFA in the most recent end-line survey undertaken [UOR: 7.560 (95% CI: 3.850-14.486, p=0.000)]. Conclusions: Considering the positive results of the program package, as demonstrated by the program evaluation findings, it is being scaled up in 10 low performing districts of Bangladesh with a focus on improved inter-personal counselling.

  98. Saurabh Sharma, Neeraj Kumar, and Shalini Gupta

    A description of the transition metal ions especially copper(II), iron(III), uranium(VI) and thorium(IV) based on the toxicity of the elements on human organs is included. A brief description of the electron rich species interacting with copper (II), iron(III), uranium(\/I) and thonum(IV) metal ions is also included.

  99. Sanghesh B. Bele

    In the last few years there has been a rapid exponential increase in computer processing power, communication and data storage. But still many complex and computation intensive problems, which cannot be solved by super computers. In the field of computing, a lot of changes have been observed due to the increased use and popularity of the Internet and the availability of high-speed networks. Resource sharing in a pure plug and play model that dramatically simplifies infrastructure planning is the promise of “Cloud computing”. Cloud computing [1] is the development of parallel computing, distributed computing, grid computing and virtualization technologies which define the shape of a new era. Cloud computing is an emerging model of business computing. The paper aims to provide a means of understanding the model and exploring options available for complementing your technology and infrastructure needs. Also explore some of the basics of cloud computing with the aim of introducing aspects such as: Realities and risks of the model Components in the model Characteristics and Usage of the model. This work aims to provide the ways to reduce security risk & also promotes the performance of cloud computing.

  100. Priyanka Singh, Prabaharan, A., Hilal Ahmad and Islam, S. S.

    In this work, the structural and vibrational studies for the most stable conformer of the anticancer drug Bis-chloroethylnitrosourea (BCNU) or Carmustine have been carried out at the DFT/B3LYP/6-311++G(d,p) level using the Gaussian 09 software. It was predicted to exist predominantly in non-planar structure. The FT-IR (400–4000 cm-1), FT-Raman spectra (300–4000 cm-1) and UV-Vis spectra (200-400 nm) of BCNU were recorded and analyzed in light of the computed vibrational parameters using DFT (density functional theory) and the PEDs (Potential energy distribution) computed with the help of the GAR2PED software. The total and partial density of state and overlap population density of state diagrams analysis are presented for the BCNU molecule. Furthermore, molecular electrostatic potential, are performed. In addition to these, reduced density gradient of the BCNU molecule is performed and discussed. Stability of the molecule arising from hyper conjugative interactions, charge delocalization has been analyzed using natural bond orbital (NBO) analysis. The HOMO-LUMO energy gap reveals that the energy gap reflects the chemical activity of the molecule. The thermodynamic functions of the title compound have been performed by B3LYP/6-311+G(d,p). In addition, hyperpolarizability and molecular docking calculations were performed in order to find its role in non-linear optics and anticancer activity.

  101. Sridharan, K., Vimal Anand, S., Dr. Saravanan, N., Dr. Ilamathi, M. and Dr. N. G. Ramesh Babu

    The prevalence of diabetes mellitus (DM) is increasing with ageing of the population and life style changes associated with rapid urbanization and westernization. Though there are many drugs available in market to address this issue, the drug resistance is a real challenge to the pharmaceutical industry. To address this problem, we have selected a well-known anti-malarial drug, Artesunate (AS). With strong earlier reports on anti-inflammatory, anti-oxidant, anti-pyretic activities of this compound, we aim to study the anti-diabetic activity of AS. AS act as an agonist to Glucagon like protein (GLP) and can bind to GLP-1 Receptor, thus facilitating the glucose uptake by cells. Initially, a docking study was performed to check the affinity of AS with GLP-1R followed by prediction of ADME/Tox analysis. From the docking results, we were able to find that AS have good binding activity to GLP-1R and also have good drug likeliness properties. The computational result was then evaluated using biochemical assays and cell based assays in MIN6. α-amylase inhibitory effect and glucose uptake by yeast cells were studied. AS inhibits α-amylase and improve glucose uptake by cells at the concentration of 80µM. A cytotoxic analysis was performed using MTT assay. Upto 100µM, AS was non-toxic to cells. AS also induce the cell to produce insulin which was confirmed by measuring the Insulin secreted by the cells. This clearly proves that AS by binding to GLP-1R can provoke the cells to uptake glucose and secrete insulin as well. Thus, AS can be a potential anti-diabetic drug with high efficacy and low cytotoxicity compared to other drugs.

  102. Shalini Gupta, Neeraj Kumar and Saurabh Sharma

    Lanthanide(III), Cerium(III), Praseodymium(III), neodymium(III), Samarium(III), gadolinium(III), terbium(III), dysprosium(III) and yttrium(III) complexes of Schiff bases derived from ferrocenyl keto acid and 2quinolinoyl hydrazine (H2L) and Ferrocenyl keto acid and 8quinolinoyl hydrazine (H2L1) have been prepared. The complexes are of the type [Ln(HL)L](H2O)n, [Ln(HL1)L1](H2O)n (n=12) and [Ln(HL1)L1] and these have been characterized on the basis of elemental analysis, conductance measurements. Magnetic moments thermal analysis, infrared and electronic absorption spectra. Nephelauxetic ratio () and covalency factor (b1/2) have been determined for neodymium(III) complexes, which indicate some covalent character in these complexes.

  103. Singh, H. S. and Neha Sangwa

    Nickel Aluminium ferrite with general formula NiAlxFe2-xO4for ‘x = 0.0, 0.2, 0.4, 0.6, 0.8 and 1.0’ were synthesized by High Energy Ball milling. Fourier Transform Infrared Spectra (FTIR) and Dielectric characteristics were measured at room temperature as a function of frequency for synthesized ferrite. Infrared spectra exhibit two vibrational bands; high frequency band v_1 observed for the samples in the range of 603 〖cm〗^(-1)to 632 〖cm〗^(-1)assigned by stretching vibrations of tetrahedral metal oxygen bond and low frequency band v_2 observed in range 418 〖cm〗^(-1)to 489 〖cm〗^(-1)assigned due to metal oxygen vibrations in octahedral B sites. The dielectric investigation of Nickel Aluminium ferrite shows that the value of dielectric constant, dielectric loss and dielectric loss tangent are high at low frequency and become frequency independent at high frequencies.

  104. Akash kumar, Shwetabh Shekhar and Smita Pallavi

    The unabated growth in crimes in India causes concern to apply meta-analysis and demonstrate the predictors of anti-social behaviour. The ability to estimate whether someone prompts to commit a crime in the future through a meta-stacked framework which can handle imbalanced Big-data is presented in this paper. Several ensemble classifiers investigate various questions concerning the professional and private lives and evaluate them for parameter tuning on cross validation. The learning algorithms apply posterior probability on factors which affects the human crimes the most to predict if the people in the test data will commit a crime, accounting for the psychological aspects of human activities and study of those. Results show improved accuracy of 95.78 % by employing the MSEPA(Meta Stack Ensemble Probabilistic Algorithm) presented in the work.

  105. Teklu Adamu

    Vasile Berinde obtained the existence and uniqueness of coincidence and common fixed points of non-commuting almost contractions in cone metric spaces. Inspired and motivated by the main result of Berinde, in this research we have studied the existence and uniqueness of coincidence points and common fixed points of a class of almost contraction maps in complete cone b-metric space. Some examples are also provided to support the result of this paper finding.

  106. Narasingan, S.N., Anirudha V. Potey, Shahu Ingole, Anoop Hajare and Swati Naik

    Background: Hyperlipidemia is a modifiable risk factor for cardiovascular disease (CVD) and is primarily treated by statins. The present survey was conducted to understand the prescribing practices of physicians and cardiologists in managing patients of dyslipidemia with various statins. Methods: This was a prospective, cross sectional, questionnaire-based survey of Indian physicians and cardiologists managing the patients of dyslipidemia with statins. The questionnaire consisting of 10 questions related to the use of statins in the management of dyslipidemia in real-world clinical settings was prepared, validated and then administered to physicians and cardiologists attending CSI 2016. Results: Responses from 358 physicians and cardiologists were received. Compared to other statins, most physicians experienced maximum reduction in the low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (56.7%), triglycerides (47.2%) and maximum increase in high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (48.3%) with rosuvastatin. Rosuvastatin was reported as the most preferred statin by the physicians in their clinical practice for primary prevention (50.6%) and secondary prevention (49.4%) of CVD followed by atorvastatin (38.5% and 31%, respectively). Physicians preferred rosuvastatin over atorvastatin in patients with diabetes mellitus or metabolic syndrome (53.4% vs 27.7%), while atorvastatin was preferred over rosuvastatin in patients with chronic kidney disease (44.4% vs 32.4%) and chronic heart failure (46.9% vs 34.6%). Amongst the statins, the highest dose tolerable was that of rosuvastatin 40 mg (39.9%). Conclusion: The survey findings suggest that rosuvastatin was the most preferred stat in among cardiologists and physicians, followed by atorvastatin in the management of patients with hyperlipidaemia and for primary and secondary prevention of CVD.

  107. Napwora Jesse Wekesa

    Collaborative supervision helps teachers to develop professionally. Therefore this study which was conducted in 2017 sought to investigate the factors that affect Departmental Collaborative Supervision (DCS) and the Professional Development (PD) of Teachers of English language (ToEL) in Secondary Schools in Trans Nzoia County, Kenya. It was a follow-up study to the one done in Bungoma County in 2015-2016 in order to corroborate the findings. The study was based on the Mixed Methods Research Approach; it adopted the Constructivist, Cognitivist and Transformational theories of adult learning and the Pragmatic Philosophical Paradigm and the Explanatory Design. Proportionate stratified random sampling, simple random sampling and purposive sampling techniques were used to get the sample. The questionnaire and interview guide were used to collect data from teachers of English and heads of department from selected secondary schools in Trans Nzoia County. The sample involved 200 participants. The data were analysed using descriptive statistics. Findings revealed that most departments/schools experienced almost similar impediments towards DCS and PD of teachers of English. It can be concluded that DCS faces several impediments that negatively affect PD of ToEL. Consequently, it is recommended that teachers of English, departments/schools and the Ministry of Education, Science and Technology should adopt collaborative supervisory practices; and school and the government should provide needed support and resources in order to improve students’ learning and teachers’ professional development.

  108. Omagwa Wycliff Nyakundi and Dr. Lucy Ngugi

    This study sought to assess how leadership-related factors such as emotional intelligence, project leader motivation, leadership power and influence, leadership competence and project leader team work affect project performance. Total Kenya Limited like other oil marketers has faced leadership challenges in the undertakings of its projects. As a result of poor leadership the company continues to face drastic uncontrollable market factors such as ultra-modern and expansive retail network by its competitors, entry of other oil companies in the non-fuel business projects, inadequate fuel storage capacity due to increased demand, use of modern fuel dispensing facilities by other oil marketers, government price control measures among others that necessitate strong leadership skills for ultimate performance of the company. The aim of this study was to illustrate how emotional intelligence, leader power and influence, project team work, team leader motivation and competence influenced the performance of projects in Total Kenya. The study involved use of descriptive research design. A sample of 85 employees was drawn from a target population of 170 employees in the operations and project development department using stratified random sampling. A questionnaire was used to collect data where each respondent filled and submitted a structured questionnaire that was given to them. The findings were analyzed and presented by way of charts, frequency, mean, regression analysis, graphs and tables. The results were then to be used to improve project efficiency and develop good leadership plans of managing projects in the oil industry. The findings of the study revealed that project leaders in Total Kenya; are not emotionally intelligent and competent, do not embrace teamwork spirit among their members, lacks teamwork motivation and do not use their power and influence properly. However, further study should be carried out on multiple projects in other oil companies to provide a more insight on the effect of leadership on project performance.

  109. Deepali Dogra and Seema Sharma

    The present research study was aimed at to assess the impact of technology usage on social maturity of teenagers. The study was carried out in Ludhiana district on sample comprised of 200 rural and urban teenagers in age-group of 16 to 18 years studying in 11th and 12th grade in the selected Government Senior Secondary School of urban and rural areas. Further the sample was equally distributed over two sexes (Boys= 100, Girls=100) from rural and urban areas. Social maturity scale by Rao (1971) and technology usage questionnaire was used to assess the social maturity and usage of technology of teenagers. Result revealed that very few teenagers had a high level of social maturity. And there was positive correlation between technology usage and social maturity among urban teenagers whereas, negative association between technology usage and social maturity was found among rural teenagers.

  110. Mamta and Raghav Yadav

    An ad hoc wireless network is a temporary and dynamic environment where a group of mobile nodes with radio frequency transceivers communicate with each other without the intervention of any centralized administration or established infrastructure. Due to the limited transmission range of each mobile node, communication sessions between two nodes are usually established through a number of intermediate nodes, which are supposed to be willing to cooperate while forwarding the messages they receive to their destination. Unfortunately, some of these intermediate nodes might not be trustworthy and might be malicious, thereby forming a threat to the security and/or confidentiality of the exchanged data between the mobile nodes. This paper proposed a partially distributed dynamic model for security against such misbehaving nodes and ensured secure routing in mobile ad hoc networks and it also proposes to make network time delay efficient. The proposed scheme is partially distributed in the sense that supplementary information is propagated amongst nodes implicitly during route establishment rather than the flooding of explicit packets. This supplementary information (in the form of GMC) is used as a cautionary measure against misbehaviour of a node rather than directly considering the accused node as “misbehaving”. Co-operation is induced first, using a dynamic time-out based mechanism that threatens misbehaving nodes by blocking all communications with them in accordance to the severity of their misbehaviour. The timer for which a node is blocked depends upon past communication with that node and the frequency of its misbehaviour locally, i.e., LMC and globally, i.e., GMC. Different weights are assigned to both LMC and GMC for efficacy of system performance. Secondly, a dynamic credit allotment mechanism that reciprocates a node’s behaviour by allotting Chips to it is employed. It precisely examines the overall behavior of a node in the network by considering not only its forwarding behaviour with the host node but also supplementary information received regarding its behaviour from other nodes. It was also concluded that if we use least spaning tree for the MANET then the time efficiency has been increased.

  111. Ayse Ozcan Edeer and Karl Rusch

    Purpose: This study aims to investigate the effects of standing desks use on musculoskeletal complaints and student perspective within the classroom in a physical therapist education program students. Method: Twenty two students (10 male, 12 female) aged27.9 years (± 6.4) participated the study. The participants completed an online questionnaire consisting of demographic questions. An online version of the Boston University Computer and Health Survey was used to assess participants’ musculoskeletal complaints before and after standing desk use. The Likeness and Willingness Survey was used to assess students’ perspective after standing desk use. Results: Eighty-two percent of the participants described pain during and after working on a computer before the trimester started, while 90% of them reported pain after the trimester semester ended. The most common areas of pain/discomfort areas were the neck and low back. 72% of the participants stated that they extremely and moderately liked the standing desk. Seventy-two percent of the participants stated that the standing desk helped them to stay alert and focused during the classes. Conclusion: Although there were no statistical comparisons regarding musculoskeletal discomfort before and after standing desk use, musculoskeletal complaints were evident among physical therapist education students after computer use in a static position. Regarding the student perspective there was an overall agreement that standing desks are beneficial for alertness, focus, concentration and fatigue

  112. Kerem Hepdeniz and İbrahim İskender Soyaslan

    The creation of landslide susceptibility maps is a critical step in helping organizers, local authorities, and policy makers with disaster planning. As such, the reliability of these landslide susceptibility maps is essential for decreasing loss of life and property. Increasing populations and settlements in sloped areas have generally enhanced the effect of landslides. In this study, a geographic information system and analytical hierarchy process were used to determine landslide susceptibility zones in Burdur province. For this purpose, ten parameters; distance to fault, wetness index, slope aspect, distance to stream, rainfall, distance to road, curvature, land cover, slope gradient and lithology were selected as conditioning factors associated with active landslides. The results of this study indicate that 11.63% of the investigation area has a high susceptibility and 1.57% has a very high susceptibility. The findings of this study are important for long-term land use planning, emergency decisions, minimization of potential landslide hazards, and saving lives.

  113. Emily Atieno Odhong, Dr. Susan Were and Dr. Fred Jonyo

    In a globally dynamic business environment, continuous employee engagement is a key driver of sustainable employee performance in the 21st century organizations. A survey of Kenya firms revealed that on average, businesses allocate 3% of their operating budgets to private security services and security upgrade. The main objective of the study is to determine the influence of employee engagement on employee performance in the Private Security Industry in Kenya. The study sought to improve employee performance, efficiency, and effectiveness in service delivery. The study adopts descriptive research design and positivism research paradigm; study unit of observation was the Private Security Guards. The target population is 150,000 and the sample size was 213. Kaiser-Meyer-Oklin was used to measure of sample adequacy. Purposive and systematic random sampling technique was adopted, and the pilot test of 10% of sample size was used. Test Test for validity was determined through Bartlett’s Sphericity Test and expert input. Reliability was determined through Cronbach’s Coefficient Alpha. Triangulation was adopted in data collection tools. The study adopted descriptive data analysis, use of statistical inferences and hypothesis testing. The Data Analysis was done with the help of STATA Version 13.0. The quantitative data was presented through tables and descriptive statistics analysis, correlation, regression and ANOVA was adopted in the analysis. The study found a practical and statistically significant positive relationship between employee engagement and employee performance at regression coefficient of 0.232, t-value = 2.79 and P-Value 0.006. Interpretation: the magnitude of the coefficient of employee engagement is 0.232; this implies that, ceteris paribus, one unit change in the score of employee engagement leads to 0.232 units change in the score of employee performance. Hence, employee engagement is a key driver in the PSI. The study recommends focus on offering effective and good practices in employee engagement, offering both extrinsic and intrinsic rewards such as provision of total reward, good job designs, work life balance, employee health and wellness programs, integration of IT systems such as employee self support services, and enhanced social protection mechanisms.

  114. Emily Atieno Odhong, Dr. Susan Were and Dr. Fred Jonyo

    In a globally dynamic business environment, continual training is a key driver of sustainable employee performance in the 21st century organizations. A survey of Kenya firms revealed that on average, businesses allocate 3% of their operating budgets to private security services and security upgrade. The main objective of the study is to determine the influence of training on employee performance in the Private Security Industry in Kenya. The study sought to improve employee performance, efficiency, and effectiveness in service delivery. The study adopts descriptive research design and positivism research paradigm; study unit of observation was the Private Security Guards. The target population is 150,000 and the sample size was 213. Kaiser-Meyer-Oklin was used to measure of sample adequacy. Purposive and systematic random sampling technique was adopted. The pilot test of 10% of sample size was used. Test for validity was done through Bartlet’s sphericity test. Reliability was determined through Cronbach’s Coefficient Alpha. Triangulation was adopted in data collection tools. The study adopted descriptive data analysis, use of statistical inferences and hypothesis testing. The Data Analysis was done with the help of STATA Version 13.0. The quantitative data was presented through tables and descriptive statistics analysis, correlation, regression and ANOVA was adopted in the analysis. The study found a practical and statistically significant positive relationship between training and employee performance at regression coefficient of 1.112, t-value = 2.63 and P-Value 0.010. Interpretation: the magnitude of the coefficient of training is 1.112; this implies that, ceteris paribus, a one unit change in the score of training leads to 1.112 units change in the score of employee performance. Hence, training is a key driver in the PSI. The study recommends focus on offering relevant and effective training, identifying approved training centers, have a well developed standard training curriculum and improved terms and condition of employment.

  115. Himawan Putranta and Yusman Wiyatmo

    This research aims were to: (1) produce Curious Note Program worksheet and (2) know science process skills improvement. This was a development research by using 4D models (define, design, develop, and disseminate). The development product was tested in grade XI MAN Yogyakarta 2, 26 students for limited test and 55 students for field test. The research results: (1) worksheet based CNP learning model developed for teaching physics in the chapter Equilibrium and Rotational Dynamics in order to improve science process skills of senior high school students grade XI, from the CVI score of validation result of 0.83 (very good) and the approval rate of 93.90% (reliabel). Almost students agreed to the worksheet with CVI score of 0.33 (very good) for limited test and CVI score of 0.31 (very good) for field test. (2) Science process skill improvement for limited test with presentation 13.84% and standard gain of 0.16 which is included in low category. Science process skill improvement for field test with presentation 14.58% and standard gain of 0.18 which is included in low category.

  116. Janarthanan, P., Vairavan, K., Ladha, J. K., Agnesh Padre, Ravi, V., and Rajendran, R.

    On a global basis, the combined agricultural emissions of Nitrous oxide (N2O), carbon dioxide (CO2), and methane (CH4) account for about 20% of the annual increase in radiative forcing of climate change. Quantification of these gas emissions from soil is difficult because of their large spatial and temporal variability. Field experiments were carried out at Tamil Nadu, South India during 2010-2011 quantifies the green house gas (GHG) emissions from conventional flooded rice – rice and futuristic maize – rice cropping systems with minimum tillage. Futuristic system reduced seasonal methane emission in rabi rice by ten times (66.6 to 6.5 kg CH4 ha-1) as compared to conventional rice-rice system. Significant amounts of N2O emission were also observed during the early stage of the kharif rice under conventional system (9.98 kg N2O ha-1) that might probably due to nitrate accumulation from previous black gram crop. Seasonal N2O emission in maize increased from 2.47 to 8.07 kg N2O ha-1with increasing N levels from 0 to 300 Kg N ha-1. The CO2 emissions measured were only from dark respiration since opaque chambers were used. It was only in the maize plots that significant CO2 emissions were detected. The CO2 emission rates were higher at initial stage of crop growth with maximum rate of 10066 mg m-2 d-1. Overall, the annual Global Warming Potential (GWP) was found to be three times higher in conventional system (6289 CO2 equivalents ha-1 yr-1) as compared to futuristic system (1944 CO2 equivalents ha-1 yr-1). In both systems, GWP was higher in kharif season than in rabi season. Under conventional system, GWP was 4624 CO2 equivalents ha-1 in kharif and 1665 CO2 equivalents ha-1 in rabi whereas under the conventional system it was 1743 CO2 equivalents ha-1 in kharif and 201 CO2 equivalents ha-1 in rabi. System rice equivalent yield increased by around 58% under the futuristic as compared to the conventional system mainly due to better rice yields during rabi rice under the futuristic as compared with the conventional system.

  117. Mohamed A. El Sekily, Sohila H. Mancy, Abdel Moneim A. El-Ghanam and George A. Leon

    The pyrazol-3-yl-1,3,4-thiadiazole and thiadiazolines were prepared from the reaction of 3-formyl-4,5(1H)pyrazolinedione 4-(phenylhydrazone) with thiosemicarbazide followed by oxidation with FeCl3, Br2 in water or treatment with Ac2O; in case of bromine the cyclization was carried out with bromination of the phenyl group in p-position. Similarly, treatment of 3-formyl-1-phenyl-4,5-pyrazolinedione 4-(phenylhydrazone) with thiosemicarbazide. Phenylthiosemicarbazide, or S-benzylhydrazine-carbodithiolate, afforded the corresponding hydrazone derivatives, which were also converted into the thiadiazole and the thiadiazolines. The p-nitrophenylhydrazone , gave 3-(2-p-nitrophenyl-4-acetyl-1,4-oxazol-5-yl)-1-phenyl-4,5-pyrazolinedione 4-(phenylhydrazone) upon acetylation with Ac2O.

  118. Azzam Alarab and Selnur Narin

    Background: Low back pain (LBP) is a major medical, social, and economic problem in both developed and developing countries. It often affects all life domains from fairly basic self-care activities to advance and complex social interactions, work, and leisure activities and eventually has a profound impact on quality of life. The aim of the study was planned to investigate the health-related quality of life with chronic low back pain patients and to examine the effect of clinical and activity levels of patients on the quality of life. Materials and Methods: Our study consisted of 400 patients who had a diagnosis of chronic low back pain in Orthopedics and Traumatology Department of DEU Medical Faculty Hospital. A total of 400 patients (200 male) and (200 female) were included, ranging in age from 18 to 62 years (mean ± SD 27.25 ± 10.68). Demographic data, occupational status, education status, body mass index (BMI). Pain were evaluated in our study. Visual analogue scale (VAS), functional status and quality of life were used in the Nottingham health profile questionnaire (NHP). Also the functional independence measures (FIM) were evaluated. Result: patients and control groups were examined according to demographic characteristics; There was no statistically significant difference between the groups in terms of the sex ratios of the cases and the BMI values (p> 0.05). There was a statistically significant difference between groups in terms of age, occupation and educational status of the cases (p <0.05). The VAS, NHP scores of the patient group were statistically higher than the control group, age and VAS pain scores (p <0.05). The total FIM scores of the patient group were found to be statistically higher than the total FIM scores of the control group (p <0.05). With the VAS values of the cases; There was a statistically significant correlation between NHP scores in the positive direction and total FIM score values in the negative direction (p <0.05). There was a statistically significant correlation between total FIM scores and all other variables in the negative direction (p <0.05). Conclusion: In patients with chronic low back pain, the increase in pain severity resulted in a reduction in functional status and quality of life.

  119. Yesenia Gabriel-Valenzo, Ramón Bedolla-Solano, María Laura Sampedro-Rosas, Benjamín Castillo-Elías, Helinda Gervacio-Jiménez, and Alberto Gordillo-Martínez

    The investigation was implemented at 12 A Unit, institution dependent on the Universidad Pedagogica Nacional (UPN) located in Chilpancingo, Guerrero, Mexico, in February 2016, its objective was to obtain an evaluation of environmental competencies that teachers have and therefore should be apply in the teaching-learning process. In this study, was necessary the students´ participation, because, it contribute to strengthen this evaluation. This was made through a mixed, descriptive and comparative methodology, included, a process to select the sample, teachers and students, also, a Likert scale with variables, environmental issues, curriculum and competence, was applied to identify environmental competencies. Finally, results were described and compared. Teachers overvalue their environmental competencies and the didactic strategies, they implement in their teaching practice, in comparison to the assessment that the students gave them. The results will be argued in the design of an environmental education program to improve the substantive function “University teaching”, this could be established in an institutional environmental plan to the 12 A Unit, Institution dependent on the of Universidad Pedagogica Nacional.

  120. Sanjo Joy, Sarath Krishna K, Shahensha Badshah and Deepa Maria

    In India there are more than 1300 accidents happening each day and more than 400 people are losing their life. In which many people are dying just because they can’t reach the hospitals at time. It is mainly because the emergency vehicles like ambulance get stuck in traffic signals for a long time, which costs life. So to avoid this problem, we have come up with an idea to design an advanced system that controls traffic signals during emergency situations and provide easy passage for emergency vehicles. When an emergency situation comes, the module contained in the emergency vehicles will send an emergency signal to the traffic control unit at a particular distance away from the signal. Upon recieving this emergency signal, the traffic control unit identifyes the distance betwen the vehicle and the traffic signal and also the path in which the emergency vehicle is coming. Then the traffic control unit turns grenn light on the path in which the emergency vehicle is coming and turns red on other paths. So that, by the time the emergency vehicle reaches the signal, the path will be clear and it can pass through the signal easily thereby saving lives. This is the main working procedure of the system.

  121. Dr. Taksande, Shweta Shambharkar, Piyusha Harde, Aarti Kolte and Prachi Dahake

    The new technology has the ability to transmit a voice over Internet protocol process networks by using an Asterisk PBX. In present day, companies implement to produce different VoIP products of many features in market. This paper has an aim to introduce the VoIP and implementation of Wi-Fi based intercom system using ARM11 to based on Asterisk PBX. In this paper, we first introduce theory of VOIP. Next step is using ARM11 on Asterisk PBX .And Final step is the live project, live experimental set up and how to connect SIP voice traffic on Arm11.This paper shows the ability of voice calls to initiate using SIP with better stability and accuracy using Asterisk PBX.

  122. Yahia Hasan Jazyah and Ahmed Khalaf

    E-learning is witnessing a big pace in education field and has a significant role in higher education due to the rapid and huge development in technology. Smart book is one of these developments that has enriched the educational process and has its influence on students’ performance. This research studies the effect of smart e-book on the pass rate of students in an IT course at the Arab Open University branches in six Middle East countries and investigates and deduces the factors that affect the obtained results.

  123. Karishma Jawalkar, Vijaykant Pandey and Poonam Wankhede

    A brief evaluation of heat transfer through helical coil heat exchangers is present in this study. Improvement in heat transfer owed to helical coils has been stated by many scholars. Heat exchanger are significant engineering system with extensive variety of application including HVAC, power plants,heat recovery system, chemical processing, refrigeration and air conditioning system, food industries, nuclear reactors etc. Functioning towards the energy saving and to make short design for mechanical and chemical plans and plants, heat transfer plays a very important role in design of heat exchangers. We can improve the heat transfer rate by modifying the design by providing the helical tubes in place of straight tubes, and by using nano-fluids.Laterauthenticating the procedure of CFD analysis of a heat exchanger, the effect of seeing the actual fluidproperties in its place of a constant value is established. Heat transfer characteristics inside a helical coil for various types ofnano-fluids, they are. Zinc Oxide (ZnO), Silicon dioxide (SiO2) and Magnesium Oxide (MgO) using oil as a base fluid are compared.

  124. Ratna Priya, S. and Swathi, N.

    The term high-strength concrete (HSC) is generally used for concrete with compressive strength higher than 41MPa. ACI Committee had defined High Strength Concrete (HSC) is the concrete that can attain specified compressive strength for design of at least 41MPa, or more. With the development of high grade cement and availability of proper mineral admixtures and chemical admixtures, it has become quite common to adopt concrete with compressive strength of 60MPa and above. Development of high strength concrete has made it possible to build taller and long span structures. But it has been proved that the comparatively higher compressive strength of High Strength Concrete is an attractive profit from engineering characteristics and economic point of view whereas, the strength behaves against the ductility of concrete by welcoming brittleness pronouncedly. To improve the ductility of High Strength Concrete, a strategy is to introduce steel in High Strength Concrete which results in development of a material with reasonable tensile strength and greater toughness which prevents the initiation and propagation of cracks. Plain concrete and High Strength Concrete possess a very low tensile strength, limited ductility and little resistance to cracking. Internal micro cracks are present in the concrete and its poor tensile strength is due to the propagation of such micro cracks. In plain concrete, structural cracks (micro-cracks) develop even before loading, due to drying shrinkage or other causes of volume change. The width of these initial cracks is few microns, but their other dimensions may be of higher magnitude. When loaded, the micro cracks propagate and open up, and additional cracks form in places of minor defects. The development of such micro cracks is the main cause of inelastic deformations in concrete. The addition of small closely spaced and uniformly dispersed fibers to concrete would act as crack arrester and would substantially improve its static and dynamic properties. This type of concrete is known as Fiber Reinforced Concrete.

  125. Shabrina and Heru Kuswanto

    Phonological awareness is the sensitivity to the Spreadsheet might be implemented in the mathematical algorithm, model, visual, and application effectively. In the implementation, spreadsheet is easy to study. The advantage of spreadsheet is that spreadsheet can serve as a number-processing program and a dynamic graphical display. In relation to these features, through this article the researcher would like discuss the use of the spreadsheet on the quantization of particle energy in one-dimensional box within the learning process of quantum physic. Spreadsheet might be implemented in the learning activities of quantum physics for eliciting understanding and assisting the students in their concept visualization.

  126. Ali Abdalla El-Husseini and Abeer Taha

    Providing feedback in language learning is an essential step in the learning process, but the question has always been what type of feedback and when and how to provide it. Some support the idea of providing direct corrective feedback, while others support the idea of indirect corrective feedback. This study investigated two Grade 7 EFL classes with one operating as the control group and the other as the treatment group; the former received direct correction where the teacher provided the model, and the latter received indirect correction where the teacher indicated the occurrence and location of the error. Then the teacher gave the treatment group their papers back to rewrite them at home and bring them back to get the final grade. Both groups were given pre and post-tests to check their achievement. The purpose of the study was to check whether indirect feedback and "rewrite" as a way of feedback is a better way for language learning than traditional corrective feedback. The results showed that indirect correction contributed more to language learning. Finally, the researcher interviewed the teacher and asked about her experience with the two classes after the implementation of the experiment. She reported that students in the treatment group not only improved their writing, but they became more motivated as a result of the "rewrite".

  127. Malek J. Zuraikat and Naim Ezghoul

    This paper argues that instead of the idealistic and romantic approaches towards the nation, O'Connor adopted a very realistic one through which Ireland is viewed as a Free State with problems that need to be addressed in a more realistic manner. Obviously, O'Connor's engagement with the Irish society is comprehensive as it includes all aspects of society, such as family relationship, the relationship between father and son, and the changes that have taken place under the effect of this encroaching materialistic culture. Thus, this paper focuses on O'Connor's engagement with the Irish family and the social transformations confronting Irish people after Ireland has become a Free State.

  128. Priyadharshini Ganesan

    Translation is an art of transcreating the source text and making it readable for the target language audience. In other words, it is a process of decoding the source language text and encoding it in the target language. The main objective of this paper is to discuss the problems faced by the translator while translating poetry. The essence of poetry lies behind the experience of the poet. Similarly, the translation and the translator may not have the same experience, which has been undergone by the original author. Yet, there may be loss of emotions that the translator must be well-read and should have the mastery over the languages. The problems faced by the translator will be discussed in detail in this paper with regard to the theoretical approach.

  129. Sunmathy Kanakamani, Saraswathi Uthamaramasamy and Malathi Mangalanathan

    Background: Flowers of Mirabilis jalapa were used as traditional medicine in Asia, Europe, America and Africa as purgative, diuretic and wound healing. Abelmoschus esculentus (Leaves) were used to treat abdominal pain, diarrhoea, genitourinary and respiratory problems. Objectives: The present study was to evaluate the anti-inflammatory potential of 50% hydro ethanol extracts of Mirabilis jalapa flowers and leaves of Abelmoschus esculentus through various in vitro assays. Methods: The anti-inflammatory activity was demonstrated by inhibiting the heat induced albumin denaturation, membrane stabilization and protein denaturation activity. Results: The results of the study revealed that Mirabilis jalapa flower extract exhibited increased anti-inflammatory activity at the concentration of 0.1g/ml than the leaves of Abelmoschus esculentus which is comparable to that of the standard Aspirin. Conclusions: From the results, it is concluded that Mirabilis jalapa flowers were a source of high-value health promoting commodity which can be administered for its anti-inflammatory activity.

  130. Dr. Ranjita Behera

    The controversy surrounding the POSCO project has clearly emerged as a struggle around material issues of livelihood and the economic future of local communities in coastal Jagatsinghpur and the Khandadhar hills of Keonjhar and Sundergerh. The local community in the three gram panchayats of Dhinkia, Nuagaon and Gada Kujanga clearly see the agrarian economy, based primarily around betel vine, as one that assures them a future. However, the Government of Orissa claims that the POSCO project, among others, is a crucial part of the economic advancement of the State. Large industrial projects such as POSCO are often seen as valuable to a local economy because of the employment they generate. Both sides – those opposed to the POSCO project and those promoting it argue their positions based on claims centered around the local economy. Therefore, there is an inherent comparison that is already in place. When those promoting the project argue for it, the underlying message is always that this will benefit the local community and its economy, and therefore the fears that are being expressed are faulty. On the other hand, those opposing the project express the fear that the new economy that will be imposed on them is bound to make their lives worse.

  131. Meera Babu

    The paper intends to explore the theme of self discovery and identity in Shashi Deshpande’s The Dark Holds No Terrors. For a woman, the need for self fulfillment, autonomy, self realization, independence and individual actualization are important and this quest triggered off by some crisis in their lives make them strive heroically to overcome their cultural conditioning and barriers created by society in matter of tradition and manners. The study also attempts an enquiry into the Indian womanhood that has got estranged from self and others due to reasons varying from personality traits to societal expectations and their changed consciousness as presented in The Dark Holds No Terrors.

  132. Ronald Laura

    Whatever else education is deemed to be, it is incontestable that it at least involves the transmission of knowledge. Considerable time and effort is thus devoted to this task in our schools. Teachers are trained to be sufficiently equipped with skills in a specialized subject area, thereby passing on to their students the knowledge they have acquired. Educational leaders have done much to ensure that knowledge is transmitted effectively in schools, and this task minimally requires that those who teach are proficient in the art and science of teaching. Notwithstanding this pedagogic orientation, we shall argue that it is logically ironic, if not paradoxical, that leadership in education has focused so much on the transmission of knowledge that we are left with little, if any, understanding of what knowledge itself is. We thus know much about the art and science of teaching, but we remain philosophically naive on the critical question of what it really means ‘to know’. The reason we believe this is such an important question for educational leaders, and indeed for us all, is that whatever account is given of knowledge, it is clear upon reflection that knowledge is not value-free. In what follows we shall argue that the dominant forms of knowledge and the modality of technology which are essentially reconfigured applications of it, are perniciously value laden. To put it euphemistically, the ideological pills we sometimes unwittingly swallow with the pedagogic elixirs we imbibe end up being far more intoxicating than we ever expected. Without understanding the values covertly imparted with the knowledge we transmit in our schools, the way in which we inform, shape and condition the moral and socio-cultural consequences of our propaedeutic proficiencies will remain unknown to us. This being so, we will have no philosophical sense of whether the knowledge we transmit does a service or disservice to the deeper goals and purpose of education. Once the philosophical rationale which provides the purpose for teaching is lost, so is the purpose of learning. Without grounding education in a philosophical framework of purposive principles, education becomes exploited by vested interests as the primary tool by way of which society unreflectively reproduces itself. Education, that is to say, is co-operatised and managerially regulated as an ideology of consumerism within which all relationships are ultimately commodified for utilitarian, not humanitarian purposes. In the final analysis we remain in ignorance of whether what is taught in our schools is genuinely worth knowing. In turn we lose sight of the truth that what we teach is a form of knowledge which, by its very nature, is fundamentally depersonalising, disconnecting, self-fragmenting and alienating, and perhaps not worth teaching at all. When this happens, the next query is whether schools of this kind are worth having at all.

  133. Salako, Raheem Olalekan, Mohd Shahril Ahmad Razimi and Al-Hasan Al-Aidaros

    Several studies have identified spirituality to impact the performance of Muslim managers. However, there are still pocket of complaints about nonconformity of managers to the principles of Islamic spirituality. The current study made efforts to provide novel ideas that have basis in the Qur’an and the Sunnah of Prophet Muhammad (SAW) to gain insights into experiential understanding of managers about Islamic spiritual culture (ISC), and it subsequently developed a substantive theory for moral modifications. This study used qualitative multi-approach. Understanding of 16 managers about ISC was sought through hermeneutic phenomenological approach, while grounded theory approach was applied for the analysis. The result of this study indicates that managers have common interest for standard service delivery through ISC. A substantive theory was developed from accounts of their experiences; through analytic procedures captured in this paper. Yet, a formal theory has not been developed for usage of the theory across various contexts.

  134. Ong’ayo, A. H., Onyango, C.A. and Ochola W.O.

    The intent of this study was to assess the shortcomings of implementation of National Agricultural Extension Policy (NAEP) reforms on agricultural food production and poverty status among small-scale farmers in Siaya and Kilifi Districts. Ex-post facto survey design was used and three semi structured questionnaires and one focus group discussion guide were used to collect data from policy makers as key informants, administrators in extension service provision and extension workers. Findings indicated that effective implementation of NAEP was hampered by failure to legalise NAEP as a government policy document prior to implementation, the process used for capacity building the extension workers was ineffective due lack of planning by planners and this resulted in inadequate funds, the restructuring of the Ministry of Agriculture, staff movement during implementation process which destabilised the process of implementation, and absence of organizational support for NAEP implementation. The paper recommends development of policies that will ensure the Ministry of Agriculture prepare a policy that will encourage training of specialists in policy making process and induction of new officers and continuous training for serving officers to be familiar with policies that are introduced into the system. Employment of planners and training and collaboration activities intended for the purpose of ensuring effective implementation of policies should be planned for in the budget and effectively implemented. This will avoid the mistakes that are made during policy making and have adverse effect during implementation process and use of trickledown of information that delays or hampers implementation of policies.

  135. Cempaka Putrie Dimala, Agustina Ekasari and Endah Swarni

    This study aims to determine the impact of father absenteeism that occurred in early adult female adoptive children. This research is a qualitative research with case study approach. The object of this study is a family that has adopted children without any marital relationship of husband and wife, cared for by a 50-year-old woman who became the mother for early adult female adoptive children. Methods of data collection in this study using observation, interview and documentation study. In testing the validity and reliability of research using triangulation. The result of this study is the discovery of a negative impact on the development of early adolescent girls who do not feel the care of the father. Impacts that often occur in foster children who do not get the parenting of the father like, high aggressive level, have a high sense of shame, jealousy, not confident, often feel lonely, tend to choose activities in the house and choose friends with men compared to women. For her, making friends with men provides a sense of security and comfort. In this study also found that the high motivation to be a child who excel and boast her mother in the future. This positive impact occurs when the child feels that only she can help her mother when her mother is old. Low economic factors make the child aware that she should get a good job to improve the family economy.

  136. Dr. Sushma N Jogan

    Two years B.Ed course has brought drastic changes in the field of teacher education. One among that is school exposure for 2 weeks in the semester 1 and 2. School exposure programme is a pre-requisite for a trainee teacher. It is rightly regarded as the most crucial part of any teacher education programme. It provides a platform for trainee teachers to the real classroom situation. It involves an actual practice in engaging and exposing themselves in planning, preparing instructional materials for regular subject teachers. Trainee teachers’ have undergone two weeks school exposure programme in different types of schools (state, CBSE, ICSE and government). The present study aimed to evaluate the effectiveness and usefulness of school exposure programme. The researcher has collected data from 50 trainee teachers through simple random sampling. Objectives of the study were (i) to identify the role and management of the department (ii) to find out the problems and challenges emerged during school exposure programme (iii) to impart certain skills of teaching during the programme (iv) to suggest measures for the better improvement of the programme. The research questions were also framed followed by objectives. The investigator analyzed the obtained data by suitable statistical test and interpreted the same. The results of the study showed that this kind of programme is of crucial importance and has positive and remarkable impact on the trainee teachers for the further knowledge.

  137. Dr. GYASI, Evans Akwasi and CHUNG, Kristen Ka Yee

    Operations and project cost overrun is one of the many challenges faced by businesses in this current global market. The effects of cost overrun are numerous ranging from loss of profit, threat to business competitiveness and survival and many others. Therefore, the need a strategy that incorporates cost control cannot be over emphasized. This article discusses the different cost control techniques that can be employed when drawing a business strategy. Expert judgements from professionals in the oil and gas industry was gathered using a semi structured interview technique for the purposes of analysis for this structure. The findings revealed that one cost control method cannot be used to manage project cost overrun and hence integration of several cost control techniques relevant to a business is the way forward.

  138. Rosenda B. Borres and Daisy P. Ruiz

    This study aimed to find out the taxonomy of social acceptability indicators for K to 12 Program. The descriptive survey design utilizing a questionnaire-checklist was used in the study. The respondents of the study were teachers and parents of selected Public Elementary Schools in the three districts of Zamboanga del Norte during the School Year 2015 – 2016. There were 240 teacher-respondents and 240 parent-respondents employed in the study. Out of 240 respondents, 80 were taken in every district. The statistical tools used in the study were the frequency and percentage count. The study revealed that the teachers and parents have different views regarding the taxonomy of social acceptability indicators of K to 12 Program with respect to pupil development, teachers’ preparedness, curriculum relevance and material resources. This implies that they have different priorities and level of acceptance of the program. The most encountered problems in the implementation of K to 12 Program were in sufficient facilities and equipment and lack of awareness among parents. It is recommended that additional classrooms should be built for accommodation of incoming bulk of students. Parents should be well-informed on the implementation for K to 12 Curriculum to make them aware of the quality of education being given to their children. Adequate physical facilities should be provided in the implementation of K to 12 Curriculum for better teaching-learning process.

  139. Dr. Chelliah, S.

    This paper focuses on the secluded life of women, their helpless condition and their transformation on the basis of feminist perspectives. Attia Hosain’s, Sunlight on a Broken column, blends the individual destiny of its female protagonist with the destiny of her nation. This article also projects Attia Hosain as a spontaneous woman writer with her excellent artistic skill in her critical and creative endeavours.

  140. Shashi K. Sharma and Preet Pratima

    Frost is one of the most serious threats to the subtropical horticulture in the Western plains and lower Himalayan region. Modulations in leaf water and lipid content and their linkage to low temperature acclimation process have been worked out in twenty five subtropical fruit plant species through relative electrolyte leakage (REL) studies. Acclimation values of different species were calculated on the basis of REL (%) observed under open field and polyhouse grown plants. Mechanism of frost stress tolerance in different species has also been highlighted through these studies. The species studied have been found fall under six distinct categories as far as modulation in leaf water, lipid and acclimation level acquired (adjudged through the decrease in relative electrolyte leakage upon freezing exposure) was concerned. In many of the species studied this mechanism has been explained but some of the species still need further investigations for verification of the processes associated with the acquisition tolerance to the low temperature stress in these plants.

  141. Sandra Lucia Aguirre Franco and Yanier Alberto Hernández Trujillo

    In the following article a consideration is made around the administrative and organizational conditions that companies must have, regardless their corporate purpose is, whether public, private, large, medium or small-sized (among other characteristics), but that are addressed to remain and endure in time. Those administrative and organizational processes of the companies are acknowledged as fields of interest. From the beginnings of humankind, the administration has been consolidating as the energizing element of the company, therefore it is known that its object of studyis the organization, and from this perspective the administration and the organization can be considered asa system, in which internal and external factors proper of the business activity interrelate. The bibliographic review that was carried out allowed to understand the different concepts that have been collected around the administration and the organization, not as independent scenarios, but as those that feedback and counterpart each other regarding the objectives that are to be achieved. One of the factors that influence the companies’ development the most is the financial factor. Hence, correspondingly to its good management, companies will be able to face new business challenges, through innovation investment not only in the physical processes, but also in human development. Therefore, the identification, definition and implementation of financial indicators allow entrepreneurs to make short-, medium- and long-term decisions, as well as to define their sales and production policies at prearranged times.

  142. Dr. Jacob Otu Enyia and Thelma Aya Abang

    Consumer’s rights are inalienable rights that must be protected by the consumers, business organizations and the government. Public policies emanate from the government of a state and are geared towards regulating business relationships among the citizenry or distributing social amenities to individuals and communities. The CPC was established by the CPC Act,1992 and charged with the responsibility to promote, protect, and safeguard the rights and interest of consumers with respect to the consumption of goods and services. Consumer protection in Nigeria had remained at the lowest ebb in spite of the prevalence of administrative and regulatory framework. This work observes that although the CPC Act recognized the right of consumers, it does not specifically provide how these rights should be enforced, as they were merely implied and subsumed into the function of the CPC. Consumer awareness of these protective laws is low, which is evidenced in the near absence of litigation against sellers even in cases of obvious infringement. Ordinarily, the CPC should be proactive in safeguarding the rights and welfare of consumers in Nigeria. This work is an expository examination of the CPC Act in Nigeria and appraises the role of CPC in the protection of Consumers in Nigeria. The paper also discusses the major problems encountered by consumers in production process, the causes of disparity in power relation between the producers and consumers, the role of regulatory and administrative bodies in solving these problems, the effectiveness, redress and enforcement mechanisms and the control of monopoly. The ultimate goal is to determine the reasonableness or otherwise of tinkering with the CPC Act, 1992 for better Consumer Protection in Nigeria.

  143. Dr. Dorcas Kanana Muketha

    Many studies have been conducted on the dichotomy between Christian and African religion (s), to understand why African Christians turn to traditional practices when they encounter everyday life crises like prolonged sickness, pre-mature death, and quarrels amongst couples and also luck of child to point a few. One cannot understand the reason for consulting traditional healers without focusing on how this is negotiated and perceived by the actors themselves. The empirical materials from the study done in 2010 are applied to bring about the idea of understanding spiritualities among the women in the Pentecostal church and Methodist Church in Kenya (MCK). Some priests and traditional healers were interviewed too and their views are employed to unearth the situation. Due to confidentiality and anonymity purposes, names given to informants are not their actual names. It is understood that lack of missionary understanding of the role of African traditional religion to the natives resulted in a split between African traditional spiritual practices and African Christian spiritual practices. This has also brought about the question of syncretism and how Africans theologians can try to contextualize their practices, though African theologians have tried to reinstate the conflicting issues of syncretism by seeking better integration between African traditional practices and African Christian practices. Good elements in African traditional religion need to be accommodated into African Christian practices to promote proper contextualization

  144. José Angel Vences–Martínez, María Laura Sampedro–Rosas, Elizabeth Olmos–Martínez, Víctor Rosas–Guerrero, Benjamín Castillo Elías and Ana Laura Juárez López

    The ecosystem services provided by coastal zones have been severely affected by anthropogenic activities. The purpose of this study was to determine both the perception of residents of a coastal town on their environmental issues; as well as the empirical knowledge that they have developed over the years, with which environmental education strategies can be established for the sustainable use of their natural resources. The study was carried out in three localities settled around the Nuxco lagoon, Guerrero, Mexico, applying surveys to settlers and interviews with key informants. The results show that the inhabitants perceive strong anthropogenic pressures both in their locality and in the water body, which is an essential part of their economic activities and sustenance for their families. The perception and the environmental knowledge manifested must be considered in environmental education programs and in the design of strategies for the mitigation and prevention of anthropogenic impacts in the community.

  145. Umamaheswari, S. and Dr. Mythili, B.

    The innovative practices always persuade concerned people whereas ideas and innovation become the hall mark of progress. Stock market is also not exempted from this; since financial derivatives have given drastic change in the growth of Indian stock market. The product of derivatives existence in Indian stock market is for minimizing price risk. The derivative Product in Indian Stock market has become multi trillion dollars over the years

  146. Ada Metaliu

    This paper is intended to provide an overview of the importance of adaptation to climate change and to present the adaptive capacities of Albania smallholders. Extreme weather events for example floods in winter and droughts in summer are occurring more frequently and inducing big losses in rural areas of Albania. Climate change poses the risk of much greater impacts in Albanian farms due to its demonstrated conditions and low level of adaptive capacities. Overall the questionnaires resulted that smallholders in Albania besides; poor irrigation system; insufficient use of water resources; high production cost, are now suffering from an increase of extreme weather events throughout the year. From the interviews of 185 smallhoders in the Shkodra region and discussion with15 experts, we concluded that smallholders had faced many challenges as result of changes of climate patterns and showed low level of adapting capacities. As a consequence, according to questionnaires and experts, minimal adaptation measures were taken by both farmers and government hence more governmental intervention was needed.

  147. Anulawathie Menike, H.R.

    There is a reciprocal relationship between population growth and economic development. Although many socio-economic indicators affected to change the population growth rate, the health and education indicators have observed that there is a significant development of the people. Therefore, this study has paid special attention to the said variables. When examining the indicators presently in respect of the nutritional level, education, health condition, housing and sanitation facilities in Sri Lanka, could be well observed that these welfare activities have affected positively on the population. Maternal mortality rate, infant mortality rate, life expectancy at birth, literacy rate, school enrollment rate etc. have all shown steady and commendable improvement in the last five decades. This study reveals that the crude death rate and literacy rate have significant and negative impact on population growth rate. I.e. health and education have been strongly affected on demographic transition. Also, the study shows that the impact of health on demographic transition has been higher than the impact of education. As a result of country’s socio-economic progress, Sri Lanka has been entered the third stage of demographic transition and reaching the final stage of it. This situation has specially caused to change the age structure of the population in Sri Lanka and the former population pyramid with a wide base has been gradually changing.

  148. Layang Ugek and Jamaluddin Badusah

    Teaching Malay Language Literacy Program is part of the Literacy and Numeracy Screening (LINUS) Program to be carried out to the pupils of level 1 in primary school. These skills are very important and needs to be mastered by all pupils of level 1 pupils before they can proceed to level 2. The failure of pupils to master these skills will certainly affect their proficiency in other subjects. This study aims to determine strategies implemented in teaching of Malay language literacy of level 2 in schools situated in Sarawak. The key point that has been focused in this study is the implementation of teacher's teaching in terms of strategy that is in line with the expectations to improve the academic performance of Sarawak's inland schools. This study is a case study using a qualitative approach with purposive sampling techniques. A total of three teachers who taught Malay language level 2 were selected as interviewed respondents and supported by observation and documented data analysis. Data were analyzed using ATLAS. tiversion 7.5.18 software. The findings of the study found that structured teaching was very effective in teaching Malay language literacy for Penan school. The implications of this study indicates that Malay language level 2 teachers need to plan their teaching in accordance with school climate. The Ministry of Malaysian Education should be concerned about infrastructure facilities in Sarawak's interior schools to keep up with the schools in the city. With the complete facilities in the interior schools can certainly provide the comfort of teachers and help to improve the academic performance of the students as a whole.

  149. Elizabeth Gloria Anindo Wanyama and Enose M.W. Simatwa

    Studies worldwide have revealed that School Administrators are key contributors to students’ academic performance by enhancing teacher motivation. In Emuhaya and Vihiga Sub Counties performance had been below mean grade of C+. From the years 2009 to 2013, Emuhaya and Vihiga Sub Counties’ candidates who scored C+ and above were 3535(26%) and 2104 (15%) respectively lower, compared to neighbouring Hamisi and Sabatia Sub-Counties’ with 3913(28%) and 4275(31%) candidates respectively. The contribution of School Administrators to teacher motivation was not known. The objective of this study was to determine the contribution of Administrators to teacher motivation in the enhancement of students’ academic performance. The study was guided by a Conceptual Framework in which the independent variables were Administrators’ contribution to teacher motivation and the dependent variable; Students’ Academic Performance. The study found that Administrators’ contribution to Teacher Motivation was positive and significant (Adjusted R2= 0.623). This means that it enhanced students’ academic performance by 62.3%.The study concluded that school Administrators’ contribution to teacher motivation was significant and enhanced students’ academic performance. The study recommended that school Administrators should increase their contribution to teacher motivation in order to enhance further students’ academic performance. The study findings are of significance to School Administrators, policy makers, and other stakeholders in education with regard to enhancement of students’ academic performance by motivating teachers

  150. Aksu E., Colak T., Guzelordu D., Yener M.D., Colak S., Bamac B., Colak E., Son M. and Talu B.

    Although lower extremity is used as primer in football, upper extremities are very important for stability, speed and accelaration. The anthropometric properties of the athletes are one of necessary prerequisites for success that affect the performance. The hand grip strength is accepted as an objective measure for evaluation of upper extremity performance. The aim of our study is to investigate the effects of upper extremity’s anthropometric properties, age, height and weight of football players on hand grip strength. 25 male football players participated in this study who are training at least 8 hours a week and have been playing football for at least 5 years. Football players’ age, height, weight, anthropometric measurements (length of the upper extremity, circumference of the arm and forearm) and hand grip strength were measured. Measurements were performed for both dominant and non-dominant extremities. As a result, a significant correlation between length of the right upper extremity and the right hand grip strength was found (p<0,05). There was no significant correlation between age, height, weight and hand grip strength of football players (p>0,05). There was no significant difference between grip strengths of dominant and non-dominant extremities (p>0,05). When the obtained data were evaluated, it was thought that the relationship between length of the right upper extremity and the right hand grip strength of football players exists due to being dominant side. It was concluded that anthropometric measurements may have an effect on muscle strength but does not provide sufficient information about muscle strength and therefore muscle strength should be evaluated separately.

  151. Elizabeth Gloria Anindo Wanyama, Enose M W Simatwa and Tony O. Okwach

    School administrators are mandated to enhance students’ academic performance by use of instructional supervision, teacher motivation, teaching learning resources and physical facilities. In Emuhaya and Vihiga Sub Counties performance had been below mean grade C+. From the years 2009 to 2013, Emuhaya and Vihiga Sub Counties’ candidates who scored C+ and above were 3535 (26%) and 2104 (15%) respectively lower, compared to neighbouring Hamisi and Sabatia Sub-Counties’ with 3913 (28%) and 4275 (31%) candidates respectively. The contribution of School Administrators to teaching learning resources in enhancement of students academic performance was unknown. The objective of this study was to determine the contribution of Administrators to teaching learning resources in enhancement of students’ academic performance. The study was guided by a Conceptual Framework in which the independent variables were Administrators’ contribution to teaching learning resources and the dependent variable, Students’ Academic Performance. The study found that Administrators’ contribution to teaching Learning Resources was moderate, positive and significant (Adjusted R2 = 0.343) and thus enhanced students’ academic performance by 34.3%. The study concluded that school Administrators’ contribution to Teaching Learning Resources was significant and enhanced students’ academic performance. The study recommended that school administrators should increase their contribution to Teaching -Learning Resources in order to enhance further students’ academic performance.

  152. Sundeep Chettri, Dr. Sudha Kumari Jha, Dr. Savita Chettri and Dr. Dahal, D. R.

    Climate Change has been considered as the prominent global effect in the present scenario, impacting all spheres of the planet. Global warming has been considered as an global concern. Even in Sikkim too, its impact are occuring in reality. This paper tries to study on the perception of residents of Samdur, Gangtok ward 16, East Sikkim about their awareness on climate change and its impact on human health. Through the survey, it was found that about 90% people were aware of the ongoing climate change and believed that climate change was duely to be the change in weather, furthermore they were also acknowledged with the impacts of climate change on human health and their trending disease pattern and mainly opted cold, fever, malaria to be rising. Respondents observe unmanaged waste, smoke from automobiles; factories and burning of household and commercial waste are contributing to degradation of environment as well as responsible for escalating climate change. Various suggestions and measures were also given and multiple examples were narated about historical climate and disease pattern and believed using of renewable energy, maximising afforestation, managing waste and sensitizing about climate change and its impact on human health would help in awaring people.

  153. Dr. Fatma Ince

    This paper focuses on teachers’ perception of organizational trust, organizational toxicity and performance. Three research questions and hypotheses are formulated for the study. The sample comprised one-hundred fifty-six teachers. A structured questionnaire is used to collect data. Mean, t-test, correlation, and regression analyses are used to answer the research questions and test the hypotheses formulated. The study reveals that the organizational trust affects the organizational toxicity negatively, while it affects the performance positively. Moreover, there are not any significant differences between groups according to the t-test results. The results of the study draw attention the importance of building employee trust to increase performance and reduce adverse outcomes.

  154. Abu Tahir

    Rupture of diaphragmatic hernia is a Current literature on education for sustainable development records a number of skills for education for sustainable development in a variety of branches of learning with the exclusion of teacher education. This paper highlights the requirement for discussions on this topic by exploring the skills for education for sustainable development in teacher training, thus providing educators with a structure of reference and reflection for planning, implementing and reflecting on education for sustainable development actions and stimulating reflection or discussion on skills in education for sustainable development activities. Therefore, this article aims at addressing the issue based on the skills that education for sustainable development teachers need, both in the formal and informal area of education.

  155. Christian C. Nwakanma, Emmanuel Chigozie Dike, Kelechukwu Dimkpa and Andrew A. Obafemi

    Soil erosion by water is one of the most important global land degradation problems mainly because of its negative onsite landscape effects such as loss of soil quality and offsite effects such as sedimentation of rivers, lakes and estuaries. This study tends to investigate and monitor the spatial extent of gullies in Agulu – Nanka of Anoacha and Orumba North LGA using Geo-Information Technology. In order to determine the land use and cover change of the gully erosion area, a 27 years change detection analysis was performed through the use of Landsat 4 TM of 1986, Landsat 7 ETM+ of 2000, and Landsat 7 ETM+ of 2013. A supervised classification of the MLC algorithm was performed through the aid of ERDAS 9.3 and the analysis was classified into 5 classes. The result indicates severe variation in all the three eroded/bare soil in the area throughout the study period. However, Eroded/Bare area land cover witnessed a decrease from 5.2% in 1986 to 2.87% in 2000 and increase from 2.87% in 2000 to 3.9% in 2013. This result indicates that man’s awareness to preserve the environment by applying mitigation and preventive measures especially in the areas prone to erosion might be encouraging.

  156. Sharqua Noori Ansari

    Objectives to establish socio-economic status of the population/household of katihar district, Bihar. The socio economic status (SES) is an important determinant of health, nutritional status, mortality and morbidity of an individual. SES also influences the accessibility, affordability, acceptability and actual utilization of available health facilities. Paper finding depend upon primary data collection demographic features of household survey & age-wise distribution of male & female population of katihar district.

  157. Pavneet Kaur and Harsharan Kaur Gill

    The present study was undertaken to study the existing financial and educational goal setting pattern, assess the effect of socio-personal factors of the homemakers on the financial and educational goal setting pattern and explore the constraints in goal setting and attainment of farm families. Results revealed that overall goal setting pattern of farm families was quite erroneous (overall SMART percent score of 15.90) with financial goal setting per cent score of 14.20 and educational 17.6. It was further revealed that long term goal setting pattern of farm families was comparatively better (14.31 per cent) than mid-term (9.79 per cent) and short term (9.31 per cent) goal setting pattern as respondents were found to be wishful in the guise of long term goals and quite poor in organising efforts in the form of mid and short term goals directed towards long term goals. A positive but non significant relationship between the age (0.08), education (0.03), family type (0.17), family size (0.01) and family income (0.07) of the respondents and their goal setting pattern was found. Major constraint faced by the respondents while setting the goals was lack of training to set goals (90.33 per cent) and while achieving the goals was uncooperative family members and lack of money (86.00 per cent).

  158. Dr. Amisha Gupta

    Cipla Pharmaceuticals is the global company. The case study discusses the path of internationalization of the company over ages.

  159. Dr. Manju Gehlawat and Dr. Sanjay Kumar

    Women’s entrepreneurship has been recognized during the last decade as an important untapped source of economic growth. The women entrepreneurs create new jobs for themselves and others and by being different also provide society with different solutions to management, organization and business problems as well as to the exploitation of entrepreneurial opportunities. Women have broken the barriers of society and have demonstrated great results in entrepreneurship. They need to be motivated to recognize and respect their own potential. Besides, an increasing awareness of the various schemes for women entrepreneurs has to be created so that more and more women benefit from the schemes available. There are also several schemes of the government at central and state level namely Stree Shakthi Package, Annapurna Loan Scheme Dena Shakti Loan Scheme Udyogini Loan Scheme, Akshaya Mahila Arthik Sahay Yojna etc, which provide assistance for setting up training-cum-income generating activities for needy women to make them economically independent. The paper aims to present an overview and to create awareness of the recent schemes initiated by the government to encourage women entrepreneurship in Indian context.

  160. Dr. Neha Sharma and Monika Dhaka

    India is the second largest producer of vegetables (Next to China) in the world with a production of 40 million tonnes from four million hectares of land area. This high level of production can supply only 120gms of vegetables per capita per day as against the recommended dietary allowance of 200gms vegetables per capita per day. The study of vegetable marketing in terms of marketing channels, price spread in Jaipur district of Rajasthan indicates that farmers mostly adopt channel 2 in marketing of their surplus produce having mashakhores as one of the intermediaries. Farmers transport their surplus to Jaipur mandi through road by hiring private truck which ply regularly on this route.

  161. Lija P.G.

    This paper present the use of information resources by students in Sacret Heart College, Chalakudy. Relevant literature of the information resources and its use in various categories of users has been reviewed. The study examined the types of information resources used by the research scholars, the frequency of use, the purpose of use of information resources and problems faced by the students while accessing the same. Updates, easy accessibility, and reference and latest books collection on various subjects are to be increased the major factors which attract most of the users towards resources.

  162. Singh, S.P., Paikra, K.K. and Chanchala Rani Patel

    Cluster Frontline Demonstration were conducted to study the evaluating the performance of improved cultivar, seed treatment, sulphur application, diseases, insect and pest management on production as well as productivity and profitability of mustard. Cluster frontline demonstration (CFLD’s) were conducted during 2015-16, 2016-17 and 2017-18 with evaluation the performance of Chhattisgarh Sarson-1, variety of mustard in Raigarh, Pussore and Kharsia blocks of the district and record the feedback information of farmer’s. The results revealed that average yield of mustard under cluster frontline Demonstrations were 11.30, 10.65 and 10.40 qha-1 as compare to 8.25, 7.90 and 7.85 qha-1 recorded in farmer’s practice, average yield increase of 36.99, 34.81 and 32.48 per cent, and additional return of 10440.00, 9525.00 and 8735.00 Rsha-1, respectively. Therefore, the results clearly indicates that the use of improved varieties and package and practices with scientific intervention under cluster frontline demonstration programme contribute to increase the productivity and profitability of oilseeds in Chhattisgarh state.

  163. Kanchan Shilla, Pushpinder Sandhu and Sharanbir Kaur Bal

    The present study was carried out to assess the work-worker-workplace interface using survey method on 120 women worker in selected hosiery units of Ludhiana City. Data pertaining to physical characteristics of workers, anthropometric measurements, ergonomic assessment of work and workplace was collected by using duly pretested and finalized interview schedule. It was observed that most ignored environmental aspect was: no air circulation, less light and climate too hot in summer and cold in winter. Affective, temporal, cognitive and physical are major four components of work which have been appropriately studied. As far as the physical component is concerned it has to be seen how much strain and fatigue the ‘work’ produces in workers’ body; particularly strain on eyes and finer muscles of neck and fingers when they perform finer tasks. Since the work assigned to workers in hosiery units was to meet specified dead line, was fine in nature and required lot of visual effort, mostly respondents complained of strain on eyes (mean score 3.09) and time pressures (mean score 2.10).

  164. Moses Mokua and Dominic Omboto

    The objective of the study was to determine the effect of public procurement practices on procurement performance of CDF projects in Kwale County government in Kenya. Procurement professionals have always walked on a tight rope in order to implement objectives and goals. Their ability to accomplish these procurement objectives and policies indicate that procurement officials are influenced by political, legal- internal and external factors. The tendering process can be a minefield of potential litigation without proper procedures and regulations, where contractors complain of the lack of a fair and consisted approach to tendering and accusation of favoritism and corruption. Public procurement is a major development mechanism, the potential which has not been fully designed in pursuit of value for money and efficiency in the use of public funds. The purpose is to support the attainment of high economic growth and ensure delivery of service. The reform strategy for economic development was not achieved without the participation of community in transparency and accountability in delivery of non-core public service. The study was based on procurement competencies, e-procurement, procurement ethics and supplier relationships as specific objectives. The study targeted 206 respondents from various departments and Kwale county residents. The study employed governance and performance theory, corporate culture theory and supply chain management theory. Descriptive research design was employed to formulate the best methodology to be used. A pilot study on the questionnaire was done in order to validate the questionnaire and correct any errors which may have been made. The sample size for the study was 136 derived using slovin formula. Secondary data was collected from both published and unpublished records. Data screening was done to identify any missing data and it will further be tested for reliability. Reliability was tested using Cronbach’s Alpha. Inferential statistics such as Pearson’s correlation and multiple regression analysis was used for further analysis. Data was analyzed using statistical packaging social sciences software (SPSS) version 22 to find the relationships and averages of the data in addition to tabular presentations for understandable presentation. From the finding procurement staff competencies was believed to be a vital catalyst for the ethical conduct of the entire procurement staff in the counties. E-procurement is one of the procurement practices which includes activities such as e-ordering, e-sourcing and e-payment in the procurement practices horizon where the entire county should put more concentration during formulation. Basing on the results, it is recommended that, the county government should continue with such activities of providing adequate training and seminars to the staff to enhance their competencies. However based on the results other studies are recommended on procurement staff competencies which are viable for the research. The study recommends the county government to invest more in electronic procurement transformation to reduce cost and reduce time in procurement transactions which is big win for the counties all the county. The study recommends that county government leaders, managers and other corporate professional players have significant role of ensuring that they formulate viable procurement strategies and practices that initiate performance for the entire organizations.

  165. Leonardo D. Cainta and Jane T. Aquino

    A comprehensive knowledge and the strict enforcement of the fishing ban are important attributes for increasing fish production. The study determined the knowledge of implementation of Joint Administrative Order (JAO) fishing ban, assessed the impacts of enforcement of the ban as to its current fishery operations and production, marketing and income and alternative livelihood activities for fishers’ subsistence. Key informants interview and fish catch survey were conducted. Focus Group Discussion was employed to the categorized 460 respondents as fishers (86. 95%), women’s group (3. 69 %)), buyers (1. 95%), retailers (1. 95%), processors (1. 08%), LGUs (1. 49%) and BFAR personnel (0. 43%). The topics discussed were resources/ resource use and reactions towards implementation of JAO. Frequency counting and percent were used to determine the respondents’ knowledge. Significant difference among the respondents income during the peak and lean months was employed using T test. The study revealed that the respondents possessed knowledge on the implementation of the ban. However, there was a significant difference of impacts among the respondents’ socioeconomic conditions. Ironically, fishers earned net incomes between Php 3000- Php 300 during peak months and net income below Php 300 during lean months. Fishers are more marginalized during peak months. The fish retail price is as lowas P 5. 00 per kilo. Traders/compradors influenced the market price. The invested fuel and efforts commensurate to a zero catch due to the dominance of predators. Commercial fishing gears were visible within the municipal waters. Fishers attained elementary education (79. 34%) which posed detrimental in the scarcity of opportunities. Aside from dried and brined fish activities, fishers engaged other alternative livelihoods for survival. Only those traders and processors were benefited. The sardines ban has boasted Dipolog City’s fame as the “Bottled Spanish Sardines Capital of the Philippines”.

  166. Rafael Ademir Oliveira de Andrade, Marcelo Augusto Mendes Barbosa, Rodrigo César Moreira de Silva, Elisângela Ferreira Menezes and Aline Ramalho Dias Souza

    The objective of this work is to carry out a bibliographic survey about the scientific production on indigenous education in the state of Rondônia, Brazil. It is important to recognize the discussions about the theme, which is so current and necessary for understanding intercultural educational processes. The hypotheses that guided this work were that the academic production on the subject is vast, due to the Amazonian nature of the federal university and research lines of its graduate programs and secondly that these works will have a colonialist perspective on such processes. The method used was the bibliometric where the productions of theses, dissertations were analyzed from the authors' formation, method, conclusions and other elements. While results have reached the conclusion that there is a wide production on the subject in the graduate programs at the Federal University of Rondônia, however, there is still room for productions that have perspectives for the public programs directed towards the indigenous education from the perspective of the public managers and the indigenous people affected by them.

  167. I Ketut Wica, I Wayan Parsa, I Gede Yusa and Putu Gede Arya Sumartha Yasa

    The benefits of hotel and restaurant taxes are still needed and perceived by the Government of Denpasar City and other Regencies in Bali such as Badung, Buleleng, Jembarana, Tabanan, Bangli, Klungkung and Karangasem. However, there is no legal certainty given by the Laws and Regulations on “specific percentage number” of profit sharing related to such taxes. Tri Hita Karana is understood as the life philosophy to create a balance consistent life of human being towards God, another human being and environment. This normative legal research analyses the following legal issues: the legal certainty towards hotel and restaurant taxes’ profit sharing as well as the hotel and restaurant taxes’ profit sharing philosophy related to Tri Hita Karana concept. From the results, it is noted that Indonesian Laws on Fiscal Balance, Local Taxes and Levies, as well as Regional Government have not been able to provide legal certainty in implementing hotel and restaurant taxes’ profit sharing. However, by looking at the Freies Ermessen concept, it is possible to implement such profit sharing without to be fully bound by the Laws with aim (doelmatigheid) to achieve welfare distribution throughout the society especially in Bali Province. Tri Hita Karana with its balance and harmonious concept is adopted in the profit sharing mechanism of hotel and restaurant taxes in regencies/city of Bali Province. Furthermore, the values of justice and utility are also found in the profit sharing process that closely related to Tri Hita Karana concept in Bali.

  168. Krishna Priya, G., Gish Chacko and Vijay Kumar Avilala

    Phonological awareness is the sensitivity to the segmental nature of the speech, an understanding that spoken language comprises of discrete units ranging from entire words and syllables to smaller intra-syllabic units of onsets, rimes and phonemes. Acquisition of phonological awareness skills has been found to be essential for the development of literacy. Measurement of phonological awareness has become crucial because, these abilities consistently predict reading ability in typically developing children (Ehri, 1999; Wood and amp; Terrell, 1998). Several studies have indicated that socioeconomic status and phonological awareness are related, but not many studies in this area, especially in Malayalam language, have examined the possibility that age moderates this relation (McDowell, Goldstein, 2007) i.e., that the effect of SES on phonological awareness is different at different ages. Therefore, the present study attempted to study the phonological awareness in different socio-economic status and age groups in Malayalam speaking children. 480 subjects were considered for the study and they were in the age range of three to seven years. They were divided into four groups, i.e., group I (3-4 years); group II (4-5 years); group III (5-6 years); group IV (6-7 years). Each group further divided into two subgroups again based on socio economic status: mid and high. Out of them 240 subjects were attending kindergarten and rest of them were attending Grade I and Grade II. The results of the analysis revealed that, the scores of the subjects for each of the tasks increased with an increase in age, the scores of the subjects from high socio economic status were higher when compared to scores of subjects from mid socio-economic status and no significant difference was found between the performance of males and females for all groups.

  169. Dr. Adrian LEKA

    Writing for the defender and his position during the criminal process is as attractive and difficult. It is attractive because a good advocate must be a good acquaintance with the law, have professional skills and act within the boundaries of his profession ethics, be able to communicate, recognize logic and psychology. It is difficult because it is a great enterprise to define in a topic the procedural position of the defender and his defense techniques, ethics, professionalism, criticism, and wealthy court practice. With the adoption of the Criminal Procedure Code in 1995, the Albanian criminal procedural law was channeled into the accusatory system, respecting the equality of parties in the process and conducting a controversial adjudication. So the key basis for a judgment on these principles became obviously the figure of the defense lawyer. The defense counsel performs his duty as an assistant when the defendant he is defending is present and as a representative when the defendant is not present. The role of the defender is very important. He protects the rights and procedural safeguards of the defendant. The lawyer thus secures the real right of the defendant as one of the basic rights for a due legal process in the Constitutional and European sense. Problems in practice and not just have been made issues related to the presence and replacement of the defense counsel chosen by the defendant, the legitimization of the defender appointed or assigned mainly by the relatives of the defendant to appeal against the decision given in absentia defendants, guaranteeing effective protection by a defender designated by the proceeding body, lack of defense attorney's presence in some investigative actions and procedural inability to conduct investigations by the defender himself. But despite the great role played by the defender, his figure suffers from our criticism of the level of corruption and in a few cases of deliberate delays in court proceedings, making it a serious obstacle to these processes and to the judiciary, The Courts and the Prosecutor's Office.

  170. Suregka Felix, K. and Dr. John Peter, A.

    This study integrated dispositional characteristics of an individual with work-life balance research. Based on the premise that dispositional characteristics is a major contributor to work-family conflict, this research examined resources likely to reduce work-family conflict women entrepreneur experience. Work family conflict (WFC) and work family enrichment (WFE) and the dispositional characteristics (DC) influence in work life balance (WLB) were explored as potential resource. The 50 women entrepreneurs were taken for studied. The sample was diverse in terms of their business. However, the majority of the women were married (82%) with children (90%). The results demonstrated that different aspects of WFC, WFE and WLB related to different personality indicators.

  171. Parveen, K., khalil-ur-rahman, Qamar M. A., Noor N., Sadiq, R. and Saeed, M. K.

    Five common Pakistani plants Allium sativum, Allium cepa, Zingiberofficinale, Terminaliaarjun aand Moringaoleifera were used to prepare two polyherbal formulations 5G and 5N for the treatment of chronic hypertension and tachycardia. Both the treatment combinations were applied on the healthy rabbits in the phase-I. Histopathology of rabbits organs revealed no side effect by any of the two combinations. DPPH assay indicated the superiority of 5G combination over 5N due to its higher antioxidative potential. Hence, the 5G combination (alone and in combination with inderal) was applied on 33 humans facing chronic hypertension and 36 chronic tachycardia patients in the phase-II of the study. Findings revealed the greater medicisnal potential of 5G + inderal as compared to inderal and 5G alone. 5G + inderal lowered the mean diastolic blood pressure to 74.36+3.21 mm Hg from 94.24 ± 1.66 mm Hg and mean systolic blood pressure to 128.79+3.17 mm Hg from 194.44±2.07 mm Hg. Mean pulse rate was reduced from 115.00±1.04 beats/min to 75.58±4.36 beats/min after treatment with 5G + inderal.

  172. Dr. Roseline Meshramkar, Dr. Lekha K., Dr. Anish Amin and Dr. Ramesh K. Nadiger

    Objective: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the type of failure and nature of failure in crown and bridge prosthesis and to asses is there any correlation between type of failure and nature of failure in crown and fixed partial denture. Materials and Methods: Convenient judgement sampling of patients who reported to the department of prosthodontics with complain of failures in crown and fixed partial denture were selected for the study from 2013 - 2017. A sample questionnaire were prepared to collect relevant data. The percentage of crown and bridge failure was categorized and tabulated. Data was entered in excel sheet. SPSS version 17 was used to perform the analysis. Chi. square test was employed to find the association between type of failure in Crown and bridges type and between type of failure & nature of failure. Level of significance was set at 5%. Results: A clinical survey was conducted to determine the nature and type of failure in crown and fixed partial dentures. The result shows a significant association between type of failure and all crown types. [Chi. Sq. 22.2502 p=0.01] and significant association between type of failure and all bridge types [Chi Sq. 24.8624; P=0.005]. It also shows significant association between nature of failure and type of failure. Conclusion: Within the limitation of this survey, it was found that when the type of failure and nature of failures were analyzed there is a correlation between type of failure and nature of FPD failure.

  173. Danilo Coco and Silvana Leanza

    Intra-ductal papillary mucinous neoplasms (IPMNs) of the pancreas are neoplasms that are characterized by ductal dilation, intra-ductal papillary growth, and thick mucus secretion. It was first defined by Ohashi et al. in 1982 .It has been reported that the prevalence of IPMNs were 13 to 20%. In general, compared with malignant pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma, IPMNs have better prognosis. They can be devided in two groups: Main Duct IPMN (MD-IPMN) and Branch-Duct IPMN (BD-IPMN). The risk of malignancy is higher in patients with MD-IPMN or mixed-IPMN than the BD-IPMN type (70 versus 25%, respectively).

  174. Dr. Aseem Jain, Dr. Deepak Raisingani, Ashwini B Prasad and Dr. Parag Srivastava

    The maxillary first premolar, which is said to be a metamorphic tooth between incisors and molars, normally has two roots with two root canals. But, an endodontist must always be expecting aberrant anatomical variations as these teeth may have a third canal present, which is easy to miss if the tooth anatomy is not understood and the canals are not searched meticulously. This article presents one such anatomical variation in maxillary first premolar, which presented with three roots and three root canals.

  175. Dr. Tejas Kulkarni, Dr. Birangane, R S., Dr. Karibasappa, G N., Dr. Anagha Shete, Dr. Avanti Chinte, Dr. Mrinal Shete and Dr. Ashwini Rajbhoj

    Statement of the Problem: Panoramic radiography is a widely used two dimensional extra oral radiographic technique for detection of dental diseases, jaw pathologies and other systemic diseases. Purpose: This study investigates the use of this technique as a routine screening procedure to detect hidden pathologies that may go undiagnosed clinically. Materials and Method: One hundred patients who visited dental OPD were selected for the study. SPSS Version 19.0 was used for statistical Analysis. Data was analyzed using Chi-Square Test and correlation between clinical and radiological findings was assessed by and co relational regression analysis. Results: Statistically significant amount of additional pathologies were detected on panoramic radiograph Conclusion: Panoramic radiograph can be used as a screening tool to detect additional or hidden pathologies supplementary to visual clinical examination.

  176. Dr. Mridusmita Mukherjee and Dr. Tanmoy Nat

    The use of radiation in dentistry is now pervasive and routine. From long time back, manual techniques and advancements have surpassed a huge leap based on radiation influenced diagnosis, treatment protocol and follow up. So, as essential tools across all branches and specialties of medicine. The inherent properties of ionizing radiation provide many benefits, but can also cause potential harm. Its use within medical practice thus involves an informed judgment regarding the risk/benefit ratio. This judgment requires not only medical knowledge, but also an understanding of radiation itself. This update provides a global perspective on radiation science, risks for endodontists and its safety strategies.

  177. Iqbal Saleem Mir, Mansoorul-Haq Chowdhary, Balvinder Singh, Zaheer Ahmed, Waseem Akram and Imtiyaz Ali

    Inguinal hernia recurrence after surgical repair is major concern. As minimal access surgery is gaining wide spread acceptance in surgical field, laparoscopic hernia repair is becoming popular. In this manuscript we validate the claim of laparoscopic repair which is associated with faster recovery, less pain, better cosmesis, and less post-operative complications. Here we report our experience of laparoscopic TAPP repair for recurrent inguinal hernia.

  178. Dr. Priyanka, Y., Dr. Murali Krishnam Raju, S., Dr. Shreyas Gujjar and Dr. Sita Rama Kumar. Manthena

    Aim: To evaluate and compare the amount of debris extruded apically during Endodontic retreatment using manual Hedstrom and rotary k3, ProTaper Universal Retreament instruments. Materials and method: 45 Extracted human single straight rooted mandibular first premolar teeth were used in this study. After the conventional access cavity preparation and working length determination, cleaning and shaping was done with a modified step back flare technique using Gates Glidden drills and K-files to a master apical file size of #30 and stepped back in 1-mm increments with four subsequent instrument sizes #35, #40, #45, #50 K-file. Obturation was done with 0.02 taper Gutta percha points and AH PLUS root canal sealer in a cold lateral condensation technique. Plastic Eppendorf tube of capacity 2ml was used as the collecting container for any debris or irrigant extruded apically from the tooth during retreatment. Grouping was done as follows Group I- Control group – No gutta-percha removal, Group II-Gutta-percha removal with Hedstrom files, Group III-Gutta-percha removal with K3 files, Group IV-Gutta-percha removal with Protaper Universal Retreatment files. The Eppendorf tubes were stored in an Incubator at 37 ºC for 21 days to evaporate the irrigant before weighing the dry debris. The tubes with the dried debris were weighed using the Analytical balance. Weight of extruded debris= Weight of Eppendorf tube with dried debris MINUS Pre-weighted weight of empty Eppendorf tube. Results: Observations were then statistically analyzed using Analysis of variance (One way ANOVA) and the difference among four groups were evaluated by students ‘t’ test for pair wise comparision. There was a statistical significant difference among all the groups in the amount of debris extruded except group III and IV. Conclusion: All retreatment techniques resulted in debris extrusion during Endodontic retreatment. Retreatment with manual Hedstrom files resulted in significantly greater extrusion of debris when compared to rotary K3 and ProTaper Universal Retreatment instruments.

  179. Prashant Sonawane, Baraturam Bhaisara and Anjali Bhatawdekar

    Phototherapy (PT) is one of the most common non invasive methods of treatment of choice for unconjugated hyperbilirubinemia in neonate. There are very few studies which show the effect of phototherapy on platelet count. So, this study done to show the effect of phototherapy on platelet count. This is a prospective hospital based cohort study on 100 eligible neonates admitted in the inborn section of Neonatal Intensive Care Unit (NICU) receiving phototherapy at Municipal General Hospital Mumbai, Maharashtra from June 2013 to May 2014. Serum bilirubin and CBC with Platelet count were performed before starting PT, 24 Hours (24 Hrs) after PT and 48 hours (48 Hrs) after PT or at discontinuation of PT .The results were analyzed statistically.A total of 100 neonates were included in our study of which 58 (58 %) were males and 48 (48%) were females. It was found that the Mean Platelet Count 24Hrs after Phototherapy was decreased as compared to the Mean Platelet Count before starting Phototherapy which was statistically significant ( p = 0.008).Our study proves that Phototherapy in newborns with Indirect Hyperbilirubinemia leads to decrease in platelet count.

  180. Dr. Duggal Nidhi, Dr. Kaur Amardeep, Dr. Kaur Sarabjeet and Dr. Pratibha

    Stem cell technology is one of the most recent technologies, receiving considerable attention in fields of dentistry because of growing requirement of esthetic and functional reconstruction of oral tissues. Potential advantages of stem cells in regenerative treatment have been demonstrated in many studies. Stem cells can renew themselves, thus providing new strategies to regenerate missing tissues and treat disorders. Aim of this article is to provide knowledge about stem cells and its applications in prosthetic dentistry.

  181. Dr. Monika Porwal (Bagul) and Dr. Koustubh R. Bagul

    Background: Term NAFLD includes fatty liver changes from steatosis to steatohepatitis, cirrhosis, hepatocellular carcinoma; histologically resembling alcohol induced liver damage, in absence of alcohol intake. Metabolic syndrome and associated co morbidities like obesity, T2DM, Dyslipidemia predisposes for NAFLD. Around 70% T2DM have fatty liver, In India, its reported to be 12.5-87.5%. Liver biopsy is gold standard for diagnosis and staging of NAFLD, since its invasive hence not used as a screening tool. Ultrasound detects hepatic steatosis with 89% sensitivity and 93% specificity, can serve as a screening tool to detect NAFLD. Aims: 1) To Study prevalence of NAFLD in T2DM patients 2) To Study risk factors like age, duration of T2DM, BMI, WHR, Hypertension, Liver enzymes, FBS, PPBS, HbA1C and Lipid profile in both NAFLD and Control groups. 3) To correlate above risk factors in both groups. Material and Methods: 100 Non-Alcoholic T2DM patients, 30 - 80 years, with evidence of Fatty Liver on ultrasound, formed study group (n=50) and those without Fatty Liver formed control group (n=50). Detailed clinical examination and necessary blood tests were done. 15 NAFLD patients were subjected for histopathology after liver biopsy. SPSS 17 used for analysis of continuous data variables, expressed as Mean ± SD. Student t-test for comparison of mean values. Group comparisons ANOVA and Karl Pearson Correlation was used to find statistical significance of study parameters in NAFLD and Control Groups. ‘p’ < 0.05 was considered statistically significant. Results and conclusions: Prevalence of NAFLD in T2DM was 40.32 %, mostly in 5th - 6th decade and increased with duration of T2DM. Ultrasound grade I and II steatosis seen in 88% diabetics. Histopathology grade I and II steatosis seen in 86.67% and NASH grade I in 2 cases and stage I fibrosis in 2 cases. There was significant correlation of prevalence of NAFLD with obesity, abnormal liver function tests, T2DM, Hypertension, Dyslipidemia and Metabolic Syndrome.

  182. Dr. Monika Porwal (BAGUL), Dr. Koustubh R. Bagul and Dr. J.S. Kathpal

    Background: Migraine is one of the most common neurological disorders in general population worldwide. There is no imaging or other tests for diagnosing migraine, so clinicians mainly rely on patients' own self-reported symptoms therefore we have undertaken this study. This research offers important insights into potential mechanisms behind migraine and hypothesizes adiponectin as a potential biomarker for migraine, which can become first laboratory investigation that can aid in diagnosis of migraine. To our knowledge; this is the first survey that aimed at evaluating the symptomatology of migraine and adiponectin levels in patients over 45 years of age. Aims and Objectives: 1) To compare serum Adiponectin levels in migraine patients and healthy controls. 2) To correlate serum Adiponectin levels in migraine patients with other clinical parameters including Migraine Impact and Allodynia. 3) To compare clinical characteristics of migraine attacks occurring in elderly (45 years and above) and in younger migraineurs (20 to 44 years). Material and Methods: A cross sectional observational study, Patients with Migraine diagnosed according to the International Classification of Headache Disorders, 3rd edition and controls without headache constitute study population. Patient’s between ages 20 to 44 years were considered in Early - onset migraine group and those 45 years and above were considered in Late – onset migraine group. All these patients were subjected to detailed history, Clinical examination (BP, BMI etc.) & Sociodemographic profile was noted. Lipid profile was done. Migraine Disability Score (MIDAS) & Allodynia Symptom Checklist (ASC) 12 scales applied. ELISA was done for serum adiponectin level determination. Results and Conclusions: Serum adiponectin levels are raised in migraine, higher in late onset migraineurs compared to early onset patients; in chronic migraineurs compared to episodic migraineurs and in migraine without aura compared to migraine with aura patients. But precise pathophysiological role of ADP in migraine remains to be elucidated. There was increased prevalence of migraine in those with high BMI and those who fall in the category of overweight and obese. Also total serum cholesterol levels were raised in migraine patients. There was significant positive correlation between migraine related disability and allodynia symptoms with serum adiponectin levels.

  183. Sandeep, V., Farmiza Begum, Mary Tryphena, G. and Dr. Goverdhan, P.

    Cerebral ischemia is a condition in which there is insufficient blood flow to the brain to meet metabolic demand. This vascular obstruction and the subsequent decrease in the cerebral blood flow results in immediate drop in the neurological activity that might end in death of brain tissue or cerebral infarction / ischemic stroke. In the present study, the effects of Nicotine and Simvastatin and their combinational effect on cerebral ischemia-induced cognitive impairment in rats were investigated. The animals were pre-treated with Nicotine and Simvastatin for a period of 10 days. Cerebral ischemia was induced by Bilateral Common Carotid Artery Occlusion (BCCAO) of rats for 30 minutes followed by reperfusion. The treatment was continued for another week after surgery. To evaluate the learning and memory parameters, Rectangular maze test, Morris Water maze test, locomotor activity tests were conducted. Catalase activity and DPPH assay were also assessed. Donepezil was used as standard drug. This study demonstrates the neuroprotective effect of Nicotine and Simvastatin on improving the cognitive function and by increasing the free radical scavaging activity. The memory enhancing capacity of the drugs was very significant when compared to disease control (p<0.001).

  184. Ms. Eva Chakranarayan, IGNOU. and Dr. Gauri Kadam

    There has been an increase in recognition of the negative aspects of smart phone overuse in the young students. These negative aspects include significant effects on sleep, self-regulation and stress. This emerging issue motivated me to analyse the relationship between the aforementioned factors and smart phone usage. The investigation includes data collected from students in the age group of 19 through 22 using an online questionnaire. The participants are divided into high smart phone users and low smart phone users based on the self reported rating scale. Tests were also used to identify their sleep patterns which include sleep latency, subjective sleep quality, duration, habitual sleep efficiency, sleep disturbances, daytime dysfunctions and use of sleep medications. In addition to that, self report scales were used to identify self-regulation capacity and stress among the participants. Characterization of the overall relationship between usage pattern related effects is illustrated in this research. This study showed significant positive co-relation between perceived stress and smart phone usage. Smartphone usage is also negatively correlated with sleep quality and self regulation capacity among students. There is also a difference between the self regulation capacity, perceived stress and quality of sleep of high and low smart phone users.

  185. Dr. Ashim Roy, Dr. Rahul Maheshwari, Dr. Soumyarup Sen, Dr. Alisha Dey and Dr. Rajashekar

    Aims and objectives: To determine which among the two MTHFR gene polymorphisms viz , C677T and A1298C has greater contribution to non syndromic cleft palate and lip (nsCL/P). Materials and methods: The study group consisted of the DNA samples of 20 patients with nsCL/P and 20 unrelated controls. DNA sample was subjected to Polymerase Chain Reaction and products are digested with restriction enzymes. The digested products were subjected to electrophoresis to ascertain the presence of MTHFR gene variants (A1298C AND C677T) in the samples. Results: The cleft cases were evaluated for having polymorphism in the MTHFR C677T gene for 3 genetic variants namely C/C (homozygous wild type), T/T (homozygous mutant) and C/T (heterozygous mutant).The odds ratio for T/T variant of C677T was 3.3 and for the C/T variant was 2.3, indicating that presence of both T/T variant and C/T variant of C677T was associated with presence of nsCL/P. For the polymorphism in the MTHFR A1298C gene namely A/A (homozygous wild type), C/C (homozygous mutant) and A/C (heterozygous mutant).The odds ratio was 1.5 for the C/C variant and 2.1 for the A/C variant indicating that both the mutated variants of A1298C gene were associated with nsCL/P. Conclusion: Both the polymorphisms of the MTHFR gene namely MTHFR C677T and MTHFR A1298C may be implicated in the etiopathogenesis of Non Syndromic Cleft Lip/Palate in our population, with the mutations in the MTHFR C677T gene showing a stronger association with nsCL/P.

  186. Ma. Dulce C. Guillena

    Assessments on the conditions of biological organisms in an aquatic ecosystem evaluate the condition of waterbodies desirable for aquatic life uses. This study was carried out to survey the biotic community and water quality of Dicayo. Specifically, this aimed to determine the level of physico-chemical parameters measurements such as the temperature, pH, nitrate, total suspended solids, total coliform, depth and width. Moreover, this sought to identify the flora and faunal composition and determine the significant difference on the quality of water and biological composition among the sampling sites. Descriptive method of gathering data was done with the aid of chemical, biological and physical laboratory analyses. Indices of diversity and dominance were determined using Shannon Index. Results revealed that the physico-chemical parameters were within the standard of the DENR but the total coliform did not meet the standard. The river is supported by its floral and faunal composition wherein 61 plant species, and 8 classes of animal species were identified. Catch Per Unit Effort value was highest for fish net with a mean of 0.367 kg/manhr. The biodiversity indices of flora and fauna showed moderately diverse level. Further study should be done to ensure the maintenance of water quality in the river.

  187. Akash Rawat, Sneha Yadav, Sandeep Kumar, Rajendra Nath, Prabha Verma and Pramod Kumar Singh

    The present study has been carried out to investigate the neuroprotective activity of cinnamon (Cinnamon zeylanicumin) on lead induced neurotoxicity and behavioral impairments in rats. Different behavioral parameters and biochemical assays in brain of rats were observed. Rats exposed to lead (lead acetate 5.0mg/kg body weight p.o. for 28 days) caused a significant decrease in body weight, brain weight and behavioral changes as compared to controls. The increased levels of lead in blood and brain also increases the levels of ROS, LPO and decreases the levels of GSH with concomitant reduction in SOD, CAT and GPx activities in brain of rats treated with lead as compared to controls. Co-treatment of lead with cinnamon oil (75mg/kg body weight p.o. for 28 days) decreases the levels of ROS, LPO and increases the level of GSH, SOD, CAT and GPx activity and showed improvements in behavioral changes as compared to lead treated groups. The results obtained were compared with vitamin E (100 mg/kg body weight p.o. for 28 days)as the standard antioxidant drug. Our results suggested that, cinnamon oil causes improvement in behavioral deficits and oxidative stress similar to that of standard drug, vitamin-E. This work reveals the potential of cinnamon oil as a protective drug for lead induced neurotoxicity and associated human health risk.

  188. Rguiti, M. M., Baddouh, A., Amaterz, E., EL Asbahani, A., Bazzi, L,H., Hilali, M. and Bazzi, L.

    The electrochemical oxidation of PP (polyphenols) in Oil Mill Wastewaters (OMW) has been studied on Tin oxide (SnO2) electrode in chloride containing solution. The degradation follows the pseudo-first-order kinetics indicating that the process was controlled by mass transfer. The supporting electrolytes containing nitrate and carbonate exhibited slower kinetics than those obtained using chloride. The PP can be electrochemically degraded effectively in chloride containing solution. The removal efficiency of PP was found to increase with the decrease of temperature and with the increase in both current density and NaCl concentration. The effect of temperature shows that for 25°C and 45°C a removal efficacy of PP was found to be 91% and 79%, respectively. For 1 % NaCl, 1.5 % NaCl and 2% NaCl solutions, the achieved removal of PP was 91%, 86% and 82%, respectively.

  189. Hassan Musa and Jibasen Danjuma

    Applications of queuing theory enhance congestion assessment of in-patient facilities in hospitals and can improve significantly on the impact of quality healthcare as well as on patient satisfaction. This study examined the congestion situations which include the length of stay (LOS) for admissions and discharges of male and female in-patients at Psychiatric Unit of Specialist Hospital (PUSH), Yola. Data were obtained from a secondary source and analyzed with Easy Fit software, IBM-SPSS, TORA and MS-Excel. The M/M/1/N queuing model was adopted, because the bed space capacity is 17 for the male patients and 12 beds for female patients in the wards. The LOS analysis using Poisson regression revealed that the male patients are at a higher risk of LOS compared to the female patients. The results further show that, patients with drug-induced psychosis are at higher risk of LOS compared to others. The Queuing analysis indicates that the average number of male and female patients on admission including those about to be discharge is approximately 17 and 12 patients per week respectively, and average time male and female patients in the system on admission including discharged time is approximately 11 and 8 days respectively, which shows that bed facility in the hospital in male and female wards were always over stretched, and their traffic intensity on admission and discharge rates is 2 patient per week respectively, implying that 2 male and female patients are being turn away every week, due to limited number of beds available for in-patients. The management of PUSH Yola should provide more beds facilities for psychiatric patients so as to avoid congestion of in-patients, and also to improve the quality of service.

  190. Unnikrishnan, V., Syam Prasad, Abdul Azeez, V. A. and Afreedi kinatingal

    Energy is one of the major inputs for the economic development of any country. In the case of the developing countries the energy sector assumes a critical importance in view of the ever increasing energy needs requiring huge investments to meet them. Energy conservation and energy efficiency are separate but related concepts. Energy conservation is achieved when growth of energy consumption is reduced, measured in physical terms. Energy conservation can there for be the result of several processes or development such as productivity increase or technological progress. On the other hand energy efficiency is achieved when energy intensity in a specific product, process or area of production or conception is without affecting output, consumption or comfort levels. Promotion of energy efficiency will contribute to energy conservation and is there for an integral part of energy conservation promotional policies. An energy audit is an inspection, survey and analysis of energy flow in a building, process or system with the objective of understanding the energy dynamics of the system under study. Typically an energy audit is conducted to seek opportunities to reduce the amount of energy input into the system without negatively affecting the outputs. Auditing involves evaluating the information gathered research possible conservation opportunities and make recommendations on mechanical structural operational and maintenance improvement. Energy saving upto 50% or more is often possible in a typical installation using VFDs and distribute the loads connected to a power system to operate at different times(priority based load shedding).

  191. Dong Yoon Lee, Amarnath Angani, Byeong Jun Kim and Kyoojae Shin

    Now day car manufacturing industries are ruined by a robot. Robots are participating different types of tasks, such a tasks welding is one of the major operation, most of the industries are spending more time for inspecting the welding state. For this purpose, we propos welded crack detecting robot. This robot is holding. The magnetic flux system (MFS), MFS has been developed for the detection of the welding cracks on the plate. The MFS signal response from the welding sample which the Cracks varies and not the proper joining sample surface. A data acquisition program was developed to continuously display the Cracks variation of the tested sample. The signal analysis technique such as the power spectrum density of the fourier transform is applied to obtain an optimum parameter to describe the wall thinning of the plate. This technique can be used as a potential tool to detect the local wall thinning of a plate.

  192. Sajal Jain and Prof. Atul Sharma

    Due to rapid urbanization and uncontrolled growth rate of population, municipal solid waste Management (MSWM) has become acute in India. MSWM, though an essential service, is given low priority. Although presently many cities in India taking a step forward and adopting new technologies like Thermal treatment which reduces the load on landfill site and increase the life span of it. Reduction in landfill site is also reduces the contamination of ground water due to landfill leachates .Hence the present work is aimed at assessing the sub surface water quality index (WQI) for the groundwater of surrounding areas of landfill site & WTE plant kathonda Jabalpur. This has been determined by collecting groundwater samples and subjecting the samples to a comprehensive physicochemical analysis. For calculating the WQI, the following 9 parameters have been considered: pH, electrical conductivity, dissolved oxygen, Total dissolved solids, Alkalinity. Hence this paper presents the comparative study of the results of ground water pollution due to individual solid waste landfill site and landfill site along with Waste to energy plant.

  193. Paramesh, T., Saikrupa, CH. and Srinivasulu, B.

    A Cylinder liner is a cylindrical part to be fixed in to an engine block to form a cylinder. It is one of the most significant efficient parts to make up the interior of an engine. Aim of the thesis is to design and analysis of a dry liner for diesel engines. The first step is to model the dry liner part by using Pro/Engineer. The dimension of the liner are taken from “Kusalava Industries”, Vijayawada for the engine of Hino – X Ashok Leyland model. In the next step, the amount of heat generated, heat transfer rate of the component, temperature produced inside the cylinder are to be calculated. usually cylinder liners are ended of Cast Iron, Cast steel, Nickel CI, Nickel chrome CI. The surface of the liner is heat treated to obtain hard surface. The foremost aim of the document is to learn the heat transfer rate, heat flux, temperature distribution, thermal stresses, thermal strain, and thermal gradient of the liner by apply boundary circumstances as a temperature produced inside of the cylinder. And also by applying the surface coatings like ceramic, aluminum alloys and Nickel chrome alloy steel. Also we are conducting fatigue analysis on the liners. Fatigue analysis is used for finding the life time of the component means we can find out numeral of cycles it can with stand for the applied loads. By compa re the above results, the desirable type of liner in a diesel engine can be validated. Modeling is ended in Pro/Engineer and analysis is done in ANSYS.

  194. Abdulrahman Muhammed AlShabeb

    Needs analysis is generally believed to be important in ESP context because it enables practitioners and materials writers to find out about their real learners’ needs. The purpose of the present study is to investigate the mismatch between the Cutting Edge course book and the needs of Prince Sultan Air Base students. A total of 70 students from different technical sections at Prince Sultan Air Base participated in the study. Two types of data collection methods were used in this study: quantitative (questionnaire) and qualitative (interview). The results obtained revealed that the current course book being used at PSAB does not meet their needs because the activities provided are not relevant to the specific needs of their field which is basically military and aviation. Finding and adapting a textbook that is clearly linked to their students needs and to the course objectives was suggested as one possible solution. In the context of PSAB, data from the interview and survey showed the need to assess the contents of the course book in relation to the needs of the learners. It also indicated the strong demand of the students for supplementary materials that allow linguistic input to match their needs. Finally, offering supplementary materials and content-based instructions for those students bridges the gap between the language training and practical performance needs in real situations.

  195. Riaz P Nalakam and Ganesan, S.

    This paper examines the underlying relationship between corporate social responsibility and higher educational institutions and calls for a more clearly defined goals for universities to involve themselves with the wider world where the objective is not only to increase the profit and maximize the wealth but also to improve the environmental and social impact of doing the business. It analyses the current status of higher education in India, strength and the challenges faced by this industry and aims to establish that, by incorporating CSR into the governance of higher education institutions it can empower and transform the society especially in a developing country like India where significant disparity exists in terms of access, equity and quality of higher education.

  196. Thenmozhi A.S. and Radhakrishnan, N.

    Image processing has become an essential component in many fields of biomedical research such as tumor detection, automatically determining the volume of a heart chamber, screening lung scans for possible diseases. Different techniques for automatic detection of liver tumor involve various steps: image acquisition, segmentation, classification using neural network and optimization, and identification of tumor type. This paper presents a new approach to detect and segment liver tumors. The detection and segmentation of liver tumors can be formulized as novelty detection by pre-processing, segmentation feature extraction. The main objective of the proposed method is to precisely identify the presence of tumor cells in liver images as an early indication of malignant cells that may cause to the demise of patients. The proposed hybrid kernel classifier is compare with existing techniques which shows it have better accuracy, sensitivity and specificity.

  197. Niha Naveed and Dr. Laliytha, B.

    Biologics are a novel category of drugs which are a solution to modern medicine's problems. They are derived from human genes and are genetically engineered proteins. Biological therapy is shown to be effective in neoplastic, autoimmune, inflammatory, cardiovascular, dermatologic, infectious, and allergic reactions. This article elaborates on the role of biologic therapy in patients undergoing invasive dental treatments and the need for antibiotic cover in such patients.

  198. Dr. Ankit Sharma, Dr.Rhitu Shekhar, Dr. Chinmay vyas and Dr. Shah Naman

    A thorough knowledge of root canal anatomy along with the anatomical variations that may be present is essential for success of endodontic therapy. Unusual presentations in the number of the roots or the canals should be expected in every tooth. Mandibular second premolars are thought of as having a single root and canal. Studies have stated that the prevalence of three canals with three orifices in this tooth is 0.4% Knowledge of variations in root canal anatomy and accurate diagnosis with novel diagnostic aids like cone beam computed tomography (CBCT) assist in thorough debridement and three dimensional obturation of the root canal system, thus increasing the success rate of nonsurgical endodontic treatment. This article describes the successful management of the right mandibular second premolar with three separate roots diagnosed using CBCT.

  199. Dr. Samia Perwaiz khan, Dr. Arwa Iqbal Hussain, Dr. Safia Izhar, Dr. Sadia Rashid and Dr. Fadieleh A. Sohail

    Polycystic ovary syndrome is a multi-factorial disease. It is the most common endocrine disorder in women of child- bearing age. This clinical characterized of diseases include disrupted ovulation and hyperandrogenism, but the clinical picture and symptom intensity can vary. Currently, the ultrasound assessment of ovaries is one of the essential criteria for the diagnosis of PCOS according to the Rotterdam consensus (2003) and Androgen Excess and PCOS Society (2006). This criterion is determined by the presence of ≥12 follicles within the ovary with a diameter of 2–9 mm and/or ovarian volume ≥10 cm3. Such ultrasound image in one ovary only is sufficient to identify polycystic ovaries. The finding of polycystic ovaries with polycystic ovary syndrome is confirmed in over 90% of cases irrespective of ethnic factors or race. The assessment of hormone levels as an equivalent of ultrasound features of polycystic ovaries is a promising method. However, aim of this study was to determine that the typical finding of polycystic ovaries in women diagnosed clinically or hormonal levels in population of Karachi.

  200. Dr. Marvi Malik, Dr. Wishah Urwatil Wusqa, Dr. Maimoona Anwaar and Dr. Alishba Malik

    Background: A number of evaluations (at small and large scale) regarding selfmedication have been carried out but very few of them reflect the opinions of the medical students. Objectives of the Study: To find out the knowledge, attitude and practices regarding selfmedication among students of 4th year MBBS NMC, Pakistan Study Design: Cross-sectional observational study. Setting: The study was carried out among 4thyear MBBS students of NMC, Multan and data was completed and analyzed in the department of community medicine NMC, Multan, Pakistan. Duration: Study was conducted from 30th May, 2014 to 21st June, 2014. Study Population: Students of 4th year MBBS NMC, Multan. Inclusion Criteria: Students of 4th year MBBS. Exlusion Criteria: Students of 1st, 2nd, 3rd, and final year MBBS are excluded from the study. Sample Size: Sample size was 210. Results: • Age of 4thyear students ___3.33%(16-18 year), 30.95%(19-21), • 60.48%(22-24), 4.76%(25-27) & 0.48%(28-30) • Gender distribution of 4th year students__28.57% male students and 71.43% female students. • Self-medication among 4th year students__ 45% male and 36% female students self-medicate while 55% male and 64% female students do not self-medicate. • Educational status of Parents of 4th year students __30.14% are master, 35.17% are graduate, 7.66% are intermediate, 15.55% are matric and 11.48% are under matric. • Frequency of self-medication__ 12.34% students always, 66.67% off & on while 20.99% very rarely self-medicate. • Reasons for self-medication __ 92.59% students self-medicate for convenience while 7.41% for cost savings. • Common complaints for self-medication __ 40.15% complaints are of Headache, 36.50% are of fever while 23.35% are of common cold. • 2 • Commonly used drugs for self-medication __ 44.67% panadol, 19.38% dispirin, 12.92% ibuprofen, 12.08% metronidazole and 10.95% augmentin are used. • Adverse reaction by self-medication __ 93.83% students did not observe adverse reactions while 6.17% observed adverse reactions. • Conclusion: From the study we concluded that self-medication is commonly practiced in 4th year students of the institute. There is a dire need to create awareness and educate the students about the dangers of self medication.

  201. Joseph Médard Kabeya Kabenkama and Jean–Marie Mbuyi Muamba

    Introduction: WHO criteria for the diagnosis of osteoporosis and the associated risks of fractures are based on bone parameters assessed by dual x absorptiometry wich will be compared with normative T-score or Z-score values of the same ethnical origine. Thus the necessity to establish normative data for each population according to habit and ethnicity. Normative Data including male and female and studies about factors of bone mass for Congolese populations were lacking. This study aims to establish these normative values and to determine factors influencing bone mass in Congilese population. Materials and Methods: 660 people: 56 men and 604 women were recruited after public media advertising and undergoes DXA of spine and hip from June 2016 to June 2017. All the subjects undergoes also clinical examination by a physician, DXA, and biological tests from blood and urines samples. To be included in the study, one must agreed and fulfill the conditions of absence of factor affecting bone metabolism. Results: Bone mass parameters shows a growth up to the peak that is reached in the fourth decade followed by a slow decay that causes a loss of nearly 14.2% to 20 % in BMC and BMD. The BMD and BMC values are higher in male and the decay were present in both sex but more pronounced in female. Age, BMI, serum calcium, OH Vitamine D, serum iron, and cholesterol are significative bone mass factors in single regression models but in multiple regression models only Age and Calcium remains significative factors on all sites while BMI and cholesterol are selectively significant for sites and parameters.

  202. Mokgadi C. Matlakala

    The primary role of nursing education in any country is to produce a critical mass of nursing workforce; and the scaling up of educational programmes as part of nursing education transformation is essential to produce high quality nurses in the profession. However, there is no assumption that changing qualifications will automatically have a profound effect on the shortage of nurses. The aim of this debate is to highlight the impression of the new nursing qualifications on the production and supply of nurses. The debate focused on a reflective examination of the current position of the implementation of new nursing education programmes in South Africa. The reflection included the new nursing qualifications with a period from 2015. The focus was limited to first entry programmes. It is evident that in the near future the profession will experience a shortage with the supply of nurses.

  203. Dr. Bushu Harna and Dr. Dhananjaya Sabat

    This article depicts the innovative techniques using syringes in orthopaedics. Syringes are commonly used in orthopaedics since long. Using syringes in commonly performed procedures in Orthopaedics in various ways is not only economical but patient friendly also. This article depicts the few innovative techniques involving the use of syringes as suction drains in pediatric patients, as tissue protector sleeve in tibia nailing, as urinary catheter stopper, as bone cement moulds and as guard in fingers with K wires. This article incites the use of commonly available material in Orthopaedics in innovative naïve ways to utilize items to their maximum potential.

  204. Enigo, D.

    Background: T4 syndrome is one of the commonest causes for upper back pain leading to pain and dysfunction. The condition being common in physically active persons, it can lead to substantial difficulties in performing their regular and simple activities. It can even affect them psychologically, leading to a depressed life. Aim of the study: To emphasis the effect of maitl and mobilization in patients with T4 Objectives of the study This study is aimed to find out the effect of maitl and mobilization in decreasing pain and functional ability by using VAS (visual analogue scale) and DASH (Disability of the arm shoulder and hand) scale respectively with T4 syndrome. Methods: A quasi-Experimental study conducted in 30 samples. The subject were selected based on convenient sampling technique. Results: Statistical analysis showed there is a significant difference between the pre and post test scores at p<0.001 in terms of functional ability and pain reduction in patients with T4 syndrome. Conclusion: From this study it can be concluded that T4 syndrome can be effectively treated by the Maitland mobilization and there is an improvement in the thoracic mobility, and reduction in pain as concluded by the VAS and DASH scores. Thus it can be concluded that Maitland mobilization is an effective therapeutic option in the treatment of T4 syndrome.

  205. Emma Swanwick and Martyn Matthews

    Introduction: Glucose flux is known to be affected by exercise and many articles have been written concerning glucose rate of appearance, rate of disappearance, and of oxidation. Little is published on the response of blood glucose during maximal competition however. An investigation was undertaken to monitor Blood glucose during competition swimming and to see if there was any relationship to blood lactate and duration of effort. Methods: One hundred and four (104) swimmers from New Zealand world championship trials and South African Olympic trials (National events). Male (n=62) and Female (n=42) subjects were aged between 16 and 24 years. Peak in glucose and lactate levels was measured. The data were pooled for each event (50m to 1500m). Results: Representing race periods from 22 seconds to 18 minutes. The highest values were seen in the 800 and 1500m swims, with values between 8.5 and 11.2 mmol/L respectively. Findings: There appears to be a critical balance point around 45 to 50 seconds where the blood glucose value will remain at or around the resting value although this does not mean that there is not considerable glucose flux at this point. Across different time lines, at maximal effort, blood glucose appears to respond in a predictable way. This may prove useful for the identification of parameters for performance and for training also.

  206. Dr. Vivek Mahawar, Dr. Ankush Jajodia and Dr. Venkata Pradeep Babu Koyyala

    Synovial chondromatos is (SC) is an uncommon disorder defined as reactive cartilaginous proliferation, characterised by synovial metaplasia (Yu, et al., 2004). With intra-articular proliferation of cartilaginous nodules originating from the synovial membrane. It mainly affects large joints such as knee, hip, shoulder, and elbow. Its manifestation in the Temporomandibular joint (TMJ), is a rare finding, occurring predominantly in females. CT, MRI and arthroscopy facilitate the clinical diagnosis of SC, but pathological analysis is mandatory to confirm the disease (Martín-Granizo et al., 2005). This paper reports a case of a 35 years old woman who presented with a long-standing history (1 year) of pain in right TMJ. There were no limitations to jaw opening. Initial clinical and Radiological picture done outside our hospital suggested a picture of osteosarcoma, for which she received treatment. Histological and follow-up features of this lesion diagnosed it as SC of the TMJ.

  207. Dr. Anamika, Dr. Krishna Jindal, Dr. Vijay Suri, Dr. Anshul Gupta and Dr. Anand Kumar Bansal

    Of the diseases which affects the prostate the most frequently encountered lesions in clinical practice are benign prostatic hyperplasia, prostatitis and prostatic cancer (Cotran et al., 1994). Proliferative activity and invasiveness of prostatic glands increases from the benign to malignant end in the spectrum of prostatic lesions. For histopathological diagnosis, H&E (Hematoxylin and Eosin) staining is the gold standard. But sometimes on routine H&E staining prostatic lesions cause a diagnostic dilemma. In addition to routine staining, immunohistochemistry markers such as HMWCK play an important role in suspicious cases. The main aim of our study is to study the histopathological spectrum of prostatic biopsies and use of immunohistochemistry in addition to H & E staining in suspicious cases. This study was conducted in the Department of Pathology, AIMSR Bathinda, India on 146 biopsies. In our study 26.86% cases were neoplastic and 73.16% were non-neoplastic. The most common pattern seenin neoplastic lesions were ill defined glands and fused microacinar pattern. IHC was done on 60 suspicious cases. In 10 cases the diagnosis was changed on the basis of IHC marker (HMWCK). In 8 cases the diagnosis was changed from non- neoplastic to neoplastic whereas in 2 cases from neoplastic to non-neoplastic. From our study, we came to the conclusion that HMWCK marker should be strongly recommended in all suspicious areas in prostatic biopsies to remove any subjective error by a pathologist.

  208. Dr. Ashwini, T. L., Dr. Harshavardhan kidiyoor and Dr. Anand patil

    Even though enhancing appearance and improving psychosocial status have been put forth as important motivating factors behind the decision to initiate orthodontic treatment, the exact reasons for initiating orthodontic treatment may vary across cultural and socio-economic backgrounds. Hence the current study was undertaken to determine the motiving factors for patients who seek orthodontic treatment. In order to determine the motivating factors for seeking orthodontic treatment, a questionnaire based survey a was conducted on the patient reported for orthodontic treatment to the Department of Orthodontics, S D M Dental College and Hospital Dharwad. After evaluation of response of 100 participants it was seen that, enhancement of dento-facial appearance and improvement in self-confidence was cited as the most important motivating in 75% of the patients. While 15% of patients approached treatment for health reasons, only 10% sought orthodontic treatment for functional reasons. Long duration and fear of pain of the treatment was the reason for not seeking orthodontic treatment. As patient cooperation is one of the main factors which determine the outcome of orthodontic treatment it becomes important to consider these motivational factors before initiating orthodontic treatment.

  209. Kushmitha, V., Dr. Ramesh Babu, N. G. and Dr. Ilamathi, M.

    Andrographolide (AGL) is a labdane diterpenoid that has been isolated from the stem and leaves of Andrographis paniculata. In Ayurvedic tradition, Andrographis, commonly known as Kalmegh or “King of Bitters” has long been used as a bitter tonic, to promote digestion and appetite. Recently, there are many reports that have findings on anti-inflammatory and cytotoxic activites of AGL. This motivated us to carry out this study, in which we aimed at investigating the anti-apoptotic potential of AGL with special emphasis on breast cancer. One of the major anti-apoptotic proteins that are found to be over-expressed in cancers is Bcl-2 (B-cell lymphoma 2). We performed molecular docking analysis of AGL against Bcl-2 followed by prediction of ADME/Tox analysis. The docking results showed that AGL interacts potentially with BcL-2 with a docking score of -4.675 Kcal/mol. It also has significant pharmacokinetics property evaluated using preADMET tools. Following that the docking results have been evaluated in MCF-7 cell line. The cytotoxicity of AGL has been analysed using MTT assay. It was found that at a minimal concentration of 80µM, AGL was toxic to MCF-7 cells. To confirm the apoptotic induction in cells after AGL treatment, Ao/EtBr dual staining was performed. It was found that about 54% of cells were showing apoptotic induction. Further to support the same, DNA fragmentation analysis was performed in Agarose gel electrophoresis and it was found that intact genomic DNA was visualised in case of untreated cells whereas in AGL treated cells, fragments of DNA were visualised. Thus, the study provides clear indication that AGL possibly has an anti-cancer activity by inducing apoptosis in cancer cells.

  210. Kanyiki Katala Moise, Banza Ndala Deca Blood, Kanyeba Mulumba Odette, Mwamba Lubaya Jean Felly, MukendiNtumba Job-Kennedy, Ciamala Mukendi Paul, Kabumba Kabumba François and Kabamba Nzaji Michel

    The abandonment of treatment is a major problem in low-resource settings and the monitoring of the effectiveness of antiretroviral therapy (ART) in low-resource settings is difficult due to a high rate of follow-up after initiation of treatment. The aim of this study was to identify the factors influencing the output of the patients who started ART treatment processing circuit. Methods: This study was analytical type unmatched case-control. Were considered cases (patients observed a therapeutic interruption of 3 consecutive months or more) and patients still on ART were considered witnesses. The study was conducted in three health areas including: Bipemba, Mpokolo and Nzaba City Mbujimayi. The period of thisour study from 19 to 26/06 / 2017. The significance level was set at p <0.05. Results: The risk factors identified in this study were the false wrong belief of HIV / AIDS as a curse; lack of knowledge of the risks non observing PLWHA; from the drug to the last contact; difficulty meeting the social worker; the staff of the unavailability of the treatment taking site, the unstable housing and consumption of toxic substances (drugs and alcohol). Conclusion: This study showed that the remarks made by the patients having interrupted at one-point antiretroviral treatment are diverse and varied as regards the reasons for the breakup.

  211. Tarun Sharma, P Narayana Prasad, Tarun kumar, Gaurav Chaudhary, Prashant Saini and Navid Wani

    Introduction: In this study we want to evaluate facial and smile esthetics in Garhwali population with cephalometric and photogrammetric study and a novel esthetic evaluation technique has also been assessed that explains the relationship of the maxilla and mandible to the cranial base in the form of a triangle, called the T-analysis. Materials and Methods: 120 subjects were taken, out of which 60 class I subjects comprising of 30 males and 30 females having the esthetically pleasing profile and smile were selected for extraoral photograph and cephlometric analysis.. Angles namely facial convexity angle, total facial convexity angle, nasofrontal angle, nasofacial angle, nasal tip angle, nasolabial angle, nasomental angle, cervicomental angle, maxillary lip contour angle and mandibular lip contour angle were recorded for the subjects. The buccal corridors were measured for smile analysis. 30 class I, 30 class II, 30 class III subjects were taken for T-analysis. T- analysis include stable point sella(s), ptA, and ptB then angles SAB, ABS, BSA, were measured to assess the relation of the maxilla and mandible with cranial base. Results: Garhwali population has a straighter profile as compared to white European population and other north Indian population. There is sexual dimorphism seen with males having more convex profile, a prominent nose and sharper nasal tip in comparison to females. Males have more acute cervicomental angles than females. While Females have prominent maxillary lip contour than males. There is no statistically significant difference found between the observation of lateral profile and cephalometric values in both males and females. The mean values of buccal corridor in males and females suggestive of broad buccal corridor. In assessing the relation of the maxilla and mandible with cranial base angles SAB, ABS, BSA in Class I, Class II, Class III subjects, we have found that there is highly significant difference exist between them. Conclusion: The parameters for facial and smile of this study can be considered during orthodontic treatment planning and t analysis can be use as the diagnostic tool to differentiate between class I, class II, class III to strengthen our diagnosis.

  212. Shweta Katiyar, Madhu Kumar, Madhu Mati Goel, Ashutosh Kumar, Veerendra Verma and Singh, H.P.

    Introduction: Liquid based cytology which is at present the standard protocol in cervical cytology samples is also being increasingly used for evaluation of non-gynecological specimens. There are few studies comparing LBC with conventional smears (CS) in salivary gland (SG) fine-needle aspiration biopsies (FNAB) and most of them have been done on Thin Prep. This study compares the cytomorphological details of Sure Path and conventional cytology in cases of pleomorphic adenoma. Aim: The aim of our study is to compare conventional smears and liquid based cytology (SurePath) in FNA of Pleomorphic adenoma in terms of cytomorphological details, adequacy and ease of interpretation. Materials and Methods: We conducted a prospective observational comparative study which included 47 cases of Pleomorphic adenoma. Both CS and LBC (SurePath) smears were prepared as per standard protocols and examined. Results and conclusion: In terms of adequacy and cellularity, conventional smears were better than LBC. Diagnostic accuracy of both the techniques in cellular cases however was comparable. Ease of interpretation was better with conventional smears due to abundant chondromyxoid stroma, an important clue in the diagnosis of pleomorphic adenoma. Nuclear details and background were better in LBC as compared to CS.

  213. Dr. Era Singh, Dr. Shilpa Shetty, Dr. Jnanadev K. R., Dr. Manjula, N. and Dr. Kelly P. S. L. Norton

    Presence of displaceable flabby tissues in the denture bearing areas present a challenge to the clinician during complete denture fabrication as 'flabby ridges' adversely affect the support, retention and stability of the dentures. The tissue surface of the conventional denture is rigid leading to uneven distribution of load which can worsen the case of flabby ridges. Liquid-supported dentures eliminate this disadvantage by providing flexible tissue surface which allow better distribution of stress and hence provides an alternate treatment modality in such cases. This case report presents a simplified way of fabricating a modified liquid supported denture using olive oil in a patient with completely edentulous maxillary arch with flabby tissues in the anterior region.

  214. Yadnit Bhosale

    Overdentures are the choice of treatment for most of them, but the only snag is its cost. The use of overdenture therapy preserves the sensation of proprioception, preserves the edentulous ridge, maintains the border seal and provides the patient with good speaking ability and chewing efficiency. The retention and stability of such prosthesis is enhanced greatly in bar supported overdentures. However, Magnets and Designs replicating male and female components of a stud attachment have also been used widely in the field of dentistryas they can be manufactured in small dimensions as retentive devices in overdenture technique, maxillofacial prosthesis, and obturators. This article deplicts cases showing semi precision techniques for magnet, Bar and Stud supported overdentures. This manuscript is showcasing a study, which is a cheaper, but effective way to provide the best to the patient.

  215. Vishakha Ugale

    The prosthetic management of the edentulous patient has long been a major challenge. Complete maxillary and mandibular dentures have been the traditional standard of care. However, most of the patients report problems adapting to their mandibular denture due to a lack of comfort, retention, stability and inability to masticate. For many years osseointegrated implant-supported overdentures have been used in the rehabilitation of the edentulous lower jaw with excellent result. Previous studies have shown that a mandibular two-implant retained overdentureis superior to the conventional denture in terms of retention and stability. Thereby, the two-implant assisted mandibular overdenture should be the first treatment option for mandibular edentulous patients. They satisfy thepatient’s expections, improve quality of life with their long term serviceability andpredictable outcomes. In this report, a mandibular two-implant retained overdenture was given to rehabilitate the edentulous mandible.

  216. Dr. Manasa, R., Dr. Vinod Pattabiraman and Dr. Silju Mathew

    Aim: First premolar extraction is the treatment option usually for bimaxillarydento-alveolar protrusion patients. Tongue space and length tends to be reduced after the retraction of anteriors and thus this study was done to determine the effects of first premolar extraction and retraction of the anteriors on the upper airway dimension. Materials and Methods: This retrospective study was carried out on the available pre- and post-orthodontic treatment records of adult patients who had bimaxillarydento-alveolar protrusion. The study material consisted of 31 patients with bimaxillarydento-alveolar protrusion and underwent fixed orthodontic treatment with extraction of upper and lower first premolar teeth. Digitized cephalometric radiographs were used to measure airway dimensions with the help of Dolphin 2d software. A paired t-test was used to compare the effects at p<0.5. Results: Results showed significant reduction in tongue length (p<0.5), Superior, middle and inferior airway space. SNA, SNB, ANB, Inter-incisal angle, Wits appraisal, Lower incisor Protrusion and Upper incisor – Palatal plane showed significant changes. Conclusion: Even though there is statistically significant airway reduction, it is clinically non-significant. Unless the airway is severely compromised, first premolar extraction and retraction of anteriors does not greatly affect the airway dimensions.

  217. Dr. Rhea Mahajan, Dr.Roseline Meshramkar, Dr. Lekha, KP., Dr. Ramesh Nadiger and Dr. Sandeep Mahajan

    Purpose: PEEK (polyetheretherketone) is a synthetic polymer being used increasingly as a dental implant material due to its iso-elastic nature and enhanced mechanical properties. This study analysed the cytotoxicity and biocompatibility of PEEK which helps to improve its bioactivity and ensure widened clinical prospects in future. Methods: Samples of PEEK dental implant material were added to murine T3T fibroblasts which were cultured in Dulbecco’s modified eagle medium at 37ºc. After 24 hours incubation at 37ºc and 5% carbon dioxide, the medium was replaced with 200 micro litre of medium which contained extracts of PEEK implant material. Cell morphology was analysed using Motic Inverted Microscope. Results: The result for biocompatibility of PEEK as a dental implant material when evaluated using Colony-forming unit fibroblast assay, was positive showing no signs of cytotoxicity. Conclusion: With analogous physical and mechanical properties to bone, PEEK has proved to be a potent biocompatible dental implant material.

  218. Dr. Suparna Roy, Dr. Rudra Prasad Chatterjee, Prof. Dr. Sanchita Kundu, Dr. Swagata Gayen and Dr. Suman Meyur

    Lymphomas are malignant neoplasm of lymphocytes and their cell precursors. The two main forms of lymphomas are: Hodgkin’s lymphoma and Non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma (NHL). The NHLs are a heterogeneous group of neoplasms with Diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) being the most common variant of NHL. It is an aggressive lesion that can either develop de novo or as a transformation from a less aggressive form of lymphoma. In the oro-pharyngeal region, DLBCL usually involves Waldeyer’s ring (WR), paranasal sinuses, mandible and maxilla. Primary extra-nodal presentation of this entity within jawbones are rare and their initial manifestation is in the form of non-tender swelling. Other systemic symptoms may include night sweat, fever, and unexplained weight loss. Histopathologic evaluation together with immunophenotype and cytogenetic studies may reveal the histologic variant. Immunohistochemistry has an important role in distinguishing cell type and differential diagnosis. Treatment for primary extra-nodal lymphoma of the mandible typically consists of a combination of chemotherapy and radiotherapy. Proper evaluation and investigations are required for correct diagnosis so that patient may receive the treatment in early stage and attain good prognosis. Here we present a case of 48 year old male patient diagnosed with Diffuse B-cell lymphomaalong with its clinical, radiological, histopathological and immunohistochemical features.

  219. Dr. Waquar Ahmad Khan, Dr. Kundan Rameshwar Meshram and Dr. S.S. Suryawanshi

    Ayurveda described about Acute and Chronic toxicity but also about unique concept of Dushivisha and Garavisha. Now-a-days the incidence and prevalence of diabetes in non-communicable disease increasing as flame of forest. Today we Indians looking towards western world and adopting their culture as well as population explosion, industrialization further added harmful chemicals to our environment and food materials. Such chemicals or toxic substance remains inside for long duration as cumulative effect produces diseases such diabetes, Thyroid disorders, skin diseases, respiratory disorders etc. due to its Dushivisha (cumulative) effect. Hence, the Dushivisha concept is still applicable for diabetes in present era.

  220. Amlyne G. Momin and Damodar Singh, Y.

    A study was conducted during the period from August, 2015 to April, 2016 to survey the occurrence of viral diseases in chicken in and around Shillong, Meghalaya, to study the pathology and finally to diagnose them by using common molecular techniques. A total of 370 dead and sick birds were collected from different organized and unorganized poultry farms in and around Shillong, Meghalaya. Of these, 109 cases (i.e. 29.46%) were diagnosed as viral diseases. Only 5 cases out of 21 clinically suspected cases could be diagnosed as Fowl pox (1.81%) basing on the clinical history, gross and histopathology and confirmed by PCR. The maximum cases were mostly in birds of 9-12 weeks (40%), followed by 3-9, 9-12 and above12 weeks of age (20%) with very low morbidity (5-7%). The general symptoms recorded were depression, dehydration, emaciation, and reluctance to move due to wart-like growth on the eyelid impeding their vision. In some chickens, egg production was affected. There were no significant gross lesions except for the wart-like nodules, crust and erosions on featherless parts. Most characteristic microscopic changes were hydropic degeneration and hyperplastic epithelium of stratum spinosum with presence of pathognomic eosinphillic intracytoplamic inclusion bodies called Bollinger bodies. There were areas of congestion and necrosis under the suferficial layer of skin. PCR was also used for confirming the disease by detecting the viral genome (i.e. 4b gene). The present study suggests that fowl pox is occurring in chicken population in and around Shillong, Meghalaya.

  221. Dr. Mohammad Zahir Kota, Dr. Sultan Mohammed Kaleem, Dr. Hadeel Saad Ali Amer and Dr. Bushra Ali Al-Zuhair

    Introduction: Stress is considered to be the main factor responsible for the development of temporomandibular disorders. (TMD) These factors are more commonly seen to cause TMD in professional college students. The aim of this study is to correlate the stress factors in development of temporomandibular disorders (TMD) in professional college students at two different times: six months before and one on the week before their college semester final examinations. Methods: The survey was conducted using a questionnaire, consisting of age, sex, college specialty and 11questions addressing trismus, joint noise, pain, clenching in the daytime, nocturnal bruxism, stress and previous history of TMJ disorder. The survey was performed between September 2014 and July 2015, and the total number of subjects was 275. There were 126 males and 149 females and 98% of the group were above the age of 20. The relationships between questions were examined by the chi-square test. The level of significance was set at 0.05. Results: The prevalence rate of signs and symptoms of TMD, headache was 32% at the beginning of the semester and it was found to be slightly higher one week before the exam with 36.7%. Joint noise reported by 18.2% of the students at the beginning of the semester and a slightly higher 20.4% at one week before the examination. Pain in or around the jaw was also found to have a significant presence among the study group at both times. Stress was seen to be significantly associated with many reported signs and symptoms of TMD reported at one week before exam such as pain in or around jaws when opening and closing mouth, joint noise, night PFH and day PFH. Conclusion: It was concluded that students preparing to take professional college examinations are high risk group for developing temporomandibular disorder due to psychological factors causing anxiety and stress. The symptoms become more significant as the semester progresses, and both anxiety and stress increase as the examination dates approach.

  222. Amlyne G. Momin and Damodar Singh, Y.

    A study was conducted during the period from August, 2015 to April, 2016 to survey the occurrence of viral diseases in chicken in and around Shillong, Meghalaya, to study the pathology and finally to diagnose them by using common molecular techniques. A total of 370 dead and sick birds were collected from different organized and unorganized poultry farms in and around Shillong, Meghalaya. Of these, 109 cases (i.e. 29.46%) were diagnosed as viral diseases. Out of 75 chickens suspected for IBD based on the clinical history, signs, gross and histopathology, 48 cases (12.97%) could be confirmed by RT-PCR using a primer of length 643 bp targeting the VP2 gene. Most of the cases were seen in age group of 3-6 (47.92%) weeks, followed by 6-9 (20.83%), 1-3 (18.75%) and 9-12 (12.50%). The morbidity and mortality rates recorded during the study period ranged from 3.5 - 5.4% and 38.5 - 52.6% respectively. The characteristic signs recorded during the study included dullness, depression, anorexia, ruffled feathers and yellowish white or greenish yellow diarrhoea. Most of the birds were disinclined to move and pecked at their vents. On post-mortem, most of the birds showed darkened discolouration of thigh and breast muscles with paint brush like haemorrhages. Bursa were enlarged and swollen with accumulation of thick mucoid, creamy or bloody exudates. Some birds showed congestion and haemorrhages at the junction of bursa and proventriculus. Microscopic examination of bursa revealed complete lymphoid depletion, formation of cyst filed with necrotic debris, heterophils and diffused haemorrhages. For confirmatory diagnosis, virus detection was done by RT-PCR.

  223. Poojitha Viswanath, Prathaban Munisamy, Deepa Thangaraj, Abitha Banu and Loganathan

    Aim: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the antimicrobial efficacy of Tagetes erecta and 5.25% sodium hypochlorite at different time intervals against Enterococcus Faecalis in contaminated root canals. Materials and Methods: Forty five biomechanically prepared single rooted teeth were selected and were inoculated with Enterococcus faecalis and randomly divided into 4 groups and control group containing 9 samples each. Group 1 samples were treated with 5.25% sodium hypochlorite (NaOCL) for 1 min, Group 2 specimens were treated with Tagetes erecta for 1 min. Group 3 samples were treated with sodium hypochlorite for 5 min and group 4 samples were treated with Tagetes erecta for 5 min and saline as final irrigant in all groups. The antimicrobial efficacy were tested by collecting dentinal chips from the inner walls of the canal and the number of colony forming units of viable E.faecalis obtained on agar plates were statistically analysed by One way Anova and Post hoc Tukey’s analysis with a significance level at p<0.01 Results: There was no statistically significant difference between 5.25% sodium hypochlorite and Tagetes erecta in 5 min time interval. Conclusion: The antimicrobial efficacy of Tagetes erecta is more or less equal to Sodium Hypochlorite as root canal irrigants.

  224. Dr. Dhaval Kesaria, Dr. Vibha Hegde and Dr. Anisha Kumar

    Extra oral sinus of dental origin can occur when the purulent by-products of pulpal necrosis spread along the path of least resistance from the root apex of the tooth to the skin on the face. Patients that present with a cutaneous sinus have usually visited a general physician or dermatologist first, as the lesion can often mimic a dermatologic pathology. The presentation and symptoms may cause confusion, and at times leading to unnecessary surgical interventions. Hence, diagnosis of an extraoral draining sinus of odontogenic origin and referal to a dental surgeon is very important for treatment of this condition.

  225. Dr. Sayli Rajendra Khanvilkar, Dr. Shruthi B. Patil, Dr. Anand Tavargeri, Dr. Rajesh Anegundi and Dr. Vijay Trasad

    Background: Childhood epilepsy may intrude the parent’s social and familial life thus building stress and anxiety in them. Parental behaviour, their characteristics and beliefs are important considerations for maintaining the child’s physical health, cognitive health and oral health. Thus the objective of the study was to assess parent’s knowledge and attitude about epilepsy and oral health of their child and to obtain co-relation with oral health status of the child.
    Materials and Methods: This cross sectional study was conducted in the outpatient department of Paediatric Dentistry which included 65 children suffering with epilepsy (age group 1- 14yrs) and their respective parents. A questionnaire was administered to the parents regarding knowledge and attitude of parents towards the epilepsy and oral health care of children. The oral health characteristic of children was recorded using DMFT index for caries prevalence, oral hygiene index (OHI) and Gingival index for gingival health.
    Results: A positive correlation was obtained between the Parental knowledge regarding Epilepsy and their attitude towards Epilepsy. Negative correlation was present between the Parental Knowledge and Attitude about Epilepsy with the Parental knowledge about Oral Health Status of the patient.
    Conclusion: Though parents had good knowledge and attitude about epilepsy, there is a dental neglect towards their children. Therefore there is a greater need to bring in the awareness among parents and instil positive dental attitude to maintain optimum oral health as poor oral health can inturn affect general health, growth and well being of the child.

  226. Amlyne G. Momin and Damodar Singh, Y.

    A study was conducted during the period from August, 2015 to April, 2016 to survey the occurrence of viral diseases in chicken in and around Shillong, Meghalaya, to study the pathology and finally to diagnose them by using common molecular techniques. A total of 370 dead and sick birds were collected from different organized and unorganized poultry farms in and around Shillong, Meghalaya. Of these, 109 cases (i.e. 29.46%) were diagnosed as viral diseases. From 87 clinically suspected cases for ND, 56 cases were diagnosed as positive (15.14%) basing on the clinical history, gross and histopathology and finally confirmed by RT-PCR using a specific primer for F gene having a length of 1662 bp. Most cases of ND were found to occur in 6-9 weeks old birds (35.71%), followed by 3-6 (21.43%), 9-12 (19.64%), 1-3 (12.50%) and above 12 weeks old birds (10.71%) with percent morbidity and mortality of 35-50% and 25-35% respectively. Depression, emaciation, greenish or white diarrhea, torticollis, conjunctivitis, paralysis, drop in egg production and soft-shelled egg with respiratory signs were commonly observed. In few cases, chicken exhibited edema of the head, face and wattles. The changes in the proventriculus included pin point hemorrhages at the tips of the proventriculus glands, petechiae and ecchymoses in the mucosa. In both intestinal wall and caecal tonsils haemorrhagic ulcers were seen. Hemorrhagic tracheitis with congestion and catarrhal exudates were found in some cases. The spleens were enlarged, friable and dark red or mottled, while the kidneys were enlarged, congested and swollen with urate deposition. Significant microscopic changes were hemorrhages and necrosis of the proventriculus mucosa with mononuclear cell infiltration. Caecal tonsil revealed hemorrhages, infiltration of heterophils in the lamina propria, lymphoid depletion and formation of germinal centers. There were sloughing of tracheal mucosa with loss of cilia and congestion, congested and pneumonic lungs, while brain sections revealed non-suppurative encephalitis and perivascular cuffing. The present study suggests that Newcastle disease is occurring in chicken population in and around Shillong, Meghalaya.

  227. Dr. Vikram Panghal and Dr. Sangeeta Sunda

    Modern dentistry has changed tremendously with implant therapy. It is the only treatment modality where additional abutments can be created for improving the esthetics and function. For successful implant therapy, making a proper treatment plan considering with surgical and prosthetic part in mind is key to success. often dentists tend to create a treatment plan overlooking the basic principles of prosthetic part. Careful planning, evaluation of all the diagnostic aids ,mock wax up and using a surgical guide helps to accurately locate the implant fixture regarding the depth and angulation which is critical to the esthetic and biomechanical success of the prosthesis. The clinical case depicted here is an illustration of how difficult it becomes to restore the case when the fixtures are placed in incorrect location and /or angulation.

  228. Dr. Ruchi Rathore, Dr. Priyanka Anand, Dr. Amul Kumar Butti, Dr. Ritu Sharma and Dr. Namrata Sarin

    Lipoleiomyoma as we know it, accounts for merely 0.03- 0.2 % of uterine leiomyomas. Predominantly described in the uterine corpus, there have been reports describing their occurrence at uncommon sites like ovary and broad ligament. Cervical leiomyomas however account for 1-2% of all the fibroids encountered clinically and lipoleiomyomas arising from the cervix are even rarer. Our case is unique since it is a giant lipoleiomyoma of cervix in a young patient who presented with prolapse. A 37 year old, female presented with continuous vaginal bleeding from past 3 months, abdominal pain since 1 month and a mass protruding out of vagina since last 1 week. On further investigations while ultrasound was suggestive of an adnexal mass, MRI suggested the presence of cervical leiomyoma. Total abdominal hysterectomy with unilateral salpingo-oophorectomy was performed on histopathology; a final diagnosis of cervical lipoleiomyoma was given. We report this case due to its rarity in terms of uncommon presentation, deceptive characteristics on radiology and its unusually large size and we also emphasize the role of imaging and histopathology with immunohistochemistry in diagnosis of this rare variant of leiomyoma of cervix .

  229. Naina S Wakode, Santosh L Wakode, Babita Kujur, Swagatika Samal, Praveen Kumar and Manisha Gaikwad

    Introduction: Histologically, each lobe of the thymus can be divided into a morphologically distinct cortex and medulla separated by a vascular cortico-medullary zone. Material and Methods: Out of 15 cadaver’s two males and one female cadaver showed persistent thymus. Initial sections were stained with Haematoxylin–Eosin methods. Additional sections were used for immunohistochemistry and stained for the expression of high molecular weight cytokeratin, CD3. Result: Immunohistochemistry profile had shown intensely positive immunoreaction for CD3 to lymphocytes Discussion: The involution process of thymus begins at puberty, but it is now known that the relative volume of the thymus decreases even in the mid-childhood. In our study adequate number of cortical T cells with epithelial cells were noted. Moderate affinity of high molecular weight cytokeratin to epithelial cell is seen which is suggestive of persistent of active thymus. The immunohistological findings of persistent active thymus are not only important for the better understanding of the a etiology of thymic disorders but also beneficial for better patient management and outcome.

  230. HO WANG YIN Gaëlle, LEVY Natanaël, SAMPO Magali, SOARE Silvia and HOFFART Louis

    Purpose: To evaluate the normal values of corneal densitometry of healthy subjects in order to assess a normative database. Methods: This retrospective non-randomized single-center was conducted on healthy subjects who performed a topographic examination before refractive surgery and showed no corneal or other ocular pathology. A slit-lamp examination was carried out before Scheimpflug topography scanning to exclude any corneal opacity. Parametric paired Student t-test and non-parametric Kruskal-Wallis test with Bonferroni correction was performed. Results: 311 healthy patients with a mean age of 39.4 +/- 15.7 [11; 82] years at the time of the inclusion were recruited. Mean total densitometry was 18.8 +/- 3.2 [13.2; 33.7] and a statistical difference was found between each layer and corneal rings. Graph distribution of the average corneal densitometry represents a gentle slope with a mild peak in the anterior stroma. Anterior densitometry was significantly higher than central and posterior densitometry (25.2+/- 4.4 [17.3; 46.2] vs 16.6+/- 3.1 [11.5; 31.2], p<0.0001 and 14.8 +/- 2.8 [9.6; 27.8], p<0.0001 respectively). Strong correlation was calculated between age and corneal densitometry, with a significant increase in corneal density with age (p<0.0001). Conclusion: We propose in this study Scheimpflug database of normal corneal densitometry. This can provide a useful objective measure of corneal transparency and may help routine clinical practice.

  231. Soheila Ghorbani, Maryam Ameri, Setare Nassiri, Nadere Behtash and Narges Isadi Mood

    Due to the growing prevalence of cervical cancer and turning it into a national health problem in developing countries, the best screening method is always considered. Herein we are going to report three cases of false negative tests of pap smear test, which is the main screening method in Iran. Our patients were 31,35 and 37 years old respectively, who did not have any evidences in favor of precancerous cervical lesions in regular screening by pap smear test but eventually were diagnosed as locally invasive squamous cell carcinoma of the cervix. Two of them had out-of-wedlock sex, and one, was heavy smoker on their past history. Although pap test has a good accuracy for differentiation between normal and abnormal cervical cells, but in false negative cases, because of delay in early diagnosis can leads to advanced stages of cervical cancer and poor outcomes. Therefore, it may be better to use complementary methods for screening in high-risk individuals.

  232. Dr. Anuja Ikhar, Dr. Manoj Chandak and Dr. Supriya Sawant

    Aim: The aim of this study was to assess the knowledge, attitudes, and practices of ashram school teachers toward oral health. Settings and design: Descriptive study. Materials and methods: Ashram School teachers (n = 79) of Wardha district were recruited into this study. The subjects completed a questionnaire that aimed to evaluate teachers’ knowledge, attitudes, and practices on oral health. Statistical analysis: The results were statistically analyzed and percentage was calculated. Results and conclusion: The participants’ oral hygiene habits were found to be regular. The majority of teachers showed good knowledge on oral health. Most of the teachers in this study recognized the importance of oral health. The majority of teachers did incorporate the importance of oral health in teaching and educating children in the school. But, not all teachers are involved effectively. So, the teachers should be trained comprehensively regarding importance of oral health and creating awareness on oral health promotion for their students in combination with health care personnel.

  233. Dr. Marvi Malik, Dr. Maimoona Anwaar and Dr. Alishba Malik

    Background: A number of evaluations (at small & and large scale) regarding vaccination against HBV have been carried out but very few of them reflect population opinions. Objectives of Study: To find out knowledge, attitude and practices regarding vaccination against HBV among Doctors of NMC, Multan. Study Design: It was a cross-sectional epidemiological study. Setting: The study was carried out in different surgical, medicine and gynecology wards N.H. Multan, and data was completed and analyzed in department of community medicine N.H. Multan. Duration: Study was conducted from 08th September to 15 September 2017 Study Population: H.Os, PGRS, M.Os of medicine, surgery, and Gynecology wards of N.H, Multan. Exclusion Criteria: Professors and senior registrar of Nishtar Hospital, Multan. Sampling Technique: Convenience sampling Non-Probablity. Sample Size: 350 Results: • Residence of doctors 72.6% urban / 27.4% rural • Age of doctors 58.9% (20-25), 39.1% (26-30), 1.7% (31-35) & 0.3 (>35) • Designation of doctors 60% (H.Os, 38% PGRs, 2% M.Os, and above that. • Knowledge of doctors about route of transmission of HBV infection: 68.3% complete knowledge / 31.7 % incomplete knowledge. • Knowledge about HBV infection : 26% complete knowledge/ 74% incomplete knowledge • %age of doctors tested for Hepatitis B: tested 93.7%/ Not tested 6.3% • Vaccination of doctors against Hepatitis B: vaccinated 92.9% / Not vaccinated 7.1% • Vaccination status of family of doctors against Hepatitis B: vaccinated 76.3%/ Not vaccinated 23.7% • Knowledge about preventive measures: complete knowledge 58.3%/ incomplete knowledge 41.7% Conclusion: From our study we concluded that doctors are now keener about vaccination against HBV. Most of the doctors (PGRs, M.Os) reported better knowledge, keen attitude and positive practices regarding vaccination against HBV.

  234. Dr. Dipayan Datta, Dr. Ramesh Kumar S.G., Dr. Aswath Narayanan M.B., Dr. Leena Selvamary A. and Dr. Sujatha A.

    Depression is one of the commonest mental problems affecting the general health as well as the oral health. Around 300 million people throughout the world are suffering from depression. Individuals with depression are often less motivated to maintain their oral hygiene resulting in dental caries, periodontal diseases, oral lichen planus, burning mouth syndrome etc. Patients coming to dental clinic with obvious oral problems might have undiagnosed depression. Hence, it is the dentist’s responsibility to communicate with the patients to detect any underlying psychological disorders. Proper communication will help the person to feel free to discuss about his mental state and the dentist can refer him for psychological counselling in order to regain his mental and oral health.

  235. Dr. Kannan, R.R., Dr. Nandhini, C.C., Dr. Sathish Devadoss, Dr. Devadoss, A. and Dr. Sudhir, R.

    Background: 25% of all abdominal trauma require abdominal exploration (Townsend, 2008; Hemmila, 2008; Dipak, 2016).7-10 % of all polytrauma deaths occur due to abdominal injuries (Fabion et al., 2002; Karamercan et al., 2008). Early detection and optimal procedure would reduce the morbidity and preventable mortality. Delay in diagnosis may be dangerous to the patient and can lead to the mortality and morbidity (Rishikant et al., 2015). Aim: To study the profile of various abdominal organ injuries found at laparotomy in polytrauma and various surgical procedures undertaken and outcome of the surgery. Materials and Methods: It is a retrospective observational study conducted for three years from 1st January 2014 to 31st December 2017 at Institute of Orthopedic Research and Accident Surgery, Madurai, at Devadoss multispecialty hospital, a private tertiary teaching polytrauma institute at Madurai, South Tamil Nadu, India. Patients who left the hospital against medical advice, those aged below 12 years and injuries treated conservatively by non-operative management (NOM) were excluded in this study. Analysis is based on the intra-operative findings such as pattern of abdominal organ injury, grade of injury due to different modes of injury, various surgical procedures undertaken, hospital stay and outcome recorded in the case sheet were analyzed by statistical methods. Results: In the span of 3 years of study, 48 patients had abdominal injuries due to polytrauma.17 haemodynamically stable patients with radiological signs of solid abdominal visceral injury were treated by non-operative management(NOM) were excluded from the study. Remaining 31 patients underwent laparotomy. The cause of injury was blunt trauma in 26 cases and penetrating injury in 5 cases. Common solid organ of injury was spleen and hollow visceral injury was small bowel. Multiple organ injuries are more common than isolated organ injury. Indications for solid organ injury were mainly for control of bleeding and for high grades of injuries as per standard protocol. All hollow visceral injury of all grades needed laparotomy. They required either resection and anastomosis or diversion. Hospital stay depended on associated injuries requiring surgery and co-morbid illness. Conclusion: Early diagnosis and treatment are of important factors determining the overall outcome. An associated injury often determines the survival. Multiple organ injury is more common than isolated injuries. No part of the abdomen is immune to trauma. All hollow visceral injuries needs laparotomy. Role of laparotomy is to control and arrest ongoing bleed and to manage peritonitis due to bowel perforations. Although early diagnosis of intestinal injuries is difficult, it is very important to recognize them since they have tremendous infectious potential. Surgical procedures have to be tailored as per intra-operative findings, general condition of patients and facilities available at the centre to reduce the morbidity and mortality.

  236. Anchit Wapa and Anu Namgyal

    Brassica juncea, commonly known as Indian mustard is a species of mustard plant (Brassica juncea, 1992). Powdered seeds mixed with castor oil is used as a soothing agent for application on burns, itch and insect bites; oil is used for massage in fever, insomnia, headache, lethargy, chest and back pain. The cooked leaves are eaten as vegetables to improve appetite (Singh, 1986). Presenting a peculiar case where a woman inserted mustard seeds in her eye as a traditional method to remove foreign body from eye leading to multiple foreign bodies embedded in eye. This is the first ever case reported of such type.

  237. Namrata Sarin and Priyanka Anand

    Behcet’s disease is an uncommon systemic vasculitis disorder of idiopathic nature. Almost all aspects of the disease are controversial including its diagnostic criteria, classification and pathogenesis. Patients present with frequent oral aphthous ulcers, genital ulcers, skin lesions and ocular lesions. Usually the inflammation is self limiting but relapsing episodes are hallmark of the disease. It also involves the central nervous system, large vessels and gastrointestinal tract. Histopathological and immunohistochemical examination plays an important role in the diagnostic accuracy of these lesions. New treatment modalities aims to target towards cytokines such as TNF-α, IFN-γ, IL-β, IL-6 and IL-8. Prognosis is unfavourable despite various therapeutic advancements. We herein present a case in a 21 year old male with recurrent oral and genital ulcers.

  238. Nada M Alhussain, Mohammed Zahir Kota, Saad M Alqahtani, Sara M. Alhussain and Sultan M Kaleem

    Background: Hepatitis B and C virus infections have become a serious problem of public health and a major cause of morbidity and mortality, particularly in developing countries. Globally, two billion people (about one-third of the world's population) have been infected by Hepatitis B virus (HBV) Objective: To assess the knowledge, attitudes and risk perceptions towards HIV, HBV and HCV infected patients among KKU interns, undergraduate dental and medical students. Methodology: A cross-sectional study was conducted, included clinical levels students and interns in medical and dental collage of King Khalid University. Convenient sampling technique was used to collect the data from all available students and interns who agreed to participate in the study using pretested questionnaire. Results: The study included 536 medical and dental students (268 for each) with ages ranged from 20 to 26 years old and mean age of 23.3 1.3. Female students constituted 67.2% of the sample. About 47% of the students had good level of knowledge regarding HBV infection, 31.2% of them were of good level of knowledge about HCV while 29.9% had good level of knowledge regarding HIV infection. Conclusion and Recommendation: The overall knowledge, attitude and practice of dental and medical students showed satisfactory outcomes. However, female students were more aware than males and medical students were at lower awareness area than dental students.

  239. Dr. Geeta, I.B., Dr. Sadiya Naaz, A., Dr. Sreejith, S. and Dr. Apoorva Saxena

    Aim: This paper aims to describe the esthetic management of anterior midline diastema and spacing in a male patient, using a ceramic veneer and a crown. Background: The use of ceramic veneers has increased due to the minimal tooth preparation involved, the color and contour stability of the material, and the enhanced esthetics. They have proven to be an effective treatment option for managing esthetic and functional problems, especially in the anterior teeth. Case background: This case report describes an interdisciplinary approach used for a 28-year-old male with midline diastema. The interdisciplinary treatments included restorative and periodontic treatments. Conclusion: All ceramic crown and porcelain laminate veneer were successfully applied to correct esthetic problems and achieve improved esthetic and functional outcomes

  240. Dr. Sridevi Tamagond, Dr. Nikhil Zaparde, Dr. Sachin Gunda, Dr. Anil Patil and Dr. Sandhyarani, B.

    Introduction - Oral health is an important aspect of health for all children, but it is all the more important for children with special health needs. Visually impaired individuals are at a greater risk of developing oral diseases like periodontal disease and dental caries because of greater difficulty in attaining good oral hygiene. Method - In our study, a total of 42 Non sighted and sighted children were asked a questionnaire in their language in order to evaluate the Oral hygiene practices and Oral health knowledge. Later, DMF/def index and OHI-S index was recorded to determine Oral health status. Results - There was no significant difference in Oral hygiene practices, and Oral Health Knowledge amongst both the groups however the blind group had high caries score and poor oral hygiene as compared to the sighted group and the difference was statistically significant. Conclusion - Non-Sighted children are burdened with the heavy load of dental caries and periodontal problems as compared to sighted children in spite of having similar oral hygiene practices and oral health knowledge

  241. Tocai, M., Cavalu, S., Laslo, V., Burescu, P. and Vicas, S.I.

    Background: The relation between the minerals content of plants and human health benefits was proven by previous data from literature. Selenium is an essential trace element for human health due to its different biological activities. Objective: Our aim was to investigate the effects of nano-selenium (NSe) supply on broccoli sprouts from point of view of growth parameters, total phenols content and antioxidant capacity of selenium-enriched broccoli sprouts. Method: The NSe particles were produced by chemical reduction of NaHSeO3 with glucose. Physicochemical characteristics of NSe was performed by UV-Vis spectroscopy and Dynamic Light Scattering. Broccoli seeds were germinated in the plastic boxes, sprinkled every day with different concentrations of nano-selenium solution (10, 50 and 100 mg/L) for 9 days. The length of shoots and roots were measured, and the total phenols content was determined by Folin-Ciocalteu method, while antioxidant capacity was evaluated by DPPH assay. Results: By NSe supply, the growth parameters of broccoli sprouts were not affected compared with the control sample. Total phenol content of shoots was not affected by treatment with NSe, but 50 and 100 mg/L NSe supply increased the total phenols content of roots compared with the control. The antioxidant capacity of shoots was increased significantly (P=0.05) in all the samples treated with NSe. With respect to the roots, only the treatment with 10 mg/L significantly increased the antioxidant capacity. Conclusion: Using NSe particles as fertilizer, selenium-enriched broccoli sprouts can be obtained, with positive effects on human health.

  242. Yibin Hou and Jin Wang

    At present, the electronic commerce and the customer alliance network shopping and network analysis is becoming increasingly popular, mainly is the result of highly developed and popular wireless communication. The work of software mainly includes artificial intelligence and the Internet of things, and the knowledge of artificial intelligence will be used in the research of the Internet of things. Assembly language mainly includes sequential branch cycle programming, subroutine definition and call. The core component of microcomputers is microprocessors. Intel introduces Pentium MMX (multi energy Pentium), Pentium Pro (high energy Pentium), Pentium two generation, three generation, four generation and so on. And Itanium. IBM is also known as the blue giant. The IBM PC series microcomputer has the characteristics of advanced design, rich software, complete functions, cheap price and openness. The system function call mainly includes two kinds of DOS and BIOS. In the DOS operating system, there are two layers of internal subroutines for users to use, and they are the basic input-output subroutines, BIOS and DOS layer function modules. Many functions of DOS are similar to those of BIOS calls. They both have similar writing formats, but DOS provides more necessary tests. Therefore, DOS operation is generally easier than the corresponding BIOS part. Assembly language mainly involves BCD code and ASCII code. Software engineering mainly involves the use of visio_project_powerdesign mapping, library management system feasibility study report and project development plan writing, data flow diagram and system flow chart production. Project 2003 project management and Gantt chart. "Ticket booking system" is an important issue in the field of software engineering. The UML modeling under software engineering is modeled with Visio, powerdesign, and rationalrose. The aerospace science and technology industry is also an important application of the Internet of things.

  243. Jaiswal, N., Gangurde, A. and Gangurde, P.

    The disfigurement associated with the loss of an eye or any other facial structures affect the physical, emotional and psychological wellbeing of a person. Rehabilitation with maxillofacial prosthesis relieves this psychological trauma by restoring lost facial structure and esthetic of the patient. Replacing a natural eye with an artificial prosthesis is the most critical as it is the first thing to be noticed by an observer. The ocular prosthesis must resemble the natural iris, which determines the color of the eyes. This articles aims at describing a simplified technique to fabricate custom made ocular prosthesis with the help of digital photography to achieve life like appearance.

  244. Dr. Vaishali, S. Panchwate Tinkhede

    Freshwater catfish Heteropneustes fossilis was exposed to sublethal concentration of Azadirachta indica for a period of 24, 48, 72 and 96 hours. The normal kidney of fish showed perfect nephron with interstitial lymphoid tissue but after exposure to NEEM (Azadirachta indica) a Biopesticide, showed the apparent damage in renal tubules along with disintegration of the cytoplasmic material in the epithelium., Glomerular shrinkage, Increased tubular lumen, Pycnotic nuclei, vacuolization as well necrosis.

  245. Dr. Nagamalleswar Rao, I., Dr. Poornima Sowjanya, Dr. Satya Bhushan, N.V.V., Dr. Kartheek Gandikota and Dr. Ratnakar Bale

    Background: The healing potential of platelet growth factors has generated interest in using Platelet-Rich Fibrin (PRF) in osseous defects. A prospective study was performed to determine if periapical osseous defects treated with platelet-rich fibrin exhibit enhanced healing when along alloplastic bone graft material. Methods: Periapical defects in ten patients were treated with PRF and hydroxyapatite. Radiological evaluation of healing was done at 1month, 3 months and 6 months. Histologic evaluation was done at the end of 6 months. Results: Bone Healing was seen in the PRF treated sites. By the end of 3 months all the defects showed resorption of the graft material and by the end of 6 months all the defects showed osseous fill and matured bone formation. Conclusion: PRF along with bone graft material can be used for rapid regeneration of osseous defects.

  246. Mehmet Karatas, Engin Burak Selcuk, Turgay Karatas and Senay Zırhlı Selcuk

    In this work we have done, in the Helsinki Declaration, which was recently published in Brazil by the World Medical Association (WMA), we aimed to reveal the issues that could create ethical problems especially for researchers. This declaration, which contains ethical principles related to medical research on humans, has provided considerable guidance to many investigators and researchers since 1964. Complicated advances relate to research involving human studies. When medical research is decided on human beings, the health and the protection of the rights of volunteers must be subject to ethical standards. Otherwise there is a possibility that ethical problems that will be talked about too much.

  247. Dr. Supriya Sawant, Dr. AnujaIkhar, Dr. Manoj Chandak, Dr. Bhaghyashree Karwa and Dr. Akshayprasad Thote

    Introduction: Bleaching is simplest, least invasive and least expensive means available to lighten discoloured teeth and diminish and eliminate many stains in both vital and nonvital teeth. Aim- To compare different fluoride gel applications on micro-hardness of bleached teeth using Vicker’s Hardness profiles. Materials and method: 80 extracted human maxillary anterior teeth were selected. Roots of selected teeth were sectioned horizontally 2 mm below the level of CEJ and crown were sectioned labiopalatally. Samples were randomly divided into 3 experimental groups and one control group, 20 samples in each group and stored in artificial saliva for 10 days prior to the bleaching procedure as well as in between 2 successive bleaching procedure. Microhardness testing was done preoperative, post bleaching and post fluoride application. Bleaching was carried out for 21 days for 4 hours. Allotted fluoride application was done on 21st day for 5 minutes group A- Control, Group B- 2% Sodium Fluoride, Group C- 0.4% Stannous fluoride, Group D- 1.23% APF. Results and Conclusion: Application of bleaching agents led to decrease in microhardness, whereas application of fluorides post bleaching helped to restore the microhardness equal to the preoperative values. APF led to highest increase in the microhardness post bleaching.

  248. Dr. Aher Sangeeta, Dr. Ashok kumar and Dr. Rahul Gutte

    Introduction: The association between arterial hypertension (HT) and hyperuricemia is very common. It has been reported that 25-40% of patients with untreated HT and more than 80% of patients with malignant HT have high SUA levels .Hypertension has itself been recognized as an independent risk factor for cardiovascular mortality and morbidity .Normal values of serum uric acid for women are 2.5 to 7.5 milligrams/deciliter (mg/dL) and for men 4.0 to 8.5 mg/dL. SUA and blood pressure are such two indicate to a possible correlation between them which further needs to be elaborated in Indian scenario. Materials and methods: This was a cross-sectional, observational, comparison study in the normotensive and hypertensive patients visiting medicine outpatient department at a tertiary healthcare setup. A total of 100 patients were studied. Patients were enrolled into two groups, Group 1: Hypertension and group 2: Normal control. Each group was allotted 50 participants. The patients were included if they satisfied the JNC VII criteria for hypertension. They were excluded if they were having any other condition known to cause raised serum uric acid levels and secondary hypertension. Results: With the result based on the study carried out we concluded that there can be a direct relation between hyperuricemia and hypertension. Also the study showed that the SUA levels were significantly increased in patient with stage 2 hypertension in comparasion with those with stage 1 hypertension, showing that the severity of hypertension also related to the SUA levels. Conclusions: Based on the study carried out we concluded that SUA can be used as an early biochemical marker to determine the severity and duration of hypertension.

  249. Shaik Sharmila Sufia and Priyanka Cholan

    Florid cemento-osseous dysplasia clearly looks to be a form of bone and/or cementoid tissues limited to jaw bones. It commonly affects middle-aged women in the fourth and fifth decade. It is usually asymptomatic and is incidentally diagnosed based upon clinical and radiographic examinations. Radio graphically the lesion shows bilaterally diffuse irregularly shaped radiopacities in the alveolar processes involving at least two quadrants. Management of an asymptomatic patient consists of regular follow up with reinforcement of good oral hygiene to prevent loss of teeth and management of the symptomatic patient is more difficult due to dysplastic bone with compromised blood supply, which is susceptible to infection. This article presents a rare case report of a 45-year-old south Indian female who was clinically and radiographically diagnosed as florid cemento-osseous dysplasia affecting the entire mandible.

  250. Dr. Kalpajyoti Bhattacharjee and Dr. Shashwati Paul

    The term fibro-osseous lesion (FOL) is a generic designation of a group of jaw disorders characterized by the replacement of bone by a benign connective tissue matrix. This matrix displays varying degrees of mineralization in the form of woven bone or of cementum-like round acellular intensely basophilic structures. Diagnosis of these lesions based on histologic appearance alone has considerable limitations. Adequate clinical and para clinical observations, such as patient’s age, sex, location of the lesion, duration of symptoms, imaging characteristics, and histologic fi ndings are necessary to arrive at an accurate diagnosis. The aim of this review is to study the various classification systems given by various authors which will enable us to adopt a uniform terminology and improve communications between clinicians, pathologist and surgeons.

  251. Dr. Manoj Reddy, Dr. Manoj Kumar Duppala and Dr. Vijay Narasimman Reddy

    Adhesive capsulitis commonly presents with pain and limitation of both active and passive shoulder movements. It involves the glenohumeral joint and is relatively more common condition encountered in elderly and among diabetic patients. The incidence among the diabetic group of patients is 10-20%. Diabetic patients with adhesive capsulitis present with severe stiffness and pain and should be treated actively. The treatment modalities include intra-articular corticosteroid injection, NSAIDs and physiotherapy. In this study we compare the efficacy of intra articular corticosteroid injection with NSAIDs in adhesive capsulitis of diabetic patients. Method: The study was conducted during Feb 2016-Aug 2017 on diabetic patients with adhesive capsulitis in Department of orthopaedics, Sree Balaji medical college and hospital. Pain and the limitation of range of movements in all the directions were taken as our diagnostic criteria. The patients were divided into 2 groups, of which the first received NSAID and the second group undergone intra- articular corticosteroid injection. Exercises in the home were started after 1 week, for both the groups. Patients were evaluated in 2nd, 6th, 12th and 24th weeks. SPSS-15 software were used to compare and analyze the data. Results: 57 patients of which 19 were males (33.3 %) and 38 were females (66.7 %) are included in the study. There is significant difference noted between sex (P = 0.4) and age (P = 0.19) of patients. No significant relation was seen between 2 groups after 24 weeks considering the range of motion in flexion (P = 0.51), range of motion in abduction (P = 0.76), range of motion in external rotation (0.12) and range of motion in internal rotation (P = 0.91). There is also any significant difference in pain score was not detected (P = 0.91). Conclusion: Our study showed that there is no significant difference in efficacy in diabetic patients with adhesive capsulitis treated with both intraarticular corticosteroid and NSAID’s.

  252. Olatunbode, O., Viswanath, Y.K.S., Ahmed, I. and Davis, P.

    Aim: Pneumatosis intestinal is (PI) is a radiological finding that usually portends untoward outcomes and often warrant aggressive surgical interventions, as it could signify ischaemia. When it occurs as a post-operative complication of surgery, it creates a management dilemma. Our aim was to assess the clinical outcomes of conservatively managed post-operative pneumatosis following upper gastrointestinal (UGI) cancer resection in a tertiary Upper GI cancer centre. Methods: Patients who developed an acute abdomen and had a computed tomography (CT) diagnosis of PI following an UGI cancer resection, between 2008 and 2016 were identified. We analysed contributing factors and clinical outcomes of its operative and non-operative management. Results: Of 717 oesophagogastric resections in the eight-year period, there were nine (1.25%) patients with pneumatosis. Four had oesophageal cancer and five had gastric adenocarcinomas. Four had two-stage oesophagectomies, two had sub-total gastrectomies, two had total gastrectomies and one was attempted resection inoperable. All had jejunostomy feeding tubes (JFT) and four had neo-adjuvant chemotherapy. Post-operatively, CT scans revealed six patients with small bowel pneumatosis, two with colonic pneumatosis, and one had pneumatosis in both small and large bowels. Of the six patients with small bowel pneumatosis, two had portal venous gas and one each occurred at the site of JFT insertion and at the jejuno-jejunal anastomosis. Eight patients recovered from PI with three needing re-operations and 1 died within 24 hrs with PI and acute coronary syndrome. Conclusion: PI is an uncommon complication and can manifest as acute abdomen following UGI cancer resections. Most patients can be managed conservatively when carefully selected and assessed.

  253. Blagia, M., Cascardi, P., Colamaria, A., Bozzi, M.T. and De Tommasi, A.

    Introduction: Dermal sinus occur in the cranial vault, and the occipital region. Rarely, is localized in the posterior fossa, particularly in the midline position, or in the cavity of the fourth ventricle. It could communicate with the skin through a fistula with potential risk of deeper abscesses. Posterior fossa abscess secondary to dermal sinus associated with intracranial dermal cyst is an uncommon pathology (0,1 to 0,7 %). Methods: A 24-month old girl was admitted to our institution with a cutaneus fistula in the midline of the occipital region. A CT scan and brain MR showed a sottotentorial intradiploic cyst with peripheral enhancement and edema. The mass was hyperintensity on T1-weighted sequences, with lower signal on T2-weighted images. A suboccipital craniotomy was performed with evacuation of the abscess and an excision of the visible capsule with a total removal of a 3 cm whitish, midline, encapsulated cystic mass with hair component. Results: The histologic examination confirmed the diagnosis of abscess associated with dermal cyst and dermal sinus. Post-operative course was uneventful. The patient experienced a sudden improvement of cephalalgia and 15 days after the microsurgical excision, was discharged. On postoperative RM imaging, it was found the total removal of the lesion. A 36 month follow-up no evidence of recurrence. Discussion: Posterior fossa dermoid cyst should be considered in all children with a cutaneus fistula. Early neurosurgical treatment of these benign tumours should be performed to prevent the development of severe intracranial infection. Best results were obtained in cases of early diagnosis and the complete removal of the abscess. The reported case passes through a review of similar cases riported in the literature confirm the rarety of the case report.

  254. Nanthini, K. C. and Sathasivasubramanian, S.

    Aim: To retrospectively evaluate the prevalence, morphology, and calcification pattern of the elongated styloid process in a hospital based population in the region of Chennai. Materials and Methods: 350 digital panoramic radiographs were retrieved randomly from the archival records and evaluated. The length of the styloid process was measured from the point where the styloid process left the tympanic plate to the tip of the process despite the styloid process being segmented or not. Based on the radiographic appearance, the elongated styloid process were classified according to their morphology and calcification pattern. The collected data was subjected to statistical analysis using student’s t test and chi-square test. Results: The mean age of elongated styloid process was 42.93±4 years. Elongated styloid process was more prevalent in males when compared to females (p<0.05). Type I (elongated) was the most common morphology of elongated styloid process assessed (52.4%) and the most common pattern of calcification assessed was calcified outline (41.9%). Conclusion: Styloid process elongation significantly increases with increasing age with an increased male predominance. Styloid process elongation may be coincidental asymptomatic radiographic finding. The panoramic radiographs are economical, easily accessible and useful diagnostic aid for early detection of elongated styloid process with or without symptoms.

  255. Dr. Shandilya Ramanojam, Dr. Mayur Limbhore, Dr. Viren Patil and Dr. Priyadarshini Banerjee

    An odontoma is merely a developmental anomaly. Odontomes are one of the most common type of odontogenic tumors and are generally asymptomatic. An odontome gives rise to ameloblasts and odontoblasts and are considered to be developmental anomalies resulting from the growth of completely differentiated epithelial and mesenchymal cells. Histologically, there are two types of odontomes: Compound and Complex. Both undergo a second classification considering the location: (1) Central Odontoma, have intra-bony location (2) Peripheral Odontoma, have extra-bony location; usually in soft tissues like muscles, gums and mucosa, and (3) Erupted Odontoma, exposed to the oral cavity, causing painful symptoms due to inflammation, which is the rarest in Literature. The most frequent being intraosseous while an erupted odontoma in the oral cavity can be regarded as a rarity. This case report describes a compound odontome diagnosed in a child with resultant delayed eruption of permanent mandibular teeth. Impacted permanent mandibular left canine and premolar were brought in normal positions by surgical excision of the lesion. An early diagnosis of the same allows better prognosis with the adoption of a less complex and expensive treatment.

  256. Dr. Anu Chandran, Dr. Viji S Pillai and Dr. Deepthi J Prabhu

    The internal jugular vein is preferred for central venous cannulations due to its superficial position in the neck.Even though there is good success rate for landmarks based technique, close proximity to important structures like common carotid artery always poses a threat of inadvertent vascular puncture. This study aims to evaluate the variations in theposition of the internal jugular vein in relation to the common carotid artery with ultrasound guidance.The study was approved by the Institutional Review Board. Data from 200 patients who were scheduled for elective surgeries were obtained with the aid of ultrasonography. Anatomical variations of the internal jugular vein in relation to the common carotid artery, antero- posterior and transverse diameters of IJV, depth of the internal jugular vein from skin and congenital anomalies if any, were studied. Statistical analysis was done using SPSS 11 software. Continuous data were tested using Paired t-test and the statistical significance for categorical/qualitative data was tested using Fishers exact test. The data with P value < 0.05 was considered statistically significant. In our study the most common location of IJV was lateral to the commoncarotid artery. Small sized internal jugular vein (diameter ≤ 7 mm)was found in 9.5% of patients on the right side and in 13.5% patients on the left side and the difference was not statistically significant. Also, the transverse diameter and depth of IJV from the skin was more on the right side and was statistically significant.

  257. Annapoorna Kini, Sudhakar, V., Manjunatha, Shubhashini, N. and Swetha, H.

    Aim: The aim of this study was to measure the apical debris extrusion during retreatment using three different techniques. Method: Forty five single rooted anterior teeth were selected for the study that were decoronated and were root canal treated. Access was restored with composite resin. Teeth were placed in eppendorf tubes and sealed. They were weighed before and after retreatment. Teeth were then subjected to retreatment and they were divided into 3 groups Group I: retreatment using Hfiles, Group II: retreatment using protaper retreatment files, Group III: retreatment using reciproc files. Results: The results were subjected to Analysis of variance (ANOVA) to find the significance of study parameters. The amount of apical debris extrusion was found to be least in Group III. There was no clinical significance between Group I and Group II. There was a statistically significant difference between Group III in comparison to Group I and II. Conclusion: Present study showed that the amount of apical debris extrusion was least for reciprocating engine driven technique of retreatment when compared to the hand file (H-file) and rotary technique for retreatment endodontics.

  258. Baba Iqbal Khaliq, Danish Rafiq Khan, Yawar Shafi Bhat, MohamadIqbal Lone, Khalil Mohamad Baba and Hameed Raina

    Background: Last decade has shown increase in IBD cases from Asian countries which is against the belief that IBD is very rare in developing Asian countries including Kashmir valley. There is no study done in Kashmir valley on Inflammatory Bowel Disease. Objective: To study Clinicopathological profile of IBD patients in Kashmiri population where this disease has not been studied till now. Material and Methods: 5 years study extending from June 2009 to June 2014, prospective for two years and retrospective for three years. Biopsies and resected specimen received were studied in detail. Results: Study included total of 210 IBD cases. Males were 127 (60.5%) and 83 (39.5%) were females. M:F ratio was 1.53:1. Age ranged from 1 to 80 years, Mean Age was 39.75 years. Maximum number of cases were seen in age group of 20 to 30 years (23.33%). Smoking history was absent in 79%. History of junkfood and fast food consumption was present in most IBD patients. 75.5% were residing in urban areas. IBD was more common in Educated and Middle socioeconomic class. Pain abdomen, bloody diarrhoea and Hematochesia were dominant symptoms. Arthritis was present in 4 patients. Mean duration of disease was 2.43 years. Haemorrhagic areas, ulcerated and friable areas, loss of vascularity and oedema were dominant endoscopic findings. Rectum was involved in 119 and sigmoid colon in 84 patients. Cryptitis, mucodepletion, cryptabscesses, crypt distortion, cryptatrophy and epithelial erosions were dominant microscopic findings. Out of total 210 IBD patients UC was present in 86.6%, CD in 12.38% and Indeterminate colitis in 2 patients. Granulomas and fissures were present in 9 CD Patients. All CD and Indeterminate colitis patients were negative for Dysplasia, out of 182 UC patients low grade dysplasia was present in 17 and high grade dyplasia in 4 patients. Conclusion: IBD is no longer a western disease only. This study confirms the existence of IBD in this geographical area and emphasises the need of studying IBD in detail in this geographical area and increasing awareness about this disease by educating health care providers and patients about this disease and encourage periodic endoscopic surveillance biopsies to rule out dysplasia.

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