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April 2021

  1. Dr. Deepali Chahande

    Climate of a region along with other factors is mainly also affected by rainfall. On the other hand, rainfall distribution is affected by geomorphology of a region, wind direction, presences of humidity etc. India being a monsoonal climate, experiences reversal of winds i.e. South-West monsoon winds and North-East winds. Keeping this in mind, the present research paper tries to make out pattern of spatial distribution of rainfall in Maharashtra and explore whether rainfall distribution in Maharashtra is affected by geomorphology. Findings shows that there is a variation in spatial distribution of rainfall. From west to east (central Maharashtra) sudden decrease in amount of rainfall is there and again gradual increase is there towards east of Maharashtra. this is due to geomorphic units or divisions in Maharashtra. The role of Sahayadri (Western ghats) i.e. its north-south location acting as relief barrier for humid winds is very much significant in rainfall distribution in Maharashtra.

  2. Dr. Shikha Jaiswal, Dr. Sachin Gupta, Dr. Vineeta Nikhil and Dr. Somya Panwar

    Loss of tooth in the anterior region is a deeply traumatic experience for a patient and requires an immediate aesthetic replacement. Resin bonded prostheses are an innovative alternative to traditional treatment providing an immediate cost effective alternative for direct tooth replacement with excellent aesthetics. This case report highlights the use of patient’s own tooth as pontic and presents an immediate conservative restorative solution which leaves open other treatment options for the future.

  3. Maria Vasilievna Kushnareva, Ekaterina Vitalievna Vetrova and Elena Solomonovna Keshishyan

    Aim: To investigate the microbiological effectiveness of intravenous immunoglobulins in the complex treatment of "ventilator-associated" pneumonia (VAP) in premature newborns. Material and methods: We conducted a microbiological study of tracheo-bronchial aspirates (TBA) in 98 premature newborns with respiratory distress syndrome complicated by the development of "ventilator-associated" pneumonia (VAP). The 16 infants received intravenous immunoglobulins (IVIG) from the second day of life. The 47 infants received IVIG in the acute period of VAP from 5 to 8 days from the onset of the disease. The comparison group consisted of 35 infants with VAP who were not given IVIG. Infants from all groups received antibacterial therapy. Results: The content of microorganisms in TBA in the amount of lg3 colony-forming units in 1 ml or more is an unfavorable sign for the development of VAP in premature newborns. The use of IVIG in infants with VAP is characterized by high microbiological efficiency, which occurs in most patients within a day from the start of treatment. The greatest inhibition of growth is observed against bacteria, Mycoplasma pneumonia, Mycoplasma hominis, Ureaplasma urealyticum and Chlamidia trachomatis. The effect was weaker against Candida spp. The best effect was with the early administration of IVIG: the respiratory tract was sanitized faster and secondary infection developed less frequently.

  4. Kumar Bhaskar

    Chhattisgarh is the tenth largest and sixteenth most populous state in India. There are many places in Chhattisgarh which are important for tourism for various reasons. Some of these are important for archaeological reasons, while some are famous for natural scenes and wildlife. Chhattisgarh is situated in the lap of nature, due to which Chhattisgarh is full of natural beauty. Green forests, beautiful and picturesque waterfalls, beautiful plateaus and winding rivers make the eyes relaxed. Most important is the Adivasis living in Chhattisgarh, which are a center of great attraction for tourists. Chhattisgarh is proud of its spectacular natural beauty, wildlife, monuments and tribal mixed traditional rich cultural heritage. The seashore has everything for tourism here. India's largest waterfall (Bastar's Chitrakote Falls), South America's second most dense forest after Amazon, has three national wildlife parks and 13 wildlife sanctuaries. Chhattisgarh was mainly known as Dakshin Kosala which is mentioned in Ramayana and Mahabharata. The Chhattisgarhi Devi temple has 36 pillars on the basis of which it derives its present name. Chhattisgarh, one of the power and steel generating states of India, was established on 1 November 2000 after the partition from Madhya Pradesh. Raipur is its capital and is bordered by Madhya Pradesh, Maharashtra, Andhra Pradesh, Orissa, Jharkhand and Uttar Pradesh. This state being the heart of the country, it is full of many historical, religious and natural scenic spots. Many religions have originated here and their propaganda is in place. From the tourism point of view, about 105 big and small places of Chhattisgarh state have been identified as tourist destinations. OBJECTIVE: The objective of Chhattisgarh Tourism Board is to develop the state as an international tourism state and to preserve and enrich the cultural heritage of the state. The state has ancient monuments, rare wildlife, carved temples, Buddhist sites, palace waterfalls, mountain plateaus, rock paintings and caves. Chhattisgarh has a domestic airport which is connected to almost all the airports in the country. Indian Airlines operates regular flights from Chhattisgarh to other parts of the country. Raipur and Bilaspur, the two major railway stations of Chhattisgarh, connect this state to the major railway stations of the country. The road network in Chhattisgarh is also excellent. NH 6, NH 16 and NH 43 highways connect major cities of Chhattisgarh to other parts of the country. The average rainfall occurs in the monsoon. Tourists can visit here from November to January. This time is good for traveling here.

  5. Eva M. Molina-Trinidad, Erika A. Téllez-Álvarez, Carmen Balderas-Delgadillo, José A. Ariza-Ortega, Marco A. Becerril-Flores, Carlos E. Cuevas Suárez, Luis C. Romero Quezada, Alejandra Rosales Lagarde, Claudia I. Martínez-Alcalá and Clara L. Domínguez De

    Background: Cortisol quantification is important in clinical practice to measure periods of stress. The cortisol test is used to diagnose adrenal gland disorders. These include Cushing's syndrome, which causes the body to make too much cortisol, and Addison's disease, which causes the body to not make enough cortisol. Objective: In this work was to develop a validated UV/Vis spectrophotometric method to quantify cortisol in saliva samples from subjects whose ages ranged from 18 to 24 (25 women and 10 men) and ranged from 45 to 55 years old (8 women and 7 men). Methods: For the experimental study, a saliva sample was taken in the first hours of the morning (1.5 mL). The sample was homogenized and read at an absorbance of 280 nm using diluted saliva as a control and carrying out an extraction with ethanol and trichloroacetic acid to identify cortisol. Results: This method was linear (r = 0.9999) for an interval of 2.5 to 25 µg/mL, accurate, precise (variation coefficients of repeatability and reproducibility were less than 1.5%, andless than 2%, respectively). it is specific and with limits of detection and quantification of 0.019 µg/mL and 0.16 µg/mL. The concentration in young people was 52.58  8.59 g/dL (women) and 49.75  7.65 g/dL (men); in older adults 38.83  2.82 g/dL (women) and using this method 25.76 g/dL (men). Conclusion: This method shows to be specific and sensitive with limits of detection and quantification of 0.019 µg/mL and 0.16 µg/mL, respectively. Cortisol average concentration found using this method was higher in young people (women= 52.58  8.59 g/dL and men= 49.75  7.65 g/dL) than in older adults (women= 38.83  2.82 and men= 25.76 g/dL).

  6. Dr. Öğretim Üyesi Sefer Gümüş and Ülkü Güner

    Purpose of the Research: It is the determination of the effect of the level of value nurses give to their jobs on their level of commitment to their organization. Materials and Methods: With the questionnaire form prepared in line with the research, a study was conducted on the nurses working in the Education and Research Hospitals located in the European side of Istanbul province, and the questionnaire was applied on 202 nurses. Results: The data obtained from the questionnaires were analyzed in computer environment using the SPSS17.0 statistical program.In the analysis of the data,in determining the descriptive characteristics of nurses, percentage and frequency descriptive statistics, average and standard deviation statistics in determining the level of organizational commitment and value they give to their jobs, t test, one-way ANOVA test and tukey tests were used to determine the differentiation of nurses' organizational commitment and work value levels according to their descriptive characteristics. Correlation analysis was used to determine the relationships between the organizational commitment and job value levels of nurses, and regression analysis was used to determine the level of influence of organizational commitment levels from job value levels. Conclusion: It has been concluded that nurses are connected to their organizations at a medium level but value their jobs at a high level, organizational commitment, and the level of value they give to their jobs differ according to their descriptive characteristics, and that there are statistically significant relationships between nurses' organizational commitment levels and work values.In addition, it was found that the organizational commitment levels of nurses were positively affected by comfort and safety among work values, while job value levels related to talent and growth negatively affected.

  7. Alok kushwaha and Shukla, D.N.

    An assessment of the seasonal variations of the river water quality of GangaRiver at Ghazipur. ranges of the estimated physico-chemical parameters are mentioned as temperature (20.40C -31.90C), pH(7.3-8.86), TDS( 313mg/L -387mg/L), EC(297µmhos/cm -367µmhos/cm), Alkalinity( 175mg/L -327mg/L), TH (127mg/L -200mg/L), sulphate(16.2mg/L -37.2 mg/L), phosphate(0.41mg/L -0.96mg/L), nitrate(0.41mg/L -0.96mg/L), chloride (20.5mg/L -31.3mg/L), DO (5mg/L -6.5mg/L),BOD (5.3mg/L -15.2mg/L) and COD(11.2mg/L -30.1mg/L). EC, BOD and COD were above the USPHS and BIS standards at all the sites of Ghazipur. Correlation coefficient revealed varied positive and negative correlations in the physicochemical parameters of the river water.

  8. Arjay V. Maristela and Wilfredo D. Dalugdog

    The interpretative phenomenological research approach is used in this study to determine the lived experiences of the ten (10) police investigator – participants in testifying before the Regional Trial Court (RTC) from the different police stations at the 4th District of Laguna. The participants of this study were selected using a purposive sampling technique. In gathering the data, the researchers conducted a face-to-face interview employing unstructured interview guide to document the lived experiences, problems encountered and solutions applied by the police investigator – participants in testifying before the RTC. The data were analyzed based on Lichtman’s (2013) three C’s of analysis, from Coding to Categorizing to Concepts. The study revealed that the 10 participants experience nervousness in testifying, especially for testifying for a first time. They usually experienced the same problems as they handled a lot of works that leads to the anxiety experienced by the participants in the preparation of the case as they are not having enough sleep and rest before going to a witness stand. The findings of the study imply that the police investigators need to have a refresher training course in the preparation and in testifying inside the Courtroom.

  9. Gogui Albert Digbo

    De plus en plus, ces dernières années dans les zones forestières ivoiriennes, l’intérêt prononcé pour l’extraction industrielle et artisanale de l’or porte sur les impacts positifs comme le développement de l’entreprenariat rural et l’augmentation des revenus ruraux au niveau des individus comme des collectivités locales. Cependant, attendue comme opportunité de développement et d’emplois, l’exploitation artisanale de l’or,dans les villages de Bobo-Niessoko et Gamina de la sous-préfecture de Zaïbo, a entrainé des effetsnéfastes. En effet, le développement de cet orpaillage a induit de nombreuses transformations sociales, économiques et environnementales dans lesdits villages aurifères. Cet article analyse les effets néfastes induits (directs et indirects) de l’orpaillage artisanal sur le cadre de vie des communautés villageoises et sur l’environnement des populations locales de Zaïbo. Cette analyse des mutations dues au développement de l’orpaillage artisanal s’appuie sur une démarche d’enquête de terrain combinant, dans la collecte de données, l’enquête quantitative, l’enquête qualitative et l’observation directe. Les résultats obtenus indiquent que l’activité d’orpaillage artisanal,bien que génératrice de revenus, affecte négativement la santé des populations, l’économie et l’environnement dans la sous-préfecture de Zaïbo. En définitive,la dynamique de l’orpaillage a donné lieu au développement et à l’aggravation des problèmes sur le plan social, économique, environnemental.

  10. Yashas B.M., Gaurav Marothi, NimishValecha and Prof. Abhishek Venkteshwar

    This article studies the changing image of children in magazines from 1905 to 1990. Drawing on Goffman's Gender Advertisements, the author examines the portrayals of children in advertising to determine the extent to which, and in what way, the relationship between children and adults has changed. The data suggest that a real shift in the relationship between adults and children has occurred but that it occurred in different linear and cyclical patterns that must be both recognized and examined in relationship to each other and be understood in social and cultural contexts. The research suggests the need for a rigorous methodology for analyzing visual data. The competitive environment of advertising allows various role portrayal of children and women in advertising. Women have been portrayed as an object of sexual desire, docile housewife, submissive roles, the epitome of beauty, etc. Children being vulnerable and susceptible to be duped are sold dreams in unrealistic ways. The objective of this is to investigate the situations that make the portrayal of women and children unethical. This paper attempts to identify the differences prevalent in the mindset of three categories of participants, students, teachers and working professionals.

  11. Nicolle dos Santos Moraes Nunes, Jacqueline Stephanie Fernandes do Nascimento, Janie Kelly Fernandes do Nascimento, Thais de R. Bessa-Guerra, Marco Antonio Alves Azizi, Marco Antonio da Silva Catharino, Paulo Henrique Moura, Adalgiza M. Moreno, Thiago R.

    Introduction: December 2019, in the city of Wuhan, an outbreak of Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome began. Although the respiratory system is the most affected, experimental studies show involvement of the nervous system. In view of the similarity in the SARS-CoV-2 genome with SARS-CoV and MERS-CoV, and the presence of reports of neuropathies in patients infected with these, the aim of this article is to describe the main evidence regarding the causal relation between COVID -19 and peripheral neuropathies, in addition to possible mechanisms involved in this process. Methodology: This is an integrative literature review, made through articles that discuss the relation between COVID-19 infection and the manifestation of neuropathies. The databases used were: PubMed, LILACS, BIREME, being considered important scientific bases of international scope. Searches were limited to articles from the year 2020, in English and Portuguese. Discussion: It is known that the involvement generated by the coronavirus is diffuse, even acting on the central and peripheral nervous systems. Although there are studies that propose a possible causal relation between the new human coronavirus and the manifestation of Guillain-Barré Syndrome, Miller-Fisher Syndrome, and cranial polyneuropathy, there is no evidence to prove this. Conclusion: The manifestation of neuropathies by patients with COVID-19 has been demonstrated in different studies. Even so, the mechanism responsible for the appearance of these clinical conditions must be better elucidated. Therefore, it is not yet possible to determine whether the relation between COVID-19 infection and presentation of neuropathies is causal or coincidental.

  12. Dr. Manohara Singh, M., Dr. Arputharaj, A. and Mrs. Seethalakshmi, S.

    Raasapettai is a tiny, elegant coastal hamlet in Cuddalore district situated in between the Buckingham Channel and Bay of Bengal. The Sothikuppam village is seen at the north end of the village and wasteland is seen in the southern side. Both Raasapettai and Sothikuppam are connected with nearby villages Kudikadu, Pachchyankuppam through a narrow bridge on Uppanaru River. It has been chosen as the study area as it is one of the most vulnerable coastal village in Tamil Nadu, since it has been experiencing many natural hazards resulting in significant loss of life and property. This study focuses on creation of Geo database of the village and analyzes the land patterns with ref to disasters, socio-economic status and suggestion for making the community as the resilient community. The project area is Raasapettai coastal village in Kudikkadu Village Panchayat in Cuddalore Block of Cuddalore District in Tamil Nadu. The village has 432 households. The study area Raasapettai is situated at latitude of 11o44’55.83’’ N and longitude of 79o46’17.54’’ E. It is located 10 m above from Mean Sea Level (MSL) with a total number of 432 households.

  13. Samia Bashir and Bashir Ahmad Shah

    The study was conducted to review the important role of antioxidants in human health and disease. Early research on the role of antioxidants in biology focused on their use in preventing the oxidation of unsaturated fats, which is the cause of rancidity. An antioxidant can be defined as: “any substance that when present in low concentrations compared to that of an oxidisable substrate, significantly delays or inhibits the oxidation of that substrate”. Oxidative damage in DNA can cause cancer. Several antioxidant enzymes such as superoxide dismutase, catalase, glutathione peroxidase, glutathione reductase, glutathione S-transferase etc. protect DNA from oxidative stress. It has been proposed that polymorphisms in these enzymes are associated with DNA damage and subsequently the individual's risk of cancer susceptibility

  14. Dr. Anukul Chandra Biswas, Dr. Subhasis Sheet, Dr. Nimai Charan Mishra, Dr. Lalima Kumari, Dr. Sourav Koley and Dr. Uttam Deb

    Bimaxillary protrusion is a common orthodontic problem seen in day to day practice. Bi maxillary protrusion may be dental or alveolar. So different pattern of bimaxillary protrusion exists in different populations. In this study different skeletal , dental and soft tissue parameters were measured by the use of cephalometrtic radiograph and study model and these values are compared with the cocasian population for staderization. Results were represented statistically.

  15. Monojit Ray, Sahali Dey and Gourab Saha

    In this study we had subjected Winkin Cow (Vanillicious) thick shake, Winkin Cow (Chocolicious) thick shake, Hershley’s Milkshake (Chocolate Flavour), Dreamery Milkshake (Chocolate Flavour). These four milkshakes are available in tetrapack. We had studied physico-chemical parameters like Salinity, TDS, Conductance, pH, DO and biologically significant ions like sodium, potassium, calcium and nitrate. Generally milk product beverages are less acidic and have high TDS, salinity and conductance values1. All these milkshakes are rich source of sodium, potassium and calcium ions.

  16. Jacqueline Stephanie Fernandes do Nascimento, Nicolle dos Santos Moraes Nunes, Thais de R. Bessa-Guerra, Marco Antonio Alves Azizi, Adalgiza Mafra Moreno, Antônio Marcos da Silva Catharino, Paulo Henrique de Moura, Thiago Rodrigues Gonçalves, Renata R. T.

    Introduction: Poliomyelitis, often referred to as infantile paralysis or polio, was first described in 1840 by Jakob Von Heine, a German orthopedic physician. It is an acute and infectious disease caused by an enterovirus of worldwide distribution. With the implementation of immunization, the incidence of cases has reduced exponentially worldwide. However, a portion of individuals who have already developed polio, are now manifesting the late effects of polio, called post-polio syndrome (PPS). Case Report: PRF, male, system analyst. Diagnosis of acute previous polio at the 18th month of age in a hospital in Fortaleza in 1965. At the age of 18 he started to present a new clinic of muscle fatigue, weakness and inability to perform his daily activities. Discussion: The Post-polio syndrome (PPS) was first reported in 1875, by Raymond, when reporting the case of a 19-year-old man, previously infected with acute previous polio and at that time had presented a new clinic of muscle weakness and atrophy. Post-poliomyelitis syndrome is defined as a presentation of the delayed effects of polio with the appearance of new neuromuscular symptoms that occur at least 15 years after clinical and functional stability in the natural history of patients with a previous history of acute previous polio. It can be characterized by: new muscle weakness, atrophy and pain, fatigue, sleep disorders, joint pain, cold intolerance, recent weight gain, respiratory distress and dysphagia. Criteria that support the diagnosis are used, such as: (1) Having been affected with acute previous polio; (2) at least 15 years of clinical stability; (3) new clinic of muscle weakness and fatigue; (4) complete or partial recovery of the functions lost in the poliomyelitis period, with a subsequent decline; (5) no other clinical conditions that explain the case. However, effective monitoring by a multidisciplinary team is necessary to assess the degree of functional and motor deterioration, respiratory capacity, as well as the psychological assessment of the patient. Conclusion: Although acute previous poliomyelitis has been eradicated in Brazil, as well as in several countries in the world, it is estimated that today there are still about 12 million individuals with poliomyelitis after-effects.

  17. Dr. Savithasathyaprasad, Dr. Krishnamoorthy, S.H., Dr. Nikhil Das, K.R. and Dr. Vijayanath, S.

    Esthetic treatment of severely decayed primary teeth is one of the greatest challenges for pediatric dentist. There are different types of restorations for complete crown coverage. These restoration technique includes stainless steel crowns, polycarboate crown, acid etch crown etc. Each of these techniques presents technical, functional or esthetic compromises that complicate their efficient and effective usage. Due to a increasing in esthetic and concerns about toxic and allergic reactions to certain alloys, zirconia was proposed as a new ceramic material in the later part of 20th century. It has become a popular alternative to alumina as biomaterial and is being used in dental applications. This article presents a brief history, properties, dental applications and tooth preparation of zirconia crown. Subject Area: dentistry Keywords: stainless steel crown, zirconia, dental caries, primary molars

  18. Dr. Premalatha Sharon Rose W., Dr. Pandiyan Vadivel and Dr. Navin Sundar, A.J.

    Background: Management of post-operative wounds is very challenging now a days as there are many factors which interfere in the normal physiology of wound healing. Vitamin C, a water-soluble vitamin, facilitates wound healing by enhancing the protective mechanism of the immune system and accelerates healing process through the synthesis of collagen. Methods: In this prospective study, we seek to determine the role of Vitamin C in wound healing by determining its blood levels in 60 post-operative in-patients who had had elective or emergency surgery including those with co-morbid conditions like diabetes, hypertension and chronic kidney disease. All of them had their blood Vitamin C levels assayed and those with Vitamin C deficiency were supplemented with Vitamin C tablets and their wound status assessed over their recovery period. Data are expressed as percentages and Pearson Chi-square test was used compare the frequency between the groups and p<0.005 was considered statistically significant. Results: 22 patients had vitamin C deficiency of whom 20 patients had post-operative wound improvement with high dose vitamin C supplementation and 2 had poor wound healing (p<0.001). Conclusion: We conclude that supplementation of high dose vitamin C (1000mg/day) to patients with deficiency significantly hastened wound healing with improved final outcomes.

  19. Asima Banu, Samhitha Venkatesh, Karthik Shamanna and Presteena Mathew

    Background: Chronic suppurative otitis media (CSOM) is a common infection having a high prevalence rate of 7.8-16% in India and is one of the leading causes of conductive deafness particularly in the adolescent age group. CSOM is frequently associated with multidrug-resistant organisms with the ability to form biofilm, which is an important virulence factor and results in treatment failure. Aim: The main objectives of the study are to identify the spectrum of bacteria associated with CSOM, their antibiotic sensitivity pattern, and to detect the biofilm formation. Methods: This was a prospective cross-sectional study at a tertiary care hospital conducted from 2016-2019. Patients up to the age of 80, having otorrhea for more than 6-12 weeks and attending the ENT outpatient department were included. Samples of pus were collected from the deeper aspect of external auditory meatus and processed using standard techniques for culture and sensitivity. Biofilm detection was done. Results were compiled and statistically analysed. Results: 120 samples were processed and 86 yielded positive cultures. Staphylococcus aureus was the predominant organism, followed by Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Biofilm formation was seen in 38 (44.18 per cent) of the organisms. Biofilms were formed predominantly by Staphylococcus aureus (47.36 per cent). Conclusion: Multidrug resistance has become increasingly common amongst the causative organisms of CSOM, this trend being particularly evident among biofilm producers. Therefore, screening for biofilm formation, along with the usual antibiogram, needs to be performed as a routine procedure in CSOM to effectively manage the situation by choosing an appropriate modality of treatment.

  20. Sri Hari krishna, Vashist Pothu, Rahul Sharma and Prof. Abhishek Venkteswar

    Our paper is among the first to measure the potential effects of the COVID-19 pandemic on the tourism industry. Using panel structural vector auto-regression (PSVAR) we estimate the impact of the pandemic crisis on the tourism industry worldwide. COVID-19 proves that pandemic outbreaks have a much larger destructive impact on the travel and tourism industry than previous studies indicate. Tourism managers must carefully assess the effects of epidemics on business and develop new risk management methods to deal with the crisis. Today the industry of meetings, incentives, conferences and exhibitions, commonly known under the name of MICE, contributes to economic diversification and actively stimulates the rational use of cultural-historical and natural recreational resources. The research revealed that under the conditions of harsh travel restrictions and closed borders, the UAE MICE industry is faced with a sharp reduction of demand. The multiplicative analysis performed in the course of the study identified the 5P marketing strategy and an outsourcing method as an optimal solution for MICE companies’ survival and recovery. By the end of the first quarter of 2020, the COVID-19 pandemic had brought international travel to an abrupt halt and significantly impacted the tourism industry. For many developed and developing countries, the tourism sector is a major source of employment, government revenue and foreign exchange earnings. In some countries, unemployment could rise by more than 20 percentage points and some sectors could nearly be wiped out if the duration of the tourism standstill is up to one year. Further the paper puts forward policy recommendations for governments to avert the worst effects and facilitate recovery.

  21. Dr. Rugma Raj, Dr. Mali G Nair, Dr. Shiji Dinakaran, Dr. Anulekh Babu, Dr. Midhun, M.J., Dr. Kanchana Devi A., Dr. Shabna Shajahan, Dr. Swathi, P., Dr. Parvathy D Kumar and Dr. Amitha, P.

    Tooth fragment reattachment restores morphological, functional and esthetic aspects of the dentition, while maintaining the shape, contour, texture, colour and alignment of the natural teeth. Furthermore, fragment reattachment can be considered a fast and low cost treatment solution, creating a positive emotional and psychological response in the patient. Different preparation techniques as well as adhesive materials have been described throughout the literature, designed to increase the chemical and mechanical retention of fragments. This case report describes reattachment of fragment in a pulpally involved tooth where biologic width was not compromised. If the fractured fragment is available and is in a good condition reattachment is the better treatment option. When compared to more aggressive prosthetic techniques like crowns and veneers, the reattachment technique is both conservative and aesthetic.

  22. MONYN Ebalah Delphine, KOUAME Bosson Antoine, BOUA Boua Benson, KOUAO Toffe Alexis, EHOUMAN Evans and KONE Mamidou witabouna

    Hydrocotyle bonariensis is used in traditional Ivorian medicine for treating degenerative diseases. To the best of our knowledge, the essential oil from its leaves has not been extracted and the cytotoxicity of the plant has not yet been sufficiently explored. The chemical constituents of the essential oil were identified and its in vivo anticancer activity against Vulvar Squamous Cell Carcinoma (CA 431) were investigated. The gas chromatography coupled to a mass spectrometer (GC-MS) was used to analyse the essential oil. The MTT assay was then carried out to evaluate the cytotoxic effects of this essential oil against Vulvar Squamous Cell Carcinoma. Fifty-two compounds related to 99.71% of the total oil, were characterised. The major compounds were β-pinene (39.25%), α-pinene (31.41%), caryophyllene (8.61%), humulene (3.11%), germacrene D (3.07%) and α-farnesene (3.03%). Additionally, the essential oil revealed promising anticancer activity with IC50 value of 15.5 μg/mL against Vulvar Squamous Cell Carcinoma (CA 431). This in vitro study provides information on the chemical composition of the essential oil from Hydrocotyle bonariensis. This oil exhibited important antiproliferative activity against Vulvar Squamous Cell Carcinoma (CA 431). It could be used as a new source of anticancer drug discovery.

  23. Dr. Ashish Gupta

    In Indian English Literature, much attention has not been paid to the tribal life and culture by the writers. The present paper aims to study and explore the life, loss of culture and exploitation, as it has emerged in the post independence novel Paraja. Gopinath Mohanty’s novel Paraja (1945) documents the cultural history and heritage of ethnicity, myths, legends and socio-cultural representation of the Paraja tribe of the Koraput region in Odisha, simultaneously signifying their poverty and struggle and their exploitation by the non- tribes. The novel is unique in ways because it offers a study of tribal life and culture from anthropological, sociological and ecological perspectives.

  24. Dr. Vivek Gollahalli Chandrashekar MD, DM, Dr. Natraj Setty, H.S. MD, DM, FACC, FRCP, FSCAI, Dr. Kapil Rangan MD, DM, Dr. Rama C MD, DM, Dr. Beeresh Puttaswamy MD, DM, Dr. Santhosh Jadav MD, DM, Dr. Yeriswamy M. C MD, DM, Dr. Sridhar.L. MD, DM and Dr. Ma

    We report a case of a 35-year-old man presenting with shortness of breath and palpitation on exertion, who was evaluated and found to have a Sub aortic membrane with severe left ventricular obstruction associated with a Right sinus of valsalva aneurysm (RSOV) rupturing into right ventricular outflow tract & perimembranous ventricular septal defect (VSD). A sinus of Valsalva aneurysm is a rare cardiac anomaly that may be congenital or acquired; a coexisting cardiac lesion might be present. Ventricular septal defect can be seen commonly associated with RSOV. However, Sub aortic membrane associated with RSOV is extremely rare. Here, we report for, an unusual presence of Sub aortic membrane with RSOV (Rupturing from right coronary sinus into right ventricular outflow tract) and Perimembranous ventricular septal defect.

  25. Xiuyu Du, Xuefei Zhang, Xiaodong Zhai, Hongpeng Hu and Qian Xue

    Objective: To explore the corelation between asymmetry rate of the cerebral peduncle (ARCP) and the recovery of poststroke aphasia (PSA). Methods: Thirty-three recurrent stroke participants with PSA completed the retrospective study. They were divided into two groups according to the sides of recurrent stroke, ipsilateral group (dominant side) and contra lateral group. The aphasia quotient (AQ) of post-first time stroke (AQpostFS), pre-recurrent stroke (AQpreRS), and post-recurrent stroke (AQpostRS) were collected, which were based on the Chinese version western aphasia battery. The ARCP was calculated based on the latest magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Changing of AQ (∆AQ, ∆AQ1= AQpreRS-AQpostFS; ∆AQ2= AQpreRS-AQpostRS), and the correlation between ∆AQ and ARCP of the two groups were analyzed. Results: The AQpostRS of the contralateral group is significantly lower than that of the ipsilateral group (32.42 [18.73] vs. 44.97 [11.65], p=0.029).∆AQ2 in CG was higher than that in IG (38.54 [17.89] vs. 27.03 [10.76], p=0.034).∆AQ1 (r = 0.792, p<0.0001) and ∆AQ2 (r = 0.940, p<0.0001) showed a significant correlation with ARCP. Subjects with an ARCP of more than 1.5 presented a higher ∆AQ2 than patients with ARCP less than 1.5 In CG (56.77 [2.98] vs. 25.77 [11.11], p<0.0001), a contrary consequence was observed in IG (19.08 [11.44] vs. 30.64 [8.68], p=0.042). Conclusion: Patients with higher ARCP showed a worse prognosis of PSA followed recurrent stroke of the non-dominant hemisphere, The synergistic effect between the two hemispheres is the key mechanism of PSA recovery.

  26. Dr. Shweta. V. Annaldasula, Dr. Naisargi. P. Shah, Dr. Saloni. S. Mistry, Dr. Praveen. V. Badwaik and Dr. Sangeeta. G. Yadav

    Aim: The aim of this study was to compare the effect of different metal coping designs on fracture resistance of porcelain in metal ceramic restorations fabricated by direct metal laser sintering technology. Settings and Design: Comparative - In vitro study. Methods and Material: An ivorine central incisor tooth was selected and prepared according to biomechanical principles followed by fabrication of nickel-chromium dies according to conventional casting method. The direct metal laser sintered copings on the dies were made and divided in three groups consisting of metal coping extending up to gingivo-axial line angle of finish line, metal coping extending 1mm short of gingivo-axial line angle of finish line, metal coping having 0.4mm wide labial metal collar respectively. Ceramic layering of the metal copings was done and fracture resistance of the specimens were measured. Statistical analysis used: Data for the fracture load for all the groups were evaluated and compared and was tested for normality using Shapiro-Wilk test. The 3 groups were compared using the Kruskal-Wallis test (Non-parametric ANOVA). Results: The mean fracture resistance of Groups A, B, C was 971.8N, 705.2N, 531.66N respectively. Conclusions: The mean fracture resistance of the specimens with shoulder porcelain labial margins having metal coping design extending up to gingivo-axial line angle of the finish line was highest as compared to other groups.

  27. Dr. C. Pradeep, Dr. Saravpreet, Dr. Jasleen Kaur, Dr. Ruchi Kadian, Dr. Jyoti Gupta

    Oral soft tissue thickening or grafting procedures are often necessary to cover tooth recession, re-establish an adequate width of keratinized tissue, correct mucogingival deformities improvingesthetics, prepare a site for an implant or prosthetics, for ridge preservation procedures, and soft tissue contouring around dental implants. Gingival recession and root or implant exposure are commonly associated and have led to mucogingival deficiencies that have traditionally been treated with free gingival grafts and autogenous soft tissue grafts. Pouch roll implant soft tissue augmentation provides an easy and less traumatic correction of a mild or moderate buccal ridge deficiency by thickening the soft tissue around the dental implant. This review presents modified tissue augmentation techniques which are proposed to enhance aesthetics in mild or moderate horizontal defects ; however, the choice of therapy depends on the dimensions and position of the defect.

  28. Shailja Choudhary, Madhusudan S, Bhawana Walia, Gitika Chaudhary

    Amomum subulatum is also known as 'Badi Elaichi' is an aromatic and medicinal spice, used as a flavoring agent in various dishes. It is also known as Queen of spices. It is a native of the Eastern Himalayan region. Traditionally, black cardamom has been utilized as a preventive and remedial measure for throat problems, blockage of lungs, irritation of eyelids, stomach-related problems and in the treatment of aspiratory tuberculosis. It is considered as a conclusive drug in the traditional medicinal system like Unani and Ayurveda since ancient times. Its significance has been explained by Hakeem Kabiruddin in his book "Makhzanul-mufradat". Black cardamom extracts mainly the aqueous ones are known to possess biological activities like anti-inflammatory, anti-ulcer, anti-oxidant, anti-microbial and cardio-adaptogen.

  29. Mr. Raghu, V.A. and Dr. Manju Vatsa

    Prematurity has become a global health problem, Newborn deaths account for 40 percent of all deaths among children under five years of age. Prematurity is the leading cause of newborn deaths especially in the first 4 weeks of life and it is the second leading cause of death after pneumonia in children under the age of five years. The major causes of newborn deaths in India are pre-maturity/preterm (43.7 percent); neonatal infections (20.8 percent); intrapartum-related complications/ birth asphyxia (19.2 percent); and congenital malformations (8.1per cent) and others 8.2%. 15 million premature babies are born annually all over the world and it accounts for more than 1 in 10 babies born preterm. In India, out of 27 million babies born every year (2010 data), 3.5 million babies born are premature. More than 80% of birth occurs at 32-37 weeks of gestation and die needlessly for lack of simple, essential care such as warmth and feeding support. Many survivors face a lifetime of disability, including cerebral palsy, neurodevelopmental delay, learning disabilities, visual and hearing problems. A premature baby requires sophisticate medical and nursing services to reduce neonatal mortality and morbidity. This review highlights the medical and nursing care of premature neonates and strategies to improve the neonatal care.

  30. Prof. Dr Branislav Djordjevic, Emeritus

    The firm invested heavily in container technology and the business began to grow. It was also a small enough organization to allow flexibility in jobs during the change to contain- erized technology. Everyone mucked in tohether. Customs and Excise, however, still de- manded a detailed and itemized list of contents of containers bound overseas. They had always required this information, and with smaller crates and packaging it was a bureu- cratic chore but one which was not difficult to do or to check should queries arise. Cust-om and Excise provided a huge manual which listed all types of goods, each coded with an individual number. For each type of goods a code mumber had first to be found, then recorded (in multiple copies) prior to deparature for its ultimate destination. With the use of containers the task became increasingly difficult.The loads were greater in volume, more complex and often contained new materials not always to be found in the manual. Loads were delayed whilist recording was completed. Often arguments over the precise nature of the load would arise. How was a particular nemly developed chemicl powder to be classified? Precisely what was the intended use of the timber? How were particular pre-formed fabrications to be recorded? Were they completed goods or not? Each item had its separate code. No load coluld leave without being coded.

  31. Arkley Marques Bandeira, Adilson Matheus Borges Machado, Kláutenys Dellene Guedes Cutrim, Conceição de Maria Belfort de Carvalho and Leonardo Silva Soares

    Pesquisas nos últimos 10 anos vêm localizando sítios arqueológicos de distintos períodos e origens na Ilha de São Luís, estado do Maranhão. Em resumo, as pesquisas estão concluindo que toda a região insular foi ocupada por grupos humanos sem indícios de abandon da região, por pelo menos 7 mil anos. Trata-se, portanto, de um local atrativo para os grupos humanos, sendo considerada um lugar persistente, ou seja, uma região onde as características naturais e culturais tornam-na propícia à ocupação e reocupação humana ao longo dos milênios, que podem ser marcadas por ciclos de abandonos e reocupações. Este artigo apresenta uma proposta metodológica que vem sendo aplicada pelo projeto de pesquisa Inventário de conhecimento dos sítios arqueológicos dos municípios da Ilha de São Luís, Maranhão: gestão territorial e zoneamento.

  32. Arkley Marques Bandeira, KláutenysDellene Guedes Cutrim, Conceição de Maria Belfort de Carvalho, Celso José Brandão Santos, Jadson Fernando Rodrigues Reis, Vanessa de Matos Tavares Cogo and Yuri Sampaio Capellato Logrado

    O trabalho manual produzido a partir de distintas matérias-primas apresenta grande importância simbólica e cultural, pois carrega consigo conhecimentos, experiências e técnicas desenvolvidos ao longo dos tempos. Entre os mais belos e importantes está o ofício ceramista, que é uma das práticas mais antigas entre os povos sedentários do mundo. Este trabalho apresenta a tradicionalidade na produção de utensílios de cerâmica na comunidade quilombola de Itamatatiua, que localiza-se na cidade de Alcântara – Maranhão, Brasil. Nesse território, o recorte da pesquisa enfocou o modo de fazer cerâmica com um aspect cultural e da identidade das louceiras e no papel das mulheres que se reúnem em torno deste ofício artesanal para produzirem diferentes peças cerâmicas, resgatando e preservando a sua herança ancestral.

  33. Al-Baroud A., Vangala K, Al-Jumah K, Al-Rewaih K. and Potts M.

    The Sustainable Environmental and Economic Development (SEED) project was developed in Kuwait to undertake remediation and rehabilitation of abandoned upstream production areas within the Oil Fields of Kuwait. The aim of the rehabilitation component of the project was to leave previously contaminated areas of the oil fields, such as effluent pits, sludge pits and gatch pits, in a relative natural state in order that once remediated, they would not require ongoing management and would not pose a significant risk to sensitive environmental receptors. To this end, the rehabilitation component of the project included a native plant restoration and monitoring program with the purpose to evaluate the effectiveness of restoration methods, namely the use of irrigation and soil amendment, in facilitating the establishment of a native plant community. In addition, the remediated soil was returned to the various pits and if native plants could be established, that would provide an indication of the success of the soil remediation process. This study focuses on the remediation and rehabilitation undertaken in three pits (one sludge pit and two effluent pits). The contaminated soil was subjected to either bioremediation or thermal treatment, then reapplied to the pits. A reference area was planted in a location that represented a relatively undisturbed site in the oil field to establish an experimental control. If plant establishment was similar or better in rehabilitated features to the undisturbed reference areas, then rehabilitation could be considered on a similar trajectory as a natural ecosystem. Components of the rehabilitation program included eight native plant species, high-level and low-level irrigation and soil amendment (biogenic fertilizer). Plants were installed in the features using a block design whereby equal numbers of plants received the irrigation and soil amendment treatments, as applicable. The planting blocks were subdivided with half established with amended soil and half in unamended soil, these were then further divided into areas of high and low irrigation. In the reference area blocks, half of all plants received high-level irrigation and the other half received low-level irrigation. Plant survival and growth were measured over the monitoring period. Results of the monitoring showed that several factors can play a role in affecting establishment of native plant species. Overall, plant survival varied quite markedly depending on the site. It was hypothesized that plant survival would be best in the reference areas where soil disturbance was minimal. This hypothesis is consistent with the findings of this study. It was also hypothesized that high-level irrigation may result in better plant survival and growth by providing more available water at the root zones of plants. However, results showed that although irrigation events generally improved soil moisture levels, the difference in soil moisture between high and low irrigation rates was overall, not significant. This indicates that plants receiving high-level irrigation had similar moisture near their roots as plants receiving low-level irrigation. This could be the reason why in general, high irrigation resulted in only small improvements to plant survival and plant growth in some pits. In the sludge and effluent pits, the addition of an amendment to remediated soil was tested because of the potential to provide useful nutrients to plants and to improve soil texture and water holding capacity, thereby potentially improving plant survival and growth. There were significant differences in plant survival among the features; however, the addition of the soil amendment did not provide a clear or consistent improvement in plant survival, nor did it result in much greater plant growth (small improvements were realized). Rather, plant survival appeared to be more influenced by the size of plants at the time of installation. Because established criteria for planting the rehabilitated features was used, there was some control over certain variables that could affect plant establishment, such as species selection, site preparation, spacing of plants, and frequency and amount of irrigation. However, other variables not controlled could have also affected plant establishment and played a role in the results of this research. Differences in site conditions (i.e. location, aspect, wind, natural rainfall), soil texture and micronutrients, and the propagation and handling of plant material (in the plant nursery and during planting) could be confounding factors, together with irrigation rate and soil amendments. Several lessons learned were identified from this study and may be worth consideration in future restoration and rehabilitation of decommissioned facilities and/or disturbed landscapes across Kuwait oil fields. Adaptive management (i.e. the ability to direct change based on feedback from monitoring as one gains experience with local conditions) is very important, and it allows for the effective incorporation of lessons learned into the decision making process as the project evolves, and to positively affect the delivery of new projects as they are developed. The findings of this study lead to amendments to statutory remediation standard for future remediation projects within the oil fields of Kuwait.

  34. Dr. Aditya Jyoti Chowdhury, Dr. Sanjeet Kr. Das, Dr. Sk. Abdul Mahmud, Dr. Sudeshna Bagchi and Dr. Mousumi Pal

    Ameloblastoma is a benign locally invasive epithelial odontogenic tumour comprising 1% of all tumours and cysts arising in the jaws. It is commonly found in the third and fourth decade in the molar ramus region of the mandible. The commonest histopathological variant of this disease process is follicular type having the highest recurrence rate. Ameloblastomas frequently occur in relatively young people, but are rarely seen in people aged 70 years or older.A case of follicular ameloblastoma of mandible in a 72 years old male is discussed here with detail clinical, radiological, and histopathological features.

  35. Ramengmawii and Lalmalsawma Ralte

    India as an agrarian economy employs large section of the society in primary economic activity. India being endowed by diverse physical features host numerous tactics of farming’s carried out by both gender, None can ignore the participation of each gender, the necessity of gender roles in agricultural activities within the country become an interesting research gap, thus, research has been conducted to find out gender dimensions, by assessing female work participation in Mizoram and examining the contribution of female workforce on agriculture in Mizoram. To ensure wide and explicit coverage of the study literature review has been done specifically for this paper, reports published by govt and reliable organizations have been splendidly covered to draw the finest output.

  36. Hua Siwei, Li Chenyang and Yu Chunwei

    A new Schiff base compound P was synthesized and characterized as an Al3+-selective fluorescent probe. Study indicated that this proposed probe P has good selectivity and sensitivity to Al3+ compared to other tested metal ions in ethanol. A linear relationship was found between the fluorescence intensity at 445 nm from 3.0×10-6 to 7.0×10-6 M of Al3+ concentration with a detection limit of 1.0×10-6 M of Al3+. The possible binding mode of P with Al3+ was also suggested.

  37. Chaudhary Veena

    Objectives: In this study, our objectives were to facilitate early diagnosis and reduce subsequent complications of neonatal jaundice by appropriate treatment. Methods: The study was done as Random Sampling of neonates noticed to have deep yellow discolouration of whole body that were born in Rockland Hospital, Delhi, during the period 01.01.2012 till 07.08.2014. Results: In our cross-sectional study of 661 neonates, the results showed that the prevalence of physiologic jaundice in neonates was 86.99% and the prevalence of pathologic indirect hyperbilirubinemia in neonates was 13.01%. Physiological jaundice in newborns was transient and dissipated without medical intervention. Sunbathing was advised in all cases of physiologic jaundice. Bilirubin count is also lowered through excretion — bowel movements and urination —so frequent and effective feedings were vital measures to decrease jaundice in infants. In pathologic jaundice cases when serum bilirubin levels were greater than 12 mg/dL, infant was treated with single surface or double surface phototherapy, depending on the infant's age and prematurity status. All the neonates with TSB more than 18mg/dL were also associated with early onset neonatal sepsis, so they were given antibiotics, phototherapy and other supportive treatment. No neonate with jaundice required exchange transfusion or liver transplantation. Conclusions: No neonate discharged from hospital was reported to have hydrops foetalis, kernicterus or cerebral palsy during admission or on follow up. Besides, the Neonatal Mortality Rate was zero, in our study. Thus, it is evident in our study that the morbidity and mortality are completely preventable in neonates by appropriate management of neonatal jaundice and associated risk factors.

  38. Dr. Kishor M. Mahale, Dr. Sayli Dattatray Wagh, Dr. Shankar P. Dange and Dr. Smita A. Khalikar

    Statement of problem: The satisfaction of new denture wearers after fabrication of first denture is often studied, but, there are very few studies on the satisfaction of previous denture wearers with new denture and problems associated with it. Aim: The aim of this study was to assess the problems associated with satisfaction of the previous denture wearer patient after new denture fabrication. Materials and method: 50 patients with past denture experience were included in the study. A questionnaire was given before and after the new denture fabrication. The new denture was fabricated considering the difficulties and the problems associated with past denture. The scores before and after the new denture fabrication were statistically analysed. Result: There was statistically significant difference between the score obtained before and after the new denture was made. The main reason for having a new denture was loss of retention followed by broken dentures. Conclusion: Previous denture experience and expectations of the patients should definitely be taken into considerations while fabricating a new denture for the patient. Proper counselling is needed for every patient after a denture is delivered.

  39. Jucelei Pascoal Boaretto, Regina Celia Bueno Rezende Machado and Eleine Aparecida Penha Martins

    Objetivo: Apreender as percepções dos estudantes universitários após a Terapia Comunitária Integrativa dentro de uma universidade. Método: Pesquisa qualitativa, cujos dados foram obtidos em formulário Google Docs, a partir da questão norteadora: “Descreva o que significou participar da Terapia Comunitária Integrativa” e examinados pela técnica de análise de conteúdo de Bardin. Dados coletados no período de agosto de 2018 a abril de 2019. Resultados: Participaram do estudo, 25 estudantes de graduação e pós-graduação de uma Universidade Estadual Pública do Sul do País. Foram desveladas quatro categorias, representadas por ditos populares: “Só reconheço o que conheço”; “A palavra é o melhor remédio”; “Não há bem que sempre dure nem mal que nunca acabe” e “Cada um é doutor da sua própria dor.”Considerações finais: As percepções dos estudantes universitários, após a participação na Terapia Comunitária Integrativa, corroboraram para o autoconhecimento, alívio das tensões cotidianas e, consequentemente, para melhora em questões pessoais.

  40. RANDRIAMIHARISOA Mamy Alfa, RABENILAINA Harinia, RANDRIANIRIANA Anjarasoa Mamilalaina and ANDRIANARIZAKA Marc Tiana

    Since its independence, Madagascar has not been able to easily improve its economic situation. This situation is also reflected in the educational system. The economic incapacity justifies the long-term financial dependence of the Malagasy education system on international organizations. Despite this, the success rates in public schools are very low compared to those in private schools. The analysis of the results of a survey of a sample of 80 private school managers in the Antananarivo renivohitra Cisco, allowed us to detect the reasons for the success of the educational system of these schools. The pedagogical strategies and the management system that they have adopted play a major role in their performance. Discipline, culture, academic achievement, and the quality of educational services offered are the hallmarks of an effective private educational institution. At the same time, the experience of private schools in resource management, their organizational cultures and the satisfaction of their teachers, justify their performance.

  41. Randrianarijaona Maeva, Andrianarizaka HantatianaHenimpitia and Randriamiharisoa Mamy Alfa

    The exclusion of women is at the heart of the modern political order, despite the gradual recognition of formal equality between men and women in the exercise of political rights. The evolution of the political culture has nevertheless allowed the gradual access of women to power. Yet in the case of Madagascar, gender consideration is not limited to the integration of women in power, but several challenges lie ahead for the country in terms of women's rights. Women parliamentarians through their roles can advocate for women's rights. But the question is how these women parliamentarians advocate for women’s development rights do? Women's development requires respect for their rights, and women parliamentarians, when designing and passing laws, have the opportunity to fight for women's rights, which generally boil down to the right to health, safety and work. The aim is therefore to highlight the capacity of women parliamentarians to establish a rule of law that allows women to develop. Women's participation in the proposals and discussions of laws can play an equal part in promoting women's rights and women's development.

  42. Avegail Maris G. Aro, Rose Ann Sabanal, Dr. Rogelio John Villamor Jr., Sarah Encina and Bernard Balmores

    Education systems local and international took a heavy beating from the COVID-19 pandemic. Teachers all around the world are faced with different challenges.From the changes in curriculum, the administrator’s demand, relationship with their colleague, to keeping up with the needs of the students and parents. Not only that, teacher’s needs to prepare lesson plans, conduct classes, hand-out modules while making sure that the quality of learning still remains even with the absence of face to face interactions. Each are taking up a toll on the Teacher’s physical, mental, and emotional health. The shift in curriculum, teacher’s development, performance review and the whole apparatus around lesson observation seems to place a strong emphasis on the challenges that the teachers are facing in securing the learning of all the students in a class. It can be extremely difficult even for an experienced teacher to nail every student’s learning and this needs to be recognised. Management processes needs to be geared towards supporting teachers to tackle the real challenges they encounter in this New Normal Education. And the deciding factor that determines whether the teachers in any given school will lean toward positive and productive or desperate and crushed is the Administrator. Administrators work in schools, but not as teachers. They are responsible for overseeing the administrative duties at schools from preschool through post-graduate levels. Administrators ensure teachers have the equipment and resources necessary to deliver educationally effective curriculum. In this Research Article, we will be talking about the probable ways on how the administrator can provide solution and direction to teacher’s problem to achieve a smooth running curriculum.

  43. Dr. Deepti Diwakar and Dr. Vijay Ebenezer

    The origin of dental implants goes back to ancient times. Branemark introduced the concept of ‘osseointegrated implants’ and described osseointegration “is the direct structural and functional connection between living bone and the surface of a load- bearing implant.” He recommended the complete healing of the alveolar bone before the placement of a dental implant. Schulte and Heimke in the year 1976 introduced the concept of immediate placement of implants in fresh extraction sockets. Aim & Objectives: The aim of this study was to analyse and compare the peri implant bone levels in immediate and delayed implants radiographically. Materials and Method: This retrospective study was carried out in the department of oral and maxillofacial surgery, Sree Balaji Dental College and Hospital, Chennai, using the radiographs of 40 patients – 20 immediate implants and 20 – delayed implants. Result: Through this study it was found that immediately placed implants in fresh extraction sockets can give positive results similar to that achieved with the traditional delayed protocol. However, further studies with larger sample sizes are necessary to evaluate peri implant bone loss, soft tissue health and success rates would have to be done to substantiate the basis of selection of the best implant protocol for long term success.

  44. Dr. Mushtaq Chalkoo, Dr. Zahid Mohd Rather, Dr.Imtiyaz Ahmed Ganai, Dr.Tajamul Samad and Dr. Mehraj-ud-Din Ganai

    Objectives: The aim of the present study was to assess the technical feasibility and oncologicalsafety of laparoscopic gastrectomy with D2 dissection. Material and Methods: This prospective observational study was conducted at Govt. Medical College Srinagar since June 2013 to June 2019. The Kashmiri population comprises of endemic zone for gastric cancers due to their cultural and environmental influences. The study sample of patients were explained the various available modalities of treatment with their potential benefits and risks and also about the possibility of conversion to open surgery in case of any technical difficulties. This study was approved by the ethical committee of our medical college. Allthe patients included in the study were pathologically proven adenocarcinoma of the stomach. Results: Most of our patients were in the age range of 50 to 70 years and 34 (72.34%) patients were Males. In most of these patients the site of tumor was distal third 30 (63.82%), followed by diffuse involvement 06 (12.76%), and upper third 07 (14.89%) and middle third 04 (8.51%). The diagnostic laparoscopy was done in all patients. Laparoscopic partial gastrectomy with Gastrojujunostomy with D2 lymphadenectomy was performed in 26 (55.31%). Laparoscopic total Gastrectomy with Esophago-jejunostomy with D2 lymphadenectomy in 17 (36.17%), Laparoscopic gastrojejunostomy in 3(6.38%) and Laparoscopic feeding jujunostomy in 1 (2.01%) were performed.The median operative time was 150 min (range 130-180) in Partial Gastrectomy and 210 min (range 200–250) in total Gastrectomy, the median estimated blood loss was 110 ml (range 90-130) in partial Gastrectomy and 150 ml (range 100–200) in total Gastrectomy. There were no major intra operative and post operative complications. Wound infection developed in 3 (6.38 %) patients, one (2.12 %) patient developed duodenal stump leak and one (2.12%) patient was convertedinto open and 2 (4.2%) patients developed intra abdominal sepsis. The median number of lymph nodes retrieved was 20 (10-32). A positive proximal margin was detected in 2 patients (4.65%) The median time to start oral fluid was 4 days (3-7) days in partial Gastrectomy and 7 days (5-9) in total Gastrectomy. The median hospital stay was 5 days (4-7 days) in partial Gastrectomy and 7 days (range 5–10 days) in total Gastrectomy.There was no motality in our study sample. Conclusion: Laparoscopic gastrectomy is safe and feasible, and it can be performed by experienced surgeons to achieveoptimal oncological short-term outcomes.

  45. Dr. Chilukuri Satya Naga Shravan and Dr. Jayaraj R Mhetri

    Background: A large proportion of women undergoing menopause experience various abnormal symptoms such as, vasomotor symptoms. the vasomotor symptoms include hot flashes and night sweats; they are also considered as predominant menopausal symptoms. Multiple studies have shown that the increased risk of depression in the menopausal age group. Objectives: To compare the depression among postmenopausal women and women who has not attained menopause in the age group of 40 to 55 years in women visiting OPD of tertiary care hospital. Methods: The present study is a cross sectional study, Assessment of Depression of women was done using Beck’s Depression Inventory, it is a validated instrument for measuring depression. This tool is a self-rated scale, where individuals rate their own symptoms of depression. Results: Data collected from 120 women in the age group of 40 to 55 years. Mean age of the participants in the present study were 47.46 ± 4.72 years.the present study majority of the women i.e. 82.7% of the participants had mild mood disturbance, 10.8% had mild depression, 5.7% had moderate depression and 0.8% had severe depression as measured by Beck’s Depression Inventory. 84.6% of postmenopausal women and 78.3% women who has not attained menopause had mild mood disturbance. 6.2% of premenopausal women and 10.2% of post-menopausal women had mild depression ,6.7% of the premenopausal women had mood changes, 9 % of post menopause women had moderate depression where as 2.4% of premenopausal and 2.5% of post-menopausal women had severe depression. The proportion of women with depression is slightly higher among postmenopausal women than women than the premenopausal women. Conclusion: The depressive symptoms were found to be higher among post-menopausal women compared to premenopausal women. The vasomotor symptoms (hot flashes/night sweats), had a significant association with depression. The women in perimenopausal age group need special attention and they should be screened for depression to diagnose and treat major depressive illness earlier. The treating physician should consider the mental health aspect of the patients.

  46. Philip George Kuttikat, Apurva A. Patel, Ananya Pareek, Shantanu Pendse, A. Harshavardhan and Harsha P. Panchal

    AIM: To assess the antitumor activity and safety profile of topotecan plus cyclophosphamide regimen in patients with relapsed/refractory paediatric type tumors and to analyze the progression free survival (PFS) and overall survival (OS) of these patients. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The details of patients of recurrent paediatric type tumors, treated over a period of consecutive five years from 2014 to 2018, with topotecan and cyclophosphamide regimen, were analyzed retrospectively. The patients should have had already received at least a previous chemotherapy regimen and had either a disease progression or relapse before being considered for the TC regimen. RESULTS: A total of 51 patients (median age 12yrs with 39 males and 12 females) received the TC regimen. The median number of cycles was 3 (range, 2–8). The response rate was: CR 0%, PR 35.3%, and disease stabilization (SD) 21.6 %. The median duration of PR in the patients was 7m (range4m -34m) and the median duration of disease stabilization was 6m (range 4m -16m). The median PFS and OS were 4m and 8m respectively. CONCLUSION: Topotecan plus cyclophosphamide is a well tolerated regimen for recurrent/ refractory paediatric type tumors, both in paediatric and adult populations, showing a good response rate. But, the duration of response (PFS) and OS is dismal.

  47. Dr. Anju Prabha Kumari, Dr. Syed Ajaz Hashmi, Dr. Manish Deo, Rashmi Tirkey, Aakash Kujur and Dr. Shalini Sunderam

    Introduction: Road Traffic Accidents (RTAs) are the growing but neglected public health problem especially in developing countries. This study was carried out with objectives (i) to determine the demographic characteristics of the RTA victims attending RIMS, Ranchi. (ii) to assess the key factors leading to RTAs, and the trends of last two consecutive year. Methodology: This institutional based cross sectional study was carried out among the victims of RTA, attending the various department of Rajendra Institute of Medical Sciences, Ranchi, for a period of three months. Consecutive sampling method was adopted and the selected patients were interviewed using semi-structured questionnaire. Collected data was entered in Ms Excel Sheet and was analyzed using SPSS software version 20. Results: A total of 174 victims were included in the study. More than a half (58%) of the victims were of age group 20-35 years and 81.6% study population was constituted by male. Motor bike involvement was reported by 82.6% cases and driving speed was around 30-60 km/hr in 82.8% cases. Moreover only 21.8% of the motor biker were wearing helmet during accidents. It was found that only 42% victims were taken to nearest hospital within an hour. Conclusion: Our results revealed that youth and productive group are mainly getting affected by RTAs. So it’s our prime responsibility to work together for its prevention. In addition to awareness campaign and strict traffic rules, our health care delivery system needs to be strengthened.

  48. Dr. Dhivashini Rajaratnam and Dr. Jayaraj R Mhetri

    Background: Menopause symptoms, in spite of being a normal physiological process can sometimes cause symptoms which can be severe and can affect everyday life. It is a cause for concern that many women are unaware of certain menopausal symptoms. Objectives: The objective of the present study is to assess the menopausal symptoms using modified Menopause Rating Scale (MRS) in perimenopausal women. Methods: It is a cross-sectional study where menopausal rating scale(MRS) questionnaire was used to assess the menopausal symptoms. Results: In the present study 52% of the patients experienced hot flushes out of which 53.8% had mild symptoms, 34.6% had moderate and 7.6% had severe and only 3.8% had very severe symptoms. 18 % experienced chest discomfort 65 % of the patients experienced sleep problems 29 % of the patients experienced depressive mood. 50 % of the patients experienced irritability out of which 24 % had mild symptoms, 56 % had moderate and 8 % had severe and only 12 % had very severe symptoms.72 % of the patients experienced physical and mental exhaustion, 26 % of the patients experienced sexual problems, 19 % of the patients bladder problems, 50 % of the patients experienced vaginal dryness, 88 % of the patients experienced irritability. Conclusion: In the present study the most common symptom reported was joint and muscular discomfort followed by depressive mood heart discomfort and physical and mental exhaustion and hot flushes. The urogenital symptoms were comparatively less. The women in perimenopausal age group make large part of the population, although there is lot of emphasis that is given for improvement of health of the women in reproductive age group, the women in perimenopausal age group need the same amount of care.

  49. Dr. Sutanu Modak, Dr. Rup Kumar Das, Dr. Bimalendu Saha and Dr. Samit Mondal

    Facial beauty depends on proper facial proportion. To give the best esthetic result to the patients, proper knowledge of facial measurements in every malocclusion is important. Class III malocclusion, being the most challenging case, has been chosen for this study. This study was carried out to find different vertical cephalometric measurements in class III patients. Patients with class I malocclusion were taken as control. 50 samples were taken (20 class III, 30 class I). Cephalometric analysis was carried out to compare different vertical angular measurements between two groups. Results showed that maximum angulations are greater in class III that means in majority cases class III patients show hyperdivergent growth pattern.

  50. Shruti Behal, Sonia K Parikh, Harsha Panchal, Apurva Patel, Kunal Jain and Siddharth Rao

    Soft tissue sarcoma (STS)–Leimyosarcoma of the chest wall is a rare entity with dismal survival. Surveillance, Epidemiology and End Result a 5 year survival rate of STS was 81%, 56%, 15% for localised, regional and distant metastasis respectively. Here we present a 31 year man with chest wall leimyosarcoma who is treated with primary surgery and multiple metastasectomy along with six lines of chemotherapy. The outcome of these efforts has resulted in prolong survival with good performance status worth reporting.

  51. Puri, S., Choudhary, K., Saini, J., Sharma, K. and Pranav

    Objectives: To assess the false beliefs and myths about prostate cancer in elderly.Methodology: The cross sectional study was conducted in Geriatric Clinic run by Department of Community Medicine, Government Medical College & Hospital, Chandigarh from July to December 2019. Systematic random sampling was done. Every 5th patient visiting geriatric OPD was included as a study participant. Information was sought using a pretested and prestructured questionnaire. The sample size comprised of 567 elderly males. Data so collected was entered and analyzed using SPSS version 20.Results: Of the total, 46% had heard of the prostate cancer. Most of the participants,69.8% were unaware of any kind of examination for prostate cancer detection. 97.3% said that men with urinary symptoms should get screened for the malignancy.93.1% of our subjects were advised by some health provider for getting screened.Conclusion: Many elderly have beliefs which are not correct regarding prostate cancer. Hence efforts must be done to increase awareness about this cancer among elderly.

  52. Dr. Syed Salman Ahmed Dr. K.V. Krishna Reddy, Dr. Jonnala Sindhu Dr. Nimma Satyanarayana

    Introduction: Electronic health record (EHR) is an indispensable tool for medical and health professionals. They are the product of decades’ worth of innovation and constant improvement. EHRs are implemented around the world a while ago.Though India has progressed well in the adoption of IT in other sectors, such as banking, railway reservation, etc, it has not yet utilized the potential of IT in the healthcare sector. The Union Health Ministry has notified the National eHealth Authority (NeHA) which plays a role for setting directions for public and private eHealth initiatives, including electronic health records storage and health information exchange capabilities and other related health information technology efforts & regulation of the same. Objectives: The study aims at strategic planning for implementation of Electronic Health Record in the government Hospitals in India. Methods: A descriptive analytical study for implementation of electronic health records using SWOT (Strength, Weakness, Opportunities, and Threats) and PESTLE (Political, Economical, Social, Technological, Legal and Ethical) analysis. Results: A broad range of administrative, technical, financial and organizational factors should be considered when adopting an EHR system. Communication between different healthcare providers canenable hospitals to properly plan, select, implement and integrate different health IT projects. The hospitals should collaborate with each other to bridge the gap between internal capacity and external resources. Conclusion: Timely & quick access to information is the important strength. Lack of hardware and infrastructures are the most important weakness. Having the potential to share information between different sectors and access to a variety of health statistics is the significant opportunity of EHR. The most substantial threats are the physicians' and other clinical staff's resistance in the use of electronic health records. The successful implementation of EHR requires a coordinated effort the Central Government, State Governments, healthcare providers, medical associations, IT industry.

  53. Dr. Savitha Sathyaprasad, Dr. Krishnamoorthy S. H. , Dr. Sahana S Naik, Dr. Mercy T Vinolia , Dr. Irfana Ilyas , Dr. Pavithra V Rao and Dr. Aravind A

    In this observational study, questionnaires were sent to the parents of children at 3 phases of lockdown that is phase 1, phase 2 and post lockdown aged 5 to 8 years, to check for the variation seen in ingestion of food items which were related to dental caries usually. Also questions related to oral hygiene practices, their variation in different phases and also questions relating to use of fluoride toothpaste were asked. Results showed increase in consumption of food items which were cariogenic nature and also better oral hygiene practices were followed, may be due to the parental presence in the lockdown.

  54. Dr. Syed Salman Ahmed, Dr. Lakshmi Bhaskar, N., Dr. Jonnala Sindhu and Dr. Nimma Satyanarayana

    Hospital being the first point of contact for the MLC cases, proper documentation of the cases is vital for the hospital to fulfill the legal responsibilities. Keeping clear, accurate and contemporaneous patient records is a prime responsibility of all medical practitioners. A good medical record should be comprehensive and accessible, legible and pinned to a particular date in a legal context, good patient records are always more valuable than memory. Aim: The aim of the study is to assess the completeness of the documentation of medico-legal cases in a MLC register in a tertiary care hospital. Objectives: To study the pattern of distribution of different mlc cases To study the age and gender distribution of mlc cases To study the area wise distribution of cases- urban vs rural Methodology: A total of 1530 cases were registered as medicolegal during the year 2020. Sample Size is 312 obtained from Raosoft Inc. (sample size calculator). These cases were studied by stratified random sampling (26 cases from each month) • The relevant details in the hospital mlc form were analyzed, grouped, tabulated and assessed for completeness by taking various parameters like Name, Age, Address, Brought By, Identificaton marks, Type of Injury, Diagnosis, Details of the Doctors, Overwriting, Striking Results: Out of 312, A total of only 74 mlc records were having all the parameters completely filled. 232 were males, 72 were females, 160 were from urban area and 146 were from rural area. Only 138 records had name and signature of the doctor and 174 records had only the signature of the doctor. Most common manner of injury was the RTA (172 cases out of 312). Conclusion: Vigilance and proper documentation while attending to MLC is instrumental in preventing grave consequences to the patient, the doctor or even the health institution in the court of law. Good notes corroborate evidence given in court and will enhance your credibility. Reorientation courses and Continuing Medical Education programs of medical practitioners are recommended for getting acquainted with the management of medicolegal cases

  55. Efstathios K. Metaxas, Theodoros Piperos, Kakoulis Theodoulou, Spyridon Roditis, Alexandros Manthas and Theodoros Mariolis –Sapsakos

    Background: Aim of this study to demonstrate the effectiveness of laparoscopic hiatal hernia repair, strategy for treatment, operative technique and literature review. Methods: Between the years 2015- 2020, fifty one patients underwent elective uneventfully laparoscopic diaphragmatic hernia repair by surgical team from University general surgery clinic at Oncological Hospital of Kifisia –Agioi Anargyroi, Athens Greece. Results: During the last 5 years 51 patients already diagnosed with diaphragmatic hiatal hernia underwent elective laparoscopic repair uneventfully. Twenty one male and thirty female aged 19 – 68 mean age 44 years. The hospital stay was min 2 max 5 days mean stay aprox 3 days. All patients underwent gastrografin shallow. No death has been recorded. No ileus no volvulus was noticed. Three patients developed Dysphagia but post a week was disappeared. One male patient developed haematoma but this was cured within a two week period. All these patients as a follow up patients no complication or discomfort noticed. Conclusion: Laparoscopic diaphragmatic hiatal hernia repair considered safe, low cost and hospital stay with no complications, but needs to be done by well trained and experience team.

  56. Dr. Deepak C. Koli, Dr. Tapas Mandal and Dr. Hemant H. Mehta

    Hereditary spherocytosis (HS) is a familial haemolyticdisorder characterizedby formation of abnormal red blood cells with fragile cell walls causing anaemia, jaundice, splenomegaly and gallstone formation. Most children have a mild disease and hencedo not require splenectomy, mainly reserved for a severe disease or in patients with symptomatic gall stone disease. The anaesthetic management of hereditary spherocytosis mainly depends upon the degree of haemolysis and severity of anaemia.We reportanaesthetic management in a case of HS with splenomegaly for elective laparoscopic SOS open splenectomy.

  57. Ogouvidé AKPAKI, Kwamivi N. SEGBEAYA, Komi Edem KOLEDZI and Gnon BABA

    The search for an alternative solution to biological faecal sludge stabilization methods that requires significant funds and a lot of time, led us to undertake work on chemical stabilization processes for FS that are less expensive and fast. Thus, the faecal sludge collected is stabilized by quicklime (CaO) on the one hand and sodium nitrite NaNO2) on the other. The results of the analyses showed that these stabilized faecal sludge are hygienic due to the total absence of pathogenic germs (Thermotolerant coliforms, Entamoeba Coli, Faecal streptococci, Anaerobic sulfito-reducers, Salmonella sp) and the very sensitive abatement of parasites (Entamoeba Coli cysts) and metal pollutants (Zn, Cu, Ni, Pb, Cd and Cr). The white bean germination test also appreciated the germinative and fertilising power of the treated faecal sludge. Then, the sludge volume index calculation yielded 25 ± 0.08 mL/g and 32 ± 0.12 mL/g respectively for CaO-stabilized sludge and NaNO2-stabilized faecal sludge. These values are less than 100 mL/g, indicating that these stabilized faecal sludge sediment easily and will optimize their drying time.

  58. Bagul Vinayak Ramdas

    ‘Nirgudi’plant Vitex negundo Linn. from family Verbenaceae is important medicinal plant in Indian Pharmacopoeia with variety of bioactive phytochemicals having importance in pharmacology and tribal medicines. It was found to contain many polyphenolic compounds, terpenoids, steroids, glycosides and alkaloids. Bioactivity guided preliminary phytochemical analysisof various extracts of leaves of V. negundo resulted in the qualitative analysis of ten metabolites.All the crude extracts from various solvents were evaluated for their antibacterial properties. They were found to have significant antibiotic activity against Staphylococcus aureus, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Escherischia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Salmonella typhi and Bacillus subtilis. The significance of antibacterial activity was compared with standard antibiotic tetracycline.

  59. Amit Mehra, Gugulothu Ramesh and Om Prakash Tiwari

    Trividha Satva and Dhatu Sarata are two main concepts on which a person’s healthy status depends. In different major texts of Ayurveda there is so much description found on Trividha Satva and Dhatu Sara. Sixteen Prakriti are mentioned on the basis of Manasika Guna predominance and eight Dhatu Sara are described depending on the specific and pure qualities of a particular Dhatu. Trividha Satva are responsible for healthy conduction of body and maintaining the quality of life of an individual and Dhatu Sarata also helps in providing strength against the disease. So there is needed to make an effort to find out the relation between Trividha Satva and Dhatu Sara and to conclude it with probable logics and concepts.

  60. Munkhbayar Narankhuu, Tserendulam Luvsandorj, Enkh-Amgalan Purevbat, Ariunaa Zundui, Davaasambuu Tegshbayar and Selenge Erdenechimeg

    Birch leaves were used as a substitute for birch bark, buds, and Chaga of birch. In traditional medicine, birch leaves are considered to have less toxic. Numerous researches conducted in Russia, Bulgaria, Japan, and China on Betula pubescens Ehrh., Betula pendula Roth., Betula rezniczenkoana (Litv.) Schischk., Betula humilis Schrank., Betula mandshurica (Regel) Nakai found that birch barks and leaves contain antioxidants, and they have anti-cancer, anti-yeast, antibacterial and anti-inflammatory properties, protect the liver and promote bile secretion. The studies showed that the medicinal plants had anti-inflammatory on stomach inflammation during extreme stress and promoted bile secretion. The birch leaf Phyto preparations used in experimental animals reduced insulin resistance of peripheral tissues and lowered blood glucose. It was noted in Traditional Mongolian Medicine that the birch bark was used to treat inflammation for acute diseases. The aim of this study was to determine the effect of two species of birch leaves on blood glucose and antioxidant activities in diabetic rats. The study was conducted at the Drug Research Institute of the Monos Group. 40 WISTAR non-linear white rats weighing 150-204 g, dry extract of birch leaves of the two species (Alloxan monohydrate Tokyo Chemical Industry LTD), IGM-100 3A blood glucose meter (Blood glucose test meter, Infopia LTD, Brussels Belgium), glucose test (Blood glucose test strip only), antioxidant activity kit (Rat Malondialchehyche Elisa KIT, cat. № EKRAT- 0266, Jilin province, China). The blood glucose level of the pathological control group rats reduced from 31.5 mmol/l to 17.1 mmol/l in 14 days. The blood glucose levels of Betula platyphylla group lowered to 6.3 mmol/l; Betula hippolytii group’s lowered to 6.9 mmol /l. The results showed that the maximum MDA level was determined from the control group, Betula hippolytii and Betula platyphilla groups. The maximum MDA rate was reduced by 33.9% and 53.5%, respectively for Betula hippolytii and Betula platyphilla groups. Betula hippolytii birch leaves and Betula platyphilla birch leaves have been shown to lower blood glucose levels and have antioxidant activity for diabetic animals.

  61. Dr. Renu Kumari, Dr. Sushil Kumar, Dr. Manish Rao Ambedkar and Dr. Madhu gupta

    The study presents quantitative structure activity relationships (QSAR) study on A series of 7-hydroxy, 8-hydroxy and 7,8-dihydroxy synthetic chromone derivatives for their DPPH free radical scavenging activities. A training set of 36 synthetic chromone derivatives was subject to two-dimensional quantitative structure-activity relationship (2D-QSAR) studies using leave one out method(Loo method). Regression analysis was carried out using multiple regression analysis. A highly predictive and statistically significant model was generated. The modeling was done using physicochemical and topological parameters. The results are discussed on various statistical parameters. The predictive powers of the models were also discussed by using the method of cross-validation.Our best seven parameteric model having n=36,S.E=0.1767,R2=0.8637,R2A=0.8296,F-ratio=25.350,Q=5.2595. Our results shows that the model suggested by us using 2D QSAR technology is comparatively better than the result obtained by Weerasak Samee et. al. used 3D QSAR technique. Hence MLR method is better in the case when connectivity and information indices along with indicator and topological parameter are used as correlating parameters.

  62. Sruthi Reddy C., Naga Vaishnavi, C. and Swetha, C.

    This situation had risen in the context of the outbreak and is considered to be unique as there is no evidence of the similar situation in a couple of decades. ‘Janata Curfew’ followed by ‘lockdown’ is painstaking decision laid on Indian citizens to fight against the global epidemic war. Due to the decision imposed on the people, all the sectors of various departments functioning have come to a halt. Among the all the sectors, education sector is one entity which is shut in all the parts of the nation. To bridge the gap in an optimistic approach, creativeness in learning and teaching has come forward for adoption by various universities and schools. Hence, using technology, teaching, students’ assessments are in action online.

  63. Roshni Chowdhury, Anurag Chowdhury and Chowdhury, M.

    During the floristic expedition of vascular epiphytes in Terai and Duars region of West Bengal, India, many aroid species were collected from wild habitat. All these species are critically examined and identified with the help of various taxonomic literatures and digital herbarium specimen of Kew. Out of that Syngonium podophyllum found to be no evidence of occurrence in India from wild habitat or naturalised condition. This is the first distributional record of this species from India in wild condition.

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