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IJCR is following an instant policy on rejection those received papers with plagiarism rate of more than 20%. So, All of authors and contributors must check their papers before submission to making assurance of following our anti-plagiarism policies.













October 2018

  1. Atté Cyrille Bi Tiéssé, Eboua Narcisse Wandan Zamblé Armand Bi Tra

    Soil erosion is at the root of serious economic, social, and environmental problems in many countries around the world. It is therefore essential to spatially evaluate its effects in order to face them and to be able to propose the best strategies of fight, conservation and planning of land. The objective of this study was to qualitatively evaluate the vulnerability of soils to water erosion through an approach based on the Mediterranean Desertification and Land Use (MEDALUS) model across the Tonkpi Region (Western Cote d’Ivoire). It enabled rational choices of sites where to implement anti-erosive works in priority. Coupling remote sensing and by considering relevant factors known to influence the processes of erosion, such climate, vegetation, soil, and demography, map of the sensitivity to erosion was designed. The erosion risk map obtained showed that 43% of the study area was exposed to a high vulnerability to erosion. On top, the results showed a strong influence of the vegetation quality index (65%) in the risk of erosion. This map will be a tool for decision-makers in allocating crop areas and socio-economic infrastructure sites in the region.

  2. Dr. Ramachandran, R.

    The main challenge is to develop future teacher educators and teachers who know how to use the modern technology to improve teacher and student learning. Given the fact that most of the educators are good to train the teachers, but they are not technically sound. So the educators are required to understand the usage of Information and Communication Technology (ICT) within the education and training system. This further requires an understanding of the technology, its application to various learning areas and the ability to manage information and knowledge. BRTEs do not differs for knowing their infrastructural facilities in Block Resource centres. BRTEs differ in their basic knowledge on ICT and attitude towards ICT. So the Block Resource Teacher Educator’s has to improve themselves in their basic knowledge and usage on ICT so as to be a technology proficient Teacher Educator which is the urgent need of today.

  3. Nancy Salazar Tonya Huber

    The problem of child sex trafficking is widespread and commonly receives media attention as it pertains to international sex trafficking. However, commercial sexual exploitation of children is one of the most hidden forms of child sexual abuse in the United States today (Clawson and Goldblatt Grace, 2007; Kotrla, 2010, in O’Brien, White, and Rizo, 2017, p. 265). The problem is occurring in our backyard, yet very little is known about the extent of the issue. Until recently, minors involved in sex crimes were treated as criminals rather than victims. The passage of the Trafficking Victims Protection Act (TVPA) of 2000 changed that. The purpose of this review of the literature is to identify the issue of domestic minor sex trafficking (DMST), including the risk factors, consequences, and needs that arise for the minors such as physical, medical, and psychological support. DMST victims are under-identified. Once identified, the victims and survivors have limited supports to meet their needs. This study provides a review of existing qualitative and quantitative research on the topic of DMST with implications for future research including how the presence or absence of risk factors relate to DMST, establishing screening protocols for multi-disciplinary teams to increase early identification of victims or at-risk minors, and establishing the needs of trafficked minors during captivity and after being rescued. The review of the literature will benefit service providers in the juvenile justice system, social services, the medical field, as well as educators who are the people most often in contact with the young victims described.

  4. Tommaso Fornasari

    Corporate Social Responsibility is, nowadays, considered the best driver of corporate development: reconciling the expectations of different stakeholders is the perfect way to guarantee a balanced development of the business in the long run. The issue is what CSR exactly means, what ethical compliance is and how different companies can reach the target of being socially responsible. The establishment and the effective operation of the ethics committee could be the key answer to define business’s values, stakeholder engagement plan and CSR agenda. This article aims to investigate the characteristics of board committees, paying particular heed to ethics committees, considered as the means to embed and monitor Ethical values and culture in corporate governance and, more broadly, in business.

  5. Shashank K. I. Dr. Varsha Agarwal

    Cryptocurrency is the breakthrough for this era, the new way of making electronic transaction in a fast and a secure way using the block chain technology, the technology that is adopted in most of the financial institutions because of its surety. Cryptocurrencies can be traded with fiat currency in the exchange market, these currencies follow a decentralized method of monetary management that makes no human interface with the currency to manipulate or to hold. This study mainly focuses on educating the investors and the coming generation about the advantages of cryptocurrency over fiat currency and it answers the questions on how it will beneficial to our economy if it is adopted.

  6. Obadoni, B.O., Ebinum, N.M., Alanana, J.A., Erhrenhi, H.A. and Ogochukwu, A.

    In Edo and Delta States of Nigeria, many edible wild fruits are available in the bushes. Many of them are threatened due to urbanisation hence, this document for unborn generations. Trips were made to Ekpoma, Iruekpen, Otuo, Ewu, Uromi, Ubiaja, Auchi and Benin City markets in Edo State to obtain first-hand information on the wild edible fruits sold and consumed by the natives in those communities. Also, markets in Ogume, Utagba Ogbe, Utagba Uno, Obiaruku, Abbi, Orerokpe, Warri, Sapele, Asaba and Agbor in Delta State were sampled to know the wild edible fruits sold in those markets. In both states, the trips were made in dry and rainy seasons as the fruits were not available throughout the year. Besides sampling the markets in towns and cities, the assistance of three male farmers in the villages, towns and outskirts of the cities were solicited in identifying edible wild fruits in their localities. We paid them for their services. The fruits were consumed in our presence by the natives and the authors equally ate the fruits to confirm they were edible and harmless. In all, twenty nine edible wild fruits belonging to twenty-three families were documented. Time of the year in which the fruits were available, their habits and indigenous names in Bini, Esan and Ukwuani languages were documented for posterity.

  7. Dr. Hassan Almahdi, PhD, Prof. Shajahan Shamsudeen, MBA PhD Mr. Nasser Khalufi, MBA

    This research was conducted during November 2017 –April 2018 in USA to enhance total shopping experience of the customers through Proximity marketing communication and it’s influence on brand/store interpretation on a semantic mapping during perception analysis. The Proximity message were given to respondents through RIFD devices, Wifi devices , Bluetooth enabled devices and Mobile phones. Analysis were done with sample size of 300 and with the help of 15 statements which represented 5 dependent variables on Proximity marketing mainly for predicting the marketing effectiveness of Proximity marketing communications. For analyzing the research data, both qualitative and quantitative research techniques were employed extensively. During data analysis, it was established that retailers which were adopted Proximity marketing with latest product/brand information, responsiveness and credible messages in their communication strategy could easily attract the large number of customers. Respondents of the study were more aware of various local retailers products frequently advertised through the Proximity marketing. The result of the multiple regression showed that overall model for Marketing Effectiveness of Proximity marketing communication yielded a significant statistic (F=76.972, p<0.000) and adjusted Rsquare=0.817. It was proved that Proximity marketing message content and its relevancy to weekly shopping, Latest information on new product arrival, price and brands in the Proximity marketing communications. and Responsiveness were the significant antecedents of marketing effectiveness of Proximity marketing communication. The estimating equation for predicting marketing effectiveness of Proximity marketing communication can be constructed as PME = 0.51 + 0.42 RES + 0.41 PCR + 0.33 LPB

  8. Malini Murali, Dr. Sai Krishna, P., Dr. Makesh Raj, L.S., Dr. Kannan, I., Dr. Jai Santhosh Manikandan, Dr. Prasanna, S., Dr. Shankar, K.A., Dr. Jude, J. and Dr. Pravina Fernando, L.

    Introduction: Process of removing the stains from tooth is termed as bleaching. Substance used for bleaching are termed as bleaching agents. Various bleaching agents (artificial and natural) are readily available in the market. Aim: Present study was aimed in evaluating the efficacy of lemon, apple, carrot, baking soda in the whitening of the extracted natural teeth that are stained with tea decoction. Material and method: Teeth were stained with tea decoction and bleaching was done using natural food substances (lemon, carrot, apple, baking soda) in two different methods (direct application, soaking). Result: Bleaching efficacy of lemon was superior in both the methods when compared with baking soda, carrot and apple. Conclusion: Because of superior bleaching property of lemon, it can be used as an active ingredient in day to day commodities like tooth paste or other tooth cleaning products after standardisation.

  9. Yves AHOUNOU, Didié Armand ZADOU, Kouassi Combo MAFOU, Paul ANOH, Yamoi Venceslas KOUAKOU, Jonathan SERI, Excelente KOFFI et Jonas IBO

    Located in the south corner of Côte d'Ivoire, Dabou knows for several decades a diversification of economic activities. This diversification of activities is accompanied by a strong spatial and demographic dynamic. The latter has led to a proliferation of household waste in the city. Despite the efforts made by the authorities, the removal of this waste remains a crucial problem. If we stick to the various studies that have highlighted the environmental and health consequences of household waste, the proliferation of this waste in the town of Dabou deserves special attention to avoid possible disasters. In this logic, the present study in a qualitative approach determinates, on the one hand, the mode of production of household waste in the city of Dabou. And, on the other hand, the study analyses the risks associated with the proliferation of this household waste. In short, this study suggests that the issue of the proliferation of household waste must be considered by local authorities to prevent possible ecological and health risks.

  10. Olusola Igbari

    There are divergent views about the actual nature of the conscience of a man. To some people, the conscience is the voice of God in man, having godly characteristics and playing divine roles under divine influence. Others however see it as a natural inclination, tendency, or propensity in a man that tends towards a particular direction consequent upon a given ‘social’ influence under which it develops. To the latter, conscience is rather a product of ‘social learning’ rather than ‘divinely influenced’ agent that could only play godly roles of reproof or approval in a man. The argument against conscience as a ‘divine agent’ is mainly based on the ground that while some consciences could lead a man towards godliness, there are however some consciences that rather lead some into defiant behaviors. Given the above stances, the problems facing the researcher here is to attempt deciphering the actual nature of the conscience and examining the factor that influences or shapes it. Hence, the paper is focused on discovering the roles of law in human conscience in the context of 1 John 3: 21. It is discovered that the conscience could actually be influenced to act in a particular direction as a result of some factors. It is also discovered that Law is one of these factors that could influence the conscience. The objective of this paper is pursued in the contextual analysis of 1 John 3: 21 as to establish in more clear terms the roles of law in human conscience especially in African Political landscape. To achieve the objectives of this paper, the researcher adopted the use of secondary sources that is, library work in carrying out the study. The views of other scholars in the subject matter were consulted. The significance of this work lie in the potential meaningful contributions it adds to knowledge and scholarship. Since the subject matter is studied in the context of Christianity and politics; the study will be of an immense help to the church and the state in understanding the roles of law in human conscience.

  11. Virgili, E., Mantovani, M. and Gardarelli, M.

    Fibromyalgia (FM) is a chronic disease in which a generalized pain condition is usually accompanied by other symptoms such as fatigue, sleep disorders, mood disorders, headache, irritable colon syndrome, etc. Although FM has been known for many years, it has only recently been the subject of more thorough studies, although there are still many unknown issues about it.

  12. Heikal, M., Muammar Khaddafi, Wahyuddin, Falahuddin Asmaul Husna

    The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of sales growth, turnover of receivables and working capital turnover to liquidity at various industrial companies listed on the Indonesian Stock Exchange (BEI). The method used is quantitative research methods, has a hypothesis, and using secondary data. The sampling method used was purposive sampling technique. The method used to analyze the relationship between the dependent variable and the independent variable is the method of multiple linear analysis. By t-test to see the effects of the individual and the F test to see the effects together. The results of this study indicate that sales growth variable has no effect on liquidity, working capital turnover affect the liquidity and receivables turnover has no effect on liquidity. Simultaneously, sales growth, working capital turnover and accounts receivable turnover effect on liquidity.

  13. Nkemaja Dydimus Efeze, Nantia Akono, E., Azeteh Ignatius N., Njeugna Ebenezer, Murugesh Babu, K. and Zipo Rodulf

    The antibacterial properties of fabrics are being considered to be an important and inevitable parameter for garment especially those that are in direct contact with the body. The main aim of this research is to investigate the antibacterial activity of ethanol extract of Sidarhombifolia against bacterial strain Staphylococcus aureasand Streptococcus pyogene and evaluate the phytochemical screening of the extract. Extract from 3 different parts of sidarhombifolia was extracted using ethanol as solvent. The bacterial inoculum was prepared to activate the bacteria growth and the activated bacterial were cultured using well diffusion method and incubated for 24 hours. The quantities of extract yielded from the leaves, stems and retted fibre were 2.13%, 1.8% and 1.0% respectively. The extracts were tested on Staphylococcus aureus and Streptococcus pyogenes at 4 different concentrations using wells diffusion method and the diameter of inhibition was measured and recorded. From the value of diameter of inhibition obtained, it was noticed that extracts from the leaves, stems and retted fibre inhibit the growth of S.pyogenes and S. aureus. In addition the inhibition of the growth of S. pyogenes was more than that of S. aureus and the antibacterial properties of S. rhombifolia are more concentrated in the stem than other parts of plant. Results of phytochemical screening also revealed abundant presence of saponins, glycosides and moderate presence of steroid in sidarhombifolia plant. The antibacterial property in the plant extract was due to the presence of various plant phytochemical compounds which were synthesized by plant parts in response to bacteria

  14. Dr. Dornela Oluoch

    The rapid development and increasing global distribution of modern information and communication technologies such as PCs, the internet, email and mobile phones have transformed the way economies operate and the way individuals, societies and States interact with each other. ICT is an essential instrument when it comes to reducing poverty, driving social and economic development and supporting democracy and good governance, education and health care. It enables better access to knowledge for sustainable development and opens up new ways of involving large swathes of the population in political decision-making process. The main prerequisite for sustainable economic development are accessing knowledge into innovative products, processes and services. Information and communication technologies particularly the internet, can play an important role in this context. In addition to the aspect of the availability of knowledge, ICT like electricity, is considered to be a general purpose technology that permeates all sectors of the economy. This means that the very use of ICT offers great potential for advancing technology, increasing productivity and reducing costs as well as stimulating product and process innovation. It is against this background that the paper examines how societies have transformed through e- connectivity.

  15. Dr. Singh, S.N., Dr. Ratnesh Kumar, Dr. Richa Sinha, Dr Nand kishor and Dr Srivastva, R.K.

    Background: Acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) has emerged as one of the most serious public health problem in our country. Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) counselling and testing (HCT) conducted at Integrated Counselling and Testing Centres (ICTCs) is a cost-effective intervention in preventing transmission of HIV. Therefore, this study was conducted to find out the socio-demographic profiles, HIV status and risk behaviour pattern of attendees and also to elucidate the reason for their visit to ICTC. Objectives: To study the prevalence of HIV among ICTC attendees and also to know the socio-demographic characteristics and risk behaviours of HIV-seropositive patients. Materials and Methods: A data based retrospective cross-sectional study was carried out at ICTC of PMCH Patna, Bihar over a period from January 2017 to June 2018. A total of 11,203 patients were included in our study. Results: Of 11203 patients that were included in this study, 1581 (14.12 %) were tested positive for HIV. Among HIV seropositives, 1036 (65.53%) were males, while 542 (34.28%) were females and 3 (0.05%) were transgender. Majority 87% belonged to the age group between 15-49 years. In discordant couples, majority (81%) were male partner positive and female partner negative. Positives were more amongst married, less educated, low socioeconomic status and migrants. Conclusion: There is need to encourage activities that promote HCT in all health care facilities, so as to increase the rate of diagnosis of new HIV cases. The data generated in ICTC will help us to understand cases, pertaining to the epidemiology in a defined geographic region.

  16. Yanasita Mafluha, Tri Nurmiyati and Akhmad Mukhsin

    Background: In old age there are many problems that occur which can affect the quality of life of the elderly. One of the government's efforts to improve the quality of life of the elderly is the posbindu program or nursing home. Objective: To determine how the elderly class influence the quality of life of the elderly. Method: This Research uses mixed methods with sequential exploratory strategies. This research began with qualitative research and continued with quantitative research. Qualitative data collection in this research was done through 22 in-depth interviews and quantitative research was done by filling in 47 questionnaires. The sample in this research are all elderly in Panti, purposive sampling for the sampling technique. Results: Qualitative research found there were significant differences in family dimensions (pvalue 0,000), health dimension (pvalue = 0,000), psychological dimension (pvalue = 0,042), financial dimension to overall quality of life (pvalue = 0,077), neighbor/environment dimension to overall quality of life (pvalue 0.003). Conclusion: There is an influence between the elderly class and the quality of life of the elderly, it is expected that the government would pay more attention to Panti, in order to make them fell that they live a better quality of live.

  17. July Catalina Romero López, Kelly Jhoana Piedrahita González Alicia Uribe Taborda

    In this text, analyses about different studies and researches on the impact that graduates are currently having in the work field, at a national and international level are related; making an approximation to the reasons why this type of research is carried out and what relevant information has been written about the subject; which will serve as the structure of the project entitled "Impact of Law Program graduates attached to the Faculty of Legal and Humanistic Sciences at UCEVA in the work field in the municipalities of Tuluá and Guadalajara de Buga, Colombia, from 2013 to 2017".

  18. Dr. Suresha, K.P.

    In a modern society women are playing multiple roles as productive workers, eminent entrepreneurs, efficient managers, investors etc. The economic developments of many countries are stunned because of the underutilization of feminine workforce. If we are willing to acknowledge their economic significance there is no doubt, they will absolutely excel in their performance and finally lead to long term economic growth. But unfortunately women are facing great difficulties in their workplace and existing laws proves ineffective and inadequate. In a globalised era, growth and development of an economy largely depends on the proper and planned utilization of human resources especially female laborers. India is now in the phase of demographic dividend where share of working age population is high which will benefit the long-term growth of the economy. This study attempts to examine the socio-economic problems of female workers in textile retail sector and brings out some major findings also. This paper points out the fact that women in this sector suffers from lower wages, gender discrimination, long working hours, lack of proper sanitation facilities, lack of social security and rigid working arrangements.

  19. Melek Zamanova Alislam gizi

    There are radical changes in the education system of our country aimed at creating an optimal structure of education that adequately reflects the state of modern society. The intellectual system that being subordinated the principles of self-development, self-education displays itself in the education easily. That is why today the new synergistic approach is actively being discussed and is being implemented in education.

  20. Sagar Biradar, Satyjeet Aher, Sandesh Jadhav and Rohini Pungle

    In the present investigation the green synthesis of ZnO nanoparticles was carried out by using aqueous fruit extract of Emblica officinalis .Optimization for substrate (Zinc acetate) concentration was evaluated for 1mM, 50mM and 100mM. The biogenic ZnO nanoparticles were characterized by UV-Visible spectrophotometry and FTIR (Fourier-Transform Infrared Spectroscopy). It was found that only in 100mM concentration of zinc acetate ZnO nanoparticles were synthesized having peaks at 350nm,370nm,390nm and 410nm .FTIR analysis reveals that flavonoids were capping agent for biogenic ZnO nanoparticles and amines were found to be reducing agent. Antibacterial potential of ZnO nanoparticles was tested on Salmonella typhi confirming antibacterial activity for the same.

  21. Dr. Patil Rita and Ms. Trishala Goswami

    Background: Physical activity helps maintain good health whereas sedentary behavior is associated with several life-style disorders. Objective: This study was therefore conducted to understand physical activity pattern of young adults and to compare the use of fitness band and phone app for counting steps. Methods: Step count of subjects was observed using a phone app (Runtastic pedometer) and fitness band (MI) pedometers. One hundred and fifteen subjects (60 young men and 55 young women) participated in this study. They were divided into two groups- fitness band and phone app group. Both groups recorded and reported their step count for three days. A questionnaire was used to examine activity level, to identify indicators of sedentary behavior and opinion of participants towards physical activity. Results: The mean step count of the fitness band group was 8221.92 ± 886.01 steps and phone app group was 8676.56 ± 995.11. There was no significant correlation between use of phone app, BMI and body weight. However, there was a significant correlation between use of fitness band and body weight. Conclusion: Use of fitness band and phone app pedometers increased awareness of physical activity and motivated subjects to increase their step count.

  22. Zulkarnaen Zulfakar

    Early childhood education has developed a specialised discourse to allow individuals within the profession to communicate effectively about all matters associated with the design and implementation of learning programs for children from birth to eight years. Early childhood education is changing rapidly due to the dynamic nature of positive and negative trends affecting the profession. This paper describes the early childhood education in the context of swiftly changing societal and global developments, Responding to the trend of increasing cultural and linguistic diversity in early childhood programs, not only in the Lombok-West Nusa Tenggara-Indonesia but in societies worldwide, requires teacher preparation programs to revise their content to reflect a culturally-sustaining mindset and provide practicum and field placements in a range of diverse settings. Early childhood teachers and administrators increasingly need the dispositions and skills-sets that encompass those of social workers to better respond to family diversity.

  23. Vanitha, N., Prof. Annie Annal, M. and Dr. Renuka K.

    The breast milk is very healthy and full of nutrition, it provides the primary source of nutrition for newborns before they are able to digest more diverse food. The breast milk also contains balanced nutrients that are require for brain development, growth and a healthy immune system that act against viruses, bacteria, and parasites, since an infant’s immune system is not fully developed until the age of 2 yrs. Due to some reasons, few lactating mothers unable to give breast milk to their infant when there is an inadequate milk secretions. Consuming almond oil during lactation promotes milk secretions, as helps in synthesis of Vitamin-B, and also helps in emulsification of globules. As almond oil contains fatty acids, proteins, calcium, and linolenic acids and it is having emollients and helps in increased secretion of breast milk. Aim: This study was aimed to assess the effectiveness of application of almond oil massage on breast feeding among postnatal mothers undergone LSCS at MGMCRI Puducherry. Methodology: Experimental Research Design group pre-test post-test design and 60 mothers Undergone LSCS were selected using simple random sampling technique-lottery method was adopted for this study. Results: The study results show that almond oil massage was effective in promoting breast feeding among post natal mothers underwent LSCS by using UNICEF based breast feeding assessment tool and which can be effectively utilized as a non-pharmacological management for promotion of breast milk secretion . The obtained test value was significant at p<0.001* level. Thus the application of almond oil massage can be used as a complimentary therapy in promoting breast milk secretion.

  24. Zulfakar Zulkarnaen

    The study was based on contextual and distributed view of leadership. Quality improvement and pedagogical leadership was seen as primary responsibilities in early childhood education leadership by all studied groups. The study indicated different practices of distribution of responsibilities for leadership. However, it indicated that developed forms of leadership distribution were rarely used. In developing early childhood education leadership, focusing on interdependencies of leadership enactments between teachers, centre directors and municipal early childhood education leaders and building structures for interaction between stakeholders, increase the quality of distributed leadership. This study aims to investigate distribution of responsibilities for leadership in early childhood education context. It focuses on the enactments of leadership by investigating how early childhood education stakeholders, teachers, early childhood education centre directors and administrative early childhood education leaders in municipal perceive the leadership responsibilities. Using focus groups, the data was collected in five municipal in West Nusa Tenggara-Indonesia.

  25. Dr. Samuel K. Mutukaa

    Water resources are essential to a country’s economic growth and economic development if they are effectively utilized by converting into tangible goods and services within an economy. However, the utilization of resources varies from one resource to another and in different areas. In arid and semi-arid lands, water resources play an important role in sustaining rural livelihoods as well as wildlife and plants. In Mwingi Sub-County, Kitui County and particularly in Tseikuru division, rural communities are assumed to be highly dependent on water resources for their rural livelihoods but its utilization is in dilemma. The Sub-County is endowed with abundant water resources despite the persistent food crisis in the district over the years. The purpose of this study is to investigate the factors that affect utilization of the available water resources as a mean of improving of rural livelihoods for the rural communities in Tseikuru division of Mwingi Sub-County in Kenya. Specifically, the study sought to investigate the challenges faced in tapping available water resources for sustainable rural livelihoods in Tseikuru division of Mwingi Sub-County and to establish appropriate strategies that can be used for effective water resource utilization for sustainable rural livelihoods in Mwingi Sub-County. This study was based on Sustainable Livelihood Framework by Scoones in conceptualizing livelihoods and rural poverty. In this study descriptive research design was used. The study used a target population of 3,980 households and a sample of 150 respondents was selected using simple random sampling in the three locations of Tseikuru division of Mwingi Sub-County. The data was collected by administering questionnaires to randomly selected community. The primary data was collected by use of questionnaires while secondary data was collected from documented materials and other research work done by other researchers. The data was processed and analysed using tables, frequencies and percentages. Arising from this study, it can be concluded that, water resources in Tseikuru division are adequate to support sustainable rural livelihoods and that water resources contribute very little to the improvements of the people’s livelihoods in Tseikuru division. This study also concluded that local people face numerous challenges in attempt to exploit available water resources to enhance their livelihoods such as poor government policies, lack of funds and inappropriate technology. The study recommended a number of strategies that can be adopted for effective utilization of water resources to enhance livelihoods of the local people despite the fact that these strategies have not been integrated into the development planning. These strategies include: first, developing and utilizing appropriate strategies not only for water but also for agricultural production and other alternative productive activities such as fish farming. Secondly, capacity building of local people on the appropriate strategies that can be used for water utilization is very vital. Thirdly, this study further recommended the creation of incubation centres to enhance skills transfer for rain water harvesting and utilization. Finally the study recommended integration of water resource utilization strategies into the development planning for Mwingi Sub-County for achievement sustainable rural livelihoods.

  26. Normahfuzah Husna Samsuddin, Norliza Abu Bakar, Noor Azmi Shaharuddin, Azzreena Mohamad Azzeme, Rozeita Laboh, Rafidah Badrun and Azlan Azizi Muhamad Nor

    Erwinia mallotivora has been identified as the causal pathogen of papaya dieback disease in Malaysia, and has become one of the major threats to the papaya industry. Pathogenesis-related (PR) proteins are considered as plant defense proteins, where they are capable to prevent or reduce the effect of pathogen and insect attacks. Accumulation of PR proteins is associated with the development of systemic acquired resistance (SAR) in plants. The PR gene expressions can be induced by signaling compounds such as abscisic acid (ABA), ethylene, jasmonic acid (JA), salicylic acid (SA), mechanical wounding, osmotic stress and microbial infection. In this study, salicylic acid (SA) was used as a chemical inducer and their effectiveness in inducing SAR in papaya for enhanced disease resistance to papaya dieback was evaluated. Carica papaya was grown in a glasshouse with complete randomized block design (CRBD) arrangement. Salicylic acid (SA) treatment with three concentrations (1 mM, 3 mM, 5 mM) and observation of papaya seedlings physiology were carried out to evaluate the effect of SA on the plant growth. Erwinia mallotivora was inoculated to the papaya seedlings after 1 month of SA applications, and evaluation of disease assessment was done weekly. From statistical analysis (proc ANOVA), no significance difference on the seedlings growth was observed when different concentrations of SA applied. As for the disease assessment, highly significantly differences were recorded between the control and the treatments. Among 10 PR genes analyzed using quantitative real Time PCR, only Osmotin, CPBI_13 and CPBI_17 were down regulated for all SA-treatments; whereas increased of expression were observed for the rest of the genes.

  27. Mrs. Barkha Devi, Mrs. HisheyLamu Bhutia, Ms. Cheden Sherpa, Ms. Bechung Lepcha, Ms. Sharmila Dangal, Ms. Sustika Rai, Ms. Babina Khanal, Ms. Songmit Lepcha, Ms. Durga Devi Sapkota, Ms. SangayChamoo Dukpa, Ms. Samikcha Giri, Ms. Samitla Subba, Ms. Mala

    Introduction: Parents are the most consistent influence in children’s lives and are in unique position to influence young people’s health and personal development during their transition to sexual life. Sex education should be an integral part of the learning process that should begin in childhood and continued to adult life, because it is lifelong process. In India, due to various cultural and religious beliefs parents are generally not interested to talk about sex-education though they are the first socializing agent of the children. So it is necessary to investigate the knowledge of parents on sex education of their adolescent children. Materials and Methods: A descriptive comparative study design was used to study the knowledge of parents on sex education of their adolescent children from randomly selected urban and rural areas of Sikkim. A total of 120 parents (60 from each area) whose adolescent children fall in the age group of 10-19 years were selected through purposive sampling technique, and a structured questionnaire was used to assess the knowledge of parents for which validity and reliability was ensured through panel of experts. Results: Results of the study revealed that majority of the parents were reluctant to talk about sex education to their adolescent children as they found it embarrassing to discuss these issues. Majority of the parents (77%-father, 67 %-mother in urban & 43%-father, 63 %-mother in rural) reported that they never provided sex education to their children. The knowledge regarding sex education was found to be inadequate among the 67% parents in urban area and 87% parents in rural area. The unpaired t-test shows a significant difference in knowledge area of human sexuality (P<0.05), anatomy and physiology of human sexuality (P<0.05), concept and changes occurring during puberty (P<0.05) and concept of sex education and STDs (P<0.05) between parents who reside in urban areas and those who dwell in rural areas. There was no significant difference noted between fathers’ and mothers’ knowledge on sex education of their adolescent children in urban area (t=1.26, P>0.05) and rural area (t=0.47,P>0.05). Conclusion: There were substantial gap in knowledge about human sexuality, changes occur during puberty and sexual health among parents of adolescent children in both urban and rural areas. The study shows that residency is not a determinant of sex education and parental gender does not work as a function of sex education between parents who reside in urban areas and those who dwell in rural areas. The organization of community based programme would help parents know the rudiments of sex education and acquire requisite skills needed.

  28. Gaurav Sahni Dr. Prakash Hemraj Karmadkar

    Along with consistently transforming industry circumstances and also polices, there's a need to build revolutionary products which fulfill consumer requirements. It is vital to contemplate considerable knowledge with insurance product progress and realize need of well-equipped assistance at all phases, which includes executing industry research, establishing product attributes, executing cash-flow modeling along with revenue assessment, developing regulating processing product, enactment of the product or service. Beyond this, the heart of any product utilization is understanding significance of “Brand”. Many products are being developed throughout the globe but now it is important to invent the brand elements for insurance sector. This paper focuses over the risk elements and brand elements which are bridge between product and investor. If this bridge is weak, it becomes almost impossible for any insurance product to sustain for long term.

  29. Hiralal Jana and Debabrata Basu

    The Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO), of the U.N. is dedicated to providing food security for all. The organization has three main goals that guide its initiatives and strategies: “the eradication of hunger, food insecurity and malnutrition; the elimination of poverty and the driving forward of economic and social progress for all; and, the sustainable management and utilization of natural resources, including land, water, air, climate and genetic resources for the benefit of present and future generations.” Talks about the organization first began in 1943 in Hot Springs, Virginia, where various governments were committed to the creation of an organization solely dedicated to food and agriculture. It was not until 1945 that the FAO became a specialized U.N. branch. It is the oldest indefinite specialized agency of the U.N. The organization is comprised of 194 Member Nations, two associate members and one member organization, which is the European Union. The organization is currently present in more than 130 countries. The FAO supports policies and political commitments focused on promoting food security and good nutrition while keeping information on issues like hunger and malnutrition problems and solutions up-to-date and easily accessible. To reduce rural poverty, the FAO helps smallholders increase farm productivity, find employment off of the farm and assist communities in finding ways to manage high-risk issues prone to their environment. The FAO partners with member countries’ governments to devise agricultural policy, support planning, draft effective legislation and create national strategies. The organization responds to crisis situations by partnering with humanitarian agencies, such as the World Food Programme, to protect people’s livelihoods and help them rebuild their lives. The organization provides a platform where rich and poor nations can come together to fight global issues that affect everyone. The World Bank and FAO have recently decided to strengthen their partnership to incorporate more cooperation in hopes of making the 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development even more attainable. FAO is 39 percent funded by the contributions of member countries and 61 percent funded by voluntary contributions made by various partners. Emily Arnold opined on the FAO that FAO is an especially important organization for the world’s poor because it prioritizes those who are deprived of the basic human rights of food and water while mobilizing the world’s nations to work together.

  30. Lija, P.G.

    This paper conducted a study on the information needs and information seeking behaviour of students in St. Joseph’s College Irinjalakuda. Relevant literature of the information resources and its use in various categories of users has been reviewed. The study examined to know the information seeking behaviour of students and use, availability and effectiveness of library resources to satisfy their information needs. Updates, easy accessibility, reference and latest books collection on various subjects are to be increased and to encourage and motivate the use of information sources.

  31. Md. Tanjidul Hasan, Dr. Tarana Tabashum, S.M. Yasir Arafat, Nilufar Banu and Md. Zahidul Islam

    The current study was designed to demonstrate the microbiological quality of oral liquid antibiotics. The in vitro antibacterial potential of the antibiotics was checked. In this regard three samples of oral liquid suspension of Flucoxacillin collected from different drug stores of Dhaka city were tested. All the samples were found to be loaded with total viable bacteria and fungi in the average of 104 cfu/ml and the bacterial and fungal load exceeded United States Pharmacopeia (USP) or British Pharmacopeia (BP) limit (≤102 cfu/ml for bacteria and 10 cfu/ml for fungi). Pathogenic bacteria were also encountered among which Pseudomonas spp. was predominant as they found in all samples. Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus spp. were found in majority of the samples. All the samples ofantibiotic exhibited substantial killing effect on E. coli, Staphylococcus spp. and fungi. Flucoxacillin samples had effect on them. E. coli, Klebsiella spp., Staphylococcus spp. and fungi. Flucoxacillin had the elevated antimicrobial effect on Staphylococcus spp.

  32. James Pavel Ngalebaye

    This paper intends to determine whether there is a relation between the external public debt and the economic growth in the Republic of the Congo 1975-2015. To achieve the purpose, we have applied a model of multiple regression. Therefore, the results demonstrate that the external public debt and the debt service had a negative effect on growth. Hence, the study recommends to the Congo to comply with convergence criteria of EMCCAS which set the threshold of the public debt by 70 % of GDP.

  33. Ernesto C. HOUEHANOU, Yvette TANKPINOU KIKI, Fifa T. D. BOTHON, Gérard GBAGUIDI AISSE, Miguel HOUELEKOU, Alain A. N. ADOMOU., Félicien AVLESSI and Dominique C. K. SOHOUNHOUELE

    Home comfort contributes to improving the living environment and several approaches to materials are implemented to improve thermal comfort in homes. This study focuses on the development and mechanical characterization of an insulating material based on Parkiabiglobosa (Néré) and cow dung. Beforehand, a chemical analysis on the tannin content of five concentrations ofNéré’s pod was carried out for three different time’s maceration. In view of the results, the concentrations 120 g/l and 180 g/l after 24 h of maceration were retained to make the different insulant specimens. For each of the two concentrations, two different types of mixtures were used: one from a macerate obtained by filtering the solution and the other with a macerate containing the broken pod debris (unfiltered).A reference mixture produced with cow dung and water is also used for comparison. The mechanical strengths that have been obtained are between 0.54 and 0.67 MPa for compression and between 1.1 and 1.4 MPa for bending. The mechanical characteristics of the specimens containing decoctions from Néré's pod are higher than those of the test pieces of the reference mixture. The values of the compressive and flexion strengths of the specimens made with the filtered extract are slightly higher than those of the specimens made with the unfiltered extract (containing the pod debris).

  34. Khalil UR Rahman, Ramachandran Subramanian and Shoaib Ismail

    Salinity problem in crop production will become worse in areas with rapidly growing human population and limited water resources, which necessitates the use of saline water for irrigation. Cultivation of salt tolerant perennial trees using saline water is potentially an important strategy to save fresh water resources and maximize the forage yield of small-scale farms in the marginal and saline environments. With the population growth, increased per capita consumption, higher living standards the meat consumption will rise to nearly 73% and dairy consumption 58% by 2050 over current levels. Therefore, livestock numbers are expected to be doubled by 2050, which means 30% more forage would be required to meet this increased demand, which will be major challenge because salinity and fresh water scarcity are becoming major constraints to agricultural productivity, with most of the rangelands already under stress from overgrazing. To exploit alternate forage production systems, a three-year (2014-2016) trial has been conducted on Australian tree ‘Acacia ampliceps’ which has diversified benefits and highly salt tolerant. A. ampliceps have extensive root system and can fix atmospheric nitrogen, survive for many years after establishment and are resilient to high temperatures, salinity and strong winds. The A. ampliceps was grown with and without fertilizer application owing to its leguminous nature (atmospheric nitrogen fixation) to evaluate the difference in biomass production. The trees were irrigated with three water salinity levels (10, 20, 30 dS/m) over three years (2014-2016). The trees were harvested once a year and fresh as well as dry biomass determined to evaluate forage production under salt stress and hyperarid sandy soils ‘Entisols’ environment of United Arab Emirates. Comparison of fresh biomass production with the application of different salinity waters clearly shows that the salinity increase has devastating effect on the reduction of fresh biomass, the highest being with 10 dS/m salinity water and the lowest with 30 dS/m. This reduction is universal with the increase of salinity regardless of whether fertilizer was applied or not. The fresh biomass with 10 dS/m water salinity ranged between 14.49 and 17.64 tons/ha/year compared to the lowest fresh biomass range between 4.80 and 5.96 tons/ha/year with the highest water salinity application (30 dS/m). With 20 dS/m water application fresh biomass ranged between 7.77 and 8.83 tons/ha/year. The results have shown great promise to introduce A. ampliceps in infertile sandy desert soils owing to its adaptability in hot environment and nitrogen fixation capacity to save fertilizers.

  35. Banu Sameera, Harishchandra Sripathy Prakash and Monnanda Somaiah Nalini

    Background: The isolation of actinomycetes from coffee plantation soil increases the chance for the production of high auxins—IAA producers, helping in maximum increase in growth of the plants. Objectives: In the present study, actinomycetes were isolated from the less explored coffee plantation soils and the strains were screened for IAA producing activity which can be exploited for the production of agroactive compounds like auxins. Methods: The actinomycete strains were isolated from coffee plantation soils of Chikkamagalur district Karnataka, India. They were identified by molecular characterization and used for studying the IAA-producing ability. The identification of IAA was confirmed by spectrophotometric and chromatographic analyses. Results: A total of thirty two distinct actinomycete strains were isolated from coffee plantation soils of Chikkamagalur district Karnataka, India. Morphological and molecular studies (16S rRNA) revealed that 50% of the isolates belonged to the genus Streptomyces, and 50% were non-streptomycetes comprising Actinomadura, Arthrobacter, Spirillospora, Sachharopolyspora, Nonomuraea, Gordonia, Micromonospora, Nocardia, Rhodococcus, and Pseudonocardia. Of the thirty two actinomycete strains, twenty seven strains showed the IAA-producing ability which was confirmed by spectrophotometric analysis. The strain Streptomyces violaceolatus CMCS 016 produced maximum amount of IAA (109.24±0.2 µg/ml) in the ISP2 medium supplemented with 0.5% L-tryptophan. The chromatographic studies (TLC and HPLC) revealed that the extracted IAA had similarity to standard IAA with the same Rf value and retention time respectively. This study indicates the potential of S. violaceolatus CMCS 016 as a significant IAA producer. Conclusion: The present study is the first report on the IAA-producing potential of actinomycetes from coffee plantation soil enhancing the significance of non-rhizospheric soil which are equal proficient auxin producers compared to rhizospheric soil. The nutrient-rich soils of coffee plantations containing litter from both the tree species and the coffee plants are indeed rich sources of soil actinomycetes with biotechnological applications.

  36. Dr. Ravi J Surani, Dr. Mohit K Marvaniya, Dr. Hiren Koshiya and Dr. Sonagara, M.J.

    Meningitis is the inflammation of the meninges, a protective membrane that surrounds the brain and the spinal cord. To reduce the mortality and morbidity owing to meningitis, an early establishment of the diagnosis and early institution of therapy are imperative. Therefore, we conducted this study with the main objectives of examining the specific clinical features with which our patients in a tertiary care setting presented, and also the abnormalities in the CSF biochemistry. Aim of this study is to study the clinical profile and CSF examination in patients of meningitis. The study was a observational randomised case study carried out from September 2017 to September 2018 at C.U. Shah Medical College and Hospital, Surendranagar (Gujarat), which is a tertiary care centre. Most of the patients were in the age group of 21-40 years (42%) of age. This is followed by 41-60 years (28%) of age. We observed a male preponderance among the cases, 31(62%) of males as compared to 19(38%) of females. Among mean value of CSF biochemistry highest mean lymphocytes count and mean glucose level were observed in the patients of viral meningitis, highest mean protein level and mean leukocytes count were seen in bacterial meningitis and highest mean ADA level was seen in tuberculous meningitis.

  37. Luis Núñez Oreza, Betty Sarabia Alcocer, Jorge Manuel Cab García, Karla Baz Chablé, Paulino Tamay Segovia, Selene Blum Domínguez, Baldemar Aké Canché and María G. Maldonado Velázquez

    Eating behavior, alcohol consumption, and anxiety, depression and manias, can negatively influence university students, in their healthy lifestyle. This study of transversal and inferential descriptive type that included a representative sample conformed by university students of the last degree of the health area of the Autonomous University of Campeche, México. The purpose of this work was to determine in students of the health area, the associations that exist between the alimentary behavior with the consumption of alcohol, anxiety, depression and manias. The tests used were alcohol consumption (AUDIT), anxiety and depression(GOLDBERG) and manias (YOUNG) and FOOD BEHAVIOR for Mexican students. Descriptive statistic was used to determine the frequencies of: body mass index, eating behavior, alcohol consumption, anxiety, depression and manias, and Chi-square test as inferential statistic test to obtain the existing associations or not, among the variables studied. Our results demonstrating more than half of the university students included in the study of the health area presented problems of overweight and obesity. More than two thirds of the population have a poor eating behavior. The fifth part of participant’s abuse in the consumption of alcohol. Almost half of young have the psychological anxiety disorder. One third of young’s have depression behavior. Almost a fifth of the population showed manias behavior. Thus, overweight and obesity were associated with poor or regular eating behavior in students; while the psychological disorder of anxiety was associated with eating behavior, alcohol consumption, depression and manias.

  38. Dr. Harish Kumar. A., Dr. Ruchika Raj, Dr. Simran Kaur and Dr. Sachin Sunda

    Wound closure and healing is the prime goal of a surgeon. With modern advances and techniques, therapeutic application of growth factors from autologous blood has demonstrated enhanced healing properties. Platelet rich products like second generation (L-PRF) and third generation (T-PRF) platelet concentrates have simplified the process without biochemical handling of blood. But, recent researches have raised controversies over the use of glass tubes for centrifugation of platelet concentrates like L-PRF as the silica contained in the end product may prove cytotoxic to human cell thus, in an attempt to eliminate all the possible risks, a more biocompatible platelet concentrate (T-PRF) was developed which used titanium tubes for centrifugation. T-PRF not only proved safe but also showed improved tissue healing and better activation of platelets and growth factors at the surgical site. Study design: The purpose of this review was to compare the healing properties of T-PRF over L-PRF and explore its possible applications in the field of oral and maxillofacial surgery. Result: T-PRF proved similar to L-PRF in terms of the clot produced which was clinically identical to each other but showed different healing properties and histocompatibilities. With stronger fibrin network, better biocompatibility and advanced resorption characteristics, T-PRF proved more promising in wound healing, angiogenesis and graft handling properties as compared to L-PRF.

  39. Atté Cyrille Bi Tiéssé, Eboua Narcisse Wandan and Zamblé Armand Bi Tra

    Soil erosion is at the root of serious economic, social, and environmental problems in many countries around the world. It is therefore essential to spatially evaluate its effects in order to face them and to be able to propose the best strategies of fight, conservation and planning of land. The objective of this study was to qualitatively evaluate the vulnerability of soils to water erosion through an approach based on the Mediterranean Desertification and Land Use (MEDALUS) model across the Tonkpi Region (Western Cote d’Ivoire). It enabled rational choices of sites where to implement anti-erosive works in priority. Coupling remote sensing and by considering relevant factors known to influence the processes of erosion, such climate, vegetation, soil, and demography, map of the sensitivity to erosion was designed. The erosion risk map obtained showed that 43% of the study area was exposed to a high vulnerability to erosion. On top, the results showed a strong influence of the vegetation quality index (65%) in the risk of erosion. This map will be a tool for decision-makers in allocating crop areas and socio-economic infrastructure sites in the region.

  40. Atté Cyrille Bi Tiéssé, Eboua Narcisse Wandan and Zamblé Armand Bi Tra

    Soil erosion is at the root of serious economic, social, and environmental problems in many countries around the world. It is therefore essential to spatially evaluate its effects in order to face them and to be able to propose the best strategies of fight, conservation and planning of land. The objective of this study was to qualitatively evaluate the vulnerability of soils to water erosion through an approach based on the Mediterranean Desertification and Land Use (MEDALUS) model across the Tonkpi Region (Western Cote d’Ivoire). It enabled rational choices of sites where to implement anti-erosive works in priority. Coupling remote sensing and by considering relevant factors known to influence the processes of erosion, such climate, vegetation, soil, and demography, map of the sensitivity to erosion was designed. The erosion risk map obtained showed that 43% of the study area was exposed to a high vulnerability to erosion. On top, the results showed a strong influence of the vegetation quality index (65%) in the risk of erosion. This map will be a tool for decision-makers in allocating crop areas and socio-economic infrastructure sites in the region.

  41. Kailash Kumar, Dr Sarfraz, M., Priyanika Jesrani, Dr. Mahmooda Naqvi, Dr. Saadia Perwaiz, Dr Quratulain Ibrahim, Dr Muhammad Waqas Khan, Dr TalhaYounus Khan and Prof Dr Fauzia Imtiaz

    Low back pain is the common problem of almost all age group around the world. Many different modalities were used to relief the pain. One cannot be confined on any one to prove that it was the best technique to treat back pain. Objective: To explore the treatment techniques used by physical therapists in the management of low back pain. Methodology: A cross-sectional survey was conducted in major physiotherapy out-patient departments of Karachi covering major government, semi government and private sector hospitals. Data was collected from 100 practicing physiotherapists through convenience sampling technique and were asked to fill self-administered close ended questionnaire. Data entry and analysis was done using SPSS Version 16 and chi-square test applied. Result: The results of this study suggest that 81.4% physiotherapists follow Electrotherapy treatment guidelines, 57.7% use thermotherapy, 56.6% of the therapists use Maitland peripheral joint mobilization technique as manual therapy for LBP and 54.6% said they require 4 – 7 sessions for treatment of LBP patients. Conclusion: Our survey respondents indicated that they widely use interventions with a strong evidence base for effectiveness and that they also use a variety of other interventions with limited support or conflicting evidence.

  42. Jeniffer Moreira Arruda, Marciana Ferreira Brito, Karla Neco Rodrigues, Danielle Soares Siva, Alfredo Maurício Batista de Paula, Bruna Carol Oliveira da Silva, Iaggo Raphael David, Matheus Lemos Silva, Felipe Oliveira Bittencourt and Stenio Fernando Pime

    Introduction: Depression is the frequent disorder among the elderly population and has the consequence of increasing morbidity and mortality and worsening of quality of life. Objective: This study aims to evaluate the depression and quality of life of the elderly. Methodology: This was a cross-sectional, descriptive, quantitative study to obtain date on the diagnosis of depression, quality of life and level of physical activity using the BECK questionnaires and the WHOQOL-BREF and IPAQ, respectively. socioeconomic variables (age, income, marital status, with whom they live). Results: Our findings showed that gender, income contribution and physical activity level were significantly associated with the diagnosis of depression with values of p≤0,000, p≤0,045 and ≤0,010, respectively. Quality of life had no association, however, even though it had good quality of life, the elderly had a high prevalence of depression. Final Considerations: The study showed that in the male gender, the quality of life does not influence the diagnosis of depression. It also emphasizes that both genders demonstrate partial dependence on someone, since the factor of advanced age decreases their ability to perform certain work activities, thus reducing the contribution in family income.

  43. Dr. Amod Patankar, Dr. Reshmi Sharma, Dr. Sanjana Sethi, Dr. Vishal Rokade, Dr. Rajat Bhende and Dr. Kisana Tadas

    Frontal bone fractures are rare and occur in only 5-12% of maxillofacial traumas and have a relatively low incidence if compared to the remaining types of fracture involving the cranio-maxillofacial region. The fact that the frontal bone is more protected from traumatic events by both the prominence of the nasal pyramid which protects the naso-orbital region and the frontal bone higher resistance to mechanical impacts could attribute to this.

  44. Dr. Amod Patankar, Dr. Reshmi Sharma, Dr. Sanjana Sethi, Dr. Vishal Rokade, Dr. Rajat Bhende and Dr. Kisana Tadas

    Frontal bone fractures are rare and occur in only 5-12% of maxillofacial traumas and have a relatively low incidence if compared to the remaining types of fracture involving the cranio-maxillofacial region. The fact that the frontal bone is more protected from traumatic events by both the prominence of the nasal pyramid which protects the naso-orbital region and the frontal bone higher resistance to mechanical impacts could attribute to this.

  45. Dr. Ratna Samudrawar, Dr. Heena Mazhar, Dr. Sheetal Kapse, Dr. Priyanka Agrawal and Dr. Sajeev Kumar

    Oral submucous fibrosis (OSMF) is most commonly found pre-cancerous conditions prevalent in Southeast Asian countries like India. The treatment varies from conservative to surgical depending on the stage of the disease. Significant improvement was noticed in most patients, if treated byintralesional steroids. Here, we are presenting a rare complication of sterile abscess formation after 3 weeks of intralesional corticosteroid injection for the management of grade II oral submucous fibrosis (OSMF) which is very rarely reported in the literature. He was put off steroidal treatment and treated conservatively to which he responded positively.

  46. Dr. Priyanka Bharat Aglawe, Dr. Rajesh Kumar Jha, Dr. Vedprakash Mishra, Dr. Kamini Mukesh Sakore, Brihi Joshi, Aditya Chetan and Dr. Deepti Sandeep Shrivastava

    Menopause appears as an iceberg comprising a vast heterogeneity of extremely troublesome physical and psychological symptoms which profoundly affect the quality of life. The present study was undertaken to appraise the sociodemographic profile and spectrum of menopausal symptoms in women visiting OBGY O.P.D. of Acharya Vinoba Bhave Rural Hospital, Sawangi (Meghe), Wardha and to evaluate the influence of menopause on QoL. This monocentric hospital based cross-sectional study was carried out between 1st October 2016 to 31st August 2018 in OBGY Department, on 330 menopausal women. Data were collected from menopause register maintained in OBGY O.P.D. QoL was assessed by Utian Quality of Life Scale (UQOLS). Out of 330 participants, maximum number attained menopause between 41-45 years (63.94%) followed by 46-50 years (26.37%), 35-40 years (09.39%) and 51-55 years (0.30%). 66.97% had Low, 30.61% had Medium and 02.42% had High socioeconomic status.90.91% were married, 08.18% widow and 0.91% unmarried. Urogenital complaints were the commonest (78.18%) followed by miscellaneous complaints (24.24%), musculoskeletal complaints (03.63%) and vasomotor complaints (0.90%). No patients with psychological problems, sleep architecture disturbances, sexuality hindrances and libido concerns were found during the study period. After assessing QoL it was found that menopause has a negative influence along with undesirable consequences on QoL. A wide spectrum of manifestations was noted but there was a knowledge constrain and awareness default regarding menopause amongst this rural population leading to underreporting. A dedicated menopause clinic with multidimensional status outcome approach is recommended to improve QoL which needs attention to be paid early as possible

  47. Vibhavari K. Vyas and Dr. Gohil, T. G.

    Present paper deals with the pollen diversity of some plant species of order Malvales, which belongs to subclass Polypetalae of class Dicotyledon. Malvales is the most important order of subclass Polypetalae. Here investigated plants were taken from Malvaceae, Sterculiaceae and Tiliaceae families. Mostly plants are multipalynous in porate grains the common type were polyporate. The pollen grains varies in their size from large to very large, the most common are large sized grains. The shape of the pollen grains seems to be more or less constant i. e. prolate, spheroidal to oblate. Spine morphology is variable may have blunt or pointed tips and with long or short spines. The pore size has been observed whereas the shape of pores seems to be fairly constant being more or less circular. The nexine is thicker than sexine.

  48. Vibhavari K. Vyas and Dr. Gohil, T. G.

    Present paper deals with the pollen diversity of some plant species of order Malvales, which belongs to subclass Polypetalae of class Dicotyledon. Malvales is the most important order of subclass Polypetalae. Here investigated plants were taken from Malvaceae, Sterculiaceae and Tiliaceae families. Mostly plants are multipalynous in porate grains the common type were polyporate. The pollen grains varies in their size from large to very large, the most common are large sized grains. The shape of the pollen grains seems to be more or less constant i. e. prolate, spheroidal to oblate. Spine morphology is variable may have blunt or pointed tips and with long or short spines. The pore size has been observed whereas the shape of pores seems to be fairly constant being more or less circular. The nexine is thicker than sexine.

  49. Riyadh H. ALzakar, Zena Janan Abdulraheem and Enas Adnan Alajrab

    Infantile Seborrhoeic Dermatitis (ISD) is a skin disorder in infants usually started before the age of three months .It is characterized by inflammation and desquamation in areas with a rich supply of sebaceous glands. The favorable response to antifungal therapy in Seborrhoeic Dermatitis may indicate a role for fungal infections in these conditions. This study aimed to identify the interrelation between ISD and Candida-albicans infection infants attending Dermatology clinic in Mosul city, who had a clinical picture of ISD were included in this study. Healthy infants with similar age and sex were concurrent controls. The study population was divided in to two groups: 1. Group I: 135 infants presented with ISD. 2. Group II: 150 healthy infants. In all patients and controls, Samples were taken with a curette from the forehead and the temporal area. Direct KOH was +ve in 51% of Group I while only in 4% of Group II. Cultures for Candida-albicans were +ve 33% of Group I, and 5.33% of Group II. It is concluded that the presence of high percentage of invasion by Candida-albicans in this study may indicate either a significant role for these microorganisms in the pathogenesis of the lesions of ISD, or it may indicate a superadded infection (due to presence of high amount of lipid secretion in these patients compared to controls).

  50. Dr. Jitendra Kumar Diwakar, Dr. Arjun Agarwal. M., Dr. Cheena Garg, Dr. Kolli Yada Giri and Dr. Geetika Kumar

    Oral cancer is any malignant neoplasm of buccal mucosa, tongue, lip, floor of mouth, gingival or palate. Oral cancer is the 6th most common cancer of the world and 3rd most common in South-Central Asia. In Asian countries like India, buccal mucosa is the most common site of oral cancer. Head and neck cancer patients are at high risk of developing Second primary tumor arising from same dysplastic mucosal field. Metastasis of OSCC occurs at a reported rate of 4% to 26%. Most distant metastasis from OSCC is reported to occur in liver, lungs and bone. Although brain metastasis is commonly seen in lung cancers, breast cancers and melanomas, it is a rare finding in OSCC, accounting for as low as 1% of all reported cases.

  51. İrfan Karahan, Aydın Çifci, Orhan Murat Koçak and Meral Saygun

    Background: We aimed to evaluate the change in attention and concentration after hemodialysis (HD) treatment in patients with chronic renal failure by line bisection test. Material and Method: 40 chronic renal failure patients (17 women, 23 men) with a mean age of 64.65±10.24 who had HD treatment and 40 controls with a mean age of 64.88±10.07 were included in the study. The control group was selected from HD patients with similar demographic characteristics. A line splitting test was performed twice, and just once before the end of HD and immediately after the end of HD. Results: There was no difference between HD patients and controls when analyzing the mean mean score of all lines, before and after dialysis, nor when HD patients were compared with the control group (p=0.348).When separated into short and long lines, there was no difference between the groups either on HD nor after HD on long lines. Conclusion: According to our data hemodialysis procedure doesn’t have any effect on attention. Further testing is needed to test this hypothesis.

  52. Ikram Mohamed Eltayeb, Yacouba Amina Djamila and Amna El Hassan Hamad

    Objective: The present study represents the effect of the extracts of A. sativum bulbs growing in Sudan on glucose reuptake by rats hemidiaphgrams, and; to investigate the anti-hyperglycemic effect of the extracts on glucose-loaded Wistar albino rat. Methods: A. sativum bulbs were powdered and extracted continuously by Soxhlet apparatus using 96% ethanol to obtain the total crude ethanolic extract. The extracts with increasing polarity were successively prepared with petroleum ether, chloroform, ethyl acetate, and methanol using the Soxhlet apparatus. The extracts were screened for their phytochemical constituents. Their anti-hyperglycemic effect was evaluated in vitro on glucose reuptake; by using isolated rats hemi-diaphgrams after loading the fasting rats with glucose and; in vivo by investigate the anti-hyperglycemic effect of the extracts on glucose-loaded Wistar albino rat. Their effects were compared to control rats administered with the vehicle and to a standard group administered with Metformin standard drug. Results: The result revealed the presence of flavonoids, alkaloids, terpenoids, tannins and saponins. The in vitro anti-hyperglycemic results showed that, the glucose reuptake by isolated hemi-diaphragm was found to be 10.01 mg/g regarding the control group. Whereas, the glucose reuptake by hemi-diaphragm treated with Metformin, crude ethanolic extract, petroleum ether extract, chloroform extract, ethyl acetate extract and methanolic extract was found to be 17, 11.39, 24.11, 19.07, 15.66, 12.71 mg/g respectively. The in vivo anti-hyperglycemic effect of the petroleum ether extract with the highest in vitro activity revealed lowering of blood glucose level on glucose-loaded rat with 25 and 60 mg/dL after two and four hours of loaded respectively when treated with 200mg/kg of the extract. Regarding the high dose of 400mg/kg lowering of blood glucose level was found to be 30 and 53 mg/dL after two and four hours of loaded respectively. Whereas, the lowering in the blood glucose level of the rats treated with Metformin drug was found to be 23 and 48 mg/dL after two and four hours respectively. GC-MS analysis of the petroleum ether extract, with highest anti-hyperglycemic activity showed the presence of Methyl linolate (42.75%), Hexadecanoic acid, methyl ester (10.54%), Methyl α-linolenate (8.36%), Dotriacontane (6.83), Tetrapentacontane (6.33), Methyl 18-methylnonadecanoate (4.8), Phenol,2,2’-methylenebis[6-(1,1-dimethylethyl)-4-methyl] (3.25), Methyl 20-methyl-heneicosanoate (2.70), Pentatriacontane (2.13) and many other minor compounds. The most of these compounds are well known for their anti-diabetic Activity. Conclusions: The study conclude the significant anti-hyperglycemic effect of A. sativum bulb extracts. In addition to the petroleum ether extract was found to posses anti-hyperglycemic activity more than the other extracts and Metformin standard drug.

  53. N’Golo Moussa KONATE, Hervé NANDKANGRE, Adjima OUOBA, Serge Félicien ZIDA, Mahama OUEDRAOGO, Nerbewende SAWADOGO, Sabine NADEMBEGA, Abdou Kader CONGO and Mahamadou SAWADOGO

    Bambara groundnut (Vigna subterranea (L.) Verdc.) originated from Africa where it is an important grain legume. The knowledge of genetic variability level within a crop species is an important step towards improving it. The objective of this study was to determine the level and structure of genetic diversity of bambara groundnut from Burkina Faso. In this study, 92 bambara groundnut accessions from three climatic zones of Burkina Faso were characterized with 17 random amplified polymorphic DNA markers. The results revealed a high level of polymorphism (100%) for all loci tested and a total of 161 alleles counted with an average allelic richness of 9.471 alleles per locus. The average expected heterozygosity (0.270) reflected a moderate genetic diversity within the collection. A dendrogram established by the “neighbour joining” method classified the 92 accessions into three mixed clusters. A weak genetic diversity between the clusters was also observed. These results could lead to the development of conservation strategies and the implementation of varietal breeding in Burkina Faso.

  54. Dejene Worku and Demeke Datiko

    Investigation on human-wildlife induced conservation threats to wildlife of Hanto controlled hunting area was carried out between 2016 and 2017. The objective of investigation was to identify the role of trophy hunting and human-wildlife induced conservation threats to wildlife of Hanto. To achieve the objective, questionnaire survey, focus group discussion and wildlife habitat survey techniques were employed to assess conservation threats of wildlife in the study sites. A sample of 172 individual households were randomly selected for questionnaire survey from Hora-Soba, Galama-Hebano and Amalama-Chofera villages, Which were selected purposefully based on their distance from the study sites. Further 8-10 individuals were selected from village elders controlled hunting area scouts and village leaders in each of the three villages for focus group discussions. The major identified sources of conservation threats to wildlife in the study area were: highly dependence of the local community on the resource of the controlled hunting area (82.8%) which was exacerbating the loss, degradation and fragmentation of wildlife habitats, wildlife induced damage on livestock and crop, and negative attitudes (56.1%) of local people towards wildlife conservation are. Hence, practical participatory conservation measure with appropriate management plan is needed to solve the problems and safeguard the endemic and other wildlife in the controlled hunting area.

  55. Rani Nallathamby and Meril Ann Soman

    Background: The supraorbital nerve is one of the main cutaneous nerves supplying the forehead and scalp region. It exits through the supra-orbital foramen/notch to innervate the skin and may be injured during various surgical and anesthetic procedures. The exact location, morphology and morphometry of these foramen show variations which had great clinical impact. This study focuses on such variations. Materials and methods: The study is done in 106 human dry crania from the department of Anatomy, Yenepoya Medical College. Eight different bilateral combination patterns of the notches/foramen are determined and percentage of incidence calculated. The distance of the foramen/notch from 2 reference points namely, the nasion and fronto-zygomatic suture is calculated andthe dimensions of the foraminaor notch is measured using vernier calipers and the mean value as well as range is analysed. The number of accessory foramen/notches are determined bilaterally and their relation to the main SOF/SON is established. Results: The most common pattern is determined to be bilateral notches with 41.51% incidence. The mean distance of the SOF/SON from nasion was23.65mm on right side and24.17mm on left side and from fronto-zygomatic suture was 27.83mm on right side and 28.41mm on left side. The mean horizontal length of the notch was 3.76mm on right side and 3.66mm on left side and that of SOF was 2.96mm on right side and 3.27mm on left side. The vertical length of SOF was calculated to be 1.55mm on right side and 1.61mm on left side. The number of accessory foramen were found to be more on right side and accessory notches more on left side. These accessory openings are found to be more associated with the main notch than the foramen. Conclusion: There is a difference in the position and dimensions of SOF /SON and thorough anatomical knowledge of SON /SOF is important in various procedures in surgery and anesthesia.

  56. Dr. Jai Pratibha Varshney, Dr. Atul Seth, Dr. Kedarnath, S. and Dr. Arunav Sharma

    Background: The ever rising caesarean rates in Obstetric practice are a method of serious concern. A very common indication of Caesarean is history of previous caesarean. One of the reasons for this is the caution that is to be used for use of prostaglandins in these patients for cervical ripening. There are alternate methods of cervical ripening well documented in literature. One of the methods is extra amniotic use of Foleys catheter for cervical ripening which may also induce labour. Methods: The study was carried out at a Government run Maternity Hospital in an urban setting with round the clock availability of caesarean section. 75 women who met the inclusion criteria were selected after consent was taken for cervical ripening and induction of labour. Results: Out of 75 women, 46 (61.3 %) had successful induction of labour resulting in vaginal delivery. The other 29 (38.7%) patients went for lower segment caesarean section (LSCS). Out of those who went for LSCS, 09 patients had meconium staining of liquor and were taken for LSCS. There were no cases of scar rupture. The Foleys catheter was expelled in an average of 12 hours in the unsuccessful group compared to 5.5 hours in the success group. Conclusion: The Foleys catheter is a safe, cheap and easy to use method of cervical ripening in pregnancies with previous LSCS. It significantly reduces the chances of repeat caesarean in patients with previous LSCS.

  57. Justin Ebuka Ezekwem, Visagaperumal, D. and Vineeth Chandy

    Isat-2-one was reacted with 4-amino acetanilide in the presence of glacial acetic acid and ethanol. Water molecule was eliminated to form Isatin Schiff base. The obtained Isatin Schiff bases, on reaction with multiple benzaldehyde derivatives in the presence of ethanol and potassium hydroxide formed various products of chalcone derivatives. The obtained compounds (C1-C7) were analysed using H+ NMR, IR, Mass spectroscopy and elemental analysis data and were found to match with the given structures. The synthesized compounds were evaluated for their in vitro anti-fungi activity by using agar disc diffusion method. Was carried out against 2 fungi at concentration 24, 50 and 100 µg/ml.C1 and C7were found to be the most potent against the fungi.

  58. Dr. Ireneo C. Abad

    This meta-research synthesizing the assertion for the need of cultural relevance in mathematics instruction revealed these findings that the complementation of ethnomathematics with academic mathematics for students to achieve the desired learning outcomes and the global significance of ethnomathemaics to mathematics through the congruence between culture and mathematics. Furthermore, the local significance of ethnomathematics to mathematics through culture and nativeness and their higher education implications through the desired learning outcomes achievement, creativity toward contemporary civilization, toward trained professionals, well – functioning educational system is imperative. Thus, it has been concluded that the global and local significance of ethnomathematics connects the students’ socio-cultural identity toward relevant mathematical thinking. It was recommended that mathematics instruction should start with a relevant ethnomathematical narrative for innate learning interests and that the mathematical academics should have an advancedethnomathematical knowledge preparation prior to instructional delivery. And also, mathematics learners should be involved in gathering ethnomathematical narratives for instructional support and higher education institutional department chairs of mathematics should design and implement a long-range Program of Faculty Retooling-Retraining on Ethnomathematics-Mathematics Instructional Complementation.

  59. Ms. Mannava Sumaja and Dr. Chitra Rekha, Y.

    The decentralization of authority, which affects business enterprise cultural way of life which expands, globalized the association. The saved up of globalized human resources for simple leadership and dynamic speaking to. The stored up of accurate going for walks environment with representatives pleasure for all inclusive the undertaking development. The authoritative adequacy makes to accumulate the enterprise employer in a globalized stage. For those gauges the needs of human asset such way of employees, services, and stakeholders. Using predicted in an accurate manner as in keeping with reference to events of spots. This helped develop the workplace worldwide big but their set as improvement.

  60. Dr. Kamble Rajabhau Anantrao

    The Ascomycetous Fungi is the largest group. These fungi are highly diverse and versatile organisms adapted to all kinds of environment. Also they are heterogenous in nature and rich in their pattern. owever, it was observed that since during last few years Mycology, a branch of Botany has been neglected in Marathwada region and no studies have been done on this particular branch. Therefore, it was felt to undertake the work on taxonomic studies of ascomycetous fungi. To investigate fungal flora and to study their taxonomic aspects, Ramling hill forest was selected. Ramling forest is located in Yedsi, Osmanabad district of Marathwada region which forms the part of Deccan plateau. Ramling Forest is a big forest with thorny shrubs mixed with dry deciduous forest type. Therefore, it was intended to undertake the work of investigating various fungi occurring saprophytically on the dead and decaying fallen leaves and twigs of the plants of Ramling forest, particularly to investigate some of the scomycetous fungi. In the present collection, the author has investigated the Hypoxylontamarindiispec. nov.on dead stem of Acacia Tamarindusindica L. which is new to science.

  61. Ashraf Mahfoudh Abdannabi Ali and Abdualla Mohammed Alshibani

    This study was intended to analyze data mining techniques of telecommunication companies in the Philippines. This study was guided by the following objectives: to provide an overview on data mining; to examine the various data mining techniques of telecommunication companies in Philippines; to identify the challenges of data mining faced by telecommunication companies in Philippines. The study employed the descriptive and explanatory design; secondary means were applied in order to collect data. Primary and Secondary data sources were used and data was analyzed using the chi-square statistical tool at 5% level of significance which was presented in frequency tables and percentage. The study findings revealed that data mining significantly impacts on the performance of telecommunication industries.

  62. Bassémory KONE

    The issue of employability is one of the main development challenges facing Côte d'Ivoire. In an environment where the majority of jobs are offered by the informal sector combined with the high propensity of jobseekers to look for paid jobs, the production of graduates by the education system, the number of people out of school, the Inadequate job training and insufficient job offer, the Ivorian government has chosen as an alternative, the promotion of employment through self-employment. But in the face of the inconclusive results of the various initiatives for the promotion of self-employment, the question of how can project marketing help promote self-employment through projects able to capture market opportunities and ensure the sustainability of their activities? From the synthetic literature review of the qualitative data, the disaggregated quantitative data collected from national and international sources, it was a question of analyzing the policy of self-employment in Côte d'Ivoire from the point of view of projects insertion of job seekers, especially young people. Analyzes show that the promotion of entrepreneurial projects whose viability is subject to rigorous requirements requires a management based on project marketing offers solutions for the conduct of a project activity. Coupled with a logic of innovation, the marketing of projects should allow the entrepreneurial project promoters drive their projects while ensuring the main monitoring activities adaptation tools both in the off-project marketing phase, the marketing phase upstream of the project only in the Marketing Phase in the project.

  63. Dr. Nishad Gawali, Dr. Anup, N., Dr. Shweta Bhayade, Dr.Ravi Bhujbal, Dr. Sapnil Gaidhankar and Dr. Aruna Daware

    Demarcated opacities are the developmental defects characterised by insufficient mineralization in enamel. The defects exhibit clinically as a creamy-white demarcated opacities ,yellowish brown to macroscopic loss of tooth structure. The Aim of this study is to evaluate the demarcated opacities in 12-15 years children using different forms of asthma drug. METHODS: A cross sectional study carried out in SMS Hospital Jaipur, children aged 12-15 years ( n= 124) having asthma were included in the study, they were further divided into four groups according to form of asthma drug they were consuming i.e., through Oral route, Inhalation, Parental and consuming drug in any of the above combination( Oral + Inhalation, Inhalation + Parental, Oral + Parental) Modified Developmental Defect Index was used for recording the enamel opacities. RESULTS: Among 124 children 71 were males and 53 were females, the mean age of children was 13.4 years, the mean duration of asthma was 3.6 years for children consuming corticosteroids, 3.5 years for children inhaling and 3.8 years children consuming orally. High prevalence of demarcated opacities in upper right central incisors i.e. 71.1 % children and 72.6 % children with upper left central incisors. Thus it was concluded children using asthma drug through oral route had decreased prevalence of demarcated opacities when compared to children consuming asthma drug in combination and using corticosteroids. Thus the both mandibular molars exhibit other defects i.e. Dental Caries and Macroscopic loss of tooth structure

  64. Ahmed M. Osman, Mohamed A. El-Samanoudy and Ashraf Ghorab,

    Several types of researches were done to model and simulate the reciprocating pump rod stiffness change even through mechanical spring, hydraulic actuators, and pneumatic actuators. The objective of this research is to simulate the effect of changing the reciprocating pump rod stiffness value on the reciprocating pump performance and its starting requirements. Changing the reciprocating pump rod stiffness value was done through a pneumatic system by changing the air pressure supplied to the pneumatic cylinder inside the pneumatic system, this can be considered a change in the reciprocating pump rod stiffness. A test rig was manufactured to experimentally investigate the impact of rod stiffness change on the performance of reciprocating pumps and its starting requirements. The test rig key components are test rig frame, reciprocating pump system, AC electric motor with its gearbox, Scotch Yoke mechanism, pneumatic system, instrumentations and measuring devices. Simulating the reciprocating pump rod stiffness change through pneumatic cylinder can affect the starting requirements of the reciprocating pump such as the starting torque and the current. From the results above, the starting torque requirements were decreased by an average of 19 %, power consumption corresponding to the peak starting torque was decreased by an average of 9% and the overall system performance and efficiency were increased by an average of 10%.

  65. Prasad Apsangikar, Manoj Naik, Sunil Chaudhry, Shashank Deoghare, Jamila Joseph

    Background: Pegfilgrastim is the most widely used long-acting G-CSF available worldwide in the management of febrile neutropenia during chemotherapy. Objective: The present multicentre study evaluated efficacy and safety of pegfilgrastim biosimilar against innovator reference pegfilgrastim, when given subcutaneously in patients with Chemotherapy Induced Neutropenia (CIN). Methods: A prospective, multi-centre, randomized, double-blind, two-arm, parallel group, active-control, comparative clinical study to evaluate efficacy and safety of biosimilar pegfilgrastim (study arm)/ innovator pegfilgrastim (reference arm) in patients with Chemotherapy Induced Neutropenia. A total of 105 patients were enrolled in in two arms i.e. study pegfilgrastim and innovator pegfilgrastim. The primary objective of the study was to evaluate the duration of Grade 4 neutropenia in patients receiving study drug / reference drug in the 1st cycle of chemotherapy during the study and the secondary objectives of the study were to study the incidence of Grade 4 neutropenia, the incidence and duration of febrile neutropenia, time to ANC recovery after ANC nadir and the depth of ANC nadir in Cycles 1 to 4. Results: Mean duration of Grade 4 neutropenia was 1.43 days in the study arm and 2.00 days in the reference arm. In the secondary efficacy analysis, most cases of Grade 4 neutropenia occurred in the first cycle. No cases of Grade 4 neutropenia were noted during cycle 2 in either of the treatment arms. The incidence of Grade 4 neutropenia in the study arm was 4.76% in cycle 3 and 1.11% in cycle 4. The incidence of Grade 4 neutropenia in the reference arm was 6.25% in cycle 3. There was no statistically significantly difference between the study and reference arm during cycle 3.(P= 0.759). No subject in either arm developed febrile neutropenia in any of the cycles other than this sporadic case. The depth of ANC nadir in study arm was lowest in cycle 1, (2.914 x109/L) and in reference arm, the depth of ANC nadir was lowest in cycle 4 (3.23 x109/L). The mean time to ANC recovery (≥2.0x109/L) after the ANC nadir in study arm and in reference arm was comparable. Observed difference between two arms in 2nd, 3rd, and 4th cycle was statistically insignificant. Conclusion: The biosimilar pegfilgrastim was found to be as effective and safe as reference pegfilgrastim product. The analysis of secondary endpoints were consistent with those of the primary endpoint, with reduction in incidence and duration of grade 4 neutropenia and febrile neutropenia.

  66. Harsh Prasad, Pushkar Srivastav and Amar Nath Singh

    In the modern trends of computing, the exchange of external component is very essential, in order to make the programmer more comfortable for exchanging of data from one device to another. In the traditional days when ever we are going to insert the device in the running computer then, the system were unable to identify the device, so we need to restart the system each time whenever we are going to make any insertion or deletion of the peripheral as per our requirement (Social Networks of Things for Smart Homes Using Fuzzy Logic, 2018). There are many complex systems which do not fit into the precise categories of conventional set theory as i.e. based on the Boolean logic which works on either true or false i.e. 0 or 1. This paper is based on temperature sensing for hot swapping in device exchange using fuzzy logic .This paper thus presents a fuzzy logic based-temperature control system, which consists of a microcontroller, temperature sensor, Digital Converter, display interface circuit and output interface circuit (Advances in Fuzzy Systems on Real-Life Applications of Fuzzy Logic). It contains a design approach that uses fuzzy logic technique to achieve a controlled temperature output function. We have proposed the simulated voltage and temperature sensing graph also. It contains a graphical representation of different voltage fluctuation of USB ports in Matlab Software System.

  67. Kaushik Roy, Partha Ghosh, Sandeep, B.V., Jitendra Kumar, Saha, S.K., Subhasis Ghosh and Parimal Tipathy

    Background: Lumbar disc herniation is one of the most commonly encountered problems in daily neurosurgical practice. Microdiscectomy or open discectomy (MD/OD) are the standard procedures for symptomatic lumbar disc herniation and they involve removal of the offending intervertebral disc compressing the nerve root. Discectomies are done in several ways like laminectomy and discectomy, Microdiscectomy, Endoscopic discectomy etc. We are practicing lumbar discectomy without sophisticated instruments without the aid of headlight loupe or microscopic magnification. Aim: To study the clinicoradiological profile of the patients who underwent the surgical management of the herniated lumbar disc without magnification under spinal anaesthesia and their outcome. Material and Methods: This is a study conducted in department of neurosurgery, Nil Ratan Sircar medical college, Kolkata from January 2010- December 2017. 350 patients were operated for symptomatic lumbar disc herniation under spinal anaesthesia. Lower 1/3rd laminectomy of the upper vertebra, shaving of overhanging spinous process, trimming of upper margin of lower vertebra, removal of yellow ligament and discectomy was done. In L5S1 disc prolapsed only ligamentum flavum was removed, No laminectomy was performed. Exclusion criterias included patients with more than 2 level discectomies and high lumbar Disc Herniation. Results: Of these 350 patients, 1220 patients were Male, 130 patients were Female. Most common age group was between 40 – 60 years. 250 patients had single level disc herniation. Out of 250 patients, In 126 patients L5 S1 discectomy was done, In 103 patients L4 L5 level, in rest 21 patients L3 L4 was intervened. In 100 patients Two level discectomy was done. The duration of surgery was less than 1 hr in 91% of cases. The most common complication was surgical site infection. In accordance to Odom”s criteria the results were ranging from excellent to good recovery in 90 % of patients during discharge. No listhesis was detected radiologically in the post operative period. Conclusion: All cases were done in spinal anaesthesia. Due to minimal laminectomy, less chances of listhesis post operatively. Adequate exposure is obtained. The duration of stay in hospital is less. The learning curve is less as compared to microscopic or endoscopic procedures. This procedure can be done with minimal requirement of instruments During discectomy the thickened ligamentum flavum (causing canal stenosis/narrowing) can also be delt in single Procedure. Hence, This procedure is also equally effective as other procedures carried out for lumbar discectomy.

  68. Chukwu, M. N., Ogbonnaya, M., Nwokocka, J. N. and Mbanali, U. G.

    The nature of snail was reviewed as well as the importance of snail meat was studied from different researches. The preliminary treatments of snail meat were outlined. The recipe for the preparation of snail meat in tomato sauce was listed and the method for its preparation was also well studied. The preformed plastic package was discussed, especially, recyclable and recycled plastics. Aseptic packaging was fully explained and applied in packaging of snail meat in tomato sauce in preformed plastic container. This encourages business in snail meat processing.

  69. Mayur Anil Phatak

    This research article briefly demonstrates the requested style for submission of a manuscript to the Journal of Search Engine Optimization techniques. I explicitly discuss or implicitly demonstrate the stylistic requirements for a manuscript so that articles published by the journal have a consistent, straight-forward style. My goal is to make the process of preparing a manuscript simple for the authors, the process of preparing an accepted article for publication easy for the editor, and the process of reading an article pleasurable for the user. This document was revised in July 2018 from the original version in order to reflect changes associated with the research article move to a new web format. Use to Search Engine Optimization process for Off-page optimization and on Page optimization to build the product image in the digital world.

  70. Dr. Sumit Singh Phukela, Dr. Gaurav Setya, Dr. Bhupinder Yadav, Dr. Manoti Sehgal, Dr. Rupinder Singh Dhall, Dr. Pankaj Kumar Srivastava, Dr. Ashraf Ullah and Dr. Mahima Dua

    Aims and objective: Anxiety, fear and pain assessment is essential in day to day Dental practice. The present study was conducted to check salivary cortisol response to stress among subjects undergoing, scaling, restorative and biopsy procedures: An In Vivo Study Methodology: The salivary cortisol level were checked in 60 patients, out of which 30 patients were healthy patient who do not require any Dental treatment and 30 patients who underwent Scaling, Restorative And Biopsy procedures. The groups divided were as follows. Group 1: control group with no treatment and just the saliva sample was taken. Group 2; The patients underwent scaling Group 3; The patients underwent Class 1 cavity preparation and thereafter restoration with Glass Ionomer restoration Group 4; The patients underwent incisional biopsy for patients having chronic ulcers, leukoplakia, erythroplakia or lichen planus The salivary cortisol levels were checked using Salivary Cortisol Enzyme Immunoassay Kit. Results: The salivary cortisol level was highest in Group 4 followed by Group 2, Group 3 and least in Group 1. Conclusion: The stress level was lowest in healthy patient and highest when patient underwent incisional biopsy for patients having chronic ulcers, leukoplakia, erythroplakia or lichen planus. Dentist should try to minimize subject anxiety and stress to great extent.

  71. Yasser I.O. Yahia and Hesham Alsharie

    This study investigates the effects of Cement, gypsum and recycling concrete on compaction properties of the clayey soil. Inorganic clay with low Plasticity was used in this study as a natural soil. For this purpose a series of laboratory experiments have been implemented and varieties of samples were made by mixing cement, gypsum and recycling concrete with natural soil. Three different percentages of cement (3%, 6% and9%), three different percentages of gypsum and recycling concrete (3%, 6% and 9%) were used as stabilization materials. The results demonstrated that adding cement has a significant effect on increasing the degree of compaction of the soil. In general, the results show that the performance of cement-stabilized soils was superior to gypsum in all the characterizations performed.

  72. Dr. Nidhi Aggarwal, Dr. Aman Abrol, Dr. Anjula Jain, Dr. Mallika Rathee and Dr. Neha Abrol

    Introduction: The purpose of the present in vitro study was to compare and evaluate the antimicrobial efficacy of 6% sodium hypochlorite, 2% chlorhexidine and 0.9% normal saline using passive ultrasonic irrigation technique against enterococcus faecalis in root canals. Material and Method: Total forty extracted human single rooted teeth were selected and divided into experimental and control group. Access cavities were prepared and specimen decoronated to standardized root length. ATCC 35550, MTCC code 4399 of pure culture of Enterococcus Faecalis has been used in this study. All selected cases were inoculated with E.Faecalis and subjected to Passive Ultrasonic Irrigation using aforesaid solutions. Four mm of root apex were cut with sterile disc and the cut apical third were dropped directly into Trypton Soya broth agar for 48 hours. Results were subjected to statistical analysis and 6% sodium hypochlorite was found best against E.Faecalis when used with passive ultrasonic irrigation.

  73. Singh, R.A., Lari, N., Jintendra Singh, Dharmendra Yadav and Khalil Khan

    The present study was under taken during 2004-05 and 2005-06 at Regional Research Station, Mainpuri. The experimental soil was sandy loam, having pH 8.5, organic carbon 0.45%, total nitrogen 0.04%, available phosphorus 10 kg/ha and available potassium 278 kg/ha, therefore, poor fertility level indicated nutrients stress condition. The main objective was to enhanced the productivity of Indian mustard with suitable doses of chemical fertilizer in the combination of bacterial fertilizer. Four levels of Bacillus circulans culture (bacterial fertilizer) i.e. 0, 10, 15 and 20 kg/ha in combination of 50% RDF and 100% RDF were tested. Variety Urvashi was planted in the first fortnight of October and harvested in second fortnight of February after 130 days of seeding during both experimental years. Application of Bacillus circulans culture @ 15 kg/ha or 1.50 lakh caror bacteria of Bacillus circulans/ha with 100% RDF/ha registered significantly higher seed yield of Indian mustard by 20.97 q/ha over 100% RDF + 0 kg Bacillus circulans culture/control (18.99 q/ha). Thus application of bacterial fertilizer @ 15 kg/ha increased the seed yield by 10.45% over non use of bacterial fertilizer. Application of Bacillus circulans culture beyond 15 kg/ha confined the seed yield of Indian mustard. Application of 50% RDF reduced the seed yield of Indian mustard at each level of Bacillus circulans culture in comparison to 100% RDF + Bacillus circulans culture doses. The growth and yield contributing parameters were concordance to the seed yield of Indian mustard.

  74. Dr. Sanjay Shrivastava

    In the present business scenario, marketing communications has a very significant and specific role to play. Indeed, marketing communication is an effective and essential tool through which organizations disseminate ideas and information about their brand and product to the large masses. Communication is the first and foremost need of any business and plays a cardinal role in marketing. Marketing communication comprises of multiple efforts majorly Advertising, Direct marketing, Branding, Packaging, Online presence, Printed material, PR activities, Sales presentations, Sponsorships, Trade show appearances, and Integrated Marketing Communication. In the early phase of marketing communication only print media of conveying a message was mostly used but in today’s times emails, SMS, radio, blogs, television, company websites, social media, and digital marketing have taken the forefront. The present study focuses on phase development of marketing communication and brings forth a systematic description and understanding of its evolution from beginning to the present age.

  75. Susan Chang’orok, Philemon Yugi, Winnie Waiyaki, and Alice Munene

    The rise in defiance cases among children in schools in Kenya calls for the need for proper diagnosis and effective intervention. This is because of the effect it has on the child’s social functioning and academic performance as well as the economic impact it has on their families. The main purpose for this study was to evaluate the efficacy of cognitive behavior therapy (CBT) among children with oppositional defiant disorder (ODD) in selected primary Schools in Nairobi County, Kenya. Two primary schools were purposely selected in Nairobi, Kenya. 315 participants between 9-14 years provided assent and their parents provided the consent. The teachers and the parents completed the CADBI tool. Out of 249 participants who met the criteria for ODD, systematic sampling was applied to acquire the required sample size of 180.The experimental group received CBT intervention for three months, while the control group did not receive any intervention. Data collected was analyzed using SPSS version, Descriptive statistics was done, Statistical analysis was conducted using IBM SPSS version 23. Microsoft Excel was used in processing statistical output as well as construction of data tables and graphs. Spearman’s correlation analysis, chi-square analysis for association between ODD and ADHD with risk factors was done. T test was done to compare the responses between baseline, midline and endline of the study and show the difference in deference (DID). The key findings of the study were that overall ODD prevalence was 79%, with males having a higher prevalence than female towards the adults and peers 78.2% and 88.5% female 74.6% and 85.3% respectively. The comorbid condition associated with ODD was ADHD 78.3% and 47.8% teachers and parents respectively. Risk factors associated with ODD were; low social-economic status, conflicts with parents, punishment, suspension from school, not going for counseling, friends and religion. Cronbalch alpha of the CADBI tool showed reliability at (α =.918 to. 890) for both teachers and parents. DID showed significance difference between baseline and midline and between baseline and end line respectively (p < 0.001). Since CBT was effective in the reduction of ODD symptoms in children psychologist should use this intervention in primary school and also in the hospital setting so as to prevent the children from developing other serious problems in adulthood such as antisocial personality disorder depression and anxiety. Medication should also be used in the treatment of ADHD since it presents as a comorbid condition.

  76. Hakim A., Mahajan R., Jaiswal I., Pandey A. and Inampudi P.

    Endometrial cancer is the most common gynecologic malignancy, and according to the Surveillance, Epidemiology and End Results (SEER) statistics for 2006 to 2010 it is the fourth most common cancer in women. More than 75% of endometrial cancers are endometrioid carcinomas, whereas 5% to 10% are serous, 1% to 5% clear cell, and 1% to 3% mucinous carcinomas. Up to 5% are other histologies, including uterine sarcomas (i.e., carcinosarcoma, leiomyosarcoma, and endometrial stromal sarcoma). Clear cell carcinoma has been considered to have a poor prognosis because of late diagnosis with advanced disease. We report a case of 74 years old postmenopausal woman who presented in our institute with complaints of bleeding per vaginum for 5 months. Patient was diagnosed as Clear cell Carcinoma of Endometrium. Patient underwent Total abdominal hysterectomy and Bilateral Salpingo-oophorectomy (TAH-BSO). Patient was referred in our Department for Radiation therapy and was treated with adjuvant radiotherapy.

  77. Yasser I O Yahia and Manal Osman

    This study describes the investigation that carried out to study the effects of Cement, gypsum and wheat husk ash on compaction properties of the clayey soil. Inorganic clay with low Plasticity was used in this study as a natural soil. For this purpose a series of laboratory experiments have been implemented and varieties of samples were made by mixing cement, gypsum and wheat husk ash with natural soil. Three different percentages of gypsum and wheat husk ash (3%, 6% and 9%) used as stabilization materials. The results demonstrated that adding cement has a significant effect on increasing the degree of compaction of the soil samples. In general, the results show that the performance of cement-stabilized soils was superior to gypsum in all the characterizations performed.

  78. Caroline, J. K., Korir, D. and Mulambula, S.M.

    The purpose of this paper was to investigate the influence of parents’ socio-economic status on absenteeism in public day secondary schools in Keiyo North Sub County of Elgeyo-Marakwet County, Kenya. The specific objectives of this study were; to investigate the relationship between parent’s level of education, occupational status and level of income on absenteeism among secondary schools students in public day schools. The study was guided by Abraham Maslow’s hierarchy of needs. The study adopted expost factor research design. The study employed stratified random sampling to select 294 students. The instrument for data generation was questionnaires and document analysis of student’s class attendance. Test-retest was used to determine the reliability of the questionnaire. Data was analyzed using both descriptive and inferential statistics. Descriptive statistics involved the use of frequencies and percentages and inferential statistics (Chi-square) was used to determine associations between variables. The level of significance for testing the null hypotheses was 0.05. The study results indicated that indicated that the parent’s level of income was significantly associated with student absenteeism (χ2 =13.237, df=4, p=0.010). On the other hand, the mother’s occupation was significantly associated with the mother’s absenteeism (χ2 =17.989, df=4, p=0.001). In conclusion, Most students whose fathers and mothers attained secondary and primary education miss school compared to those whose fathers/mothers attained college or university education. The study recommends mitigation through school feeding programme (SFP) need to be formulated The study will be useful to parents, school and the community at large, to find ways of supporting the school in order for learners to achieve a better life in future.

  79. Hoon Hur, Sung IL In, Min Seok Cheon, Yoon Jung Choi, Do Hyun Lee and Yu Ri Kim

    Erythema ab igne (EAI) is a skin condition caused by long-term exposure to heat without thermal burn. Prolonged thermal radiation exposure to the skin can lead to the development of reticulate erythema, hyperpigmentation, scaling and telangiectasia in the affected area. Generally, the outcome of treating EAI with some topical agents including tretinoin cream and imiquimod cream was not satisfactory. Unfortunately, there is no standard laser therapy for EAI yet. Therefore, in order to investigate the efficacy and safety of Dr. Hoon Hur’s Golden Parameter Therapy (GPT) using a high fluence 1064nm Q-switched Nd: YAG laser (QSNL) for treating EAI, this study was performed. Eleven Korean patients with EAI were treated with a 1064nm QSNL at a one-week interval for 20 treatment sessions of Dr. Hoon Hur’s GPT. The parameters were a spot size of 7 mm, a fluence of 2.4 J/cm2 and a pulse rate of 10Hz with a slow single pass by a sliding-stacking technique over the EAI. At the week of the final treatment, all of the 11 patient with EAI were achieved the complete clearance of reticulate hyper pigmented lesions without any side effects such as purpurae, crusts, PIH, mottled hypopigmentation and scarring. No recurrences were observed in any of the patients after a follow- up of 6-10 months. We suggest that Dr. Hoon Hur’s GPT using a high fluence 1064nm QSNL is a safe and effective method without side effects and recurrences for treating EAI.

  80. Clément D. Gandonou, Jean-Marie Tokoudagba, Alban G. Houngbèmè, Marthe D. Chodaton and Hyacinthe Ahissou

    The antiradical potential of Lippia multiflora evaluated by the DPPH radical method reveals that the hydroethanolic extract has a higher antioxidant capacity (957.90 ± 2.42 mmolEAA / mg) than the aqueous extract (489.35 ± 11.29 mmol EAA / mg) against 14.43 mg / mL for ascorbic acid used as reference antioxidant. The contents of the phenolic compound extracts have been determined and vary according to the extract. These values are between 104.68-957.90% for total phenols, 0.038-0.338% for flavonoids and 0.002-0.031% for condensed tannins. The hydroethanolic extract has high levels of these metabolites irrespective of the area of origin of the plant, which would justify their strong anti-radical activity.

  81. Ali A. Sallal, Sabah A. Salman and Ammar A. Habeeb

    In this study pure (PVA) polymer film and films of (PVA:PVP) polymer blends at weight ratios (((100:0), (70:30), (50:50), (30:70)) wt%) preparation using the casting method. The dielectric and mechanical properties of (PVA:PVP) polymer blends films have been studied. The effect of the weight ratio of the (PVA:PVP) polymer blend film on the dielectric properties have been studied, the practical results show a decrease in both the dielectric constant and the dissipation factor with increased the frequency for all polymer blends films, as well as increase the dielectric constant and the dissipation factor with increasing the weight ratio of the (PVP) polymer at the same frequency. However, the results show increased the (A.C) electrical conductivity with increased the frequency for all Polymer blends films, also the (A.C) electrical conductivity increase with increasing the weight ratio of the (PVP) polymer at the same frequency. The effect of the weight ratio of the (PVA:PVP) polymer blend film on the mechanical properties have been studied, the practical results have indicated an irregular and regular reduction of tensile properties (tensile strength, elongation at break and Youn'g modulus) of (PVA:PVP) polymer blends films by increasing the weight ratio of the (PVP) polymer. Thus the results of the hardness test showed an increase in the hardness value of (PVA:PVP) polymer blends films by increasing the weight ratio of the (PVP) polymer. While the results of the impact test showed a decrease in the fracture energy value of the polymer (PVA:PVP) blends films by increasing the weight ratio of the (PVP) polymer.

  82. Shiva Rama Krishna Samala, Srishylam, V., Kranthi Kumar, T., Sreenivasulu, R. and Devanna

    Objective: The present paper describes the simple and efficient protocol for the reduction of key intermediates in three API’s like Dabigatran, Domperidone and Olanzapine using Iron metal with Ammonium formate as main reagents with suitable solvent system. In Dabigatran and Domperidone the conversions are nitro to amine and in Olanzapine nitrile reduction followed by cyclization.

  83. Hayalu Dires Mersha

    The main objective of the study is to assess implementation of continuous assessment to advance students’ language skills in Hawassa College of Teachers’ Education. To gather the relevant information from the concerned teachers and students, four data collection instruments were used. This study is aimed at investigating how continuous assessment contributes for the advancing students’ language skills. The data also showed that about half of the respondents described as continuous assessment sometimes indicates the actual performance of their language skill. It was also found that the majority of the students proposed that continuous assessment sometimes provides them with opportunities to identify strengths and weaknesses of their language skills. Therefore, based on the result of the study, it is concluded that the there is no much contribution of continuous assessment in improving language skills as expected by the researcher, teachers and students. This is because, most of the participants believed that continuous assessment meant to give either tests or assignments to help them to pass and score good grades than to work on language skills. After the exhaustive study in to the situation the researcher gave a few recommendations based on the main findings of the study.

  84. Muhammad Ali, Stephan Behrend, Olaf Wehmeyer, Andreas Luthe and Stefan Andreas Lange

    A 42-year-old male patient with a history of chest pain presented to the emergency room our hospital. MSCT angiography was performed using a 256-slice computed tomography (CT). The MSCT angiographic analysis showed a total occlusion of the medial left anterior descending artery (LAD) after the 2nd diagonal branch. An urgent coronary angiography performed later the same day, it excluded a significant coronary artery disease. Conclusion: In patients with tachykardia and arrhythmias, image quality is frequently affected by motion artefacts, limiting ist utility. Ventricular Extrasystoles can decrease image quality of coronary computed tomography.

  85. Bruno Barros Diniz and *Carlos Alberto Kelencz

    The present literature review aims to discuss resistance training for adolescents. Due to some contradictions regarding the benefits of bodybuilding aimed at young people (children and adolescents), there is some resistance from parents and guardians to allow this practice. However, more recent studies have shown that resistance training for adolescents and children can contribute to increased strength and endurance. However, the most effective exercise prescription in relation to the number of repetitions remains questionable, which may exclude children and adolescents from practicing physical activities. In this case, through several references we can mention some topics to be addressed, they are: The concept of resistance and adolescent training, the physiological adaptations resulting from this type of training, in addition to the training methods applicable to this public, including in this topic the follow-up of the professionals, the variety of exercises and also the control that will be imposed on the load, number of repetitions, rest time and periodization. It is agreed with this research that muscle training should be part of a program that includes increased motor skills and adequate fitness levels, besides being always accompanied by a trained Physical Education professional.

  86. Yusupova Sevara Nizamitdinovna

    The article outlines the political, economic, social, spiritual changes in the country, the high rates of birth and natural growth, the growth of the indigenous people.

  87. Hassan El-Kadi,Osama Abdel-Raouf and Islam Abou El-Magd and Osman Ebrahem

    The fast growing development in Egypt has required big movements of investments and people from the Nile Valley towards the North Western Coast of Mediterranean Sea. A hydrochemical and geoelectrical investigation was conducted in the matrouh-negilla area in the northwestern coast of Egypt to investigate and find out the groundwater aquifer, its extension, depth and thickness. Also, chemical analysis was used to evaluate the chemical characteristics of groundwater and assessment of water quality. Twelve profile of vertical electric sounding were conducted to examine the variations of subsurface geology and associated groundwater chemistry. Results of VES interpretation classified the subsurface sequence of oolitic limestone aquifer into four geoelectric zones, top surface, oolitic limestone, intercalation with clay, fracture limestone, and limestone with saline water. The fracture limestone constitutes the upper aquifer and Limestone with saline water is considered as the lower aquifer. The groundwater reserves in the study area are mainly contained in oolitic limestone and Miocene aquifers. About 42 water samples representing both the Pleistocene Oolitic limestone and Middle Miocene fissured limestone aquifers and quaternary were collected and analyzed. The results of the chemical analysis showed wide ranges of TDS (156-25290 mg/l), and chloride concentration of (12-13050 mg/l).The quaternary aquifer hashigh salinity (average TDS)=17140-19830 mg/l),and the Miocene aquifer are slightly brackish to saline water (average TDS=956-2250 mg/l). The hydrochemical data indicate that the majority of the groundwater samples of the localities are related to recent meteoric origin. The variation in the chemistry of water is thought to be related to the weathering of minerals of the water-bearing sediments, mixing with marine water, and leaching of rainfall in area.

  88. Mohammed Hafizur Rahman

    Half of the English language instructors are more concerned with improving the allocated part of the pedagogy, but in the process of the assigned course completion with prescribed syllabus, some wrong messages get conveyed, some wrong impressions were made and eventually there comes a massive gap of communication in between the Student group and the English language instructor. The importance of paralinguistic features while teaching English to the speakers of other languages must be the primary concern during the second language acquisition process. Language teaching is more of communicative exercise these days, and communication with barriers is almost equal to no communication at all and sometimes worse than that. Prominent personalities in the field of TESOL cannot disagree regarding the instructors, who consciously control their paralinguistic features and gets benefited by useful results in a Language classroom. They control and they enjoy pedagogy while earning mutual respect and transaction of the knowledge; it leads to a situation which is favourable towards better learning and lifelong motivation. The big question is- How to use paralinguistics effectively while practising TESOL (Teaching English to Speakers of Other Languages)? Moreover, is it possible to develop and maintain an MRPC (Minimum Required Paralinguistic Competence) to teach the English Language in a foreign environment effectively? If yes, then what are those paralinguistic features to be taken into account?

  89. Abd El-Aziz A. Abd E-Aziz, Ahmed Maher Gabr and Radwa S. Abdul-Rahman

    Background: Children with Down syndrome frequently show postponed beginning of independent walking. Treadmill preparing is a compelling intercession that invigorate a prior walking start. In addition, orthosis regularly are given to children with Down syndrome to increase steadiness and advance prior free walking. The purpose of this study was to give knowledge into the formative results of early orthosis use in a mix with treadmill training in children with Down syndrome contrasted with treadmill training alone. Methods: Thirty patients in with Down syndrome (age ranges from 7 to 11) years were equally divided into two groups; control group (A) and study group (B). The control group received designated physical therapy program to facilitate balance during walking for one hour, while the study group receiving treadmill exercise with supramalleolar orthosis for twenty-five minutes in addition to the same program which given to the control group for thirty-five minutes were used for treatment in the out-patient clinic of the Faculty of Physical Therapy, Cairo University. Results: The results uncovered a measurably critical improvement in the measuring variables of both groups when contrasting their pre and post treatment mean values. Comparing the two groups' post –treatment variables, significant difference is revealed in favor of the study group. Conclusion: The obtained results strongly support the introduction of treadmill exercise with supramalleolar orthosis as an additional procedure to the treatment program of Down syndrome children.

  90. Dar Abdul Waheed, Nabi Mushood Ghulam, Ahmad Shiekh Owais, Dar Sajad Ahmad, Wani Shahid Bashir, Akhtar Hanifa and Kaneez Subiya

    Objectives: To describe the incidence and characteristics of Paclitaxel induced acute pain syndrome. To assess the change in pain (i.e., P-APS) related to paclitaxel alone or combination of carboplatin. Methods: The Study was a prospective one in which we included the eligible patients scheduled to receive paclitaxel weekly or 3 weekly; alone or in combination with another chemotherapeutic agent Carboplatin. Details regarding acute Pain were collected and evaluated. Results: Majority of patient who developed P-APS, received combination of chemotherapy as compared to patients who received paclitaxel alone. Majority of patients (59.2%) developed onset of PAPS on day 2nd either received paclitaxel alone or combination of chemotherapy, however majority of patients received combination of chemotherapy remained symptomatic for more than 4days.The P-APS was measurement on the basis of scoring provided by LANSS pain scale, majority of patients had pain score of less than 12. As far as nature of pain was concerned, we found that the commonest complaints were pinpricking (37%) and dull (18.6%) rather than burning (14%), numbness (7%). Majority of patient experienced pain in the knees (37%) followed by in lower limbs (22.2%), hand (20%), feet (11%), and 5% in ankle. Conclusion: The incidence and characteristics of pain is related to paclitaxel dose. Subsequent cycles of paclitaxel are having no effect on intensity of pain syndrome. Duration of pain increased by combination of Paclitaxel and carboplatin. Addition of carboplatin contributed chronicity of pain.

  91. Iaggo Raphael David, Matheus Lemos Silva, Brenda Tigre Rocha, Beatriz Rocha Sousa, Danielle Soares Silva, Larissa Alves Guimarães, Ramon Alves Pires, Alfredo Maurício Batista de Paula, Felipe Oliveira Bittencourt and Stenio Fernando Pimentel Duarte

    Cardiovascular diseases are generally considered a public health problem, with high morbidity and mortality rates. Objective: The objective of this study was to evaluate the cardiovascular evolution and the use of the time scale in order to develop the risk of developing CVD in the next 10 years. METHODS: a quantitative, observational and cross-sectional study in a municipality in the interior of Bahia, consisting of 250 adult and elderly individuals from ages 30 to 74 years and without cardiovascular disease (CVD) without a baseline examination, following the Framingham Heart Study protocols. Only the CVD of the Framingham Study was published. Results: Statistical analysis of the variables between the significance level of p < 0.00 and p < 0.01, respectively. The association between age and diabetes was borderline p = 0.06 in relation to the framing risk score and the majority of the population was classified as below risk. Final Considerations: The positive and significant association between HDL and PAs brings a different approach to the performance of HDL-C in relation to PA levels.

  92. Prof. Dr. Suhail Fatima, Prof. Dr. Mohammad Akhtar Siddiqui, Dr. Nasir Ali Khan and Dr. Abdul Nasir

    The cases of Alcoholic Hepatitis are increasing day by day due to drinking alcohol habit in our society. Amale patient of age 56 years working as DGM in NTPC came with the complaint of abdominal heaviness, indigestion, alternate diarrhea and constipation, decreased appetite, nausea, tiredness and general weakness for six months. Patient was diagnosed a case of Alcoholic Hepatitis after taking history and required investigations specially LFT, USG W/A and Fibroscan. Patient was planned and treated by combination of Unani medicines formulations as described in texts of Unani system of medicine. With this unani treatment fibrosis of liver is decreased to normal level without producing any complications and side effects.

  93. Shipra Gupta and Vijay Kumar

    Smoking is a very hazardous problem in the whole world. The smoking of a cigarette/ cigar is not only harmful to the lungs of that person who is smoking but also harmful to the people surrounding him. Sometimes smoking becomes responsible for the road accident when it use by the person who is driving four wheeler or two-wheeler and it is also responsible for firing in the forest. Smoking is an addiction and due to that other family members are also being addicted. The aim of this study is to aware the people from smoking. The study is focused on the risk assessment of interruption of smoking habits.

  94. Dr. Seeja, P., Dr. Sandhya, K., Dr, Soumithran and Dr. Pravish, V.

    Lefort 1 osteotomies are very commonly performed orthognathic surgical procedure and is of wide application in correcting dentofacial deformities. The down fracturing technique of maxilla is an important step in Lefort osteotomy and is associated with occasional trouble shooting. Aim of the study: was to evaluate the ease of two down fracturing techniques –by using a 0.5 mm stainless steel wire traction and using modified leverage technique using two periosteal elevator and chisel. Patients and methods: 42 patients who reported to the department of oral & maxillofacial surgery for correction of maxillary deformities requiring lefort 1 osteotomy were selected for the study. 21 patients underwent down fracturing using stainless steel wire and 21 patients underwent down fracturing using modified leverage technique. The techniques were compared for the time taken for down fracture, lateral movement obtained after down fracturing and associated complications. Results: The comparison between two groups showed no significant difference in the time taken for down fracturing the maxilla. The lateral movement of maxilla after down fracturing was more in technique with stainless steel and was statistically significant. The leverage technique had two cases with wrong split of maxilla, where as mucosal tear and breakage of anterior nasal spine was noted in stainless steel technique. Conclusion: Both the techniques provided efficient down fracturing however technique of using stainless steel provided additional benefit of greater amount of lateral movement and helped in holding into position during rigid fixation.

  95. Bharati Jani

    It is said that teaching is essentially a spiritual process, involving contact mind with mind. A good teacher exerts a powerful and abiding influence on the life of educand. In shaping the child we not only shape the future man but also the future of the nation and the entire human society as such. Teacher is also a human being. We cannot expect him to be perfect in this imperfect world. There are level o f personal stress caused by teaching profession i.e. Stress becomes too high, his performance breaks down. Generally in primary Education, teachers are experiencing pressures to increase productivity and efficiency at their working place and exception of the society was more from them, for which teachers face so much stress in their profession. It is an attempted has been made by the researcher in this paper to examine the effect of personal Stress on the Occupational Self-Efficacy Job Satisfaction and Organizational Effectiveness of Primary School Teachers. And to study the correlation between occupational self-efficacy and job satisfaction, job satisfaction and organizational effectiveness and occupational self efficacy and organizational effectiveness of Primary School Teachers. Sample of 600 teachers of primary school from Kalahandi, Balngir and Koraput district of Odisha was selected on a random purposive sample technique basis. Four tools have been selected by researcher for collection of data-: (i) Personal Stress Source Inventory (ii) Occupational Self-Efficacy Scale (iii) Job Satisfaction Scale developed. (iv) Organizational Effectiveness Scale. The collected data was analyzed by applying appropriate statistical techniques like standard error of difference and coefficient of correlation was used for analysis and interpretation to study the relationship between and among the variables. On the basis of result analysis the finding and recommendation were derived.

  96. Vargha Mokhlesi, Dr. Chidanand B. Patil and Dr. Shinde, A. C

    In the current era, the study of emotional intelligence and psychological well being become a key interest of researcher in various disciplines. This study was undertaken to assess how gender moderate the relationship between emotional intelligence and psychological well-being of adolescents. The study also intends to access the relationship between emotional intelligence and psychological well-being among adolescents. For the purpose of the study, 250 students (125 male and 125 females) enrolled in 11th grade was selected as a sample from the Karad of Satara district. The age range of the students was 16 to 18 years. The data was collected through Emotional Intelligence Test (EII) by Sharma (2011) and Psychological Well-being Scale (PWBS) by Sisodia and Choudhary. Data was statistically analyzed by Pearson Correlational analysis. Study revealed, significant positive correlation between psychological well-being and emotional intelligence among male as well as female adolescents. Additionally, it is found that there is significant relationship between emotional intelligence and psychological well-being and this relationship is moderated by gender. The correlation between emotional intelligence and psychological well-being is higher in female than male adolescents. The present study has great importance which is discussed in the paper.

  97. Dr. Mohannad Mahmood Majeed

    Schizophrenia is a mental illness which creates a great impact on the patient and his community. The examination of the various risk factors related to the disease is important in the determination of its aetiology. The present study aimed to examine the risk factors attributed to the development of schizophrenia. A case control study method was used comparing patients with schizophrenia with control subjects. The sample of cases and their controls were collected from Al-Zahrawy hospital in Mosul city. The sample collection was for the period from 1st January to 30th of June 2000. The sample of cases includes schizophrenia patients of both sexes at all ages attending the psychiatric clinic. The sample of cases included (104) patients with schizophrenia and the control subjects were (116). The disease was significantly seen among males in the age group of less than 25 years. In the age group of (25-44) years females were more significantly affected. No sex difference was seen in the sample of patients in general as a whole. Early age of onset (less than 25 years) was more significantly seen among the males. Late onset schizophrenia affects females more than the males. Family history among parents, brothers, sisters and relatives is significantly common in the sample of cases than their controls. Early age of onset is highly statistically significantly seen if there is positive family history of schizophrenia. Preclampsia and difficult labour are highly statistically associated and strongly related to the disease development. Cesarean section has no significant association to schizophrenia. Childhood and developmental abnormalities, CNS infections and accidents are highly statistically significantly and strongly associated with schizophrenia in the present research. Stressful life events are highly statistically and strongly related to schizophrenia. Being single or divorced are highly statistically significant and strongly related to schizophrenia. Being married is inversely related to the disease. Various risk factors were highly statistically and strongly related to schizophrenia in the present study. Minor factors were either not related to the disease development like cesarean section or act as a protective factor to it, like marriage. Further investigation of these factors is needed to evaluate their role in the disease development.

  98. Niwas Dubey Azad and Vinod Kumar Singh

    The commercial yield of banana is mainly affected by Odoiporous longicollis and Cosmopolites sordidus in Bihar during fruiting season and it is limiting the qualitative and quantitative aspect of banana crop. The two years data on efficacy of different insecticides and pesticides against infestation control of Odoiporous longicollis revealed that the soil application of Carbofuran (1kg/ha), Phorate (1kg/ha) and Quinalphos (1kg/ha) and foliar spray of Carbofuran (0.5kg/ha), Phorate (0.5kg/ha), Quinalphos (0.5kg/ha) have been found more effective in respect of damage control of pest infestation on banana crop. The present study indicates that all the said insecticides used as soil and foliar combination aginst the pest Odoiporous longicollis were significantly effective and superior to the control in preventing the damage of banana crop. The increased crop yield dozen/hectare was 27910 when using Carbofuran, 23820 when using Phorate and 20365 when using Quinalphos in the year 2016.

  99. Rabab Hassan Baaker, Sawsan Abdul Wahab Hammadi, Hayder Salim Kareem

    Background: Intussusception occurs when a portion of the alimentary tract is telescoped into an adjacent segment. It is the most common cause of intestinal obstruction between 5 months and 3 years of age. Most cases are idiopathic. Aim of study: To study the epidemiology and clinical manifestations of intussusception and the relation between age and residency with time of presentation and mode of management, and to find out the impact of delay in presentation on the outcome. Patients & methods: A prospective study was performed on 35 patients that were presented with signs and symptoms consistent with intussusception and admitted to the emergency unit and pediatrics surgical ward in Child's Central Teaching Hospital in Baghdad during a period of seven months from the first of July 2016 to the 31st of January 2017. The age range was between 2 months to 3 years. History was taken and examinations, plain x-ray of abdomen, ultrasound of abdomen was done. The diagnosis was made clinically and confirmed by ultrasound. Patients treated either by pneumatic reduction under ultrasound guidance or surgically. Pneumatic reduction was attempted in all patients excluding those older than 2 years, presentation after 72 hours , poor general condition with signs of small bowel obstruction, and patients with shock or peritonitis. Intraoperative notes were collected looking for data regarding the mode of management, the type of intussusception and complications. Results: Peak age was between 6-12 months (60%) , male affected more than female with male: female ratio of 1.7:1. Most patients (68%) were presented after 24 hours; most patients from rural areas (82%) were presented lately after more than 24 hours. The most presenting features were screaming attack (94.3%), bloody stool (91.4%) and vomiting (80%). Twenty one patients (60%) had palpable abdominal mass and red currant jelly stool was found in 28 patients (80%) on examination. Pneumatic reduction was attempted in 22 cases, success rate was 77%., Pneumatic reduction was most successful in patients aged between 6-12 months (80%) and those presented early less than 24 hours (90%). Nine patients (81 %.) with duration of symptoms of less than 24 hours were treated by pneumatic reduction, while 11patients (91.7%) with duration of symptoms of more than 48 hours were managed surgically (8 patients by surgical reduction and 3 patients by bowel resection). Two cases had bowel perforation, one of them was associated with bowel ischemia, and both of them were presented after 48 hours. Conclusion: The most important predictor of the outcome is duration of symptoms. Delayed diagnosis increases the risk of failure of pneumatic reduction and increases the probability of surgical intervention and resection of bowel. The delay in presentation is due to the variability of signs and symptoms, seeking medical advice from non-specialized individuals, misdiagnosis of intussusception and delayed referral.

  100. Mohit and Sirohi, S.P.S.

    Tissue culture involves the use of small pieces of plant tissue (explants) which are cultured in a nutrient medium under sterile conditions. Many primary steps involved are the preparation of nutrient medium, the establishment of aseptic culture, inoculation, development of the plant in growth room, hardening of micro plants and transfer to the greenhouse. Plant tissue culture has a lot of applications in crop improvement like making successful distant crosses, shortening breeding cycles, somaclonal variants, germplasm exchange etc., There are many types of plant tissue culture techniques such as seed culture, embryo culture, shoot meristem culture, ovary or ovule culture, protoplast culture, suspension culture etc., Therefore in this article an attempt has been made to give a brief idea about the various plant tissue culture techniques and their applications.

  101. Özgür Bayram SOYLU

    The relationship between income distribution and development process is one of the oldest issues in economic research. Most economists and policymakers agree that economic growth will reduce poverty in developing countries. The basic political question for policy-makers is: how much economic growth reduces poverty? If the goal is to reduce poverty, then clearly, economic growth is a plus for poverty reduction and reduction of income inequality. The main aim of this study is to examine the relationship between poverty (POV), inequality (GINI) and real GDP growth (EC) for Canada over the period 1976-2015 by using Autoregressive Distributed Lag (ARDL) Bounds Testing Approach. According to this approach, there is a cointegration relation between the series and it is found that 1% increase in growth rate is leading to a 0.006% decrease on poverty rate. In addition to this, 1% increase in income inequality (GINI) is leading to a 0.91 % increase on poverty rate. JEL Classification: D63, E10, I32, O47, O52.

  102. Adnan A. Salqan and Mohammad Ass’ad

    A mathematical model for estimating of the population size of West Bank and Gaza Strip is used. This model was first proposed in 1992. At that time there was no national, independent or reliable census there. Applying our (same) model showed a great deal of agreement, between our estimates for population size with the resulting figures of recent censuses, not only for these two areas, but for different countries worldwide. Testing and applying our model on accurate demographic data, from selected countries worldwide, with an emphasis to the Palestine case, shows its reliability and thus, its general validity. Background: so far, costly and lengthily census is the only way to estimate population size worldwide. So, there is a massive need to find a simpler and a more convenient alternative, a mathematical model; which saves time and reduces costs. Objective: To establish an independent source and framework for data on demography; alternative workable, and practical mathematical model that can be generalized, to cater different cases globally, to come up with and to produce real and true data for policy planners, and decision makers anywhere in the World, and to save time and reduce costs, substantially. Method: Deriving a mathematical model, based on considering a population process as a stochastic one, finding the moment-generating function and the expected value of the proposed population size. Results: population size estimates were calculated, by using simple calculating mathematical formulae. Conclusion: our general mathematical model can be useful and reliable alternative for traditional censuses anywhere worldwide.

  103. Dr. Jyoti Syal

    Women have been struggling for equality since ages. They were ill-treated and discriminated against throughout their lives. The women, who constitute almost one and a half of the population, can visibly be identified as socially eliminated, economically exploited and politically deprived section of society, mainly in developing countries. Purdah system, polygamy, child marriages, sati were some bitter realities of the prevailing times for women in India. In Derozio’s times women came to be seen as vulnerable. An abiding concern with the plight of widows runs through his poems. His burning desire for bringing radical change in their lives seems to be a strong inspiration for his poems. He is the only Indian who is credited not only for the inception of Indian Poetry in English but also for writing for the upliftment of women in the first place. During the 19th century many upper caste Hindu women committed sati. They were mistakenly believed in this cruel Hindu ritual considering it to be a moral act of liberation due to the strong social approval in those times. This corrupt system was prevalent in the Indian society for centuries, and Derozio vehemently protested the system of sati. He wrote The Fakeer of Jungheera to highlight the issue. The central theme of the poem is to throw light on and protest against the in human practice of sati in the contemporary orthodox Indian society.

  104. Panna Mangat, Anil K. Tomer, Akankshita Behera, Nitish Mittal and Vasuda Bhagat

    Shaping and Cleaning is considered as one of the most important phase of the endodontic treatment. In our study we compare and evaluate the remaining dentin thickness of root canals using Neo-Endo and Revo-S file systems with the help of cone beam computed tomography for analysis. Thirty extracted human mandibular molars were taken and Pre-instrumentation cone beam computed tomography scan was done. After the instrumentation with each file post instrumentation cone beam computed tomography scans were taken. Neo-Endo and Revo-S file systems showed statistically significant difference in remaining dentin thickness. Hence we concluded that Revo- S file system removed less dentine than Neo-Endo file system.

  105. Özgür Bayram SOYLU

    The relationship between income distribution and development process is one of the oldest issues in economic research. Most economists and policymakers agree that economic growth will reduce poverty in developing countries. The basic political question for policy-makers is: how much economic growth reduces poverty? If the goal is to reduce poverty, then clearly, economic growth is a plus for poverty reduction and reduction of income inequality. The main aim of this study is to examine the relationship between poverty (POV), inequality (GINI) and real GDP growth (EC) for Canada over the period 1976-2015 by using Autoregressive Distributed Lag (ARDL) Bounds Testing Approach. According to this approach, there is a cointegration relation between the series and it is found that 1% increase in growth rate is leading to a 0.006% decrease on poverty rate. In addition to this, 1% increase in income inequality (GINI) is leading to a 0.91 % increase on poverty rate. JEL Classification: D63, E10, I32, O47, O52.

  106. Samah M. SHALABY, Ashraf .G. MOHAMED and Eman S. FARAHAT

    Background: Recently there is growing interest in preparing healthy foods with high nutritional values and in the same time safe. Therefore, strengthening cheese with vegetables, fruits and mushrooms can be considering a good attempt to apply this interest. Objectives: The aims of this study were to evaluate the nutritional characteristics and sensory properties of processed cheese incorporated with mixture consists of nine different vegetables and mushroom. Materials and Methods: Fortified spreadable processed cheeses were prepared by adding 2.5, 5, 7.5 and 10% (w/w)of the mixture of nine types of vegetables (Pumpkin, Parsley, Dill, Celery, Leek, Potato, Carrots, Beans, Pea), and mushroom during the manufacture of cheese. Results: Fortified cheeses were higher in dry matter, protein, fiber and carbohydrates than control. The fortified cheeses have more unsaturated fatty acids, amino acids, vitamins and minerals with lower sodium potassium ratio than the unfortified cheese. The panelists liked the cheeses fortified with 5 and 7.5 % more than the other added ratios. Conclusion: Preparing processed cheese spreads with vegetables and mushroom submits healthy and functional products with high nutritional values, and also has high sensory characteristics suitable for different age groups.

  107. Rana H. Shukur, Dr. Monem A. Mohammed and Shukr, H. H.

    We demonstrate here a model proposed by Lee and Carter (1992) for fit and to forecast mortality rates. This approach is used widely in demographical applications and academic literature because the structure of the Lee-Carter model allows for the construction of confidence intervals related to mortality and age-specific death protections. To improve the performance of the Lee-Carter model, several extensions to the original version have been proposed. In this paper, we use real data of mortality rates by gender in Kirkuk City in Iraq during the period 2006-2015 to apply a modification of the Lee-Carter model, which accommodates variations in age-specific parameters using a singular values decomposition method to estimate the Lee-Carter parameters model. We also use the autoregressive moving average (ARIMA) with the special case of Random walk with drift (RWD) model to forecast the general index for the time period 2015-2020. The paper further predicts the survival expectancy at birth for each gender. Our results found this survival expectancy to be increasing for age group (0-1) year and to be decreasing for age group (75-80) years. For the long-term forecast it is necessary for the field of Demography to obtain such predications, which depend however on the available data.

  108. Dr. Sumayya and Dr. Sivagami Srinivasan

    The unique low cost effective technology for the slender entrepreneurs of Silk dyeing effluent has been planned and executed. Environmental outlets like Silk dyeing effluent are harmful and needs a high cost Common Effluent Treatment Plant (CETP) to achieve Zero effluent discharge limits which is not affordable for low investers. In remediating this effluent using the Biofertilizers with multifunctioning activities with Biodegradation, Biocontrol and Plant growth promoting properties were selected. TheGreen leafy vegetable Sesbania grandiflora sowed seeds was treated withraw silk dyeing effluent, Pseudomonas fluorescens and Azospirillum sp. Biofertilizers separately. After 45th days the GLV’s extracts Sesbania grandiflora were grown in fresh water (SGN), Sesbania grandiflora were grown in crude effluent (SGE) and Sesbania grandiflora were grown in biotreated effluent (SGT) were subjected to UV, FTIR and HPLC analysis. Thus from the functional group studies by FT-IR, the alcohol, alkane, alkyl halide and amine groups were found in all the GLV treatments, even in crude effluent, the plants managed to synthesize these organic compounds. The amide group was completely absent in the treatments. The isocyanide group was found only in S.grandiflora grown in fresh water, which was unable to synthesize isocyanide group in plants grown in crude effluent and biotreated effluent. Irrespective of the treatments, the aromatic groups were synthesized by S.grandiflora in biotreated effluent. The HPLC analysis of S.grandiflora grown in fresh water revealed 6 peaks of retention time 2.6, 4.8, 6.4, 15.1, 15.3 and 17.4 minutes of which only 3 peaks were present in S.grandiflora grown in effluent water. In the biotreated plant 4 peaks with the retention time of 2.5, 4.4, 6.6 and 11.2 minutes were found.

  109. Renuka Kumar

    The role of education in social transformation and progress is unchallengeable. Education ensures multiple dividends to a society. It is a great equalizer and emancipator. It empowers the individuals by providing skill and generating employment potentialities in them. Thus, education is the greatest change agent of a society. Viewed from such significance of education, the Universal Declaration of Human Rights declared it as the basic human right of every individual. The Paper deals with the Privileges of distance education availed by the today’s women. Twenty first century has brought in its trail a new hope for women. Dramatic changes have been taken place in the roles, responsibilities, attitudes and ambitions of women in the last few decades. Women have moved long steps ahead from their traditional role of wives, child producers, mothers, house makers and care takers. From the state of non-entity they have reached to a place where they have established their own identity in the modern society.

  110. Wissem Triki, Sonia Ben Hamida, Oussema Baraket, Imen Ganzoui, Abdelmajid Baccar, Sarra Belakhoua and Sami Bouchoucha

    Low Phospholipid Associated Cholelithiasis syndrome (LPAC) is a disease of the young woman. The diagnosis is suspected by the presence of certain criteria and confirmed by genetic testing. We report the case of three brothers who have presented with recurrent biliary pain and an abnormal liver function. Their parents were first degree cousins who had been surgically treated for a biliary disease. The diagnosis of LPAC was backed by clinical and radiological arguments. The three brothers were treated by ursedesoxycholic acid with regression of clinical signs and normalization of liver function.

  111. Srinivas Sangu and Anil Kumar Middha

    Quinoline derivatives are reported to have anti microbial, anti inflammatory, analgesic and anti cancer activities. The incorporated oxymethyl carbamide at 8th position of the quinoline ring was found to influence the biological activities of the molecules with this some of new quinolinyl oxymethyl azetidinones and quinolinyl oxymethyl azetidinones thiazolidinones were synthesized from 8-hydroxy quinoline through (quinolin-8yloxy) acetyl hydrazide intermediates. All the synthesized compounds were characterized by IR, H1NMR spectral data and molecular docking studies carried out against calcium/cadmoduline dependent protein kinase1D and evaluated for their anti-microbial activity.

  112. Agbodjogbe Basile, Ogueboule Bachar, Attikleme Kossivi and Houndjenoukon Elie

    This study aims to analyze the implementation of the strategy of teaching by the pars by the teachers at the time of a sequence of class in gymnastics. In reference to the theories of the socio-constructivism of Vygotsky (1978) and situations of Brousseau (1986), it is a question of showing the various adaptations operated by the teachers in spite of the difficulties which they encounter at the time of the implementation of this strategy. The analysis of the results in reference to the theoretical framework reveals that during the execution of the tasks, the teachers invite the pupils to form small groups in which they responsabilize some of them having the control of the elements gymnic.However, certain teachers do not manage to find situations of alternation of role between learning. What could create psychological frustrations at the pupils? Also, all the pupils in difficulty do not manage to find satisfaction because sometimes of the failures on the level of the tutors. In order to check the attack of the objectives and the conformity of the indications of the tutor to the standard, the teacher does not cease making turns on the workshops. Thus, it would be essential for the teacher to appropriate all the characteristics of the implementation of this strategy and to be aware of his role as a guide and supervisor.

  113. Dr. Abdul Baais Akhoon and Dr. Syed Zameer

    Non-extraction orthodontic treatment implies the correction of malocclusion and thereby improvement in facial profile, aesthetics and smile without sacrificing permanent tooth/teeth. Every clinician is tempted to treat his cases by non-extraction mode of treatment, and this mode of treatment is more desirable for patients undergoing orthodontic treatment. There are a number of methods (Arch expansion, interproximal reduction, proclination of teeth, molar derotation, use of functional appliances) to gain space to resolve limited crowding and protrusion so that some malocclusions can be treated without extraction. Each method has its own advantages and disadvantages and specific indications. A child with class I bases and acceptable profile, with minimal space requirements for relief of crowding or mild protrusion can possibly be best treated without sacrifice of tooth material. In the last two decades, orthodontic treatment strategies have been shifted towards nonextraction treatment and several methods which were not so popular, were lately modified for adaptation in current practice. Intraoral molar distalization is one such example. This article provides a comprehensive review of the various methods used for molar distalization.

  114. Seema Dwivedi, Uruj Jahan, Neena Gupta and Kavita Verma

    Background: High Maternal mortality continues to be a challenge in reaching millennium development goal-5 target. The WHO has reported that two-thirds of maternal deaths occur in just 11 countries, with India topping that list at 17%. Objective: The main objective of study is to identify major cause of maternal deaths and to suggest recommendations for improvement. Methods: Details of all maternal deaths analysed over a period of 6 years i.e. from January 2011 to December 2016, occurred in obstetrics and gynecology department, GSVM Medical college, Kanpur, Uttar Pradesh. Results: In this retrospective study, total number of maternal deaths were 422 over the period of 6 years. Maximum number of deaths reported in illiterate, rural women of low socio-economic status, of age group of 25-31years. Most of women were antenatal, unbooked, referred and had one or other form of delay in seeking or receiving care before death. Most common cause of death was hypertensive disorders of pregnancy (31.27%) followed by haemorrhage (24.17%) and sepsis (6.63%). Conclusion: Most common cause of deaths was triad of hypertension, haemorrhage and sepsis and majority of these deaths could be prevented by improvement in peripheral health care system, timely referral to tertiary care hospitals and increasing social awareness.

  115. Oumar Bailou, Emmanuel Ouédraogo, Ousmane Coulibaly and Alfa Oumar Dissa

    This article presents the study on the determination of climatic parameters used in sizing of solar and thermal systems. Our work aimed at determining the air temperature, the relative humidity of the air, the insolation period and the global solar radiation of several localities of Burkina Faso. These weather data have been obtained over 30 years from ten (10) synoptic stations. The averages of these parameters have been calculated. From these averages, we have proposed the correlations between climatic parameters and geographical coordinates. We have also determined the geographical coordinates of 162 sites throughout the national territory. From the correlations, we determined four (04) climatic parameters of 162 sites. A zoning has been proposed for each climatic parameter and for all four (04) weather parameters.

  116. Swapna Patankar

    Aim: To assess the presence of candida isolates from saliva samples of HIV sero-positive patients. Objectives: To study the expression of different species of candida isolates from saliva samples of HIV sero-positive patients and to identify if any newer species candida is present in the saliva samples of HIV sero-positive patients. Materials and Method: 30 subjects with recently detected HIV sero-positive status and not undergoing Anti-Retroviral Therapy were selected. 0.5 ml of saliva samples were collected in the sterile bottles from these patients. These samples were sent to the laboratory within 2 hours of collection for further microbiological study. Germ tube test, morphology on Cornmeal Agar, Sugar Fermentation tests and Sugar Assimilation tests were used for identification of isolates and their species. Rapid identification for yeast fungi was also done by means of Autoscan 4 rapid yeast identification panel. Results: Of 30 patients analyzed, 16 (53%) were C. albicans, 5 (31%) were C. tropicalis, 2 (13%) C. lusitaniae, C. guillermondii and Tricosporon beigelii, 1(6%) C. glabrata, C. krusei, Rhodotorula rubra and Zygomycetes mucor species. It is evident from our study that Candida albicans and Non- albicans species of Candida are commensal organisms of the oral cavity. They tend to become pathogenic in immunocompromised HIV-sero-positive patients. They are responsible for Oropharyngeal Candidiasis in these individuals. These organisms show a change in susceptibility pattern to various anti-fungal drugs available. So it is necessary to know the causative Candida Isolate so that an appropriate treatment for Oropharyngeal Candidiasis in HIV-sero-positive patients can be given.

  117. Dr. Gopal Paswan, Dr. Ankur Akela and Dr. Runni Kumari

    Background: 1.2 million die every year in road traffic accidents in the world. Abdominal trauma forms an important component of surgical emergencies. It is one of the leading causes of death and disability. The victims are mostly young adults and in the prime of their life. Various mode of Blunt injury abdomen, varied mode of presentation and diagnostic challenges that blunt injury abdomen poses forms a fascinating subject to study. Objectives: To study various aetiologies of blunt trauma abdomen and their outcomes in term of morbidity and mortality. Methods: 50 cases of blunt trauma abdomen admitted to emergency surgical ward of PMCH, Patna were selected for study. After resuscitation patient were subjected to clinical examination and investigation. Based on above patient were taken either for surgery or conservative management. Operative findings were noted and follow-up of the patients was done till discharge from hospital. Results: The majority of the cases belonged to 21-30 years age group (40%). Road Traffic Accident (RTA) constituted the majority of the cases (70%). Spleen was found to be the most common organ injured (30%) followed by liver (20%). The mean stays of patient ranged from 10-19 days. The mortality rate was 20% in this study. Conclusion: Road traffic accident is the commonest cause of the BTA with male predominance of 3:1. People in age group of 3rd and 4th decade was common. Spleen was the most common solid organ injured followed by liver. Hypovolemic shock due to bleeding and sepsis contributes to the major cause of death.

  118. Ekta Goswami, Arushi Makkar, Anshu Sibbal Chatli and Akshita Sharma

    Phosphate solubilising bacteria (PSB) and fungi (PSF) were enumerated by employing Pikovskaya and Modified Pikovskaya agar supplemented with Tricalcium phosphate (TCP) as insoluble phosphate source. The P solubilisers formed yellow halos around their colonies on Modified Pikovskaya agar (MPVK) using Bromophenol blue. The frequency of PSB was highest in the Kharar soil (5.1%) and the least in Model Town, Ludhiana soil (2.2%) in rhizosphere zone. The population of PSF was maximum in Kharar soil (15%) followed by Pakhowal Road, Ludhiana soil (10%) and the least in Model Town, Ludhiana soil (5.6%). The PSB reported belonged to Bacillus and Micrococcus sp. while the PSF belonged to the Aspergillus niger, Aspergillus fumigatus and Penicillium sp. The population of PSM was highest in the rhizosphere than that of non-rhizosphere. The maximum halo size on Modified Pikovskaya agar was reported in Bacillus sp. (5 mm). PSM were screened to observe their efficacy to solubilise P on PVK broth. Penicilliu sp. was found to solubilise maximum TCP (54.2 µg/ml) followed by the Aspergillus fumigatus (51.4 µg/ml) and the least in Aspergillus niger (11.2 µg/ml). The inverse trend in the rate of P solubilisation with that of final pH of broth was observed. The maximum decrease pH was reported in Penicillium sp. (4.5) followed by Aspergillus fumigatus (5.5) and Aspergillus niger (6.0).

  119. Dr. Patel Avani M., Dr. Patel Harshadkumar P., Dr. Brahmbhatt Neelam, Dr. Patel Mahesh K. and Dr. Patel Mitesh H.

    Background: Periodontitis is related with certain systemic conditions as well as with some intra oral local factors including patients’ oral practices and habits. Objective: To review the evidence on the potential roles of modifiable and non modifiable risk factors associated with periodontitis. Methods: A Case control Study was conducted on group of randomly selected patients coming at General Pathology Department, Institute associated with dental college in western India. Clinically diagnosed dental patients having periodontitis were considered as study population. Results: All the patients had presented with the dental problem, of them patients having periodontitis were identified. The diagnosis was based on clinical findings and periodontitis (case) was considered if periodontal pocket depth index score was 2 – 8, and no periodontitis if score was ‘0 - 1’. A total of 200 respondents (ranging from 27 – 80 years) were randomly selected from the hospital patients for interview and investigation for periodontal diseases. Data analysis revealed significant association between the age patients, Diabetes mellitus, betel and tobacco chewing habit, tooth cleansing methods and devices, presence of tooth pricking habits with the development of periodontitis. Conclusion: By delivering the proper and timely health related information raising the awareness level regarding this detrimental disease the overall health status among the population can be improved.

  120. Vani Sharma and Dr. Rajeshwari Patil

    Training presents a prime opportunity to expand the knowledge base of all employees, but many employers find the development opportunities expensive. Employees also miss out on work time while attending training sessions, which may delay the completion of projects. Despite the potential drawbacks, training and development provides both the company as a whole and the individual employees with benefits that make the cost and time a worthwhile investment. Statistics prove that companies across the globe invest heavily on employee training and development. According to Training Industry magazine, employee training and education spends in the India alone are growing incrementally by 14% every year. In addition to enhancing knowledge and skills, measuring training effectiveness has proven to be an important tool to boost employee engagement and retention. Results and measurements of past training also act as critical indicators while planning future workshops. Organizations should ensure that employees can demonstrate a positive impact of training through improved productivity and overall skill development. With the growing focus on continual learning and development, businesses are keen on identifying reliable metrics and methods to measure the effectiveness and the ROI of such employee training initiatives. After all, you would not want to deliver training that does not provide expected results. For this purpose, a list of tools was prepared that are being practiced worldwide and also a list of competitor companies. A survey was conducted through questionnaire and telephonic interviews in order to gain inputs from the companies about what are the tools adopted in their company and what is its success factor. Further, it was matched with the tools being adopted in this company and tried to understand the gaps. Finally, certain suggestions and recommendations were given to the company with suitable reasons as to what are the tools that could further be adopted based on its success factors. Also, the blueprints of some of the tools were designed and suggested to the company so that the company’s overall functioning of training and its effectiveness could be improved. Need for training effectiveness was thus taken care of through this project and was of greater use to the company.

  121. Dr. Eshrak Abass Hassan

    Hyperbilirubimenia is one of the most common problems in neonates. Observed as an abnormal physical finding in the first week of life in approximately 60% of term neonates and 80% of preterm neonates. Photo therapy is one of the routine management of jaundice. It has been hypothesized that photo therapy leads to increased calcium absorption by the bones through irradiating the pineal gland and reducing melatonin level. Our study done in Alkarkh maternity hospital NICU from January 2017 till December 2017, 100 Neonates with hyper bilirubinemia admitted to our NICU and treated with photo therapy. Serum calcium level estimation was done before photo therapy and after 48 hours of phototherapy and compaired. Out of 100 neonates studied 65 babies has a decrease in serum calicum level after 48 hours of phototherapy. None of them were symptomatic. There was no signifance between reduction in serum calicum level and birth weight. There is significant reduction in serum calcium level after photo therapy but risk of hypocalicemia is low in healthy full term neonates.

  122. Suganya, T., Prabavathy, S. and Dr. Renuka, K.

    Adolescence is a stage of ‘Storms and Stresses’. The period of adolescence is of ultimate important in human’s life. In this period a person gets physical, mental and emotional maturity. Adolescents are faced with challenging issues including the puberty, identity formation and transition from childhood to adulthood. Unmanaged stress can cause adolescents with potentially significant health impacts and higher risk for behavioral problems, suicide and risky sexual behavior, smoking, substance abuse, school dropout, self-harm, and poor eating habits. So the practice of mindfulness meditation technique can help the adolescents to reduce stress and improves mental health of adolescents. Quasi-experimental research design with one group pre-test and post-test was adopted. Sixty samples including male and female adolescents in New Modern Vidya Mandir Higher secondary school were selected by using simple random sampling technique (lottery method). The data were collected through interview method and pre-test data collection was done by using Cohen Perceived Stress Scale. Mindfulness meditation technique was administered for the duration of 15-30 min daily for 21 days and the post-test was conducted. The data were analyzed by using paired ‘t’ test and Kruskal Wallis and Mann Whitney test. The study showed that the post-test level of stress of adolescents mean score (6.12) are significantly less than the pre-test level of stress mean score (18.98) by using paired ‘t’ test (21.079).This study reveals that mindfulness meditation technique has highly statistical significance in reduction of stress among adolescents at P-value <0.0001*. This study revealed that the level of perceived stress was high among adolescents. The post-test level of stress score was lower than the pre-test score after administration of mindfulness meditation technique. Thus, this study proves that mindfulness meditation was effective in reducing perceived stress among adolescents.

  123. Ms. Amal Suzanne, Y., Ms. Annie Annal, M and Dr. Renuka, K.

    Adolescence is a transition phase passing through between a child and an adult. During this period, rapid physical growth and physiological as well as psychological changes, occurs. Primary dysmenorrhea is a common menstrual complaint with a major impact on women's quality of life, work productivity and health-care utilization. The prevalence of primary dysmenorrhea varies between 16% and 91% in women of reproductive age, with severe pain in 2–29% of the women. The prevalence of dysmenorrhea varies all over the world. On a Global scale, more than 50% of post-pubescent menstruating women are affected by dysmenorrhea with 10–12% of them having severe dysmenorrhea. In India, dysmenorrhea incidence is 33.5% among adolescent girls. True experimental design was adopted for the study. The population of the study was only adolescent girls with primary dysmenorrhea. 60 samples were selected by simple random sampling technique, 30 in each group, group I received pelvic rocking exercises and group II received aerobic exercises. Pre-test was done using structured questionnaire and assessment of level of pain perception by numerical pain rating scale. After pelvic rocking exercises for group I and aerobic exercises for group II, level of pain perception was assessed using the numerical pain rating scale. The main conclusion of the present study was all adolescents girls with primary dysmenorrhea reported moderate and severe pain on numerical pain rating scale before intervention. Pelvic rocking exercises and aerobic exercises were effective on menstrual pain perception in both group I and group II. While comparing the effectiveness of pelvic rocking exercises and aerobic exercises, result shows that Wilcoxon test of group I and group II was -4.748 and -4.848, respectively. It indicates that there was variation in the level of pain reduction in group II than group I. thus the study concludes that aerobic exercises is effective on reduction of menstrual pain perception among adolescent girls with primary dysmenorrhea.

  124. Anxiolytics use of association and alcohol with beck anxiety diagnosis

    Background: Anxiety disorders are considered a major health problem and economic. About 10% of the world population suffer from this disorder. In Brazil it is estimated that 9.3% of its population. Objective: This study aimed to evaluate association between anxiety, consumed drugs and alcohol among university and non-university in a cityfrom Bahia. Methodology: The survey was conducted with 462 adult’s university and non-university, to obtain the data, we opted for the questionnaire BECK and ABUEL anxiety. Results: The university index that suffered from anxiety was 2.4%, and 2.4% did not make use of anxiolytics and 2.2% consume alcohol, found significant association between alcohol consumption and anxiolytics, with p<0.04 and p<0.00, respectively. Conclusion: It can be observed that university students are exposed to a variety of stressors that contribute to the development of anxiety. Women are more exposed to alcohol, using it in the anxiety against.

  125. Dr. Mohammed Ismail Mohammed and Dr. Shuaib H. Sleem,

    To identify different histological feature of testis of infertile males and classify the types into well defined groups to use Johnsen Score for grading of the degree of spermatogenesis, to find out age distribution and to compare the results obtained with similar studies. During 12 months period from January 2017 to January 2018,100 consecutive testicular biopsies were collected from infertile males. After being immediately fixed in Bouin's solution, for at least 24 hours, they were embedded in paraffin and 4 micron sections were cut and stained by hematoxylene and eosin. Elastic Van Gieson stain was used when indicated to show the fibrosis. Hundred infertile males were included in this study, (97) had primary infertility and only (3) had secondary infertility,. Eighty six had azoospermia and (14) had severe oligospermia . The youngest male was (18) years old and the oldest was ( 43 ) years old. The mean age of the males with primary infertility was ( 28.19) years and that for the secondary infertility group was (33) years. Out of the total, (33) were between the ages of (30 – 34) years. Primary infertility is more common than secondary infertility amongst those seeking testicular biopsy. Sertoli cell only syndrome was the commonest histologic finding in our community. The majority of infertile males were in the 4th decade. Johnsen score 2 is the most prevalent score found among all patients.

  126. Ramija, B.

    Every day people, businesses, organizations, communities and the Government use digital technology to make decisions, to make goods and to deliver services more efficiently and more quickly. The digital economy refers to both the digital access of goods and services, and the use of digital technology to help businesses. Digital economy is a term that is often used to cover this activity, but is hard to define. The Indian digital economy is not a conventionally marketed economic activity, and GDP figures do not take account of economic benefits of the digital economy, such as time saved, increased choice, and lower cost of products. Technology is going to revolutionize or is already revolutionizing business, transforming virtually all aspects of the economy and society. The digital economy is the new productivity platform that some experts regard as the third industrial revolution. Digital revolution, also known as The Internet Economy or Internet of Everything is expected to generate new market growth opportunities. Digital economy describes the range of economic and social activities that are enabled by information and communications technologies. It includes activities like banking, buying and selling, and accessing education or entertainment using the internet and connected devices. The digital economy is not separate to the economy. It impacts all industries and business types and influences the way we interact with each other every day. It also recognizes that as sectors become data driven their economic structures change, industry boundaries blur, and the basis of competition changes. To move towards a digital India and achieve a better growing economy.

  127. Dr. Soma Ghosh and Dr. Snehasis Das

    Background: Carcinoma in colon shows a wide range of morphological differentiation in spite of clinically being nondistinctive. Histomorphology is not enough for differentiating and categorising the type of colon carcinoma with confidence; immunohistochemistry acts as valuable adjunct to it. Materials and Methods: Resected colon specimens were grossed and sections given from representative areas and stained by conventional H and E method and further evaluation done by immunohistochemical markers CK-7 and CK-20 with grading. Results: 51 cases of colon carcinoma selected for study and elderly males dominated. Adenocarcinoma (NST) dominated in histopathology in 43 cases followed by 5cases of signet ring cell variant and 3 cases of mucinous type. In Adenocarcinoma-NST group, CK-7 was negative in all,13 showed grade2 CK-20 positivity, 26 showed grade3 and 4 showed grade4. All signet ring cell types showed CK-7 and grade 4 CK-20 positivity. Mucinous group showed CK-7 and grade2 CK-20 positivity. Conclusion: Histology coupled with immunohistochemistry act as complete diagnostic tools for colon carcinoma and helpful for further therapeutic management. Histological typing shows statistically significant correlation with grade of CK-20 positivity (p=0.00).

  128. Azza Ali Abd El- Azeem Taha, Amal Muslat Alharthi, Arwa Muneer Aljuhani and Hanadi Mohammed Alharthi

    Background: Hyperandrogenism is a common disorder in adolescent females. Objectives: Our study investigated prevalence of hyperandrogenism among female students of Taif University in kingdom of Saudi Arabia and its associated correlates. Methods: The study was conducted from September, 2017 to June, 2018. Nine hundred undergraduate volunteer students from the female university participated in the study. Questionnaires about demographic characters, menstrual history of students, self-estimate of hirsutism and alopecia were distributed to students. An mF-G score ≥ 8 was used to identify hirsutism and we used Ludwig Scale to identify cases of androgenic alopecia. Results: A high prevalence; 18.4% of hyperandrogenism; its main component was hirsutism was encountered among students. Significant associations between hyperandrogenism and smoking (p value 0.040), marital status (p value 0.027), young age of menarche (p value < 0.0001) and irregularity of cycles (p value = 0.002) were observed among students. Conclusion: Hyperandrogenism is a significant problem among adolescent females at Taif University in Saudi Arabia.

  129. Vipin Kumar Sharma, Usha Gupta, Ravi Manawat and Shriram Sharma

    There is a world-wide increase in the prevalence of Diabetes Mellitus and it is associated with an increase in obesity. As the adipose tissue in epineurium is related to some extent to amount of body fat, it is possible that the amount of such fat may affect the nerve conduction. In this study, we have analyzed effect of Body Mass Index (BMI, Group Obese) on various parameters of Median nerve conduction study in one hundred twenty three Type II diabetes mellitus subjects. All Type II diabetes mellitus subjects who recruited from OPD of the Department of Medicine, National Institute of Medical Sciences and research, Hospital, NIMS University Rajasthan Jaipur. All the subjects are on hypoglycemic medicine. BMI was determined and standardized protocol was followed while performing Nerve conduction study (NCS) in all the subjects. Medicaid System’s EMG/NCV equipment with Neurostim software was used for nerve conduction velocity. Prolongation of distal latency (DL) and reduced the amplitude and conduction velocity highly significant in type II diabetes mellitus subjects sensory and motor median nerve. Higher BMI or in obese type II diabetes mellitus subjects was found to be non-significantly associated with all parameters of median nerve. The distal latency negatively correlated and amplitude and conduction velocity positively correlated with body mass index of sensory median nerve but amplitude negatively correlated and distal latency and conduction velocity positively correlated with body mass index of motor median nerve. This study demonstrated that various parameters of nerve conduction study can be affected by BMI. So, this biological factor has to be taken into consideration while interpreting nerve conduction studies.

  130. Usha Kumari Gupta, Sukhraj Kaur, Mridula Mahajan, Anjali Tikoo and, R.P Kudyar

    India is one of the epicenters of global diabetic pandemic. It is silent epidemic that disables kills and strikes people at their most productive age and reduces life expectancy of older people. Diabetes is a global issue and a threat that does not respect borders, social classes or races. It is responsible for increased morbidity and mortality and imposes a catastrophic financial burden on patients and huge burden on healthcare system. Keeping in view the prevalence of diabetic complications the present study was planned to investigate the prevalence of complications in individuals suffering from diabetes and association with degree of hyperglycemia. Out of 200 diabetic patients selected for the study, 80 (40%) patients had not developed any complication. 120 (60%) of the patients were found to have developed one or more complications of diabetes. 46 (23%) were found to have microvascular complications, 32 (16%) macrovascular and 42 (21%) have both micro as well as macrovascular complication. It was observed, as degree of hyperglycemia increased the prevalence of microvascular complications increased from 5 to 10.5% and both micro and macrovascular complications increased from 2% to 12% whereas macrovascular complications increased only from 2 to 3.5%.Thus indicating that prevalence of complications increased with increasing degree of hyperglycemia. Initial treatment of complications is prevention and that can be achieved by keeping a good glycemic control as measured by HbA1c.

  131. Dr. Prathap, R., Dr. Jyoti S. Kabbin, Dr. Bhavana C. and Dr. Ambica R.

    Background: Onychomycosis refers to fungal infection of nails with various etiological agents, involving dermatophytes, yeasts and moulds. Onychomycosis continues to be worldwide problem constituting a large bulk of cases attending the dermatology outpatient department. Diabetics are more prone to onychomycosis, most of the time the infection is subclinical and may lead to secondary infections and bad prognosis. Hence this study was undertaken to diagnose onychomycosis earlier in diabetics which will help to start suitable antifungal therapy and prevent further complications. Objectives: 1. To identify the most predominant fungus isolated from diabetics suffering from onychomycosis. 2. To know the percentage of diabetics suffering from onychomycosis. 3. To identify the age and sex group of people at a higher risk of acquiring onychomycosis in diabetes mellitus patients. Methods: The study was conducted from July 2015 to August 2015, in the department of Microbiology of a tertiary care hospital in Bangalore, including 50 patients clinically suspected of onychomycosis. Nail scrapings and clippings were collected depending upon site, type of nail involvement and subjected for microscopic examination using 40% KOH, followed by fungal culture. Species identification was done based on colony characteristics, pigment production, LPCB mount and slide culture. Results: Out of 50 patients, 22 (44%) were diagnosed having onychomycosis. The common isolates were non-albicans Candida (n=8/22, 36.36%) followed by Aspergillus niger (n= 5/22, 22.72%), Penicillium (4/22, 18.18%) and others being Paecilomyces, Gliocladium and Rhizopus species each being 4.54%. Mixed infection with Aspergillus niger and non-albicans Candida species was seen in 2/22 (9.09%) of cases. Conclusion: The present study concludes that screening test for fungal infections on regular basis is important for long term diabetic patients and they should be started on the suitable antifungal therapy as soon as possible. Early diagnosis of onychomycosis in diabetics helps in the prevention of further complications.

  132. Ousseini ZAKARIA IBRAHIM, Abdourahamane TANKARI DAN-BADJO, Ibrahim ELHADJ DAOU, Fanna ADBOU GADO, Karimou Jean Marie AMBOUTA and Yadji GUERO

    This study was conducted at Komabangou gold zone. The objective of the study is not only to determine metal trace element concentrations in the leaves of two (2) plant species at Komabangou gold site, but also to determine the extent of deforestation associated with gold washing. Investigations are carried out by methods of evaluation of deforestation and determination of the concentrations of MTE in the leaves of two plant species by inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectroscopy (ICP-OES). Results showed that to support 797 functional wells at Komabangou gold site, 261416 trees were destroyed almost 328 tree trunks per well, suggesting a negative impact of gold panning at Komabangou vegetation. The descriptive analysis shows that both species accumulate high levels of MTE. Also, the herbaceous tend to accumulate more MTE than ligneous ones. The concentrations of MTE detected in plant leaves can reach up to 656.68 mg / kg. They exceed WHO standards of 3, 5, 7, 9, 10, 15, 67 and 79 respectively for copper, nickel, zinc, cadmium, chromium, cobalt, lead and arsenic for herbaceous plants and 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 23 and 30 times higher than WHO standards for zinc, arsenic, chromium, nickel, lead and cobalt for ligneous plants. The presence of metals in leaves of these plants at levels above regulatory standards therefore poses a health risk to grazing animals at Komabangou gold zone. This gold recovery site should be secure to limit risk of metal transfer into the food chain.

  133. Yunusa, E.U., Oche, M.O., Yahaya, M., Isah, B.A., Abdullahi, Z., Kareem, A.E., Salihu, M.A., Ango, U.M., Umar, M.T., Adamu, A. and Isezuo, K.O.

    Background: Potable drinking water is an absolute necessity, as its quality is as important as its availability. Consumption of unsafe drinking water contributes to about 4 million annual cases of diarrheal and water related diseases world-wide. Purification removes particulate matter and disease agents from water obtained from potentially contaminated sources, thus making it potable. Objectives: To assess the knowledge and practice of household water purification and storage techniques among residents of sokoto north local government area, sokoto state, Nigeria. Materials and methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted among 330 residents selected by multistage sampling technique from August, 2017 to March 2018. Data were collected using semi-structured, pre-tested, interviewer administered questionnaire and analyzed using IBM SPSS version 20. Results: Majority of respondents 188 (57.0%) had good knowledge of water purification and storage techniques. The most commonly used water purification techniques were boiling 125(55.5%), filtration 94 (30.1%), and use of alum 63(12.7%). There was a statistically significant association (p = 0.001) between practice of household water purification and storage techniques and formal education. Conclusion and recommendations: Although, the respondents showed high level of knowledge and practice of water purification and storage techniques, it can still be improved through periodic mass public health enlightenment campaigns. In addition, the Sokoto State Water Board should ensure provision of adequate quantity of potable water to the residents of the state.

  134. Silva, A. F. da S, SOUZA, E. R. de S, Cruz, G. D., Souza, G. A. de., Ferraz, G. C. and Kelencz, C.A.

    The present work is a review of the literature on "The Professional of Physical Education in the Prevention of Occupational Diseases through Work Gymnastics". The studies seek to clarify how the Labor Gymnastics applied with the approximate time of ten to twenty minutes is effective in the prevention of occupational diseases LER / DORT. Knowing that this is an area of activity of the Physical Education professional, we seek to address how occupational diseases, occupational gymnastics and their classifications are classified, physiological, psychological and social aspects of work gymnastics and the link between work and professional gymnastics of physical education. However, it can be emphasized that occupational diseases are responsible for a large percentage of employees' absence from their professional functions. With this study it was possible to conclude that Labor Gymnastics is very important in the prevention of occupational diseases (RSI), and when routines of physical exercises aimed at stretching and warming up at the beginning of the work shift are used, it promotes physiological changes in the individual leaving him in a state of alertness and with this to prevent accidents caused by lack of attention.

  135. Yusupova Sevara Nizamitdinovna

    The article outlines the political, economic, social, spiritual changes in the country, the high rates of birth and natural growth, the growth of the indigenous people.

  136. N.V.S. Mahalakshmi, N. and Bhavani, A.

    Morbidly adherent Placenta (accreta/percreta) is one of the serious complications in pregnant women and is frequently associated with severe obstetric hemorrhage usually leading to hysterectomy. Placentation disorders has increased owing to increased cesarean deliveries, resulting in increased fetomaternal morbidity and mortality. Although repeated caesareans are one of the largest risk factors for the adherent placenta, increasing maternal age and parity, as well as other uterine surgeries also result in the same. Considering the level of complexity, a multidisciplinary team in a tertiary centre with expertise in managing morbidly adherent placenta should manage these suspected cases.

  137. Ashwini Andurkar

    Green networking is the practice of selecting energy-efficient networking technologies and products, and minimizing resource use whenever possible. Green networking practices include: • Implementing virtualization. • Practicing server consolidation. • Upgrading older equipment for newer, more energy-efficient products. • Employing systems management to increase efficiency. • Substituting telecommuting, remote administration and videoconferencing for travel. Although investing in green networking may require an initial cash outlay, the products and practices involved typically save money once put in place. This paper focuses on optical networking as an energy efficient solution in green networking.

  138. Yunusa, E.U., Oche, M.O., Yahaya, M., Isah, B.A., Abdullahi, Z., Kareem, A.E., Salihu, M.A., Ango, U.M., Umar, M.T., Adamu, A. and Isezuo, K.O.

    Background: Potable drinking water is an absolute necessity, as its quality is as important as its availability. Consumption of unsafe drinking water contributes to about 4 million annual cases of diarrheal and water related diseases world-wide. Purification removes particulate matter and disease agents from water obtained from potentially contaminated sources, thus making it potable. Objectives: To assess the knowledge and practice of household water purification and storage techniques among residents of sokoto north local government area, sokoto state, Nigeria. Materials and methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted among 330 residents selected by multistage sampling technique from August, 2017 to March 2018. Data were collected using semi-structured, pre-tested, interviewer administered questionnaire and analyzed using IBM SPSS version 20. Results: Majority of respondents 188 (57.0%) had good knowledge of water purification and storage techniques. The most commonly used water purification techniques were boiling 125(55.5%), filtration 94 (30.1%), and use of alum 63(12.7%). There was a statistically significant association (p = 0.001) between practice of household water purification and storage techniques and formal education. Conclusion and recommendations: Although, the respondents showed high level of knowledge and practice of water purification and storage techniques, it can still be improved through periodic mass public health enlightenment campaigns. In addition, the Sokoto State Water Board should ensure provision of adequate quantity of potable water to the residents of the state.

  139. Akash Mathur, Kirodeemal, Naincy Rastogi, P D Meena and Hemant Malhotra

    Paraneoplastic syndromes are frequently found in lung cancer and can often be the first manifestation of disease. While some of the paraneoplastic syndromes are commonly observed others like nephrotic syndrome are rare. We report here a rare case of an elderly male smoker presenting with nephrotic syndrome and an underlying occult malignancy non small cell lung carcinoma though without any obvious lung mass.

  140. Dr. Mateen Tahir

    The basic question is: peace for what? Or what is the criterion of peace? Pacifists generally maintain that peace must include social justice, universal and lasting peace can be established only if it is based upon social justice. This concept of peace has won general acceptance among scholars. The question arises as to how peace in this sense has never been established throughout human history, that is, peace with social justice. History itself provides empirical proof of the fact that this definition of peace is not in accordance with the law of nature. And it is a fact that, in this world, one cannot achieve anything without adhering to natural laws. The reason behind this failure to establish peace is that almost all the scholars have bracketed peace along with certain irrelevant factors. Their concept of real peace is one in which there is no injustice, no violation of human rights, no inequality and no violence of any kind. Let us take the analogy of the soil giving us the foodstuffs without which we cannot continue to exist. According to the law of nature, we have first to acquire fertile land and then prepare it for the cultivation of crops. The same is true of peace. Peace is like social soil, by cultivating which we can receive the fruits of social justice. Just as it is not possible to derive food directly from the soil, similarly we cannot derive social justice directly from peace. According to the law of nature, peace can be attained only on a unilateral basis, and not on a bilateral basis. This means that first of all we have to abandon all kinds of confrontational methods such as political activism, protest-based activism and human rights activism. This kind of unilateralism will establish normalcy, normalcy will then lead to peace and peace will open the door to all kinds of opportunities. Then, wise planning we can achieve all those goods that we want in terms of social justice and human rights.

  141. Dr. Sandeep Kumar

    This study examined the emotional intelligence and will to win level among male basketball players. A group of fifty (N=50) male inter-college level basketball players of Guru Nanak Dev University, Amritsar, Punjab were selected for this study. The purposive sampling technique was used to attain the objectives of the study. All the subjects, after having been informed about the objective and protocol of the study, gave their consent and volunteered to participate in this study. To measure the level of Emotional Intelligence of the subjects, the Emotional Intelligence Scale constructed by Hyde et al. (2001) was administered. To measure the level of Will to win was measured by applying Will to win questionnaire prepared by Kumar and Shukla (1998). One way Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) was employed to find out the intra-group differences. Where F values were found significant, LSD (Least Significant Difference) Post-hoc test was applied to find out the direction and degree of difference. For testing the hypotheses, the level of significance was set at 0.05. Summarizing from the above findings we can say that significant differences were found among male basketball players on the sub-variables of Emotional Intelligence i.e., Self-awareness, Empathy, Self-development, Value orientation and Altruistic behaviour. However no-significant no significant differences were found among male basketball players on the sub-variables of Emotional Intelligence i.e., Self-motivation, Emotional stability, Managing relations, Integrity and Commitment.

  142. Mohamed Khaleifa Alhmoudi

    Could the United Arab Emirates (UAE)commit more fully to eliminating gender discrimination by amending its existing legislation and adopting new laws which support and promote gender equality? This article sets out to determine the truth of the claim that its ability to do so is limited due to a conflict with Islamic law which is operational in the UAE and other regions of the Middle East and North Africa (MENA). One of the ways this examination does so is by investigating the socio-cultural context from which Islam emerged. It argues that UAE jurisprudence reflects and reinforces a patriarchal model of society which undergirds numerous decrees to be found in the Personal Status Laws, or Muslim Family Law. These are laws that govern marriage, divorce, child custody, inheritance and many other matters intrinsic to family life in the UAE which are wholly biased in favour males. Men are given full license in law to preside as guardians over, demand obedience from, supervise and regulate the movement and travel of, and even physically discipline the female members of their household. This arrangement, with its basis in patriarchal complementarity, permeates all inter-familial dealings between the sexes and is contributing to an increase in travel bans, spousal abuse, rape, domestic violence and marital rape, for which there are little to no robust provisions or mechanisms in law or state policy that can act as safeguards for the women these acts are perpetrated against. Despite this state of affairs, the UAE, along with several other Muslim majority states, has signed the Convention for the Elimination of Discrimination Against Women (CEDAW); a convention that strives to guarantee the creation and protection of formal and substantive rights for women by recognising their rights to be human rights. As explicated in this article, CEDAW is a United Nations convention that recognises the dynamic interplay of laws, social relations, religions, custom and cultural traditions in the continued subordination and oppression of women worldwide. A failure to comply with it carries a heavy reputational and image bearing cost before the international community. Pertinent to this investigation is a critique of how to date, the UAE and many other states in MENA have - to a certain extent - been able to evade the full brunt of international censure by habitual appeals to ‘Islamic Law’. These religious appeals have duly been entered into their reservations to CEDAW - notably Article 16 which deals with gender equality in marriage and the family - largely unchallenged. They have functioned to deftly shut down any possibility of disputing patriarchal readings of Islamic Law and meaningful engagement with alternative visions of Islam, as put forth by the many millions of adherents around the globe who advocate for gender equality. Accordingly, this analysis will investigate if cooperation between progressive Muslim groups and the international community, with the aim of fostering enhanced religious dialogue, exchange and literacy could be a strategy for building an infrastructure of jurisprudence that positively promotes gender equality in the UAE, which is then subsequently cascaded to all other MENA states.

  143. Dr. Chandra Mouli, K., Dr. Pannirselvam, N. and Anitha, V.

    Floods are the natural disasters which affect the environment, human race and even infrastructure to a great extent. Flooding is one of the most burning issues in the world. The ill effects of flooding have to be minimized or should be prevented through the application of the various amazing flood defence systems. This article mainly focuses on the several flood mitigating methods or systems that can be carried-out effectively during the floods inorder to reduce the ill aspects of devastating floods. The effective use of these economical flood defence systems can appropriately lead to the intended results i.e. reduces the loss of life and property.

  144. Alassane BOUKARY BIGA, Coffi Pierrot EDOH and Corneille TEBA

    This study aims to describe the phenomenon of disinterest in writing copy from the case of the district of Ahomey-Lokpo. The survey was of a quantitative and qualitative type, involving 60 learners, 08 teachers and 20 parents, totaling 86 subjects. The issue of disinterest in copying has become the leitmotiv of all debates about education as a factor of development. Indeed, like many developing countries, Benin is affected by the phenomenon: especially in the rural zone of its territory. It is specifically for us to expose the realities of teaching / learning conditions that favor the phenomenon of disinterest in writing copy at the EPP Ahomey-Lokpo then, describe the reasons at the social and economic levels which underlie the phenomenon of disinterest in this school. However, they can be categorized into two: social and economic causes. The present research entitled « explicative approach of Ahomey-Lokpo, parish of Sô-Ava’s pupils uninterested about copy and calligrapher’s activity » is carried out in the purpose of describing the phenomenon of the uninterested. The fieldwork allowed the collection of data, their treatment and the analysis of the results. Thus, the results have led to the conclusion that, on the one hand, teaching/learning conditions favor uninterested about copy in the parish of Sô-Ava and on the other hand, that the phenomenon of uninterested in underpinned by social and economic heaviness.

  145. Liliana Hîncu

    Bucovina, an ancient cradle of culture and civilization, is recognized nationally and internationally due to its beautiful natural landscapes and anthropic tourist objectives, the folk customs and traditions specific to this area. Today, tourism is a distinct field of activity, with an ever more active presence in the economic and social life, with anever-increasing rhythm of evolution. As a generator of profound changes in the social dynamics, tourism has also claimed to be a factor of progress and civilization, as a promoter of international relations and, more recently, as an argument of globalization and sustainable development. One of the current basics in the field of tourism concerns the study of the regional elements, according to which typical tourist activities are organized in certain areas, and the possibilities of their complex arrangement are evident. Bucovina is recognized for the variety of natural landscapes as well as for national and internationally recognized monasteries for the uniqueness of interior and exterior paintings, some of which are included in the UNESCO heritage.

  146. Abeer Makram, Amany Ragheb and Shahira Assem Abdel Razek

    The effect that modern technology and innovation has on societies and cultures today, as well as on the decision-making process of any place, is evident in our common everyday life. Each and every process that we as individuals undergo on a daily basis is interlinked with drivers based on knowledge and data compiled. Today, modern global practices emphasize that economic growth, as well, is more dependent on knowledge; knowledge being, in essence, the repertoire of information that is used in order to make better decisions. Accordingly, a new concept is being coined to term these fast-track cross cutting changes. This new integrated approach; the knowledge city, adds a new dimension to existing perspectives on cities, as it describes the interrelations between physical and intangible urban spaces. While there is a long history and vast body of knowledge about cities and its dynamics, the knowledge city perspective contributes to a better understanding of the multitude of critical elements such as urban planning, human resources and economic development as the main dimensions of a city, emphasizing that cities should be more accessible, attractive, connected and dynamic. This intricate weave of data leads to either a successful or a rundown city. However, the concept of “knowledge cities” is yet an emerging field of theory and practice. The purpose of this research is to look into the knowledge city concept and try to discuss the required indicators as a foundation for the planning process; a process which goes beyond conventional city planning approaches and deeper into urban planning, urban design and building design.

  147. Dr. Tapas Ghoshal

    The present study was conducted to focus on the role performance of the private tutors and school teachers with regard to their quality of instruction, mode of behavior, sincerity & subject knowledge. The sample consists of 80 secondary level students of which 48 boys and 32 girls students were selected randomly from two high schools in Durgapur sub-division, W.B. A three point attitude scale, based on role performance was used to collect the data from the students. The study revealed that private tutors and school teachers differ significantly on quality of instruction, mode of behavior, sincerity & subject knowledge.

  148. Bisweswari Sahu and Dr. Geeta Khanduri

    Background: An alarming number of school going students suffer from several emotional and behavioral problems. Academic Anxiety is one among them. It is a key point of focus for psychologists, educationists, parents, and teachers. On the other hand, interdisciplinary researches with special reference to yoga and psychology are growing rapidly in this era of applied science. Aims: The current study aimed at exploring the effect of Yogic Intervention on the academic anxiety level of school going students. Methods: Researcher has taken purposive sampling method for the current research. Present study was carried out by taking a total of 40, grade VIII subjects as sample of Gayatri Vidyapeeth, Haridwar City. Yogic intervention was given to each and every subject of the group for a period of 90 days regularly. In this research, pre-post single-group design has been applied. Participants were given a questionnaire named as "Academic Anxiety Scale for Children” by A.K. Singh and Alpana Sen Gupta (2005) for measurement. Statistical Analysis Used: Wilcoxon sign rank test, median, effect size and reduction percentages have been used for comparing pre and post scores and computing the magnitude of the effect of intervention. Results: A Wilcoxon Signed-Rank Test revealed a statistically significant reduction in the level of academic anxiety of the participants in the yogic interventional program, z = -5.524, p<0.001(sig.2-tailed). The median score on academic anxiety decreased from 15 pre-intervention to 8 post-intervention. The pre test percentage was 75.75% and post test percentage was40.13%, reduction percentage of academic anxiety level was 35.62%, which indicates large effect of the intervention on academic anxiety. Conclusions: The findings revealed that the Yogic Intervention is highly effective in reducing the academic anxiety level in school going student participants, which was significant at 0.01 level of significance.

  149. Lemis Yavuz, Sinan Yavuz and Samah Alasrawi

    Introduction: Recurrent enterocolitis with failure to thrive during neonatal and infancy period are common manifestations of immunodeficiency, especially when associated with delayed separation of the umbilical cord. But in rare cases, these manifestations are associated with surgical causes as bowel obstruction, which will be missed because of the similarity of the clinical picture. Objective: To present a case of bowel obstruction which was missed under diagnoses of immunodeficiency, in the pediatric and surgical department at subspecialty children hospital. Case related: Our case is about 5 months old girl with failure to thrive, has a history of delayed separation of umbilical cord for 7 weeks, neonatal infection with recurrent enterocolitis needed hospitalization for a period of 3 months. She presented with fever, vomiting, diarrhea, distended abdomen. Each time the symptoms of vomiting and abdominal distention were improved after conservative management with the antibiotic, which delayed the diagnosis of bowel obstruction. After the surgery, all her symptoms resolved, and she began to thrive. Conclusion: Infants with bowel obstruction may present with vague symptoms make the diagnosis difficult, and delay the surgical intervention.

  150. Georgios F. Zarotis

    In the evaluations and statistical analyses presented here we examine which reasons for quitting activity in a gym prevail in men and women, and how far the genders differ in these reasons. The collected data should help to derive recommendations for action in order to increase the customer satisfaction in fitness companies and to reduce the long-term drop-out rates by an adequate service offering. In the survey a total of 225 people, who had quitted their membership in the past, were questioned in a telephone inquiry. The study was conducted in a health-oriented fitness centre in a major city in Germany. At the time of the study the fitness facility had up to 1.151 memberships. Among them, 59% of the members were women and 41% were men. The average age of the respondents was 43.5 years. The average duration of membership added up to 4.4 years. Overall, it is found that only a few of the quitting reasons offered in the survey are also indicated in significant frequency as important for the quitting decision. With the exception of membership costs, these reasons have nothing to do with studio conditions, but rather, apart from the mentioned health problems, mainly address issues of time scheduling and prioritizing the training in relation to other areas of life. The differences between the genders are, in most cases, very small, although 9 of the 18 verifiable differences can be secured against chance. Really clear gender differences are found mainly in three quitting reasons: Professional obligations are much more pronounced in men as a quitting reason. Domestic and family obligations, on the other hand, and regular training timetable not compatible with my schedule are clearly stronger quitting reasons among women.

  151. Dr. Nitika Grover, Dr. Promil Jain, Dr. Himadri Hazarika, Dr. Raman Kapil, Dr. Sonu Choudhary, Dr. Rajeev Sen

    Fibromatosis Coli or Sternomastoid Tumor also known as Pseudotumor of Infancy is a benign, rare fibroblastic lesion presenting in infants as neck swelling or mass. This benign tumor of uncertain etiopathogenesis usually appears in first two months of life and is one of the causes of congenital torticollis. On ultrasonography, a diagnosis of cervical lymphadenopathy was suggested. FNAC was performed from both the swellings and a diagnosis of Fibromatosis Coli was made based on these cytomorphological findings. Cytological findings of FC includes bland appearing mature fibroblasts and varying proportion of mature and immature skeletal muscle fibers in a clean background devoid of hemorrhage and necrosis. We present a case of one month old afebrile female infant, vaginally delivered at home, presented to the Pediatric OPD with bilateral neck swelling noticed by the mother 2 weeks following birth. FNAC is a rapid and useful tool in its diagnosis and management along with radiological investigations such as USG, CT, MRI.

  152. Dr. Amee D. Pandya, Dr. Sapna Gupta, Dr. Supriya D. Malhotra and Dr. Pankaj Patel

    A 14 year-old boy, without relevant previous history, completely asymptomatic before one day of MR (measles-rubella) vaccination, developed paroxysmal event of muteness, intermittent episodes of bilateral lower limb weakness with difficulty in walking, visual hallucinations and suicidal ideas and eventually developed Psychosis after a week of his dose of MR vaccination. EEG, MRI-Brain, MRI-Spine were normal. The diagnosis was confirmed as Acute Conversion Disorder possibly triggered due to MR vaccine. Patient was started on Tab. Clonazepam but his condition was not improved and on regular follow up, is put on Tab. Clonazepam, Tab. Risperidone and Tab. Amitriptyline for control of worsening of symptoms. It is suggested that in some cases, vaccination may be the triggering factor for autoimmune and neurological disturbances in genetically predisposed individuals and physicians should be aware of this possible association. The relationship between vaccinations and onset of serious neuropsychiatric diseases is certainly a coincidence rather than causality.

  153. Naghma Shahrukh, Zehra Mohsin and Dr. Enas mushtaq

    Adherent placenta is not a rare association with previous caesarean it usually presents with vaginal bleeding during difficult placental removal in 3rd stage of labour. Increasing incidence is due to increasing caesarean rates. Pathogenesis of placenta accreta in cases of women with previous caesarean section is believed as defective decidualization, abnormal maternal vascular remodelling, excessive trophoblastic invasion or a combination occurring at uterine scar site .Placenta accreta is an obstetrical complication associated with significant maternal morbidity and mortality .Adherent placenta at unscarred area is a rare presentation. Antenatal diagnosis of morbidly adherent placenta is key to save the women’s life.

  154. Dan Călugăru and Mihai Călugăru

    The authors are commenting on the article entitled “Real-world of anti-vascular endothelial growth factor therapy in diabetic macular edema in the United States” published by Ciulla et al. in Ophthalmology Retina; http:/ /10.1016/j.oret.2018.06.004. Published online July 28, 2018.The conclusion resulting from this article is that regardless of the intravitreal pharmacotherapy chosen, namely, specific (bevacizumab, ranibizumab or aflibercept) or nonspecific (corticosteroid implant) anti-vascular endothelial growth factor agents, the efficacy of the treatment depends primarily on the promptness of the therapy after diabetic macular edema diagnosis. The validation, extrapolation, and generalizability of the authors’ conclusion can be made only by statistical analyses including all the missing baseline potential predictive factors mentioned by us in addition to the baseline characteristics already evaluated in the study, which serve as potential prognosticators influencing functional and anatomic improvements.

  155. Dr. Vinod kumar and Prof. Hemantha Kumar, P.

    Fistula in ano is an infective disease of anal canal usually caused by crypto glandular infection of anal crypts. In fistula in ano there is an abnormal communication between two epithelial surfaces and the track is lined by unhealthy granulation tissue. It can be correlated with Bhagandara described in Ayurveda texts. Bhagandara (Fistula-in-ano) considered in Kricchrasadhya Vyadhi (difficult to treat) because of its high recurrence rate thus it is mentioned as Mahagada in Sushruta Samhita The present case study was conducted on a male patient aged 40 yrs. Who was suffering from Fistula in ano for last 2 yr. IFTAK (Interception of fistulous tract with application of Kshara sutra) technique of treatment was adopted. Daily dressings were done with jatyaditaila. Patient cured completely within 8 weeks of treatment. There was no side effect or complication after regular followup of 2 months. The treatment undertaken was very effective as it reduced seton placement in smaller track and also reduced healing time of the wound. The treatment techniques proved to be very effective and convective treatment option.

  156. Imane Boujoual, Bachir M’barki and Abderrahman Andoh

    Immediate and early loading (6weeks) consists of putting the implant into function via a temporary prosthesis generally slightly under occlusion. This approach has become a viable alternative nowadays, especially in areas where aesthetics is crucial, often it is the case of one or two maxillary incisors. It has a considerable contribution to saving time. But what could be the clinical results and possible complications? The aim of our letter to the editors is to answer this question by comparing the complications of this approach with those of deferred loading, ie after osseointegration. The literature reports that complications concerning marginal bone loss, esthetic outcomes, soft tissue healing do not show any significant differences as long as the selection of patient is adequate and the primary stability is sufficient. But we have noted a higher rate of minimal prosthetic complications: loosening or fracture of a provisional fracture of a screw. We can conclude that the use of immediate loading in fixed implant-supported prosthesis is now a widely accepted protocol with survival rates similar to the delayed loading protocol, however, cases should be selected with caution.

  157. Dr. Kratika Mishra and Dr. Amit Bhardwaj

    Distraction Osteogenesis (DO), also called "callus distraction", "callotasis" and "osteo-distraction" is a relatively new technique for orthodontists and maxillofacial surgeons which have revolutionized the correction of major skeletal deficiencies. It has gone a long way in reducing the need for osteotomies and grafting in the treatment of dentofacial and craniofacial deformities. The forces applied to bone also create tension in the surrounding soft tissues, initiating a sequence of adaptive changes termed distraction histogenesis. Distraction osteogenesis is may even be teamed with endoscopic techniques to allow the placement of these devices with minimal surgery. It is in the new era of the three dimensional computer mediated preoperative planning and outcome assessment.

  158. Dr. Sachin Khullar and Dr. Leesa Huguenin

    Fabella Syndrome is an extra-articular cause of intermittent pain on the postero-lateral aspect of the knee caused by compression on the posterior part of lateral Femoral condyle by the Fabella bone. (Sesamoid bone in the proximal part of the lateral gastrocnemius muscle) In some cases, the sesamoid bone is replaced by fibrous tissue or the Fabello- fibular ligament. The symptoms are more commonly seen hypermobile population who commonly hyperextend their knees leading to rubbing of the Fabella or the fibrous tissue on to corresponding femoral condyle. Other than the pain at the back of the knee, Fabella is also implicated in its association with degeneration of the knee, causing instability of the knee and also in the common peroneal nerve palsy. Activity modification, analgesic medication, cortisone injections, physiotherapy and rehabilitation methods have been shown to control the symptoms but many times surgical excision of the Fabella bone is required.

  159. Alaa Ali M. Elzohry, Adnan Ahmed M. Ali, Wael Abd Elgwad Elsewify, Mohamed A. Ali Abozaid and Waleed Attia Hassan

    Introduction and Objectives: Diagnostic and therapeutic procedures recently are done in gastroenterology setup as a part of fast-track concept. A major volume of gastrointestinal procedures are performed routinely on daycare basis under sedation as upper and lower GIT endoscopy. Many anesthetic agents used to provide sedation for these procures. Propofol, opioids, and midazolam form the backbone of the various regimes employed in the endoscopic suites all over the world. Dexmedetomidine is a pharmacologically active selective α 2-adrenergic receptor agonist. It was approved it in the intensive care unit (ICU) for sedation and analgesia for the duration of less than 24 hours. The aim of this study was to study efficacy and safety of Dexmedetomidine efficacy as sole sedating agent versus propofol for sedation during upper and lower GIT endoscopy. Methods: This randomized controlled trial was carried out on 60 patients of either sex, aged 21-70 years of age undergoing undergoing upper and lower GIT endoscopy, with ASA I-II. Patients were randomly assigned into two groups, (30 patients in each group); Dex group; sedation was induced by loading dose of (dexmedetomidine 1 µg/kg) followed by infusion of (dexmedetomidine 0.8 µg/kg /h). Propofol group; sedation was initially started by bolus dose of 0.5 mg/kg propofol IV Then, infusion was started at the rate of 50 µg /kg/min. Upper and lower GIT endoscopies were carried out in the usual standard manner for all patients, then patients were discharged to PACU after attaining an Aldrete Recovery Scale Score of 9– 10 Time taken to achieve this score was recorded. The patient’s vital signs, Respiratory complications, VAS score for pain measurement, PONV, and any other adverse events were recorded. Results; There was significant decrease in hemodynamic parameters (HR and MAP) but not respiration rate (RR) and SpO2, in (Dex group) during the procedure and early post operative (P. value 0.000**). But during the remaining of post operative periods HR and MAP were comparable. VAS scores and other complications as arrhythmia and air way obstruction were increased in Propofol group (P. value 0.005*) in contrary to nausea, and vomiting that significantly decreased in Propofol group when compared to Dex group (P. value 0.001**). Mean time to achieve RSS 3-4 was 6 (±1.5) min in Dex group versus 9 (±1.9) min in Propofol group (P<0.005) and to achieve an Aldrete Recovery Scale Score of 9– 10 was 8 (±2.1) min in Dex group versus 6 10 (±1.6) min in Propofol group (P<0.029). Conclusion; there is evidence to support dexmedetomidine as a potential sole sedative agent in small diagnostic and therapeutic procedures like GIT endoscopies, our study support these evidences as dexmedetomidine resulted in rapid onset and recovery, with sufficient levels of sedation and analgesia although occurrence of side effects as bradychardia and hypotension which were not serious and controllable.

  160. Dr. Priya Horatti, Dr. Tanvi Dugge and Dr. Balaram Naik

    Aim: The aim of this in vitro study was to evaluate the antimicrobial effectiveness of four endodontic sealers (AH Plus, Enseal, MTA fillapex and Sealapex) after 48 hours. Materials and Method: The freshly mixed sealers used were AH Plus, Enseal, MTA fillapex and Sealapex. The sealers were prepared according to manufacturer’s instruction and placed in prepared wells of 36 agar plates which were inoculated with Streptococcus viridans, Staphylococcus aureus and Enterococcus faecalis. (10 samples were made for each Microorganisms). Four cavities, each one measuring 5 ml in diameter and 4 ml in depth were made in each agar plate using cork poorer. Agar diffusion method on Muller Hinton agar was employed and zones of inhibition were measured after 2 day. Results: Sealapex proved to be the most effective against all microorganisms tested. This was followed by Enseal. AH Plus showed antibacterial activity on all tested microorganisms slightly higher than that of MTA fillapex which showed the least action on all tested microorganisms. Conclusion: All the sealers evaluated in this study showed different inhibitory effect

  161. Taihua Wang, Xing Chen, Xiaohui Cui, Lina Zhao, Zhenzhen Yang, Xin Wang, Bailing Zhang, Meidai Fan, Xinyi Shi, Rongrong Li, Qingchang Fang, Xiaojuan Diao, Limin Zhang, Guoke Yang, Ying Meng, Shoujin Fan, Guiwen Yang, Liguo An and Gang Zhang

    Insulin is the only hormone to regulate the metabolism of glucose. Currently, exogenous insulin administration is the widely-used standard strategy for human diabetes patients. However, the injection of insulin cannot be a sufficient method to prevent from the progression of the disease and the development of diabetes complications. Here, we investigate an efficient strategy, in which we employ human pluoripotent stem cells to overexpress human insulin or estrogen-related receptor γ (ERRγ) gene. Our new method, in theory, can both repair the damaged tissues and restore the function of human pancreatic β cells, and also synthesize and secrete human insulin into the blood, therefore, to decrease blood glucose levels of the patients via intravenous transplantation. Our preliminary data revealed that this method not only can efficiently secrete human insulin, reduce glycosylated haemoglobin levels, but also improve the patient’s health conditions physically and mentally. Hence, it may have the potential to prevent and eventually to reverse human diabetic complications. Our reports suggested that this strategy is very promising for eventually curing human diabetes mellitus.

  162. Dr. Tanvi Dugge and Dr. Balaram Naik

    This case report highlights dental treatment abuse performed by an incompetent person on a woman. A quack is defined as "an unqualified person who falsely claims to have medical knowledge'. Most developed countries have explicit legislation with respect to the 'lawful' practice of dentistry. Dental quackery is prevalent in India on a large scale and many people especially from lower sections of the society resort to these treatment methods for their dental problems. The main reasons for visiting a quack were cost (53%) and non availability of dental clinics (20%). Although, this type of practice is illegal, little is being done to check the same. Dentistry has come a long way in the last one and a half century; today it is ranked as one of the most respected professions. It is incumbent upon dentists everywhere to protect this hard-earned reputation by weeding out quacks from among them. However, as dental professionals we must guide these patients towards effective dental treatment through media and awareness programmes. The government should urge fresh graduates to practice in rural areas and provide more incentives to them. Public health dentists should take the initiative of adopting more community-oriented oral health programs to increase the awareness among rural populations. In this case, the unanatomical, unaesthetic false discolored prosthesis were removed after the patient reported to the Department of Conservative Dentistry and Endodontics.

  163. Dan Călugăru and Mihai Călugăru

    The authors are commenting on the article entitled “Half-time photodynamic therapy in treatment of chronic central serous chorioretinopathy” published by Sheptulinet al. in Graefes Archive for Clinical and Experimental Ophthalmology; http:/ Published online August 10, 2018.The authors concluded that the duration of the symptoms from the chronic central serous chorioretinopathy diagnosis to photodynamic therapy, pigment epithelial detachment, and best-corrected visual acuity before treatment significantly correlated with an achievement of the photodynamic therapy effect. However, the validation, extrapolation, and generalizability of these outcomes can be made only after inclusion in the multivariate stepwise regression analysis of all the missing baseline potential predictive factors mentioned by us in addition to the baseline characteristics already assessed in this study, which serve as potential prognosticators influencing functional and anatomic improvements.

  164. Dr. Deepa T. Pazare, Dr. Nilima Rajhans, Dr. Nikesh Moolya, Dr. Nilkanth Mhaske, Dr. Carol Fernandes and Dr. Pravin Munde

    Salivary duct cysts, of different types, clinically referred to as mucoceles comprise 6-9% of salivary gland diseases. Mucoceles are cavities filled with mucous. When they occur in the floor of the oral cavity, they are called ranulas. Mucous is the exclusive secretory product of the accessory (minor) salivary glands and the more prominent product of the sublingual (major) salivary gland. These lesions can be superficial, classic or deep. Various treatments are available for its removal such as Surgical excision, Marsupialization, Laser ablation, cryosurgery, and electrocautery with variable success. In this case a 25 yr old male patient underwent conventional surgical removal of the lesion. Biopsy reports confirmed mucocele.

  165. Dr Sabha Malik, Dr. Saba Musharaf, Dr. Fidah Mohamad and Dr. Mohd. Abass

    Objective: To assess knowledge, attitude and practices of contraceptive method among married reproductive females. Material and methods: The present study was conducted in tertiary hospital in kashmir from october 2017 to october 2018.Total 500 married females in reproductive age were enrolled in study. Result: In study 100% females had knowledge of permanent method of contraception and among temporary method condom followed by IUCD were most popular. The most common source of information was media. The most common reason for non use of contraceptive method was family pressure. Conclusion: Efforts should be made to educate the public about the safety and convenience of modern, long term, reversible methods of contraception among both in health care proffesional and public.

  166. Dr. Shwetha and Dr. Vinay, M.

    Background: Adolescence is the period of transition from childhood to adulthood. This critical period of transition is identified by a range of ages. World Health Organization has defined adolescence as a period between the age group of 10 to 19 years. Around 1 in 6 persons in the world is an adolescent: that is 1.2 billion, most of them in the developing countries. Current nutritional status of adolescent girls will decide the well being of the present as well as the future generations. Under-nutrition among girls is associated with reduced lean body mass, lack of muscular strength and decreased work capacity. In the absence of effective nutritional interventions, the low birth weight girls become the next generation of stunted mothers, thus, perpetuating the vicious cycle of malnutrition. Adolescence provides a second opportunity for girls to attain ‘catch up growth’ and break the intergenerational cycle of malnutrition provided there is a significant increase in their nutrient intake. However, the state of rural adolescent girls in India is quite dismal. Objectives: 1. To assess the nutritional status of adolescent girls 2. To determine the association between socio-demographic characteristics and nutritional status Methods: The present study was a cross sectional study, conducted in Keregodu, PHC, the rural field practice area of Department of Community Medicine MIMS, Mandya. The data was analyzed by percentages and descriptive statistics. Chi-square test was used to determine the association between socio demographic factors and nutritional status of adolescent girls Results: Total adolescent girls included in our study were 302. Mean age of the adolescent girls was 14.3 (+ 2.12) years. The prevalence of malnutrition was 65.3%. Around 34.8% were having normal BMI, 59.3% were underweight, and 6.0%were overweight. There was significant association between nutritional status with education status and SES of adolescent girls Conclusion: The prevalence of malnutrition among adolescent girls was high and there was significant association between Socio demographic characteristics like SES and literacy status.

  167. Ayşe Şahin Tutak, Hüseyin Avni Fındıklı, Sefer Aslan, Öznur Uludağ, Murat Arcagök and Atilla Tutak

    A 31-year-old female patient who was receiving warfarin, who was being followed up with neuro-psychiatric systemic lupus erythematosus (NPSLE) and accompanying anti-phospholipid syndrome (APL), who underwent magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) due to complaints of numbness in upper extremity and neck pain in emergency room, who developed cardiac arrest and respiratory arrest during MRI examination and recovered with cardio-pulmonary resuscitation will be discussed with the findings of NPSLE which are suggestive for cerebral involvement.

  168. Chaudhary Veena

    In this study, the aim was to find out the prevalence of blood groups in a group of neonates as well as in their mothers in Rockland Hospital, Delhi. In this study, the blood groups of 458 neonates and their 458 mothers were evaluated respectively. In our study, the results showed that the prevalence of different blood groups among one group of neonates was approximately: B+ 34%, O+ 27%, A+ 24%, AB+ 8% and Rh negative- 7 %. In this study, the results also showed that the prevalence of different blood groups among the mothers of the group of neonates was approximately as follows: O+ 30%, B+ 30%, A+ 21%, AB+ 10% and Rh negative- 9 %. Thus, there was similar trend of blood groups in both mothers and neonates. By conventional criteria, this difference was considered to be extremely statistically significant.

  169. Ansaf Abdulhussein Mahoor Chlaibawi and Qasim Dawood Yasir Altameemi

    Human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) is a world widely distributed among pregnant ladies and it is considered the most prevalent congenital viral infection in the developed countries where acute infection during pregnancy is a leading cause of deafness and serious neurologic manifestations in the newborn babies and a questionable cause for recurrent abortions. This study conducted on two groups of women aged between 16 to 46 years selected from the gynecology clinic of Al- Kut hospital for gynecology and pediatrics (the patients group consists of 60 women with a history of recurrent miscarriages while the control group consists of 60 healthy pregnant women with no history of previous abortion ) for the period between February 2016 to February 2017 to seek for serum anti-human CMV IgG and IgG avidity levels using the ELISA test and genetic test for detection of gB gene after DNA extraction using PCR technique. The serum anti-HCMV IgG Ab was detected in 54 (90%) of women in the patients group while it was detected in 45(75%) of women in the control group. the serum IgG avidity for anti-HCMV IgG Ab was positive in 18(30%) of women in the patients group while it was positive in 3(5%) of women in the control group. the DNA extraction for PCR glycoprotein B gene revealed a positive results in 15 (25%) of women from the patients group while non (0%) was positive in the control group. These results proved that IgG avidity is a dependable indicator for diagnosis of primary CMV infection in pregnant ladies.

  170. Dr. Sarita Nibhoria, Dr. Kanwardeep Kaur, Dr. Manmeet Kaur, Dr. Arshpreet Kaur, Dr. Parul

    Hashimoto Thyroiditis is an autoimmune disease that results in destruction of the thyroid gland and gradual and progressive thyroid failure. The more commonly reported malignancies in patients with Hashimoto’s Thyroiditis have been lymphoma and papillary carcinoma. A prevalence of medullary carcinoma of only 0.35% has been reported in Hashimoto’s patients. We present a case of 42 year old female who presented with complaint of swelling in the neck associated with difficulty in swallowing and hoarseness of voice. Total thyroidectomy was done. Histopathological examination reveals co-existence of Hashimoto’s Thyroiditis with Medullary carcinoma, which is a rare presentation.

  171. Dr. Vezhaventhan, G.

    Introduction: Donor age may have an impact on the renal transplant outcome. Kidney transplantation from older donors may result in a worse outcome, and the survival benefit of kidney transplantation compared with dialysis may be reduced. The aim of this study was to evaluate the impact of donor age on graft function, graft survival and patient survival kidney transplant outcome. Aim & Objectives: To evaluate the impact of donor age on graft function, graft survival and patient survival. Materials and Methods: Retrospective study, Conducted in the Institute of Urology, Madras Medical College and Rajiv Gandhi Government General Hospital, Chennai.from 2004 to 2015 with sample size of 159 Patients. Results: We analyzed the influence of donor age on both initial graft function (IGF) and survival rate. Our data also suggested that CIT influenced patient and graft survival rates. Therefore, in order to improve the long-term survival of renal allografts efforts should focus on limiting CIT and the damage that occurs during this period.

  172. Dr. Vezhaventhan, G.

    Aim and Objectives: To compare the efficacy of extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy in managing residual stones after ureterolithotripsy and mini-percutaneous nephrolithotomy. Materials and Methods: A retrospective study was carried out of 71 patients with proximal urinary tract stones (greater than 10 mm) who underwent ureterolithotripsy or mini-percutaneous nephrolithotomy at Institute of Urology, Madras Medical Collegefrom 2015 to 2018. The 71 patients were divided into two groups: group I (n = 37) comprised patients who underwent ureterolithotripsy, and group II (n = 34) comprised patients who underwent mini-percutaneous nephrolithotomy. Clinical characteristics, stone-free rates, stone demographics, and complications were evaluated. Results: The overall stone-free rate was 90.1%. The stone-free rates in groups I and II were 97.3% and 82.4%, respectively. There was a statistically significant difference in the stone-free rates between groups I and II (P = 0.035). Neither serious intraoperative nor postoperative complications were observed. No significant difference in complications was observed between the two groups (P = 0.472). Conclusions: The results of our study suggest that extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy is an effective and safe auxiliary procedure for managing residual stones after primary endoscopic surgery. This procedure is associated with a satisfactory stone-free rate and a low complication rate, particularly for residual stones after ureteroscopic procedures.

  173. Palvi Banotra, Farhat Ali Lone, Liaqat Ahmad Malik and Sukriti sharma

    Introduction: Cholestasis of pregnancy is also known as jaundice of pregnancy, intrahepatic cholestasis of pregnancy, obstetric cholestasis or prurigo gravidarum. The condition manifests clinically in second or third trimester with generalised pruritus. Although maternal outcome is invariably good an increased fetal risk has been reported, namely preterm delivery, low birth weight babies, bradycardia, meconium staining of amniotic fluid, fetal distress, intrauterine death of fetus and increased perinatal mortality. All women should be closely monitored during the third trimester, especially, in case of twin pregnancy, if the onset of intrahepatic cholestasis is before 32 weeks of gestation, or with history of previous stillbirth. Objective: To determine maternal outcome in cholestasis of pregnancy. Methodology: This study was conducted in the depaerment of obstetrics and gynaecology.150 patients were enrolled from the outpatient department as well as from those admitted in the labour room with the history of intrahepatic cholestasis of pregnancy. Results: On analysis of data, mean gestational age at delivery was 38.14 weeks. About 75% patients delivered at term, whereas 10% had preterm delivery. 51% patients had spontaneous onset of labour and in 39% patients induction was done by different methods depending on the Bishop’s score. 59.3%patients had vaginal delivery, LSCS rate was 40.0% and instrumental delivery rate was .7%. High LSCS rate was because of meconium, fetal distress and previous LSCS. Intrapartum complications were present in 48.67% patients in the form of meconium staining of amniotic fluid in 24.67% patients, preterm delivery in 10% patients, fetal distress in 8.7% patients. Post partum complications were noted in 8% patients in the form of PPH (7.3%) and hematoma in (.7%). Conclusion: Cholestasis of pregnancy causes maternal pruritus with impaired liver function tests and raised serum bile acids. Maternal morbidity is increased in terms of increased LSCS rates and discomfort due to pruritus. A timely intervention at 37-38 weeks will reduce the adverse perinatal outcome.

  174. Dr. Divya Gupta, Dr. Neeta V. Bhavsar and Dr. Sakshee Trivedi

    Background: During pregnancy, progesterone & estrogen level increases, resulting in increased vascular permeability, gingival oedema, crevicular fluid level, prostaglandin production which may lead to gingival inflammation & render gingival tissues less resistant to inflammatory changes caused by bacteria. Objective: To evaluate prevalence of periodontitis in pregnant women. Method: The study included 924 women with low risk pregnancy of <32 weeks of gestation. Medical history was recorded which included the following parameters: Age, gestational age, smoking, alcohol consumption, systemic disease, Body mass index, halitosis & oral hygiene. On oral examination, Russell’s & Oral Hygiene Index-Simplified were recorded. The data was collected and statistically evaluated. Results: The prevalence of periodontitis was 43% and was associated with higher gestational age, increased maternal age, poor oral hygiene which was measured by OHI-S by Greene and Vermilion. Conclusion: The prevalence of Periodontitis is high in pregnant women and is associated with increased gingival bleeding on probing, advanced gestational age and obesity. A program of oral health care should be included in prenatal care for early pregnancy. Oral health during pregnancy is important to minimize possible undesirable perinatal results and to improve the quality of life and well-being of the expectant mother and her baby.

  175. Dr. Ruchika R Mandhane, Dr. Mithilesh Dhamande, Dr. Anjali Bhoyar Borle, Dr. Surekha Godbole, Dr. Seema Sathe, Dr. Rohit A. Mistry

    Aim: To evaluate knowledge, attitude and practice towards denture hygiene among denture wearer patients in Wardha region. Material and Methods: A total of 80 complete denture wearer patients completed a comprehensive questionnaire. Statistical Analysis: The data obtained through questionnaire was synchronized and analyzed statistically. The software used in the analysis was SPSS 17.0 version. Conclusion: Most of the denture wearers have limited knowledge of denture cleansing and oral hygiene practices. Clinical significance: Periodic recall for assessment of denture and mucosal surfaces along with instructions about denture hygiene will go a long way in helping the patients.

  176. Kolarska, Y. and Deliyska, B.

    Background: The aim of the study is to take into account the relationship between asymptomatic hyperuricemia (a HU) and morphological changes in the kidneys. Materials and Methods: A retrospective analysis of kidney biopsy of 110 patients divided into two groups: with a HU (n = 62) and non- HU (n = 48).We analyzed each morphological change separately in the respective groups, then the data were compared between the two groups. A multifactorial analysis was performed between the degree of the morphological changes and proteinuria (PU), systolic blood pressure (SBP), and diastolic blood pressure (DBP), that are factors for non-immune progression of chronic kidney disease (CKD). Results: When comparing only the morphological changes between the two groups, no statistically significant difference was found. Patients with a HU and severe mesangial cells proliferation, the PU was higher - 4.31 +/- 4.6 g /24 h if compare with non-HU 2.64 +/- 2.28 g /24 h. The same dependence is reported in the presence of significant interstitial infiltrates and interstitial fibrosis, and the marked changes in extraglomerular vessels. Expression of tubular atrophy in a HU group is associated with higher SBP than the control group: 143.75 +/- 18.47 mmHg and 117.7 +/- 35.94 mmHg. Conclusions: Correlation was established in patients with a HUand pronounced interstitial fibrosis, and with changes in extraglomerular vessels. Patients with a HU and interstitial infiltrates had higher PU. The association of a HU with some morphological changes results with higher SBP, DBP, and PU that are factors relevant to the progression of CKD.

  177. Ziyad AlHammad

    Systemically reviewing the topic dry socket and its component: incidence, predisposing factors, aetiology, clinical features, treatment, and prevention. All studies pertaining to the topic and its component were included. Exclusion criteria were applied to exclude studies that were not PubMed indexed. The materials and methods used for this systemic review were to search in the PubMed database, using specific words "Dry Socket, incidence, predisposing factors, aetiology, clinical features, treatment, and prevention" and published in the English language. The articles were reviewed, 20 papers were identified in PubMed but a total of 15 papers were included in the final systemic review according to the specific keywords and materials mentioned above. The occurrence of dry socket in an everyday oral surgery or dental practice is unavoidable. The incidence and predisposing factors of dry socket were remarkable but varied from one study to another. Aetiology of dry socket is not fully understood, different studies suggest different theories behind its occurrence. Clinical features were investigated aiming to determine diagnostic components to identify dry socket. Treatment and prevention of dry socket were reviewed showing a massive verity of treatment modalities and preventive measures.

  178. Rosmala Nur, Rasyika Nurul, I PutuDedy Budiastra, Nurhaya S Patui and Pitriani

    Alcohol consumption is currently one of the adolescents problems whose numbers tend to increase every years. The result is that in addition can compromise the security of the environment such as the rise of juvenile gangs, sexual misconduct, rampant of thuggish could also impact on the health of adolescents. The purpose of this study was to determine the factors associated with alcohol consumption and its impact on the health of adolescents in Palu City, Central Sulawesi, Indonesia. This study used mixed research method were quantitative and qualitative research. Samples for this study were 65 teens, domiciled in the 8th Neighbourhood, 8th Hamlet, BTN Citra Pesona Indah, Talise Urban Village, Subdistrict Mantikulore Central Sulawesi Province, Indonesia, whereas qualitative sample amounted to 5 informants that teens who still consumed alcohol. The results showed a significant relationship between motive curious with alcohol consumption (P = 0.001), the opportunity with alcohol consumption (P = 0.001), inferiority with the alcohol consumption (P = 0.001), and emotional with alcohol consumption (P = 0.001). All of 5 informants said that they felt the effects for consumedalcohol such as decreased body resistance, easily hurted, lazy woke up, often felt asleep in class, vomited and coughed up blood. The conclusion was that there was influence between the motives of curiosity, inferiority, and emotional occasion for alcohol consumption and its impact on the health of adolescents in Palu.

  179. Rosmala Nur, Ryman Napirah, M., Andi Fitriani, Firmansyah, Pitriani and Sendhy Krisnasari

    The C-Category Mines, in the form of rocks and soil, is one type of mines of which management authority is carried out by the local government. The C-category quarry does indeed provide benefits in the form of employment and contributions to certain parties, but the mining activities conducted within produce dust that can have a negative impact on the environment and health in the form of air pollution that causes Upper Respiratory Tract Infections (URI) in workers. The purpose of this study was to determine the total dust content and the relationship between working hours, the use of Personal Protective Equipment, and workers' knowledge on the risk of URI in C-category quarry. This study was categorized as quantitative study with a cross sectional study approach. There were 76 workers of C-category quarry in Watusampu Village as the sample of study. The sampling was conducted by using simple random sampling technique. The data were analyzed using chi-square test. Total dust content was measured at two points using the LVS (Low Volume Sampler) tool. The measured total dust content was determined gravimetrically. The results showed that total dust content at both sampling points exceeded the Threshold Limit Value of Chemical Substances contained in the air at the workplace which was 125 mg/m3 at sample point I and 140,6 mg/m3 at sample point II. Threshold Limit Value for total dust content contained in the air at the workplace was 10 mg/m3. There is no relationship between working hours (ρ=1,000) and the risk of URI in workers, there is a relationship between the use of mask as a PPE (ρ=0.030) and workers' knowledge (ρ=0.012) and the risk of URI in C-category quarry workers which can cause negative impact on the environment and the health of workers.

  180. Dr. Merve Benli and Gokcen-Rohlig, B.

    Objective: The objective of this in vitro study was to compare precision of impressions of post space preparations obtained from conventional and digital systems. Material and Methods: Twenty-four decoronated and endodontically treated maxillary central incisors were used for the study (n=12). Samples were embedded into acrylic resin molds and randomly divided into two groups. Impressions for post-space were obtained using two systems; group D (digital group), group C (conventional group). Digital impressions were obtained with an intraoral scanner and developed with the software of the system for measurements. Conventional impressions were obtained with silicone material. Statistical analyzes were performed with One-way Anova and paired-samples t-tests (α: .05). Results: Precision values were not statistically significantly influenced by the impression method in total discrepancy comparisons. Intraoral scanner group demonstrated similar depth, diameter, and surface values for the post space to conventional impression group. There was no statistically significant difference for precision values with respect to the groups (p>.001). Conclusion: Within the limitations of the study, impressions for post restorations obtained with digital workflow and conventional technique showed similar precision results.

  181. Dr. Neel Desai, Dr. Abhi Khanpara, Dr. Satkarjit Kaur, Dr. Mansi Patel and Dr. Garima Chamania

    Cyanotic Congenital Heart Disease (cCHD) is characterized by intra-cardiac right-to-left shunting resulting in entrance of unsaturated blood into the systemic circulation and arterial hypoxemia. One of the common example of cCHD is TOF. It is characterised by right ventricular outflow tract obstruction, ventricular septal defect, overriding of aorta, right ventricular hypertrophy. Brain abscess is common in patient of right to left shunt. Surgery for brain abscess is preferred to be done under local anesthesia, as the general anesthesia is consider as a risky option. But in uncooperative children, GA is preferred. Major an aesthetic considerations are cyanotic spell, perioperative hemodynamic instability, electrolyte and acid-base imbalance and sudden cardiac arrest. We present a case of 10 year 20 kg child suffering from brain abscess who is known case of TOF, posted for craniotomy and excision of brain abscess. Our aim was to prevent raised intracranial pressure, electrolyte imbalance, dehydration and cyanotic spell. To avoid increase right to left shunt fraction, we avoid the use of propofol, Thiopentone sodium, high concentration of inhalation agent which cause systemic vasodilatation, decrease in systemic vascular resistance and decrease in after load. De-airing of IV line is important to prevent air embolism. If patient develop cyanotic spell, it should be managed with knee-chest position, oxygen, morphine, phenylephrine, Sodium Bicarbonate, volume resuscitation, beta blockers.

  182. Dr. Jai Pratibha Varshney, Dr. Atul Seth, Dr. Kedarnath, S. and Dr. Arunav Sharma

    Background: The ever rising caesarean rates in Obstetric practice are a method of serious concern. A very common indication of Caesarean is history of previous caesarean. One of the reasons for this is the caution that is to be used for use of prostaglandins in these patients for cervical ripening. There are alternate methods of cervical ripening well documented in literature. One of the methods is extra amniotic use of Foleys catheter for cervical ripening which may also induce labour. Methods: The study was carried out at a Government run Maternity Hospital in an urban setting with round the clock availability of caesarean section. 75 women who met the inclusion criteria were selected after consent was taken for cervical ripening and induction of labour. Results: Out of 75 women, 46 (61.3 %) had successful induction of labour resulting in vaginal delivery. The other 29 (38.7%) patients went for lower segment caesarean section (LSCS). Out of those who went for LSCS, 09 patients had meconium staining of liquor and were taken for LSCS. There were no cases of scar rupture. The Foleys catheter was expelled in an average of 12 hours in the unsuccessful group compared to 5.5 hours in the success group. Conclusion: The Foleys catheter is a safe, cheap and easy to use method of cervical ripening in pregnancies with previous LSCS. It significantly reduces the chances of repeat caesarean in patients with previous LSCS.

  183. Dr. Zubaida Rasool, Dr. Nazia Bhat, Dr. Huzaifa Nazier, Dr. Meesa Mehraj, Dr. Junaid Nazier, Dr. Nuzhat Samoon, Dr. Tabassum and Dr. Kanika

    Anorectal melanoma is a very rare tumor of neuroectodermal origin with poor prognosis because of delay in diagnosis. It is often mistaken for benign conditions such as hemorrhoids or rectal polyps. Surgical treatment ranges from local excision to radical abdominoperinal resection. Because of its rarity only few cases have been published in literature. Herein, we report series 3 case of anorectal malignant melanoma and further review management in light of the relevant literature.

  184. Rupinder Singh and Manoj Kumar Sharma

    In India, there is an increased mortality and morbidity due to various causes among pregnant women. Anaemia during pregnancy is a very common condition because the growing fetus demands more nutritional intake and the incidence is very high and our purpose is to make people aware of the causes and preventive measures of anaemia in the urban areas. This study is designed to investigate and assess the knowledge regarding causes and preventiv measures of anaemia among pregnant women. The data collection for the study was carried out from 1st March to 10th March with a selection of 30 pregnant women who were attending OPD at SGTB Hospital, Amritsar. The methodology is the most important part research as it is the fram work for conducting a study. The present study was conducted at the OPD of SGTB Hospital, Amritsar. There are about Approximately 15 patients who are attending the OPD per day. In our present Study, subjects according to age revealed that 20% were between the age group of 18-21 years ,47% between 22-26 years of age while 33% were between 27-30 years of age. According to qualification revealed that 13% of subjects had qualification upto 5th standard,47% subjects had qualification up to 10th standard whereas 40% subjects had qualification above 12 standard. As per Occupation,23% of pregnant ladies were government employees while 77% were housewives. According to Residence,66% of pregnant ladies belongs to urban areas whereas 34% pregnant ladies belongs to rural areas.As per Language, majority of the subjects i.e 74% knows Punjabi/Hindi language ,13% of subjects knows English language while 13% knows all of the above languages. According to the type of family,36% of pregnant ladies belongs to Nuclear family and 64% belongs to joint family. As per the parity,majority of subjects i.e 60% were multigravida while 40% of subjects were primigravida.

  185. Geeta V. Patil Okaly, Rekha V. Kumar, Namrata Kaul and *Champaka, G.

    Objectives: Adenoid cystic carcinomas (ACCs) are rare malignant tumours of salivary glands. Their occurrence at numerous other body sites is rare and poorly described. Frequent local recurrences, late distant metastasis and perineural invasion are commonly seen in these tumours. The aim of this study was to analyse the array of these tumours at various body sites. Materials and Methods: A single centre retrospective search over two years revealed 18 cases whose clinical, epidemiological, histomorphological and immunohistochemical findings were evaluated. Results: Tumour sites in decreasing order of frequency were minor salivary glands of the oral cavity, nasal cavity, maxillary sinus, larynx, bronchus and one each from the breast and cervix. The mean age of presentation was 50 years and it was more frequently seen in females. The most common histological patterns were tubular and cribriform. Solid pattern was seenpredominantly in ACCsof floor of mouth, maxillary sinus and upper gingivobuccal sulcus (GBS). Perineural invasion was seenin tumours ofminor salivary glands of oral cavity and maxillary sinus.Local invasion was seen in ACC oforal cavity, maxillary sinus and larynx. Conclusion: Although ACCsoccur most frequently in the major salivary glands, more than one third of cases occur in minor salivary glands in the head and neck and lower respiratory tract, and other sites more rarely. These have a characteristic histomorphology pattern which can be identified easily. Immunohistochemistry plays a limited role in diagnosis on small biopsy specimens. Radical surgical excision with or without post-operative radiation therapy is the treatment of choice.

  186. Dr. Nakul Rathod, Dr. Basawaraj Biradar, Dr. Aparna Palekar, Dr. Sai Kalyan and Dr. Shalakha Maniyar

    Maintaining a natural tooth than extraction will conserve the tooth and also will be beneficial for the patient. Root resection is a technique for maintaining a portion of a diseased or injured molar by removal of one or more of its roots. A periodontally or endodontically compromised tooth can be retained. In this case series the diagnosis and management of two endodontically and periodontally compromised tooth i.e maxillary first molar is achieved by surgical resection of the root followed by regenerative procedure if required and MTA placement.

  187. Pawan Kumar

    It is a hard fact that condition factor in fishes (Rohu) which is studied, shows marked fluctiuations during the year, so much so that on the basis alone the year can be broadly divided into four important periods like, the winter (January to March), the pre-monsoon (April to June), the monsoon (July to September), and the post monsoon (October to December). The condition of fish productivity in general is good particularly during the winter and pre-monsoon months. The reason is that the food environment is favourable during the pre-monsoon period. The adult fishes are sexually matured. There are deposition of fats in the body. Various ecological conditions also play an important role for increase in the weight of fishes. Pond water is also observed as clear, transparent and less polluted. The slight degree of pollution is due to human activities. Abundance of phytoplanktons also provide the improved feeding condition as a number of phytoplanktons like Chlamydomonas, Oscillatoria etc. are observed. Dissolved oxygen also showed similar pattern of wide fluctuations with range between 6.8 to 13.8. The first peak was found during March’ 2018 and other during September’ 2018 . The lowest value was recorded as 6.8 ppm in June’ 2018 . The high dissolved oxygen content in Aug-Sep can be attributed to the phenomenon of photosynthesis accentuated by high velocity of flow and presence of abundant quantities of macrophytes and cloud free sky, which cause good photosynthesis activities in the ecosystem. The collected data also shows there is decrease in D.O. with increase in temperature throughout the year.

  188. Shanmugasundaram, T., Sudheer Mohammed, M.M. and Ebanasar, J.

    Wild relatives of the cultivars are now being given much attention by conservationists across the globe. The Piper genus is an extremely well known and widely distributed pantropical taxon of aromatic plants. The wild relatives of species Piper nigrum are reported from The Nilgiris, approximately 2,000 metres (6,600 ft) above sea level. The antioxidant assay of the fruits of Piper schimidtii, Piper mullesuaand Piper velayudhanii were conducted following DPPH Radical Scavenging Assay and Total Antioxidant Capacity (TAC)assay by Phosphomolybdenum method. All the three wild pepper species fruits are found to possess credible antioxidant activity. Since both ethyl acetate and ethanol extract demonstrated antioxidantactivity, indicate the fact that structurally similar compound exhibits the property in the fruits of the plant.





Rosane Cavalcante Fragoso, Brasil


Chief Scientific Officer and Head of a Research Group

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