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September 2020

  1. Guilherme Silva de Mendonça, Joselene Beatriz Soares Silva, Pedro Guimarães Pereira, Alan Kardec de Oliveira, Iolanda Alves Braga and Carla Denari Giuliani

    Objetivo: Descrever as mudanças estruturais em unidade mista de internação em saúde mental e relatar a experiência com um caso de pacientes psiquiátricos internados para tratamento com suspeita ou portadores Coronavírus 2. Metodologia: Trata-se de um estudo descritivo, tipo relato de experiência, que descreve as atividades desenvolvidas frente à internação de pacientes psiquiátricos internados para tratamento com suspeita e/ou portadores Coronavírus 2. Resultados: diante dos achados, percebeu-se que as adaptações oferecidas para paciente sintomáticos respiratórios de Coronavírus na unidade psiquiátrica do Hospital Universitário de Uberlândia mostrou-se mais efetiva não só no tratamento de Coronavírus-19, mas também ajudando no tratamento dos transtornos de saúde mental, e no surgindo sintomas de sofrimento psíquico, em especial, relacionado ao estresse, ansiedade e depressão Considerações finais: este estudo permitiu refletir sobre a necessidade de garantir um lugar propicio para cuidado dos pacientes com transtornos mentais acometidos pelo Coronavírus-19. A experiência mostra que uma comunicação clara e informativa sobre estratégias para redução desses sintomas de sofrimento psíquico, além de fornecer o suporte psicológico e social fundamental para esses indivíduos em vulnerabilidade.

  2. Ambuj Shaivy, Lahori Manesh, Karak Soumendu, Kumar Ankur

    Background: Since December 2019 the rapid spread of the COVID- 19 has induced attention of the government and the public. The motive of this survey was to assess the knowledge and awareness about use of precautionary measures during COVID 19 pandemic among dental surgeons in India. Method: This cross sectional web based survey was carried out from 23rd May 2020 to 5th 0f June 2020 comprising of multiple choice questions created by using Google forms. The questionnaire was divided into two sections one containing demographic details and other section containing questions about practice management during this pandemic. Link was shared amongst dentists in India by using various social media platforms and 400 dentists of different specialities took part in the survey. Result: Majority of the 400 participants were well informed in infection procedures but many of them were unaware of the alternatives that can be used during this pandemic. For example only 44.8% of dentists were aware of the anti-retraction hand piece and maximum of the dentists were unaware of the fact that centralized AC do not contribute to the spread of infection but its better to use them with HEPA filters. Conclusion: The basic knowledge of COVID-19 among the dental surgeons in India is acceptable However, dentists had limited comprehension of the extra precautionary measures that protect the dental staff and other patients from COVID-19.

  3. Dr. Debesh Bhowmik

    In this paper author tried to show the trends and patterns of India’s export to Britain and import from Britain during the gold standard period from 1870 to 1913.The paper also seeks to cointegrate among India’s export to Britain and India’s import from Britain with India’s GDP, UK’s GDP, India’s nominal effective exchange rate and Britain inflation rate respectively. Author used semi-log linear models to find trends. Bai-Perron (2003) model is used for structural breaks. Decomposition of trends and cycles were obtained from H.P.Filter model(1997) and Hamilton filter model(2018).Johansen(1988) model was applied to find cointegration and vector error correction processes. Cointegrating equation was used to verify long run causality and Wald test (1943) was applied to scrutinise the short run causality. The paper concludes that both export and import are upward rising with structural breaks showing peaks and troughs. Both have one cointegrating equations with their determinants. India’s export to Britain and import from Britain had long run causalities from India’s and UK’s GDP, India’s nominal effective exchange rate and UK’s inflation respectively. Their VECMs are stable and nonstationary although cointegrating equations move towards equilibrium with low speed of adjustments.

  4. Dr. Akash Gupta, Dr. Sagar Ganvir, Dr. Govind, Dr. Abhijeet Kulkarni and Dr. Ila Sant

    Bernard-Soulier Syndrome (BSS) is a disorder which manifests prolonged bleeding time, thrombocytopenia, and giant platelets. The prevalence of this disease has been reported to be less than 1 in 1,000,000. Bleeding disorders patients can be among the most difficult surgical patients to manage and deal with. Intra-operative and post-operative hemorrhage can be a life-threatening complication in even the most routine surgical procedures. There are no standards methods to deal with management of intra operative bleeding associated with BSS, since this disorder is very rare. Management of intraoperative hemorrhage with pre-operative or during operation HLA-matched platelets, and topical hemostatic agents (gel foam, thrombin), systemic aminocaproic acid, transfused rVIIa, and DDAVP (desmopressin), resulted in good hemostasis and a long-lasting healing response. For these rare disease, we present case report in which a combination of systemic and topical methods may be contributing in achieving good hemostasis during intra-operative hemorrhage.

  5. Mahmoud Adil Shakuri and Nour Abdullah AlAiderous

    Urinary incontinence is common in older people, especially women. In Saudi Arabia, urinary incontinence was experienced by more than 30% of adult women, and Stress urinary incontinence alone accounts for up to half of all cases; generally the prevalence of UI considered to be from 20% to 50% with the peak to be in the childbearing age group (up to 40%) and then the prevalence increasing in elderly to reach to 50%. Aim of the Study: To estimate the prevalence of urinary incontinence among elderly patients attending the primary health care centers in Makkah, KSA in 2018. Methodology: It was a cross-sectional study involving 350 randomly selected elderly patients from different primary health care centers within Makkah. The data collection period was 20 days (four weeks minus weekends) in 2018. Validated self-constructed survey form was used to gather information to estimate the prevalence of self-reported UI among elderly patients attending primary health care centers. Results: A total of is 350 elderly patients. Answer ratio was 100%. The age of the respondents ranged from(25-65)years, majority of the respondents were females(57.14%), showed positive correlations between degree of symptoms and signs of diagnosis of incontinence and degree the frequency of symptoms (r = 0.578) and have statistical a significant relation p=0.001. In this study results shown that relation between the degree the Frequency of symptoms and demographic characteristics, showed positive correlations between degree of symptoms and signs of diagnosis of incontinence and degree the frequency of symptoms (r = 0.578) statistically significant p=0.001. Conclusion: The incidence of urinary incontinence is underestimated belittled despite the fact that it is normal. Identification of this issue is fundamental for forestalling complexities and improving the personal satisfaction of the older particularly with intellectual debilitation patients.

  6. Ankur Upadhyay, B. Veerabhadhra Rao, Sandeep Gupta, Disha Dabbas, Avinash Mishra and Rahul Saini

    Background & Introduction; Myopia is a type of refractive error in which parallel rays coming from infinity are focused in front of retina with accommodation being at rest. In myopia there is elongation of eyeball leading to decrease in RNFL thickness. RNFL thinning is observed at high myopic powers. Glaucoma also causes decrease in RNFL thickness. Myopia being a risk factor for glaucoma may give us false positives. Therefore there is a need to evaluate the variation of RNFL thickness both at macula and peripapillary with different grades of myopia and get a baseline value for general population. Methodology: The peripapillary and macular retinal nerve fibre thickness was measured by Spectral Domain-OCT in different grades of myopes and compared with that of emmetrope to know the variations. Total no of 40 eyes were studied in each group. There were 04 groups divided on basis of spherical equivalent s follows: Result: 1. The peripapillary RNFL thickness in emmetropia, low myopia, moderate and high grade myopic eye were (95.15 + 5.47), (90.38 + 5.06), (82.08+ 13.11), (73.43+14.80) microns respectively. 2. The Central macular thickness in emmetropia, low myopia, moderate and high grade myopic eye were (225.25 +12.73), (226.98 + 21.83), (214.33+ 36.99), (213.08+ 45.48) microns Conclusion: There is decrease in average (Peripapillary) RNFL and Central Macular thickness with increase in grade of myopia.

  7. Anju Soni, Mohan. P., Anitha Rani.A. and Kusum Soni

    Background: The 2019 coronavirus disease (COVID-19) epidemic has raised international concern. Apart from the evident physical symptoms in infected cases, it has caused serious damage to public mental health. Mental health is becoming an issue that cannot be ignored in our fight against it. Present study aimed to explore the prevalence and factors associated with mental health condition and social support among hospitalized COVID-19 patients. Methods: A total of 158 patients diagnosed with COVID-19 were included in this study. Current study assessed the depression, anxiety and stress symptoms using the DASS 21 and social support using the Perceived Social Support Scale among patients at admission. The multivariate linear regression analyses were performed to identify factors associated with symptoms of anxiety and depression. Results: Of 158 participants, majority of the patients had the symptoms of depression, anxiety and stress symptoms. Bivariate correlations analysis highlighted that significant low social support was correlated with anxiety (r=-0.166,p<0.05) and stress (-0.238,p<0.01) symptoms among COVID-19 patients. The multiple linear regression analysis highlighted that social support (β =-1.524,p=0.044) is associated with Depression. Further oxygen saturation (β =0.374, p=0.043), and social support (β =-1.714,p=0.044) were associated with anxiety and oxygen saturation (β =0.363, p=0.043), age (β=0.072,p=0.043), and social support (β =-2.259,p = 0.004) were the factors associated with stress. Conclusion: The finding suggested that mental health symptoms are prevalent among hospitalized COVID 19 patients. Mental health concern and appropriate intervention is also required for patients along with the treatment regimen of COVID 19 during the epidemics.

  8. Ninand Dharkar

    The present paper deals with chemotaxomic studies of two species of Aplosporella –Speg. (= Haplosporella Speg). The species understudy were phenotypically and biochemically different from each other. They were collected on different hosts A. maytiniella sp. nov. On Maytenus emarginata (Wild.) and A.syzygiella sp.nov on Syzygium cumuni (lina) Skals. Comparative study with species early reported species it treated as new species. A maytiniella sp.nov and A. syzygiella sp.nov.

  9. Cindy Regina Magdalena Loppies, Daniel A.N. Apituley, Raja Bonan Dolok Sormin and Beni Setha

    The bright red color of the seafood especially tuna loin is an important quality determination. Filtered smoke was a substance that usually used to maintain the quality of this color. In addition, nutritional quality of tuna also play an important role because of these tuna loin will be consumed and finally will provide benefits for the human body. The purpose of this research is to find out the amino acid profile of tuna loin that has been sprayed by filtered smoke during frozen storage. The research method was an experimental. The first step was treated tuna loin by spraying filtered smoke on it, then stored during 4 weeks in freezing temperatures. The next step was analyzing its amino acid profile at the 1st and the 4th week. The result of the research showed that it has been identified 15 types of amino acids consisted of 9 types of essential amino acids and 6 types of nonessential amino acids. Histidine was the highest essential amino acid in tuna loin treated by filtered smoke, by the number 2.28and 1.6%, for the 1st and 4th weeks stored respectively, while the lowest composition was methionine by the number 0.56% and 0.52% for the 1st and 4th weeks stored respectively. The highest composition of nonessential amino acid of tuna loin treated by filtered smoke was glutamic acid by the number 3.11% and 2.27% for the 1st and 4th weeks stored respectively and the lowest composition of nonessential amino acid was tyrosine by the number 0.8% and 0.11% for the first and fourth weeks stored respectively.

  10. Toyeb Yasine Ibrahim

    Background: The world comprises the largest generation of young people aged between 10 and 24 years in history. Hence ensuring their health and future is generally recognized as a key development priority in many countries. Youth friendly services has been recognized as an appropriate and effective strategy to address sexual and reproductive health needs of young people. Even if the government of Ethiopia had been implementing strategic framework to enhance reproductive health and well being of young people, there is limited evidence on level of services utilization. Thus, this study was conducted to assess youth friendly services utilization and associated factors among young people in Tehuledere district, Northeast Ethiopia, 2018. Method: A Community based crossectional study was conducted in Tehuledere district from December 1 to 15, 2018. Multi stage sampling was used to select participants. Ten kebeles were selected by simple random sampling method. The total sample size was allocated proportionally to population size. Finally, 572 study subjects were included in the study. Binary logistic regression analysis model was used to identify factors associated with youth friendly services utilization of young people. Adjusted odds ratio with 95% confidence interval and p-value ≤ 0.05 were used to show strength of association between the dependent and independent variables. Ethical clearance was obtained from the Ethical Review Committee of Wollo University, College of Medicine and Health Sciences. Results: This finding showed that 34.31% of young people were used youth friendly service. Respondents who lived within 30 minutes walking distance from the health facility were used the service 3 times than those who lived more than 30 minutes walking distance (AOR= 3.00, 95% CI (1.89, 4.74)). Respondents who had convenient perception on the working hours of the health facilities were utilized the services 1.7 times than those who had inconvenient perception (AOR= 1.69, 95% CI (1.07, 2.68)). Respondents were participated in community dialogues were 1.8 times utilized the services than those who were not participated (AOR= 1.77, 95% CI (1.12, 2.78)). Participants who had information about youth friendly services were 9.7 times utilized the services than those who had no information (AOR= 9.76, 95% CI (6.03, 15.79)). Youths who faced sexual and reproductive illness were 3.6 times utilized the services than those who did not faced (AOR= 3.64, 95% CI (1.75, 7.60)). Conclusion: Less than half of the young people were utilized youth friendly health services. Accessibility of health facilities, convenient working hours of health facilities, participation of youths in community dialogues and information about youth friendly services were factors associated with youth friendly health services utilization.

  11. Dr. Sahil Shaikh, Dr. Ravi Thakkar and Dr. Kamlesh Patel

    People aged 60 years and above are defined as Geriatric people. According to community based mental health, prevalence of depressive disorders in elderly Indian population varies between 13% and 25%.Previous research reported a 15.7% prevalence of cognitive impairment among urban population aged 60 year old and above in India. Persistent depression has shown significant association with cognitive decline in perspective study. Treatment of depression positively affects quality of life in old age patient. Objectives • To assess severity of depression, To assess presence of cognitive impairment, To assess quality of life, To assess correlation of cognitive impairment and quality of life Methods • Geriatric Depression Scale, Standardized Mini Mental State Examination, WHO Quality Of Life Result • Geriatric depression and severity: Out of 100 patient, 57 had mild depression and 43 had severe depression; Male ( N = 47) and Female ( N= 53) • Cognitive impairment in geriatric depressed patient ( N = 100) : 53 had no cognitive impairment ( MMSE >23) , 29 had mild cognitive impairment ( MMSE 19-23) , 14 had moderate cognitive impairment ( MMSE 10-18) , 4 had sever cognitive impairment (MMSE <10). • Quality of life in depressed geriatric patients: In physical health 52% , In psychological health 43 %. In social health 55%, In environmental health 57% had Good Quality of Life. Conclusion • More cognitive impairment is seen in severely depressed geriatric patient and quality of life is also poor in depressed geriatric patients.

  12. Dede Kurniawan

    Background: Breast cancer is the fifth leading cause of death in Indonesia. The prevalence of breast cancer in Indonesia is quite high, with 6% or 13.2 million people suffering from breast cancer. This study aims to determine the relationship between the neutrophyl-to- lymphocyte ratio (NLR) and distant metastases in breast cancer patients. Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted on 124 breast cancer patients at the H. Adam Malik General Hospital Medan from February to April 2019. Results: Chi-square test showed a relationship between the NLR value and the incidence of metastasis (p <0.001), with odds ratio (OR) = 5.9 which states that in breast cancer patients with high NLR (> 3) there is an increased risk of distant metastases by ± 5.9 times. Conclusion: There is a significant relationship between the neutrophyl-to-lymphocyte ratio (NLR) and distant metastases in breast cancer patients treated at H. Adam Malik General Hospital Medan.

  13. Dr. Ismail M, Alrajhi, Yehey Hijri, Dr. Anas. T. Alrajhi, Salma, M. Sahluli and Ibrahim, M. Alrajhi

    Objective: This study was conducted in Jazan region the South- Western part of the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia with the objective of determining the current state of Knowledge, Attitude and Practices of the Primary Health Care Workers in Jazan regarding Dengue fever. Methodology : Across sectional study was conducted in January 2019 among doctors, nurses, lab technicians, health inspectors and pharmacists in three sectors of Jazan region .Data was collected through was pretested pre, constructed, self- administered questionnaire, Frequencies of the answers to each question and scores were calculated. Result: A total of 500 PHCWs shared in the survey, 264 male and 236 female. The age group of the Participants were (20-30yrs) 45.4%, (31-44yrs) 36.2% and (45-60yrs) 18.4% years. Leaflets were the Most Common Source of Information of the Primary Health Care Workers. The respondents had in general Moderate level of knowledge in the areas explored with the high score of knowledge and positive attitude was for Doctors. Regarding The attitude the respondents had Neutral Attitude. (84.2%) of the respondents had fair practice among dengue fever. More than (75%) of doctors know the common signs and symptoms of DF. This Study also revealed out that participants lack knowledge regarding mode of transmission of DF and Warning Signs of DF. Significant associations were found between Knowledge and Practice (p<0.000) and Attitude and Practice (p=0.001). Conclusion: The findings of the study indicate that if PHCWs are supplied with accurate knowledge through appropriate ways, they may eventually have good practices toward dengue fever. Primary Health Care Workers education is necessary to address the knowledge gap revealed in the study. There for educational programs should be organized for improving knowledge about dengue fever, ensure that PHCWs are receptive to the messages and make it easier for them to adopt desired Improvement in Dengue Fever Management, Control and Prevention.

  14. Dr. Kannan, V., Karthikeyan, S. and Ranjitha, C.

    My 2020 Vision for India is to transform it into a developed nation. That cannot be abstract; it is a lifeline” said Dr. A. P. J. Abdul Kalam. The vision was not accomplished. We are still in the developing stage only. The future of India lies in innovation and creativity. Innovations are essential for the development of a nation and for that startups are important. India is one of the fastest growing largest economies in the world. Therefore, the Indian market is perceived as being competent of offering plenty of opportunities for startups. To encourage innovation and to promote entrepreneurship in India Prime Minister Narendra Modi has launched Startup India Initiative in 2015.The fund allocated for Startups by the government was enormous. Startup India initiative aims at strengthening entrepreneurship and promoting innovation by creating an ecosystem that is helpful for the growth of entrepreneurs. People must come forward to become job creators rather than job seekers. NASSCOM report of 2019 stated that 3, 90,000 to 4, 30,000 jobs have been generated through startups. India is today experiencing a fundamental shift with entrepreneurship & innovation being primary promoters in job creation and solving everyday problems. Employment problem have also been reduced due to this Startups. This paper aims to emphasize the importance of startups as the need of the hour for a progressive future. Based on the financial data provided in this paper, economic growth will be developed because of startups. So startups can change the economy growth into higher.

  15. Alka Singh

    This is a well-known situation of the pandemic. Which is, directly and indirectly, affected human wellbeing life as well as the economy or of over the world. In this queue, I have collected 400 samples but 20 were the error samples. So lastly consider 380 samples in reference to COVID – 19 pandemic. The collection of data was not bonded in a specific area or location. Collected responses from all India. I have collected the perception of lockdown period and related issues. First, introduce general profile of the respondent and categorized the issues related sections like Psychological and Health Impact, Impact on Education, Economic Impact of Covid-19, Social Impact of Covid-19, and Impact on Environment. These are the indicators for collecting information. I used simple descriptive statistics for checking the respective responses.

  16. Boussanlègue TCHABLE, Kpintchao KOGNOSSA and Sena Yawo AKAKPO-NUMADO

    Cette étude vise à analyser l’impact des pratiques éducatives parentales en contexte de jeu sur le développement des compétences psychomotrices et cognitives chez les jeunes enfants. Pour ce faire, nous avons utilisé essentiellement une démarche quantitative à l’aide d’un questionnaire pour la collecte des données. L’enquête a été réalisée sur un échantillon de 175 parents d’élèves ayant inscrit leurs enfants dans les 14 établissements du préscolaire des inspections des enseignements préscolaire et primaire (IEPP) de Yoto-Est et Yoto-Ouest. Les résultats obtenus indiquent, d’une part, que le développement des compétences psychomotrices et cognitives dépend des pratiques éducatives parentales adoptées par les parents en contexte de jeu et, d’autre part, que les enfants dont les parents sont souples développent plus leurs motricités globale et fine, reconnaissent plus vite les formes géométriques et les couleurs des objets que leurs pairs dont les parents sont rigides et permissifs pendant dans les jeux éducatifs.

  17. Abeer Alsaied

    Previously, the education system in Saudi Arabia used the traditional way of teaching without adopting any type of technology in the classroom, but with the quick development of using technologies in communication, multimedia has become significant technique used in teaching and learning in Saudi education system. Using Multimedia includes video, text, images, and audio to prepare lessons for students at different levels of education (primary school, secondary school, and universities). In this paper, the researcher focus on how Saudi educators utilize certain materials to advance information and comprehension in the classroom.

  18. Shally Rani

    The present of a society is always an outcome of its past, which in turn, sets out the horoscope of its future. Since the withdrawal of British the creation of the two dominions India and Pakistan. Jammu and Kashmir have been the bone of contention between the two. The divide and rule policy manifested itself in the form of the two-nation theory. The two nation’s once gain center of a fierce debate. Since the Bhartiya Janta Party (BJP) came in to power. The recent anti-Muslim riots in Delhi proved that the steps taken by Jinnah which were born out of the two- nation theory were essentially accurate. in this paper we try to cover the role of two -nation theory in creating Pakistan. Also tries to highlight the present scenario and the role of the Bhartiya Janta Party and their citizenship Amendment Bill (2019). Thus, the paper tends to analyze how the BhartiyaJanta Party is working hand in glove with the Hindu Fundamentalist led by (Rastriya Swayamsevak Sangha) R.S.S. to transform India from net secular state to a net religious.

  19. Setyo Riyanto

    One of the industry sectors in the COVID-19 pandemic that must continue to carry out activities and even with the number of jobs increasing dramatically, in addition to health workers, security, and public utilities, is the Post Offices. In a time when people had to reduce the activity out of the house, avoiding the crowd, postal officers even increased the frequency of activities as a result of the higher traffic delivery of goods from business and online commerce. This research was conducted to measure the employee satisfaction level during the pandemic Covid-19 by spreading the questionnaire to 352 respondents of PT Pos Indonesia (Persero) employees from 223 Main Post office in Indonesia. The analysis is done with SmartPLS Ver. 3.2.9, and the result shows that in the general work environment is a factor that has a significant influence on employee job satisfaction.

  20. Sai Suman, P., Venkata Ramana, N. and Sashidhar, C.

    The Pavement Distress Assessment (PDA) is an essential phenomenon in Pavement Management System (PMS) which is used to provide the sufficient information for making consistent and more cost-beneficial decisions for safe and comfortable road management. The collection of distress-data is a great challenge to the pavement engineers. The distress data can be collected using either ground-manual surveys or automatic assessing techniques. The present article focused on automatic assessment of pavement distresses using Digital Image Processing. Initially, the different image-acquisition systems are presented and discussed. Later, the image processing techniques for classifying and quantifying the different pavement distresses such as alligator cracking, potholes, raveling, bleeding and rutting etcetera. Finally, the choice and status of available techniques are summarized.

  21. Gaurdas Sarkar

    Conventional theory of demand postulates that demand is derived from utility maximizing behaviour of an individual consumer. It is so postulated as the theory presumes that the consumer is motivated to maximize his utility. Thus the utility maximizing exercise has occupied an important place in the theory of demand. But utility is a subjective concept and it is neither measurable nor observable. It is not a pragmatic hypothesis to postulate that demand is derived through utility maximizing exercise as utility is derived after consumption. Purchase decision is taken prior to consumption. Actually purchase decision is guided by interplay of Ability and Preference. While dealing with equilibrium purchase decision of an individual consumer, the theory of consumer’s behaviour must incorporate the specific characteristic feature of the product as well as the complex interplay of Ability and Preference. . In the opinion of present author consumer’s equilibrium purchase decision is the outcome of the complex interplay of Ability and Preference incorporating the specific characteristic feature of the product. Therefore equilibrium purchase behaviour of an individual consumer is claimed to be better explained in terms of concentration of maximum Preference per unit of Ability. This present paper seeks to analyze a purchase decision in the light of such interplay. Section-I deals with introductory background. Section-II is devoted to analyze equilibrium of the consumer. Section-III deals with comparative static properties and section-IV concentrates on conclusion.

  22. Lelisa Mamo Abdisa

    The study evaluated the burden of Replacement Populations on the settler’s livelihood in Sasiga District of East Wollega Zone Oromia, Ethiopia. Some of the Replacement schemes around the world failed, while some others were successful. The objective of the study was to identify facators that cause Replacement and evaluate the burden of Replacement on the settler’s’s annual livelihood in study area.The study was based on cross-sectional data collected from a sample of 146 settlers (86 were Populations participants and 60 were non-Populations participants) using purposive and stratified random sampling techniques. Descriptive statistics and econometric models were employed to analyze the data. The Logit model indicated education status of the settlers, availability of credit access, availability of agricultural inputs, land farm size holding by settler’s, farm livelihood of settler’s were negatively and significantly related to Populations participation while shocks, livestock holding by settler’s, access of extension service, and total asset of settler’s were positively affect and significantly associated with Populations participants. Propensity score matching shows, that the average annual livelihood of Replacement Populations participants more than livelihood of non participant by 29,182.6463 ETB. Based on the findings, the study suggests that strengthening the encouragement of Replacement Populations have crucial role towards improving the livelihood of settlers in the study area. Finally, the policy implication of the study is that livelihood sources diversification, incorporated development Populations, practical based extension service delivery, access to credit service for the purchase of agricultural inputs and its preparations are needs policy attention.

  23. Monica S. Bharati, Kishor M. Mahale, Shankar P. Dange and Smita A. Khalikar

    Background: Selection of Anterior teeth of complete Denture is selected based on curve distance (CD) of wax rim, but is there any correlation between curve distance (CD) and Combined Width (CW) Values for selection of denture teeth depending upon gender of the patient. Objective: The purpose of this study was to investigate whether the curve distance between the distal surfaces of maxillary canines (CD) is related to the combined width of the 6 anterior teeth (CW) when clinicians select denture teeth for patients depending upon the gender of the patients. The null hypothesis tested was that CD and CW measurements would not be correlated in male and female patients. Methods: One Hundred and Sixty dentate patients were selected in this study (80 male, 80 female), age ranges from 18-25 years old.The impression of the maxillary arches was made with irreversible hydrocolloid (chromatic alginate impression material, Tropicalgin, Zhermack) and poured in Type IV stone (Kalrock, kalabhai, Class IV dental stone). The width of each maxillary anterior tooth and the curve distance was measured on the casts at the widest surfaces of the tooth with a digital sliding caliper (Zhart Digital Vernier Caliper).The normality of numerical data was checked using the Shapiro-Wilk test. Result: CD and CW values was higher in males as compared to females. From the linear correlation measurement between CD and CW values, the linear regression equation obtained for male (CD = 7.271 + 1.056 × CW) and Female (CD = 6.701 + 0.935 x CW). Conclusion: The curve distance between distal surfaces of the maxillary canines can be accurately related to the combined width of 6 anterior teeth when selecting the denture teeth for either male or female patients.

  24. Rajat Sharma and Aman Kumar Sharma

    In this paper, we have examined various routing protocol of wireless body area network (WBAN), and find out the optimum protocol for its domain. The comparison of different routing protocols has been done on various performance measuring metrics and parameters. And we have also improved existing routing protocol with help of different parameter. During the last few decades, Wireless Body Area Networks (WBAN) have appeared into many applications such as medical, military, sports, entertainments, traversing and monitoring. Due to improvement in wireless technology small sensor nodes with less power, lightweight, interfering or non-interfering are deployed in, on or around the human body to monitor the health situation. Basically, WBAN work on three different Tier Architecture. Tier-1 as Intra-body Communication, and also called sensor nodes. Tier-2 as Inter-WBAN or Internet. Tier-3 as Extra-Body Area Network and also called the servers communication. In this each server like medical server communicate with in its own domain. Routing protocols play very significant role to improve the overall performance of the network in terms of throughput, path loss, residual energy, packet dropped, network lifetime and to improve the different quality of services (QoS) in WBAN. Routing in WBAN is categorized as Postural based, Temperature aware, Cross layer network-based, Clusters-based routing, QoSbasedrouting. These categories are further divided into various protocols. This paper also a review of some of the existing routing protocols of WBAN. Also, the comparison of SIMPLE (Stable Increased-throughput Multi-hop Protocol for Link Efficiency) and IEE-SIMPLE (Improved Energy Efficient-Stable Increased-throughput Multi-hop Protocol for Link Efficiency) protocol has been done by simulating in MATLAB.

  25. Ms. Suksham Mehra and Dr. Sukhraj Kaur

    Background: Thyroid hormones influence almost all the tissues and systems in our body. Their excess or deficiency can lead to diverse consequences including development, maturity and also modeling and re modeling of the bone. The present study was conducted with a focus on effect of thyroid hormones on bone metabolism. Objective: To evaluate levels of two important minerals Calcium and Phosphorus in patients suffering from hypo and hyper thyroidism and to find a correlation between these two minerals and thyroid hormones. Methods: 50 patients (25 each of clinically proven Hypo and Hyperthyroidism) and 50 normal asymptomatic age and sex matched healthy controls were enrolled for the present study after taking informed consent. These individuals (both patients and controls) were investigated for Thyroid hormones, calcium and phosphorous. The data was analyzed using student’s t test and p<0.05 was considered statistically significant. Results: Prevalence of thyroid dysfunction is more in female patients as compared to males. Levels of S. Calcium decreased significantly with increase in the levels of thyroid stimulating hormone in hypothyroid patients from 7.41 to 6.5mg/dl, whereas levels of phosphorous did not vary significantly. In hyperthyroid patients there was insignificant variation in the levels of S. calcium and phosphorous with increase in TSH from 0.01 to 0.38 µIU/ml. Conclusions: Hypothyroidism has effect on bone metabolism with significant change in levels of S. calcium and insignificant variation in levels of Phosphorous.

  26. Ali Hassan Mahfouz and Mahmoud Abdelrahim Abdelgiom

    This paper deals with the geotechnical maps of Jazan city showing the physical and mechanical properties, hence, determine the bearing capacity of the soil in Jazan city and its extensions. Chemical properties of soil are used to identify the site's environmental conditions of soil at sites of Jazan city – Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA). Geographic Information Systems (GIS) are used in geotechnical engineering applications, GIS can be utilized as a part of the geotechnical site investigation to create a site map. In this study paper the GIS is used to estimate the missing data of the Jazan city for geotechnical mapping. Also, GIS is used for information coordination, determining the Geotechnical area, analysis, investigation, and establishing the layout of Jazan geotechnical maps. The study area is located in the city of Jazan between the eastern border 42.653°E, 16.935°N and western border 42.353°E, 16.907°N has been selected as a case study. Data on the soil at sites are taken from 22 boreholes in Jazan city in order to carry out geotechnical investigations. Borehole logs are carried out in different locations in Jazan city such as Dehaga, Alshwajrah, Almagaria, and Almaaboj, geotechnical investigations have been recorded that water content in the soil is high on at the west part closed to the sea and is decreasing at north and south parts, but the water content is very low at the central part. The level of groundwater is up to 6 m above sea level in the western part of the study area and up to 0.5 m below the sea level at the study areas closed to the sea. The study showed that the soil in Jizan is silt, clay and sand soil. The study of mechanical properties of the soil showed that the soil of Jizan reaches cohesion of (c = 0.2 kg/ cm 2) and the angle of internal friction of soil reaches (Ф=31°). Accordingly, the unconfined compressive stress at failure (qu) is between 1.0 to 2.20 kg/cm.

  27. David F. ADAMON, Alain ADOMOU, Latif A. FAGBEMI, Michael O. KASSIFA and Cyrille R.D. WEKE

    This work deals with thermal comfort and energy efficiency in the building. In Africa, more specifically in humid tropical regions like Benin, when the need for comfort is felt, several means are used. Among the alternatives put in place, it is recorded that air conditioning facilities are a high priority to overcome the problems of discomfort. But, it is clear that for the design of these air conditioning systems, the most used method is that of surfaces. A method that does not take into account all the parameters necessary to provide ideal air conditioners and with a good coefficient of energy performance. And this is due to the fact that there is no digital dimensioning tool that takes into account all the necessary parameters while respecting the requirements of the standards in force. In this context, the sizing method adopted is the Carrier method because it takes into account all the parameters that are taken into account in the sizing of air conditioning systems and the programming language used is W Language. Called M@doc, the tool obtained also makes it possible to size the power of the air conditioner necessary for the air conditioning and meets the environmental and energy performance standards.

  28. Asrat Emiru Meja, Kusse Gudishe Goroya and Filippo Tamiru Tulu

    The worldwide candidacy of plant species for treatment of various diseases and infections still stood firm today. In developing countries, such as Ethiopia, where health care coverage is less, traditional medicine has played a significant role in treating health problems in both livestock and humans. Aloe otallensis is one of the plant species widely used in traditional medicine in Southern parts of Ethiopia, for treatments of human illnesses with the help of traditional practitioners. Medicinal products used by the society are neither controlled nor properly regulated by quality assurance parameters and may cause serious problem when not properly utilized. This study was conducted aiming to isolate and characterize bioactive compounds from aloe otallensis root extracts for medicinal purposes. Extraction was carried out from root part of the plant with solvents of different polarities. IR and NMR spectroscopic techniques were used to get spectrum of the extracts. The phytochemical analysis from crude extracts confirmed the presence of alkaloids, saponins, flavonoids, phenols, steroids, glycosides, terpenoids and tannins. Two different pure compounds are isolated and the compounds are characterized using spectra of spectroscopic techniques (IR, 1H-NMR, 13C-NMR and DEPT-135). Results signify that the two isolated and characterized compounds are 8-acetoxy -8, 9 ,9a ,10-tetrahydrobenzo[g]isoquinoline-2(3H)-carboxylic acid and 7-acetoxy – 7, 8, 9 – dihydrobenzo[g] oxy-nitro isoquinoline -2(5aH) - carboxylic acid . These compounds are alkaloids and can be used for antimalarial and anti-pain treatment and this result supports the knowledge of the community of using the plant parts for antimalarial and anti-bacterial treatments.

  29. Dr. Durdana Rais Hashmi, Dr. Akhtar Shareef, Prof. Dr. M.Azam and Habibullah Rana

    Back ground: Climate change is a significant threat to the health. It is the result of the buildup of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere, primarily from the burning of fossil fuels, such as oil and gasoline, for energy and other human activities. These gases, such as carbon dioxide and methane, warm and alter the global climate. Objective: Climate change refers to long-term shifts in weather conditions and patterns of extreme weather events. It may lead to changes in health threat to human beings, multiplying existing health problems. This review examines the scientific evidences on the impact of climate change on human infectious diseases. It identifies research progress and gaps on how human society may respond to, adapt to, and prepare for the related changes. Method: The three adaptation measures are recommended: 1) to go beyond empirical observations of the association between climate change and infectious diseases and develop more scientific explanations, 2) to improve the prediction of spatial–temporal process of climate change and the associated shifts in infectious diseases at various spatial and temporal scales, and 3) to establish locally effective early warning systems for the health effects of predicated climate change. Result: It identifies research progress and gaps on how human society may respond to, adapt to, and prepare for the related changes. Based on a survey of related publications between 2000 and 2015, the terms used for literature selection reflect three aspects the components of infectious diseases, climate variables, and selected infectious diseases. Humans' vulnerability to the potential health impacts by climate change is evident in literature. Conclusion: As an active agent, human beings may control the related health effects that may be effectively controlled through adopting proactive measures, including better understanding of the climate change patterns and of the compound disease-specific health effects, and effective allocation of technologies and resources to promote healthy lifestyles and public awareness.

  30. Dr. Jino Sebastian

    The increasing burden of Covid-19, a viral disease makes the search for extended understanding of natural immunity development through physical activity. Biological, neurological and psychological benefits generating out of physical activity helps to prevent viral disease like Covid-19.This paper provides a through and up to date review of studies examining the natural immunity development through physical activity. Respiratory diseases through viral infection and the effects of physical activity for immunity development is a rapidly developing and important field.

  31. Manogar, M. and Jayanthi Bangaru

    The purpose of this research is to prepare metformin HCL500mg and vildagliptin 50mg immediate release tablets by wet granulation method. In order to obtain the best optimized product six different formulation were developed, disintegrants and lubricants using crosscarmellose sodium as super disintegrating agent . thickness, hardness, friability, disintegration time, in-vitro drug release and pharmaceutical assay were studied as response variable, the formulation F6 was selected as optimized formulation , the dissolution profile and the stability study of the formulated product also complies with ICH guidelines in the initial two months, optimization has proven an effective tool in product development.

  32. Vasantha Kumar, N. and Lokesh, S.

    The current rapid growth in demand for fuel and global climatic changes due to the oil processing has resulted in the quest for alternatives for renewable fuels. Recent developments in the oil industry has indicated a growing interest in the biodiesel production and has proved to be a environmentally acceptable fuel source. Many plant oils have been suggested and used as fuels across the globe. However, the processing methods for converting the plant oils into feasible biofuels need to be simplified and generalized while keeping the environmental challenges minimal. Accordingly, in comparison to the chemical processing of oils, enzymatic catalysis in the transesterification of oils is found to require simple chemicals as well as lower temperatures. In this work it has been estimated the efficiency and concentrations of lipases of selected oil seeds viz., Arachis hypogaea (Groundnut), Glycine max (Soya), Helianthus annuus (Sunflower), Sesamum indicum (Gingelly) for their candidacy in the bioprocessing of biodiesel. Our data indicated the lipases from Gingelly to be the most efficient with the highest specific activity suggesting high turnover per unit protein and lowest Km suggesting highly active nature of the enzyme. Though our data is indicative of the fact that the Gingelly lipases could be used for the bio processing of the biodiesel, this enable to trust further necessory investigations with different oil samples.

  33. Mr. Prakash Makasare and Mrs. Nutan Makasare

    COVID-19 pandemic is turning out to be a major stressor for most of the people. Mental health is a crucial aspect that needs to be addressed during this pandemic. Millions of people in India has pushed into forced isolation and unemployment during this coronavirus crisis. In India, mental health issues following the Covid-19 pandemic and lockdown are varied, from simple fear to depression and even suicide. The lockdown and social distancing have also led to several changes in activities of daily living, which ultimately responsible for many mental health issues like fear, distress feeling of emptiness, panic, sleeplessness, nightmares, irritation, various anxieties, depression and suicide. It is necessary to educate all health care providers including community leaders and common people for early assessment of mental health issues and train them with basic psychological and Mental health first Aid (MHFA), which may be helpful to decrease the rate of mental health crisis during this pandemic.

  34. Okeyo Okello J. Hesbon, Dr. Richard Ayako, D. Min, Dr. Anthony Ichuloi, PhD.

    Background: Christian families are under threats in Kisumu central sub-Region of Kenya due to destabilization of the covenant of Matrimony, which if practiced would extol family stability. This follows rampant marital instabilities occasioned by among others; inadequacy or lack of premarital counselling programs. In the recent years, Christian premarital counselling programs haveproven to be a significant determinant for Christian Family stability. Demand for marriages of covenantal nature have continued to diminish despite the Church’s propagation and teachings on the sanctity of marriage and the need for premarital counselling programs. The government’s policies against all forms of illegal and unregistered marriages; the insistence that permanent separation and divorce could only be granted by courts on the evidence that all other forms of spousal mediation, counselling notwithstanding, had been exhausted, were consequently enacted to mitigate matrimonial instabilities. These were meant to foster family stability; which has not been the case. Objective: This study sought to examine the relationship between premarital counselling programs and family stability. Methods:It adopted a mixed methods design involving correlational and descriptive approaches. The target population was obtained from 26 Churches under the National Council of Churches of Kenya, with a target population of 10,997. The sample size was 462 respondents obtained using the fisher’s formula. Snowball as a form of purposive sampling was adopted to identify respondents. Stratified sampling was used to get the number of respondents in every Church. Semi- structured questionnaires, key informant interview schedules and Focus Group Discussions were adopted. Pilot study was conducted among similar Church families from Kakamega on a sample consisting of 10% of the respondents to establish reliability of the instruments. Responses in the questionnaires were tabulated, coded and processed using computer Statistical Package for Social Science (SPSS) program version 22 for quantitative data analysis. Qualitative data was analyzed thematically. Descriptive statistics such as mean and standard deviation were employed, together with inferential statistics such as Pearson’s Correlation and Multiple Linear Regression. Results: The study established a positive relationship between response of premarital counselling programs and family stability. Conclusion: In conclusion,the relationship between the Covenant of Matrimony and stability of Christian families in Kisumu Central Sub-Region was found to be positive.

  35. Asrat Worku Jarsa

    For decades, range of extension approaches has been employed in Ethiopia to support farmers with advice, technologies and new ways of doing things. Currently, agricultural extension service delivery approach his being implemented in link with ‘farmers group arranged in rural set up to facilitate extension delivery. It has been in place to more exercise participation of smallholder farmers in extension service delivery and to improve its coverage. The main objective of this systematic review was to examine the challenges of this model-farmer based extension approach in reaching smallholder farmers. The mode-farmer approach in the country has been given focus to compile it as best practices with the aim of being scaled up and out so that average productivity of the majority of follower smallholder farmers is to be transformed to the level of that of model farmers. However, because of very low mentoring capacity, this approach has poorly address the advisory needs of the follower farmers. Not compensating model farmers for their time and energy in supporting follower farmers, absence of clear guideline to identify and promote the use of model farmers in testing new innovations and sharing their knowledge and skills to other farmer, poor participatory planning that it is still dominated by village leaders or wealthier farmers and poor facilitation from extension system made still the voice of the poor farmers is neglected. Therefore, it needs further modifications in to address extension service demand of these needy smallholder farmers.

  36. Saloni Sharma

    Nano – emulsions are quiet an importance nowadays in order to improve the technology of drug administration in various routes of administration. In this study it has been illustrated about the different routes of administration with the evaluation and characterisation. Different routes such as the nose to brain drug delivery system along with transdermal delivery and brain drug delivery system. The effect of surfactant and co- surfactant with its effect in the viscosity and concentration plays an important role in the formulation basis of the nano- emulsions are studied. It also shows the difference in characteristics between the nano-emulsion and micro- emulsion. The effectiveness in the enhancement of the technologies in nano-emulsion also is a great debate which has been studies. This study also illustrates the effect in the viscosity, porosity, zeta potential, kinetic model, invitro in vivo studies, viscosity and surface studies.

  37. Besack Felix, Onguene Raphael, Ebonji Seth Rodrigue, Sone Essoh Willy, Manfred Desiré Bonga Nyetem, Mbang Essome Juionr, Mama Crepin and and Tomedi Eyango Minette

    The upper channel of the Wouri-Nkam section of the Cameroon estuary is poorly studied due to the limited finance, difficulties in accessibility, lack of political interests and information about its crucial role in the welfare of the local population. This study assessed short term fluctuations of hydrometric parameters to characterize the hydro-ecological system of this channel. High-frequency sampling of water level, surface currents and water quality parameters (Temperature, Salinity, pH, dissolved oxygen etc) were conducted during two spring tide conditions (May 2019 and 2020). The results obtained after spatial and statistical analysis revealed that salinity displayed a horizontal gradient ranging from the Bridge to Bona’Anja, with the first zero salinity (0 PSU) around Bonalokan (7 km away from the Bridge). The hydro-ecological status revealed a hypoxia situation (Dissolved oxygen concentration less than 2mg/l) in May 2020. Also, the two boundaries of this channel exhibited different current directions with amplitudes of about 1.2 m/s in the Bridge (with bidirectional flow and more important small scale features) and 0.23m/s in Bona’Anja (unidirectional flow). Similarly, the tidal range losses about 74% of its amplitude as it travels from the Bridge to Bona’Anja (May 2020). The correlation coefficients (r=0.71) obtained between water level and water quality parameters (salinity, conductivity and Total Dissolved solutes (TDS) confirmed the synchronized evolution observed between them with a time lag of about 1hour.

  38. Armand Ayihaou Djossou, Carlos Alain Houngbèmé, Aristide Comlan Houngan, Marius Koubé Bocco and Antoine Vianou

    Simultaneous transient measurements of thermal conductivity, thermal effusivity and thermal diffusivityin perpendicular direction to fibers of pterocarpus erinaceus(kosso) and afzelia woods were performed at room temperature (20 °C) with thermophysical characterization of building materials called hot strip based on different thicknesses of these two wood species, using samples of its last dried in vat at 105 °C. The fundamental advantages of this technique lie in the short duration (0 to 180 s) of manipulations ; the very low cost of the probe an estimation method based on a relatively simple modeling of the temperature in center of the probe and the ability to obtain two parameters from a single thermogram record. The main objective of this study is to consider the possibility of using these two species in the development of new insulating materials. The results obtained showed that thermal conductivity and thermal diffusivity of the two wood species increase with thickness. Thermal effusivity decreases from 493.99 J.m^(-2).K^(-1).s^(-0,5) to 454.3 J.m^(-2).K^(-1).s^(-0,5) between 3 mm and 6 mm thick and then increases from 454.3 J.m^(-2).K^(-1).s^(-0,5) to 478.40 J.m^(-2).K^(-1).s^(-0,5) between 6 mm and 15 mm thick for afzelia. The kosso thermal effusivity decreases from 424.58 J.m^(-2).K^(-1).s^(-0,5) to 362.83 J.m^(-2).K^(-1).s^(-0,5)between 3 mm and 15 mm thick. Thermal conductivity of kosso is lower than that of afzelia between 3.6 mm and 15 mm. It was further noted that both species have thermophysical properties in accordance with the literature but that kosso wood is a good candidate for new insulating materials production.

  39. Aziz Gültekin, Hatice Arifoğlu, Esin Avcı, Tarık Şengöz, Fikri Selçuk Şimşek, Olga Yaylalı, Doğangün Yüksel

    Background/aim: Administration of external ionizing radiation to the neck may causes hyperparathyroidism (HPT) over the years. Radioactive iodine (RAI) therapy which applied in differentiated thyroid cancers (DTC) exposes parathyroid glands to radiation. This may cause hyperparathyroidism, parathyroid adenoma and hyperplasia. The aim of this study is to determine whether RAI treatment changes the parathyroid gland functions in patients with DTCs. Methods: The 2-years parathormon (PTH), calcium (Ca) and phosphorus (P) levels of 145 patients who had previously undergone RAI ablation in our hospital were reviewed retrospectively. Pretreatment PTH, Ca, and phosphorus levels were compared to the at 1st, 6th, 12th, and 24th month results after treatment. Results: During the 2-years follow-up, there were not any significant differences between baseline and follow-up PTH, Ca and phosphorus levels (p> 0.05). In patients with receiving low dose RAI therapy, 12th month phosphorus level was significantly lower than baseline (p = 0.015; p <0.05). In patients with receiving high-dose RAI therapy, 6th month PTH levels were significantly lower than baseline (p = 0.014; p <0.05). Conclusion: Transient decrease in PTH levels may be observed in patients receiving RAI treatment for DTC at 6 months. However, RAI treatment does not affect PTH functions in two years of follow-up.

  40. Dr. Manoj Prasad, PG

    The maxillary anterior teeth are the key elements contributing to the esthetic importance of what we call dentofacial beauty. However the selection and arrangement of maxillary anterior teeth for edentulous patients in a natural and esthetically pleasing form has remained an elusive and challenging endeavor. Over the years, norms, criteria and guidelines for esthetic tooth selection have been suggested by the artisans of the dental profession. However, no universally accepted parameter currently exists for selection of anterior teeth in local population, and no such studies have been carried out previously1, this study was conducted to determine the significance of correlation between the maxillary inter canine linear width and inter alar distance, inner inter canthal distance in the local population to potentially provide a guide for selecting maxillary anterior teeth.

  41. Asma Waheed Qureshi, Hadia Tila and Asma Naeem

    The present study was undertaken to inspect the microbiological quality of street vended food sold in district Mardan, Pakistan. Three hundred and fifteen (315) food samples including white kidney beans, chickpea, white split lentil, rice, mixed vegetable salad, tamarind sauce and chicken soup, were aseptically collected from different locations of district Mardan. Analysis of the samples revealed that 81% of food samples were contaminated with bacterial pathogens. Among them coliforms were highest i.e., 88.6%, while Staphylococcus and Salmonella/Shigella were 7.9%. All the collected samples of rice, tamarind sauce, mixed vegetable salad and chicken soup were contaminated (100%), while 86% of white kidney beans, 80% of chickpea and none (0.0%) of white lentil. The tested samples are highly contaminated with coliforms, and it is suggested that regular monitoring of the quality of street foods must be practiced to avoid any food-borne infection in future.

  42. ZANGUI hamissou, AMOUKOU ADAMOU Ibrahim, BOUREIMA Seyni, THIERRY Robert and TAKVORIAN Najat

    Sesame (Sesamum indicum L.) is one of the most important oilseed crops cultivated by man. The improvement of this crop requires a large exploitation of the available genetic variability on which its success depends. The present study aims to analyze the genetic diversity within 127 accessions of the sesame collection carried out in 6 regions of Niger (Tillabéri, Dosso, Maradi, Zinder, Diffa, and Tahoua). The Amplified Fragment Length Polymorphism (AFLP) marker was used to assess the level and structure of genetic diversity among sesame accessions collected in Niger. DNA was extracted using the CTAB extraction method. A total of 179 bands were amplified with the EcoRI-ACT/MseI-CTA primer of which 83.80% were polymorphic. The population structure indicated that the material was divided into three populations. Sesame genetic diversity is not geographically structured in Niger. Principal Component Analysis (PCA) in Sesamum indicum accessions with AFLP markers showed that the variation explained by the first two axes was 10.46%. Analysis of Molecular Variance Analysis (AMOVA), based on the three populations, showed very high intra-population diversity. The hypothesis that selecting genotypes of different geographical origin will maximize the diversity available for a breeding project is not relevant for sesame in Niger.

  43. Keerthy Sreekumar, *Madhusudhan, S., Archana Krishna Murthy, Antara Shome, Divya, B.M. and Visakha, S.

    Ephebodontics or adolescent dentistry is the science of dentistry that deals with the children who are in the process of growing up from childhood to manhood. Ephebos is a Greek noun which means youth entering manhood and is derived from the word ephebodontics. The word ephebodontics was first coined in Dental Clinics of North America, April 1969 issue. Adolescence is considered as an in between age in our society, which brings about lot of mental as well physical changes in the life of the individuals. The dental changes as well as the dental health needs of this age group are very important but are often neglected. Hence the role of dentists is very vital for understanding the requirements and the treatment needs of the adolescents. This review is based on the importance of adolescent dentistry and the ways in which dentists can have a vital role in treating adolescents.

  44. Madhabi Aich and Subrata Kumar De

    Anabas testudineus is an air-breathing teleost (IUCN Red List- ‘Least Concern’ Ver 3.1).The olfactory system of fish is a highly specialized chemosensory organ comprised of nostrils, nasal cavities, olfactory lamellae, olfactory nerves and olfactory bulbs above the brain. We conducted a study on olfactory neuroepithelium of A. testudineus to explore the surface topography and its dimorphism between different sexes (male and female). The olfactory rosettes of A. testudineus were dissected and examined under a scanning electron microscope (SEM) after fixation in 2.5% glutaraldehyde and CPD respectively. The olfactory rosette contained 8-11 numbers of lamellae and connected with an anterior raphe. The lamellae are distinguished into prominent inner sensory area bounded by outer non-sensory epithelium with different cellular components. The sensory epithelium possessed ciliated olfactory sensory neurons (CiOSNs) which remain distributed within the dense aggregations of ciliated non-sensory cells. The dispersion of non-sensory epithelium is found to vary between male and female A. testudineus. The non-sensory epithelium is branched and typically characterized by ciliated-microvillous cells that were more predominant in male A. testudineus. Hence, the olfactory neuroepithelium of A. testudineus possesses distinct sexual dimorphism. The uniqueness of ciliated sensory epithelium and ciliated-microvillous cells located in the non-sensory area reflects the specific adaptive nature of the species concerned.

  45. Shubham Gupta, Sudha Mishra and Dr. Bhupendra Singh

    Background: Depression in elderly is a condition where an elderly is going through a lot of changes and stress, both physically and mentally. Psychosocial stressors are the most commonly affect the elderly and interfere the daily activities. This study assesses the psychosocial stressors among the elderly with depression. Objective: The main objective of the study was to find out the association between the psychosocial stressors and level of depression in elderly with depression. Methods: A cross sectional study was conducted on 60 elderly diagnosed with depression who were attending the OPD and IPD of Department of Geriatric Mental Health, KGMU, Lucknow. Severity of depression, level of stress and psychosocial stressors were assessed with Hamilton Depression Rating Scale, Perceived Stress Scale and Holmes and Rahe Stress Scale respectively. Socio-demographic and clinical details were also obtained from the patient by using a semi-structured socio-demographic pro forma. Results: Most of the patients reported very severe depression (53.33%) while 93.33% reported moderate level of perceived stress. A significant association was found between psychosocial stressors and depression with type of family, educational status and history of mental illness. Psychosocial stressors were significantly correlated with depression. Regarding type of family, educational status and history of mental illness, psychosocial stressors were significantly correlated. Conclusion: The study concluded that, psychosocial stressors were associated with depression in elderly which suggests that psychosocial stressors may be a very important factor influencing depression in elderly patients.

  46. Ms. Sukanya Chakraborty and Mr. Siddhartha Sen, B.E.

    Background: The COVID-19 pandemic, the largest of its kind since the Spanish Flu, has led to upheaval and uncertainty in daily lives. It has also brought about a surge of research to devise ways to combat the spread. Artificial Intelligence (AI) has been an indispensable part of these methods to confer accuracy and rapidity. Conclusion: In this review we focus on the different domains of pandemic control and how AI has played integral roles in each of these. We also explore the future prospects and scope of research.

  47. Fiston Ilunga Mbayo, Yannick Bienge Nsenga, Gloire Kasongo Lupitshi, Kennedy Twite Nyemba, Gaetan Kabongo Muzinga , Mukeya wa Mpanga, Tamilarassan King, Boaz Bakamwimba and Igor Mujinga Wa Mujinga

    Introduction: The human immunodeficiency virus infection pandemic remains extremely dynamic; it increases and changes in time and space as new transmissions occur. No country in the world is immune to infection. If science, despite its countless progress, has not yet succeeded in eradicating infection in children, the disease continues to decimate our children and its damage is incalculable. Material and method: Our study is descriptive cross-sectional on the frequency of HIV in children aged 0-15 years. Our study took place over a period from January 2017 to December 2019. Results: Out of 2231 patients who consulted KINKONDJA hospital from January 2017 to December 2019, 29 children were infected with HIV, i.e. a proportion of 1.3%. Only 25 files met the inclusion criteria and were analyzed. In our study, the male sex was predominant with 60% against 40% of the female sex, ie a sex ratio of 1.5. The most represented age group in our series was that of 0 to 5 years old with 40% followed by that of 11 to 15 years old with 36% with an average age of 8 (± 4.9) years. Reason consultatio n The majority of patients reside in the Kipamba district, i.e. 28%. Conclusion: The prevalence of HIV infection during the period of our study was 1.3%. The most affected age group is that of 0 - 5 years with a proportion of 40%. The mean age was 8 (± 4.9) years Most of our patients reside in the Kipamba district.

  48. Vikrant Kulthe

    Introduction: Corona virus disease (COVID-19) is an infectious disease caused by a newly discovered corona virus. Most people infected with the COVID-19 virus will experience mild to moderate respiratory illness and recover without requiring special treatment. Older people, and those with underlying medical problems like cardiovascular disease, diabetes, chronic respiratory disease, and cancer are more likely to develop serious illness. The best way to prevent and slow down transmission is be well informed about the COVID-19 virus, the disease it causes and how it spreads. The today’s the Nursing students helping people and family members for corona related awareness in family and society. Materials and Methods: In this study pre-experimental descriptive design purposive sampling techniques for collecting data. In this study 100 Nursing students participated to survey of knowledge related to corona pandemic disorder. In that 82% Basic B sc Nursing and 18% General Nursing Midwifery students. The Data wear analysis Chi-square test used for the association of knowledge score and demographic variable. The association result shows that no any significant difference in knowledge score. Result shows that 72% participants have moderate level, 18% Adequate level of Knowledge related of COVID-19. Conclusion: The majority of students have Moderate level of knowledge related to corona pandemic disease. Students have better knowledge about corona pandemic disorder.

  49. Suchitra Sivadas, Sajitha, S., Suhas Udayakumaran, Aravind, S., Gayatri Sajeevan and Jayakumar, C.

    Torticollis is a clinical symptom and sign characterized by a lateral head tilt and chin rotation toward the side opposite to the tilt. Torticollis in infants can be due to congenital and acquired causes. Congenital muscular torticollis is the commonest cause detected in infants. Acquired causes range from ocular causes, retropharyngeal infections and cervical spinal cord tumors.Benign and malignant neoplasms of the upper cervical spine are rare causes of torticollis in children.We present here a 10 month old infant presenting with loss of acquired gross motor developmental milestones, neck flop and irritability since past 4 months .Clinical examination revealed torticollis to the right along with weakness of right upper limb. Imaging -MRI Spine revealed expansile intramedullary tumour extending along the cervicomedullary junction till C7 vertebral level .Surgical excision was done and histopathology revealed features of a cervical cord astrocytoma. Child is currently recovering power with physiotherapy and is on follow up.

  50. Prof. Sudhir Pasricha

    The current study has emphasized on finding out the impact of exchange rate on international trade of the country. A higher-valued currency makes imports of a nation less costly, and its international exports more costly. A lower-valued currency makes imports more costly for a nation and international markets less costly for its exports. A higher exchange rate can be expected to worsen a country's trade balance whereas it can be expected to be boosted by a lower exchange rate. The current study has been conducted on the annual values of foreign exchange rate of India (Indian rupees and USD $) and international trade of India covering the data from 1991 to 2019. The ordinary Least Square regression model has been used to establish the relationship between exchange rate and international trade of the country. The findings of the study suggest the relationship between taken variables.

  51. Dr. Vaishali Billa and Dr. Debarati Dhar

    The impacts of COVID-19 have been felt by people of all age groups with illness, unemployment and the government’s response of lockdown to curb the transmission of the virus disrupting many aspects of daily lives. Largely hidden from our understanding is the impact of this pandemic on vulnerable youth and families in the community. The major concerns that arise in the context of family and relationship patterns are possibly the changed way of thinking and the factors affecting it. How will that affect the way people design, communicate, build and run the experiences in their daily lives? The answers to these questions will lie in the way people react and how individuals, families and social groups develop creative innovation or new ways to live and communicate. Thus, the major objective of this paper would be to study the various attitudinal changes among members of a family especially the youth. This paper would try and study the implication of the pandemic by considering the published literature in the area and also by surveying the youth Delhi NCR.

  52. Azibanasamesa D.C Owaba, Oyeintonbara Miediegha and Raji Rafiu Oladiran

    Chalcones are α, β-unsaturated ketones derived from acetate and Shikimic acid pathways, used in the biosynthesis of flavonoids and isoflavonoids. 1,3-diphenyl-2-propen-1-one is the simplest member of the chalcone series, with the molecular formula C15H12O, molar mass of 208.26g/mol, and a melting point of 55-57oC. Chalcones are synthesized by Aldol Condensation reaction using Claisen-Schmidt method which involves reacting equal molar ratios of benzaldehyde and acetophenone in an alcoholic base or their substituted derivatives. The presence of α, β unsaturated ketone makes chalcone a versatile molecule for the synthesis of heterocyclic compounds through reaction with a bi-nucleophile such as hydrazine, urea, guanidine or o-phenylenediamine, to afford five, six or seven membered heterocyclic compounds such as pyrazoles, pyrimidones, pyrimidines, 1,5-benzodiazepines, and1,5-benzothiazepines. Heterocyclic nuclei are present as core structural components in an array of drug categories, such as anti-inflammatory, antihypertensive, antiepileptic, antidepressant and antimicrobial agents. Many chalcones could be used as lifesaving agents because of their immense pharmacological activities, such as antibacterial, antimalarial, antioxidant, anti-HIV and antitumor activities. Thus, they continue to enjoy lots of attention from researchers in the field of drug discovery.

  53. Deepika K., Sribharathy J., Dheepa V., Subbiah Sathyani Dhivya R., Ishrathfathima I. and Dr. Geetha C.

    Background: Infection control is the order worried about forestalling the spread of diseases inside the medicinal services setting. It is a fundamental piece of the framework of human services. Insights show that an emergency clinic is one of the most perilous work environments. Medical clinics recorded 253,700 business related wounds and sicknesses. Around 35 million wellbeing laborers around the world, around 3 million experience percutaneous presentations to blood borne microorganisms. Over 90% of these contaminations happen in creating nations. The current examination was intended to survey the information in regards to medicinal services related infection control among class IV laborers. Materials and Methods: The research design adopted for the study was non experimental descriptive research design. 60 samples were assigned using simple random sampling technique. The study population consisted of class IV workers who are working in MGMCRI. Data was analyzed by descriptive and inferential statistics. Result: The study findings reveal that 38(63.3%) of them had moderately adequate knowledge, 7(11.7%) of them had adequate knowledge and 15 (25%) of them had inadequate knowledge. Conclusion: Health care associated infection is more in the developing countries. The study proves health care workers are inadequate knowledge regarding prevention of heath care associated infection.

  54. FAKHREDDINE Soha, M.D., YASSINE Safa, M.D., NAHHAL Sarah, M.D., HAYEK Ghadir, M.D., WEHBE Farah, M.D., ABI HANNA Pierre, M.D., FEGHALI Rita, M.D. and SALIBA Michelle, M.D.

    With the emergence of SARS-COV-2 as a cause of COVID 19 disease in December 2019 in Wuhan, China, and the spread of the infection later, down to its declaration a pandemic by the World Health Organization (WHO) in March 2020, there are still many questions that must be answered, among which the significance of an RT-PCR test turning positive after announcing a patient’s recovery, and how should physicians act in the face of such a situation. In our case series, we describe the clinical characteristics of fourteen patients who had recovered from COVID-19 infection between March and May 2020, and who had retested positive after at least one week. Thirteen out of fourteen patients were asymptomatic upon retesting. Only one patient developed symptoms after being declared cured with positive RT-PCR. Upon reassessment, the patient had mild disease with no lower respiratory tract involvement. During the period between recovery and re-admission, the patient was self-isolating at home, so there was no contact tracing to see how contagious the disease was in this episode. We concluded that most of the available data on retesting positive after recovery suggest the presence of a non-viable viral genome segment, since the PCR only detects the genome and not the viable virus. However, in the presence of symptoms, the patient should be considered contagious until more solid scientific data come out.

  55. Rabindra Kumar Saroniya, Manish Kumar Verma and Reetesh Kumar Khare

    As human culture develops cities and townships it also led to industrialization and heavy urbanization. These processes put load on environmental resources and led to degradation of environment at various levels. The human activities has become the main factor for pollution of soil, air and water resources, poaching of wild animals, degradation of ecosystem, extinction of wild resources, radioactive pollution, electromagnetic pollution, space pollution etc. This situation has been posing a threat to human health as well as of animals. Entire life is under threat due to continuousdeterioration of the nature and natural resources. Any environmental problems faced by humans needs a solution for future generation and for sustainable development. There is urgent need of the legislation to protect entire environment at global level as pollution has no boundaries. In India effective legislation took place after independence. The Indian government legislated various acts to prevent further deterioration of environment and to protect the whole environment. It also includes some provisions in its constitution for effective boundation on the government. This review paper focuses on various legislations that came into force after independence in India. This also provides a glimpse of important regulations for protection of environment in India. It will give necessary information to research scholars and students and increase awareness about environmental regulations for better future.

  56. Farhad Ali, Mukta Rani Sarkar and Arafat Hossain

    Background: Footwear sector is the most potential and booming export sector in Bangladesh that means, the position of this sector is just right after RMG. Besides that, Bangladesh is set to emerge as a next manufacturing hub for global footwear industry. In the world every year about 176 million pairs of shoes are rejected due to different type of defects in shoe production which costs nearly 5 billion US dollar. The footwear production of Bangladesh is also included in that figure is the causes of serious economic loss of the country. The present work is aimed to identify the causes of footwear rejection and devising better solution for the improvement of footwear quality. Footwear industries situated at different regions of Dhaka was selected. Questionnaire survey was done with quality managers. After interviewing production and quality stuffs and investing the workplace physically solutions of some major and frequent defects were suggested. Objectives: (a) Primary objective: • To find out the relative figure about the rejection in footwear manufacture in Bangladeshi Footwear company and to find out better solution for minimizing rejection. (b) Secondary objective: • To increase depth of knowledge for controlling quality production. Methodology: To analyze the types of footwear rejection, causes of footwear rejection and find out better solutions several methods were used. To find out the causes of footwear rejection and suitable solutions different books, journals, papers was reviewed also searched through internet which helped a lot to reach to the conclusion. Results: Footwear is rejected due to faulty production, wrong distribution and preservation and improper fitting issues. The less the rejection, better the profit and no industry cannot make good profit when more than 2% products are rejected. So, it can be surely said that, rejected footwear in supply chain is a major problem. Conclusion: The study reveals that every industries should have research and development lab where engineers will work on the development of new category footwear and ensure the production without any defect. It helps us to identify the causes of footwear rejection and devise better solution for the improvement of footwear quality.

  57. Abdulaziz, G. M. Musa, Fath Al Rahman Al Sameeh, Ashaikh A. A. Shokeralla and Salem Al Zahrani1

    Nowadays, a lot of statistical techniques for determining dynamic models aiming at defining and controlling most appropriate variables of a system has been used. One of the most used is transfer function model (ARIMAX) discussed by Box and Tiao. In this paper Transfer function technique was applied to data representing agricultural exports and exchange rate in the Sudan for the period (1956 – 2018). Augmented Dickey-Fuller (ADF) tests confirmed both series level are non stationary however, their first difference is stationary. Both ADF as well as ACF test confirmed that ARIMA(1,1,0) is appropriate model for modeling both agricultural exports and exchange rate in the Sudan. According to the application of transfer function approach proposed by Box and Tiao as well as models selection criteria, ARIMAX - TF Model (3, 0, 1) model shown smallest values of models selection criteria. Hence it is chosen as an appropriate and parsimonious transfer function model for forecasting agricultural exports data in the Sudan.

  58. Atubga David Atia Ibrahim, Bonny Ernestina Linda, Edwin Ellis Badu, Harry Akussah and Zinan Wang

    The distributed optical fiber vibration sensors (DOFS) have been widely explored with regards to their significant impact in sensor applications. The Phase-sensitive Optical Time Domain Reflectometry (Φ-OTDR) which is known as one of the most vigorous distributed optical fiber sensing technologies has attracted enormous research attention due to its strength in high precision measurements, fast speed response, long perimeter monitoring, as well as vibration detection abilities, among others. However, it becomes very traumatic when data of the said sensing technology meant for vibration detection is obstructed by noise. Therefore, in order to successfully enhance effective vibration detection by the Φ-OTDR sensing technology, denoising becomes very essential. The Φ-OTDR sensing data therefore was initially processed by Hilbert transform to retrieve both the real and imaginary parts of the complex signal. Then discrete wavelet transform was identified and carefully applied to obtain the desired denoised output of which phase unwrapping was performed to reveal the vibration point. In the experiment, the Signal-Noise-Ratio (SNR) of the location information was greatly improved from 16.0dB to 30.0dB on 2km sensing fiber. Therefore, the proposed method has the potential to precisely extract intrusion location from any harsh setting with strong noise background.

  59. Maryam CHAKOUK, Omar TAOUAB and Zakaria FIRANO

    The information efficiency of the financial markets is the foundation of modern finance. However, each bubble that forms and takes the time to develop before bursting, thus generating a financial crisis, comes to challenge the hypotheses that constitute this theory. The purpose of this work is to test the main index of the Moroccan stock market, Moroccan All Shares Index (MASI), in order to verify the efficiency hypothesis by examining whether bubbles can be detected. While the unit root tests highlighted mitigated conclusions about the random market model, cointegration tests rejected the hypothesis of a long-term relationship between prices and dividends. The results of the Generalized Sup Augmented Dickey-fuller (GSADF) test applied to the MASI enabled the detection of a bubble. Also, the dating strategy delimits it over a period going from the end of 2006 to the beginning of 2008. Thus, the hypothesis of informational efficiency in the case of Moroccan stock market cannot be accepted.

  60. Mohammad Israil and Jafiri, M.S

    Concrete is one of the most common versatile building materials. It can be cast in any structural shape from a cylindrical water storage tank to a rectangular beam or column in a high-rise building, and also used as pre-stressed and post-stressed concrete. It is readily available in urban areas at relatively low cost. Concrete is strong under compression yet weak under tension. To counter the weakness in tension, a form of reinforcement is required. The most common type of concrete reinforcement is via steel bars. The concept of using fibres to improve the characteristics of matrix is as old and well established as adding straw or horsehair to mud bricks. The principal role of fibers is to bridge pre-cracks and resist their formation. The advantage of adding fibers into a matrix include enhancement of compressive strength, tensile strength, fatigue strength, flexural toughness, shear strength, durability, resistance to impact and minimize thermal cracks etc. Present study is to ascertain the behaviour of steel fiber reinforced concrete with varying composite mixes and percentages of fibers. The experiments were conducted on concrete mixes of M20, M25 and M30 grades. Straight fibers of length 28 mm and diameter of 0.28 mm with aspect ratio of 100 was used. Every grade of mix was further reinforced with different percentage of above mentioned fibers i.e. 0%, 0.5%, 0.75% and 1% by volume. A total of 36 cubes of standard size 150 mm x 150 mm x 150 mm and 36 cylinders of 150 mm diameter and of 300 mm high.

  61. Dr. Jagatheesan, S. and Dr. Shafeequa Jamal

    Introduction: Surgical site infections ( SSI ) can be defined as Infections occurring in the surgical patients within 30 days or 1 year without or with an implant respectively [1]. It is the leading cause of complication in the post operative period and one of the most common causes of HAI leading to serious complications. Aim of the Study: To study the incidence of surgical site infections in our hospital in comparison with the standard guidelines, to estimate the burden among the different classes of surgical wounds, to determine the significance of prophylactic antibiotics and to identify the risk factors and most common causative organism associated with Surgical site infections. Materials and Methods: A Prospective Cohort Study was conducted among patients admitted in the Thanjavur Medical College Hospital, in the Department of General surgery from May 2019 till May 2020 and undergoing general surgical procedures. Results: The incidence of SSIs is 150 patients (5.24%) among 2860 patients. Emergency cases accounted for 98 cases (65.33%), and Elective cases 52 cases (34.66%). Dirty class of wounds 64 cases (42.67%), Most common SSI was Superficial site infection 109 cases (72.67%). Patients had drainage tube inserted in 102 cases (68%), Foleys catheter in 110 cases (73.33%) and blood transfusion in 83 cases (55.33%), ASA grade most common was ASA 2 E 74 cases (49.33%). Most common organism was MRSA 35 cases (23.33%).

  62. Shariful Islam, Vijaya Naidu, Malini Ramnarine, Anthony Maughn, Vinoo Bheem, Patrick Harnarayn and Vijay Naraynsingh

    Background: Diabetes Mellitus (DM) is a chronic, lifestyle disease, and an emerging epidemic of the 21st century. Assessing the Knowledge, Attitude, and Practice (KAP) related to diabetic patients among the public is important to modify or create strategies for prevention &management in an effort to curb the current rise in DM and its complications. As of today, two KAP studies were conducted related to diabetic patients in Trinidad & Tobago (T&T) but both of these studies were conducted on diabetic patients attending local health centres and neither of these studies assessed the patient’s knowledge on HbA1c testing as well as their level of education. Purpose of this study: The purpose was to conducta KAP study for the first time on hospitalized diabetic patients in Trinidad & Tobago and also to assess their knowledge of HbA1c testing as well as their level of education in addition to other parameters. Method: This is a cross-sectional study (KAP) conducted at San-Fernando General Hospital, Trinidad and Tobago between 01st January 2018-31st December 2018 on 1005consecutive diabetic patients who were admitted on both medical and surgical wards. Diabetic patients who denied taking part in this study were excluded. Patients were assessed by a pre-structured, interviewer-administered questionnaire. Result: 1005 diabetic patients were included in the study.55.52% of our study group were male and 78.2% were of East Indian. The mean age of our patients was 45 years and 2/3rd of them(63.38%) fell between the age groups 34-65 years. Only 9.85% of our patient had a higher level of education however, rest had an education up to secondary level.90% of our study population were generally aware of diabetes, its complications and preventative measures; however, 72.5% of them had knowledge on foot care.It was found that approximately 80% of our diabetic patients were counselled by a dietician and were aware of the proper diabetic diet,yet49.3% still used sugar in their diet. Despite the availability of free HBA1C testing in the tertiary hospital, it is still unknown to the majority of this cohort. Conclusion: The overall level of knowledge of diabetes, its complications, prevention, and management in our study population was good and well above average however, their practice still remained grossly below average. Bridging this gap involves interventions a bit more complex and requires lifestyle and attitude modifications. Point of care HBA1c testing, as well as integrated health education to our health care providers and to our patients, might help to bridge the gaps. Integrated health education involving the patients as well as the family members who taking care of them can perhaps bring a change in their attitude towards their health and physical wellbeing.

  63. Dr. Ebrahim Farhan Mubarak Busenan

    Background: KidNET has The quality and efficiency of the performance of public services are affected by different factors, such as innovation of staffs. Therefore, the goal of this research paper seeks to highlight the impact of innovation of staffs to improve performance of public services in the public sector of Bahrain. The results of this research paper demonstrated that the mean of the three questions regarding innovation indicated to that the mean value of innovation in the range of (2.64 – 3.13), mean that this level is considered in the moderate range. Regarding of practical implications this research paper can contribute to improving and enhancing the competitive advantage of performance of public services.

  64. Baldev Singh and Sanjay Meena

    Background-The aims of our study were to evaluate the outcome of office-based paper patch grafting in tympanic membrane (TM). Methods- This is a retrospective study of 100 patients that underwent paper patch myringoplasty in an outpatient setting. The clinical factors with potential impact on the healing status of the TM were investigated: gender, age, laterality, etiology, duration of perforation, tinnitus, hearing loss, otorrhea, size and location of perforation, status of contralateral ear, ipsilateral findings of computed tomography, and duration of complete healing. Results- The total success rate of paper patch grafting was 76.00%. For inflammatory TM perforation completely healed in 59.09% cases, and the mean duration of complete healing was 18.24±16.2 weeks. Traumatic TM perforation completely healed in 78.26% cases, and the mean duration of complete healing was 11.24±12.3 weeks. Conclusion- Paper patch grafting can also be considered before formal surgical myringoplasty in the case of small, dry, chronic TM perforations.

  65. Dr. Varun Kashyap

    Extraction versus non-extraction debate has been a major controversy in orthodontics and it is still continuing since Angle era. Extraction of premolar teeth is the conventional treatment of choice for the management of class I malocclusion cases but in border line cases, orthodontists find difficulty in making a decision particularly in cases with good facial esthetics. However class I malocclusion with arch length tooth tissue discrepancy can be managed with the extraction of a lower incisor tooth. This would produce a more acceptable aesthetic outcome. Lower incisor extraction becomes a therapeutic alternative to premolar extractions in cases of lower anterior crowding and cases with well occluded posterior teeth.

  66. Ravi Kumar and Jaideep Singh Chouhan

    Introduction:- Hearing impairment, is defined as a partial or total inability to hear. Hearing Loss is broadly divided into Sensorineural Hearing Loss and Conductive Hearing Loss. Spoken language development is often delayed in children with unaddressed hearing loss. A Cochlear implant (CI) is surgically implanted electronic device that provides a sense of sound to a person with severe to profound sensorineural hearing loss. The process of cochlear implantation starts with early identification of hearing impairment by neonatologist-paediatrician. Subsequently the physicians, paediatrician, psychologist and radiologist evaluate the patient. Post implantation rigorous therapy is required to enable the child to join the mainstream. The whole process is a team effort and it requires constant motivation on the part of parents. Cochlear implant has to be individualized because every child is unique. Generally, at the functional level, children with inner ear damage are considered for cochlear implantation. The present study aims to assess the experience of the Department of Otorhinolaryngology of R.N.T. Medical College, Udaipur with patients who will undergo CI surgery. Materials and Methods: it is a prospective cohort study. The study population in our study were patients attending the Department of ENT in RNT Medical College, Udaipur, Rajasthan during Two and half years from June 2016 to December 2018. A total of 10 cochlear Implants were done at our institute. Data was recorded on a Performa. The data analysis was computer based; SPSS-22 will be used for analysis. Data were shown as Mean±SD. For p-value <0.05 was considered as significant. Results:- cochlear implantation definitely provides a satisfactory hearing and speech ability to a hearing disabled child.

  67. Ekta Verma, Kumari Nutan and Dr. Manjulata Verma

    Background: Gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) is a serious pregnancy complication, in which women without previously diagnosed diabetes develop chronic hyperglycemia during gestation (Plows, 2018). Along with various adverse maternal and neonatal complications during pregnancy, there are long term consequences like obesity and risk of diabetes mellitus (DM) following diagnosis of GDM. Objectives: This study was undertaken to assess the effectiveness of information booklet regarding GDM on knowledge among pregnant women with diabetes. Material & methods: The research approach was quantitative and pre experimental with one group pre test post test only design was applied in the study. Samples of the study were the admitted pregnant women who have been diagnosed with GDM, met the inclusion criteria and agreed to participate in the study. In this study, one group of 70 patients were selected by using consecutive sampling technique. After taking informed consent the pre test was taken and later participants were provided with information booklet on GDM. One week later the post test of the participant was taken. The collected data was analyzed by descriptive (frequency distribution and percentage) and inferential statistics. Result: Results of the study showed that the pre test knowledge score among study subjects were 28(40%) have good knowledge score, 36 (51.4%) have average knowledge scores score while 6(8.6%) have poor knowledge score. Thus majority of participants had average knowledge level in pre test. There was significant improvement in overall knowledge scores from 13.59 in pre test to 16.69 in post test as well as in all aspects of knowledge regarding gestational diabetes mellitus at p < 0.001 which showed that informational booklet regarding gestational diabetes mellitus was highly effective. There has been significant association was found between pre test knowledge score and area of residence at p value 0.021 as well as with education level at p value <0.001. Conclusion: The study found that imparting information booklet is effective way to improve awareness and understanding about GDM. As nurses play very important role in providing health education to patients they can use these kind of booklets in giving health education as knowledge gained through informational booklet regarding GDM may improve the self care practices among diabetic pregnant women .

  68. Prof. Giriraj Prasad Soni, Prof. Ravindra Kumar Sharma, Dr. Pavan Kumar Sharma and Asso. Prof. Omprakash Swami

    Introduction: As health care professionals, we are providing challenging time to ensure that we are still able to provide safe and effective care to patients. Personal protective equipment (PPE) is important to protect both patients and staff, while caring for those with suspected or confirmed COVID-19 infection. Material & Methods: The research approach adopted for this study was evaluative and an educative approach with a qualitative approach – survey method design. Semi structured questionnaire will be administered to the participants by using online link (published) method for data collection. includes a sample of 313 nursing personnel. Result: On an average, hospital staffs are having 55.45% of knowledge score on COVID-19. Generalization of knowledge score was calculated using and mean with 95% CI and proportion with 95% CI. Conclusion: In general, 40.71% of the staffs are having inadequate level of knowledge score, 58.01% of them having moderate level of knowledge score and 1.28% of them are having adequate level of knowledge score

  69. Yannick Bienge Nsenga, Fiston Ilunga Mbayo, Gloire Kasongo Lupitshi, Kennedy Twite Nyemba, Don Ilunga Kyabuntu, Ruben Kayumba Wa Nsenga and Mukeya Wa Mpanga

    Objective: analyze clinically and epidemiologically deaths at pediatric emergency department of Hopital General de Reference Malemba. Patients and Methods: The present study was retrospective descriptive of deaths occured at pediatric emergency department of Hopital General de Reference Malemba during a six months’period (September 2018 –February 2019).88 cases have been registered. Some variables analyzed such as age, complaint, retained diagnostic, clinical findings. Results: The mortality rate was 9,7% with most of the deaths under 5 years of age; 46% between 1-11 months. Fever and cough or another respiratory symptom constituted most of the complaints. Signs of anemia, respiratory distress and general state alteration were found in more than 50 per cent of the death cases. Severe Malaria and acute respiratory infections were evoked in almost all the cases.75 per cent were transfused, received injectable antimalarial and some received IV antibiotics. Conclusion : Many deaths could have been avoided with early visits at the emergency department, systematic antimalarial therapy for those children with fever and cough, diarrhea-vomiting, difficulty eating, general state alteration during the rainy season; supervision of caregiving facilities official and non-official alike from those who define healthcare policy, satisfying vaccination coverage.

  70. Dr. Chandra shekhar Tiwari, Dr. Vimlesh Verma, Dr. Dharmendra Uraiya, Dr. Rahul Pandey and Dr ruchi Verma

    Introduction: Liver disorder is known to be a risk factor for diabetes and diabetic patients are at risk of developing liver disorders. Association of liver and renal disease is less explored in the field of research. Aim: To estimate prevalence of abnormal Liver function in diabetes, and to study prevalence of nephropathy in diabetes categorized as: at <5yrs; 5-10 yrs; >10 yrs. Materials and Methods: The study and observation was done in sample of 300 subject of type II Diabetes mellitus from March 2012 to Aug 2013. Based on duration of Diabetes mellitus, subject were distributed according to <5yrs, 5-10yrs and >10yrs of illness. Out of 300 type II Diabetes mellitus subject 75% were male and female group was 25%. Results: With reference to liver function test 21% patient were having abnormal liver function test. The prevalence of diabetes nephropathy i.e. 35% overall. Prevalence of nephropathy increased with increasing duration of Diabetes mellitus. Conclusion: In the study Liver enzyme was elevated overall 21 % more than 3 times, 0.66% were detected with HCV reactive, fatty liver disease was most common finding, Macroalbuminuria present in 7.3 % of subject.

  71. Ferdousi Hasnat, Farhana Noman, Sakina Shab Afroz, Mohammad Shawkat Hossain Khan, Rifat Taher Anne and A. K. Al Miraj

    Introduction: Arsenic is naturally occurring element that is widely distributed in nature. The main source of exposure for the general population is intake of drinking water with high level of arsenic. There is evidence of fetal loss & infant mortality due to arsenicexposure of mother by drinking water that may be due to arsenic crosses the placenta. Breast milk is main source of nutrition during 1st 6 months of life. There are few reports of low concentration of arsenic in breast milk. Urinary arsenic is considered as dependable marker of ongoing contamination. Arsenic level in urine of exclusive breastfed baby shows the intake of arsenic through breast milk. Objective: To detect arsenic secreted through breast milk from arsenic affected mother by measuring urinary arsenic level. Methods: It was a case-control prospective study. From January 2008 to July 2009 this study was done in Laksam thana in Bangladesh. Total 80 exclusively breast fed babies were enrolled in this study, 40 babies were cases whose mother were arsenic affected &40 babies of control group were nonaffected mother. To detect arsenic concentration in breast milk we considered as arsenic level in urine. We thoroughly examine mothers& their babies. Results: In this study total 80 breast fed babies were enlisted, 40 from affected mother & 40 from non-affected mother. Arsenic affected mothers showed 100% melanosis &27.3% keratosis .Arsenic concentration in urine in affected mother (case) was 329.57microgram/L±106.017 & median was 379.67 micro gm/l, arsenic level in urine of baby of affected mother (case) is7.02±1.05. In control group both mothers urinary arsenic level& babies urinary arsenic level were low. Physical growth & milestone of development were normal in both group of babies. Conclusion: All Arsenic affected lactating mother should continue their breast feeding exclusively without harm to their babies.

  72. Dr. Samir H. Ram, Dr. Jalpa N. Desai, Dr. Naimish R. Bhojak and Dr. Jitendra P. Patel

    Introduction: Variation in origin and branching pattern of lateral femoral cutaneous nerve of thigh are common. These anatomical variations important for anatomists, clinicians, and surgeons for prevention of post-operative complication. Material and method: 25 cadavers dissected in last 3 year. Result: In this study16% cadavers show lateral femoral cutaneous nerve receive the communicating branch from the femoral nerve bilaterally and in 4% cadaver lateral femoral cutaneous nerve derived from the root L2 bilaterally whilein 8% cadavers were found two lateral femoral cutaneous nerve bilaterally. Conclusion: in this study we found significant variation in Lateral femoral cutaneous nerve in origin and branching pattern which is important for anatomists for study purpose during dissection, for surgeon to prevent iatrogenic nerve Injury and for the clinicians while treating the cases of meralgia paresthetica.

  73. Mohamed Fiaz, A., Haja Sherief S. and Sengottuvelu S.

    Objective: To estimateinsilico studies on farnesol as a potential inhibitor of Acetylcholinesterase (AchE), Butyrylcholinesterase (BchE), Angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) in the treatment of Alzheimer’s disease. Methods: In the present in silico study, bioactive terpene farnesol were analysed for their inhibitory role on Acetylcholinesterase, Butyrylcholinesterase, Angiotensin converting enzyme activity by molecular docking studies. The in silico docking studies were carried out by using Accelrys Discovery Studio 4.1 client. Results: The CDOCKER energy of farnesol with Acetylcholinesterase showed binding energy -32.06 kcal/mol whereas Galantamine(S) showed binding energy 0.364 kcal/mol. Farnesol with Butyrylcholinesterase showed binding energy -34.21kcal/mol whereas Tacrine(S) showed binding energy 12.60 kcal/mol. Farnesol with Angiotensin converting enzyme showed binding energy -33.12 kcal/mol whereas Lisinopril(S) showed binding energy 38.65 kcal/mol. Conclusion: The present study reported that the bioactive terpene farnesol have good binding interactions with Acetylcholinesterase, Butyrylcholinesterase, Angiotensin converting enzyme when compared to the standard drugs Galantamine, Tacrine and Lisinopril respectively.

  74. Shorooq Hameed Allohaibi and Eman Ali Muhandis

    Background: Ongoing diabetic patient self-management education and support are critical to preventing acute complications and reducing the risk of long-term complications. Their knowledge about these complications could affect their practice toward disease control. Objectives: To assess the level of knowledge about DM complications and identify its determinants among T2DM patients attending Hera diabetic center, September 2019. Subjects and methods: A cross sectional analytic study was conducted at Hera Diabetic Center, MakkahAl-Mukarramah, Saudi Arabia among a sample of type 2 diabetic patients. A self- administered validated questionnaire was used in data collection. It compsed of 3 parts: socio-demographic data, personal history of Diabetes and knowledge About DM complications. Results: Two hundrend and seventy three patients were included in the present study. Their age ranged from 30 to 83 years (mean±standard deviation of 53.6±11 years). More than half of them were males (52.6%). More than half of the participated type 2 diabetic patients (52.7%) had adequate knowledge while 38.5% had inadequate knowledge regarding diabetic complications. Factors significantly associated with patients` knowledge of diabetic complications were marital status (p<0.001), educational level (p=0.029), income (p=0.026), history of referral for funduc examination (0.033) and checking foot anuualy (p=0.029) by physicians, history of diabetic complications among first degree relatives (p=0.001), glycemic control (p=0.011), avoid unhealthy foot/drinks (p=0.005), practicing physical exercise (p=0.005), history of diabetic foot ulcer (p=0.005), and renal problems (p=0.024). Concludion: Knowledge of type 2 diabetic patients regarding diabetic complications is overall acceptable. However, knowledge regarding some important diabetic complications is deficient. Health education for patients and the whole community is urgently needed.

  75. Varum Malhotra, Hena Dhir, Ankit Daral and Pooja Daral

    Background: Diabetic retinopathy irreversibly leads to blindness. Early detection and stringent glycemic control may delay progression but there are no specific biomarkers. Serum magnesium has been found to be associated with retinopathy. Objective: To evaluate serum magnesium concentration in patients with type 2 diabetes and to study its association with stages of diabetic retinopathy. Methods: Cross section observational study at a tertiary care hospital. Diabetic retinopathy graded as per early treatment diabetic retinopathy study (ETDRS) and diabetes defined as per American diabetic association criteria. Patients with end stage diabetes and those on drugs affecting serum magnesium excluded. Results: Patients evaluated after exclusion were 300. The prevalence of hypomagnesemia was 21.3%. The prevalence of retinopathy in hypomagnesemia was 39% and in normal serum magnesium was 17.8%, respectively. The mean serum magnesium levels in type to diabetics without retinopathy, NPDR, diabetic maculopathy, pre-proliferative DR and PDR were 2.1±0.4, 2±0.3, 1.9±0.42, 1.8±0.4 and 1.4±0.07 mg/dl, respectively. Proliferative and pre-proliferative DR was significantly higher in patients with hypomagnesemia. Type 2 diabetics with hypomagnesemia has significantly more ACR>30mg/g than diabetics with normal serum magnesium (Chi-square test, P=0.001). There was a significant and inverse correlation between serum magnesium and ACR (Pearson’s correlation coefficient, r= -0.569, P<0.001). There was a significant and inverse correlation between serum magnesium and HbA1c (Pearson’s correlation coefficient, r= -0.551, P<0.001). Conclusion:Serum magnesium correlates significantly with HBA1c and albumin creatinine ratio and either alone or in combination may be used as a marker for risk and follow-up of patients with diabetic retinopathy.

  76. Raad Saady Madhloom

    This Article encourages arab countries to continue the good work where it is already ongoing and to place suicide prevention high on the agenda, regardless of where a country stands currently in terms of suicide rate or suicide prevention activities. Suicide is a serious public health problem; However, suicides are preventable. The Arab completed suicide rates of 1.1 / 100,000 to 6.2 / 100,000, suicide victims were: male gender; the ages 20-40 years old, single, manual workers and unemployed, Female suicide victims were frequently younger than male attempters and were either students or house wives. Depression was the most recorded psychiatric disorder, and family problems were the most recorded precipitating factor. Males being more likely to self - shoot and females to self poison and self immolate.

  77. Dr. Geoffrey Wango, Prof. Gidraph Wairire and Dr. Charles Kimamo

    By incorporating emotionality, this paper proposes to enrich cognitive information processing among the general public in times of crisis as evident in COVID-19. Two distinct emotional responses namely fear and anxiety with sufficient enthusiasm profoundly influences our behaviour and responses towards the disease. Fear because the threat of the corona virus disease is real, and anxiety because of the novelty that stimulates our utmost attention toward COVID-19. The anxiety powerfully influences preferences and stimulates our involvement in the COVID-19 health and wellness campaign. The discussion enhances a phenomenological theoretical perspective concerning cognitive and emotional processes as mutually engaged and in turn supportive as countries and the public adopt various intervention measures aimed at curbing the spread of the COVID-19 pandemic. The discussions demonstrate the cognitive information process and fathoms out how people can appropriately practice emotions as tools towards dealing with the fear and anxiety of COVID-19.

  78. Sabah Faihan Mahmud

    Economic growth and urbanization are often positively linked. Urbanization is an inevitable force of development. Cities provide efficient infrastructure, services, communications and skilled labor forces. They can achieve the economies of scale, agglomeration and urbanization. they are the driving forces of national economic development. They generate positive externalities of agglomeration, scale, diversity and specialization. The aim of this paper is to examine the changes in urban and economic Concentration in Iraq . Based on the results that can be deduced from the spatial development experiment in Iraq, there is a clear duality in development. There are major developed and underdeveloped centers in the cities and governorates. The study indicates that the city of Baghdad is still the dominant city in Iraq on both the urban and economic sides, despite the decrease in the urban concentration rate from 25% to 21% , the decrease in the number of industrial projects from 52% to 18%, and the decrease in the proportion of the labor force, from 60% to 37%.Moreover, poverty and unemployment rates are high in the less urbanized governorates. This is due to the absence of a comprehensive policy for urbanization and spatial development in Iraq. To reduce the impact of urban concentration on economic development in Iraq it is important to put comprehensive strategy for spatial development and urbanization.

  79. Assumptor Mukangi, Dr. Stella Nyagwencha and Dr. Mary Mogute

    Background: KidNET has demonstrated favourable outcomes in reducing PTSD symptoms and its comorbid disorders among adolescent refugees. However, the outcome of KidNET in reducing PTSD symptoms in non-refugee adolescents has not been documented. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effectiveness of KidNET in reducing PTSD symptoms among adolescents in secondary schools. Methods: A quasi-experimental research design was used to conduct the study. A total of 120 respondents took part in the study. The participants had a mean age of 15.84 years (SD = 1.01). A Socio-Demographic Questionnaire (SDQ) and the Child PTSD Symptom Scale-V-Self Report (CPSS-V-SR) was used to assess for PTSD symptoms. Results: Independent groups’ t-tests were used to detect significant mean differences whilst Cohen D (d) was used to determine effect sizes. At endline, a between-groups t-test showed a medium effect size (d=0.68). A significant difference between the groups was also established at p=0.001. The findings further showed that 38.3% of the participants in the experimental group vs 8.3% in the control group reported a reduction of PTSD symptoms from mild/moderate symptoms at baseline to minimum PTSD symptoms at endline. The findings also showed that KidNET reduced PTSD symptoms in 81.7% of the experimental group. An analysis of the PTSD symptom criteria that showed significant symptom reduction in the criteria for: arousal and reactivity alterations, avoidance and, the criteria for mood and cognitive alterations. Conclusion: The findings showed that KidNET was effective in reducing PTSD symptoms among non-refugee boys in secondary schools.

  80. Gürsoy Ulusoy, Ş. and Gürsoy Atar, Ö.

    The concept of family has changed with modern society. With technology, the concept of family and concepts such as mother, father, child, and spouse in the family have also changed. The change in the mission undertaken by women in the family, especially with the concepts of working women and modern women, is also included in this process. With the Coronavirus period, nuclear families have been obliged to always be together and continue their entire life in the home environment. This process is observed to have negative effects on family communication processes. The study examines the social change and transformation of family communication processes with modernization, technology, and epidemic diseases, namely the Coronavirus period.

  81. Dr. Amaresh Chandra Sahoo

    Political theory as a subject is a source of criticism and appraisal concerning to the character and direction of the discipline. It is widely debated among the contemporary political scientist that the great tradition associated with the master of political philosophy seems to become closed. But it is not true. The resurgence of political theory means the revival of the normative or value-based (Philosophical) political theory in political science. In the middle of the 20th century, many thinkers like (David Easton, Alfred Cobban, Lasslett, Dahl)) have written about the decline or dead of political theory. But it would not be right to conclude that political theory has become unimportant or has declined. It is in fact true that the nature, character, scope, area of study and the shape of political theory has been changed with the changing circumstances. Day by day the periphery, relevance, scope, the area of study of political theory is increasing according the need of the hour. According to some scholars, political theory now concentrating on issue like feminism, Oppertunitism, Cynisism, Existentialism, Environmentalism, Post behaviouralism, Fundamentalism, Post modernism, methodological revolution have changed the forms of political theory. Towards the second half of the Nineteenth and twentieth century, it has seen a new direction in the development of political theory and value-based political theory was revived (resurgence of political theory) in the writing of Leo Strauss, Isaiah berlin, Hannah Ardent, Leo Strauss, Michael Oakeshott, Bertrand de Jouvenal, Sheldon Wolin, John Rawls, etc. Thus, Political theory is not dead. It still exits. So to say that the political theory is dead, it will be a great mistake. It is not declined but had transformed in to different aspect.

  82. Dr. Deepak Kumar

    The present Study examines literature pertaining to Non Banking Financial Companies in the India and abroad. Subject Area: Non Banking Financial Companies.

  83. Jeaneth G. Sagales, Edgar J. Gonzaga, Deborah T. Gonzaga and Marilyn Miranda

    The threat of the widespread pandemic COVID19 has hit every nation around the globe by surprise. There has been a sudden closure of economic activity and a need to alter processes to what we now call the “New Normal”. Along with the changes in economic system and lifestyle during the pandemic time, are changes in the education system of the Department of Education in the implementation of different modalities of learning and new teaching approaches. It has been a notion for our Education Department to look for alternatives in order for education to continue despite the threats of the Pandemic. The pandemic caused many reasons for concern from the people in the education sector most especially the public teachers who are now given the burden to make education happen no matter what the consequences and challenges there may be. This study evaluated the different coping mechanisms of public teachers to handlestress that was brought by the pandemic.

  84. Dr. Deepak Kumar

    This study is conducted to Compare the financial performance of different categories of NBFC’s in India. The study is an econometric one that considers the samples of various types of NBFC’s. The main categorizations of the NBFC’s are Loan Companies, Investment companies, Infrastructure finance companies, and Asset finance companies. Here, 50 NBFC’s were chosen in total with 10 companies in each category. For the section of asset finance, it was further divided into subdivisions such as hire purchase and equipment leasing companies.

  85. Dr. Deepak Kumar

    This study is conducted to assess the financial performance of NBFC’s in India using Correlation and Regression analysis. The study is an econometric one that considers the samples of various types of NBFC’s. The main categorisations of the NBFC’s are Loan Companies, Investment companies, Infrastructure finance companies, and Asset finance companies. Here, 50 NBFC’s were chosen in total with 10 companies in each category. For the section of asset finance, it was further divided into subdivisions such as hire purchase and equipment leasing companies.

  86. Bhavesh Mahesh Kharat, Nachiket Sachin Deole and Dr. Priya Sachin Deole

    The world, we are living around where androids and information technology have become a major part of our daily stuff. And as we know the crime rates are increasing day by day, this is due to the criminals are moving free around us. We need to keep track of the criminal records and must be able to recognize the criminal at any time. With the help of existing technology and human resources can build a quality life around us. This allows us to take steps towards implementing smart, safe cities, by using the personal mobile devices and social networks to make the people alert and aware of their surroundings Hence we are developing an android application which provides not an indication but also surveillance of the crime to the police and for the welfare of the society through an android application. This application has a function like real-time face recognition using Open CV, posting a crime incident (record crime) or we can see the recent news or notification given by the police department to the app. If we consider a particular situation about the working of an app, a particular person found fighting or showing any abnormal activity. Then a police officer can capture the image of the face of person and upload it to the server, if the record is identified or recognized, the particular criminal is search in the database of our server, all this we can perform using getting and posting request to our server, here we have used the local host RestAPI. This System is able to detect the face, which can help police to track people.

  87. Fawaz Ra'ad Jarullah Salah Mehdi Salih

    The main object of this paper is prove that: Let R be a 2-torsion free semiprime ring ,T=(Ti)iN and H=(Hi)iN be two generalized higher reverse left (resp. right) centralizers associated with the higher reverse left (resp. right) centralizers t=(ti)iN and h=(hi)iN resp. of R , where Tn and Hn are commuting. Then Tn and Hn are orthogonal if and only if Tn(x) Hn(y) = tn(x) Hn(y) = 0, for all x , y  R and n  N.

  88. Sagar Modh

    This is the most advanced and seamlessly researched field of wars and terrorism. Due to ever increasing lust of power for all the countries have led to development in science and technology and subsequently emergence of some lethal and well-planned war strategies. Basically, when biological agents/infectious agents/toxins are used for dissolving the targeted country’s funds or to take revenge of some previous disputes it is called GERM WAR. The use of these bioweapons against the civilians/common people is stated as bioterrorism while, use of bioweapons against the military/forces then it is stated as biowarfare. This review covers some vital points on this miserable turn of science and technology. The discussion revolves around the history, what characteristics make an organism fit to be a bioweapon, what are the organisms that are developed by countries for this purpose, how to minimize the effect on population of such mishaps and many other discussions.

  89. Dr. Vipul Mishra, Dr. Jyoti Goyal, Dr. Utpal Sharma, Dr. Debakanta Pradhan and Dr. Sabari Das

    The COVID-19 pandemic has put the health care worker at increased risk of getting infected by way of exposure to patients in a hospital. Some are at higher risk including those caring COVID 19 patients, and those exposed to suspected, and undiagnosed COVID patients entering the hospital. We did a pilot study in our tertiary care hospital to study the prevalence of COVID 19 infection in HCW in our hospital by conducting COVID 19 antibody tests among 149 HCW at highest risk by nature of their work areas and found very low prevalence of recent COVID 19 infection in them, including zero rates among intensivists doctors working in COVID ICU. We hypothesize that the reasons for our results are strict protocol for screening of patients and HCW entering the hospital, and well implemented SOP and protocols for PPE, infection control, distancing and continuous education to update guidelines.

  90. Aurpita Shaha, Md. Ashikur Rahman, Md. Parvez Bin Yousuf, Susmita Sultana, S.M Ashiqul Islam, Rasel Ahmed, Md. Shfiqul Islam and Rima Sultana

    This study comprehensively conducted with the diabetic patients associated with other diseases (heart diseases, kidney diseases, eye disease). In this project we are trying to find out the crosslinked relation of other diseases associated with diabetes. The incidence of diabetes mellitus (DM) continues to raise and has promptly turned into one of the most prevalent and costly chronic diseases worldwide. A close link exists between DM and cardiovascular disease (CVD), DM and Kidney disease (DKD) and DM and retinopathy (DR) which are the most prevalent cause of morbidity and mortality in diabetic patients. Cardiovascular (CV) risk factors such as obesity, hypertension and dyslipidemia are common in patients with DM, placing them at increased risk for cardiac events. However, Diabetic Kidney disease is the major/most often cause of kidney failure. People have a greater risk of developing end stage renal diseased type-2 diabetes.In addition, Diabetic retinopathy (DR) causes massive visual loss on a global scale. Recent work reveals that diabetes have gross effects on the retinal neurovascular unit and its interdependent vascular, neuronal, glial, and immune cells. The research design was cross-sectional, and the research was conducted in Pabna district,Bangladesh. The sample size was calculated as 350. A pre-tested questionnaire was used to collect data after obtaining ethical approval. Data was collected by means of interview of patients. Among 350 of the total participants , 115 (32.8%) were of male and 235 (67.1%) of female. The mean body weight of respondents was 62.65+ 11.07 kg and mean age of the patients belongs to 51.56+10.29 year.We found 66 (18.86%) only diabetes patients, 49 (14%) Diabetes with heart disease patients, 105(30%) diabetes with eye disease patients, 42 (12%) Diabetic with nephropathy patients and 35 (10%) patients had both heart and eye diseases with diabetics, 14 (4%) patient had heart and Kidney diseases along with diabetic. The mean duration of diabetes in the present study was 8.81 years. All patients were type-2 diabetic patients. In the incipiency of the project we emphasize on knowledge about diabetes, diabetes facts, causes of diabetes and especially on diabetes controlling measurements. The key purpose of the study is to improve the lifestyle and to improve the overall health condition of diabetic patients.

  91. Berhanu Kedir and Berhanu Megerssa Beraka

    Microfinance is a fundamental tool for poverty reduction by providing financial services to low-income individuals who are devoid of access to formal financial services. Microfinance institutions started operations in Ethiopia following Proclamation No. 40/96, and currently, there are 30 licensed MFIs and 448 branches with active clients of 2.3 million. Despite their outstanding contributions, however, their ability to improve livelihood is still in question. Multi-stage sampling was used to select a representative sample size of participants and non-participants. Descriptive analysis was run to reveal measures of central tendency and variability; while logistic regression was applied to determine factors affecting households’ decision to participate in microfinance. Logistic regression analysis indicated that seven variables significantly influenced program participation were four of them significant at 1% (i.e. Education level, household size, membership of cooperative and extension contact); and the other two variables were found significant at 10% (i.e. the number of dependents and Distant from OMFIs); while another variable has significantly affected participation at 5%. Microfinance institutions have to create awareness of its service to less educated smallholder farmers. MFI institution needs to expand its satellite sites to access the farthest rural farmers.

  92. Virgo Leonardo D. Rosell, Jun Lester C. Paunel, Liberty M. Bayking and Rebecca DC. Manalastas

    All sectors worldwide, including education, have been devastated by the impacts of COVID-19 pandemic. As we approach to the new normal in the post-COVID-19 era, there is a need to consider education anew in the light of emerging opportunities and challenges as well as the reshaping of the curriculum. Thus, this short article attempts to explain the reshaping of curriculum towards education under the new normal. The implications of the continuing crisis to the four elements of curriculum - goal, content, approach, and evaluation - are also being discussed. Some emerging options may be cogently viewed within the perspectives of these elements. Aside from the lens of other aspects of education that can be explored further to better reconsider education in this new era in human history, brighter reshaping of curriculum will be also discussed further.

  93. Misgana Tesfaye and Dereje Haile

    The purpose of this study was Exploring Teachers’ Practices of using Short Stories in Teaching English Speaking Skills for Grade Eleven of Damboya Preparatory School. The study employed descriptive research design. To attain the stated objectives, purposive sampling technique was used to select the target school and the targeted respondents of the study. Accordingly, sixty four students and English language teachers who have been teaching English subject for preparatory classes were used as the participants of the study. Both the students and the teachers were from Damboya Secondary and Preparatory School. To collect the data, questionnaire, document analysis and focus group discussion were used. The data were analysed both quantitatively and qualitatively. The data in the questionnaire were analysed by calculating the percentages and frequencies. The results of the research pointed out that the short stories incorporated to teach speaking skills in English textbook of grade eleven and the speaking activities derived from the incorporated short stories of the same class according to the data attained from students and teachers were insufficient and less than the needed though there is no criteria to limit the numbers of short stories to be incorporated. Using the incorporated short stories needs teachers’ use of various techniques like grouping students for discussion, motivating them as they retell short stories orally and teaching as students complete the remaining plot of the short stories. For the reason that different major hindering factors like large class size, authors’ culture, the size of English language text book and understanding of students towards short stories role to enhance speaking skill, there was a gap in the use of the incorporated short stories to teach speaking skills. As a result, based on the findings of the study, recommendations were forwarded to alleviate the aforementioned problems in the school under study.

  94. Aakanchha, Chand, G. B., Arvind Kumar and Aniket K.

    To analyze the activities of amylase enzyme in herbivorous and carnivorous family. Currently, there is limited comparative genomics approach into the evolution of dietary habits are reported in literature. With the recent advances in sequencing era, we were able to perform functional genome analyses that represents phylogenetic relationship between different species and their amylase activities. Collect all the sequence information from biological database like NCBI and retrieve nucleotide sequence. Further, perform BLOSUM-62 algorithm with the Clustal-W for multiple sequence alignment and construct the phylogenetic tree using Clustal Omega. We observed that evolutionary changes in herbivorous and carnivores species with their respective mutation and conserved domain. This study used phylogenetic and statistical approaches to explore general patterns of amylases evolution, amylases from seven different species in eukaryota family with fully documented taxonomic lineage. First, the phylogenetic tree was created to analyze the evolution of amylases with focus on individual amylases. Second, the average pairwise p-distance was computed for each species, and its diversity implies multi time and multi-clan evolution. In addition to a clear contraction in gene families for carbohydrate metabolism, the carnivore genomes showed evolutionary adaptations in genes associated with dietary habits and other traits responsible for successful stalking and core consumption under strong selective pressure related to diet. However, unlike herbivores showed fewer shared adaptive signatures. The genetic diversity associated with decreased population sizes of carnivores, which may be due to the inflexible nature of their strict diet, emphasizing their susceptibility and critical conservation. The present study provides a comparative genomic analysis represent genomic changes associated with dietary habits. Our genomic analyses also provide useful resources for diet-related personalized healthcare research.

  95. Opiayo Peter Mabubi, Dr. Nyakundi Eliud, PhD and Dr. Areba Ngwacho George, PhD

    Resulting from increasing enrolments and inadequate resources, Public Technical Universities in Kenya are viewed as providing low quality education that doesn’t support research and innovation, and drive Vision 2030.Does implementing Performance Contract stimulate innovation in Public Technical Universities? The purpose of the study was to establish the influence of Performance Contract Implementation in stimulating innovations in Public Technical Universities in Kenya. The specific objective of the study was to establish: the influence of Performance Contract Implementation on Innovations in Public Technical Universities. The study utilised the Goal Setting theory advanced by Locke and Latham (2018), which states that goal setting in an organization enhances employee and organization performance. The study employed the Explanatory Survey research design. The study was carried out at the Technical University of Kenya and Technical University of Mombasa where the total study population was 15104 which comprised of 14592 Students, 109 Administrative staff and 403 Lecturers. From the population, a sample size of 377 was obtained as guided by the Morgan Krejcie formulae for determining sample size. Data for the study was collected by the use of 5-point Likert scale questionnaire. Content validity of the instrument was ensured by expert judgement. Reliability of study instruments was ascertained by Cronbach alpha where all achieved above the 0.5 threshold index. Qualitative data yielded was analysed by use of content analysis based on identifiable categories. Quantitative data was analysed by use of Factor analysis and Simple regression. Data was presented by use of tables and figures. Based on the study objective the findings revealed that Performance Contract implementation accounted for 66.6% innovation in Public Technical Universities. From these findings, the study concludes that Performance Contract Implementation has a positive influence on innovations in Public Technical Universities. The study therefore recommends that Performance Contracting should be implemented and strengthened as a management tool to increase efficiency and stimulate innovations in Public Technical Universities. The findings of this study should thus inform policy framework on Performance Contract Implementation for Public Technical Universities.

  96. Eliud Nyakundi and Josephine Oranga

    This paper examines the concept of human capital and returns to education. The theory of human capital has its origins in the work of Schultz (1961) and Denison (1962) who postulated that there is positive correlation between increasing levels of education and economic growth due to productivity enhancing effect of education. Better trained workers are considered to be more skilled and productive than less trained workers justifying their higher wages. The theory relates the worker’s knowledge levels to their formal schooling levels implying that higher levels of education schooling leads to higher productivity and wages. In this theory, workers acquire education to maximize the present value of lifetime earnings and the private returns are used to explain the demand for different levels of education. The theory of human capital has been used to explain income differential (Nyakundi, 2018).You and Giseung (2009) observed that; the returns of investment in education can be calculated from the earnings of the recipients of education. Psacharopoulos and Patrinos (2004) found out that the returns to schooling in developing countries are higher than in developed countries. Schultz (2004), Kingdon, Sandefur and Teal (2005), show that in general the return to an extra year of education increases with the level of education. The importance of human capital was earlier investigated by classical economists such as; Adam Smith, Ernst Engell and Karl Marx. Later the most influential work about the distribution of earnings was developed by Gary Becker (1962). Human Capital Theory suggests that investments in education or training, like investments in physical capital, are only undertaken with expectation of returns. The popularity of estimating returns to education stems from the resulting efficiency, equity and financing implications. The comparison between investment in education and other investments can assist justify investments in education for individuals and governments (Becker, 2007). Moreover, the level or type of education’s rank order of returns as compared to alternative investment returns could assist policy makers in the education subsector to make informed, evidence based investment decisions.

  97. Jane Mmbone Murigi, Olive Taabu Baraza and Enose M.W. Simatwa

    Drug abuse is becoming increasingly a concern in Kenya. Studies done globally have shown that students abuse drugs. The foremost concern is the number of these students that can become addicted to serious substances, jeopardizing their own health and safety and creating difficulties for their families and the society at large. Preliminary survey in five schools revealed that students in Vihiga and Sabatia sub-counties were abusing drugs. It was also alleged that poor academic performance was noted among students who abused drugs. What was not known was the influence of drug abuse on student academic performance in secondary schools in Vihiga and Sabatia sub-counties. The objective of the study was to establish influence of drug abuse on student academic performance in Vihiga and Sabatia sub-counties. A conceptual framework showing influence of drug abuse on student academic performance in secondary schools was used to guide the study. The study established that drug abuse influenced students’ academic performance both principals and Guidance and Counseling teachers agreed that it had high negative influence. The findings of this study are useful to the managers of schools in Kenya and other countries of the world in understanding the issues related to substance abuse among students in their schools and to come up with strategies to be used in addressing substance abuse related issues in Kenya .

  98. Apollo Sibuda, Enose M.W. Simatwa and Hannah Lunyolo Gidudu

    Studies have revealed that burnout inactivates workers reducing their performance at work place. School factors such as lack of physical facilities, human resource and insecurity increase level of burnout which has is linked to underperformance by head teachers and translate to poor performance in schools. In Butula Sub-county, preliminary survey involving five head teachers indicated that head teachers were experiencing high levels of burnout. The objective of the study was to determine school factors that influence burnout among head teachers in public primary schools in Butula Sub-County, Kenya. A conceptual showing the relationship between independent variable (school factors) and dependent variable (burnout among head teachers) was used to guide the study. The findings of the study were that school factors invariably influenced burnout among head teachers. The study concluded that indeed school factors do influence burnout among head teachers. The study recommended that head teachers should adopt methods of dealing with burnout by addressing school factors that influence burnout. The findings of this study are significant to stakeholders in education as they provide information that can be used in policy formulation that can minimize burnout among head teachers in schools.

  99. Jane Mmbone Murigi, Enose M.W. Simatwa and Olive Taabu Baraza

    Drug abuse is becoming increasingly problematic in the world Kenya inclusive. Studies done worldwide have revealed that students abuse drugs. The foremost concern was the number of these students that would form an addiction to serious substances, jeopardizing their own health and safety and creating difficulties for their families and the public at large. Preliminary survey in five schools revealed that students in Vihiga and Sabatia sub-counties were abusing drugs. It was noted that Vihiga and Sabatia sub counties were experiencing cases of indiscipline that were linked to drug abuse. What was not known was the influence of drug abuse on student violence in secondary schools in Vihiga and Sabatia sub-counties. The objective of the study was therefore to establish influence of drug abuse on student violence in secondary schools in Vihiga and Sabatia sub-counties. A conceptual framework showing influence of drug abuse on student violence in secondary schools was used to guide the study. The study used descriptive survey research design. The study established that principals perceived drug abuse to be having high influence on violence in schools though G & C teachers rated its influence as moderate. The findings of this study are useful to the managers of schools in Kenya and the world at large in understanding the issues related to substance abuse among students in their schools and to come up with strategies to be used in addressing substance abuse related issues.

  100. Apollo Sibuda, Hannah Lunyolo Gidudu and Enose M.W. Simatwa

    Burnout among workers negatively affects their performance at work. School factors such as lack of physical facilities, inadequate rewards and school insecurity increase level of burnout which has been linked to underperformance by head teachers and translate to poor academic performance in schools. In Butula Sub-county, preliminary survey on five head teachers indicated that head teachers were experiencing burnout. The objective of the study was to determine the influence of head teachers’ burnout on pupil academic achievement in public primary schools in Butula Sub-County, Kenya. A conceptual framework showing the relationship between independent variable (burnout among head teachers) and dependent variable (pupil academic achievement) were used to guide the study. The findings of the study was that influence of burnout among head teachers on pupil academic achievement in Kenya Certificate of Primary Education but was low, negative and not significant. The study concluded that burnout among head teachers does not significantly influence pupils academic achievement. This is because head teachers serve as staff personnel while teachers serve as line personnel and therefore head teachers have little direct effect on pupils academic work. The study recommended that other factors should be investigated so as to establish which factors were influencing pupils’ academic achievement because burnout among head teachers was found not to influence pupils’ academic achievement. The findings of this study are significant to stakeholders in education as they provide information on the way forward.

  101. Apollo Sibuda, Olive Taabu Baraza and Enose M.W. Simatwa

    Burnout is one of the factors that adversely affects human resource in performance of work. Studies have revealed that in schools burnout inactivates head teachers reducing their achievement. School factors such as lack of physical facilities, inadequate rewards and school insecurity increase level of burnout which has been linked to underperformance by head teachers and translate to poor academic performance in schools. In Butula Sub-county, preliminary survey on five head teachers indicated that head teachers were experiencing burnout. The objective of this study was to determine burnout levels among head teachers in public primary schools in Butula Sub County. A conceptual framework showing the relationship between independent variables (school factors) and dependent variable (head teachers burnout) were used to guide the study. The findings of the study were that the overall burnout level among head teachers was moderate. The study concluded that head teachers experience moderate burnout. The study recommended that head teachers should adopt methods of dealing with burnout by addressing school factors that influence burnout. The findings of this study are significant to stakeholders in education as they provide information that can inform policy formulation that can minimize burnout among head teachers.

  102. Shalini Balakrishnan

    In this review article attention is put forward towards the largely growing throughout the year fruit Syzygium samarangense (wax apple). It has been traditionally used in South Asia as ornamental plant and consumed as raw fruit, pickle, juice, wine etc. It has got various active components phenolic, flavonoid, anthocyanin, quercitrin, ellagic acid, and myricetin. Wax apple has shown positive effect on hyperglycemia, anti-inflammatory, endocrine disorder. Wine consumption as a health diet is seems to be increasing and beside red wine fruit wines are also hiking in this race so wax apple wine can be potential option in this scenario too. A wide research activity in this to explore the potentiality of wax apple wine is needed to reveal a good functional food globally.

  103. Dr. Karan R Gregg Aggarwala and Jasmin Timur

    Much consternation has come to be highlighted in recent years even in the most scrupulous democratic republics with attention to secure vote casting and counting process. That the people tend to elect those candidates that reflect popular opinion is a widely held belief. Popular opinion is elicited by the process of adding up citizen votes that are assigned as ballots received toward electing a candidate nominated to a political party. Despite all transparency with frequent news media polling updates, it is a wonder why huge segments of the electorate remain dissatisfied. A sizeable portion of the answer can be found by questioning the statistical validity of the vote casting and counting process. The authors present arguments in favor of reform that would remove the experimental design violation inherent in electing candidates nominated for President, Prime Minister, Governor, and such other political positions. Some historical examples of good and bad governance are provided to introduce the topic. Brief mention of notable personalities lamenting the loss of political accountability and ethical responsibility of free nations are included. The formidable scheduling constraints for a singular leader of a republic make near impossible effective execution of major decisions in a timely manner. The authors recommend that the Office of Presidency be shared by 3 capable individuals simultaneously, with one among them interfacing with news media personnel.

  104. Aditya Anand Lanjewar, Sanjay Kumar Kar, Rohit Bansal and Saroj Kumar Mishra

    Due to COVID-19 (Coronavirus disease), the fluctuation’s in the oil and gas sector happens. There dependency of Indian oil & gas domain on International market. Difficult situations happening throughout the world, decreasing the oil/gas barrel rate. This Research project sets an overview of objectives & scope for developing an Oil and Gas Pricing fluctuations standard modules. Practically and thoroughly the standards has suggested the oil and gas sector as a high-priority sector. Studying how others sectors affecting due to changes in one of the most important sector i.e. oil & gas sector. The business study shows according to Petroleum economists recommends oil & gas domain represent other sectors such as Coal sector, Gold sector, Transportation Sector, Automobile sector, Service Sector etc.

  105. Muath A.hazmi, Ali Suan Mugrabi, Abutalib Hassan Zarban, Nawaf Omer Hamzi, Mohd Abdu Ayoub Hakami, Nasser Ibrahim Hakami, Wafaa Y. Hagawi, Muhessin Ibrahim Hakami, Yehia A. Maghlat and Ali. H. Muslami

    This study aimed to know the attitude of students at Jazan University towards Khat use in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia, an analytical descriptive approach has been used, an electronic questionnaire has been developed to reveal the attitudeof students towards Khat use, The questionnaire was applied to a random sample that estimated about (296) male and female students from the University of Jazan who were using Khat. The study showed that the proportion of male use is more than female use. the main reason for students to use Khat for the first time are the social events that some people exploit to spread such habits, and the current study indicated that male and female Khat users spend a long time of 4-6 hours per day spent chewing Khat. Which thought by respondents it does not negatively affect the academic level, but also it doesn’t increase understanding. Also revealed that the main reason behind addiction to Khatuse is to keep up with friends. However, it revealed that family disintegration is not a motivation for the student to use Khat, and one of the most important reasons that drive students to use Khatis the location of the city of Jizan near the Republic of Yemen. Likewise, the failure to apply punishment to users is among the trends that push students to use Khat. Also, the legal ruling that did not issue a clear ruling regarding the explicit prohibition of khat in some Arab countries is among the trends that motivate male and female students to abuse Khat. Researchers recommended: to eliminate this phenomenon more effort is needed for educating the individual about the danger of Khat on health, strengthen parents monitoring of their behavior and selection of family friends and conducting training seminars that explain the damages Khat, holding sporting events and competitions.

  106. Dr. Sagar Ramesh Ganvir and Dr. Akash Sunjay Gupta

    Meige's syndrome is a rare neurological syndrome characterized by segemental oromandibular dystonia and blepharospasm. Its pathophysiology is not well knwon. A 45-year-old female presented to oral and maxilloofacial department with blepharospasm and oromandibular dystonia with clinical provisional diagnosis of TMJ hyperobility. After thorough TMJ examination and physical examination including detailed neurological exam and psychiatric evaluation no TMJ disorder or any medical or psychiatric diagnosis could be made. The other differential diagnoses of extra pyramidal symptom, tardive dyskinesia, conversion disorder, anxiety disorder were ruled out by formal diagnostic criteria. acordingly with suspicion of Meige's syndrome she was referred to the neurologist and the diagnosis was confirmed. therfore, Meige's syndrome could be misdiagnosed as a TMJ hypermobility or psychiatric disorder such as conversion disorder or anxiety disorder because clinical features of Meige's syndrome are highly variable and affected by psychological factors and also can be inhibited voluntarily to some extent.

  107. Hana Abdullah Mshrai and Adel Al-Ghamdi

    Back Ground: The common cold can occur at any time of year, it is a benign condition in the upper respiratory tract system and self -limited disease. Cough and Cold medications lead to major side effects although there is limited data about the knowledge and practice of parents towards using it for their children which had a common cold. Objectives: To measure the knowledge of parents, to evaluate the practice of parents and to identify determents of Parents towards using Cough and cold medication for their children which had a common cold at General Pediatrics Clinics in Maternity And Children Hospital in Makkah Al-Mukarramah, KSA, 2019-2020. Design: Cross-section analytic study. Setting: General pediatrics clinics in Maternity and Children Hospital in Makkah Al-Mukarramah. Patient and methods: random selection of parents having children of age 6 years and younger which had a history of common cold and distribution of the valid questionnaire. Main outcome measures: sociodemographic data of parents and their children, practice, determents, and knowledge of Parents towards using cough and cold medication for Their Children Which Had a common cold via questionnaire. Sample size: 214 of parents of pediatric patients. Result: The81.3% of the respondents were female, 75.7% of the sample are Saudi,72.4% were Relationship to the child is a mother of the child,79.0% were aged from 20 to less than 35, 52.3% were the education level is a university and 50.9% were work. The69.2% of the respondents were a child's sex is male, 73.4% were their children aged from two to six years and 85.5%had less than 6 times of common colds during the past year. 96.3% of common colds were diagnosed by the doctor and 34.6% took their children to the Children's clinic in a private hospital. Were 78.0%visit the doctor once a time when their child had a common cold, and 64.5% of the respondents do not use phytomedicine for their child before going to the doctor and 50.9%were using phytomedicine for their child after going to the doctor for the common cold, and 65.0% of them use cough and cold medications for their children during a common cold. There was a statistically significant relationship between common colds among children and demographic variables. Conclusion: Approximately more than half of participated using cough and cold medication when their children had a common cold and there was significant statistically for a side effect of using it, which indicates the need for a further broad study of other sectors and cities. Limitations: Covering a large population in a limited time.

  108. Nyongesa Ben Wekesa

    In an attempt to trace the development of English language teaching and testing in Kenya, this paper looks at language in education in Kenya. Language in education aims at defining three major issues. Firstly, it defines the role of English language in teaching and testing in the pre-independent era. Secondly, it assesses the place of English in teaching and evaluation during post-independent Kenya, during the 8-4-4 system and finally in the newly rolled out Competency Based Curriculum (CBC). Unlike other literature which focus on language policy, this paper traces the history of English language in the Kenyan education with a special focus on language testing; a component of teaching and learning process. The paper concludes that although, efforts have been made in improving the teaching and testing of English language in Kenya since the colonial era, there seem to be some form of rigidity in testing in that very little changes can be cited compared to the art of teaching. Teaching of English language has progressively changed in its approach, however, language testing has not been adaptive to these changes, for example, testing at secondary school level is more of the structuralism approach yet the teaching approach is communicative. Speech work is not overtly examined both at primary and at secondary school levels. All examinations are wholly written. This disregard for speech work leads to poor communicative competence yet it is the main objective of the English syllabus.

  109. Dr. Shilpa Arora, Dr. CM Marya, Dr. Ruchi Nagpal, Dr. Sakshi Kataria, Dr. Pratibha Taneja and Dr. Alok Sethi

    Background: COVID – 19 (Corona virus disease – 19) is an infectious respiratory disease caused by SARS-CoV-2. It was originated from Wuhan city, China and thereafter spread across the world. The present study was conducted to assess the community perception, awareness and perceived risk about COVID – 19 among population residing in Haryana. Material and Method: This cross-sectional online survey was conducted among population residing in Haryana. This was a questionnaire based study comprised of 14 close ended questions. Respondent demographic characteristics, awareness, information sources, knowledge and perceptions related to COVID-19 were recorded. Data were tabulated in MS excel and descriptive statistics were performed using Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS) version 21. Results: Almost all participants heard about COVID – 19 (95.2%). Risk perception level towards COVID-19 was high. The majority of participants were aware of COVID-19 symptoms, able to correctly report modes of transmission and aware of measures for preventive measures. Conclusion: The present study concluded that the majority of the participants heard about COVID – 19. The study recommends that the government should use mass media like social media, internet, television, radio etc. on a large scale for spreading awareness regarding COVID – 19.

  110. Yalanda M. Barner, DrPH, Emeka Nwagwu, PhD, Azad Bhuiyan, PhD, Sophia S. Leggett, PhD, Douglas McWilliams, PhD, Mustafa Younis, DrPH, Jae Eun Lee, PhD and Jung HyeSung, PhD

    Objective: To examine gender and residence differentials in the association between physical activity (PA) and academic success among college students attending historically black colleges and universities (HBCU) in Mississippi. Methods: Participants were college students (n=285) that attended a rural or urban HBCU in September 2017. Multivariate linear regression analysis was conducted to estimate the association between academic success and PA after controlling for the effects of gender, employment, chronic diseases, enrollment status, and residence. Results: While increased PA linked to decreased grade point average (GPA) among off campus residents, increased PA was associated with slightly increased GPA among on-campus residents. Whereas female students had increased GPA with increased PA, male students had decreased GPA with increased PA. Conclusions: Male students and off-campus residents who engaged in more PA are more likely to have a lower GPA. Policy recommendations will help optimize student’s health outcomes and academic success.

  111. Dr. Gayathri, S., Dr Vinitha Prasad, Dr. Jayakumar, C.

    Background: Acute kidney injury (AKI) is a common and serious complication in children admitted to the Pediatric Intensive Care Unit (PICU). The primary objective of our study was to estimate the incidence of AKI in children admitted to PICU. Secondary objective was to study the etiology ,short term outcome and determine the predictors of fatality in children with AKI. Methods: This was a prospective, cross sectional study conducted in children aged 1month to 18 years in the Pediatric Intensive Care Unit of Amrita Institute Of Medical Science, Kochi from Nov 2015 to Oct 2017 based on Acute Kidney Injury Network Criteria(AKIN). Results: The incidence of AKI was 18% .59.3% of the AKI patients were ≤5year of age. Most common cause for AKI was due to infections(87%) mainly sepsis(42.7%). 88.9% children had pre renal, 9.3% had renal and 1.9% had post renal type of AKI.40.7% were in stage 1,13% in stage2 and 46.3% in stage 3 based on AKIN criteria. 42.6% had complete recovery, 16.7% had partial recovery and death in 40.7% patients. 25.9% of AKI patients required dialysis. Children with AKI (7.85 ± 4.917) had prolonged PICU stay when compared with Non AKI group (4.28 ± 2.920 days) with p value: <0.001. AKI was associated with increased mortality (40.7%, p < 0.001). 43.8% of children with prerenal AKI and 77.3% children in stage 3 had the highest mortality (P value <0.001). Predictors of fatality were presence of Hypertension and the need for Ventilation (P-value < 0.05). Conclusions: It was concluded that the incidence of AKI was 18%. Most common etiology was Sepsis (42.5%) Children with AKI had prolonged PICU stay. AKI was associated with increased mortality (p < 0.001).Need for Ventilation was found to be a significant risk factor for developing AKI (p <0.001).Predictors of fatality were Hypertension and the need for Ventilation.

  112. Radhika Bulusu, Jeevana Kurugoda, Indranil Das and Shastry, V.G.R.

    Introduction: Hyperglycaemia is an important diagnostic differential and has been reported to cause focal neurological deficits masquerading as stroke. Discussion of hyperglycaemia as a stroke mimic has been sparse in the era of discussion weighted imaging, but remains an important mimic. Objective: To create awareness that hyperglycaemia should be considered in patients presenting to the Ed with focal neurological symptoms. Case Presentation: A 98 Year old Female was brought to the ED with C/o Altered Sensorium, one episode of seizure, Right sided Upper and Lower Limb Weakness, Aphasia Since around 30 minutes prior to arrival to the ED. Patient is known case of Hypertension, Diabetes Mellitus Type II, and Coronary Artery Disease – Post – PTCA, Non – Compliant to medications. On examination, patient had a GCS of E4V1M4, Pupils werebilaterally 2mm and sluggishly reacting, her random blood glucose was 719 mg/dL. Her CNS examination revealed the power in her right Upper and Lower Limbs was 0/5, whereas herleft upper and lower limbs had a power of 5/5, deep tendon reflexes –on the Right Side were Muteand brisk on the left side. Plantar reflex onright side was Mute and left side was extensor. Patient’s Blood Gas Analysis, revealed Lactic Acidosis. Urine Ketones was Negative. The patient was found to have a High Serum Osmolality of 315mmol/Kg. In view of clinical findings, patient was suspected to have a Hyperosmolar hyperglycaemic state (HHS) with Stroke and as per the Stroke Protocol, Non – Contrast Computed Tomography (NCCT) Brain, followed by MRI Brain was done which was not conclusive of any acute changes. The patient was immediately started on Intravenous Fluids, for management of HHS, along with Insulin infusion. Neurology Consultation, Endocrinology and Cardiology Consultation were taken. Patient’s Neurological Status Improved after 2 hours of management in the ED.She was admitted in the Intensive Care Unit (ICU).Patient improved over the course of her stay in the hospital and was discharged on the 5th day with follow-up advice. Conclusion: In conclusion, our patient had a hyperglycaemic hyperosmolar state (HHS) induced focal neurological deficit, which presented as transient ischaemic attack (TIA). We would state that in a patient presenting with focal neurological deficit and hyperglycemia, hyperglycaemic hyperosmolar state (HHS) induced focal neurological deficit should be considered as a differential diagnosis.

  113. Víctor Martínez Pacheco and Raffaele Perez

    Open source 3d printing technology, for some years, has been preparing to respond to the needs of society where autonomous manufacturers take on challenges that, until now, were reserved for large companies in the sector. Schools are formed in laboratories, taking on new challenges and opening up new scenarios and teaching methods. In this context, the world of architecture and home design is heading towards previously unexplored and novel terrain. This research work aims to explore through experimentation if production on demand is feasible in time, form and economy to greatly reduce the environmental impact of manufacturing. In short, the personal nature of autonomous production, in this context, adds to the possibility of reusing plastics such as PET, which are the cause of great global pollution. The objective is to investigate whether from now on the large industry will lose the character of exclusivity since the FabLab, the Makers are presented as the main protagonists of the near future due to their low environmental impact.

  114. Pooja Verma, Sangeeta Kansal, Alok Kumar, Nishu Kesh and Sandeep Patel

    Background: Mother and Child Tracking System (MCTS) was launched by the government of India to track pregnant women for complete obstetric care and also children to achieve full immunization. Objectives: This study was conducted to assess the reported practices of pregnant women under MCTS in rural areas of District Varanasi. Material and Methods: Cross-sectional study conducted in 3 blocks of Varanasi district by using multistage random sampling method. The pregnant women in the selected villages were interviewed using a predesigned and semi-structured questionnaire. Data entry and analysis were done using SPSS trial version 19.0. Results: More than three fourth (77.55 %) pregnant women were registered under MCTS and out of which 36.2% were registered within first trimester. 63.8% pregnant women had done their first ANC visit during the second trimester and only 14.0% have completed four or more visits. All pregnant women had received tetanus toxoid (TT) injection and only 5.9% consumed more than 100 iron folic acid. Only 5 (15.2%) had received voice calls from government regarding Janani Suraksha Yojana benefits and visit of ASHA during delivery. Health workers and family members were found to be the major sources of information regarding ANC services other than messages/calls received from MCTS. Conclusion and Recommendations: Findings of this study revealed overall low practices of early registration, 4 ANC visits and consumption of 100or more than IFA tablets. Therefore there is a strong need to increase counseling during first visit about age of marriage and child bearing, encouragement for more registration during first trimester, consumption of iron tablets, and referral of high risk cases to higher centers, importance of giving mobile number and about tracking system.

  115. Azera Tsegay, Getasile Assefa and Tesfaye H Mariam

    Ensete ventricosum (Welw Chessman), is a perennial, herbaceous, monocarpic and monocotyledonous crop in the family Musaceae (Westphal 1975). The experiment was carried out using different fermentation time (0, 30, 60 and 90 days) and two Enset varieties to check out the effects of fermentation time and enset variety on the nutritional composition of kocho. In this study, kocho samples had been prepared from yedbereye and Lemat enset variety, which are processed by using indigenous Gurage kocho processing methods. The outcomes revealed that, mineral composition of kocho were affected by fermentation time and Enset ventricosum variety. The outcomes of this study showed that the content of Ca, Mg, K, and Zn content was found higher in the unfermented kocho prepared from yedebreye (190.11 mg/100 g, 117.47 mg/100 g, 860.99 mg/100 g, and 3.87 mg/100 g respectively) than the content in unfermented prepared from Lemat (183.89 mg/100g, 112.68 mg/100g, 857.06 mg/100g and 2.17 mg/100g respectively). On the other hand, the content of Na, Fe, Cu and Mn was found higher in the unfermented kocho prepared from Lemat (27.94 mg/100 g, 3.58 mg/100 g, 3.30 mg/100 g and 2.95 mg/100 g respectively) than the content in unfermented kocho prepared from yedebreye (22.54 mg/100g, 2.66 mg/100g, 2.41 mg/100g and 1.56 mg/100g respectively). The Ca, Mg, Na and Fe content differ significantly (P <0.05), whereas, the K, Cu, Zn and Mn content does not differ significantly (P >0.05) among the two verities. As fermentation time increased, Ca, Mg, K, Mn and Cu contents increased however Na, Fe and Zn contents decreased. The Fermentation time significantly (p<0.05) affects the calcium, iron, magnesium, manganese and zinc content in Kocho prepared from Lemat and Yedebreye enset variety while the potassium and sodium content was significantly (p<0.05) affected in kocho sample prepared from Yedebreye variety.

  116. Honorine Pegdwendé SAWADOGO

    This contribution draws on the results of doctoral research on begging by twins’ mothers in Ouagadougou. Context: In a multicultural and multi-religious country, place of birth is not the only significant information. It must be cross-referenced with cultural and religious specificities that could explain certain behaviors of women in a begging situation. The variety of individual and family characteristics of "mothers of twins" in a begging situation is important and must be taken into account because a wide variety of factors can influence life as well as different ways of seeing the world. Age, education, gender, income, and other socio-demographic characteristics can influence the relationships one forms, learning experiences, social roles one plays, aspirations one has, and abilities one develops. Therefore, the socio-demographic data of twins’ mothers are fundamental in that differences in socio-demographic characteristics determine differences in the circumstances of each other's lives. They largely define the social position of each of the women. Methods: The fieldwork consisted of a triangulation of approaches: spatial, quantitative and qualitative. The data collection made it possible to geo-locate 39 begging sites using the Global Positioning System (GPS) and to identify 198 women who were begging on these sites using an identification form. In addition, 33 twins’ mothers who were begging participated in in-depth individual interviews conducted using the semi-structured individual interview guide. In this proposal, the socio-demographic characteristics of the women surveyed will be highlighted. The data come from the identification sheet specifically designed to collect the profile of each woman. Results: The information presented here focuses on the essential characteristics of the 198 women surveyed. The results show that these women are young and able-bodied and do not constitute a homogeneous group. They have specific socio-demographic and economic profiles. For them, begging is an alternative way to survive and support their families. Conclusion: The informal sector is unstable and cannot contribute to the autonomy of the women who work in it nor ensure their long-term resilience.





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Chief Scientific Officer and Head of a Research Group

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Luai Farhan Zghair
Hasan Ali Abed Al-Zu’bi
Fredrick OJIJA
Firuza M. Tursunkhodjaeva
Faraz Ahmed Farooqi
Saudi Arabia
Eric Randy Reyes Politud
Elsadig Gasoom FadelAlla Elbashir
Eapen, Asha Sarah
United State
Dr.Arun Kumar A
Dr. Zafar Iqbal
Dr. Ruchika Khanna
Dr. Recep TAS
Dr. Rasha Ali Eldeeb
Dr. Pralhad Kanhaiyalal Rahangdale
Dr. Nicolas Padilla- Raygoza
Dr. Mustafa Y. G. Younis
Dr. Muhammad shoaib Ahmedani
Saudi Arabia
United State
Dr. Lim Gee Nee
Dr. Jatinder Pal Singh Chawla
Dr. Devendra kumar Gupta
Dr. Ali Seidi
Dr. Achmad Choerudin
Dr Ashok Kumar Verma
Thi Mong Diep NGUYEN
Dr. Muhammad Akram
Dr. Imran Azad
Dr. Meenakshi Malik
Aseel Hadi Hamzah
Anam Bhatti
Md. Amir Hossain
Mirzadi Gohari