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September 2014

  1. Shilpa Naik, Sangeeta, M., Varalakshmi, K. L. and Jyothi N. Nayak

    Variations in the shape of aorta are very rare. These variations could be clinically significant and potentially fatal. Here we report a case of grooved ascending aorta with sinuous descending aorta associated with aneurysm formation and its clinical implications.

  2. Mayuri G. Sable, Trusha Y. Puttewar, Dr. Patil, R. Y.

    Antibiotic resistance bacteria are one of the major problems challenging the health care system in general. The Antibacterial activity of fresh (Onion) Allium Cepa and (Ginger) Zingiber officinale juices against multidrug resistance bacteria viz., Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus Subtillis was investigated using agar well diffusion method. This study indicates that the fresh juices of Allium Cepa and Zingiber officinale possess significant antibacterial potency against multidrug resistant bacteria. The antibacterial activity and medicinal properties of Ginger and Onion extracts were studied. Ginger extracts were obtained using solvents Alcohol and Water. The extracts were assayed for antibacterial activity and bacterial growth inhibition activity. The results showed that both the extracts the aqueous and alcoholic extracts have antibacterial activity and they also inhibit bacterial growth. The results also showed that Ginger extract possess antibacterial properties and could be used for the treatment of bacterial infections.

  3. Dr. Mariam Philip, Dr. Joan Felicita Samson, Dr. Susan Ebenezer and Mr. Kiran, K.

    The objectives of the study were isolation and speciation of malassezia, correlation of clinical condition with different species, identification of risk factors associated malassezia infection and comparison of clinically significant isolates with isolates from normal skin. Speciation of clinically significant normal samples were done by morphology of colony, colony colour, cell shape & size, budding pattern and biochemical reactions M.furfur (30%), M.pachydermatis (30%), M.globosa (20%), M.obtusa (20%) were isolated from patient scalp scrapings. The isolates from normal scalp scrapings showed M.furfur (50%), Malassezia pachydermatis (33.33%), and M.globosa (16.67%). The study states that both disease affected and normal individuals harbour Malassezia sp. in their skin.

  4. Sohiar Abo alyzeed Abo alyzeed Alshonee, Ebtisam Mohamed Elsayed, Hamed Mohamed Elsharkawy and Amira Mohamed Saed Mohamed

    Background: The ability to respond quickly and effectively to a cardiac arrest situation rests on nurses being competent, prepared and up-to-date in the emergency life-saving procedure of cardiopulmonary resuscitation. The aim of this study was to determine the effect of educational training of cardiopulmonary resuscitation on nurse's practices regarding cardiopulmonary resuscitation in pediatric intensive care unit and Emergency Department. Materials and Methods: a quasi-experimental research design was used. All nurses who work in the Pediatric Intensive Care Unit and Emergency Department in El- Mobarra hospital were included in this study (60 nurses). Structure interview sheet was used to assess nurse's knowledge before and immediately after the educational training program about CPR. Practical test sheet was used to assess nurses' practic before and immediately after the educational training program about CPR. The Results of the study revealed that before educational training program the total scores of nurse's knowledge were good, fair and poor with percentage 15 %, 6.7% and 78.3% respectively. Whereas, after educational training the total score of knowledge for all studied nurses (100%) was good. All nurses' practice (100%) was poor before educational training. While after educational training 60%, 33.3% and 6.7 of nurses' practice were good, fair and poor respectively. Conclusion: The mean knowledge scores of nurses increased immediately after implementation of the program with a significant statistical difference. As well, the mean practice scores of the study group subjects were higher immediately after the implementation of the program with a high significant statistical difference. In addition, a positive correlation was found between knowledge and practice scores of the study subjects. Continuous In–service training programs for updating the knowledge and practice of nurses working with cardiac arrest pediatric patients about CPR was recommended.

  5. Dr. Abul-razak SH. Hasan, Dr. Mehdi SH. Al-Zuheiry, Shahad KH. Al-Qaisi and Dr. Shefaa M. Hemza

    Background: Celiac disease (CD) is an immune-mediated systemic condition triggered by dietary gluten occurring in genetically susceptible individuals. CD has a wide range of clinical manifestations. A number of serologic tests were implemented in the diagnosis of CD. Objectives: This case-control study was arranged to evaluate the validity of clinical presentations and to assess the clinical utility of serologic tests in the diagnosis of CD in children in Diyala province. Subjects and Methods: The present study was conducted in Diyala province-Iraq during the period from September 2011 to April 2012 in Al-Batool Teaching Hospital for Maternity and Children. One hundred sixty five children who were clinically suspected as having CD and 124 healthy children as control group were enrolled. The patient's age range was 1 month to 6 years and above. Information regarding age, sex, residence, family history, and clinical signs were collected in a special questionnaire. Commercially available serological kits for anti-gliadin IgA (AGA-IgA) and anti- tissue transglutaminase IgA (anti-tTG-IgA) antibodies (Aeskulisa, Germany) were used by ELISA technique. Data were statistically analyzed, and P value < 0.05 was considered significant. Results: Based on the seropositivity of both anti-AGA IgA and anti-tTG IgA, 15 (9.6%) were considered CD patients. whereas, patients who had either anti-AGA IgA (16.7%) or anti-tTG IgA (14.7%) positive were considered as symptomatic non-CD patients. The results showed that the anti-AGA IgA and anti-tTG IgA seropositivity was highly significant (P< 0.001) in CD patients compared to symptomatic non-CD patients and control groups. The anti-tTG IgA has higher specificity, accuracy, and positive predictive value. Two or more clinical manifestations together were significantly increase the validity of clinical diagnosis of CD, and correlate well with the results of serological tests. Conclusion: CD has wide intestinal and extraintestinal clinical manifestations. Accordingly, patients presented with two or more of these clinical manifestations should be serologically screened for CD. The anti-AGA IgA and more specifically the anti-tTG IgA are highly informative for early detection of CD.

  6. Ngure Lucy Njeri, Aggrey, Sindabi, M. and Teresia Njonge

    Secondary school students are exposed to social, educational, vocational and psychological problems which they are unable to handle on their own. However, many students, instead of seeking counselling when they have problems, tend to keep them to themselves. This necessitated this study whose title was ‘a comparative study of factors influencing guidance and counselling help-seeking behaviour among public secondary school students in Nyeri and Nairobi counties, Kenya’. Some of the factors influencing counselling help seeking behaviour among secondary school students are student’s locus of control and problem severity. The purpose of this study therefore was to find out if the same factors influence counselling help seeking behaviour, among public secondary school students in Nyeri and Nairobi counties and also if the identified factors differ in the two counties. The study employed ex-post-facto causal comparative research design. Stratified random sampling procedure was used to select schools and students who participated in the study. The respondents of the study were 387 students from 20 public secondary schools and 36 teacher counsellors from the sampled schools selected using stratified and purposive sampling methods respectively. Data was collected through administration of two questionnaires; for students and for the teacher-counsellors in the sampled schools. In data analysis, the chi-square was used in testing hypotheses at 0.05 level of significance. The findings were; an internal locus of control was associated with a more positive attitude towards guidance and counselling, and also an increase in problem severity, increased the likelihood of seeking counselling.

  7. Njoroge, Margaret Wanjiku, Sindabi, Aggrey M. and Teresia Njonge

    This study sought to determine the presence and the prevalence of PTSD among children exposed to post election violence (PEV) in Eldoret Sub County, Kenya. The study applied ex-post facto correlational research design. The study drew its population from the 1,218 class eight children in 8 purposively selected public schools categorized as urban, peri-urban, rural and slum schools in Eldoret Sub-County. Stratified random sampling method was utilized to give a sample of 192 pupils. Further, 32 teachers were purposively selected to participate in the study, making a total sample of 224 respondents. The instruments for data collection used in this study were a child Impact of Event Scale Revised Version for the screening of PTSD in children, and a Child Behavior Checklist for teacher’s assessment of the children. Data was analyzed using descriptive and inferential statistics with the aid of the Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS) for Windows Version 17. The findings of the study indicated that approximately 5 years after exposure to post election violence in Eldoret, children were still exhibiting PTSD symptoms. The study further found a 45.5 % prevalence of PTSD in the region. Consequently, the study recommends a screening of PTSD for children in the region with an aim of treatment. The study further recommends child-centered supportive therapy centers in schools as a trauma-focused psycho-therapeutic foundation as well as a multi-level trauma prevention approach for traumatized children in Kenya.

  8. Njoroge, Margaret Wanjiku, Sindabi, Aggrey M. and Njonge, Teresia

    Social support undoubtedly increases resilience following an adversity. This study examined the buffering effect of social support and resilience to post traumatic stress disorder among children in Eldoret Sub-County, Kenya. The study applied ex post facto correlational research design. The study drew its population from the 1,218 class eight children in 8 purposively selected public schools categorized as urban, peri-urban, rural and slum schools in Eldoret Municipality. Stratified random sampling method was utilized to give a sample of 192 pupils. Further, 32 teachers were purposively selected to participate in the study, making a total sample of 224 respondents. The instruments for data collection used in this study were the Impact of Event Scale Revised Version for the screening of PTSD in children, a Child Behavior Checklist for teachers and a social support tool. Data was analyzed using descriptive and inferential statistics with the aid of the Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS) for Windows Version 17. The findings of the study indicated that approximately 5 years after exposure to post election violence in Eldoret, children were still exhibiting PTSD symptoms. The findings of this study showed that social support (especially from family, peers and school) played a pivotal role in building the capacity for resilience of the children. Consequently this study recommends formation of social support groups in schools, churches and the community as a trauma-focused psycho-therapeutic foundation for traumatized children.

  9. Farajallah, M. M., Alabdouli, K. A., Alaithan, M. S., AbuMuaileq, M. S., Jabre, S. F., Rashid, S. M., Mathew, E., Muttappallymyalil, J. K., Esheiba, E. M. and Aji Gopakumar

    Introduction: Non-communicable diseases (NCDs) are rapidly becoming major causes of morbidity and mortality worldwide, including the Gulf Cooperation Council (GCC) countries. Although Acute coronary syndrome (ACS) and Diabetes mellitus (DM) are two important non-communicable diseases, the magnitude and the distribution of established as well as emerging risk factors for ACS have not been fully studied in the GCC countries in a large scale epidemiological context. Objective: The study aims to identify the socio-demographic and ethnic variable sin acute coronary syndrome patients with or without diabetes mellitus admitted to the Department of Cardiology of Gulf Medical College Hospital and Research Center from January 2010 to December 2013. Methods: The research is a hospital record-based descriptive study conducted at Gulf Medical College Hospital and Research Center, Ajman, UAE. The study population is all patients with acute coronary syndrome admitted to the Department of Cardiology from January 2010 to December 2013.We included all cases of ACS based on diagnosis by a medical officer. Case records with incomplete data were omitted. The data were imported to Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS) program version 20 for analysis. Chi-square test was performed to test the association between variables. Statistical significance was set at p≤0.05. Results: Out of the 175 ACS patients 75 (43%) were diabetic. ACS with diabetes was found in 63(84%) males while it was observed in 12 (16%) females. Higher proportion of non-Arabs had ACS with diabetes (60%) as compared to Arabs(40%). Patients aged 40-60 years had the highest proportion of ACS with DM [41(54.7%)]. Conclusion: The majority of the ACS patients were aged between 41-59 years, non-diabetic, male and non-Arab and were from South East Asia.

  10. Vijay Kumar, M., Ravikanth, K., Shivi Maini and Adarsh

    Objective of the experimental trial was to study efficacy of herbal methionine supplement Methiorep for improving growth, performance & carcass traits in broilers. Trial was conducted on 200 day-old unsexed broiler chicks (Vencobb), randomly allotted to two treatment groups, T0 & T1 comprising 100 chicks each. Group T0 supplemented with commercial feed only (no over and above Methionine- DLM supplementation was done) and in group T1 commercial feed supplemented with Methiorep (M/S Ayurvet Limited, India) @1.5 kg/tonne of feed. Statistical analysis of results showed that in group T1 a significant (P<0.05) increase in mean final body weight (g) and LWG (g) was observed in comparison to unsupplemented control group T0. FCR, dressing %, bursa weight (g) and Spleen weight (g) parameters were significantly (P<0.05) improved in Methiorep supplemented T1 group in comparison to unsupplemented T0 group suggesting efficacy of Methiorep in improving poultry health and carcass traits. Colour of fresh meat was significantly better and desirable in Methiorep supplemented group as compared to control group. Cooked meat colour, flavour, juiciness, texture and overall acceptability of T1 group was observed to be significantly better. Non-significantly (P<0.05) different but numerically lower mortality occurred in Methiorep supplemented T1 group as compared to untreated control T0 group. The trial investigation revealed that over and above supplementation of Methiorep (M/S Ayurvet Limited, India) @1.5kg/tonne of feed alongwith commercial ration in broilers helped in improving growth, performance, feed efficiency, carcass traits. The product was found to be safe for usage.

  11. Sara Dakhili, Noora Obaid Alsuwaidi, Sara Saeed, Sara BassamMurad, Dana Mohammad, Jayakumary Muttappallymyalil, Pratibha Prasad, Aji Gopakumar and Faheem Ahmed Khan

    Background: Good oral hygiene is believed to be the result of level of knowledge of the individuals about the oral health and its great importance. Low level of knowledge results in poor oral hygiene practices. Objectives: The objective of this study was to assess the level of knowledge of secondary school students in Ajman, UAE, and its association with age, grade of study and nationality. Materials and Methods: A cross sectional study was conducted, among 175 children of grades 6-9 in the emirate of Ajman located in the United Arab Emirates. The students were selected conveniently from one school after obtaining permission from parents. The data was collected using a self-administered questionnaire which consisted of different sections that focused on the knowledge of the participants with regard to oral hygiene. The frequencies and percentages were obtained from the data and inferential statistics was applied to find the association between dependent and independent variables using SPSS 21 version. Results: All the participants reported that they’re aware of the importance of brushing. Among all participants, 148 (84.6%) reported that teeth should be brushed twice daily, and 82 (46.9%) reported soft brush to be used for brushing the teeth. Regarding the frequency of change of brush, 118 (67.4%) mentioned that the brush should be changed every 3 months and 62 (35.4%) mentioned 2 minutes brushing. Regarding the appropriate way of brushing 25 (14.3%) reported that brushing is to be done in vertical motion. The perception of participants on oral hygiene showed that 157 (90%) perceived that brushing teeth is very important (good score >=7). According to the overall rate on oral hygiene, 156 (89.1%) of the participants rated their oral hygiene as good (good score >=7). It was observed that age, grade and nationality did not show any statistically significant influence on participant’s knowledge on brushing and on their knowledge on importance of oral hygiene. Conclusion: In conclusion, good knowledge was observed regarding importance of brushing, frequency of brushing, and frequency of changing the brush whereas regarding type of brush to be used, duration of brushing, and appropriate way to brush the teeth the participants’ were lacking knowledge. Association between level of knowledge regarding oral hygiene and socio-demographic factors showed that the knowledge was more or less similar with regard to age and gender.

  12. Ramakrishna Avadhani and Arunachalam Kumar

    The production and classification of sperm shape abnormalities in laboratory animals through administration of chemical agents, has in recent years developed into a very reliable, species and drug specific method of assay for testing the mutagenicity of pharnacotherapeutic agent. In this paper we present our observations on the number, percentages and types of dysmorphisms induced by the intraperitoneal introduction of Vincristine Sulphate, a well-known radiomimetic, poly-functional anti-carcinogenic alkaloid, in varying dosage in Male Swiss Albino mice. In this study abnormal sperm forms ranged from 0.74 to 11.16% in treated mice, the percentage of abnormalities peaking when dose was ten times the normal for weight. The sperm shapes were of the ‘amorphous’ type predominantly, followed by hookless’, ‘banana’, ‘folded’ and ‘double head or tail’ in vincristine sulphate administered animals. In very high doses the drug induced near azoospermia. This report analyses and discusses the possible pharmacokinetics of the drug on the production of the sperm shape anomalies. The observations confirm that mutagenicity of chemical agents could be tested and compared using the sperm head-shape abnormality assay method with a good degree of statistical confidence.

  13. AtulAnandBajoria, Geetha Kamath, Asha ML, Medha Babshetand Piyush Sukhija

    Boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) has been an uprising in the field of cancer therapy. It is based on the nuclear capture reaction and the fission reactions that occur when a non-radioactive element such as boron is bombarded with thermal neutrons. The primary concern in BNCT is the concentration of the boron compound within the tumor cells. More the concentration of boron compound within the tumor cells better is the action of BNCT. Thus, BNCT is considered to be a biologic mode of treatment rather than a targeted treatment modality. BNCT may be used as an adjunctive treatment or in combination with other modalities, including surgery, chemotherapy, and external beam radiation therapy, which, when used together, may result in an improvement in patient survival. This paper highlights on the principle of BNCT, its mechanism of action and its application in treatment of head and neck cancer.

  14. Dr. Nahed Mohamed Ahmed Morsy, Dr. Lila Helmy Othman, Dr. Mervat Hosny Shalaby and Samar Mabrook Abd Elsalam

    The objective structured clinical examination (OSCE) has emerged during the past 2 decades as medicine (Oh et al., 2011). This examination type involves direct observation of clinical performance using standardized patients and structured checklists for marking. A variety of areas of medical performance can thus be evaluated, including interviewing skills, physical examination skills, and interpersonal skills (Brosnan et al., 2006 and Selim et al., 2011). Aim of the study: This study aimed to determine the effect of training by using Objective Structured Clinical Examination "OSCE" on the outcome of clinical training of nursing students enrolled in psychiatric and mental health nursing course and assess students' perception toward using OSCE as a training and evaluative tool in psychiatric and mental health clinical training. Material and Method: Subjects: The study subjects were include all students enrolled in psychiatric and mental health nursing course (150) at the first semester of academic year 2012-2013, in faculty of Nursing Tanta University. The students were divided into two main groups the study group (75) students were chosen randomly and control group (75) students. Tools of the study: A-Data collection tools: Tool (I): Students' perception toward OSCE as a training tool. Part (1) A socio-demographic data sheet, Part (2): Students' perception toward OSCE as a training tool. Tool (II): Students' perception toward OSCE as an evaluation tool. B- An intervention tool: Objective Structured Clinical Training and Examination program (OSCTE): Clinical training and evaluation by OSCE method were implemented on the study group enrolling in learning class activities only (exhibiting videos and examining through oral exam). Each study group were attend 9 sessions scheduled as three sessions per week, which were take about four hours per day, for about three weeks. Results: The main results revealed that there was positive and direct significant correlation between using OSCE sessions in training and OSCE examination and there is statistical significant difference in the total mean scores of the clinical exam rotation between study and control group as it tabulated respectively in the p-value (0.0158, 0.009, 0.024). Conclusion: The current study findings showed that the majority of the studied students' were having good overview toward OSCE as a training tool, and the most of the studied students' were having good overview toward OSCE as an examination tool. In regard to comparison between study and control group in their scores of exam rotation. There is significant difference in the students' scores of the exam rotation between both study and control group.

  15. Verma H, Nanda H. S, Jauhari M, Singh S, Yadav N.

    VAP is defined as development of bacterial pneumonia in patients on mechanical ventilation for > 48hrs. Lack of gold standard diagnostic criteria for VAP leads to either over-diagnosis (leading to overuse of antibiotics) or under-diagnosis (leading to delayed antibiotic use), both of which are potentially harmful situation for the patient. A review of literature shows only few studies have been published on VAP in ICU‘s of India. With growing incidence of resistance among organisms isolated in VAP, a combined approach of antibiotic restriction along with appropriate de-escalation therapy, effective surveillance and good infection control (isolation and barrier nursing practices) is essential if antibiotic resistance has to be overcome. Our present study was done with an aim to know the incidence of VAP (early and late) in our ICU, to evaluate the impact of VAP on duration of mechanical ventilation, length of ICU stay and mortality (outcome), to find out the organisms isolated and there antibiotic resistance pattern. With this knowledge, we aim to formulate a regional empirical antimicrobial policy which will help us in prompt initiation of appropriate antibiotic regimen and improve patient outcome.

  16. Kiran Kumar H.S (MDS), Sudhakara Bhat G (MDS), Sanjayagouda Patil (MDS) Sankar Madhavan (MDS) and Nahush V. Chaudhari (MDS)

    The first feature of the face to be noticed is the eyes. Loss of eye due to any reason will cause psychological stress to the patient. Replacement of missing eye would definitely restore the patient’s psychological comfort and social well-being. Many techniques of fabrication of ocular prosthesis are described in this literature requiring artistic expertise. A simple and time saving technique of fabrication of ocular prosthesis without sacrificing the primary objective is presented in this article.

  17. Naglaa M. Elsayed and Salha S Alshoaibi

    Background: Perianal fistula is a chronic inflammation that may be simple or complex. It mainly affects adult males. Their precise diagnosis is important as improper evaluation could result in many unnecessary operations or serious post-operative complications. Aim of work: Was to describe MRI findings of different types of perianal fistulas and to enhance its role in adding great information to the surgeon. Patients and Methods: The study population comprised of 58 patients ranging in age from 8 to 68 years with clinical evidence or suspicion of anal fistulas. MRI was done using phased array coil, before and after IV contrast, using multiple pulse sequences i.e. T1, T2 and STIR. Findings were classified according to St. James classification into 5 grades. Results: MRI could prove the presence of fistula in 82.8% of patients. Maleto female ratio = 3:1. Most fistulas were of grade 1 and 2 (38.2%), 62.5% was single. Most internal openings were located at 6 o’clock (89.5%). 25.9% showed post contrast enhancement of the fistulous track and 5.2% showed enhancement within abscess lesions. Conclusion: MRI is ideal in diagnosing and grading of perianal fistulas and in detecting associated complications that add much to the clinical examination.

  18. Hend M. Al-Azazy and Safaa E. Sayed Ahmed

    Continuing education for professional nurses is essential for effective nursing care. The rapid changes taking place within healthcare systems have increased the pressure on nurses to engage in continuing education programs. Continuing education improves knowledge base, skill level, change behaviors, attitudes and improve clinical outcomes which have an important role in staff development. The present study aimed to evaluate the efficacy of two teaching methods on nurse’s knowledge regarding hepatic encephalopathy. The study was conducted at medical Intensive Care Unit at Tanta University Hospital. It included 60 critical care nurses working in the previously mentioned setting and they were divided into two groups randomly and alternatively, 30 nurses in each group. Two tools were used in the study for data collection, tool 1: nurses’ knowledge structured questionnaire sheet. It was divided into two parts: part A: nurse’s socio demographic assessment sheet. Part B: nurse’s knowledge assessment sheet, tool II: Nurse’s satisfaction evaluation questionnaire sheet. The main results of this study were; more than half of nurses (53.3%) in the traditional lecture teaching group had poor knowledge level about hepatic encephalopathy in the pre-test compared with less than half (40%) of the nurses in the web-based teaching group. On the other hand about three quarter (73.3%) of nurses in traditional lecture teaching groups had good knowledge compared with less than half (40% )in the web-based teaching group after completing the courses. Also the result revealed that more half (56.7%) of nurses in traditional lecture teaching group had high level of satisfaction regarding teaching method compared to one third (33.3 %) of nurses in web based teaching group. The study recommended that in-services training program should be done continuously for updating nurse’s knowledge and practices regarding hepatic encephalopathy using traditional lecture method and teaching.

  19. SinghSaurabh and Nanda Major General H.S.

    Background: Alpha -2 agonists are used in subarachnoid, epidural, regional blocks for their onset, duration and postoperative analgesia.(1-3)We compared the effects of adding clonidine and dexmedetomidine, as both are alpha -2 agonist, to a 35 ml solution of 0.25% bupivacaine in supraclavicular brachial plexus block. Materials and Methods: Eighty patients of ASA 1 and 2 posted for upper limb orthopaedic surgeries were enrolled for a prospective, randomized, double-blind trial. Patients were divided into two groups, the Clonidine group C and the Dexmedetomidine group D. In group C (n = 40), 0.25% Bupivacaine + 1 μg/kg Clonidine; and in group D (n = 40), 0.25% Bupivacaine + 1μg/kg Dexmedetomidine, with the total volume of drug solution 35 cc. Drug solution were given for supraclavicular brachial plexus block using the peripheral nerve stimulator. The effects of adjuvants on duration of analgesia and sedation were compared. Results: Demographic data and surgical characteristics were comparable in both the groups. Postoperative analgesia (POA) was longer in group D 637.50 ± 30.19 minutes than group C 294.38 ± 29.74, while Ramsay sedation score was higher in group D than group C. Conclusion: Dexmedetomidine significantly prolonged the duration of postoperative analgesia along with high sedation scores.

  20. Sangeeta, M., Shashidhar, K., Shilpa, N. and Varalakshmi, K. L.

    Teaching anatomy faces challenge as a huge portion has to be covered in a limited time frame. The attitude of students towards learning anatomy is also changing as they are constantly attracted to newer methods of teaching which also involves active participation from their side. With the dearth of cadavers in most of the medical institutions it becomes imperative on the part of anatomy teachers to make learning anatomy more attractive, effective and learner centric. This paper aims to highlight the manners through which students learnt anatomy effectively based on their feedback through a questionnaire.

  21. Faith Paul Waziri

    Children deserve safe and stable violent free parents, who will love, protect and see them grow in a violent free homes or environments. Therefore, for a child to grow normally without major developmental or psychological challenges, it is important to shine a light on domestic violence also known as family violence and its effects on children in all aspects of development, such as cognitive impairment, suicide attempt, damage to social, physical or emotional development and the way forward in order to address this predicament.

  22. Ala’a Hashim Tawfeeq, Aida Abdul Kareem and Assim Khalid Assim

    Objectives: a case-control study has carried out on term neonates with birth asphyxia, whom were admitted to 1st neonatal care unit at Basra Maternity and Children Hospital, to assess the frequency of birth asphyxia, its clinical features and some related neonatal, maternal (labour and delivery) variable as well as its outcome. Method: a total of (85) full term neonates, 50(58.82%) males and 35(41.17%) females, were recruited in the study from the first of December 2011 to 1st of December 2012. A total of (11486) full term neonates were delivered during the study period; (125) normal neonates delivered in the same period were regarded as control group. Detailed neonatal, maternal, perinatal, labor and delivery history were taken and compared in cases and control. Results: frequency of birth asphyxia was (0.74%) of total births and represented (4.9%) of total admission to the 1st neonatal unit. All patients need resuscitation with suction and oxygen and 24.7% need intubation, while most control cried immediately after birth and only 16% of them needed simple resuscitation and responded to direct oxygen. No significant difference regarding neonatal history (gestational age, sex, weight) in cases and control (p- value >0.05). The main clinical features were related to the central nervous system and respiratory system. The neurological symptoms include irritability, convulsion, increase tone, lethargy, poor feeding, and decrease tone with the following percentages respectively (55.3%), (47.1%), (32.9%), (31.8%), (25.9%), (14.1%). Respiratory distress and cyanosis was reported in (50.5%) and (45.9%) of patients respectively. Maternal risk factors for asphyxia were; young mothers (˂ 18 years), primiparous mothers, mothers with no antenatal care, and history of maternal medical problems (P-value <0.05). Assisted vaginal deliveries, complications of labour (like prolonged rupture of membrane, prolonged labour, cord prolapse, and meconium) and breech presentation were found as risk factors of asphyxia (P-value <0.05). Regarding the mortality of asphyxiated neonate (22.3%) of cases died, mainly in stage(3) then stage(2), and more in males. Recommendations: So regular antenatal care, close monitoring of fetus during labour, adequate resuscitation at birth can prevent asphyxia, and sharing in decreasing its frequency and morbidity.

  23. Samad, S. A. and Nayaya, A. J.

    The ecological distribution of enteric bacteria in Clarias gariepinus was studied in Gubi reservoir, Bauchi State, Nigeria. The study, showed the presence of some members of the Enterobacteriaceae family in the samples analyzed. From the gills, the following were isolated and identified such as Escherichia coli (13.3%), Shigella species (15.6%), Salmonella species (11.1%). From the intestines, the following bacteria were isolated such as Escherichia coli (8.5%), Klebsiella species (8.5%) Pseudomonas aeruginosa (25.4%), Shigella species (5.0%), Salmonella species (25.4%). Staphylococcus species (51.1%) Streptococcus species (10.2%), The Staphylococcus species has the highest prevalence rate followed by Salmonella species and Klebsiella species had the lowest rate. The presence of these bacteria even at low rate as shown by the study indicates that Clarias gariepinus in their natural habitat can harbor pathogenic bacteria of high medical importance. Proper cooking or processing prior to consumption is necessary for health safety.

  24. Pramodini Rout and Uday Chand Basak

    Protein profiling during ex vitro multiple shoot regeneration has been reported in three Rhizophoraceae mangroves viz. Bruguiera parviflora, Kandelia candel and Rhizophora apiculata occurring in Odisha. The effect of exogenous application of NaCl and proline on protein changes was evaluated during the process of multiple shooting in treated and non-treated hypocotyls. The polypeptides of the molecular weight (MW) 29 & 20 KDa appeared to be common in untreated hypocotyls of all the studied species. R. apiculata synthesized an unique polypeptide of MW 14 KDa in normal hypocotyls. In K. candel, NaCl induced synthesis of 26 & 17 KDa polypeptides. Proline facilitated synthesis of new polypeptides of MW 43 & 32 KDa in R. apiculata and 40 & 33 KDa polypeptides in B. parviflora. Thus, altered protein profiles be treated as possible markers for evaluating species-specific ability towards ex vitro multiple shoot regeneration in Rhizophoraceae mangroves as influenced by salinity and proline.

  25. Dr. Aswini Prabhakar

    Ocular trauma is the principle cause of unilateral blindness in the world today. Commonly occuring in young, ocular injuries impose an enduring burden through out the most productive years of their life. A prospective study of 50 cases of open globe injury from the casualty and out-patient department of Bapuji Hospital and Chigateri General Hospital, Davangere, India. Details regarding whether the patient was under the influence of alcohol at the time of injury, mode of injury, type, grade and zone of injury was noted. The treatment given and surgeries performed were noted and the patients were followed upto 1 year. 20% of cases with open globe injury were under the influence of alcohol at the time of injury. 100% cases of all assault related open globe injuries were under the influence of alcohol. The commonest type of injury under alcohol influence is globe rupture 50% & penetrating type 50% with equal distribution as opposed to 36% globe ruptures in other cases. 27% of all globe ruptures and 19% of all penetrating injuries occurred under the influence of alcohol. 80% of all zone 3 injuries and 55% of all Grade-5 injuries were under the influence of alcohol. 20% of injuries under the alcohol influence were due to drunken driving. 50% injuries necessitating evisceration occurred under the influence of alcohol. Most severe injuries occurred under the influence of alcohol. Risk behavior combined with alcohol consumption therefore seems to be an independent factor for the incidence of open-globe eye injuries.

  26. Abhilash Nair, Anil Khar, Ritesh Kaur and Malik, C. P.

    96 garlic accessions assembled at Pune were evaluated using RAPD and ISSR markers to determine the genetic relationship among accessions exhibiting morphological variations. A total of 160 decamer RAPD and 100 ISSR primers were used, of these 20 RAPD and 14 ISSR primers showed good amplification and polymorphism. RAPD Primers generated total 189 bands out of which 65 were polymorphic, showing 34.39% polymorphism. OPM 09 exhibited the maximum polymorphism (63.63%) while OPE03 shown the least polymorphism (12.5%). A total of 123 ISSR bands were produced with 14 primers out of which 45 were polymorphic (36.58%), with average of 3.2 polymorphic bands per primer. Based on present studies, the molecular markers analyses detected extremely low genetic diversity in the present accessions. No relationship was observed between the patterns generated by the primers and the geographic origin of the clones. No specific association between morphologic diversity and genetic diversity due to lack of sexual reproduction. Possibly, the strong selection pressure for agronomic traits in many cases, did not affect molecular markers which are generally neutral, but contributed to phenotypic and genetic divergence. Sixteen genetically distinct types having favorable agronomic traits were identified from the 96 accessions.

  27. Abhilasha Bhawsar and Vipin Vyas

    During the present study, water quality index (WQI) was calculated to assess the water quality of Barna stream network of Narmada River basin in Madhya Pradesh. A total of eight physicochemical parameters viz., pH, conductivity, dissolved oxygen, total hardness, nitrate etc. were considered to estimate the water quality index. The methodology for physicochemical analysis was followed from APHA (1998) and Adoni (1985). The results obtained during the survey showed that the WQI score at six stations in Barna stream network were within the range of scale 26-50 exhibited ‘Good’ water quality at each station, reflecting the healthy ecological conditions within the watershed of the Barna stream network.

  28. Indu Chaudhary and Yogesh Kumar Sharma

    A soil pot culture experiment was carried out in wire house condition to investigate the response of Onion (Allium cepa cv. N-53) grown in saline water and amended with supplementary Phosphorus (P). Plants were subjected to different electrical conductivity (EC) solution viz. 0, 2, 4, 6 and 8 dS/m prepared by mixing NaCl, Na2SO4, CaCl2 and MgCl2. For remediation approach two salinity levels (EC 6 and 8 dS/m) were subjected with combination of 40ppm Phosphorus. The results demonstrated that salt stress hampered the plant growth such as fresh and dry weight of plant. Increased accumulation of malondialdehyde content in the leaf of plant exposed to salty solution suggested that salinity promoted the oxidative stress. The other stress indicator parameters such as enzymatic and non enzymatic antioxidant were also analyzed. The non-protien thiol group was found to gradually enhance at lower doses and decreased at higher salinity levels (8EC) and cysteine increased at all salinity levels. Phosphorus application comparatively (salt treated plants) decreased the content of cysteine and NP-SH in the leaf of plant treated with salt +P as salinity level rose. Salt stress were also declined pigment contents like Chl T, Chl a, Chl b and Carotenoids and the activity of catalase (CAT) and peroxidase (POX) but P amendment increased their activity. Activity of ascorbate peroxidase (APX) and glutathione reductase (GR) were found to increase at lower levels of salinity while decreased at higher levels. In this study activity of superoxide dismutase (SOD) was increased at all tested salinity levels while P supply decreased activity. The results indicated that supplementary P can mitigate the negative influence of water salinity on plant growth and physiological development.

  29. Ilaiyaraja, N. and Farhath Khanum

    The anxiolytic effect of hydroalcohol extract of Feronia limonia (HEF) was investigated in the present study. The extract was orally administered to the Balb/C mice for a period of 7 days at the graded dose of 50, 100 and 200 mg/kg, bd.wt. Mice treated with 100 and 200 mg/kg bd.wt extract, significantly increased the time spent by the mice in open arm in elevated plus maze test (EPM), increased the square crossing in open field test (OFT) and increased the numbers of punished lick and shocks received in Vogels conflict test (VCT). Treatment with HEF also reduced the corticosterone levels in plasma, and GABA in brain tissues of mice. Over all the peak anxiolytic effects was obtained at the dose of 100 mg/kg bd.wt in mice. Thus, the present findings suggest the use of FLH as a potential herbal anxiolytic agent.

  30. Dr. Irani F. B., Dr. Shinde P. U. and Dr. Mulkhed, S. V.

    Pulmonary function tests are useful in evaluation of respiratory health of a person. Peak flow meter is the one of the simplest means of objectively assessing and monitoring the airway function. The normal peak expiratory flow rate (PEFR) is 400-600 L/min or 6-10 L/sec. PEFR increase in male till third decade and in females till second decade, and later decline with as age increases. Peak flow meter helps to regularly monitor and in self management of asthma.

  31. Noor N Nafie, Basil O Saleh and Sabah M Fadhil

    Background: Inflammation plays a central role in atherosclerosis. In multiple epidemiologic studies, inflammatory biomarkers such as high sensitive C-reactive protein (hs-CRP), has been associated with increased risk of coronary heart disease (CHD) and it has been directly implicated in the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis The present study was designed to show the anti-inflammatory and anti-lipemic effect of 6-8 months of statin treatment via the measurement of serum hs-CRP and lipid profile parameters. Subjects and Methods: This study was carried out at Biochemistry Department, College of Medicine, Baghdad University and at Ibn-Al-Bitar Hospital, Bagdad, Iraq, during the period from February 2013 to November 2013. It included 25 patients with coronary artery disease and who have had a mild to moderate coronary artery Ca score of < 400 agatston unit (AU) and not on statin treatment (GI). Twenty of these patients were putted on atrovastatin treatment for 6-8 months and regarded as GII. Investigations included serum measurement of high sensitive-(hs-) CRP, lipid profile parameters, fasting serum glucose and HbA1c in both groups. Results: After the complete course of treatment with statin, the mean value of hs-CRP concentration of GI (2.77±2.83 mg/l) was decreased in comparison to those before treatment of the same patients group (GII, 3.04±3.45 mg/l), but did not reach the significant level. The mean value of HDL-cholesterol and VLDL-cholesterol concentrations were significantly increased in GII when compared to GI (P=0.001, P= 0.019, respectively). The glycemic index measured by HbA1c and fasting glucose did not differ significantly between both groups. Conclusion: This study concluded the anti-inflammatory and anti-lipemic role of statin in coronary artery disease patients as reflected by significant increase of serum HDL-cholesterol. However, the insignificant effect of statin on serum hs-CRP concentration may need for longer period of its treatment.

  32. Anugu Anil Reddy, Shashi Vemuri, Ch. Rao, S. and Shekar, A. U. R.

    An experiment was conducted during kharif, 2012 to evaluate the efficacy of seven insecticides viz., emamectin benzoate 5 SG at 11 g a.i.ha-1, emamectin benzoate 5 SG at 22 g a.i.ha-1, profenophos 50 EC at 500 g a.i.ha-1, profenophos 50 EC at 1000 g a.i.ha-1, spinosad 45 SC at 100 g a.i.ha-1, bifenthrin 10 EC at 100 g a.i.ha-1 and Bacillus thuringiensis at 5 WP at 25 g a.i.ha-1 against DBM (Plutella xylostella) on cabbage of which profenophos 50 EC (1000 g a.i.ha-1), applied twice as foliar spray was found to be most effective in controlling the P. xylostella for which the dissipation studies were conducted. The dissipation pattern of profenophos 50 EC (1000 g a.i.ha-1) was studied collecting samples at regular intervals i.e. 0, 1, 3, 5, 7, 10, 15 and 20 days after last spray and analyzed. The initial deposits of 0.99 mg kg-1 profenophos recorded at 2 hours after last spray dissipated to 0.85, 0.82, 0.16 and 0.07 mg kg-1 by 1, 3, 5 and 7 days after last spray, respectively and below determination level (BDL) by 10th day.

  33. Prasad, M. P.

    Acanthaceae is a family of dicotyledonous flowering plants containing almost 250 genera and about 4,000 species. Acanthaceae is a family well known for its medicinal values due to the presence of valuable phytochemical compounds. The knowledge of the properties of the medicinal plants is growing as a result of which research and testing are been carried out throughout the world s they could be a alternative option for allopathic medicine. In the present study the analysis of Phytochemical compounds and antimicrobial activity of seven plants samples belonging to Adathoda beddomie, Neelagirianthasis Sp, Justeceae gendurusa, Neelagirianthasis hemitomie, Berleria priorities, Adathoda zylanica and Hemigraphis corolata was analyzed where in it was found that tannins was present in all the plant species which indicate that tannin plays a major role in the medicinal property of the plant species. The solvent extract showed antimicrobial activity against all the clinically isolated microorganisms. The maximum antagonistic effect was seen against pseudomonas species.

  34. Ramesh Kumar, T., Anandaraj, K. and Manoharan, V.

    An attempt was made to find out the effect of sub lethal concentration of heavy metal mercury (25 ppm for 48h ) on the ovarian tissues of Loccotrophes ruber the insects the ovaries are composed of several ovarian tubes termed ovarioles . The classification of the ovary is essentially based on the general architecture of the ovariole. The female reproductive systems of the Loccotrophes ruber is composed of two ovaries, each consists of five telotophic type of ovarioles. The ovary during the fully mature turn into yellow in colour due to the heavy accumulation of yellow spheres in the terminal oocyte .Telotrophic ovarioles contain a single huge cluster of germ cells. The cluster consists of several oocyte that are linked in a common ovarioles, The ovary showed some remarkable changes in the insects treated with sub lethal concentration of mercury (25ppm for 48h). In treated ovaries the tunicapropri and other epithelial sheath of the terminal filament exhibited disintegration of oogonial cells, nutritive cord, trophocytes and cytoplasmic vacuolization.

  35. Anamika Sarmah and Biswas, S. P.

    Gelabeel is an oxbow lake of upper Assam. A wide range of fishing gears and methods are used by the fisher folk of the wetland. The survey results revealed that about 14 categories of fishing gears and methods are in use for fishing in Gelabeel. Use of fine meshed net, over exploitation of fish during festival seasons, use of poison are some of the harmful practices of fishing observed in the study area. ‘Katal mara’ or ‘jeng fishing’ is another destructive fishing technique observed during the study. These are potential threats to the fish biodiversity of the wetland.

  36. Radhika, R., Bijoy Nandan, S., Rithin Raj, M. and Sanu, V. F.

    Despite the importance of cyclopoid copepod community in the global carbon cycle, diversity studies on copepods in Lakshadweep islands have usually been concentrated on calanoid group and little is known about the marine cyclopoid groups. The seasonal abundance, diversity and community structure of cyclopoid copepods in Kavarathi atoll, from April 2013 (premonsoon), September 2013 (monsoon) and January 2014, is presented. A total of 28 cyclopoids belonging to 4 subgenera, 4 genera and 3 families were identified of which 21 are new records to Kavarathi lagoon. They are Corycaeus clausi, Corycaeus affinis, Corycaeus crassiusculus, Corycaeus speciosus, Corycaeus Agetus limbatus, Urocorycaeus furcifer, Onychocorycaeus catus, Onychocorycaeus agilis, Onychocorycaeus giesbrechti, Onychocorycaeus latus, Ditrichocoryceus andrewsi, Ditrichocoryceus asiaticus, Ditrichocoryceus dahli, Ditrichocoryceus tenius, Farranula concinna, Farranula gracilis, Farranula rostrata, Farranula curta, Oncaea clevei, Oncaea media and Oithona atlandica. The cyclopoid taxa of Kavarathi lagoon appear to exhibit increase in abundance during the post monsoon; taxa dominance and evenness seemed to be higher during monsoon. The community structure of cyclopoid copepods were also analyzed broadly in accordance with abundance as criterion for different seasons.

  37. Ada-Okungbowa, C. I. and Ugolor, D.

    The study assessed the effectiveness of the IFAD Community-Based Natural Resource Management Programme (CBNRMP) in the reduction of income inequality among beneficiaries in Edo Stale. The objectives were to determine the effectiveness of the programme in reducing income inequality among beneficiaries and examine constraints faced by the beneficiaries in the CBNRM programme. To achieve these objectives data were collected from 180 respondents, comprising 82 CBNRMP beneficiaries and 98 non beneficiaries, randomly selected from the three agro-ecological zones in the State as delineated by the Edo State Agricultural Development Programme (EADP). Structured questionnaire and interview schedule were employed as instruments for data collection. Data collected were analyzed using descriptive statistics such as tables, mean, frequency distribution, standard deviation as well as inferential statistics like Gini coefficient and student t-test. The study found that the programme was seen to have impacted positively and significantly (t = 10.89; p<0.05) on beneficiaries' income with their without and with CBNRMP income being N281,119.01 and N421.095.73 respectively. Similarly, beneficiaries' average farm income (N421,195.73) was found to be significantly (t = 4.11; p<0.05) higher than that of non-beneficiaries (N263,008.21). The Gini coefficient obtained for both groups were 0.798 and 0.791 respectively indicating that there is high level of income inequality among the different groups which implies that the programme did not reduce income inequality among farmers in any significant way. Two major factors found to be of great concern, to CBNRM programme beneficiaries were lack of insurance against crop/livestock failure (mean score = 4.01) and the small size of loan given (mean score= 3.50). It was recommended that there is need for an upward review of the loan volume granted beneficiaries to enable them expand their enterprise and meet their production costs as well.

  38. Padmapriya, R., Meena, P. and Dr. Thirunalasundari, T.

    The waste water discharged from distilleries unit after processing is called distilleries effluent. In a developing country like India distilleries have become a major source of pollution as 88% of its raw materials are converted into waste and discharged into the water bodies, causing water pollution. Though there are many methods to treat polluted waste water and effluent biobased treatment is considered to be the best because of its low cost and simplicity. Hence an attempt was made in this study to treat distillery effluent with plant material. The distillery effluent was collected from M/s. Trichy Distilleries Chemicals Pvt Limited, located in Senthaneerpuram, Tiruchirappalli and its physicochemical characters were analysed by standard methods. Before treatment the sample was undesirable in its physicochemical and biological properties. Distillery effluent treated with Phyllanthus emblica wood altered the physicochemical properties. The results suggest that the effluent after treatment with Phyllanthus emblica can be used for agricultural purpose particularly for irrigation.

  39. Balaperiasamy, B., Parveez Ahamed, A., Thajuddin, N. and Panneerselvam, A.

    Aqueous (AEHW) and Methanol (MEHW) extracts of Hypericum wightianum was prepared in different dilutions and screened for antibacterial activity against 4 gram negative and 4 gram positive pathogens. The antibacterial activity of extracts (100, 50, 25 and 12.5%) was evaluated using a standard well assay method. The MEHW showed good antibacterial activity comparing to that of AEHW and MEHW also exhibited higher activity upon gram positive pathogens than gram negative pathogens tested.

  40. Sanghpriya Gautam, Pandey, S. N. and Srivastava, M. N.

    Nickel (Ni) is an indispensable micronutrient for plants. At higher concentration Ni becomes toxic for various plant species. Black gram (Vigna mungo L.) seed was grown on different concentration of Ni to study its toxic effect on seedling growth and biochemical parameters. The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of nickel on photosynthetic pigment, protein and sugar content and catalase activity in black gram leaves. One day old seedlings of black gram were subjected to different concentrations of nickel sulphate (0.01, 0.5, 5 and 50 ppm) every alternate day with nutrient solution. Plants were harvested after 15th days for determined photosynthetic pigment, protein and sugar content and enzymes activities. In growth parameters i.e. radical and plumule length, fresh weight and dry weights were also found to increase with further decrease in concentration of Ni up to 5 ppm in crop. The tolerance in Vigna mungo with respect to physiological attributes (chlorophyll a, b and total; protein and sugar content; catalase activity) were increased with decrease in concentration of Ni upto 5 ppm, whereas, these parameters were increase with further decrease in Ni concentration (50 ppm).

  41. Asaad M. Ridha Al-Taee, Muhammad A. Fayadh and Mustafa S. Mahdi

    In this study, 24 local isolates of Pseudomonas fluorescens have been isolatedfrom soil of different agricultural areas during the period from January to February 2011. The bacteria were identified using biochemical tests and the isolates were tested for their ability to produce secondary metabolites. The secondary metabolites have been identified using gas chromatography mass spectrophotometry (GC-MS), which revealed the four compounds as: (E) dodec-3-ene M.W. 168.32 Dalton, (R )-2 ((s)-amino-4-methylpentanamido)- 4-methypentanoic acid M.W. 24433 Dalton, (s)-hexahydropyrrolo (1,2-a)pyrazine-14-dione M.W. 154017 Dalton, and 3-isobutylhexahydropyrrolo(1,2-a)pyrazine -1,4-dione M. W. 210.27 Dalton. The first two compounds have been isolatedfor first time.

  42. M. S. Hossain and M. M. Hossain

    A study was conducted to know the variation in the effects of various tillage methods on growth and growth components and the cost of production of wheat cultivation. The methods of tillage studied were zero tillage with residue management and without residue management, bed planting and compared with conventional practice. Number of tiller plant-1 was 4.4, 3.36, 2.44 and 1.3 and plant height was 44.15, 43.42, 39.8 and 36.3cm in zero tillage with mulching, zero tillage without mulching, bed and conventional method respectively. Intensity of weed growth is higher in bed than conventional method and lower in zero tillage with mulching. Panicle length was 7.3 in conventional method and nearly same and above 9.5 in the other methods. Economic yield was 3.312 t ha-1, 3.127 t ha-1, 3.097 t ha-1 and 2.59 t ha-1 and biological yield was 5.246 t ha-1, 4.940 t ha-1, 4.128 t ha-1 and 4.501 t ha-1 and harvest index was 0.631, 0.633, 0.750 and 0.575 in the method of zero tillage without mulching, zero tillage with mulching, bed and conventional respectively. Cultivation cost was 31751 Tk. ha-1, 28789 TK. ha-1, 29258 Tk. ha-1 and 32817 Tk. ha-1 and benefit cost ratio was 2.34, 2.76, 2.57 and 1.89 in the method of bed, zero tillage without mulching, zero tillage with mulching, and conventional respectively. The cost saved by the method of bed, zero tillage without mulching and zero tillage with mulching were 3.4%, 14% and 12.2% respectively compared with conventional method but the highest return obtained from zero tillage without mulching method. So the better wheat cultivation method is zero tillage method without residue management, followed by zero tillage with residue management method, bed planting method and the conventional method of cultivation.

  43. Dhinesh, P., Rajaram, R., Mathivanan, K., Vinothkumar, S. and Ramalingam, V.

    The present study aims to analyze the monthly variations of heavy metals like Cu, Cd, Zn and Pb in water and sediment samples collected from Cuddalore coast during January to December 2011. The result showed that the accumulation of heavy metals in sediments was higher than the water due to the metal sink in sediment as well as the fresh water runoff. The Cuddalore coast receives the waste from SIPCOT industries, municipal wastes, mining wastes, aquaculture and agricultural discharges are the sources to pollute the study area. The availability of metals in water samples increased in the order: Cu

  44. Thangarasu Silambarasan and Boobalan Raja

    The present study was designed to evaluate the antihypertensive and antihyperlipidemic effect of sinapic acid (SA), a phenolic acid against Nω-nitro-L arginine methyl ester hydrochloride (L-NAME) induced hypertension in male Wistar rats. Hypertension was induced by oral administration of L-NAME (40 mg/kg body weight (bw)) in drinking water for 4 weeks. Rats were treated with SA (10, 20 and 40 mg/kg bw) for four weeks. L-NAME treated rats showed significant increase in heart rate and water intake. The activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT) and glutathione peroxidase (GPx) were decreased in erythrocytes of L-NAME rats. L-NAME rats showed significant increase in the levels of lipids such as total cholesterol (TC), triglycerides (TG), free fatty acids (FFA) and significant decrease in the level of phospholipids (PL) in heart and aorta. Histopathological examination of heart and aortic tissues confirmed the pathological changes induced by hypertension. Above pathological changes were considerably restored with the treatment of sinapic acid. These results suggest that SA acts as an antihypertensive and antihyperlipidemic agent against L-NAME induced hypertension.

  45. Ramakotti, P., Vaidehi, J. and Yogalakshmi, K.

    Prawns contain good amount of organic and inorganic constituents. The major constituents are protein, carbohydrate and lipid. The proximate composition including moisture, fat and protein ash are good indicators of physiological condition of an organism. However, quantities of these constituents vary considerably within and between species with respect to size, sexual condition, feeding season and physical activity. In such an attempt, the present study was focussed to study the effect of thermal pollution on the proximate composition of the chosen tissues of the giant prawn,Macrobrachiumrosenbergii, collected from three different stations of Mettur freshwater ecosystem during various months from January to December, 2013. All the constituents were found to be higher at station III and lower at station I. whereas, the constituents were higher during the months January, February and March, 2013 and lower during April, May and June, 2013. Moisture (%) was observed to be the maximum component followed by protein (%) and lipid (%) was in the minimum level. The results were discussed in detail.

  46. Arul Selvi, A. and Kalai Arasu, S.

    The comparative evaluation of different bioformulations, viz., vegetative cell application, co-inoculation and co-aggregates application of efficient PGPR cells viz., Pseudomonas fluorescens (PF.3) and Bacillus polymyxa (B.19), together with challenge inoculation of Pyricularia oryzae on the enhancement of induced systemic resistance (ISR) in Rice. Pyricularia oryzae pathosystem was studied under pot culture condition with rice cv. ASD.19. It was observed that the application of Pseudomonas fluorescens and Bacillus polymyxa, as coaggregates, altered the biochemical and physiological parameters viz., reducing and nonreducing sugars, total phenol content and defense enzymes activities such as perocidase (PO), polyphenol oxidase (PPO), of rice plant to a significant livel followed by co inoculation and vegetative cell application of PGPR cells. The application of PGPR cells, as coaggregates, was found to augment the total phenol content and defense enzyme activities such as PO and PPO content of rice plant to a higher level whereas a reduction in reducing and nonreducing sugar level was recorded, which ultimately lead to a reduction of Pyricularia oryzae incidence in upland rice. It has been postulated that the EPS biosynthesis of PGPR cells during co aggregation processes might act as elicitor for the enhancement of ISR in Rice Pyricularia oryzae pathosystem whereas the vegetative cells and coinoculation processes, without any involvement of EPS, responded poorly for the enhancement of ISR in the same pathosystem.

  47. Firas Mahmood Hady

    Adjusting the calculation related with the parameters that control the physical behaviors for the fusion phenomena occurs in the controlled thermonuclear fusion reactions needs to fix a very suitable and compatible data or formula for the common factor such as cross sections and/or astrophysical S-factor that play important rules for arriving in acceptable theoretical results for other parameters that give a good agreement with corresponding experimental data.

  48. Rakesh, T., Dr. Madhusudhan, V. and Dr. Sushama, M.

    This paper compares three converter topologies for the implementation of custom power flexible ac transmission system (FACTS)controllers, (DSTATCOM): three multilevel topologies (multipoint clamped (MPC) or Diode clamped multilevel converter (DCMLC), chain or flying capacitor (FCMLI), and nested cell or H –Bridge or Cascaded multilevel). In keeping with the need to implement high-power inverters, switching frequency is restricted to line frequency. The study addresses device count, restrictions on voltage control. The proposed medium voltage distribution static compensator (DSTATCOM), with high voltage power semiconductor modules and series& shunt booster transformer, is designed to protect sensitive loads at power distribution systems. A control technique based on voltage and current vectors also proposed for custom power devices. Experimental results carried out by using computer program (MATLAB/Simulink) to validate the performance of the DSTATCOM models. Simulation results show the performance of the proposed medium voltage custom power devices and prove the validity of the proposed topologies. Conclusion drawn from simulation studies and comparison has done for the topologies for applications of custom power devices.

  49. Sanjeeva Rao, V. and Dr. Sanker Ram, B. V.

    Stability of power system is an important factor in electric system operation. In this paper, power system stabilizer (PSS) based on four controllers were implemented on a single machine infinite bus system for attaining stability. Four controllers used were PI, PD, PID and lead-lag. Then a comparison study was done with the above controllers. These results were simulated in MATLAB. Each controller has its own advantages and disadvantages. The comparative study was done for speed deviations, load angle deviations and terminal voltage deviations. Then the lead-lag controller was tuned using Particle Swarm Optimization method and was optimized.

  50. George Rowland Otoko

    Engineering properties of an extremely soft marine clay (locally known as Chikoko) were determined using tap water and compared with its properties when Oyorokoto sea water is used. Test results show considerable improvement in its properties when sea water is used. There was a reduction in plasticity index, free swell value, swell pressure and in the maximum dry unit weight, while the unsoaked CBR and optimum moisture content increased. There was however no significant improvement in the unconfined compressive strength (UCS).

  51. Nuha Mahmoud Ibrahim

    The Gain flattened EDFA plays a major role for modern WDM optical application. Use of a Low Pass Cosine Roll OFF Filter and tuning numerical aperture and fiber length for a specific pump power optimizes the gain flattening. The design is simulated using OPTISYSTEM software. The gains are flattened within 29.61dB-30.401dB from 1546nm-1558nm band of wavelength with noise figure (NF) < 5.5dB and bit error rate (BER) <10-36for 16 channel simultaneous amplification in a single stage EDFA.

  52. Nuha Mahmoud Ibrahim and Dr. Amin Abubaker

    As the optical signal travels in a fiber waveguide, it suffers attenuation (loss of power). For very long fiber spans, the optical signal may be so attenuated that it becomes too weak to excite reliably the (receiving) photo detector, however the signal may be detected at an expected low bit error rate (-10-9 to _10- 11). To reach destinations that are hundreds of kilometers away, the optical power level of the signal must be periodically conditioned. Optical amplifiers are key devices that reconstitute the attenuated optical signal, thus expanding the effective fiber span between the data source and the destination.

  53. Raj Narayan and Dr. S.K. Singh

    In spite of research work in last few years, much information still lacks in our knowledge about migration. Expectancy table procedure gives the expectancy of various demographic events such as to determine the probable life time earnings of a person in a given industry or in a given occupation. Expectancy tables of migration gives information on the expected number of moves a person may make during his remaining life time. In the present study, we have tried to find out the pattern of migration expectancy characterized by age. We randomly selected six villages (three from remote and three from semi-urban villages) from 14 villages included in the RDPG. The sample included a total of 1300 households from 6 villages by complete household enumeration. The data of this study has been collected by personal interview method and migration record including questions on the present age, education, marital status, occupation, year of migration, place of migration, reasons of migration, remittances, etc. for each migrated person of the households. Findings reveal that migration expectancy is found to be increasing as the age increases in remote as well in semi-urban villages. However, the migration expectancy for male living in remote villages is higher in each age-group compared to semi-urban villages. Despite of that migration expectancy increases up to the age-group 45-49 years and then follows a declining pattern in both types of villages but higher in remote villages compared to semi-urban villages.

  54. Ilirjana Boci, Eldi Liço, Xhuljeta Hamiti and Sonila Vito

    Implementation of Good Agricultural Practices, establishing MRL for each combination agricultural crop/pesticide and determination of PHI, is an extensive process involving a lot of interested parties, such as agriculture scientists, analytical chemists, farmers, representatives of legislative and executive bodies, etc. All countries should be responsible for implementation of this process in order to prevent agricultural products with pesticides residues content higher than established MRL enter in food chain guaranteeing that safety standards are met and GAP have been applied in using pesticide formulations in agricultural crops. This paper describes the determination of dissipation rate of λ-Cyhalothrin, the active ingredient of insecticide Karate 2.5EC, used in grapes. The field samples have been submitted to analytical procedure in order to determine PHI. Normal and double dose have been used and one treatment for each dose has been applied followed by sampling successive days after the application. The AOAC analytical method was used to determine first the recovery coefficients of λ-Cyhalothrin in grapes in three different concentration levels. Later, the samples of grapes sprayed with Karate 2.5EC have been submitted to analytical procedure of sample processing, extraction, selective partition and quantitative determination using a GC-μ/ECD. The results obtained were compared to the Maximum Residues Limit (MRL) for λ-Cyhalothrin in grapes and PHI was determined.

  55. Dr. Shama M. Mulla and Dr. Chhaya H. Desai

    The present paper describes and studies the flow of two immiscible fluids in a cylindrical porous medium. Initially, the porous medium is partially filled with oil and then water is passed through it. Since oil and water are non-mixing nature of fluids, the instabilities occur at the interface. In this paper, the phenomenon of instabilities in the polyphasic flow through homogeneous porous medium is discussed under the assumption of mean capillary pressure. The resulting governing equation is a linear partial differential equation which gives the saturation of water at any point in the cylinder at any time. The analytical solution has been obtained using two different methods - the Laplace transform and the similarity solutions via infinitesimal Lie group of transformations. The solution is also analysed graphically.

  56. Sudarsanam, D., Alex Mathew, J., Kousikka, M. M., Thulasi Bai, K., Praveena, P.

    Allergy is a steadily increasing health problem for all age groups all over the world. Food allergies mostly against milk, eggs, peanut, soya bean, wheat, nuts, fruits, grass and pollens affect all age groups. Soya bean a member of the legume family, has universal distribution. Both the oil and the flour are used in many sorts of foods as it contains all the essential amino acids required by the human physiology. People allergic to soya and cross reactivity between the members of same family are likely to raise symptoms like excessive diarrhea, loss of appetite, gastro intestinal obstructions, itching, asthma, shortness of breath, muscular fatigue etc. The proteins sequence homologies have been used to identify prospective cross reactivity of the expressed protein belongs to such a family, it may be considered to have a higher probability to be an allergenic protein, and can be subsequently used in tracing the foods which contain the same type of protein/ amino acids. The outcome can be extrapolated in other food items for their allergenicity, cross reactivity, side effects etc. Incorporating this technique in the field of food technology can even enable in formulating food stuffs, specific for particular allergic individuals and thus facilitate allergic free diets.

  57. Manesh Choubey

    The present study is an attempt to undertake the task of verifying the various factors influencing the production of pulses but especially it focuses on Area due to the availability of the data. Hence Production relation revealed that the production of pulses mainly depends on area since from many decades. Though India is a major pulses growing country in the world, it has faced the problem of supply and demand gap in pulses since mid seventies. Depending on the domestic short fall in pulses production stagnant production and ever increasing population has lead to declining per capita availability of pulses over the years. Growth trends in production of pulses suggest that area under cultivation has not been able to bring desired increase in production of pulses so as to meet increasing demand. The Government has focused on improving pulse production through various programmes and prices support policies but no significant progress has so far been observed since from the above analysis growth rate of production of pulses is found to be negative. Some of the factors discouraging pulses sector are stagnation in production, poor area expansion, low yield and relative low profitability, decrease in per capita land availability, increase in demand-supply gap, heavy dependence on imports, inefficient marketing, etc.

  58. Dr. J. Anuradha and Dr. GopalSamy, S.

    Foreign direct investment (FDI) plays a very important role in the economic development of our country. Many development countries like India are facing the deficit of saving. This problem can be solved with the help of foreign direct investment. In this article an analysis is made to find out the merits and demerits of foreign direct investment in India. Oppositions have raised concerns about employment losses, promotion of unhealthy competition among organized small domestic retailers from the market and distortion of culture development. It also Covers brief determinants of foreign direct investment and emphasizes the area of challenges of foreign investors. The growth of FDI inflows and sectoral growth is also analysed.

  59. Vadivelu, S. and Dr. Kadirvelu, S.

    While the policies of the external agents of development place emphasis on building institutions to assist the poor and women, the practice – oriented reality has to deal with the structural barriers that people, women and the organizations face. Though micro enterprises are Nat a panacea for the chronic problems of unemployment and poverty, yet income generating activity is a viable and effective strategy for achieving significant gains in incomes and assets of even the poorest among the poor. Objectives of the study, to examine the perceptions of women SHG members regarding reasons for selection of particular Income Generating Activity, marketing of products and their expectations. Methodology of the study, The list of Self Help Group income generating ventures was collected personally from the District Mahalir Thittam office. From the list a number of identified. There are 2000 ventures functioning in this District out of which 200 are selected on simple random basis, which constitute 10 per cent of the population. Among the 200 ventures there are127 who undertake service activities, 73 are engaged in manufacturing & trading activities. It is suggested, Priority should be given to SHG women income generating activities while preparing the budget allocation by local self – Government. Government should sanction sufficient of loan and subsidy; then only SHGs can do business on large scale. Conclude this study, Thus promotion of income generation activities through micro credit among self help group women, no doubt ensures their economic independence and social status.

  60. Herry Achmad Buchory

    The aim of this study was to analyze the factors that affect the implementation of banking intermediation include Capital and Profitability. The methods used are descriptive and verificative, with secondary data from financial statements all over 26 Indonesian Regional Development Banks as a research object’s units. Data analysis technique is the multiple linear regression, hypothesis testing while using t - test to examine the effect of partial variables and test - F to examine the effect of variables simultaneously with a significance level of 5 %.Based on the results it is concluded that partial CARhave negative effect but no significant effects on LDR. While the ROAhas positiveand significant effect to LDR. Simultaneously CAR and ROA significantly influence the level of influence of LDR with 34.9% and the remaining 65.10% thought to be influenced by other variable not examined in this study.

  61. Suaad K. Abd_Al_wahab, Zeina.G. Fadeel and Mohammed A. Farhan

    This study emphasizes the predictive ability of aquatic plant as bio monitoring agents of water exposure to pollutants (especially heavy metals) in some rivers passes through Jallawla, Hemrin and Al- Wajeehia cities in Diyala province, Iraq. Chemical profiling of five heavy metals (Fe, Ni, Co, Cd, Pb) was under taken in tissues of two aquatic plants (Ceratophyllum demersum and Myriophyllam spicatum). The sample was collected during November and December 2013. Concentrations of these elements was determine using atomic absorption spectrophotometer. The result showed that the concentration of Fe , Ni , and Co were 7.597 ppm , 0.773 ppm and 0.428 ppm, respectively while the study was not recorded any concentration for Cd and Pb in all studied area.

  62. Hamid Iqbal

    Multiculturalism is the social hallmark of both developed and developing nations. Countries having a large population, big geographical landscape, diverse flora and fauna such as USA, Canada, Russia, India, and China have also multicultural societies. These countries are not only accommodated their socially diverse groups with great harmony but also integrate them into mainstream national development. Basically plural and multicultural societies are characterized by the existence of multiple ethnic and others socio-cultural groups within the same country or nation-state. As far as social mosaic of India is concerned though it can say that it has evolved over centuries, through a process of assimilation and amalgamation of the diverse cultural influxes coming from central and northwestern Asia as well as European continent. This paper seeks to an attempt about India’s socio- cultural diversity and how this diversity draws it strength and sustenance from India’s composite culture.

  63. Kamal Kumar, M.

    Capacity building is often referred to mean training to advance individual knowledge, in some cases introducing new infrastructure, or quite often exposing staff to better environment through study to improve resource management skills and capabilities. Geoinformatics broadly includes mapping and surveying techniques, remote sensing, photogrammetry, cartography, Global Positioning Systems (GPS) and Geographical Information Systems (GIS). With its unique ability for acquisition, integration and analysis of geographically referenced spatial information, this technology has in recent times been recognized as an effective tool for planning, management and decision making locally and globally. Well articulated policy mechanisms, Government support and the ever increasing domestic demand would go a long way in popularizing geospatial technology in India and bring it into the mainstream an aid for effective governance and developmental planning. The development of geoinformatics over the last two decades and with that the growing awareness of the role of Geospatial data infrastructure (GDI) in civil society imply that professionals of different types are required by organisations involved in the production, dissemination and use of Geospatial information (GI) and with policy development with respect to the roles of the public and private sector in this field. This is a global development, but the different regions and individual countries of the world have to formulate their own ideas and concepts how to deal with this issue, because Geospatial data infrastructure (GDI)’s should be adapted to regional and local context. Advances in space and information technologies have positively impacted on critical capacity globally through availability of geospatial information technology tools. To be fully utilized however, the space and information technologies must be understood by skilled manpower in India to tackle the major challenges in spatial data management. In India, the majority of the professionals and technicians in different organisations involved in geospatial information activities have not been making full use of data and tools to manage and alleviate the consequences in planning and management of natural resources for sustainable development. due to low proficiency in the space technologies. Today there is increasing demands of well-trained staff at all levels, to face the main challenges of spatial data management and urgent situation response. Therefore, it became necessary to provide training and capacity-building in the use of space and information technologies for different levels of professionals involved in spatial data management. This is for the benefit of communities affected by different kinds spatial problems . It will involve exchanges and communication between experts and development partners on one hand, and experts and local communities who must also understand and value the use of space technologies to solve their problems, on the other hand. This paper examines the constraints for manpower development in space- and geo-spatial information technology to tackle numerous situations occurring in India.(flood, drought, windstorm, wild fire, famine, epidemic, etc...). This study also investigated the challenges and successes of geospatial technologies capacity-building programme carried out , designed for technical and managerial staff working on projects. Assessment of the training programme revealed that basic mapping skills could be successfully transferred to the project staff; giving them the capacity to use geospatial technology to better plan, design, implement and evaluate their projects. The role of capacity-building by training institutions like the Indian Institute of Space Science and Technology (IIST), Indian Institute of Remote Sensing (IIRS), National Natural Resources Management System (NNRMS) in improving the situation and facing the main challenges is emphasized and case studies presented.

  64. Awojobi, Oladayo Nathaniel

    The introduction of Microfinance Institutions (MFIs) in some Asian countries and the subsequent impact of the scheme on poverty reduction prompted the Nigerian government in 2005 to replicate microfinance scheme in Nigeria as a strategy for poverty reduction. This paper investigates the impact of MFIs in Nigeria. A total of 40 respondents comprising 30 females and 10 males were interviewed through questionnaires. From the investigations, the paper found that microcredit from MFIs impacted positively on clients in the areas of income, employment and household well-being. However, this study was on a smaller magnitude. As a result of this, the study cannot be generalized in the logical term which prompted the paper to call for holistic appraisal of MFIs as a strategy for poverty reduction.

  65. Wafaa Sabri Mahood, Muhaamed Ibraheem Nadir and Khalid Tobal

    There are multiple potential uses for cfDNA in cancer diagnosis and prognosis for example, cfDNA can be used to detect somatic alterations when biopsies are not available. It may also represent a valuable source of tumor DNA when the exact position of a suspected primary lesion is not clearly defined. Aside from these clinical applications, cfDNA may also represent a very important source of biomarkers in population-based studies. The fact that cfDNA can be obtained without invasive or painful procedures makes it particularly. We aimed to detected if there is any mutations in KRAS as genetic marker could be find in plasma samples from Iraqi patients as early diagnosis and compared the results with match tumor. Material and methods: Plasma samples for this study were collected in addition tumor tissue was collected via biopsy from 18 patients at early diagnosis of colorectal cancer. DNA was extracted from frozen tumor tissue and cfDNA was extracted from the plasma samples. KRAS mutations were detected by High Resolution Melting (HRM). Results: There is (33%) of patients tumour tissue with KRAS mutation in codon 12, KRAS mutation in sequencing analysis was successful only in (7%) of the plasma-extracted cfDNA sample which didn't mutate in the matched tumor. Conclusion: We found it is unlikely that circulating mutant DNA measurements be used to reliably monitor tumor diagnostic and monitoring potential of detecting of KRAS oncogene in plasma from Iraqi patients as early diagnosis based on the fact that we were unable to detect such DNA in plasma and match tumor tissue.

  66. Dr. Antanas Janušauskas

    This paper is part of a larger study into university education for police managers and presents the preliminary findings of the study. The article strives to disclose the higher police education at the Faculty of Public Security Mykolas Romeris University in Lithuania. The trends and developments in higher police education in Lithuania have generally confirmed the principal challenges identified in the Bologna Declaration – standardizes and integrates the Lithuanian education in the European Higher Education Area. Higher education can best assist police, in their great social work, by working with them to design, develop, deliver and evaluate full-fledged philosophies of police education. On this basis, all university programs have a strong focus on basic skills education. In management education in particular, this relies on the development, or at least the articulation, of normative and interrelated models of society and its police, and on the identification of empirically justifiable dispositions for practice and methods for teaching.

  67. Dr. Prasenjit Deb

    Training is the process of teaching or learning the skills you need to be a teacher in a school. This article studies the effectiveness of training on Male Primary Teachers of West Bengal during the period of Sarva Siksha Avijaan (SSA). It uses a feature of the Primary Education system in which some teachers have been receiving different training during District Primary Education Programme (1997-2002) and Sarva Siksha Avijan (2002-2014). Four categories of teachers are included in the sample viz. experienced trained teachers, experienced untrained primary teachers, trained novice teachers and untrained novice teachers. To identify the effects, we use structured schedule containing thirteen independent variables viz. age of teacher(X1), education of teacher(X2), resourcefulness(X3), size of family(X4), distance from the school(X5), number of leave enjoyed last year(X6), social cosmopoliteness(X7), status of TL materials used (X8), training limitation(X9), feedback response from training(X10), attitude towards training(X11), suggestion towards improvement of training programmes(X12), and improvement of academic environment through training(X13) against dependent variable training effectiveness index(Y). The findings are: (1) variables like education of teacher(X2), social cosmopoliteness(X7), status of TL materials used (X8), training limitation(X9), and feedback response from training(X10) had significant bearing on training effectiveness index(Y) and (2) variables like training limitation(X9), and feedback response from training(X10) have been found to exercise significant regressional effect on the training effectiveness index.

  68. Nandwa J.Musambayi

    The research undertook an econometric analysis of Nurturing Entrepreneurship in Kenya through Training of Intellectual Property (I.P.) in Universities using the classical or traditional methodology of econometrics (Gujarati and Porter, 2009). The econometrics methodology proceeds along the following lines: statement of theory or hypothesis, specification of the mathematical model of the theory, specification of the statistical or econometric model, obtaining the data, estimation of the parameters of the econometric model, forecasting or prediction, using the model for control or policy purposes.From the study results it can be concluded that indeed entrepreneurial growth is not only caused by Intellectual Property related factors but may be due to a combination of other factors.It means the study was not exhaustive enough to include other factors that contribute to growth in entrepreneurship in universities.

  69. Mohammed A. Sadiq and Rosli B. Mahmood

    The need for excellence in the satisfaction of stakeholders to an organisation had gained momentum in the last three decades. Initial emphasis had been on manufacturing sectors but later emphasis extended to service sectors like higher education institutions. To achieve this excellence and achieve world class status, transformational leadership had been seen to triger organisational excellence. Studies on organisation excellence in higher education institution had been concentrated in foreign European, American, Asian and few African countries. The problems of inefficiency of higher education institutions in Nigeria are many. This article reviews previous researches on the impact of transformational leadership on organisational excellence. It thereby stated the implications of these impacts and how transformastional leadership can ensure organisational excellence in higher education institutions in Nigeria for them to become world class institutions.

  70. Syiral Abdullah, Alizae Marny Mohamed, Tuti Ningseh Mohd Dom

    Objectives: This study aims to determine the prevalence of various premolar positions and to identify the interach features that are associated with these variations. Materials and Methods: Using a cross-sectional epidemiological study design, individuals meeting the selection criteria were randomly selected from the 15-35 years old Malaysian population. Dental impressions of 1000 subjects were obtained using alginate and poured into dental casts. Clinical data of the premolar positions and interarch features were made using these dental casts. Chi-square tests were performed to compare the prevalence rates among the positional variations of premolars. Results: A total of 4000 maxillary and 4000 mandibular premolar (N=8000) positions were observed in 1000 patients. Normal position accounted for majority of the premolars (59%), followed by those that were rotated (32.4%), displaced (6.9%), impacted (1.2%), unerupted (0.3%) and congenitally missing (0.2%). The left mandibular first premolars positions were mostly significantly associated (P<0.05) with all of the interarch features variables measured. Associations were noted with incisor relationships (p=0.004, Table 4), canine relationships (p=0.011, Table 5), molar relationships (P=0.043, Table 6), overjet (p=0.016, Table 7) and overbite (p=0.046, Table 8). Conclusion: The variations of premolar position shows significant association with interarch features; incisor, canine and molar classifications, as well as overjet and overbite.

  71. Arun Ghosh

    Objective: 1) Aim of knowing the incidence of Human rabies. 2) To assess the level of consciousness on wound treatment. 3) Also to assess the attitude, knowledge, regarding treatment, vaccination and other parameters of rabies. 4) To study the yearly trend of rabies among different age and sex groups. 5) Observe the exposure site of bite and time taken to develop rabies from the day of exposure. Methods: The study was designed on the basis of epidemiological and clinical evaluation among the admitted rabies cases in communicable Disease Center, B.R. Ahmedkar Hospital, District Govt. Hospital, West Tripura during the year 1995 -2000. Results: A total of 127 human Rabies cases were reported in the last 5 years between 1995 to 2000.out of this, 67% are male and predominantly seen among 0-19 years of age. All bites are belonging to street dog only. 66% cases had exposure to lower limb (mostly) and the rest is on upper limb and head and neck. 88% of the rabies of the cases is having no treatment etc. Only 3% cases had regular ARV vaccination and 8 % were irregular, incomplete vaccination. 3.14% cases of rabies patient shows vaccine failure. About 43.30% cases developed rabies symptom and sign from the day of exposure between 30-90 days and rest 34.64% cases were in between 121 -365 days. 78% (1 case) had exceptional history of development of rabies after 17 years from the date of exposure.

  72. Marwa S. H. Saeed and Mahdi H. A. Abdalla

    Hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection is a common global public health problem. HCV is considered as the main cause of chronic liver diseases. In patients with liver disease, substantial changes within the haemostatic system are frequently observed. This study aimed to evaluate haemostatic changes among chronic liver disease patients due to hepatitis C infection in Sudan. The study included 97 patients, their fibrinogen levels, PT, APTT, TT, platelets count and liver function tests were measured and compared with 50 healthy subjects as controls. Mean fibrinogen level (443.37±59.00 mg/dl), mean PT (24.22±9.09 seconds), mean APTT (43.60±4.48 seconds) and mean TT (23.09±6.11 seconds) were significantly higher among patients than the controls (p 0.000 for each parameter). Mean platelets count (100.89±29.26X109/L) was significantly low among patients, when compared with the controls (p value 0.000). The study showed a significant association between fibrinogen levels and ALP (p value 0.043). There was no significant association between fibrinogen level and the other liver function tests. In conclusion, our study observed haemostatic changes with higher fibrinogen level, lower platelets count and prolonged PT, APTT and TT among the study group than the controls.

  73. Dr. SreeRamulu, P. N., Dr. D. Srinivasan, Dr. Sangamesh and Dr. Prashanthk Dhannur

    A female child of 12 years presenting with cystic swelling in the left arm for the past two months the differential diagnosis eg.LymphangiomaHaemartomas’, liquefied lipoma lastly Cysticercosis was discussed .MRI of the arm revealed Cysticercosis.

  74. Enass A. M. Khalid and Mahdi H. A. Abdalla

    Cardiovascular complications account for nearly 50% of deaths in type 2 diabetes mellitus. Several studies reported that haemostatic factor especially hyperfibrinogenemia is implicated as a source of atherosclerosis and its complications. This study aimed to determine fibrinogen level among type 2 diabetic Sudanese patients with coronary arterial diseases (CAD). Following informed consent, 150 subjects were enrolled: 50 known type 2 diabetic patients with stable coronary arterial disease; 50 known type 2 diabetic patients without history of heart disease and 50 healthy individual as controls. Fibrinogen level was measured by Clauss modified method. HbA1c was measured by "boronate binding assay (using NycoCard Kit). Fibrinogen level was found to be significantly higher in diabetic patients with CAD compared with diabetic patients without CAD (p-value 0.001), with no difference between males and females. Fibrinogen levels were significantly associated with HbA1c levels (p value 0.000) and the duration of diabetes (p value 0.048). Our study concluded that fibrinogen level is higher among type 2 diabetic patients with CAD than diabetic patients without CAD. The elevation of fibrinogen level was significantly associated with uncontrolled diabetes.

  75. Sandeep Kaur, Mr. Anurag B. Patidar, Mrs. Meenakshi, Dr. Sangeeta Girdhar and Dr. (Mrs.) Jasbir Kaur

    Introduction: Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is one of the most common childhood onset psychiatric disorders that affect 2.0 – 14.0% of school age children. The World Health Report 2001 estimated that 10% to 20% of children experience one or more mental health problems. Children with mental health problems are also at risk of later psychopathic conditions. Maternal employment and time spent with children is assumed to be important as the time mothers spend with children has a significant impact on congenital developments and overall well-being of children. Aims and Objectives: We conducted a cross sectional survey to assess the prevalence of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder among school children of working and non-working mothers. Methods: A Quantitative Research approach and Non-Experimental Comparative research design was used to assess the prevalence of ADHD among school children of working and non-working mothers in selected schools of Ludhiana, Punjab. Using simple random sampling technique a sample of 120 school children including 60 school children of working mothers and 60 school children of non-working mothers aging 6 – 12 years were selected. Parents of these children studying in selected schools were informed regarding the study and after taking consent; children were assessed for presence of ADHD using Vanderbilt ADHD Diagnostic Teacher Rating Scale. Results: The findings of the present study reveals that the prevalence of ADHD among school children of working mothers was higher (33.33%) as compared to children of non-working mothers (23.33%) but the difference was not found to be statistically significant at p<0.05 level. Overall prevalence of ADHD was 28.33%.

  76. Sreeraj Gopi, Robin George and 2Sriraam, V. T.

    The hyalluronidases are a family of enzymes that degrade hyaluronic acid. Any ingredient that inhibits the hyaluronidases could serve as therapeutic targets in alleviating the age related functions. Curcumin was extensively used as an anti aging agent and in cosmetic creams. The main drawback of curcumin is its poor bio availability. This problem was encountered and made a novel bio available formulation known as “cureit”. The “cureit” was checked for its potential to inhibit hyaluronidase, and found that it was inhibiting hyaluronidases up to 42% so that “cureit” could be a useful anti aging medication.

  77. Abdolmajid Fadaei

    Pollution of ground and surface waters by nitrates is a widespread and serious global problem. The objective of this study was to evaluate of nitrate and nitrite in drinking water of some rural areas of Shahrekord, Iran. We collected 490 drinking water samples from49 villages in the rural areas of Shahrekord, Iran and analyzed them for NO3-N and NO2-N. Nitrate and nitrite ions were analyzed by Spectrophotometer 2100 UV-Vis, at 220 and543nm. The highest (29.94±4.2 4mg/L) and lowest (9.82±2.6 mg/L) concentrations of nitrate in duration 5years were belonged to Sartashnez and Qaraqush, respectively. The highest (0.069±0.004mg/L) and lowest (0.005±0.001mg/L) concentrations of nitrite in duration 5years were belonged to Shurab-eShagir and Salm, respectively. The results obtained for the nitrate and nitrite indicated that the 49 areas are below the limits allowed by Iran and WHO Standards.

  78. Amninder Kaur, Mr. Anurag B Patidar and Dr. (Mrs) Jasbir Kaur

    Students come into nursing education with inherent lay beliefs of nursing that evolve over years of education, enabling them to be professionally socialized into nursing career. The study was carried out to compare the perception of newly admitted and outgoing B. Sc (N) students towards nursing perception. Comparative research design was used in this study to compare the perception of newly admitted and outgoing B. Sc (N) students towards nursing perception. 250 newly admitted and 250 outgoing B. Sc (N) students were taken in study by total enumerative sampling technique from selected college of nursing, District Ludhiana, Punjab. Checklist on perception about nursing profession was given to students and method of data collection was self report. Results of study was found that there was slight variation in perception of outgoing B. Sc (N) students as compare to newly admitted B. Sc(N) students about nursing perception. The study concludes that nursing students perception have evolved over the four years of education and it may be influenced by numerous factors like vast clinical exposure, long durations of clinical postings, personal and cultural reasons that may results into change in perception of nursing students about profession and that may be the reason for variation in perception of outgoing B. Sc (N) students. The study recommends there should be provision of guidance and counselling services along with perception testing. Further cohort studies to assess the perception of undergraduate nursing students regarding nursing profession.

  79. Dr. Shubhangi Vithal Dhadke, Dr. Vithal Narayan Dhadke, Dr. Milind Bhausaheb Korade and Dr. Shashikala Anant Sangle

    Aims and Objectives: To study incidence, signs, symptoms, response to treatment & follow up of patients with thyroid disorders. Methods and Material: One hundred fifty patients of thyroid disorder are studied for signs, symptoms and investigations like thyroid function test, lipid profile, ECG, 2-D echo, USG neck. All patients are followed up after 2 months of treatment. Observations and Results: Thyroid disorders are common in females (80%). Ninty three patients (62%) are hypothyroid, 35 are hyperthyroid and 22 euthyroid patients having nodular disorder. Generalised weakness and lethargy is most common complaint in 51 (54.84%) and dry skin is most common finding in 46 (49.46%) hypothyroid patients. Tremulousness is most common complaint in 20(57.14%) and tremors is most common finding in 22(62.86%) hyperthyroid patients. Colloid goiter is most common ultrasound finding in 23 cases. There is statistically significant difference in level of TSH, FT-3 and FT-4 in hypothyroid and hyperthyroid patients after 2 months of treatment (p<0.01). and TSH suppression therapy. Conclusions: Thyroid disorders are very common in young and middle aged females. Hypothyroidism is treatable cause of weight gain, menstrual irregularities, infertility, pericardial effusion and dyslipidemias. High index of suspicion is required for thyroid disorders, in special population like young, middle aged females, pregnant females, patients with arrhythmias. Early Diagnosis, Prompt treatment, Regular follow up with thyroid function tests, accordingly change in treatment regimen and compliance to treatment have significant role in thyroid disorders and their prognosis.

  80. Sami S. Hemadi and Mahdi H. A. Abdalla

    While anticoagulants are useful in many circumstances, their use during pregnancy increases the risk of hemorrhage and other adverse effects, including heparin induced thrombocytopenia (HIT). This study aimed to determine the frequency of HIT among pregnant women receiving either unfractionated heparin (UFH) or low molecular weight heparin (L.W.W.H) in Sudan. The study included one hundred sixty five pregnant ladies who were received either UFH or low molecular weight heparin L.W.W.H for different indication, and have a normal platelets count (˃ 150 X 109/l) before the administration of heparin; who were admitted to Al-Dayat labour hospital, Sudan. Platelets count was performed in day 7 from heparin administration. Thrombocytopenia, with a platelets count ˂ 100 X 109/l, was observed among 10.3% (17/165) of the study group, all of them belong to UFH-related group, thus have HIT (type I or type II).We highlighted a high prevalence of HIT, regardless to the HIT type among the pregnant women who were received UFH in Sudan; therefore, it is important to recommend a routine monitoring of platelet counts and prompt investigation for the HIT antibody whenever there is a suspicion of HIT among such group in Sudan.

  81. Dr. Nalisha Mohamed Ramli and Dr. Siti Mazlipah Ismail

    Purpose of the Study: A retrospective cross sectional study to determine the recipient site outcome of alveolar bone grafting in cleft lip and palate patients. Material and Method: All patients operated between 1st January 1999 until 31st December 2009 who fulfilled the inclusion and exclusion criteria were included in this study. The recipient sites were the alveolus clefts. Medical records, radiographs, clinical findings and interviews were used as the study instruments. Result: The overall success rate of alveolar bone grafting is 54.9% with a higher success rate noted in patients between the age of 6 to 8 years old, in unilateral cleft lip and palate patients, before the eruption of maxillary canine, before the completion of maxillary canine root formation. A significant statistical relationship was noted between the type of cleft and the outcome of surgery. Conclusion: Alveolar bone grafting procedure is an integral component of the management of patients with cleft lip, alveolar and palate in establishing the integrity of the alveolar cleft defect, enabled the alignment of dentition and allowed overall oral rehabilitation. A favourable treatment outcome is achievable with minimal associated postoperative complications that were usually well tolerated and manageable.

  82. Monawar M Abdalazez, Mohammed A Abdallah, Esam M AbdulRaheem, Ibrahim B Yousif and Ashwag M Mukhtar

    Objective: this was a retrospective descriptive study aimed to assess the role of latent membrane protein-1 (LMP-1) Monoclonal Antibody in the detection of Epstein- Barr virus (EBV) in nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) lesions in Sudanese patients. Methods: Forty-five paraffin-embedded formalin-fixed tissue sections of nasopharyngeal carcinoma lesions were stained by Anti- EBV LMP-1 and results were correlated with the available clinical data. Results: EBV was positive in 23 cases and negative in 22 cases. Most positive results were in elderly males with undifferentiated carcinomas. Conclusion: Anti- EBV LMP-1 is effective in detecting EBV in nasopharyngeal carcinoma lesions.

  83. Mangala, S., Hemavarneshwari, S., Pradeep, C., Mini, J. and Subrahmanyam, G.

    Background: Primary health care is the key to achieving Health For All at national and international level. Objectives: The present study was to find out the effectiveness of community participation through community health volunteers and village leaders to improve the quality of maternal and child health services and thus reduce the maternal and infant mortality and morbidity. Materials and Methods: A cohort study was conducted over a period of two years from December 2009 to November 2011. The target group consists of 32,000 population in 33 villages in the field practice area of Vydehi Institute of Medical Sciences and Research Centre, Bangalore. A total of 30 community health volunteers 1 per 1000 population were trained to carry out health services at village level. Statistical analysis was carried out based on percentages and proportions. Results: There was 100% achievement of the indicators pertaining to infant mortality rate, maternal mortality rate, antenatal mothers receiving at least five health checkups, iron and folic acid tablets and tetanus toxoid immunization, institutional delivery and infant immunization. Awareness of HIV/AIDS was 88%. Couple protection rate went up to 96.87% in the first year but decreased to 69.32% in the second year of the study. The percentage of population motivated by the community health volunteers who availed of services at primary health centre or Vydehi Institute of Medical Sciences and Research Centre, Bangalore also rose to 60.2% and 79.4% in the first and second years of the study respectively. Conclusion: Community participation through community health volunteers at village level helps to achieve maternal and child health targets. Capacity building of primary health centre personnel improves quality of services. Management information system of the target groups in the primary health centre area enables in monitoring and evaluation of the health services.

  84. Asish Bhaumik, Upender Kumar M., Kaleem Ahmed Khan and Ch. Srinivas

    The objective of the present work was the synthesis of N-(2-(4-substituted phenyl)-4-oxo-1,3-thiazolidine-3-yl)-2-(naphthalene-2-yloxy)acetamide and evaluation of in-vitro anticancer activity. Based on this a new series of compound had been planned to synthesize by reacting β-naphthol, ethyl chloroacetate, hydrazinemonohydrate, ethylalcohol and various aromatic aldehydes in presence of anhydrous potassium carbonate The synthesized compounds were characterized by IR, NMR, and Mass spectroscopy. The in-vitro anticancer studies were carried out against Human Acute Monocytic Leukemia - HL- 60 cell line and Human Breast Carcinoma- MCF- 7 cell lines and MTT assay was used to analyze the cell growth inhibition of the both. The results showed that compound A3, A4, A2, A5, A1,and A6 were possessed a very good anticancer activity (at 20 µg/ml) against both Human Acute Monocytic Leukemia - HL- 60 cell line and Human Breast Carcinoma- MCF- 7 cell lines and doxorubicin (at 10µg/ml) was used as a standard drug for both cancer cell lines. The IC50 values for the synthesized compounds were found to be A3 (IC50 of 2.4µg/ml), A4 (IC50 of 2.6µg/ml), A2 (IC50 of 2.9µg/ml), A5 (IC50 of 3.4µg/ml), A1(IC50 of 3.9µg/ml) and A6 (IC50 of 4.5µg/ml) against Human Acute Monocytic Leukemia - HL- 60 and A3 ( IC50 of 2.3µg/ml), A4 (IC50 of 2.6µg/ml), A2 (IC50 of 2.7µg/ml), A5 (IC50 of 3.3µg/ml), A1(IC50 of 3.1µg/ml) and A6 (IC50 of 4.5µg/ml) against Human Breast Carcinoma- MCF- 7.

  85. Augustine Kubdaar

    Every normal person desires to live a happy, joyful and above all enjoys long and fruitful life on earth. Good quality (REM) sleep is therefore one of the factors that contribute immensely to a proper brain development and efficient total functioning of people especially adolescents. On the contrary, poor quality (Non-REM) sleep leads to incapacitation of the structural as well as hormonal development and functioning of the brain thus resulting in several poor health conditions and maladaptive behaviors.

  86. Dr. Hemant Mahur, Dr. Singh, D. P. and Dr. Kripa Shanker Jhirwal

    Classical dengue fever is commonly seen in children and young adults. It commonly presents with fever, severe headache, body ache and retro-orbital pain. Unlike other arboviral infections, dengue virus does not usually cause neurological manifestations. We report a 14-year-old girl with dengue encephalitis. Dengue encephalitis should be considered in the differential diagnosis of acute viral encephalitis especially in countries like India where dengue has assumed epidemic proportions. These undiagnosed cases are at risk of developing complications of dengue haemorrhagic fever.

  87. Kannan C. S. Warrier and Venkataramanan, K. S.

    Pilodyns have been successfully used for indirect estimation of wood density in tree breeding programmes of many softwoods and hardwoods. However no reports are available on its use in clones of Casuarina equisetifolia. Fifty nine landrace clones of C. equisetifolia were subjected to Pilodyn penetration and direct wood basic density estimation at four years of age in India. Strong negative correlation was observed between Pilodyn penetration and wood basic density (-0.847). As Pilodyn observations were completed in one day, it took 8 days for the direct estimation of wood density. Mean Pilodyn readings between 4.83 and 4.05 mm; 5.45 and 5.05 mm and 8.83 and 5.65 mm indicated high density wood (0.80 to 0.86 g/cm3), medium density wood (0.70 to 0.79 g/cm3) and low density wood (0.46 to 0.69 g/cm3) respectively in general. Though significant positive correlation was observed between Pilodyn penetration and moisture content, its magnitude was low (0.219). The broad sense heritability values for Pilodyn penetration and the wood basic density were moderate, 0.35 and 0.46 respectively.

  88. Potdar, D. S., Deshmukh, S. U., Rathod, B. G. and Pawar, S. M.

    Three field experiments viz. fertility gradient experiment with fodder maize, test crop experiment with preseasonal sugarcane and test verification trial with preseasonal sugarcane cv. were conducted at at Central Sugarcane Research Station, Padegaon (M.S.), India during 2007 to 2011 to develop the Soil Test based yield target equations for newly released variety CoM 0265 and to test the validity of these equations on Inceptisols. The basic data of nutrient requirement, contribution of nutrients from soil, fertilizer and farmyard manure were calculated and the equations were developed. The per tonne of requirement of nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium was 1.38 kg, 0.44 kg and 1.64 kg, respectively. The yield targets of 175 t ha-1 and 200 t ha-1 were achieved with a variation of 4.7 and 5.2 % without FYM and 1.7 and 0.6 % with FYM indicating the validity of the equations. Application of fertilizers based on STCRC target 200 t ha-1 with FYM recorded significantly higher cane yield (201.21 tha-1).The same treatment application of fertilizers based on STCRC target 200 t ha-1 with FYM is found beneficial for highest net return return (Rs. 234337ha-1) and better B:C ratio (3.01).

  89. Borah, N. J., Dutta, B. K., Mazumder, P. B. and Das, A. K.

    Bulbophyllum careyanum (Hook.) Spreng. is one of the important sympodial epiphytic orchid species among the 700 species of the genus Bulbophyllum. It is popularly known as Carey’s Bulbophyllum. The flowering season for this orchid species starts from September and ends in December. The flowers last for 15-25 days. Due to its medicinal properties, the tribal people of Southern Assam use the bulb of this orchid species for curing different ailments. Nowadays, population of this orchid species is depleting due to over exploitation, habitat destruction and some other anthropogenic activities. Therefore, some conservation initiatives for this medicinally important orchid species deserve careful attention. Keeping the above in view the present work was taken up with the three different Growing Conditions, i.e. Growing Condition Number 1 (Brick + charcoal + wood (1:2:1) with soil); Growing Condition Number 2 (Brick + coconut husk + charcoal (1:2:1) with leaf mold) and Growing Condition Number 3 (growing on the Bauhinia variegata L) were taken into considerations. The results show that all the three Growing Conditions as mentioned above are suitable for the vegetative propagation of Bulbophyllum careyanum (Hook) Spreng, which is a medicinally important orchid species of Southern Assam (India).

  90. Sumuduni, B. G. D., Munasinghe, D. H. N., Chandrarathna, W. P. R. and De S. Amarasinghe, N. J

    Comparative study on relationship between condition factor and parasite density of gold fish (Carassius auratus) and koi carp (Cyprinus carpio) was carried out during wet and dry seasons. The study was conducted at the Rambadagalle Ornamental Fish Breeding and Training Center in Sri Lanka. A sample of 30 gold fishes and 50 koi carps in the same cohort were collected from two separated harvesting ponds. Standard length and weight were recorded and condition factor was estimated for each individual. Their gills, fins and skin were observed for external parasites. Among the recorded parasites, abundance of Tricodina sp. was high in gold fish during both seasons. Tricodina sp. was the most abundant parasite during the wet season in koi carp while it was Apiosoma sp. in the dry season. Correlation co-efficient was determined to investigate the strength of the relationship between condition factor and the total number of parasites. There was no significant correlation was observed between two factors for gold fish during two seasons (wet season= -0.287, dry season r = -0.109, P>0.05). A weak negative relationship was observed between condition factor and the number of parasites infected the koi carp during the dry season (r=-0.304, P= 0.032) but no significant correlation was observed between two factors during the wet season (r= 0.08, P= 0.580). Information emerged from this study could be taken into consideration when implementing health management practices in ornamental fish culturing programs.

  91. Callen Nyaboke Aera, Kembenya E. Migiro, Erick Ochieng Ogello, Cecilia Muthoni Githukia, Andrew Yasindi, Nicholas Outa and Jonathan Mbonge Munguti

    This study aimed at determining the length-weight relationship (LWR), condition factor (K) and length at first maturity of common carp (Cyprinus carpio) in Lake Naivasha, Kenya. The fish were sampled monthly using a gill net of mesh size between 1.5 to 5 inches. The lake was accessed using an engine boat from November 2013 to February 2014. A total of 520 fish of C. Carpio were sampled. Total length and weight of the fish were measured using measuring board (0.1cm) and digital weighing balance (0.1g) respectively. There was a significant difference of Length-weight relationships between males and females (p < 0.05) with ‘r’ values of 0.82 and 0.72 for males and females respectively. The growth exponent (‘b’ values) of the length weight relationship for the fish was 2.3 for males, indicating isometric growth and 1.9 for females, suggesting allometric growth. The condition factor was 1.23 ± 0.21 and 1.05 ± 0.13 for males and females respectively, indicating a good condition for C. Carpio of Lake Naivasha. The lower condition factor for females suggest that females were already spent during the period of sampling. The estimated length at first maturity for C. Carpio was found to be 47cm (Total Length).

  92. Anitha, T. and Mary Josephine, R.

    Green leafy vegetables are valuable in maintaining alkaline reserve in the body is valued mainly for their high vitamin, dietary fiber and mineral contents. Dry leaf extract of Sesbania grandiflora (L.) Pers was evaluated for biochemical compositions like total carbohydrate, starch, proteins, aminoacids, Vitamin B1 and Vitamin B2. The cooking qualities were also analyzed for total carbohydrate, starch and proteins at different intervals of time. The biochemical compositions obtained suggest that the leaves, as a cheap source and can be incorporated into human diet to meet the recommended daily allowances.

  93. Biswas, S., Acharya, S. K. and Sen, M.

    Body Mass Index (BMI) is a commonly used anthropometric measurement to estimate the level of nutritional indices (underweight/overweight) of adolescents and adults. Factors affecting BMI is essential for developing intervention programs. The present study was thus undertaken with the objective to assess the agro-socio-economic factors related to body mass index (BMI) content of farm women, of West Bengal, India. The study was confined to the women of age group of 19-60 years. A total of 211 women were selected randomly. BMI (weight/height2, kg/m2) was measured by taking height & weight of the participants. This present paper examines the socio-economic and agro-ecological predictors to a score of 26 exogenous variables which are correlated with the body mass index (BMI) of farm women. Multivariate analysis was carried out to understand the complex nature of variable interaction. It shows Irrigation index(X9) & Animal entrepreneurial index(X14) have a great contribution to the body mass index (BMI) of farm women.

  94. Dhani Arya, Manjeet Kumar and Ashaq Hussain Khan

    The present study deals with the erosion of biodiversity (plants) knowledge between older and younger generations (both male and female) regarding their identification and respective uses. During the study it was found that the older generations comparatively has a vast knowledge about the local biodiversity including its identification, uses and conservation. An average total of 139.6 plant species were identified and listed by the older generations with their various uses, while the average total of only 88 plant species could be identified by the younger generations. Therefore, an average of 36.96% (51.6 plants) of biodiversity knowledge was eroded in the younger generations regarding their identification as well as 25-37.5% of about various uses of plants as compared to the older generations. This erosion has occurred in the younger generations due to lack of proper interaction with the older generations regarding the local biological diversity knowledge and its importance. The main purpose of this study was to assess the local biodiversity knowledge in the younger generation as compared to the older one and to try to understand the reason responsible for the loss of this knowledge as well as pave this gap through documented literature and the help of older generations of the area.

  95. Dr. Jungare Shamali and Dr. Vaidya Seema

    Background: The prevalence of secondary amenorrhea in general female population during reproductive years is 1.8 to 3%, the prevalence in college age women is 2.6 to 5% and amenorrhea may be seen as often as 20% of patients complaining of infertility and 10-20% of women with subfertility. (Morey et al., 1994 and Crosignani et al., 1996) Diseases of thyroid affects normal ovarian functions. Hypothyroidism causes failure of ovulation in women of reproductive age group. Hypothyroidism causes anovulatory cycles, luteal phase defects, hyperprolactinemia and hormonal imbalance. Aims and objectives: To determine role of thyroid dysfunctions in secondary amenorrhea. Material and Methods: This study was undertaken in Department of Biochemistry, Govt. medical college and hospital, Nagpur. Two groups of females comprising of 50 secondary amenorrhea cases as study group and 50 with regular menstrual cycle as controls were thoroughly examined and subjected to investigations for thyroid factor. Results : The mean TSH (Thyroid stimulating hormone) levels in the secondary amenorrhea group were found to be high as compared to those of control group and they were statistically significant with p value<0.0001. The incidence of hypothyroidism in secondary amenorrhea was found to be 14%. Conclusion: There is increased incidence of hypothyroidism in secondary amenorrhea. The relatively high occurrence of raised TSH levels in these women emphasizes the importance of TSH screening in these women.

  96. Naba Kumar Mondal

    The teaching process at the all level (Primary, Secondary and Tertiary) is too weak and our classroom environment is totally based on rote memorization. Moreover the role of teacher in making classroom climate conducive to improved learning is highly crucial. The classroom climate is built up by the pattern of interaction between the teacher and student verbal exchanges, asking questions and responding and reacting. The most important factor in a classroom situation is the interactions and exchanges initiated by the teacher and students. There is no provision for the development of intellectual and thinking skill among students who are given very little attention in the classroom. The teacher seems to be in a very dominating role in the class. They are the sole authority to manage the class room environment and maintain the quality teaching –learning processes. Based on a large-scale meta-analysis conducted by Walberg (1986), research indicates that the following seven factors are key elements to the effectiveness of teaching: engaged academic learning time, use of positive reinforcement, cooperative learning activities, positive class atmosphere, high-order questioning, cues and feedback, and use of advance organizers. Jackson (1968) reports that teachers are typically involved in more than 1,000 verbal exchanges with their student are every day. Unfortunately, the poorly structured classrooms quickly deteriorate into a vacuous waste of time (UNDP, 1997). In this context it is very essential to know the current status of quality of primary, secondary and tertiary level classes. Several technique has been designed to observe the teacher behavior and interaction pattern with the students in the class room. The term interaction is used in a general sense in this study, referring to any sort of interaction: student-student or teacher-student discussions, group discussions and any type of classroom participation. The focus on interaction was mainly based on the assumption that it leads to better learning, and will activate learner’s competence (Malamah-Thomas, 1987). It is also maintained in literature that an increase in the amount of classroom interaction will help learners learn the target concept easily and quickly (Brock, 1986). Among those techniques one of the most popular techniques was used in this study known as Flander’s interaction analysis category system (FIACS).

  97. Gayatri Vaidya and Naik, G. R.

    Simarouba is an important oil yielding plant. Twenty decamer RAPD primers were tested on male and female plant to identify sex specific marker. Out of twenty markers fourteen RAPD primers produced polymorphic banding patterns. Out of fourteen polymorphic primers, primer OPU8 (5’GGCGAAGGTT3’) produced a unique band of 1000bp only in male individual. The RAPD method successfully discriminates among male and female plant, therefore providing an easy and rapid tool for identification of gender in plants at early stage.

  98. Rajni Dhingraand Samriti Raina

    The present research exercise was conducted to assess the perception of adolescent members of Mirpuri community about the impact of divide created by displacement from across the LOC in 1947 on their lives. It further aimed to investigate the effects of displacement at personal, familial and social levels from phenomenological perspective and documentation of the extent of transmission of ideas/ feelings related to displacement to younger members of the community. The information was collected through a questionnaire in view of adolescents’ preoccupation and better expression of ideas through written medium. Purposive sampling was employed to choose the respondents depending on their availability and consent to participate in the study. The findings of the study indicated that the sample adolescents did not have detailed information regarding the history of Mirpur and the only partial information they had was provided by their grandparents and in some cases by their parents. Youngsters seemed to identify more with the cultural traits of the host Dogra community since they were born and brought up amongst majority of Dogra families. The dialect of Mirpuri language could not be mastered by them in the absence of appropriate role models speaking the language. Moreover, they had lesser interest in the religious aspects of their community and they preferred to practice the rituals for the social and personal value and to please the elder members of their families. They did not know much about variations in Mirpuri and Dogra culture. It was observed that Mirpuri adolescents tend to have a more globalised perspective on their identity as for most of them the nation and the state presumed more priority than their community.

  99. Bhaskaran Nair Girish Kumar and Sivasankaran Bijoy Nandan

    The toxic effects of copper and ameliorating capacity of vitamin C on biochemical and histopathological parameters in the teleost fish, Anabas testudineus were investigated. The 96 hour LC 50 value of copper was determined by Probit method and was found to be 1.74 mg/L. Fishes from two sub-lethal concentrations of copper, two vitamin supplemented and control media were analysed. The decreased (p ˃ 0.0001) haemoglobin (Hb), red blood cells(RBC) and oxygen carrying capacity(OC) up to 21st day depicted hypoxia with hypochromic, microcytic anaemia followed by the gradual increase on 28th day of exposure could be the symptom of restoration of aerobic respiration from copper induced anaerobia. The increase of plasma glucose, cortisol and LDH (lactate dehydrogenase) (p ˂ 0.0001) up to 21st day parallel to decrease in liver and muscle glycogen in both test concentrations and exposures justified hyperglycaemia due to glycogenolysis to combat high energy demand. Copper exposure induced obvious histopathological changes in gill architecture. Since gills are main route of metal uptake with extensive surface area interacting with toxic metal ions, the intensity of degenerative changes were more profound in copper intoxicated fishes. The symptoms of improvement of humoral and histological parameters in vitamin supplemented fishes reiterates the curative and prophylactic capacity of vitamin C.

  100. Ali H. Ad’hiah, Khulood K. Hasan, Ahmed Asmar and Hala K. Alsamray

    Studies carried out in various populations have reported an association between some HLA specificities and susceptibility to pulmonary tuberculosis (PTB). In this study, the distribution of class II HLA-DQB1 alleles was determined in 94 PTB patients and 80 apparently healthy subjects from Iraqi population by single specific primer-polymerase chain reaction (SSP-PCR). Out of the five encountered HLA-DQB1 alleles, DQB1*03 showed a significant (P = 0.005) increased percentage frequency in PTB patients compared to controls (71.3 vs. 50.0%). The RR of such positive association was 2.48; while the EF was 0.43. The present study suggests that HLA-DQB1*03 allele may be associated with susceptibility to PTB in Iraqi population.

  101. Naik M. K., Chennappa, G., Bhat, K. V., Amaresh, Y. S. and Suraj, U.

    A total of 164 Alternaria isolates were obtained by following standard tissue isolation method on potato dextrose agar media plates. Based on morphological features viz., growth, sporulation pattern, 45 isolates were identified as A. alternata and 28 were A. sesami and the remaining ones were non-sporulating. The colour of the isolates ranged from grey to light brown and both fluffy (37) and smooth type (30) of growth were observed with regular to irregular margin. Majority of the isolates were fast growing (119) and some were moderate (45) in growth. Twenty five percent of the isolates (40 isolates) were highly sporulating and some of them (54) were shy in sporulation. Individual isolates were studied in detail on type of growth and margin, color of the colony, radial growth, sporulation, width of the mycelium, vertical (0-3) and horizontal (2-5) septation of conidia, size of conidia (33.1-196 x 24.4-78.6 µm) and length of beak (7.1-88 µm). Out of 164 isolates, twenty one isolates were highly virulent mostly dominated by A. alternata and other species, nine of them were moderately virulent and fourteen were less virulent. Based on ITS region, Alternaria spp were identified and found 8 different species and among all A. alternata was found dominant. RAPD was also studied using different RAPD primers and found that all the species formed similar clusters with one another in their homology. Among them, A. sesami produced a single specific band with OPM-4 primer and A. sesami species specific band has been identified. A. sesami specific gene has been identified and further cloning, sequencing of the +ve cloned cells revealed that they formed 25 sets of primers. Among them, 10 were synthesized and sequence characterized amplified region (SCAR) marker of the A. sesami has been developed.

  102. Udoaka, Otobong G. and David, E. E.

    We shall show that the rank of maximal subgroup of a full transformation semigroup on a finite set equal to the lower bound for the rank r_n (T_n)

  103. Usha, M. K., Vinutha, N. and Revannasiddaiah, D.

    This paper reports the temperature variation of the principal components of static electrical conductivity i.e., and in the nematic and smectic phases of p-butoxybenzylidene p-heptylaniline. The results obtained are inferred in terms of the basic understanding of nematic and smectic phases.

  104. M. Muthuvijayalakshmi, E. Kumar, P. Venkatesan

    Symptoms based diagnosis of a disease is one of the challenging tasks in the medical field. Several techniques are available for classification. In this paper,used ANFIS for classification of TB disease on the available data. Hybrid system is a learning algorithms that utilizes the training and learning networks to find parameters of a fuzzy system based on the symptoms created by the mathematical model. In this paper, an expert system is proposed to detect the Tuberculosis disease, which are very common and important disease using an adaptive neuro-fuzzy inference system (ANFIS). The main objective of this study is classification of Tuberculosis disease based on the symptoms. The dataset for the training of an ANFIS is collected from the various physicians for the classification of TB disease. Finally obtained the accuracy of classification result is 89%.

  105. Ritesh Dash, Ali, S. M. and Aryadhara Pradhan

    In order to provide a reliable source of energy we have to think for some other sources of energy because the fossil fuel is limited and can last for another 50 years. The other source of energy must be clean and easily accessible to anywhere. The efficiency of the system can be increased by integrating the solar and wind to the grid. Harvesting the energy from these type of renewable sources of energy is nature dependent and hence are not reliable for the grid. However the integration of these sources with some storage devices can increase the reliability of the system to a great extent. The major problem associated with this type of system is the successful management of power control and its dispatch during the power swing. The quality of power decreases due to dynamic properties of both the hybrid system and that of the conventional system. The power quality of the system can be increased to a great extent with the use of some power electronic equipment like maximum power point tracking system in solar photovoltaic system and gear box in wind generator. This paper describes the strategic view of hybrid system and its economic analysis with conventional system.

  106. Dr. G. Nandini Devi

    Soft storey or open ground storey is an unavoidable feature in the multi-storey building. It is open for the purpose of parking or reception lobbies. It is also called as stilts storey. A large number of buildings with soft storey have been built in recent years. But it showed poor performance during past earthquake. Therefore it is need of time to take immediate measures to prevent the indiscriminate use of soft first storey in buildings, which are designed without regard to the increased displacement and force demands in the first storey columns. In this regard, this study talks about the provided strength and stiffness to the 2D building frame by modified soft storey provision in two ways - (i) By providing stiffer column and (ii) By providing adjacent infill wall panel at each corner of building frame. Also comparison of results has been carried out to compare modified soft storey provisions with complete infill wall frame and bare frame models of structure designed with Indian and American Standards using Finite Element Method software ETABS 2013

  107. Dr. A. K. Shaik Dawood, Dr. A. Riaz Ahamed and R. Karthikeyan

    The objective of this study is to apply the concept of lean manufacturing and find out the different approaches to measure customer expectations. The lean concept is applied for reducing waiting time of passengers at various sections of the airport. A value stream mapping is designed, to improve the delay time and enhance customer satisfaction. During the Flight travel the checkpoint wait times for airport passengers were becoming excessive. They were particularly concerned that projections indicated wait times could reach three hours during the peak summer travel period, if the screening process was not improved. An experimental approach was done to identify the methods to minimize the check point delays and to create an improvement in customer enhancement service. Airport is reviewed and the importance of services, new approaches for development as well as the role of lean manufacturing is discussed. The literature is used to build up experiences of passengers at various airports, waiting time, which is tested to find out most important service quality attributes for the customers based on the data. A Value Stream Mapping is done. A Questionnaire survey is chosen as a primary method of data collection. The target group includes young professionals with completed or about to complete university education.

  108. Ziad T. Khodair, Nabeel A. Bakr and Rahem Ahmed Ali

    In this study, undoped (CdO) films and Cr doped (with 2,4,6 and 8 wt%) were deposited on glass sub strate at (400 ºC) by chemical spray pyrolysis technique using cadmium acetate as the Cd source. The effect of Cr doping on structural and optical properties has been investigated. XRD investigations showed that all the films were polycrystalline in nature and had a cubic structure with preferred orientation along (111) plane for all doping percentages. It was found that doping with (Cr) led to decrease in the intensity of (111) peak and the average grain size decreases as (Cr) doping percentage increases. The optical characterization of the films have good transmittance in the visible region of spectrum and it increases with Cr-doping, with increase in direct band gap (2.4 eV for undoped to 2.63, 2.65, 2.67 and 2.71 eV) for different values of Cr percentage respectively. The absorption coefficient, reflectance, and Urbach tail were calculated also.

  109. Viruthagiri G. and Sathiya Priya S.

    The present work reports the recycling of SCBA waste as a raw material in brick making industries, through replacement of natural clay up to 20wt. %. Initially the samples SCBA and BMC were characterized by XRF. The results of XRF reveal that both SCBA and BMC contain a large amount of silica and tracer amount of oxides of aluminium and iron. Using SCBA in different proportions clay brick pieces were prepared, and then tested, so as to determine their mechanical properties such as linear shrinkage, water absorption, porosity and compressive strength. The test results indicate that the SCBA waste could be used as filler in clay bricks, thus enhancing the possibility of its reuse in a safe and sustainable way. The surface morphology and the microstructure of the product were analyzed through Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM).

  110. Ramesh, G. and Maduranthaki, P.

    Unitary bimatrices are studied as a generalization of unitary matrices. Some of the properties of unitary matrices are extended to unitary bimatrices. Some important results of unitary matrices are generalized to unitary bimatrices.

  111. Akshay H Pansuriya, Jaimin B Patel and Hitesh Prajapati

    Friction stir welding process is used for joining material such as Aluminium, copper, magnesium etc., which are otherwise difficult to weld by the conventional welding processes. The tool pin profile plays a critical role in determining the end properties of the welding joint apart from other parameter like rotation speed, traverse speed, welding speed, and axial load. The purpose of the investigations was to elaborate a set of FSW parameters for connecting 6061 aluminium alloy sheets allowing to produce welds of highest strength. The results of present experiments are adding new information on FSW of the aluminium alloys, especially 6061 type. The applied welding parameters provide good quality of welds. The aim behind. In analysis we use AA6061 similar material for flow stress, temperature and pressure analysis with Hyper works 9.0

  112. Burungale, S. H.

    A novel method has been developed for the solvent extraction of Potassium (I) from 0.001M picric acid with 0.001M Dicyclohexano-18Crown-6in nitrobenzene. Potassium (I) from the organic phase was determined flame emission spectroscopy at 767 nm. Extraction was found to be quantitative in the range of 7-10 Mpicric acid. When the concentration of Dicyclohexano-18Crown-6 was varied from 0.05-20% in nitrobenzene, it showed that optimum concentration was 3%. Amongst diluents like nitrobenzene was found to be an effective diluent. Effect of shaking time, concentration of metal ion. Tolerance limits of various diverse ions were studied. Potassium (I) was separated from associated elements in its ternary mixtures with Sb(III), Bi(III) and Cu(II), Au(III). The proposed method was applied for separation and determination of Potassium (I) in rocks and foodstuffs.

  113. ChalakAzimi, Hatam Maarouf and Halaleh Ahmadi

    4-acetyl-3-(4-substitutedphenylamino)-isoxazole-5(2H)-one, substituted on nitrogen with a 2-chlorobenzo[d] oxazole group, reacts with triethylamine (TEA) in ethanol under reflux conditions to provide a convenient synthesis of 1-(2-(4-substitutedphenylamino)-imidazo-[2,1-b]-benzoxazol-3-yl)-ethanone.

  114. AmrataPawaiya, Priya Pawaiya, Sangeeta Rajput, M. C. Agrawal and R. K. Bhatnagar

    Hydrazones derived from aromatic acid hydrazides and aromatic or heterocyclic aldehydes have a wide variety of applications in many fields. 3-aldehydosalicylic acid (3ASA) serves as precursor for the formation of hydrazone ligand. The condensation of 3-aldehydosalicylic acid with Phenyl hydrazine hydrochloride in the molar ratio 1:1 yield the corresponding hydrazone, ligand respectively. The structure of ligand was elucidated by FT-IR, 1H, NMR and mass spectrometry. The results are in consistent with bidentate chelation of ligand with azomethine nitrogen and ring nitrogen donors. The Schiff base show a significant antifungal activity against Candida albicans, Aspergillus niger, and Penicillium sp.

  115. Ragupathy, S. and Raghu, K.

    Titanium dioxide and Titanium dioxide loaded groundnut shell activated carbon photocatalytic activity were synthesized by sol-gel technique. The preparation of TiO2 and TiO2/GNSAC photocatalysts were achieved by titanium tetra isopropoxide and 2-propanol as common starting materials and annealed the product at 500 °C for 2 h to get anatase phase, respectively. The prepared materials were characterized by X-ray diffraction analysis (XRD), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), and UV-Vis-diffuse reflectance spectroscopy (DRS), The photocatalytic activity was tested and compared with that of TiO2 and TiO2/GNSAC on the degradation of methylene blue (MB) and brilliant green (BG) in an aqueous solutions using sunlight radiation. The adsorption kinetics followed both the pseudo-first-order and second-order giving a better fit. The TiO2/GNSAC removal over 95.39% of BG and 81.57% of MB dyes and its adsorption was fitted best to all models.

  116. Anitha, A. and Kalyani, P.

    Carbonaceous material has been derived from a domestic biomass waste viz., onion peel and assessed its suitability as electrodes in electrochemical double layer capacitors (EDLC). Onion Peel Carbon (OPC) has been obtained from pyrolysing onion peel under N2 atmosphere without any porogens or activating agents. Physical characterization of OPC by X-ray diffractometry, Infra Red spectroscopy, Scanning Electron Microscopy and elemental analysis followed by a critical assessment of its electrochemical behavior in H2SO4 electrolyte by cyclic voltammetry and galvanostatic charge-discharge cycling studies. Cyclic voltammetry estimates specific capacitance values as high as 206 F/g at a scan rate of 10 mV/sec. The specific capacitance decreases on increasing the scan rate. The results of the studies infer that OPC has immense application as electrochemical double layer capacitor electrode. The work thus contributes not only towards a waste utilization concept but also presents a new and valuable dimension to the usefulness of onion peel in energy storage systems like capacitors, hitherto unexplored.

  117. Satheeshkumar P. and Dr. K. Murugavel

    Objective: The study was designed to investigate the effects of specific basketball drills on selected shooting performance of High school male basketball players. Thirty school male basketball players selected from Ragavendra Matric Higher secondary school, Vadavalli Coimbatore Methods: The age ranged between 15and17 years. They were divided into two equal groups considered as experimental group and control group. Experimental group underwent specific basketball drill training for the period of 8 weeks. The control group was not given any training. The selected shooting performance parameter was assessed by lay-up shot, jump shot and free throw shot ‘t’ test was used to find out the significant improvement of skill performance among school level male basketball players.0.05 level of confidence was fixed to test the level of significance. Results: The result of this of layup shoot, jump shot and free throw shoot has been improved significantly due to effect of specific drills training with the limitation of (diet climate, life style) status and previous training the result of the present study coincide findings of the investigation done by different experts in the field of sports sciences. Conclusion: Due to the influence of eight weeks specific basketball drill training significantly improved layup shot, jump shot, and free throw shot of high school male basketball players.

  118. Dr. Umakant Chanshetti, Ms. Sangita Shah and Er. Aniket Chanshetti

    To bring awareness among the society since the last century, the perception of environmental education started. With the advent industrialization, followed by urbanization & rapid progress made in Science & Technology causes the degradation of our environment. The man not only used the nature, changed the nature but spoiled the nature beyond repair. So, Ministry of Environment and Forest of Government of India introducing a uniform syllabus and making the subject compulsory from primary to post graduation level. By this syllabus it is possible to inculcate the awareness of this issue in the right stage of their life. Reducing, Reusing, and Recycling: Environmental Concerns Mahatma Gandhi Global Village, Boramani, Dist: Solapur is designed a curriculum to alert students and try to create a sense of responsibility to the environmental consequences of the solid wastes we throw away.

  119. Rakesh, P., Dasaradhi, G. S. V. S. and Ravi Kumar, K

    For the people to stay comfortable in their houses suitable environment should be provided. The experts agree on the fact that relative humidity affects Thermal comfort and health of human beings. Therefore there should be temperature and relative humidity control system to achieve thermal comfort and good health for the persons inside the room, for comfortable living. Typically in India that to in south India usually women performs all the works in the house-hold kitchens which are usually filled by devices that generate a lot of heat which makes a person uncomfortable and if the house is near a coastal region the humidity & temperature make a worst combination which drastically effects the condition for work and as well as health. So in this work we tried to predict the temperature and pressure distribution in a typical house hold kitchen by taking the most important factor called Humidity into consideration which many people leave.

  120. Isa Yuguda Kotirde and Jailani Bin Md YUNOS

    Nigerian secondary schools are faced with problem of supervisions. In this study, the aim is to assess the general roles of school supervisors in improving teaching quality and effectiveness of schools supervisions. Actually the study intends to make a review on some issues related to supervision in Nigerian context, emphasizing professional profiles and roles in educational system, specifically in quality improvement of secondary schools and also highlighting the concepts of supervision, differences between supervision and inspection, quality assurance/ quality management as well as quality in teaching and learning. Therefore, it suggested that supervisors as catalysts should facilitate the implementation of the various sets of roles which will improve the teaching-learning situation in the input-process. this is geared towards an effective, viable, vibrant and qualitative educational system. Hence, the supervisor must seek for genuine cooperation and concern, positive and acceptable disposition among the teachers and their subordinates.

  121. Sandhyarani, M. C. and Dr. Usha Rao, C.

    Old age is the closing period of life span. It is an inevitable phenomenon in all biological species. In this stage the living arrangement is very important in terms of providing support for the elderly and in general it guarantees their well being. In India where the family has an obligation to take care of the elderly is no more entrusted to serve them. The younger generation would like to be separated and expected to live away from the elderly and migrates towards cities and sometimes to abroad. Under this situation the elderly would be deserted or sometimes institutionalized. In this situation it is very essential to understand their problems that they have come across in their life. Hence the study was conducted at Nirashritara Parihara Kendra, Mysore. The present study tried to understand the problems of the elderly and the reasons for institutionalization of the elderly.

  122. Dr. Akande, O. O.

    Financial Management being the main core of any business organization has roles to play most importantly in small businesses. Testing the influence of financial management on small businesses operational activities in Iwo Local government of osun state Nigeria is expected to give insight into the economy and provide measuring guide to business performance .This study evaluate effect of financial management practices characteristics on small business development and. The study was carried out in Iwo local government, Osun state of Nigeria with Sixty (60) Questionnaires administered and distributed to small businesses owners in Iwo local government Area. Fifty (50) Questionnaires were found useful for the purpose of the study. Data collected was analyzed using frequency table and percentage analysis while the non-parametric statistical test Chi- square was used to test the formulated hypothesis to evaluate the influence of financial management skill of owner-managers on the development of small businesses. The analysis of findings show that small businesses must keep proper books of accounts for the preparation of financial statements which is an efficient financial management practices for small businesses to develop. The results of the tested hypothesis showed that there is significant relationship between financial management practices and development of small businesses. The paper recommends that Small business owners should make sure that accurate and up-to-date proper books of accounts are prepared and kept under the supervision of responsible officers in the organization and Government should try as much as possible to organize programmes for the small business owner, so as to improve their managerial skill.

  123. Sulemana Alhassan and Mensah Oforiwaa Paulina

    Despite its strategic intentions about information technology, Tamale Polytechnic and perhaps many of the other polytechnics in Ghana continuously handles many of its processes manually. Hence there were general delays in administrative processes, in admission processes and in results processes in Tamale Polytechnic. The study assessed the extent of IT application in Tamale polytechnic. Data were mainly primary type and obtained through questionnaire. Both descriptive and quantitative methods of data analysis were used. The study found very low rates of IT related training programs organized in Tamale Polytechnic, low supervision of technical IT support staff, high rate of hardware and software break downs and poor data disaster recovery programs and a number of problems associated with IT lessons in Tamale Polytechnic. Respondents were comfortable with their existing knowledge in computers and applied them intensively. Also there is general lack of supervision of technical IT support staff leading to high hardware and software breakdowns. And finally IT lessons in Tamale Polytechnic faced some challenges that needed to be addressed in order to build students’ confidence in learning IT.

  124. Sulemana Alhassan and Malik Ali Abu Daabu

    The purpose of the study was to evaluate the practices of occupational hazards management in Ghana Grid Company Limited. This was conducted against the backdrop of growing workplace accidents in Ghana. Data was collected using a five point Likert-type scale questionnaire. Respondents were selected based on stratified purposive sampling techniques. Management showed appreciable level of commitment to hazards management. Respondents exhibited an appreciable level of consciousness. Potential causes of hazards were generally human related but preventive methods lack some modern approaches. Generally, management of workplace hazards in Ghana Grid Company Limited is fairly good.

  125. Sulemana Alhassan and Abdulai Abdul-Mumin

    The purpose of this manuscript is to review the applications of IT in e-commerce and to discuss how these applications could improve individual and organizational learning. The manuscript employed only secondary data and established that the convergence of IT and e-commerce enhance organizational learning in strategy formulation and orientation, design of business models and supply chain management.

  126. Ibrahim Mu’awiyya Idris

    Multivariate statistical process control is a branch of industrial statistics that involve monitoring quality specification of related variables simultaneously. Quality is the most essential target for manufacturing engineers and which mostly involves more than one variable in industry,i.e., a vector of variables (that conform to specification for measurement) which may be correlated. When these quality variables are correlated then the most well-known approach for multivariate process monitoring is the Hotelling’s T-square control chart. In this research, a multivariate data in sub-groups consisting of five quality characteristics obtained from Dana Steel Company Limitedkatsina is analyzed for quality. Retrospective analysis shows that, the production process from which the data were obtained is in statistical control.

  127. Emeka, Josephat O. Eja, Eja. I. and Ushie Mike, A.

    Over the years, Calabar South Local Government Area has remained one of the area with increasing crime rate in Calabar, Cross River State. This paper seeks to evaluate the major socio-demographic indices that are responsible to the prevailing crime rate in Calabar South. Three major streets were used for this study which includes Palm Street, Etinyin-Abasi and Afokang. Four hundred and fifty questionnaires were used of which one hundred and fifty were distributed in major entertainment scentres. However, the data collected shows that unemployment and illiteracy were the major socio-demographic indicators that have influenced crime rate in the area. To this end, adequate measures must be put in place to avert the menace of prevailing crime in the area.

  128. Abdulai Abdul-Mumin and Alhassan Sulemana

    This paper discusses the major Determinants of loan Repayments of GDCP micro credit scheme. Levels of poverty in the northern part of Ghana have been so alarming therefore many non-governmental organizations have intervened to ameliorate the situation. Most of these non-governmental efforts at alleviating poverty are directed at micro credit to the poor and vulnerable in society. The repayment performance of credits granted by the microfinance institutions determines the sustainability or otherwise of such programmes. Structured questionnaire was used to elicit primary information from respondents (microcredit beneficiaries). Secondary data was obtained from financial reports of the microfinance institution via the loan officers. Linear regression model was used to evaluate the major determinants of loan repayment under the micro credit scheme. The study reveals that interest payments on loans and values of output which capture the effect of changes in income on loan repayment were significant at 5% significance level. Thus, increase in income has positive impact on loan repayment. On the other hand, levels of education of micro credit beneficiaries have no significant effect on loan repayment because of the solidarity group methodology applied by the microfinance institution. Though illiterates, microfinance beneficiaries record high loan repayment in contravention of the a priori expectation.

  129. Magak Grace Barno, CheruiRodgers, OloibeJaneand and Kosgei Zachariah, K.

    This study sought to establish the difference in access to Secondary School education before and after implementation of Subsidized Secondary Education (SSE). Self-administered questionnaires were used to collect students’ data from thirteen public secondary schools in Uasin Gishu County in Kenya. The data was processed using descriptive statistics and the results’ significance determined using t- test at 95% confidence level. In the year 2006 and 2007 the total number of students in the thirteen schools was 2475 and 2639, respectively. This figures represented a 6.6% annual increment in the student’s enrolment. Following the implementation of SSE in the year 2008, the enrolment of students increased significantly (P<0.05) first to 2761 (4.6% annual increment) and then to 3233 (17.1% annual increment) in 2009. When the enrolment levels were compared between urban (758 and 1642 students in 2006-2009, respectively) and rural (715 and 872 students in the same years) schools, this study found that urban schools enrolled more students following the SSE implementation. The ratios of male to female students was 1.6:1, 1.7:1, 1.45:1 and 1.44:1 in 2006, 2007, 2008 and 2009, respectively. These results showed that the number of female students increased significantly (p<0.05) as compared to the males following the implementation of SSE. In conclusion the findings of this study revealed that there was a general increase in the students’ enrolment level with the urban schools enrolling more students than the rural schools following the implementation of SSE. Though the SSE appeared to have enhanced female students’ access to secondary school education the enrolment of boys was still higher in Eldoret East UasinGishu County.

  130. Ven U ThitHti La

    The pabbajjāordination procedures currently being practised in Myanmar will bediscussed here. The prevalent standard procedures conform with the original VinayaPitakaof the Pālicanon. From these prevalent procedures, some items can be dropped tominimize the formality of the ceremony. Such procedures as banḍukammaare said in the Pācityādi Atthakathāto be a light action “(kamma)” 1. Prior to the actual ceremony, the applicantshould be trained to recite some important Pāliarticulately. However, this training is notessential as long as one is of age and able to pronounce Pālias conveyed by the teacher monk“(bhikkhu)”2.

  131. Ven.AshinNandasara

    Metta is the most important thing should be cultivated or practiced. According to persons, there are so many metta such as Lord Buddha’s metta, parents’ metta, teachers’ metta, my metta and your metta etc. If metta is practiced by everyone, the world would be very peaceful. The following paragraphs will be mentioned what the Buddha taught on metta, the history of mettasuttara and how metta is should be developed. As matter of fact, it is not easy to practice metta by correcting way but we ourselves should try to practice. It is easier to practice metta by going to any meditation center than staying at home or at work. If we are frightened by ghosts, we must radiant our metta deeply. For example, when some Myanmar people were frighten by some ghosts on the ship then they recited some verses such as mettasuttara, pathana and paritta etc.





Rosane Cavalcante Fragoso, Brasil


Chief Scientific Officer and Head of a Research Group

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