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September 2018

  1. Regina M. Thetsane, Maseabata V Ramathebane and Tiisetso J Makatjane

    Introduction: For the VHWs to provide meaningful education to the community, they must have adequate information and knowledge about how to help in the improved health outcomes of HIV/AIDS. Research has shown that when VHWs have adequate knowledge of HIV/ AIDS, knowledge will translate to the communities they serve. The main goal of this study is to improve HJV /AIDS treatment outcomes through community health care services in Lesotho. This was achieved by assessing knowledge of HIV amongst the VHWs and the communities they serve in Lesotho. Methods: The study used a cross-sectional qualitative survey approach. The assessment was conducted between September and October 2016. Three questionnaires were developed for the household, clinic, and VHWs. Open Development Kit (ODK) collect was used to collect data electronically using tablets and cell phones. Pilot study was done at Ha Mafefooane and Ha Lehloba villages in the Roma Valley for household questionnaire and Paki clinic in Mazenod for VHWs questionnaire. VHWs were interviewed at the clinic when attending their monthly meetings while households were interviewed at the village level. SPSS was used to analyse data and data validation was carried out in all sampled clinics for VHWs questionnaire. Results: With regard to HIV knowledge, VHWs’ knowledge in Lesotho is inadequate. Less than 40 percent of community members had access to VHWs’ services except accessing ARVs where at least 80 percent of community members were helped by VHWs. Health treatment outputs were generally low on the overall. Recommendations: It therefore recommended that inadequate HIV knowledge among VHWs has to be addressed through offering of refresher courses on HIV/ AIDS at least once a year to sustain the VHWs knowledge and skill.

  2. Denny George, Suresh, V., Sathyanarayanan, R., Rajkumar, R. and Harish, V.

    Purpose: The purpose of this study is to compare the efficacy, stability and rigidity of three-dimensional (3D) titanium plate with locking screws and standard titanium miniplates for mandibular anterior fractures treatment using bite force measurements. Patients and Methods: A prospective randomized controlled clinical study for the treatment of mandibular fractures was conducted as a multicentre study at Indira Gandhi Institute of Dental Science, Puducherry, India, in the time period of 2012–2014. Twenty patients were randomly divided into two equal groups. Ten patients in group I underwent osteosynthesis with standard titanium miniplates and ten patients in group II underwent osteosynthesis with 3D titanium locking miniplates. The surgical technique was standardized. The clinical parameter assessed was the bite force measurement in relation to the incisor, right molar, and left molar regions. Follow up was done at seventh day, third week, sixth week and third month. Results: In this study, a statistically significant change was present between the change in bite force in each follow up in groups I and II. The difference in the incisor, right molar and left molar bite force was significantly higher for group II compared to group I. There were no statistically significant changes in the clinical parameters such as infection, operating time and occlusion. Conclusion: 3D titanium miniplates with locking screws are better in fracture stabilization for anterior mandibular fractures when compared with titanium miniplates. Other postoperative findings show similar changes in both groups.

  3. Dr. Hemish Kania, Dr. Amit Inamdaar and Dr. Shashank Bansal

    Mammary sarcomas are a heterogeneous group of malignant neoplasms that arise from the mammary stroma (Farrokh et al., 2006). Angiosarcomas, one of the most common forms of mammary sarcoma, are developed from the endothelial lining of the blood vessels. Angiosarcoma of the breast is an exceedingly rare disease that may occur as a primary neoplasm or as a complication of radiation therapy after breast conservation. Only about 20% of angiosarcomas are primary sarcomas. The incidence of primary breast angiosarcoma is about 17 new cases per million women. Primary angiosarcoma of the breast is exceedingly rare, and represents around 0.04% of malignant breast neoplasms. Its incidence among breast sarcomas varies from 2.7% to 9.1%. Breast angiosarcoma is more frequent in young women (20 to 50 years) like in our case with no previous cancer history or other known risk factors. We present a case of a 42-year-old woman, with a painful slowly growing mass in her left breast over a period of one year which on investagitating came out to be primary angiosarcoma of breast.

  4. Dr. Mohini, Dr. Nidhi and Dr. Varun Yadav

    Imatinib mesylate is the first line tyrosine kinase inhibitor and the main chemotherapeutic agents currently used to treat patients with chronic myeloid leukemia (CML). Although various cutaneous reactions to this drug are well known, but only few case reports are there documenting sweet syndrome (Ayirookuzhi et al., 2005).

  5. Aschalew Terefe Refu

    The main objective of this study was to assess family separation and its effect on children’s social wellbeing at kebele 02 and kebele 03, in Bedelle administrative town. 25 parents and 25 children were selected as a sample for this study through Purposive and snowball sampling technique. The negative impacts of family separation on children social wellbeing were investigated from both separated parents and children’s of those separated parents through questionnaire and observation checklist. To get the relevant data for this study, mixed research design was employed with both qualitatively and quantitatively research methods. Percentile/ descriptive statistics and the narration were utilized to analyze the collected data. Some of the children that were affected by their parental separation; are deeply affected and it is prolonged by poor parental support. The primary social effect of separation is included a decline of child-parent relationship, when children received less attention and emotional support from parents. Academic performances and schooling quality also affected because of parents’ separation. Parental separation children suffered from different social problems and dissatisfied with both parents’ support and care. Regardless of its wide range occurrence, parental separation has not given attention by the nation and other concerned bodies. Therefore the society should prevent the prevalence of parental separation and ensuring its proper adjustment through changing the social environment in connection to marriage stability.

  6. Dr. Vikas Kumar, Dr. Manoj Kumar Aggarwal, Dr. Lalit Likhyani, Dr. Pankaj Prasad, Dr. Rajnish Kumar and Dr. Mohit singh Chouhan

    Oligodontia is a congenital tooth agenesis with the absence of six or more permanent teeth. This clinical report describes a patient with non-syndromic partial oligodontia, with retained deciduous teeth and the absence of 19 permanent teeth. The absence of permanent teeth in young patients may cause aesthetic, functional and psychological problems. Considering the level of complexity in the management of oligodontia patients, treatment should start with proper diagnosis to prevent future functional and esthetic problems.

  7. Dr. Ramandeep Kaur, Dr. Anuradha Pathak and Dr. Haridarshan Singh Sidhu

    Aim: This study was aimed to assess the mothers’ oral health care knowledge and its impact on oral health status of their children. Methodology: 100 mothers along with their children in the age group of 3-5 years were included in the study. 17 point questionnaire was distributed to mothers to assess their knowledge regarding oral health care practices of their children. Oral examination of children was done and dmft score was recorded. Mothers were divided into two groups: group 1 whose children had dmft score <3 and group 2 whose children had dmft score >=3. Results: Very few mothers had knowledge about importance of deciduous teeth and oral hygiene practices. Significant difference (p<0.05) were found between group 1 and group 2 mothers’ knowledge about the role of prolonged breastfeeding and bottle feeding in causing tooth decay. 90% of mothers did not know about the role of fluoride in preventing dental decay. Conclusion: Children below 5 years spend most of their time with mothers. Mothers function as role model for their children. Therefore mothers’ knowledge, attitudes and beliefs regarding dental care need to be improved for better oral health status of their children.

  8. Eluke B.C., Okonji C.U. and Swems C.I.A.

    Background: ABO, Rhesus blood groups and Haemoglobin genotype are inherited characters. These may vary from one population to another. Aim: This study is to update information on the distribution of ABO, Rh blood group and haemoglobin genotype in Enugu North and Enugu South local Government Area, Enugu State. Methods: Eight hundred participants from each of the zones in the two local government areas were selected randomly. Two milliliters of blood collected from the cubital fossa of the subjects into an EDTA bottle was used for the determination of ABO, Rhesus blood group and Hb genotype using the standard tile technique and alkaline cellulose acetate electrophoresis technique. Data obtained were analysed using SPSS version 20. Results: The result showed that the pattern of distribution of ABO in each of the local government areas was in the order O>A>B>AB. In Enugu North, the pattern of distribution of ABO blood group were observed as O (57.5%), A (23.0%), B (17.0%) and AB (2.5%) respectively. The percentage frequency of Rh positive and Rh negative was 90.8% and 9.1% respectively. The percentage frequency of HbAA, HbAS and HbSS was 68.5%, 30.0% and 1.5% respectively. In Enugu South, the pattern of distribution of ABO groups were observed as O (58.2%), A (21.8%), B (14.5%) and AB (5.5%). The Rh positive and Rh negative distribution in the studied population was 93.8% and 6.2% respectively The haemoglobin genotype, 73% were HbAA, 26% HbAS, 1% HbSS were obtained. Conclusion: Blood group O and Rh positive blood groups were the most common blood group obtained in each of the two local government areas and blood group AB and Rh negative blood groups was the least common in this study. The percentage frequency of HbSS obtained in this study was low and this indicates a low prevalence of Sickle cell disease in this area.

  9. Dr. Mayank Dhore and Dr. Asha Jha

    Antibiotics are frequently used in clinical practice. The antibiotic-resistant bacteria due to unthoughtful and indiscriminate use of antibiotic is a major issue which is affecting healthcare delivery throughout the world. Available literature highlights the necessity of rationalization of antimicrobial therapy in developing countries. Study tool: A cross sectional questionnaire based study was conducted after the approval from Institutional ethics committee over the time of one month at Acharya Vinoba Bhave Rural Hospital (AVBRH) Sawangi (Meghe) Wardha. A structured questionnaire was prepared and validated by the experts, which consisted of three parts. They included questions regarding knowledge, attitude and practice of post graduate students about antibiotic use and resistance prescribed in there hospital. Study population: Post graduate students of all three years working in AVBRH. Study procedure: Each post graduate student was explained the objectives of the study and their willingness to participate in the study were obtained. After the briefing, questionnaire was distributed and the students were asked to respond to the questions completely and anonymously. Completed responses were collected for analysis. Conclusion: Medical education should include strategies to change the attitude and practices apart from raising knowledge for improved patient outcomes. Medical professionals should be tailored with a sense of responsibility that, as prescribers, their responsibility pertains not only to the patients benefit and wellbeing but also to the society at large.

  10. Alyavi, A.L., Alyavi, B.A., Tulyaganova, D.K., Aliahunova M. Yu., Sabirzhanova Z.T., Nuritdinova, S.K., Uzokov J.K., Khan T.A. and Radjabova, D.I.

    Aim: Of the study was to conducta comparative analysis of inflammatory markers in patients with coronary heart disease of stable and unstable flow. Methods: 78 patients aged 36 to 75 years were enrolled in this study (mean age 58.2±12.6 years). Laboratory and instrumental data were obtained and assessed. IL-6, TNF-α in blood plasma was carried out by the method of enzyme immunoassay on a solid-phase analyzer «Humareader Single». Statistical processing of the obtained results was carried out using vibrational statistics methods recommended for biomedical research on the IBM PC AT Pentium IV. Results: In patients with unstable angina (UA), the frequency of elevated levels of CRP, TNF-α, and leukocytes was statistically significantly higher than in the group with stable ischemic heart disease (P<0.05).The mean levels of these markers were statistically significantly higher in patients with UA compared with patients with stable form of coronary heart disease (CHD, P<0.05): CRP (4.3 ± 2.4 and 2.9 ± 2.3 mg / L, p <0.05, respectively), TNF-α (10.5 ± 2.5 and 7.7 ± 3.4 pg / ml, p <0.05) and leukocytes (9.2 ± 2.5 6.9 ± 2.3x109 / l, p <0.05). The level of interleukin-6 in patients with UA was higher in comparison with patients with stable angina (SA, 3.4 ± 1.7 and 2.9 ± 0.5 pg/ml), but the difference was statistically not significant (p>0.05). There were no significant differences in the level of fibrinogen and ESR between patients with UA and SA. Conclusion: It was noted that the signs of inflammation are detected both in patients with unstable forms and in patients with stable form of CHD, but the degree of inflammation in patients with UA (level of TNF-α, CRP and leukocytes) is higher than in patients with stable ischemic heart disease.

  11. Karnel Singh and Ong Tjandra

    Uterus Didelphys is known to be one of the rare Mulerrian Duct anomaly where in its development the uterus fails to unite so that the uterus separates into 2 parts: right and left which also have cervix in each part. Pregnancy with uterus didelphys may occur without infertility therapy and able to maintain its pregnancy to term. We report a rare case of Mullerian Duct Anomaly known as uterus Didelphys with spontaneous conception and aterm pregnancy on left horn.

  12. Dr. Niti Dalal and Dr. Sunita Singh

    Digital Pathology extends the limits of microscopy, enabling students, educators, researchers and clinicians to share tissue samples. Images sent or shared over the Internet or through specific analysis software open the path to a new and exciting microscopy tool. Software applications make it possible to see and share images beyond microscopes such as studying images on computer monitors, laptops, iPads and other portable devices. In some circumstances, multiple researchers are able to observe and discuss the same sample in real time over the Internet. Researchers that use a microscope as part of his/her daily regime can use Digital Pathology software to make digital slides, create a database and use advance programming to recognize and classify a tissue sample as well as identify abnormalities. Digital imaging technology advances possibilities in the realm of microscopy, providing a means to preserve, share, duplicate, and study a specimen. A standardized method of obtaining, storing and sharing digital images is needed and can lead to better diagnostic techniques and consultation methods for pathology diagnosis, however, these procedures have yet to materialize. In addition, utilizing digital images for teaching and consultation can be more effective for storage purposes and have easier accessibility as compared to traditional print photographs and slides. There is very little data assessing the utilization of microscopic digital images in India.

  13. Shanthini, R. Dr. Umayal, C.C.

    Background: Magnesium (Mg) deficiency is a common problem in diabetic patients. Hypomagnesemia increase the incidence of diabetes mellitus and occurrence of diabetic complications1 Diabetic peripheral neuropathy affects 50% of all diabetic patients. Patients with peripheral neuropathy are considered at risk of insensate foot ulcerations. At least half of foot ulcers, the end stage of such neuropathy should be preventable by early diagnosis and effective management. Aim: The aim of this study was to estimate serum magnesium levels in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus and correlate it with complications of type 2 diabetes mellitus - glycemic control and foot ulcer. Materials and methods: This is a cross sectional study done in stanley Medical College and Hospital, serum magnesium level, fasting blood sugar were estimated by standard methods and compared in type 2 diabetic patients and controls. Result: Serum magnesium level in diabetic population was significantly low in comparison to controls .In particular diabetic patients with foot ulcer had the lowest level in serum magnesium. There was negative correlation between fasting blood sugar and serum magnesium in diabetic patients. Duration of diabetes and serum magnesium were inversely related. Conclusion: Hence it is concluded that the lower levels of serum magnesium may have a bearing on the complication and morbidity in patients of DM, and estimation of serum levels of magnesium may be helpful to monitor the severity of complications in diabetic patients.

  14. Husam M. Edrees and Enas N. Morgan

    Obesity is a major health problem worldwide. The change in nutritional behaviour is the cheif cause of obesity. The asprosin is a newly discovered hormone which is induced by fasting and stimulates glucose production from the liver. Any decrease or increase in the circulating asprosin concentration results in a consistent alteration of appetite and adiposity. Objective: The aim of the present study is to demonstrate the role of asprosin in inducing obesity and causing metabolic disturbance in terms of measuring the BMI and other biochemical parameters. Methods: this study was carried out using 20 adult and healthy male albino rats, divided into two groups: Control group (Group I) and asprosin treated group (Group II) to determine the effect of subcutaneous asprosin injection (30 μg daily for 10 days) on body weight, BMI, serum glucose, insulin, insulin resistance and lipid profile. Results: The subcutaneous asprosin injection resulted in an increase in the body weight and body mass index with a significant dyslipidemia and hyperglycemia along with insulin resistance. Conclusion: The results suggest that the hormone asprosin is responsible for the observed metabolic disturbances and increased BMI in the rats.

  15. Dr. Preeth Pany, T., Col Dr. Sunita Dashottar and Lt. Col Dr. Devendra Nema

    Background: Road traffic accidents (RTA) are a leading cause of mortality and morbidity. Non Contrast Computed Tomography (NCCT) has become the diagnostic tool of choice for head trauma due to its high sensitivity, rapidity, accuracy, reliability and wide availability. Objective: To establish the role of NCCT in assessing the pattern of head injuries in RTA victims in a small cohort of armed forces personnel and their dependents. Material and methods: A retrospective annual study was conducted on 136 RTA victims with a 16 slice spiral CT machine in the radiology department of a tertiary care armed forces hospital based in Lucknow. Results: Out of 136 RTA victims, 46 suffered only brain injuries, 42 sustained only osseous fractures and 16 of them had both brain injuries and osseous fractures. Surprisingly, 32 (23.5%) of the total number of patients included in the study had neither brain nor osseous injuries. Males in the age group of 21-30 years (27%) were the most common victims. In this study, SDH was the most common pattern of brain injury. Linear fractures were more common than comminuted fractures of both cranial vault and facial bones. Temporal bone was the most common fractured bone of cranial vault and nasal bone was the most common fractured facial bone. Most of the injuries either brain/osseous were right sided. Maximum incidence of RTA took place in the month of December. Conclusion: NCCT was found to be highly sensitive safe and reliable in assessing the patterns of brain as well as skull vault and facial bone injuries reiterating the fact that it the primary investigative modality of choice in RTA.

  16. Dr. Rushabh Bhikhabhai Suthar, Dr. (Col) Sunita Dashottar and Dr. RDS Ahluwalia

    Introduction: Birth asphyxia is one of the common causes of early neonatal mortality. Hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy (HIE) leads to severe neurological deficits in neonates which can result in early neonatal deaths. MRI brain is the modality of the choice to look for various patterns of hypoxic ischemic injury. Materials and methods: Hospital based prospective study was done on 30 term and preterm infants/children with history of birth asphyxia and other neonatal, maternal and placental causative factors to look for MRI patterns of HIE. MRI Brain was used as screening modality to look for evidence of hypoxic ischemic injury (HIE). Results: The study demonstrated that term infants had significant involvement of subcortical and/or periventricular white matter and basal ganglia/thalamus region. While the preterm patients had predominant periventricular leucomalacia type of involvement. Conclusion: MRI of the brain is the ideal imaging modality of choice for the diagnosis and follow-up of infants/children suspected/diagnosed with hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy (HIE). The pattern of brain injury depends on brain maturity at the time of hypoxic insult, duration and severity of insult.

  17. Bhavanasisai Spandana, Dunna Prakruthi, Divi Mnasa, KallaNani Babu and NalluriMurali Krishna

    Background: Alcohol consumption and heavy episodic drinking tends to be higher during young adulthood than at any other period across the lifespan. This may be the effect of developmental factors before adolescence which include external factors like family, house hold structure, impact of relatives, peers, childhood, significant events with siblings, society etc., and internal factors like personality, coping skills, attitude to school, workforce aspiration, misbehavior, interaction and involvement etc. Motivation appears to be a critical dimension in influencing patients to seek, comply with, and complete treatment as well as to make successful long-term changes in their drinking. Although many patients attend treatment, they may not be ready to change their drinking pattern and may not actively participate in treatment hence motivation is important for predicting treatment participation and recovery. Objectives: • To identify various childhood and adolescent developmental factors which had led to alcohol consumption in later stages of life. • To assess the severity of alcohol abuse and the impact of motivation for change in alcohol withdrawal treatment and recovery. • To evaluate progress in meeting therapeutic goals by estimating CIWA. Method: A prospective case controlled observational study was conducted in the government general hospital, Guntur, for a period of 6 months i.e, from Oct 2017- March 2018. Factors predicting youth alcohol consumption (1997) Donovan model was used to determine developmental factors contributing to alcoholism.Severity of Alcohol Dependence Questionnaire (SADQ) and CIWA was used to determine severity of alcohol dependence. University of Rhode Island Change Assessment Scale (URICA) was used to assess readiness for change and differentiate them in stages. Results: A total number of 154 patients were assessed using Donovan model which contains facilitators and inhibitors of external and internal factors. From our data, majority of subjects were observed with facilitators which contribute to alcoholism and their significant improvement in motivation was assessed by using URICA scale.Self motivation plays an important role in alcohol treatment and recovery. Conclusion: There are many facilitators in both internal and external factors contributing to alcoholism in test group. The significant understanding of these factors could help in reducing the incidence of adolescent alcohol abuse in the society by reducing the facilitators from childhood onwards.

  18. Dr Seema Gupta, Dr Sachin Ahuja, Dr Eenal Bhambri, Dr Surbhi Sharma, Dr. Ankit Goyal and Dr. Himanshu Kalia

    Objective: To correlate craniofacial measurements from standardized facial photographs with analogous measurements from lateral cephalograms. Design: A prospective cross sectional study. Setting: A postgraduate department of Orthodontics and Dentofacial Orthopaedics based in India. Participants: patients with no previous orthodontic or surgical treatment, no history of craniofacial trauma lateral, all six maxillary anterior teeth present, no history of craniofacial trauma and cephalograms required as a part of routine treatment records were included. Method: The lateral cephalograms and standardised lateral profile photographs of 250 subjects ( 12 – 25 years) were taken with the patient in natural head position. Standard cephalometric angular and linear measurements were compared with angular and linear measurements on the photographs by identifying 8 facial landmarks. The landmarks on the face were first palpated and then marked, to ensure the position of respective skeletal landmark. Descriptive statistics for all measurements in the entire sample were computed and compared to assess Pearson correlation coefficients. Results: The reliability of the photographic technique was satisfactory. On comparing the cephalometric and photographic variables for the entire sample, positive and significant correlations were found for all linear and angular variables studied. Highest correlations were found for ANB and ANB’ (0.696, p ≤ 0.05) and the lowest correlations were found for ML and ML’(0.575, p ≤ 0.05). Conclusion: Both linear and angular measurements useful for characterising facial morphology can be reliably measured from facial photographs. The photographic method was found to be repeatable, low-cost, non-invasive diagnostic alternative for epidemiologic research, provided a standardised protocol is followed.

  19. Shwetha Hitnal and Shankarling Javali

    The prevalence of PMS (prevalence of pre-menstrual syndrome) is high all over the world and its most common disorder among the women’s. It has high impact on women’s health, emotions and behaviours during certain days of menstrual cycle. Aim: To determine the prevalence of PMS and also to determine the effect of jaggery tea to combat the symptoms of PMS. Material and methods: A cross sectional study design was used to determine the prevalence of PMS.The sampling frame is comprised individual aged 18-28 years and purposive sampling method was used. Then respondents were given information regarding benefits of jaggery tea consumption to over PMS. Preparation of jaggery tea: add the one cup of water for boiling, and then add the requirement amount jaggery. Add the tea leaves and boil it and add required amount of mil, use the tea filter to discard the solids. Study subjects were asked to consume jaggery tea five days prior and after the date of menstrual cycle continuously for 3 months. Study subjects were asked to fill up premenstrual syndrome screening toll before and after jaggery tea consumption. The data was analysed using descriptive statistics and effect of jaggery tea was evaluated using paired t-test. Result: Study reveals that Premenstrual Syndrome was 65%. Out of 195 students who are suffering from PMS, 120(61.5%) of them had mild PMS, 55(28.2%) had moderate PMS and only few 20(10.3%) of then had sever PMS. Conclusion: Prevalence of premenstrual syndrome is high and consumption of jaggery tea plays vital role in curing PMS.

  20. Raghul Sekar, Karthikeyan Ramasamy, Arun Alexander and Sunil Kumar Saxena

    A 30 year old male presented with a history of gradual onset diminution of vision on right eye along with a painless swelling over right forehead with right nasal obstruction and discharge for 4 months. Contrast CT of paranasal sinuses was done and endoscopic sinus surgery was performed. Post operative biopsy showed granulomatous inflammation with hyaline septate hyphae suggestive of Aspergillus. After 1gm of Amphotericin B, patient was discharged on oral voriconazole of which he wasn’t compliant. He presented after 3 months with total loss of vision on right eye and temporal field loss of vision on left eye. MRI brain was done which showed nodular thickening of right optic nerve upto optic chiasma. Revision surgery was performed and patient received oral anti fungal for 6 months post operatively and did not show any evidence of recurrence or disease progression.

  21. Kamal Elbssir, Muteb.H. Alshammari and Hashim Eltayeb

    This was a descriptive cross-sectional facility based study, conducted in Northern state; the assessment was conducted during 2010. Total coverage of all working EPI fixed sites in the state in addition to all Localities vaccine store and state vaccine store were included. The data was collected for six months from official records, reports, and plans concerning the vaccine management, plus interviewing the main Health workers in these units. The study showed that there were only 23 fixed vaccination sites had working refrigerators out of 54 fixed vaccination sites in the state (most refrigerators installed from long time and it is an old model. The entire vaccine store manager give the correct storage temperature range for each of the vaccines on the schedule. 100% of the service sites and localities in addition to state center have adequate storage capacity including for mass campaigns. 56% of the service sites, 95% of localities and 71% of state level had good functioning refrigerators/ freezers and all of these were meet WHO specification. There was no an itemized equipment replacement and preventive maintenance plans in the service sites and locality level and it need updated, detailed at state level. 74% of the service sites, 100% of localities and state level had completed records and balances updated for all receipts and dispatches. 100% of localities and state level had established and followed vaccine receipt/distribution plans. The vaccine wastage had monitored at state and localities level, but there were 82% of the service sites had completed periodic immunization reports and forms that are used to monitor vaccine wastage. The study concluded that the cold chain functionality was very weak (42.6% from total No of refrigerators in the state). There were adequate storage capacity at all levels and its accommodate peak stock levels for all the vaccines specified in the national immunization schedule.

  22. MS. Jeelani Saima Habeeb and Dr. Manju Chhughani

    Labour pain is the result of many complex interactions, physiological and psychological, excitatory as well as inhibitory. Women experience a wide range of pain in labour and exhibit an equally wide range of responses to it. The woman is educated to take an active role in decision-making and using self-comforting techniques and non-pharmacologic methods to relieve pain and enhance labour progress. The aim of the present study was to assess the effectiveness of back massage on labour pain among Primigravida mothers in Govt. Maternity Hospital Anantnag, Kashmir. Methodology: A true experimental research design was adopted with experimental & control group. Results: The findings indicated that back massage helped in reduction of labour pain level in the experimental group and the mother perceived less pain. Conclusion: Provision of back massage was effective in the reduction of labour pain.

  23. Prilly Astari and Ong Tjandra

    Background: Preeclampsia (PE) occurs in 2-8% of all pregnancies and mostly happens in the first pregnancy. The risk of developing PE in a third pregnancy (multipara) without a previous PE / E history is very small, especially if it occurs at under 34 weeks of gestation. Objective: To report a case of eclampsia in a multipara without prior history of preeclampsia / eclampsia. Methods: Case report. Results: A 32-year-old woman G3P2A0 with 32-33 weeks' gestation, came to the Tangerang Bethsaida Hospital emergency room with a history of seizure at home. Vital signs at the time of arrival showed blood pressure of 180/110 mmHg, pulse of 140 x/minute, respiratory rate of 20 x/minute, temperature of 36.50C, and oxygen saturation of 99%. Physical examination revealed minimal edema in lower extremities. ECG showed tachycardia, FHR using CTG was 140 x / minute, laboratory results showed urine protein 75mg / dL, triglycerides 537mg / dL, uric acid 11.5mg / dL, leukocytes 18,340 / μL, other CBC results along with HBA1C, albumin, AST, ALT, blood glucose, urea, creatinine, serum electrolytes (Na, K, Cl), bleeding time, clotting time, PT, and APTT were normal. Patient routinely comes for antenatal care. There was no history of preeclampsia/eclampsia during the first and second pregnancies. She was admitted to the ICU and diagnosed as eclampsia, received Adalat oros therapy, Aldomet, Perdipine, MgSO4, Dexamethasoneinjection for 24 hours for lung maturation, as well as pregnancy termination. After 24 hours in the ICU, cesarean operation and tubectomy were performed, a 1,495 gram baby boy was born, length 39 cm, APGAR score 3/8. The patient was treated with antibiotics, antihypertension, and vitamins. She was hospitalized for 3 days. Conclusions:We reported one case of a woman with the third pregnancy (multipara) of 32-33 weeks’ gestation with eclampsia without history of PE / E in both previous pregnancies. This is a very rare case, however with proper management, good outcomes can be achieved for both the mother and baby.

  24. Dr. Debajyoti Pathak, Dr. Kaushik Roy, Dr. Suniti Kumar Saha, Dr. Nakul Pahwa, Dr. Abta Bachchan

    Background: Despite being one of the most common pathologies encountered by a neurosurgeon, management of chronic subdural haematoma (cSDH) continues to be tricky, often requiring multiple interventions with varied complications. Objective: The aim of this study was to compare small craniotomy with burr-hole craniostomy as a treatment modality in evacuation of cSDH at a tertiary care Hospital. Methods: A retrospective study encompassing chronic subdural haematoma patients presenting to the Department of Neurosurgery, NRS Medical College & Hospital over a period of one year was performed. Patients who underwent burr-hole craniostomy or a small craniotomy were included in the study. Patients with intrahaematomal membranes or organized cSDH were selected for craniotomy. The patients were followed up during their stay in the hospital and there demographic profiles, operative duration, hospital stay, complications and prognosis were thoroughly studied. A pre-operative and post-operative clinical assessment of the patients was done using Markwalder’s Grade Scale. Results: There was no difference in the pre-operative criteria in the two groups, however a significant difference was noted in the duration of surgery and hospital stay between the two groups. The burr-hole group also had more complications and re-operation than the craniotomy group. Conclusion: Small craniotomy seems to be a better alternative than burr-hole craniostomy for the management of chronic subdural haematomas with intrahaematomal membranes.

  25. Ksh Beliya Luxmi Devi, Huidrom Suraj Singh and Jibonkumar Singh S.

    Background: Globally, it is accepted that Diabetes is one of the most threatening public health issue which has become pandemic. There is rise in the prevalence of Diabetes in all parts of the World, India being one the country to have high prevalence to suffer from Diabetes next to China. Numerous factors cause diabetes, however, environmental being the most important risk factor to cause diabetes. Many studies have shown that human gene also play its important role in causing diabetes, 50 percent of diabetes patient have their family or parents suffering from diabetes. High prevalence of diabetes is found among the overweight and obese people, those who are inactive in their lifestyle. Objective: The presents study will be focusing on Type 2 diabetes with an aim of finding the prevalence in all the states of North East, India Methods: The present paper consists of works which were published during the year 2010 to 2017, a period of eight years. Result: According to the study conducted by Indian Council of Medical Research (ICMR) India Diabetes Study reported that in blood sugar level of >140 mg/dl the urban women show the highest blood glucose level (9.4%) in both Mizoram and Tripura which is followed by Manipur with (8.8%) and Sikkim with (7.8%) whereas in case of men the highest blood glucose level can be seen in Nagaland (11.1%) followed by Mizoram and Sikkim with (10.7%). There is high prevalence of Type2 diabetes among the overweight and obese group. In some states male show higher prevalence and in other female show higher. Summary: Type 2 Diabetes mellitus is affected both by gene and environment, person with parental history of diabetes have a higher prevalence. Various lifestyle plays important role in relation to the conversion of type2 diabetes. People who are physically inactive are more prone to suffer from diabetes than people who are physically active. It is necessary to conduct more screening for prevalence of diabetes and its risk factors in North East region, as very few data were available.

  26. Gulalai Rehman, Allauddin, Kareem Zarkoon and Muhammad Samsoor Zarak

    Objectives: To study the prevalence of respiratory tract infections in children under five years. Background: Respiratory tract infection is an important cause of morbidity and mortality in children under five years of age. These are mostly self-limiting and risk of complications is small. Risk factors for severe complications include malnutrition, low birth weight, passive smoking, non-breast feeding, low socioeconomic condition, and HIV infections. and consequently, most of the morbidity associated with such infections are found in developing countries. The causative agents for respiratory infections are mainly bacterial or viral. although it is not possible to differentiate between the two on the basis of clinical signs or radiology. They are treated either conservatively or admitted in hospital according to the severity of symptoms but vaccination remains the best choice which prevents such infections. This study aims to assess the prevalence of respiratory tract infections in children under five years in the city Quetta. Methodology: A cross-sectional study was conducted using a self-made questionnaire. This research was conducted Paeds department of Bolan Medical Complex Hospital (BMCH) and Sandeman Provincial Hospital (SPH), Quetta. Children under 5 years of age were randomly assigned to the study. A total of 153 patients assigned to the study. Results: The study showed a high prevalence of respiratory tract infection in children under five years who were visiting the department of Paeds at BMCH and SPH. Out of the total sample, 38% (n=58) of children were victims of respiratory tract infection where 60% of them were children under age one. Among affected total 58 patients, 31 patients presented with a cough and fever, 15 patients were having the complaints of a sore throat and cough, 9 patients had loose motions with a cough, while 3 patients were having vomiting and rhinitis. Conclusion: This study has identified a high prevalence of respiratory tract infections among the children visiting the Paeds department of Bolan Medical Complex Hospital and Sandeman Provincial Hospital, Quetta. It also highlights the various risk factors that lead to respiratory tract infection.

  27. Tomoyuki Nishizaki

    Profilin is an actin-binding protein and engages in the dynamic turnover and restructuring of the actin cytoskeleton. The present study investigated the role of profilin in α7 ACh receptor trafficking. The selective PKCε activator DCP-LA increased cell surface localization of α7 ACh receptor in differentiated PC-12 cells, which was inhibited by knocking down PKCε. The effect of DCP-LA was also cancelled by knocking down profilin. In the cell-free kinase assay, profilin significantly enhanced the activity of PKCε activated by DCP-LA, although no PKCε activation was induced by profilin alone. It is indicated from these results that profilin stimulates translocation of α7 ACh receptor towards the cell surface by enhancing the activated PKCε activity.

  28. Dr. Aziz Pahadwala, Dr. Vankar T.V., Dr. Hasita Parmar and 4Dr. Dhruv Bhagat

    Sialolithiasis is the most common disease of the salivary glands. Sialolithiasis accounts for 30% of salivary diseases. Sialolithiasis most commonly involves the submandibular glands (83-94%) and less frequently the parotid (4-10%) and the sublingual glands (1-7%). Intraductal sialoliths are more common when compared to intraglandular sialoliths. According to the available literature, salivary calculi affecting the parotid gland are usually unilateral and are located in the duct. Their size is smaller than submandibular sialoliths, most of them being less than 1 cm. They rarely measure more than 1.5 cm. The mean size varies from 6 to 9 mm. Giant sialoliths are defined as the sialoliths greater than 1.5 cm. in size. Large intra-glandular sialoliths have been frequently reported but large sialoliths in the salivary ducts have been rarely described. Herewith, we report a case of a giant sialolith in the left parotid duct occurring in a 56 year old female, with the clinical and radiographic presentation and a review of literature.

  29. Chia Hui Hou

    Leisure is the primary lifestyle and center of life for older people. Developing interests and hobbies is particularly crucial for elderly adults. Therefore, this study established a model of wisdom transformation through exploring the process and effectiveness of how elderly adults’ leisure experiences enhance their perspectives of wisdom. Initially, a questionnaire survey was administered to preliminarily investigate elderly adults’ views of wisdom. Subsequently, adopting a qualitative approach to interpretive phenomenology, this study conducted in-depth interviews on 11 elderly adults to analyze the transformative process of how their leisure experiences shaped their wisdom. The results indicate that wisdom transformation attributed to leisure experience was embodied in the integration, action and practice, and positive effects of cognition, affect, and reflection. Furthermore, wisdom transformation occurred through 4 stages: (a) leisure experience; (b) reflection and development; (c) action and practice; and (d) positive effects.

  30. Dr. Om Prakash Singh, Dr. Pushp Kant Tiwari, Dr. Singh, J.P. and Dr. Rishabh Singh

    Introduction: This study was carried out at a tertiary care services hospital in central India. The main aim of the study was to evaluate the clinical profile, diagnosis, treatment and follow-up in 26 pediatric neurocysticercosis patients over a duration of five years (from Jul 2011 To Jul 2016). Materials and Methods: Detailed history, Clinical features, Computed tomography (CT) and or Magnetic Resonance Imaging scan were the basis of diagnosis of neurocysticercosis along with exclusion of other causes. Patients symptomatic with seizures and active, transitional cysts treated with anticonvulsants, steroids, and albendazole. Seven of the children required multiple courses of albendazole. Results: A total of 26 patients completed this study. Mean age of the presentation was 9.6 ± 4.9 years, 58% of the patients were female. The clinical profile of patients was as follows - partial seizures 63.3%, generalized seizures- 37.7%, headache - 67%, vomiting in 19 %, focal neurological deficit in 11% and a combination of symptoms in 70% cases. Contrast CT brain showed a solitary lesion in 18 (71.1%) and multiple lesions in the rest. To begin with CT/MRI lesions were transitional in 64%, inactive in 21% and mixed in 36%, All the children were seizure free after two years of treatment and follow up, with normal electroencephalography (EEG). During the course of follow-up CT scan brain, lesions disappeared in 69.4% of the cases and 29.6% of them got calcified, Conclusion: Neurocysticercosis was the commonest cause of seizure disorder in children in this study. The commonest CT picture at presentation was a Solitary ring enhancing lesions (transitional stage) involving the parietal lobe. Partial/focal seizure was the most common type of seizure. Albendazole is effective in single as well as multiple ring enhancing lesions of neurocysticercosis. Praziquantel alone or in combination was not tried in this study.

  31. Mr. Haridass, V., Mrs. Prabavathy, S. and Dr. Renuka, K

    Cancer is the second most serious health problem and the second leading cause of death in human. The cancer patient undergoing treatment experiences Physical and Psychological problem. The physical problems, like hair loss, nausea and vomiting and initial diagnostic phase can be very stressful. The cancer patient undergoing treatment experiences a psychological distress including anger, anxiety, sadness, fear, stress, feeling out of control, feelings of depression, impairment of concentration, sleep disorders, mental and cognitive reservation and psychiatric disorders. In India the cancer patient undergoing treatment were having the depressive disorders 4.5%, anxiety disorders 3%, stress disorder 4% in total population. Progressive Muscle Relaxation Technique is help to reduce the stress, anxiety and depression among cancer patient to promote general wellbeing. A study to assess the Effectiveness of Progressive Muscle Relaxation Technique on Stress, Anxiety and Depression among Patients undergoing Cancer Treatment in Puducherry Cancer Trust Hospital and Research Centre at Puducherry. The Research design chosen for this study was Quasi – Experimental Design (One group pre-test and post-test design). The study conducted in selected Hospital at Puducherry. The population includes the patient undergoing cancer treatment are taken as population and out of that 60 patients were selected for this study. The sampling technique used for this study is Simple Random Sampling technique (Lottery method). The Frequency and Percentage distribution are used to assess the Pre-test and Post-test level of stress, anxiety and depression among patients, Wilcoxon Signed Ranks test are used to evaluate the Effectiveness of Progressive Muscle Relaxation Technique on level of Stress, Anxiety and Depression among patients and Chi-square test to associate the level of Stress, Anxiety and Depression with the selected demographic variables of Patient Undergoing Cancer treatment.

  32. Mohmmed Shakur

    Odonates were sampled from 3 sites i.e; 1. Jawai Dam, 2. Near Bijapur and 3. Jawai river near Aravalli. Southern Marwar region of Rajasthan reported 14 species belonging to Drangonfies (Family: Libellulidae) and 5 species Damselflies and 3 species are recorded for the first time Orthetrum cancellatum, Trithemis annulata, Rhodischnura nursei.

  33. Umbeli, T., Seham A. Habeeb Allah, Nuha A. Saliheen, Manal H. Taha, Kunna A., Mohamed S. Ahmed and Awatif J. Al Bahar

    Objectives: To assess the results of implementing maternal death surveillance and response (MDSR) in Sudan, during 2014 -2017; and identify causes of maternal death (MD) and health system response for reducing maternal mortality (MM). Methodology: Hospital and community maternal death review (MDR) started in Sudan since 2009, where causes of maternal deaths MDs and areas of delays were identified after regular reporting and reviewing through focal persons’ networks; using a coordinated approach involving both notional and states’ stakeholders. MDs were discussed at state’ maternal death review committees (SMDRCs) and recommendations for reducing maternal mortality ratio (MMR) were generated for action. In 2014 MDSR was introduced using WHO guidance. Results: Over four years; a total of 4454 MDs were notified and reviewed, out of 3502540 Live births (LB), MMR was 127/ 100000 LB, with different variation between states. The MMR was declining from 209/ 100000 LB in 2010 to 115/100000 LB in 2017, with significant drop after implementing MDRS in 2014. Direct obstetric MDs were 72.9%, mainly from haemorrhage 32.6%, hypertensive disorders 15.7% and sepsis 12.7%, while indirect causes were 24.4%. National response included; improved coverage of midwives with recruitment in health system, availing of clean delivery requirements, management protocols, distribution of delivery and operating tables and ambulances for rural hospitals. Conclusion: - late presentation, home delivery, poor antenatal care (ANC) and referral system, non adherence to protocols, inadequate blood transfusion and lack of intensive care units (ICU) are related causes of MD. Strengthening the response requires commitment of various stakeholders, with clear accountability and budgets.

  34. Hiralal Jana and Debabrata Basu

    The National Bank for Agriculture and Rural Development (NABARD) was set up in July, 1982 following after the recommendations of the "Committee to Review Arrangements for Institutional Credit for Agriculture and Rural Development". All major issues related to rural credit until then dealt with by the RBI and the Agricultural Refinance and Development Corporation moved under the control of NABARD. NABARD thus emerged as the apex institution to play a pivotal role in the sphere of policy planning and providing refinance facilities to rural financial institutions. NABARD also administers the Rural Infrastructure Development Fund (RIDF), which was set up in 1995-96. NABARD has also been playing a catalytic role in micro-credit through the channel of Self-Help Groups (SHGs). The National Bank for Agricultural and Rural Development commonly known by the acronym NABARD is a leading development oriented bank in India, which has its headquarters in Mumbai, the country’s financial capital. With branches all across the country dedicated to improving the lot of the rural populace, the bank is expected to play a key role in ensuring development and implementation of the government’s financial inclusion policy. To that effect, this leading rural development bank has joined hands with the broader Alliance for Financial Inclusion. The vision of NABARD is to play a leading role in a range of matters that deal with policy, planning as well as operations that are related to the broad area of agriculture credit. Another key role of NABARD is to provide financial assistance to various areas apart from agriculture to spearhead the development of villages in India through financing of key economic activities.

  35. Abdel Maksoud H. A., Afaf D. Abdel Magid, Mostafa Y. M., ReemI. Sorour and Mohamed G. Elharrif.

    Liver acts as a cornerstone in most biotransformation process. CCl4 is one of the most common chemicals producing liver injury. Liquorice is a medicinal plant widely consumed in Egypt as a juice. In our study we aimed to estimate the hepatoprotective effect of liquorice crude extract against CCL4-induced hepatitis in rats and to clarify its underlying molecular mechanism through its effect on inflammatory biomarkers and antioxidant system. To achieve our objective a sixty male albinorats were divided into 6 groups, normal control group, hepatitis group, hepatitis group treated with low conc. liquorice extract, hepatitis group treated with high conc. liquorice extract, normal group with low conc. liquorice extract and normal group with high conc. liquorice extract. The outcome of the study exhibits a representative association between exposure to CCl4 and alteration of liver function parameters and hematological profile and elucidate the hepatoprotective effect of liquorice extract through its anti-inflammatory and antioxidant properties.

  36. Jamaluddin, Lagangka, R., Khumaidi, A.

    Gelatin is one type of protein derived from natural collagen found within the skin, bones, and connective tissue of animals. This study, used eel (Anguilla marmorata (Q) Gaimard) fish skin as the material for gelatin which was extracted using acetic acid solution of 3%, 6% and 9% for 48 hours. This study aims at determining the concentration of acetic acid towards the yield value and the quality (organoleptic, water content, ash content, and arsenic content) in accordance with Indonesian National Standards. The method used to determine the water content is oven method, to determine ash content is muffle furnace method, to determine arsenic metal is Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometry (SSA) and to find out the gelatin functional groups is FTIR (Fourier Transform Infrared) spectroscopy. The result shows that the gelatin extracted using 3% acetic acid has the highest yield value of 18.2% and for the quality of gelatin concentration of 9% acetic acid is the most optimal concentration with yellowish gelatin color, odorless and flavorless, and has water content of 7.099%, ash content of 0.96% and arsenic content of <0.01mg / kg. The result of characterization using FTIR shows that sample obtained by characterization of functional group smiliar to gelatin.

  37. Franck Michaël Zahui, Jean-Marie Pétémanagnan Ouattara, Moussa Balla Konaté, Lassina Sandotin Coulibaly and Lacina Coulibaly

    Background: In developing countries where the economic situation is less sustained, constructed wetlands might be suitable in the management of wastewater before the discharge into natural environments because of their possible generation of revenues that could support maintenance costs. However, organic matter (OM) removal in constructed wetlands using different species of plants often varies, and the contribution to organic matter removal by various pathways remains unclear. Aims: To demonstrate the effects of five local forage plants (i.e Andropogon gayanus, Chrysopogon zizanioides, Echinochloa pyramidalis, Pennisetum purpureum and Tripsacum laxum), and to determine the contributions of different pathways onto organic matter (OM) removal from synthetic domestic wastewater in vertical flow constructed wetlands (CWs). Methods: A pilot-scale composed of six beds constructed with bricks, and filled from bottom to top with 0.1 m gravel covered with cloth and 0.6 m white lagoon sand was used. Five beds were transplanted by local forage seedlings, while one was used as the control. 80 L of domestic synthetic wastewater was then applied on the beds intermittently over six months. Results: All of the five plants species grew well, improving thus organic matter removal, but those of P. purpureum provided a greater and fresher with 15.86 kg.m-2 and achieved the best Total Suspended Solids (TSS), 5-day Biochemical Oxygen Demand (BOD5), and Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD) with removal efficiencies around 93.81 %, 98.51 %, and 95.92 %, respectively. Likewise, OM amount decreased in the beds’ sediments from upper surface to the bottom. According to the mass balance approach, OM removal by sediment storage and microbial uptake were 12.26–49.97 % and 43.87–85.10 %, respectively. Regarding OM removal pathways, a slight difference between species of plants of CWs was observed, but microbial uptake remained mainly OM removal pathways. Nevertheless, sediment storage is a main OM removal pathway for some plants (e.g. C. zizanioides). Conclusion: Constructed wetlands transplanted with P. purpureum could be a cost-effective alternative method of wastewater treatment.

  38. Séka, K., Koffi, N.B.C., Assiri, K.P., Yao, K. F., Atta Diallo, H.

    In Côte d'Ivoire, the papaya crop is threatened by fungal pathogens. The etiology, the incidence and the distribution of these fungal diseases have not yet been elucidated. The objective of this study is to generate scientific data to sustainably control fungal diseases of papaya in Côte d'Ivoire. To this end, an inventory of fungal diseases of papaya and responsible agents has been carried out in several production areas in Côte d'Ivoire. Pathogenicity tests have verified the involvement of the agents responsible for the manifestation of the observed symptoms. Several isolates of four fungal species were obtained from fruit and root samples showing symptoms. It is Phytophthora palmivora, Colletotrichum gloeosporioides (agent responsible for anthracnose), of Fusarium sp. and of Pythium aphanidermatum. These fungi reproduced the same symptoms by soft or sudden inoculation on fruits and papaya’s roots. The first three species had an average incidence of 32.5 % for severity 3 (on a scale of 1 to 5) in the region of Grands ponts (Great Bridges), Agnéby-Tiassa, Indénié-Djuablin, Gbokle regions. In other localities, no symptoms of fungal diseases was observed.

  39. Medha Rawat, Pranav Joshi, Harsh Joshi, Kartik Shah and Supriya Malhotra

    Background: Migraine is a common neurological disorder associated with a significant disease burden. It is characterized by unilateral/bilateral severe pulsating headache. Insufficient data are available regarding the utilization pattern of available drugs for the prevention and management of migraine. Migraines can be severe enough to limit sufferers’ causing significant lost productivity and decrements in health-related quality of life. Objectives: To study drug utilization pattern in patient of migraine in the outpatient department of neurology at a tertiary care teaching hospital. To assess the impact of migraine on Quality of life [QOL] of patients suffering from migraine. Methods: This cross-sectional observational study was conducted for 12 weeks. All patients either gender and age were included attending the neurology Outpatient Department and diagnosed to have migraine. Demographic profile of the patient and drug data was collected. Tools of QOL in migraine are included: Migraine disability assessment (MIDAS) score, Headache Disability Index (HDI) score and Headache Impact Test (HIT-6) score. Results: Total 65 patients were included; 53 (81.5%) females and 12 (18.5 %) males. Most of the patients were of 21-50 years of age. Precipitating factors were travel (30.77%) followed by mental tension (18.46%) and irregular food intake/ hunger (15.38%). Common symptoms were photophobia (53.8%) and phonophobia (50.7%). Drugs prescribed propranolol 43 (66.1%), amitriptyline (21.5%), naproxen (6.1%) and paracetamol (6.1%). MIDAS score; most patients 36 (55.3%) presented with mild disability. 52 (80%) patients answered that they feel severe migraine pain. Conclusions: We observed that migraine is more common in females patients. Most common drugs used alone were propranolol, amitriptyline, naproxen and paracetamol. Most patients felt severe headache which has affected their day-to-day life disabling that it impacted their ability to do even daily routine work.

  40. Dr. Aziz Pahadwala, Dr. Vankar, T.V., Dr. Hasita Parmar and Dr. Dhurav Bhagat

    The present study aimed at the formulation of oyster mushroom pickled product, as influenced by its qualities and physico-chemical properties. There were three formulated techniques prepared with three replications for each treatment. The formulations were T-1 (sour), T-2 (sweet) and T-3 (sweet and sour). The products have been evaluated of the effects of sugar concentration to its color, odor, texture, and taste. The salient findings of the study were: T-2 (sweet) contained the highest crude protein value of 2.30% and less acidic treatment with pH value of 4.01. T-1 (sour) exhibited the lowest value of crude protein of 1.81% and highest in moisture value of 88.8%. For T-3 (sweet and sour) the results showed high content for total sugar (as sucrose) with 8.35% and lowest value of 77.1% moisture. Storage studies demonstrated that pickles stored successfully for 90 days at ambient temperature (26±4C) without any significant change in the quality attributes of the mushroom pickle. Furthermore, microbiological analysis demonstrated the absence of bacteria in pickled products.

  41. Samwel Alfred Maseke and Vegi Maheswara Rao

    This study aims to compare physico-chemical parameters of the water quality between hot springs and borehole waters. Twenty samples were collected from two regions Singida and Dodoma of Tanzania. Multimeter used for the analysis of physical parameters pH, EC, TDS, salinity and turbidimeter used to analyseturbidity. Titrimetric methods were used for chemical parametersCl^-, total hardness, Ca2+ and Mg2+. UV-Visible spectrophotometric methods used for the analysis of NO_3^-,〖 SO〗_4^(2-),F^-, Fe2+and Mn2+ and Flame Atomic Absorption methods for Cd2+, Zn2+, Ni2+, Cu2+ and K+. The parameters EC, TDS, salinity, turbidity,Cl^-, NO_3^- , 〖 SO〗_4^(2-), F^-and Mn2+are higher (EC = 508.33-4790 µS/cm, TDS = 249.33-2349.30 mg/L, salinity = 0.27-2.53 ppt, turbidity = 0.81-513.73 NTU,Cl^-= 54.32-900.52 mg/L, NO_3^-= 0.1-63.30 mg/L, 〖 SO〗_4^(2-)=38.33-343.33 mg/L, F^-=0.47-9.5 mg/L and Mn2+= 0.6-1.9 mg/L) in hot springs than borehole waters (EC = 844.0-1821.67 µS/cm, TDS = 414.67-891.33 mg/L, salinity = 0.4-0.87 ppt, turbidity = 3.8-147.9 NTU,Cl^- = 119.68-356.50 mg/L, NO_3^- = 0.93-16.78 mg/L, 〖 SO〗_4^(2-) = 42.0-128 mg/L, F^-= 0.18-1.38 mg/L and Mn2+ = 1.5-1.6 mg/L). But other parameters Total hardness, Ca2+, Mg2+, Fe2+ and Ni2+ are higher in borehole waters than hot springs.The t-test (p=0.05) showed that there is significant difference of the parameters〖 SO〗_4^(2-),F^- and Ni2+ between hot spring and borehole waters. Based on this study it is observed that some of the parameters are at higher levels than permissible values for both hot spring and borehole waters. Therefore, there is a need of treatment for these waters before using for domestic purposes.

  42. Nadiya A. Al-Saady, Saleem K. Nadaf, Ali H. Al-Lawati and Saleh A. Al-Hinai

    Faba bean (Vicia faba L.) is one of the popular pulse crops grown for traditional consumption, not only in Oman but also in Arabian Peninsula and other countries. In Oman, the farmers living in and around high altitude mountain areas mostly grow it. This paper highlights features of variation in seed color and diversity in seed traits found in collected accessions from the joint collecting missions between 2008 and 2011 involving the staff of College of Agriculture, Sultan Qaboos University and the Ministry of Agriculture and Fisheries from all the governorates of the Sultanate of Oman. 41 seed samples/accessions were collected from 38 sites. Of these, the highest number of accessions was collected from Batinah South governorate (28) represented mostly by the mountains of Rustaq, followed by the mountains of Interior/Al-Dakhliyah (8), and Dhahira and Buraimi (4). Only one accession was collected from mountains of the Eastern/ Al-Sharqiyah governorates. The seed accessions were found diverse with respect to all seed characters studied, i.e. seed length (cm) and width (cm) and 100-seed weight (g) besides seed color. The faba bean accessions were classified into 9 genetically diverse clusters based on the Principal Component Analysis, which indicated that the contribution of seed width and 100-seed weight to the total variation existing in indigenous germplasm collected from all the governorates of Oman. It was found from the critical analysis of seed colors that 38 accessions were homogenous (pure) with one color and three were heterogeneous with combinations of colors.

  43. Dr. Joydeep Das, Dr. Jayita Das and Dr. Devyani De

    Introduction: Neonatal cholesstasis is a silent emergency (National Biliary Atresia Registry, 1976). In a tertiary care hospital we can diagnose many cases but outcome depends on post natal age, if post natal age crosses 8 weeks of age prognosis is guarded. Very few studies captured clinical profile and outcome which can alert a practicing pediatrician about the nature of severity and long term follow up (Ohkohchi 1989). Aims and objectives: Outline the etiology and clinical profile of different cases of Conjugated neonatal hyperbilirubinemia and their outcome over 1year follow up. Materials and Method: Babies with conjugated hyperbilirubinimiamore than 20% of total bilirubin presenting at more than 14 days of age at OPD or emergency of Institute of Child Health, Kolkata were admitted in the hospital and started investigation as per standered protocol. Those diagnosed as billary atresia were referred to pediatric surgery and kasai’s operation was done as early as possible preferably within 8 weeks of life. Those presenting later than 10 to12 weeks where chance of failed kasai was very high were put on palliative care after discussion with parents.In this prospective cohort study of 46 patients of conjugated hyperbilirubinemia in a neonate is followed up over 12 months and analysed the morbidity and mortality. Result and analysis: Ideopathic neonatal hepatitis14 (30.5%) was very high followed by billary atresia BA 11(24%), sepsis 8(17.39%) and hypothyroidism 4 (8.69%). Down syndrome and infant of diabetic mother constitute 6.5% (3) each followed by CMV2 (4.3%) and Galactosemia1 (2.17%).Out of 46 cases 17 cases were died within the follow up period of 8 months. No death is reported within 8 to 12 months. Among 17 cases of death BA were 6 ,r est 11 were due to medical cause. Conclusion: The prognosis for intants with neonatal cholestasis syndromespecially due to biliary atresia remains dismal, particularly in our country. It is unfortunate that 35 years after Morio Kasai’s first reported success with his portoenterostomy operation our patients still not benefited from the same. Due to delay in diagnosis most babies undergo surgery late and ultimately need a liver transplant.

  44. Dr. Seema Bisane and Dr. Silpi Basak

    Introduction: Inrecent years, Candida sp. has appeared as an emerging nosocomial pathogen causing Urinary Tract Infections. Candiduria is difficult to diagnose clinically as most often the patient is asymptomatic. Patients with candiduria often develop candidemia. Standard urine culture is less sensitive. Resistance to antifungal drugs have been more commonly encountered in Candida species isolated from urine. Aim: Hence, the present study was undertaken to detect the incidence of different Candida species isolated from urine and to study their antifungal drug susceptibility profile. Material and Methods: 630 urine samples were cultured on Sabouraud’s Dextrose agar (SDA) with chloramphenicol. 55 Candida strains were detected by conventional tests. 05 Candida albicans and 07 Candida nonalbicans strains were further confirmed by Vitek2. Antifungal drug susceptibility profile was detected by disc diffusion method as per CLSI Guidelines. Minimum Inhibitory Concentration (MIC) of Fluconazole and Voriconazole was detected by E Test (bio Merieux). Results: Candida tropicalis was the commonest species (36.4%) followed by Candida albicans (29.1%), Candida parapsilosis (16.4%), Candida glabrata (7.3%) and Candida pelliculosa (7.3%). 22 (40%) Candida species were resistant to Fluconazole. Fluconazole MIC > 96 μg/ml was observed in 10 strains. Conclusion: Routinely all uine sample should be cultured on SDA for detection of Candiduria and antifungal drug sensitivity test should be done.

  45. Sparsha Pattanaik and Lakshmi Kumari Samad

    Background: Screening of antibacterial compounds from natural sources for social benefit is emphasized in recent years with the view that pathogens have developed resistance against antibiotics. Objectives: The present investigation has been carried out to screen sub-aerial cyanobacteria thriving in an extreme environment as they are supposed to be a potential source of natural bioactive compounds. Methods: Scytonema ocellatum isolated from building facades were used for antibacterial activity against certain reference human pathogenic bacteria after subjected to TLC purification twice by altering the solvents. Results: The acetone extract of S. ocellatum showed highest and moderate inhibition zone against Escherichia coli and Pseudomonas aeruginosa respectively. Chloroform extracts also exhibited significant zone against Escherichia coli; no activity was observed against Bacillus subtilis and Staphylococcus aureus. The UV illuminated bands with potential effect were subjected to GC and FTIR analysis. GC analysis showed 98% and 95.6% purity in each solvent extracts and FTIR spectra showed stretching bands containing various biologically active functional groups like alcohol, phenol, alkanes, carboxylic acids groups, amines etc respectively revealing antibiosis. Conclusion: The above screening is the first record of antibacterial activity enhancing the importance of sub-aerial cyanobacteria that possess a scope for producing biologically active compounds, pointing towards brilliant candidates for Pharmaceutical application.

  46. Kahraman OĞUZ and Beril S. AKIN

    Turkey, which is located in the Mediterranean basin, is one of the countries that are the most sensitive to climate change. Due to its geographical location, it is also under the influence of dusts transported from Africa and the Middle East. The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) considers dust as a very significant component of atmospheric aerosols which are major climate variables. Therefore, it is important to consider the effects of mineral dusts in climate change studies in Turkey since it is located in the Mediterranean basin. In this study, we focused on projecting temperature, precipitation and dust aerosol data for the period of 1972-2099. We used outputs of the GFDL-ESM2M global climate model and the CAM aerosol model as initial and boundary conditions with the RCP4.5 concentration pathway. According to the projections, the temperatures will increase by 1.5-2°C, and precipitation will decrease by about 10%in Turkey in general. According to the dust aerosol optical depth (dust AOD) projections, dust AOD, which especially increased in fall months, will be extended towards the summer season after 2040 in the study area. The long-term dust concentration projections revealed an insignificant increasing trend in Antalya and a decreasing trend in İzmir. These are the provinces mostly affected by dusts that originate from Africa. Besides, we found an increasing trend in Hakkari, Kilis and Mardin, that are the provinces that are mostly affected by dusts that originate from the Middle East.

  47. Asrat Zewdie

    Ascochyta blight caused by (teleomorph: Didymella rabiei (Kov.) is one of the most important seed borne pathogen of chickpea. The study was carried to determine the extent of seed borne infection. Agar plate techniques as ISTA standard method were applied. A total of one hundreds chickpea seed samples were collected from Debre Zeit, Gondar Agricultural Research Center, Farmers’ seed and open market/union in 2015. Purposive sampling was used in areas affected by ascochyta blight. Hundred seeds were randomly taken from each sample. Seeds were surface disinfected in 0.5% (NaOCl) and rinsed three times in distilled water and seeds were transferred to chickpea meal extracts. Seed was scored and determine from fungal growth. The result indicates that the highest (18%) seed infection was recorded on one seed samples from research center, followed by (15%) and (14%) infection were recorded on seed samples from open market/union and farmers’ seed and lowest (2%) infection of seed samples were recorded both on research centers and farmers seed. The seed harvested from all infected seed source contribute primary inoculums and long distance dissemination of spores. Seed health and free from seed borne diseases constantly desired to with reduction of seed borne inoculums through various seed treatments. In order to increase the production of chickpea qualitatively and quantitatively, farmers require healthy and quality seed with high germination and purity. Pathogen free healthy seeds are essential for desired plant populations and a good harvest.

  48. Fatima Bakheit Hashim Suleiman Elwagie and Seham A. Habeeba

    The World Health Organization has established advocacy, communication and social mobilization working group to help control tuberculosis at the country level. This study aims at investigating the effect of advocacy, communication, and social mobilization on tuberculosis case detection rate and mean tuberculosis suspected cases in Al Griba Rural Locality, Kassala State, Sudan. It also aims at assessing the knowledge of tuberculosis suspected cases in tuberculosis management units, and to identify the means of encouraging tuberculosis suspected cases to seek medical care. To achieve its aims and objectives, an interventional study was conducted between September 2013 to January 2014 in which baseline case detection rate and mean tuberculosis suspected cases were assessed. This is followed by advocacy through interviews with the State Director General of Preventive Medicine, State Tuberculosis Coordinator, Locality Commissioner, and Locality Tuberculosis Coordinator in which they were informed about tuberculosis. After that communication was conducted through two days orientation and training workshop for religious leaders and women association members. Then social mobilization was performed through trained religious leaders who delivered messages on Friday weekly prayers. Moreover, the members of women association lunched tuberculosis awareness campaign in their classes where they teach illiterate ladies “Quran”; wholly book of Muslims. Regular follow up for leaders was done through reports and meetings for dissemination of messages. The effect of advocacy, communication and social mobilization was assessed by recording of case detection rate and mean tuberculosis suspected cases of 3rd and 4th quarters in 2013 in the Locality and interviewing the patients attending tuberculosis clinics. It is found that: following the intervention smear positive tuberculosis case detection rate was increased from 20.8% in quarter three 2013 (before training) to 28.8% in quarter four 2013 (after training). Also mean suspected tuberculosis case was increased from 9.9 in quarter three 2013 to 19.9 in quarter four 2013 although the different was not significant (p= 0.492). About 32% (72) suspected cases were encouraged by religious leaders and women association members to seek medical treatment. Religious leaders were more efficient in motivating more cases 17.8% (39) than women association members 15.1% (33). There is no significant difference (p=0.764) in knowledge between suspected cases who were encouraged by intervention group (religious leaders and women association members) and who were encouraged by others. Therefore, the advocacy, communication and social mobilization could motivate suspected cases to seek medical advice. In addition they could contribute in the identification of tuberculosis suspected cases and consequently could improve tuberculosis case detection rate.

  49. Araceli Ramirez, Andreas Thomas, Esteban Molina and Alfred F.K. Zehe

    Nano-in-Medicine is a complex field of exploration with far-reaching technological and medical possibilities. Nanotechnology in diabetes research has facilitated the evolution of novel glucose measurement and insulin delivery systems. Not only is detecting glucose in the food and pharmaceutical industries very important. In addition, glucose monitoring is particularly critical for diabetes supervision. The objective of any kind of diabetes therapy is to reach nearly physiological glucose levels. The current view points toward a continuous insulin infusion by means of insulin pumps. A PID algorithm for blood glucose control is outlined, and the importance of sensor development emphasized. In addition to nanotechnology, the modern information technology has entered the field. Worldwide diabetes research activities at its interface with nanotechnology have created devices at the micro- or nanoscale by which the experimental approach toward an artificial pancreas is already put in practice. In the present paper, some aspects of a three-term control algorithm for glucose are treated, as well as few glucose sensors are set as examples, based on concepts and developments of nanotechnology in the field of diabetes research.

  50. E. Gregory Holdan., Allen R. Lias, R. John Locke., Heather H. Elfen and Armand A. Buzzelli

    This paper investigates the relationship between Angela Duckworth’s (Duckworth, Peterson, Matthews, and Kelly, 2007) concept of grit and academic performance in mathematics, with attention to the performance of students with low grit scores. Research thus far has been inconclusive about the relationship between grit and performance, but the authors of this paper noticed that students with the lowest grit scores seemed to be generally high performers, and so they conducted a simple action research study to investigate. Results indicated that students with the lowest grit scores performed as well as students with high grit scores. The authors attempt to describe these students who have low grit, yet demonstrate high academic performance.

  51. Byra Swastika, Heru Kurnianto Tjahjono, Fauziyah and Majang Palupi

    (Employees PKWT is employees who working status as non permanent employees on sugary factory and spritus factory Madubaru, Yogyakarta wich later will be abbreviated as PG-PS Madubaru, Yogyakarta. This study aims to examine the effects of distributive justice compensation and procedural Justice compensation on job satisfaction with collectivistic as a moderated variable on employees PKWT in PG-PS Madubaru, Yogyakarta. The sample in this study is all employees PKWT wholesale amount of 185 respondents. The result of this research shows that the variable of distributive justice compensation has a positive and significant effect on job satisfaction on employees PKWT in PG-PS Madubaru. In addition, the procedural justice compensation does not affect the job satisfaction of employees PKWT. From the collectivistic horizontally variable does not moderated the relationship between distributive justice compensation to job satisfaction of employees PKWT. Meanwhile, the collectivistic horizontally variable moderated the relationship between the procedural justice compensation to the job satisfaction of employees PKWT in PG-PS Madubaru.

  52. Rajput

    A network that deploys numerous sensor nodes that use wireless mode for communication amongst each other is known as a wireless sensor network. The nodes are self-configuring in nature due to which the security of these networks is a major issue. The types of malicious nodes present in the network result in causing either passive or active types of attacks in these networks. This research proposes a study related to an active type of attack known as sinkhole attack. There is reduction in the overall lifetime of the network and increment in the amount of energy being consumed when sinkhole attack occurs. A new approach is proposed here for detecting the malicious nodes that are responsible of causing sinkhole attack in WSNs.

  53. Rajendra Phadke and Dr. Amit Gosar

    The pharmaceutical industry is facing a unnerving challenge in the control of impurities; Residual solvents play as an important role in the synthesis of drugs substances; according to the good manufacturing process measuring residual solvents is an integral part of impurities profile assessment for pharmaceutical products and is mandatory for the release testing of all active pharmaceutical ingredients. In synthesing process of canagliflozin API many solvents being used, to analyses these solvent a sensitive static head space gas chromatography (GC HS) with flame ionization detector (FID) method was developed successfully and validated for residual solvents determination of Canagliflozin API. The head space parameters and chromatographic condition, such as split ratio, flow rate and oven program temperature, were optimized to enhance sensitivity and chromatographic resolution. The optimized parameters are 1-methyl-2-pyrrolidone as diluent, equilibration temperature for head space 40°C for 8 min, Oven temperature program 40°C to 200°C with 20°C ramping, Nitrogen carrier gas and DB-624, 30m length and 0.32mm ID, film thickness 1.8 mm a capillary column used. The proposed method was found to be suitable for the determination of ten different residual solvents. The validation results indicate that method is specific, sensitive, accuracy linear and robust, The obtained recovery ranging from 80% to 120% and regression coefficient was higher than 0.999 for all the solvent.

  54. Ahmed M. Osman, Mohamed A. El-Samanoudy and Ashraf Ghorab

    Lots of solutions and methods were developed to deal with reciprocating pump systems’ starting requirements either the reciprocating pump driven by a wind turbine or electric motor (Ford et al., 2013). Decrease reciprocating pump-starting requirements in term of starting torque and starting current is a critical issue and should be considered in designing, sizing, and selecting reciprocating pump systems (Mahmoud Mohamed , 2013). In the present paper, the effect of rod stiffness change on the performance of reciprocating pumps and its starting requirements were experimentally studied using manufactured test rig equipped with closed loop reciprocating pump system. The system was driven by a squirrel cage electric motor through mechanical Scotch Yoke mechanism to transform rotational motion to linear (reciprocating) motion. Several experiments and the combination of the input parameters have been performed. Moreover, the outcomes and results obtained were explained, analyzed, discussed and the conclusion was drawn. The change of the reciprocating pump rod stiffness through the pneumatic cylinder improved the system efficiency and minimized the power consumption and the required starting torque. This approach experimentally proofed that the rod stiffness change has a great influence on the reciprocating pump performance and can decrease the reciprocating pump starting requirements. The starting torque requirements were decreased by an average of 19 %, power consumption corresponding to the peak starting torque were decreased by an average of 9% and the overall system performance and efficiency were increased by an average of 10%.

  55. Dr. Somashekher, C.

    The study of job satisfaction and commitment among the police officers is of considerable significance as they are engaged themselves with the maintenance of law and order in society. As such, the satisfactions they derive and dissatisfactions they suffer on the one hand and the commitment they exhibit in the performance of policing could be of immense significance in understanding the standards of police functioning on the other. This will enable us to understand the problems and prospects of police officers and also to come out with solutions and suggestions to improve their working conditions in terms of professional sophistication, discipline, commitment, competence and excellence along with their levels of satisfaction with regard to the occupation. The study has two major objectives-first, to examine the level of satisfaction among police and its determinants particularly the social traits and, second, to identify the impact of professional traits on commitment. The measurement of job satisfaction and commitment of police officers was based on various aspects of police profession and functioning. Research was conducted on 143 police officers with an interview schedule in Bangalore city, the capital of Karnataka, India. Findings reveal that police were less satisfied, but highly committed with age, having a say in determining satisfaction and commitment is significantly associated with the competence and ethics of police.

  56. Halimah Mohamed Ali and Aina Nabila Ahmad

    The research on culture most of the time goes hand in hand with the research on literature. This is because literature itself is a very important branch in cultural studies. At a general level culture encompasses way of life, action, way of thinking and behaviour as well as the material and spiritual commodities that a society produces. This paper will discuss a contemporary cultural discourse that is labeled as cultural amnesia. It will be analyzed using Sara Suleri’s memoir titled Meatless Days (1991). The memoir by Sara Suleri is that of an Anglo-Pakistani that has been brought up in the United States of America with two cultures – the American culture and the Muslim-Pakistani culture. She writes her memoir as a diasporic Pakistani woman who lives in exile from her society. She portrays herself as doubly alienated from her society and the Western society that she lives in. Her narrative projects the idea that she has cultural amnesia. This doubly removed diasporic subject does not understand the culture of her father’s motherland - Pakistan since she has been brought up in Yale, New Haven, United States of America. The memoir is quite nostalgic because Suleri tries to trace within her memory the experience of being a “Pakistani” in America, her religious background and the scars of colonialism on Pakistan. This essay will look at the author’s memory crisis of remembering and forgetting in the context of the Indian-Pakistani Diaspora in America. The text will be read by using Andrea Huyssen’s book titled Twilight Memories: Marking Time in a Culture of Amnesia (1995). His concept of time and memory will be used to analyze the memoirs in the context of the past and the present as paradoxes to each other.

  57. Buket Çınar Gelir and Ayşe Selcen Altınok

    In the yarn production, the combing process is very important in order to make the fibers parallel, clean and prevent the problem of nepp which adversely affects the quality of yarn and fabric. In this study; a new combing hub has been developed which improves the number of nepp errors after combing, spinning and winding(bobbining) processes as a result of making the combing process more efficient on the combing machine. Improvement of yarn quality due to decrease of yarn nepp amount and reduction of work load due to nepp cleaning process on the fabric as a result of increase of fabric quality are among the most important contributions of the work done.

  58. Divyanshu Jamwal, Pramod Waghmare, Amit Chaudhari, Nilima Landge and Ketaki Kanade

    Periodontitis is a bacterial infection that results in destruction of attachment fibers and supporting bone. The ultimate goal of periodontal treatment is the regeneration of periodontal structures lost during periodontal disease. Periodontal regeneration result in functionally aligned periodontal ligament fibers between newly formed bone and root surface. The regeneration of periodontal tissue requires an appropriate biological environment which induces the differentiation of undifferentiated cells to make required structures. Various molecules such as growth factors and cytokine plays a vital role in regeneration. Growth factors (GFs) are natural biological mediators that regulate key cellular events that are part of tissue repair and regeneration. Growth factors perform their action by binding to specific cell-surface receptors present on various target cells including osteoblasts, cement oblasts and periodontal ligament fibroblasts. Growth factors participate in cell function led to exogenous application during periodontal tissue repair aiming to their use as an alternative therapeutic approach to periodontal therapy. The aim of this article is to review the literature with respect to biological actions of PDGF, TGF, BMP, FGF, IGF and EGF on periodontal cells and tissues, which are involved in periodontal regeneration.

  59. Dr. Ratnaprava Barik and Dr. Jayanta Kumar Dash

    A “Juvenile” or “Child” means a person who has not completed eighteen years of age. International Law interprets, a ‘Child’ means every human being below the age of 18 years. Today this is a universally accepted definition of a child which comes from the United Nations Convention on the Rights of the Child (UNCRC). Under the Indian Laws, Section 2 (k) of the Juvenile Justice Care and Protection of Children Act, 2000 defines “juvenile” or “Child” as a person who has not completed eighteenth year of age. The future of country depends on its children. So it is the duty and responsibility of everyone to ensure that the children have a safe environment to live in. But gradually it has been seen a huge dive in the rate of Juvenile crime in a developing country like India just like a disease in our society. This study tries to describe the evolution of Juvenile Justice Legislation, from British India to the present democratic India by focusing at the guidelines of Juvenile Justice Act, 1986, 2000, 2014 and 2015. In spite of the existence of that safety regulation for such children, there is a rise in the number of Juvenile criminals across the country, is a vital issue for the country. Whoever may be the person; whatever may be the situation; justice delayed means justice denied. India, as a land of immense diversities faces too many parameters of justice from its societal level to its judiciary. With verities of issues, it finds too many problems of juvenile justice in India however, the paper also tries to find out the causes and types of Juvenile Crimes in our society. Towards conclusion, some suggestions have been made for preventive measures of Juvenile Crimes by signifying the history of the juvenile justice in India.

  60. Shefalli Chhibber, Junny Kumari, Anjana Sharma, Deepika Saxena and Sadhika Kumari

    The value of a civilization can be judged by the place given to a woman in the society. The stature into which women are born within the property system have great influence on the ways their lives unfold. The old orthodox Indian society places women in a very high respects, the Vedas lionized women as the creator and worshipped her as a “Devi” or Goddess. The women occupied a vibrant role and as such her subjugation and mistreatment were looked upon as demeaning to not only the woman but towards the whole society. But the condition of women in modern Indian society have become a matter of grave concern. Crimes against women are growing worryingly at local, regional, national and worldwide levels. The numbers of violent crimes in India especially those against women including rape that are reported in official statistics are increasing with each passing year.

  61. Dr. Jeewan Jyoti

    The study compares the Father-Child relationship of dyscalculic elementary school students in relation to their locality. Rural dyscalculic elementary school students differ significantly from their urban counterparts on rewarding and punishment dimension of father – child relationship. Urban dyscalculic elementary school students get significantly more reward by their fathers as compare to their rural counterparts. Rural dyscalculic elementary school students get significantly more punishment by their fathers as compared to urban dyscalculic elementary school students.

  62. Dr. Jeewan Jyoti

    The study aimed to find the effect of gender and locality on social maturity of student teachers in Mandi district of Himachal Pradesh. Total 349 student teachers of B.Ed. college of Mandi district was taken as sample out of which 167 being males and 182 being females. In the present study Dr. Nalini Rao’s Social Maturity Scale was used. There are no significant differences on the various components of social maturity. Again, significant difference is found in the mean scores of male and female student teachers on social adequacy. Social Adequacy aspect of social maturity among student teachers is significantly affected by the interaction of gender and locality.

  63. Weldon Bii and Dr. Sedina Misango

    The vital importance of motivation cannot be underestimated in development of any organization and especially in the education sector. The value placed on education should be high because it is what transforms the pupils as a result of motivated teachers so that they can be responsible citizens. The objectives of the study included influence of training on teacher motivation in public schools and the effect of work environment on motivation. The study used a descriptive research design. The target population included teachers and head-teachers of public schools in Nairobi. The questionnaire was used for data collection and data analyzed by use of descriptive statistics. Correlation analysis was used to establish the strength and direction of the relationship between variables. The study established that there was a slight positive relationship in nature between training and motivation represented by 0.069 and 0.595. The relationship between conducive working environment and motivation was positive in nature and the strength was 0.169 and 0.188 respectively. The findings indicate that teachers enjoyed the fact that the profession provided them with a continuous learning environment as well as a good working environment. They also felt motivated when involved in decision making. The study is beneficial to the government, policy makers and other stakeholders in education who will use the information to implement strategic measures to improve motivation in schools.

  64. Norjanah Ambo, Nyet Moi Siew and Crispina Gregory K Han

    The transformation in science education warrants integration of project-based learning and Science, Technology, Engineering, Mathematics (STEM) for promoting creativity among students. This study aimed to determine the validity and reliability of an integrated project-based learning and STEM teaching and learning module (Pro-STEM) and evaluate its effects on scientific creativity of Fifth Graders. The module consisted of six lessons and six project activities regarding Life Science, Physical Science and Material Science. Evaluation was conducted to determine the reliability, content validity, and students’ perception on the learning module, which involved seven subject matter experts and 30 fifth graders. Data were captured through students’ responses to two five-point Likert scale questionnaires, open ended questions and self-developed scientific creativity test. Finally, a single group pre- and post-test research design was employed to determine the effects of the Pro-STEM module. A total of 30 fifth graders from one primary school were randomly assigned to Pro-STEM group. The results of module evaluation indicated a good content validity and an acceptable reliability with alpha Cronbach's value of 0.65 to 0.87. Majority of the students were of moderately high positive perception (m=4.37) that the activities in the Pro-STEM module enable them to a) generate many ideas, b) generate unique ideas, c) expand ideas, d) think of a special topic, and e) use information from multiple sources to complement sketches. The positive written responses of students indicated the appropriateness of the module. The results of Paired Sample T-test established the effects of the Pro-STEM module in all trait dimensions of scientific creativity. These findings show that Pro-STEM module would represent a reliable and valid learning module for fostering scientific creativity of fifth graders.

  65. Dr. Bratish Sarkar

    The cinematographic adaptation of literary texts is often considered from a defensive or protectionist perspective in a culture where literature has long exercised its hegemony: transposition or adaptation in costume, the spectator is happy to declare respect for the original text, and on the conformity of the filmmaker's vision with his own vision. We would like to propose here a new approach to cinematographic adaptation: whereas cinema is an art distinct from literature, we will start from the hypothesis that text and film, even if they bear the same name, do not belong not the same species, and therefore cannot be the subject of a simple comparison. After examining the traditional evaluation criteria of adaptation (fidelity, spirit and letter, narrative construction, dialogue processing, voiceover, etc.), we will try to move the lines of confrontation to show how cinema, instead of simply illustrating literary texts, by the very fact that it is a means of autonomous expression, necessarily proposes a thought of literature.

  66. Yohanes Paulus Silli Bataona, Tans Feliks and Agustinus Semiun

    Bataona, Yohanes P. S. 2018. An analysis of spontaneous English conversations among second semester students of the English education department of San Pedro University in academic year 2017/2018. Thesis. English education graduate program of Nusa Cendana University. Supervisors: (I) Prof. Drs. Tans Feliks, M.Ed, Ph.D (II) Dr. Agustinus Semiun, MA. The aims of this study are describing the topics conversed by the second semester students of the English education department of San Pedro University; analyzing what are students’ conversations for; analyzing how students converse with their friends; and analyzing what are students’ strengths and weaknesses in English conversations. To reach these objectives, this research was designed in a descriptive qualitative study. All the data were obtained through observation, documentation (recordings), and interview. The data was collected and analyzed through descriptive approach. And after analyzing the data on the basis of research questions dealing with English conversations among the students, the researcher finds that there are different topics that conversed by the students, and all those topics are very contextual with the real life of students; or in other words, the topics present what students’ lives are. The students did English conversations in order to develop their ability to speak English confidently and pronounce English words correctly; encourage them to use appropriate grammar and vocabulary in English speaking; help them to produce and organize their ideas logically; and develop their communication competence such as oral presentation and story-telling. There are several findings deal with how do students converse with their friends: they do their conversations with big motivation; they begin their conversations with good starting point; they present good turn taking in their conversations; they present good cultural act in their conversations; they conduct their conversations with low accuracy; they conduct their conversations with low fluency; they present cohesion and coherence in their conversations; and they end their conversations with good closing point. And in conducting English conversations, there are strengths and weaknesses. The strengths found in students’ conversations are: students have big motivation in doing English conversations, using very simple vocabularies in their conversations; conversations run spontaneously and naturally; more reactive or responsive in doing conversations; creating good use of conjunctions and determiners; and giving good extended answers to the questions appeared in conversations. While the weaknesses found in students’ conversations are: students are still poor in vocabulary, still weak in using proper grammar, pronunciations and intonations are not so good affected by local language so much.

  67. Prilly Astari, Ong Tjandra and Moudy E U Djami

    Background: Tubectomy is becoming the choice for fertile age couples at the time of delivery with cesarean section. This is because it has proven to be effective and does not require multiple procedures. Objective: To determine the tendency for the preference of tubectomy by fertile age couples with second child and other related factors. Methods: This study uses a cross sectional design. The population is all women who delivered through cesarean section with tubectomy in 2016-2018. The sample size is 62 respondents, which is obtained using two-proportion formula and simple random sampling. Statistical tests were carried out using chi square test. Results: Majority of respondents that chose tubectomy were between the age group of 20-35 years (53.2%), had 3 or more children (61.3%), high educational level (79%), housewives (71%) and the last labor interval > 2 years (67.7%). The chi square test proved that the choice of using tubectomy after the second child was more in the age group of 20-35 years (39.4%), high educational level (46.9%), professional jobs (61.1%) and the last labor interval > 2 years (45.2%). Furthermore, results of the statistical analysis using the chi square test proved that educational (p value = 0.035 α < 0.05) and occupational factors (p value = 0.021 α < 0.05) were related to the choice of tubectomy after the second child. Conclusion: Educational and occupational factors were associated with tubectomy choices after the second child. Adequate counseling on health education and family planning is required during pregnancy in order to improve the understanding and interest of the mother and partner to choose tubectomy.

  68. Joji T. Recamara

    This study focuses on finding out the reading performances of elementary graders of San Vicente Elementary School as revealed in the Philippine Reading Inventory pre and post- tests for the School Year 2016-2017.The study is inclusive to all grades III to VI pupils of San Vicente Elementary School. The consolidated PHIL IRI results for the School Year 2016-2017 were utilized and the pupil respondents were made to answer a questionnaire for the demographic profiling as needed in the study. It was found out that majority of the respondents belong to families with low level income. Results also indicated that there is a significant difference in the reading performances of elementary graders in terms of silent reading post and pre-tests which were classified into two performance levels; the speed and comprehension levels. Noticeably, a significant difference existed in the reading level of pupils which were classified under frustration, instructional and independent readers. As categorized, a significant difference is as well noted in the respondents’ oral reading pre and post- tests. The results therefore conclude that there is a significant difference of pupils’ performances between the pre-tests and post-tests. The positive change clearly illustrates that there is a great chance to improve the reading performances of elementary graders on the area evaluated.

  69. Jennifer B. Cabaron, Belinda P. Torres, Richard R. Cabaron

    The most common and internationally accepted tool to measure a bank’s financial performance is the CAMELS rating. This study aimed to analyze the financial performance of the publicly listed banks by using the Camel model to propose a strategy for the improvement of domestic banks’ competitiveness against competitor brought about by the ASEAN integration. CAMEL model was utilized based on the five indicators, namely: Capital Adequacy, Asset Quality, Management Efficiency, Earning Quality and Liquidity. The data originated from the Annual Reports of the banks for the year 2016. There were nine publicly listed banks under study. Analysis revealed that the nine public-listed banks met the minimum requirement of 10% as set by the BSP. For asset quality ratio, Bank I got the highest value with evidence of (12.87%), followed by Bank F (12.07%) than Bank B and Bank C (8.88%). Among the nine banks, Bank D got the lowest value of 1.98%. Under management efficiency parameter, it was observed that all banks got a higher value which implies that they might not have enough liquidity to cover any unforeseen fund requirements. Also, analysis revealed that Bank E was on the top position with highest ratio of 15.04% followed by Bank A (11.81), Bank F (10.87%), Bank C (10.51%), Bank D (10.23%), Bank I (9.83%), Bank G (9.47%), and Bank H (6.97%) respectively. Bank B scored the lowest position with least ratio of 4.28%. In the aspect of liquidity ratio, Bank H, Bank A, Bank C, MBTC, and Bank F had the better performance with a rating of above 70%. The researchers concluded that the nine different banks had obtained different scores concerning CAMEL ratios. Banks were reaching the best rates and also banks achieving the poor rates as per minimum standard set by the Bangko Sentral ng Pilipinas.

  70. Dr. Pholtan Rajeev, S. R., Dr. Rajarajeshwari, A. and Dr. Thiruthani, M.

    The four common venomous land snakes which are found in India region include the Common cobra (Najanaja), the Common krait (Bangaruscaeruleus), the Russell‘s viper (Viperarusselli) and the Saw scaled viper (Echiscarinatus) (Virmani SK and Dutt OP. A., 1987, Kulkarni ML and Anees S., 1994). Although venomous snake bite is a life threatening emergency, it is rarely considered as a priority for health research in developing countries like India. In siddhar’s view they listed 64 snakes in texts therefore I need to analysis the types of snakes with modern and ancient texts by literature review research. Enumerate the types of snakes which are list in ancient Siddha medical system and available modern text books and e-books is aim of this research. And primary objective - to list-out the types of snakes available or not in present according to ancient siddha texts. Secondary objective - to compare the name of snakes are same or change between modern and ancient siddha texts. Siddha Toxicology, Visha Vaida Aaruda Noolgal, Visha Vaidya Chinthamani were selected for siddha literatures and The essential of Forensic Medicine and Toxicology, Principles of Forensic Medicine and Toxicology, and Guidelines for the management of snake bites, were selected as modern literature about types of snake. Finally concluded as; siddha classical text said 64 types snakes were available in modern text and distributed in South Asian countries such as; Sri Lanka, Bangaladesh etc.

  71. Dr. Ahmed Nazar Dhannoon, Dr. Shyamaa Abd Hassan and Dr. Mahmood A. Abdulrahman

    Prostate-specific antigen (PSA) is a valuable tumor marker for prostate cancer. It was believed that PSA was produced exclusively by the epithelial cells of the prostate gland, but a large body of evidence demonstrates that PSA is not a prostate-specific molecule (Giai M 1995). Prostate-specific antigen (PSA) is present at very low concentrations in female serum, but it can now be measured with highly sensitive immunoassays (Yu H, Diamandis EP 1995). PSA has been shown to be expressed in many forms of female tissues. The breast is a major female organ able to produce PSA (Borchert GH 1997). Pregnant women have elevated serum PSA (Yu H, Diamandis EP 1995). PSA levels in serum also vary during menstrual cycles and increase in women with excess androgen . In general a normal serum level of PSA is 0.02ng/dl- 0.06ng/dl (Mardanian F 2011). The objective of the study is to detect the changes of the serum level of PSA in women with acute UTI and show the difference of serum level pre and post- treatment at different age groups. One hundred patients aged from 16 to 77 years presented with features of acute cystitis and diagnosed as a UTI cases definitely by urine culture. Those patients were divided into 2 groups according to menopausal state. Group A pre-menopausal females 56 patients . Group B post-menopausal females 44 patients. The pretreatment mean level of PSA for group A 0.09nag/dl. while the mean level PSA for group B was 0.3nag/dl. The result shows that the post-treatment mean level for group A was 0.02nag/dl . while for group B was 0.09nag/dl. We concluded that the serum PSA level is elevated in females with acute UTI and decline post-treatment with highly detectable level in both pre and post-treatment with post-menopausal females.

  72. Dr. Asia Khatoon, Khadim Hussain Dahri and Abdul Jabbar Dahri

    Learning abilities is a condition giving rise to difficulties in acquiring knowledge and skills to the level expected of those of the same age especially when not associated with a physical handicap. In our society students with the learning disability are mostly ignored by teachers and parents because most of the untrained teachers are not able to find out their disabilities and because of it children become slow learner and cannot achieve good scores. Students having learning disabilities are also suffering from different combination and severity of problems. Sometimes students in preprimary level are not recognize by teachers as well as parents that cause worse situation with many other diseases. Students, who are at primary level needing extra care cause every disease is easily treated in its initial stage, and if any action wouldn’t be taken so it will cause alarming situation. Thus, the causes of learning disabilities at primary level are important to be identified. For this purpose comprehensive structured questionnaire discrimination was used as a tool to collect the data. The collected data was processed and then its analysis was made through frequency tabulation method. The questionnaire is used in this research.10 students from each different departments of University of Karachi were selected through random sampling technique. In this way the sampling of this study was based on 100 students in total. A questionnaire was prepared which covered the aspects of the problem under study.

  73. Dr. Asia Khatoon, Gulzar Ali Khokhar and Qazi Asad-ull-ah

    Academic achievements represent performance outcomes that indicate the extent to which a person has accomplished specific goals that were the focus of activities in instructional environment, specifically in schools, colleges and universities. The student’s academic performance may be influenced by various external factors other than their personal characteristics. This study has been conducted on 60 students of secondary school of Mehmoodabad Karachi. The main purpose of this study was to examine different factors influencing the academic performance of students at secondary level. A comprehensive structured questionnaire was used as a tool to collect the data. The collected data was processed and then its analysis was made through simple frequency and percentage distribution tables. The finding suggests that students should be aware of need and important of academic success which can help them in all areas of their lives.

  74. Dr. Asia Khatoon, Dr. Gulzar Ahmed, Abdul JabbarDahri and Khadim Hussain Dahri

    Primary education provides the fundamental of all formal learning. Primary schools have special responsibility for the intellectual and social development of children. It is a responsibility shared with the family and community but the school is generally hold accountable. The high dropout rate that is experienced in primary school is largely attributed to the drab experience of building, inadequate facilities and an overall repulsive physical environment. This study has been conducted on 60 teachers of government school at primary level in Gulshan –e-Iqbal Karachi. The main purpose of the study was to identify the different factors responsible for the dropout of student at primary level. A comprehensive structured questionnaire was used as a tool to collect the data. The collected data was processed then its analysis was made through simple frequency and percentage distribution tables. The finding suggests that there is a great need for guidance and counseling program in school as well as in home.

  75. Dr. Asia Khatoon and Gulzar Ali Khokhar

    In education, Montessori system of education plays an integral role. A child education is a foundation and the need ought to be given to this foundation. The Montessori system of education is like a foundation of a house as strong building can be built only on strong foundation such as on the basis of Montessori education the whole life of a child depends. This study has been led on 80 teachers of Montessori schools of the Gulshan town Karachi. The fundamental purpose behind this study was to evaluate the impact of Montessori untrained teachers in the Montessori schools and to spread awareness about their consequences and also to analyze the need of the trained teachers and their effectiveness in the grass root level of the education as the future of any country or nation depends upon its young generation. A comprehensive structured questionnaire was used as a tool to collect the data. The collected data was processed and then its analysis was made through chi-square method. The finding suggests that there is an approaching need of teacher training courses and workshops for Montessori untrained teachers and it should be mandatory for them to be trained.

  76. Abdul Jabbar Dahri, Dr. Rizwana Munir and Khadim Hussain Dahri

    In this work, nanocrystalline The purpose of this mixed method study was to assess examine the objectives of Bloom’s taxonomy its usage and at secondary level while teaching the sciences subject in the Sindh. The population of this study was 508 teachers of science and 50 headmasters. Questionnaire and an interview protocol were used to collect the data through stratified random sampling technique Mean Chi square were interpretation of the data. Used for The qualitative findings highlighted that teacher teaches science subjects and apply exam-oriented strategy without touching the Bloom’s taxonomy .Majority of teacher teaches science subjects in traditional way .They do not apply student-centered and motivational techniques and appropriate assessment mechanism while teaching sciences subject. The result of the study revealed that the total 83% teachers are failing to use first three levels of Bloom’s taxonomy namely knowledge, comprehension and application while teaching sciences subject. The researcher strongly recommended applications of Bloom’s taxonomy and its objectives are necessary for science teachers at secondary level to teach sciences subject effectively in order to develop the students’ concepts rather than make them ableto choose rote method of learning. Moreover researcher also recommended that teachers should develop their interest in sciences subject and apply latest teaching methodology while teaching science. The administration, teaching training institutes, head masters trained their teachers should strictly monitor them that at what extent they successfully use the Bloom’s taxonomy in the classroom learning.

  77. HneinehRoula and Nicolas Georges

    Vesico-ureteral reflux (VUR) is the most common urologic abnormality seen in children. It represents the backflow of urine from bladder to upper urinary structures due to a defect in closure of uretero-vesical junction. This condition predisposes children to repetitive pyelonephritis associated with renal scarring. Studies are continuously searching for the potential effect of VUR on growth. We aimed to assess growth indices: height z-score (HZ), Ideal body weight percent (IBWp) and percent of actual weight over median weight for age (MWAp) in children with VUR at presentation and at time of study and to compare them with those of children with pyelonephritis without VUR. We included children aged between 0 and 6 years old with a normal renal function admitted in our center for pyelonephritis. However, children with chronic diseases affecting growth were excluded. The children who met above criteria (112 children) were divided into 3 groups according to voiding cystourethrogram results: G1( VUR grade 1-2 ), G2(VUR grade 3 , 4 , 5) and G3 (no VUR). Our data showed no significant difference between the 3 groups concerning sex, age groups, consanguinity, gestational age, height and weight at birth. However, we noted a strong association between VUR and ESBL infection (p=0.0001), and history of previous pyelonephritis (p=0.0357). Growth indices HZ and MWAp were significantly lower in G2 than in other groups at presentation and at time of study (p=0.0001) for both. In contrast, no significant change was detected in IBWp neither at presentation nor at time of study. No significant association was found between reflux laterality and growth indices. We also noted a significant improvement in HZ (p=0.01) and in MWAp (p=0.0168) following surgical treatment, while no significant change was recorded in growth indices following antibiotic prophylaxis.

  78. Adeniyi A. Adewunmi, Tawaqualit A. Ottun, Yusuf A. Oshodi, Fatimat M. Akinlusi and Tawakalit A. Olawepo

    Background: Infertility is a socially distressing medical condition that remains a public health concern in many developing countries including Nigeria. Tubal disease is the most common cause of female infertility in Africa. Sero-epidermiological studies have indicated that Chlamydial infections account for a large proportion of asymptomatic genital tract infections by demonstrating a strong link between tubal pathology and the presence of chlamydial antibodies. OBJECTIVE: To compare the serum Chlamydia antibodies between infertile women with tubal and non-tubal factor infertility. Methodology: Prospective case control study involving one hundred and forty seven subjects with tubal factor infertility (cases) and similar number of subjects with non-tubal factor infertility (controls) following hysterosalpingography. Exclusion criteria were previous clinical or laboratory evidence of pelvic infection in the previous 6 months, history of endometriosis, tubal surgery and abdominal or pelvic surgeries like ruptured appendix and ruptured ectopic. Structured interviewer-administered questionnaire was applied to obtain information on socio-demographic data and relevant gynaecology history. The weight and height were measured and body mass index calculated. Five milliliters of venous blood samples was collected from each subject to assay antibodies to Chlamydia trachomatis using ELISA Ig G kit. The data obtained was processed and analyzed using the Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS), version 20.0 Chicago Illinois. Result: The prevalence of positive Chlamydia trachomatis antibodies was 48% giving a sensitivity of 70.1% and specificity of 74.1%. The accuracy of Chlamydia antibody test to distinguish subjects with bilateral tubal blockage diagnosed with HSG was 72.1%. One hundred and three cases (70.1%) and 38 (25.9%) controls tested positive to the Chlamydia antibody test (P of <0.001). A higher proportion of subjects with induced abortion (54.7%) compared with 42.8% without induced abortion had positive Chlamydia antibody index (p = 0.043) while 51.2% of subjects with secondary infertility compared with 29.8% subjects with primary infertility had positive Chlamydia index (p = 0.007). The median Chlamydia IgG index of subjects with tubal blockage was significantly higher (1.06 IQR 0.59, 1.65) than those without tubal blockage (0.47 IQR 0.29, 0.82) p <0.001. Median Chlamydia IgG index of subjects with history of induced abortion and secondary infertility was significantly higher than subjects with no history of induced abortion and primary infertility respectively (p <0.05). Conclusion: The predictability of tubal blockage using Chlamydia trachomatis antibody was relatively high with sensitivity and specificity of 70.1% and 74.1% respectively. Subjects with secondary infertility had a two-fold chance of having positive Chlamydia index than primary infertility.

  79. Dr. Lrs Girinadh, Ravi Shankar, T., Dr. Sachin Kumar, V. and Dr. Sravan Kumar, K.

    Background: Small bowel bleeding refers to patients presenting with a source of bleeding identified in the small intestine. It accounts for only 5-10% of all patients presenting with gastrointestinal bleeding. Patients present with either overt bleeding or occult bleeding manifesting as iron deficiency anaemia. Various modalities are used to diagnose the cause of small bowel bleeding which include imaging, video capsule endoscopy, enteroscopy. Objectives : Data on the small bowel bleeding in India is sparse. The aim of the present study is to identify the clinical profile of patients presenting with small bowel bleed and to evaluate the diagnostic accuracy of various modalities. Methods: Present study is prospective observational study conducted at teritiary care hospital in South India Results: Overall 56 patients with potential small bowel bleed were included in the study. 34(60%) patients presented with overt small bowel bleed and the remaining 22(40%) patients presented with occult small bowel bleed. 50 patients underwent capsule endoscopy and the mean capsule time was 10hr 1min ± 1hr 7min. Capsule endoscopic findings include vascular lesions in 10 (20%) patients, tumor in 4(8%), worm infestation in 4 (8%) patients, ulceration in 10(20%) patients. Balloon enteroscopy was performed in 39(70%) patients. Balloon enteroscopy findings include vascular lesions in 10 patients, crohns like picture in 8 patients, NSAIDS induced ulcers in 7 patients. Diagnostic yield of capsule endoscopy was 76% and enteroscopy was 77%. Overall 40 patients out of 56 have been identified with definite source of small bowel bleeding and were subjected to therapy. Out of 40 patients 20 had endotherapy, 9 patients underwent surgery, 6 patients diagnosed as crohns, 2 patients diagnosed as small bowel tuberculosis and remaining on conservative therapy. Conclusions: Small bowel bleeding accounts for 5-10% of GI bleeding. Contrary to western population infections are common cause, patients are two decades younger and overt GI bleeding was more common than occult bleeding. The diagnostic yield of capsule endoscopy in the present study is 76%. In the present study diagnostic yield of SBE/DBE combined was 77% and successful therapeutic intervention was performed in 50% of patients. Enteroscopy is slightly better than VCE and therapeutic intervention can be performed. Present study the rebleeding rate is 18% at the end of one year follow up. To our knowledge this is the first study comparing VCE and DBE/SBE with followup for one year.

  80. Dr. Alia Mukhtar, Dr. Anamika C. Borkar, Dr. Shalini Aggarwal, Dr. Shailendra S. Sonawane, Dr. Nikhil Nighot and Dr. Shirin Kshirsagar

    Background: Selection of correct core material is vital for the success of endodontic treatment. Degree of conversion and microleakage of two bulkcure core build up materials was assessed. The two materials were different in their mode of curing; one was a light cure and the other a dual cure material. Aims: To evaluate and compare the degree of conversion and micro leakage of two bulkcure core build-up materials at various cavity depths. Settings and Design: In vitro- study. Methods and Material Seventy two extracted premolars and molars were divided into six groups (n=12). The teeth were accessed and sectioned with carborundum disc below CEJ junction. Etching and bonding of all samples was done. In Group1, 2 and 3 bulkcure core build- up material Photocore was placed at depths of 4mm, 6mm, 8mm respectively. In Group 4, 5 and 6 bulkcure core build- up material Luxacore was placed at depths of 4mm, 6mm, 8mm respectively. Degree of conversion of all samples was evaluated by using FTIR-ATR spectroscopy, Microleakage evaluation was done by dye penetration method. Statistical analysis: Data was analyzed by ANOVA and t test for FTIR-ATR evaluation for degree of polymerization. Chi-Square Test was used for microleakage analysis. Results: There is no significant difference between mean values of degree of conversion of Clearfil Photocore Group 1, 2, 3 compared together. (p=0.1115). There is a significant difference between mean values of degree of conversion of Luxacore Group 4, 5, 6 compared together and there is a significant difference between mean values of degree of conversion of Clearfil Photocore groups and Luxacore groups compared together. There is a significant association between microleakage and groups 1, 2 and 3, and also with groups 4, 5 and 6. Conclusion: Degree of conversion of Clearfil Photocore (light cure) was significantly higher than Luxacore (dual cure) at all cavity depths. Microleakage was significantly higher in Luxacore than in Clearfil Photocore.

  81. Dr. Rohini Sharma, Dr. Seema Gupta, Dr. Sachin Ahuja, Dr. Eenal Bhambri, Dr. Amit Choudhary, Dr. Surbhi Sharma, Dr. Raghu Pratap Thapa, Dr. Aditi Sharma, Dr. Alpna and Dr. Dheeraj Sharma

    Objective: The objective of this study was to compare etch patterns, shear bond strength and ARI scores using different enamel conditioners with and without deproteinizing agent. Study Design: A total of 125 human premolars were divided into 5 groups (n = 25) as follows: Group A, B1, C1 in which teeth are etched with 37% phosphoric acid, 10% maleic acid, 20% lactic acid for 20 seconds respectively. In Groups B2 and C2, etchants were same as B1 and C1 but enamel deproteinization with 5.25% sodium hypochlorite was done for 1 minute before enamel etching. Etching patterns were then evaluated in SEM, bond strength was examined with universal mechanical test machine and ARI scores were evaluated to check the bracket debonding interface. Data was analyzed statistically. Results: Group B2 showed superior SBS, more of type 1 etching patterns and debonding occurring at bracket adhesive interface compared to the control group (A), whereas the Group C1showed lowest mean SBS, type 4 etching patterns and debonding occurring at the enamel adhesive interface. Group B2 and C2 showed higher SBS and better etching patterns compared to the Group B1 and C1 where deproteinizing agent not was used. Conclusions: Enamel deproteinization with 5.25% sodium hypochlorite showed improvement in etching patterns and increased shear bond strength of orthodontic brackets bonded with alternative acids to etch the enamel surface.

  82. Dr. Isa-Allean M. Blacksher

    With menopause studies showing dangerous risks associated with conventional western style hormone replacement therapy (HRT) it’s time to look at some of the other viable options now available for helping women going through menopause. The options include nature-based alternative and integrative treatments, including Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM) and Acupuncture. Studies show that both are highly effective and successful in eliminating menopause symptoms and hormone imbalances associated with this “big change” in the woman’s life. TCM is safe, holistic and cost-effective and it helps alleviate symptoms not by suppressing them but by replenishing imbalances related to loss of hormones and age induced deficiencies involved with the menopause syndrome. TCM can also rebalance individual body constitution and restore physiological homeostasis this helps to prevent further illnesses associated with the postmenopausal cascade. This review studied the facts and took a modern look at the evidence on both conventional style HRT and alternative and integrative TCM menopause treatments. Conclusively what the results revealed is that TCM can and does provide viable supplemental menopause treatment while alleviating symptoms and it can provide women who are sensitive to conventional style HRT with another option. This research is significant because it reveals options that are immediately that are available now for all who are in need and for the women of the future generations that may need help with menopausal symptoms as well - to comfortably get through the experience.

  83. Mona Palandurkar and Dr. Akhilesh Shewale

    Images are fundamental in day to day practice of dentistry. They serve as documentation of dental procedures and as forensic evidence and they play as an essential role in dentist patient communication providing the basis for patients expectation and treatment. The present article provides the brief inside on the same.

  84. Sarika, Pawan Rekha, Passang Lhamu Bhutia, Pooja Kumari, Neha Kashyap, Nani Jasmine, Neha Devi , Neena Kumari , Nitika and Pooja Devi

    Introduction: Medications are an amazing discovery. They promote healing, reduce suffering and contribute to modern medical miracles. However, because thousand of new drugs have been developed recently because the health care environment is increasingly complex and because the patients are often sicker, there is increasing risk for medication errors (Shivayogi, 2014). Medication error are one of the serious problem in health care and can be source of significant morbidity and mortality in the health care setting medication error is recognized as the eight leading cause of death, but it can be prevented with strategies like safe administration of oral medication (Rekha, 2013). Aim of the study: To assess parental ability regarding safe administration of oral medication in children after implementation of Educational Package (EP). Methods and materials: This Quasi-experimental study using one group post test only research design was conducted at Civil Hospital, Panchkula, Haryana, India, using non probability purposive sample size 100 parents was used to collect the data regarding the safe administration of oral medication. 9 demographic variables of parents and 4 clinical variables of children were use to collect personal data. Observational checklists were used for the data collection with maximum score was 22 and the minimum score was 0 and analyzed with descriptive and inferential statistics. Educational Package (EP) was given to them in form of demonstration regarding safe administration of oral medication in children. After 3 (three) days post test was done to evaluate the effectiveness of Educational Package (EP) in terms of parental ability regarding safe administration of oral medication in children through observation checklist. Results: Out of 100 parents, majority of parents had excellent (59%) parental ability regarding safe administration of oral medication after implementation of Educational Package (EP). Qualification (0.376), health profession (0.515) and previous knowledge (0.557) were found to be associated at 0.05 level of significance. Conclusion: Based on the findings of the study, it is concluded that majority of parents had excellent (59%) level of parental ability regarding safe administration of oral medication in children. Educational Package (EP) help the parents to enhance their parental ability regarding safe administration of oral medication evidenced by the post test score. Educational Package (EP) must be demonstrating to the parents in order to improve parental ability regarding safe administration of oral medication in children.

  85. Manjula, M. and Prakash, K.

    Now a day, a search is going on for new antimicrobial agents due to the negative effects of existing antibiotics and the constant development of bacterial resistance. This study assessed the phyto chemical screening and antibacterial activities of methanol extract from the leaves of Wedilia trilobata and Emilia sonchifolia. Methanol extract from the leaves of Wedilia trilobata and Emilia sonchifoliahas an antimicrobial activities against 5 bacteria K. pneumoniae, E. coli, E. faecalis, S. aureus and P. Aeruginosa and it was investigated using a disc diffusion and minimum inhibitory concentration assay (MIC). Both disc diffusion and (MIC) of the extracts ranged from 5 to 20 µg/m. Results of phyto chemical screening of methanol extracts of W. trilobata and E. sonchifolia showed the presence of tannins, flavonoids, terpenoids, alkaloid, poly phenols, saponins and cardiac glycosides absent. The total content of flavonoids and poly phenols in the methanol extracts of the studied species positively correlated with their antioxidant properties .The study findings indicate that bioactive natural products from these plants may be isolated for further testing as leads in the development of new pharmaceuticals in food preservation as well as natural plant-based medicine.

  86. Dr. Sutanu Modak

    Pain is a common problem during orthodontic treatment. Many a times patients complaint that he/she is feeling pain just after appointment. There are several ways to reduce orthodontic pain like pharmacological non-pharmacologial management. In pharmacological management there are several medicines that reduce orthodontic pain like paracetamol, ibuprofen etc. In non-pharmacological management there are LLLT, chewing gums, dietary management, psychological management etc.

  87. Dasari Gopal and Indira Sarangthem

    The field experiment was carried out at Rabi 2016-17 and 2017-18 at Research farm of Central Agricultural University, Imphal, Manipur. The experiment was laid out with four replications and four treatment, considering four levels each of zinc (0, 2.5, 5.0, and 10.0 Zn kg/ha in form of ZnSO4.7H2O). The results of experiment indicated that, application of different dose of Zn significantly increased plant growth and yield of tomato. The maximum plant height (cm), number of branches per plant, number of leaves per plant, first day flowering 29.83 days (first year) and 29.57 (second year), number of fruits per plant 27.90 (first year) and 28.76 (second year), fruit weight per plant 1.37 kg (first year) and 1.39 kg (second year) and fruit yield 50.69 (first year) and 51.54 (second year) t/ha were obtained in both the years under 10 Zn kg/ha.

  88. Dr. Hasina Banu, Dr. Mandira Chakraborty and Dr. Mohiruddin SK.

    Background: Hospital - acquired infection (HAI) is a leading cause of morbidity and mortality among hospitalized patients that increases. More than 20% of all nosocomial infections are acquired in Intensive care unit (ICU). The risk of HAI in ICU is 5 to 10 times greater than those acquired in general medical and surgical wards. The emergence of resistance to antimicrobial agents has been increased in recent years. To ensure appropriate therapy current knowledge of the organisms causing HAIs and there susceptibility pattern is mandatory. Aims and objectives: The purpose of this study is to evaluate the microbiological profile and the susceptibility pattern of the micro-organisms isolated from various samples of adult patients admitted in ICU and suspected of having hospital acquired infections after admission in a tertiary care hospital in Kolkata, West Bengal, India Result: Total 120 samples from patients admitted in ICU were processed in the laboratory out of which, 70 (58.33%) showed culture to be positive and 50(41.67%) samples showed no growth of any organism. The rate of infection in ICU of our set-up was 56.25 %. Culture positivity was 71.92% among those having length of stay in ICU for >7 days. This association was statistically significant. 41.17% of blood samples, 88.23% of respiratory samples, 42.85% of urine samples and 100% of pus samples showed culture positivity. Culture positivity was associated with presence of in-situ devices and this association was found to be statistically significant. Pneumonia (43%) was found to be most common infections in the ICU of our set-up followed by blood stream infections (30%) and urinary tract infections (17%). Acinetobacter spp was found to be the most common agent causing bacteremia (42.85%) and pneumonia (40%) in our set-up. Most of the gram negative isolates specially Acinetobacter spp showed resistance to commonly prescribed antibiotics. Vancomycin and Linezolid resistance is also becoming common in the ICU setup along with prevalence of MRSA strains. Conclusion: In ICU associated infections it is important to know the possible microorganisms and their sensitivity patterns for the success of the selection of the empiric antibiotic treatment. Regular surveillance of these infections to estimate the burden of infection is an essential step in the infection control and quality care assurance to patients.

  89. Conte, M.J., Roşca, I.C.

    Currently the beta radioactivity of unstable atomic nuclei is often associated with the nuclear weak force that manifests within two kinds of nucleons and in their immediate environment. The W+ and Wconveyed bosons serve as temporary particles and are of short existence during intermediate phases in the transformative changes. The new concept and detailed explanation of beta radioactivity, here proposed, appealed mainly to the physical phenomenon of the electric combination between quarks of the nucleons that are a priori spatially involved in this reaction. We therefore propose that an unbound solitary nucleon (due to instability) and moving inside the nucleus, gets close enough to the other type of nucleon. While it is established that the effects of reciprocal electrical combination show that the feasibility and thereof consequences are perfectly consistent with the results seen for beta radioactivity. The involved ubiquitous electric physical processes illustrate, it seems, the merits of this new simply physicist approach regarding the reconsidered transformation modes of beta radioactivity that are here mainly of electrical origin and consequences.

  90. Maricel G. Dayaday

    License is a standard mark of a professional recognized by the government and public to introduce excellence, rules of behavior, guidelines of recruitment and measures of member protection, assuring a high sense of dedication, responsibility, skills and quality towards one’s profession. The BSECE – USM graduates who took the ECE Licensure Examination from October 2011 – October 2016 assessed the following factors: faculty/teaching strategy, curriculum, instructional materials, facilities/laboratory equipment/laboratory activities, admission and retention policy, review preparation and mental/study behavior through survey. Using the data of the respondents among passers and non-passers and their assessment of the factors, the result shows that faculty and instructional materials favorably affect the performance of the ECE – USM Examinees from October 2011 – October 2016. Passers also attribute their success to curriculum, admission/retention policy and their own study behavior. Meanwhile, poor performance of the examinees was largely attributed to the lack of laboratory facilities/equipment.

  91. Ruth Annan-Brew

    The research contributes to the school characteristics that influence academic performance of Junior High School students in Gomoa-West District. The descriptive research approach was employed. Data were gathered from 302 students and 65 teachers using questionnaires. The participants for the quantitative research were randomly selected from six schools within the district. The data were analysed using both descriptive and inferential statistics. The study revealed that lateness and absenteeism of students were the major characteristics that influenced the academic performance of the students. It was also evident that there is a positive relationship between study hours and student academic performance. It was recommended among others that teachers and parents should do their best to provide the appropriate environments for students to enhance and promote their academic performance

  92. Phan Anh Duoc and Thich Dong Dac

    It can be said that the concept of Nibbāna has been spent various stages in its process and development in the nature of recognition. Therefore, it is necessary to examine the process of development of concept Nibbāna in main periods of Buddhism. It can be listed in four main periods of Buddhism: Early Buddhism, Buddhist Sect Period, Mahāyāna Buddhism and Vajrayāna Buddhism. Especially, with the development of Engaged Buddhist Movement, the concept of Nibbāna has been changed under the form of applied aspects. In this paper, various ways of understanding the concept of Nibbāna by modern engaged Buddhists such as Dr. Ambedkar, A.T. Aryaratne, Most Venerable Thich Nhat Hanh...etc. have been given in a possible way for a comprehensive recognition. The modern engaged Buddhists are chosen under the aspects of Buddhist schools. They are good exemplars in their respective traditions such as A.T. Aryaratne in Theravada tradition, Most Venerable Thich Nhat Hanh in Mahayana Buddhism, H.H. Dalailama in Vajrayana and Dr. Ambedkar in Neo Buddhism.

  93. Dr. Reshmi Sharma, Dr. Kalyani Gelada, Dr. Sanjana Sethi, Dr. Kisana Tadas, Dr. Viren Patil and Dr. Pallavi Rathi-Maheshwari

    The ameloblastoma is a true neoplasm of enamel organ type tissue which does not undergo differentiation to the point of enamel formation. Ameloblastoma is a benign locally invasive epithelial odontogenictumour comprising 1% of all tumours and cysts arising in the jaws. The wide age range of occurrence of the neoplasm from 10yrs to 90yrs have been reported. It is commonly found in the third and fourth decade. It occurs in all areas of the jaws, but mandible is most commonly affected area. Within the mandible the molar-angle-ramus region is most commonly affected. We present a case on Ameloblastoma that we came across as an accidental finding in a 72 year old male with the fruitful conduct of cyst enucleation with no recurrence.

  94. Muzzafar Mohi-Ud-Din, Muzzafer Mohamad Mir, Sajad Sumji, Yawar Yaseen, Majid Khalil Rather, Mir Intikhab, S. Asif Rafiq and UrsillaTaranum

    Background: The belief that no organism can survive in the acidic environment of the stomach was shuttered by Barry Marshall and Robbin Warren in 1982 when they identified the organism Helicobacter pylori. H. pylori is the main cause of gastritis, peptic ulcer disease, gastric adenocarcinoma and mucosa associated lymphoid tissue lymphoma. The aim of treatment of H. Pylori infection in any clinical situation is eradication of bacterium from the foregut with armamentarium of antibiotic to choice. Aim: to study whether sequential therapy is more effective than standard triple therapy in terms of eradication of Helicobacter pylori. Material and methods: Our hospital based, prospective, randomized study entitled “Sequential therapy versus standard triple therapy in Helicobacter pylori eradication” was conducted and concluded in post graduate department of Medicine, tertiary care institute in 2012. Three hundred patients with documented H. pylori infection studied, were randomized into 3 groups to receive standard or sequential (clarithromycin or levofloxacin based) anti H. pylori therapy. Results: Three hundred patients studied were randomized into 3 groups, one group received standard triple therapy for 10 days (Group A), second group clarithromycin based sequential therapy for 10 days (Group B)and third levofloxacin based sequential therapy for 10 days (Group C). Group A achieved eradication rate of 68% only. While sequential therapy group B and C showed a success of 81 and 86% respectively. In our study, Group B sequential therapy achieved 13% higher eradication as compared to standard triple therapy. Conclusion: In conclusion, our large, prospective, hospital based study shows the superiority of sequential treatment for eradicating H. pylori infection compared with conventional triple therapy. The sequential regimen is less expensive and is more effective than conventional therapy for patients with clarithromycin-resistant organisms. Our data suggest that sequential therapy may have a role as a first line treatment for H. pylori infection.

  95. Onuoha, S.C. and Karibo, O.

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) have received great attention due to their potential adverse human health and ecosystem impacts. PAHs can readily be adsorb by plants via particulate organic matter such as soil sediments. This study evaluates the concentration of PAHs in vegetables in Rumuosi and Choba, Port Harcourt Metropolis, Rivers State, Nigeria. A total component of PAHs measure in Rumuosi and Choba were within of 9 – 16, 10 – 12 and 14 – 15 for water leaf, pumpkin and bitter leaf, respectively. Average concentrations of PAHs for water leaf, pumpkin and leaf ranged from 8.0E-5 – 1.03E-2, 3.0E-5 – 1.02E-2 and 6.0E-6 – 1.28E-2 mg/kg wet wt. respectively. The concentration of PAHs in the vegetables from Rumuosi were in the following ascending order: Pumpkin ˃bitter leaf ˃ water leaf, whereas in Choba, they were in following ascending order: water leaf ˃ bitter leaf ˃ pumpkin. The results indicate that PAHs concentrations in vegetables from Rumuosi and Choba are high and, thus, consumption of these vegetables may pose significant health risk to the populace who consume them on a regular basis. The communities in the study area should take a proactive and public stand against individuals who engage in illegal activities such as combustion of hydrocarbon materials, bunkering and artisanal refining. These activities result in a huge environmental footprint, seriously impacting livelihood and public health.

  96. Dr. Subhasish Burman, Dr. S.K.Majumdar, Dr. Siddhartha Mishra, Dr. Chandmani Tigga, Dr. Mustafizur Rahaman and Dr. Divya Chadda

    Pleomorphic adenoma (PA) is the most common salivary gland tumour of major and minor salivary glands accounting for about 40-70% of all salivary gland tumour. The commonest intraoral site is palate followed by buccal mucosa and lip. Histologically pleomorphic adenoma consisting of cells exhibiting the ability to differentiate to epithelial cells and mesenchymal cells. Avery few cases of lipomatous pleomorphic adenoma a rare clinical entity characterized by presence of lipomatous tissue has been reported in literature. Total surgical removal of the lesion is the treatment of choice and low recurrence rate has been found after complete removal of this tumour. In this present case report a lipomatous pleomorphic adenoma of palate in a 24 year old patient is described.

  97. Neena Gupta, Uruj Jahan and Fatima Usmani

    Leiomyomas are the most common uterine and pelvic tumors. Cervical fibroids are uncommon (1-2%) and their presentation as huge abdominal mass is even rarer. We present here a case of a 30 year old female who presented with abdominal mass and primary infertility. Abdominal examination revealed a nontender, solid mass of 24 weeks size filling the abdominal cavity with restricted mobility. Lower border of the mass could not be felt. Laprotomy was planned. Laprotomy revealed fibroid arising from supravaginal portion of the cervix displacing the normal sized uterus superiorly. Myomectomy was done with reconstruction of cervical canal. Postoperative period was uneventful. Patient resumed her menses after 1 month.

  98. Dr. Ratnesh Kumar, Dr. Manoj Kumar, Dr. N.K Lall

    Background and objectives: Bacterial infection of biliary tract may cause severe inflammatory response or sepsis. Cholecystitis and cholelithiasis are the most common diseases affecting the gastrointestinal tract. An immediate bile culture and appropriate antibiotic administration are important to control the biliary tract infection. The objective of the study was to study the microbial profile and antibiotic sensitivity pattern in patients with biliary tract infection. This cross sectional descriptive study was conducted at Medicare gastro centre and Sahyog hospital, Patliputra, Patna, India for India for 12 months i.e., from September 2017 to August 2018. Total 100 cases were included in this study. For the prospective group, only patients who had not received antibiotics prior to endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP) and had given written informed consent were included. Results: On culture and sensitivity test, 47% have positive growth while 53% have no growth. The most common bacteria was Escherichia coli isolated in 22 (51.16%) patients followed by Klebseilla 9 (20.93%), Pseudomonas 4 (9.30%) Salmonella and Citrobacter each 3(6.98%), and Proteus 2(4.65%). On sensitivity test, all the Gram negative bacilli were sensitive to Tigycycline followed by Colistin, Imipenum and Amikacin. Conclusions: The most common bacteria of symptomatic cholelithiasis are Escherichia coli and Klebseilla followed by Pseudomonas and Salmonella. These bacteria showed maximum sensitive to Tigecycline, Colistin followed by Imipenum and Amikacin. Early detection and determination of antimicrobial susceptibility pattern is important to reduce the mortality and morbidity associated with bile fluid infections.

  99. Dr. Mohammed S. Majeed, Prof. Lucio. Parenzan and Dr. Lorini F. Luca

    Levosimendan, a myofilament Ca2 sensitizer with inotropic effects, increases myocardial performance without substantial changes in oxygen consumption and with neutral effects on heart rhythm. In addition, levosimendan has vasodilatory effects that are acheived by stimulation of adenosine triphosphate–dependent potassium channels. This action may be of specific interest in the setting of myocardial ischemia.To date, levosimendan is approved in 31 countries worldwide, and more patients with heart failure have particepated in randomized controlled trials with levosimendan than with any other intravenous inotropic agent. This review compares the different actions of standard positive inotropic drugs and Ca2 sensitizers. It also summerizes the current experimental and clinical knowledge of the use of levosimendan and gives practical recommendations with a special focus on the perioperative setting.

  100. Mohammed S. Majeed

    Acute renal failure (ARF) occurs in up to 30% of patients who undergo cardiac surgery, with dialysis being required in approximately 1% of all patients. The development of ARF is associated with substantial morbidity and mortality independent of all other factors. The pathogenesis of ARF involves multiple pathways. Hemodynamic, inflammatory, and nephrotoxic factors are involved and overlap each other in leading to kidney injury. Clinical studies have identified risk factors for ARF that can be used to determine effectively the risk for ARF in patients who undergo bypass surgery. These high-risk patients then can be targeted for renal protective strategies. Thus far, no single strategy has demonstrated conclusively its ability to prevent renal injury after bypass surgery. Several compounds such as atrial natriuretic peptide and N-acetylcysteine have shown promise, but large-scale trials are needed.

  101. Dr. Vezhaventhan

    Aim: Urologic complications in post renal transplant, are a cause of major concern as they occur in a high risk setting and cause considerable morbidity. Here we aim to present our 7 year experience in cadaveric renal transplant with respect to urological complications, analyse the possible risk factors, management modalities and prevention of the same. Materials and Methods: From January 2011 to December 2017, data of all cadaveric graft recipients who developed urologic complications and managed in our institute, was retrieved retrospectively from Transplant Out Patient department and analyzed. Results: Out of the 176 patients who underwent deceased donor renal transplant, 18(10.2%)developed urologic complications. Mean recipient age was 32 yrs, mean donor age was 37 yrs. 4 patients had post operative hematuria, out of whom 2 developed clot anuria, 2 patients developedlymphocele, 1 had urine leak (anastomotic dehiscence), 1 had surgical site infection (SSI) requiring split thickness skin grafting, 3 developed ureteric stenosis, 7 developed Transplant Renal Artery Stenosis (TRAS). Conclusion: Early identification of urologic complications is required for preservation of optimal graft function.

  102. Andreia Morales Cascaes, Aryane Marques Menegaz, Luciana Ávila Quevedo, Ludmila Corrêa Muniz, Tracy L. Finlayson and Guadalupe X. Ayala

    Introduction: Dental caries remains a significant public health problem and investment in multi-level oral health promotion intervention is essential. The effects of this type of intervention are only partially known; thus, further evidence is needed. Objectives: This article describes the design, protocols, and baseline characteristics of centers and participants (caregiver/child dyads) involved in a multi-level oral health promotion cluster randomized controlled intervention integrated into Primary Healthcare Centers (PHCs) in Brazil. Methods: Two PHCs, and by extension 170 caregiver/child dyads, were allocated to an intervention condition, and two PHCs and 174 caregiver/child dyads were allocated to a no treatment control condition (usual care). The intervention targets intra- and interpersonal (child, family) and organizational (PHC) level factors associated with oral health outcomes. These outcomes include caregivers’ and children’s oral health quality of life, children’s dental caries and oral health-related behaviors. Caregivers’ behaviors, psychosocial factors, oral health knowledge and PHCs’ oral health promotion practices will be examined as potential mediators of intervention effects. The baseline survey and dental examinations occurred in 2015. Two post-intervention follow-ups occurred, the first at 12 months, and the second at 24 months from baseline. Results: No baseline differences were observed between the conditions on socioeconomic and demographic characteristics, oral health quality of life, children’s dental caries and PHCs’ oral health practices. Some children’s behaviors, as reported by their caregivers, differed statistically between conditions at baseline. Favoring the control condition were tooth brushing twice a day (44.5% versus 28.2%), low/moderate sugar consumption (54.6% versus 41.8%) and use of dental services (33.5% versus 21.2%). Conclusion: This trial seeks to broaden understanding of how to prevent dental caries in young children among low-income families with low access and use of dental services. Identification of intervention mediators will inform future efforts in this area.

  103. Miljenko Cvjetičanin, Zrinka Jajić and Nijaz Burgić

    Dermatoglyphic pattern analysis, the one of the genetic method, was used to determine digitopalmar ridge count in 40 women with ankylosing spondylitis. Twenty five variables (ridge count on each of the ten fingers, their sum on five and ten fingers, four traits o n each palm, i.e. ridge count between a-b, b-c and c-d triradii, and atd angles in degrees, on the palms as well as their sum) were determined. The data thus obtained were compared with digitopalmar prints of 200 healthy women who served as a control group. A significant difference from the control group was found for one variable: ridge count was increased on the lef t fifth finger tip. By the new testing, compared with 40 females from the same control group it has been found another five statistically significant variables. That means that they could used, for prevention, and this is the aim of this study, in the evaluation of the relative risk in family members with positive disease history.

  104. Pushkar Chaudhary, Shubra Sharma, Abhilash, S.C. and Naseem Noornisa

    Gastrointestinal stromal tumor (GIST) of alimentary tract has an incidence of about 1 per 100,000. Mesenteric GIST are rare and constitute less than 1 % of all gastrointestinal malignancies. Heterotopic pancreas in the jejunum is encountered incidentally and the incidence ranges around 0.2-0.9% of gastrointestinal surgeries. Here we present a rare case of 37 year old male who presented with acute intestinal obstruction and was operated immediately. On exploratory laparotomy, there were two masses, one in the mesentery and the other in the jejunum. Histologically the mesenteric mass was reported as malignant gastrointestinal stromal tumor and the jejunal mass was reported as heterotopic pancreas.

  105. Dr. Syed Shamim N Matin Razvi, Dr. Shewale, R.N. and Dr. Samina K. Khatib

    Excessive use of electronic gadgets like mobile devices and computer can cause health problems like neck pain and other musculoskeletal disorders. This paper reviews publications of last 15 years which are focused on pathophysiology of mobile and computer related musculoskeletal disorders and other health hazards. Suggestions regarding their prevention have also been put forth.

  106. Fanthome Bernard, Pathak Gayatri, Khare Koustubh, Phatak Vikram Dinkar and Bhalerao Sagar

    Echinococcosis is a zoonosis caused by the larval stage of cestodes of the genus Echinococcus. The tiny worm lives in the intestines of dogs, their ova pass on to sheep, through feco-oral route, and the larvae come to rest in sheep organs, develop into metacestodes (cysts loaded with protoscoleces). When these organs loaded with protoscoleces are ingested by dogs, the life-cycle is completed and repeats. Humans are accidental intermediate hosts. The most commonly involved organs are liver (75%), lung (15.4%) and spleen (5.1%). The cyst grows slowly and may take 5-20 years to grow into a size to cause symptoms. In 90% of cases Echinococcus granulosus involves a single organ and of these 70% have a single cyst. Usually splenic echinococcal infection is the result of spontaneous rupture and spread of cysts from the liver. Rarely the larvae bypass the liver and lung and reach other organs like the spleen. Spontaneous or traumatic rupture of a hydatid cyst may cause life threatening systemic anaphylaxis and is the main cause of morbidity and mortality in this zoonotic disease. This is a report of primary Echinococcal infection of the spleen, causing massive splenic enlargement without involvement of any other organ. The patient was treated by splenectomy ensuring no spillage of cyst contents despite its about to rupture status. The case report and discussion outline the management protocol for isolated echinococcosis of the spleen.

  107. Aulakh, B.S.

    Sex fixing of mammalian progenies is one of the most fascinating subjects ever reported and if properly developed and put to application value, it can be a formidable tool in increasing dairy productivity as well as ensuring considerable economic and social benefits. There have been many recorded attempts to produce sexed off-springs in mammals and most of them involved semen sexing methodologies. The present methodology involves a novel in vivo technology duly patented in a variey of countries world over including USA, Canada, Australia etc and which uses the administration of a dosage form which has active ingredients like monosodium ethanoate and ethanoic acid in solution form which when given orally a little while before insemination to females of dairy animals, cows and buffaloes; yields female off-springs with impressive success rate. A huge trial of this methodology was conducted in real field conditions in Punjab spread over a vast area covering nearly ten districts involving variations in temperature and climatic habitat conditions and the outcome was impressive. The analysis and impact factor calculation of such a discovery were undertaken to assess the application value of such a drug discovery with reference to Indian conditions especially with a view to North Indian terrains like Punjab.

  108. Hardisiswo Soedjana, Lisa Hasibuan and Theresia Risa Davita

    Background: Pressure ulcer is a chronic wound that has a high prevalence. Despite all the efforts, pressure ulcers closure of tentimes fail. A tool is required to establish the right moment for wound closure. The presence of bacteria is one of the big factors that interfere with the wound healing process.The type and number of certain bacterial load also determine the success of wound closure. Objectives: We propose a solution by using the bacterial type and number measurement to determine wound closure success in pressure ulcers. Methods: This was a hospital-based nested case-control study at Hasan Sadikin General Hospital, Bandung. Data were collected from April 2012 to February 2014. The relationship between variables was analyzed with bivariate analysis, while its strength was assessed by the contingency coefficient. Results: Twenty-four patients who underwent wound closure were enrolled as respondents. The relationship of bacterial types with the success rate of pressure ulcer closure did not show significant differences (P-value = 0.921). The bacteria quantity in the group that succeeded and failed also did not show a significant difference (P-value = 0.995). However, the combination of type and number of bacteria were significantly different between the successful and unsuccessful group (P-value = 0.034; C = 0.653). Conclusion: The success rate of pressure ulcer closure determined by both the number and type of bacteria, not separately. Thus, it is important that surgeons perform both tests on preoperative pressure ulcer patients due to their proven benefits in predicting the success rate of surgical closure.

  109. Dr. Selwa Y Abdeldafie

    Pediatric cardiac catheterization is an advance technology that permits diagnosis and treatment of cardiac problems among children as well as congenital cardiac defects. It can be prescribed for all age groups and developmental stages to evaluate disease progression, regression and patients' response to therapy .Although it gives a great chance for evaluating children conditions and treating them, but like other invasive procedures it possesses adverse effects. Complications of cardiac catheterization are more prevalent among young age groups, children underwent long time procedure, using more contrast or dye, therapeutic procedure and the age of the client at the time of the procedure.

  110. Megha S. Nair and Bharati D. Asgaonkar

    Background: Osteoarthritis is a degenerative, non-inflammatory, joint disease characterized by destruction of articular cartilage and formation of new bone at the joint surface and margins. Quadriceps strengthening is widely recommended in knee osteoarthritis as it decreases pain and improves function. Studies say with malalignment and laxity, muscle forces may increase stress on localized areas of articular cartilage. Malalignment in the knee joint may alter the line of action of the quadriceps forces thereby distributing unequal forces across the joint. Strengthening in such malaligned joint can hasten the progression of osteoarthritis. Mobilization with Movement (MWM), a joint mobilization technique developed by Brian Mulligan says that pain and movement restriction is due to positional faults. Correction of this positional fault has an immediate effect on pain and disability in knee osteoarthritis. Studies show that taping improves knee joint kinematics taping reduces pain and allows a more comfortable quadriceps contraction. The aim of this study was to check if immediate pain relief and correction of joint malalignment (joint tracking) by Mulligan (tibial internal rotation) taping has an effect on quadriceps strength. Objective: To assess the effect of Mulligan taping and Placebo taping on knee pain, quadriceps strength and knee function in patients with knee osteoarthritis. To compare the effect of Mulligan taping and Placebo taping on knee pain, quadriceps strength and knee function in patients with knee osteoarthritis. Methods: study design: Prospective experimental study design. 62 participants were included in the study after taking their informed consent. Participants were divided into 2 groups of 31 each using computer generated randomized table. Group A received Mulligan taping (with tibial internal rotation glide). Group B received Placebo taping (without tibial internal rotation glide). Participants were assessed for pain, Q angle, quadriceps strength and knee function before taping, immediately after taping and 48 hours after taping using Visual Analogue Scale, 1RM, Knee Injury and Osteoarthritis Outcome Score respectively. Results: Both Mulligan taping group and Placebo taping group showed reduction in pain, increased quadriceps strength and improved knee function. However, on comparing both the groups, Mulligan taping was more effective in reducing pain, improving quadriceps strength and improving knee function as compared to Placebo taping group. Conclusion: Mulligan taping was more effective than Placebo taping in reducing knee pain, improving quadriceps strength and knee function in patients with knee osteoarthritis.

  111. Abrar Fakieh, Doa'a Al-Yamani and Nadia Badr

    Background: Tooth-colored restorative materials have been widely used for aesthetic purposes in restorative dentistry. The gradual loss due to degradation or wear of the damaged surfaces leads to the roughening of the restoration and accordingly influences its esthetic and clinical longevity. Objectives: To assess the feasibility of nano-filled resin coating of aesthetic restorations materials which is as an essential step for GI and an optional protocol for resin composites. Thus, the tribological feature (wear resistance) and consequent topographical characteristics (microstructure, surface roughness and hardness) of the resin composite and GI either coated or uncoated are investigated. Materials and methods: A total of forty samples were fabricated using nanohybrid composite (Tetric N-Flow Bulk Fill) and conventional GI (Fuji IX GP fast); 20 samples each. Half of the samples were covered with resin nano-filled resin coating (EQUIA Coat). Each sample was stored individually in 3 mL distilled water at 37°C for 24 hrs., dried and weighed. Then, specimens were subjected to tooth brushing abrasion wear (~100000 cycles) using especially designed tooth brushing holder device followed by reweighing to determine the amount of weight loss. Surface morphology was examined by SEM, surface roughness was mapped out using AFM as well as VHN were determined. The data was statistically analyzed using SPSS. Results: The nanofilled resin coated samples for each tested material recorded insignificant wear resistance with its corresponding uncoated samples (0.0020±0.0000 & 0.0018±0.00045 for coated and uncoated resin composite respectively) and (0.0034±0.00055 & 0.0026±0.00055 for coated and uncoated GI respectively). The existence of coating evidently reduced the surface roughness of both aesthetic materials as examined by SEM and measured by AFM. Regarding surface hardness, the lowest significant mean values (55.94 ± 0.99 & 56.24± 2.34 were recorded by coated resin composite and coated GI, respectively) compared with uncoated ones (82.22± 3.94 & 71.82± 4.90 for uncoated resin composite and uncoated GI respectively). Conclusions: The wear resistance of the nano-filled resin coating per se is analogous to those of the uncoated aesthetic restorative materials after exposure to prolonged brushing. The coating evidently reduced the surface roughness of both investigated aesthetic materials; however, it has significantly lower hardness values. Thus, on the clinical point of view, the capability of the nano-filled resin coating to reduced surface roughness of both aesthetic restorative materials and its persistence against abrasion wear would allow more glossy appearance and maintain healthy oral condition.

  112. Dr. Somasingh R. Lamani, Dr. Sangeeth Siddabasappa, Dr. Ashok, L. and Dr. Sujatha, G. P.

    Adenomatoid odontogenic tumor (AOT) is a distinct odontogenic tumor that is exclusively odontogenic epithelial in origin which accounts for about 3-7% of all odontogenic tumors, being benign (hamartomatous), noninvasive with slow but progressive growth (Batra et al., 2005). It is predominantly found in young female patients, located more often in the maxilla in most cases (and) associated with an unerupted permanent tooth (Stafne, 1948). Treatment involves conservative surgical excision and the prognosis is excellent. Here we report a case of adenomatoid odontogenic tumor (AOT) in the left anterior maxilla in a young girl aged 16 years.

  113. Dr. Jose George, Dr. Rose Mary David, Dr. Priya Thomas, Dr. Bindhu, P.R. and Dr. Rekha Krishna Pillai

    Background: Pulp stones are discrete calcifications and can be identified in periapical and bitewing radiographs. Stones may exist freely within the pulp tissue or attached to or embedded in dentine. They are more frequently present in the coronal than in the radicular portion of the pulp with a predominating tendency to appear in the maxillary teeth especially the maxillary first molar. Pulp stones have been noted in patients with systemic diseases like cardiovascular, diabetes mellitus and hypertension or in genetic diseases like dentine dysplasia, dentinogenesisimperfecta and Van der Woude syndrome. Etiopathogenesis of pulp stone is still not clear inspite of many microscopic and histochemical studies. Objective: This retrospective study was planned to correlate the association of pulp stones with age, gender, location, dental or systemic disorders. Methods:.The material for this study was obtained by retrospective review of the case files of Annoor Dental College, Muvattupuzha from March 2016 to April 2018, a span of 2 years. A total of 2500 radiographs (OPG) were retrieved from the outpatient department and were assessed for pulp stones within age group of 12–72 years. Statistical Analysis was carried out using chi square test; Minitab (version 17.1.0.0). Results: Overall prevalence of pulp stones in both the gender was 28.9% (723/2500). Out of 723 cases, 411 females& 312 males had pulp stones. Pulp stones were significantly higher in maxilla than mandible (Max. = 67.3%, Mand. = 32.6%).More number of pulp stones were observed in females(56.8%) than males(43.1%).The prevalence of pulp stones in age group from 32–42 years showed higher pulp stones as compared to other groups (29.3%).The prevalence of pulp stones in dental conditions include (Caries -25.5%, Periodontitis- 28.8%, Restored 16.5%, Orthodontically treated teeth -18.9%).The prevalence of pulp stones in hyperlipaedimicpatients was 24.7& renal stones were 21.7%. Conclusion: Even though the aetiological factors involved in their formation are still not fully understood, it would appear that pulp stones are primarily a physiological manifestation and may increase in number and/or size due to local or systemic pathology. The radiographic assessment of pulp stones helps in early diagnosis of many systemic conditions which eventually helps for a better treatment plan.

  114. Priyanka, P., Shubhra Sharma, Pushkar Chaudhary and Naseem Noornisa

    Apocrine carcinoma of breast constitute less than 1% of all malignant neoplasms of the breast. Apocrine carcinoma of the breast has an incidence of 1-4%. Here we present a case of apocrine carcinoma of the breast in a 70 year old lady. Mammogram was suggestive of a malignant lesion. Fine needle aspiration cytology: features were suggestive of malignancy with the following possibilities: oncocytic carcinoma, apocrine carcinoma and neuroendocrine carcinoma. Modified radical mastectomy was done and the tumor was diagnosed as apocrine carcinoma of breast after immunohistochemical workup. The patient was discharged and the postoperative period was uneventful.

  115. Dr. Rajshri Uttam Gurav, Dr. Jigna Pathak, Dr. Shilpa Patel and Dr. Niharika Swain

    Background: Micronuclei (MN) are a small additional nucleus and are readily identifiable by light microscopy. Biologically, MN is the chromosome fragments or whole chromosomes that lag behind at anaphase during nuclear division. MN occurs due to genetic damage of the cell and the MN scoring is the indicator of the genetic damage. But, it has been shown by various studies that MN formation is not always related with genetic damages and may be developed from the physiological damage of double stranded DNA break when a cell enters from G0 to G1 phase of the cell cycle. Therefore simple presence of MN may not indicate any disease as this may be seen even in normal healthy cell. Only high MN count may be suggestive of a genetic damage. Thus MN1 counting in normal healthy individuals can be used to supervise genotoxicity, biomonitoring of diseases, screening of preneoplastic diseases and identification of high risk patients. Objectives: • To compare total number of micronuclei and number of cells with micronuclei in exfoliated buccal mucosal cells amongst different age groups of normal healthy individuals. • To determine a normal range of total number of micronuclei and number of cells with micronuclei in exfoliated buccal mucosal cells amongst different age groups of normal healthy individuals in the studied population. Methods: This study was conducted on normal healthy individuals (n=500) age ranged from 18-70 years. Based on age normal healthy individuals were categorized into 5 age groups: Group A: 18-30 years; Group B: 31-40 years; Group C: 41-50 years; Group D: 51-60 years and Group E: 61-70 years. Each age group comprised n=100 normal healthy individual. The exfoliated cytosmears prepared from oral buccal mucosa of normal healthy individuals and stained with Papanicolaou (PAP) technique. We calculated the total number of MN (TMN) and number of cells with MN (CMN) per normal healthy individual since some cells had multiple MN. Results: The mean of TMN found were increased with increase in age and this difference was statistically significant. (p= 0.007) The mean of CMN also found were increased with increase in age. However, statistical test did not show any significant difference amongst them. (p= 0.071) In the normal healthy individuals, the normal range for TMN and CMN was 1 to 12 and 1 to 10 respectively. Conclusions: There is an increase in total number of MN (TMN) and number of cells with MN (CMN) with increasing age.

  116. Tadwalkar Vivek D., Sachdeva Abhishek, Singh Ratinder P. and Chugh Rajeev

    Objective: To study the incidence of Cardiogenic Shock (CS) in patients with acute myocardial infarction (AMI) Methods: This is single centre prospective analytical observational study. The study was conducted during 21St August 2010 to 20th August 2012 in a tertiary care hospital. This study included 250 patients with AMI. All of the patients included were primary thrombolysed. Results: This analysis pertains to the 25 (10%) patients who unequivocally developed shock after admission. Out of 25 patients who developed shock 13 expired (52%mortality). • 60-65 is the predominant age group to get shock. • 64% of patients were males who developed shock. • 40% and 60% of patients who developed shock had DM and HTN respectively. • 40%of patients who developed shock had history of previous myocardial infarction. • 64% patients who developed shock had smoking as addiction. • Around 68% patients who developed shock were having Anterior wall MI. • 7.76%, 25.6% and 25% belonging to Killip Class I, II and III respectively developed shock. • 48%patients who developed shock had h/0 angina compared to 35.55%in the non-shock group. Conclusion: The incidence of CS was around 10% in ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) in our study. The strongest predictors for development of CS in our study were age, gender, diabetes mellitus, hypertension, previous myocardial infarction, smoking, anterior infarct, higher Killip class, and history of angina. The mortality among patients with CS in our study was 52%.

  117. Dr. Balachandran Premkumar, Dr. Sayed Mohammed Afsal, Dr. Sheena Ali, Dr. Shubankar, Dr. Ranjini Ramachandran

    A fifty year old hypertensive male presented in the outpatient department with the chief complaints of bleeding per rectum associated with tenesmus while passing stools along with a complaint of a mass protruding from the rectum. A colonoscopic evaluation and biopsy revealed a lesion at the anal region which was suggestive of a malignant melanoma, while the PET CT revealed a hypermetabolic circumferential wall thickening involving the anal canal and distal rectum with metastatic pelvic nodes, and hepatic metastasis. He was then taken up for a Laproscopic Abdomino perineal resection with an end colostomy. His histopathology with immunohis to chemistry studies were suggestive of high grade malignant melanoma

  118. Dr. Vinay Kakatkar, Dr. Monesh Sharma and Dr. Pankaj Pawar

    Endodontic procedures are used to treat large periapical lesion. Additional apical surgery is performed in few cases. Various irrigating solutions like Chlorhexidine, Sodium hypochlorite are used. Some clinicians prefer Ca(OH)2 as intracanal medication. Non-surgical and surgical methods show no difference in long term follow up. Non-surgical endodontic treatment leads to complete resolution of periapical lesions and should be the treatment of choice.

  119. Dr. Abdullah Benahnia

    Background: Verbal conflicts among staff in healthcare settings are a serious issue that requires intervention at different levels. On a day-to-day basis, the issues they are dealing with are multi-faceted covering physical, emotional, cultural, etc., the magnitude of the conflict arising out of it is also quite intense and serious. The objective of this study was to assess the cross-cultural violence, and explore intercultural competence perception and awareness among healthcare staff. Methodology: A quantitative survey was conducted at King Fahad Medical City (KFMC) using the stratified random sample technique covering seven departments in the institution. A total number of 105 staff selected randomly from each stratum were asked to complete the questionnaire covering Intercultural Competence (ICC) items and 100 individuals responded to the survey. Result: With regard to the working environment, employees are aware of the consequences of these factors, Saudis and non-Saudis were unsatisfied with the present environment. Even though English is frequently used as an official language, the general communication among the employees remains as an obstacle. With regard to awareness about the intercultural competence, even though they are aware of it, they find it difficult to accommodate or fully accept other cultures. Conclusion: The environmental factors have a driving influence for employees in the acquisition of intercultural competence skills for the sake of work stability and survival. It is imperative for institutions to initiate strategies that will inspire the employees' intercultural competence and enhance cross-cultural understanding.

  120. Dillan Brown and Marianne W. Robertson

    The aggregation behavior of isopods like Armadillidium vulgare functions to limit desiccation and reduce metabolic rates. Aggregation may also function as a cooperative form of communication enabling A . vulgare to relay habitat quality to conspecifics. Grouping is stimulated by social interactions and physical cues and aggregation pheromones in feces. This study examines whether chemical cues, in the absence of social or physical cues, will influence settling behavior in A. vulgare. We determined whether a lone conspecific would spend more time on the side of an arena with no previous isopod cues versus the side that previously held conspecifics but was absent any discriminating physical cues, such as disturbed earth or exuviae. We also determined whether the number of previous occupants influenced settling behavior.A Chi-Square Binomial test, and an ANOVA followed by a Tukey’s Post Hoc Test were used for data analyses. Isopods spent more time on the side where five or ten previous conspecifics had been housed but not a single conspecific. Lone isopod movements across a median line decreased in arenas that previously held occupants. Thus, olfactory cues from conspecifics can stimulate settling behavior, and lone conspecifics prefer an area recently abandoned by a grouping of conspecifics versus a previously unoccupied area. Settling behavior appears to be stimulated by chemo-sensitive stimuli from conspecifics in A. vulgare even in the absence of conspecifics or physical cues.

  121. Akpoué N. A., Kouamé K. J., Zoho Bi F. G-A., Essé SE., Yéboué K. H. and Amoikon K. C. E.

    This work consists of evaluating the effects of a balanced and fortified diet on the nutritional characteristics and values of serum metabolites in protein-deficient rats. A series of three experiments, with 11 lots of 6 rats is conducted, with a control diet containing 20% of protein. The first experiment which lasts 15 days consists of restriction diets containing 10% (P 10), 5% (P 5) and 0% (P 0) of proteins, relative to the control. The second experiment is composed of the same restriction diets (15 days) followed by a rehabilitation diet with the control feed (15 days). The third experiment (30 days) consisted of a restricted period (P0) followed by a single restitution, and a restricted lot (P0F) followed by a restitution fortified with 0.01% of Amin' total in the drinking water. The results obtained indicate that the body weight gain of malnourished rats P10 (1.11 ± 0.34 g), P5 (0.53 ± 0.45 g), P0 (-1.01 ± 0.28 g) is lower than that of the control rats (2.69 ± 0.49 g). The rehabilitation experiment has a minimal impact on body weight gain. On the other hand, fortified rehabilitation rats (P0F) had a body weight gain (3.17 ± 0.85 g) greater than those of rehabilitated rats (P0) (0.57 ± 0.25 g) and control rats (1.36 ± 0.49 g). Malnutrition has variable effects on the average values of blood parameters. In conclusion, protein malnutrition reduces growth in rats. Rehabilitation with a balanced diet alone is not enough to restore nutritional disturbances. To achieve a fast growth, it is necessary to associate with the balanced diet, a fortification with a food supplement enriched with nutrients (essential amino acids, vitamins, trace elements).

  122. Indira Sarangthem, Devarishi Sharma, L., Nivedita Oinam and Punilkumar, L.

    An experiment was conducted during 2016-2017 to study the critical limit of Zinc in soil and plant. Pea (Pisumsativum L.) cv. Rachna was taken as the test crop . The treatments consisted 0, 2.5 and 5.0 kg Zn ha-1 as ZnSO4.7H2O and Recommended dose of Nitrogen, Phosphorus and Potashas urea, single super phosphate and muriate of potash, were used. Each treatment was replicated thrice. Application of 5.0 kg Zn ha-1 gave the highest yield of pea. Dry matter yield, zinc content and zinc uptake by the plant also increases as the level of zinc increases. According to the graphical procedure of Cate and Nelson (1965) using a scatter diagram, the critical limit of available zinc was 0.69 mg kg-1 whereas the critical concentration of zinc in 50 days old pea plant tissue was 0.21 per cent.

  123. Dr. Reddy, P.M. M., Bhojanna and Dr. Mishra, R. K.

    In India, Sericulture is essentially a village-based industry providing employment to a sizable section of the population. Although Sericulture is considered as a subsidiary occupation, technological innovation has made it possible to take it up on an intensive scale capable of generating adequate income. Besides capable of providing continuous income to farmers, it creates new avenues for engaging the rural folks in related activities leading to blocking the rural migration in search of livelihood. Siddlaghatta of Chikkaballapura district is a famous place in the map of sericulture of Karnataka and as well as in the country due to its production of quality raw silk.

  124. Dr. Suchira Chillana, Dr. Kiran Bala, Dr. Aparna and Dr. Akshit Griwan

    Background: A raised Antistreptolysin O titre (ASO) level is one of the most relevant retrospective serological indices of antecedent Group A-Beta Hemolytic Streptococci (GAS) infection. A single titre of more than 200 IU/ml is considered as a raised value. Serum ASO titre is raised when there is an infection of any organ of the body by GAS,or less commonly, group C or G Streptococcus, especially in patients suspected of having a non suppurative sequel to this infection. Methods: A retrospective study was done on the sera samples received in the Department of Microbiology, PGIMS Rohtak, Haryana for the detection of ASO, over a period of two years. The test was carried out by latex agglutination rapid test kit by Aspen. Results: A total of 4063 samples were received in the laboratory during the study period. Of these, 832 (20.4%) were found to be positive for the presence of ASO having titre of >200 IU/mL. Conclusion: The prevalence of ASO was found to be highest in the age group 0-20.The presence of elevated streptococcal antibody titres in such a population reflects a high background prevalence of streptococcal infections. Thus, determination of ASO antibodies should be taken into consideration when evaluating the role of group A streptococcus in non-purulent complications of infections.

  125. Vaidya Yogesh Kumar Pandey and Dr. Neha Kaushik

    a) Introduction-Lumbar spinal stenosis (LSS) is a degenerative condition described as narrowed lumbar spinal canal with neurogenic claudication, consisting of back and buttock or leg pain induced by walking or standing and relieved by sitting. It adversely affects quality of life of the patients. There is lack of improvement with modern medicines. There are chances of recurrence due to surgical decompression. b) Patient has severe stretching pain in right leg up to toe with right lower limb claudication since1 month. Patient walks with a stick and has limping gait. Straight leg raising (SLR) test is positive right at 45ᵒ and left at 60ᵒ. c) In ayurvedic clinic it is diagnosed as kati asthi sandhi gata vata (vata disorder involving vertebras, intervertebral joints and surrounding connective tissues of lumbar region), He was treated for three months with a combined treatment of oral ayurvedic drugs tryodashanga guggulu, ajmodadi churna, balarishta and rasna saptaka kwath along with Panchakarma procedures - Patra pind sweda (PPS) and kati basti with panchaguna tail along with Kala basti regimen of niruha basti (decoction based enema) with rasna erandadi kwath and anuvasana basti (oil based enema) with dhanwantar tail for 16 days. Patients condition was assessed for symptoms of kati asthi sandhi gata vata and visual analogue scale (VAS) for pain, Fukushima lumbar spinal stenosis scale (FLS-25), and 6 min walking test (6MWT). d) There was substantial improvement in symptoms of the patient. The assessment scales showed marked improvement measured before and after the treatment. This study shows that the cases of degenerative LSS may be successfully managed with ayurvedic treatment.

  126. Sattiraju Tanishqua Bhargava, Tamanna Jaitly, Shruti Gupta and Shukla, S. K,

    Child abuse and juvenile delinquency have been occurring at a staggering rate far and wide. Victimisation at a young age is known to influence an individual psychologically and as indicated by previously conducted studies, an antagonistic traumatic experience can lead to commitment of savage acts in impending years by the individual. The inquiry is to what degree do child abuse and juvenile delinquency impact each other and similarity between the occurrence of the two respectively. The review delivers an apt panacea through obtaining a pattern between the occurrence of crimes against children and juvenile delinquency by plotting graphs. The statistical data was procured from NCRB covering the crimes committed by and against children in a time lapse of ten years i.e. 2001-2010. This uncovers the prominent connection between child abuse and delinquency. The review predicts the course one factor in view of another upto an extent with the assistance of the fundamental pattern obtained.

  127. Gbolahan Babalola, Mobolaji Adeniyi and Abiodun Salami

    Food security in developing countries still remains a global concern requiring effective and sustainable solutions. This study investigated the effect of three indigenous arbuscular mycorrhiza (AM) fungal inocula namely; Funneliformis mosseae, Claroideoglomus luteum and Glomus viscosum on the growth and yield of a tomato cultivar (Lycopersicum sp.). The spores of the fungi were isolated from a fallow land in Ile-Ife, Nigeria and were propagated separately by maize pot culture. The obtained pure culture spores were used to infect tomato seedlings singly and in different combinations in a sterile soil culture. A control un-inoculated treatment consisted of sterile soil only. There were variations in the extent at which pots inoculated with AM inocula improved plant growth rate, fruit yield and fruit size after harvest. For the single inoculation treatments, Funneliformis mosseae had the best gross fresh fruit weight/pot (191.47 g), mean fruit weight (27.35 g), mean fruit size (85.47 cm2) and gross fruit weight per plant (68.83 g); the worst was G. viscosum which had gross fresh fruit weight/pot (191.47 g), mean fruit weight (27.35 g), mean fruit size (85.47 cm2) and gross fruit weight per plant (68.83 g). However, not all combinations of the AM inocula were effective in improving plant crop yield. The best combined AM species treatment (Funneliformis mosseae _Claroideoglomus luteum) had mean fruit weight (22.54 g) and mean fruit size (88.43 cm2), while F. mosseae_C. luteum_G. viscosum combination had the least mean fruit weight (9.33 g) and mean fruit size (51.28 cm2). On the other hand, the combination treatments were generally better in post-harvest residual spore yield in the soil than the single treatments. There was no association between fruit yield and residual spore densities. This study has shown that these indigenous AM inoculants have the potentials to individually enhance fruit yield compared to the simulated background combined effect was found in the fallow land. We conclude that adequate knowledge of AM interactions with their host plants will be required for proper composition of AM fungi inocula for optimal application in agriculture to enhance plant crop yield.

  128. Sharon Maynard Gamboa, Mariela Alvarado Rodríguez and María Laura Arias Echandi

    In the last years, the consumption of natural products has increased. Fruit concentrates and derivates are part of these new products of high demand. Although these products present high acidity, they have been linked to the transmission of different pathogenic microorganisms. The aim of this study was to determine the potential survival of three different concentrations of Listeria monocytogenes inoculated into three different fruit juice concentrates of high demand in Costa Rica, including custard apple, black berry and mango, through its shelf life at refrigeration temperature. At the same time, lactic acid bacteria count was determined in order to describe the potential spoilage of these products. Blackberry concentrate did not allow the survival of the different inoculum of L. monocytogenes added as well as lactic acid bacteria. Custard apple concentrate allowed a slight survival of L. monocytogenes and lactic acid bacteria. Mango concentrates allowed, however, the survival of both L. monocytogenes and lactic acid bacteria during the storage period. Although juice concentrates have many intrinsic and extrinsic properties that represent a barrier for the survival and growth of microorganisms, L monocytogenes may overcome them, representing a risk for human health.

  129. Rahul Sarma Baruah, Rinki Moni Kalita and Chitrani Medhi

    In this work, the ligands vinyl imidazole (VIm) complexes of Ruthenium(Ru) were taken and one electron redox potentials were analysed. The structures and the influence of ligand in these ruthenium complexes on the one electron transfer mechanism were investigated. Ligand charge transfer towards the Ru metal has been found prominent in these Ru-ligand complexes forming a strong coordinated bond. The one electron transfer processes of these complexes depend on the number of VIm ligands present in these complexes.

  130. Birendra Kumar Yadav, Busi Karunanand, D.P.S. Sudan, Sanjiv Kumar Bansal, Ashok Kumar Shah, Anurag Verma

    Tuberculosis is the major public health problem and ninth leading cause of death globally. Calcium and phosphorus are important macro-minerals required for various physiological functions and changes may cause detrimental effect as it has role in patho-physiology of pulmonary tuberculosis. Aim & Objectives: Estimation of serum calcium and phosphorus in pre and post-treatment of newly diagnosed pulmonary tuberculosis patients. Materials & Methods: This study was conducted in the Departments of Biochemistry and Pulmonary Medicine, FMHS, SGT University and District TB Centre, Gurugram, Haryana. 100 newly diagnosed pulmonary tuberculosis patients above 15 years of age were included in the study. The venous blood samples were collected from patients of pre and post treatment. The level of serum calcium and phosphorus was analyzed by fully auto-analyzer. Results: The serum calcium level was significantly low in pre-treatment (8.22±0.69 mg/dL) as compared to post treatment (9.30±0.75 mg/dL) with p<0.01. Similarly, the level of serum phosphorus was significantly higher in pre-treatment (4.86±0.97 mg/dL) as compared to post-treatment (3.84±0.87 mg/dL) with p<0.01. Conclusion: The level of serum calcium was increased and level of serum phosphorus was decreased in post-treatment compared to pre-treatment in pulmonary tuberculosis patients, which signifies the effect of anti-tubercular treatment and need of calcium supplementation with regular monitoring during the treatment.

  131. Christelle KOUAME, Zana A. OUATTARA, Marcel K. KONAN, Christelle KC. N’GAMAN-KOUASSI, Felix TOMI, Janat A. MAMYRBEKOVA-BEKRO and Yves-Alain BEKRO

    Objective: This study aims to establish the quantitative organic composition, and to appreciate the antioxidant potential of the essential oils (EOs) from the fresh and dried leafy stems of Origanum syriacum acclimated in Côte d’Ivoire. Methods: The chemical composition determined by GC (Ir), GC-MS and 13C-NMR showed that the species belongs to the carvacrol family. The antiradical activity was evaluated with respect to the radical DPPH●, (2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl). Results: In total 31 compounds have been identified accounting for 98.1-99.4% of the total composition. The major compound was carvacrol (61.5-69.8%) following by γ-terpinne (11.3-14.5%). In vitro antioxidant test showed that essential oil from O. syriacum had an antioxidant potential nevertheless lower than that of ascorbic acid (vitamin C). Conclusion: This study highlights chemical composition of the essential oil from O. syriacum and an interesting antioxidant potential. These data would justify various traditional uses in therapeutic.

  132. Dr. Deepa Swamy

    Children of low income group are generally neglected in their health status. Thus, they face different problems for health. Motivations are given not by their parents to improve their health and hygiene. Conditions are become worse when both parents go out for work and nobody is there to look after them. There is no well-managed, detailed research study is conducted to find out health status of children in low income group. The small step of research work is done on those children. It will also help in providing direction to government in deciding policies and programmes for low income group in improving health status.

  133. Khalaf NourAbd el-WahedAmmar

    When a dissection made to three specimens of skate Raja batis Linnaeus, 1758 flattened cartilaginous fishes bought randomly from the Red Sea city markets, were found naturally infected with three specimens of helminth parasites two species of digenea Monorchismonorchis Stossich, 1890, Lecithochiriumpriacanthi Yamaguti (1953) and one of tetrabothridea Echeneibothriumminutum Williams, 1966 impeded in spiral valve wall. The morphology and morphometric characterization were carried out by light microscopy. Species were recorded for the first time from Rajidae specimen in a new locality Red sea, Egypt. The present Monorchis species is characterized by its smaller size, smaller ovary; testes tandem and vitellaria are in the form of two lateral groups, near the caeca bifurcation, and the numbers of follicles vary from 7-9 on the right side and 7-11 on the left side. Lecithochiriumpriacanthi characterized by elongated slender body with acetabulum larger than oral sucker and tapered conical anteriorwith bluntposterior ends, supplied with a very short retracted short tail (ecsoma)end and two opposite small oval testes. This species is unique by two compact masses, 6-7 ovals to digitiform lobes vitellaria just posterior to ovary. Echeneibothriumminutum Williams, 1966 has very special features as acraspedote, euapolytic, Scolex consists of the head proper and a cephalic peduncle, the head bears the dorsal and ventral bothridia each of which is oval, flattened, andloculi arranged in 12–14 rows.

  134. Tangarani Rani

    The present paper focuses on the comparision of BMI and hand grip strength of middle aged regular walkers and yoga practitioner. Physical activity provides important health benefits for middle aged individuals, including increased physical fitness, reduced body fatness, favorable cardiovascular and metabolic disease risk profiles, enhanced bone health, and reduced symptoms of depression and anxiety. Health, fitness, and general wellbeing are things that many of us take for granted in our youth and yet go onto neglect in our middle age or at least until something needs serious attention. It is the purpose of our Health & Fitness index to inform men of common health concerns and also inspire folks to take action towards living a healthier, and happier lifestyle overall. The analysis and interpretation is made with the help of measurement test like height, weight and hand grip strength through dynamo meter. Finally, the present paper offers suitable suggestions and recommendations for maintaining the health fitness among middle aged male walkers and yoga practitioner.

  135. Necati Gulbahar

    After the World War II, developed countries have been engaged in a race on economy, armory and superiority including testing new weapons without considering environment. On the other hand, undeveloped countries tried to catch up with developed countries as soon as possible in terms of economy and technology and they also kept ignoring the environment. During occurrence of environmental pollution, important international meetings were held on the subject. At the end, it was understood that the only solution was sustainable development after long discussion. In that model, meeting the needs of the present populations without compromising the ability of the future generations to fulfill their own needs is aimed. Of course, this is not easy but, it was unanimously accepted at the various meetings that humanity must succeed it. Thus, it is necessary to change our understanding on planning approach and consider sustainability in investment projects as a basic concept. In this article, conclusions of the meetings were evaluated and some proposals were made to contribute to the solution of the problem.

  136. Mohd H. Ibrahim, Alias Mohd, Raja M. Raja M., Norsilawati Ngah, Na’ain Shari, Muhd F. Che I., Mohamad H. Mohamad Y. and Muhamad S. Rani

    The purpose of this study is to identify ergonomics factors for lifting process in working environment. Target respondent for this study consist 20 technicians and this study was based on the questionnaire surveyed. The study used primary data and interpreted using descriptive statistics. Analysis performed noted there were factors that could cause musculoskeletal injuries during lifting activities such as back and muscle pain. Though no specific causes of ergonomics injuries were identified, this study recommended suitable lifting equipment to be implemented in order to mitigate future ergonomics injuries.

  137. Musadag.M. Mustafa, Hasabo A. Mohamed Ahmed, Kamal.K.Taha and Ramadan.Mohammed

    In this study ZnO nanoparticles were synthesized by using different procedures. In the first procedure ZnO prepared by using sol-gel method by precipitating ZnO from a reaction of Zinc nitrate (Zn(NO3)2) and Sodium hydroxide (NaOH) different techniques are used sol-gel method with stirring and centrifugation to obtain ZnO nanoparticles. In the second procedure grinding of Zn(CH3COO)2 and H2C2O4.2H2O in a mortar for 30 min is used, also by doping Selenium powder (5%) to the mixture and ZnO-doped Selenium was obtained. ZnO nanoparticles were characterized by X-ray (Rajendra et al., 2009) diffraction (XRD) where diameter ranged between 16-33 nm by using Scherrer equation. d-space (d) was calculate theoretically by using Bragg’s law and practically by the formula. Some lattice also were calculated and showed in the tables like: micro strain (ε), potential parameter (μ), bond length (L), unit cell volume (V) and stress (σ).

  138. Enna S. Bodoso

    The issue of student drop out is an important social issue. Hence, this study was conducted to determine the reasons why students dropped from school. Quantitative method of research was used in this study. Stratified random sampling was employed in the selection of teacher-respondents and purposive sampling was used for student-respondents since they are at home and others are in their workplaces. Social media, specifically Facebook and Google Form were used. A researcher-made instrument duly validated and reliability-tested was used in this study. Frequency counts, percentage distribution and ranking were used in the analyses of data gathered. Financial difficulty is the top reason why students dropped school. It is recommended that more scholarships programs should be given to deserving students and guidance counseling should be strengthened.

  139. Ayşe Selcen Altınok, Buket Çınar Gelir and Seyhan Onbaşıoğlu

    After dyeing, the fiber undergoes some strength and elasticity loss due to pressure, temperature and chemical exposure. This leads to difficult progress of the fiber along the production line and decrease in yarn quality in the yarn production stages. In this study; The loss of strength and elasticity after dyeing, the penetration of the dyebath into the fiber at the desired level and the unevenness of dyeing were investigated depending on the pump cycles in the dyeing machine during dyeing of the wool fiber. In addition, the change in dyebath pressures and velocities were investigated in the dyeing machine according to the pump cycles in the fiber dyeing machine by performing dyebath flow analysis with the ANSYS program using CFD (Calculated Fluid Dynamics) method. It was seen that the increase of the pump revolution increased the loss of strength and elasticity of the fiber but did not affect the homogeneity due to the pressure difference in the inner tank of the dyeing machine.

  140. Aarti and Supreet Kaur

    This implementation aims towards the establishment of performance qualitative analysis on make span in VM task allocation and process according to their deadline, then implemented in CloudSim with Java language. Here major stress is given on the study of dead line based task scheduling algorithm with heterogeneous resources of the cloud, followed by comparative survey of other algorithms in cloud computing with respect to scalability, homogeneity or heterogeneity and process scheduling. A previous study also indicates change of MIPS will affect the response time and increase in MIPS versus VM decreases the response time. When image size of VM is implemented against the VM bandwidth then no significant effect is found on response time and it remains constant for which these parameters are investigated. But in case of Cloudlet long length versus Host bandwidth a pattern is observed in which response time increases in proportionate manner. Using the modified approach the reduction in the down time of the various processes are achieved as shown in results.

  141. Gaganpreet Singh and Rekha Bhatia

    Due to the sheer volume of opinion rich web resources such as discussion forum, review sites, blogs and news corpora available in digital form, much of the current research is focusing on the area of sentiment analysis. People are intended to develop a system that can identify and classify opinion or sentiment as represented in an electronic text. Therefore product features or aspects have got significant role in sentiment analysis. In addition to sufficient work being performed in text analytics, feature extraction in sentiment analysis is now becoming an active area of research. This review paper discusses existing techniques and approaches for feature extraction in sentiment analysis and opinion mining.

  142. Eddie Franck Rajaonarison, Alexandre Gacoin, Bam Haja Nirina Razafindrabe and Vincent Emile Rasamison

    Today much importance is given to the acoustical environment. This work investigates the acoustic properties of porous concretes made from scoria by showing the influence of physical prosperities of materials like material thickness, density, and porosity on their absorption behaviors. The high absorption achieved in some frequency bands, depending on the concrete dosage, confirmed the possibility of using lightweight structural slag and insulating materials for custom acoustic interventions. Finally, results show the good coefficient absorption capability of scoria, making them a promising alternative to traditional porous concrete solutions.

  143. Letícia de Barros Macedo, Guilherme Henrique Cavazzana, Mariana Antonio de Souza Pereira, Fernando Henrique Garayo Junior and Fernando Jorge Corrêa Magalhães Filho

    In order to reduce water conflicts and to attend to multiple water uses, this study evaluated water quality in the Ribeirão das Botas Stream basin in Brazil's Central-West region, in regards to the evolution of legal and institutional aspects at the federal and state scope, mainly with the inclusion of the legal instrument to authorize water use rights. Through a self-purification study with effluent discharge simulated from a wastewater treatment plant, four points along the river were evaluated during the dry season, using the QUAL-UFMG model, for the parameters DO (dissolved oxygen), BOD (biochemical oxygen demand) and total coliforms. Three effluent discharge simulations were carried out. The first scenario encompassed a single criterion: maximum BOD concentration discharged according to legislation (120 mg.L-1), where it resulted in DO below 7 mg.L-1 and BOD outside of the classification class 2, exceeding the value of 5 mgBOD.L-1. The second scenario used the limit of the diluted concentrated value in the receiving water for the BOD (<5 mg.L-1) and DO (> 5 mg.L-1) parameters. The third scenario related the quantitative aspect linked to the authorization instrument to accommodate the uses of the river basin. The physical-chemical and biological analyzes with the presence of E. coli and total phosphorus parameters was in disagreement with the current standards, which shows that there is a negative impact due to anthropic activities in the region caused by inadequate urban effluent discharge and agricultural activities. It was observed that in scenarios 2 and 3, the evaluated parameters respected the river’s support capacity, which presented DO above 7 mg.L-1 and BOD below 5 mg.L-1. However, for the stream’s support capacity to be met without changing its classification, the wastewater treatment plant that is to be implemented should have a maximum flow of 0.43 m3.s-1 and a minimum efficiency of 96%, not 65% or 88% according to scenarios 1 and 2.This study permits assistance to the water resource management council for decision making in the face of multiple use conflicts with the use of mathematical modeling for self-purification studies according to the evolution in the legislation, taking into account not only qualitative aspects, but also quantitative and diverse water uses.

  144. Jannatul Ferdows, Tamanna Tasnim and Shayeda shanjeeda Akter

    With the help of advanced science and technology, Modern medicine has open a new era. It has dramatically changed of the countless people life. But discovery of a drug is a complex process which faces scientific, technical and regulatory challenges. In spite of such challenges, every day, many scientists in the biopharmaceutical industry research at the molecular level, screen and make a new disease target and trails at animals and human to get a desired result. This result help to fine new drug or medicine that will help to improve medical care. Researchers are working to search a more effective way of drug discovery and development process that’s lead to maintain highest safety and efficacy standards. This paper is a survey report on the hierarchical step of drug discovery and development process.

  145. Naga Vaishnavi and Sruthi Reddy

    The rising environmental concern in response to global warming is drawing people’s attention to seek sustainable or green solutions. Extensive emissions of greenhouse gases (GHGs) are from the energy use in buildings which in turn marks the real estate industry as a significant contributor to global warming scenario. The environmental benefits of green buildings have been firmly established, but the awareness that green buildings deliver a range of compelling financial and social benefits is not well established. Largely, in cases of green building development, developers face a major challenge regarding the increase in construction costs. Thus they find it intricate to go for green buildings due to cost restraints and complexity in sourcing green building materials, technologies and service contributors or facilitators in India. This research attempts to understand and find solutions to these problems.

  146. Khadher AL-Rashedi, Mazahar Farooqui and Gulam Rabbani

    In this work, nanocrystalline ZnO thin films have been created by sol-gel method. The films deposited onto a glass substrate at 50ºC, formed from zinc nitrate, distilled water (pH ≈ 7.0, Conductivity ≈ 36.00µ S/m), Methanol, Ethanol Alcohol, and polyvinyl Alcohol, magnetic stirrer with hot plate. The crystallographic structures of ZnO films and powder were examined utilizing X ray diffraction (XRD). The Scherrer formula was used to calculate the grain size of the films. And Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) was utilized to describe structure and morphologies of the saved specimens. The outcome demonstrates that the great film was set up at plunge covering method, the UV-visible spectrum of the sample was obtained using a SL 210 UV-VIS Spectrophotometer-1800, in the wavelength range from 300 to 700 nm. All the tests confirmed the presence of thin film.

  147. Kartik Ajugia, Aksheshkumar A. Shah, Rohit A. Rawool, Siddharth S. Saini and Tejas P. Shah

    Pressure drop is the main parameters describing the efficiency and acceptance of a particular shell and tube heat exchanger in any application. Pressure drop across the tube side is inversely proportional to the viz. Higher the pressure drop lower is the heat transfer and hence the required pumping power is high and correspondingly higher is the expense. The pressure drop on the tube side can be trichotomized as pressure drop due to Inlet nozzle, pressure drop in the tube bank, and pressure drop in the outlet nozzle. This report provides an insight into the research done on the analysis of the pressure drop in the tubes of a shell and tube heat exchanger. Although a remarkable contribution has been done through analytical relations governing the pressure drop and the numerical analysis of the pressure drop on the shell side of a shell and tube heat exchanger, cogent contribution can be made numerically on the tube side. The approach provided enables us to study detailed flow behavior (pressure drop) in the tubes using the TEMA BEM viz. a Flat Head Single Pass SHTX numerically viz. the use of computation for the mentioned research. Hence to achieve the task numerically the use of ANSYS16.0has been made assuming that the flow is steady and isothermal. Two different pressure zones have been identified viz. (1) High pressure drop zone (2) Low pressure drop zone across the tube banks. It was observed that nearly fifty percent of the tubes lie under each category. The pressure drop has been computed numerically at a specific inlet velocity and then correlated at different inlet velocities for a parametric study.

  148. Mammadov Vasif Talib and Suleymanova Arzu Javanshir

    Solution of the sparital task on tension-deformation condition of biaxial loaded well packer is considered in the article. Koshi method for variations of the components of tensor deformations in complex loading in the well has been used. The theory of plastic flow has also been applied, borders of plastic zone at the period of packing deformation have been determined and some variants in the particular case for satisfying stabilly conditions of the sealing have been solved. The obtained results are compared with the results of the works carried out by other authors.

  149. Radjapov, E.G.

    The author in this article has analyzed the process of formation of military schools during 1917-1940 years and activity of these military schools. In the article it was also revealed graduated cadets of military schools and courses, social composition of cadets and the role of these military schools in the progress of military work and military history in Uzbekistan.

  150. Williams Jacob Ekou and Frejuss Kouamé

    Knowing and taking advantage of native or foreign language is perceived through the mastering of the four language skills which are production (writing and speaking) and comprehension (writing and speaking). The previous works concerning the interlanguage study of the Ivorian learners of Spanish have been focused on writing aspect. In this way, basing ourselves on a critical and descriptive perspective, our intention has been to identify and to bring solutions to learner’s difficulties during their communications in Spanish, thing that increase the level of students speaking capacity. Very concretely, we have described the oral productions of Ivoirian learners in order to shed light on their specific characteristics aspects. At the end, we came to the conclusions that there are some long breaks, repetitions, the use of onomatopoeia, smiling at the end of their communication to give the floor to their co-speaker and also the systematic use of French to keep the control of the discussion.

  151. Loukas Moustakas and Georgia Karagianni

    The aim of this study is to inquire issues related to teachers’ education within the scope of Lifelong learning. At the same time, it inquires issues of teachers’ professional development and strengthening through their participation in training programmes. Specifically, this research was carried out within the geographical boundaries of the prefecture of Karditsa, in central Greece, and was based on the completion of 130 questionnaires by teachers who teach in secondary, general, public schools under any working status. The questionnaire, filled in by the teachers, focused on investigating the extent to which teachers agree with certain parameters related to the organization and conduct of educational programmes. More analytically, these parameters were related to the thematic topics as well as the reasons for participating in such programmes, the factors taken into consideration and the preventive ones, the methodological techniques and teachers’ views regarding distance education through the use of e-learning. There were also questions related to the appropriateness of the providers of the training programmes as well as questions concerning their duration, the implementation model, the place and the time they can be carried out. The final part of the questionnaire focused on European programmes such as Erasmus+ which can be seen as training providers and aimed at measuring their knowledge about them and at investigating the factors that act either as barriers or as facilitators when it comes to their participation in them. Drawing upon the results of the empirical analysis that was followed, it can be stated that the majority of teachers participate in educational programmes mainly conducted by P.E.K (peripheral educational centers) and the School advisors, nevertheless academic teachers of higher educational institutions and qualified school teachers are considered to be more suitable to carry out such programmes. The teachers who participated in the research also think that educational and training programmes ameliorates their daily classroom routine, boosts their efficacy and refreshes their interest in their job. Moreover, they are interested in educational innovation, prefer working in groups and believe that postgraduate studies along with their participation in non formal educational schemes (peer learning communities, networks etc.), can cover their educational and training needs. As far as the European programmes are concerned, they know little about them but they wish to learn more and think that the inadequacy in a foreign language prevents their participation. On the other hand, the strengthening of their linguistic skills and the prospect of establishing networks with other European colleagues are confronted as positive factors that facilitate their participation. Finally, teachers wish to be engaged in short-term programmes (no more than one month) with two sessions per week, on afternoons of working days. The establishment sheltering the programme seems to be on no special significance to them but their own school setting seems to be their second most prevalent option.

  152. Alvin B. Punongbayan

    In education, Montessori system Kambingan Festival is a town festivity celebrated annually on the founding anniversary of Tuy, Batangas. This research aimed to determine the impacts of Kambingan Festival to the Tourism Industry and Culture of Tuynians. The descriptive method of research was utilized by the researcher in this study. There were 108 respondents composed of the Municipal and Barangay Officials. Data were gathered through questionnaires. The respondents agreed that Kambingan Festival was promoted, prepared, participated in, and implemented successfully. Moreover, it was revealed that the festival promotes Tuy as a tourism spot in District I of Batangas and it proves Tuynians’ hospitality.

  153. Reverend Patrick Musembi

    This article sought to assess the effectiveness of the approaches employed by the various actors in the management of conflicts with a focus on Tana River County in Kenya. The conflict in Tana River has escalated to unparalleled armed violence with loss of life and property. Various actors have employed diverse approaches in response to the conflict and to build peace. However, in spite of these efforts the region has experienced periodic relapses into violence. The government of Kenya has utilized hard power mechanisms while Non-Governmental organizations and the civil society have employed various conflict management and reconciliation approaches. Unfortunately, the conflict has persisted and turned into a devastating situation that has claimed the lives of innocent people as well as property in the region. The article proved that the approaches employed in the management of the Tana River conflict did not incorporate a comprehensive analysis of the conflict vis-à-vis structural, proximate and trigger causes of the conflict in order to understand the context of the conflict and to determine the appropriate responses to be employed in the management of the conflict. In addition, the article found that the entire peace building process lacked clear coordination in terms of programming, funding and the deployment of human resources. Moreover, there is need to integrate a comprehensive analysis of the conflict vis-à-vis structural, proximate and trigger causes of the conflict in order to understand the structural context conflict and to inform any responses to the conflict in Tana River. There is also need to incorporate a multi-sectoral and multi-agency response to the conflict so as to respond to the opportunities for violence such as chronic poverty and unemployment among the youth. Qualitative research approach was adopted in this article to achieve at these assertions.

  154. Dr. Ismail Elmahdi and Dr. Mohammed Issah

    Illiteracy caused by political and economic inequalities and exclusion from education opportunities has left millions of vulnerable people across the globe in a disadvantaged position. Education, however, throughout human history has been a means and an end for human growth. The international community has come to realize the importance of Human Rights Education in contributing to the recognition of Human Rights and consequently international stability of the world. For this reason Human Rights Education has been incorporated in a number of international human rights instruments such as the Universal Declaration of Human Right (HR), the International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights (ICESCR), The International Covenant on Civil, Cultural and Political Rights (ICCPR), The Covenant on the Rights of the Child (CRC) and the Covenant on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination Against Women (CEDAW). This study investigates the perspectives of pre-service teachers at Bahrain Teachers College (BTC) in promoting HR in classrooms. The study uses document analysis research methodology through analyzing students’ (pre-service teachers) written reflections on promoting HR in classrooms. The result of the study indicated not only that pre-service teachers exhibited clear understanding of the importance of human rights, but also showed commitment to promote them in their classrooms. The study recommended a number of steps that need to be taken to promote Human Rights Education in Bahrain’s classrooms.

  155. Fr. Adeodatus M. Rwehumbiza, Fr. Dr. Dagobert Kabendera and Mrs. Florence Ateka

    This study aimed at investigating the availability and adequacy of science teaching/learning resources in public secondary schools in Bukoba District Council (BDC), Tanzania. Researchers considered that availability and adequacy of such resources in public secondary schools was a prerequisite for the implementation of compulsory science curriculum in BDC. The study used convergent parallel mixed method research design. The qualitative part employed phenomenology while the quantitate part used cross-sectional design. The target population involved heads of schools, heads of science department (HoDs), science teachers, students; also, included were parents and a District Education Officer for Secondary Schools (DEOSS). Data were collected using questionnaires, interview guide, and observation schedule. D escriptive statistics such tables and charts were used to analyse quantitative data. Qualitative data were organized into themes and presented in narrative form and direct quotes. The findings indicated that public secondary schools encounter various challenges that negatively affect the implementation of science curriculum. The study concludes that a few teaching/learning resources were adequately available as there were also inadequacy of most of the science teaching/learning materials in some of the public Secondary schools in BDC. The study recommends that School Principals must be fully involved in the budgeting process so as to express concrete estimates which reflect the actual needs of their schools. The Government and the Schools’ Management should as quickly as possible address those challenges for effective implementation of science curriculum.

  156. Castor V. Balacuit, Jr., Eloida O. Quezada, June L. Abay-abay, Jocelyn R. Caluban, Lorry P. Cedron, Leowenmar A. Corvera, Benny M. Cuadrado, April Joseph A. Huerte, Gemmalynda P. Montenegro and Geraldine A. Portillo

    This study delves on the livelihood and training needs of Mamanwa tribe in the existence of local assets like forest, agriculture, and marine resources as a competitive edge in the locality including occupational tools to design a sustainable livelihood preparation intended for Mamanwa which is considered as the oldest and second poorest indigenous group in the Philippines. Mamanwa mainly rely on shifting agriculture with hunting and gathering forest resources. These natural resources are no longer sufficient to support their livelihood needs of their family. Thus, Mamanwa Tribe has difficult way of living and is financially hard-up due to no permanent work. Hence, the researchers conducted this study to identify the relevant resources found in their community and to suggest livelihood programs, projects, and activities. The researchers utilized a descriptive survey through a researcher-made questionnaire. The high poverty incidence of Mamanwa is attributed by large family sizes and poor educational attainment despite majority of its population belongs to labor force of the economy. Secondly, the desparity of population in terms of gender poses a challenge that affected their livelihood. The Mamanwa relied on subsistence farming and fishing.

  157. Dr. Rashmi Rani Agnihotri, H.R. and Dr. K. S. Malipatil

    The culture and tradition of India is considered as old and great all over the world where people used to worship various female goddesses, saints and poets. India is also a powerful nation and famous worldwide for being the largest democracy in the world however, women backwardness is also very clear in the Indian society because of the social issues, problems and lots of restrictions against women. Women belong to the lower and middle class family suffers more than the women of higher class family. Women in the Indian society generally face problems of sex discrimination, high percentage of illiteracy, female infanticide, dowry system, etc. Taking birth as a woman in the Indian society can be said as curse for the women. Women in India face lots of social issues and problems all through the life which are big struggle for them right from their beginning of life. Female infanticide is the most common practice of killing girl child in mother’s womb in the Indian society. Women in India are considered as burden for their parents and husbands as they think that women are here only to consume money whole life without earning a little bit. Another common problem for women is sex discrimination which they face from their birth and continues till their death. Illiteracy, lack of proper education, responsible for household works, rape, sexual harassment at workplace, etc are some big issues for the women in India. However, a lot of positive changes have occurred in the women status as the number of educated people is increasing in the country. Here the Researcher discussed the Constitutional Rights and Legal Rights to Women The constitution and Laws are instrument of welfare. Thus through Constitutional Rights and Legal Rights to solve the Women Problems. The Study is Purely Theoretical. The Study is based on secondary data sources. The necessary information about the Constitutional Rights and Legal Rights to Women and its various components are collected from Books, Journals, Internet Source or related topic. The Researcher study about the Constitutional Rights and Legal Rights to Women. The Research Work includes I. Introduction II. Methodology III. The Constitutional Rights and Legal Rights to Women. IV Conclusion.etc.

  158. Albérick Tito, Folly Messan, Florent Nsompi, Albert M. Tito, Mohamed Mansourou Lawani and Adolphe Ahonnon

    Currently, the issue of environmental pollution is becoming a growing concern in terms of both health risks and obstacles to development particularly in developing countries such as those in the West African region. This study contributes to the strengthening of existing databases on air pollution in West Africa. The study method consisted of selecting articles from the following databases: “Pub Med”, “SPORT-Discus”, “Scopus” and “Google Scholar”. The keywords “air pollution”, “West Africa”, “health effects on earth”, “demography in Africa”, “socio-economic status”, and “origin of pollution” were used to search for articles in these databases. The results observed at the end of this research made it possible to increase the state of knowledge relative to the demographic and socio-economic contexts of West Africa before describing the characteristics of the different atmospheric layers such as the troposphere, the tropopause and the stratosphere. The various atmospheric pollutants contained in these layers and their recognized effects on health were discussed. From this synthesis of scientific studies on air pollution in West Africa, we found that there are major health concerns such as early aging, progressive regression of the central and peripheral nervous system, depression of lung function and weakened immune defenses. Reducing the exposure of air pollution, improving air quality and setting up air quality monitoring and ambient air standards is essential in West Africa.

  159. Chia Hui Hou

    The objective of this study was to analyze the current living conditions and health promotion needs of older people. Needs within each health promotion dimension were investigated through a cross-sectional questionnaire survey. Participants in this study comprised people 65 years or older living in the 12 administrative districts of Taipei City. The participants were sampled using stratified random sampling and were divided into two groups based on age, 65–74 years and 75 years and older. The valid samples totaled 1122, and a structured questionnaire was utilized for data collection. The questionnaire content comprised demographic information and health promotion needs. According to the research results, the types of health promotion activities in which older people wished to participate included health screening activities, dementia prevention activities, immunization, health and wellness lectures and activities, and other arts and crafts courses or learning programs. Of these activity types, the proportion of older people who wished to attend health and wellness lectures and activities was relatively high, and the health information items about which they most wished to obtain were exercise and wellness information. With regard to health promotion strategy, it is recommended that (1) more relevant health promotion activities and courses be held; (2) use of smart phones or tablets be taught; (3) the accessibility of activity information be increased and venues be expanded; (4) the number of courses on dementia prevention and care be increased; (5) community service centers be established; (6) the number of spiritual courses be increased; and (7) the implementation of community health promotion policies be accelerated.

  160. Olinila, T. and Prakash, K.

    The aim of this study was to bearing the phyto chemical profiles from the acetone extract of Chrozophora rottleri leaves and it’s evaluate antibacterial activity. The acetone extract of Chrozophora rottleri leaves were prepared by ethanol gradient elution orderly and analyzed by TLC. The bacterial strains were used to evaluate the antibacterial activities by the disc diffusion and MIC method. Results showed that the disc diffusion against bacteria ranged from 5 µL/mL to 20 µL/mL of Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus and Proteus vulgaris). Also chloroform extract exhibited MIC values ranging 5 µL/mL against both gram positive and negative bacteria. Remarkable antibacterial potential was noticeable with higher inhibition zone recorded in Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus than other organism. The TLC fingerprint profiles demonstrated the presence of various phyto chemicals in leaf extract. In conclusion, the chloroform extract of Ch. rottleri possessed the property like antibiotics against bacteria. These results support an individual phyto chemical profile further investigation for the isolation of novel compounds with antimicrobial bioactivity and also afford hypothetical supporting as natural food preservatives and medicinal plant.

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