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October 2013

Background: Pre-eclampsia is a common complication of pregnancy constituting major cause of maternal and foetal morbidity and mortality. It develops in 4% - 5% of pregnancies. Altered renal function is an essential component of the patho-physiology of pre-eclampsia, which could lead to acute renal failure. The kidneys play a significant role in the turnover of low molecular weight substances like Urea, Creatinine, Uric acid and Cystatin C. Aims and Objectives: To study serum cystatin C in pre-eclampsia and compare it with serusm Creatinine.

Variable planting density experiment was conducted on oil palm from 1998 to 2007. The study was to evaluate the effects of different plant spacing on growth, development and yield oil palm in Ghana. The experiment was laid out in randomized complete block design with five replications. The treatments were composed of four densities 116, 129, 148 and 173 palms per hectare. Growth parameters measured include leaf area, leaf area index, rachis length, frond dry weight and plant height. These parameters were generally not statistically significant (p=0.05).

The quality of water is of great importance also for human lives as it is commonly consumed and used by households. Runoff water is the carrier of pollutants on their way from the soil surface to the surface water.

Due to the stresses of every day life and variable eating habits, constipation is a major complaint in and around big cities in Thailand. Through our research, we have found that skipping meals, routinely consuming fast foods with little nutrients, having insufficient amount of vegetables in daily diet, excess fat and chemical preservatives, artificial coloring, scents, and tastes, all contribute to developing constipation.

Composting is the suitable way of recycling organic waste for agricultural application and environment protection. In Saudi Arabia, several composting facilities are available and producing high quantity of composts. The aim of this study is to evaluate the physical characteristics of composts manufactured in Saudi Arabia and acquire a comprehensive image of its quality through the comparative with international standards of compost quality such as CCQC and PAS-100.

Current methods of disposal and management of nutritionally rich food and household waste are not satisfactory. They are source of foul smell, pollution, unhygienic conditions and infectious diseases. A satisfactory method could not come out from earlier studies made on vermicomposting of such waste under tropical climatic conditions. Therefore the present study was taken up.

Vermiwash is the organic fertilizer obtained from units of vermiculture and vermicompost as drainage. It is used both as foliar spray and in the root zone of plant. Our study examines the effect of vermiwash on the growth and development of tomato plant. When vermiwash was sprayed on the tomato plants, it showed a significant growth of plants i.e. length of shoot as well as number of leaves per plant. Vermiwash when mixed with vermicompost increased the shoot length to 19.61±0.18 cm as compared to control 17.92±0.21 cm.

Viruses, also known as oncoviruses, capable of transforming cells into a malignant phenotype. These viruses encode oncogenes that can be inserted into the mammalian genome causing transformation. This study was aimed to detect three types of herpes viruses HHV 4, HHV 6 and HHV 8 sequences in leukemia patients and healthy individuals to evaluate the role of these viruses in leukemia arise, and to determine the best way to detect the virus particles in human sera and blood.

Honey is a natural product, procured from honey bee colonies. Besides high concentration of sugars, it contains other useful nutrients, vitamins, minerals, enzymes and several phyto-nutrients. In many Indian families, first food in the mouth of new borne child is a drop of honey followed by mother’s milk. Therefore honey must be collected, purified and properly stored so that all its properties can be retained for longer period.

An experiment was conducted at Avinashilingam Institute for Home Science and Higher Education for Women, Coimbatore, Tamil Nadu (India) for assessing the effect of composted coirpith, composted pressmud and FYM on leghaemoglobin content in nodules of green gram and enzymatic activity (dehydrogenase and urease) of the soil sowned green gram (Vigna radiata L.).

A comparative study was conducted between two waterbody, Karbala lake and Barambaba pond. In this regard quantitative and qualitative analysis of zooplankton and physico-chemical parameters of water has been done. The study was about six month from January 2013 to July 2013. During this study different types of zooplankton species from different groups were found and physico-chemical parameters such as DO (Dissolved Oxygen), pH, Free CO2, Alkalinity, Water temperature and air temperature were recorded.

Phytase, myo-inositol 1,2,3,4,5,6-hexakisphosphate phosphohydrolases (EC 3.1.3.8) belongs to a sub-class of the family of histidine acid phosphatase that initiate stepwise removal of phosphate from phytate. Facing the problem of phosphorus deficiency in plants and animal feed together with its pollution in areas of intensive livestock production, phytase seems destined to become increasingly important. Hence, for both environmental and economic concerns, phytases and phytase-producing organisms are attracting significant industrial interest.

Salivary gland protein of Culex quinquefasciatus was obtained by Homology modelling technique. Ramachandran plot analysis showed that the portion of residues falling into the most favoured regions was (90.9 %). Predicted and validated structure is useful in structure based drug designing. Three compounds of Capsicum annum L. were selected through literature survey and Molecular docking studies were done using Schrodinger Mastro software. Results showed that out of three ligands taken from pub chem., Homocapsaicin 6442566 had glide score of -1.9 as compared to phytol 5280435 of -1.46.

Ladybeetles are very recurrently accessible in the gardens as well as in the agricultural fields. On the basis of their feeding habits they can be categorized differently, for instance, those feeding on aphids are aphidophagous while those preferring to feed on coccids are coccidophagaous and the third category is austerely phytophagous and is deliberated as the pest of nightshades and cucurbits. Development of the larvae of Epilachna vigintioctopuncata Fabricius, universally known as the 28-spotted ladybeetle was studied by feeding them on three food treatments.

As a consequence of population explosion, economic development and large scale urbanization, huge quantities of solid and liquid waste materials are produced in India. Their disposal and management are difficult and cumbersome tasks which are associated with serious environmental and health problems.

Diversity of Zooplankton is one of the most important ecological parameters as these are the intermediate link between phytoplankton and fish and plays a key role in cycling of organic materials in an aquatic ecosystem. These are one most important biotic component influencing all the functional aspects of an aquatic ecosystem such as food chains, food web and cycling of matter. The study conducted with an aim to study the zooplankton diversity including physico-chemical parameters.

The present study aimed to evaluate the effect of Ginkgo biloba extract (GBE) and Ginkgo biloba gold nano particles (GBGNPs) on MPTP induced behavioral change in Parkinson’s disease mouse, investigated through the following behavioral test such as rotarod performance hang test, narrow beam walking, akinesia and catalepsy. The results indicate a significant variation in behavioral patterns of control and experiment groups. G.biloba may be useful for the management of neuropathic pain. When compare to GBE the GBGNPs showed better improvement in all behaviour tests.

Histopathological lesion have been studied in the liver of Mystus vittatus under 10, 20 and 30 days of exposure to 10% sub lethal concentration of monocrotophos (96 hr LC50 : 0.025 ppm; 10% SLC-0.0025 ppm). In control cat fish, the liver was comprised of polygonal hepatocytes with centrally placed nucleus. Pesticide induced dilation of blood sinusoids, vacuolization and disintegration of cell boundaries were noticed in the 10 and 20 days of exposed fish. The complete damage of hepatocytes and loss of integrity of cell wall were noticed on 30 day of exposure.

Mystus vittatus was exposed (10% sublethal concentration of 96 hr LC50) for a period of 10, 20 and 30 days under laboratory conditions. The kidney of the treated fishes were examined under microscope and noticed significant changes such as enlargement renal tubules hyperplasia, vaculation of the epithelial cells of renal tubules, necrosis and shrinkage of glomeruli. Results suggests that a comparatively low concentration cadmium is enough to elicit pathological changes in Mystus vittatus.

A study was conducted at Krishnagiri District of Tamilnadu state in India which is well known for the production and processing of the mango. Various agricultural information needs of the farmers in processing and producing value added products in mango are analysed and studied. A well structured and pre-tested interview schedule was used to collect data from 300 randomly selected mango growers.

We wish to report the deposition of MoO3-TiO2 binary thin films employing an unique, low cost and simplified spray pyrolysis technique or perfume atomizer method. The MoO3-TiO2 binary thin films of different concentration in the range of 3-9 at. % were investigated using glass substrates and temperature kept at 4000c. The effect of substrate, concentration and temperature on structural, optical, photoluminescence, morphological and gas sensing properties of the chosen binary films has been reported.

Main idea to prevent the ground contamination by heavy metals is to extract them maximally with minimum consumption of chemical reagents. So, a perfect studying of pulp ionic structure, an adjustment of the sulphuric ores flotation parameters and modelling of minerals selectivity variables, by using thermodynamic method of analysis, the behaviour of lead xanthenes surface state in solution and experimental investigations results, allow obtaining quantitative physico-chemical models of minimum necessary xanthenes concentration of lead sulphide complete flotation.

Nearly twenty four acridinedione derivatives are prepared by thermal method using P2O5 / ethanol catalyst. The same compounds are prepared by solvent free green approach involves the exposure of neat reactants to microwave irradiation of three component reaction of dimedone, aromatic aldehydes and amines in a stoichiometric ratio 2:1:1 for few minutes afforded the formation of stable acridinedione derivatives in an excellent yield (80-95%). The structure of all the products has been characterized by IR, 1H, 13C NMR and mass spectral studies.

This paper discusses the effects of process parameters on the biodegradation of cassava peels and cassava root sieviate through the action aspergillus niger. The ability of aspergillus niger to increase the crude protein content and decrease the crude fiber content of the cassava wastes was investigated with time and substrate concentration as process parameters. Face–centered central composite design (FCCCD) of the experiment was applied in the determination of the two-parameter improvements of the nutritive value of the wastes.

Perambalur is an administrative district in the state of Tamilnadu, India. It has 4 blocks, of which Veppanthattai block has historical importance and is blessed with good agricultural land. The people are used the groundwater for drinking and agricultural purposes. Groundwater samples of bore wells were collected from different locations in Veppanthattai block in Perambalur district and were analyzed for their physico-chemical characteristics. The study was carried out during post-monsoon season from forty four different villages.

The phytoplankton abundance associated with hydrographical parameters at 28 selected stations (April 2012) of Kerala Coast have been discussed. Considerable variations were noticed both in magnitude and compositions in the phytoplankton density. In this investigation, a total 104 species of phytoplankton were identified and represents in different distinct class viz: Bacillariophyceae (78), Dinophyceae (22), Chlorophyceae (3), Cyanophyceae (1), and Dictyophycae (1). Diatom species were more prominent within the stations.

The study was conducted to assess the physico-chemical characteristics of river water and groundwater of Amaravathi River Basin, Karur district, Tamilnadu, India. The collected samples were analyzed for the water quality parameters such as pH, Electrical Conductivity (EC), Total Dissolved Solids (TDS), Dissolved Oxygen (DO), Biochemical Oxygen Demand (BOD) and Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD), using the procedure outlined in the standard methods prescribed by American Public Health Association (2005).

The comparative studies of secondary metabolites investigation used in pharmacuetical drug research using qualitative test is being performed on Cucurma caesia and Kaemferia galanga Zingerbaracae family. These medicinal plants are of high economic value due the presence of antioxidant and antimicrobial activity. The samples were extracted using various solvents like methanol, ethanol, ethyl acetate and water (aqueous). Among the various solvent extract methanol gives the highest positive result followed by ethanol, water (aqueous) and ethyl acetate respectively.

Samples of carbon steel were exposed to the atmosphere in Abu Dhabi and corrosion rates measured every month for one year. Various angles of repose from 0° to 45° were selected, as well as a comparison between north facing and south facing. The samples were heavily contaminated with airborne dust, even though they were 15 m above grade. The salt content of the dust was high ~2000 ppm) and is believe responsible for the high corrosion rates observed in a country where there less than 30 mmyr-1 of rain.

Biomass is the most potential candidate for their quantitative availability. Prosopis juliflora a Mesquite is a shrub or small tree in the Fabaceae family. It is also one of the biomass which is available hundred hectares in India.We developed protocol in order to characterize the physical and chemical properties of P.juliflora as feed stock for energy conversion process. The particle size of the biomaterial was found to be 8nm from X-Ray Diffraction (XRD) technique. The SEM image reveals the particle size with a cluster of needle shaped surface with voids.

The security of bio-metric information is method of identifying a person or verifying the identity of a person based on biological characteristics. In recent years, biometric systems have assumed greater importance for information security systems. It offer reliable security, they themselves have to satisfy high security requirements to ensure authentication. Many public key algorithms such as RSA, DES and Tripple DES are concerning to construct an effective biometric security and encryption system as well.

Water is one of the natural resources used by all living beings. The quality of water is very important for survival. Water is contaminated knowingly or unknowingly. In developing countries it is estimated around 80% of people are affected by water-borne disease due to water contamination. This paper presents an overview of water resources, water management system and water quality monitoring.

Succinic Acid (SA) and L- Alaninum Succinate (LAS) single crystals have been grown by slow evaporation method. The band gap energies of the SA and LAS crystals have been calculated using cut off frequencies observed in the UV-Vis spectrum. The presences of various functional groups in the crystals were identified by FTIR spectrum. The nonlinear optical property of the grown crystal was confirmed by second harmonic generation technique. Dielectric studies were carried out as a function of frequency for three different temperatures.

Monitoring and controlling the hypnosis and arterial pressure during a surgery is really vital since in excess of dosing and below dosing can be hazardous for the patients. Anesthesia drugs have impact on multiple results of an anesthesia patient. Automation of anesthesia is very useful as it will provide more time and flexibility to anesthesiologists to focus on critical issues that may arise during the surgery. Furthermore patient safety and cost reduction. Anesthetics are administered to regulate hypnosis and analgesia, respectively in the patient during the surgery.

Biological rhythms, like the cardiac rhythm are often generated by large populations of mutually interacting cellular oscillators. The ability of such a population to generate a stable, regulated rhythm depends critically on the nature of interactions among the oscillators, as a network of nonlinear oscillators is intrinsically unstable. Although the entire cardiac system beats in perfect synchronization invivo, intrinsic frequencies of auto rhythmic cells have a significant dispersion.

The synthesis of the doped BaTiO3 was carried out using the solid state synthesis method. The dopants that used were high purity chemicals of more than 99.9% purity. The dopants used were Niobpentoxide (Nb2O5) of Fluka AG and Cobaltous Chloride Hexahydrate (CuCl26H2O) of Himedia Laboratories. Both the chemicals used were AR grade. The dopants were added as wt% of the basic compound BaTiO3. The final compound was in powder form. For characterization of the sample it was convenient to use them in the form of pellets using Hydraulic Pellet Press (KP Sr 734) of Himaya Engineers.

Distribution of Dimethyl Sulphide (DMS) was measured in relation with phytoplankton density in the Cochin estuarine system during the year 2010. A total of 120 species of phytoplankton were identified which represents different distinct classes viz: Bacillariophyceae (65), Chlorophyceae (25), Dinophyceae (21), Cyanophyceae (6), Dictyochophyceae (1), Chrysophyceae (1) and Zygnematophyceae (1). The phytoplankton identification reveals that Cochin estuary is a diatom dominated estuary.

Green synthesis of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) by Coccinia indica leaf extract was extent the biogenic synthesis of metal nanomaterials offers an environmentally benign alternative to the conventional chemical synthesis. Upon contact, rapid reduction of Ag+ ions was observed in <1 min with Ag nanoparticle formation reaching 90% completion in <20 min. Effect of leaves extract concentration on the particle size and shape were investigated from UV–vis spectrum, X-ray Diffraction (XRD), and Energy Dispersive X-ray (EDX).

Sunflower oil is widely used in cooking, food processing, cosmetics, pharmaceutical and chemical industries. Plants depend on some metals as micronutrients for human growth. In the present study, Four different sunflower varieties namely CO-4, CO-5, HYCO-2 and TCSH-1 are grown in different trial plots with three treatments viz., control (T1), chemical fertilizer (T2) and organic manure (T3). Trial plots roots are collected field wide using standard procedures.

Polycrystalline In2O3 thin films have been deposited on glass substrate by spray pyrolysis technique using indium acetate as a precursor solution. The influence of precursor concentration was studied in the range of 0.025 – 0.15 M with substrate temperature 450 ˚C. The deposited films were characterized by using X-ray diffraction (XRD), Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) with EDS, Atomic Force Microscope (AFM), UV-Visible spectrophotometer and Photoluminescence (PL).

Objective: To assess the significance of the Integrated Management of Childhood Illness (IMCI) guidelines in diagnosis of bloody diarrhea. Methods: Four hundred and thirty two children patients with diarrhea attending Khartoum Pediatric Hospital and Omdurman Pediatric Hospital Khartoum Sudan were enrolled into the study during the period of 2005 to 2007. Stool specimens collected were processed by wet preparation and cultured into XLD medium, sorbitol MacConkey medium and Skirrow's medium.

Stressors facing nursing students has adverse consequences on their academic and professional as well it may lead to attrition from nursing programs, and shortage of nurses. Emotional intelligence (EI) is set of abilities enables a person to generate, recognize, express, understand, and evaluate their own, and others, emotions. The current study aims at determining nursing students’ emotional intelligence and its relationship with students’ perceived stress level and their academic achievement.

The aim of the paper was to investigate the health care seeking behaviours of tuberculosis (TB) patients in Ibadan, South-West, Nigeria. The study was undertaken using a descriptive survey design. A sample of 1222 registered TB patients was drawn from a population of 4073 “in and out” TB patients in selected clinics in parts of Ibadan. Questionnaire was the instrument used to collect data. Data collected were analyzed using percentages. The findings of the study revealed that more than half of the patients delayed in seeking medical attention on notice of signs and symptoms of TB.

Introduction: Coronary artery disease is one of the major causes of death in young athletes all over the world, leading to sudden cardiac arrest. Knowledge of the coronary arteries along with its septal branches is very important. Interventional cardiologists treat these conditions by approaching the specific interventricular septal branches of the coronary arteries. Objectives: To study the septal branches of the interventricular septum arising from both the coronary arteries and their variations. Materials and method: This study was conducted on 50 specimens.

Effect of zinc and selenium alone and in combination was evaluated against carbon tetrachloride induced hepatotoxicity. Rats were divided into 6 groups with group I and II as healthy and diseased control. Group III, IV, V and VI received silymarin, zinc, selenium and zinc + selenium as therapeutic agents respectively. Heapatotoxicity was induced in rats by giving @ 2 ml CCl4 + 2 ml olive oil/kg (1:1; v/v) body weight orally twice a week for 4 weeks.

The present investigation was undertaken to evaluate antihyperglycaemic activity of an aqueous extract of Diabcap (a polyherbal formulation) and to ascertain its role in hepatoprotection in Streptozotocin (STZ) (60mg/kg, ip single dose) induced diabetes in rats as though potentially uncommon yet diabetic hepatopathy may be an apt organ to be targeted in diabetes. The rats were randomly divided in diabetic and non-diabetic groups. Diabcap was administered in two different doses and results were compared with metformin.

Erosive mucosal lichen planus is a painful and disabling inflammatory skin disease that is highly resistant to topical treatment.Treatment is difficult: topical corticosteroids are usually prescribed first, but antimalarial agents, oral retinoids, systemic corticosteroids, immunosuppressive drugs, and even extracorporeal photo chemotherapy can be necessary in severe cases. There is a need for novel therapies that are effective and produce less morbidity. Lycopene’s role in the management or prevention of oral lichen planus (OLP) has not been investigated.

Brucellosis is a re-emerging bacterial zoonoses and a major health concern worldwide; most cases being undiagnosed or misdiagnosed as pyrexia of unknown origin. The occupational source of exposure predisposes the farmers, shepherds, butchers, laboratory workers, veterinarians and slaughterhouse workers to a greater risk of contracting the disease.

The work lives of architects in Tamil Nadu are under-studied. The purpose of present study is to address this dearth in the literature in three ways: (i) providing descriptive data related to the work experiences of architects as employees, (ii) incorporating social climate into the theory of work adjustment, a theoretically based model that predicts employees job satisfaction and creative traits of the architects, and (iii) attempting to address methodological limitations raised in this body of literature.

Fruit-based land use systems and their effects on physicochemical properties of soils were assessed in Abaya-Chamo Basin of Gamo Gofa Zone, Southern Ethiopia. The study area lies between6°30’ to 6°38’ N and 37°33’ to 37°37’ E and altitude of 1200 masl. The physiography is characterized by flat plain under forest and cultivation. A survey was carried out using semi-structured techniques. Land use systems including maize, natural forest, monoculture banana field, and mixed banana and mango fields were identified.

This paper investigates empirically the association between financial decision and investment decision by considering the entrepreneurial process. We consider two modalities of financing in internal finance and external debts. We follow different steps of entrepreneurial business process in business model, business plan and nascent entrepreneurial firms. The logistic regression demonstrates that in the stage of elaborating the business model, investment decision is associated with financial decision in financial debts.

The aim of this study is to examine whether there are differences in social support dimensions of graduate students in terms of demographic profile. The number of participants was 534 graduate students (155 male and 379 female) randomly selected in one Malaysian university. The age of students ranged from 19 to 45; with mean age of 27.10. Apart from, applying descriptive statistic such as frequency, mean and, the data were statistically tested using a one way analysis of variance (ANOVA), through SPSS, version 19.

Sustaining the productivity of natural resources is most important issue in the 21st century. There is an urgent need for proper distribution, efficient utilization, better management and proper development of natural resources. They are addressed with the view of fulfilling the ever-growing demand for food, fodder and fiber and fuel by both present and future generation. Sustainable Agriculture is a loosely defined term that comprises a range of strategies for addressing many of the problems that affect agriculture world-wide.

Salivary Shelter is basic necessity of life, ranked behind only to food and clothing in importance. There is strong urge in every individual life, whether rich people or poor people to own a house. House is not a place of dwelling alone it also satisfies an individual`s social and psychological needs. House by itself is not productive asset but investment in housing helps in increasing productivity provision of shelter is thus closely linked with a country`s overall socio – economic development.

There are many factors that influence the success of production of silk. In recent years, some antibiotic agents have been used for growth enhancement of silkworm larvae and improvement of silk production. This study regarding the effect of amoxicillin was conducted on the silkworm breed selected for the experiment was popular Indian bivoltine hybrid (CSR2XCSR4). The silkworm larvae were reared up to fifth instar without any treatment.

In the present study, a pot culture experiment was conducted to estimate the ameliorating effect of Triadimefon (TDM), Hexaconazole (HEX) and Propiconazole (PCZ) on drought stress in Capsicum annuum L. plant belongs to solanaceae family. From 30 days after sowing (DAS), the plants were subjected to 3 days interval drought (DID) stress and drought stress with TDM @ 10 mg l-1, HEX @ 10 mg l-1 and PCZ @ 15 mg l-1 and one day interval irrigation was kept as control. The plant samples were collected on 40, 50 and 60 DAS.

An efficient plant regeneration protocol was developed for Orthosiphon spiralis - an important medicinal plant. Shoot tip explants inoculated on Murashige and Skoog (MS) medium supplemented with 1.0 mg l-1 6- Benzyl adenine (BAP) and 0.25 mg l-1 NAA showed better growth response and produced 52.3 ± 2.1 shoots per explant with an average length of 6.43 ± 0.06 cm after 30 days. Rooting of shoots was achieved on growth regulator free half strength MS medium produced 7.3 ± 0.25 cm roots with an average height of 5.4 ± 0.2 cm after 28days.

This study discusses the evaluation of a learning-to-learn grammar module for English as a Foreign Language (EFL) learner in one of the private institutions of a higher learning. The objective of this study is to evaluate the learning-to-learn grammar module in terms of its usability, suitability and user-friendliness for EFL learners. The sample size consists of 20 EFL learners, studying the Advanced level.The learners were given a set of questionnaires to evaluate the grammar module. They evaluated the grammar module in terms of its usability, suitability and user-friendliness.

A total of 72 samples were collected between 2006 and 2008 in the Mediterranean coast of Morocco (Smir lagoon water= 30, connected seawater =30, sediments=6, mussels = 6). The water samples were concentrated by glass wool method then analyzed for human enterovirus infectious by integrated cell culture-PCR (ICC/RT-PCR) and by qRT-PCR for other enteric viruses. Human adenovirus, polyomavirus JC, Norovirus GII and rotavirus A were detected in 63, 57, 43 and 36% of 30 lagoon samples respectively. For Norovirus GI, in 10 tested samples only 10 % revealed positive.

In this study, in vitro antibacterial properties of Scleroderma bermudense extracted using three different solvent systems (Petroleum ether, Chloroform and Methanol) were studied against plant and human pathogens viz., Xanthomonas campestris, Pseudomonas syringae, Agrobacterium tumefaciens, Klebsiella pneumonia, Staphylococcus aureus, Salmonella parathyphi, Salmonella typhi, Pseudomonas aeroginosa and Escherichia coli by agar well diffusion method. The three organic solvent extracts, showed more effective inhibitory activity against all the tested bacteria.

It is observed that people do develop their properties without a thorough consideration of the interrelationship that exists between the location and property values. Considerable importance is attached in the modern world to the concept of property location as it influences the use and value of properties. The theme of this project is to X-ray the influence of location on property values and business development in Nigeria using Ilorin metropolis as a case study.

Extrusion cooking is a popular means of preparing snack foods and ready-to-eat breakfast cereals using starch-based raw materials. Snacks contribute an important part of many consumers in daily nutrient and calories intake. A ready to eat extruded food was developed using brabender single screw laboratory extruder by incorporation of defatted soy flour with rice flour.

Eighteen treatment combinations consisting of three levels of nitrogen (25, 50 and 75 kg ha-1), three levels of phosphorus (12.5, 25 and 37.5 kg ha-1) and two levels of sulphur (0 and 20 kg ha-1) were tested in factorial randomized block design with three replications. A significant increase in growth and yield attributes viz; plant height, number of branches/plant, length of capsule, number of seeds/capsule and test weight was obtained with increase in nitrogen levels from 25 to 50 kg N/ha., phosphorus levels from 12.5 to 37.5 kg/ha, Sulphur levels from 0 to 20 kg ha-1

Present study has been undertaken in summer Sesamum 2010 at Pulse Research Station, Anand Agricultural University, Model Farm, Vadodara, Gujarat to find out the effect of different NPK levels on yield and quality. The seed and stalk yields were significantly get influenced by nitrogen and sulphur applications while steady increase has been recorded due to phosphorus levels. Oil content in Sesamum has been observed to be increased with increasing levels of nitrogen and sulphur but there was no any significant effect due to Phosphorus.

Most people consume soft drink for refreshment and quenching thirst. There are many types of soft drinks available in market whose common ingredients are normal water or carbonated water, sweetener, flavoring agents, caffeine, coloring agent and preservative. Since these soft drinks have very low nutritional density and younger generations are addicted to these soft drinks, hence in this investigation we have developed a soft drink with Nannari and lemon as main ingredient. Total seven variants were formulated by using Nannari, lemon, glucose and flavoring agents like vanilla or chocolate.

Devi estuary lying between 86o 04’ - 86o 20’ E longitude and 19o 45’- 19o 57’ N latitude harbours a moderately rich and diverse flora of mangroves. But in the past the species diversity was remarkably high as indicated by Ravishankar et al. (2004). 15 exclusive mangrove species (true mangroves) have been reported from this mangrove chunk of Odisha prior to the recent survey. In course of time there is tangible shrinkage of habitat as well as population of mangroves.

An evaluation of nitrogen in soil can have a profound impact on nutrient availability as well as physical and chemical properties of soil. Although chemicals in the form of pesticide and fertilizers may have undesirable impact on the quality of plants as well as micro-organism but the effect of nitrogen concentration is poorly known of Fusarium oxysporum. The objective of present study was to explore the effect of nitrogen concentration in soil of medicinal plants (Azadirachta indica) on soil borne in vitro Fusarium oxysporum.

The present study has been planned to observe the effects of different salinity on the ultimobranchial gland in an eryhaline teleost fish Tilapia (O.mossambicus). Cytophysiological studies along with some biochemical observation. Therefore it is planned to study the effect of increased salinity concentration at different time of year specially in calcium regulatory organs. Very little data is available (shukla, 1993 and singh, 1997) on this physiological aspect of catfish in our Country.

An investigation was conducted to determine the agro-morphic characterization and relationship between 20 landraces of rice cultivars of Bankura District of West Bengal. Characterization for 20 qualitative and 13 quantitative morphological characters with 82 agro-morphic descriptors was carried out. Most traits were polymorphic except coleoptiles colour, present of leaf collar, shape of ligule and present of secondary branching in panicle. For Cluster analysis of qualitative traits the cultivars were grouped into five clusters based on similarity coefficient of Jaccard.

Clarias batrachus, Linn. a common Indian cat fish was treated with various sub acute concentrations of Lead acetate for three days and seven days. A third set carried chronic exposure to 15 ppm lead acetate for 105 days. Different blood parameters studied included total RBC and total WBC counts, gm % of haemoglobin, % cytotoxicity, haematocrait, mean corpuscular haemoglobin (MCH). Differential count of WBCs were also done for the respective groups. Lead accumulation in the blood was estimated by Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometer (AAS).

White rot fungi is commonly known as wood decaying fungi which grows on moist wood and digests converts it to rot. Rice straw degradation by white rot fungi has potential to increase the digestibility of animal feed and its nutritional value for the production of lignolytic enzymes. Twenty white rot fungal isolates were obtained from wood samples. These fungal isolates were subjected to qualitative screening tests for lignolytic activity on solid media containing several polymeric dyes like poly R-478, Tannic acid, Azure-B, Remazol brilliant blue R.

The general objective of the study was to examine the relationship between plot size and technical efficiency in cassava production in Oyo State of Nigeria. Specifically, the study estimated technical efficiency of cassava farmers; determined the most productive resource in cassava production as well as determined the nature of return to cassava production. Data obtained from 120 representative cassava farmers were analyzed by the use of Stochastic Frontier Production Function technique. Results obtained showed that labour was the most significant productive resource in cassava production.

Manures enrich the soil and nutrients used by crops. The word “Manure” most often refers to any kind of fertilizers. The benefit of using green manure by organic farmers (and other farmers) is that, it adds organic matter to the soil by releasing important plant nutrients, including nitrogen and helps to increase crop yield. Thus, the use of manures that supply nutrients to the soil is needed for plant growth.

Root cultures were initiated from stem, petiole and leaf explants of Pelargonium radula. Stem segments, the explants most amenable to adventitious root induction, developed well when cultured on half strength solid MS (Murashige & Skoog) medium containing 15 g/L sucrose. To enhance the induction and proliferation of adventitious roots, indole-3-acetic acid (IAA), indole-3-butyric acid (IBA) or α-napthalenacetic acid (NAA) were added to the culture medium.

Orchidaceae family constitute the second largest family in the flowering plants and they came under the order Asparageles of the family Monocots. In India, there are about 645 tribes and mostly they settle in remote/forest areas. They depend on indigenous system of medicine for treating disesase. The present paper deals with the medicinal use of orchid by various tribes in India.

Hyper-immune serum was developed in three groups of rabbits. Bacillus thuringiensis (CEMB no. 30023 strain no. PR 17.2) was used to produce delta endotoxin, the product of Cry1 Ac gene which was used as antigen. Toxoid was prepared having 0 (control), 0.5 and 1.0 mg of delta endotoxin which was injected in rabbits which produced the hyper-immune serum. These antibodies were further used to detect the expression of CryI AC gene. Agarose gel precipitation test was done against standard antigen and antiserum, as well as against antiserum and delta endotoxin from the Bt plants.

During their transit through the epididymis, spermatozoa undergo many biochemical modifications necessary to acquire flagellar motility and fertilizing ability. These modifications, collectively called sperm maturation, are well orchestrated along the epididymis. Sperm maturation requires the interaction of spermatozoa with proteins that are synthesized and secreted in a region-specific manner by principle cells of the epididymal epithelium and depend on highly regionalized gene expression patterns.

In this paper, a table and procedure are given for finding the three stage Chain Sampling plan ChSP (0,1,2) with repetitive deferred sampling plan involving minimum sum of producer’s and consumer’s risks for specified Acceptable Quality Level and Limiting Quality Level.

Under acceptance sampling producer’s risk and consumer’s risk has become increasingly common in maintaining quality products especially in industries. In this paper a skip lot sampling plan of type (SkSP-V) with Multiple Deferred State Sampling plan MDS (0,1) as reference plan has been studied. Producer’s risk and Consumer’s risk has been minimized by minimizing the tangent angle passing though (AQL, 1-α) and (LQL, β). Designing methodologies are provided to illustrate the solution procedures. This paper provides computational analysis that leads to variety of managerial insights.

All classical statistical methods rely explicitly or implicitly on parametric models based on number of assumptions. The most widely used assumption is that the observed data have normal distribution. This assumption about the structural and the stochastic parts of the model have been present in statistics for two centuries, and have been the framework for all the classical methods. Classical methods perform well if the data obeys the assumptions. Now-a-days data collected and stored at enormous speed (GB/TB/hr) and pressure to provide better customized service for an edge.

The Intense competition and pressure from customers to reduce prices has forced many companies to reduce their costs to survive. The cost must be reduced earlier in the product life cycle, particularly while the product is in the planning and design stages. But in this case study we have found stages after launch of product in the market to reduce the price. Few more factors which influence the cost of products and are determined by various cost allocation methods. Cost Allocation method is the process used to assign costs to production or services.

The effect of radiation absorption on the onset of instability of a rotating fluid layer driven by convection is investigated when the fluid is heated from below in a porous medium taking into consideration viscous effect. The Boussinesq approximation is used for the radiative absorption in the energy equation. Using the linearised stability theory and normal mode analysis, the criteria for the onset of instability via stationary convection is obtained for the case of two free boundaries.

Sol–gel method was employed in the preparation of pure and Iron (Fe- 4%, 8%, 12% & 16%) doped TiO2 nanoparticles. The prepared Fe3+–TiO2 nanoparticles were investigated by means of X-ray diffraction analysis (XRD) and UV-VIS-diffuse reflectance spectroscopy (DRS). The mono-anatase structure in the composite nanomaterials is indicated by XRD analysis. The Fe doped TiO2 powders could apparently shift the UV-absorption band towards the higher energy region, and there was an optimal 8%Fe content in association with the larger band gap energy.

Thin transparent films of poly (vinyl alcohol)/hydroxypropyl cellulose (PVA/HPC) (100/0, 96/4, 92/8, 88/12, 84/16 and 0/100 wt/wt%) blends were prepared by using solution-cast technique. In the present study, the temperature-dependent (in the range 295-390 K) dielectric dispersion was used to probe the molecular mobility of the amorphous phase of the blend systems near the glass transition temperature (Tg).

Twenty first century education has focused on student centered learning toward the “whole child”, the “whole person” education system. Currently, Bhutanese lives in an era of dramatic technological revolution. Educators can use technology as a support system to help students achieve proficiency in 21st century skills. This study investigates the perception of ICT by Bhutanese academic staff and also it’s integration into classroom teaching.

To investigate the anti tumor potential of 50% hydro ethanolic extract of Caeselpinia sappan (EECS) on Ehrlich ascites carcinoma in mice. The anti tumor potential was carried out both by in vitro (MTT assay in Hep G 2 cell line) and in vivo methods. The cytotoxic effect (Ic 50 value) on Hep G 2 cell line and Vero cell line was found to be 1.25mg/ml and 2.50mg/ml. Various hematological parameters (RBC, WBC, Hb and PCV) and marker enzymes (Cathepsin-D, β-D-glucuronidase, Acid phosphatase, 5’-nucleotidase and lactate dehydrogenase) were analyzed.

The rotational dynamics of a polar laser dye coumarin 519 has been studied in alcohols by both steady state and time-resolved fluorescence depolarization technique at room temperature. Rotational correlation times of the probe were found to vary linearly as function of viscosity of the solvents. Results are analyzed by employing the Stokes-Einstein-Debye (SED) hydrodynamic theory to estimate the mechanical friction with slip and stick boundary conditions.

Silver doped (4%, 8%, 12% and 16%) TiO2 nanoparticles have been prepared by sol–gel method at room temperature. In this present study, we used titanium tetra isopropoxide and 2–propanol as a common starting materials and found that the final product was in anatase phase. The samples of pure anatase were calcined at 500°C for 5 h. The X-ray powder diffraction study reveals that all the prepared samples have pure anatase phase of tetragonal system. The functional groups of the samples were identified by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR).

High incidence of food listeriosis, especially listeriosis resulted from consumption of diary products has been reported to be as the second lethal cause resulted from food contamination after salmonella. Due to the importance of rapid diagnosis and treatment of this bacterium, there is a need to provide suitable culture medium for listeria growth and separating it from contaminated food products.

We investigated local chicken at sale points for antibodies against Newcastle Disease Virus (NDV) in some live bird markets in Plateau State, Nigeria. Our aim was to determine the degree of endemicity of NDV in the target population and to evaluate the attendant epidemiological implication. A total of 300 samples were collected from two markets. Standard method for Haemagglutination Inhibition (HI) test was adopted for screening the samples. Results showed that 245 (81.5%) of the samples tested positive for the agent.

Background: Glycopeptides such as vancomycin are frequently the antibiotics of choice for the treatment of infections caused by methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus. For the last 10 years incidence of vancomycin intermediate S. aureus and vancomycin resistant S. aureus has been increasing in various parts of the world Objective: The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of vancomycin intermediate S. aureus and vancomycin resistant S.

Gestational diabetes mellitus is the most common metabolic complication of pregnancy, and causes fetal mortality and morbidity. The prevalence of gestational diabetes is increasing all over the world. Worldwide prevalence is estimated to be between 2.8% (in Washington DC, USA) and 22% (in Sardinia, Italy). In our study, oral glucose tolerance test was done after fasting plasma glucose in 2336 pregnant women of different age groups (15-25, 26-35 and 36-45 years).

Background and Objectives: Fractures of Humeral shaft account for approximately 3% to 5% of all fractures. Most will heal with appropriate conservative care, although a small but consistent number will require surgery for optimal outcome. The aim of this study is to assess the results of humeral shaft fractures with dynamic compression plate (DCP). Methodology: This is a prospective study of 35 cases of fracture shaft of humerus admitted to Bapuji Hospital and C.G Hospital attached to J.J.M Medical College, Davangere,between october 2005 to september 2007.

Cultural relativism is based on a facile observation that what is considered to be morally right at one time and place (or in one culture) may or may not be considered to be morally right in another. For example, it is morally permissible in Saudi Arabia to have more than one wife up to four wives, and in Indian it is morally permissible that wives to be burned alive along with their dead husbands on a funeral pyre; however, none of these examples (in Saudi Arabia and/or India) are morally permissible in Australia.

Pregnancy rate is a key determinant of farm productivity and profitability. A High pregnancy rates in animals depend on a rapid return of normal reproductive function after calving. A study was conducted to evaluate the efficacy of maternal care formula AV/MCC/18 (supplied by M/S Ayurvet Limited, Baddi, H.P., India) on successful conception, optimum fetomaternal nourishment and improving milk yield and milk fat%. Twenty four (n=24) post-parturient buffaloes recently parturated and yet to come in estrus were selected for present study.

The cell- cell adhesion molecule E-cadherin is a potent invasion suppressor molecule. In human cancers, partial or complete loss of E-cadherin expression correlates with malignancy .Inactivating mutations have been identified for the E-cadherin gene (CDH1) in diffuse gastric cancers and lobular cancer of the breast. Hence in the present study we tried to study the occurrence of tumour specific mutations in exon 4-5, exon7, exon 8, exon 9 and exon 16 of E-cadherin gene in sporadic ductal carcinoma of the Breast. About 50 breast cancer patients were involved in the study.

In this study, serum and fecal samples collected from 14 dairy animals (11 cattle and 3 buffaloes) of an organized dairy farm located at Mhow, Indore, Madhya Pradesh were screened by ELISA and acid fast staining, respectively for the presence of MAP infection. Majority of cattle (80.0%) including a suspected buffalo were positive by Indigenous ELISA kit and 36.6% bovines were found positive for MAP by acid fast staining.

Homicide followed by suicide (Dyadic death) is a severe form of interpersonal violence, in the present study the perpetrator was male who served poison mixed in cold drink to his children and spouse and consumed poison himself to end their lives. In the present study as per police inquiry (inquest report) the cause behind the Dyadic death was financial insecurity where the father and two daughters died but mother and her son survived in the incidence, the reason was that the daughters obeyed the father and they drank the cold drink served to them without questioning.

A retrospective mortuary based study was conducted on deceased of fatal road traffic accidents to analyze different epidemiological data. In the present mechanical era road traffic accidents are increasing day by day at an alarming rate and accounts for majority of deaths in young age group as they are in the most active phase of life.

The effect of Iodine deficiency disorders includes goitre and brain damage. Goiter is prevalent worldwide and in India; it is also widely prevalent Aim: According to the World Health Organisation, a total goiter rate of more than 5% in school children (6-12) should signal the presence of public health problem. As such no study estimating IDD prevalence at all India level is available, So, the present study was undertaken & is a Cross- Sectional Study conducted in department of Community Medicine, SKIMS Medical College, Srinagar between June 2012 to July 2012.

Child vision is essential for successful learning. This paper is focused on 1000 young school children, aged 8 – 16 years (class 4th – 10th). Convenient random sampling was adopted to select the schools in Jodhpur district in Rajasthan. Vision screening was done by a questionnaire comprised of two blocks, wherein block 1 belongs to identification that is name, age, class and sex of child. Block 2 comprised of relevant history and eye examination which included determination of visual acuity and retinoscopy.

Telecobalt radiotherapy machines have become an integral part for treatment of cancer in developing countries. Head scatter factor (Sc) is very essential for beam modelling in treatment planning system for accurate dose delivery in radiotherapy. The magnitude of Sc depends on design and materials of source head of telecobalt machines. Mini-phantoms were fabricated indigenously using water equivalent material polymethyl methaacrylate (PMMA) for Sc measurement as per ESTRO recommendation. It is a simple and reliable tool for Sc measurements.

Plants are natural sources consists of many natural derived products. In ancient times the herbals are taken in raw to cure much disease, the development of science and technology investigates that there are some active compounds which plays the major role in curing the disease. Various plant and its parts such as leaf, stem, fruit and roots contains the different types of active substances against the inhibition dreadful diseases.

Bluetongue is an arthropod borne viral disease of ruminants. Bluetongue virus was isolated from clinically affected sheep of Marathwada region in Maharashtra. In initial studies inoculation of the isolate in chicken egg embryo by yolk sac route revealed characteristic cherry red discoloration and death of the chicken embryo. The isolate was adapted on BHK-21 cell line. The bluetongue virus isolate gave characteristic cytopathic effect (CPE) consisting of rounding of cells and cell detachment from 24 hours post inoculation.

This paper determines the role of entrepreneurship in poverty alleviation. The focus gears towards reducing vulnerability among the poor members of SHGs microfinance and the venture towards income generation. The study indicates the sustainability measures as well as the feasibility aspect in order to become successful in implementing micro-enterprises. The SHGs Bank Linkage model is considered as an effective tool in providing financial resources to the poor.

The concept of corporate communication has been widened to include the cultivation of mutually beneficial relationships between the organization and various stakeholders who matter most from the point of view of business management. The present study evaluates the corporate communication system, process and practices of leading public and private undertakings with special reference to Karnataka State. The crucial importance of corporate communication becomes highly relevant in the present times since the world moves towards globalization of communication and economy.

Cerebral Palsy as known as the Little’s disease is a collective term used to identify a group of non contagious and non progressive neuromotor conditions. According to the intensity of the disorder and the various symptoms Cerebral Palsy is divided into four categories: Spastic cerebral palsy, this type is further divided into three types depending upon the severity of the spasticity-(Hemiplegia, Diplegia and Quadriplegia), Dyskinetic, Ataxic and mixed.

Present investigation was carried out on chickpea, Cicer arientum Linnaeus by using Neem Seed Kernel Extract (NSKE) suspension compared with control plot against the incidence of gram pod borer, Helicoverpa armigera (Hubner) at Bhojdari village of Sangamner, Ahmednagar district (Maharashtra) during Rabi season, 2012-13. The results indicates that Neem Seed Kernel Extract (5%) effectively reduce the H. Armigera larval population as compared with control plot when used in regular three sprays. H.

In the present scenario Private labels (PLs) are growing globally due to many factors and it makes unfavourable impact on National brand market share. Certainly retailers do not open factories for production rather than searching for dedicated suppliers or national branded manufacturers for production of their required items as they are not in actual production. This study examined why national brand manufacturers produce private labels. We analyzed various influencing factors & opportunities of national brand manufacturers about their decision with reference to produce private labels.

The Nigerian banking sector has had a checkered transition and evolutionary trajectory. The sector has turned full cycle with several booms and bursts, distresses and regroupings experienced. Consequently, not a few studies have been undertaken to provide explanation to this phenomenon and to provide solutions. This study joins the plethora of other investigations seeking to explain factors that impact on the performance of Nigerian banks. Specifically, it investigated how organizational structure influenced the performance of Nigerian banks.

Developing countries (DCs) have been encouraged to reform their public expenditure management systems and have increasingly embarked on major projects to computerize their government operations. Universities are under pressure to deliver ever-higher quality services in their financial management for accountability purposes. They are implementing Financial Management Systems (FMS). The purpose of this study was to examine how top management commitment and support affects implementation of Financial Management Systems in MMUST.

Gender issues have become a critical concern of all humanity today. The case is that women are marginalized, more especially in Africa. Thus part of African underdevelopment is attributed to this discrimination. The major factor that makes the study of gender problems in Africa complex is that African traditional society, particularly, the Igbo society of Eastern Nigeria, anchor their development, social organizations and political structure on the their religion(s). So their religious belief defines and controls all social arrangements.

This study used compared statistical methods for analyzing income and consumption status of 175 households with migrant workers in the total of 325 ones in Thanh Hoa, Nghe An, Ha Tinh province in the North Central region. The paper focuses to clarify the source of the households’ income with migrant workers, analyze the contribution rate of exogenous sources, especially from the money that members of migrant workers sent which get how percentage of household income.

"The balance between work and an individual's life is significant in modern society because the concept suggests that the person has some form of control over his or her existence. At the beginning persons were satisfied with work and time duration at work life. While today these two basic things have lead to development of stress at every hierarchical level. Person has totally ignored time for Physical and Mental fitness in work life. The work life does include giving time for family but in very less consideration. The usual hours of entertainment are now utilized for extra duty.

Kenya’s beach tourism has been facing setbacks occasioned by a number of harassment against tourists by beach boys. The main objective of this study was therefore to assess the magnitude and effects of tourist harassment in Mombasa, Kenya from perspectives of tourists. During the survey, systematic random sampling procedure was used to select a total of 224 respondents. Data was collected using a structured questionnaire and subjected to descriptive and inferential test analysis using Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS).

The Study on EMPLOYEE HANDBOOK basically was aimed at studying the implementation of Employee Handbook in HUSYS (HR Function Management Company) and the strengths & Weakness in the HR Department’s functioning in the organization and come up with suggestions for the further improvement. HUSYS was chosen for the study as the company has very good reputation. The Study was taken up through an opinion survey of the employees working in the organization.

The characteristics of hydro-meteorological changes in the Gilgel Gibe River Basin were analyzed based on the recorded data collected for a period greater than 25 years at 5 weather stations for rainfall, 3 stations for maximum and minimum temperature and 2 hydrological stations for streamflow. A non parametric trend test for monthly data shows an increasing trend for rainfall and temperature. The monthly streamflow recorded at 2 gauging stations has also indicated an increasing trend.

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