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April 2015

HIV as an illness affects the person first and foremost at the biological level in the form of an aggressive virus that compromises immunity. Every illness experience represents a unique and dramatic negative experience for the patient; it is associated with a profound and authentic psychological engagement of patients themselves and the significant people in their lives. Objective: The study assessed the impact of “felt” stigma on Subjective Well-Being when living with HIV among people living with HIV in Maiduguri Metropolis.

Background: As one of the great philosopher has rightly said "Old is gold", Touch imprint cytology is older technique than any other technique which gives a quick and promising results, also it is less expensive, technically easy and does not require additional infrastructure like frozen section. Aim: To evaluate role and efficacy of imprint cytology in early diagnosis of various lymphadenopathies, to correlate the imprint cytology findings with histomorphological diagnosis and to establish suitability of the procedure.

Purpose: The purpose of this research was to document the nurses’ perceived benefits as well as their recommendations regarding mentoring at one at a major Caribbean hospital in Barbados. Methods: A descriptive qualitative case study was employed to answer the main questions of what the nurses perceive as the personal benefits gained from their mentoring that contributed to the professional growth of the new nurses. The sample (n = 115) consisted of graduate nurses between 6 months to 5 years employed at the hospital.

Background: Chronic kidney disease is a multifaceted problem having both physical and psychological connotations on the patient. Depression, anxiety, sleep and sexual disorders are common complications observed in patients with renal failure under hemodialysis. Aim of the work: Recognizing the psychiatric complications of hemodialysis on end stage renal disease patients.

The incidence of malignancies is on an increasing vogue and further is the increasing incidence of occult malignancies. The diagnostic implications in screening these occult malignancies pose a never ending problem to the treating clinicians. A strong suspicion in the presence of subtle clues of distant metastasis and their histopathology helps in empirical therapy of these patients thereby improving their quality of life. Here we discuss a case of metastatic carcinoma with unknown primary presenting as pleural effusion.

Context: Patients with advanced cirrhosis commonly have reduced renal function. Renal failure is frequently related to cirrhosis and renal function is often compromised as a secondary consequence of heaptic failure, independent of etiology of cirrhosis, which is called the functional renal failure or hepatorenalsyndrome (HRS). Aims:To evaluate the causes of ARF in patients with cirrhosis of liver of any etiology and to study the outcome of treatment and prognosis of ARF in patients with cirrhosis of liver of any etiology.

Tumor associated tissue eosinophilia (TATE), is characterized by the presence of eosinophils as a component of peri and intra tumoral inflammatory response. The present study on 92 cases of diagnosed malignant tumors was undertaken to assess the role of tissue eosinophilia as a prognostic factor in malignant tumors; to verify the association between tumor associated tissue eosinophilia, microscopic neoplastic characteristics as well as tumor tissue inflammatory response and to evaluate the role of blood eosinophilia on the prognosis of malignant tumors.

The Oncocytoma is the second most common solid tumor of the kidney after renal cell carcinoma (RCC). Exact etiology is not known. Majority of oncocytoma are asymptomatic and cannot be differentiated from RCC by clinical or radiographic criteria. Very few cases of symptomatic giant oncocytomas of kidney are reported in the English literature. The tumor was incidentally diagnosed, based on the preoperative clinical and radiographic findings; diagnosis of RCC was made. Here, we present a case of fifth largest symptomatic giant oncocytoma of kidney reported till date in the literature.

Background: 3-beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase deficiency is a rare type of congenital adrenal hyperplasia that impairs steroidegenesia. The clinical spectrum of this inherited disorder is heterogenous and ranges from the severe salt-wasting with or without ambiguous genitalia to the non-salt-wasting form. Design and Setting: A retrospective-hospital based study, conducted at King Khalid University Hospital (KKUH), Riyadh, Saudi Arabia, during the period January 1990 and December 2014.

The distribution of various bacterial isolates causing infectious diseases was evaluated in Karpagam Medical College Hospital, Othakkalmandapam, Coimbatore district, Tamilnadu. A total of 578 samples which included urine, pus, sputum, blood, eye swab, throat swab, ear swab, nasal swab, ascitic fluid, pleural fluid and C.S.F were analyzed. Out of total 578 samples analyzed in bacteriology laboratory, 216 were culture positive. The antibiotic susceptibility test of the bacterial isolate was performed by Kirby-Bauer disk diffusion method.

Parents play a vital role in nurturing and educating their children. In the process of rearing a child, parenting dimensions varies from one individual to another; and found to be different amongst ‘father’ and ‘mother’. Having come from different backgrounds, they are different in their belief system, mode of thinking, attitudes, childhood experiences, and perception which reflects in the child.

Background: The gastrointestinal symptoms of anorexia, hiccups, nausea and vomiting are common early manifestations of CRF. Peptic ulcer disease is common in CRF patients, whether the high incidence is related to altered gastric acidity, hyper-secretion of gastrin or enhanced colonization by Helicobacter pylori (H.pylori) is still unknown.

Background: Sexual behavior among women of reproductive age group is characterized by erratic, infrequent and unplanned sexual activities, a trend that exposes them to unwanted pregnancy. While sexual activity among young women begins early, contraceptive knowledge and usage remain low. Objective: To determine the existence of myths and misconceptions regarding contraception among various women of reproductive age group in Ogbomoso.

Osmotic demyelination syndrome (ODS) is one of the dreaded complications encountered during management of chronic hyponatremia. Rapid osmotic shift of fluid during correction of hyponatremia results in osmotic myelinolysis of the pontine or extrapontine areas of the brain. Even gradual correction of hyponatraemia can produce myelinolyis, especially with pre-existing malnourishment, alcoholism, drug abuse and Addison's disease as noted in our cases.

Background: ABO blood group has been found to be associated with the risk of several malignancies, including gastric cancer, pancreatic cancer, ovarian epithelial and skin cancer. This work was therefore aimed at assessing the ABO and Rh blood group antigens and risk associated with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection among blood donors. Materials and methods: This is a retrospective cross-sectional analytical study carried out in the department of Transfusion Medicine of a tertiary care teaching hospital blood bank for a period of 6 years i.e. January 2009 to December 2014.

Graham Fleming, the principal investigator for the study. “This wavelike characteristic can explain the extreme efficiency of the energy transfer because it enables the system to simultaneously sample all the potential energy pathways and choose the most efficient one.” is unnecessary explaining Biology- photosynthesis with QM –superposition (superposition of possible trajectories). Both are separate identity or phenomena and both are triggered by MIND the ToE (theory of everything).

Introduction: Meconium stained amniotic fluid during labor management possesses a dilemma to the obstetrician in an under resourced set up. The passage of meconium in utero is associated with significant perinatal mortality and morbidity especially meconium aspiration syndrome. Amnioinfusion can reduce the incidence of perinatal morbidity and mortality in places with limited resources for peripartum surveillance.

Background: Hypertension is a leading cause of mortality in the world and is ranked third as a cause of disability-adjusted life years. Epidemiological studies have shown that sedentary life-style and stress are important risk factors for hypertension. The prevalence of hypertension is increasing rapidly in developing countries more in urban areas due to changing life style and increasing longevity. Materials and Methods: Prevalence of hypertension among adults from the previous studies was found to be 35%.

Strong and healthy teeth forms the basis for beautiful and attractive smile and can be a reason for overall growth and good health of an individual. Missing teeth can cause drifting of existing teeth into the edentulous space that leads to the collapse of the bite, resulting in serious health complications including TMJ disorders, sleep disorders and muscle disorders. Over the years, dentists have evaluated many functional, comfortable, and affordable ways to replace the missing teeth.

Background: Dysfunctional uterine bleeding is a common problem in women accounting for one third of all gynaecological consultations carried out for abnormal uterine bleeding. The pathophysiology is not fully understood and complex. Specific diagnosis of functional disorder can be achieved by histopathological examination of the endometrium. Aims: To study various patterns on histopathology in cases of dysfunctional uterine bleeding.

Protein tyrosine kinase (PTK) is an enzyme which mediates cell function, growth, metabolism and apoptosis. The present work has an objective to evaluate the involvement of PTK activity on neutrophil population in the peripheral blood upon stimulation with G-CSF plus IL-15 in leukemic animal. N-N’-Ethyl-nitrosourea (ENU), a carcinogen was used to induce Leukemia in BALB/C mice where in combination with Granulocyte colony stimulating factor (G-CSF) and Interleukin-15 (IL-15) were treated.

Snake bite envenomation is uncommon during pregnancy. We report a case of primigravida with term gestation presented with history of snake bite, patient had severe coagulopathy and she recovered after giving anti snakevenom, antibiotics and transfusion of blood products. In pregnant women with snake bite more fetal deaths were seen with mothers who received anti snakevenom injection than those who did not receive. Here is a case scenario.

Toddy is a very well-known alcoholic beverage in south India and also knownin parts of Srilanka, Indonesia, Thailand, Africa, and South America. It is obtained through the natural fermentation of various palm saps like Cocosnucifera, Borassus flabillifer, Phoenix sylvestris, Sap is obtained by tapping the unopened spadix of the palm popularly known as neera. It is reported to be highly nutritive and a good digestive agent. However, it is highly susceptible to spontaneous fermentation, initially alcoholic, followed by acidic fermentation.

Ganglioneuromas are extremely rare. Ganglioneuroma, of the parapharyngeal space of the neck was surgically operated in a 7 year old boy, presenting with a 5 year history of diffuse neck swelling. Sympathetic chain neck ganglioneuroma presents infrequently. The FNAC finding of mature ganglion interspersed with Schwann cells is also rare. It needs to differentiate ganglioneuroma from the rest of the tumours of primordial neuroblastic tissue.

Maxillofacial traumas (MFTs) are gradually becoming common reason for presenting at Emergency Departments. Nowadays, these traumas formed a social disease because of an increasing frequency and magnitude of traffic accidents, as well as the growing incidents of violence in urban. In initial phase of trauma an efficient imaging assessment of patients with MFT is crucial. Once patient compensation has been achieved, to detect fractures and/or soft tissue damage require immediate therapy and preoperative planning with required imaging techniques for a proper assessment.

Background: BCC is one the common skin cancers. There are controversies regarding the best margin. The goal of this study was to determine margins with H&E and cytokeratin 17. Method: medical records of 96 patients reviewed. Pathologic specimens were reviewed and cytokeratin 17 was applied. Lateral and deep free margins were measured and compared by H&E and IHC in different subtypes of BCC. The extent and intensity of CK17 staining were examined too. Results: mean age of all patients was 66.3 years. 61 were male and 35 were female. Nose was the most common site of involvement.

Background: Against 8.5 million units/year requirement, the availability is only 4.4 million units/year of which only about 52% is through voluntary donations. Aim and Objective: To establish motivational and socio-demographic factors for the development of a long-term commitment as a blood donor. Methodology: Questionnaire-based study collected from 310 participants containing 22 items, including socio-demographic information, donors' evaluation of blood bank service and 23 statements on motivation. Data on motivation was analyzed using factor analysis.

Background: Stem cell based therapies have been hailed as futuristic medicine that holds promise of curing some of the currently untreatable diseases. As stem cells can be grown and transformed into specialized cells with characteristics consistent with cells of various tissues such as muscles or nerves through cell culture, their true use in medical therapies has been proposed. There are several medical, ethical and legal issues that need to be regulated by a national authority.

Background: The medical store is one of the most extensively used facilities of the hospital. Approximately 35% of annual hospitals budget is spent on buying materials and supplies, including medicines and hence it is essential that health managers use scientific methods to achieve efficient management and patient satisfaction. Aim and objectives: To apply Selective Inventory Control techniques for the drugs used in Intensive Care Unit of Tertiary care teaching hospital.

This article reviews the pulpotomy medicaments which were studied in the dental literature and discusses their advantages and disadvantages. Many of the newly suggested medicaments have shown promising results in vitro and in vivo in the short run; however, the evidence is still insufficient to identify one superior pulpotomy medicament.

Demineralization of enamel surrounding orthodontic brackets is a serious clinical problem and these conditions are treated by the use of remineralization creme. The effectiveness of the regimens can be determined by measuring the Bone Mineral Density (BMD) and Bone Mineral Content (BMC). In general these parameters are studied using polarized light, desktop micro CT.

Metatarsus adductus is a common pediatric disorder related to intrauterine molding. Severe mid flexible metatarsus adductus may need a serial casting or special bracing to avoid the need for surgical intervention. Therefore, the aim of this study was to compare between the effects of the serial plaster casting and combined treatment program consisting of both rigid strap taping and selected exercise program in correcting metatarsus adductus of toddler children.

All human behaviour is based on multiple contributing factors. Terrorism though not a normal human behaviour is no exception. It is possible to understand the motivations behind terrorism through and understanding human behaviours. While aggression and personality both have biological bases behaviour. It is a common misconception to view terrorism as a syndrome that determines something mentally “wrong” with terrorist.

Background: Gender differences in Indian subjects with Vascular Dementia have not been studied systematically. Materials and Methods: Subjects with Vascular Dementia presenting to a tertiary care hospital over a period of 16 months were assessed for socio demographic factors, dementia severity using Clinical Dementia Rating (CDR) Scale and for the presence of four vascular disease factors namely Hypertension, Diabetes, Dyslipidaemia and Ischemic Heart Disease. Data was analysed using SPSS version 17.

Background: Maternal exposure to wood fuel smoke may lead to impaired fetal growth due to hypoxia and oxidative stress from smoke constituents. Objectives: Risk of low birth weight (LBW) and reduced mean birth weight in relation to use of high pollution fuel for cooking during the antenatal period, compared with low pollution fuel. Methods: The study was done among women with singleton live birth. Duration of cooking and type of fuel used during the pregnancies periods were ascertained by a survey.

The effects of matter and energy are different in different branches of science. In physics the effects are classified as classical physics and quantum physics. While in life sciences the effects are not physical rather they are associated with thoughts also. What are the basis of physical sciences as well as of life sciences or how laws of physics as well as of life sciences are made that is to be discussed in a very simple way. The reason being one is not equipped with structure of the matter, origin of the universe and atomic genes as taught by participatory science.

Back Ground: Blood can save lives but it can be a source of other problems like risk of immunological adverse reactions and transmission of blood borne pathogens. Malaria remains one of the most common transfusion transmitted infections and it has serious consequences especially with Plasmodium falciparum which is rapidly fatal. The present study was done to know the prevalence of malaria parasite among blood donors in our institute.

Sialolithiasis: is the most common disease of salivary glands. It is a condition characterized by the obstruction of a salivary gland or its excretory duct due to the formation of calcareous concretions, resulting in salivary ectasia and even determining the subsequent dilatation of the salivary gland. The sialolith usually measure from 1 mm to less than 10 mm. They rarely measure more than 15 mm. frequently and rare giant salivary gland calculi >15 mm.

The aim of the present work is to evaluate and compare experimental toothpaste with commercial toothpastes. In the study, commercial toothpastes such as colgate, close up and pepsodent have been used and also can be evaluation studies were performed for their quality. All the marketed tooth pastes and experimental toothpaste which had been evaluated the complied with the standards specified by the Bureau of Indian Standards.

The current study was conducted to assess the marital satisfaction and stress among bipolar patients. A total number of 60 patients, 30 men bipolar patients and 30 women bipolar patients were selected through convenient sampling from different hospitals of Faisalabad and Lahore, Pakistan. The participants were administered ENRICH Marital Satisfaction Scale (Blaine and Olson, 1993) and Holmes and Rahe Stress Scale (Holmes and Rahe, 1967) to measure the level of marital satisfaction and stress among Bipolar patients.

The Effect of Ariel detergent on hatchery-reared Oreochromis niloticus fingerlings obtained from University of Calabar fish farm was investigated in duplicates (A, and B ) using the water soluble fraction of the toxicant under laboratory conditions for 96 hours. Six concentrations (0, 1, 2, 3, 4 and 5mg/l) were prepared from the water soluble fraction of Ariel detergent for the toxicity test. The experimental animals exhibited different percentage mortalities with toxicant concentrations. The 96 hours LC50 for O. niloticus in both batches (A and B) was 0.301mg/l.

The study was carried in Bisare watershed, south rift valley of Ethiopia. The total area drained by this watershed is around 547 square kilometers. Satellite image and GIS technologies in conjunction with data collected through field surveys, were used to analysis land use/land cover changes that took place in the area between the years 1973 and 2003. In this study, Landsat satellite images MSS (1973), TM (1984) and ETM+ (2003) data were used to identify the land use/land cover status of the area.

A total of 12 taxa under 05 genera of tetrasporales were encountered during an extensive studies on algal taxonomy of Beed district in the Marathwada region of Maharashtra (January 2006-December 2008) The algal samples were collected from various habitats like pools, ponds, puddles, cisterns, talaos, streams, streamlets, dams, rivers, dipping rocks, polluted water passages, nursery ponds and moist soils. The recorded genera were Sphaerocystis, Gloeocystis, Tetraspora, Schizochlamys and Elakatothrix.

Aloe vera belongs to the family Liliaceae, commonly called as 'Burn plant'. In this study the basal medium used for the culture is Murashige and Skoog with sucrose 3% and 0.08% Agar, Growth hormones, 6-benzyl amino purine (BA), 3-Indole butyric acid (IBA), Kinetin (Kn), Adenine Sulphate etc. were added to the basal medium either singly or in various combinations. For shoot proliferation, BA (0-2 mg/L) and Kn (0-1 mg/L) at different concentrations in combination with IBA (0.2 mg/L), and agar (0, 0.8%) used.

The tannery industry worldwide not only represents economic growth, but is also a source of contaminants that are polluting rivers and groundwaters. Highly turbid and foul-smelling wastewaters are commonly discharged from this industry and their treatment by physical or chemical means is usually expensive. The goal of this study was to treat highly contaminated tannery wastewaters using plant extracts. Polyaluminum chloride and natural coagulants from Caesalpinia spinosa, Punica granatum, Eucalyptus spp.

The insect natural enemy interactions vary with the insect’s host plant species and understanding such variation is important to study the preference of natural enemies, which play a major role in biological control programmes. In the present investigation, pink hibiscus mealy bug, Maconellicoccus hirsutus – predator interactions were studied on six different hosts viz.

Plant flowering and breeding characteristics are important to understand the reproduction of plant populations. Garcinia imberti belongs to the family Clusiaceae is a critically endangered tree species of Agasthyamalai hills and endemic to Western Ghats, Kerala, India. Present study is to investigate the floral biology and breeding system during 2012-13. The tree species is dioecious. The peak of male and female flowering was observed in Feb-May, but the male flowers were observed one week before the female flower. Female flowers are significantly larger than the male flower.

Local medicinal plants and wild herbs are of great significance to the sustainable health of individuals and its geo-communities. The Alternanthera tenella Colla (Amaranthaceae) is one of the popular herbal drugs. It is also used as food by tribal and ethnic communities. The morphological characters were efficient tools for the authentication and identification of plants. The phylogenetic analysis was used to resolve relationships within family members and revealed that presence of precious unknown clade. The present study is to characterize the plant accurately and identify using barcode.

The Biotechnologists are interesting in the safe biotechnological products as an alternative to chemicals in many industrial applications. One of the interesting biotechnological products is the technical enzymes which can be used in textile industry. In this study, kertainolytic protease produced by Bacillus amyloliquefaciens MA20 is applied to improve wool fibers surface, tensile strength and water absorption. The wool straight off sheep was washing with triton X100 and hydrogen peroxide for scouring and bleaching respectively to facilitate the enzymes diffusion.

The discovery and identification of a new drugs, which can act as anticancer agents had an important goal of researches. Flavonoids from Iraqi wild type Lycium barbarum leaves were extracted and identified by the preparative thin layer chromatography (PTLC) technique which were had been shown in a previous study.

This research is aimed to analyze acceleration development region capture fisheries economy oriented (A case at Coast South district Garut West Java Province). The research was background of condition of the coastal areas south of the is land of Java development is relatively slower compared to the coastal areas north of the islandof Java.

In mining areas a huge amount of waste water is generated through coal based industries. It is very toxic in nature and contains non–biodegradable substances. On contamination with these water sources there is depletion in water quality, environmental flora, fauna and health hazards to mankind. This waste water is disposed off in the nearby water bodies without treatment. It creates a lot of problem for the aquatic life as well as for the nearby habitats. Many successful methods have been applied for the treatment of waste water.

A protocol was standardized for the rapid propagation Kaempferia galanga using rhizome. The medium used was MS medium with auxin (IAA, IBA) and cytokinin (BA). Of these maximum shoots were produced when cultured with MS medium containing 1.0mg/l BA and 0.1mg/l IAA. Maximum shoots were produced by sub culturing in two weeks of sub culturing in the same medium. Regenerated plants were acclimatized and established on soil with eighty five percent success.

Eucalyptus tereticornis is a fast-growing, hardwood species commercially planted as a source of paper pulp and timber. The species has been introduced in India to meet the ever increasing demand for paper pulp and the species shows excellent adaptability in the Indian soils. There is large amount of variability exists in the species but only a few efforts have been made to assess the genetic divergence of this species using physiological parameters.

Acidification of diets with organic acids found to decrease the colonization of gut microflora resulting to increase in feed consumption and weight gain of the animal thus, the search for alternative growth promotants with organic acids for poultry is on-going. The experiment was conducted to evaluate the potential of kamias fruit extract as supplement to the drinking water to enhance the growth performance of broiler. It was conducted in completely randomized design (CRD) with 20% KFE in 80% drinking water, 40% KFE in 60% drinking water, and 60% KFE in 40% drinking water.

The molecular genetic analysis of microdissected cells by laser, a method for selecting a starting material of pure DNA or RNA uncontaminated. Our study focuses on technical pre-PCR (polymerase chain reaction) for the amplification of DNA from a single cell (leukocyte) isolated from human blood after laser microdissection and aims to optimize the yield of DNA extracted of this cell to be amplified without errors and provide reliable genetic analyzes.

Back ground: Rheumatoid Arthritis (RA) is an inflammatory, autoimmune disease that causes pain, joint stiffness especially in the morning and loss of function. Although there are many forms of arthritis, of those commonly known, rheumatoid arthritis is the most serious and the second most common (after osteoarthritis). It can occur at any age but is more common in persons over the age of 30 years and affects women more often than men. It currently effects about 1-2% people worldwide. In India the prevalence of RA is approximately 0.75 - 1%.

Ocean acidification is roughly emerged as one of the largest threats to marine organisms and ecosystems. Average global surface ocean pH has already fallen from a pre-industrial value of 8.2 to 8.1, corresponding to an increase in acidity of about 30%. Values of 7.8–7.9 are expected by 2100, representing a doubling of acidity. The ocean has absorbed between 24 and 34% of anthropogenic CO2 emissions during the past 5 decades. The massive input of CO2 generates sweeping changes in the chemistry of seawater, especially on the carbonate system.

Burkenroad (1934) created two subgenus of the genus Trachypenaeus Alcock, 1901 viz., Trachypenaeus (Trachypenaeus) and Trachypenaeus (Trachysalambria). These two subgenus were raised to the status of genus by Pérez Farfante and Kensley (1997). The genus Trachypenaeus , s. s. was further divided into two genus namely Megokris and Rimapenaeus by Perez-Farfante and Kensley (1997).

A study has been undertaken to optimize the production of antimicrobial metabolites by Rhodococcus erythropolis VL-RK_05 isolated from Mango orchards of Krishna District region by using basal medium as yeast extract malt extract dextrose medium. Five-day old culture showed maximum antimicrobial metabolite production when grown at pH 7.0 and temperature 30oC. The productivity of the strain was enhanced by amending the medium with sucrose and tryptophan each at a concentration of 1% (w/v) and 0.05% K2HPO4.

Maize is viewed as a productive crop in Georgia. Assessment of genotypes of maize showed that introduced hybrids maize were significantly more productive than the local varieties commonly grown in Georgia. Improvements in yield over local varieties were generally between 15-25%. However, all hybrids were susceptible to Exserohilum. turcicum, and yield gains were greatest when fungicide was applied.

An attempt has been made to identify and study the impact of environmental factors i.e. natural calamities on the onions crop. Severe storms with high winds, hail, rain, and under unprecedented hail storms and unseasonal rainfall. Hailstorms at the end of December 2014 injured onion (Allium cepa L.) late kharif crop as well as rabi onion nursery. The kharif onion ready for harvest was affected by 30-40%. Late kharif which was planted in September-October got affected by 15-20% and rabi nursery damaged by 20-25%.

Loktak Lake, the largest fresh water lake of North-east India supports a significant population of several species of flora and fauna. In the present study, a survey was conducted to know the cyanobacterial diversity of the lake. A total number of ninety (90) cyanobacterial species belonging to 11 genera were recorded from this wetland. Out of 90 species, 16 were in summer season, 21 in rainy season and 53 in winter season. The number of cyanobacterial strains was more in winter than in summer and rainy seasons.

An experiment was conducted to study the influence of farm yard (FYM), chemical fertilizer (DAP), organic manure (neem cake) and leaf extract (Ocimum basilicum) on the growth and biochemical parameters of paddy (Oryza sativa L. var. IR 20). The paddy seeds soaked in water were transferred to petriplates containing cotton and filter paper. The germination was 100% in the plates. After transfer into pots, the growth of the seedlings was observed. The growth was evaluated on 30th and 45th day.

Moringa seed oil is a well-known oil for its physicochemical properties and so used in many industrial applications. Now, the functional properties of moringa oil made it has a good edible oil. The moringa oil extracted by traditional cold press method was a pale yellow colour liquid oil at room temperature with palatability and a nutty flavour. According to literature, it has natural antioxidant which keep it stable for many years.

Due to diminishing resource of oil seeds and with increasing demand for oil in domestic and industrial applications, there is need for research to find out another resource of oil. Also, there is greater demand for healthy cooking oil for the community. Hence the present study was conducted to depict the oil content of moringa seed, which was a common and easily available resource in developing countries in Asia and Africa. The natural attributes of any oil is presented in the traditional extracted method and so, the oil extraction method decided to be cold press.

Background: Hospital acquired infections and wound infections are a major cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide. The problem is complicated due to the sustained appearance of newer antibiotic resistant strains resulting in higher mortality rates. Herbal medicine offers a promising alternative to treatment of wound infections. The methanolic extracts of Triphala and its components are assessed for their antibacterial activity against antibiotic resistant pathogens, MRSA and VRSA.

This study focused upon the seasonal variation of physico-chemical parameters in Rockfort Thayumanavar temple pond, Samayapuram Mariaman temple pond, Gunaseelam Prasanna vengadajalapathy temple pond and Vayalur Murugan temple pond water. Water quality is assessed during September 2012 – September 2013 using standard procedures. Water samples were assessed by analyzing various physico-chemical parameters such Turbidity, Electrical Conductivity, Total Dissolved Solids (TDS), Tolal alkalinity, Magnesium, Chloride and Fluoride of the temple ponds water in Tiruchirappalli district.

Applicative approach for a getting means for a computer-aided conceptual visualization is presented. We use a term “conceptual visualization” for conceptual information which is intended for a visual graphical representation of data in a form of structured and unstructured descriptions of a domain objects and their relations. An analysis of wide classes of computer-aided tools for such conceptual information processing is given. The constructed model provides extensibility of modeling tools which is reached due to support of computational character of the model.

Globally, e-Government (eGovt) Developments (EGD) of countries are still progressing. The developing countries like India with very large population and distributed administrative structure, has many challenges towards this progression. There are tremendous endeavors carried out by Government of India. The eGovt aims single-window e-services to its stakeholders and the countries are enduring efforts for this, India is in the formative stage.

Water is one of the vital needs of all living beings. Humans need water in many daily activities like drinking, washing, bathing, cooking etc. If the quality of water is not good then it becomes unfit for drinking and other activities. Present work is analysis of ground water pollution in hadapsar region. This area has got many open wells which are connected by ground water table of surrounding area. As the water is used for drinking and irrigation purposes, it becomes essential to find the suitability of these open wells for drinking and irrigation purpose.

Ethyl lactate has played a major role in daily living and chemical industry including fragrance, lubricant, additives and plasticizers. The esterification process of lactic acid and ethanol is an equilibrium limiting reaction. The selective removal of the products from the reaction mixture can be enhanced using a membrane. This work presents the carrier gas permeation behaviour with silica membrane for ethyl lactate separation and VOC applications. The experiment was carried out at the gauge pressure of 0.10 – 1.00 bar and 100 oC (373 K).

In the last two decades, many efficient algorithms and architectures have been introduced for the design of low complexity bit-parallel multiple constant multiplications (MCM) operation which dominates the complexity of many digital signal processing systems. On the other hand, little attention has been given to the digit-serial MCM design that offers alternative low complexity MCM operations albeit at the cost of an increased delay. In this paper the design of a digital-serial N tap FIR filter with programmable coefficients is presented.

Gaseous hydrocarbons that are prevalent under increased pressure include solute ion gases that are found in oil reservoirs. These hydrocarbon gases are usually conserved but in some cases exploration are considered uneconomical and thus they are flared. The impact of flaring on the environment cannot be over emphasised and therefore to increase the capacity for transporting a higher volume rather than flaring, an efficient separation of the gases is essential.

Kyoto Protocol, after which the CO2 Sequestration (one of the CDM methods) that has been identified as valid Necessity for all growing Nations. The GDP grows through Industrial/ Technological Exploitations. Here the evaluation Terrestrial methods of CO2 sequestration by Solar Energy utilization in Bio-Algae growth, which in turn fixes the CO2 in various form such as less Emissive Bio-fuels. And the Yield of Biomass that fixes the Carbon is varying by the variation of the light energy incident on the algal culture.

This paper suggests a new design of the crankshaft system that would help to improve the fuel economy of the vehicle as it will enable the usage of a low revving engine for applications requiring the use of a high revving engine operating at the same power by converting the extra or unnecessary torque obtained from a low revving engine into angular velocity of the crankshaft of the engine. This paper also shows how the proposed design will improve the fuel economy of the vehicle.

This paper focused on the effects of ESP loading on the properties and microstructure of RLDPE and ESP composite. Polymer composite samples were fabricated by compounding the composites using two roll mill and compressing them in the mould using hydraulic press. 5 to 25 wt% ESP of size 75µm were added at intervals of 5 wt% to the polymer as reinforcement.

Watermarking is a technique to embed extra information into the content directly. Digital watermarking is embedding various information in digital content which are to be protected from illegal copying. Digital watermarking finds applications like fingerprinting, owner identification apart from the copyright protection. To embed the data into an image both SVD (Singular Value Decomposition) and DCT (Discrete Cosine Transform) have been used. In this research, a new robust watermarking scheme is proposed based on the Transform domain techniques of DCT and SVD.

The present work gives the current situation of the methods developed to measure the thermal conductivity of building materials used in Benin, country of Western Africa. Modus operandi, basic theories and experimental results of the case of cement mortar were explicitly reminded. The thermal conductivity of the cement mortar is obtained on average at the value of 1.15Wm-1K-1. Then, the study focused on the influence of the simultaneous heat and mass transfer on these measures.

Many developers have intended their models in binary and quaternary logic using 0.18µm CMOS technology. In Binary logic, circuit has limitations of increase interconnections giving rise to complexities and their by impact on size. Some authors concentrated on put back in place of binary logic with MVL or quaternary logic to prevail over the limitation of size. Second is that for half and full adder (for addition/ arithmetic operations) the quaternary logic method required the conversion of quaternary logic level into binary level for implementation.

The class imbalance problem emerged strong as it extended more into real domains. A dataset is said to be imbalanced if the classification categories are not approximately equally represented. Accuracy, which is considered as the major performance measure of classifier is not appropriate for imbalanced datasets as the cost of errors vary markedly.

Glaucoma is a chronic eye disease in which the optic disc becomes progressively cupped, as axons die off. Curiously, this is the only optic nerve disorder in which severe cupping takes place. Vision loss takes place due to progression of the disease. Very few signs or symptoms are present in progression of disease and the vision loss from glaucoma is irreversible. Detecting the disease in time is important, as it cannot be cured. Current tests using intraocular pressure (IOP) are not sensitive enough for population based glaucoma screening.

Personalized web search (PWS) has improved various search services on internet. Now a days, as the reluctance of the users has been increased to hide their private information while searching. This has become the major problem for the wide proliferation of PWS. Here, we study how to protect PWS applications, so that user preferences can model as hierarchical user profiles. In this we are proposing a PWS framework known as UPS which can generalize user profiles by using queries with some privacy requirements.

Nutrient recovery through composting of biowaste stands for many years as promising strategy for replenishing nutrients to barren lands and soil conditioner. Unfortunate, microbiological safety of the resulting compost has been of great concern owing to higher pathogens contamination levels in the biowaste. This study aimed at investigating performance of In-vessel composting technology (ICT) at providing complete inactivation of pathogens from biowaste with higher moisture content. E. coli and S.

There has been a lot of work on dual, triple and quadruple series equations involving different polynomials. Due to the importance of these series equations in finding the solutions of various mixed boundary value problems of elasticity, electrostatics and other fields of mathematical physics, a number of researchers took interest in finding the series solution as well as developing and investigating new classes of series equations. There was almost no research work on five series equations until Dwivedi and Pandey taken it into consideration.

Machining is a major part of metal working that plays an important role in metal cutting and forming. In machining, the machine tools especially cutting tools play an important role in effective metal cutting. This is because of their roles in producing different shapes and forms. The importance of machining in modern automated manufacturing systems has, in fact, increased due to the significant increase in the production time and the need to offset the high capital investment.

Recently multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) is very popular in long term evolution (LTE) plan. Advancement is done in GPRS and UMTS technology at physical layer by introduction of multiple antennas at either receiver or transmitter. This has increased the reliability of the link to great extent compared to conventional coding techniques. This paper discusses and compares methods related to different combinations of MIMO. Comparison has been done among the system having one transmit and multiple receive antennas and one receive and multiple transmit antennas.

The doctrine of vicarious liability has reached its pinnacle during the 19th century at the clarion call of economic and technological advances. During this time span, the English model for testing vicarious liability on the conduct of theftuousemployees, was the so-called “close connection” test. The latter test suggests that where an action is closely connected with an employee’s duties, an employer can be found vicariously liable. South Africa, influenced by the English laws of tort, jettisoned its own test, the standard test in favour for the “close connection” test.

This article has explored and analyzed some of the key similarities and dissimilarities between Federal systems of Federal Democratic Republic of Ethiopia and India. In doing so, it found out that both Ethiopia and India are countries of diverse people with diverse culture, Religion, history way of life etc. Their respective constitutions are federal in character, which is compatible with societal nature of both countries- Indian as well as Ethiopian societies are essentially federal in character.

The quest for increased productivity at firm level up to (sub) national (city and regional scale and country) is a challenge that has attracted the interest of academics from multiple disciplines: from management to administration of publics in both private, governments, civil society and non-government, community and faith based organizations. The issues have been examined theoretically through prisms of the classical management administration propositions to the modern (human relations and human capital) perspectives.

The present research work was an attempt to investigate the geo-ecology of Zinc (Zn) and Copper (Cu) deficiency diseases in the foot hill settlements of Pir Panjal range in Anantnag district of Kashmir valley. The study revealed that the diet of the people in the area is determined by their financial status which forces them to rely mostly on locally cultivated food items. More than 62.4% households comprising low (Rs. <5, 000 / month) and medium (Rs. 5, 000-10, 000 / month) income status households have inadequate income to afford proper food, health and other services.

The study used sample of public-sector sponsored & private- sector sponsored mutual funds of varied net assets to investigate the differences in characteristics of assets held, portfolio diversification, and variable effects of diversification on investment performance for the period May, 2002 to May,2005. The study found that public-sector sponsored funds do not differ significantly from private-sector sponsored funds in terms of mean returns%.

The banking sector is considered the backbone of an economy and the performance of the sector is a measure for the performance of the whole economy. Apart from the basic banking services now a day’s banks are also involved in the social services and these services are termed as Corporate Social responsibilities. All the Public and Private Banks have their own priority sectors for spending the CSR amount such as healthcare, disaster relief, financial literacy , education and vocational skills and many more are there.

The India operates one of the most complex and inefficient consumption tax regimes in the world. There are a number of taxes, including: • Indian VAT levied on goods separately by most of the 29 Indian states; • Indian Service Tax which is charged on services • CENVAT a VAT on the supply of goods charged by the central government • Professional Tax The taxes often overlap, resulting in double taxation, and impose a heavy administrative burden on taxable persons. There is also limited scope for the recovery of VAT, resulting in spiralling compound tax.

Despite being a signatory to Millennium Declaration which also aims to improve maternal and child health care, India’s performance remains unacceptably poor with large regional disparities. The wretched state of maternal and child health conditions in Jharkhand are blighting India’s hard earned efforts to combat high maternal and child death rate on global platform. This study aims to explore linkages of poor maternal and child health conditions from a regional perspective along with other socio-economic dimensions.

The main objectives of this paper is to examine the theoretical approaches of employment position during the financial crises period and also identify the employment position in different sectors of the industry in India. This paper also highlights the different schemes which are contributed by the Government of India along with the suitable suggestions to overcome the future constraints by the economic slowdown on employment.

This study was conducted in Sepahijala Wildlife Sanctuary, West Tripura, India to assess the plant diversity, community characteristics and population structure in buffer and core areas using random sampling procedures. Altogether 74 woody species were recorded from selected forests and revealed that species diversity and density increases with decrease in disturbance. Other community parameters such as basal cover and indices did not showed much variation among the stands. Forest canopy was composed mainly of Shorea robusta, Schima wallichii, Aporosa dioica.

The December 2001 report of United Nations Commission on Macroeconomics and Health makes explicit connection between development (macroeconomics) and health. Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV)/Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome (AIDS) pandemic have emerged as a serious public health problem all over the world.

This study, in our country purposed to analyse contextually thesis committed on multiple intelligence theory and to reveal general trends in this field. In the study has been done analysis of content of doctoral thesis committed between years 2000-2013. Scanned thesis database of general directorate of higher education institution (YOK); reached to total 46 thesis in database. For to analyse of thesis is used classification system developed by Ciltas, Guler and Sozbilir (2012).

The purpose of the study was to determine the implications of gender streaming on the Kenya Certificate of Secondary Education performance by students in Baringo County, Kenya. The study employed a descriptive survey design with a sample comprising 48 principals and 240 teachers. Data was collected using questionnaires and analysed by use of descriptive and inferential statistics. Based on the study, this paper discusses the factors that influence gender streaming on performance of Kenya Certificate of Secondary Education (KCSE) in Baringo County.

With rapid advancement being made in the technology, the cost of accessing Internet from remote corners is drastically coming down. This is a chief push factor for adopting Internet. Coupled with high levels of Internet literacy than ever before, a lot of retail transactions are happening over internet. Not to miss the fact that consumers can browse and compare the entire assortment with minimal effort, inconvenience or time investment. Also, internet provides a level of anonymity needed in purchase of certain sensitive items.

The development of depression has been attributable to issues such as interpersonal difficulties and social skills deficits. The current study, developed as a single subject design, aimed at evaluating the effects of social skills training in group behavior therapy with depressed students, comparing the results obtained before and after the intervention and in a follow up, making use of validated instruments for depression and social skills. Among the main results are the remission of the depression diagnose and the increased frequency and diversity of social skills.

The Changing nature of the society and reconstruction of youth aspirations and impact of technology makes teaching complicated today. It demands broad and heterogeneous knowledge of subject matter, curriculum and standards, enthusiasm, a caring attitude and love of learning, knowledge of discipline and classroom management techniques, a desire to make difference in the lives of young people etc. To attain all these qualities, teachers have to sustain professionalism .They must also need tolerance, healthy mind set up and positive attitude. When should they attain all these?

This study was conducted to pinpoint the correlates of psychosocial status of adolescent girls adopting comprehensive scoring system of WHO’s ‘HEEADSSS’ approach. Psychosocial status of 400 rural adolescent girls of Varanasi District, India, who were selected by multistage sampling, was assessed by interviewing them with the help of predesigned schedule. For inferential decisions t-test and ANOVA were applied. In order to pinpoint precise correlates logistic regression analysis was done.

Climate Change has emerged as an international problem warranting policy responses from all countries, rich or poor alike. Developing countries face the dual burden of securing ecological health and pursuing economic development. China as one of the leading developing economies today has instituted an elaborate climate change policy. Given China's predisposition towards economic growth and developmental concerns, this paper seeks to analyse the various factors that has helped in determining its climate policy.

This study determined the strengths and challenges of non-instructional services offered to both graduate and undergraduate students. Three hundred twenty six (326) randomly selected students served as the representative samples of different academic programs of the university. Results revealed that most of the respondents seldom availed or utilized the different non-instructional services.

Responsible tourism finds its trace back in the early seventy’s where it was contemplated as a solution to negative consequences of tourism. Destinations located in the lap of nature provide tourists a perfect escape from bustling cities and towns. It offers them a good break from mundane chaos of daily life. On the destinations’ front, tourism flourishes when visitors flock in their pristine surroundings. However, researchers, locals and environmentalists tend to gauge the impact of tourism in the sensitive areas.

Flood has always been considered as the dominant natural hazard since long past, as most of the major river valleys of the world have the experience of high magnitude of floods. But recently, due to over population on the river valleys and various human activities including manipulation of river courses have caused this natural hazard to occur frequently and even with alarming magnitude. It has become a significant and common feature causing severe flood hazard in the monsoon regions like India. The North Eastern part of India is also being affected by monsoon floods.

Although Agriculture plays an important role in rural livelihood, agriculture on its own is increasingly unable to provide a sufficient means of survival in rural areas. Of late, there has been a built in bias in the choice of economic activities towards non-farm sectors. Livelihood diversification towards non-farm sector is associated with greater income opportunities and reduction in rural poverty. This paper has attempted to explore the nature and pattern of livelihood diversification in Darjeeling district of West Bengal.

A culturally rich and vibrant country like India is renowned for its artistic impressions. Every little object that touches the magical hands of its master craftsmen becomes an object d’art. The handicrafts produced in the country are of such high quality and craftsmanship that they enjoy immense popularity across the globe. They adorn the living spaces of both the masses and the classes. The purpose of this paper is to give an overview of the Indian handicrafts sector, especially the handmade carpets.

The history of Teacher Education (TE) in modern India is less than 200 years old. It is a very important sector today for the demand of state-wise and central requirement of teachers to meet through the sector of Teacher Education and (ii) in generating good employment opportunities for the youth. The method used for designing this article is a Survey. The objective is to find out the shortcomings which block the Teacher Education for its Professionalism.

Hazing practices in higher education institutions are perceived controversially. This study looked at the perception towards hazing practices of students from the University of the Azores in first cycle (n=247). It analyses if their perception was positive, emphasizing the integrative aspects of hazing practices, or if it was negative, inclining to define those practises like being violent and humiliating.

There are a number of labels to describe the young people currently studying at school, college and university. They include the digital natives, the net generation, the Google generation or the millenials. All of these terms are being used to highlight the significance and importance of new technologies within the lives of young people (Gibbons, 2007). The development of technology is the denominator which determines the growth of this generation. The revolutionary growth in technology happened in India after the 1980’s.

This Forgotten Baby Syndrome (FBS) is a term refers to unintentionally leaving a baby or young child in a locked car, often with heartbreaking results. Every year, at least a dozen children die in overheated cars and that incidence increases day by day, somewhere 15 to 25 times a year in the United States. Numerous studies have shown that our stressful, busy lifestyles are causing more forgetfulness.

Background: Throughout the world, there are more than 300 million people of asthma and its prevalence in Pakistan is 3.7%. In Pakistan, there are studies on association of HLA with different diseases but data about HLA association with bronchial asthma is limited. An Iranian study described increased frequency of DRB1*12 allele in asthmatic patients. Therefore, present study was designed to determine frequency of HLA-DRB1*12 allele in patients of bronchial asthma.

The anti-ulcer activities of Loranthus miranthus leaf extract (LOME) and Acalypha wilkesiana leaf extract (AWLE) were investigated in rats in which ulcer was induced with indomethacin (40mg/kg). Results obtained indicate significant (p<0.05) reduction in ulcers indices in all animals treated with the extracts.

Aneurysmal bone cyst (ABC) is a benign solitary bone lesion of unknown etiology. ABCs mainly occur in the long bones but only rarely in the bones of the feet. Few cases of ABC involving the calcaneum have been reported.We report an unusual case of ABC in calcaneum in a 23 year old male, as only 1% of this type of tumour is found in the calcaneum. This article discusses the etiology, clinical presentation, radiological features, histological features and preferred examinations of aneurysmal bone cysts.

Malaria is a major health problem in India, as well as in Karnataka, accounting for sizeable morbidity, mortality and economic loss. Microscopy has been the Gold standard for diagnosis from decades. Recently, many new microscopic and non microscopic rapid diagnostic tests are being widely used. The present study was done to compare the sensitivity, specificity, Positive Predictive Value and Negative Predictive Value of Quantitative Buffy Coat examination and antigen detection test using HRP 2 and pLDH by taking Giemsa stained peripheral smear as standard reference.

The acute toxicity and parasympatholytic effects of a powder made from the stem bark of Pausinystalia yohimbe, popularly called Burantashi was evaluated using carefully designed in vivo charcoal meal transit in rats and in vitro isolated tissue models. Results obtained revealed an acute toxicity value of about 1000mg/kg body weight. All doses of Burantashi ethanol extract (BEE) also elicited a significant (p< 0.05) relaxation effect on the smooth muscles of the rabbit jejunum.

In accordance to international classification Tioureidoiminomethylpyridinium perchlorate (Perchlozon) belongs to thioacetazone group. In vitro Phz demonstrated significant inhibiting effect on viability of drug-resistant mycobacteria strains of TB. In the reported clinical study, which was performed in 2013-2014, 49 patients with MDR lung tuberculosis were enrolled. The patients were divided in two groups: Group I (main) 25 patients were administered Phz in addition to 6 other anti-tuberculosis drugs; in Group II (comparison) 24 patients received 6 anti-tuberculosis drugs.

Drugs are the basic requirement to ensure the better quality of life thus various natural products from different sources has played an essential role. Plants including their different parts and exudates have been also used as natural antimicrobials as well as natural medicines to treat various medical problems, more than this, plants are the cheapest source of antimicrobials. With the passage of time microorganisms are getting resistance to various previously effective antibiotics.

Many natural products including medicinal plants have been contributed in the development of drugs or antimicrobials thus spices retaining medicinal particularly antimicrobial potentials have also played a great role in this field.

Delusional Parasitosis (DP) is characterized by the unshakeable conviction that small organisms infest the body despite the absence of confirmatory medical evidence. DP can occur in a wide variety of psychiatric disorders. Rarely DP can be drug-induced. A 35-year-old HIV positive woman with a history of epilepsy and tuberculosis is on ART regimen with first line ART combination Zidovudine, Lamivudine and Nevirapine but found to be ineffective and Nevirapine is replaced with Efavirenz. She developed pruritus and believes that beneath her skin parasites are present.

Background of study: Adequate nutrition during infancy and early childhood is critical to the development of children’s full human potential. Poor infant and young child feeding practices coupled with high rates of infectious diseases are the proximate causes of malnutrition during the first two years of life. Ensuring optimal complementary feeding practices for young children living in developing countries is a global public health priority.

Patients with typical cardiac chest pain and electrocardiographic evidence of an Acute Myocardial Infarction (AMI), new left bundle branch block or a true posterior Myocardial Infarction are all eligible candidates for timely reperfusion by percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) (ACC/AHA/SCAI, 2005). According to the American College of Cardiology, American Heart Association and European Society of Cardiology it is recommended that procedure should be performed in a timely manner (balloon inflation or stent placement or both within90 minutes after the first medical contact.

Background: The detection of hepatitis C virus (HCV) RNA is essential to diagnose acute and chronic hepatitis C infection, therapy administration and follow up of treatment, and for the HCV genotype characterization. Materials and Methods: In current study fifty HCV infected patients were included; blood samples were collected from each and RT-nested PCR for HCV RNA detection were done. Results: out of 50 patients 29 were males (58.0 %) and 21 were females (42.0%). Their age range was from 5 to 67 years, and they were distributed into four groups 1. 1-20 years, 2. 21-40 years, 3.

Background: The incidence of hypertension increases with progression of age, making it the most dominant and common morbid condition in the elderly (> 65 years). Objective: The main objective of the present study was to analyze the drug prescribing pattern for anti-hypertensives in geriatric patients. Methodology: A retrospective observational study was conducted in our institution, from 1st July 2012 to 31st December 2013. Elderly patients who have been diagnosed with hypertension as per JNC-7 guidelines and patients prescribed with antihypertensive drugs were included.

The current scenario of global burden of diseases comprise of a triple burden of diseases of which non communicable diseases form a huge proportion. Among the non communicable diseases, chronic kidney disease has emerged a major threat in terms of complications, accessibility and availability of treatment, especially in developing countries like India. There are a few studies done on prevalence of kidney disease and our programme targets early detection of kidney disease in the form of screening programmes directed at different segments of the society.

Hepatitis C virus (HCV) is endemic in Egypt. Over 15% of populations of the people in Egypt are infected, this is ten times greater than in any other country in the world. To validate a simple, inexpensive, non invasive markers (Fib-4, APRI, syndecan-1 and apolipoprotein A-1(ApoA-1) for detection of liver fibrosis in patients with chronic HCV and thereby reduce the need for liver biopsy.

Bisphenol a is xenoestrogen synthesized in large quantities worldwide for production of polymers (polycarbonates, epoxy resins) and thermal paper. This determines its universal presence - in everyday products (packaging, containers and bottles), food and drinking water. Food is considered to be the most important source of population exposure; however, in overall exposure assessment consumption of drinking water, inhalation of dust and dermal contact with thermal paper must be taken into account. Exposure to BPA and its derivatives from dental composites and sealants is possible.

Introduction: Worldwide, the proportion of people age 60 and over is growing faster than any other age group. As people age, their quality of life is largely determined by their ability to maintain autonomy and independence. Objectives: To assess the quality of life among elderly population residing at old age homes and its association between the socio-demographic factors. Materials and Methods: The present descriptive study was conducted in old age homes of Amravati city, Maharashtra in India among elderly people with age greater than 60 years.

Introduction: Suboptimal management of asthma during pregnancy by medical professionals can lead to poor health outcomes. The present study was done to assess knowledge of asthma and its management during pregnancy among general practitioners and obstetricians. Methodology: A cross-sectional survey was conducted between march and may 2014 among general practitioners and obstetricians in and around puducherry.

Community based training programme has been central to medical education in spite of theoretical knowledge of the students. The programme is designed to enable the students to exercise independent patient care and community health intervention at health center level and catchment area. It enables them to develop adequate skill and confidence and increases their competence in how to diagnose, Prioritizes and intervene the health and health related problems of the community.

Aim of the work: To identify the pattern of clinical manifestation and surgical outcome in relation to timing of presentation and surgical interference. Patients and methods: This prospective study was carried out in Surgery Department, Sohag University Hospital from July 2010 to April 2014. Necrotizing fasciitis (NF) was diagnosed clinically and confirmed by intraoperative findings and routine postoperative histopathological study. Clinical criteria in association to laboratory values e.g. total leucocytic count; band leucocytes percentage and serum Na were recorded.

Aim: Increased hypoxia inducible factors leads to an oxidative stress, which plays an important role in neuronal injuries caused by cerebral ischemia. The free iron in human organism increases significantly during ischemia and is responsible for oxidative damage in the brain. We aimed to evaluate serum hepcidin levels in patients with ischemic stroke and connect expected levels to interleukin-6 concentration. Data: We quantify serum hepcidin levels using ELISA assay in 43 patients with acute ischemic stroke.

The problem of adjustment is of gigantic importance for all the people especially to the students who should be helped in developing good adjustment besides the intellectual progress. This study investigates the adjustment problems of the college students in relation to their gender, socioeconomic status and academic achievement. The objectives of the study were; 1.To evaluate the adjustment problems among male and female college students. 2. To evaluate the adjustment among low and high socioeconomic college students. 3.

Background: Motivation is an internal driving force to create the circumstances that influence students to do work hard. Besides, memory is an ability to recall past events or previously learnt information and utilize the skills for practical purpose. Objectives: The objectives of the present study were to assess the effects of yoga module on global motivation and memory in relation to perceived stress of medical students. Design: Pre - post design was used to measure the effects the module.

Background: Type 2 diabetes mellitus is associated with chronic low grade inflammation. (Pickup et al., 1998) C-reactive protein is a classic marker for inflammation. (Naveed et al., 2009) Materials and Methods: Study was conducted on 96 diabetic patients attending the diabetic clinic of government medical college, Trivandrum and on 96 non-diabetic controls. Serum hs-CRP, HbA1c, FBS, lipid profile, Waist: Hip ratio, systolic and diastolic BP was measured in cases and controls and the results compared. Results: Mean serum hs-CRP was significantly higher in cases than in controls (p=0.009).

Context: Bile duct stricture (biliary stricture) is an uncommon but challenging clinical condition that requires a co-ordinated multidisciplinary approach involving gastroenterologists, radiologists, and surgical specialists. Most benign distal bile duct strictures results from operative causes, chronic pancreatitis, trauma. Aims: To describe the risk factors and demographic data in patients with symptomatic distal CBD stricture and papillary stenosis associated with significant opium intake.

Identification of human skeletal remains is a critical problem and is very important in medico legal and anthropological work. The determination of sex of an individual is important and necessary both in the living and the dead for medico legal and anthropological study purpose. Bones often survive the process of decay and therefore provide the major evidence of human age and sex after death. The mandible is the strongest bone of facial skeleton and the best preserved after death. The mandible is the best suitable bone for the study to determine the sex and age of the human remains.

Giant congenital melanocytic nevus (CMN) is an uncommon nevus in newborns which defined as a predisposing factor for malignancies such as melanoma. Other malignancies such as rhabdomyosarcoma rarely have seen in a giant CMN. We have some reports about rhabdomyosarcoma arising from CMN. Rhabdomyosarcoma presents with nodules, pedunculated lesion, ulcers and skin tags in these patients. Except an adult case, other cases are children. Our case is second patient with alveolar type which have poorest prognosis.

Examination of faecal samples of young stray dogs from the locality around a cattle abattoir situated in the Meghalaya-Assam border near Guwahati showed 48% animals positive for Sarcocystis in mixed infection with Ancylostoma (32%), Toxocara (24%) and Isospora (16%). Similar examination conducted in captive carnivores of Assam State Zoo revealed 50% hyenas positive to Sarcocystis in mixed infection with Ancylostoma (62.5%). Of the zoo felines, Sarcocystis infection combined with Isospora was revealed in leopard cats (33.3%) only.

Implantology has become an established part of overall dental treatment strategies and is also increasingly being integrated into orthodontic treatment concepts. Recent publications have reported upon the use of osseointegrated implants for orthodontic anchorage and to replace of missing teeth after creation of sufficient space by orthodontic means. This paper describes the therapeutic use of osseointegrated implants to replace congenitally missing upper lateral incisors. Highlighting the importance of the Orthodontic/Restorative interface.

Oral sub-mucous fibrosis is a chronic, insidious, debilitating, precancerous condition affecting oral cavity, caused by the habitual use of areca nut. A variety of mediators determine the deposition of collagen that include hormones cytokines and lymphokines. Collagen fibres have been the main focus of study to understand the pathogenesis of the lesion. Picrosirius has the propensity to stain thin fibres also so it has been the most opted stain for study.

Gastro-intestinal Stromal Tumours (GIST) are common mesenchymal tumours of the gastrointestinal tract. We report a case of a patient presenting with massive hematemesis, malena, hypotension and severe anemia. There was 7x7cm ulcerated bleeding gastric polyp on posterior gastric wall on endoscopy. Laparoscopic excision of polyp was performed successfully with anterior gastrotomy approach. Histopathology revealed a benign spindle cell tumour (GIST) with clear margins.

Background: Phlebitis is inflammation of the vein wall that is the most common complication of intravenous infusion therapy. The incidence of phlebitis in hospitalized patients receiving IV therapy has been reported to be as high as 80%. Aim: To find out the most effective applicant for reduction of phlebitis in comparison of Heparinoid and Ichthammol glycerine. Setting and Design: Christian Medical College and Hospital, Ludhiana, Punjab and Non-experimental comparative research design with quantitative approach.

Objectives: Aim of this study was to determine the pattern of thoracolumbar fractures due to fall from walnut trees in Kashmiri population. Patients and methods: 60 patients with history of trauma to spine following fall from walnut trees were included in this study. On arrival to the emergency ward of our hospital the patients were assessed and resuscitated as per ATLS protocol. After admission, the patients were subject to detailed history, thorough physical and neurological examination. X-rays of Thoracic & Lumbar spine were taken to know the level and extent of injury.

To report a case of vaginal cuff dehiscence with bowel evisceration after total abdominal hysterectomy and discuss the risk factors, prevention and treatment alternatives of this unusual gynecologic emergency. A 79-year-old woman presented to the emergency clinic with vaginal cuff dehiscence with bowel evisceration, developed 5 years after total abdominal hysterectomy and bilateralsalping ooophorec to my for post menopausal adnexalmass. Approximately 130 cm bowel loops with mesentery from the cecum was torsioned and herniated from eviscerated vaginal cuff.

Keeping in view the importance of referral system and centrality of outpatient department in a health care unit the present study at SKIMS will be undertaken to assess profile of patients attending outpatient department, their rationale for referral and thereby forming a policy of referral for health care institutions.

Brucellosis is an important re-emerging zoonosis with a worldwide distribution. It is still a serious problem in many developing countries including India. Brucellosis in India is yet a very common but often neglected disease. A total of 100 sera samples were collected from sheep and were tested for presence of Brucella specific antibody by Rose Bengal Plate Test (RBPT) as screening test and the RBPT positive samples were further confirmed using indirect Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (i-ELISA).

Background: Mental Retardation (MR) (also called mental handicap) is a term for a pattern of persistently slow learning of basic motor and language skills (“milestones”) during childhood, and a significantly below normal global intellectual capacity as an adult. Down syndrome is the most first and common genetic cause of mental retardation. The aim of the present study was to estimate the frequency of Down syndrome in mentally retarded people of North Coastal Andhra Pradesh.

Introduction: Childhood obesity is a condition in which body fat has accumulated to the extent that it may have an adverse effect on health leading to various diseases. It was seen that 10% of children and adolescents aged 2-19 years are obese. Micronutrients are commonly referred to as “vitamins and minerals”. They are vital to the proper functioning of all our body systems. Micronutrient deficiency can lead to some serious health problems. The obese children with micronutrient deficiencies can suffer from iodine deficiency, vitamin A deficiency, iron deficiency etc.

Plant extracts have a long history of applications as antimicrobial agents, but their use as wood preservatives has rarely been reported. This study deals with the antifungal activity of the Lawsonia inermis extracts against four cellulolytic wood fungi, in order to find new bioactive natural products. The methodology used is based on a measuring the inhibition halos produced by discs impregnated with the extracts and establishing their Minimum Inhibitory Concentrations (MIC).

The results of our research provided during the many years with plant, animal and human cells based on the scientific evidences, it is possible to argue that the application of billions of tons chemicals asxenobiotics, espesially high doses of nitrogen pollutions in soil, water and environment as a new factor of the biosphere evolution can be considered one of the triggers of mutations and tumour cells in eukaryotic organisms - in plants, animals and humans.

Annona squamosa L. is a multipurpose plant in which the fruits, leaves, bark, roots and the cotyledons are reported to have medicinal properties. Folklore has it that this plant is endowed with numerous properties namely anti-tumor, anti-diabetic, anti-oxidant, anti-lipidimic, anti-inflammatory and insecticidal. Numerous reports are available on the phytochemical and antimicrobial and therapeutic properties on the different parts of this plant using different solvents.

Eucalyptus tereticornis Sm is an exotic fast growing arborescent species, commercially planted as a source of paper pulp and timber. One of the objectives of clonal forestry programme is to obtain better return for a given investment and this can be achieved only by planting with suitable clones. Several clones of Eucalyptus tereticornis have been raised by ITC Bhadrachalam and IFGTB, Coimbatore but a clonal comparison for physiological traits have not been carried out.

In the present study, Staphylococcus aureus was isolated from hospital samples and tested it for antibiotic sensitivity test. On antibiotic sensitivity testing Staphylococcus aureus showed resistance to three antibiotics out which two are β-lactum containg antibiotic that is for Methicillin and ampillicin. PCR analysis for mec A gene in Staphylococcus aureus shows that the gene is nearly 310 bp in length. Ammonium sulphate precipitation and sephadex G-100 were used to purifying the PBP2a enzyme.

The germplasm is often exploited to develop improved crop varieties for changing needs and environments. The vast amount of genetic variation present in the germplasm can be exploited to the best when the economically important traits have been mapped with molecular markers using specially designed mapping populations. Most of yield contributing traits are controlled by many loci and their molecular characterization and genetic mapping is called quantitative trait loci mapping (QTL-mapping).

The present study was spread over investigation concerned with the effect of Fe and Zn singly or in combination on morphological characteristics of barley (Hordeum vulgare L.)” var. K-125 (Azad) was performed during Nov. 2009 to April 2011 at Christ Church College, Kanpur. The most effective treatment of Fe + Zn in form of inorganic salts FeSO4 and ZnSO4 was compared with its chelated form (Fe – EDTA + Zn + EDTA). Seeds of Hordeum vulgare L. were soaked in 20, 40 and 60 ppm of Fe, Zn, their combinations i.e.

Anthropogenic activities have contributed huge quantities of industrial and domestic waste water which contains large quantities of xenobiotics that leads to undesirable changes in the physico-chemical environment. The aquatic plants have the potential to accumulate heavy metals, were tolerant and able to withstand on the pollution stress. They serve as a tool for the study phytoremediation of xenobiotics from the aquatic ecosystem. Phytoremediation is an emerging “Green Bioengineering Technology”.

Acacia nilotica gum is an exudate obtained from stems and branches of acacia nilotica tree. It is a natural, water soluble hydrocolloid which has been claimed to possess several physiological, nutritional and therapeutic beneficial properties due to the presence of various bioactive phytochemicals. It has been increasingly recognized as a potential commodity having diverse pharmacological and industrial applications. Gum Acacia is a closely related gum which has commercial significance and has been used from ancient times.

Objective: To determine associated bacteria from sputum of tuberculosis suspected patients in Basra governorate. Methods: 150 TB suspected patients sputum clinical specimens were collected at The Advisory Clinic for Chest Diseases and Respiratory (ACCDR) in Basra Governorate, Iraq. They were subjected to cultural, microscopical and biochemical tests. Results: Out of 150 sputum samples thirty seven samples (24.6%) revealed associated bacteria, of which 13 (35.1%) was Pseudomonas spp., 11 (29.7%) Bacillus spp., 5 (13.5%) Vibrio spp., 4 (10.8%) Staphylococcus spp.

The present study about socio-economic status of four different tribes of West Bengal was conducted with the objective to know the present socio-economic status of different Tribal sub castes. The study was conducted in four Blocks in two purposively selected districts of West Bengal. In each Block data were collected from one Tribal sub caste. From each tribal sub caste 100 numbers of samples were collected so the total sample size were 400. After the collection of data it was analyzed statistically to get the result.

Spider’s web from Nephila antipodiana has been identified for producing a significant repellant activity against pests and ants. In order to investigate the repellant activity, screening of various compounds in the web was performed by GC-MS. An alkaloid namely, 2-pyrrolidinone was observed to act as a predator deterrent in species of moths, caterpillars and ants. For analyzing the feasibility of this alkaloid as an anti microbial action, antimicrobial studies were performed. The evaluation was done by well diffusion assay on two species of bacteria and fungi plant pathogens.

Plants in natural ecosystem appear to be symbiotic with fungal endophytes. Metarhizium anisopliae is a fungal entomopathogen with the ability to colonize plants endophytically. In the present study we evaluated the effect of artificial inoculation of M. anisopliae on growth parameters of aerial and underground parts of tomato plants and also to determine its endophytic activities. M. anisopliae was applied as seed treatment, substrate treatments, foliar spray alone and in combination with other and comparison was made with the control.

The whitebacked planthopper, (Sogatella furcifera (Horvath) is a major threat to rice crops throughout Asia, damaging plants both through its feeding behavior and by acting as a vector. Due to high insecticide pressure, it is becoming resistant to many insecticides. Many enzymes are known to be involved in providing resistance to these planthoppers against insecticides.

The present investigation was carried out on leaf litter bags in on intermittent pond .The leaves were studied in on intermittent pond at Pullamuthur village in Thirumangalam Taluk of Madurai District, Tamil Nadu. Investigation also focused on the aquatic insects in artificial leaf litter packs, colonization consisting of two plant species viz, Ficus bengalensis and Thespesia populenea and their break down. Chirenomus sp and Melanoids sp was abundant in leaf bags during the experimental period.

The objective of this paper is to study the effect of blending process as a method for increasing the efficiency of the gravity thickener on its retention time. The problem is that in Egypt in many wastewater treatment plants, the gravity thickener efficiency is lower than expected, the solids outlet is lower than expected especially when the primary and secondary sludge mixed. In this paper, we study the effect of using dilution water (effluent water from Al Gabal Al Asfar wastewater treatment plant) on the retention time of the gravity thickener.

Oysters are ecosystem engineers that influence ecological processes such as maintenance of biodiversity, population and food web dynamics, nutrient cycling and water quality maintenance. Changes in oyster abundance and distribution can be used as indicators of environmental changes. Documentation of the currently existing oyster beds may enable the future researchers to evaluate future changes to the oyster population.

Traditional fossil fuels having limited availability causing energy crisis all over the world. This leads to increasing trend toward the use of cheap and readily available biomass for renewable energy production. Biomass is best source for renewable energy mainly used for biogas production. Sugar cane is a tropical grass of the having stout, fibrous, jointed stalks, the sap of which is source of sugar. Sugar industry mainly produces bagasse, press mud, spent wash and molasses as their byproducts or wastes.

Field experiment was carried out in Instructional farm, Krishi Vigyan Kendra, Angul of Odisha during rabi seasons of 2010-11 and 2011-12 to study effect of mulching and nutrient management practices on growth, yield, nutrient uptake of Indian mustard and soil moisture content. The experiment comprised of three main plot treatments viz. no mulching, soil mulching, straw mulching and four subplots viz RDF, RDF+Sulphur, 75% RDF+FYM, 75% RDF+vermicompost in split plot design with three replications.

In this study, regeneration of Trichosanthes cucumerina L. var. cucumerina via somatic embryogenesis was investigated. Four different types of explant (Leaf, cotyledon, epicotyl and hypocotyl) from six-eight days old seedlings were used. Growth regulator treatments were one levels of 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (0.3 mg/l) and three levels of 6-benzyl aminopurine (0.25, 0.5 and .75 mg/l).

The postnatal developmental toxicity of Crocus sativus (saffron) was evaluated in a mammalian species taking Wistar rat as the model. Saffron administered as an oral gavage from implantation (day 5 post coitus) through lactation up to lactation day (LD) 20 at the doses of 50, 250 and 1000 mg/kg/day did not elicit any effects on maternal/lactation body weight gains, food intake and fertility. The mean number of pups born and weight of male and female pups and pup’s survivability were unaffected.

The present study focuses on cadmium toxicity on morphology and biochemical parameters of Salvinia molesta (Mitchell) to the cadmium stresses and its accumulation. The laboratory experiments were conducted for the assessment of morphological index parameters (MIP), biochemical parameters and accumulation of cadmium in plants at its various concentrations (0.1, 0.5, 1.0, 1.5 and 2.0 ppm) at the regular interval for 12 days exposure.

Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is a major cause of chronic liver disease globally. Epidemiological studies suggest prevalence of NAFLD in around 9% to 32% of general population in India. A variety of studies have suggested that there is an apparent mild elevation in levels of AST and ALT enzymes which may serve as markers for NAFLD. Therefore we carried out the present study to find out the association between laboratory data and NAFLD and to evaluate and confirm non-invasively the usefulness of serum biochemistry for the diagnosis of NAFLD.

Regarding the side effects of synthetic pesticides on food commodities, an experiment was designed to determine the biological activity of nine spices namely Turmeric, Chilli, Coriander, Garlic, Fennel seeds, Black pepper, Ginger, Fenugreek and Cumin against Tribolium castaneum. All the spices showed significant effect on adult mortality and germination viability among which highest adult mortality (9.67) as well as germination viability (95.67%) was recorded with black pepper (0.5g) treated seeds (50g).

Solar radiation is a primary driver for many physical, chemical, and biological processes on the earth’s surface. Solar energy engineers, architects, agriculturists, hydrologists, etc. often require a reasonably accurate knowledge of the availability of the solar resource for their relevant applications at their local. In solar applications, one of the most important parameters needed is the long-term average daily global irradiation.

Withania coagulans, a medicinal plant traditionally use for the treatment of a variety y of human ailments particularly in diabetic. Investigation of the phytochemical composition and antimicrobial activity of non-polar fraction of ethanol extract of Withania coagulant twigs is discuss in present report. The phytochemical constituents of non-polar fraction of ethanol extract of twigs were studied through gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC/GCMS). A total of eleven compounds were identified which include sterols, fatty acid and their methyl esters.

Animal fat (chicken and beef fat) and vegetable oil (ground nut oil and palm oil) were gotten commercially, treated, combined to know their characteristic physico-chemical properties, ASTM and AOCS methods were used.

In the medical field the term ‘telemedicine’ getting attention from researchers around the world. This paper introduces system which focuses on real time image/video streaming of medical reports with the help of internet. Microsoft window’s WM encoder is used for data compression and transmission. Data from server machine can be transported easily to the client machine with the help of UDP/TCP protocol.

The modeling of dynamic interacting processes is considered describing the operating of complex objects under uncertainty. Models of dynamic processes are presented in the form of fuzzy algebraic and fuzzy Petri networks. On the example of the flexible manufacturing module stripping card surface is shown that the accepted transition activating rules completely describe the operating process of fuzzy Petri networks.

Removal enhancement of Schiff base (4-hydroxy-6-methyl -2H-pyrane -2-one)-ethylidiimine (ligand) on the surface of initiated calcined Iraqi montmorillonite has been investigated from an aqueous solution via columnar method. The Schiff base removal found to be dependent on initial conc. of the Schiff base, adsorbent dosage, and contact time. All columnar experiments performed at three different pH values (5.5, 7and 8) using buffer solutions at flow rate of (3 drops/ min.), at ambient temperature (25±2) °C.

In the financial system,banks play a very crucial role in mobilizing financial resources and adding value to those resources through their various activities. Risks are inherent in all business activities, more particularly in banking business as it is concerned with money, demand & supply and the factors influencing them. Liberalization and its deregulation brought the drastic changes in the Indian Banking System, which was earlier working in a highly regulated environment.

Bacteria are often involved in cases of food poisoning and the abusive use of chemical antibacterial agents in medication leads to selection of resistant bacterial strains. Indeed essential oils appear to be a good alternative to antibiotics’use. Empirically known for centuries, their anti-infective efficiency has been now scientifically demonstrated in vitro and in vivo. This work aims to study chemical composition and antibacterial power of Artemisia herba alba hugueii’s essential oils (EO). EO are obtained by hydrodistillation of A.

This article is devoted to the building mathematical models of the system of intellectual interactive services (IIS) in information environment for satisfying user demands.

In this paper, image segmentation is based on hybrid correlation clustering. Correlation-clustering is a graph-partitioning algorithm used in natural language processing, document clustering and image segmentation. In this proposed method the hybrid correlation clustering improves the performance and accuracy of the existing higher-order correlation clustering. First apply the higher-order correlation clustering over Hypergraph, S-SVM, and combine the difference of existing and proposed algorithms.

The object of this study is to determine and compare level of heavy metal in the leaves of vascular plants. The study was conducted in Durres area, Albania. During March 2013 these leaves were collected with different anthropogenic impact in the city. Concentrations of Cu, Pb, Zn, Mn, Fe, Na, K, Mg, Ca and Hg present in leaves samples have been detected using furnace AAS. To study the level of accumulation of each element in leaves sample was carried out by statistical analysis. The trace metal contents were expressed as arithmetic means and standard deviation.

In today’s era of highly developing manufacturing field, there is always requirement of time and cost saving equipment for metal working. Considering this need, we have developed this clutch operated gear driven power hack saw to cut the metal effectively in short span of time. The time required for previous power hack saw to cut the material having large thickness was very much also for all metal workers & the manual labor involved in cutting operation, it is tedious when a great deal of cutting has to be done on large metal sections.

In the current internet era use of internet in different fields restricts no bounds. Companies and organisation are moving from the traditional recruitment process to E-recruitment. Job seekers or applicants submit their Curriculum Vitae (CV) directly send them to the company's website. At such time company face a lot of problem with these growing number of documents which are in free and different formats. Our work is basically on CV analysis. This paper describes a system for automated resume information extraction to support rapid resume search and management.

Petrol is used as a conventional fuel for many past years. So the dependency on petrol has increased greatly. Due to which depletion of energy sources (i.e. Fossil Fuels- Gasoline and Diesel) have occurred. Therefore there is requirement of hybrid engine, by which dependency on petrol and diesel can be decreased. Now days, people are facing problem of high fuel prices and harmful emission from vehicle which affects directly or indirectly on environment and human health.

In an effort to discover new biologically active compounds, a series of new heterocyclic compounds have been synthesized from the 3-p-tolyl-2-thioxo-1,3-thiazolidine-4-one (1) and its brominated derivative 5-bromo-3-p-tolyl-2-thioxo-1,3-thiazolidin-4-one (2). Reaction of 1 with 3-benzyloxybenzaldehyde gave the arylidine 3, which either by the reaction with malononitrile gave the pyrano[2,3-d]thiazole 4, or by the reaction with cyanothioacetamide gavethe thiazolo[4,5-b]pyridine 5. Condensation of 1 with ethylformate and cyanothioacetamide gave the thiazolopyridine 6.

The green computing is one of the recent and prominent research field where many researchers are working on finding the efficient way to use energy in an efficient manner. The two ways in which the researchers look into green computing are mainly concentrating on the energy efficiency and power consumption and other way is making the green software to thrive the industry and make innovatory products. The number of challenges faced while migrating from classing computing to green computing are very high.

An Environment Management System (EMS) is a tool for identifying the aspects and managing the impacts of an organisation's activities on the environment. The Environmental Management Systems (EMS) structure recognizes that both environmental and economic performances are directly linked with each other. The primarily purpose of implementing an EMS is to improve an organization’s environmental performance continuously.

In Wireless sensor networks the sensed data is collected and transmitted to the base station in the form of tree known as Data Gathering tree. If the number of Data Gathering Trees created for each cycle in wireless sensor networks is more it affects the performance of the entire network. Here only one data gathering tree for each cycle is constructed, so optimizing the network performance. Power optimality is achieved by considering heterogeneous sensors for construction of Data Gathering Tree.

The data mining process is to extract the information from a large data set and transform the extracted data into an understandable structure for further use. Clustering is a main task of exploratory data analysis and data mining applications. Clustering is the task of grouping a set of objects in such a way that objects in the same group (called a cluster) are more similar to each other than to those in other groups (clusters). Power Iteration Clustering (PIC) algorithm is recently identified algorithm which helps to create a good quality of cluster.

The favourable properties exhibited by synthetic polymers and ceramics have made them become the most commonly sort engineering materials in recent years. Despite the excellent properties exhibited by these synthetic polymer materials, the problem of biodegradability and sustainability makes it necessary to research into fully biodegradable composites which are green in every way. In this research, green composites were developed using cassava starch as matrix material and luffa cylindrica fibre as reinforcing material.

The effect of three different nonionic surfactants on the mild steel in artificial corrosive oil were studied. Potentiodynamic polarization measurements were depicted that the investigated inhibitors acts as mixed type inhibitors. The SEM was used to justify the practical results. The relationship between molecular structure and the inhibition efficiency were evaluated using PM3 semi-empirical method.

Caste system is a peculiar feature of Indian society. Swami Vivekananda is full of praise for the original caste system but he strongly criticises the degenerated caste system of his time. In his writings he has highlighted the problems relating to the exploitation of the poor by the rich, of the weak by the strong, of the unprivileged by the privileged one, exploitation of the lower class by the so-called higher class and so on; and the resulting struggle, the need to save people from dehumanizing poverty and a host of similar other issues.

Slow learners should not be confused with students in need of special education or reluctant learners who are non-cooperative. The teachers and guardians may resort to some of the teaching aids available to special education students that may enhance interest of slow learners and help them get involved in the learning process. A slow learner is a child or pupil who is able to learn educational skills but a rate and depth below average as compared to the child’s peers or average learners in the class.

The paper tries to examine the nature and dimensions of foreign aid within the framework of international politics. It also discusses the politics of foreign aid as well as why the powerful states provide foreign aid to the weaker nations. The research adopted the secondary methodology to provide a substantial argument on the topic under study. Findings show that, albeit nations provide foreign aid through humanitarian interventionist gesture, some powerful nations are completely without such motive, but give out foreign aid based on strategic logical motive.

Teachers are very important people in the education system. They play a central role at the school level, facilitating learning, planning, organization, leading and controlling the learning process. Many scholars attribute good performance to effectiveness and efficiency of teachers in teaching and proper utilization of material resources. This paper examines how teachers’ preparation and motivation to conduct class work influence academic performance in primary schools. The paper is based on a study conducted in Wareng Sub-County in Uasin Gishu Caounty, Kenya.

The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of String Vibration Damper on the myoelectric activity of the wrist extensors during the impact phase of backhand stroke technique.15 elite and 15 novice tennis players with an age ranging from18-25 years volunteered to participate in this study. Only one racket was used and was impacted by a pressurized ball. That was subjected to a constant velocity. The ball impacts were directed the racket throat area with and without using the String Vibration Damper.

The study was conducted in the state of Tripura during the year 2014. The aim of the survey was to document the income opportunity to the Jute growers and the person associated with making of jute products i.e. craftsmen in Hapania Jute cluster (Cooperative society). The people of the area are getting involved in Tripura Jute Mill Ltd and taking interest in the Co-operative Society which is helping them in developing their socio-economy. Annually each family involved in production of jute fiber has earned Rs 4,119 from Tripura jute Mill Ltd.

Higher Education in India has undergone a unique transformation since independence. Quantitative growth and qualitative improvement both are important for the higher education. The higher education system in India is at the stage of Quality Assurance. Internet, an Information Superhighway is an open non-participatory computer communication infrastructure that reaches every corner of the globe, carries information on every topic and is available to users round the clock. Major services of the Internet with its Strengths and Limitations were discussed.

This paper attempts to highlight the concept of dependency theory, and has put up a way forward in the concept of self-reliance. Dependency theory is a notion that the rich nations of the world totally dominates other less fortunate nations. In this write up, the explanation and meaning of self- reliance and how it can relate to national development especially in the socio- economic, political and administrative aspects were highlighted. In addition, some constraints to a self- reliant development in Nigeria were indicated.

Bushfires have become an environmental challenge in Ghana and it has become difficult for the Government to control devastating menace since this activity is deeply rooted in the socio-cultural and economic systems of the indigenous people, especially farmers. The effects of bushfire on rural livelihoods and on the ecosystem in the Upper East Region are extensive and damaging. Bushfires have accelerated environmental degradation and have become very influential in the ecology and socio-economic aspects of the rural landscape in the transition zone of Ghana.

Pre-Service Elementary Teachers who study at Emirates College for Advanced Education (ECAE), Abu Dhabi, UAE, have opportunities to actively participate in all aspects of school life through the Practicum program.

The modular curriculum was introduced three years ago across all state-owned higher education institutions of Ethiopia. The rationale behind using this curriculum is that students should develop their language skills rather than their knowledge about the English language so that they can effectively attain their communication needs. To this end, related courses are formed into clusters with the aim of giving students sufficient time to exercise specific skill areas.

Relational databases which use SQL have a long- standing position in most organizations and have dominated the database markets for a long time. Relational databases work best with structured data—such as a set of sales figures—which readily fits in well-organized tables. This is not the case with unstructured data, such as that found in word-processing docu- ments, social media, log files etc.

Despite the extensive benefits of ERP systems, organizations commonly face a hostile attitude from potential users who resist the ERP system implementation process. Customization of ERP is possible but big modifications are complex, costly and difficult in upgrading. The study sought to find ways to actualize effective adoption of ERP and understand the problems of ERP adoption in KOFC. The research was carried out through a Case Study with KOFC Corporation using questionnaires and individual interviews.

Wealth creation is the goal for every investor. The stock market is one attractive area for investment. Nairobi Securities Exchange being an emerging market in the region, it is considered that both foreign and local investors will seize the opportunity and invest in the stock market. However, this has not been the case for many potential investors due to inability to make informed investment decisions based on future expectations of the stock market. An understanding of the stock market trend in terms of predicting price movements is important for investment decisions.

Where are we standing in the history of oil? In which point of the line are we now? Where are we going? Where is the line leading us, up or down? Towards what is the world moving? Are we going to “bathe” in oil in the near or far future or are we going to say “goodbye” to oil pretty soon? Global oil depletion is one of the most debated subjects nowadays, as oil is still the most important commodity we have. Since we are so addicted to this resource, it is essential to us to know the arguments that sustain the idea that the world is running out of oil and the counter-arguments to it.

Mt. Moroto Central Forest Reserve is a unique, rich and vital ecosystem which acts as one of the key water catchment areas in Karamoja region. The forest reserve supports the livelihoods of marginalised, forest dwelling, indigenous people known as Tepeth who depend on it for shelter against other armed neighbouring ethnic groups, as a source of food, honey, herbal medicine, energy and spiritual values. For centuries, Tepeth have applied and practiced traditional norms to protect the forest cover, unique trees species of spiritual, medicinal and food values.

Today, most leading companies are developing customer relationship to make loyalty and retention programs. Beyond offering consistently high value and satisfaction, marketers can use specific marketing tools to develop stronger bonds with consumer. First, a company might build value and satisfaction by adding financial benefits to the customer relationship. A second approach is to add social benefits as well as financial benefits. This study focuses on the determinant factors affecting customer relationship management in ethio telecom in Mekelle town branch.

Environmental accounting practices are integral part of business success. They help in allocating environmental costs and integrating them in business decisions. These practices usually precede environmental reporting where the organization communicates its accountability regarding environmental efforts. Globally, some of the contemporary environmental issues that affect business include climate change, lack of access to clean drinking water, acute food shortages caused by draught and the use of non-renewable energy sources.

The 360 degree feedback provides valuable insight and helps to unveil areas of concern or improvement, so as to make any necessary changes. 360 degree feedback method is perfect to assess leadership qualities and also how the managers and supervisors are perceived by the employees and thus, is an effective way to growth and development within an organization. Since this kind of feedback and appraisal method is so comprehensive and thorough, it tends to be taken more personally.

Plants are playing a vital role in the treatment of various diseases in all important system of medicine. There are many plants on the earth which lies unexplored in the field of medicine. One such plant is Crotaleria juncea L. which is known as sunhemp, pundi or san etc. valuable fibre is obtained from the bark which has greater tensile strength and more durable than jute. Plant is a rich source of alkaloids, particularly pyrrolizidone alkaloids and toxic aminoacids in seeds. C.

To strength the legal education in Indonesia in order to achieve not only the development of law in local and national but also more international basis, improving continually the content or substance of legal material is very important. However, the role of legal method (teaching and learning method) is undoubtedly influencing the improvement of quality legal education.

Generally speaking, India and Ethiopia are known to have reservation and affirmative action policies under their respective constitutions. The Indian Constitution recognizes the three major categories of beneficiaries of reservation policies such as scheduled castes (SCs) and scheduled tribes (STs) and other backward classes (OBC) who have historically been excluded and marginalized from Indian society. Similarly, the principle of affirmative action is one of the innovative features of the constitution of Federal Democratic Republic of Ethiopia.

Namchi is fast evolving into a major tourist destination in Sikkim with the coming up Siddhesvara Dham and Guru Padamasambhava statue at Samdruptse. Total tourist arrival (domestic and international) at Siddhesvara Dham was recorded at 162,747 in the year 2013 and 242,154 in 2014 touching the growth rate at 33 %. International tourists who visited Siddhesvara Dham increased to 8,478 in the year 2014 as compared to 2,882 in 2013 showing growth rate of 66 %.

This study is an attempt to survey the relationship between personality type and occupational burnout among the employees of Esfarayen University of Technology. To do so, 80 employees were selected through random sampling. To glean the required data, Mayers Bergerrs’ personality type indicator and Maslach occupational burnout inventory were used. The data were analyzed in SPSS using mean, variance, and the Pearson’ correlation coefficient. As the results showed ESFJ type had no significant relationship with occupational burnout, while the other types had such relationship.

Buddhism, one of the most ancient religions of the world. Upon returning from enlightenment, Buddha spent the rest of his long life preaching about his Four Noble Truths: 1) dukka, the reality of suffering 4, 2) samudaya, the arising or origin of dukka, 3) nirodha, the cessation of dukka, and 4) magga, the way leading to the cessation of dukka. Buddhism is evangelistic in nature because its followers believe that the Hindu unbroken cycle of existence, which is filled with suffering, can be broken after all. Suffering can be stopped; beings can be liberated from painful existence.

Dr Mc Fadden and Dr Al Khalili who are pioneer in molecular biology and nuclear physics are unnecessary explaining Biology with QM. Both are separate identity or phenomena and both are triggered by MIND the ToE (theory of everything) The effects of matter and energy are different in different branches of science. In physics the effects are classified as classical physics and quantum physics. While in life sciences the effects are not physical rather they are associated with thoughts also.

The purpose of this study was to determine the influence of Labor unions on the performance and welfare of production workers in East Java Indonesia. Samples were taken from the four companies in the 4 districts / cities in East Java. To analyze the relationship between the variables of trade unions, variable performance, and variables welfare of workers in this study using Structural Equation Modeling with the SPSS 20 Amos 7 software.

The present paper studiedSelf-concept and Emotional Maturity of Delinquency Prone and Non-delinquency Prone Adolescents of Secondary Schools in Assam. This study is conducted on a sample of 500 adolescents comprised of 200 delinquencies prone and 300 non delinquencies prone adolescents selected randomly from 12 secondary and higher secondary schools. The descriptive survey method is used for data collection using Lidhoo’s Delinquency Proneness Scale (1989), Self-concept Questionnaire (R.K. Saraswat) and Emotional Maturity Scale (M. Bhargava and Y. Singh).

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Ahmet İPEKÇİ
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