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February 2016

  1. Vespa, A., Giulietti, M. V., Ottaviani, M., Rossi, G., Giustozzi, M., Cloninger, R., Scendoni, P. and Meloni, C.

    Background: Personality has an important role in understanding fibromyalgia syndrome (FMS). Aims: In this paper, we explored the association between the clinical course of Fibromyalgia Syndrome (FMS) and patient’s response to emotional stress in terms of temperament and character and intrapsychic and interpersonal dimensions. Methods: Participants: n=57 women with Fibromyalgia Sindrome; control group: n=203 healthy women. Tests: TCI, SASB (Structural Analysis of Interpersonal Behavior), CDQ and ASQ. Results: FMS Patients presented: medium to high levels of depression (F = 110.702, p < .001); TCI: higher Impulsiveness(NS2) (p < .005); higher Harm avoidance (HA) (p < 0.001); Higher Fear of uncertainty(HA2) ( p < .001); Shyness (HA3) (p = .024); higher Fatigability (HA4) (, p < .001) higher Sentimentality(RD1) (p = .046); lower Persistence (P)(p = .025) lower Eagerness of effort(PS1) (p = .010). lower Ambitious (PS3) (F = 6.481, p = .012) than healthy women; SASB: lower levels of autonomy-Cl1 (p = .037), autonomy and Love-Cl2 (p < .005), Love-Cl3 (p < .005),Love and control-Cl4 (p = .010), than the control group; with higher levels of Control-Cl5(p < .001), Control and hate-Cl6 (p < .001), Hate-Cl7 (p < .001), and Hate and autonomy- Cl8 (p < .001) than healthy women. Conclusions: Intrapsychic characteristics (tendency to depression) may be linked to difficulties in facing illness condition (pain, disabilities). Knowledge of these modalities could allow to plan a psychotherapeutic and multidisciplinary intervention aimed at overcoming the intrapsychic maladaptive modalities.

  2. Ramaiah Itumalla, G. V. R. K. Acharyulu and L. Kalyan Viswanath Reddy

    Health insurance is now emerging as a tool to manage financial needs of people to seek health services. Today, various health insurance schemes are available in the market and providing benefits from an individual to an entire family. During 2013-14, the gross health insurance premium collected by non-life insurance companies was 17,495 crore. Present paper tries to present the health insurance scenario and some of the issues and challenges facing by the health insurance sector in India. The study discusses the issues and challenges such as high Incurred Claims Ratio, skewed distribution of health business, low level of consumer awareness, limited product and pricing innovation, delays and issues in claims processing and pricing in health insurance.

  3. Dr. Kiran Gaonkar, Dr. Pravin Patil, Dr. Nishant Gaonkar, Dr. Ketan Gupta, Dr. Rupesh Gor, Dr. Aminuddin Qureshi and Dr. Jimit Shah

    Peritrochanteric fractures mainly comprise of fractures of trochanter and subtrochanteric region. Despite marked improvements in implant design, surgical technique and patient care, peritrochanteric fractures continues to consume a substantial proportion of our health care resources. Trochanteric fractures are common in the elderly people. The more latest implant for management of trochanteric fractures is proximal femoral nail, which is also a collapsible device with added rotational stability. This implant is a centromedullary device and biomechanically more sound. It also has other advantages like small incision, minimal blood loss. Aims and Objectives is to study the management of proximal Femoral fractures by proximal Femoral nail and to study perioperative difficulties and postoperatitve outcome in these fractures. Material and Methods: The present study consists of 25 adult patients of peritrochanteric factures of femur, who are treated with Proximal Femoral nail. Patient were followed up six weeks, three months, six months and 12 months. Movements, union and limb length were assessed clinically and postoperative complications like delayed union, nonunion, malunion and implant failure were studied radiologically during these visits. Modified Harris Hip Score was used for evaluation of hip function. Observation and Results: In our series of 25 operated cases, 3 cases were expired before first follow up due to other medical problems and old age. 3 cases were lost follow up after first follow up. So taking into consideration of 19 cases of which we had 12 months regular follow up, by using Modified Harris Hip Score we got 47.37% excellent, 47.37%good and 5.26%poor results. Complications like malunion and shortening of more than 1 cms was seen in 1 case each and implant failure was seen in 3 cases. Conclusion: Though the learning curve of this procedure is steep, with proper patient selection, good instrumentation, image intensifier and surgical technique, PFN remains the implant of choice in the management of Peritrochanteric fractures.

  4. Priyanka Shukla, Rahul Mishra, Shivangi Shukla and Rishendra Mishra

    Background: Offspring of diabetic mothers can have a transient cardiomyopathy, which is major complication of diabetes. L-arginine may aid in reducing the risk of cardiovascular-related complications such as high blood pressure, high cholesterol and other heart diseases. This observation indicates to examine the effect of arginine in off springs of diabetic mother with different physical andcardiac parameters. Methods: Female mice were treated with streptozotocin (STZ) to induce pregestational diabetes prior to breeding with normal male to produce offspring. Off spring of diabetic mice were divided into two groups. The one group (Diabetic Arginine Group) of experimental offspring were given 50 mg L-arginine PO (free base, per kg body wt per day) for 2 months. Second group of animals were only STZ diabetic (Diabetic Group). Control group (non-diabetic) were given tap water. Body weight, blood glucose, blood pressure, heart rate, heart weight, LV weight and o- tyrosine level were measured. Result: Bodyweight, heart weight, heart rate, LV weight, and O-Tyrosine, Serum Glucose concentration showed a significant increase (p<0.05) in diabetic group (DG) compared with control groups while diabetic treatment group that has received L-Arginine showed a significant (p<0.05) decrease compared with diabetic group. Conclusion: Our data suggest that L-arginine controls the major biochemical abnormalities of diabetes in offspring caused by maternal hyperglycemia. It clearly indicates that accumulation of arginine can overcome the physical and cardiac parameters in diabetic offspring.

  5. Yonas Girma Tilahun, AlirezaNikbakht Nasrabadi, Mussie Alemayehu, Alula Teklu and Nadia Ali Muhammad Ali Charania

    Background: Ethiopia is one of the oldest independent African countries. Illiteracy is the most crucial factor impacting Ethiopians limited health seeking behavior. The country suffers from an enormous burden of preventable communicable and non-communicable diseases and nutritional deficit disorders. The population faces a high rate of morbidity and mortality which needs holistic quality care from health care professionals including nurses. Ethiopia is struggling with an extreme shortage of health care professionals. Official statistics show, that a decade ago there were only 20,000 nurses for 80 million people with 85% of the Ethiopian population living in remote areas which are chronically under-served. Aim: To describe the development of nursing education in Ethiopia from historical, political and socioeconomic perspectives. Methods: An extensive literature search was conducted using the key terms, “Nurse”, “Education” and “Ethiopia” from the following databases: ProQuest, PubMed, Google Scholar, Ovid Medline. In addition, reports from the governmental health education bureau were utilized to provide relevant information regarding the nursing educational system. Findings: Globally, nursing education is undergoing modifications, which were never previously imagined, to address the growing complexity in the health care arena, ensure safe delivery of nursing care, promote nursing leadership and evidence-based practice research. To meet today’s health care demands, the Ethiopian nursing education system needs to reform. Conclusions and Implications for Nursing Education: In the light of historical and current nursing situations in Ethiopia, the Ministers of health and education need to reconsider the minimum nursing educational requirement to be at least a baccalaureate degree. Nursing career pathways need to be extended to Ph.D. and DNP. Such nursing career development pathways are needed to prepare future nurses with the abilities to conduct research and quality improvement projects, develop leadership skills, and impact the quality of care. Ethiopian nurses’ engagement in the development and application of nursing knowledge will not only impact nursing practice but also improve the quality of nursing education.

  6. Erum Afaq, Nazia Jameel, Saara Ahmad, Rubina Ghani and Anna A. Abbasi

    Background: At the beginning of the third millennium, hepatitis B virus (HBV) or hepatitis C (HCV) remains a major public health problem globally; more than two billion people have been infected worldwide, and of these, 350-400 million suffer from chronic infection. Patients chronically infected either with hepatitis B (HBV) or hepatitis C virus (HCV) are at increased risk of developing cirrhosis, end stage liver disease and hepatocellular carcinoma. Different risk factors were found to be associated with the transmission of these viruses in various settings. HBV and HCV transmission seems to be also acquired by non-parenteral and non-sexual routes. A large number of patients infected with HCV might have non identifiable routes of viral acquisition. Hence, viral hepatitis transmission risk factors identification is the main way to reduce infection. Dental treatment may be one of such risk factors. Materials and Methods: A total of 496 samples were collected with the history form. The blood samples were collected from individual and was tested for hepatitis B surface antigen and for hepatitis C virus antibodies by ELISA. Results: After the selection criteria we evaluated that besides all-time risk of HBV and HCV infection, the dental clinic is at high risk where the rate of hepatitis infected individuals is higher. Conclusion: Dental treatment can be included among the risk factors of HBV and HCV infection. This risk can easily be eliminated using standard precautionary measures.

  7. Hedfi Mohamed, Charfi Mehdi, Messaoudi Ikram, Habib Bouhawala and Chouchen Adnen

    The human pancreas develops embryologically from the fusion of the ventral and dorsal buds. Under normal conditions, the superior branch of the ventral pancreatic duct fuses with the dorsal pancreatic duct and participates in the formation of the main pancreatic duct (Kim et al., 2002; Nesseler et al., 1983). In the embryo, the accessory pancreatic duct is the main drainage duct of the dorsal pancreas and enters the duodenum at the minor duodenal papilla. Here in we report new case of pancreas divisum discovered in a patient with abdominal pain and acute pancreatitis ;the CT scan performed for our patient (photo1,2) showed an incomplete divisum pancreas.

  8. Hedfi Mohamed, Charfi Mehdi, Messaoudi Ikram, Bouhawala Habib and Chouchene Adnene

    Solid pseudopapillary tumors (SPTs) are unusual neoplasms of the pancreas of uncertain histogenesis that occur mostly, but not exclusively, in young women. The pathologic features and immunophenotype of SPT are unique and well characterized. Despite its low malignant potential, proximately 15% of patients with SPT develop metastatic disease, mostly involving the liver or peritoneum. Even in the presence of disseminated disease, the clinical course is usually protracted, and the overall 5-year survival is reportedly 97%. We have encountered 2 cases of SPT possessing unusual pathologic features and exhibiting an aggressive clinical course.

  9. Paramasivan, S. and Geetha Ramesh

    The histology of corpora amylacea in mammary glands of Madras red sheep was recorded during various stages of physiological phases. The corpora amylacea were observed as round, oval or irregular cauliflower shaped concentrically laminated bodies. These were seen in their various stages of formation and located both in the lumen of alveoli and septal connective tissue. The occurrence of corpora amylacea increased gradually from lactating mammary glands and observed more in late lactation and dry mammary glands during involution. A gradual increase in both size and numbers of corpora from parturition to late lactation suggested that the development of these structures accelerated as lactation progressed and these structures may have a role in the involutionary process.

  10. Abhishek Mishra, Dr. Shamim Ahmad, Yogendra Kumar, Ankul Kumar

    The Drug Lansoprazole has short half-life and hence requires frequent administration. Therefore the possible way for formulating a sustained release formulation of Mucoadhesive Microsphere. These formulation are prepared by Ionic gelation techniques by using polymer Sodium Alginate and Tragacanth. Various evaluation parameters are assessed, with a view to obtain sustained release of Lansoprazole. In the present study six formulations are formulated by using Sodium Alginate and Tragacanth various proportions. The prepared Lansoprazole microspheres are then subjected to IR, SEM, particle size and size distribution, % yield, Swelling Index, Micrometric, in vitro dissolution studies. The IR Spectra revealed that, there is no interaction between the polymer and Lansoprazole. Lansoprazole microspheres is spherical in nature, which was confirmed by SEM. Lansoprazole microspheres with normal frequency distribution are obtained. The in vitro release profile of Lansoprazole microspheres showed that sustained release is dependent upon the polymer concentration.

  11. Snigdha Asok, Julia Joseph and Bincy T. Abraham

    Objectives: To study the epidemiological incidence, assess various allergens, symptoms & analyze prescribing pattern of respiratory tract diseases associated with allergies. Methodology: Questionnaire based survey was conducted in pulmonology department, for 4 months includingall outpatients& excluding inpatients& children below 10 yrs. Result and Discussion: Out of 72 patients included, 40.27% were males&61.42% were females. Respiratory problem was more in age group 20 to 30 yrs. 47.22% .The distribution of disease was more in rural area& the incidence was more during rainy season. Polluted air accounts 84.72%of allergens & the common symptom was cough & sputum (62.85%).The most commonly prescribed drugs were corticosteroids & β-agonist. In combination therapy long acting β-agonist & corticosteroids was prescribed. Conclusion: The study shows that respiratory tract diseases associated with allergies are common today, where environmental pollution has a great role to play. The study was beneficial to attain knowledge about various allergens, symptoms as well as current therapy associated with respiratory tract diseases in the community.

  12. Dr. John, N. A. and Dr. Jyoti John

    The workers working in hot humid summer environment outdoor as well as those working indoor in various industrial, governments, private or domestic establishments have increase risk of suffering with heat related illness. Those working indoor also experience equal adverse effects as they have frequent change in exposure to hot outdoor climate and hot and humid indoor temperatures while reporting on duty, during lunch breaks and at end of the shift. These indoor workers may be affected with heat stroke related illness. Our earlier study on hydration status in indoor workers of an academic institution revealed hypo-hydrated status of majority of the working staff both pre and post shift. Proper hydration status of workers, well ventilated indoor premises, adequate cooling zones indoor as well as rest zones for food and relaxation of workers during shift breaks and adequate safe drinking water will help to reduce the adverse effect of heat illness. The above fact gave us an impetus to review the literature and ascertain the effects s of hot environment on indoor and outdoor work employees.

  13. Sukanya Mohanty, Manvi Agarwal, Sania and Aparimita Saxena

    Most odontogenic tumors are intraosseous in nature but at times they might have peripheral location like gingiva therefore they are referred to as peripheral odontogenic tumors (POTs). Peripheral odontogenic fibroma (POdF) is the only POT that is more frequent than its central counterpart. This tumor is rather an uncommon gingival enlargement that is slow growing benign neoplasm that is unencapsulated exophytic gingival mass, which is composed of fibrous connective tissue associated with various amount of calcifications and islands of odontogenic epithelium . Due to its firm and non tender nature on palpation it could be mistaken for other more common gingival lesions like peripheral ossifying fibroma, pyogenic granuloma etc. Hence, histopathological examination is inevitable for factual diagnosis. This article illustrates a well documented case of POdf with regards to its diagnosis, treatment modalities and recurrence.

  14. Tufail Dana, Nilima Thombre and Archana Deokar

    In recent years, plant derived polymers have evoked tremendous interest due to their diverse pharmaceutical applications such as diluents , binders, disintegrants in tablets, thickeners in oral liquids, protective colloids in suspensions, gelling agents in gels and bases in suppository. These polymers such as natural gums and mucilage are biocompatible, cheap and easily available and are preferred to semi synthetic and synthetic excipients because of their lack of toxicity, low cost, availability, soothing action and non-irritant nature. Present study was focusing on isolation of mucilage from herbal plants with their evaluation as pharmaceutical excipient. The mucilage of plant of family of Cruciferae was collected from seeds. Seeds of the plant Lepidium sativum were isolated. Characterized for various parameters such as pH, Melting Point, Physical Appearance, solubility etc. The Lepidium sativum mucilage has been reported to have the gel forming potential. The mucilage is isolated by dissolving in water and precipitating in acetone. The morphological and physical evaluatory study of isolated mucilage shows, it is brownish powder, with characteristic odor. It is soluble in warm water, practically insoluble in ethanol, acetone, ether and chloroform. Moisture content of mucilage was found to be 106.12 %.The swelling index was found to be 18. And ash value was found to be 0.066%. The bulk density and tapped density of mucilage was found to be 0.60 and 0.40 gm/cc. The results of chemical test shows presence of Carbohydrate while the absence of Tannins, Chloride and Sulphate. The isolated mucilage was found acceptable for all the tested organoleptic properties.

  15. Major (Dr) Mohan Angadi and Major (Dr) Rahul Jha

    Renal arteries normally arise from the abdominal aorta at the level L1 vertebra. During routine dissection of abdomen by the undergraduate medical students we noted, two additional renal arteries were observed on both sides arising from abdominal aorta. It is not associated with any other anomaly of kidneys or other vascular anomaly. Both arteries were caudal to the normal renal artery, entering the hilum of kidney anterior to the renal vein. Accessory renal arteries usually arise from aorta below the normal renal artery. Variations in renal arteries are common due its complicated development, ascent and rotation. These variations of arteries are common at the inferior pole rather than the superior pole of kidneys. Additional renal arteries may or may not be associated with the congenital malformations of the kidneys. The variations of renal arteries are considered critical that surgeons should have thorough knowledge. Renal artery variations such as their number, source and course are very common. Most of the variations of human renal vessels can be explained on the basis of phylogeny as many conditions which are anomalous in human are normally present in some animals. The most common variation of renal artery is the presence of an accessory renal artery, occurring in approximately 30% of cases. Accessory renal arteries usually arise from aorta commonly on left side and enter the hilum of kidney below the normal renal arteries. Knowledge of the presence of such additional renal arteries is necessary while performing the surgical and radiological procedures related to kidney. Variations in the renal vessels and supernumerary renal arteries have been observed frequently, either in routine dissections or in clinical practice. Knowledge of these variations of renal vascular anatomy has importance in exploration and treatment of renal trauma, renal transplantation, renal artery embolization, surgery for abdominal aortic aneurysm and conservative or radical renal surgery, laparoscopic surgeries and retroperitoneal operations.

  16. Dr. Vaibhav Joshi, Dr. Nidhi Bhatia, Dr. Shalini Gupta and Dr. Mamta Joshi

    Esthetic zone restoration with implant supported tooth replacement is one of the most difficult procedures to execute and has high esthetic challenges because loss of tooth leads to bone resorption and collapse of gingival architecture, causing esthetic compromise and inadequate bone for implant placement. Immediate implant placement is considered one of the conservative and predictable methods to achieve harmonious gingival architecture that also helps in preservation of bone height, soft tissue and esthetic profile. This case report demonstrates the assessment of immediate implant placement in the maxillary anterior region along with early loading using Cone Beam Computed Tomography (CBCT) scan technology and maintaining patient’s high esthetic demands and adjacent soft tissue.

  17. Vinish, V., and Prof. Vimala Prasad

    Introduction: Access to healthful drinking water is a worrying health problem all around the globe. 2.5 billion children are affected with diarrhoea every year in South-East Asia and Sub-Saharan Africa. In India diarrhoea alone kills over 7,00,000 in one year. The objective of the study was to assess the potential of planned teaching programme (PTP) of knowledge on prevention of water borne disease among school children. Methods: The study adopted quasi experimental, one group pre-test post-test design. 60 children studying at Sri Venkatramana Hr. Primary School, Kulai, Mangalore were chosen by stratified random sampling technique. Structured knowledge questionnaire 34 questions consisted of two parts i) Personal characteristics and ii)knowledge questionnaire on waterborne diseases was used to collect data.Each item had a score of one for the best answer and zero for the wrong answer. Thus altogether there were a maximum score of 34. Results: Majority 60% of the participants were girls and 55% were at the age of 12 years.93.3% of the participants belong to Hindu religion. 46.7% of participant’s mother are daily wage earners and 33.3% father do private job. Among participants’ parents,40% of the mothers and 66.7% of the fathers have 5-10th standard education. 68.3% were from nuclear families and 63.3% depend on well as source of water. 86.7% using own latrines. The pre-test mean knowledge score (18.72) is greater than the post- test mean knowledge score (27.9) which indicate the effectiveness of intervention. Conclusion: The study concluded that planned teaching programme had a major role in developing knowledge of children on prevention of water borne diseases.

  18. Gh. Mohd. Bhat, Mohd. Saleem Itoo, Raj Tajamul Hussain, Nasseer Ahmad Shah, Bashir Ahamad Shah and Shamima Banoo

    Background: In bovines, snout is used as a tactile organ while foraging for food and in social interaction. The snout has the surface that is comparable to the glabrous skin of most non-hooved mammals. Aim of study: To study the structure, pattern of innervation and nerve terminations in the snout of the cow, so as to understand somatosensory adaptation of mammals. Material and Methods: Skin samples from fifteen animals (cow/ox) were taken, sections prepared and stained with a cytological (Haematoxylin – Eosin and Von Gieson’s stains) and a neural stain (Silver Impregnation). Results: With cytological stain, the bovine snout consisted of glabrous skin having well defined dermal ridges. Three types of cells were seen in the epidermis- keratinocytes, melonocytes and Merkel’s cells. After silver impregnation, nerve plexuses were observed in the dermis, from which myelinated nerve fibers ascended up towards epidermis. Four types of nerve fibers were observed in the snout: free nerve endings, Merkel’s nerve endings, papillary nerves and bovine corpuscles. Free nerve endings were sparse due to their loss to tactile friction i. e. grazing. Merkel’s cells were grouped at the dermal pegs. The bovine corpuscular nerve endings, present in the dermal papillae, were two types: one was elongated or cylindrical and the other oval or globular, formed high up in the dermal papilla, close to stratum granulosum. Both types consisted of capsule formed of collagen fibers and capsular cell; surrounding inner core formed by ramifying afferent nerve fibers, Schwann/lamellar cells and collagen fibers. The terminal nerve fibers of the bovine corpuscles formed modifications like neurofibrillar networks, closed end bulbs and neuro fibrillar varicosities. Conclusion: Snout of the cow possess the tripartite array of nerve end organs associated with Eimer’s organ of mammals, consisting of free nerve endings, Merkel’s discs and corpuscular end organs, which indicates that the snout is a highly specialized somatosensory organ of bovine animals.

  19. Dr. Kruttika Bhuse, Dr. Devanand Shetty and Dr. Arvind Shetty

    Dental Implants are becoming the treatment of choice for replacing missing teeth, especially if the adjacent teeth are free of restoration. When placing an implant in the esthetic zone, the soft tissue profile along with the bone profile becomes of utmost importance. In certain cases the soft tissue is insufficient or might get traumatized during the implant procedure. Soft tissue augmentation can be one of the treatment of choices to correct gingival dimensions around the implant.This Case shows the result of Free Gingival Autograft for the correction of implant exposure, thus improving Esthetic in the maxillary anterior region.

  20. Dr. Shilpa Mahapatra, Dr. Preetha Elizabeth Chaly and Dr. S. Srinidhi

    All people, no matter the race, have their own beliefs and practices concerning health and disease. Each society or community has its peculiar way of doing their things and it is known that these practices and beliefs go a long way in influencing the people's perception, attitude and management of diseases and other health related problems that befall them. Each ethnic group brings its own perspectives and values to the health care system, and many health care beliefs and health practices differ from those of the traditional health care culture. Unfortunately, the expectation of many health care professionals has been that patients will conform to mainstream values. Such expectations have frequently created barriers to care that have been compounded by differences in language and education between patients and providers from different backgrounds. As health professionals it is important to seek information to help one’s understanding of traditional health beliefs and practices including religious practices that impact health and wellbeing. Building relationships based on mutual trust will enable cultural information sharing.

  21. Sumit Rana and Sunaina Hooda

    Hair loss is a rare side effect of psychotropic drugs. Mood stabilizers are the most related drug class with this side effect. Studies reporting the sertraline-induced hair loss are limited in number. Sertraline is a potent antidepressant of SSRI group which selectively inhibits the reuptake of serotonin from the presynaptic terminals. The mechanism for hair loss has not been elucidated completely. Psychotropic drugs are usually considered to lead to hair loss through influencing the telogen phase of growth of hair follicle. This paper reports a 25-year-old male with diffuse hair loss started after sertraline use and improved by quitting the drug. The unique aspect in this case was that the hair loss started within 2 weeks of starting sertraline.

  22. Sujatha, S.

    Objectives: 1. To assess the knowledge on video game addition among Children 2. To evaluate the effectiveness of Structured teaching program on Video game addiction 3. To identify the association between the level of the knowledge with the selected demographic variables. Hypothesis: H1: There is significant increase in the level of the knowledge on video game addiction after the Structured teaching program H2: There is significant association between the pre and post test knowledge score with the selected demographic variables. Conceptual Frame work: This study is based on Pender’s Health Promotion Model. Methodology: The research design adopted for this study was experimental design with one group pre test and post test design. The 30 samples included in the study were selected by using convenient sampling technique. The data from the samples were collected using the structured questionnaire. The data collected from the samples were analyzed by using descriptive and inferential statistical method. Findings: On pretest knowledge assessment of school children regarding the video game addiction 65% of the children had inadequate knowledge. On post test knowledge 78.3% had adequate knowledge.

  23. M. Shanthi, E. V. Soma Sekhar Goud and G. Padmanabha KUMAR

    Viral warts are benign proliferations of the skin and mucosa caused due to the infection with human papilloma virus (HPV). Cutaneous manifestations like flat warts are a common presenting complaint in children and adolescent. The estimated frequency is up to 10 percent of pediatric population. Warts may present as symptomatic or asymptomatic and appear as hyperkeratotic, smooth or dry papules with irregular borders. Warts are clinically diagnosed. Treating warts is a therapeutic challenge for physicians. No single therapy has been proven effective at achieving complete remission. This article presents a 9-year-old Asian male child with are current HPV infection along with different approaches to wart therapy.

  24. Dr. Chaitra H. Ramprakash, Dr. S. Padmashree and Dr. Rema, J.

    Objectives: To detect the changes in the trabecular pattern of the mandible in the post menopausal women using direct digital radiography (DDR) system & their correlation with the bone mineral density (BMD) measured at the femoral neck. The study also explored the possibility of using trabecular pattern on the mandibular intraoral periapical direct digital radiograph as a diagnostic tool to identify individuals at risk of osteoporosis. Study design: 40 healthy dentate post menopausal women, between the age group of 40-60 years were included. The detailed case history was recorded followed by oral examination. Intraoral digital radiograph of the mandibular premolar region was done. BMD evaluation was done at the hip region using Dual energy X-ray absorptiometry(DXA). The digital radiographs were evaluated by three observers and classified into sparse, heterogenous & dense trabecular patterns. The intra and inter observer variation was evaluated. The fractal dimension (D-value) was analysed in the region of interest (ROI) selected between the premolars using ImageJ software. Results: Statistical suggestive significance was observed when age was correlated with the T-score. The D-value obtained in our study showed statistical significance when correlated with both the T-score and the assessed trabecular patterns. Conclusion: The fractal box analysis of the intraoral DDR can act as an identification tool in the diagnosis of the patients with the risk of osteoporosis. Thereby oral diagnosticians are in a pivotal position to screen for osteoporosis and identify patients at the risk of osteoporosis.

  25. Darshika Gandhi, Dhiraj Trivedi and Kaveri Hallikeri

    Histological assessment of surgical margins as negative lacks sensitivity in identifying cells with a cancerous genotype but no pathologic phenotype. Aberrant glycosylation in tumor cells results in loss of cell surface glycoprotein and sialic acid. Studies have shown a modified expression of such tumor-related genes and cell molecules in histologically negative margins. 20 cases of margins and its corresponding lesional tissue were stained using Periodic-acid Schiff’s (PAS) reagent and Alcian Blue (AB) and their optical densities and stain remaining per micro-gram of the tissue were analyzed using spectrophotometer. T-test showed a significant correlation (p=0.06) between the absolute PAS stain and AB stain remaining per micro-gram of the tissue. Non-parametric Mann-Whitney U test showed that the difference in PAS and AB staining was found to be significantly associated with males (p=0.01), moderate to poor histological differentiation of cells (p=0.012) and positive lymph nodes (p=0.004). No significant difference was seen between the clinic-pathological parameters and amount of stain remaining. Thus, the routinely used histochemical stains can be used as an adjunct to predict the prognosis and diagnosis of oral carcinomas.

  26. Chenchev Iv, Atanasov, D. and Vicheva, D.

    Purpose: The purpose of this study is to compare the options for treatment of Miller’s Class I and Class II gingival recessions using coronally advanced flap (CAF) and platelet rich fibrin membrane (PRFm) with CAF and connective tissue graft (CTG). Materials and methods: A surgical treatment was carried out on 30 subjects (23 women and 7 men) with a total of 118 symmetrical recessions of Class I and Class II by Miller on different places of the jaws, using two different methods. On one side of the jaw was held a plastic covering of the recessions with CAF in combination with PRFm (test group), and on the other side – CAF in combination with connective tissue graft (control group). The clinical evaluation includes: gingival recession depth (GRD), probing pocket depth (PPD), clinical attachment level (CAL), keratinized gingival width (KGW), gingival thickness (GTH), mean percent of root coverage (RC %). The results were observed for six months postoperatively. Results: The average values for the GRD measured six months postoperatively for the control group are 0.37± 0.36 mm and 0.70±0.41 mm for the test group. The results for CAL for the control group are 2.01±0.44 mm and 2.28±0.50 mm for the test group, while the mean percent of root coverage (RC %) is 90.29±9.05% for the control group and 80.48±10.19% for the test group. The values for GTH are 1.04±0.16 mm for the control group and 0.92±0.09 mm for the test group. Conclusion: Both the compared methods show good results in terms of all evaluated parameters. The group treated with CAF + CTG showed better results with a statistically significant difference for the RC% and the average values for GRD, GTH and CAL. The results of our study demonstrate a good potential for PRFm used in the treatment of Miller’s Class I and Class II gingival recessions.

  27. Rajiv Jasrotia, Gauri Chauhan, Gurdeep S. Dhanjal and Ritambhara Lohan

    Situs Inversus Totalis is a rare condition with not much known sex discrimination. The cause for the same is still unknown although some studies describes certain maternal medical conditions like diabetes mellitus as a reason. The term Situs Inversus is a short form of the later meaning inverted position of internal organs. Such individuals are generally asymptomatic and have a normal life expectancy and it may go unnoticed for a long period of lifetime. Other congenital abnormalities can also be seen with this condition like cardiac defects, pulmonary infections. Being a rarecondition, the literature for it is not that extensive. In our report we describe a case of Dextrocardia with SitusInversus Totalis in a newborn with respiratory distress.

  28. Pushpanathan Punita, Kuppusamy Saranya, Chandrasekhar, M. and Subramanian Senthil Kumar

    Background: Medical students are considered to be under more stress than the general population. Stress affects an individual both physiologically and psychologically. Stress is not an objective phenomenon but a subjective phenomenon. Hence, a self-reporting and self-evaluating questionnaire to assess the stress would be an ideal tool to quantify the stress. The Medical Student Stressor Questionnaire (MSSQ) is valid in measuring the stress in medical students. MSSQ categorizes stressors into 6 domains: Academic Related Stressors (ARS), Intrapersonal and Interpersonal Related Stressors (IRS), Teaching and Learning Related Stressors (TLRS), Social Related Stressors (SRS), Drive and Desire Related Stressors (DRS), Group Activities Related Stressors (GARS). Objective: To quantify the stressors distinctively under the six domains in the medical students and to elucidate the sex difference in the intensity of stress experienced. Materials and methods: The level of stress was assessed using the Medical Student Stress Questionnaire under six domains; academic related stressors (ARS), intrapersonal and interpersonal related stressors (IRS), teachingand learning-related stressors (TLRS), social related stressors (SRS), drive and desirerelated stressors (DRS), and group activities related stressors (GARS). Results: Academic stress and teaching learning stress are the two highest stress in the medical students irrespective of sex. Stress of other domains such as intra/inter personal stress, social activity stress, group activity stress and drive and desire stress has also to be addressed in medical students. The level of stress is more in female students than male students in terms of academic stress, intra/interpersonal stress and teaching and learning activity stress. Conclusion: More than 97% of medical students are under some kind of stress and the proper action has to be taken to address the issue.

  29. Dr. Lohit kumar Kalita, Dr. Mir Alam Siddique, and Dr Umesh Ch. Sarma

    Epidemiological study of the malignant eyelid and conjunctival tumors in children is very important in identifying the relationship between various external and internal factors and incidence in order to determine methods of prevention and effective treatment. Advanced research in epidemiological aspects of these tumors can establish a theoretical and practical knowledge base to ensure steady progress in the treatment of the tumors, which pose a serious health risk for the patients, especially children. The basis for each epidemiological study is research into the characteristics of incidence, mortality and survival rates

  30. Shikha Srivastava

    After second world war there was a major change in the functioning of inter-politics by great powers. The prime cause was the emergence of nuclear weapons. Winston Churchil even called it balance of terror. In fact, nuclear weapons acted as balance between the so-called super powers i.e, The U.S.A and the Soviet Union. Critics claimed that nuclear weapons was a deadly and devastating weapon that could ruin the whole world. Non use of nuclear weapons have made the world a more secure one. Gandhiji was alive when nuclear weapons were used in war against Japan. He saw the objective pursued by using the nuclear weapons to end the second world war was against his philosophy. The article deals with Gandhi's approach to war and peace and tried to find solution by peaceful method.

  31. Sarabjeet Singh, Kamal Saroha and Himanshi Tanwar

    The objective of the present research work was to formulate transdermal carbopol gel and compare five different permeation enhancer (polyethylene glycol400, olive oil, oleic acid, limonene and dimethyl sulfoxide), using a model drug (Nifedipine) to evaluate the antihypertensive activity of gel and compared for in vitro and in vivo drug release. The formulated gel were evaluated for physical appearance, drug content, viscosity, spreadability, pH determination, clarity, extrudability and also for antihypertensive activity are suggestive of good characteristic properties of best batch. Permeation enhancers show maximum effect in the concentration between 3 to 9 %, above this concentration the effect of permeation enhancer stabilized i.e. don’t show significant effect. Formulation F12 showed maximum drug release of 78.518% in 8hr which contained 9% permeation enhancer concentration i.e(oleic acid). Thus it concluded from the data that oleic acid is having maximum penetration power among olive oil, limonene, PEG400 and DMSO. From the optimized batch F12 showed zero order kinetic model of drug release. All Formulation Shows Good Results, Do Not Cause Any Kind of Skin Irritation. The transdermal delivery of Nifedipine shows good results avoiding side effects of first pass metabolism and G.I.T irritation.

  32. Dr. Deepika Tiwari, Dr. Preeti Gehlaut, Dr. Swati Chhabra and Dr. Mangal Ahlawat

    Background: Subarachnoid block is the preferred anaesthetic technique for transurethral resection of prostate (TURP). As both spinal as well as saddle block can be used for the surgery, we aim to compare the haemodynamic parameters and adequacy of surgical condition resulting from subarachnoid block versus saddle block in patients posted for transurethral thulium laser prostatic ablation. Material and Methods: Sixty patients in the age group of 50 to 75 years, belonging to American Society of Anesthesiologists (ASA) grade I - II, posted for transurethral thulium laser prostatic ablation were included in this prospective, randomised study. Patients randomly divided into one of the two groups: Group A (n=30) - received spinal block and Group B (n=30) - received saddle block; with 2ml of 0.5% hyperbaric bupivacaine. Maximum block height was recorded. Haemodynamic parameters including heart rate (HR), oxygen saturation (SpO2), systolic blood pressure (SBP), diastolic blood pressure (DBP) and mean arterial blood pressure (MAP) were monitored till the end of surgery. Incidence of complications like hypotension, volume overload, TURP syndrome etc. if encountered were noted. Results: Adequate surgical condition was achieved in both groups. Incidence of hypotension and vasopressor requirement was significantly less in Group B than Group A (p < 0.0001). No complications were noted in both the groups. Conclusion: Saddle block achieves adequate surgical condition for transurethral thulium laser prostatectomy without significant incidence of hypotension and vasopressor requirement.

  33. Musa Bakhit, Esam M.A.Raheem Suliman, Nada Salih and Rasha. A. Ibrahim

    Aims: The aim of this study was to evaluate the expression of Ki-67(LI) in breast cancer lesions among Sudanese females. Study design: Cross-sectional descriptive study. Place and Duration of Study: Radiation and isotope center at Khartoum (RICK), Sudan, during the period between October 2012 and September 2013. Methodology: Tissue sections obtained from 200 formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded tissue blocks of breast cancer lesions were immunohistochemically stained using monoclonal antibody (MIBI) for Ki-67. Results: The study showed significant differences in expression of Ki-67 in different grades of triple positive and triple negative breast cancer lesions. Conclusion: Expression of Ki-67 in breast cancer is an important prognostic factor as it significantly associated with aggressive tumors.

  34. Prateek Shakya, Dr. Shahi, K. S., Shriranjan Kala and Bhuvan Choudhary

    Acute gastric volvulus is torsion of the stomach by more than 180° and a life-threatening condition, but its intermittent and vague symptoms may make diagnosis difficult. There are different types of gastric volvulus, with the variant presented in our case being the less commonly encountered mesenteroaxial gastric volvulus.

  35. Prateek Shakya, Dr. Shahi, K. S., Shriranjan Kala and Bhuvan Choudhary

    Acute gastric volvulus is torsion of the stomach by more than 180° and a life-threatening condition, but its intermittent and vague symptoms may make diagnosis difficult. There are different types of gastric volvulus, with the variant presented in our case being the less commonly encountered mesenteroaxial gastric volvulus.

  36. Seema Tamrakar, Kamal Kachhawa, Divya Agrawal, Meena Varma, Trupti Rekha Swain and Sanjay Kumar

    Introduction: Diabetes mellitus is a metabolic syndrome, which affect carbohydrates, lipid and protein metabolism. It is a heterogeneous disorder characterized by hyperglycemia due to impaired glucose utilization, resulting from defect in insulin secretion and insulin action. Alteration of some trace elements (mg and cu) has been reported in Diabetes Mellitus. These trace elements might have specific role in the pathogenesis and progress of the disease. Dyslipidaemia was seen in diabetic patients and was primarily responsible for risk of several complications in Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus (T2DM) patients. Materials and Methods: The study was done in the Department of Biochemistry of two teaching medical college and hospitals of India, one in western India and one in North east India. The present study included total 100 subjects, divided into two group in which group 1 (healthy control) having 50 subjects and group 2 (Uncontrolled Diabetes mellitus) having 50 patients, groups were selected randomly without any bias of age, sex, socioeconomic status and duration of disease. Serum Mg estimated by calmagite method and serum Cu estimated by Calorimetric method of semi auto analyzer. Lipid profile was estimated by enzymatic method of semi auto analyzer. Observation and Results: Mg level was found significantly decreased (p<0.001) in serum sample uncontrolled Diabetes mellitus patients compare to healthy subject. Cu level was found significantly increased (p<0.001) in serum of uncontrolled Diabetes mellitus patients compare to healthy subject. Lipid profile were found significantly increased level of total cholesterol (TC), very low density lipoprotein (VLDL), low density lipoprotein (LDL), triacylglycerol (TG) and HDL level was found significantly decreased Discussion and Conclusion: According to our study showed decrease level of Mg and elevated Cu concentration in uncontrolled T2DM patients, and this alteration affect lipoprotein metabolism and caused several abnormalities and greater risk of secondary (cardiovascular and renal diseases) disorders.

  37. Janki Punekar, Amit Anurag Singh and Raghuveer Patel

    Background: Coronary Artery Disease is one of the leading cause of death, ranked “FIRST” worldwide among the eight killer diseases. It accounts for one-third of all deaths worldwide, two thirds of which occur in the developing countries. Elevated levels of hs–CRP found to be associated with deleterious effects on endothelial function and platelets, which increase risk of atherosclerotic plaque formation. Keeping this in view, it is important to assess the global risk of CAD in patients and in asymptomatic individuals, using a combination of clinical assessment and measurement of biomarkers like hs-CRP as inflammatory markers and to correlate them with that of CAD, for early intervention of life saving prophylaxis and as a prognostic marker. Aim and Objectives: To estimate the levels of hs-CRP in diagnosed patients with acute myocardial infarction and to correlate the level of hs-CRP with the outcome of the patient with acute myocardial infarction within (0-7) day. Material and Method: A cross sectional study was conducted on randomly selected patients with clinically diagnosed acute myocardial infection admitted in NSCB Medical College, Jabalpur. After a thorough clinical examination and history taking, the procedure was explained to the subjects. 3ml of venous blood was collected to study the level of hs-CRP in each subject. Method of estimation: hs-CRP was estimated by Quantitative Nephelometric method. Results: There was a male dominant presentation of acute myocardial infarction with sex ratio of 5.6: 1. Maximum presentation of acute MI was between 5th to 6th decade with mean age of 55.33 years. hs-CRP level were significantly high in acute MI patients with more complications like MR, CCF, Arrhythmia, low ejection fraction and increased ST segment elevation. hs-CRP level were significantly high in deranged lipid profile and in increase CPK-MB levels. Conclusion: Acute MI is a devastating global health problem with rising incidence in developing countries like India. In our study, hs-CRP levels are significantly high in short and long term complication of acute MI. Thus, in patient of Acute MI, a low cost simple investigation, hs-CRP can be highly sensitive independent biomarker for acute MI, its complications and severity.

  38. Sanjay Kumar Sinha, Kaushlendra Prasad Singh and Shailesh Chandra Gupta

    Cheilitis granulomatosa is a chronic swelling of the lip due to granulomatous inflammation. It is a rare inflammatory disorder first described by Miescher in 1945. It is a monosymptomatic form or an incomplete variant of Melkersson-Rosenthal syndrome; a triad of recurrent orofacial edema, recurrent facial nerve palsy and fissuring of the tongue. As the etiology remains unknown, treatment of cheilitis granulomatosa is very challenging. We here by present a case of cheilitis granulomatosa in a 42-year-old female patient with swelling of lower lip for last eight years. This case highlights the importance of extensive investigations in the diagnosis of this lesion as the findings mimic many other granulomatous conditions.

  39. Ramachandra and Usha Marath

    Over the past several decades, the phenomena of leadership continue to predominate in mainstream business and healthcare literature. Working as a nurse leader requires complex skills and competencies that could affect not only staff, but also patients. Leadership development is a lifelong process. As nurses progress throughout their careers, they will face new challenges. The need for change will always exist and as the circumstances of nurse’s lives are constantly altered, the leadership skills also need to be refined, renewed and further developed. Thus the study was conducted to find the impact of the Leadership Development Package on leadership competencies of the participants. The aim of the study was also to identify the organizational climate that was present in the organization and to determine the satisfaction of participants with the leadership development package. Finally, it was also to find the readiness and commitment of key management personnel towards the implementation of leadership development package in the institution. A qualitative research approach with a descriptive research design was employed. 60 head nurses and 60 undergraduate nursing students in experimental and control groups participated in the study. The data was collected using the organizational climate rating scale, focus group discussion format for head nurses and undergraduate nursing students and structured interview format for the key management personnel. The findings of the study revealed that the head nurses and undergraduate nursing students found the LDP to be very useful and were highly satisfied with it. The key management personnel found the need to develop leadership skills among nursing personnel’s and were ready to implement the LDP as per the institutional needs.

  40. Monika Gupta and Dharamveer Yadav

    Background: Acute Pancreatitis is usually a short-lived inflammatory response to pancreatic gland injury. This study had been proposed to distinguish the etiology of acute pancreatitis by serum lipase/amylase ratio and association between serum creatinine and development of pancreatic necrosis in patients with acute pancreatitis. Materials & Methods: Total five hundred and thirty patients (352 males and 178 females) with acute pancreatitis were selected for the study. The diagnosis of acute pancreatitis was based on clinical evaluation, Computed Tomography findings and biochemical parameters. Based on the etiology, the groups were divided into alcoholic, biliary and miscellaneous. Pancreatic necrosis was assessed by contrast-enhanced computed tomography. Serum creatinine, lipase, amylase and lipase / amylase ratio were calculated and statistically analyzed. Results: At serum lipase/amylase ratio>4.0, sensitivity and specificity for predicting alcoholic group was 61.3 % and 56.0 % respectively. Using 48 h serum creatinine>1.8 mg/dl for pancreatic necrosis, the sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive values were 48.0%, 96.4%, 58.0% and 83.6% respectively. Conclusions: Serum lipase to amylase ratio greater than 4.0 could be used to differentiate between alcoholic and non-alcoholic patients. An increase in serum creatinine within the first 48 h is strongly associated with the development of pancreatic necrosis.

  41. Muntadher A. AlSaidi

    Background: Citrullinated proteins have been discovered in the joints of patients with rheumatoid arthritis but not in other forms of joint disease. The diagnostic, predictive and prognostic role of anti-cyclic citrullinated peptide (CCP) antibodies in rheumatoid arthritis (RA) patients is widely accepted. Moreover, detection of these antibodies in subjects presenting with undifferentiated arthritis (UA) is associated with a significant risk to develop the disease. Anti-cyclic citrullinated peptide (anti-CCP) antibody testing is particularly useful in the diagnosis of rheumatoid arthritis, with high specificity, presence early in the disease process, and ability to identify patients who are likely to have severe disease and irreversible damage. Material and Methods: A total of 38 patients with RA were included in this study. Anti-CCP antibody was determined with enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Results: Anti-CCP positivity was significantly higher in female group 12 (14.45%) than in male 2 (2.41%). The results indicated that anti-CCP positivity for RA patients was 14 (16.86%) when compared with the negative group 69 (83.14%). Conclusion: The detection of anti-CCP antibodies is a useful diagnostic tool, particularly in the early stages of the disease, and a predictive factor in terms of disease progression and radiological damage

  42. Rafael Toledo de Moraes Antoniolli, Pedro Augusto Vilela Amui, Heloisa Oliveira dos Santos, Raquel Maria de Oliveira Pires, Barbara Gomes Ribeiro, Tatiana Botelho Fantazzini, Carla Massimo Caldeira and Edila Vilela de Resende Von Pinho

    The period of germination is a determinant factor that influences the establishment of seedlings in field, mainly in those regions with adverse climate conditions. Due to this, the breeding programs has creating or adapting new cultivars for these conditions, being the saline soils one of the mainly concerns. Facing this, the objective in this work was to verify the physiological quality and the expression of the enzyme isocitrate-lyase in soybean seeds submitted to saline stress, were used seeds of five cultivars of soybean (Savana, Conquista, Valiosa, BRS Celeste and Baliza), and five saline concentrations (0, 25, 50, 75 and 100 mol.m-3 of NaCl) and with these seeds were realized the germination test, realizing the first count of germination with five days and the final count with eight days. Was also evaluated the enzymatic expression of isocitrate-lyase. It was conclude that, all cultivars presented lower percentage of germination when placed in conditions of higher concentration of salinity. The cultivar Savana is that which presents higher tolerance to the salinity and the cultivar Conquista is the most susceptible. The expression of isocitrate-lyase varies with the increase of saline concentration. The soybean seeds of cultivars Savana and Conquista presented higher expression of isocitrate-lyase enzyme according the increase of salinity.

  43. Dr. Samar A. Abdeen and Dr. MohdZuriGhani

    This article presents an innovative program, Al-Madinah Program, which focuses on developing creative thinking abilities. The creative thinking abilities are considered key aspects that promote suburb outcomes from which the students are enabled for future careers. Moreover, Al-Madinah Program is beneficial to develop verbal fluency to the talented EFL students, The Al-Madinah Program is founded on modern educational and talent theories. The scientific model of Al-Madinah Program is based on three fundamental aspects: Cognitive processes, Sentimental processes, and Program strategies. Accordingly, the Al-Madinah Program becomes further specialized in the needs of talented students by developing their abilities through an enrichment program that includes many strategies for developing creative thinking ability.

  44. Abaedha Susan Kuriakose, Anjali, S., Ann Mary Paul, Maria C Kuriakose and Neethu Poulose

    The increased HMGco A reductase therapy in the field of cardiovascular disease can be well explained by potent LDL and total cholesterol lowering ability. About 5 to 7.78 percentage of Indian population receiving daily statin therapy. Since statins are less suspected for its long term events, the improved understanding of long term effects of commonly used statins are necessary to reduce the accumulation of drug induced complications in hospitals. Long term effects of statins include neuropsychiatry adverse effects like cognitive impairment, dementia and short term memory loss. Diabetics, risk of carcinoma, interstial lung disease, and myopathy were few among vast data. In CAD and CKD patients, long-term statin therapy reduced the rates ADR and death rates and also statins can decrease the intra-hepatic vascular resistance in a cirrhotic liver and improves the flow mediated vasodilatation of liver vasculature. In the treatment of neurological diseases like multiple sclerosis, stroke and Parkinsonism statins shows a benefited effect. Statins are used for treating endometriosis, excessive angiogenesis and invasion of endometrial endothelial cells which is associated with locally elevated inflammatory cytokinesis. The improved understanding of long term effects of commonly used statin can considerably reduce accumulating drug induced complications in hospitals.

  45. Dayliane Bernardes de Andrade, Andrea dos Santos Oliveira, CrislaineAparecida Gomes Pinto, Raquel Maria de Oliveira Pires, Ariadne Santos Oliveira, Marcelo Augusto da Silva and Maria Laene Moreira de Carvalho

    Nowadays, one of the major problems of soybeans production in Brazil is the presence of green seeds in lots with drastic consequences on physiological quality. The development of methods for detection of green seeds by image analysis technique can speed up the process and reduce the subjectivity of manual methods. To evaluate the use and efficiency of the equipment SAS ® (Seed Analysis System) was used five lots of commercial soybean seeds, from which samples were prepared with different proportions of green seeds (5% to 50%). The evaluation of the samples were performed by visual analysis, capture and image processing using the SAS ® version Pro. To review the characteristics of the seeds were built Artificial Neural Networks (ANNs) using color characteristics, histograms of color and texture channels. A Network of Decision (ND) which allowed measure each side of the seed and obtain classification as green or yellow. Through the image analysis of the seeds was possible to determine the efficiency of the equipment in the detection of green seeds at level hit 99.51% in relation to the visual analysis, thus indicating the possibility of using the SAS ® equipment to detecting soybean green seeds.

  46. Ariadne Santos Oliveira, Marcela Carlota Nery, Karina Guimarães Ribeiro, Adriana Souza Rocha, Priscila Torres Cunha and Raquel Maria de Oliveira Pires

    The objective of this study was to adjust the accelerated aging and electrical conductivity tests, to evaluate the physiological potential of lots from Brachiariabrizantha Marandu cultivar seeds, represented by four lots. For the accelerated aging test, seeds were submitted to traditional accelerated aging and with saturated NaCl solution and five periods of aging, 0, 24, 48, 72 and 96 h. For the electrical conductivity test, seeds were submitted to 12 periods of imbibitions in water for 2, 4, 6, 8, 10, 12, 14, 16, 18, 20, 22 and 24 h, using samples of 25 seeds in 25 mL and 50 mL, 50 seeds in 50 mL and 75 mL of water. To characterize the profile of lots, were determined moisture content, germination tests, first count of germination, speed of germination, initial stand, emergence, and speed of emergence index. The accelerated aging test makes possible the separation of lots of B. brinzathacv Marandu by the method with saturated NaCl solution for 72 h. For the electrical conductivity test, the imbibition period during 14 h using 50 seeds in 50 mL to cv Marandu is appropriate for evaluating the seed physiological potential.

  47. Luiza do Nascimento Antônio, Hugo Cesar Rodrigues Moreira Catão, Heloisa Oliveira dos Santos, Raquel Maria de Oliveira Pires, Barbara Gomes Ribeiro, Edila Vilela de Resende Von Pinho, Maria Laene Moreira de Carvalho and Carla Massimo Caldeira

    The high quality seeds use for the pumpkin fruit production is an important factor because it is directly related to productivity. The objective of this study was to evaluate the efficiency of x-ray test in the physiological and biochemical quality of pumpkin seeds (Curcubita moschata). Seeds of three different lots were submitted to x-ray test in Faxitron x-ray device, MX20 model, DC-12 option, with an intensity of 18 kV per 20 seconds. After, the seeds were separated into three different classes: full, damaged and translucent, being these submitted to germination and emergence tests using 10 replicates of 10 seeds from each lot. Tetrazolium test still was performed in the remaining seeds. For the biochemical quality assessment was verified the activity of enzymes catalase and superoxide dismutase from different types of classes and lots of seeds. The use of x-ray technique is effective for detecting abnormalities in pumpkin seeds that negatively affect germination. The enzymes catalase expression and superoxide dismutase is directly related to the seeds quality and through these is possible to separate the lots in the same classes established by x-ray test.

  48. Hauwa, S.M., Modibbo, A.A., Bello, H. and Sudi, P.D.

    This study was designed to evaluate the anti diabetic activity of aqueous extract of Adansonia digitata fruit pulp in alloxan induced diabetic rats. Phytochemical screening, promate and elemental analyses of Adansonia digitata fruit pulp were determined. Alloxan was used to induce diabetes in diabetic groups at concentration of 8 0 mg/kg body weight intraperitonially. Albino rats were divided into seven groups, the first three groups serve as normal, diabetic and metformin controls while the remaining were treated with 100, 200, 500 and 1000 mg/kg body weight of Adansonia digitata fruit pulp aqueous extract for a period of 28 days and weekly glucose levels were determined. Phytochemical screening shows the presence of saponins, tannins, flavonoids, glycosides and absence of rennins and alkaloids. Proximate analysis showed high content of carbohydrate, (78.8 %), moisture (6.5 %), crude fiber (5.7 %), ash (5.5 %), protein (3.2 %) and fat (0.3 %). Adansonia digitata fruit pulp contain high concentration of potassium, calcium, magnesium, iron and low concentration of copper, lead and cadmium were not detected. There was significant increased in diabetic control of glucose level. Groups treated with Adansonia digitata fruit pulp extract and metformin significantly reduced. The highest activity of the extract was observed at concentration of 500 mg/kg body weight which posses 61.5 % activity of metformin drug. The finding of this study suggests that Adansonia digitata fruit pulp extract posses a hypoglycaemic effect at 500 mg/kg boy weight, therefore it can be used in management of diabetes mellitus.

  49. Felipe Pierobon, Marcela Pedroso Mendes, Heloisa Oliveira dos Santos, Isabela Pereira de Lima, Cínthia Souza Rodrigues, NatáliaBotega Alves, Adriano Teodoro Bruzi, Moizés de Souza Reis, and Flávia Barbosa Silva Botelho

    Among physiological disorders, chalkiness is one of the main problems in rice breeding since it directly affects grain quality and rice price in the market. Chalkiness can occur due both genotypic and environmental effects, including malformed grains, moisture content, pest attack, and water stress. Therefore, the study of mechanisms influencing the expression of chalkiness can greatly help breeders to deal with this problem. The objective of this study was to access the influence of water supply on the occurrence of chalkiness in rice grains of twenty elite inbred lines from the Upland Rice Breeding Program from the Brazilian public research institutions UFLA, EMBRAPA and EPAMIG. Lines were evaluated for grain chalkiness in two irrigated environments and in a non-irrigated one. The experiments were carried out in the 2013/2014 growing season following a randomized block design with three replications. The proportion of chalkiness was accounted of the number of chalky grains of a random sample of 100 grains taken from 10 random panicles of each plot. Genotype x environment interaction was significant in the combined analysis of variance of all environments, so progenies performance varied across environments. Lines showed variability for chalkiness on the non-irrigated environment and on the mean of all environments, but they did not differed on the irrigated environments separately, indicating that the expression of chalkiness in this study occurred mostly due to the environment rather than to genotypes. Lines evaluated in the non-irrigated environment showed a significant large proportion of chalky grains compared to the proportion found in the irrigated environments, suggesting that water supply influenced the expression of grain chalkiness. Lines CMG 1987 and CMG 1698 showed significant tolerance of chalkiness in the non-irrigated condition.

  50. Roseane Maria Evangelista Oliveira, Amanda Maria Teixeira Lago, Carlos José Pimenta, Tatiana Abreu Reis, Isabela Emilioreli Nogueira and Heloisa Oliveira dos Santos, Maria Emília de Souza Gomes Pimenta

    It had as objective to evaluate, by chemical and physical analyzes, breaded prepared with mechanically separated meat (MSM) increasing inclusion, of waste from Nile tilapia filleting, subjected to two cooking methods. It was observed a decrease in moisture and increase in lipid, protein and ash of baked and fried breaded on both treatments. The MSM increasing inclusion produced greater water loss, increased lipids and calcium. Among the amino acids, lysine was the most abundant. There was a predominance of fatty acids palmitic, oleic and linoleic, giving to the breaded nutritionally healthy characteristics. The color analysis indicated lower L* for fried breaded, increase of b* in baked breaded and increase in a*, with MSM inclusion. The shear force showed higher levels of hardness for roasted samples with low MSM levels. It was found through research that it is feasible to use MSM in the breaded preparation and according to the analyzed variables, baked is the ideal cooking method.

  51. Bobby, D., Vinodha, R. and Kumudha, P.

    Diabetes mellitus is frequently associated with cardiovascular risk factors such as hypertension and dyslipidemia. Early identification of risk factors of cardiovascular disease will decrease the morbidity in type 2 diabetes mellitus. This study was done to assess the prevalence of isolated systolic hypertension among type 2 diabetic population. 40 cases of type 2 diabetes mellitus with duration of 8 to 12 yrs and 40 controls of both males and females in the age group of 40 to 65 years were selected. Laboratory investigations like fasting glucose and blood pressure were taken. In the present study the levels of fasting glucose was high and widening of pulse pressure was found in the type II diabetics compared to controls. Thus this study suggests the importance of early detection of isolated systolic hypertension in type II diabetes mellitus and will reduce the prevalence of complications in diabetics.

  52. Mohammed, I. U., Omotola, S., Muhammad, A., Kwaifa, N. M. and Aliyu, U.

    The effect of organic manure on the symptoms development of Iris Yellow Spot Virus Disease (IYSVD) caused byiris yellow spot virus (IYSV) (of the genus Tospovirus, family Bunyaviridae) in organic onion production was investigated. The randomized complete block design (RCBD), with three replications was used for the experiment. The treatments consisted of six organic manure combinations. These were 0% manure (control), 100% farm yard manure (FYM) equivalent to 4kg/plot, 100% poultry manure (PM) equivalent to 1kg/plot, 50% FYM plus 50% PM, 75% FYM plus 25% PM and 25% FYM plus 75% PM, denoted as T0, T1, T2, T3 ,T4 and T5, respectively. Use of PM in combination with FYM leads to fewer IYSVD incidences than when each manure was used alone. Treatments with no manure (T0) applied leads to high IYSVD incidence 26% and 37% at seven and 10 weeks after transplanting (WAT). The recommended rates of 120Kg N/ha for increased organic onion productivity were identified as; 3Kg FYM mix 0.25Kg PM/plot and 1Kg FYM mix with 0.75 PM/plot. Use of these rates resulted in high bulb and leaf yields of onion 14.58 and 18.75t ha1 respectively. The information generated in this study has greatly improved our understanding of the interactions between the three factors; the host, pathogen and the influence of organic manure, in the IYSVD-pathosystem, which would be highly useful in designing effective disease management strategies for increased organic onion production.

  53. Haynna Fernandes Abud, Magnum de Sousa Pereira, Diego de Sousa Pereira, Nayara Roberto Gonçalves and Antonio Marcos Esmeraldo Bezerra

    The storage of seeds under appropriated conditions of temperature and relative humidity reduces the breathing process and thus decreases the process of deterioration. It was aimed to evaluate the physiological quality of mandacaru seeds stored in two different environments and three packages. The treatments were disposed in a split-plot arrangement, in a completely randomized design with four repetitions. The plots received the combination of two storage environments (cold chamber and natural environment) and three packages (multilayer paper bag, plastic bag and glass), while in the subplots consisted the periods of storage (0, 2, 4 and 6 months). After each storage period, were evaluated the seeds moisture, the percentage, speed index and mean time of germination. The cold chamber is more adequate than the natural environment to storage of mandacaru seeds during six months. In the cold chamber, the three packages are efficient to maintain the physiological quality of mandacaru seeds. In the natural environment, it is recommended to use of permeable packages to remain the viability of mandacaru seeds during six months.

  54. Sangeetha, S., Senthilkumaar, P. and Deepa Rani

    Anthropogenic activities were major causes of stress on natural ecosystems. Pesticides based Agricultural activities have been identified as major contributors to environmental stress, which affects all ecosystem components. The present study was conducted to estimate the toxicity of three pesticides such as Endosulfan, Chlorpyrifos and Carbaryl on the Eye stalk, Thoracic ganglion, Gills of the fiddler crab, Uca triangularis by histological and biochemical analysis. The LC50 (24h) value for Endosulfan, Chlorpyrifos and Carbaryl was estimated at 1.3 ppm, 1.723 ppm and 0.301 ppm respectively. Experimental group of Uca triangularis treated with Endosulfan (1.3ppm), Chlorpyrifos (1.723ppm) and Carbaryl (0.301ppm) showed reduced neurosecretory material and the neurosecretory cells were in distorted condition. The biochemical analysis showed that decrease in protein, carbohydrate, lipid content which was due to enhanced proteolytic activity, glycogenolysis and stress caused by toxicity of pesticides.

  55. Juan Manuel Loeza-Corte, Ernesto Díaz-López, Alejandro-Morales-Ruíz, Edgar Josanine Vargas-Ramírez, Arturo Olivar-Hernández, Rodolfo Clemente Reséndíz-Melgar and Erika Teresa Díaz-Oreján

    With the objective of known to the effect of application of potassium on theagronomic yield and biological and postharvest of inflorescences of sunflower, two experiments was carried, one under field conditions and another at laboratory. In laboratory, the variables was evaluated under randomized block design where at treatments was four levels of fertilization: 0, 50, 100 y 150 kg ha-1 of K2O. In laboratory, the variables vase life, diameter of chapter, percentage of mature tubular flowers and water consumed, was evaluated under a design completely randomized. The results indicated that the application of 100 and 150 kg ha-1 of potassium increased the agronomic yield, biological, vase life and diameter of chapter. In this work it was concluded, that the potassium applied in the crop of sunflower affected positively.

  56. Roseane Maria Evangelista Oliveira, Sára Maria Chalfoun, Carlos J. Pimenta, Cínthia Rodarte Parreira, Lucas Nardelli Chalfoun de Souza and Maria Emília de S.G. Pimenta

    Currently, coffee is being recognized as beneficial to human health for acting as a stimulator in several areas of the organism, and being considered a functional nutraceutical plant. In the present research had as an objective to study the effects of caffeinated and decaffeinated coffee consumption on the health of adult volunteers. Forty-eight individuals were separated into three age groups, 20 to 29, 30 to 39 and 40 to 50 years, which were subdivided both into inactive and sedentary groups as well as by type of coffee consumption (caffeinated or decaffeinated). The participants were instructed how to prepare the drink and how much to consume daily for six months. Clinical exams and ergometric tests were conducted before and after six-month of study. After that all of the data were collected, they were statistically analyzed with the SISVAR, program using the Scott-Knott test and the Student t test at the level of 5% of probability. The statistical analysis verified that levels of total, LDL and HDL cholesterol were reduced after the consumption of coffee. There was an increase in ergometric test duration time, oxygen volume consumed, metabolic equivalent and systolic blood pressure with the consumption of decaffeinated coffee, and there was a reduction in systolic blood pressure and heart rate by consumption of caffeinated coffee. The consumption of coffee, caffeinated and decaffeinated, promoted improvement in or didn´t interfere with the appraised parameters, suggesting that caffeine isn´t the component responsible for the observed alterations and that coffee has characteristics that allow for its characterization as a functional food.

  57. Karkaz M. Thalij and Funda K. Guler

    The antifungal activity of Alcoholic Medical Extracts (AMPE) of Leaf Thyme, Thymus mastichina L. Lamiaceae (AMPE-1); Leaf Rosemary, Rosmarinus officinalis L., Lamiaceae (AMPE-2); Cloves, Eugenia caryophyllus (AMPE-3); Bark, Cinnamomum zeylanicum (AMPE-4) and Roots Ginger, Zingiber officinale L. Zingiberaceae (AMPE-5), on fungal species suchas Aspergillus flavus, A.niger and A.ochraceuswere evaluated by a standard disc diffusion method after determining the activated agents in each medical plants. Besides, the effects of each AMPE on the ability of each fungal on mycotoxins producing were estimated. The results showed that AMPE contained the most activated agentssuch as Flavonoids, Polyphenols, phenolic glycosides, tannins, alkaloids, saponins and cyanogenic glycosides compounds that’s assessed. The minimum inhibition concentrations for each of AMPE against Aspergillus flavus, A.niger and A.ochraceus showed an inhibitory activation at 25 mg/ml in some AMPE .The inhibition activity was found to increase with the higher concentrations of other serial concentrations. The values of 25, 50 and 100 mg/ml from each AMPE antifungals activity revealed by the standard disc diffusion method showed that the inhibition activity were significantly (p<0.05) increased with the increased of each AMPE concentration. The concentration of 100 mg from each AMPE types was found to have an inhibitory activation at a range between 12 to 19 mm for the fungal strains. The results of the AMPE type's effects on mycotoxins produced from the fungal strains revealed that AMPE-1 and AMPE-2 at a concentration of 100 mg/ml increased significantly the Aflatoxin B1 and ochratoxin A production while other concentrations of AMPE types decreased significantly mycotoxins productions.

  58. Periyasamy, M., Christobher, S., Syed Mohamed, H.E., SadiqBukhari, A., ShahulHameed, P. and Sankaran Pillai, G.

    Natural radioactivity is widespread in the earth environment and it exists in various geological formations such as earth crust, rocks, soils, plants, water and air. The natural radiation exposure level around the globe usually varies by different factors. The natural ambient gamma survey in tobacco cultivated field soil samples along Dindigul and Erode districts of Tamilnadu, India, has been carried out using a The ECIL, Scintillometer, type SM 141E. The total average concentration of ambient gamma is found as 8.54 (µRh 1). The total average absorbed dose rate in the study areas is found to be 74.03 (nGyh 1), where as the annual effective dose rate has an average value of 0.085 (mSvy 1). The difference in the results may due to variation in the altitudes of region and unequal distribution of gamma radiation in these locations. The overall results depict that even lesser amount of radiation exposure is producing more problems to human beings.

  59. Karuppusamy, S. and Ravichandran, V.

    During the collection of genus Solanum L. in India, we have collected some interesting specimens of Solanum in Munnar hill ranges of Western Ghat, India. After the critical identification the species was identified as S.muricatum Ait. It is vegetable fruit yielding plant native to South America commonly called as Pepino. The present record of this species is a new addition to the Flora of Western Ghats. A detailed description and Photographs are provided here for easy identification of a new vegetable fruit plant.

  60. Suat Dikel, Orhan Tufan Eroldoğan, Ilgın Özşahinoğlu, Pınar Mumoğullarında and Hatice Asuman Yılmaz

    This study was conducted to determine the effects of size grading on growth performance of white sea bream (Diplodus sargus) juveniles. Wild-caught fish were size sorted into two different groups: small (5.6 g) and large (7.5 g) and then four experimental groups were assigned as 100% small group (S100), 25% large + 75% small group (S75), 50% small + 50% large group (S50), and finally 75% small + 25% large group (S25). Twenty fish were stocked into each tank (450 L) connected with a flow through system in three replicates per treatment. The juveniles were fed to satiation with a commercial feed for 60 days. According to final results, specific growth rate for all periods was similar in all experimental groups (P>0.05). No significant differences were found in survival rate (P>0.05). On the other hand small fish final weight of S50 was significantly higher than the others (P<0.05). There were significant difference between FCR of graded group (S100) and mixed groups (S25, S50 and S75) (P<0.05). The results have demonstrated that the larger individuals in the present study did not suppress growth of the smallest individuals. The fish in S100 were adversely affected by the absence of large fish and this was postulated to be due to poor competition for food acquisition in this group. For this reason size grading seems to be unnecessary to improve growth and survival of white sea bream of around 5.6-7.5 g.

  61. Shinde, V. V., Gavade, R. T., Dubale J. J. and Chavan, S. S.

    A field experiment was carried out at Agriculture Research Station, Awashi, Tal.Khed, Dist.Ratnagiri under Dr. Balasaheb Sawant Konkan Krishi Vidyapeeth, Dapoli during the year 2012 to 2015 in in randomized block design with five treatments with four replications comprising different levels of N fertilizer (150,200,250,300,350 kg ha-1) in two splits i.e 45 days and 90 days of planting, respectively. Application of 200 kg N ha-1 showed marked improvement in growth and yield attributes without affecting the quality parameter i.e curcumin content of turmeric. Thus, increasing dose of N upto 200 kg N ha-1(T2) resulted significantly better with respect to improvement in plant height (110.93 cm), number of leaves plant-1, leaf area(cm), fresh rhizome yield (40.95 plot ha-1), fresh rhizome yield (22.93 t ha-1), fresh mother rhizome yield (7.08 t ha-1) and finger yield (15.80 t ha-1) over control whereas it was at par with number of tiller per plant (2.81), number of leaves plant-1(18.93) and leaf area(4962.4 cm).The net returns at optimum dose of N (200 kg N ha-1) were Rs.91533200 ha-1with benefit cost ratio 2.52. However, there were no variable changes found in soil PH, EC (dSm-1) and organic carbon content (%).It can be concluded from the experiment that optimum dose of N fertilizer is necessary for sustaining soil fertility and productivity of turmeric.

  62. Twumasi, K., Samlafo, B.V. and Addo Glover

    The quality of domestic water supplied to households in the Effutu Municipality was evaluated using twenty-two physico-chemical parameters. Pearson rank correlation coefficient and an independent one-tailed student t-test were used to analyse the results. Except for colour, no significant statistical differences were observed between the samples from the headworks (HW) and the households. The correlation between the headworks (Hw) and household in terms of the other parameters varied from 0.99-1.0. Generally, water samples from both the Hw and the households were potable by WHO standards. However, the presence of total coliform ranging from 10.0 cfu/100.0mL at V7 (Pupils) to 489.25 cfu/100.0 mL at V1 (Roman school) and faecal coliform of 0.75 cfu/100.0 mL at V8 (New Winneba) to 20.50 cfu/100.0 mL at V4 (Junction)in some household samples were of much concern as these levels have a high tendency to compromise the health status of consumers. Occasional breaks in pipe-lines and water rationing were found to be some of the causes of external waters infiltrating into the distribution systems. Passing pipelines through gutters and illegal connections by individuals should be discouraged by Ghana Water Company (GWC) Ltd.

  63. Tejal Vedak, Namrata Kulkarni, Vandit Trivedi, Bhasker Vyas, Satessh Siingh, Rajendra Musale and Mangesh Bhalerao

    Background: The majority of infected wounds are polymicrobial and their treatment is complicated owing to relatively slow growth of organisms and growing resistance of anaerobic bacteria to antimicrobial agents. Hence, the present study was initiated to assess the efficacy of Povidone iodine alone and in combination with Ornidazole and Metronidazole in anaerobic isolates. Methods: Brucella blood agar plates were inoculated with suspension of anaerobic clinical isolates of Peptostreptococcus magnus, Clostridium perfringens, and Bacteroides fragilis. After solidification, 100 µL drug solutions of each antimicrobial agent were added, incubated in anaerobic conditions. Zone of inhibitions were measured after 7-9 days to determine minimum inhibitory concentration. Results: Combination of Povidone iodine 5% and Ornidazole 1% was the most effective combination in inhibiting the growth of Bacteroides fragilis and Clostridium perfringens whereas the combination of Povidone iodine 5% and Metronidazole 1% was more effective in inhibiting the growth of Peptostreptococcus magnus than Povidone iodine alone / other drug combinations. Conclusion: The present study reveals that addition of Ornidazole or Metronidazole to Povidone iodine was more effective, than Povidone iodine alone, in inhibiting the growth of all tested anaerobic bacteria namely Bacteroides fragilis, Clostridium perfringens, and Peptostreptococcus magnus.

  64. Pavithra, S., Rajendra Krishna, G. V., Jayanthi Reddy, P., Krishna Prasad K., Bhavana, M., Ravali, G. and Swathi, D.

    Mirabilis jalapa is a medicinal plant which belongs to the family Nyctaginaceae, commonly called the four o’clock flowering plant or marvel of peru, which is the most commonly grown ornamental plant and is native to tropical South America, and introduced in North America, mainly in southern, eastern and western states. However there are some disagreements about where it came from originally: Mexico, Chile and India. It was officially botanically recorded in the year 1753, although it has been long distributed as ornamental plant through the tropics of the world it is a popular garden ornamental in southern climate zones, where it grows rapidly and bears flowers that open in late afternoon, hence the common name. It is been used as folklore remedies around the world. The present study was carried out to explore the protein content, phytochemical constituents and antimicrobial properties of Mirabilis jalapa against eight both gram negative and positive test organisms in comparison with standard antibiotics streptomycin. The result reveal that the leaf extract of Mirabilis jalapa has high amount of protein content and also has very good anti-microbial activity against both gram negative and gram positive organism when compared to standard antibiotics streptomycin. The ethanol extract has shown significant activity against all the organisms but rather more towards Shigella dysenteriae, followed by Escherichia coli, Lacidophilus, klebsiella pneumonia, Pseudomonas and Staphylococcus aureus. Similarly, petroleum ether, chloroform, and aqueous extract of plant also showed good inhibition against Vibro cholera followed by Pseudomonas, Staphylococcus aureus. This indicates that the leaf extract of Mirabilis jalapa has potential antimicrobial activity with concentration dependent and can fight against these organisms and could be a good substitute to the contemporary medicines.

  65. Poonam Sisodia and Balwinder Sadana

    The corn extruded snacks were supplemented with moth bean and garden cress in order to enhance the nutritional quality of the snacks. The garden cress (GC) was added to different extruded snacks at the level of 2.5, 5%, 7.5% and 10% level while, moth bean (MB) was added at the level of 20 % to the corn flour. The developed snacks were acceptable till 7.5% level of garden cress incorporation. The organoleptically acceptable snacks were analysed for nutritional evaluation. All the developed extruded snacks incorporating MB and GC were high in protein ranging from 15.08 to 16.9g/100g in comparison to the corn extruded snack (9.1 g). The iron and calcium content of the snacks ranged between 18.4 to 21.3 mg/100g and 54.6 to 57.3mg/100g DM respectively, which were significantly (p ≤ 0.05) higher than the control. The essential amino acids like methionine and cystine content of the snacks was significantly higher than control, it ranged from 105.3 to 109.5 mg/100g DM and 102.3 to 109.2mg/ 100gDM, whereas their content in corn extruded snack (control) was 84.6 and 99.2mg/100gDM. The lysine content of MB and GC snacks was significantly (p ≤ 0.05) higher than the corn extruded snacks. The antinutrients like oxalate and phytate content were low ranging from 1.3 to 2.1 mg/100g and 128 to 144 mg/100g respectively. The developed snacks had high protein, iron, iron bioavailabilty, invitro carbohydrate and protein digestibility.

  66. Samatha Talari and Rama Swamy Nanna

    The present investigation has been carried out to study the influence of AgNO3 on in vitro zygotic embryoculture in Oroxylum indicum (L) Kurz (Bignoniaceae), a vulnerable, medicinal forest tree. The zygotic embryos were cultured on MS medium augmented with different concentrations (1.0-7.0 mg/L) of BAP/KIN/TDZ individually and also in combination with 0.1 mg/L AgNO3. More number of multiple shoots (20±0.82) /explant was observed at 5.0 mg/LBAP. Whereas 0.1 mg/L AgNO3 +3.0 mg/L TDZ had induced the maximum number of shoots (32±0.02)/explant in comparison to all other PGRs used. When the explants with multiple shoots subcultured on the same concentration and combination of PGRs showed the enhancement in multiple shoots proliferation. The micro-shoots developed in vitro were excised, shifted on to MS +1.0 mg/L GA3 for elongation. These elongated micro-shoots were cultured on ½ strength MS + 20 gm/L sucrose+0.5- 3.0 mg/L IAA/IBA/NAA for in vitro rooting. Ex vitro rooting was also observed in micro-shoots developed through zygotic embryoculture. After in vitro and ex vitro rooting, plantlets were successfully acclimatized followed by transfer into research field and were found to be morphologically similar to donor plants. Thus, the protocol developed during the present investigation can be utilized for the mass scale multiplication and conservation of this valuable vulnerable medicinal plant.

  67. Pratibha Rawal, Rajendra Singh Adhikari and Asha Tiwari

    Biological control of soil borne plant pathogens is a potential alternative to agrochemicals that are harmful to human health and for the environment. Antifungal potential of acetone extracts of four medicinal plants (Acorus calamus, Arctium lappa, Origanum vulgare and Thymus serpyllum) of different families were tested against Fusarium oxysporum f.sp. lycopersici causal agent of wilting in Tomato. Leaves of four medicinal plants were examined for antifungal activity in vitro using the Poisoned food technique. Among four plant species tested, acetone extract of Arctium lappa has recorded significant antifungal activity against the test fungi. Whereas, other plant extracts showed moderate to minimum antifungal activity. These findings suggests that some plant extracts tested possess antifungal activities against Fusarium oxysporum and could be used as potential antifungal agents for the control of fungal plant diseases.

  68. Vikas Mohture

    Air is mixture of various biotic and abiotic molecules. Biotic molecule includes pollen, fungal spores, insect, insect parts and trichomes etc. These biotic molecules directly inhale by human being along with the air. Fungal spores are known for their ability to cause diseases in plants and also in human being. A survey of air borne fungal spores was carried out for one year from December 2012 - November 2013 to assess the qualitative and quantitative occurrence of fungal spore during different months of the year.27fungal typesand 6 other types were identified out of the total catch of 7111 spores.Ten fungal types recorded more than 1% of the annual total fungal catch. Cladosporium formed the major component of the aerospora constituting 19.42% of thetotal fungal catch followed by Aspergilli (16.58%), Nigrospora (8.87%), Smut spores (6.54%), Alternaria (6.12%), Curvularia (4.42%), Uredospores (2.53%) and Pithomyces (2.42%). Highest fungal counts were obtained in the month of August 2013 and lowest in the month of April 2013. A significant positive correlation was found in fungal counts with temperature, relative humidity and rainfall.

  69. Sharath Chandra, T and Hari Kumar, A.

    In this article, review on hydrogen internal combustion engines is discussed. The objective of this paper is to provide a means of waste heat and renewable hydrogen based fuel utilization. Energy, once used, is not regenerative. This means that, during any energy activation, we are filling up the space and Planet with parasite in the forms of energy (Anergy) or Global warming. The development of a high efficiency, low emissions electrical generator will lead to establishing a path for renewable hydrogen based fuel utilization. The increasingly worldwide problem regarding rapid economy development and a relative shortage of energy, the internal combustion engine exhaust waste heat and environmental pollution has been more emphasized heavily recently. Out of the total heat supplied to the engine in the form of fuel, approximately, 30 to 40% is converted into useful mechanical work; the remaining heat is expelled to the environment through exhaust gases and engine cooling systems, resulting in to entropy rise and serious environmental pollution, so it is required to utilized waste heat into useful work. The recovery and utilization of waste heat not only conserves fuel (fossil fuel) but also reduces the amount of waste heat and greenhouse gases damped to environment. This paper deals with the availability and possibility of waste heat from internal combustion engine, also describe loss of exhaust gas energy of an internal combustion engine.

  70. Deshwal, J. P., Neha Kundu, Saharan, J. P. and Deshwal, B. R.

    Water is an essential natural resource for sustaining life and environment but over the last few decades the water quality has been deteriorated due to its over exploitation. Water quality is essential parameter to be studied when the overall focus is sustainable development keeping mankind at focal point. The present study was conducted to analyze the various parameters of under-ground water in Narwana City, Haryana, India and to check its fitness for drinking. Fourteen Water samples were collected from different localities in cleaned polythene bottles and analyzed for the different parameters like pH, electrical conductivity (EC), total dissolved solids (TDS), total hardness (TH), calcium, magnesium, total alkalinity (TA), carbonate, bicarbonate, chloride, fluoride, iron, sodium, potassium, sulphate, nitrate and phosphate. The parameters were compared with the standard desirable limits prescribed by World Health Organization (WHO), Bureau of Indian Standard (BIS) and Indian Council of Medical Research (ICMR) standards of drinking water quality parameters. It is concluded that the water quality of water supply systems in different locations of Narwana is of medium quality and can be used for domestic use after suitable treatment. Suitable suggestions were made to improve the quality of water.

  71. Sriprabha, M.

    The word interview comes from Latin and middle French words meaning to “see between” or “see each other”. Generally, interview means a private meeting between people when questions are asked and answered. The person who answers the questions of an interview is called in interviewer. The person who asks the questions of our interview is called an interviewer. It suggests a meeting between two persons for the purpose of getting a view of each other or for knowing each other. When we normally think of an interview, we think a setting in which an employer tries to size up an applicant for a job. An interview is a conversation between two or more people where questions are asked by the interviewer to elicit facts or statements from the interviewee.

  72. Akinnawo Solomon,Olajide Ayodele and Edward Olanipekun

    levels of heavy metals and pesticide residues were studied in water and sediment samples from Ondo coastal region of Nigeria. Pesticide residues were extracted from water and sediment and analysis was done using gas chromatography coupled with mass spectrometer. Heavy metals in water and sediment was obtained by digestion, the digestate was analyzed using atomic absorption spectrometer. The result shows that the water and sediment samples is contaminated with levels of organ chlorine and organophosphorous pesticide residues while the sediment is not contaminated with the analyzed heavy metals by using calculated data obtained from enrichment factor, geoaccumulation index, ecological risk code, contamination degree and ecological risk index.

  73. Sangole, M. K., Mohini Bauskar, Aparna Mahajan and Archana Nankar

    The Prepaid Water meter is a technology for prepaid billing of water along with sufficient monitoring of the water meter readings mechanically from a outside place without any human intervention. This system gives fast and accurate billing of water as well as prevents any abuse of it. In this paper, a technique having adequate security support, for prepaid charges of water using Short Message Service (SMS) has been illustrated. Existing Global System for Mobile communications (GSM) networks have been used for transmitting and receiving SMS. A water meter is used for measuring the volume of water used. This is basically a control mechanism that only allows usage of water only. A valve is designed such that is electrically operated. Valve is used to regulate the water flow for the consumer. A sensing system is also generates an equivalent voltage related to the amount of water used by the consumer.

  74. Nalini, V. and Girija, R.

    Microwave assisted organic synthesis (MAOS) is a new and quickly growing technique in synthetic organic chemistry. This synthetic technique is based on the empirical observation that some organic reactions proceeds much faster and with higher yield under microwave irradiation compared to conventional heating. Development of new methods for the synthesis of heterocyclo-fused carbazoles is currently attracting the organic chemist due to the discovery of many carbazole alkaloids with varied biological activities. It has been revealed from the literature that carbazole possess various biological activities including anticancer activity especially against breast cancer. The present study deals with the synthesis of some substituted carbazoles by greener method using dimedone and substituted aromatic amines. This greener method yields 85-90% but conventional method yields maximum of 70%. The products are identified and isolated. The compounds are characterized using IR, 1H NMR, 13C NMR and Mass spectra. The compounds found to possess good anti- cancer activity.

  75. Naga Jyothi, N., Devaki, P. and Sreenadh, S.

    In this paper we investigated the effect of magnetic field on the peristaltic transport of a biofluid in an inclined channel by modelling the fluid as a Johnson-Segalman fluid under the assumptions of low Reynolds number and long wavelength. The governing equations are solved using the perturbation technique. Stream function is determined and the relationship between velocity and the longitudinal pressure gradient is obtained. Further it is observed that the magnetic parameter M, Weissenberg number We, amplitude ratio ϕ and slip parameter a have strong effects on the velocity, stream function and the pressure gradient. The effects of these parameters on axial velocity, stream function and pressure gradient have been graphically studied. The pressure drops over a wave length are tabulated for some values of flux and magnetic parameter with small value of Weissenberg number. The results obtained for flow characteristics reveal many interesting behaviors that warrant further study on the non- Newtonian flow phenomena.

  76. Kavitha, S. and Umadevi, R.

    Growth of high rise building has always depends upon available material and level of construction technology and the state of developing of the services necessary from time for the use of the building. The primary design concern for many high rise building is their operational efficiency rather than environmental impact. A new balance needs to be stuck between these two factors, insufficient energy use is a particular concern whilst energy use is currently a relatively minor financial cost, It is associated in major environmental cost. The present study is indented to find the efficiency of structural form systems in high rise building. For this study two structural foam systems are compared. The high rise building with each system is analyzed with a separate model ie RIGID frame and Braced frame in ETAB software. The load calculations are calculated as per is relevant Indian Standards

  77. Lokesh Gurjar and Sharma, B. K

    The photo catalytic bleaching of textile azo dye Methylene blue has been carried out in the presence of semiconductor Nb2O5 and the progress of reaction was observed spectrophotometrically. The effect of various operating parameters like pH, concentration of the dye, amount of photo catalyst and nature of photo catalyst on the efficiency of the reaction has been studied. Kinetic analysis of photo degradation reveals that the degradation follows approximately pseudo first order. Attempts have been made to study the effect of addition of common cations and common anions such as Na+, K+,Ca+2, Ba+, Cl-, SO4-2 and CO3-2. It was observed that trace quantities of all the added metal ions increases the reaction rate. The increase in the photo catalytic activity may be due to introduction of new trapping sites by incorporation of transition metal ions on semiconductor surface. A tentative mechanism has been proposed.

  78. Chinthala Praveen, J. V. B. Subrahmanyam and B. V. Sanker Ram

    Power reliability and restoration are considered significantly challenging issues in the development of future smart grids. Different characteristics can impact the reliability and restoration process of the future power distribution system. Two of the main characteristics of future smart grids are the integration of hybrid renewable resources and the implementation of load-side management (LM) programs. In this paper, the impact of integrating wind and solar energies and also the application of LM programs on the reliability and restoration process is examined. Two LM programs are considered, load shifting and peak clipping. The system under study is part of the RBTS Bus 2, and SAIDI, SAIFI, and ENS system reliability indices are computed.

  79. Akhmedzhanov, T. K. and Nuranbaeva, B. M.

    The article deals with the problem of wastes disposal, which are produced from gold and uranium ore production. The article proposes novel method for disposal and burial of the wastes by means of leaching inside of opencast pits. In the scientific work complex approach is used, including analytic methods for the theoretical justification of temperature variations inside of the leached volume, analysis methods for calculated and experimental data processing, laboratory experiments for the determination of mechanical and thermal parameters of leached ores. The article contributes into the world scientific experience in the context of processing and disposal of wastes created by gold and uranium ore production. The authors for the first time proved that during the combined disposal of gold and uranium ores by means of heap leaching inside of the opencast mine the environmental pollution by dust and leaching solutions will be minimal if the heaps are formed at the bottom of the open pit mine. Temperature variations are in direct proportion with the total power of radioactive radiation sources and specific heat emission from ore leaching processes. For the proper estimation of the combined gold and uranium ores leaching methods the ecologic-economic factor should be used, which takes into consideration the burials of wastes inside of the exploited opencast mine.

  80. Dr. Ananthi Sheshasaayee and Swetha Margaret, T.A.

    Cloud computing assures to offer subscription-oriented and quality computing to the users of cloud worldwide. With the improved demand for delivering services to a large number of users, cloud providers need to offer segregated services to users and meet their quality anticipations. Resource Provisioning means the selection, deployment, and run-time management of software (e.g., DB server management systems, load balancers) and Hardware resources (e.g., CPU, storage, and network) for ensuring assured performance for applications. Resource Provisioning is an important aspect and challenging problem in the large-scale distributed systems such as Cloud computing environments. Resource provisioning and cloud negotiation techniques are most important drivers of all the happenings in the world of cloud computing. Cloud offers voluminous resource provisioning techniques, which is of static and dynamic each one having its own advantages and challenges. All these resource provisioning techniques mentioned and used must meet Quality of Service (QoS) parameters like obtain ability, throughput, response time, security and reliability. This paper focuses on various types of resource provisioning techniques available for cloud and comparison among various techniques.

  81. Nawaz, I.

    Due to impact of global industrialization, on developed countries, there has been a sharp increase of CO2 concentration from 270ppm to 400ppm, during the 20th century. This is due to use of fossil fuels for power production, among other reasons. This has challenged the existence of human beings and other organisms. If not controlled, the survival of living organisms will be in danger. In order to balance the ecological system comprising air, water and biosphere, less polluting renewable energy sources should be used to meet energy demand. Renewable energy sources are recognized as clean sources of energy and optimal use of them minimizes environmental impact. Hence renewable energy sources provide an excellent opportunity for mitigation of CO2 emission. In this presentation, a review has been attempted on scope of CO2 mitigation, through renewable energy sources, in Indian context. The potential of CO2 mitigation has also been estimated and compared with the base value of CO2 emissions. The estimation has been done by examining various alternatives. The methodology developed can be profitably applied to explore other possibilities, as well.

  82. Gulzar, M. H. and Manzoor, A. W.

    In this paper we find bounds for the zeros of the polar derivative of a polynomial under certain conditions on the coefficients. Our results generalize many known results in this direction.

  83. Hakzah, Lawalenna Samang, Rudy Djamaluddin and dan Muhammad Isran Ramli

    Infrastructure development of freight transport system is vital in Master Plan for Acceleration and Expansion on Indonesia’s Economic Development (Masterplan Percepatan dan Perluasan Pembangunan Ekonomi Indonesia/MP3EI). Based on this context, this study aims to analyse one of freight transport main characteristics namely transport cost between cities in South Sulawesi Province. Survey using questionnaire interviews with the freight transport operators was carried out in order to gather information on characteristics of the freight transport including operator characteristic, vehicles characteristic, trip characteristic, and commodity characteristic. Interviews with the freight transport operators travelling across Parepare - Makassar, one of freight transport main routes in South Sulawesi Province, was carried out for one week. The survey data was analysed using descriptive statistic approach to understand the existing freight transport characteristic phenomenon. Furthermore, the transport cost analysis was conducted by developing relationship model between cost and distance travelled by freight transport using regression model approach. The result of the analysis shows that the transport cost of the freight transport is significantly determined by the operator salary cost, fuel cost, and vehicle maintenance cost. The freight transport operational cost model gives decent significance level in aspect of the transport modes used as well as the commodities transported. These results provide basis and expectation toward more advanced analysis on developing more comprehensive model of freight transport modes choice for freight transport trip in South Sulawesi Province in further studies.

  84. Naregalkar, P.R., Nishtha Joshi, Parag Verma, and Piyush Bhatia

    Water is the most important Nature’s gift to the mankind. Without Water there is no life. Now man understood its importance, especially where water is not easily available. Now this is being managed by the proper manner in city areas where the use of water is more than its availability. This wireless level indicator and controller can automatically switch ON and OFF the domestic water pump set depending on the tank water level and also display the level of water using LCD as well as using LED’s and buzzer. In this project an effort is made to design a circuit used in water level indicators which can control the storage level of water in a tank to provide water throughout the day without any wastage.

  85. Twumasi, A.K., Samlafo, B.V. and Addo, M. G.

    The quality of domestic water supplied to households in the Effutu Municipality was evaluated using twenty-two physico-chemical parameters. Pearson rank correlation coefficient and an independent one-tailed student t-test were used to analyse the results. Except for colour, no significant statistical differences were observed between the samples from the headworks (Hw) and the households. The correlation between the head works (Hw) and household in terms of the other parameters varied from 0.99-1.0. Generally, water samples from both the Hw and the households were potable by WHO standards. However, the presence of total coliform ranging from 10.0 cfu/100.0mL at V7 (Pupils) to 489.25 cfu/100.0 mL at V1 (Roman school) and faecal coliform of 0.75 cfu/100.0 mL at V8 (New Winneba) to 20.50 cfu/100.0 mL at V4 (Junction) in some household samples were of much concern as these levels have a high tendency to compromise the health status of consumers. Occasional breaks in pipe-lines and water rationing were suspected to be some of the causes of external waters infiltrating into the distribution systems, thus passing pipelines through gutters and illegal connections by individuals should be discouraged by the Ghana Water Company (GWC) Ltd.

  86. Dubey, R. S.

    Very expensive water treatment technologies are not capable for the treatment of polluted Yamuna river water and the conventional water processes based on chemical, filtration and/or biological treatment process are also not suitable to remove TDS. Generally untreated wastewater contains high level of organic and inorganic materials, numerous pathogenic microorganisms, nutrients and many other toxic compounds. Delhi has been suffering the problems of increasing amount of sewage water and industrial effluents into Yamuna river for the last few decades due to horizontal and vertical expansion of the city. Yamuna river is main source of water to well qualified, high populated Delhi peoples and Agra canal originated from Okhala barrage. In the present study the impact of urban runoff on the water quality of Yamuna River at Delhi has been investigated which supplies into Agra canal for irrigation purposes. Water samples were collected from five different points and analyzed for various physicochemical parameters such as pH, total suspended solids (TSS), total dissolved solids (TDS), Total Hardness (TH), total alkalinity (TA), Biological Oxygen Demand (BOD), Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD), Dissolved Oxygen (DO), Electrical Conductivity (EC), Chloride, Sulphate, nitrate, toxic metals and Microbial Population (MP) levels. Electrochemical technique was successfully applied to the treatment of each sample and the concentration of selected parameters reduced considerably to the admissible limit. Experimental results reported that drastic variations were found in each water samples after treatment. Indicating water pollution levels was manifold higher than the prescribe limit by the pollution control authorities for irrigation. Overall, the study concluded that water quality of Yamuna river water was very poor and not suitable for irrigation or any other purposes.

  87. Rajesh, J., Lakshumanan, C., Govindaraj, V. and Karthick, P.

    The Present Study is intended to estimate Groundwater Quality Index for Nagapattinam Taluk. In order ascertain the quality of groundwater for public consumption, recreation and other purpose. There are several ways to assess the quality of water as deemed fit for drinking, irrigation and industrial use. Water quality index indicating the in terms of index numbers, offers a useful representation of overall quality of water for public or for any intended use as well as in the pollution abatement programmes and in water quality management. A number of parameter affects the usability of water for a particular purpose. In this study water quality index determined on the basis of various physical and chemical parameters like pH, Electrical Conductivity, Total Dissolved Solids, Nitrate, Calcium, Sulfate, Magnesium, Fluoride, Total Hardness, Sodium, Chloride, Carbonate and Bicarbonate. Especially in the coastal regions the availability of fresh water is always threatened by over drafting or by sea water intrusion and in some cases the risk is from the agricultural and industrial activities.

  88. Obinabo, E. C., Izelu, C. O., Nwaoha, T. C. and Ashiedu, F. I.

    A generalized approach to the modelling of transient heat flow in steel ingots during cooling in the continuous casting mould is presented. The mathematical development starting with the relevant differential equations and their modelling using the Hills’ integral profile method gave polynomial functions which characterized the transient heat flow in the steel ingots. An optimal feedback control law was obtained for the system based on the quadratic performance index, and was expressed as a function of given by , which assures asymptotic stability as . A good functional correspondence was shown to exist between the model and the data reported in the literature.

  89. Shital G. Rupanawar and Sagar Gawande

    At present the most serious problem of pollution is the direct result of human activity. Some metropolitan cities like Bombay, Calcutta, Bangalore, and Pune are showing typical urban pollution. Among these cities, Pune produces large quantity (1000-2000 mt/day) of Municipal Solid Waste (MSW). As there is no effective system to manage this daily mass generated as waste, it has become a major problem for Pune Municipal Corporation. Pune Municipal Corporation (PMC) disposes this solid waste at Urali Devachi Depot which is 20 km away from Pune city. Open dumps, commonly found in Asian countries, are land disposal sites at which solid wastes are disposed of in such a manner that poses threat to the environment through its susceptibility to open burning, and exposed to disease vectors and scavengers. The analytical data showed that concentration of all water parameters in leachate is objectionable, which is more than permissible limit of MPCB (Maharashtra Pollution Control Board). Leachate is a polluted liquid emanating from the base of the landfill, which contains innumerable organic and inorganic compounds generated due to which serious ground water contamination wasobserved in wells. Present paper is a case study of Uruli-Devachi (Open dump site), near Pune where daily1000–1200 tonnes of solid waste are disposed at Uruli-Devachi village, and the site was dealing with problems of frequent fires, smoke, flies, birds and bad odour. PMC was spraying the waste with water to prevent fires, resulting in even greater quantities of leachate generated due to which Serious ground water contamination was observed in wells.

  90. Kiruthika, P. and Kalaiprasath, R.

    Today online social networks has provide only little support for prevent the displaying of noisy contents on users space. To address this issue, we propose directly to control the noisy contents in user private/public space. This is achieved by using machine learning techniques to automatically assign with each short text messages under the categories based on its content with the help of content based filtering and users customize to filter without displaying of noisy content from their own private space by applying of filtering rules using rule based system.

  91. Sharma, V. D. and Khapre, S. A.

    The Fractional Fourier Transform (FrFT) is a generalization of the ordinary Fourier transform. The ordinary Fourier transform and related techniques are of importance in various different areas like communications, signal processing and control systems. In fact, the FrFT has already found many applications in the areas of signal processing and communications. The success of FrFT in its application has promoted the development of other kinds of fractional transforms like fractional Hartley transform, fractional Hadamard transform, fractional cosine transform and fractional sine transform (FrST). Fractional cosine transform is the extension of cosine transform and it has been widely used in domain of digital signal and image processing. In this paper convolution theorem for generalized two dimensional fractional cosine transform is proved.

  92. Rajesh Mehta, Parul Kumar

    The aim of this study was to analyze the chemo toxicity and physico – chemical parameters of soil nutrients with time on the nearby area of Kaliasote Dam during season 2006-2007. A total of 10 samples were taken from different sites of Bhopal (M.P.) The various soil parameters were analyzed included the soil pH, electrical conductivity, water holding capacity, total nitrogen, organic carbon and phosphorous. Results showed that soil parameters varied a little during the whole year.

  93. Dr. Naik, P.G. and Patil, M.B.

    In the current digital era, biometric authentication is proving to be the most reliable foolproof method for authenticating a user based on his/her finger print impressions. The scope of biometric authentication is not limited to only an employee attendance but can be successfully utilized in all cases where some form of recording of attendance is desirable and some disciplinary action is required to be taken, such as student class attendance. The raw data generated by a typical biometric machine consists of enormous hidden information. But before any meaningful information can be derived from it, it is necessary to perform extensive data cleaning and data transformation. Such a cooked data can then be loaded in any back end database management system for querying desired information. Further, the data generated by a biometric machine grows exponentially and is difficult to maintain. In this paper, authors have made an attempt to carry out these tasks using MS-Excel, MS-Access and VB. The multi-layer architecture adopted hosts VB in presentation tier and MS-Excel and MS-Access in data tier, where MS-Excel provides data to MS-Access in a desired format. Data is cleaned identifying outliers, if any and data and time are transformed into formats as required by MS-Access using in-built functions of MS-Excel. The preliminary prototype model is designed and implemented in MS-Excel which is later converted into multi-tiered application using VB-Access. Biometric data generated is estimated and the model is tested for the data generated by class attendance system at CSIBER. The output of the model is the large number of informative reports pertaining to the information hidden in raw data. Few sample reports are explored.

  94. Thiagarajan, M. and Premalatha, S.

    In this paper, a multi-server, finite Capacity, interdependent queueing model, controllable arrival rates with discouraged arrivals and retention of reneged customers is considered. The steady state probabilities of system size are derived explicitly. The effect of the probability of customer’s retention on the expected system size has been studied. The analytical results are numerically illustrated and relevant conclusions are presented.

  95. Sarvesh Singh and Alok Kumar Singh

    Customer Relationship Management (CRM) is the basic need of all the organizations of this era to develop a competitive advantage. In this paper, we have shown with the help of an example that organization with highest value of Customer Service Index (CSI) attains maximum profit which establishes the fact that CRM is the need of hour. Some rudimentary statistical techniques along with regression study have been used to establish the theory.

  96. Sarvesh Singh and Alok Kumar Singh

    Customer Relationship Management (CRM) is the basic need of all the organizations of this era to develop a competitive advantage. In this paper, we have shown with the help of an example that organization with highest value of Customer Service Index (CSI) attains maximum profit which establishes the fact that CRM is the need of hour. Some rudimentary statistical techniques along with regression study have been used to establish the theory.

  97. Manjunath Gowda, M. R., Harish Kumar, R. and Venkatesh Gupta, N. S.

    In conventional engine design, the camshaft uses a fixed or variable cam profile to achieve a reasonable compromise between idle speed stability, fuel economy, and torque performance. Significant improvements in engine performance can be achieved through individual control of the valve timing. The cams open the valves (lift) for a certain amount of time (duration) during each intake and exhaust cycle. So In internal combustion engines, Variable valve timing (VVT), also known as Variable valve actuation (VVA), is a generalized term used to describe any mechanism or method that can alter the shape or timing of a valve lift event within an internal combustion engine. The major problem in variable valve timing (VVT) mechanism is that, the valve actuators for these types of applications primarily rely on resonant spring arrangements to achieve the required valve dynamics. This leads to a fixed amplitude of the valve trajectory and only allows for variable valve timing unless a fully flexible valve actuation system is conceived and designed. An attempt is made in the proposal research work to design a new “TRI-LOBED-CAM” mechanism used in conjunction with a conventional cam operating mechanism. By placing the rocker at 3 different locations on the CAM Shaft the valve movement is varied viz., minimum valve displacement at lean loads/low engine speeds, medium valve displacement at intermediate loads and maximum valve displacement at high loads/high engine speeds. The proposed new design gives a fully flexible valve actuation motion of the engine. An emission characteristic is studied at 3 different profiles of cam where the emission is decreased.

  98. Ubale, A. B., Sananse, S. L. and Chhaya Sonar

    Regression analysis is a powerful forecasting technique in various field. It is used in different fields viz. Agriculture, Economic, industries, Social Sciences. The fuzzy regression is a nonparametric method. When dataset is very small, uncertain, fuzzy way and qualitative in nature then fuzzy regression method is appropriate .It is widely used in management science and engineering field, also in this paper, we have applied two methods viz. fuzzy least square method and possibility regression analysis with numerical example. These two methods are compared by using hybrid correlation coefficient and reliability performance. On the basis of final results obtained, it is concluded that the fuzzy least square is better than possibilistic regression analysis.

  99. Mohammed Abdullah Salman and V. C. Borkar

    The matrix exponential is a very important subclass of functions of matrices that has been studied extensively in the last 50 years. In this paper, we discuss and introduce new method to compute the matrix exponential where this matrix in .

  100. Siddesha, S. and Dr. Y. J. Suresh

    This paper presents a method of analysis for the prediction of static and dynamic behavior of lathe spindle. The VIBXPERT software kit is used to determine the dynamic characteristics of the spindle and FEM method is used to determine the static parameters of the headstock spindle of the lathe. Analysis of the vibration severity for different spindle speed, feed rate and depth of cut. Static analysis is carried out by determining the forces acting on spindle and deflection and stiffness of the spindle. In this vibration characterization of headstock spindle of the lathe determines the natural frequency, amplitude of vibration, level of vibration, condition of resonance and geometrical stiffness, experimentally. The results show that the maximum rotating speed of spindle is far smaller than the natural resonance region speed and good stiffness, less deflection of the spindle. From the values of vibration at spindle determined from experimental analysis, it is found that the vibration velocity increases with increase in cutting speed, depth of cut and feed rate.

  101. Sherwani, A.F.

    The work presented seeks to assess the sustainability of different solar photovoltaic electricity generating systems based upon energy, environment and economics. The sustainability indicators evaluated for energy, environment and economics are electrical output, life cycle greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions and Life cycle cost of electricity generated per kWh. The selected solar photovoltaic based electricity generation technologies for sustainability evaluation are amorphous, mono crystalline and polycrystalline. For solar photovoltaic systems most of the emissions are the result of electricity use during manufacturing. In these cases, an average grid mix for the region of manufacture is typically used to calculate energy use and emissions. Based upon these three indicators, a figure of merit (FM) has been proposed. Further, based upon this figure of merit sustainability of solar photo voltaic based electricity generation technologies has been estimated.

  102. Ashish Dupta and Riyaz Ahmad Pir

    Percy Bysshe Shelley was the most revolutionary and non-conformist of the Romantic poets. His passionate search for personal love and social justice is shown in his poems – which are some of the greatest in the English language. He was an individualist and idealist who rejected the institutions of family, church, marriage and the Christian faith and rebelled against all forms of tyranny. Shelley’s ideas were anarchic and he was considered dangerous by the conservative society of his time. Many of his poems address social and political issues. The present paper is an attempt to highlight the contribution of Shelley towards English literature. Shelley’s life-story is wild, outrageous, shocking, revolutionary and unconventional. Shelley’s poetry has two different moods. In one he is the revolutionary reformer, wanting to change the old order and to find universal happiness. In the second he is a great Nature lover, almost merging himself in the beauty of the world around him.

  103. Muzamil Bashir, Rajendra Chauhan, Salam Khan, MohammadFarooq Mir and Nasrul Amin

    A detailed limnological study of the anchar lake in Kashmir was conducted during March2015 to June2015. Six study sites were selected for the collection of samples. The physico-chemical parameters of water and population density of three phyla viz, Arthropoda, Annelidaand Mollusca were determined. The ionic composition of water of the Ancharlake varied in close relationship with the catchment pattern of the concerned water body. The Ancharlakereceiving all sorts of allochthonus material from the catchment had the highest conductivity. The water of the Lake was well buffered with pH > 7. A total of 21 taxa of macrozoobenthos were recorded from the system. Arthropodawas most dominant group constituting 45.7%, followed by Annelida 35.9% and Mollusca which contributed 18.4% of total macrozoobenthos. The bottom sites were dominated by insects belonging to orders Ephemeroptera, Tricoptera and Diptera. Significant changes in macrozoobenthic communities were primarily due to changes in water quality. As elsewhere, macrozoobenthic communities proved to be good indicators of water quality and should be used as bioindicators in long-term monitoring of this Lake.

  104. Salah A. Hussain

    Globotruncana bulloides Vogler 1941 belongs to Class: Rotaliata which indicates Early Santonian-Middle Maastrichtian from the previous works. This genus is distributed in two formations in North Iraq, Kometan and Shiranish formations. The lithology of Kometan Formation is well bedded limestone and the author was found the new stratigraphic range of the genus in this formation. The stratigraphic range of Globotruncana bulloides is changed to start from Early Turonian with association present of Whiteinella archaeocretacea zone as indicated from Surdash section, and Late Turonian with association present of Marginotruncana sigali zone from Degala section, both of the previous sections are located northeast Iraq; and discriminated as Late Coniacian with association present of Dicarinella concavata zone from Kirkuk-246 borehole.

  105. NegaArarso and YemanebirhanKelemework

    The main aim of this comparative study was to assess the English grammar learning strategies of high ranking and low ranking students. To achieve this objective, the three modes of learning namely implicit learning, explicit-inductive learning and explicit-deductive learning were studied in relation to the stated basic questions. For the study descriptive survey method was used. The extreme or deviant case sampling technique was employed to select the subjects for the study. Questionnaire and focus group discussions were used as data collection instruments. The data obtained through questionnaire were then analyzed by using SPSS version 16 in terms of mean score, standard deviation and t-test. For the focus group discussion open-ended questions were used and the data were analyzed by using content analysis technique. In general the findings of the study reveal that there were significant differences on the three modes of learning, particularly in memory and compensation strategies related to implicit learning, cognitive strategies related to explicit-inductive learning and also to explicit-deductive learning. As the overall mean values indicate the high ranking students used English grammar learning strategies at a higher level than the low ranking students in all classifications except social strategies related to implicit and explicit deductive modes.

  106. Ziya Gunay and Ali Gül

    It depends on managing the ability so as the performance of the staff continuous to move in an upward direction to continue its growth and existence of the organization. The concept of performance and performance management today has made important to extent to which the duties of the personnel receiving a compelling understanding of what happened as well as the work performed skills. The organizations of corporation performance management system implement and prepare taking into account their own needs and the structural characteristics. The need to evaluate different aspects of working has led to the organizations the different search. 360 degree employee performance appraisal system has been used by organizations as versatile as it provides opportunity assessment. This study gives information about the 360-degree performance evaluation system and examines various aspects of the evaluation process.

  107. Hina Hadayat Ali, Hafiz Tahir Jameel and Dr. Muhammad Naeem Mohsin

    Enthusiastic activity in its sumptuous nature works gorgeously as an essential element in growing the children up lavishly in their early childhood years by letting them to be engrossed in the incarnation of constructive activity, planned activity or pretend/dramatic activity under the edifice of indoor or outdoor game playing abode. Such a set of conditions or state of affairs enthusiastically brings younger’s interests, natural tendencies and wishes on the surface of their comprehensive development as well as manifestly highlights their behaviors, attitudes and personality traits that primarily fabricate the little individuals healthy, wealthy and wise in their multifaceted growing dimensions which in lateral years shove them towards pinnacle of moral prestige, temporal power, craft or fame.

  108. Dr. Muthukumar, E., Vidhya, S. and Devika, S.

    In the recent years the hospitality sectors are growing very spontaneously. The hospitality sector mainly includes the hotels and restaurants. The hotel employees are getting high benefits from the industries. The employee, who are all have a positive attitude in the working hotel industries those are all get good benefits. Employee attitude increasing the productivity because; those are all have higher morale, job satisfaction. This study makes the analysis of one way ANOVA and correlation of the factors. Before going into the analysis the researcher finds the reliability of the instrument. From this study, the employees have a positive attitude when the hotel industry fulfills their needs.

  109. Olusayo B. Oladejo

    This paper is a theological reflection and narrative on the understanding and practice of worship among Baptists. It identifies doctrines and practices that accentuate the Baptist theology of worship. Its aim is to demonstrate that Baptist Christians have a theology of worship that is concurrently biblical and realistic to the situations-in-life of the people. The discourse employs the theological-analytical method in exploring the theology of worship harvested from the Statements of Faith and practices of the congregational Christians called Baptist. Baptists currently lack what may be described as academic or deliberate theology of worship. What they have may be described as folk or ordinary theology. The latter provides agenda for constructing the former. Baptist statements of faith and polity supply an assortment of substance for harvest and employ for constructing a Baptist Theology of worship.

  110. Olusayo B. Oladejo

    This is a text research which underscores the fact that although the Bible unites all Christians, its interpretation divides them. This is one of the many paradoxes in Christianity. Although all Christians accept the Bible as their source or reference book, they disagree so much in terms of how its contents should be interpreted. Essentially, therefore, the Bible is concomitantly the meeting point and the departure point of all Christians. The differences or disagreements on the interpretation of the biblical messages have led to the development of diverse approaches, styles and/or methodologies of interpretation usually determined by the diverse presuppositions of the interpreters. One of such approaches is Dispensationalism, which is the focus of this paper. The paper reveals the nature and presuppositions and/or assumptions of Dispensationalism as a biblical hermeneutic approach, and provides an example of the use of the approach, and thereafter, attempt a brief critique of the approach.

  111. Zeba Khanam and Dr. Musheer Ahmad Khan

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to find out the Impact and use of electronic information services by the research scholar and faculty members at Dr. Zakir Hussain Library, Jamia Millia Islamia, New Delhi. Design/methodology/approach: Primary data were collected by using questionnaire method accompanied by interview and observation method as techniques of data collection. The data collected through questionnaire, organized and tabulated by using statistical method, tables and percentage. Findings: Majority of the Research Scholar and Faculty Members are well aware about Internet Services, CD-ROM Database Service, Online Database Service and E-Mail Service. It is also found that Research Scholars and faculty members make awareness approach to Electronic Information Services available in the library through Membership and through their Colleagues respectively. Boolean logic search is generally used by researchers to find the required document. Practical implication: The findings can be utilized to improve the ICT services which boost the research work in the universities. Originality/value: This study is totally based on the primary data collected by questionnaire and observation method.

  112. Haileslasie Beyene Hagos and Demis Gebretsadik Deneke

    The main objective of this investigation was to discover the vocabulary learning strategies used by high and low achiever Ethiopian English major undergraduate university students. Jimma, Ambo, Debre Birhan and Miza Tepi universities were randomly selected using a lottery method. Questionnaire and interview were used to collect relevant data of the study. One hundred thirty-four (134) students, who were enrolled in the aforementioned universities in 2013/14, filled out the questionnaire, and six purposely selected students from each university provided data through an in-depth interview. The data gathered through questionnaire were analyzed through descriptive and inferential statistics. The data obtained from open-ended and interview questions were analyzed through content analysis strategies. The findings of the study revealed that the high achievers used vocabulary-learning strategies (determination, memory, cognitive, and meta-cognitive strategies) more often than the low achievers but without any statistically significant differences in some of the strategies. In contrast, the low achievers used the social strategies more often than the high achievers although both high and low achievers poorly used the social strategies. Finally, it was recommended that instructors should train students to use multifaceted vocabulary-learning strategies to enhance their academic achievement and language use.

  113. Abdelhadi Halawa

    Introduction: For centuries, a myriad of studies and theories have been developed and arguments on both sides have been long debated regarding the early discovery of the pulmonary blood circulation. Attributions for the original discovery of this landmark medical discovery were mostly bestowed upon a number of European scholars and physicians for their individual contributions in the 15th to 17th centuries AD. Chiefly among those European contributors are Claudius Galen; William Harvey; Michael Servetus; Andreas Vesalius; and Matteo Realdo Colombo. For over 800 years, with the only exception of Galen, most of the credit for this milestone physiological discovery was given to the aforementioned European scholars and physicians; however, none was given to the 13th century AD physician Ibn al-Nafis whose contribution to this discovery is seminal and well-documented. Purpose: This study is amid to examine the evolution of the discovery of the lesser blood circulation, the contradictory theories concerning the original discovery, as well the credit given to the early discovers of the pulmonary blood circulation spanning from the 2nd to the 17th centuries AD. Methods: This study employed a meta-analysis systematic review methodology of a multitude of germane studies. Data obtained from these studies were analyzed in order to determine common underlying findings, arguments, and disagreements regarding the discovery of the pulmonary blood circulation. Conclusion: Several early European physicians and anatomists, in some measures, contributed to the discovery of the functions of the lesser blood circulation. However, a well-documented body of evidence showed that Ibn al-Nafis made a pioneering contribution to the discovery, correct functions, and development of a body of invaluable knowledge in the field of cardiac anatomy and medicine.

  114. Raghvendra Pratap Singh

    The Sino-Indian conflict and cooperation loom large in academic and public debates on security issues in the changed global geo-political situation after the disintegration of the Soviet Union. In the 21st century both are poised to become a major powers. The reason been the decline of military power and the enhancement of economic capabilities of the both the countries, The past records speak of unfortunate political and military relations. Despite the fact, the Chinese government has emphaised on the concept of ‘Peaceful Rise of China.’ What the term means to India. Is it a peaceful competition between both the countries, knowing that China’s grand design has always been aggressive. The article deal with Sino-Indian political, military and economic relations. Moreover, an efforts have been made to assess the role of USA, Russia and Pakistan in Sino-India relations.

  115. Dr. Twinkle Prusty

    The research methodology adopted to carry out the impact study for a systematic and scientific investigation includes the explanation on every component related to research design and implementation effectively. An extensive literature review carried out to conceptualize the basic research framework and subsequently formulate hypotheses for empirical testing. This paper provides a comprehensive discussion on the research questions, objectives, scope, research framework, hypotheses, sampling plan, questionnaire design, questionnaire administration and quantitative analytical techniques used for the purpose of the impact study. The objective of this paper corroborates the research methodology adopted, wherein a description of the problem statement, objectives, hypothesis, research design and modus operandi of statistical tools and systematic approach followed to study the impact of corporate governance on corporate performance through the economic value added estimation in selected Indian corporates specifying empirical testing. To enable the study’s objective in regard to dissect impact of corporate governance on corporate performance by way of economic value added estimation, the strictures of the corporate governance are explored in light of the recent developments and amendments in the Indian legal context. Sample of companies reporting EVA surveyed by the BT-SS (Business Times-Stern Stewart) biggest wealth creators, are retrieved for the last 5 years qualify the study of impact of various facets of corporate governance by constructing a score (Corporate Governance Score) on the shareholder’s value creation resulted by way of EVA reporting. Hence it is imperative that developing governance models which get culturally attuned to the nature of economic activity in India shall at least make sense for the region’s market participants. This has led to the finding ways to prognostic approach apprehending the benefits of governance to increase the rate of embracing value creation. From the data collected and research methodology applied, empirical relationships between governance performance and corporate performance has been the central implication of the analysis, which shall lead to the level of complacency for Indian companies to find out how the better-governed companies in the region could out-perform their rivals. In the following sections, the various statistical analyses serve as a conduit to the governance regulators and the corporates to envision level of governance progress. This research thus investigates the endogenous relationship between corporate governance (by way of corporate governance score) and economic value added, being the value based corporate performance metric, of the selected listed companies in India.

  116. Rahul Tripathi

    Human trafficking is the trade in humans, most frequently for the function of Sexual Slavery, Forced Labor or for the extraction of organs or tissues. Each year millions of persons are trafficking both nationally and internationally in India. The weak legal landscape of developing countries such as India, supported by factors such as gender biasness, domestic violence and lack of access to education and economic prospects, provide existing and potential traffickers with sufficient available victims. Based on case studies and NGO interviews, the diversity of India’s state and territories leads TIP to vary greatly based on the characteristics of a given region. NGOs indicated that trafficking was widespread in destination states because of high inflows of migrants, high demand for sex workers, generic gender/caste issues, a lack of community responsibility for social security and welfare, and the absence of a strong legal framework. No doubt government is trying to stop human trafficking in India and the constitution of India also provides a fundamental right which includes right to religion, right to speech, right against exploitation, right to education also. According to these rights every person has personal right to fight against trafficking and to stop trafficking in India but in modern society every person has money and guilty mind through which trafficking developing in India.

  117. Roula Albounni, Haya A Alkanhal and Mohammed S Alqahtani

    Re-establishing a patient’s lost dental aesthetic appearance is one of the most important dental demands, new treatment materials and methods have been coming on the sense. In order to achieve this aim, most dentists prefer more conservative and aesthetic approaches, such as direct and indirect veneers. This paper shows that each type of treatment has advantages and disadvantages but we can choose the best technique due to some personal factors of the patient and from his preferable side, we tried to clarify these factors to present the best treatment for long term benefits.

  118. Abdullah D. Al-shehri, Tariq A. Aljuaid, Bassam A. Alzaid, Hassan D. Alasmari and Khaled A. Alswat

    Background: World Health Organization (WHO) has to designate obesity as one of the most important public health menace. Studies suggested that overweight in adolescents has been associated with negative body image. Method: A cross-sectional study was used that includes students from secondary and high schools located in Taif city, Saudi Arabia. It was conducted between March 2014 and June 2015. Height and weight were measured and BMI was calculated from this data. Related risk factors including the dietary and physical habits, school type, parent’s education, living situation, sleeping pattern, and smoking were recorded. The primary aim of the study is to assess the relationship between BMI and self-esteem using Rosenberg self-esteem scale. Result: A total of 488 students with a mean age of 15.2 year (SD 1.75), 79.7% were male, 58% were secondary school students, and 85.5% were attended public schools. The mean Rosenberg self-esteem scale (RSES) score is 20.35 (SD 4.1) with 10.8% categorized as high self-esteem, 82.6% as normal self-esteem and 6.6% as low self-esteem. 6.6% of the students scored < 14 in the RSES and were considered to have low self-esteem, those with normal/high self-esteem tends to be non-significantly younger, have higher BMI, larger waist circumference, more likely to be overweight/obese, and were more likely to reports healthy lifestyle related habits. Non-significant positive partial correlation between RSES and both BMI (r 0.53, p 0.173) and waist circumference (r 0.074, p 0.094). Conclusion: There was no significant correlation between BMI and self-esteem. Although, students who are underweight were more likely to be in the low self-esteem group.Positive partial correlation between RSES and smoking were noted.

  119. Akash Mathur, Dinesh Gurjar, Arvind Lakesar, Ramkrishna Sai and Hemant Malhotra

    Disseminated histoplasmosis is a very severe and often fatal opportunistic infection mostly seen in immunocompromised hosts and rarely in immunocompetent individuals. We report here a rare case of 13 year old male misdiagnosed as pulmonary tuberculosis and hodgkin’s lymphoma before eventually being diagnosed as histoplasmosis with an underlying isolated IgM deficiency to increase awareness of the clinical spectrum of disseminated histoplasmosis and its similarity to other infections and malignancies to encourage early diagnosis so that diagnostic and therapeutic pitfalls can be avoided to improve eventual outcome of the disease.

  120. Dr. Viral H. Gada, Dr. Aruna J. Bhandari, Dr. Gangadhar S.A, Dr. Akshay J. Bhandari, Dr. Veena Saraf, and Dr. Sumit V. Dhope

    The loss of the facial structures for an individual can have a physical, social and psychological impact. Maxillofacial prostheses that restore and replace stomatognathic and associated facial structures with artificial substitutes aim to improve the patient aesthetics, restore and maintain health of the remaining structures and consequently provide physical and mental well being. Amongst all the maxillofacial defects, eye defects require keen attention. As it is rightly said that” Eyes speak louder than words.” Therefore prosthetic rehabilitation of such cases should be done. Treatment includes implants and acrylic eye prosthesis. Due to economic factors implant may not be advisable in all patients. A custom-made ocular prosthesis is a good alternative.

  121. Banda Michelo, LwangaGershom, MukabilaMercy and Sijumbila Gibson

    The electron transport chain is the final phase of tissue respiration through which the energy from oxidation of nutrients is converted into an electrochemical gradient. This electrochemical gradient generates a proton motive force which is converted into high energy phosphoanhydride bonds of ATP within the mitochondria. Studies have shown that the transduction of electromotive force into phosphoanhydride bond is not perfect as there is some degree of uncoupling in which the electrochemical gradient is dissipated when protons are returned to the mitochondria not through ATP synthase. This can be in the form of low grade background uncoupling sometimes referred to as proton leakage or it can be due to naturally produced special proteins known as uncoupling proteins with in the inner mitochondrial membrane. Uncoupling tends to decrease ATP synthesis and the energy from oxidation that should have formed ATP is released as heat. Oxidation of nutrients is also increased due to a decrease in ATP synthesis. Here we review the possible role of this uncoupling process in the development of obesity.

  122. Use of recombinant trypsin in production of vaccine against measles and rubella

    Trypsin is a proteolytic enzyme routinely used as an effective cell dissociating agent in tissue culture based viral vaccine manufacturing processes. Conventionally a porcine or bovine origin trypsin is used for this purpose. Being an animal origin material, it can potentially contaminate the final product by known or unknown adventitious agents inherent in the source material. Animal-derived materials are now subject to more stringent regulations. Therefore, it is essential to design production processes in such a way, that they offer maximum viral clearance potential from animal origin products. Use of animal-component-free recombinant trypsin appears to be a viable alternative for the animal origin trypsin. Two types of commercially available recombinant trypsins were selected for evaluation purpose in comparison with conventional porcine-origin trypsin. All the three trypsin preparations were used for serial passaging of human diploid (MRC-5) cells, and subsequent manufacturing of Measles and Rubella vaccine using above substrates. In conclusion, both the recombinant trypsin samples were found to be equivalent to conventional porcine trypsin with respect to important parameters viz. cell culture suitability and yield of Measles and Rubella viruses.

  123. Hariom Sharma and Kaushal.K.Chandrul

    Dental implant designed for the treatment of periodontal disease with the aim of site‐specific delivery of Tinidazole as controlled drug delivery system, which has excellent activity against anaerobic microorganisms. The calibration curve for tinidazole was developed in pH 6.6 phosphate buffer at 287.6 nm in the range of 2 to 14 μg/ml. Tinidazole dental implants were prepared by solvent casting technique using polymer ethyl cellulose acetate in two different concentrations with three Plasticizers in Acetone alone and in combination as chloroform: Acetone (1:1) solvent with Dibutyl phthalate, PEG- 600, and in combination as plasticizers. No interaction between Tinidazole and polymers are found and is shown by FT‐IR and UV spectroscopic methods. The dental implants were evaluated for their thickness uniformity, folding endurance, weight uniformity, content uniformity, tensile strength, surface pH, and vitro release pattern. In vitro release from implants was fit to different equations and by kinetic models to reveal release kinetics. Kinetic models were studied for zero order, first‐order equations, and Hixson‐Crowell and Higuchi models. Controlled release of drug is found in all batches of dental implants. A short‐term stability study shows that drug content decreased in various films and was ranging from 0.7% to 2.82%.

  124. Dr. Prangya Panda, Dr. Bijaya kumar Sadangi and Dr. Satita panda

    Retinoblastoma is the most common intraocular malignancy of childhood. Second common primary intraocular malignancy, commonest being choroidal melanoma. Distance metastasis occurs to central nervous system, distal bones, lymph nodes, spinal cord, bone marrow. Metastasis to parotid gland is a rare occurrence. A four year girl presented with a growth in right eye, diminution of vision. There was a swelling over parotid area of right side & metastasis to sixth cervical vertebra. FNAC from the parotid swelling and the tissue of enucleated tumor confirmed retinoblastoma.

  125. Dr. Binuraj, C., Sruti, N. U., Anil Antony, Hyfa Hameed, Vimal Mathew and Ann Mary Paul

    Background: COPD is one of the major health problems worldwide which negatively affects patients, their families, the employment sector and the society and is estimated to become the third cause of death worldwide by 2020. Aim and objectives: The aim of this study was to evaluate the association between health related quality of life and disease severity using SGRQ C. Methods: It is a prospective, observational study conducted for a period of three months that assessed the QoL using SGQR C of COPD patients aged 30 – 85 years. The study was conducted in a tertiary care teaching hospital in Mukkam, Kozhikode, Kerala. Patients were categorized in to mild, moderate, severe and very severe patients based on FEV1 and QoL is assessed by patient self assessment questionnaire. Results: Total number of patients enrolled in study were 91 that includes 9 mild, 35 moderate , 39 severe and 13 very severe patients. Total SQRQ C score were assessed separately in four COPD categories were mean total score of 26.22 ± 4.34 for mild patients, 47.99 ± 5.09 in moderate and 58.56 ± 5.95 and 66.48 ± 10.20 for very severe patients. HRQoL declines with increase in severity of disease and the deterioration is inversely proportional to FEV1 values. Conclusion: Assessment of HRQoL in COPD patients revels how the disease affects with wide range of disturbances in physiological wellbeing and phycho social functioning which they experienced in daily life.

  126. Dr. Abhishek Jadhav, Dr. Sourab Kumar, Dr. Avinash Tamgadge, Dr. Sudhir Bhalerao, Dr. Payoshnee Bhalinge and Dr. Pawan Gujjar

    Introduction: Decalcification is the commonly employed technique in histopathology laboratories as a part of calcified tissue preparation for the microscopic examination. Chemical agents are most commonly used for routine decalcification procedures, though some agents adversely affect the tissue integrity and staining properties. Aim: To compare the efficacy of various decalcifying agents by histological evaluation of hard and soft tissue components of teeth. Materials and Methods: The decalcifying agents namely 10% Nitric acid (HNO3) were used to decalcify 60 human permanent teeth. The specimens were subjected to routine processing, sectioning and staining with hematoxylin and eosin. The stained sections were observed under microscope . Results: Considering preservation and staining characteristics of both hard and soft tissues, superior results were obtained with 10% HNO3. Conclusion: HNO3 was showing the most efficient result as it balances both tissue integrity and time factor suggesting that it can be used as a stable decalcifying agent for routine histopathological diagnosis.

  127. Mahesh, B. S., Padmashree, S., Rema, J., Shilpa Padar Shastry, Sanjay, C. J. and Padma Pandeshwar

    Objectives: Objectives of our study were to evaluate the efficacy of intraoral periapical radiographic E-speed film and radiovisiography (RVG) and to compare the efficacy of both in the detection of incipient proximal caries. Methods: 40 extracted human premolar teeth were collected and conventional radiography and RVG were done using the intraoral radiographic machine, using paralleling technique. These images were evaluated for the detection of incipient proximal caries by three observers and graded according to 5 grade scale. The computed tomogram images were taken as the standard images. Results:ROC curve analysis was done to compare the efficacy of Intraoral E speed film and RVG for the detection of incipient proximal caries. The area under the ROC curve for E speed film was 0.719. When the sensitivity and specificity value were compared a p-value of 0.007 was arrived which showed a statistical significance. When comparing the 3 modes of RVG, the area under ROC was 0.733, 0.707 and 0.599 respectively. When sensitivity and specificity values were compared, a strongly significant p value was found for endo mode (0.003) and a moderately significant p value for perio (0.012) and no significance for DEJ mode (0.282). Conclusion: The E speed film can be used as one of effective means in the detection of incipient proximal caries. Among the three modes of RVG the efficacy of endo mode was the best in diagnosing incipient proximal caries followed by perio mode and DEJ mode respectively.

  128. Navjot Kaur and Supriti Agrawal

    The budget for healthcare sector in 2015 is expected to be Rs. 33,150 crores by the government of India. As the time passes the health has become a major concern for each individual and in these web-based healthcare services took a huge transition. The web-based healthcare services is the easy going phenomenon where the management of health taken places on their own. From the last decade, a huge change has taken place as now the patients are able to take decisions related to medications, treatments and services as per their convenience. The paper is focussed on the change in doctor-patient interaction through web-based healthcare services. The study was conducted from the sample of 216 and the findings suggested that these services have totally changed the life of doctors and patients as well getting more informative, serious and creative for their health.

  129. Dr. Naglaa H. El- Meanawi and Dr. Khadega A. El-Hefnawy

    Aim: This study carried out to evaluate the effectiveness educational program regarding mechanical prophylaxis of deep venous thrombosis on nurse's knowledge and practice. Methods: Fifty registered nurses were working in the surgical and orthopedic words at king fahed hospital who is assigned for caring for patients post –operatively. Tools: two tools: Tool (1): Nurse's Knowledge Regarding to DVT Disease, and its Preventive Measures Questionnaire Sheet. Tool (2): Two Observational Check lists for Nurses' Practice Regarding to 1- Nursing Role in Assessment and 2- Using of Mechanical Prophylaxis of DVT. Results: findings revealed that there is a highly significant difference between pre and post evaluations scores in relation to nurse's knowledge and performance after completion of the educational program. Conclusion: based on research findings, that participation in the educational program for mechanical prevention of DVT made differences in nurse's knowledge and performance.

  130. Richa Baranwal

    Pichia etchellsii Bgl1 gene coding for BGLI protein was fished out from yeast genomic DNA using PCR based strategies. The primers were designed based on the internal peptide sequences of native BGLI protein. Bgl1 gene was cloned and expressed in Pichia pastoris. The deduced amino acids encoded by Bgl1 showed high similarity with the sequences of Glycoside hydrolase family 3 members. The predicted isoelectric point (pI) of the protein was 5.2 and A+T% and G+C% were 58.06% and 41.95% respectively. The multiple sequence alignment using ClustalV program of DNASTAR software showed 98.6 % identity with a hypothetical 765 aa protein of Kluyveromyces lactis and 73.4% with 845 aa β-glucosidase protein of Kluyveromyces fragilis. The recombinant enzyme showed maximal activity at pH 6.0 and was stable between pH 3.5–9. More than 80% of enzyme activity was retained in this pH range on incubating enzyme for 24 h. The enzyme had temperature optimum of 50 °C under optimal pH with pNPG as substrate.

  131. Sangeeta Yadav, Dharmveer Yadav and Vardey, S. K

    Diabetic retinopathy is the most frequent cause of new cases of blindness among adults aged 20–74 years. Patients with diabetic retinopathy (DR) are 25 times more likely to become blind than non-diabetics. Every person with diabetes is at risk of developing DR. More than 75% of people who have diabetes for more than 20 years will have some form of DR. Diabetic retinopathy is the result of damage to the tiny blood vessels that nourish the retina. They leak blood and other fluids that cause swelling of retinal tissue and clouding of vision. Present study was conducted in SMS Medical College and Hospital, Jaipur, including 100 diabetic which were further categorized into two groups i.e. 50 diabetic patients without retinopathy (Group 2), and 50 diabetics with retinopathy (Group 3).Results obtained were compared with 50 age and sex matched healthy controls (Group 1).Fasting blood samples collected using aseptic technique were subjected to analyze level of Fasting blood sugar, HbA1c, Serum Magnesium and serum Total cholesterol, Triglycerides, LDL-cholesterol and HDL-cholesterol in all the groups. Serum magnesium level in diabetic retinopathy was found to be significantly lowered than in Group 2 and I. Significantly Increased HbA1c was observed in diabetic retinopathy as compared to Group 1 and 2. Results obtained in our study showed increased cholesterol/HDL cholesterol ratio, hypercholesterolemia, hypomagnesimia, hypertriglyceridemia, elevated LDL-cholesterol lipoprotein fraction and significantly decreased HDL-cholesterol lipoprotein fraction in subjects with diabetic retinopathy which are responsible for micro vascular changes that the diabetic retinopathy patients have. From this study this is concluded that good glycemic control and lipid-modifying therapy arrests the development and progression of DR and decreases the visual loss.

  132. Yadav, Richa Baranwal, Rashmi Shrivastav, N. Gopal, Subhash Kumar, Rajeev Shrivastav, Brij Bahadur, Mohit Kumar, Rashmi Jain, Niharika Sood, Charu M Kamal and Prasad, J.P.

    Human menopausal gonadotrophin (HMG) or menotrophin causes growth and maturation of the ovarian follicle in women who do not have primary ovarian failure by mimicking the action of endogenous LH and FSH and in men it promotes sperm formation if testosterone level and FSH levels are low. Therapeutic menotrophins are preparations of gonadotrophins having both FSH and LH activity, extracted from the urine of postmenopausal women, which have undergone additional steps for purification and then used as fertility treatment. In this study, we are reporting the evaluation of 23 batches of therapeutic menotrophin as per US pharmacopeia, for establishing their identity as well as Follicle Stimulating Hormone (FSH) activity and Lutenizing Hormone (LH) activity before batch release into the market for use in patients in India. The results were calculated by using the Parallel-line assay; COMBISTATS v 4.0 software from EDQM. Based on the findings, it was established that all the 23 batches were identified to be menotrophin and their estimated potencies of both FSH activity and LH activity were found to be within the specification limits as per the US Pharmacopeia.

  133. Dr. Quaid Johar Shakir, Dipti Udaysing Patil and Namrata Dattatraya Pailwan

    Background: Desire for improved aesthetics and the consequent need for cosmetic dentistry have increased tremendously in recent times making aesthetic procedures an integral part of periodontal treatment. The treatment of choice for recession coverage should address the biological as well as the patient’s aesthetic demands. Zucchelli and Sanctis (2000) proposed a modification in the coronally advanced flap technique for treatment of multiple recession defects in aesthetic areas. Case series in which zucchelli’s technique was done to obtained desirable results of root coverage. Method: Miller’s class I multiple recession defects in upper maxillary anterior region were included for treatment. After initial therapy subjects were treated with zucchelli’s technique and recession depth were evaluated after 6 months. Results: the result revealed significant decrease in recession depth and aesthetically pleasant appearance after 6 months. No scar formation was seen. Conclusion: Zucchelli’s technique is effective for the treatment of multiple adjacent recessions in terms of both root coverage and keratinized tissue gain, irrespective of the number of defects. Moreover, this technique does not require an additional surgical site.

  134. Dr. Quaid Johar Shakir, Namrata Dattatraya Pailwan and Dipti Udaysing Patil

    Introduction: Narrow alveolar ridges in anterior maxilla remains a serious challenge for successful placement of endosseous implants. Case Presentation: This case report addresses a surgical procedure for expansion of the atrophic pre-maxillary ridge 2.7 mm wide using the Esset kit. A dental implant was immediately buried post expansion. Discussion: This segmental ridge-split procedure with gradual bone expansion provides a quicker method wherein an atrophic ridge can be predictably expanded and eliminating the need for a second surgical site. This technique also shows that immediate implantation in split ridge of pre-maxillary can be performed.

  135. Neeta Gupta and Neharshi Srivastava

    The Present study tries to explore the effect of Mindfulness Therapy on Anxiety & Adjustment among adolescents. Anxiety is a displeasing feeling of fear and concern while adjustment is the ability to adapt oneself according to environmental demands. The present study aims to investigate the effectiveness of Mindfulness Therapy on Anxiety reduction & improving the levels of adjustment among adolescents. For this data was collected randomly from Ganna Kishan College, Mohammadi Lakhimpur Khiri District U.P. on 100 adolescents (50 Males and 50 females). Sinha Comprehensive Anxiety Test (SCAT) by Sinha & Sinha (1961) & Adjustment Inventory for College Students (AICS) developed by Sinha & Singh (2005) were utilized to measure Anxiety & Adjustment of the respondents respectively. The Intervention Programme (Mindfulness Therapy) proceeded through 12 sessions. The respondents were given 12 sessions for Mindfulness Therapy. Each session consisted of 40 minutes. The Result of the present study revealed some significant finding indicating that Mindfulness Therapy was significantly effective for Anxiety reduction and for improving quality of total adjustment & for its various dimensions such as Home, Health, Social, Educational and Emotional adjustment among adolescents.

  136. Saikalyan Guptha A, Karigalan, Arun Kumar Barad and Basawan Gowda

    Acute abdomen in pregnancy may be difficult to diagnose and treat. Any serious intra-abdominal condition attended by pain, tenderness and abdomino muscular rigidity for which emergency surgery must be considered. We hereby present case of ileal perforation with Meckel’s Diverticulum and grade 3 adhesion’s in a 28 weeks pregnant patient. This case is being presented for its rarity and its diagnostic difficulty.

  137. Pritha Pal Ranjan Raychowdhury Atreyee Dutta Shanoli Ghosh and Ajanta Halder

    Objective: The aim of this study is to find out the variation in micronuclei (MN) frequency with various risk factors in oral and oropharyngeal carcinoma in West Bengal, India. Methods: In this study 107 subjects with oral leucoplakia were grouped according to their exposure to tobacco (both smoked and chewed), alcohol and betel quid. Their buccal smears were obtained on slides, air dried and fixed with 80% methanol and finally stained with Giemsa stain and observed under microscope. The MN frequency was calculated and analysed. Results: The variation in MN frequency, analysed by Students T test for male subjects exposed to tobacco alone was found to be statistically significant (p < 0.05). Conclusion: The MN frequency was found to vary with risk factor exposure; highest with exposure to tobacco and alcohol and lowest in subjects who were not exposed to any of the three substances. The rise in MN frequency was found to be significant in subjects exposed to tobacco alone.

  138. V. S. Hatolkar, D. M. Vaishnav and M. D. Hivre

    The troponins are regulatory proteins found in skeletal and cardiac muscle. Most of the early markers identified were enzymes, and as a result, the term "cardiac enzymes" is sometimes used. However, not all of the markers currently used are enzymes. Cardiac biomarkers should be measured in all patients who present with chest discomfort consistent with acute coronary syndrome. Elevations of cardiac enzyme levels should be interpreted in the context of clinical and ECG findings. In this study, cTnT levels of 50 AMI patients were compared with the 25 normal blood donors. We observed 20 times increase in cTnT levels in AMI patients as compared to normal donors. Cardiac troponins T and I are the preferred markers for myocardial injury as they have the highest sensitivities and specificities for the diagnosis of acute myocardial infarction. Peak circulating enzyme levels tend to occur earlier and are often higher following successful thrombolytic therapy.

  139. Nidhi Saraswat, Prabhuraj Kambalyal and Neel Patel

    Aim: The aim of the study was to establish Soft Tissue Cephalometric Norms for skeletal and dental relationships amongst local Udaipur population in Rajasthan state of India. Materials and Methods: Sixty subjects (30 Males & 30 Females) from different parts of Udaipur in the age group 18 to 25 Years (Mean age 21.3 Years) were selected at random for study and lateral cephalograms were taken. All the cephalograms were traced two times by Single operator at different time interval using conventional hand tracing. The parameters used in the study were taken from the parameters given by Arnett and Bergman soft tissue cephalometric analysis (STCA). Overall 46 measurements including 40 linear, 6 angular parameters were used. Mean and standard deviation values were also calculated. The difference between males and females were evaluated using student t-test. Results: The values obtained from the study showed significant difference in most of the parameters from that of Arnett et al. norms and between males and females within Udaipur population. Conclusion: Males had comparatively thicker soft tissue facial structures, acute nasolabial angle and thus more convex profile, increased midface deficiency, recessive lower face, and less upright mandibular incisors than females within Udaipur population. Also, there was deviation for parameters of overall population when compared to STCA norms.

  140. Dr. Sheikh Mustafa, Dr. Neha Mahajan, Dr. Perveena Fareed, Dr. Samiya Tabassum

    Introduction: Laparoscopy because of its availability and safety provides a valuable tool in the evaluation of undiagnosed chronic pelvic pain. It is a simple and definitive means of establishing the presence or absence of pelvic pathology without resorting to major abdominal surgery. Objective: To evaluate the causes of chronic pelvic pain using laparoscopy and to correlate between clinical examination, ultrasonography, and laparoscopy. Settings and Design: The present prospective study was done in the Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology of LD Hospital, GMC Srinagar. Materials and Methods: Sixty cases of chronic pelvic pain of more than 6 months duration attending gynecology OPD were included in the study. After detailed history, examination, investigations, and ultrasonography, the patients were subjected to laparoscopy Results: Ultrasonography could detect abnormality in 38.33% of patients as compared to Laparoscopy which had abnormal findings in 78.33%. Most common pelvic pathology was PID in 26.67% followed by adhesions in 23.33% cases which could not be detected clinically and on sonography. Conclusion: The study revealed laparoscopy is a more sensitive and superior method for evaluation of chronic pelvic pain as compared to ultrasonography. Laparoscopy can establish a definitive diagnosis, modify and provide treatment without resorting to exploratory laparotomy.

  141. M. Ganesan, A. Ajay Raja and Avinash

    Intussusception is defined as the telescoping of proximal segment of intestine (intussusceptum) into a distal segment of intestine (intussuscipens). Intussusceptions are classified into three general categories: enteric (small bowel into small bowel), ileocolic (small bowel into colon) and colonic (colon to colon). In this article we have reviewed about mucinous adenocarcinoma causing ileocolic intussusception

  142. Suhail Latoo, Pushparaja Shetty and Owais Gowhar

    Oro-pharyngeal cancer is one of the six most frequently occurring cancers. Oral cancer is often preceded by specific lesions and conditions that are called precancerous. A number etiological agents and pathological processes have been found to be associated with oral precancerous lesions. These changes may result from chronic physical trauma, tobacco use, genetic abnormalities or in many instances cause may not be known. The purpose of this epidemiological study was planned to evaluate prevalence of oral precancerous lesions based on data such as distribution according to age, sex and intraoral locations and to determine correlation between prevalence of oral habits and oral mucosal white lesions among population of Sasihitlu Village, Mukka, Dakshina Kannada District, Karnataka, India. In present study, oral precancerous lesions were detected in 43 of the 1267 (3.4%) individuals of population. The prevalence rate of 3.4% does not reflect the whole population but provides information on the epidemiological aspects of oral precancerous lesions, which may prove valuable in planning future oral health studies and implementing preventive programs in Sasihitlu Village, Mukka, Dakshin Kannada District, Karnataka, India.

  143. Shiv Prakash Rathore, Mohd Shakeel, Dharamveer Yadav and Praveen sharma

    Hyperglycemia in DM is associated with increased lipid peroxidation and excessive production of free radicals which lead to oxidative stress by autoxidation of glucose. It is an important pathogenic mechanism in the development of diabetes and its complications. The research work included 50 healthy controls and 100 patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus. Fasting blood samples collected using aseptic technique were evaluated for serum levels of the fasting blood glucose, triglycerides, total cholesterol, HDL, LDL, vitamin C, vitamin E and glutathione by spectrophotometric method. On the basis of lipid profile the patients were categorized into 2 groups diabetic with dyslipidemia and diabetic without dyslipidemia. It was observed that vitamin C, vitamin E and glutathione levels in serum are significantly depleted in diabetics with dyslipidemia as compared to diabetics without dyslipidemia and control.

  144. Asal Mohseni Sajadi Araghi, Sajjad Mohsin Irayyif and Sudhakar Malla

    Foodborne illness (sometimes called "foodborne disease," "foodborne infection," or "food poisoning) is a common, costly—yet preventable—public health problem. Many different disease-causing microbes, or pathogens, can contaminate foods, so there are many different foodborne infections. In addition, poisonous chemicals, or other harmful substances can cause foodborne diseases if they are present in food. The present study was focussed to check the effect of silver nano particles on the food borne pathogens. The study was aimed to screen the activity of the nanoparticles on the bacterila growth and its biofilm forming ability. Motility ability of the species was also assayed by capillary method. Percent inhibition of nanopartciles on the food borne pathogens was dose dependent. There was no much difference between the species. But with increasing concentrations of the nanoparticles the effect was found to be significant. The effect was found to be more at 500μg/ml. Biofilm inhibition assay was done under the treatment of nanopartciles on the food borne pathogens. This assay was also found to be dose dependent. There was no much difference between the species. But with increasing concentrations of the nanoparticles the effect was found to be significant. The effect was found to be more at 500μg/ml. The effect was significant and dose significant. There was no much difference between the species. But with increasing concentrations of the nanoparticles the effect was found to be significant. The effect was found to be more at 500μg/ml. The motility behaviour of the isolates was confirmed and was found to more with increasing time. The number of colonies was found to be more with the increase in time.

  145. Dana Katia Meschede, Gabriele Do Prado Borges, Eli Carlos De Oliveira, Marli De Moraes Gomes and José Roberto Pinto De Souza

    Sunn hemp (Crotalaria juncea L.) is a tropical legume that could be an important summer cover crop, it has the potential for suppressing both crops and weeds. The objective of this study was to evaluate the allelopathic effect of sunn hemp in different spacing intervals and densities, in the germination of corn, beans, rice, soybeans and weeds. The study was conducted in Cáceres/MT and Paraguaçu Paulista/SP. Sunn hemp was planted to obtain matter for the extraction of allele chemical compounds and the suppressive effect from growing sunn hemp on the weeds on the crops in the field. The corn, bean, rice, soybean and bitter grass seeds were the bio-indicators. There were two spacing intervals (0.25 m and 0.50 m) and three densities (25, 40 and 50 plants m-1) evaluated the sunn hemp height, density, dry weight of weeds (g/m2) and the germination and root length of the planted specie seedlings. The reduction of sunn hemp plant spacing reduces the growth of weeds in the field that directly interfere in the germination and growth of seedlings. The crops display different sensitivity to the concentration of sunn hemp extracts, bean extract displays the greatest sensitivity to the extract, even at the lowest concentration, when compared to corn and rice, as it also affects the root. No significant interference was present in soybean extracts. Bitter grass has reduced germination from the extracts and increased numbers of abnormal plants.

  146. Mohmmad Irshad Rather, Nuzhat Shahi, Yousuf, A.R., Musharaf Rehman and Maryum Meraj

    Inspite of innumerable conservation practices taken by management authorities over the past two decades, the ecological condition of the famous urban lake (Dal Lake) has deteriorated and it is getting enriched with plant nutrients (mainly N and P) and pollutants, getting slowly shallower and shrinking gradually in size. In this backdrop, an exhaustive study was undertaken from summer 2011 to spring 2013 to evaluate the present trophic status of the lake by determining nitrogen load from its catchment area, floating gardens and houseboats. The present research has shown that lake is marching towards hypertrophic condition mainly due to enhanced levels of nitrogen forms. Results from one-way ANOVA of nitrogen forms revealed that data was over all significant (P<0.05) with respect to Ammonia and Nitrite and insignificant (p>0.05) in case of nitrate. GLM was also applied to identify various predictors and factors. Regression analysis and Cluster analysis was also applied to ascertain the correlations between nitrogen forms and closeness among various sites respectively. The present study was an attempt to identify the sources and distributional pattern of nitrogen levels across seventeen sites of Dal Lake along spatial and temporal scales

  147. Danielle Coutinho Ribeiro, Isabela Pereira de Lima, Marcela Pedroso Mendes, Heloisa Oliveira dos Santos, Cínthia Souza Rodrigues

    Rice research institutions have been dedicated to solve problems related to increasing grain yield and enhance the performance of rice lines for important agronomic qualitative traits.However, breeding for multiple traits is difficult since traits frequently show a not always positive phenotypic correlation between each other. Among all alternatives to deal with multiple traits, index selection is expected to be the most efficient and the easier choice in many crops.Therefore, the aim of this study was to select upland rice progenies for important agronomic traitssimultaneously using the Z index approach. Genotypes from the Upland Rice Breeding Program from the Federal University of Lavras, MG, Brazilwere evaluated for plant height, number of days to flowering, neck blast resistance, leaf blast resistance, grain discoloration resistance, brown spot resistance, and leaf scald resistance using a simple square lattice 14x14 design comprising of 192 progenies F2:4 and four commercial upland rice cultivars.The Z index was obtained per plot from the sum of the standardized values of the six traits, except plant height, and the genotypes means ofZwere compared according to the Scott-Knott approach. The phenotypic selection was performedfirst for plant height, and then considering the Z index. Of the 196 progenies, 96 were selected for plant height, and of these, 60 were selected for the Z index, corresponding of a selection intensity of 30%. The progenies that stood out considering the traits separatelyalso showed the best index, indicating that the Z index was efficient in selecting upland rice genotypes for multiple traits simultaneously.

  148. Chandana, C.M.

    The study was conducted on the fluctuations in the monthly average prices of pulses in market of Latur district of Maharashtra. The Quantitative assessment of various data with respect to pulses by data from the Latur APMC. the data for marketing of major pulses pertaining to the time series analysis 15 years data were collected for period from 2000-2014. The study of market arrivals and prices indicated that the highest arrivals of chickpea were in the month of March, February, and April while Mung and urd bean are in the month of October and Tur in the month of February. Prices of chickpea, mung tur urd bean are maximum in the months of October, December, January, and September respectively

  149. Ibrahim A. Mashaly, Mohamed Abd El-Aal, Heshmat S. Aldesuquy and Baedaa A. Mahdee

    This study aimed at characterizing the floristic features of plant species associated with four wild medicinal plants in the Egyptian deserts. Two plants were chosen from the inland north part of the eastern desert (Wadi Hagul and Wadi El-Molak) namely Pulicaria undulata (L.) C. A. Mey. and Hyoscyamus muticus L., and the two other species were selected from the coastal desert along the Deltaic Mediterranean Sea coast namely Calligonum polygonoides L. subsp. comosum and Nicotiana glauca R.C. Graham. A total of 125 plant species belonging to 107 genera and 29 families were recorded. Asteraceae, Poaceae, Chenopodiaceae and Brassicaceae were the leading families which represented by 55.2% of the total number of recorded species. Preponderance of perennials, therophytes and Saharo-Sindian/ Mediterranean taxa indicating the semi-arid and arid climate of the study area. Four vegetation groups or community types were yielded after TWINSPAN and named after the first dominant species. Group A: Zygophyllum coccineum, group B: Pulicaria undulata, group C: Calligonum polygonoides and group D: Nicotiana glauca. Z. coccineum community dominated Wadi Hagul bed. P. undulata community occupied Wadi El-Molak bed. C. polygonoides community dominated the roadside and sand formation habitats. Furthermore, N. glauca community inhabited roadside of the coastal desert. In addition, these communities were apparently segregated along DCA-axes.

  150. Riadh El Abed

    This study examines the interdependence of natural gas price (HENRYHUB) and oil prices (WTI and BRENT). The aim of this paper is to examine how the dynamics of correlations between the markets evolved from January 01, 2004 to February 26, 2015. To this end, we adopt a dynamic conditional correlation (DCC) model into a multivariate Fractionally Integrated Asymmetric Power ARCH (FIAPARCH) framework, which accounts for long memory, power effects, leverage terms and time varying correlations. The empirical findings indicate the evidence of time-varying comovement, a high persistence of the conditional correlation and the dynamic correlations revolve around a constant level and the dynamic process appears to be mean reverting. Moreover, the univariate FIAPARCH models are particularly useful in forecasting market risk exposure for synthetic portfolios of stocks and currencies.

  151. Daniel Staciarini Corrêa, Aldi Fernandes de Souza França, Emmanuel Arnhold, Roberto Toledo de Magalhães, Adesvaldo José e Silva Júnior, Leonardo Guimarães de Oliveira and Débora de Carvalho Basto

    We evaluated the response of millet cultivars (ADR 500 and BRS 1501) to nitrogen fertilization (0; 45; 90 or 180 kg ha-1) and pre-cut heights (0.70; 0.80 and 0.90 m). Data underwent analysis of variance and means were compared by Tukey´s test. Crude protein (CP) was determined by the Kjeldhal method; insoluble neutral and acid detergent fiber (NDF and ADF) and lignin by sequential method. Ether extract (EE) was determined by Soxhlet method and total carbohydrates (tCHO) by Sniffen´s equation. Both cultivars showed linear response to nitrogen. The 0.90 m cut provided higher dry matter (DM) rates and the 0.80 and 0.70 m cuts had DM rates limiting to consumption. NDF rates varied between 69.08% (BRS 1501, 180 N, 0.80 m) and 83.19% (ADR 500, 180 N, 0.70 m); ADF varied between 27.38% (BRS 1501, 45 N, 0.80 m) and 39.06% (ADR 500, 90 N, 0.80 m); lignin had a mean 5.15% and EE had a mean 3.47%, with no variations due to treatments. Despite high NDF, cultivars presented high tCHO and EE rates, indicating high energy density. Nitrogen fertilization improved the chemical composition and productivity, especially for the 0.90 m cut.

  152. Geetika Mehta and Verma, P. K

    The experimental materials were sown in the research area of Department of Dry land Agriculture and Pulses Section of the Department of Genetics and Plant Breeding, CCS HAU, Hisar during rabi season of 2013-14. The experiment comprised 21 genotypes (including local & national checks) and was grown in 3 replications in a plot size of 8 rows of 4m length with plant-to-plant distance of 10 cm and row to row spacing of 45 cm in dry land area and 30 cm in irrigated area. Observations were recorded on Days to maturity, Plant height at 30, 45, 60 DAS and physiological maturity (cm), Primary branches per plant ,Seed yield per plant (g), Seed yield (g/plot), Rain water use efficiency (kg/ha-mm). The results indicated that days to maturity, plant height and Primary branches per plant recorded positive significant correlations with seed yield per plant under normal sown conditions which were changed in the rainfed areas. These are quite interesting results. The genetic diversity of the material under study is quite evident from the morphological data, The information so gathered will be used to decide the strategy of chickpea improvement for drought environment.

  153. Anita Mohanty, Pravasini Behera and Dibya Sundar Kar

    Tube rose is an important flower plant of our country earning a lot of revenue and trade. Of different diseases affecting tube rose cultivation, collar rot induced by Sclerotium rolfsii Sacc. is an important soil borne disease causing devastating losses. In the present study, the sensitivity of the collar rot pathogen was investigated. Out of nine aqueous plant extracts, evaluated in vitro root extract of moringa (Moringa oleifera L.) and seed extract soapnut (Sopindus trifoliate L.) were found highly inhibitory to S. rolfsii completely at 20 percent concentrations and fairly high inhibition of fungal growth was noted in lower dose. Considerably high inhibition of mycellial growth was noted in leaf extract of neem (Ajadiracta indica) and patal gaurad (Rowlphia serpentine).

  154. EL Sabagh Ayman, Sobhy Sorour, Akram Morsi, Mohammad Sohidul Islam, Akihiro Ueda, Celaleddin Barutcular, Halis Arioglu and Hirofumi Saneoka

    Water stress is a serious threat to the agricultural production and is likely to further increase. Osmoprotectants, plays an important role in the protects of plants from various environmental stresses. Moreover, Soybean is susceptible to yield loss from water deficit. Therefore, a greenhouse research was conducted aimed at assessing the Impact of exogenous osmoregulators and compost application in alleviating the adverse effects of water stress on soybean. The results indicated that, water Stress significantly reduced nitrogen content which results in the reduction of seed yield. While, Water stress resulted in a significant changes of proline content in leaves. In respect to the tolerance against water stress was observed, the improvement of water stress tolerance resulted from compost with compare mineral application, as well as exogenous osmoprotectants were improved proline and nitrogen content which results in the increase of seed yield. Interestingly, the combined application mineral fertilizer and exogenous osmoprotectants could to be more effective in alleviating the adverse effect of water stress to improve the growth and production of soybean.

  155. Savitha Veeraragavan and D. Ramamoorthy

    Presently an attempt is made to get detailed information on anatomical architect of the nectariferous tissues present in the ventrally folded stipules in Cassia alata using Cross section of stipule and its SEM images. The anatomical studies revealed that nectar secreting tissues are present both on ventral and dorsal fold of the stipules located on both sides of petiole in C. alata. The cross section of the stipule show upper and lower ends made of epidermal tissues and secretary paranchymatous tissues in between. The paranchymatous cells are found to be loaded with nectar and spreading towards upper and lower epidermis. However, a closer observation on the SEM images it is noticed that amount of nectar is seen more on the lower end than upper side confirming the higher degree visitation of ants to the lower side of the stipule for nectar. The secretion is tested for sucrose using Benedict’s solution after hydrolyzing the nectar. The nectariferous cells are devoid of any intracellular bodies as found in other nectaries. Therefore, it is presumed that nectar oozes out either through pores in the epidermis or by rupturing epidermal layer. This aspect requires further SEM studies to find out the way out for the nectar.

  156. Flores-Encarnación, M, Jaramillo-Rodríguez, J.B., Xicohtencatl-Cortés, J., Amador-Bravo, D., Aguilar-Gutiérrez, G.R., Cabrera-Maldonado, C., León-Tello, G., Ruíz-Tagle, A., García-López, A. and 4Meneses-Sánchez, M.C.

    A common problem in water distribution networks is the formation of bacterial biofilms inside them. The biofilm is a community of microorganisms which is embedded in a solid surface and it is the natural state in which the most bacteria are in the environment or infectious processes The biofilm formation is a dynamic and continuous process and it forms a complex microenvironment in the pipes. This process depends on several factors including materials from which pipes are made. So the drinking water has lost quality along its passage by supply pipes. The deterioration of water quality results in altering the taste and odor and sometimes the turbidity. In this study, the presence of bacteria forming biofilm in water pipes was determinated.

  157. Pazhanisamy, K., Kennadi, P. and Rengarajan, R.

    Freshwater fish, Tilapia mossambica is an important species in Tamil Nadu region having good nutritional values. Fishes living in close association with may accumulate pesticides. In the present study, the toxic effects of the endosulfan LC50 5 µg/L. The most common changes were observed in both 10% and 30% sublethal concentrations of endosulfan in liver of Tilapia mossambica for different exposure period. In 5 days treated fish in 10% sublethal concentration of the liver tissue changes observed in Tilapia mossambica was affected nucleus congestion, unequal size of nucleus, increase of vaculation, disintegrated of nucleus mild vacuoles and less number of nucleus. The present work on histological observation was carried out to know lesions in liver that had resulted from sublethal exposure of the fish Tilapia mossambica to pesticide endosulfan.

  158. Jumadi, Waode Azfari Azis, Barfila and Herman Mimi

    Resident of Baubau City is most using potable water from river and groundwater as drinking water resources. However, rapid developments have deteriorated quality of drinking water sources in Baubau City, Indonesia. For determining water quality has been used Biotic and Polution Index to assess pollution level of Baubau River, Baubau City, Indonesia. Macro invertebrates was collected at 3 station:upper, middle, and lower river from May to September 2014 and at the same time, temperature, total dissolved solid, total suspended solid, pH, dissolved oxygen were analyzed. Pollution level was analyzed used Family Biotic Index (FBI), Belgian Biotic Index (BBI) and STORET-USEPA pollution index methods. The results analysis show that score of FBI were 6.11, 6.53, and 6.67; BBIscore: 4,4, and 3; and water pollution index score on the station 1, 2, and 3 were 2.37, 5.57, and 6.16, respectively. The macroinvertebrates was found, viz., Libelluidae, Parathelphusidae, Athyidae, Palaemonidae, Gerridae, Viviparidae, Thiaridae. Meanwhile Corbiculidae dominated by Gastropodes from Viviparidae and Thiaridae. Conclusion: The overall water quality of the Baubau River from up to lower was moderate to heavy pollution (III-IV).Water bodies are potentially hazardous to public health and that proper sewage treatment and river quality monitoring are needed to warn against hazards to public health.

  159. Gasimova, F. I. and Azizov, I. V.

    The effects of different salinity levels on germination of wheat seedlings, water regime and chlorophyll content have been studied. Seeds and seedlings of wheat were grown in NaCl solutions of 0 (control), 100, 150, 200 and 250 mmol L-1concentrations under controlled conditions. The results proved that bread wheat genotypes (Triticum aestivium L) Gyrmyzy gul and Gobustan were the most salt tolerant among thestudied genotypes.

  160. Rabinovich, Galina Yurievna, Fomicheva, Natalya Viktorovna and Sulman, Esfir Mikhaelovna

    An algorithm for production of a liquid humic fertilizer (from the waste of the biotechnological manufacturing of a biological-origin liquid-phase biological product) has been presented. The algorithm includes factors affecting end-product qualities such as extraction agent concentration and volume, extraction temperature, etc. The work has several stages. The quality of the experimental samples of the liquid humic fertilizer has been assessed at each stage. Having taken account of all the results, the following optimum parameters for the liquid humic fertilizer have been evaluated: a thrice-repeated alkali extraction with a 1.5% potassium hydroxide solution at the waste:KOH ratio = 1:10 at the temperature of 60 0С for six hours. The mother liquor of the liquid humic fertilizer was dark brown and had no bad odor. Potassium humate, humic acid and spore-formers concentrations in the fertilizer were at least 17 g/l, at least 2.7 g/l and at least n*102 colony-forming units/ml, respectively. The liquid humic fertilizer was recommended for a root or out-of-root feeding of plants, as well as to activate soil microorganism effects.

  161. Geeta Devi and Geetika Mehta

    Lactic acid bacteria are industrially important organisms recognized for their fermentative ability as well as their health and nutritional benefits.There is an increasing interest in these species to reveal the many possible health benefits associated with them. The actions of LAB are species and strain specific, and depend on the amount of bacteria available in the gastrointestinal tract. However, products with or processed with LAB are accepted as a natural way to preserve food and promote health. This paper aimed to review the recent data in regard to the role of probiotic LAB in food industries, in the immunomodulation in the gastrointestinal tract, and there application in its health benefits.

  162. Isha Kaushik, Geeta Devi and Geetika Mehta

    Dietary fibre has long history, its term originated by Hipsley (1953) who coined dietary fibre as non-digestable constituents making up the plant cell wall Dietary fiber is broadly classified according to its solubility into soluble and insoluble fibers. Microbial and synthetic are rich source of soluble fiber. Cereals, pulses and oilseeds are rich sources of insoluble fiber. Fibre, as a food ingredient, shows various types of techno-functional properties such as emulsification, fat replacement, stabilizer, texturizer and cryoprotectant in wide range of processed food products. The food industry takes advantage of these properties to improve the viscosity, texture, sensory characteristics and shelf-life of its products. The physico-chemical properties of fibre can be manipulated through different processing treatments to improve their functionality and nutrient content in different food products such as baked goods, beverages, dairy, meat and pasta products.

  163. Dogniméton SORO, Koutoua AYOLIE, Ferdinand Gohi Bi ZRO, Abraham GBETIBOUO, Jacques Nafiassou Kouakou NAHIN, 1Sidiky BAKAYOKO, Andres TSCHANNEN, Pascal Téhua Kouassi ANGUI and Justin Yatty KOUADIO

    Although Côte d’Ivoire is the first producer in cocoa, its cocoa production is made by extension while yield are still low because of soil fertility decrease, diseases and pests and planting material quality. If this can be solved by improved varieties creation, soil fertility and it management need to be treat seriously to face climate changes effects. Chemical fertilization has been tested unsuccessfully and raised others problem due to acidification and product quality. Ivoirian cocoa producers being costumed to produce without fertilizer, we aim in this test to experiment, DAF system to improve soil fertility and cocoa productivity in central Côte d’Ivoire. In an on farm trial made with 54 farmers using different cocoa varieties, no significant difference was noticed between one year DAF application and control yields even if DAF yields better. However, old plantations showed an improvement in soil organic matter content compare to their controls of same farmer. The plantation age and DAF application are the principal factors that condition the success of the system. All species associated to cocoa are useful to local people and this can made possible the rapid adoption of that innovative strategy in cocoa production and lead to better cocoa dry broad bean.

  164. Mahluga M.Yusifova, Konul A. Gafarbayli, Kamala G.Nuriyeva and Nigar A. Sultanova

    Last times the reserves flora and fauna are investigated systematically, the planned scientific observations and researches are performed on the basis of the certain program and method widely the state and biosphere reserves and Reserves, in the state guarding zones of the different countries. But it is necessary to comment that the researches being performed in these areas aren’t much for the present and there is a great need for broadness of such works. From this view point the researches being conducted in a field of estimating the fertility level by a quality the Azerbaijan Republic Gakh State Nature Reserve soils assume a great interest. As a result of the carried out researches “Gakh State Nature Reserve soils map” (with a scale of 1:25000) has been composed. According to the map the following soil types spread in the prohibited zone: mountain-meadow -7017,2 ha; mountain-grey-brown-12823,65 ha; grey-brown-17182,4 ha and grey soils-1483,0 ha. An evaluation of the Gakh State Nature Reserve soils was conducted over 10 soil types and subtypes, because of getting 100 scores the mountain-meadow soils for high upland zone, but mountain grey-brown soils for foothill-plain zone have been received as a standard. According to the bonitet scale the washed mountain-meadow steppe soils possess-92 scores, grey-brown soils-85 scores, the lowest fertile light-grey soils-58 scores.

  165. Anto, M. and Jasy, T.

    The study was carried out in order to explore the Angiosperm flora in the proposed site of Aranmula International Airport Pathanamthitta, Kerala. The airport project, which is at the center of a raging political storm in Kerala has run into fresh trouble with the Kerala State Biodiversity Board (KSBB) expressing serious reservations over the land use changes and eco physiological imbalance. At present, the biodiversity of Aranmula is reduced to a great extent due to unsustainable anthropogenic activities, which was well evidenced from soil filled paddy fields around 60 acres and collapsed natural water reservoir, Kozhithode during 2003- 2006 period. With this scenario, the present study aims to document the floristic angiosperm diversity at proposed site as an effort for conservation. A detailed study on angiosperm plant diversity, conservation aspects and RET assessment was conducted during the work. Over 250 plant species belonging to more than 67 families were documented, among them members of Poaceae and Cyperaceae families are most dominant.

  166. Balaji Parthasarathy, Satheeshkumar, P. K., Krishnan Venkataraman and Vijayalakshmi, M. A.

    Present day therapeutics against TNF have some disadvantages in the form of cost, immunogenicity, etc., resulting in a need for an approach using small antigen binding antibody fragments called scFv (single chain variable fragment). In this study, construct with anti-TNFscFv was developed and expressed in E.coli under optimal conditions of 30oC and 37 M IPTG. Periplasmic secretion was achieved using 2% glycine and 1% Triton X-100in the culture medium. Addition of 0.5 M sorbitol ensured that the protein was expressed as a soluble form. Secreted protein was purified by immobilized metal affinity chromatography (IMAC) and confirmed by immunoblot.

  167. Jayashree, H. and Channaveerappa, H.

    Phylogenetic relationship of grasshoppers of family pyrgomorphidae is vague and less studied aspect, molecular analysis of phylogenetic relationships has not been done so far .In this study we have analysed phylogenetic relationships of six species of pyrgomorphidae using nuclear genome through RAPD-PCR.Ten primers used in this study have produced only polymorphic bands with varying numbers in between the species. The phylogenetic tree constructed based on similarity matrix depicts monophyletic origin of Pyrgomorphidae species and also predicts origin of congeneric species from different nodes.

  168. Sharma Asha and Pawan Sindhu

    Arsenic is a toxic heavy metal that enters the environment through various natural and anthropogenic sources and affected various metabolic pathways of plants and animals. Wheat and other plants grown under Arsenic condition accumulate it and decreases growth and productivity. Its toxicity may result from disturbance in plant metabolic activity and disturbance in the uptake and transport of mineral nutrients. Some nutrients and arsenic compete for the same transporters and it accumulate in plant parts to replace nutrient. Arsenic accumulation was measured in plant tissues in different parts at maturity. Experiment was conducted on two varieties of wheat (C-306, WH-711) on three concentration of Arsenic 50, 100 and 150 mg/kg of soil. Experiment showed that higher concentration of arsenic significantly (p<0.05) uptake among both wheat varieties. Arsenic concentrations in plant tissues were as follows: roots > stems > grains. In the arsenic treatments, accumulation in roots was about 3-4 times higher than those in grains. Arsenic enters the plant system, may enter the food chain and cause harm to humans and animals. By observing these parameters of the two varieties of wheat WH-711 is more sensitive and accumulates more arsenic than C-306.

  169. Manisha Mhaske and Ghanshyam Gonjari

    Angiogenesis is the formation of new blood vessels from pre-existing vessels, capillaries and post-capillary venules. It plays an important role in many normal physiological processes such as normal tissue growth, embryonic development, wound healing and menstruation. Many natural inhibitors block the process of angiogenesis which may leads to inhibition of tumor growth. The chick chorioallantoic membrane (CAM) assay is well vascularized in vivo model used to study angiogenesis, anti-angiogenesis and teratogenic effect of individual compounds and complex plant extracts. In the present investigation angio-suppressive activity of B. sensitivum (bark) in acetone extract is evaluated by chick chorioallantoic membrane (CAM) assay. The fertilized eggs of Gallug gallus (murghi) was incubated at 380C with relative humidity. The embryos of 48, 72 and 96hrs CAM were exposed to 1mg/ml acetone extract of B. sensitivum(bark) and were further incubated upto 144hrs and CAM was studied. The present investigations showed angio-suppressive effect of B.sensitivum (bark) on the number and area of tertiary vitelline veins (TVV).

  170. Senthilvalavan, P. and Ravichandran, M.

    Field experiments were conducted during Kharif season for two consecutive years of 2008-09 and 2009-10 with rice at Experimental Farm, Annamalai University, Annamalai Nagar (Tamil Nadu), India on deep clay soil (Typic Haplusterts) to study the impact of inorganic and organic nutrient sources and levels on yield, N uptake and its use efficiency in rice under SRI and conventional system of cultivation (CSC). The experiments were conducted in split plot design with two methods of cultivation (SRI and conventional) as main plot treatments and twelve sub plot treatments viz., three inorganic alone applied treatments (100 % RDF, STCR based RDF, LCC based N (Recommended dose of fertilizer P&K without basal N), nine integrated nutrient management treatments (STCR based IPNS , based on 100 % RDF two levels of fertilizer nitrogen (75and 50 per cent) in combination with two levels of N (25 and 50 per cent) through different organic manures viz., Farmyard manure (FYM), Green manure (GM), Pressmud (PM), Poultry manure (POM) as sub plot treatments. The results revealed that the highest grain yield (4661.1 kg ha-1) and straw yield (6708.6 kg ha-1), higher N uptake in grain (46.3 kg ha-1) and lower N uptake in straw (42.5 kg ha-1) in SRI as compared to CSC(4201.5,6367kg ha-1 and 39.2,46.1kg ha-1,respectively),and higher N use efficiency in SRI (ANUE-24.7 %, NER-134.7 kg kg-1, NHI- 49.8 % and NP-1.00 kg kg-1day-1) over CSC(22.5 %,130.6 kg kg-1,43.9 and 0.97 kg kg-1day-1, respectively. Yield of grain (6507.4, 5774.1 kg ha-1) and straw (8211.8, 7643.7 kg ha-1), N uptake in grain (68.3,56.8 kg ha-1) and straw (54.1,58.7 kg ha-1), and N use efficiency(ANUE-45.2,40.1%,NHI- 55.1,48.5 %) were found be significantly higher and lower NER-120.3,116.2 kg kg-1, NP-0.89,0.86 kg kg-1day-1 due to the application of STCR based IPNS (144:64:60 kg NPK ha-1 along with 12.5 t ha-1 FYM and bio-fertilizers viz., Azospirillum and PSB) treatment under SRI and conventional system of cultivation, respectively. N uptake showed highest significant positive relationship with grain and straw yields, and ANUE, NHI and negative relationship with NER and NP under both system of cultivation. Hence, the STCR based IPNS (144:64:60 kg NPK ha-1 along with 12.5 t ha-1 FYM and bio-fertilizers viz., Azospirillum and PSB) can be regarded as the best nutrient management practice under SRI and conventional system of cultivation for enhancing rice yield, N uptake and use efficiency in Cauvery deltaic zone of Tamilnadu.

  171. Kalyani G., Prasanna Kumar, Y. and King, P.

    The ultimate aim of research worldwide is to make the environment a pollution free environment with clean as well as safe air and water. Our subject is too closely related to the on the ongoing research, i.e., removal of toxic constituents from the aqueous solutions for dependable and clean water for several uses. Pithophora Cleveana Wittrock was used as an biosorbent for the removal of zinc metal ions from aqueous solutions. Batch experiments were taken out over an agitation time of 0.5-30 min, using 0.1 g of Pithophora Cleveana Wittrock, 30 mL of 20 mg/L of individual metal concentration at pH 5, temperature 303 K and 180 rpm shaking speed. The removal percentage of zinc at the end of 20 min of contact time was then measured. The Central Composite Design (CCD) software was used to design the experiments and determine the optimum conditions. The equilibrium isotherm models Langmuir, Freundlich, Temkin, Redlich-Peterson and Dubinin–Radushkevich (D–R) were employed to analyze the fitness of the equilibrium data. Langmuir isotherm for Zinc with an average higher correlation coefficient of 0.996, followed by D–R, Freundlich, Temkin, and Redlich-Peterson with a correlation coefficient of 0.9484, 0.925, 0.903 and 0.2177 respectively. Confirmatory experiments conducted at the suggested optimized conditions showed experimental findings within 5% of the projected values. From the CCD, the suggested optimum values for metal ion concentration, pH, biosorbent dosage and Zinc removal efficiency were 37.6 mg/L, 5.09, 0.3 g and 78.97%, respectively.

  172. Neelam Kumari

    1(O-Arsonophenylazo)-2- naphthol - 3,6 - disulphonic acid (APANS, H5A), an excellent agent due to presence of five electron donating functional groups, have been found to form complexes with various metal ions. It is used in determining the composition and the stability constants of a number of complexes formed under a limited pH range using spectrophotometric methods. In the present investigation. a detailed study on the chelation reactions of APANS and pair of ligands, APANS-en and APANS-mpn with transition metal ion, fe2 has been carried out at 200 (r=0.10m KNO3/Na2SO4) employing the pH - metric method. From the experimental data pH Vs volume of alkali crrves were plotted and were utilized to calculate moles of alkali used per mole of ligand (d). Further, pH vs d, curves were platted and analysed.

  173. Priya Bhardwaj, Seema Agarwal and S. Kalpana

    The inhibition of mild steel (MS) in 1 M HCl solution with aqueous extract of Calotropis procera L. leaves (AECPL) was studied by weight loss method at 303-333K temperatures. It was found that inhibition efficiency increased with increase in concentration of extract and decreased with increase in temperature. Maximum 60.86%inhibition efficiency was observed at 303 K and at 8% (v/v) concentration of extract. Adsorption of extract at mild steel surface follows Langmuir adsorption isotherm. Physiorption is proposed by the values of Gibbs free energy, variation in inhibition energy with temperature and with activation energy values trend. Negative Gibbs energy reveals the spontaneity of inhibition process in extract at studied temperatures.

  174. Mohan, S., ,Subramani, K. and Tangavelou, A.C.

    In the search of plants as a source of natural antibiotics, four medicinal plants namely Anisomeles malabarica (L.) R. Br. ex Sims (Lamiaceae), Erythrina variegata L., (Leguminosae) and Merremia gangetica Cufod., (Convolvulaceae) and Operculina turpethum (L.) Silva Manso (Convolvulaceae) were selected for the present investigation. In the present study, four bioactive phenolic acids were isolated from methanolic extract of the selected plants viz., tannic acid (A. malabarica), ferulic acid (E. variegata), chlorogenic acid (M. gangetica), p-coumaric acid (O. turpethum) and their identities were confirmed with previous reports. The isolated molecules were subjected to determine the antimicrobial activity by Agar well diffusion method. The study reveals that all the phenolic acids showed significant antimicrobial activities against tested gram-negative, gram-positive and fungal organisms. Based on this, it is concluded that all the phenolic acids exhibited significant antibiotic activity and thus it proved as a potent antibiotic therapeutic agent to develop a plant based drug from these bioactive molecules against various pathogenic infections.

  175. J. Vasanthi and P. Indira

    Behavioral research of queuing has focused on customers in the queue. The current paper examines whether queues can also affect customers choice between services associated with different queues. Waiting lines or queues are a common phenomenon in life, especially in the province of organizations that are for profit making. Queues are common in such places as petrol or filling stations, supermarkets stores, clinics, hospitals, motor parks, manufacturing firms, to mention a but a few. An interesting aspect of queuing process resides in the measures of its system’s performance, especially in terms of average service rate, systems, utilization and the costs implied for a given capacity level. Specifically, it examines choice between similar super market located near each other. The results show high correlation between the queue length outside each super market and the number of newcomers. However, the effect is much stronger in tourist areas where customers are less familiar with the super markets. Moreover, the relative popularity of super markets is highly unstable in such areas. The findings suggest that in unfamiliar environments, queues may signal quality. Practical and Theoretical implications are discussed.

  176. Aruna Sri, P. S. G., Anusha, M., Sandeep Kumar, S. and GunaSekhar, T.

    Big data is the term for any gathering of information sets, so expensive and complex, that it gets to be hard to process for utilizing customary information handling applications. The difficulties incorporate investigation, catch, duration, inquiry, sharing, stockpiling, Exchange, perception, and protection infringement. To reduce spot business patterns, anticipate diseases, conflict etc., we require bigger data sets when compared with the smaller data sets. Enormous information is hard to work with utilizing most social database administration frameworks and desktop measurements and perception bundles, needing rather enormously parallel programming running on tens, hundreds, or even a large number of servers. In this paper there was an observation on Hadoop architecture, different tools used for big data and its security issues.

  177. Rajeevan, K. and Sumesh, R. K.

    Continuous measurements of CO2 mixing ratio and meteorological parameters have been made in National Centre for Earth Science Studies (NCESS), Trivandrum (8.5°N 76.9°E) from June 2014 to May 2015 and analyzed the diurnal and seasonal variation of CO2 mixing ratio. The average atmospheric CO2 during study period was 321±14.78 ppm. The diurnal variation with a maximum during the early morning and late night and a minimum in the afternoon is clearly observed. Photosynthetic activity and the atmospheric boundary layer play an important role in diurnal variation of CO2. The analysis of its seasonal trend indicated that highest value of CO2 mixing ratio was found in summer (382 ppm) and the lowest during monsoon (274.3 ppm) season. The mean day –night ratio (D/N) for the study period was 0.94. All the months the night time concentration is higher than the day time concentrations since Photosynthetic activity is higher during day time. Wind speed plays a dominant role in controlling the CO2 mixing ratios at this station.

  178. Sowmyya

    Forensic Science is a multidisciplinary science which helps in crime investigation. To link a suspect to a crime, DNA analysis has been playing a key role. According to the Locard’s exchange principle, when a suspect comes in contact with the crime scene, there is a transfer of evidence from the crime scene to the suspect and vice-versa. The suspect tends to leave the epithelial skin cells containing traces of his DNA on the surface which he comes in contact with. This DNA is referred to as touch DNA and can help in identification of the suspect involved in the crime. In crimes where identification of the suspect has proved to be a potential challenge for investigators, touch DNA has been an effective investigative tool. The present work throws light on the importance of touch DNA in criminal detection.

  179. Anand Prakash Tiwari, Saxena, A. K. and Tiwari, C. M.

    In this paper we have studied the cause of geomagnetic storm on 13-March, 1989 of solar cycle-22. We conjectured that the solar variability is basic cause of geomagnetic storm. For our study we have utilized daily value of solar parameter (sunspot number, solar proton flux, solar flare class, frequency occurrence of solar flare) as well as geomagnetic disturbance indices (Ap, Kp, Dst) and cosmic ray intensity data from ground based neutron monitor of Moscow having magnetic cut-off rigidity 2.42 GV, latitude 55.47N and longitude 37.32E. We observed that a severe geomagnetic storm struck earth on March 13, 1989 (Lermer, 1995; CBC. News, 2005). It occurred during active phase of solar cycle-22 and gave a result that it disrupts human atmosphere and their communication system.

  180. Asha, K. and Danappa Akka

    A (p,q)-graph G is called square sum (Acharya, 2011) if there exists a objective function such that the induced function defined by for every edge is injective. In this paper, we define Reverse square sum if . The sub-division graph is the graph obtained by inserting a vertex a w of degree 2 into every edge uv of G such that uw and vw are two edges. We study here Reverse square sum labelling in the context of Arbitrary Super subdivision of a graph .We show that the graph obtained by arbitrary super subdivision of Paths, Stars, Tadpoles, Trees, Grid graphs, Armed crowns and Cycles are Reverse Square sum.

  181. Himanshu Sekhar Rath, Somen Das, Debasis Panda, U. N. Dash and Mira Das

    The present investigation is aimed at assessing the current water quality standard along the stretch of Brahmani river in terms of physico-chemical parameters. In the selected study area the River Brahmani is receiving a considerable amount of industrial wastes and witnessing a considerable amount of human and agricultural activities. Nine samples were collected along the entire stretches of the river basin during the period from June-2013 to May-2014 on the first working day of every month. Various physico-chemical parameters like pH,, EC, Total Hardness, Total alkalinity sodium, potassium, calcium, magnessium, nitrate sulphate D.O.,B.O.D. etc. were analysed. The present study indicates that the water quality of Brahmani River is well within tolerance limit taking the physico-chemical parameters in to considerations.

  182. Geeta Sakhuja

    Physics is said to be difficult subject. Physics learning is not an easy task. There is strong evidence all over the world that physics students are not learning the concepts necessary for a good understanding of the physics world. Their learning of scientific facts remains in the classroom only. The computer is one of the most brilliant gifts of science having characteristics of speed, accuracy, reliability and integrity. It can execute over a million instructions per second without any mistake. It can carry our calculation in just a few minutes that would require month If carried out manually. The computational techniques have provided a friend and servant to science, technology and industry. In the present learning process computers are being used for enhancing physics learning also. They can be used to analyze and visualize data, communicate results, run experiment and monitor equipment. Computing can play an important and varied role in advancing physics learning. We point out role of computational techniques namely Simulations, Multimedia, Virtual Reality, Telematics and computer based labs which may deal with those difficulties and increase the learning process. Some good computer programs for learning physics exist. Emergent computational tools and new development in learning theories have contributed to change in education. But we are still in the middle of change process. The main objective of this paper is to discuss role of computer to understand physics and strengthen science and technology.

  183. Cemil Tuğrulhan ŞAM, Metin BAYRAM and Vahit DOĞAR, A.

    This study was performed to investigate the effect of the activity at high-altitude on carbonic anhydrase (CA), catalase (CAT), erythrocyte glutton peroxides (GSH), methylenedioxy-methylamphetamine (MDA), superoxide dismutase (SOD) enzyme levels.8 sedentary males, 9 male athletes and 9 male skiers between the ages of 17 – 19, 26 healthy volunteers took part in this study. Athletes doing athletics and the sport of skiing in the experimental group have been selected among athletes who are doing long duration endurance training, training for 2 hours per day and 7 days a week. In addition, they were provided cardio practice for 3 days a week. The sedentary group has been chosen from non-elite athletesdoing3 or 4 day soft raining in a week. SPSS 16program was used to evaluate data and analysis were made by Wilcox on test. CA,CAT and GSH enzyme levels of the malecontrol group, male athletes and male skiers have been determined after taking blood samples and a significant difference has not been observed among values according to p<0,05. However, when looking at the MDA and SOD values, a significant correlation has been observed among research groups according to p<0,05. The results achieved in this study yielded meaningful outcomes on the antioxidant defence of MDA and SOD of athletes doing endurance training. Based on these results; the requirement of consideration of changes in the MDA and SOD values of endurance sport commissioned individuals can be expressed as the recommendation of our work.

  184. Chung, S. W. and Park, S. M.

    First, a three-dimensional anisotropic free body is considered which will provides six stresses and six strains, which constitute a 6x6 matrix of stress/strain relations. Next, we apply each component of the matrix in equilibrium and stress displacement relation after non-dimensionalizing all the variables to allow asymptotic expansion and integration. Then we can derive the first approximate shell theory of anisotropic materials. The integration procedure over thickness will allow laminated anisotropic wall materials. The derived governing equation of the bending theory is unique; it is useful for identifying stress and displacement variation as well as the location of stiffeners for external pressure loading.

  185. Suhail Hussein Al-Fatlawi

    The modern International community witnesses a huge development in the principles of human rights, and the principle of interfering in the internal affairs of the States is not any more an obstacle for the control of human rights in the States. However, since the middle of the last century, the American States began to show interest in the rights and duties of the countries. In this regard, Montevideo Convention was held in 1933 to insure the rights and duties among these countries. In particular, the Treaty handled the State's right to stay, which later became an International tradition in which all countries shall comply. Since the title of this paper is the study of the State's right to stay based on the regulations of the International law, then our duty is to divide it into three themes: the first the concept of the state in the international law; the second is the right of the state's components to stay as stipulated in the international while the third theme examined the state's right to defend its existence in International Law. However, we found consistency between the International law with differences between them in other points. The paper ended with the most conclusions and recommendations.

  186. Muhammad Asyraf Hasim, Mohd Norsam Mohd Sari, Mohd Farid Shamsudin, Hafezali Iqbal Hussain and Milad Abdelnabi Salem

    In the globalization of the savings and the speedy alterations of the life style is becoming a crucial for people to travel from one station to another place that make the important of the automobile for people to move. At this point, automobile players should take advantage on the scenario, but need to realize about the factors of the brand that's particularly important for the customer buying behaviour. In other words, automobile players should take special steps in ensuring their brand being acceptable to the consumers by introducing novel technologies such as hybrid vehicles, improve after sales service and etc. Beside that also the automobile player needs to read on what element of their brand for customers to choose such as brand equity, brand relationship towards the customer buying behaviour and subsequently produce a decision to purchase it. Purpose: The aim is to understand the factor of brand that particularly important for the customer buying decision behaviour in automobile industries.

  187. Kehinde, Oladele Joseph, ABIODUN Abolaji Joachim, AdegbuyiOmotayo and Oladimeji Hezekiah

    The development of small and medium scale enterprise has been canvassed as the foundation of any solid development of any nation world over. The objectives of this paper include: (i) To find out the relationship between effective management of small scale enterprise and the nation’s economic development, (ii) To examine whether financial challenges faced by sole proprietorship business can affect employment generation in Nigeria amongst others. The study used survey research method with three hypotheses, which were later analyzed with correlation and regression test statistics on the nature of each of the hypotheses. Based on findings of the study, useful policy recommendations were made which businesses owners and policy makers at the various tiers of government will find beneficial when faithfully implemented.

  188. Younes Daryoush, Maryam Hassanzadeh, Abu DaudSilong and Zohara Omar

    The Malaysian Public Service has taken diverse measures to reduce performance-related problems. The New Economic Model (NEM) was established in 2010 to strengthen the public sector in Malaysia in decision making and performance appraisal as well. It enhanced public sector performance and efficiency in service delivery and service quality. The purpose of this research was to investigate the strength level of the relationship between types of workplace learning and task performance in an innovation and communication-oriented culture. The relationship between three types of workplace learning, organizational culture and task performance were hypothesized to determine the moderating effect of communication and innovation orientation. These five hypotheses were supported. Interaction effect software was used to determine the power of relationship in the levels of a communication and innovation- oriented culture. The complementary role of these values was identified in the relationship between workplace learning and task performance.

  189. Ali Gül and Ziya Günay

    Stress can be defined as a modern disease of our time. Problems arising in the life of an individual's work raises the stress out of business. On the other hand, not only regarding job stress, employees are regarded as an important issue to be resolved regarding businesses. For this purpose organizations, especially in recent years, job stress reduction, increased motivation and allocate increasingly high budgets to improve productivity enhancing social projects. In this study, along with the stress is given in the literature and conceptual characteristics of stress job types, causes, and consequences of the factors that make stress work stress aspect are examined regarding individuals and businesses.

  190. Sajad Nabi Dar, Shamim Ahmad Shah and Muzafar Ahmad Wani

    The growth and expansion of tourism are a complex phenomenon and requires multiple pronged approaches to study its various dimensions to consider sustainability limits. Leh district in the state of Jammu and Kashmir, India is blessed with adventurous topography, rugged terrain, narrow valleys, high altitude lakes, lofty mountain peaks, extensive glaciers, unique wildlife and traces of original Buddhist culture are mostly confined to this region. In this entire vast area of wilderness only this town has been equipped with all modern facilities therefore it used as the base camp by the ever-increasing tourist flow. Over the year’s tourism activities in Leh town have been growing rapidly as a result the local population of the town is outclassed by the number of tourists most of year. The magnitude of anthropogenic pressure goes beyond the natural coping capacity of the town because of huge amounts of ground water extraction and the generation of enormous quantity of solid and liquid waste. Currently the town does not have a proper drainage and solid waste management system resulting in various social and environmental concerns which has threatened the whole tourism industry and hence the livivelihood of the local residents is at stake. Therefore, appropriate planning measures are needed to prevent further degradation of quality of tourism. The objective of this article is to develop a methodology to assess the growth limits of tourist destinations by establishing various mathematical formulae to calculate carrying capacity of several tourism activities. The results of this study could be used as the preliminary benchmarks for sustainable tourism planning for the town.

  191. Mulu Kibret Tessema, TekleFerede Metaferia and Gemechis Teshome Chali.

    This study was conducted to investigate the EFL reading attitude of Grade 11 and Grade 12 students at Tinishu Meti and Jain Preparatory Schools, Ethiopia, using quantitative and qualitative methods. Systematic random sampling was used to select 98 samples out of 325 students to provide quantitative data by filling out questionnaire. Purposive sampling technique was used to choose 32 students to participate in FGDs. Quantitative data were analyzed using Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS) version 16.0 software to calculate mean scores to describe the target students’ EFL reading attitude and one sample t-test to compare if there was a significant difference in EFL reading attitude between students in the two schools and between Grade 11 and Grade 12 students. Qualitative data, analyzed qualitatively, were used to find out why the target respondents held certain kinds of attitude towards EFL reading. The findings of the study indicated that most of the sample students had negative attitude towards EFL reading. However, no statistically significant differences were observed between schools and grade levels.

  192. Loice Faith Agoi, Namusonge, G. S. and Amuhaya Iravo

    The focus of this study is to examine how recruitment and selection practices affect employee satisfaction in sugar manufacturing firms in Kenya. Simple random sampling technique was used to select a representative sample. Data was collected using questionnaire. Data was analyzed using descriptive statistics such as means, standard deviations, skweness and kurtosis, while inferential statistics were Pearson correlation and multiple regressions. Confirmatory Factor Analysis (CFA) was used to tests convergent Validity and discriminate validity. Study findings indicated that recruitment practices was scored high in sugar firms. However, the recruitment practices used in sugar firms do not satisfy employee. This is supported by the study correlation results that that recruitment practices was negatively and significantly associated with employee satisfaction (r =-0.337, ρ<0.01) and regression results that recruitment practices had negative and significant effect on employee satisfaction level. Thus, In order for organizations to reap the benefits of the recruitment and selection of employees and in turn enhance employee satisfaction, it is important that they highlight the skills and attitude to which they attach the highest priority. Once a firm has undertaken recruitment of employees, the new employees need to be appraised and developed so that they are well versed with knowledge on new trends and challenges

  193. G. N. Nimbarte

    If one were asked to write an essay on India; what would be the general opening line? Agriculture is an integral part of our identity. Then why are our farmers the victims of neglect from state as well as the society? Why is it that if you state your vocation as farming, the banks and insurance companies that are usually too enthusiastic regarding your dream house and car lose their interest? These are the serious questions raise in the mind of man before starting the detail study on framers situation in Maharashtra. Aim: This project aims to study the condition of farmers from five dimensions-social, economic, political, psychological and technological perspectives.

  194. Alobwede John Ngome

    The European Union (EU) is committed to Sustainable Development Governance (SDG). However the enforcement of its SD agenda remains a challenge. The EU’s SD strategy (SDS) is ambitious, wide in scope but flexible to adjustments necessitated by emerging challenges imposed by EU member states as they pursue their respective national interests. The Common EU SD vision is therefore undercut by various national agendas and sovereignty issues. Concurrently, the EU’s external action is increasingly being integrated into its SD strategy. The EU is equally taking steps to mainstream human and environmental rights into its external action plan. Nevertheless, EU SDS is faced with significant threats, although it embodies some strengths and weaknesses in its implementation, with opportunity for improvements.

  195. Abraham Mounitz

    Research into decision making is a most important issue today in behavioral science. Individuals are organisms yearning to exist and constantly making innumerable judgments and decisions, consciously or unconsciously. This research proposes to compare Spinoza’s behavioral theory “Ethics” with modern research findings, presented by Nobel-prize winners Tversky and Kahneman in “Thinking, Fast and Slow” and “Judgment under Uncertainty”. “Representativeness” and “Availability” as error causes of Tversky and Kahneman’s System 1 are parallel to Spinoza’s Kind I – "Inadequate cognition". For Spinoza’s Kind II - "Adequate cognition", modern research finds a solution in System 2 - slow and logical, that must constantly be refined and activated. Spinoza pioneered the systematic analysis of human behavior. His self-description from 350 years ago is endorsed by current empirical research. This research aims to present the relevance of Spinoza`s behavioral theory today.

  196. Hong-Le Doan

    TPP Agreement has finalized negotiations and will deploy next year; outlook for export of Vietnam textile products is expected to increase breakthrough to the market of Member States of TPP. To be not out of the development, have competence to compete, stand and expand market share in international markets, the requirements set out for the economic sector in general and textile sector in particular is very high. However, to increase export value and profit from the global market, it is essential to take appropriate measures to promote the growth in the textile industry in the country with the tools and criteria to quantifier the results of the implementation; on that basis, identify ways to achieve better results. This article analyzes, clarifies the situation of the textile exports in recent years, offers some specific solutions and introduces the tools to measure growth in exports of textile products in conditions of international integration.

  197. Yassin Ibrahim Eltahir

    Dynamic analysis is vital issue in econometrics, hence we were applied it to model and estimate exchange rate. The study suggested four variables in explaining exchange rate movement, these variables covers the proxies of fiscal, monetary and mixed policy. Furthermore GDP is introduced to reflect the overall performance of the economy. Some variables were stationary while others were not. Cointegration tests confirmed the existence of long run equilibrium relationship between exchange rate and the explanatory variables, hence the model was estimated by error correction model. The estimated coefficient was in combatable with economic and econometric theories. Monetary policy coefficients in short and long run proved the none existence of J-curve effect. Despite the multiplier of monetary policy was larger than that one of fiscal policy, the later policy was more effective than the former one in manipulation exchange rate.

  198. Phrakrusutheejariyawattana

    This research aims to (1) study the opinions of students on the effectiveness of teaching in the Faculty of Education, Mahamakut Buddhist University, Isan Campus, (2) compare opinions by gender, age, grade, and discipline, (3) identify the extent of the problems, and provide suggestions for change. Survey methodology was used. Data were collected by a closed and open-ended questionnaire with 142 samples derived by simple random sampling. Data were analyzed by computer program to determine the mean, the standard deviation, t-test, and F-test. The results showed that (1) students rated the effectiveness of teaching in the Faculty of Education, Mahamakut Buddhist University, Isan Campus at a high level for both overall and specific aspects of the study, (2) there was no significant difference in the opinions of students on the effectiveness of teaching when compared by gender, age and grade, however a significant difference was found in the opinions of students classified as compared by discipline, (3) the students identified problems and recommended suggestions for change, especially that a focus on teaching students is more important than the other elements of the study.

  199. Lewis B Dzimbiri and George Dzimbiri

    This paper has examined the link between decentralization, popular participation and human resource management challenges and prospects. It is evident that decentralization has very good intentions aimed at enhancing popular participation in decision making and bringing governance and service delivery to the grassroots. This process involves entrusting local district, town and city councils with authority and responsibilities for delivering services like housing, water, roads, health facilities, bridges, transport, land management issues, among others. However, such transfer of responsibilities is not accompanied by corresponding transfer of the human resource function to the local levels. Consequently, decentralization practices impose a huge capacity burden on the local institutions as they cannot attract the right caliber of staff as local authorities lack the requisite autonomy to command the respect that human resource managers at the centre have to recruit, reward and discipline officers and ensure they can motivate them to perform effectively. Thus, the success or failure of decentralization initiatives rest on how the human resource function is decentralized. It is therefore suggested that one of the key interventions from which more others shall spring, is to undertake a comprehensive capacity and resource assessment survey in order to unearth capacity challenges which have to be addressed in a comprehensive and systematic manner.

  200. Vajihabanu, H. and Kannahi, M.

    In the present investigation that the isolation of fungi from battery effluent soil. The maximum fifteen fungal isolates were screened and identified. These fungi were heavy metal tolerance and biosorption potential also highly performed. Growth of the fungi were tested using various concentrations of 100, 200, 300, 400 and 500 mg/ml of MgSO4 and CuSO4 heavy metal treated by potato dextrose liquid medium. In all the fungi were tolerate and well growth up to 300 mg/ml except the higher concentration of 400 and 500 mg/ml. Biosorption efficiency was depending upon the growth and incubation. A.niger showed highest biosorption potential for magnesium sulphate and copper sulphate when tolerance compared to the other fungi.

  201. Ernane Rosa Martins, Solange da Silva and Rosane Cavalcante Fragoso

    This paper presents a mapping of a Business Cooperation Network of existing construction materials in the State of Goiás, in which it sought to identify the competitive gains. The results revealed that the existing gains in the studied network are: increased market power, generation of collective solutions, reduced costs and risks, capital accumulation, collective learning and collaborative innovation. In addition, the survey found that this network requires improvements in internal organizational instruments and not use all competitive advantages and interactions available for a cooperation network. Suggestions for improvements were presented, such as: Creating an Information Technology (IT) system that was adopted by all members. Create promotional brochures, marketing action, with equal prices for participants in the network stores. Add technical knowledge of architecture in every store, offering services of an architect (the centers have homes). Use the mark of BCN on the facade.

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