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March 2016

  1. Kirtika Patel and Samuel Ayaya

    Introduction: Allergy to food in children affects 6% to 8% and is increasing in its prevalence with a global prevalence of 2-3.5%. Studies have shown that parents of children with multiple food allergy (FA) have a lower quality of life (QOL). The FAQOL of primary care givers is dependent on accurate perception of reaction severity, the number of allergens, the type of food allergy and self-regulated intervention. Case report: A report on a case of a 3 year old boy with allergy to cow’s milk, eggs, chicken and nuts and had eczema. He had an anaphylaxis reaction to egg at the age of one. Discussion: Anaphylaxis is an IgE mediated response and can be life threatening. Parents remain stressed after they have experienced their child’s anaphylaxis reaction and suffer social and psychosocial factors that have a negative effect on their QOL. Empowered caregivers have lower FAQOLs and is associated with increased stress, anxiety and burden of vigilance which is reflected in their children as they treat meals as “recurrent threats”. Anaphylaxis occurs when parents are not in control and therefore have lower FAQOL scores. Strategies for dealing with food challenges in a supervised hospital setting are important to improve FAQOL scores. The main treatment is food avoidance but new therapies are emerging. Provision of adrenaline auto injector has an impaired effect on FAQOL. There are various tools that are used to measure FAQOL. Vaccines made in egg can be given to children with egg allergies and have reported higher QOL. There is lack of information in managing food allergies outside the home which may be the reason for lower FAQOL. Conclusion: The FAQOL of care givers is dependent on various factors. FAQOL scores would improve if public places and schools had policies for allergy avoidance.

  2. Dr. Prem Prakash, Dr. Dakshita Joy Sinha, Dr. Shashi Prabha Tyagi and Dr. Udai Pratap Singh

    Apical periodontitis is an inflammatory process around the apex of a tooth root. It is primarily a sequel to microbial infection of the pulp space of teeth and is a remarkably widespread problem. The clinical management of apical periodontitis involves infection control by root canal treatment and often requires up to 12-24 months. The new Apexum procedure is based on advancing the debridement one step further by minimally invasive removal of the inflamed periapical tissues through root canal access, thereby enhancing the healing kinetics of periapical lesions. The Apexum procedure uses two sequential rotary devices designed to extend beyond the apex and to mince periapical tissues on rotation in a low-speed handpiece, followed by washing out the minced tissue. The PubMed database search reavealed that the reference list for Apexum featured four articles and for periapical surgery featured 2820 articles. A forward search was undertaken on selected articles, author names and contemporary endodontic texts.

  3. Dr. Kamal Nain Rattan, Dr. Jasbir Singh, Dr. Poonam Dalal and Dr. Pallavi Sonika

    We are reporting two cases of intrauterine perforation of ileum with intussusception of ram's horn type in one case and unihorn in other case following rupture of omphalocele membrane. Both cases were managed successfully by surgical intervention. Aim of this study is to add in literature that this type of complication can occur with rupture of omphalocele minor during intrauterine period.

  4. Nithiya Regi Kuriakose, Dr. Shafeeq Mattummal, Merin Suresh, Jisha Sara John, Anil Babu, A., Prof. R. Raju and Santhra Vincent

    Background: The aim of this study is to assess the quality of life of CABG and PTCA patients with co morbid condition . Methods: This study was a prospective, well-controlled, interventional study conducted in 120 patients over a period of 6 months in a tertiary care teaching hospital. Patient quality of life were assessed using MacNew Heart related QoL questionnaire. Results: In this study, commonly seen co-morbid condition is Type 2 DM (65%) and least condition is Epilepsy (3.3%). Some of the risk factors identified among patients were Type 2 DM, Hypertension, Dyslipidemia, Family History, Social habits and Obesity. The study showed significant improvement in quality of life (P <0.01). Conclusion: The present study was performed to get a comprehensive overview of the impact of pharmacist in improving the QOL of CABG and PTCA patients and managing the co-morbid condition hence reduces the chances of re-occlusion.

  5. Dr. Snehal Patil, Dr. Shashidhar Acharya, Dr. Siddhi Hathiwala, Dr. Deepak Kumar Singhal Dr. Samuel Raj Srinivasan and Dr. Sachin Khatri

    Introduction: Stress levels among university students has been associated with negative outcomes like poor academic performance and degenerations of personal relations. Higher self-efficacy and social support may act as a moderator of stress for students. Hence this study was conducted to assess the correlation between academic self efficacy, social support, and stress among the university graduate students. Material and Methods: This survey was conducted among undergraduate students aged 18-22 years, of a dental school in India. Information regarding the socio demographic, social support, stress and self efficacy variables were collected from 250 students. Pearson correlation was used to assess the relation between academic self efficacy, social support and stress. Results: Showed that academic self efficacy was moderately correlated with appraisal support (r = 0.40, p < 0.05), belonging support (r = 0.32, p< 0.05), self esteem support (r = 0.53, p < 0.01), total social support (r = 0.45, p < 0.05) and stress (r = -0.5, p < 0.01). Stress was moderately correlated with appraisal support(r = -0.45, p < 0.05) belonging support (r = -0.40, p < 0.05), self esteem support (r = -0.45, p < 0.05), total social support (r = -0.45, p < 0.05). Discussion and conclusion: We found a consistent moderate negative correlation of social support with stress among all the students. Perceived self efficacy was found to be negatively associated with self perceived stress among all the students.

  6. Jones N. Nwosu, Demian I. Mgbafulu and Alexander O. Ohaneme

    Objectives: To determine the prevalence of aural foreign bodies, modes of presentations, types, removal process and associated complications in a sub-urban health facility. Patients and methods: This was a retrospective study conducted on consecutive patients presenting with suspected foreign body in the ear to the Otolaryngology (ENT) clinic of Imo State University Teaching Hospital (IMSUTH) Orlu over two years. The prevalence, mode of presentation, foreign body types, removal methods and complications were evaluated. Results: A total of one hundred and thirteen patients, males 56 (49.6%) and females 57 (50.4%) with ear foreign body were studied. The ages ranged from 1.5 to 65 years, with a mean age of 17.5 years. Children outnumbered adults with majority of the cases in the 1 – 5 years age group. The most frequent symptoms at presentation were ear fullness 32(24.5%) and 31(23.3%) were asymptomatic. Cotton bud ranked the highest foreign body (25.7%) recovered. Majority (50.4%) of the foreign bodies were lodged in the right ear. The foreign bodies were successfully removed in the clinic with out any complications. Conclusions: Aural foreign bodies were found more frequently in children. A variety of foreign bodies were recovered and they differed with age group and mirrored the activities of the aged group concerned. Complications can be avoided with timely and skilful intervention.

  7. Dr. Swati Meshram (Associate Professor), Dr. Medha Deo (Principal and Professor) and Dr. Kartik Doshi (Clinical Physiotherapist)

    Background: KOOS is a self -administered instrument which assesses patient's opinion about Knee associated problems. Original version of KOOS has been translated in various regional foreign languages. India, is multilingual country where each province has a unique language. Maharashtra is the second largest state in India and Marathi is the regional language of the communication. KOOS is a self‐report disease specific measure needed to be translated with unique method in order to achieve a normative equivalence and linguistic validation. Methods: After obtaining permission from KOOS web manager T1, T2, T12, B1 & B2 versions were formatted according to the guidelines laid down by AAOS for cross cultural adaptation of health status measure. T12 version was sent for the field testing. Total 32 subjects were included in this trial. Results: Statistical analysis for reliability with test re‐test method suggested perfect correlation (r =1) between day 1 & 2. A range of 0.83‐0.54 co‐relation co‐efficient (r) demonstrated validity of KOOS and its subscales when compared against the 8 different domains of SF‐36. All this correlations were statistically highly significant. Sport and recreation subscale had many missing responses since many items in this subscale were not appropriate for the Maharashtrian cultural set-up. Participants provided information about other functional activities which were specific to Indian cultural set up and difficult to execute due to knee associated impairments. Conclusion: Marathi version of KOOS proved to be a reliable & valid measure.

  8. Dr. Adil H. Siddiqie, Dr. Bilal Musharaf Banday and Dr. Afaq Khan

    Background: Pancytopenia is a common problem encountered in routine hospital practice .It can be a manifestation of relatively trivial treatable cause to serious malignant disorders both haematological as well as non haematological .Bone marrow examination provides a definitive diagnosis for the further management of these patients . Objectives: To study the various patterns of presentation of pancytopenia and use of bone marrow examination as a diagnostic tool. Materials and Methods: It was a prospective study with 108 pancytopenia patients subjected to bone marrow aspiration and biopsy, wherever required in the Department of Pathology Government Medical College Srinagar and its associated hospitals. Results: In 108 patients of pancytopenia subjected to bone marrow examination ,the commonest cause was found to be Megaloblastic Anaemia (52.7%), followed by haematological malignancies (24.07%) Infections accounted for 12.9%of patients Metastasis was seen in 3.7% cases. Aplastic anaemia and PRCA were seen in 1.8% patients each. Conclusion: The causation of pancytopenia is extremely varied and multifactorial. Numerous studies including peripheral smear examination, bone marrow examination can help to arrive at a correct diagnosis which can be confounding at times.

  9. Jyothi, S. and SUJAYA, B.

    Background: Bharathanatyam is an Indian classical dance form which involves rhythmic dance movements. There are various postures in this dance form to attain which dancers need optimum muscle strength and adequate range of motion at required joints. Dancers need good body balance to maintain these postures. Dancers also have to maintain balance while movements and changing postures. Objective: To assess and compare static and dynamic balance in female bharathanatyam dancers and nondancers. Methods: 32 dancers and 33 nondancers were randomly selected from various Bharathanatyam dance schools and general population in Bengaluru respectively. Height, weight, BMI and lower limb length were measured. Static balance was assessed by balance error scoring system. Dynamic balance was assessed by star excursion balance test. Data was analysed and presented as Mean±standard deviation. Results: The independent sample t test was applied for statistical analysis. P<0.05 was considered significant. Dancers performed fewer errors than nondancers (P<0.001). Dancers had lower reach distances with both right and left legs compared to nondancers (P<0.001). Conclusion: This study showed that dancers had superior static balance and inferior dynamic balance compared to nondancers.

  10. Amiya Ranjan Sahoo, Sobhan Mishra, Sudipta Sahu and Nitish Ku Panda

    Squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) that arises from maxillary sinus generally has far reaching and devastating effects on surrounding tissues due to its proximity to orbit and skull base. SCC that arises in the maxillary sinus is considered to be a para nasal sinus disease that behaves differently from SCC of the maxillary alveolus and hard palate, which are considered to be similar to oral SCC

  11. Usha Rajinikanthan, D. B.

    Objectives: To study the pregnancy rate following tubal recanalisation and to analyse the factors that influence the outcome. Materials and Methods: The study carried out in Jawaharlal Institute of Postgraduate Medical Education and Research, between July 2006 and August 2007 includes two group. All the patients undergoing recanalisation were included as the prospective group (40) and in the retrospective group (20) case records of those women who had undergone tubal recanalisation in the previous year were included. A detailed history was elicited; a thorough clinical examination was done followed by routine laboratory evaluation. After obtaining the informed written consent, recanalisation was done, as per the protocol and the parameters were noted. Then, they were followed-up for one year. Results: Out of 60 patients, 5 patients were lost to follow up and in the remaining 55 patients, the pregnancy rate was 58.2%; all were intrauterine pregnancies - 23 delivered, 5 aborted and 4 were ongoing pregnancies. There was no case of ectopic pregnancy. The conception rate was high when the age of the patient was < 30 years (84.3%), interval between sterilisation and its reversal was <4 years (73.3%), following laparoscopic sterilisation (66.6%), site of anastomosis being isthmo-isthmic (78.5%) and the remaining tubal length was >6 cm (67.6%). Conclusion: The factors associated with successful tubal recanalisation are i) age of the patient <30 years ii) interval between sterilisation and its reversal <4 years iii) site of anastomosis isthmo-isthmic and iv) remaining tubal length >6 cm. Also, improved results were obtained following laparoscopic sterilisation.

  12. Payal Gupta, P. C. Shukla, and Amita Tiwari

    Diarrhoea in calves is one of the most important disease complexes evident by rapid and frequent passage of semisolid and liquid faeces material through Several studies have addressed the high distribution of Escherichia coli (E. coli) strains in infectious calf diarrhoea the gastrointestinal tract. In the present study, the prevalence of E. coli F5 antigen was studied by strip test based on the principle of lateral immuno-chromatography in the calves of in and around areas of Jabalpur, M.P., India. The study was conducted on a total of 220 calves below 3 months of age, belonging to various dairy farms and Goshalas. History revealed that out of 220 calves, 50 were suffering from diarrhoea. The faecal samples of these 50 diarrhoeic calves were examined with the help of E. coli F5 (K99) immuno-chromatographic test strips. The overall prevalence of E. coli F5 antigen was found to be 50 % and it was higher in male as compared to female calves. The results of age wise prevalence showed that the presence of E.coli F5 was found to be highest in the calves up to 15 days of age followed by calves from 16 to 30 days of age group then in calves from 1 to 2 months of age group and no infection was found in calves of 2 to 3 months of age group.

  13. Dr. Mahantesh Chinagundi (Assistant Professor) and *Dr. M. Sunil Kumar (Professor)

    Dental injury to immature permanent incisors is the commonly encountered problem in young children during the turbulent years of transition into adolescence. The management of such teeth is complicated due to the presence of wide open apices. In such cases definitive endodontic treatment has to be postponed till an apical ‘stop’ or hard tissue barrier is formed for condensation of gutta-percha. This article presented two cases of fractured immature permanent incisors with open apex treated successfully with calcium hydroxide to induce apical hard tissue bridge formation.

  14. Dr. Syed Masuma Rizvi, Dr. Nikita Gandotra, Dr. Perveena Fareed and Dr. Preeti Sharma

    Epidermolysis bullosa is a rare genetic connective tissue disorder. It has many genetic and symptomatic variations but all share the prominent symptom of extremely fragile skin that blisters and tears from minor friction or trauma. The severity can range from a mild, localized disease to a generalized, devastating process. Its affects 1 out of every 50,000 live births and those born with it are often called ‘Butterfly Children’. There is no treatment or cure. Daily wound care, pain management and protective bandaging are the only available treatment options.

  15. Dr. Moussa Mahaman, Mr. Al-Mutairi, Khalid Dakhil Allah, Ali Hejri, Yehya Muhammed, Mr. Al-AmriBushran, Saeed and Mr. Abdulmoein Salah Al-Harb

    Objectives: The Hepatitis-B virus (HBV) causes severe and often fatal liver disease. Since 1982, vaccination has proven remarkably successful in terms of effectiveness and safety; thus, it is administered to every primary healthcare worker (PHCW) to safeguard them against occupational exposure. The aim of this study is to investigate Saudi Arabian PHCWs’ hepatitis B vaccination coverage, knowledge, and attitude. Method: This descriptive, cross-sectional study employed a self-administered questionnaire, which was distributed to 645PHCWs in four primary healthcare divisions affiliated to Al-Madinah Al-Munawwarah’s Directorate General of Health Affairs, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. Results: 542 completed questionnaires were returned (response rate 84%). Outcomes indicated that 73.8% PHCWs were fully vaccinated, 15.9% were partially vaccinated, and 10.3% never received vaccination. Conclusions: Some PHCWs remain unprotected from HBV; therefore, primary preventive strategies like universal precaution and immunization must be implemented more fully.

  16. Ehab Abdou, Khaled Al-Shahhat and and Mohamed Gaafar

    Background and objective: Preoperative treatment with chemo radiotherapy for rectal cancer is a standard approach for certain patients group with cancer rectum. This study reports on overall survival and disease-free survival, down staging and toxicity in rectal cancer patients who received combined chemo radiation therapy followed by curative surgery. Patients and methods:in oncology department, Bahrain and between December 2009 and November 2012, 30 patients with clinical preoperative stage II–III underwent chemo radiotherapy followed by radical surgery for middle and lower rectal adenocarcinoma. Preoperative radiotherapy (total 50.4 Gy was delivered in 1.8-Gy daily fractions, five times per week over a period of approximately 6 weeks) and chemotherapy (5-fluorouracil 350 mg/m2/day and leucovorin 20 mg/m2/day, bolus on days 1–5 and 29–33). Results: All patients successfully completed the planned treatment course. Pathological complete response (pCR) was found in 5 patients (16.67%). The pathological staging were 12 patientsas stage I, 8 patients were stage II, and 5 patients were stage III. Grade 3 to 4 toxicity occurred in 11 cases (36.67%). Three-year actuarial disease-free survival and overall survival rates were 87.5% and 93.7%, respectively. Local recurrences were found in one patient, 2 patients had distant metastases. Two patients died (1 of cancer related causes), 25were alive and disease free, and 3 are alive with disease. Conclusions: Our center experience showed that preoperative chemo radiotherapy approach seems to improve the disease-free survival and overall survival of selected patients with rectal cancer. However, a longer follow-up time is required to confirm these results and define the failure pattern for our patients with possible palmed factors

  17. Yogish. P, Girish, H.C, Asha, Ravikumar Pujari, Vidya Rani, Kavitha and Umapathy

    Background and Objectives: Squamous cell carcinoma is the most common intraoral malignancy. Despite intense research in the area of squamous cell carcinomas of the head and neck (SCCHN), its 5-year survival rate remains low. p53 alterations have been implicated in oral carcinogenesis process. Oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) lesions mostly occur at the tongue, followed by floor of the mouth, alveolar ridge/ gingiva, buccal mucosa, labial mucosa and hard palate. This study was undertaken to analyze the p53 immunoexpression in OSCC at different sites. Methods: This study was conducted on samples collected from patients with oral squamous cell carcinoma who visited Rajarajeswari Dental College & Hospital, Mysore Road, Bangalore. Tissue sections were subjected to Immunohistochemistry using p53 marker and cells were counted in three different histological fields. The obtained data was subjected to Anova test. Results: On performing Anova test between different sites of oral cavity to know the immunoexpression of p53 we got a p value of 0.270 which was not statistically significant. Interpretation & Conclusion: Further investigations are required to elucidate the specific mechanisms involving tongue cancer as p53 did not appear to have influence in the higher frequency and more aggressiveness of the disease in this site particularly.

  18. Sufia Qaiser, Sunil Kumar, M., Silju Mathew, Mahantesh, C. and Sonal, S.

    Objectives: This study was designed to evaluate for an appropriate treatment plan (extraction or non-extraction) for reducing the dental and soft tissue procumbency of bimaxillary protrusion individuals and also to compare the pre and post-treatment values of the two groups to provide an evidence based approach of premolar extraction in treating bimaxillary protrusion individuals. Method: The sample consisted of 30 bimaxillary protrusion patients treated with four premolar extraction and 30 treated with non-extraction line of treatment between the ages of 15-30 years taken from the archives of Department of Orthodontics and Dentofacial Orthopaedics, M.S.Ramaiah Dental College & Hospital, Bangalore. Pre and post-treatment lateral cephalograms were evaluated using a series of 27 linear and angular measurements, and the effect of orthodontic correction was determined using different statistical tests. Results: Pre-treatment (T1) characteristics of bimaxillary protrusion individuals demonstrated increased procumbency due to decreased interincisal angle, increased (upper incisor to SN angle, lower incisor to mandibular plane, upper incisor to NA linear and angle, lower incisor to NB linear and angle, upper incisor to APog and lower incisor to APog) in extraction as well as non-extraction groups but the variation was more in extraction group than non-extraction group. Soft tissue parameters like upper lip to E-line, lower lip to E-line and nasolabial angle showed significant statistics post-treatment with extraction and insignificant statistics with non-extraction. Pretreatment mean values of all four measurements of alveolar width were less in bimaxillary protrusive sample while upper and lower alveolar heights were found to be greater in both groups. Conclusion: The comparison of skeletal, dental and soft tissue post-treatment (T2) values between extraction and non- extraction group demonstrated that premolar extraction is more effective in reducing the dental and soft tissue procumbency in bimaxillary protrusion patients as compared to non-extraction mode of treatment. Hence it was concluded that only borderline bimaxillary protrusion cases can be treated with non-extraction line of treatment.

  19. Yogish. P., Asha, Girish. H. C., Vidya Rani, Kavitha and Umapathy

    Myofibroblasts are modified fibroblasts with smooth muscle like features characterized by the presence of contractile apparatus. Myofibroblasts have an important position in the inflammatory response. They produce matrix molecules such as collagen, glycosamino-glycans, tenascin and fibronectin in the interstitial space or basement membrane and play important role in growth, differentiation and wound healing which if deranged or separated can result in tissue fibrosis. Myofibroblasts interact with epithelial cells and other connective tissue cells and may thus control such phenomena as tumour invasion and angiogenesis. Myofibroblasts also promote invasion by altering the composition of the tumour micro environment and are prognostic. Myofibroblasts in the stroma of OSCC may influence proliferation and invasion, resulting in more aggressive tumour. Myofibroblasts in the stroma of odontogenic lesions also play an important role in their aggressive biological behaviour. As they are present in virtually every tissue, it is possible that they may play a role in multisystem diseases. Understanding the role of the stromal cells and extracellular matrix will allow us to identify more precise prognostic markers and potentially device new therapeutic options and prevent various diseases caused by these miraculous multipotential cells.

  20. Hasan Ulas Basyurt, Ozer Birge, Faik Mumtaz Koyuncu and Semra Oruc Koltan

    Purpose: In our study we aimed to predict preterm delivery using the salivary progesterone levels. Material and Method: In this follow-up study, we collected salivary samples from 100 pregnant women at 24, 27 and 30 weeks' gestation. Pregnant women with preeclampsia, diabetes, twin pregnancy and intrauterine growth restriction were not included in the study. The salivary progesterone levels were determined by enzyme immunoassay. The patients were followed until delivery. Findings: Preterm birth occurred in 11 (9.09%) of the 100 patients. The mean progesterone levels of patients that delivered preterm were lower than the levels of the term deliveries. Statistically, the progesterone levels were significant at week 24 and 27 (p=0.031, p=0.018). Although the progesterone levels of the preterm births at week thirty were low, this was not found to be statistically significant (p=0.061). The preterm birth rate in patients with no history of preterm birth was 2.2%, and in patients with a positive history of preterm birth the rate was 27.3% (p=0.004). In the ROC curve, with respect to predicting preterm birth the progesterone levels at week 27 were more significant than the levels at weeks 24 and 30. Result: Assessing the salivary progesterone level is a non-invasive method with high sensitivity, its assessment between 20-30 weeks of pregnancy is useful for predicting preterm birth. However, it must not be forgotten that preterm birth is a multifactorial process. Considering this, it is important to evaluate the markers and the clinical features togetherto predict and prevent preterm birth instead of using a single marker alone. By doing so, high-risk patients can be identified and the appropriate treatment can be delivered.

  21. Vaibhav, Talikoti, D. G. and Basavaraj Patil

    Introduction: Anaesthetic management in a patient with co existing cardiac disease is always a challenge especially when it is an emergency. Peripheral nerve blocks are always safer than centrineuraxial anaesthesia or general anaesthesia in a patient suffering from ischemic heart disease (IHD), use of USG makes block more specific. Case report: A 63 yrs old male suffered from crush injury of left foot was posted for emergency debridement and external fixation. History ECG and ECHO suggested old IHD. Patient was suffering from crush injury with fractures of talus and calcanium so the patient had to be operated Popletial sciatic nerve block with supplementation of saphenous nerve block was planned. Patient was made to lie prone, ultrasound probe was placed in popletial fossa in the crease. popletial artery was identified probe was moved 6 cm proximal to crease where sciatic nerve divided into tibial and common peronial Intraoperatively patient was haemodynamically stable without any variation in BP or pulse. Patient did not have pain for 24hours post operatively. Conclusion: Regional nerve blocks are safe in patients with IHD with good postoperative analgesia using ultrasound guidance reduces the risk of inadverant vascular injury , the procedural time and procedure-related pain and increases patient satisfaction compared to nerve stimulation while providing similar block characteristics.

  22. Gabriela Iorgulescu

    Allergy is one of the most widespread diseases in the world. If the twentieth century was considered cardiovascular disease period, then XXI st century, after a forecast of the World Health Organization, will be a century of allergies. The number of allergy sufferers incessantly increase, this increase being higher in summer, while in winter is increasing respiratory allergic diseases. The mechanism of allergy consists in disorder of the immune response to certain stimuli, modifying the reactivity of substances and antigens molecules, in most cases being harmless to the body. A typical characteristic of allergic reactions is the damage of the organs, tissues and cells. The causes of triggering of allergies can be external - environmental factors - macro ecological (climate, season) and microecology (housing, employment). Internal causes are more complexes. It can include heredity, which regulates the functioning of our immune system; neuroendocrine dysfunction or the central nervous system, chronic infection outbreaks.

  23. Prasad Jathar, Amol Patil and Rahul Dighe

    Dentinogenesis imperfecta or capdepont’s teeth is an autosomal-dominant trait with variable expressivity. It affects dentin of both the primary and permanent dentitions. This condition is also called as hereditary opalescent dentin because of clinical discolouration of teeth. In this case report we are presenting a case of dentinogenesis imperfect type II with the disease affecting two generations of a family. The purpose of this report is to highlight the features of this disease and to differentiate it from its other variables. Early diagnosis and intervention with preventive strategies are recommended to prevent the deterioration as well as to improve the dental aesthetics and general health of the patient.

  24. Dr. Chandan, K. R., Dr. Girish, H. and Dr. Shashirekha, C. A.

    Purpose: To compare the safety and efficacy of naftopidil and tamsulosin with deflazacort as medical expulsive therapy for distal ureteric stones. Methods: This prospective study comprised of 60 patients with distal ureteric stones measuring less than or equal to 10mmThe patients were divided randomly into two groups. Thirty patients in group A received tamsulosin (0.4 mg/daily) orally and deflazacort (6mg/daily) and thirty patients in group B received naftopidil (75mg/daily) orally and deflazacort (6mg/daily) and were observed for two weeks for expulsion rate, expulsion time and analgesic dose required. Results: In our study we found that the stone expulsion rate was 76.6% in group A and 83.3% in group B. The expulsion rate in the first week was 60% and that in the second week was 40% and in group A, the expulsion rate was 100% in the first week(table 2) in group B which was statistically significant (p<0.001). The use of analgesic and the number of episodes of pain was also significantly lower in groups B than in group A (p<0.001) Conclusion: It is found that medical expulsive therapy using either naftopidil or tamsulosin along with deflazacort is safe and effective compared with watchful waiting for distal ureteral stones. There was a trend toward a better expulsion rate of ureteral stones in the group treated with naftopidil, but this needs to be studied further in adequately powered studies.

  25. Dr. Dilip Kumar, K., Dr. Narendra P. Datti, Dr. Kanthamani, K., Dr. Preeti Biradar, Dr. Snehalata and Dr. Jyotsna Sharma

    Purpose: To evaluate the phacocapsulotomy technique for management of capsulorhexis in white intumescent cataracts regarding safety and effectiveness in comparison with needle aspiration. Methods: This prospective study included 100 patients with white intumescent cataracts. Patients were randomized into two groups comprising 50 each. Group I underwent phacocapsulotomy technique to facilitate CCC, where phaco probe is used to decompress the lens. Group II underwent needle aspiration technique to facilitate CCC, where 26 gauge needle is used to aspirate cortical fluid. Intraoperative variables such as flap elevation, radial extension of CCC, centration of CCC, posterior capsule rupture and vitreous loss were assessed. Postoperative best corrected visual acuity was also assessed. Results: In our study we found that 1(2%) patient out of 50 patients who underwent phacocapsulotomy technique had radial extension of CCC compared to 8(16%) out of 50 patients in needle aspiration group which was statistically significant (p=0.04) and also there was decrease in intralenticular pressure noted in 44(88%) in phacocapsulotomy group and 26(52%) in needle aspiration group which was statistically significant (p value=0.03). Conclusion: Phacocapsulotomy technique is a simple, controlled and effective technique that extends the possibility of routinely achieving a CCC and thus prevent radial extension of CCC. It also allows for safe phacoemulsification and well centered in the bag IOL implantation.

  26. Someshwaran, R., Arun Kumar, T. and Anbu N. Aravazhi

    Background: Urinary tract infections (UTIs) are the second most common cause of Hospital Acquired infections (HAI) or Nosocomial infections. Indwelling Urinary Catheter associated urinary tract infections among hospital settings had become a potential source for drug resistance thereby increasing the morbidity and mortality especially in elder people and has now gained paramount importance in patient outcome. Purpose: To detect the prevalence of Catheter Associated Urinary tract Infection and to evaluate the bacterial etiology of Catheter Associated Urinary tract Infection. Methods: A total of 260 catheterized urine samples were subjected to culture and sensitivity by standard loop technique and the colonies were identified along with the susceptibility patterns and the results noted. Results: Out of 260 catheterized patients, 193 (74.23%) belonged to age group 18-80 years and 67 (25.77%) belonged to 0-17 years age group. Urine culture was positive in 52 out of total 260 samples (20%) which represent the prevalence of CAUTI. Culture positivity among age group 18-80 was 38 out of 193 (19.69%) and cultures were negative in 155 out of 193 patients (80.31%). Culture positivity among age group 0-17 years was 14 out of 67 (20.90%) patients and cultures were negative in 53 out of 67 patients (79.10%). The predominant organisms were found to be Escherichia coli (44.74%) in age group 18-80 followed by Klebsiella pneumoniae and Proteus vulgaris (10.53% each). Likewise the predominant organisms in 0-17 years age group was found to be Escherichia coli (42.86%) followed by Klebsiella pneumoniae (21.42%). Conclusions: Prolonged Catheterization is an important risk factor for iatrogenic CAUTI. Escherichia coli are the most common pathogen causing CAUTI. Early diagnosis followed appropriate and timely therapeutic management is a gold standard to control these emerging high level drug resistant bugs producing ESBLs, Carbapenemase and etc. This can be achieved by having a dedicated infection control and a properly functioning institutional Hospital Infection Control Committee (HICC) team to monitor hospital surveillance to control nosocomial infection.

  27. Prateek Shakya, Shahi, K. S. and Bhuvan Chaudhary

    Patient always wants scarless surgery, lesser pain and less cosmetic scar and this can be possible with use of cyanoacrylate adhesive glue. Since their discovery in 1949, cyanoacrylate compounds have evoked interest as being the ideal “tissue glue”. Several different forms of this compound have been developed in order to eliminate tissue toxicity. In our study, we have described a technique of sutureless closure of operative skin wounds and compared it to closure of skin with nylon. Inter-group comparison was carried out with respect to the time required for closure, rate of infection, cosmesis and patient acceptance. N-butyl 2-cyanoacrylate was used for sutureless skin closure in 50 patients and compared with skin closure with sutures. The time taken to close the wounds with cyanoacrylate was found to be significantly less, the cosmetic outcome better and patient acceptability higher than when sutures were used.

  28. Dr. Sunitha S., Dr. Mahesh K. P. and Dr. Karthikeya Patil

    Facial asymmetry is commonly seen in patients with temporomandibular disorders. Temporomandibular disorders have an impact on facial asymmetry and the degree of facial asymmetry in turn has effects on temporomandibular disorders. The present study was conducted to estimate the degree of facial asymmetry in subjects with temporomandibular disorders. The study was done in 60 patients divided into 30 patients of 2 groups each. Group 1 comprised of patients with temporomandibular joint disorders and group 2 comprised of age and sex matched patients without temporomandibular joint disorders. The mean age of the patients in the study was 28 ± 8 years and 56.7% males and 43.3% females. Facial asymmetry was seen in 87.1% of patients with temporomandibular disorder and 84.8% of patients without tempromandibular disorder. Our results show that temporomandibular disorders are associated with significant changes in posteroanterior cephalometric measurements. Temporomandibular disorders account for greater amount of facial asymmetry, indicating that when analyzing tempromandibular disorders, evaluation of symmetry of face should also be done.

  29. Bhawna Sharma, Dimple Kasana and Poornima Sen

    The irritation or inflammation of the meninges, the covering of brain and spinal cord, is known as meningitis. Acute bacterial meningitis (ABM) is a medical emergency. The emergence of antimicrobial resistance has added to this problem. The aim of the present study was to analyze the emerging pathogen, bacterial profiles and antimicrobial susceptibility patterns of the isolates which were obtained from CSF of patients with ABM in the given area. In our study Gram’s stain provides 35% positivity for pus cells and 15% positivity for bacteria. In our study the culture positivity rate was 22%. Staphylococcus aureus was the most common pathogen in adult population. For paediatric population Staphylococcus aureus and Acinetobacter baumannii is the most common isolated pathogen. There was no isolation of Haemophilus influenzae and Neissaria meningitides in both group of population. The MRSA is 287(75%) of total isolated Staphylococcus aureus (382) species while 95(25%) were MSSA. In our study we observed that S. aureus and A. bowmanii has been emerged as the most common pathogen causing ABM in all age groups. All Gram negative organisms were showing 91% sensitivity to cefoperazone+salbactum. No vancomycin and chloramphenicol resistance were detected. Stress should be given on the restrained and rationale use of antimicrobials both in and outside the hospital.

  30. Beatrice Lintoiu, Irina Balescu, Nicolae Bacalbașa

    Endometrial cancer (EC) has an increasing incidence worldwide. Lymph node status is a strong predictive factor of recurrence. Therefore, determination of the nodal status is very important in order to optimally tailor adjuvant therapies and to reduce local and distant recurrences. Imaging modalities do not yet provide accurate lymph node staging, thus pelvic and aortic lymphadenectomies remain standard staging procedures. Sentinel lymph node (SLN) biopsy is intended to avoid extensive lymphadenectomy with its related morbidity and to provide significant oncologic information. This technique is emerging as a new standard for EC staging procedures.

  31. Dr. Vrushali V. Bhoir, Dr. Roshani Thakur and Dr. Arvind shetty

    With advancement in clinical dentistry, implant therapy is one of the most upcoming treatment option for fixed prosthesis with a predictable outcome. However, sometimes insufficient bone due to long standing edentulism may pose a challenge for implant placement. To overcome such a clinical presentation in 1970s, ridge splitting or bone spreading procedure was introduced by Hilt Tatum. This technique has been used for esthetic rehabilitation and implant site preparation in cases of deficient alveolar ridges to satisfy the basic ideal need of hard tissue augmentation. In this case report, we describe a case of horizontal ridge augmentation using ridge expansion technique which was performed using ridge expansion kit and simultaneous implant placement in esthetic mandibular anterior zone. Bone expansion resulted in correction of atrophic alveolar ridge (Labiolingual width > 3.5mm) without significant surgical risk and multiple surgeries. The degree of bone expansion obtained had remodelled the alveolar bone providing adequate bone support for prosthesis. A significant increase was achieved in the bone dimension, which enabled the placement of endosseous dental implants successfully. After 4-5 months of healing period both the implants were stable clinically and radiographically and hence were restored.

  32. Gunasheela, N. and Dr. Hema Shenbagum

    Waste foundry sand (WFS) represent the highest amount of solid wastes generated by foundries.WFS is a by-product of ferrous and non-ferrous metal casting industries .Foundries successfully recycle and reuse the sand many times in a foundry. When the sand can no longer be reused in the foundry and it is termed as waste foundry sand. Indian foundry industry is the 4th largest casting producer in the world. The majority (95%) of the foundry units in India falls under the category of small scale industry. These foundries generates approximately 17, 10000 tones WFS/year. Microbial research and the need for new methods for the removal of heavy metals and other contaminants led to the great deal of expansion in the field of biological methods of industrial waste clean-up. This study aimed to present the utilization of microorganisms treated WFS in Horticulture. This experimental investigation was performed to evaluate the properties of treated and untreated WFS and the sand was partially replaced with WFS. Physical and chemical properties analyzed between treated and untreated WFS. In Horticulture instead or with sand the treated sand WFS can be used.

  33. Dr. Nabeel Mushtaque Ahmed, Dr. Vinay Pandey and Dr. Ashish Srivastava

    Hepatosplenic T-cell lymphoma (HSTCL) was first described as a distinct clinicopathologic entity in 19901 HSTCL is a rare type of non-Hodgkin lymphoma that was originally recognized by its characteristic clinical presentation, distinct histologic pattern, and expression of the ɤδ T-cell receptor (TCR)1.Recent scientific advances have allowed for better understanding of the histologic, immunophenotyping, and cytogenetic characteristics of HSTCL, including identification of HSTCL with αβ TCR expression. γδ HSTCL and αβ HSTCL are now considered immunophenotypic variants of the same disease. Despite these advances, HSTCL remains a very aggressive subset of T-cell lymphoma and confers a poor prognosis, with a reported median survival of 6–11 months2,3 .There has been no consensus to date regarding therapeutic modalities in these patients, and effective treatment of HSTCL is lacking. A review of the literature reveals the use of various treatment regimens in patients with HSTCL. The majority of these treatment modalities appear to be ineffective in most patients, although there are some case reports and case series that describe complete remissions with certain chemotherapy regimens with or without stem cell transplantation.2,4

  34. Shishir, K. R., Vidya Patil and Renuka Holyachi

    Background: Patients with cardiac disease presenting for surgery pose a considerable challenge to the anaesthesiologist. Even patients belonging to geriatric and pediatric age group are detected to have electrophysiological disorders. Pacemakers are being used with greater frequency for both conduction and arrhythmia problems in such patients. Although no definite figures are available, the number of patients with pacemaker coming for anaesthesia and surgery is increasing now a days. Case of pacemaker during surgery as well as understanding its anesthetic implications is crucial in management of these patients. The growing use of pacemakers increases the likelihood that the anaesthesiologist will be often required to manage anaesthesia for a patient with an implanted pacemaker. Case report: 1) Here we present a case of anaesthetic implication of 61 year old male patient with pacemaker insitu diagnosed as left sided indirect inguinal hernia posted for herniorraphy which was managed under subarachanoid block. Pacemaker was inserted 5 yrs back. On examination pulse 86 per minute, BP 140/90 mm of Hg. CVS/RS normal. ECG: Rate- 70 with pacemaker spikes with LBBB. 2) Anaesthetic implications of 6 years old male child with pacemaker insitu diagnosed as right congenital hernia posted for herniorraphy managed under general anaesthesia. Pacemaker was inserted 3 years back. Intense monitoring for rhythm changes were done, other measures to decrease interference of pacemaker with perioperative events were considered. Bradycardia Management. Intravenous pacing was kept ready. Conclusion: Perioperative goal in management of patient with pacemaker . Minimum interference with pacemaker. Manage pacemaker failure.

  35. Nagesh Malik and Anupama Maity

    The present study was carried out to immobilize the multi-enzymes produced by a soil isolate Aeromonas jandaei. The three enzymes viz. amylase, lipase and protease produced by this isolate were partially purified by dialysis and were immobilized using 3 matrices- agar, agarose and alginate at 3 different concentrations. A washout of enzymes was seen at the lower concentrations of the matrices. At 3 % concentration the enzyme substrate interaction was reduced as low activity was seen. 2 % agar and agarose gave excellent enzyme retention and activity. 1 and 2 % alginate beads however dissolved in the reaction medium; the enzyme thus immobilized could not be retained for reuse. However 3 % alginate did not dissolve and was retrievable. 2 % agar was said to be the best choice for immobilization as it is cheaper than agarose and can be reused. Also when the enzyme is not to be reused and requires to be released into the reaction medium, alginate could be a preferable choice and can be used as a delivery/ transport medium for the enzymes.

  36. Dr. Kopperundevi, V. K., Dr. Anbarasan, K. and Dr. Kiruthiga, S.

    Benign breast diseases constitute a heterogenous group of lesions including developmental abnormalities, inflammatory lesions, epithelial and stromal proliferations and neoplasms. Many of these are clinically suspected as malignant lesions but diagnosed as benign after histopathological examination. ANDI [Aberration of normal development and Involution] classification provides a comprehensive framework within which to correlate clinical presentation with pathogenesis. In this study, we studied spectrum of benign breast conditions in Indian women with reference to ANDI system and performed clinicopathological correlation. We studied a total of 571 patients in and out patient basis, who underwent clinical examination, FNAC, and excision biopsy Aim of the study: -To analyse the incidence of different benign breast lesions. -To analyse the correlation between the clinical presentation of benign breast diseases and their pathological findings. - To analyse the age incidence of benign breast diseases.

  37. Jyothinath Kothapalli, Satya Prasad Venugopal, Kshirsagar, S. V., Jabeen, S. A., Venkateswara Prasad Uppu and Vijay Kumar

    Juvenile Myoclonic Epilepsy (JME) is a young onset idiopathic epilepsy syndrome characterized by Myoclonic seizures, generalized tonic clonic seizures and absence seizures. JME is an inherited disorder but the mode of inheritance is still controversial. Photosensitivity is also a precipitating factor to initiate seizures in JME. Photosensitivity is influenced by inheritance, but relation is not yet clear and established. A total 55 patients with a diagnosis of JME were evaluated to know whether triggering of seizures were influenced by photosensitivity and positive family history. JME cases were diagnosed by experienced Epileptologists on the basis of patient's medical history and on Electro Encephalo Graphy (EEG). Selection of patients and diagnosis were based on the criteria of the commission and terminology of the international League Against Epilepsy (ILAE). Patients with other neurological trauma, mental retardation and epilepsy syndrome other than JME were excluded from this study. In our study 49.09% of JME patients were photosensitive. Among these male patients were 53.12%, which was more when compared to the female i.e. 43.43%. On the other hand 43.64% of patients have positive family history. The percentage of male and female patients reporting the positive family history is almost same i.e., 43.75% in case of males and 43.47% in females. The percentage of photosensitivity and positive family history were having a close relationship, indicating that photosensitivity is linked to inheritance. So we conclude that there is a strong relationship between photosensitivity and positive family history in JME patients thus substantiating the fact that photosensitivity is inherited.

  38. Amaravathi, M., Bharath Kumar Reddy, C. and Josthna Reddy, S.

    A Holstein Friesian mal¬¬e cattle consumed Lantana leaves 2 days back and was presented with the symptoms of dullness, depression, anorexia, dry parchment like skin, lethargy and icteric mucous membrane. It was diagnosed as a case of photosensitization due to consumption of Lantana camara. However, the animal was treated with 500 ml of 5% dextrose normal saline mixed with 15 ml of B complex Vitamin supplements intravenously, Meloxicam @ 0.5 mg/kg intramuscularly and Avil @ 0.5 mg/kg intramuscularly for a week . Livotas syrup was advised to be given orally once a day @ 30ml for one month. External antiseptic ointments were applied daily for skin lesions. The duration of therapy for the complete clinical recovery was 30 days.

  39. Mary Vincent Chirayath and Prakasa Rao, J.

    Background & Aim: The transcellular transport of phosphate (Pi) from the intestinal lumen to the blood is documented as a secondary active transport requiring energy. In renal tubules the source of ATP generation for Pi transport seems to vary with site of transport. As studies are not available showing energy sources of intestinal Pi transport an attempt is done in this study to explore the metabolic energy source related to intestinal Pi transport. Methods: Everted gut sacs of the proximal & distal intestine were prepared from Swiss male albino mice. The sacs were filled with 0. 5ml of serosal fluid and placed in a mucosal medium. Various metabolic blockers of glycolysis and oxidative phosphorylation like 2DG, monoiodoacetate and rotenone were added to the incubation medium to curtail the energy sources. Tricarboxylic acid intermediates, Succinate and fumarate were also used in the medium to stimulate ATP generation. After incubation of the filled sacs for an hour, the amount of phosphate removed from mucosal medium (Pi uptake) and serosal gain of phosphate (Pi release) were estimated according to Chen’s method. Results: In these experiments phosphate uptake remains unaffected in both proximal and distal everted gut sacs with varied metabolic blockers. However addition of 2DG and monoiodoacetate significantly (<.001) reduced Pi release from the proximal segments without affecting Pi release in distal segments. Rotenone significantly (<.001) lowered Pi release in distal segments only without affecting the proximal segments. Inhibitory effect of rotenone on Pi release of the distal segments was partly but significantly checked by succinate and fumarate. Conclusion: Present studies indicate that the process of Pi extrusion/release from basolateral membrane only requires energy. For Pi release proximal intestine depend on glycolysis and distal part depend on oxidative phosphorylation for energy showing the regional variation.

  40. Kochli Channappa Niranjan, Niharika Sarathy, Devendra Alrani and Kaveri Hallikeri

    Although numerous studies have been done worldwide, there is limited data available on demographic profile of fungal osteomyelitis in the North Karnataka population. This study was designed to evaluate the prevalence of fungal osteomyelitis of the jaws associated with diabetes mellitus in North Karnataka population over a period of 10 years. Histologically diagnosed cases of osteomyelitis of the jaws were reviewed from January 2005 to December 2015 and subjected to statistical analysis by Chi-square test for age, gender, site, area and diabetic status. 52% cases were that of fungal osteomyelitis whereas, 48% belonged to non- fungal osteomyelitis. Fungal osteomyelitis was frequently found above 40 years of age (80.76%), more commonly in males (69.23%) and affecting the maxilla (80.76%). It was also noted that fungal osteomyelitis of the jaws was more commonly associated with diabetes mellitus (61.53%).

  41. Dr. Kopperundevi, V. and Dr. Anbarasan

    Perforative peritonitis is one of the most serious and most overwhelming catastrophic conditions that can befall a human being and hence they should be treated energetically. The objective of the study is to highlight the etiology, clinical presentation and management and outcomes of the patients diagnosed and treated asperforativeperitonitis. A retrospective study was done on 567 patients diagnosed and treated as perforative peritonitis at our institute for a period of 3 years from January 2013 to December 2015. Patients who are all above 15 years of age provisionally diagnosed as perforative peritonitis and thosesurgically managed were included in this study. In this study maximum incidence of perforative peritonitis was seen in age group of 41-50 years with mean age of 45 of which 88% were males. In this study, the over all most common site of perforation was 1st part of duodenum (76%). In 92% of patients abdominal pain was the most common clinical presentation. X ray abdomen erect revealed air under diaphragm in 64.6% of patients with perforation. In rest of the patients CT scan was taken and in which free fluid, pneumoperitoneum, fat stranding, localized air pockets were the positive findings in diagnosing perforation. 96%of the patients were managed primarily with surgery, 4%were initially managed with flank drain and later were taken up for surgery. The overall mortality was about 22.04%. Most common cause of death was septicemia. In this study the most common post-operative complications was wound infection. Aim of the study • To evaluate the incidence of perforative peritonitis in relation to age/sex. • To evaluate the etiology of perforative peritonitis. • To study the incidence of site of perforation in perforative peritonitis. • To enlist the clinical presentation of patients of perforative peritonitis • To know the significance of investigative procedures in diagnosing perforative peritonitis. • To study the outcome of surgical management of perforative peritonitis

  42. Dr. Nirav M. Kotak, Dr. Abhishek B. Rathod, Dr. Priti S. Devalkar and Dr. Rajendra D. Patel

    Central vein catheterisation of left Internal jugular vein was done under Ultrasound guidance. Post procedure chest Xray revealed abnormal position of central vein catheter tip and created confusion about its correct placement. Following confirmatory chest CT scan , it was found to be in persistent left sided superior vena cava. Its a common congenital thoracic venous anomaly. Hereby discussing case report of persistent left sided superior vena cava and its clinical implications.

  43. Budi Guntoro and Saisakul Fongmul

    This research aimed to analyze the motivation of goat smallholder farmers joined the farmer group using Vroom’s Expectation Theory. Vroom’s expectancy theory differs from the content theories of Maslow, Alderfer, Herzberg, and McClelland in that Vroom’s expectancy theory does not provide specific suggestions on what motivates organization members. Instead, Vroom’s theory provides a process of cognitive variables that reflects individual differences in work motivation. The sample used in this study was goat farmers in Yogyakarta Provice. A total number of respodents was 162 farmers. Using the survey method, the result showed that farmers’ participation motivation category in the group housing was intermediate. The average value of valence was intermediate, expectancy was high, and instrumentality was intermediate. The average total score for motivation joining the group was intermediate. It can be concluded that farmers’ motivation joining group was in the intermediate category. The rank of the components underlying farmers’ motivation in group from the lowest to the highest was expectancy, instrumentality and valence.

  44. Büşra CESUR, Naim NUR and Şükran ERTEKİN PINAR

    Objective: The aim of this study is to evaluate the state of cyberbullying they performed and were exposed to and the state of loneliness. Methods: This cross-sectional study carried out in Cumhuriyet University. Total number of the students in Cumhuriyet University were 34,212 and 2.244 of them composed the sampling of the study. In collecting data, personal information form including the socio-demographic characteristics and the state of cyberbully – victim and UCLA Loneliness Scale were used. Results: This study showed that 22% of the respondents were cyberbullied while 64% were victims of cyberbullying. Students exposed to cyberbullying reported that they were affected by this situation in various ways. There was a negative significant correlation between the cyber bullying and loneliness scores (r= -0.19, p=0.00) while there was a negative insignificant correlation between cyber victimization and loneliness scores (r= -0.01, p=0.72). Students access the Internet at a higher rate increased frequency of cyber bullying are applied and they are exposed to increased loneliness scores were determined. Students cyber bullying was determined that as they make themselves feel less alone. Conclusion: The findings of the study showed that cyber victims and loneliness were prevalent among university students. Also, students who were cyber bullied expressed more loneliness. It is suggested that for the control over the cyber environment, students must be provided by training and guidance services, and that must be increased by making legal regulations

  45. Dr. Mahesh, K P., Dr. Sunitha, S., Dr. Karthikeya Patil and Dr. Sanjay, C.J.

    Peripheral cement-ossifying fibroma comprises about 9% of all gingival overgrowth. It is considered to be more of a reactive benign lesion rather than a true tumor. It has a peak incidence in second-third decade of life and affects females commonly. About 60 % of the lesions occur in the maxilla and more than 50% of the lesions are seen in incisor-canine region. This report describes a case of peripheral cement-ossifying fibroma in a 37 year old male involving the maxillary anterior region.

  46. Kamyab Hesari Kambiz, Montazer Fatemeh and Safaeii Naraghi Zahra

    The diagnosis fundament of vitiligo is focusing clinical manifestations followed by biopsy that is helpful for discriminating disorder from other clinical conditions characterized by hypo pigmentation. The rare inflammatory variant of vitiligo may be difficult to distinguish from hypo-pigmented mycosis fungoides (MF) on clinical, histological and even immunohistochemical grounds. Both diseases show dermal lymphocytic infiltration, exocytosis, interface dermatitis and mild spongiosis (particularly when biopsies are taken from the periphery of early vitiliginous lesions or from lesions with an inflammatory borders). Also both disorders show a predominance of CD8+ T cells in tissue samples. We present a case with clinical findings of several depigmented patches on the forehead, eyelids, and dorsal hands, the near-total loss of melanocytes evident with Melan-A staining, and PCR findings demonstrating a lack of monoclonality, although according to combination of clinical, histological, immunohistochemical and molecular study, inflammatory vitiligo was favored but hypo pigmented MF could not ruled out definitely.

  47. Dr Isha Narang and Dr. Navin Mishra

    Introduction: Regenerative endodontics in immature necrotic teeth helps in root elongation and dentinal wall thickening. This case reports the use of Platelet rich Fibrin as a scaffold for regeneration in such tooth. Methods: An 11year old boy with the history of trauma was diagnosed with the pulpal necrosis, open apex and symptomatic apical periodontitis in tooth #21. Access preparation and minimal instrumentation was done to remove necrotic debris under copious irrigation with 2.5% sodium hypochlorite. Triple antibiotic paste was packed in the canal for four weeks. The intracanal medicament was removed and Platelet rich fibrin (PRF) prepared utilizing Choukroun's method was pushed to the apical region of root canal. Access cavity was sealed with GIC coronally and tooth was permanently restored with composite. Results: Clinical examination at 6 and 12 months revealed no sensitivity to percussion and palpation in tooth #21. Radiographic examination showed resolution of periapical rarefaction, further root development and apical closure of the tooth #21. Conclusion: On the basis of successful outcome of the present case it can be stated that PRF clot may serve as a scaffold for regeneration in necrotic immature teeth.

  48. Dr. Yogesh G., Dr. Vikram S., Dr. Shruti S., Dr. Aarathi S., Dr. Sankalp V. and Dr. Marilia marceliano-alves

    Introduction: The risk of pulpal injury has been a matter of concern with electrothermal debonding. The present study has been done on extracted teeth to compare three Electrothermal Debonding (ETD) Techniques. The results were evaluated statistically and conclusions were made. Objective: To find out the best method of debonding the brackets with least possible damage to the pulp with ETD. Material & Method: 30 standard edgewise brackets were bonded on to the 30 extracted teeth. Occlusal side ‘A’ and gingival side ‘B’ of the wings were marked. An ET debonding machine was used. An electronic thermometer was used to measure the intrapulpal temperature. For comparison, the brackets were held with pliers in three different methods. Results: The mean increase in intrapulpal temperature with groups 1, 2 & 3 were 2.34oc, 1.17oC & 1.50oC respectively. Discussion: In most of the studies, different techniques were used with different bonding materials and different bracket system. This study has been evaluated three ways Group 1 - Brackets debonded by holding it mesio-distally and rotating it in anti-clockwise direction. Group 2 - Brackets debonded by holding it gingivo-occlusally and rotating it gingivo-occlusally without archwire. Group 3 - Brackets debonded by holding it gingivo-occlusally and rotating it gingivo-occlusally with holding the archwire. The results were statistically evaluated and conclusions were made. Conclusion: The mean increase in intrapulpal temperature was minimum with group 3 but statistically, no significant change in intrapulpal temperature due to ETD was seen among all groups.

  49. Padmashree, S., Satish Kumar and Rema Jayalekshmi

    Osteopetrosis is a descriptive term that refers to a group of rare, heritable disorders of the skeleton characterized by increased bone density on radiographs. Osteopetrotic conditions vary greatly in their presentation and severity, ranging from neonatal onset with life-threatening complications such as bone marrow failure (e.g. classic or "malignant" ARO), to the incidental finding of osteopetrosis on radiographs (e.g. osteopoikilosis) (Zornitza Stark and Ravi Savarirayan, 2009). It is caused by the failure of osteoclaststo resorb immature bone. This leads to abnormal bone marrow cavity formation and clinically to the signs and symptoms of bone marrow failure. Impairedbone remodeling causesbony narrowing of the cranial nerve foramina which results in cranial nerve, especially optic nerve, compression. (Wilson and Vellodi, 2000) Classic ARO is characterised by fractures, short stature, compressive neuropathies, hypocalcaemia with attendant tetanic seizures, and life-threatening pancytopaenia. The presence of primary neurodegeneration, mental retardation, skin and immune system involvement, or renal tubular acidosis may point to rarer osteopetrosis variants, whereas onset ofprimarily skeletal manifestations such as fractures and osteomyelitis in late childhood or adolescence is typical of ADO. It is anticipated that further understanding of the molecular pathogenesis of these conditions will reveal newtargets for pharmacotherapy (Zornitza Stark and Ravi Savarirayan, 2009). This paper highlights a rare case of osteopetrosis in an 8 year old boy.

  50. Dr. Neeraj Mahajan and Dr. Arti Khurana

    Objective: The purpose of this study is to evaluate functional outcome of open reduction and internal fixation with proximal humeral internal locking system (PHILOS) for proximal humerus fractures. Method: Functional outcomes of 11 men and 17 women aged 27 to 76(mean, 53.21) years who underwent Philos plate fixation for proximal humeral fractures by deltopectoral approach were reviewed retro prospectively. 18 patients were in the age group of <60 years and 10 patients in the age group of >60 years. According to Neer classification system, 5, 9 and 14 patients had 2-part, 3-part, and 4-part fractures, respectively. Functional evaluation of the shoulder was done using Constant-Murley score. Results: Patients were followed up for 12 to 18 (mean 15) months. All fractures united clinically and radiologically. The mean time for radiological union was 13 weeks (range 10-18 weeks). At the final follow-up the mean Constant-Murley score was 72 (range35-90). The results were excellent in 8 patients, good in 15 patients, fair in 3 patients and poor in 2 patients. During the follow-up, 2 cases of malreduction, two cases of subacromial impingement and one case of infection were noted. No cases of AVN, hardware failure, locking screw loosening or nonunion were noted. Conclusion: Philos plate fixation provided stable fixation and allowed early range-of-motion exercises.

  51. Dr. Mukul Saxena, Dr. Aarathi Shenoy, Dr. Gaurav Chaudhary, Dr. Niranjan Reddy Dr. Sankalp Verma, Dr. Kuber Tyagi and Dr. Marilia marceliano-alves

    Objectives: The aim of this study is to compare the effect of artificial saliva on flexural strength of three commercially available denture base acrylic resins. Methods: In this study three commercially available heat cure denture base resins namely Trevalon, Trevalon-Hi and Pyrax Acryl-Hi were taken. The artificial saliva was prepared in one of our laboratory and the samples were immersed in artificial saliva in order to simulate oral environment. The time dependent changes in the flexural strength of acrylic resins was evaluated and compared with the samples soaked in artificial saliva. Results: A total of 84 samples (28 samples of each type) were made. According to the mean value, the flexural strength was in following order: Trecvalon-Hi; Pyrax Acryl-Hi and Trevalon. The flexural strength decreases with time and after soaking in saliva. Conclusion: PYRAX Acryl-Hi possesses good strength and aesthetics and offers better treatment options as the results are concerned. Since it is manufactured in India it is free from import-export charges. Hence it is relatively economical.

  52. Dr. Shifan Khanday and Dr. Pranu Chakaravarthy

    Context: Foramen Magnum also known as Foramen Primum is the largest foramen of the skull. Its position and structures passing through it makes it an important landmark. After Pelvis the skull is an important bony structure which exhibits gender differences. Particularly Foramen magnum shows gender difference owing to which it becomes an area of interest for Anthropometry, Forensic sciences, Anatomy and Neurosurgery. Objective: To Study the morphology and do a morphomertic analysis of Foramen magnum and correlate with the gender of the skull. Method: A total of60 dry skulls were observed and measurements were taken by means of vernier calipers. Diameter, Area and shapes were recorded. Measurements were taken. Later on a correlation was done Result. The mean for Anteroposterior diameter was 3.68 cm and mean for Transverse diameter was 3.09 cm .Height was observed to have a mean of 0.9 cm and area was 5.76. On an average the male skull foramen magnum was larger as compared to females. It was proved to be statistically significant Conclusion: A detailed examination of foramen magnum was performed. The main forms of foramen were established. Several were measured. Some new data could provide important information about the anatomy of the Foramen Magnum for reliable surgical interventions in this area.

  53. Assistant Professor Dr. Arul, V.

    Two adult camels (one male and female each) weighing about 450-500 kg body weight reared under captive conditions at Adhiparasakthi Agricultural and Horticulture College farm, kalavai, Vellore district had anorexia, debility, alopecia, intense purities and was not amenable to antibiotic therapy. Clinically camels were weak, emaciated and had itching, purities, biting and rubbing against objects and were totally restless and secondary bacterial infection were also noticed. The lesions were scattered throughout the entire surface of the body with involvement of head, face, neck, brisket region, thighs, inguinal region, perineal region and root of the tail etc., Keratinisation, thickening, corrugation and wrinkling of the skin, exudation, bleeding, fissured skin and scab formation were also noticed. The cause for skin lesion was diagnosed as Sarcoptes scabiei var. cameli. By skin scrapping .The camel was treated with ivermectin at the dose rate of 200 microgram per kg body weight in combination with antibiotic, multivitamins and mineral supplements for a period of time and during the course of treatment the camel was provided with medicated bath. Finally the treatment resolved the case successfully.

  54. Dr. Madhu Ranjan, Dr. Santosh Kumar Verma, Dr. Harsh Priyank, Dr. Barun Dev, Dr. Sankalp Verma and Dr. Marilia marceliano-alves

    Since the inception of positron emission tomography many decades ago, this imaging modality has grown appreciably as one of the most valued imageology in both health and disease. Once upon a time PET had mere 20 detector elements, 2cm axial field of view and spatial resolution of approximately 25mm.Last couple of years witnessed its metamorphosis into 25000 detectors, 20cm field of view and 5mm spatial resolution. As a result, clinical applications of PEt also grew tremendously. The current articles reviews the early days of PET, radioisotopes, radiopharmaceuticals used, principal basis of PET and clinical applications.

  55. Dr. Aarathi Shenoy, Dr. Vipul Goel, Dr. Kuber Tyagi, Dr. Gaurav Chaudhary Dr. Sankalp Verma and Dr. Marilia marceliano-alves

    Introduction: Pregnancy is a special state during a woman’s life, which is associated with a myriad of complex anatomical, physiologic, metabolic, emotional and physiological changes. There are changes observed in cardiovascular, respiratory, gastrointestinal system as well as changes in oral health and increased susceptibility to oral infections. Majority of pregnant women have been reported to experience oral changes yet they do not seek or are advised not to seek dental care as a part of routine prenatal care. Dentists also needlessly withhold or delay treatment of pregnant patients due to unrealistic fear of injuring patient, fetus or fear of litigations. It is important on the part of stomatologists to understand that pregnancy is not a disease wherein the patients are denied or deferred treatment. Thus, the aim of this article is to emphasize on the significance of oral care during pregnancy and motivate oral health care providers to provide timely and appropriate dental care. Methods: Articles were searched through keywords like dental care during pregnancy, drug safety, oral prenatal care, dentist’s attitude towards treating pregnant patients. Original research article, case reports, randomised control trials were searched through Pubmed and medline search between 2001 and 2015 Results: Generalised lack in awareness about oral manifestations of pregnancy was seen. It was seen that dentist’s usually defer treatment of pregnant patients. Conclusions: Every gestational woman should be encouraged to include dental visits in her routine prenatal care. Dental physicians should team up with other health care providers and keep themselves abreast with the updated guidelines in providing oral care.

  56. Jadhav, P. B., Padhiar, B. V., Bhor R. A., Ahlawat, T. R. and Senapati, A.K.

    An experiment was conducted on “effect of fertigation, split and mulching on N, P and K contents (%) in leaf of papaya cv. Taiwan 786 under south Gujarat conditions” with twelve treatments viz., 1st factor three levels of N and K2O @ 100, 80 and 60 % of RD (200:200:250), 2nd factor two levels of splits and 3rd factor two levels of mulching of black plastic mulch (BPM) @ 20 % area coverage (50 µ) in RBD with factorial concept (FRBD) including three replications at two locations during 2012-13. The results indicated that the nutrient status in papaya leaf were found statistically effective at the age 180 and 300 days due to N and K2O @ 100 % RDF (F1)applied with 18 splits as well as 15 days after transplanting (DAT) in both the locations showed better results as compared to control. For getting higher uptake of nutrient contents (%) in leaf of papaya, fertigation with N and K2O @ 100 % RDF and 18 splitsat 15 days intervals after transplanting of papaya cv. Taiwan 786 should be adopted.

  57. El Kady, G. M., El-Bassousy, A. A. and Mohamed Ali Medan

    In this work, chitosan and Chitosan-Ethylenediaminepentaacetic acid (DTPA) was prepared, evaluated and applied to inhibit calcium sulfate scale according to the following sequences: 1. Extraction and characterization of chitosan from shrimp shells waste. 2. Preparation and evaluation of chitosan-diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid (DTPA) as scale inhibitor. 3. Make a comparative study of the produced scale inhibitor with other scale inhibitors such as: • Ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA). • Sodium hexameta phosphate (SHMP). 4. Investigate experimentally the effect of the operating parameters such as, velocity, temperature, water constituents and salt concentration on calcium sulfate scale formation process 5. Evaluation the performances of these inhibitors and determine their optimal dose for maximum anti-scale effect. 6. An experimental unit was designed and coupled with a data acquisition system for a continuous measuring and monitoring the investigated parameters. The results showed that, low molecular mass chitosan samples with DD > 64% and Mw of the major component <104 was obtained by treating the chitin with 50% NaOH at 100 oC for up to 10 h. The antiscalants used in the present work have the following order for reducing calcium sulfate scaling Chitosan-DTPA < EDTA < SHMP.

  58. Sophia Mangussi Franchi Dutra, Édila Vilela de Resende Von Pinho, Heloisa Oliveira dos Santos, Elise de Matos Pereira, Aline Caroline Lima and Renato Mendes Guimarães

    Quick and reproducible methods for evaluating the physiological quality of seeds are needed for decision making in quality control programs. Therefore, the objective of this study was to evaluate the efficiency and quickness of Pettenkofer method to determine the respiratory activity to differentiate the vigor of five lots of habanero pepper seeds (Capsicum chinenses jacquin). It also determined the water content, germination test, seedling emergence and electrical conductivity in seeds of five lots. In addition to the physiological analysis it was also examined expression of esterase enzymes, catalase, malate dehydrogenase and alcohol dehydrogenase by electrophoresis technique. The experimental design was completely randomized with four replications. There was a correlation between the results of the respiratory activity and the tests used to evaluate the physiological quality of seeds. The results allowed the classification of lots habanero pepper seeds in different levels of physiological quality. The Pettenkofer system use is efficient and quick to distinguish quality levels of lots pepper seeds, which may be considered promising method to identify differences in physiological quality of lots pepper seeds.

  59. Mahnaz Shojaee, Okan Bulut and Mehrdad Shahidi

    Kutcher Adolescent Depression Scale-11 Items (KADS-11) is a diagnostic instrument measuring depression and suicidal thoughts in adolescents and young adults. Some characteristics of KADS-11 such as ease of administration, treatment sensitivity, and the ability to distinguish comorbid symptoms motivated the researchers to examine the psychometric properties of the scale by utilizing the multidimensional form of Graded Response Modeling in order to find the relationship between item responses and the latent trait. Results indicated that most of the items provided the maximum amount of information about participants’ depression, and also two extracted factors (Core Depressive factor and Suicidal and Physical factor) can explain 55.20% of total variance of KADS-11.

  60. Muhammad InadGhazwan and Dr. Asma Sami Ibraheem

    Powder of Ginseng root, type Panax ginseng has been used in three experimental fodders with three concentrations which were as follows: G1: 100mg/1kg, G2: 200mg/1kg, G3: 300mg/1kg of carp fish fodder. Results have shown equation of the first treatment with the ginseng free control group regarding average of weight and total length of fish. The treatments G2 and G3 overweigh the control treatment. The treatment G3, 300mg ginseng/1kg fodder overweigh the other treatments including the control one as it have has a high value. No significant concerning micronuclei number in red blood cells is noticed among fish treatment of this experiment. The aim of the present study is to find fodder additives or natural motives which promote fish growth and to shorten the production period which, in its best condition, is not less than one year in Iraq and to secure the sanity of the flesh of these fish for the consumer.

  61. Madhukar. B. Patil

    Folk literature in field of Plants medicine is still barrel field of scientific investigations and finding. The currect work based on such ethnomedicinal plant like Butea monosperma (Lam.) Taub., Cleome viscosa L., Moringa oleifera L. and Sesbania grandiflora (L.) Poirfor its anti-inflammatory activity in different solvent system. It was find out that all four plants showing positive results were slight fluctuations according to solvent system used for plant extract. All results are recorded after 0.5, 1.0, 2.0 and 5.0 hrs. of treatment. Anti-inflammatory study form plant folk literature is still needs to analyzed which will be more beneficial for humankinds.

  62. Tatiana Abreu Reis, Luiz Carlos de Oliveira Lima, Débora Domiciano, Raphael Evangelista Orlandi, Heloisa Oliveira dos Santos, Luciana Pereira Ribeiro and Adolfo de Oliveira Azevedo

    The waste generated from passion fruit juice processing is very significant and it is important to find solutions for the use thereof, since they exhibit high potential as a functional food. This study had as objective to make the chemical characterization of the waste generated from passion fruit juice processing (peel) of different species, as well as the supplementation effect with passion fruit peel flour on lipid profile plasma levels of the male Wistar rats. The peels after hygienized and lyophilized were finely ground to obtain the passion fruit flour (sour yellow – SYPFF, sweet - SwPFF and purple - PPFF) for carrying out chemical analysis and it was used 18 rats divided into 3 groups (n = 6) which received different treatments for 42 days: T1 - feed (control); T2 - feed + roast chicken fat; T3 - feed + roast chicken fat + passion fruit peel flour, for in vivo tests. By the results we can infer that passion fruit peel flour, provides to be a source of fiber and minerals with great potential to be used in human food as an alternative to reduce the lipid profile, which was proven in vivo test.

  63. Dr. Poonam M. Singh and Dr. Ankita V. Deshmukh

    Gingival overgrowth as a side effect of medication taken for non-dental reasons is a very commonly occurring condition. The drugs most commonly associated with this condition are anticonvulsants like phenytoin, immunosuppressants like cyclosporin and antihypertensive drugs such as calcium channel blockers. Cyclosporin is a selective immunosuppressant which is sued to prevent rejection following organ transplant procedure. Various hypotheses have been considered in the pathogenesis of gingival overgrowth induced by cyclosporin. These include presence of different subsets of fibroblasts, role of pro-inflammatory cytokines and matrixmetalloproteinases. Plaque accumulation is also thought to play an important role in the pathogenesis of gingival overgrowth. More recent investigations have hypothesized the role of mast cells, androgens, growth factors etc,. in the pathogenesis of cyclosporin induced gingival overgrowth. However, there is no clear understanding of the proposed hypotheses and further research is essential to establish a clear pathogenesis of gingival overgrowth and provide better and more precise design for its prevention and treatment. The following review presents the pharmacodynamics and pharmacokinetics of cyclosporin, its role in prevention of graft rejection and in the pathogenesis of gingival overgrowth with various modalities available for the treatment of the same.

  64. Jyoti Singh, Sindhu, S. C., Sindhu, A. and Yadav, A.

    Shiitake is the common name for the mushroom Lentinus edodes. The Shiitake, meaning “mushroom of the shii (oak tree)” in Japanese, is highly prized in Asia for its flavor and reputed medicinal value. The present study aimed at development, sensory evaluation, nutrient composition and shelf life evaluation of value added biscuits. A good quality of Shiitake mushroom biscuits comparable with refined flour biscuits in terms of sensory attribute were successfully prepared. Value addition was done using treated or untreated dehydrated shiitake mushroom powder. Crude protein content in value added Biscuits (10.55% and 9.61%) was significantly (p≤0.05) higher as compared to that without value addition (5.74%). HCl extractability for iron, zinc, phosphorus and calcium (70.53, 72.21, 85.83, 53.69 %) were also significantly (p>0.05) higher in treated mushroom biscuits. The developed products could be successfully stored for a period of 30 days. In conclusion, the value addition with mushroom powder can be recommended for the purpose of improved nutrient content.

  65. Rajamurugan, J. and Vimalavady, A.

    Coccinia grandis is a dioecious, perennial, and herbaceous climber, with glabrous stems,tuberous roots, and axillary tendrils. Leaves are alternate and simple. Fruit is a smooth, bright red, ovoid to ellipsoid berry 2.5–6 cm The present investigation was analyzed to evaluate the pharmacognostical studies on selected medicinal plant. The parameters such as anatomical, histochemical colour reactions, and phytochemical studies were done. The values calculated and data collected could be used for the identification of powdered drug of this taxon. Pharmacognostical analysis will help to identify authentically the drug from adulteration, substitution in the herbal market and also for the quality control in pharmaceutical industry.

  66. Usha Ahuja, Prem Narayan and Amarjeet Singh

    Water is a key factor in increasing agricultural production; its increasing scarcity has resulted into the emergence of various innovative and efficient water management techniques. The present study has been undertaken to assess the impact of laser leveling in crop cultivation for Mewat district of Haryana state. The study is based on the primary data collected from 16 farmers of 7 villages of Mewat selected under NAIP project. The selected farmers cultivated peal millet in the fields where LLL was applied. It has been observed that laser leveling saves 32.18 percent of water in irrigation and decreases weed occurrence of about 27.81 percent. Pearl millets yield increased by 52.77 percent and net profit increased by 141.57 per cent. So lase rleveling was found very effective in water conservation as well as increasing the crop productivity. The major constraint in the adoption of this technology is huge investment on laser leveler, so collective effort or custom hiring can help in this regards.

  67. Mamoni Das, Daisy Sharma, Alam, S. and Chandana C. Barua

    The present study on antidiabetic activity of single blend nutraceutical incorporated cookies on alloxan induced diabetic rats was undertaken to develop low-glycemic index cookies using functional ingredient like flaxseed and as well as to assess its functional efficacy in terms of hypoglycaemic, hypocholesterolemic effect The cookies were developed at different level of incorporation of flaxseed flour (20%, 30% and 40%) and were subjected to acceptability trials. The cookies incorporated with 30% flaxseed flour was highly acceptable in terms of all the sensory attributes. The GI and anti diabetic efficacy of the cookies was estimated through animal experimentation. The GI of the developed cookies was 30 indicating that the cookies were low glycemic. Impact of supplementation of the cookies to alloxan induced diabetic rats revealed that there was a significant decrease (p<0.001) in blood glucose level in the experimental group fed with flax seed cookies as compared to diabetic control group after 15 days of intervention. The overall decrease in mean blood glucose level in experimental animals fed with flaxseed cookies was 93 mg/dl at the end of 15 days intervention period. Alloxan mediated body weight reduction was also reversed due to flaxseed cookies supplementation as well as the total protein level increased from 5.5g/dl in diabetic rats to 6.45 g/dl in experimental group fed with flaxseed cookies suggesting the regeneration process. The total cholesterol level reduced significantly from 201mg/dl in diabetic rats to 104mg/dl in experimental group fed with flaxseed cookies and similarly SGPT and SGOT reduced from 102u/l and 110u/l in diabetic rats to 51u/l and 59u/l respectively in experimental group fed with flaxseed cookies at the end of the intervention period.

  68. Rajani, V. and Reshma, J. K.

    With the immense growth of industries, major problem is encountered as contamination of the environment with hazardous and toxic chemicals. Phenolics, one of the major pollutants, are discharged in the waste water from the various industries such as phenolic resin and pharmaceuticals, oil refineries, petrochemical plants, ceramic plants, steel plants, and coal conversion processes. Due to the toxic properties, including permeabilisation of cellular membranes and cytoplasm coagulation, phenolic contaminants can damage sensitive cells and cause profound health and environmental problems. The main objective of this study was to isolate the genomic and plasmid DNA from selected potent phenol degrading bacteria from the effluent treatment plants of textile and petrochemical industries. Total 10 strains were isolated from both the samples and out of that four potent strains from both the samples were used for the isolation of genomic and plasmid DNA. They were Neisseria sp and Micrococcus sp from petrochemical effluent and Micrococcus sp and Pseudomonas sp from textile effluent as they are found to be the most potent among the selected strains. They gave maximum degradation potential in the medium with 800 ppm phenol. From the results, it was clear that strain 1 contained a clear band of 700 bp. Strain 2, 3 and 4 showed a feeble band at 1200 bp position. The plasmid DNA content was relatively less in 3 strains and almost absent in one strain. As a future perspective, the plasmid DNA can be removed from the strains and those without plasmid can be used to study the degradation potential of selected strains using the same effluent so as to investigate the plasmid mediated degradation.

  69. Sweta Sharma, Swapna K Srivastava and Sanjay Mishra

    Obesity is a pathological condition, in which, excess body fat accumulates to the extent, probably, having an adverse effect on health leading to reduced life expectancy and/or increased health problems. Some dietary components show promise in the treatment of obesity, one of which is oil rich in Diacylglycerols (DAGs). Excess body weight is the consequence of an imbalance between energy intake and energy expenditure that is stored as triacylglycerol (TAG) in adipose tissue. Triglyceride synthesis has been assumed to occur primarily through acyl CoA: Diacylglycerol transferase (DGAT), a microsomal enzyme that catalyses the final and only committed step in the glycerol phosphate pathway. Therefore, DGAT has been considered indispensable for adipose tissue formation and essential for survival. The genes encoding two DGAT enzymes, DGAT 1 and DGAT 2 were identified in past decade. Both enzymes may be useful as therapeutic targets for disease and controlling the over expression of triacylglycerides. The present study was undertaken to monitor the interaction between DGAT and previously discovered ligands by using Vlife MDS. Besides, the active sites of the enzyme and the residues involved were also validated through in silico experimentation. The data obtained from this study provide new insights into expression of high affinity of the ligands towards the receptor i.e. the enzyme and thus leading towards the possibility of developing a compatible biomolecule as confirmatory drug to treat obesity.

  70. Swapan K. Tripathy, Panda, S., Senapati, N., Nayak, P.K., Dash, G.B., Mohapatra, P.M., Mishra, D., Mohanty, M.R., Mohanty, S.K., Pradhan, K.C., Jena, M., Behera, C. and Pradhan, K.

    Character association and path coefficient analysis were carried out in a set of core germplasm lines of mungbean which included 13 promising improved varieties, four popular locally adapted mungbean land races of Odisha (India), one wild form (TCR 20) of mungbean (Vigna radiata var. sublobata), one genotype of its closely related species Vigna mungo, cv. UG 218 (urdbean) and a popular mungbean variety LGG 460 as standard check. Seeds per plant followed by number of pods per plant, number of clusters per plant and seed weight revealed strong positive significant correlation with seed yield. In contrast, number of primary branches per plant and protein content had negative relationship with seed yield. Among the component traits, number of pods per plant had maximum direct effect on seed yield followed by clusters per plant and 100-seed weight. Seeds per plant though exhibited very high positive correlation with seed yield, it failed to influence seed yield directly at genotypic level. However, seeds per plant contributed indirectly to seed yield through number of clusters and number of pods per plant. Number of clusters per plant and number of pods per plant had shown high inter se indirect effects on seed yield at genotypic level. The merit of these two traits is further ascribed to their positive correlated response through other component traits e.g. seeds per plant, harvest index and seed weight.

  71. Motaka, G. N., Parmar, D. J., Kalola, A. D., Darji, V. B. and Vaishnav, P. R.

    The data on C.V. % for Isabgul crop yield along with other details of 159 field experiments conducted during 1989-90 to 2011-12 at Main Research Station, Medicinal and Aromatic crop, Anand Agricultural University, Anand were collected and analyzed. The frequency distribution tables were prepared for various experimental factors. The upper fiducial limits (the yardstick) of C.V.% at 95% confidence based on non central‘t’ distribution were worked out for accepting the results of isubgul crop experiments which emerged as 23%.

  72. B. P. Harini, and B. K. Neethu,

    The behaviour paradigms are relatively complicated, it is necessary to understand how the fundamental behaviour is organized at neural level, before a full understanding of the complex behaviour. Drosophila melanogaster has shown biased preference when facing sensory stimulation towards varied concentration of stimulants namely nicotine and caffeine. The preference behavioural assays were used to study sensory abilities based on feeding behaviour and climbing ability. The regulation of feeding behaviour in pre- adult and post- adult traits of Drosophila melanogaster showed varied responses to the stimulants supplemented in the food regimes with respect to various concentrations of stimulants addicted with organismal stress provided in the form of starvation. The pre-adult (larvae) preferred stimulants (i.e., Caffeine/Nicotine) rather than control and combination of both the stimulants, while the post-adult (flies) preferred the combination of stimulants than the caffeine or nicotine alone.

  73. Kavita Arora, P. P., Upadhyaya and Ved Ratan

    Drying is the process of removal of moisture from the product to such a low level that microbial and biochemical activities are checked due to reduced water activity, which makes the products suitable for safe storage and protection against the attack by microorganisms during the storage. Drying was done by three different methods that is Air Drying (450 C), Sun Drying (12-250 C) and Oven Drying (650 C) till complete drying. This was done to find out the better drying method, by comparing the nutritive value after biochemical analysis. From storage point of view oven drying is better than sun drying because moisture content decreases at the level of 4.4% that is in higher magnitude. Air drying was found to be the best method of drying, as the highest nutrient value was found in this case; whether it is the matter of protein, lipid, ash or carbohydrates content. However, moisture content in the samples subjected to this method of drying was higher, as compared to the other two methods.

  74. Suresh Chougala, B., Hemla Naik, Shivayya Mathapati, Savita K. H. and Shivakumar

    The complete research work was carried out with single experiment with factorial concept. The tuberose spikes were treated with different synthetic food dyes used are tomato red, rose pink, lemon yellow, kesar yellow, apple green and blue with two concentrations (6 and 8 %) and three different durations (4, 6 and 8 hrs). Number of florets dropping per day showed the significant difference for different food dyes from fourth to seventh day. Total number of florets were maximum dropped in P3 (12.02), which was on par with P2 (11.50) and minimum number of florets dropped in P6 (4.94). The different concentrations of food dyes treatments showed significant difference for florets dropping on 4th day. However, the maximum florets drop was found in C 2 (0.78) which was on par with P1 (0.70), whereas minimum found in control and P6 (0.00). Number of florets dropping has showed significant difference for durations of food dyes treatments on 4th and 5th day.

  75. Abd El-Badiea, N. M., Soliman, D. E., Lotfy, N. M. and Shehata, M. G.

    Phlebotomus papatasi is the potential vector of zoonotic cutaneous leishmaniasis in the north eastern parts of Egypt, specifically in Rafah, North Sinai governorate. Thepresent study characterized DNA sequence of Internal Transcribed Spacer 2 (ITS-2) from two Phlebotomus papatasistrains collected from two geographically distinct localities in Egypt; Rafah, North Sinai Governorate, and El Agamy, Alexandria Governorate. DNA was extracted from morphologically identified P. papatasi specimens collected from Alexandria, and Sinai. The ITS2 regions amplified and their sequences submitted into GenBank and analyzed by comparison with other entries. The percentage of identity among studied sandflies was 93%.Phylogeny analysis of amplified sequences revealed a high similarity rate with P. papatasi from coastal Mediterranean countries (97%).Data in the present study suggested that the phylogenetic analysis could not be completely resolved, which actually makes the use of current ITS-2 sequences of little value for phylogenetic interpretation.

  76. Subhas C. Bijjaragi and Nazeer Ahamed, R.

    The present study aimed to investigate the biochemical, antioxidant and histopathological factors & consequences which alter the defensive role of 50% hydro-alcoholic Caesalpinia bonducella seed kernel extract (CBSKE) (100 & 200 mg/kg b. wt.) of total Phenolic content on the experimentally induced mastitis by Staphylococcus aureus in the late lactating rats. Thirty lactating rats were randomly divided into five groups (n=6); physiological saline treatment (control) group-I, S. aureus induced (diseased) group-II, S. aureus + CBSKE treated (extract treatments) groups- III & IV and standard antibiotic Ciprofloxacin treated group-V. The concentration of S. aureus was adjusted to 2×107CFU/ML and inoculated into the abdominal fourth right and left (R4 & L4) mammary glands via the teat duct on the 14th day of lactation. After inoculation, simultaneous treatments were started orally. Dosage has been given per 6h time interval. Rats were euthanized at 72h of post treatment in each group. The blood and liver tissue were collected for biochemical, antioxidant and histological evaluation. The CBSKE treated groups exhibited more relevance to the antibiotic treated group more than the S. aureus treated group. Serum total urea, urea nitrogen, creatinine, uric acid, total protein, albumin globulin, AST, ALT, ALP, GGT, amylase and creatinine kinase in level of significance and antioxidant enzymes revealed a significant increase in the lipid peroxidation. Other antioxidants are significantly decreased in the activity levels of superoxide dismutase, catalase, glutathione peroxidase, glutathione-s-transferase, glutathione reductase and reduced glutathione. Further, histological alterations also suggest that the central vein and hepatocytes indicate recovery in treatment groups compared to the diseased group. The phenolic fraction of CBSKE exhibited more potential as an anti-mastitis therapeutics in a rat model.

  77. Longe, O. O.

    Several reviews have shown that plant-derived pesticides have great potential for the natural control of pests, particularly in tropical countries like Nigeria. Many of these plant species, apart from being readily available, cheap and eco-friendly, possess one or more useful properties such as repellency, antifeedant, fast knock down, flushing action, bio-degradability, broad-spectrum of activity and ability to reduce insect resistance. These are unlike synthetic chemical pesticides that have high persistence in the soil after use, high cost of application, environmental pollution, toxic residues in food, high lethal effects on non-target organisms and direct toxicity to users. There has been a steady increase in recent times, in the use of plant-based products as a cheaper and ecologically safer means of controlling pests, especially in the tropics. In South Nigeria, rural farmers mix chilli pepper and wood ash of Parkia biglobosa (African locust bean), Corymbia citrodora. or Azadirachta indica, to control Podagrica sp.on okra plants, Abelmoschus esculentus. The natives in this area also use the mixture of Chromolaena odorata L. (siam weed) and Ocimum gratissimum L. (basil) leaf extracts to repel termites and soldier ants around their houses. Similarly, an admixture of water from fermented cassava (Manihot esculentus Crantz) tubers and bitter leaf (Vernonia amygdelina L.) has shown potency against tailor ants infesting local pear fruits and leaves. In storage pest control, a lot of work has been done to investigate the efficacy of powder, oil and juice extract of many botanical plants on the survival of various insect pests, such as C. maculatus and S. zeamais, with 100% control.

  78. Gazala Aftab, Dr. Farhat Banu and Dr. Satish Kumar Sharma

    The present status and distribution of various species of the genus Anogeissus have been assessed in nine protected areas of southern Rajasthan namely, Sajjangarh, Jaisamand, Phulwari ki Nal, Sitamata, Bassi, Bhensroadgarh, Mount Abu, Kumbhalgarh and Todgarh -Raoli sanctuaries. Five species of the genus Anogeissus are found in Rajasthan, out of which Anogeissus latifolia and Anogeissus pendula are found commonly in these protected areas. Anogeissus sericea var. sericea is the species having smallest distribution range in Rajasthan.

  79. Indira Rathore and Tarafdar, J. C.

    A number of laboratory studies were conducted to know the condition favorable for resin-P adsorption under arid environment. Several type of ion exchange resins were used for the study. The results clearly demonstrated more P accumulation by resin bag at pH 7.8. Resin bag adsorbed maximum P when soil EC was 2 dSm-1. In low organic matter soil chelating resin was more efficient; while with increase in organic matter level strongly basic anion exchange resin was found to be most effective in trapping P. Saturated moisture level in the soil demonstrated best P trapping by resin bag. Clay content in the soil had a positive influence on more P adsorption into the resin bag. The resin P accumulation was more at 30°C and a drastic fall was noticed with increase in soil temperature from 30 to 40°C. The result clearly demonstrated that pH, EC, temperature, moisture, and organic matter content in the soil had affected much on P adsorption by the resin bag under arid environment.

  80. Revathi, T., Shourabh Joshi, Rajini, G., Vijaya Sagar Reddy, D., Rajeshwari, R., Anuradha, G., Yamini, K. N. and Suresh, M.

    Pigeonpea [Cajanus cajan (L.) Millsp] is one of the important grain legume and is a rich source of protein. Though India ranks first in production, the productivity of pigeonpea is very low because of its vulnerability to a number of biotic stresses. Among these stresses the Fusarium wilt caused by Fusarium udum (Butler) is the most important limiting factor and is prevalent in all pigeonpea growing areas. Three methods namely root tip inoculation, piercing method and disease sick plot method were attempted. The first two methods were carried out at green house, Institute of biotechnology (IBT), Professor Jaya Shankar Telangana State Agricultural University (PJTSAU), Hyderabad, during Kharif 2013, and the third method was carried out at (Agriculture research station) ARS, Tandur during Kharif 2013. In all the three methods, the disease was observed and the levels of disease resistance/susceptibility among the RILs were comparable except for the difference in the total number of days taken for the complete expression of disease symptoms. In case of disease sick plot method, it took 150-180 days whereas in case of root tip inoculation a maximum of 60 days were sufficient for complete expression of disease symptoms and it took around 90-120 days in case of piercing method. Hence root tip inoculation method is ideal, as it takes less time for expression of the disease and hence it is possible to take up multiple screenings within a single season. This would also aid in effective and quicker identification of resistant and susceptible RILs for further crop improvement applications without waiting for next season. This is the first report, indicating that mechanical inoculation of Fusarium udum (Butler) by root tip inoculation is more effective method than other two methods for screening this disease.

  81. Srividya Rani, N., Lakshmi, T. and Prasad, S. V.

    The study was conducted with an Ex-post facto research design in four mandals of Chittoor district of Andhra Pradesh with a sample of 120 randomly selected farm women to know their managerial role. It revealed that majority of the respondents were under medium managerial role category. The components of managerial role like planning ability, organizing ability, supervision ability, communication ability, coordination ability and controlling ability were found to be in the medium category respectively.

  82. Dudhe, S.D., Dr. Yadav, S.B.S., Dr. Nagda, R.K., Dr. Urmila Pannu and Dr. Kadoo, R.R.

    The present investigation was conducted to study the production performance of Sirohi goats under field conditions. The overall least-squares means for production traits 90 days milk yield (90 DMY), 150 days milk yield (150 DMY), total milk yield (TMY), lactation length (LL) and dry period (DP) were 61.79 ± 2.48 lit., 90.96 ± 2.58 lit., 91.08 ± 2.56 lit., 150.75 ± 0.72 days and 151.63 ± 14.25 days respectively. Sire, cluster and year of birth had highly significant (P≤0.01) effect on all lactation traits. Season of birth had highly significant (P≤0.01) effect on all lactation traits except on dry period. Parity had highly significant (P≤0.01) effect on all lactation traits except on lactation length. Regressions of dam’s weight at kidding were positive and highly significant (P≤0.01) effect on all lactation traits except on lactation length. Heritability estimate of all production traits were medium to high, ranges from 0.391 ± 0.087 for dry period to 0.652 ± 0.101 for 90 days milk yield indicating scope for further improvement through selection and effective management practices.

  83. Deotale, R. D., Wagh, Y. A., Patil, S. R. and Kalamkar, V. B.

    An experiment was conducted at Botany Section, College of Agriculture, Nagpur (MS) India during year 2014-2015 to study the influence of putrescine and IBA (50, 75,100,125, 150 ppm each) on chemical, biochemical, yield and yield contributing parameters of soybean. Experiment was conducted in Randomized Block Design. Considering the treatments under study two foliar sprays of 100 ppm putrescine and 100 ppm IBA at two stages ie., before flowering and 10 days after flowering were found to be most effective in improving nitrogen, phosphorus, potassium, chlorophyll content in leaves and protein and oil content in seeds. Yield contributing parameters viz., number of pods plant-1, weight of 100 seeds were also significantly enhanced. Seed yield ha-1 was also significantly increased by 100 ppm putrescine (25.89%) and 100 ppm IBA (20.34%) over control.

  84. Velayudham, N., Srinivasan, R. and Vijaya Bhaskara Rao, A.

    A survey on filth flies and their natural enemies was carried out at weekly intervals between July 2014 and June 2015. A total of 6 study sites comprising one poultry and five dairy farms in and around Pondicherry were selected for screening abundance of fly and hymenopteran puparia parasitoids. Density of adult flies was monitored using both scudder grill and sweep net technique. Sampling of immature of filth flies was carried out using litre sampling method. The species compositions of flies (n= 22,543) in all the study areas as follows: Musca domestica (89.48%), Stomoxys calcitrans (5.29%), Musca sorbens (2.44%), Calliphora sp. (1.89%), Fannia cannicularis (0.56%), Ophyra sp. (0.13%), Sarcophaga sp. (0.09%) and Hippelates sp. (0.07%). The density of flies (Mean±SD) varied from 18.83±5.4 (Oct.2014) to 58.51±16.5 (Aug.2014) using scudder grill (no/grill/30 sec). The density of flies (Mean±SD) varied between 15.4±3.3 (Nov.2014) to 49.6±17.9 (Aug.2014) using sweep net (no/sweep). Species composition of parasitoids (n= 3,534) during the study period as follows: Spalangia cameroni (46.09%), Spalangia nigroaenea (34.94%), Dirhinus himalayanus (13.80%), Spalangia endius (3.62%) and Pachycrepoideus vindemmiae (1.52%). Rainfall had a significant negative correlation with density of fly (p=0.054) and parasitoid (p=0.015). The results exhibited that the rainfall affected both fly and parasitoid density. The temperature had a positive correlation with density of fly (p= 0.054) and the density was increased when temperature reached above 25⁰C. Therefore, for the effective fly control programme mass release of parasitoids can be done before temperature starts to increase in the summer season.

  85. Nidhi Verma and InduBansal

    Background: Primary Education provides a vital link between home education and the Secondary Education. The school is a place on which parents believes that their children will learn skills, values habits and knowledge. This will help him to live better life. Schooling has direct effect on children educational achievements. These basic skills place foundation for higher studies. Objective: The present paper aim was to find out condition of schools in Lucknow district on the bases of School environment by ranks. Material and Methods: School Environment Checklist covered various aspects of schools like room, floor, ground, ceiling cleanliness, lab facility, convince arrangement like bus, car, auto, riksa etc. and pest control in routine way were included. This checklist also includes building renovation, ventilation, light arrangement, hygiene prevention steps and different training facility provide for school staffs. Total 30 questions were there and all the answers were marked for all schools. Analysis: Data was entered into Microsoft Excel and analyzed by SPSS version 16. Result: In which Good sanitation and Control of pest & Pesticides were ranked first and eleventh (Last).

  86. Pushpalatha, K., Balasubramaniyan, R., Amit Gautam and Vasuki, V.

    There is currently a global program attempting to eliminate lymphatic filariasis (LF) by administering drugs to affected communities with the goal of interrupting transmission of the parasite. At present the global programme for the elimination of lymphatic filariaisis (GPELF) uses indirect human measures to evaluate the success of its primary goal, the interruption of transmission. An infective stage (L3) detection assay provides a more direct measure of transmission risk and may be useful as a sensitive and non-invasive method for monitoring GPELF programs. In this study, we have developed a multiplex reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) assay for the simultaneous detection of infective stage (L3) Wuchereria bancrofti and the vector species Culex quinquefasciatus. The assay could detect a single L3 in an optimum pools size of 25 mosquitoes when each of the two sets of L3 specific primers (WbL31 and WbL32) were used, indicating the respective diagnostic bands of 203 bp and 111 bp, along with an amplicon of 500 bp for the vector. The detection potential of the assay in terms of sensitivity and specificity of the primer WbL3-1 was 85% and 100%, whereas the same for the primer WbL3-2 was 95% and 100% respectively based on the decoded results of the assessment of 20 coded samples and the variation in the sensitivity was insignificant. This assay may be useful as a non-invasive surveillance tool for early detection of LF resurgence following suspension of MDA, if the detection potential of the assay would be evaluated on larger number of field caught mosquitoes.

  87. Sreejaya, P. and Nirmala, P.

    Anti oxidant effect of green tea extract on 47 cryo preserved human semen samples were studied. Each sample was divided into two- one with green tea extract and the second without green tea extract. Percentage of motility, viability and DNA fragmentation were examined. While comparing the study results of control vs. green tea extract samples, the mean value of percentage of motility in control group was 51.2 with standard deviation of 10.18 vs. 53.03±10.40 in green tea extract group. The percentage of viability and standard deviation in control yielded 59.63±10.13 and it was 61.38±10.29 in green tea extract group. The mean and standard deviation in percentage of DNA fragmentation was 73.49±5.24 in control and it was 67.04±5.02 in green tea extract group. The students paired t-test results showed statistically significant increase in percentage of motility and viability and reduction of DNA fragmentation in green tea extract group compared to control with p-value less than 0.05. Green tea is an effective anti oxidant and it reduces the DNA fragmentation and it increases the motility and viability of sperms, thus it can be use as an effective anti oxidant in cryo preservation of human sperms.

  88. Jalal Sinaei

    Given the importance of socio-cultural and economic development of rural cooperatives in developing countries and taking into account the impact of media on people, this paper is going to examine the effectiveness of educational services and advocating for services credits, production services and services bodies providing the agricultural product on the development of the province's agricultural production cooperatives in Lorestan. Information and education in the field of services providing radio production inputs not differ between rural cooperative development but in other components of education and awareness in the field of radio training and promotion, notification funding from the radio, education and information services, marketing of agricultural products by radio in the Type I error (ie, 0.05) H0 is rejected in favor of H1. According to the Spearman correlation coefficient test, educate and inform radio and cooperative development there is a significant relationship. Of course, the correlation coefficient between independent and dependent variables, (0.907) which showed a direct relationship between the dependent and independent variables. In other words, according to the results of this test, increased education and awareness by radio will encourage the development of cooperatives. According to the Spearman correlation coefficient test, educate and inform the TV and there is a significant relationship between the development of cooperatives. The correlation coefficient between the dependent and independent variables, (0.865) showed a direct relationship between the dependent and independent variables. In other words, according to the results of this test, increased education and awareness by radio will encourage the development of cooperatives. The rating also factors, education and awareness information and educational services promoted by radio with a score of 3.04 was awarded first place in the development of rural cooperatives. After that training and information services, marketing of agricultural products ranked second with a score of 2.78 in. Funding with an average rating of 2.15 in the third and the provision of production inputs is fourth with 2.05 averages. The relationship between dependent and independent variables can be expressed as follows: Y=2.287+2.110X1+0.798X2+0.098X3+0.543X4

  89. Swapan K. Tripathy, Mishra, D.R., Senapati, N., Nayak, P.K., Dash, G. B., Mohanty, S. K., Kartik Ch. Pradhan, Jena, M., Dash, S., Panda, S. and Mohanty, M. R.

    A set of sesame genotypes including popular ruling varieties was characterized for genetic diversity based on 14 agro-economic traits including seed yield. The test genotypes were separated into five clusters. Principal component (PC) analysis revealed that first two PC axes explained 85.8% of the total multivariate variation. Number of capsules/plant contributed maximum to genetic divergence followed by number of seeds/capsule, 500-seed weight and seed yield/plant. Cluster V revealed comparatively dwarf plant type while Cluster II and Cluster IV were shown to have tall stature. Besides, genotypes under Cluster V had shown capsule bearing from lower height indicating possibility of more scope for increased number of capsules/plant. Cluster II bore longer and bold capsule resulting highest number of seeds/capsule (87.80) coupled with increased 500-seed weight (1.43gm). Pratap formed a mono-genotypic cluster (Cluster II) and it was highly divergent from B 67, TC 25, RT 103, TMV 5 and E 8; while, E 8 exhibited tremendously high genetic distance from RT 103 followed by TC 25, Pratap and T 13. Thus, parental combination of either Pratap or E 8 with above genotypes may result heterotic performance and reveal wide array of transgressive segregants in segregating populations following recombination breeding.

  90. Kiran Kumar, J., Harshavardhan Reddy, P. and Charitha Devi, M.

    Newcastle disease (ND) an infectious highly contagious avian disease causing severe economic losses to poultry worldwide and controlled by vaccination. In spite of regular vaccination a number of sporadic outbreaks are observed in vaccinated as well as non vaccinated birds and constant threat to poultry since last few years. Isolation and identification of circulating Newcastle disease virus isolates are crucial for the accurate diagnosis of the virus strains, which could be valuable for developing better prophylactic measures. This study was under taken to assess the prevalence of NDV in poultry farms. Among all the total of 39 collected field samples from various poultry farms the NDV was detected in seven field samples by RT-PCR. All the seven field samples yielded a band of 1662 bp on amplification of complete coding region of fusion protein gene of NDV. The results of this simple assay clearly indicated that the NDV strains are circulated in a range of susceptible birds.

  91. Komal Anjum, Syed Qamar Abbas, Sayed Asmat Ali Shah, Najeeb Akhter and Syed Shams Ul Hassan

    Objectives: The study objective was to examine immunomodulatory and antimicrobial potency of Nigella sativa. Methods: Iron in Nigella sativa was studied by Spectrophotometer and molar absorptivity of metal concentration was by Calibration curve. Anti-microbial activity was evaluated by well and disc diffusion including its MIC and MBC values. Findings: In calibration curve, molar absorptivity of metal concentration was calculated as 10,000/M/cm at 515nm and concentration average values of five samples were 133.83038ppm. Hydroquinone found to be highly reductants, followed by Nigella sativa and then hydroxyl ammonium chloride. In standard antibiotic discs testing, all microbes were showed resistance to Oxacillin. Inhibitory zones were measured by well and disc diffusion assay. Log of CFU/ml was recorded by Miles and Misra. Streptococcus pyogenes showed high sensitivity against methanolic and aqueous extracts while Pseudomonas aeruginosa highly sensitive against methanolic extract. Growth curve and Killing time of MRSA bared that aqueous extract posse’s bacteriostatic effect while oil and methanolic extract showed bactericidal effect against few microbes. Nigella sativa oil showed more effectiveness as least concentration is required to kill microbes. Conclusion: From this studies we conclude Nigella sativa serve as a source of iron and antioxidants and provide appropriate amount of iron, according to the body need.

  92. Sudha Rameshwari, K. and Ayshwarya, M.

    The methanol extract of Brassica oleracea var. capitata rubra was investigated for anti-inflammatory and antipyretic activity in animal models. The extract has an anti-inflammatory effect against paw oedema in rats. Brewer’s yeast (15%) suspension was used to induce fever in rats. Our results were P˂ 0.05 significant even at lower dosage of 0.50 mg/kg which showed the dominant nature of methanolic extract of Brassica oleracea var capitata rubra.

  93. Muthusamy Karnan, Pichai Tamilkani, Govindarajan Senthilkumar, Selvakumar Vijayalakshmi and Annamalai Panneerselvam

    The edible Paddy straw mushroom is the most extensively cultivated mushrooms in tropical and sub-tropical regions. Studies were conducted on the cultivation, nutritional analysis, biochemical and enzyme production of this mushroom. Among the various method of cultivation, circular bed method was the best method and it showed the good growth. The nutritive values of the mushroom were rich in proteins and fibres and observed a lower amount of lipid. The screening and biochemical determination showed presence of saponin, alkaloids, terpenoids, sugar, flavonoids and sterols. Amylase, cellulase and laccase are important enzymes that can be used for various biological activities. Laccase exhibit good enzyme production than other enzyme like amylase and cellulase. This investigation may provide a basic knowledge about the Volvariella volvacea, and give valuable information for further study.

  94. Prasanna, P. V. V. S. L., Dr. Lakshmi, V., Devi, N. and Dr. Padhy, K.

    Gene environment interaction is an important aspect in the development of coronary artery disease (CAD). Elevated plasma Homocysteine has been identified as a risk factor for coronary atherosclerosis. Elevated Homocysteine may result from deficient Methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) activity. MTHFR is involved in one carbon metabolism which is essential for DNA biosynthesis and methylation. The 5, 10-methyltetrahydrofolate reductase locus is mapped at the end of the short arm of chromosome 1(1p36.6). Though there are several singe nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in this gene, two SNPs are most studied in association with diseases. A case control study was designed to assess the role of the two most commonly studied SNPs of MTHFR gene C677T and A1298C in the development of CAD. A total of 300 samples were recruited in the study which includes 150 CAD cases from CARE hospitals, Visakhapatnam and 150 controls. The MTHFR genotyping was performed based on polymerase chain reaction followed by restriction fragment length polymorphism. There was no significant difference either in the distribution of MTHFR C677T genotypes (CC vs CT: OR=1.05, 95%CI=0.58-1.91, P=0.858; CC vs TT: OR=2.03, 95%CI=0.18-22.7, P=0.564) or alleles (T vs C: OR=0.893, 95%CI=0.522-1.530, P=0.681) in patients and controls. Even in case of the SNP A1298C no significant difference was observed in the distribution of alleles though significant difference was observed in genotype distribution (AA vs AC: OR=0.90,95%CI=0.48-1.68, p=0.74; AA vs CC: OR=1.796, 95%CI=1.06-3.02, p=0.028).

  95. Shivani Kotwal and Sanjay Bhatia

    Agriculture is one of the most important industries in India. In agriculture, cultivation of pulses is an essential aspect. It acts as a source of food, nutrition and generates revenue for the country as well. Out of many pulses grown in Jammu &Kashmir, Phaseolus vulgaris commonly known as Rajmash is worth mentioning. District Kishtwar of J&K state is best endowed by nature in having rich biodiversity. Rajmash (Phaseolus vulgaris) grown in this area is famous throughout India for its best taste and aroma. Besides its important food value, it also acts as ready cash for the growers of the district. Due to such significance, it becomes an important aspect to know more about this crop. Keeping this in view, the present work was done for the first time in the District Kishtwar of Jammu and Kashmir. During observations, a number of insects were found causing significant damage to the standing crop and out of all, Thysanoplusia orichalcea (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae), a defoliating moth was recorded as a serious insect pest. Adult moth visit crop plant and lays eggs on the lower side of leaves. Larval stage exhibits the destructive phase. Freshly emerged larvae show scrapping of epidermal part of leaves while the maturing larvae feed voraciously on entire leaves even upon the veins and midribs of leaf. This behaviour of larvae interferes with the photosynthetic activity of plant and affects growth of plant. Infestation results in the skeletionization of the leaves, thereby, affecting badly the yield of this important cash crop of the area.

  96. Chandore Hemant, D., Barad, A. V. Bhor Pradeep, B. andManekar Rupesh, S.

    The rose is called as queen of flowers because of its unique fragrance, colors, availability and uses for various bouquets, garland and other decorations etc. Growing media is very important thing for flower quality point of view as these media is maintained various physical and chemical balance in the plant. Locally available media like coco peat, rice husk, FYM, and other regular media like black soil and red soil are mostly used in our research. These media are eco-friendly and most of them are recyclable. The flower quality is improved by using various combinations instead of singly used media. The media like coco peat, rice husk and FYM is very effective in the flower quality parameter.

  97. Khumukcham Mangolsana, Ngasepam Romen, 3Ningthoukhongjam Indira, Chabungbam Bijayalakshmi and Shomorendra, M.

    The present research paper communicates the helminth parasites infection rate of the fishes of Ikop Lake, Thoubal District, Manipur. A total of 1114 fishes were sacrificed during my investigation, 35 different fish species were examined for helminth parasites infection. Of these 697 fish individual belonging to 19 different fish species are found to be parasitized with a total of 1395 helminth parasites. Ikop Lake (locally called as Ikop Pat) contributes 35 fish species under 28 genera, 15 family and 5 orders. About 34 different of parasite groups (viz. Nematode, Acanthocephala and Cestode. The intensity of infection rate was recorded highest in the host like Clupisoma garua (3.6, 44.44%), Macrognathus aculeatus (3.6, 41.18%) and lowest in Trichogaster fasciata (1.3, 76.19%). The prevalence percentage infection is recorded highest and lowest in Channa striata (86.67%, 1.8) and Systomus sarana (15.94%, 3.0) of Ikop Lake.

  98. Vesselin Dochev, Atanas Atanasov, Galina Dyakova, Ralitsa Mincheva, Svetlana Stoyanova and Krasimira Tanova

    The study took place during the period 2013 – 2015 at the experimental field of IASS “Obraztsov chiflik” – Rousse. A field experiment was conducted with Aminobest and Biobest organic fertilizers in Venka 1 winter common wheat on soil type of strongly leached chernozem, after the block method in 4 replications, experimental plot being 10 m2. The sowing was carried out during the first week of October with sowing norm of 500 germ.s./m2 after legume predecessor. The first treatments with Aminobest and Biobest organic fertilizers were in stage of layering, at a dose of 0.250 ml/da. The following treatments were at ear formation and filling the grain. The following important conclusions could be made of the study: The treatments with Aminobest and Biobest organic fertilizers increase the productive layering capacity of wheat and increase significantly grain yield. The treatments with Aminobest and Biobest organic fertilizers during the spring vegetation of wheat in years of air drought cause difficulties in its feeding. Aminobest organic fertilizer stronger influences positively on the productive layering capacity and grain yield compared to Biobest organic fertilizer.

  99. Tejbir Singh

    In the present study, an attempt has been made to study the morphological and floral characters of the parental lines of the released hybrids. The morphological and floral traits of cms lines, their maintainers and restorer lines indicated that both the cms lines were morphologically different. All the parental lines had erect altitude of flag leaf blade, except MTU 9992R and IR 40750R which had horizontal and reflexed altitude of leaf blade. The floret opening angle in cms lines lR 58025A (38.8°) and PMS 2A (37.9°) was higher than their maintainers, lR 580258 (24.8°) and PMS 2B (31.7°) which is desirable for higher out crossing rate. The flag leaf angle of cms lines lR 58025A (33.7) and PMS 2A (23.5) was greater than restorer lines. The flag leaf angle of the restorer lines ranged from 11.0 (MTU 9992R) to 34.0 (BR 827-35R).

  100. Shruti Mathur, Kush Modi and Gayatri Jeph

    Biosurfactants are surface active compounds produced by microorganisms by growth on various substrates, including renewable resources such as vegetable oil, distillery and dairy wastes. Biosurfactants are attracting attention in recent years because they offer several advantages over chemical surfactants such as low toxicity, inherent good biodegradability and ecological acceptability. The majority of known biosurfactants are synthesized by microorganisms grown on water immiscible hydrocarbons, but some have been produced on such water- soluble substrates as glucose, glycerol and ethanol. Chemically-synthesized surfactants have been used in the oil industry to aid clean up of oil spills, as well as to enhance oil recovery from oil reservoirs. They are extensively used in industry as antifoaming agents. Challenges for production of biosurfactant production is the economic feasibility due to high production cost. This has been a limiting factor in the utility of several prospective biosurfactants. Material selection of raw materials particularly when working with bulk product market, greatly influences production cost. The amount to be used, form (solid or liquid), packaging, transportation purity all affect cost. Specifically, the carbon source is a major constituent of medium .A wide variety has been used, including, hydrocarbons, carbohydrates, and vegetable oil sources. Microorganisms use several substrates, together or independently. This review puts together materials like agro-industrial wastes that have successfully been used for biosurfactant production so as to facilitate technology development in this field.

  101. Revathy, M., Poorani, N., Panneerselvam, A. and Kulothungan, S.

    A study on plant diversity and ethnomedicinal plants of sacred grove in Melapalur village was carried out in the present work. Through personal interviews and conversations, a total number of 46 plant species used by the human beings to treat different ailments was enumerated during field trips. The locals use 46 medicinal plants for the treatment of several diseases either in single or in combination with some other ingredients. The information on correct botanical identities with family and traditional practice of 46 species fall under 43 genera and 26 families of angiosperms. The dicotyledons were represented by 44 species falls under 41 genera and 24 families while monocotyledons were represented by 2 species belong to 2 genera and 2 families were discussed here for the treatment of various illnesses viz., asthma, snake bite, anthelmintic, promote coolness antipyretic, jaundice, diarrhea, dysentery, leprosy, diuretic, diabetes, stomachache problems, paralysis and skin diseases. These uses are noteworthy information for further investigation and to report in a scientific manner. The present study concluded that the abundance of natural ethnomedicinal information of medicinal plants lead in the discovery of new medicines to fight ailments.

  102. Poorani, N., Revathy, M., Kulothungan, S. and Panneerselvam, A.

    Plants are playing an important role in the health of millions of people’s life in many villages of India in their day today life by its traditional usage. The village peoples are mostly depends on plants for food, medicine, fodder and shelter and they are highly used to plants for medicinal purpose. Therefore, the present study focused to assess the medicinal plant diversity in Elambalur village of Perambalur district, Tamilnadu. In the present investigation 98 medicinal plant species used in the treatment of different diseases were discussed. The information on correct botanical identities with family, local name and medicinal uses of 98 plant species were recorded in a scientific manner. The information was collected on the basis of personal interviews with traditional healers and elder people of the village. The documented medicinal plants were used to cure different ailments such as skin problems, cold, fever, cough, headache, diarrhea, toothache, stomach ache, wounds, diabetes, asthma, dysentery, etc. This Preliminary investigation will pave the way for the discovery of new medicines.

  103. Puttapalli Raja Sekhar and Bhoyar, S. M.

    Oleoresin is a viscous liquid, possessing aroma and flavor, extracted from red chilli fruits is preferred against ground chillies in view of its natural anti-oxidant, long shelf life under ideal conditions and less storage space. In food and beverage industries, chillies have acquired great importance in the form of oleoresins which permit uniform distribution of colour to foodstuffs and characteristic flavor. In the pursuit of promising oleoresin yield, a field experiment was conducted in Black soil of Dr. Panjabrao Deshmukh Krishi Vidyapeeth, Akola during Kharif-2013-14 with the consideration of twenty chilli genotypes as twenty treatments in randomized block design. All the treatments fertilized with common recommended dose of fertilizer (150:50:50) and package of practices. Quality parameters viz. oleoresin and colour value in chilli fruits was increased with maturity of the fruits Agnirekha recorded significantly highest oleoresin content 13.95 % and 19.34 % in green and red chilli fruits respectively. Nonetheless G-5 and G-4 genotypes from guntur recorded highest oleoresin yield 14.90 kg ha-1 and 150.56 kg ha-1 in green and red chilli respectively. Highest colour value of green (86.05 ASTA Units) and red (274.48 ASTA Units) fruits were observed in chilli genotype GCL 5-4 and G-5, respectively. However, genotype G-5 performed well with respect to both oleoresin yield and colour value and suitable for black soil under semi-arid climatic condition. Furthermore, after harvest mean fertility status of soil (N 0.030 %, P 16.58 kg ha-1 and K 229.86 kg ha-1) was decline over initial status (N 0.031 %, P17.27 kg ha-1 and K 288.85 kg ha-1) to meet out its nutritional requirement.

  104. Solomon Gebregiorgis and Genanew Gofe

    The performances of Runge-Kutta (RK4) and Adams-Bashforth-Moulton(ABM) methods were compared by considering first order ordinary differential equations. Moreover the effectiveness of modifiers in the ABM method has been validated. The result of this research show that ABM method is the most efficient method for first order ODE but in terms of accuracy there is no one best method. So it is not possible to make generalizations. But it is possible to conclude that the performance of a given method depend on the characteristics of the ODEs we are considering such as stiffness and stability. Regarding the modifiers in the corrector and predictor formulas of the ABM method, they are effective in improving the accuracy of ABM method in most cases.

  105. Bharathi Devi, M. and Gangadhar, K.

    The steady, two dimensional, Flakner-Skan stretching and shrinking wedge flow of a power law fluid in the presence of viscous dissipation and convective boundary condition Using the similarity transformations, the governing equations have been transformed into a system of ordinary differential equations. These differential equations are highly nonlinear which cannot be solved analytically. Therefore, bvp4c MATLAB solver has been used for solving it. Numerical results are obtained for the skin-friction coefficient and the local Nusselt number as well as the velocity and temperature profiles for different values of the governing parameters, namely, consistency parameter, Falkner-Skin flow parameter, power law index parameter, convective parameter, wedge velocity parameter, suction/injection parameter and Eckert number.

  106. Dr. Pratibha Singh Oswal and Dr. Mayur Oswal

    In the modern day life, mobile phones have become an integral part of mutual communication. Today there are more than two billion cell phone users being exposed every day to the dangers of electromagnetic radiation (EMR)—dangers government regulators and the cell phone industry refuse to admit exist. Included are: genetic damage, brain dysfunction, brain tumors, and other conditions such as sleep disorders and headaches. The amount of time spent on the phone is irrelevant, as the danger mechanism is triggered within seconds. This article highlight on hazards of electromagnetic radiation by using mobile phone.

  107. Abanish Kumar

    Hydrolysis of tri-p-methoxyphenyl phosphate ester (tri-p-MPPE) was studied in micelle medium of cetyl tri methyl ammonium bromide n-C16H33N+ (CH3)3Br (CTABr) at pH-9.0. The hydrolysis followed first order kinetics with respect to tri-p-MPPE concentration. At the critical micelle concentration (CMC) the rate of hydrolysis increased with increasing with increasing CTABr concentration. Micelle with cationic or polar head group form micelle in water with hydrocarbon like interior or polar groups at the surface and bind cationic solute. The binding constant of micelle for tri-p-MPPE and the rate constant in micelle pseudo phase were determined from kinetics data using the pseudo phase model.

  108. Ashiedu, F. I., Nwaoha, T. C. and Izelu, C. O.

    Pumps efficiency depends largely on the rotating impellers to provide rotary motion for constant supply of water for either domestic or industrial purposes. More so, all manually operated pumps uses the same principles of operation. However, to maintain the kinetic energy required to pump fluid to the desired destination, energy is required. The stress and fatigue associated with manual operations generally creates epidemiological conditions among users of locally fabricated manual pumps mostly propelled by hands. Again, the ease at which some of these pumps fail in these rural communities calls for urgent attention. The aim of this project was to design, fabricate, test run and deliver a locally made manual pump with a higher efficiency, ease of use and low fatigue to peasant farmers. Also the project can be used as a teaching aid for undergraduate students. The method adopted in the actualisation of the set goals include the re design of the impellers and the volutes using locally available materials. Also, to reduce the effects of muscular skeletal disorders among famers, bearings are also incorporated. The results when compared with the existing hand propelled pump showed a remarkable difference in the volume of water discharged with respect to time and a significant drop in fatigue level. The overall ease of use minimised the effects of muscular skeletal disorders among farmers.

  109. Sarita Verma, Jaya S. Wakode and Priyanka S. Kannurkar

    In this paper we study how QR code can be embedding and extract using watermarking algorithm by different spatial and transform domain. Basics of QR code and watermarking technique its application in different areas. We will discuss the various factors used in watermarking, properties and application area where water making technique need to be used. Also a survey on the some new work is done in QR code and image watermarking field

  110. Sharma, V. D. and Dolas, P. D.

    Fourier and Stieltjes transforms represent an important area of analysis and properties of it are more elegant. The Fourier transform is most significant in functional analysis, complex analysis, number theory, representation theory etc. Also, Fourier transform has applicable in many areas such as image processing, time series analysis, antenna design, radar system, human auditory system etc. In the same way, the Stieltjes transform is also a basic tool for analyzing the behavior of many important functions in mathematics and mathematical physics. As it is well known, the Stieltjes transform can be regarded as an eigenvalue moment generating function. The Stieltjes transform have many applications in many areas such as statistics, probability, moment problems, it is a key tool to derive information and communication theoretic performance measures for random vector channels; it can be used to express more intuitive performance measures of communication systems such as signal to interference, noise ratios and channel capacity etc. In this paper we present Operational calculus on Fourier-Stieltjes Transform.

  111. Dr. Sanat Kumar Mahato

    Modular redundancy is more effective than component redundancy, as a modular scheme of redundancy allocation in multilevel systems not only enhances the system reliability but also provides fault tolerance to the optimum design. Therefore, to increase the efficiency, reliability and maintainability of a system, the modular redundancy should be considered instead of traditional approach of component redundancy. Multi-level redundancy allocation problem in fuzzy environment has been formulated and solved using advanced genetic algorithm (GA) and penalty function technique. Numerical examples have been solved and the results have been discussed.

  112. Anjana Acharya and Rajib Lochan Nayak

    The α-clustering in transfer reactions in terms of Alt Grassberger Sandhas version of Faddeev approach are discussed. The electromagnetic properties of some even even nuclei including the rotational and vibrational modes are found out. The possibilities that A=4n nuclei could be composed of α- particles have the importance in nucleosynthesis .Considering the dynamical symmetries the excited states of α-clustering mechanism on even even nuclei are discussed.

  113. Mr. Gaurav Kumar Roy

    In today’s world, Internet has become the most indispensable part of human life & it’s impossible to deny the advantages of internet after its changing the whole globe. The benefits are introduced in facilitating communications, decreasing the distances around the globe, emerging an easier life and surely many other benefits that one cannot deny. With the new move, the human mind is more connected to its surroundings and what lays beyond. For instance, anyone can communicate with anybody anywhere whenever they want. The history of internet began in 1950s with the development of electronic computers. Initial concepts of packet networking were originated in United-States, Great Britain & France. Among them, the Department Of Defense of US awarded contracts for packet network systems in early 1960s, including the development of the ARPANET (which become the first network to use the Internet Protocol.) The first message was sent over the ARPANET from computer science Professor Leonard Kleinrock's laboratory at University of California, Los Angeles (UCLA) to the second network node at Stanford Research Institute (SRI). Access to the ARPANET was expanded in 1981 when the National Science Foundation (NSF) funded the Computer Science Network (CSNET). In the 1980s, the work of Tim Berners-Lee in the United Kingdom, on the World Wide Web, theorized the fact that protocols link hypertext documents into a working system,[4] marking the beginning the modern Internet. Since then, all the legal internetwork we use today is based on ARPANET (Advanced research Project Agency Network). But other then ARPANET, there lies another networking technological architecture which primarily uses the internet but not to a full extent. It’s the torrent network.

  114. Subhakanthi, V. and Bhaskar Reddy, N.

    This paper analyses the Soret and Dufour effects on an hydromagnetic two dimensional convective boundary layer flow of a viscous incompressible chemical reacting fluid over a vertical plate with convective surface boundary condition and has been studied. The similarity transformation is used to transform the system of partial differential equations into ordinary differential equations. An efficient numerical technique is implemented to solve the resultant system, using Runge-kutta fourth order method along with shooting technique. The results are presented graphically and the conclusion is drawn that the flow field and other quantities of physical interest are significantly influenced by these parameters. Also, comparision with the previous results shows a very good agreement.

  115. Omnia, M. H. M. Kamel, Nadia H. Elsayed, Saleh O. S. Bahaffi and Magdy Y. Abdelaal

    Achilleafragrantissima and Cleome droserifolia crude extracts were blended with suitable eco-friendly polymeric materials (Chitosan, starch, glycerol and glutaraldehyde). Theseformulas have been characterized and their insecticidal activity was evaluated against Culexpipiens and Muscadomesticalarvae.The series of concentrations from Chitosan and starch were mixed with glycerol and glutaralehyde for producing M1 and M2 respectively. The potency of each extract was decreased while decreasing the chitosan material. The formula which containing glutaralehyde showed more potency than the formula contained glycerol. The temporal effect of mixtures number 4 and 5 revealed that the effect of mixtures continues for more than 15 days against Culexpipiens while their effect is almost stopped after 6 days in case of Muscadomestica. Also, the formula which contained the glutaraldehyde was more persistent during application than the other formula.

  116. Varsha Saxena, Neena Arora, Ancy Varghese and Kiran Shandilya

    Plants have been used for a long time for their bioactive constituents which have medicinal properties. Phytochemicals like flavanoids, phenolic constituents, alkaloids, tannins etc are considered to be responsible for increasing the immunity of any individual. Moringa oliefera is one of the richest source of phytochemicals and is abundantly used in south India. This study is based on microwave assisted extraction method using two different solvents, methanol and chloroform. Dried leaves of Moringa oliefera were suspended in methanol and chloroform and exposed to microwave radiation (800W). The extract was filtered and dried using rotavapour. The crude extract was subjected to phytochemical analysis. Microwave assisted extraction of leaves in methanol showed the presence of proteins, flavanoids and glycosides in more quantity as compared to Chloroform extract. More phytochemicals in methanol can be attributed to its polar nature which disrupts the bonding and helps in dissolution of the phytochemicals.

  117. Santosh Patil and Dr. Poornima G. Naik

    Every educational organization from medium size to large size hosts Local Area Network (LAN) equipped with machines of different brands with disparate softwares installed on each of them and connected to different hardware devices. It becomes extremely challenging for the lab technician to keep track of hardware and software configuration details of LAN and their working condition. On many occasions the softwares which are rarely used are installed only on few machines of LAN. Thus, for an end user it becomes difficult to search softwares by virtually attending every machine connected to LAN. In the current paper, the authors have designed and developed a model for obtaining information of all computers connected to a workgroup or a domain controller. The hardware and software information on each machine is queried and stored in a centralized relational database management system. The stored information can be queried using Hardware Query Language (HQL) and Software Query Language (SOQL) designed by the authors. Further, to render the queries more user friendly and close to human language fuzzy text parser is designed and implemented which takes care of synonyms and superfluous words with implied meaning into account. The parse tree is developed and parser is tested for few HQL statements.

  118. Samanta Cristina Chiquetti, Tereza Neuma de Castro Dantas, Djalma Ribeiro da Silva, Eduardo Lins de Barros Neto, Guilherme Fulgêncio de Medeiros and Eduardo Bertoletti

    The development of analytical methods which meet the resolution to quantify pesticides residues in complex environmental matrices still represents a challenge for many laboratories. The integration of two analytical methods, an ecotoxicological and a chemical one, demonstrates the potential for environmental analysis of methamidophos. This study tested two soils: a clayey and a sandy one. Both soils, when in contact with methamidophos, followed the kinetic pseudo-second order model. The clayey soil showed a greater adsorption of methamidophos and followed the Freundlich model, while the sandy, followed the Langmuir model. The technique of LC-MS/MS analytical (Liquid Chromatography/Mass Spectrometry) displayed satisfactory validation parameters, such as linearity, interval, precision, accuracy, and sensitivity. In chronic ecotoxicological tests with Ceriodaphnia dubia, the NOEC (No Observed Effect Concentration) were 4.93 and 3.24 ng L-1 for the elutriates of sandy and clayey soils, respectively. The ecotoxicological test with Ceriodaphnia dubia showed excellent sensitivity for detecting methamidophos in clayey and sandy soils, and it was used for screening the results. However, by decreasing the concentration of the standard analytical methamidophos and adjusting the chemical validation parameters, one could find the limit of quantification (LOQ) in ng L-1, compatible with the established in the ecotoxicological test. The described methods were used as an analytical tool of methamidophos in soils.

  119. Basumatary, J., Deka, R. P., Barman, T. K., Deka, J. and Medhi, C.

    The pairing of guanine(G) and cytosine(C) in a different manner from the Watson Crick(WC) type CG have been investigated by using DFT (B3LYP/6-31+G(d,p)) calculations. Certain sites of G and C in WC GC are very sensitive to proton that may result destabilization of hydrogen bonds . Several tautomers may be formed by destabilizing WC CG due to the effect of proton. Subsequently paring of tautomers through H-bonding in a different manner might lead to mispaired CG. The possibility of transforming WC CG directly to mispaired CG has been explored from the potential energy scan, but we have found large activation energies ranging from 40.946 kcal/mol to 71.347 kcal/mol in most cases except for CG-P7 and CG-P3. Hence, the tautomerization reaction might be the feasible pathway for generating mispaired CG.

  120. Yogesh Sawant, Jainisha Panchal and Prof. Uday Rote

    In a wireless network, when the adversary is being part of the network, they are well known about the protocol being used and other network secrets. A transceiver is enough to get the key and decrypt the message. Hence, simple cryptographic mechanism is not enough to protect the message. Moreover, jamming can be easily performed by modifying the packet header. At the message level permutation and padding are used to protect the message and at the communication level puzzle is used to hide the key. A puzzle solver module in the client system can solve the puzzle and get the key. Attacks are of various types that effect confidentiality and integrity of wireless network and in this paper we are discussing about Jamming attacks. Jamming can stop or disrupt wireless transmission. It is interference, noise or collision at the receiver end. Jamming may happen unintentionally by network load or intentionally in form of attack. No specific hardware is used for executing it, it can be easily implemented by listening to the open medium and broadcasting in the frequency band same as network. If it is executed successfully it gives significant advantages to the attacker at very low cost. That is the reason why it is effective

  121. Sonia Sylvester D’Souza, Aakanksha Arvind Angre, Neha Vijay Nakadi, Rakesh Ramesh More and Sneha Tirth

    Today, everything from gaming to entertainment, medical sciences to business applications are using the 3D technology to capture, store and view the available media. One such technology is holography -It allows a coherent image to be captured in three dimensions, using the Refraction properties of light. Hence we are proposing a system which will provide a 3D calling service wherein a real-time 2D video will be converted to a three dimensional form which will be diffracted through the edges of the prism. The prism will be constructed along with the system. Two users who wish to communicate using this 3D calling service need to be equipped with latest smart phones having front cameras and speaker phones. Holography provides the users with a comfortable and natural like viewing experience, so this technology can be very promising and cost-effective for future commercial displays.

  122. Ilavarasi Jeyamalar J. and Chellapandian Kannan

    Calcination is an important process to remove the template to open the pores of molecular sieves. The calcination process is difficult when the interaction of the template with the framework of molecular sieves is too strong. In some cases, it breaks the framework and reduces the thermal stability and crystalline nature of materials. During this investigation, the template molecules swift out from the pores when calcination at lower temperatures without breaking the framework. The synthesized catalyst is characterized by various spectroscopic techniques as XRD, FT-IR, BET surface area, TGA, SEM and TEM. The catalyst showed high thermal stability and also has good catalytic activity for the esterification of n-butanol and acetic acid.

  123. Vishal P. Narodia, Milan S. Vadodaria, Govind Vagadiya and Kartik D. Ladva

    Due to the presence of -unsaturated ketone chalcone derivatives from nature or synthetic provenance display manifold pharmacological activities. The present work deals with the unfolding of the biological potency, if any, of some of the newly synthesized benzalacetophenones. Out of the 20 homologues synthesized the 6 were found active against the bacterial strain and 3 were active against fungal strains. The structures of the compounds were supported by UV, IR, NMR, Mass spectroscopy and elemental analysis.

  124. Vijilius Helena Raj and Pious Missier, S.

    The In the cognitive process of research on gssets we bring in a new class of functions called gs irresolute function and contra gs irresolute function, and observe some of their characteristics.

  125. Vishalakshi, N. S. and Deepika, N.

    Since the evolution of the internet, many small and large companies have moved their business to the internet to provide services to customers worldwide. To understand how cyber credit card fraud are being committed, in this we study the different types of cyber fraudsters that commit cyber credit card fraud and the techniques used by these cyber fraudsters to commit fraud on the internet is discussed. Fraud detection is a technique of identifying prohibited acts that are occurring around the world. Therefore, the need to ensure secure transactions for credit-card owners. This system implements the supervised anomaly detection algorithm of Data mining to detect fraud in a real time transaction on the internet, and thereby classifying the transaction as legitimate, suspicious fraud and illegitimate transaction. The anomaly detection algorithm is designed on the Neural Networks which implements the working principal of the human brain. The techniques of Data mining are also popular in detecting cyber credit-card fraud. An effective use of data mining techniques and its algorithms can be implemented to detect or predict fraud through Knowledge Discovery from unusual patterns from gathered data set. In this paper, we discussed about the various credit-card fraudsters techniques and also the detection methods for cyber credit card transactions. The goal of this paper is to provide a system’s model for cyber credit card fraud detection and a comprehensive review of Hidden Markov Model (HMM) and Neural Networks (NN) techniques to detect credit card fraudulent in an effective way.

  126. Assistant Professor Dr. Jyoti Syal

    Mahasweta Devi is one of those writers who have been writing for the tribal and dispossessed. She is one of the few writers who have an unflinching commitment and passion for the underdog. Devi is a socially conscious writer, who writes about the most marginalized section of the society. The present research paper is an attempt to expose the hypocrisy of the so called civilized people who have grabbed all the resources and opportunities and have disposed off a large section of society and have forced them in the state of abject poverty and deprivation. These cream of society have been thriving at the cost of these dispossessed people who have in fact become their prey. Her short story, Little Ones or ‘Shishu’ in Hindi is a hair-raising tale of starvation where people become reduced in size to pygmies due to hunger and malnutrition over years. Mahasweta Devi describes the tribal village, where these people live as a place of extreme poverty and scarcity. Here human beings are dehumanized due to years of neglect and paucity of resources. Their bodies never developed, they were born and brought up in starvation. They have seen rice – but only in dreams. Starvation has been the sole meaning of their existence in postcolonial India. Violence in turn is suggested the only way out. Devi’s stories take us to the roots of the problem of complete ignorance on the part of the civilized which makes the situation deeply ironic. This is also the cause of Devi’s anger towards the so-called ideas of progress. She believes that the root cause of these ills lie in the inability of the tribal mind to break free from primitive myths. In other words any move to bring these people into the mainstream will have to function within the paradigms of tribal narratives. She yearns for the demolition of the present state of affairs.

  127. Shiv Prasad Sharma and Dr. Maitreyee Dutta

    This work presents a new strategy for behaviour-based navigation of robots using a fuzzy logic approach. A key feature of the proposed approach is real-time assessment of terrain characteristics and incorporation of this information in the robot navigation strategy. Here fuzzy logic used is Sugeno modelling. The advantage of Sugeno is that it provides sharp response near boundaries with less time. The regional behaviour is complemented by two other behaviour’s, local avoid-obstacle and global seek-goal. The detection of a wall by the sensors activates the controller which simply attempts to align the robot with the wall at a specified reference distance. The proposed model performance is compared with Mamdani approach. All simulations are done with the help of MATLAB tool.

  128. Suchita N. Sangvikar and P. R. Thorat

    The rapid spread of the information and media through the digital world nowadays which is powered by ever faster system demands greater speed and security. As the world changes, technology is changing rapidly. Progress in the domain of network technology, multimedia and confidential information, relatively large amounts of images, videos are broadcast on the Internet easily. There are various chances for the attackers to steal or to leak these information while sending it over the internet. Therefore, to cope with this concern, it is necessary to process the new image data hiding techniques. In this paper new data hiding technique called image mosaicing is used to fulfill our goal. By using this method the secret exam question paper is not only transmitted by overlapping with another target image but also it is recovered losslessly from the overlapped mosaic image. Thus a very novel system is proposed in this paper by which complete security of question paper is maintained successfully and efficiently.

  129. Sandhya V. Saste and Sananse, S. L.

    Determination of optimum plot size and shape has been regarded as an important and useful area to measure soil heterogeneity in field experiments. The smith’s heterogeneity index method assumes the condition of independence of observations but often this condition of independence of observations does not satisfied. In this paper, we propose a method of determination of heterogeneity index using semivariances instead of variances used in smith’s method. The main advantage of semivariogram technique is it considers magnitude and direction of heterogeneity in field experiments. The heterogeneity index calculated using semivariogram technique and Smith’s technique is 0.17 sand 0.24 respectively and corresponding optimum plot size (〖 x〗_opt) is 4.5 m2 and 7.1m2.

  130. Qurrat ul Ain

    The present study aims to evaluate a relationship between land-use and two water quality parameters i.e., nitrate and total dissolved solids (TDS) for selected areas within Karachi city of Pakistan during the year 2014. The water pollution data was combined with satellite land-use coverage in a Geographical Information System (GIS)-interface using Arc view 3.2 followed by Pearson’s correlation (statistical) analysis. The study remained highly successful in predicting drinking water pollution source. The nutrient loading in drinking water was positively correlated with vegetation land-use and negatively correlated with undeveloped land.

  131. Mehmet Fatih IŞIK

    In this study, simultaneous and real-time control of distributed servo drive systems is provided. Behaviors of each drivers was investigated under various loads and without a load in the study. In the implementation phase, PLC is used as a controller and SCADA is used for monitoring and controlling. Device-Net, an industrial communication protocol, is used between PLC and SCADA. Beside the property of SCADA and servo drive systems working in a coordinated manner, both local and central control is provided. Optimum P (proportional gain), I (Integral gain) and D (differential gain) of AC servomotors which are used for position and speed control were obtained by the automatic tuning feature. By entering the obtained values into PID function located in PLC, minimum exceeding, maximum elevation, minimum settling time for simultaneous location and speed control for ac servomotors were provided to be obtained.

  132. Sumati Pati

    Indium doped ZnO thin films are deposited on quartz substrates using sol-gel spin coating technique. The structural characteristics of the deposited films are studied by x-ray diffraction (XRD) and field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM). The sensing properties of the films are investigated at different concentrations of ethanol and butanol by varying the operating temperature. The response% and response time are found to be 32% and 6 sec respectively, by exposing the film to 500 ppm of ethanol at 200oC which is quite encouraging. Also the recovery of the sensor is quite fast. This indicates that the grown films have the potential for its application as high performance and low power consuming sensors. The selectivity of the sensors is also studied using pattern recognition analysis.

  133. Mrs. Samata R. Bhosale

    Orthogonal Frequency division Multiplexing is a prominent technology in modern wireless communication and is the key technology employed in 4G wireless communication. OFDM is a popular method for high data rate (Gordon et al., 2004). The orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplexing has a very large bandwidth of about 20 Mega Hz where as a GSM system has a bandwidth of 200KHz because of the large bandwidth the data rate in OFDM is very high about 500Mb/sec or 1Gb/sec. OFDM has gain importance in modern wireless communication because of its ability to overcome Inter symbol Interference (ISI). OFDM is employed in 4G cellular standards such as LTE (Long Term Evolution) is a 4G cellular standard, Wi-Max (World-wide interoperability for microwave access) (Mohamed et al., 2012). Several Wi-Fi standards such as 802.11a, 802.11g, 802.11n and 802.11ac which enable high data rate are also based on OFDM (Mohamed et al., 2012). In broadband communication the problem of inter symbol interference occurs because the symbol time is very less than the delay spread of the channel. Interference means degradation or loss of information. This paper gives a overview of how inter symbol interference can be avoided in broadband wireless communication using OFDM technology.

  134. Ramesh, I. and Meena, K. S.

    We are developed the targeted drug delivery by HAp@SiO2 core-shell NPs. Hydroxyapatite (HAp) core was prepared by wet chemical co-precipitation method using different chemical precursors and silica shell coated on the HAp nanoparticle by stober’s process. Polyethylene glycol and biotin was functionalized with HAp@SiO2 core-shell NPs via covalent linkage. curcumin was loaded onto the surface of HAp@SiO2 core-shell NPs by the electrostatic interaction between curcumin molecules and the polymer segment. HAp@SiO2 core-shell NPs was characterized by UV-visible, XRD, HR-TEM, and the polyethylene glycol (PEG), biotin conjugation was confirmed by FT-IR techniques. The drug release behaviour of HAp@SiO2-PEG-biotin NPs was investigated at different pH condition (PBS, pH-7.4 and 6.0).The cytotoxicity of the core-shell NPs against MCF-7(receptor-positive) and NIH-3T3 (receptor-negative) cell lines was assessed using the MTT assay. The results showed that curcumin loaded NPs increased cytotoxicity effect in MCF-7 than NIH-3T3 cell line. The overall results shown that the biocompatible HAp@SiO2 core-shell NPs may be a suitable nanocarrier for targeted drug delivery system.

  135. Ramesh, I. and Meena, K. S.

    The hydroxyapatite (HAp) NPs was synthesized by co-precipitation method and Al2O3 shell was coated by sonochemical process. Gelatine(GEL) and folic acid(FA) are attached onto the nanoparticles utilizing different techniques. HAp@Al2O3-gelatin-folic acid (HAp@Al2O3-GEL-FA) core-shell nanostructures were characterized by FTIR, XRD, and HR-TEM techniques. The incorporation of gelatin-folic acid onto HAp@Al2O3 NPs exhibited good water dispersibility, enhanced drug delivery efficiency, and remarkable targeting ability to cancer cells. 5-fluorouracil (5-Flu) was used as a model drug. The in-vitro drug release of HAp@Al2O3-gelatin-folic acid NPs was studied at different pH conditions (7.4 and 6.3). Cytotoxicity of free HAp@Al2O3-GEL-FA NPs, free 5-Flu, and 5-Flu loaded former NPs was investigated against ovarian cancer cell line (SKOV3). The results shown that the 5-Flu loaded HAp@Al2O3-gelatin-folic acid NPs show greater cytotoxicity due to the folate receptor- over expressing in cancer cells. The present findings show that 5-Flu loaded gelatin-folic acid incorporated HAp@Al2O3 core-shell nanoparticles are promising for receptor-mediated targeted drug delivery system.

  136. Tadesse Habtamu, Tesfaye Serbessa, Afework Bekele and Jeffrey Rousch

    Hexane extracts of musk from the African civet (Civettictis civetta) were analyzed using Gas-chromatography-Mass-spectrometry (GC-MS). A total of 39 volatile compounds were consistently detected in all musk categories. The majority of the identified musk components were from four classes of organic compounds; Carboxylic Acids (38.5%), Alcohols (12.8), ketone (12.8%) and Aldehydes (5.1%). Five musk components (9-Cycloheptadecen-1-one, (Z); Octadecanoic acid; 9-Octadecenoic acid (E); 9-Cycloheptadecen-1-ol; and Cycloheptadecanone) were more abundant than the rest and accounted for 64.62-80.93% of the average percent area of chromatogram across all musk categories. Civetone, the most abundant compound across all age and sex categories, ranges from 54.5-69.71%. 21 of the 39 musk compounds were common to all musk samples. Adult male and female civets comprised the highest number of musk compounds (94.8%). Musk from sub-adult civets lacks some of the lower molecular weight acids, and some higher molecular weight compounds. While two compounds (Oleic acid and Squalene) were unique to adult male civets, two (1,5,9-Undecatrien,2,6,10-trimethyl-(Z) and Heptadecane) were found only in the adult females. Scent marked musk of both dry and wet seasons lack acids of lower molecular weight but contain all of the dominant and most of the higher molecular weight musk compounds.

  137. Felister Chebet Kurgat

    This research study aims at establishing effects of microfinance on women borrowers, this is because it has been noted that, Women play a crucial role in the economic development of their families and communities but certain obstacles such as poverty, unemployment, low income and social discrimination mostly in third world countries have hindered their effective performance of that role. This research is guided by the objectives as; to evaluate the benefits of microfinance to women borrowers, to examine the impact of credits, savings and social capital on women entrepreneurs and to determine the challenges faced by microfinance institutions on their lending rates to women borrowers. This research study is of great significance to the women entrepreneurs, the management of microfinance, the government and the community at large. The following challenges are faced; lack of enough funds, limited time, poor response to questions and weather changes. Case study design will be adopted basing the study on selected women borrowers within Kericho municipality with a target population of 60 respondents of which 30 of them will be sampled. The data will be analyzed both qualitatively and quantitatively. Validity will be achieved through pilot study, reliability will be ensured by discussing the relevance of the research with the supervisor.

  138. Majid Mehrabi and Dr. Mohammad S. Bagheri

    Autonomy has become a keyword of language policy in educational systems around the world as the importance of independent learning and new technologies has grown. For many language teachers, autonomy is an attractive idea in theory, but somewhat far-fetched and idealistic in practice. Nevertheless, autonomy has enjoyed a long and respected tradition in educational, psychological and philosophical thought. The concept of autonomy in language learning is well researched at the level of theory and practice and has proved to be adaptable and responsive to change and supported by evidence that learners naturally tend to exercise control over their learning both generally and in the field of language learning. It can in essence be considered a systematic capacity of the learner for effective control over various aspects and levels of the learning process. The real challenge confronting the field is however to arrive at a non-controversial account of the construct of autonomy and of the relative weight and of the importance various dimensions of control exert within a solid framework of practice. The present article aims to review and highlight, in an outline manner, the most important theoretical considerations Phil Benson discusses in his seminal book entitled ‘Teaching and Researching Autonomy’ in a bid to provide a firm theoretical background of the issues concerned. This will hopefully pave the way for a better understanding of the various strands attached to the concept of autonomy and foster more learned practical engagements of the concept.

  139. OBAYORI, Joseph Bidemi, OBAYORI, Elizabeth Lizzy, INIMINO, Edet Etim and TUBOTAMUNO, Boma

    The paper examined the sectoral inflow of FDI and economic growth in Nigeria. The objective of the study is to determine the impact of FDI on economic growth in terms of selected sectors of the Nigerian economy because most other studies examined the aggregate impact of FDI on economic growth in Nigeria. A growth model was estimated via a multiple regression technique to establish the relationship between inflow of FDI to manufacturing sector, telecommunication sector, oil sector and economic growth (GDP). The variables were tested for stationarity and Johansen co-integration method was used for the analysis. The study found that continuous inflow of foreign direct investment in manufacturing, telecommunication and oil sectors have a robust impact on Nigeria’s economic growth. Thus, the alternative hypothesis that there is a long run relationship between gross domestic product (GDP) and sectoral inflow of FDI was accepted. Meaning that continuous inflow of foreign direct in manufacturing, telecommunication and oil sectors has the tendency to induced Nigeria economic growth. Based on the aforementioned findings from the study, the paper recommend that since foreign direct investments in manufacturing, telecommunication, and oil sectors have the potentials to induce economic growth in Nigeria, there is therefore the need to properly channel and integrate them into the mainstream of the economy.

  140. OBAYORI, Joseph Bidemi, NWOGWUGWU, Uche Collins and OMOZUAWO, Musah Buhari

    Macroeconomic policies and economic growth in Nigeria was determined through co-integration and error correction modeling techniques. The time series properties of the variables were investigated by conducting a unit root test using annual series data for the period 1980-2013 and the data source was mainly Central Bank of Nigeria Statistical Bulletin. The result of the parsimonious ECM analysis shows that monetary rather than fiscal policy exerts a great positive impact on economic growth in Nigeria. Also, the granger causality results show bidirectional causation between GDP, total government expenditure and broad money supply. But a unidirectional causation between total government expenditure and broad money supply. Meaning that the emphasis on fiscal action of the government has led to greater distortion in the Nigerian economy. We are, however, of the opinion that a well-coordinated macroeconomic policy is needed to achieve economic growth in Nigeria. Also, both monetary and fiscal policies should be complementary.

  141. Manzoor A. Wani, Ishtiaq A. Mayer and Bashir A. Lone

    Water is the basic resource necessary for sustaining all human activities. So its provision in desired quantity and quality is of utmost importance. One of the most serious environmental health problems faced globally especially by those living in developing regions is related to lack of clean water resources and sanitation facilities which is mainly caused through anthropogenic activities (Gunther et al, 2006).Waterborne borne diseases are a major concern globally and in particular in developing countries and its adverse impacts have taken a toll on human health. In the backdrop of this, study was proposed to make an assessment on the water quality of the study area and to find its impact on human health. Water samples taken from the different drinking water sources revealed low to heavily contaminated and not recommended for drinking purposes as per WHO standards. In the study water related diseases like acute diarrheal cases were found 24.36 percent, Hepatitis A 10.90 percent, Enteric fever 8.36 percent and other diseases (dermatitis, conjunctivitis and irritated bowl etc) were56.36 percent(computed field survey with medical records). So study was designed to assess the prevalence and establish the relationship between water sources and the incidence of water borne diseases.

  142. Atonde Terkimbi

    The global spread of English has given rise to several sociolinguistic outcomes leading to the emergence of several concepts, perspectives and paradigms to account for or describe such a sociolinguistic situation. In this study, the most popular of these concepts have been critically analysed with the view to specifying what each entails and what makes it distinct from others. The analysis has revealed that though the concepts appear seemingly similar they are uniquely distinct as each echoes a specific sociolinguistic perspective. While the English as a Lingua Franca paradigm for example invokes the relationship between language and communication, World Englishes focuses on the relationship between language and community. English as a Global Language emphasises the status of English in the world while English as an International Language dwells on the functions of the language in the world. The democratisation of ownership of the language is the primary concern of English as Everyone’s Language. The study however argues that most of these perspectives and paradigms are laden with assumptions which must constantly be challenged in order to generate new insights and a more informed understanding of the contemporary sociolinguistic context of the language.

  143. Dr. Adeniyi Temitope Adetunji

    Every organized or established institution will want to provide quality services irrespective of who owns the organization, especially in the case of a university where the primary aim is to provide quality graduates of sound character, to transform the organization as well as be productive and creative in making a living for themselves. In light of this broad agenda many institutions have been established all over the world and Nigeria in particular has been committed to quality improvement. Universities are multifaceted units that impart knowledge and produce quality graduates, but the process of transforming students into quality graduates is a huge task, and universities have not been exempt from the many challenges. This paper is designed to look into problems hindering the provision of quality services from an academic officer’s perspective. The paper uses a standard literature review technique to discuss quality. A qualitative approach was adopted with the use of interviews as the main research instrument. Thematic analysis was used for the discussion of the findings. The findings reveal that 4 major challenges hinder quality provision in the country.

  144. Kaushik Halder

    Sentiment Analytics is widely in use in various domains like in Retails for campaign / Recommendation. In Insurance / Financial Sectors for detecting Frauds etc. Sentiment analytics can further be part of other Analytics to enhance model capability by reducing error. It is required, almost in all domains to address various purposes. In general there is no thumb rule to prepare parser which would address almost all need across domain.

  145. Darshna M. Joshi

    A MIMO (multi input-multi output process) system is one in which one input not only affects its own outputs but also one or more other outputs in the plant. Thus such processes are difficult to control due to the presence of the interactions. The interactions between input/output variables are a common phenomenon and the main obstacle encountered in the design of multi-loop controllers for interacting multivariable processes. Increase in complexity and interactions between inputs and outputs yield degraded process behavior. Such processes are found in process industries as they arise from the design of plants that are subject to rigid product quality specifications, are more energy efficient, have more material integration, and have better environmental performance. Applying the tuning methods for a SISO (Single input- Single output) system to multi-loop systems often leads to poor performance and stability. Much research has been focused on how to efficiently take loop interactions into account in the multi-loop controller design. Thus, unless proper precautions are taken in terms of control system design, loop interactions can cause performance degradation and instability. This leads to the development of different controller tuning methods. Many methods have been proposed, including the Detuning method, Sequential Loop closing (SLC) method, Relay auto-tuning method, and independent loop method. This paper presents different controller tuning methods for MIMO-multi input-multi output process.

  146. Cheten Jomba Rockpudu

    The term gender is a socially constructed term referring to roles, behaviors, activities, and attributes that a society considers for both men and women. The term marriage is the formally recognized union of a man and a woman and it confers social status to them. It is a bond of two people for whole life until death. Sartang is one of the tribal group of West Kameng district, Arunachal Pradesh (India). Like other ethnic groups of country they have their own customs which existed since the inception of human civilization. The prime objective of this paper is to find out the marital activities in Sartang tribe and the position of women in terms of marriage. The present study is also to examine the form of marriage in the locality and how far women get decision making power in marital affairs. The marital status of women in the study area is highlighted with the help of various data based on primary survey.

  147. Amin Zaigi Ngharen Ph. D

    The world is either globalized or globalizing and the nation state on the wane, this situation has put certain theories on retreat and others defunct. The current phase of capitalist accumulation is both qualitatively and quantitatively different from what was previously obtainable. There is now more than ever, swifter international mobility of capital with its global nature of the social, political and environmental pathologies. It is also indisputable that ‘national’ boundaries are mere paper works. These realities however, do not suggest the ‘death’ of the nation state. This paper argues that the form of the state has changed, but its distinctive national character in Nigeria has remained. The paper contends that the processes that shake hands to create a tendential globalization only demonstrates the continuing centrality of the state existence in Nigeria.

  148. Abhishek Kumar Rahul

    Strategic Culture is the ability and the capability of the people and the society to develop power or force and to have political, social and economic will for effective use of that power. The Russian emphasizes onor strategic culture. The Russian military culture has been analysed from two perceptives; (1) the traditional military culture and (2) the modern one. In both, the important aspect was the interplay of political, economic and foreign policies. The Russian military power is there to protect the people by threat or actual use of force for political purpose. The article deals with the Russian military culture after the disintegration of the Soviet Union and can it play the same role as it used to play before 1991.

  149. Altigani, M. A. H., Elzien, S. M. and Abdel Rahman, E. M.

    Detailed geological and geochemical investigations, which have done in the studied Abu Khalag area showed that the area constitutes a part of Arabian-Nubian Shield (ANS). Lithogeochemical data derived from rock samples collected from the study area, were plotted on AFM diagram, and have shown calc-alkaline affinity, that confirms the subduction-related geological environment for these rock assemblages. Rock assemblages in Abu Khalag area, for the first time, were mapped in detail on scale of 1:350000. Rocks of the area are composed of gneisses, schists, quartzites, calc-silicates rocks, marbles, and amphibolites, all of the above-mentioned units were affected later with retrogressive regional metamorphism to greenschist facies.

  150. Himadri T. Daspattnayak, Mukesh Srimali and Jaaffrey, S. N. A.

    During the Year 1950 to 2015 AD a study has undertaken the data for the investigation on the correlation amongst the rainfall, sunspots and El-nino & La-nina in the north-western part of India (specifically in the city of Ahmadabad). Average sunspots, rainfall, El-nino & La-nina data have been computed and tried to find inter dependence in context of Solar influence apart from the anthropogenic activities. We could find a genuine dependency with new feature of occurrence of two peaks of maximum rainfall during the maxima and minima of Sunspots, which was interesting to understand in the light of new discovered phenomenon known as El-nino and La-nina in the second half of the twentieth century. Except very few exceptions the draught and maximum rainfall (double peak) was in consonance with the occurrence of El-nino and La-nina.

  151. Dr. Suhail Hussein Al-Fatlawi

    Since the protection of the state's right to stay means the existence of the state and the government that organizes people and land, are among the significant topics in the international law. From the perspective of the international law and Islamic Shari'a, the research included the state's right, its peoples and the sustainability of it political and legal systems as well as the land where people live. In addition, the paper examined the states' right to use armed force to protect its people and political and legal systems that mange this state, as well as the protection of the land from being attacked by other states.

  152. Lucy Nyambura Kiriungi and Stephen Kiriungi Kamore

    The main purpose of this study was to explore students’ perspectives on the factors that impact strongly on their performance in exams. The study probed the students’ factors that lead to poor academic performance in the school through a descriptive qualitative study. Probability sampling was applied to ensure the results reflected the entire school population. Data was collected using survey questionnaires, structured interview, focused groups, observations and documents analysis. The research data was thematically analysed with frequency tables. Measures were put in place to enhance the validity of the study. The results revealed that the students factors such as negative attitude toward education, teachers and the school, lack of confidence, drug abuse, coupling, use of poor study methods and inability to set targets and goals among others impacts negatively on their performance in exams. Further the study found that teachers attends their lessons and are committed to their work, but their relationship with the students is weak. Many students therefore don’t consult teachers for academic assistance and guidance. The study findings indicate weakness in the school policies dealing with discipline, exam and fee collection. Finally the study revealed lack of students’ involvement and negotiation in policies making and programs development processes. The study suggests recommendations to be considered in rebranding the school and developing students’ centred programs to revitalize the students’ academic performance in KCSE exams.

  153. Johnson Kampamba, Soffie Leima and Anna Svensson

    Purpose – The purpose of this descriptive survey was to compare how residential properties are assessed in Botswana and Sweden for property tax at local government level. Research design/methodology/approach – Both qualitative and quantitative research methods (interviews and questionnaire) were used to obtain data in order to meet the objective of the study. A survey involving a self-administered questionnaire to property valuers/principal Estate officer in the Department of Local Government Finance and Procurement was used. Data was analysed using SPSS/MS Excel for quantitative analysis and content analysis for qualitative analysis Significance - The study is relevant in the sense that it revealed significant differences which can be used in future to improve the delivery of residential property tax assessment reports in Botswana and Sweden. Findings – The study revealed that rating valuation in Botswana is conducted based on the Townships Act Cap 40.02 of 1955 Part VII (Rating Valuation) Regulations 52 up to 99. In Sweden, it is regulated by Property Tax Law and the Property Tax Ordinance. The property tax assessment is regulated by law in both countries. It was also noted that in Botswana property tax assessment is conducted by the Central Government and property rates collection done by the local authorities. In Sweden, assessment is done by the Central Government and collection of tax by the Swedish Tax Agency. In Botswana the general revaluation cycle is every after five years and every after three years for Sweden. Botswana uses individual property assessment techniques and Sweden applies mass appraisal techniques. Sweden uses a computerised cadastral register system where as in Botswana the cadastral register system is not computerised. Botswana’s land records in the Deeds Office are not computerised where as they are computerised in Sweden. The basis of valuation in Botswana is market value based on capital value of land and improvements in accordance to regulation 69 of the Townships Act. Sweden also applies the market value principle based on land and improvements. They all develop tone of the list reports for benchmark properties. In Botswana the responsibility lies on the valuer where as in Sweden it lies on the owner to self-declare Originality/value – This study is the first of its kind in Botswana and has revealed significant information on how rating valuation is undertaken in other countries. The two governments can benefit from these findings in view of improving the administration of property tax assessment.

  154. Hisham Ibrahim Abdulla

    The present study is an attempt to answer the question about whether Arab linguists of the past were acquainted with the problem of pragmatic intrusion into the semantic or truth-conditional content of what is said. Using many quotations from the traditional Arabic books of "usül" (Islamic jurisprudence) and "balagha" (rhetoric), sufficient evidence was found to support the hypothesis that Arab linguists of the Middle Ages were well acquainted with the central ideas of the problem. They engaged in debates and controversies very similar to those we find in modern pragmatic literature.

  155. Kaushik Halder

    Usually in any project, the end Business requirement is to implement software in production flawless and for that to happen, each modules in the project should have minimum below properties for it to get integrated and automated with other modules. i. Least or no manual intervention while execution of module in production ii. Module uniqueness should be there and to avoid redundancy the same module should called by other modules. This proposition is for easy maintenance. Module redundancy is hard to propagate as the same is costly affair during maintenance. This is mainly design approach. Every time the above issues found during software testing, the same were communicated to stakeholder usually in qualitative form. The issue and impact explanation in qualitative form is tougher because one has to explain the module importance based on which issue priority will be determined. Stakeholders are also liable to understand the domain of module to understand it’s importance and it’s impact factor during failure. The whole process becomes lengthy in acknowledging to issue. It is believed if whole communication would have taken place in quantitative form, then time taken to respond to issue would have been shortened. Taking an scenario which had happened with author in real time, Author will try to share fact how quantitative factors will help to resolve faster in compare to qualitative factors. Once, Author was surprised to found his salary credited was almost halved. Author was stressed of the fact and tried explaining his supervisor and payroll people the importance it carries as he was sole earning member and also not carrying that much amount in bank to address requirements. He went on explaining the impact of not getting full salary by addressing to fact that his corporate card payment will be on hold, his own personnel card payment and other utilities payment will be on hold and impact went on. Getting hold of the nature and gravity of issue, payroll department decided to look into his issue with highest priority. After everything got resolved, Author tried analyzing the situation and felt bad for bringing his personnel stuffs to office. He felt, it could have been explained in numbers by saying, out of scale of 100 the importance the issue carries was 98 and impact factor was 10000. Which says high importance and non zero impact. The quantitative or number system would have been easier from Author perspective to explain and would have been better for other stakeholders to respond. Time taken to respond to issue would have been minimized.

  156. Dr. Sanjoy Sarkar

    The slogan of ‘right to work’ and the ‘poverty eradication’ is not a local or a national agenda of discussion today. The observation of the International Labour Organization is that, the global unemployment rate increased to 6.0 per cent in 2008 from 5.7 per cent in 2007, while the total number of unemployed increased by 10.7 million, reaching about 190 million in 2008. The unskilled workers especially youth and women are losing their jobs and suffer from horror of income less. Also, workers are already shifting out of dynamic export-oriented sectors and are either becoming unemployed or moving to lower-productivity activities that include moving back from urban to rural areas. In this situation, it is observed that, the children, especially girls, are expected to suffer major health and education setbacks as a result of the crisis. The shrinking family budget to maintain minimum standard of living forcing the families to stop children’s education, compromise with nutrition and social needs and the education and nutrition very much sensitive for girls than boys. In this regard, the eradication of poverty is a moral and ethical imperative - so rooted, in the principles governing the United Nations. A social life free of poverty and hunger - is one of the human rights and fundamental freedoms of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights. Article 25 (1) of the Declaration states that, “Everyone has the right to a standard of living adequate for the health and well-being of himself and of his family, including food, clothing, housing and medical care and necessary social services”. This right is further reaffirmed in the International Convention of Economic, Social and Cultural Rights and the International Convention on Civil and Political Rights. These human rights instruments acknowledge that human rights are derived from the inherent dignity of the human person. Extreme poverty has also been addressed by the General Assembly as a “violation of human rights”. Moreover, in the Charter of the United Nations it was determined that one mission of the United Nations would be to promote “higher standards of living, full employment, and conditions of economic and social progress and development” through international cooperation (Articles 55 and 56). Keeping in mind, present scholars tried to make a bridge between the two – poverty as well as work crisis through a sociological point of view. The present situation of work crisis arising out of unskilled workforce as well as the lack of work opportunity will be discussed thoroughly. In the other part, it will be tried to address the problem of absolute poverty that is reflected in terms of deprivation in the field of right to a descent standard of living encompassing food, health, clothing, housing and necessary social services, with the help of an applied research based model designed to generate scope for self employment with reference of an ‘Alternative Approach to Eradicate Poverty’.

  157. Kalpana Devi and Kiran, U. V.

    The employment in informal sectors has been witnessed of the growing prominence of the labour market in present scenario in India, total contribution of the informal sector to the GDP of the country is more than half. The sector offers the employment opportunity to around 90 % of the total work force. The objective of the present study is to assess prevalence’s of Musculoskeletal Disorders (MSDs) through the assessment of physical health and postural discomfort in several parts of the body workers working in to five different sectors, Chikankari, construction, Sanitary, Brick kilns, Bone craving in Lucknow city Uttar Pradesh. The result of the study reveals that the workers of all five sectors were reported pains at lower back, shoulder, upper arms on the other hand the pains at buttock and thighs were least reported by the workers. The intensity of Musculoskeletal Disorders (MSDs) in tension headache were Maximum (80%, 77%, 47%) among the workers of construction, sanitary, Brick kiln, sectors where as (93%) of ornamental workers and (73%) of Chikankari workers were reported highest problem of irritation in eyes.

  158. Ramananda Ningthoujam, Takhellambam Inaobi Singh and Bidhyapati Nongthombam

    Context: The measurement of body composition helps in assessing nutritional status indirectly. It is considered to be an important factor in physical development especially in sports, where there is an advantage of being tall (e.g. basketball) or small (Libero, weightlifting), heavy (sumo wrestling, Shot Put) or light (gymnastics), etc. Objective: To discuss the common methods of assessing human body composition for better understanding of the technique used. Study Design: Systematic review Evidence Acquisition: Relevant articles published from 1942 to 2012 obtained through searching MEDLINE, Google Scholar, Pub Med and SPORTDiscusTM and OVID with keywords body composition, human body composition, skinfold caliper, hydrostatic weighing, BOD POD, Tanita body composition analyser, bioelectrical impedance analysis, DEXA etc. Also, the body composition and body composition analyser websites were utilized. Study Selection: Five common methods for assessment of body composition were included for analysing the principles of the technique, advantages and disadvantages of the technique. Data Extraction: Multi-Compartmental Model and densitometry technique were studied. Results: DXA, Skinfolds, and Bio-impedance results have shown to be statistically different than Multi-Compartmental Model results and should not be compared to other technologies using the principles of densitometry such as Underwater Weighing and BOD POD. Conclusion: Every technique has its advantages and disadvantages. A combination of these methods may reduce the likelihood of misdiagnosis of Body Composition.

  159. Dr. Trinath Das, Smt. Sabita Ray and Dr. Rasmi Ranjan Puhan

    Retention of literacy skills of 3Rs is a world phenomenon. The present study was conducted to evaluate the performance of neo-literates in particular reference to the tribal areas. The main focus of the study was to analyse the current programmes lunched for development of different skills of the neo-literates in the tribal areas, in the same time the humble attempts also made to highlight current challenges in this field which are especially responsible for the unsuccessful of these programmes in the tribal areas. For above study three objectives are framed along with same number of research questions, also many secondary sources are examined to provide justification of this topic. The main findings of the study were; theoretically adults wanted to engage themselves in a purposeful activity, their main concern was learning income generating skills, also there was a significant low level of performance of neo-literates in the reading and writing skills after many adult education programmes lunched by the govt. and non-govt. organisations. There are many praise worthy programmes but the implementation strategies are not suitable in particular reference to the tribal areas etc. Here also we made some valuable suggestions after critical study of different programmes like: We may include income generating skills as a component to attract adult illiterates in literacy centres. We may also launch post literacy programs to strengthen the basic literacy skills of neo-literates and to make them effective members of the society.

  160. Fatih KONAK and EcemKübra ÇELİK

    According to the Efficient Market Hypothesis developed by Eugene Fama, it is unlikely to predict price movements in the markets. However, deviation from the mean of stock returns is observed and patterns appeared during certain periods, so-called anomalies. In this perspective, this research endeavors to figure out the existence of January Effect in 10 countries in the regions of the Middle East (Egypt, Israel, Amman, Kuwait, Qatar, Bahrain, Morocco, Oman, Saudi Arabia and Turkey) by employing Power Ratio methodology. Although the results obtained within the range of the analyzed period differ from each other, only the outcomes of Turkey and Israel demonstrates the absence of January Effect. In other words, the predictable pattern or price movement emerged except that the two countries are in the Middle East.

  161. Şerif Esendemir

    We are going through a time period in which the leadership, work and organization has attracted our attention. Although these hot subjects have been mostly discussed in the developed countries, there is a rising awareness toward them in the developing countries, too. In particular, Turkey is one of the important countries in creating its own different model of leadership in respect to the work and organization due to its long-term historical background. That is why this article aims at examining the classical understanding of leadership with its impacts on the work and organization in Turkey. A critical review of debates on the concept of leadership was provided at the beginning of the article to draw a framework for the study. Then since leadership has always been associated with power, relationships of power and leadership were put on the table to have an idea about how the different components of leadership were employed in the work and organization. Therefore, a case study from the capital of Turkey, Ankara, was given to see the practices of leadership in workplaces.

  162. Fersi Feten, Abdelmajid Naceur and Hichem Rejeb

    This text proposes to analyze designations related to the teaching of landscape within the Tunisian curriculum. It tends, on the one hand, to approach the notion of education to landscape in the elementary schools in Tunisia, and to determine designations which the notion of the landscape in the primary education course incarnates, on the other hand. The methodology of work begin with an analysis curriculaire from the contents from the official teaching programs and school handbooks relating to primary education to integrate, then, an approach of data collection per direct observation and questionnaire near the pupils. The interpretation of the results has as a finality to collect the various designations granted to the concept of landscape during primary education in order to work out an adequate vocabulary trying to sensitize, at the same time, young person-learning them with the question landscape designer, and to wake up them as for the importance of the safeguarding of nature and environmental protection.

  163. Tariq Ahmad Lone and Harmeet Singh

    Land use and land cover is an important component in understanding the interactions ofthe human activities with the environment and thus it is necessary to be able to simulate changes. Empirical observation revealed a change in land use land cover classification in Anantnag district, of Jammu and Kashmir State. In this paper an attempt is made to study the changes in land use and land cover in Anantnag district, over 18 years period (1992-2010). The study has been done through remote sensing approach using SOI toposheets of Anantnag1971. The land use land cover classification was performed based on the Survey of India Anantnag map and Satellite imageries. GIS software is used to prepare the thematic maps. Ground truth observations were also performed to check the accuracy of the classification. The study reveals that the highest change has occurred in the dense forest which is 652.98 Sq. kms in 1992 that is decreased to 579.09 Sq. kms that is 25.08 to 22.23 percent respectively. Agricultural land, Built up area, scrub land and Wasteland also have experienced change. Built-up lands settlement have increased from 1992-2010. Proper land use planning is essential for a sustainable development of Anantnag district.

  164. Dr. Madhubrata Mohanty

    The Right of Children to Free and Compulsory Education Act, 2009 (in short the Right to Education Act, 2009) has definitely come with a new challenge to provide ‘Education for all’ in the Society irrespective of their societal status. The motto behind the legislation is definitely of far- reaching importance to make education available to people leaving in each and every corner of the country, but as each coin has two sides, the Act too has a defective side also. Unless and until an honest analysis of the Act is made, the outcomes cannot be derived in a proper manner. Through this Article the author tries to make an analysis of the pros and cons of the ‘Right to Education Act, 2009’ with a view to suggest certain points to the legislatures as a prudent citizen of the country to bring the Act in conformity with the societal needs.

  165. Öğr. Gör. Fatih Konak, Ph. D.

    It is crucial to determine whether the world's leading credit rating agencies’ (Moody's, S & P's and Fitch's) credit notes affect the stock prices or not, for market participants. At this point, the main purpose of this research is to detect the effect of mentioned agencies' Credit Rating Announcements, occoured last five years (2009-2014),on share prices of companies listed on the BIST Bank Index by employing event study methodology. In that context, the effects of upgrade and downgrade notes are taken into account separately. In the basic logic of the event study, while "Event Window" is determined by announcement date basis '-15, +15', the "Estimation Period" is shaped on -15, -135' days before announcement. According to analysis, statistically significant effects are figured, which means that an anomaly is present under the impact of credit rating announcements. Therefore, it can be expressed that the market participants have the opportunity of generating abnormal return by benefiting from the public announcements.

  166. Akkharadet Neelayothin, Paisan Suwannoi, Pataraphorn Arunmala, Nikanchala Lonlua, Akchatree Suksen and Witoon Thacha

    This research aims to study the behavior that reflects the visionary leadership of elementary school principals in the era of a new paradigm in education for the 21st century and to compare behavior by gender, work experience, and levels of education. The survey methodology was used, gathering data from a sample of the population who are public elementary school principals in Khon Kaen province. The results showed that: (1) the public elementary school principals had behavior that reflects the visionary leadership is to a high extent, (2) male and female school administrators equally exhibited behavior that reflects the visionary leadership, (3) school administrators with work experience of 5-15 years showed behavior that reflects the visionary leadership more so than those with less than 5 years and those with more than 15 years, and (4) the school administrators who graduated with postgraduate education had behavior reflecting the visionary leadership more so than those who completed their undergraduate studies.

  167. Behnaz Kermani, Hassan Darvish, Mehdi Rahbar and Khodadad Naderimanesh

    Aims and objectives: The aim of this study was to assess the correlation between organizational climate and organizational commitment in the teaching hospitals in Iran. Background: Existence of manpower committed to an organization in addition to reducing staff’s absenteeism, delays and relocations causes a significant improvement in the performance of the organization and employees’ spirit, and results in better manifestation of organizational goals and achievement of personal objectives. Design: cross-sectional study. Methods: In this cross-sectional study, we included 317 managers and employees who worked at teaching hospitals affiliated to Tehran University of Medical Sciences. All the participants were asked a series of questions about demographic data, organizational climate, and organizational commitment. The data was analyzed using SPSS software version 17.00 for Windows. Results: The average scores of organizational commitment and organizational climate were 79.2 and 108.8, respectively. Organizational climate had a significant positive effect on the managers’ and employees’ organizational commitment (p<0.001, R=0.463٭٭). Among demographic variables, sex, age, years of experience, job level, and job categories were significantly related to organizational commitment. Conclusion: Improvement of the organizational climate boosts the organizational commitment of the staff and managers, and can constantly maintain organizations’ capabilities and competing advantages.

  168. Dr. MayadharBarik, Dr. Arun kumar, Dr. Priyanka Rathore, Dr. Anjit Kumar Dr. Ghanshyam Kumawat, Dr. Vikash Kumar and Dr. R. R. Kanaugia

    Background: Diffuse axonal injury (DAI) is the brain injury in which damage in the form of an extensive lesions in white matter tracts occurs over a widespread area. DAI is one of the most common and devastating types of traumatic brain injury (TBI). Material and Methods: We reviewed from from different data set like pubmed/medline and google resources were retrospectively we reviewed to identify patients underwent both CT and MRI examinations of the head and patients were found with diagnostic images were available for DAI and de-identified images reported by ealier world literature. Presence of any injury, intracranial hemorrhage, diffuse axonal injury (DAI), and skull fracture also reviewed here in systematically. Results: It occurs in about half of all cases of severe head trauma and outcome is frequently coma, with over 97% of patients with severe DAI never regaining consciousness. Those who do wake up often remain significantly impaired. So DAI can occur in every degree of severity from very mild or moderate to very severe. MRI more frequently reported intracranial findings of CT scanning. No statistically significant difference observed between CT and MRI in the detection of any intracranial injury. Conclusion: The multimodal MRI approach in patients with DAI results differentiated representation of the underlying pathophysiological changes of the injured nerve tracts. It helps to improve the diagnostic and prognostic accuracy of MRI. But we should be ignored CT findings for DAI for decission making.

  169. Larissa de Oliveira Ferreira, Marinez Moraes de Oliveira, Raphael Evangelista Orlandi, Carlos José Pimenta, Priscila Vieira Rosa, Roseane Maria Evangelista Oliveira and Maria Emília de Sousa Gomes Pimenta

    The study proposed to assess ways for inclusion of watermelon waste in feed for tilapia. Thus, three tests were conducted: 1st – measuring the chemical composition of experimental feeds; 2nd – evaluating the digestibility of feed for fish and 3rd – determining the level of inclusion of waste in feed for tilapia. The following treatments were analyzed: T1 – reference diet; T2 – kiln-dry waste and introduced in 30% in the bran feed; T3 – kiln-dry waste and introduced in 30% in the pellet diet; T4 – sun-dried waste and introduced in 30% in the bran feed; T5 – sun-dried waste and introduced in 30% in the pellet feed. The variables analyzed were: chemical composition, coefficient of digestibility, metabolic energy, weight gain, feed intake and feed conversion. The T4 and T5 treatments showed no significant difference, with higher metabolic energy and digestibility coefficient, and are therefore chosen to perform the performance test. It was observed that the weight gain decreased quadratically (p<0.01) while increasing the level of inclusion of the waste in the diet. The feed intake and feed conversion were affected by the physical form of diet.

  170. Mrs. Akoijam Sangita Devi, Mrs. Suman Lata and Mrs. Heena Bahl

    Tuberculosis is an infectious disease which is spread through the infected droplets nuclei through air. People with prolonged, frequent, or close contact with TB patients are at particularly high risk of becoming infected. A descriptive survey design, non-probability purposive sampling technique and data was collected by using the self report interview technique among 100 caregivers of tuberculosis patient. The collected data was analyzed and reveal that half (50%) of caregivers had average knowledge and another (50%) of caregivers had below average level of knowledge and (78%) of caregivers had moderately favorable attitude score and (22%) of caregivers are favorable attitude score. There was a significant positive relationship between level of knowledge and attitude scores of caregivers of tuberculosis patient indicating that as the level of attitude increases, knowledge level also increases ( r=0.04, p < 0.001). There was no significant association found between level of knowledge and attitude scores of caregivers with the selected demographic variables (age, gender, religion, marital status, monthly income, educational status, formal information and place of residence).

  171. Potey Anirudha, V., Bhide Shruti, S., Chauthankar Shailesh, A. and Tadavi Firoz, M.

    Introduction: The available therapeutic option in acetaminophen induced hepatotoxicity, N-acetyl cysteine (NAC) has potential side effects. Curcumin has shown hepatoprotective effect in animal models. Objective: To compare hepatoprotective efficacy of curcumin with NAC and their simultaneous administration in acetaminophen induced hepatotoxicity. Materials and Methods: Hepatotoxicity was induced in Wistar rats by acetaminophen (2000 mg/kg). NAC (300 mg/kg) was used as standard control in study. Curcumin was administered in doses of 300, 600 and 900 mg/kg. After evaluation of best maximal effective dose of curcumin, drugs were co-administered in half doses and full doses of each in different groups. Hepatic transaminases, liver tissue MDA and GSH content, histological examination were variables assessed. Results: Lowering of enzyme levels in curcumin and co-administration of curcumin and NAC group were similar to NAC treated group. Co-administration of curcumin and NAC group had comparable levels of MDA to curcumin treated alone groups. Co-administration of NAC and curcumin had significantly higher GSH compared to NAC used alone. Histopathological examination scores in these groups were comparable. Conclusion: Co-administration of NAC and curcumin in half doses of each drug, in acetaminophen induced hepatotoxicity in Wistar rats, has a comparable hepatoprotective effect to NAC or curcumin used alone.

  172. Dr. ArunKumar, G., Dr. Mahantesh Chinagudi, Dr. Bhagyashree M Patil and Dr. Sidra Iqbal

    Objectives: The precise anatomical of the lingula of the mandible is clinically significant because it is more susceptible to injury during a variety of oral and maxillofacial surgical procedures. This is the first study to identify, classify and measure the mandibular lingula using cone-beam computed tomography in South Indian population. Materials and methods: A retrospective study was done to measure the shape, height, and location of the lingula in relation to surrounding structures using cone-beam computed tomographic images. The shape of the lingula was classified according to the method given by Tuly et al. (2000) The location was determined by five distances from the lingular tip according to the method given by Ahmet et al. Results: The most common shape of the lingual is truncated, followed by triangular [32 % (264)]. The mean height of the lingula was 7.97 ± 1.84 mm. The average distance of lingula to the mandibular ramus (anterior and posterior borders) was found to be 16.7 ± 2.7 and 13.0 ± 2.3 mm, respectively. The lingula was located at 11.4 ± 2.5 mm from the mandibular notch, 14.10 ± 4.74 mm from the mandibular base and 16.21 ± 4.54 mm from the distal side of mandibular second molar tooth. Conclusion: The study provides a new insight to the morphology, height and location of the lingula in the South Indian population. These findings would assist the Oral surgeons to localize the lingula and would avoid intraoperative complications to the patient.

  173. Dr. Avinash Shankar, Dr. Shubham, Dr. Abhishek Shankar, Dr. Amresh Shankar and Dr. Anuradha Shankar

    Herpes zoster, an agonizing blister forming disease caused by Varicella zoster virus 1,2,3and analgesics even opioids fails cease agony of pain , local; anesthetics only provide transient pain relief 4,5,6 and accidental observation of complete relief of neurological pain with a composite Epineuron (Epalrestat and methylcobalamine ), intended to evaluate the composite in management of Herpetic neuralgia. 124 patients of Herpes zoster involving various body part, without any associated other disease were evaluated comparatively for pain relief and safety margin. A composite Epineuron SR (Epalrestat 150mg and Methyl cobalamine 1500µg) daily with Famciclovir oral and Acyclovir as topical application in trial group, while placebo and Antiviral drug in control group. All patients taking trial drug had marked relief in agony of pain in mean duration of 24±4 hrs, blister healing in 9±2 days, complete pain relief in 14±4 days and all had excellent clinical recovery without any effect or alteration in hematological, hepatic and renal parameters with 100% compliance.

  174. Dr. Preeti Biradar, Dr. Narendra P. Datti, Dr. Kanthamani, K. and Dr. Dilip Kumar, K.

    Purpose: To study the safety and efficacy of capsular tension ring in cataracts with pseudoexfoliation syndrome in terms of intraoperative and postoperative complications and to assess the visual acuity postoperatively in CTR and non CTR implanted patients. Method: This prospective study included 100 patients with cataracts with pseudoexfoliation syndrome. Patients were randomized into two groups comprising 50 each. Group I underwent CTR implantation Group II had no CTR implanted. Intraoperative variables such as small pupil, extension of capsulorhexis, zonular separation, posterior capsule rupture and vitreous loss were assessed. Postoperative best corrected visual acuity was also assessed. Results: In our study we found that 1(2%) patient out of 50 patients who underwent CTR implantation had zonular dialysis compared to 6(12%) out of 50 patients in non CTR group which was statistically significant (p=0.013) and also there was decrease in incidence of posterior capsular rupture noted in 2(4%) in CTR group and 8(16%) in non CTR group which was statistically significant (p value=0.042). Conclusion: We found that, CTRs ensure safe removal of crystalline lens and stable placement of the IOL during phacoemulsification of eyes with pseudo exfoliation syndrome, thus preventing the risk of intraoperative & postoperative complications & improve patient outcomes.

  175. Venkateshwarlu Nandyala, Gandiah, P., Mukheem Mudabbir, M. A., Ranjit, G., Bingi Srinivas and Karthikeya Raman Reddy, B.

    Background: The pathogenic factors in stroke like atherosclerosis and thrombosis are the same as for myocardial infraction in the latter disease, significant increase in plasma fibrinogen level has been detected, which has a correlation with severity of myocardial damage. It was therefore of interest to measure the plasma fibrinogen levels in patients with acute stroke and also to investigate whether these levels increase if the patient has additional risk factors like hypertension, diabetes, and smoking. The objective of the study is to measure plasma fibrinogen levels in patients with acute stroke and comparing with age, sex and risk factor matched controls. Materials and Methods: 200 consecutive patients of acute ischemic stroke admitted within 24 hours of development of symptoms who were admitted to SVS Medical College were included in the study. CT Brain (plain) done to confirm ischemic stroke & Fasting plasma fibrinogen in mg/dl was estimated using Clauss method and compared to age, sex and risk factor matched controls. Results: In this study Mean plasma fibrinogen level amongst cases was 523.1 mg/ dL. Mean fibrinogen controls was 292.22mg/ dL. Statistically‘t’ and ‘p’ values were 8.55 and < 0.001. Interpretation & Conclusion: This study shows that the plasma fibrinogen levels are significantly elevated in patients with ischemic strokes when compared to age, sex and risk factor matched controls. Plasma fibrinogen levels rise as age advances. Diabetes, hypertension and smoking do not influence plasma fibrinogen levels.

  176. Dr. Mahima V. G., Dr. Karthikeya Patil and Dr. Srishti Tayal

    Gene therapy focuses at introduction of a defined DNA sequence into particular cells of a patient either to substitute a faulty gene, or to accord a new function to the cell for secretion of protein with alleged therapeutic function. The term ‘gene transfer’ refers to the delivery of a gene, a cDNA, a small RNA, that is, any type of oligonucleotide that might have some therapeutic benefit, to a predetermined target cell. Gene therapy allows specific gene products to be delivered to a precise anatomic location. In addition, the level of transgene expression as well as the duration of expression can be regulated with current techniques. The purpose of this review is to give a brief insight into the gene transfer principles, mechanisms and strategies for correcting various diseases.

  177. Dr. Deepak, T.S., Dr. Karthikeya Patil, Dr. Mahima V. G. and Dr. Manjunath, G.V.

    Introduction: Oral squamous cell carcinoma has a potential fatal outcome that accounts for 90% of oral cancers diagnosed worldwide. A variety of new emerging diagnostic aids and adjunctive techniques are currently being used in the screening of oral potentially malignant disorders (OPMDs). In vivo Staining methods namely, toluidine blue(TB), and methylene blue (MB), are advocated as simple, inexpensive and fairly sensitive, chair side investigative method for OPMDs detections. Aims: To determine and compare the diagnostic efficacy and reliability of TB and MB in early detection of OPMDs and Malignant disorders (MDs), with expression of Ki-67 antigen proliferative marker. Materials and Methods: The study group diagnosed as OPMDs and MDs included 20 patients and were equally divided into two groups of 10 randomly selected subjects who were stained with either TB or MB. The biopsy site was chosen where stain retention was positive. Histopathological evaluation for grades of dysplasia and carcinoma were determined and further subjected for Ki-67 proliferative marker evaluation and were graded accordingly as mild, moderate and severe proliferation index. The data collected was subjected to statistical analysis. Results: The overall diagnostic accuracy in distinguishing OPMDs and MDs with expression of Ki-67 proliferative marker showed statistically significant (p=0.003) results with TB stain, while MB stain showed insignificant results (p=0.414). Conclusion: The diagnostic efficiency of TB with expression of Ki-67 proliferative marker was found to be better than MB and thus, can be recommended as an adjunct diagnostic tool for diagnosis of OPMDs and MDs.

  178. Dr. Akarsh, Y. G. and Dr. Nischal, K.

    Purpose: To evaluate the efficacy of topical human Placental extract in the management of diabetic foot ulcers in comparison with topical sucralfate. Methods: This prospective study included 100 patients with diabetic foot ulcers. Patients were randomized into two groups comprising 50 each. Group I received topical sucralfate, Group II received topical human placental extract dressing.. Initial wound measurement was taken in both the groups before starting their respective treatment that is sucralfate in group II and human placental extract dressing dressing in group I. After four weeks final wound area and percentage of wound reduction was assessed. Results: We found that the mean reduction of wound area in patients treated with topical human placental extract was 14 sq cm and in patients treated with topical sucralfate was 8 sq cm which was statistically significant (p<0.001). The mean percentage reduction of wound area in human placental extract group was 39.04% and in sucralfate group was 29.04%, which showed statistical significance (p< 0.001).In terms of granulation tissue which was assessed at 4 weeks, 48 patients in human placental extract group had 100-75% granulation tissue where as in sucralfate group only 36 patients had 100-75% granulation tissue (p=0.002). Conclusion: Human placental extract dressing therapy in the treatment of diabetic foot ulcers was found to be more effective, safe, promoter of wound healing, and hence can be recommended for the treatment of diabetic foot ulcers.

  179. Swapna, K. and Dr. G. Sudhakar

    The united cause of smoking and alcohol drinking verses the site distribution of the upper aero digestive tract was evaluated using a case-control design on data from conducted between 2011to 2013 in Mahatma Gandhi cancer Hospital, Visakhapatnam, Andhrapradesh, India. Data collected from 103 incident head and neck cancer cases were analyzed using odds Ratio and p values. The odds ratios (ORs) for larynx in males 12 (18.46%) and females 4 (11.43%) OR=1.753, 95% confidence interval (CI)= (0.52to 5.82). But male and female ratio is different in oral cavity, and highest among the total site of diseases with (58.25%)OR=0.876, 95% (CI)= (0.45 to 1.68). Pharynx has males with 17 (26.15%), and females are 7 (20%) OR=1.4198. 95% (CI)= (0.53 to 3.73). The P value shows insignificant. In conclusion, the higher incidence of oral cancer in the head and neck region was observed in this study. Occurrence of head and neck cancer mostly observed in male patients. Alcohol and tobacco alone does not show any significant influence on the site of disease along with gender statistics. But combined effect of drinking and smoking association is statistically significant as the p value is within the range.

  180. Khiste, J. A., Gadgil, P. A., Pandit, G. A., Halgale, M. J. and Moon, P. C.

    Autopsy study has helped modern medicine by establishing the cause of death, manner of death, comparing ante mortem amd postmortem findings and producing vital statistics. The present study was undertaken to know the spectrum of congenital heart disease in autopsy cases which has its importance in clinical care of patients. In this study, 10 cases of congenital heart disease were found in 270 autopsies having equal sex distribution. Maximum cases are of VSD (3 cases). Five cases died within 5 days of birth. Bronchopneumonia was the cause of death in 5 cases. Extra cardiac defect in the form of renal dysplasia was seen in only 1 case of patent ductus arteriosus. Two cases of congenital heart disease reached adult life. Improved health care system will facilitate early diagnosis of congenital heart disease which will lead to early medical and surgical interventions, thus, increasing the life expectancy of the patient.

  181. Balgaranov N., Nikolov, L., Kolarova-Yaneva, N., Nedkova, V., Donev, V. and Tonchev, P.

    Background: Approximately 80 fungus species have been reported to be connected with respiratory allergy. Moreover, it is proven that four of them are the most common: Alternaria, Cladosporium, Aspergillus, and Penicillium. Despite of this, sensitization rates to these mould aeroallergens in children with asthma and allergic rhinitis are underreported. Objectives: The aim of this study was to investigate the sensitization rates to mould allergens and to establish the correlation between them and sensitization to the other most common aeroallergens. Materials and methods: The study population consisted of 205 patients (126 boys and 79 girls) aged between 4 and 16 years with asthma and allergic rhinitis. Skin prick tests (SPT) were performed with 4 mould allergens: Alternaria alternata, Cladosporium mix, Aspergillus mix, and Penicillium mix. Also, all patients were investigated by SPT to other 17 aeroallergens: pollens, mites, and allergens with animal origin. Results: The study shows that 47 (29.93%) were sensitized to at least one mould allergen. Sensitization rates were as follow: to Alternaria alternata in 36 children (17.56%), to Aspergillus mix in 13 (6.34%), to Cladosporium mix in 12 (5.85%), and to Penicillium mix in 8 (3.9%). Often (n=33, 70.21%) sensitization to moulds were combined with sensitization to aeroallergens from the other investigated groups. Conclusion: This study found a high tendency of sensitization to moulds in children population with asthma and allergic rhinitis. Alternaria alternata was the most common established allergen from this group. In more than two thirds of cases sensitization to moulds was combined with sensitization to other common aeroallergens.

  182. Nagababu Pyadala, Jyothinath Kothapalli, Ambreesh K. Goud, Rajaneesh Borugadda, 5Shobha Rani, N., Ravi Kumar, B. N. and Rathnagiri Polavarapu

    Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is one of the most common chronic diseases and represents an important cause of morbidity and mortality. The main aim of this study is no know the alterations in serum vitamin C, erythrocyte glutathione activity and MDA in controls and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease patients. A retrospective study includes 120 subjects, comprising of 60 healthy controls and 60 COPD cases. Among 60 COPD cases 30 were chronic bronchitis patients and 30 were emphysema patients. Vitamin C was estimated by 2, 4 – Dinitrophenyl Hydrazine Method, Erythrocyte reduced glutathione was estimated by Ernest Beutler et al method and malondialdehyde by Kei Satoh method. The Pearson’s correlation coefficient for various antioxidants in COPD cases is evident that there is a positive correlation between vitamin C vs. erythrocyte reduced glutathione cases and is highly significant. It is also evident that there is a negative correlation between erythrocyte reduced glutathione vs. MDA and vitamin C vs. MDA cases and is highly significant. The present study revealed that there was an increased oxidative stress in patients with COPD, when compared with controls and also decreased levels of antioxidants like vitamin C and erythrocyte reduced glutathione activity in COPD patients, when compared with controls.

  183. Dr. Supratim Tripathi

    Aim: To prove the link of Aryans and Caucasians through dentistry and to prove the hypothesis of lord Ram actual existence. Introduction: There are documented facts that there was advent of Aryans in India. There are anthropological proofs of the same. Till date a lot have been done for the same and that there are instances of the very fact that Aryans were logically Caucasians. This article deals with one of the condition in dentistry called as Radix and describes the link of its prevalence with documented fact of Aryans did invade India. Discussion: In the 18th century, the most ancient known Indo European languages were those of the ancient Indo Iranians. The word Aryan was therefore adopted to refer not only to the Indo-Iranian peoples, but also to native Indo-European speakers as a whole, including the Romans, Greeks, and the Germans. It was soon recognised that Balts, Celts, and Slavs also belonged to the same group. It was argued that all of these languages originated from a common root—now known as ProtoIndo-European—spoken by an ancient people who were thought of as ancestors of the European, Iranian, and Indo-Aryan peoples. The ethnic group composed of the Proto-Indo-Europeans and their modern descendants was termed the "Aryans".1

  184. Rawda M. S. Kheir and Abdelmoneim E. M. Kheir

    Background: During the last 2 decades overweight and obesity have increased globally among children and adolescents. Methods: This was a descriptive, cross sectional study conducted during the period October 2012 to January 2013 among two high schools in Khartoum state. A total of 425 students from both schools were included in the study. Data was collected using a questionnaire, stadiometer and a measuring scale and body mass index was calculated. Data analysis was performed using SPSS program. P value was set on at 0.05 level of significance. Results: The results revealed that nearly one fourth of high school girls were overweight/obese, with the proportion slightly higher in the private school, also most of the students consider obesity a risk factor for hypertension, heart disease and breathing problems. Most of the girls in our study indicated a clear desire to lose weight. Conclusion: Public health programs are needed to increase awareness on risk factors for overweight and obesity among children and adolescents in order to reduce the future burden of obesity-associated chronic diseases.

  185. Orji E. Chikwendu, Eke C. Benedict, Amakom M. Chijioke, Nwoko O. Emmanuel and Okafor C. Cornelius

    The background ionizing radiation in some selected hospitals and diagnosticcentres in Owerri, Imo State, South-eastern Nigeria was measured using a portable Geiger Muller counter model GCA-04. The measured background radiation in all the environments considered ranged from 0.092±0.02-0.225±0.01 µSv/hr. The measured values were observed to be lower than the world average of natural background radiation of 0.2741 µSv/hr. This shows that the areas have low natural background radiation.

  186. Mousumi Ganguly, Ankita Daripa, Malay Kumar Patsa and Arindam Ganguly

    Handicrafts are the art of creating decorative products using raw indigenous materials. Bankura has a rich cultural heritage of handloom industry and handicraft. It is world famous for terracotta temples, hand-woven textiles and exquisite craft of conch shell. The Conch is the shell of large sea snail Turbinella pyrum which lives in the Indian Ocean. Shankha is the finished product of conch shell which bears ritual and religious significance in Hindu mythology. This paper attempts to explore the nutritional status, socio-economic background and occupational health hazards of conch shell workers of Bankura. Conch shell workers numbering 88 in the age group of 19-76 years who were willing to co-operate for the study were selected by convenient sampling method. The assessment of nutritional status revealed presence of malnutrition (27.27 %) among workers. The mean height, weight, BMI and Waist/ Heap ratio of the population were 1.57 m, 52.77 Kg, 21.32 & 0.95 respectively. The age-wise distribution of the workers divulged that majority (40 %) of the males belonged to the age group of 36-45 years while most (44.45%) of the female were in the upper-age group of above 45 years. This Conch shell industry was mostly dominated by males (79.55 %). Joint family (52.27%) type still prevails in the community in which 45.46 % were medium in size. The literacy rate among conch shell artisans was 97.73 %. The economic profile disclosed that the average monthly household income (Rs. 6700) and standard of living of the workers are substandard. Common cold, musculoskeletal pain, asthma and respiratory trouble have been found to be more prevalent.

  187. Kondam Ambreesha Goud, Jyothinath Kothapalli, Nagababu Pyadala, Rajneesh Borugadda and Shobha Rani, N.

    Blood pressure has been shown to vary in several health conditions. In adult life, weight gain seems to be an important risk factor for the development of hypertension. The relationship between measures of body mass and blood pressure has been extensively documented, usually with body mass index as the measure of relative weight. Since BMI is the simplest, affordable and noninvasive method of measuring obesity prevalence in a large population, this was adopted to ascertain how it correlates with blood pressure indices. To evaluate relationship between BMI and Blood Pressure indices among 1ST Year M.B.B.S. students of MNR medical college. A total of 235 students, 120 males and 115 females participated in the study conducted between June and July 2015 at MNR Medical College. Their ages ranged between 17 to 20 years were selected as subjects because of easy availability. All students were divided into underweight, normal, over weight according to Western Pacific Regional Organization 2000 (WPRO) BMI classification. Complications of cardiovascular system were determined from the measurement of Blood pressure (BP) indices. Comparison of blood pressure among different groups was made by ANOVA. The First year MBBS students were in the age group of 18 -23 years and male: female was in a ratio of 1:1. The mean height of the male students was 172.6 cms (SD= 5.0) and females155. 24 cms (SD= 7. 1). The mean weight of the Male students was 62.5 kg (SD=7.3); and females 56.9 kg (SD=7.6). Overall, 81% of students were within the normal weight range. Around 10% males and 20% female students were overweight. Obesity was found only in1% of students. The 3% students were underweight and included all the male students. Being overweight is a rising problem of male and female medical students. Both obesity and underweight issues are seen common in students. Carrying excess body fat, puts you at greater risk for health problems such as heart disease, cancer, diabetes and stroke.

  188. Gamer, M. E. and Elsanosi, S. M.

    This work was conducted to study the role of Mg, Cu, Fe and Zn, on the recovery of cold-shocked bacteria in different combinations. Isolation of bacteria contaminating the frozen foods was performed and a design of a proper medium that recover almost all injured cells was achieved. The studied bacteria were Escherichia coli, Salmonella spp. Staphylococcus aureus and Klebsiellapneumoniae. The organisms were isolated from frozen foods (Sausages, Hamburgers, Meat ball and Ice creams) and identified to the species level. The isolated bacteria were sub cultured in nutrient broth medium and incubated at 37˚C for 24 hours and ten-fold dilutions were prepared for each species of bacteria using normal saline as a diluent. The bacteria were shocked at -20˚C for one hour. The frozen bacteria were left to thaw at room temperature for 30min and from the last two end dilutions, 0.1ml was transferred to the surface of recovery media and incubated at 37˚C for 24 hours. Using Miles and Misra (1938) method was applied for counting the bacteria.

  189. Rasha A. Eldeeb, Neveen Salah El Din Hemimi, Mona Mohamed Abd El Salam, Marwa Mahmoud khalil and Heba Mohammed Galal El-Din Ahmad

    Introduction and objectives: Serotonin; (5-HT) is a neurotransmitter that has major role in energy homeostasis, behavior and mood changes; thus affects the individual’s body weight and liability to obesity. 5-HT shows control over the appetite through different receptors with discrete functions. AA genotype of 5-HT2A gene promoter polymorphism was associated with increase receptor expression and binding. This study investigates the relation between the G1438A polymorphism of the 5-HT2A gene and the susceptibility to obesity. Material and Methods: 189 individuals divided according to their BMI into control group with BMI < 25 Kg/m2 and case group with BMI ≥ 25 Kg/m2. The G1438A polymorphism of the 5-HT2A gene was detected by restriction fragment length polymorphism polymerase chain reaction (RFLP-PCR) of peripheral blood DNA samples. Results: Genotype frequencies for AA and GA& GG were 25% and 75% respectively in the case group compared to 52.2% and 47.8% in the control group. Carriers of GA & GG genotype were at a significant high risk of developing obesity .Moreover; the mean energy intake per day was significantly increased among carriers of GA & GG genotype compared to AA genotype. Conclusion: G allele is a risk factor for obesity.

  190. Phulari Rashmi, G. S., Rathore Rajendrasinh, S., Shah Arpan, K. and Jain Shivani

    Background: Diagnostic difficulties in pathology lead to seeking of second opinion, which drastically reduce errors and provides therapeutic and prognostic benefit to the patient. Aims and objectives: The present survey aims to assess the general perspective of pathologists on second opinion in oral and maxillofacial lesions with an attempt to find solutions to diagnostic challenges. Materials and Methods: A questionnaire based survey was conducted amongst 51 oral and 51 general pathologists. The following parameters were included: frequency of second opinions taken, reasons for seeking second opinions, productivity of second opinions sought, modes of obtaining second opinions, and choice of professional (oral or general pathologist) for seeking second opinion. Statistical analysis used: The data collected was subjected to fisher’s exact p-value using pearson’s chi square test. The statistical package employed was R-2.15.2 (India). Results and conclusion: 85% of pathologists were in favor of seeking a second opinion in cases of perplexities. Reasons cited for seeking second referrals were inadequate information or understanding of the information supplied-60%; lack of expertise-13%; lack of regular exposure to oral lesions-29%; and other related reasons-17%. Sending slide personally to a colleague emerged as the most preferred mode of seeking a second referral. Second referrals reflect an acknowledged need for assistance and do not imply inadequacy of the primary pathologist.

  191. Athira P A, Mangala Kohli, Reeha Mahajan, Anita Tuli and Mukta Rani

    Polygyria is a developmental anomaly of the brain characterized by development of numerous small gyri. It is a neuronal migration cortical organization disorder which is often sporadic or genetic but is also seen secondary to vascular compromise. In the present study, 100 brain specimens fixed in 10% formalin were studied extensively in the department of Anatomy, Lady Hardinge Medical College, New Delhi and the pattern of sulci and gyri of the two cerebral hemispheres with their variations were identified and photographed. We observed an abnormal pattern of sulci and gyri in the form of polygyria on the medial surface of the cerebral hemisphere in the occipital and frontal lobes in 2% cases. The length of the corpus callosum and frontal-occipital pole diameter of one hemisphere was more than that of the other in 1% cases. The association of polygyria with unequal size of cerebral hemispheres is a rare presentation. These presentations are associated with numerous neurological deficits like mental retardation, seizures, spastic hemiparesis or quadriparesis etc. which may be of relevance to physicians, neurologists, neurosurgeons and radiologists.

  192. Ritu Sharma and Mridula Mahajan

    Background and Aims: Oxidative stress and adverse metabolic changes are key components of type2 diabetes mellitus. Gamma glutamyl transferase (GGT) enzyme maintains the GSH-cysteine homeostasis as well as detoxifies the toxic molecules thereby lower oxidative stress in the body. This enzyme is associated with albumin which is also a vital antioxidant molecule. Magnesium is required for the action of various glucose metabolizing enzymes and thus maintains glucose homeostasis as well as affects insulin secretion and sensitivity via modulation of oxidative stress. The purpose of the present study was to elucidate the role of serum GGT, magnesium and albumin in relation to hyperglycemia in type 2 diabetic patients. Method and Results: The study comprised of 50 diagnosed cases of type 2 diabetes mellitus and 30 age and sex matched healthy controls. Subjects were selected after applying appropriate inclusion and exclusion criterion. Written informed consent was obtained from all the subjects to draw their fasting blood samples under sterilized conditions. Diabetic patients were segregated into two Groups : Group 1 (fasting blood glucose levels 130-200mg/dl) and Group 2 (fasting blood glucose levels >200mg/dl). Serum GGT, magnesium, albumin and fasting blood glucose were estimated and data was statistically analyzed. Serum GGT activity was significantly high (p<0.05) and serum magnesium and albumin levels were significantly low (p<0.05) in type2 diabetic patients as compared to controls. A significant negative coefficient of correlation (p<0.05) was observed between Group 2 patients and their GGT activity. Conclusions: Increased serum GGT activity and low Mg and albumin levels are markers of high oxidative stress and metabolic disturbances in type 2diabetes. Body may try to compensate increased oxidative stress by preserving GSH by lowering of GGT activity in a state of increased hyperglycemia.

  193. Wijdan Nazar Almusawi

    Microorganisms can grow almost anywhere! And these tiny organisms carry with them some unpleasant product changes or even disease. Cosmetic must be harmless for user so the aim of this study Determine the degree of bacterial contamination among different types of cosmetic products. Methods: a total of 70 samples of different cosmetics products were collected, 78.5% were found to be contaminated. The contaminants including bacteria such as Staphylococcus aureus, Staphylocoocus epidermidis, Escherichia coli, Bacterial contamination was found to be more among high water content products because it act as agood media for their growth. Finally in all kinds of cosmetics (eye liner, lipstick ,mascara…etc) the bacterial growth had been increased with the time, it's more common among those opened for more than 3 months.

  194. Mohd. Tarik, Vijay Kumar Tundwal, Vinod Kumar Aswal, Narendra Kumar Gahlot, Vinayak Ukirde and Sanjay Kumar Kochar

    Background & Objective: Malaria infection during pregnancy is a significant public health problem with substantial risks for the pregnant woman, her foetus, and the newborn child. So we conducted this study to predict the complications and outcome of malaria during pregnancy. Material & Methods: It was a case control type of study carried out at S.P. Medical College and Associate Groups of Hospitals, Bikaner, Rajasthan. 50 cases of pregnancy with malaria and 50 controls of pregnant females without malaria were chosen for study. Results: The incidence of severe anaemia is 52% in cases and 4% in controls (p-value<0.0001). Thrombocytopenia was seen in 48% of patients. Jaundice was reported in 8% of cases. 6% of cases suffered from renal failure. The incidence of abortions is 10% in cases as compared to 4% in controls (p-value<0.21). The incidence of IUGR (Intrauterine growth retardation) babies is 18% in case group as compared to 2% in control group (p-value<0.01). The incidence of intra-uterine deaths is 10% in cases as compared to 2% in controls (p-value<0.10). As compared to the control group which has 16% babies in low birth weight category 50% of babies in case group had weight in low birth weight category(p-value<0.02). Early neonatal deaths were only reported in case group with an incidence of 6% (p-value<0.12). Conclusion: Maternal malaria increases the incidence of severe anaemia, thrombocytopenia, renal failure, hepatic failure, multi organ dysfunction in pregnant females and also increases the risk of spontaneous abortion, intra-uterine growth retardation, intra-uterine death, premature delivery and low birth weight.

  195. Dr. VidyaGowdappa Doddawad, Dr. MohamadAyas, Dr. UshaHegde and Dr. Premalatha, BR

    Lots of problems can be fenced if the biomedical waste management is properly executed. The activities that are usually performed as part of health care waste management involve segregation, storage, collection, transportation and disposal of biomedical waste. Since the implementation of the biomedical waste management rule in 1998, every concerned health personnel is expected to have proper knowledge and application of the same. In Oral Pathology & Microbiology department, a great number of hazardous and non-hazardous wastes are generated that can be detrimental to the environment and to personnel handling it if not properly managed. With this background, the study was conducted to assess the knowledge, attitude and Practise of biomedical waste management among post graduate students and staff of Oral Pathology and Microbiology department, in various dental colleges across India. Methods: A cross- sectional questionnaire based survey containing 24 questions to assess the knowledge, attitude and practise on biomedical waste management was done. These questionnaires were distributed to teaching staff members and post graduate students belonging to Department of Oral Pathology and Microbiology of various dental colleges in India. Results were expressed as number and percentage of respondents for each question and chi- square test was performed for statistical analysis. Results: The percentage of knowledge, attitude and practise scores were 72%, 65%, 42% among staffs and post graduate students and a significant association (p<0.001) was seen. Conclusion: The study proved that the knowledge and attitude regarding biomedical waste management among staff members and post graduate students were high but practise was comparatively low, implying the need for creating awareness and thus make its practise mandatory by including it in the dental curriculum compulsorily.

  196. Chung-Jing Wang, MD, Po-Chao Tsai, MD and Chien-Hsing Chang, MD

    Background: Potassium citrate effectively reduces recurrence of hypocitraturic calcium nephrolithiasis. Objective: To evaluate the impact of long-term potassium citrate therapy on urinary metabolic parameters and stone recurrence rates in patients with hypocitraturic calcium stones. Design, Setting, Participants: This prospectively randomized controlled trial was conducted from January 2003 to December 2012. Patients aged over 40 years old, with a history of hypocitraturic calcium stones were eligible: of 347 patients, 101 were in the control group, and 102 patients were in the potassium citrate group. Baseline examinations and patient recruitment occurred in 2001. Intervention: Potassium citrate therapy consisted of Urocit®-K 60 mEq. per day. All patients met with a dietitian and were instructed to maintain a diet restricted to 2 g of sodium and 65 g of protein. The patients were asked to consume sufficient fluid to urinate ≥2 L daily. Main Outcome Measure: The primary outcome was mean change in urinary citrate level, measured throughout the entire follow-up period at an outpatient clinic for up to 10 years. Results: The final analysis included 101 (control) and 102 (Potassium citrate) patients. In the Potassium citrate group, mean urinary citrate levels increased from 197.8 (baseline) to 523.7 mg/day (9th year), with a response rate of 67.65% (P<0.001 vs. control). The stone recurrence rate ranged from 6.90% (1st year) to 68.32% (9th year) in the control group and from 2.94% (1st year) to 28.43% (9th year) in the potassium citrate group (P<0.001). Limitations: Enrolled patients was diagnosed complete stone free. The study cannot elucidate the role of residual fragments in the recurrent stones. Conclusions: Potassium citrate provides a significant alkali and citraturic response during long term therapy with a sustained change in urinary parameters. Moreover, long term potassium citrate therapy significantly decreases the stone formation rate, confirming usefulness in patients with hypocitraturic calcium stones.

  197. Sheetal Barde, Sheela Upendra, Seeta Devi

    The Present study tries to explore the effect of Recreational Therapy on Mental Status of Schizophrenics. Anxiety is an emotion characterized by an unpleasant state of inner turmoil, often accompanied by nervous behavior, such as pacing back and forth, somatic complaints and rumination. The present study aims to investigate the effectiveness of Recreational Therapy on Mental Status of Schizophrenics. For this data was collected randomly from Chaitanya Rehabilitation center, Pune on 60 schizophrenic patients. “Brief Psychiatric Assessment Scale” was used to assess the mental status of Schizophrenics. Initially Mental status of the patients was assessed using the scale followed by 20 days of Recreation therapy and again posttest was taken using the same scale. The result of the present study revealed some significant findings indicating that Recreation therapy was significantly effective.

  198. Dr. Tyagaraju, M.R., Dr. Gannur, D.G. Dr. Nuchhi, U.C. and Dr. Bhuyyarm, C.B.

    Pesticide poisoning is a major global health problem, and it is more prevalent in countries like India. The harmful effects on human beings in the form of acute and chronic toxicity exposed to insecticides are well established. The incidence of pesticide poisoning is increasing according to the existing reports, and it is estimated that about 5 million people die every year as a result of intentional, accidental and occupational exposure worldwide. In India majority of pesticide applicators won’t use recommended personal protective equipment (PPE) and they also won’t read the instruction given in the pesticide safety manual. There is need for a study to find out the patterns of uses of preventive measures for the safe use of pesticides. Also for a country that consumes one of the largest amounts of pesticides in the world, the level of regulation is woeful. Hence government agencies should regulate use of pesticides in the country in more effective way.

  199. Dinesh Kumar, R. K. Praneshwari Devi, L. Somen Kumar Singh, L. Ranjit Singh, M. Rameswar Singh, N. Romita Devi, Zirasangliana Chhangte and Keni Riba

    Foetal macrosomia is a rising challenge in present obstetrics. It is more common in the infant of the diabetic mother, but it occur in non- diabetic pregnancies. In modern obstetrics, fetal macrosomia is a major contributor to obstetric morbidity. Increasing birth weight is known to predispose to a more difficult delivery and increasing rates of caesarean delivery. Women with a history of one macrosomic infantare at significantly increased risk of another macrosomic infant in a subsequent pregnancy. We reported a rare case of primigravida, 39 weeks pog with breech in labour with big baby without any association of diabetes or hypothyroidism. By clinical examination baby was big and there was fetopelvic disproportion. She was planned for emergency caesarean section. She delivered a single live male, 6.1kg baby by emergency lower segment caesarean section.

  200. Dr. Parth A. Vaishnav, Dr. Nandish, H.R. and Dr. Satish patil

    Pulmonary Alveolar Microlithiasis is a rare and chronic disorder of respiratory system of unknown etiology which is characterised by widespread calcifications within the alveoli. We present a case of 65 year female who presented with cough with expectoration since 2 months and Grade III breathlessness. On auscultation there was presence of random wheezes and crackles predominantly in lower lung zones bilaterally. On chest radiograph finding were diffuse, discrete calcifications in both lung fields along with pleural calcification bilaterally. High Resolution Computed Tomography (HRCT) findings were extensive calcification in bilateral lung fields, thickening of pleura and fissures, multiple small nodules along thickened interlobular septa, ground glass opacity with interstitial septal thickening (crazy paving pattern) and few subpleural cysts in bilateral lung fields.

  201. Dr. Nirmalkumar Rawandale, Dr. Ananta Borde, Dr. Amol Patil and Dr. Meenakshi Narkhede

    Communicable diseases still remain a major cause of morbidity and mortality and is a major health concern. Present study was done to document incidence of various communicable diseases in a patient population attending tertiary care centre of north Maharashtra. Methodology- In this retrospective observational study with the help of data entry operator IDSP records from civil hospital Dhule were searched for the years January 2011 to December 2013. P and L forms data was collected and analysed. Results-Highest number of Dengue, typhoid and diphtheria cases were there in the year 2012. Number of cases of Chickengunya, plasmodium vivax and falciparum cases were highest in the year 2011. With the availability of Hepatits B detection kits there were 132 cases of Hepatitis B positive detected in the year 2012. Conclusions- This study was restricted to the reporting of different communicable diseases in the population attending civil hospital Dhule from year 2011 to 2013.

  202. Dr. Debashree Guha, Dr. Pradippprava Paria, Dr. Prativa Biswas, Dr. Sibnath Gayen and Dr. Sabyasachi Som

    Lymphangioma is a condition of congenitallymphatic tissue malformation presenting as benign, hamartomatous growth. Lymphangiomas can occur in the skin and mucous membranes in any part of the body. It is diagnosed clinically by transillumination test positivity and radioimaging. Treatment is surgical excision or sclerotherapy or combination of both. Here we report a case of giant cystic lymhangioma involving both side of the trunk symmetrically.

  203. Dr. Priyanka Thukral, Dr. Shweta Bali, Dr. Nidhi Bhatia and Dr. Shobhit Arora

    Implant placement in severly atrophic jaws is specially challenging because of the poor quality and quantity of the future implant bed. (Scortecci et al., 2001) Calvarial or iliac bone grafts, mental nerve displacement, and sinus lift procedures are often used to overcome the initially unfavourable anatomical and mechanical conditions. (Misch et al., 1999) Furthermore, patients are sometimes reluctant to undergo such procedures. Recent studies reported that basal Implants can be installed in which the vertical bone supply is reduced. The present case report highlights the placement of four basal implants (BCS-Basal cortical screw) in atrophic maxillary area with flapless technique. All the implants were immediately loaded and followed up for a period of 1 year.

  204. Basil O Saleh, Zainab N Anbar and Khawla A Abdulateef

    Background: This study was designed to assess the status of vitamin D concentration (deficiency and insufficiency), by measurement of 25 hydroxyvitamin D 25(OH)D in Iraqi healthy men and to show the effect of age on it. Subjects and methods: This cross-sectional study was carried out at Biochemistry Department, College of Medicine, University of Baghdad, Iraq, during the period from January 2013 to November 2013. This study included 180 healthy men, aged 18-82 years encountered from different regions of Iraq. Men were classified into several groups according to their ages; group VAI (GVAI; < 50 year), group VAII (GVAII; > 50 year), group VBI (GVBI; < 60 year) and group VBII (GVBII; > 60 year). High performance liquid chromatography technique (HPLC) was used for the determination of serum 25(OH)D. Results: The mean value of 25(OH)D concentrations in Iraqi health men was 27.77±12.18 ng/ml, with a range of 1.60-66.89 ng/ml. The results revealed that 28.90 % of the studied men had vitamin D deficiency (< 20 ng/ml), 35.0 % had vitamin D insufficiency (>20<30 ng/ml), and 36.10 % had normal D (> 30 ng/ml). The mean of serum 25(OH)D of men with age ≥ 60 year was significantly lower than that of men of age < 60 year (p=0.038). There was significant positive correlation between the values of age and the serum concentrations of 25(OH)D in group age (40-<60 year) with (r=0.224, p=0.026). Conclusion: The present study revealed the relatively high prevalence of both deficiency and insufficiency of serum 25(OH)D in Iraqi healthy men. The elderly men of age of ≥60 year are the more obvious ones who suffered from D deficiency and who are of urgent need for this vitamin supplementation to combat its complications.

  205. Dr. Rohan Shah, Dr. Shashibhushan, K.K., Dr. Sathyajith Naik, Dr. Subba Reddy, V.V., Dr. Poornima, P. and Dr. Jooie Joshi

    Aims: To compare the pain threshold, efficacy and procedure time taken using Atraumatic restorative treatment (ART), Chemo-mechanical & Conventional restorative treatment (CRT). Design, Methods and Material: 7-12 year old pediatric patients with at least three cavitated dentinal lesions involving occlusal surface of primary or permanent teeth, without pain and pulpal involvement were randomly assigned to 3 treatment groups- Atraumatic restorative treatment (ART) using a hand instrument like a sharp spoon excavator. Conventional restorative treatment (CRT) using an airotor, round diamond bur and straight diamond fissure bur with adequate coolant. Chemo-mechanical method where carious lesions were covered with CarisolvTM gel and gently removed after 30 seconds using a sharp spoon excavator. The procedure was repeated until the gel no longer became cloudy and all cavity surfaces were hard on probing. Caries detecting dye was applied for one minute and the efficacy was compared clinically by using the scale given by Erickson et.al. At the end of each excavation, children were shown the Wong-Baker scale, and asked to point the picture best describing their feelings regarding the treatment they just received. The Modified Behavioral Pain Scale (MBPS) was used for objective evaluation of the children’s reaction during excavation of carious lesion. Procedure time was recorded from the beginning until the restoration was completed. Caries free lesions were restored using restorative Glass ionomer Cement Statistical analysis used: Statistical data was analyzed by using ANOVA, Chi Square, Tukeys post hoc and Kruskallwallis Test. Results: The highest efficacy in caries removal was exhibited by CRT. The time taken for caries removal was the maximum with Chemo-mechanical method and Pain experienced by the patients was reported to be highest with CRT Conclusions: Conventional Rotary Method showed highest efficacy in caries removal & pain response. Chemo-mechanical method exhibited least pain but required more procedure time.

  206. Raksha Bhat, Preethesh Shetty and Dr. Mithra N. Hegde

    Background: Regenerative endodontic procedures and biological principles have now replaced the conventional apexification procedures in the treatment of immature, necrotic teeth. Stem cells from the pulp and ⁄ or periodontium contribute to continued root development when regenerative procedures are followed. Report: A maxillary anterior tooth with a necrotic pulp and immature apex was irrigated with sodium hypochlorite with minimal instrumentation and then dressed with tri-antibiotic paste consisting of ciprofloxacin, metronidazole and tetracycline. At a subsequent visit a blood clot was evoked in the canal by irritating periapical tissues and the canal sealed with mineral trioxide aggregate followed by glass ionomercement. Results: Evaluation revealed continued apical development and closure; and narrowing of the canal space. Conclusions: Initial management of immature teeth with necrotic pulp should involve irrigation with sodium hypochlorite. However, intracanal medicaments such as calcium hydroxideare contraindicated as they inhibit root growth. Regenerative endodontics with continued root growth may reduce the risk of fracture and premature tooth loss associated with traditional ‘apexification’ procedures where the root remains thin and weak.

  207. Manivannan, L., Prabhusaran, N. and Elangovan, R.

    The main objective of this investigation was to find out the effect of yoga and brisk walking on selected physiological variables (blood pressure and pulse rate) among hypertensive men. Subjects included in this study were equally divided into three major groups comprised of 30 per group. The detailed description are Group I underwent yogic practices, Group II underwent brisk walking and Group III acted as control. The study was formulated by the random design, consisting of a pre test and post test. Pre test were conducted for all the 90 subjects on selected physiological variable including blood pressure (both systolic and diastolic) and pulse rate. The experimental groups participated in their respective yoga and brisk walking exercises for a period of twelve weeks. The post tests were conducted for all the subjects again after experimentation of yoga and brisk walking exercises. The data obtained were analyzed by Analysis of Covariance (ANCOVA) to assess the significant difference among the groups on post test for physiological variables. It is concluded that regular practices of yoga decreased blood pressure and pulse rate effectively among hypertension middle aged men than the control group. Brisk walking also reduced effectively blood pressure and pulse rate among hypertension middle aged men than the control group. It is found that yoga are slightly effective than brisk walking on systolic blood pressure whereas yogic practices and walking both are equally effective in diastolic blood pressure and pulse rate.

  208. Dr. Venkateswara Rao Katta, Dr. Rajesh Kongara, Dr. Amarendra Prasad, Dr. Sravan Kumar K. and Dr. Ashok Kumar V.

    Early identification of patients at high risk s critical for early goal directed aggressive therapies in patients with Severe Acute Pancreatitis in preventing complications. A Prospective study was carried out over a period of two years at a tertiary hospital in rural India, and the results are presented here. The mortality rate was 3.92%. BISAP Score of ≥ 3 was associated with significantly higher rates of Organ failure, further more a score ≥ 3 was associated with significantly higher rates of persistent organ failure rates, which was further associated with significantly increased mortality rates. It can be concluded that a simple and reliable scoring system in form of BISAP can be safely and accurately used in predicting in hospital mortality rates in patients with severe acute pancreatitis.

  209. Dr. Elsayed Hassan Abdelsalam Mohamed, Dr. BasantHamdy El-Refay and Dr. Zahra Mohamed Hassan Serry and Dr. LOFTY M ESSA

    Background: Coronary artery bypass graft (CABG) is still associated with frequent development of postoperative pulmonary complications, which are particularly concerning given its link to increased patient morbidity and mortality and resource utilization. Aim of the work: The aim of this study was to compare between the effects of two inpatient respiratory retraining techniques post coronary artery bypass graft. Subjects and Methodology: Forty-five patients of both sexes (22 women and 23 men) who underwent coronary artery bypass graft were enrolled in that study for five days while in inpatient period. Their age ranged from 45-55 years. They were assigned into three groups with equal numbers (control group, Buteyko breathing technique group and incentive spirometer group). Breath holding time (control pause) was measured for the three groups at the beginning of the study (1st day postoperative) and after the end of training (5th day postoperative). Results: There was significant improvement in Breath holding time (control pause). (P<0.05) for three groups. Significant difference was noted between three groups postoperatively, in favor of incentive spirometer group. Conclusion: Both Buteyko breathing technique and incentive spirometer induce significant improvement in Breath holding time (control pause)after Coronary Artery Bypass Graft surgery, in favor of incentive spirometer.

  210. Dr. Elsayed Hassan Abdelsalam Mohamed, Dr. BasantHamdy El-Refay and Dr. Zahra Mohamed Hassan Serry and Dr. LOFTY M ESSA

    Background: Coronary artery bypass graft (CABG) is still associated with frequent development of postoperative pulmonary complications, which are particularly concerning given its link to increased patient morbidity and mortality and resource utilization. Aim of the work: The aim of this study was to compare between the effects of different rehabilitation programs post coronary artery bypass graft. Subjects and Methodology: Forty-five patients of both sexes (22 women and 23 men) who underwent coronary artery bypass graft were enrolled in that study for five days while inpatient period. Their ages ranged from 45-55 years. They were assigned into three groups with equal numbers (control group, Buteyko breathing technique group and incentive spirometer group). Arterial blood gases (PaO2, PH, Hco3 and PaCO2) were measured for the three groups at the beginning of the study (1st day postoperative) and after the end of training (5thday postoperative). Results: There was significant improvement in arterial blood gases including an increase in PaO2 and PH, while there was significant decrease in PaCO2 and Hco3,(P<0.05) for three groups. Significant difference was noted between three groups postoperatively, in favor of incentive spirometer group. Conclusion: Both Buteyko breathing technique and incentive spirometer induce significant improvement in arterial blood gases after Coronary Artery Bypass Graft surgery, in favor of incentive spirometer.

  211. Hiral H. Ganglani and Beroz N. Tavadia

    Objective: This article aims at making Chest physiotherapy (CPT) simple, so that it could be incorporated as a routine intensive care procedure in neonates with respiratory problem for managing respiratory ailments. Introduction: Respiratory problems occur in 4 to 6% of neonates. CPT in the neonatal intensive care unit is associated with taking care of the neonatal lungs. CPT such as percussion, tapping or vibrating on the chest has been used to clear the secretions from the baby’s lungs. Respiratory distress is one of the commonest disorders encountered within first 42-78 hours of life. Study design: Experimental study Sampling Method: Randomized sampling Methodology: Single session study was done on 50 neonates with respiratory problems like Infant Respiratory Distress Syndrome (IRDS), Severe Birth Asphyxia (SBA), Meconium Aspiration Syndrome (MAS), congenital pneumonia. The contra indications to active CPT were ruled out before starting the intervention. The outcome measures were SPO2, RR, and Silverman score. Pre intervention outcome measures were taken after that intervention in form of active CPT was given and then suction was done. Immediately after the intervention again the outcome measures were recorded. The data was collected and analyzed. Results: Z test was done to compare the values of SPO2, RR, and Silverman score pre and post CPT in 50 neonates. It signifies that the p value of pre and post physiotherapy Spo2 is significant and it suggests that there is improvement in oxygen saturation after giving chest physiotherapy, and the p value of pre and post physiotherapy RR and Silverman score is significant which suggests that there is decrease in the respiratory distress after giving chest physiotherapy. Conclusion: This study suggests that introduction of CPT as an adjunct with ongoing medical treatment improves the oxygen saturation and reduces the signs of distress in neonates suffering from respiratory problems.

  212. Vamsi Krishna Kamana, Anand M. Krishnan, Ravella Keerthika Choudary and Umesh Pai

    Vasospastic angina is a rare disease which can present as an acute coronary syndrome emergency. This disease should be thought of in any atypical ECG not following the classic arterial territory involvement in a patient with acute chest pain. Also if there is evidence of long tubular narrowing with normal anatomy of other coronary arteries, then the probability of vasospasm should be kept in mind. Here we present a case of Vasospastic angina at our hospital which has atypical angiographic presentation.

  213. Dr. Avinash, A. and Dr. Ajay Raja, A. and Prof. Dr. Ganesan, M.

    Intussusceptions’ is the telescoping of portion of intestine into other; it is usually idiopathic, without an obvious anatomic lead point. Intussusceptions are classified into three general categories: enteric (small bowel into small bowel), ileocolic (small bowel into colon) and colonic (colon to colon). Ileoileal intususception due to polyp is very common. This cases is presented for its rarity.

  214. Dr. Vaibhav Joshi, Dr. Jainendra Kumar, Dr. Varun Suhag and Dr. Shalini Gupta

    The maxillary posterior edentulous region presents many unique and challenging conditions in implant dentistry as deficient alveolar ridges can jeopardize the placement of implants in posterior maxilla. This problem mostly occurs where ridge resorption and sinus pneumatization are often encountered. The procedure of choice is the elevation of the floor of the sinus with the use of the osteotome technique so as to increase the alveolar ridge height for the placement of implant. The purpose of this case report is to demonstrate indirect maxillary sinus lift procedure through alveolar crest using osteotomes to prevent perforation of sinus lining during implant placement and restoring the implants using early loading protocol.

  215. Dr. Kamlesh Agrawal, Dr. Ashraf Malik, M. and Dr. Sayed Manazir Ali

    Aims: To determine the prevalence of underweight, overweight and obesity in healthy adolescents as well as to establish the relationship of nutritional status with dietary habits and physical activity. Material & methods: Across sectional, observational study was conducted in a Tertiary Care Teaching Hospital for 12 months, which included 407 adolescent students of different socio economic group. Anthropometric measurements were taken and information regarding dietary habits, physical activity, TV watching habits and computer work were noted in a questionnaire. Statistical analysis of the data was done by SPSS v 17. Pearson’s Chi- square test was used. Results: Total 407 students of age group 11 to 16 years including 185 boys and 222 girls participated in the study.19.42% students were underweight, 64.61% were healthy weight, 12.29% were overweight and 3.68% were obese. A significant correlation was found between the different age groups and nutritional status. Mean caloric intake in underweight students was 1545.51 and2209.13 in obese students, with statistically significant relation between nutritional status and average diet. Statistically significant correlation found between decreased physical activity & overweight/obesity, as well as between increased duration of TV watching & computer work and overweight/obesity. Conclusion: A baseline level of nutritional status of healthy adolescents is developed in the present study. Nutritional status of adolescent school going children is related with their dietary habits & physical activity.

  216. Dr. Arnab Sinha and Dr. Santosh Kumar

    Proximal humerus fractures are difficult to treat from the first evaluation to final outcome. Much controversy and confusion still exist, and no single treatment protocol or algorithm has been proved to be universally effective. From the time that they were traditionally conservatively managed, to now when more and more operative treatment is being done for these fractures. The types of fixation—transosseous suture fixation, percutaneous pinning, intramedullary nailing, or plate fixation—used depends on the patient’s age, activity level, and bone quality; the fracture type and associated fractures; and the surgeon’s technical ability. A retrospective study of 30 case records of proximal humerus fractures fixed with an angle stable device was done (Philos locking plate) to analyse the results of Proximal humerus locking plate osteosynthesis in proximal humerus fractures and using the Neer Shoulder Score. A review of the relevant literature was also done.

  217. Zornitsa Kamenarska and Maria Hristova

    The current concept of idiopathic scoliosis (IS) consists of a multifactorial disease involving genetic and non-genetic factors in the occurrence and progression of curvature. The candidate gene association study begins with selection of a putative candidate gene based on hypotheses, including biological systems involved in the development of deformity and assumptions based on results of clinical observations. The aim of a genome wide association study (GWAS) is to detect significant associations in a population between common diseases and common genetic variants. The results from previous association studies based on hypotheses and from whole genome scan suggest involvement of polymorphic variants of different candidate genes with different impact on the etiopathogenesis of IS in different population groups. The identification of molecular markers with diagnostic and prognostic value could be useful in clinical practice for early diagnosis of scoliosis among relatives and for more accurate prognosis of the risk of rapid progression of the deformity among affected individuals. That will permit prophylaxis and early treatment with less invasive procedures.

  218. Sandhya Sawant, Anuja Sonawane and Jayanthi Shastri

    Background: Hepatitis A and E are highly endemic and are significant contributors of morbidity and mortality in India. Retrospective analysis of the data was carried out to find the prevalence of hepatitis A and E virus ( HAV & HEV ) among the acute sporadic hepatitis patients. Aim: To find the prevalence of hepatitis A & E among sporadic cases of acute hepatitis from a tertiary care hospital. Settings and Design: Retrospective study conducted in a tertiary care Hospital Materials & methods: Data from July 2014 to December 2015 regarding IgM HAV and IgM HEV ELISA was analysed. Results: Prevalence of HAV infection was 10.6%, HEV was 20 % and HAV & HEV co infection was found to be 5.9 %. Majority of the patients were adults. HEV infection was more commonly seen in females. Conclusion: HAV continues to be a disease of childhood, age less than 12 years and HEV of older children and adults, age more than 12 years. HEV is a significant contributor of morbidity & mortality among the pregnant patients. It is imperative to prevent faecal contamination of drinking water, improve sanitation, eating and hand hygiene practices. These practices have known to decrease the prevalence in developed countries.

  219. Navin Mishra and Isha Narang

    Introduction: Intracanal medicament has been widely advocated to help eliminate pulpal or periapical tissue microorganism either as local dressing after excavation of carious lesions or as a root canal medicament. Herbal medicine, also called “botanical medicine” or “phytomedicine”, refers to the use of plant seeds, berries, roots, leaves, bark, or flowers for medicinal purposes. Ocimum sanctum (Holy basil, Tulsi) is a plant native to India and has been known to have antimicrobial and anti inflammatory properties. The present pilot clinical study used Ocimum sanctum’s essential oil extract to test its anti inflammatory properties in deep carious teeth with irreversible pulpitis slated for extraction. Materials and methods: Six patients with irreversibly inflamed pulp in carious third molar slated for extraction were randomly divided into two groups. Gross carious excavation was done in all the selected teeth. IRM restoration was placed in teeth of control Group A while cotton pellet dipped in Ocimum sanctum’s essential oil extract was placed in group B before restoration. Both groups were called after 48 hrs for extraction and teeth were longitudinally grooved with a fissure bur and split in half. The dental pulps were extracted carefully from all the teeth using a spoon excavator which was fixed in 10% formalin solution. It was then subjected to dehydration with graded alcohol 70%, 80%, and 90% successively. The tissue embedding was done in blocks of paraffin wax after clearing with Xylene. The specimens were examined under compound microscope after staining with haemotoxylin and eosin stain. Results: Group A (Control): Cellular collagenous pulp tissue showing interstitial edema with moderate diffuse infiltrate of neutrophilic polymorphonuclear cells with evidence of acute inflammation. Group B (Ocimum Sanctum (Tulsi) essential oil extract): Cellular collagenous pulp tissue with no evidence of acute inflammation was seen. Conclusion: After 48 hours deep carious third molars in contact with Tulsi oil the mediators of acute inflammation was totally eliminated. Thus extract showed its efficacy against acute inflammation.

  220. Sujith Mathew, Sushma Kumari Saini and J. S. Thakur

    Objective: To determine the level of physical activity and nutritional status of adolescent boys aged 15-19 years at Dadu Majra Colony, Chandigarh. Methods: Cross-sectional study was done to interview 301 study subjects. Systematic random sampling was used in this study. Interview schedule was prepared from HEEADSS assessment tool for adolescents and following domains such as nutrition and activity were taken under for the study. Results: Some of the adolescent boys spent time for regular exercise (39%) but others were having sedentary activities for > 3hours/day such as spending time in mobile phones (26.7%), computer (9.6%), television (27.6%), etc. They ate fruits (21.9%) and vegetables (73.4%) for all the days in a week but more than half of subjects reported that they attended parties with frequent intake of junk foods. Most of them were having healthy weight (75.7%). Conclusion: More than half of the adolescent boys followed sedentary activities such as prolonged sitting in front of television, with computer and with mobile phones without any regular exercises or participation in sports. They ate junk foods without following a proper balanced diet. Some of the boys were underweight.

  221. Dr. Luxita Sharma and Rashi Saini

    According to WHO, Hypertension is a condition in which the blood vessels have persistently high pressure. Normal adult blood pressure is 120mm Hg when the heart contracts (systolic) and 80mm Hg when the heart relaxes (diastolic).When systolic pressure is equal to or above 140mm Hg and diastolic pressure is equal to or above 90mm Hg the blood pressure is considered to be raised or high (WHO, 2015). Obesity is also a major contributing factor towards hypertension. There are at least 970 million obese people worldwide with elevated blood pressure (World Heart Federation, 2015) Looking at the severity of its occurrence a need was felt to conduct a study on hypertension in subjects belonging to the region of Delhi (NCR). Dietary interventions particularly potassium intakes have demonstrated their ability to reduce blood pressure in humans. The present study was carried out on 40 hypertensive patients belonging to the region of Delhi (NCR). The general information, medical history and dietary survey was collected through interview cum questionnaire method. The Blood pressure was measured by Sphygmomanometer. The subjects were having very high BP than prescribed normal range by WHO. The mean nutrient intake viz. calories, protein, fat, carbohydrate, sodium was calculated by seven day dietary recall method. It was found that hypertensive subjects were taking more amount of sodium in their diets. The BMI of the subjects was calculated and they were categorized according to grades of obesity. Therefore it was concluded that the subjects having high BMI were suffering from hypertension. The knowledge of nutrition education and diet was imparted for the prevention and control of hypertension.

  222. Nisha Kanabar

    Low back pain (LBP) is a common and costly problem, often associated with high recurrence rate and equivocal management efficacy. Low back pain remains the primary cause of absenteeism and disability in every industrialized society.1 About 80% of the population experiences low back pain more than once throughout their lives. Those experiencing acute low back pain, 90% recover within two months, but chronic low back pain triggers physical atrophy and psychological problems. Low back pain sustained for more than 12 weeks is called chronic low back pain (CLBP).2 Jin AH Hwang concluded that sensory motor training makes patients capable of learning how to adjust muscles, thereby alleviating pain and improving muscle performance. 2 Literature regarding impact of Sensory motor training in patients with LBP was less so the present study aims to analyses its impact and examine whether it should be considered as a treatment option for LBP. It was hypothesized that Sensory Motor Training will be equally or more effective than traditionally used core stability exercises in patients with chronic non-specific low back pain. An experimental study was conducted on total of 28 subjects who were enrolled from Dolphin PG institute of biomedical and natural sciences in dehradun on the basis of inclusion and exclusion criteria. This study was approved by ethical committee of Dolphin (PG) Institute of Biomedical and Natural Sciences, Dehradun. Subjects were divided into 2 groups after informed consent was informed. Group A (Sensory Motor Training n=13), and Group B (Core Stability Exercises n=15). Pre intervention readings of pain using Numeric Rating Scale and disability using Oswestry Disability Questionnaire were carried out for each patient. For both the group interventions was given five times in a week for 4 weeks. Post intervention reading was calculated in the same manner as pre intervention after the end of 4 weeks. This study depicted that both Sensory motor training and Core Stability exercises are equally effective in reducing Pain and Disability in subject with Chronic Non-specific Low Back Pain. However Sensory motor training was found to be better impact when means were considered. So we could conclude that SMT is indeed a choice of treatment for patients with CNSLBP.

  223. Amel Fayed

    Background: In Arab countries, many women continue to get pregnant until very advanced age. Many studies have investigated the outcomes of pregnancies in women above the age of 35. However, as it is such a controversial topic, there is no certain answer as to whether or not advanced maternal pregnancies affect the mother and baby’s health. This study aims to describe the maternal and neonatal outcomes of pregnancy at 45 years and beyond. Results: A retrospective review of three hospitals records from Riyadh encompassing 15,415 deliveries was carried out. Out of them, 84 women (6 per 1000) aged 45 or more delivered. About 11% of deliveries were preterm and 38% were by Cesarean Section. Low birth weight was reported in 10% of cases and no stillbirth occurred among the studied sample. Conclusion: Overall, the maternal and neonatal outcomes in this studied sample did not show grave consequences of conceiving at very advanced maternal age. The Saudi mothers suffered from co morbidities such as diabetes and hypertension, which are expected to be common among non-pregnant women of the same age. The preterm labor and low birth weight were lower than those reported globally and comparable to those reported in Saudi Arabia.

  224. Dr. Madhu Mitha, M., Dr. Nijesh, J. E., Dr. Nijesh, J. E. and Dr. Indra Priyadharshini

    Dental caries is not a life menacing disease, so it is under progress with no active steps been taken for its total eradication. Active and passive immunization strategies have been developed which target key elements in the molecular pathogenesis of mutans streptococci. Along with established methods of caries prevention, caries vaccines have the potential of making a highly valuable contribution to disease control. Progress towards practical vaccine development requires evaluation of candidate vaccines in clinical trials. Promising strategies of passive immunization also require further clinical evaluation. The present review gives an overview of the current developments, drawbacks and potential of revolutionary caries management.

  225. Dr. Santosh Kumar Verma, Dr. Madhu Ranjan, Dr. Barun Dev, Dr. Abhik Sen, Dr. Sankalp Verma and Dr. Marilia Marceliano-Alves

    Background: Platelet-rich plasma (PRP) has been used in periodontal therapy for past two decades. However, results obtained are conflicting. Moreover, the optimum concentrations of PRP to promote wound healing and regeneration still remains uncertain. Objectives: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the biological effects of platelet-rich plasma (PRP) on human periodontal ligament cells (hPDLCs) in vitro. This study was an attempt to find ideal concentration for clinical uses. Materials and method: Primary cultures of hPDLCs were obtained from healthy premolars. PRP was isolated by two-step centrifugation. Platelet gel releasate (PGR) was prepared by activating PRP with thrombin and CaCl2. The functional parameters of hPDLc (proliferation, alkaline phosphatase) were analyzed in vitro for 14 days in the presence of different concentrations (100%, 75%, 50%, and 25%) of platelet gel releasate (PGR). Statistical analysis was performed using one-way ANOVA. Results: There was time-dependent increase in cell count in all groups till 14th days. The number of cell was maximum in 100% PGR on 1st (n=15+4.3) and 3rd (n=17+6.1) day. 25% PGR showed maximum proliferation on 7th and 14th day. Spectrophotometric ALPase activity assay showed time dependent increase in ALPase activity till 7th day and decrease afterwards. 25%PGR showed maximum ALPase activity on 7th day. Conclusions: PGR is an effective stimulator of hPDLc. Higher concentrations (100% & 75%) of PGR results in excessive proliferation of cells in the initial stage but lower concentration (25%) showed controlled and gradual proliferation. Moreover, lower concentration of PGR caused differentiation (ALPase activity) of cells in the late stage. Thus, it seemed that PRP with 25% concentration was an ideal.

  226. Shobha B. Sikkerimath, Niranjan S. Patil, Semmia Mathivanan, Basavaraj C. Sikkerimath and Mustafa I. Merchant

    Schwannomas are rare kind of benign neural tumors. They arise from Schwann cells of the neural sheath of peripheral, cranial, or autonomic nerves. Of twenty five percent of all Schwannomas located in the head and neck, only 1% have intraoral presentation. Due to its abysmal rate of occurrence, it makes a less likely diagnosis in case of oropharyngeal masses, leading to delay in identification and treatment. The most definitive way to diagnose this tumor is by its histopathologic and immunohistochemical examination. We report an interesting case of a patient with a mass located in the nasolabial region, which initially had presentations similar to a nasolabial cyst, but finally turned out to be a Schwannoma. There has been no sign of recurrence almost two years after surgery. The importance of considering Schwannoma as a differential diagnosis can’t be stressed enough since it is increasing in incidence of late.

  227. Heloisa Oliveira dos Santos, Kiliany Andrea Arcia Moreno, Raquel Maria de Oliveira Pires, Édila Vilela de Resende Von Pinho, Marcela Pedroso Mendes, Leandro Mariotto and Eric Schwan Resende

    During the period of seeds germination, many factors are determinant to the establishment of seedlings in field, being the water stress a negative effect. To create or adapt new cultivars to these conditions, plants breeding programs are fundamental. With this, the aim with this work was to verify the physiological quality of soybean seeds submitted to water stress. Were used seeds of five soybean cultivars (Savana, Conquista, Valiosa, BRS Celeste and Baliza) and five osmotical potentials (0, -0.2, -0.4, -0.6 and -0.8 MPa) diluted into water. To evaluate the physiological potential of these seeds, were realized the germination test with four replications of 50 seeds, distributed between three germitest paper moistened with PEG6000 solutions, described above. The evaluation was performed on the eighth day, with the first count realized determining the percentage of normal seedlings on the fifth day after planting and vigor evaluation of shoot and root length. The biochemical evaluation was performed by the expression of isoenzymes esterase (EST) and catalase (CAT). Based on the results was possible to observe that with the increase of water stress occurs reduction in the physiological quality, as well as reduction in the development of seedlings, independently of cultivar. The cultivar Savana is the most tolerant to water stress when compared to the others. There is variation in the expression of catalase and esterase in function of water stress levels in which seeds of soybean cultivars are exposed during the germination process.

  228. Cosme Damião Barbosa, Raquel M. de Oliveira Pires, Ângela Giovana Batista, Marcela Carlota Nery, Paulo Henrique Fidêncio, e Nísia Andrade Villela Dessimoni Pinto

    26 accesses of “Sabará” jaboticaba tree (Myrciariajaboticaba) were characterized in Diamantina-MG by the exploratory analyses of their morfoagronomic and physicochemical characteristics for the selection of promising matrixes for the in natura and the agroindustry market. Physical, physicochemical and chemical’s characteristics of fruits and physiologic characteristics of seeds were analyzed. Was realized the principal componentanalysis (PCA). Were verified that the six mainly components were sufficient to accumulate 82% of total variance, being 39.63% of total variance described by the first principal component (PC1) and by the second component (PC2) 13.10% of variance. Through PCA and hierarchical cluster analysis (HCA) was possible to select variables capable to explain the formation of groups, being effective to synthesize the judgment of the characteristics of jaboticaba trees “Sabará”. There is variation between the physical, physicochemical and chemical characteristics of the fruit and physiological variation of the seeds of the different accesses.

  229. Gabriel Dutra Vaz, Joana Souza Fernandes, Rafael Toledo de Moraes Antoniolli, Raquel Maria de Oliveira Pires, Jaqueline Pereira Januário, *Barbara Gomes Ribeiro, Tatiana Botelho Fantazzini, Carla Massimo Caldeira and Heloisa Oliveira dos Santos

    The use of quality seeds is fundamental to the success of any crop. In Brazil, it has been growing significantly the implementation of pastures areas, mainly of brachiaria. However, there are many difficulties to determination of quality of seeds from this genus of forages. With this, the aim with this work was to relate the characteristics of different substrates and the physiological potential of seeds of brachiariaMulato II. Was evaluated the germination of bared and treated seeds of brachiaria in the following substrates: germitest paper (described at RegrasparaAnálise de Sementes), sand and perlite in two gradations (small and large). According the results, was possible to conclude that the utilization of substrate small perlite, when used bared seeds, is more promising to evaluate the germination of brachiaria seeds cultivar Mulato II. For seeds treated, all substrates used are efficient to evaluate the germination of brachiaria seeds cultivar Mulato II. The substrate 100% small perlite achieved the desired index of germination of brachiaria described by the normative instruction 45 from 17 September 2013 (MAPA).

  230. Abdelrhman A. M. Yousif, Badreldin E. A. Mohamed, Mohamed Y. A. Babiker, Abdel Moneim E. Sulieman and Elnour A. Abdelmageed

    Thyroid disease is the second most common endocrine disease affecting women of reproductive age. The current study aimed to assess the effect of pregnancy on thyroid function among Sudanese pregnant women at Wad Medani Police Hospital, Gezira State - Central Sudan. 115 pregnant women, at different stages of pregnancy, were randomly selected as cases. The gestational age was (28 first trimester, 32 second trimester, and 55 third trimester). 30 apparently age-matched and healthy non-pregnant women were selected as control group. 5 ml of venous blood sample were collected from all the recruited cases and controls. Serum was obtained for thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH), total thyroxin (TT4), and total triiodothyronine (TT3) analysis. TT4 concentrations in pregnant women were significantly higher during the second and third trimester (P< 0.05) compared to control group. TSH concentrations showed significant decrease in pregnant women compared to control group, particularly in the third trimester. No significant change was shown in TT3 concentrations. The effect of pregnancy on elevation of T4 and lowering TSH, may lead to misclassification of maternal thyroid function.

  231. Poonam sisodia and Balwinder sadana

    The corn extruded snacks were supplemented with moth bean and garden cress in order to enhance the nutritional quality of the snacks. The garden cress (GC) was added to different extruded snacks at the level of 2.5, 5%, 7.5% and 10% level while, moth bean (MB) was added at the level of 20 % to the corn flour. The developed snacks were acceptable till 7.5% level of garden cress incorporation. The organoleptically acceptable snacks were analysed for nutritional evaluation. All the developed extruded snacks incorporating MB and GC were high in protein ranging from 15.08 to 16.9g/100g in comparison to the corn extruded snack (9.1 g). The iron and calcium content of the snacks ranged between 18.4 to 21.3 mg/100g and 54.6 to 57.3mg/100g DM respectively, which were significantly (p ≤ 0.05) higher than the control. The essential amino acids like methionine and cystine content of the snacks was significantly higher than control, it ranged from 105.3 to 109.5 mg/100g DM and 102.3 to 109.2mg/ 100gDM, whereas their content in corn extruded snack (control) was 84.6 and 99.2mg/100gDM. The lysine content of MB and GC snacks was significantly (p ≤ 0.05) higher than the corn extruded snacks. The antinutrients like oxalate and phytate content were low ranging from 1.3 to 2.1 mg/100g and 128 to 144 mg/100g respectively. The developed snacks had high protein, iron, iron bioavailabilty, invitrocarbohydrate and protein digestibility.

  232. Heloisa Oliveira dos Santos, Renata Silva-Mann, Robério Anastácio Ferreira, Edila Vilela de Resende Von Pinho, Carla Massimo Caldeira, Raquel Maria de Oliveira Pires and Valkiria Fabiana da Silva

    Among the speed tests that allows to determine the viability and vigor of seeds, the tetrazolium test is one of the most promising alternative. However, it is necessary to establish a specific methodology for each species studied. Thus, this present work was realized with the aim to adequate the methodology of tetrazolium test to evaluate the viability of canafistula(Cassia grandis L. F.). Were evaluated the following procedures to the removal of seeds coat: moistening in paper towel and immersion in water by 24 hours 30°C in an incubator type BOD. Then, the embryos were immersed in 0,075%, 0,5% and 1% of tetrazolium solution at 30°C in the dark for 4, 8 and 12 hours for the color development. Between the tested procedures to the removal of seeds coat, the immersion of seeds in water at 30°C for 24 hours allows better imbibition of seeds. Uniform coloration was obtained when seeds were immersed in tetrazolium solution at 0,5% for 8 hours at 30°C in the dark. The vigorous tissue was colored by brilliant pink, while the tissues with some deterioration or with damages presented the coloration of red-carmine intense. It was possible to establish three viable classes of seeds (class 1, 2 and 3) and three non-viable and dead (class 4, 5 and 6).

  233. Ogbalu, O. K., Eze, C. N. and Chuku, E. C.

    This study assessed for the first time new trends in the epidemiology of Pediculosis in school children (age 5-14years) in the humid Niger Delta region and from the relatively drier environments of the south eastern states of Nigeria. Samplings covered 8230 pupils with more than 750 children interviewed and examined per selected school from nine cities of the two zones. Pupils from the two zones suffered pediculosis infection in 2012. Pediculosis cut across all ages sampled. Percentage infection was generally low;out of 1000 school children interviewed and examined in the Niger Delta zone, highest percentage infection of 4.7% was recorded in Bayelsa and the lowest was from Delta (2%). Data from the south-east were higher than what were collected from the Niger Delta zone. Results from the current survey show a new trend in Pediculosis infection in pupils of both zones; infection was higher in boys than girls in 2012. The overall assessment shows that only 195 girls (2.4%) had Pediculushumanuscapitis infection as against 372 boys (4.5%). Girls make use of salon facilities more than boys. Apart from poverty which was associated with pupils from low socioeconomic cadre other major factors that resulted in the new trends in the spread of the disease in the two ecological zones of Nigeria are discussed.

  234. Sumayaa, S. and Muthumareeswari, S.

    Palmyra palm tree belongs to the ‘Palme’ family. It is a tall and swaying tree well known as ‘Borassus flabellifer’. The word Borassus was derived from a Greek word and it means the leathery covering of the fruit and flabellifer means fan bearer. Palm fruits were collected from Ramanathapuram district. The fruits were washed with tap water and then allowed to ripen for 2-3 days if necessary. The products like squash and juice were prepared using fruit powder at 1g, 2g and 3g level of incorporation. Each ingredient was weighed using a weighing scale before preparation. Portion size, duration of preparation was noted in each case. The sensory evaluation was carried out by a panel of twenty members using five point hedonic rating scales. Iron content of the raw palm fruit was high about 24mg whereas in boiled and roasted palm fruit it was 10mg and 9.5mg respectively. Fiber content of raw palm fruit was high about 4.8g when compared to boiled palm fruit (1g) and roasted palm fruit (1.5g). In general it is seen that dietary fibre content is modified by different methods of processing. The microbial load of raw, boiled and roasted palm fruit squash and juice for different storage periods indicates that on the first day bacteria, fungi and yeast were absent. On the final day bacteria were present in juice. Hence the shelf life of palm squash was less than 15days. Cake incorporated with 1g of palm fruit powder revealed that low amount of carbohydrate was present in boiled palm fruit cake. Protein content is high in roasted palm cake.

  235. Shiferaw Tolosa and Tewodros Ayalew

    A field experiment was conducted at Dilla district, Gedio Zone Southern Ethiopia during the 2014 main cropping season under rain-fed condition, to study the effects of variable seed rates and time of nitrogen fertilizer application on yield and yield components of tef. A factorial experiment with three variable seed (15, 25 and 35 kg ha-1) and four timing of applications (full dose at sowing, full dose at tillering, ½ dose at sowing + ½ dose at tillering, ¼ at sowing+ ½ after 30 days of sowing+ ¼ after 60 days of sowing) were used in Randomized Complete Block Design (RCBD) with three replication. Nitrogen fertilizer at recommendation rate of 46 kg N ha-1 was applied by broadcasting urea. Phosphorus was applied to all plots equally at the blanket recommendation rate of 46 kg P205 ha-1 as TSP (Triple- supper phosphate). The tef variety used for the study was, Kuncho (DZ-CR 387 RIL 355). Both seed rates and time of nitrogen application significantly affected days to heading, physiological maturity, plant height, panicle length, straw yield, above-ground biomass, grain yield and harvest index. The treatment interaction significantly (P<0.001) affected plant height and lodging index of tef. Low seed rates delayed days to panicle initiation and days to physiological maturity of tef plants. Seed rate at 15 kg/ha increased above ground biomass yield by 4.65% over seed rate at 35 kg/ha. Application of the recommended rate of nitrogen 1/2 dose at sowing and 1/2 dose at tillering also increased total aboveground biomass yield and straw yield of tef as compared to other treatments. Application of the recommended rate of nitrogen half dose at sowing and half dose at tillering gave significantly higher (2308.96kg/ha) grain yield than the rest of the treatments. Significantly higher (2000.24 kg/ha) grain yield was also recorded under low seed rates. Hence, reducing seed rates and using application of the recommended rate of nitrogen half dose at sowing and half dose at tillering considerably increased the growth, yield and yield attributes of tef and can be suggested for higher tef production in the study area.

  236. Snisha, S. and Dr. C. C. Harilal

    An attempt has been carried out to access the changes in pH of water samples brought about by selected plant materials from 24 species belonging to 17 families. Batch treatment was carried out with varying dosages of plant materials (0.5g, 1g, 2g, and 4g) and retention time (1.5HAT, 3HAT, 6HAT, 12HAT and 24HAT). Of 24 plants / parts selected, dried fruits of Phyllanthus emblica were able to neutralize both acidic (46% at 24HAT) and alkaline (55% at 6HAT) range of pH. Likewise, neutralization of acidic pH was observed with dry fruits of Terminalia chebula (42.62% at 24 HAT) and seed kernels of Mangifera indica (35.47% at 12 HAT). Dried fruits of Terminalia bellirica and Terminalia chebula were able to neutralize the alkaline pH with a removal percentage of 46.15% and 44.09% at 12 HAT respectively. On correlation (p<0.01) and regression analysis, pH neutralization capacity was found to have link with dosage and retention time. The plants screened in the present study can be utilized for pH stabilization in household water treatment systems.

  237. Ghaleb Adwan and Doa'a Rabaya

    Fifty-one isolates of Klebsiella pneumoniae were recovered from different hospitals in Northern Palestine, during September-December 2015. Results showed that the prevalence of ESBLs, MBLs and AmpC β-lactamases using multiplex PCR technique were 92.2%, 9.8 and 3.92%, respectively. For ESBL genes, TEM gene was the most dominant (72.5%) among K. pneumoniae isolates. Other genes were (0.0%), (17.6%) and (31.4%) for CTX-M, SHV and OXA genes, respectively. For AmpC β-lactamase producing K. pneumoniae, only DHA gene was detected and all MBL producing isolates were carried NDM gene. Molecular analysis by construction phylogenetic tree showed that all sequenced TEM, SHV, OXA, NDM and DHA genes were belonged to TEM-1, SHV-1, OXA-1, NDM-1 and DHA-1, respectively. In addition, 51% of K. pneumoniae harbored only class 1 integrons, whereas other tested classes were not detected. All class 1 integrons were detected in isolates carried β-lactamase genes. ERIC-PCR profile showed that these isolates were diverse and unrelated clones. This is the first study documented the prevalence and molecular characterization of β-lactamases producing K. pneumoniae isolates in Palestine Our results showed high occurrence of β-lactamases among K. pneumoniae isolates in Palestine. Based on these results we recommend the continuous monitoring and surveillance of the prevalence, proper control and prevention practices and effective antibiotic use will restrict the further spread of β-lactamases producing K. pneumoniae isolates within hospitals in this country.

  238. Raji krishna Ravishanker and Savanta V. Raut

    The present study aims the evaluation of antimicrobial potential of methanol extract of Kimia dates and to identify potential natural sources for the synthesis of new drugs to address the growing antimicrobial resistance. The crude methanol extract of Kimia dates, Phoenix dactylifera was extracted and antibacterial activity was evaluated determined by paper disc method showed enterprising potential zone of inhibition of 17mm against Salmonella paratyphi B leading to the further investigation using agar cup method on various standard strains demonstrated excellent zone of inhibition (53mm) against S. typhi. MIC of E.coli and S.aureus found in the range of 0.195mg/ml and MBC in at 2.0mglml. Activity guided fraction was performed and found Ethyl acetate fraction exhibited promising activity with a zone of inhibition 38mm for S.aureus and 35mm for E.coli. Phytochemical analysis reveals the presence of glycoside, saponins, alkaloids, flavonoids and tannins. The potent ethyl acetate fraction was further subjected to characterization of bioactive compounds using HPTLC, followed by bioautography, CHNS, FTIR, LCMS and GCMS analysis revealing the presence of 12-Oleanen-3-yl acetate, (3α) (C32H5202) with probability-75% may be the bioactive compound in the Kimia ethyl acetate fraction, belonging to the class triterpenes, showing a wide range of antimicrobial, anti-diabetic, anti-amylase inhibitor, antioxidant, antibacterial, anti-inflammatory, antitumor activities. The Kimia dates ethyl acetate fraction showed the maximum antioxidant activity of 98.57µg/ml, MIC of antiviral activity is 6.25 mg/ml. The Fruit ethyl acetate fraction shows a strong ability to inhibit and reduce 96.48% infectivity of coli phage and completely prevented bacterial lysis at 30 minutes. The phage inactivation kinetics indicates 65.6% at 20 min of exposure. The fruit fraction showed a strong ability to inhibit the infectivity of coli phage and completely prevented bacterial lysis, which it is hoped will promote research into its potential as a novel antiviral agent against pathogenic human viruses.

  239. Damaris Enyegue Mandob and Mounmo Thomas Dagain

    Background: The Metabolic Syndrome is now considered as important factor of cardiovascular mortality around the world. Objective: This cross-sectional study aimed to determine the prevalence of metabolic syndrome in 81 voluntary men belonging to Toupouri ethnic group of Yaoundé Cameroon. The definition used is that of National Cholesterol Education Programm Adult Treatment Panel III (NCEP ATP III) 2001. Result: The prevalence of metabolic syndrome among Toupouri men was 29.62%. The prevalence of metabolic syndrome individual components was hypocholesterolemia HDL (64.20%), hypertension (60.49%), hypertriglyceridemia (37.03%), high waist circumference (22.22%) and hyperglycemia (2.46%). In our results 25.92% had three altered metabolic syndrome components while 3.70% had four and nobody met five criteria. Conclusion: Metabolic Syndrome is common amongst Toupouri men of Yaoundé.

  240. Hiralal Jana, Adhikary, M. M. and Basu, D.

    With ever-increasing human population, there is an increasing demand to raise the production. Among the all measures to raise the productivity level, plant protection is playing a leading role. Specially in this field as well as for overall agricultural development in rural areas, the agricultural input retailers are playing an important role with their marketing environment and limitations. The present study was undertaken with the following objective- to identify the major independent variables affect on performance level of agricultural input retailers. The study was undertaken in the State of West Bengal. Multi-stage random sampling technique was adopted for the selection of area and the universe method was used for the selection of respondents. In the present study, 21 independent variables (factors) were considered important. The study reveals that experience (r=0.273**), investment (r=0.266**), retailing ability (r=0.346**) and communication skill (r=0.313**) had positive and highly significant association (at 0.01 level of probability) with retailing performance level of the respondents whereas education (r=0.197*), mode of accessing information (r=0.216*), agricultural training (r=0.208*), supply of products in proper time and in required quantity (r=0.212*), information seeking behavior about cultivation in field (r=0.199*), general knowledge of agriculture except plant protection(r=0.209*) and knowledge about plant protection(r=0.221*) had positive and significant relation (at 0.05 level of probability) with retailing performance level of the respondents in the study area. Selected socio-personal traits of retailers was fitted in the multiple regression equation and it is clear from the study that experience, investment, agricultural training, supply of products in proper time and in required quantity, retailing ability, communication skill and knowledge about plant protection were found to be positively significant at 0.05 level of probability. Considering the fact, public and private extension agencies should focus on this category of people carefully, because farmers’ development upto a great extent hidden behind development of agricultural input retailers of our country.

  241. Sharda Shakha

    The Ludhiana is one of the fastest growing and most centrally located district of Punjab. It is the largest city in Punjab, both in terms of area (3860 sq km) and population (approximately 34, 87,882 as per 2011 census). Ludhiana is the first metropolitan city, popularly known as “Manchester of India”. The rapid population growth in Ludhiana continues to be a matter of concern due to its manifold effects on environment and one of the most important being groundwater contamination and overexploitation. The major driving force affecting the study area is increase in population due to urbanization and industrialization seems to have a severe impact on the climate change as indicated by change in temperature, rainfall pattern and relative humidity in the study area.44 groundwater samples were analyzed during pre-monsoon and post-monsoon periods respectively from different depths to evaluate the groundwater quality for drinking purposes. For this purpose, the implementation of the sustainable management water will require an integrated approach to strike a fine balance between urbanization and environmental protection.

  242. Ramya, D.R. and Balwin Nambikkairaj

    The Phytochemical activity of the ethanol extract of leafy part of the plants of Borreria articularis, Ichnocarpus frutescens and Zingiber officinale was studied to fix the parameters for pharmacognostical standards. These created an interest to test the possible phytochemical activity of the plant. In the screening process of selected plants indicate the presence of Protein, Total Carbohydrates, Total Free Amino acids, Proline, Phenols, β-carotein, Ascorbic acid, Thiamine, Calcium, Sodium and Potassium. This phytochemical study was performed by using standard procedure. The ethanolic extract of the leafy part of selected plants showed anti-gallstone activity in Albino wistar rats.

  243. Rajasekhar Sunnapu, Dr. Borad, C. K. and Dr. Parasharya, B. M.

    Experiments were carried out to test the effects of chemicals on different behavioural activities of T.chilonis females on the treated Corcerya cephalonica eggs was recorded the video for 10 minutes (600sec) and analyzed by using Observer® XT software developed by Noldus technology. The results showed that among the six insecticides and one antibiotic with the doses (LD50, half of LD50 and one fourth of LD50) tested, all the pesticides were negatively effects the behavioural activities of T.chilonis females, except only chlorantraniliprole pesticide and sublethal (lower) doses of Spinosad @ 0.0045% and streptomycine sulphate @ 0.000375% found harmless. The oviposition of T. chilonis females on treated C. cephalonica eggs was found in the lethal dose of chlorantraniliprole@ 0.006% and sublethal doses of 0.003%, 0.015%with mean duration of 211.3sec, 223.3secand230sec.The oviposition activity in the sublethal doses of spinosad @ 0.0045% and streptomycine sulphate @ 0.000375%with mean duration of 208.6sec and 226.4sec it was found that significantly lower than control. Thenon- ovipositional activities of T. chilonis females only found maximum in the remaining chemicalswhich suggested that T. chilonis females were trying to avoid the host treated site and escape.

  244. Priyadharshini, C., Amikapathy, V. and Panneerselvam, A.

    To study the effect of biofertilizer, chemical fertilizer and vermicompost on the productivity of Phyllanthus niruri, the pot experiment was conducted with five treatments, i.e. T1- C, T2- AC, T3- PS, T4- NPK, T5- VC. The results indicated the maximum growth. i.e. plant height, number of branches, number of leaves etc of P.niruri. From the analysis of result it has concluded the integrated use of biofertilizers, chemical fertilizers and vermicompost treatments significantly increased growth parameters of P.niruri.

  245. Ramya, D. R. and Balwin Nambikkairaj

    In the present study antioxidant activities by (2,2-Diphenyl-0 picrylhydrazyl) radical (DPPH), hydrogen peroxide, hydroxyl radical inhibition, hemolysis by hydrogen peroxide assay, reducing power and total antioxidant activities of polyphenolic extract of selected plants leaves were investigated. The total polyphenolic contents of the extract were determined using standard methods. The results of antioxidant activities of poly-phenol extract obtained by different in vitro methods were varied depending on the method used. Nevertheless, polyphenol extract showed significant inhibitory activities in all in vitro reactive oxygen species scavenging, might be attributed due to the high level of polyphenolic compound. Also, these various antioxidant activities were compared to α-tocopherol and L-ascorbic acid as reference antioxidant compounds. These findings provide evidence that the polyphenolic extract of selected plants is a natural source of antioxidant against oxidative damage.

  246. Savitha Veeraragavan and Ramamoorthy, D.

    Presently an attempt is made to get detailed information on anatomical architect of the nectariferous tissues present in the ventrally folded stipules in Cassia alata using cross section of stipule and its SEM images. The anatomical studies revealed that nectar secreting tissues are present both on ventral and dorsal fold of the stipules located on both sides of petiole in C. alata. The cross section of the stipule show upper and lower ends made of epidermal tissues and secretary paranchymatous tissues in between. The paranchymatous cells are found to be loaded with nectar and spreading towards upper and lower epidermis. However, a closer observation on the SEM images it is noticed that amount of nectar is seen more on the lower end than upper side confirming the higher degree visitation of ants to the lower side of the stipule for nectar. The secretion is tested for sucrose using Benedict’s solution after hydrolyzing the nectar. The nectariferous cells are devoid of any intracellular bodies as found in other nectaries. Therefore, it is presumed that nectar oozes out either through pores in the epidermis or by rupturing epidermal layer. This aspect requires further SEM studies to find out the way out for the nectar.

  247. Praveen Kumar Singh and Satya Narain

    The present study focuses on Family Asteraceae is reinvestigated in various districts of Uttar Pradesh in which Conyza canadensis showing highly extensive length about 280 cm in Gorakhpur district. This species showing length about 15-90 cm in Flora of British India, 90 cm in Flora of Upper Gangetic Plain, 30-70 cm in Flora of Madhya Pradesh and 15-90 cm in Flora of India. During the floristic investigation this species are collected from different regions of Uttar Pradesh. This species was identified on the basis of morphological, anatomical and floral characters. A taxonomic account of C. canadensis has been given along with their current valid name, flowering and fruiting, habit, locality and specimen voucher number.

  248. Daisy Kameng Baruah, Mridula Saikia Barooah and Daisy Sharma

    Anaemia in pregnancy is associated with increased rate of maternal and perinatal mortality, premature delivery, low birth weight and other adverse outcomes. This study was conducted to determine the prevalence of anaemia among pregnant females attending selected nursing homes in sivasagar district, Assam and to assess the etiologic risk factors contributing to it during pregnancy. A cross-sectional study was conducted on 30 randomly selected pregnant females; data were collected using an interview questionnaire to collect data about socio-demographic characteristics, medical, obstetric and dietary histories. Hematological indicators were obtained from the last recorded values in the patients’ files. Anaemia was defined as haemoglobin level of less than 11.0g/dl. The observed prevalence rate of anaemia found in this study was (39%) and was higher among females from 25 to less than 35 years, house wives , low level of education, decreased birth spacing and history of anaemia before pregnancy were associated with increased risk of anaemia. Emphasis should be placed on pregnant women since they were particularly at risk. Health professionals must pay more attention to teach pregnant women good long-term dietary habits as a part of an overall approach to health promotion

  249. Dhermander Kumar, Rakesh Kumar Jain and Neelam Garg

    The present paper highlights the isolation of potential fungal isolate for optimization and production of cellulase enzyme. Cellulase enzyme produced by the isolate under Solid State Fermentation (SSF) was used as refining aid to produce quality paper from paper cup waste pulp. Fifty six fungal isolates were obtianed from different sources using soil, degraded wood and paper mill waste pulp, cotton waste and screened for cellulolytic activity by congo red plate method. The most potent cellulase producing fungal isolate was identified as Trichoderma longibrachiatum and used in the present study to optimize environmental (initial pH, temperature, incubation period and moisture content) and nutritional (carbon and nitrogen sources) parameters for maximum cellulase production. Wheat bran an agro-industrial residue was used as carbon source to produce cellulase enzyme for economic viability of cellulase production under SSF. CMCase and FPase activities of cellulase from Trichoderma longibrachiatum were found to be 33.3 IU/gds and 9.4 FPU/ gds respectively. The cellulase enzyme thus produced was used as refining aid for paper cup waste pulp to convert it into quality paper. Studies were focused with an aim to find out the effect of cellulase enzyme treatment on paper cup waste pulp in reduction of energy consumption during refining and strength properties of the resultant pulp

  250. Ramya, D. R. and Balwin Nambikkairaj

    In the present investigation immunomodulatory activity was studied for the plant Borreria articularis leaf extract using rat model. Borreria articularis is an Indian medicinal system and has been used in ayurvedic preparation for the treatment of various ailments throughout the countries. Immunomodulation is a process, which alters the immune system of an organism by inferring with its function. Cyclophosphamide was used as a standard immunosuppressant agent. Sodium Carboxy Methyl Cellulose (SCMC) is being a non-immunogenic and tolerogenic substance, it has been considered as control group. In order to know their effectiveness on humoral antibody production against SRBC, haemagglutination and delayed type hypersensitivity (DTH) were studied. The results of immunomodulatory activity for 7 day pretreatment and 15 days post treatment are tabulated respectively. The antibody titer has been measured using haemagglutination (HA) test and DTH, it has been increasing in proportionate to the concentration of extract dose up to 1200 mg/kg.

  251. Nighath Aasiya, H., Balwin Nambikkairaj, Ramya, D. R. and Umasankar, K.

    In the present investigation immunomodulatory activity was studied for the plant Tinospora cordifolia leaf extract using rat model. Tinospora cordifolia is an Indian medicinal plant and has been used in ayurvedic preparation for the treatment of various ailments throughout the countries. Immunomodulation is a process, which alters the immune system of an organism by inferring with its function. Cyclophosphamide was used as a standard immunosuppressant agent. Sodium Carboxy Methyl Cellulose (SCMC) is being a non-immunogenic and tolerogenic substance, it has been considered as control group. In order to know their effectiveness on humoral antibody production against SRBC, haemagglutination and delayed type hypersensitivity (DTH) were studied. The results of immunomodulatory activity for 7 day pretreatment and 15 days post treatment are tabulated respectively. The antibody titer has been measured using haemagglutination (HA) test and DTH, it has been increasing in proportionate to the concentration of extract dose up to 1200 mg/kg.

  252. Purnima Pathak, Kartik Baruah, Prakash Kalita and Bhupen Kumar Baishya

    Inferior quality of fruit has been considered as a drawback of fruits grown and developed in low temperature conditions. In addition to it, higher planting densities create a microclimate which also affects the quality of fruits. Regarding this problem, an investigation was carried out in the Experimental Farm, Department of Horticulture, Jorhat during 2013-2014 in order to find out the best bunch cover material among white non-woven polypropylene bag, blue non-woven polypropylene bag, transparent polyethylene bag, leno bag, gunny bag, dry banana leaves and Control (no cover) in banana cv. Jahaji (AAA) under the high density planting system. Various quality characters were found to be significantly influenced by bunch cover application. The fruits under white non-woven polypropylene cover registered highest TSS (22.84°Brix) and lowest titrable acidity (0.23%). On the contrary, lowest TSS (19.36°Brix) and highest titrable acidity (0.27%) was obtained in the control bunches. Sugar-acid ratio and pulp-peel ratio was found uniform in all the treatments without showing any significant differences among them. However, reducing, non-reducing and total sugars were lowest in blue non-woven polypropylene (8.70%, 8.71% and 17.42%, respectively) compared to the highest in control (9.03%, 9.01% and 18.04%, respectively).

  253. Sellakkannu Sujatha, Ganesan Kanimozhi and Annamalai Panneerselvam

    Schizophyllum commune is an edible and medicinal mushroom. It is a very good nutritional source of proteins, vitamins, lipids and minerals. This mushroom has been considered as the popular food and an effective medicine to treat several diseases. In the present investigation the strain Schizophyllum commune was collected from Microbial Type Culture Collection at Chandigarh. The sample was maintained in Malt Yeast Extract Broth. The cell free filtrate used for biosynthesis of silver nanoparticles. The UV-visible studies indicated the surface Plasmon resonance at 343 nm which depicts the formation of silver nanoparticles. The synthesized nanoparticles showed an effective antibacterial activity against pathogens of gram positive and gram negative bacteria. The above study will concluded that the nanoparticles had potent effect on inhibiting methicillin resisitant bacteria.

  254. Osama Asanousi Lamma and Abubaker M. Outhman

    The present study dealt with assessment of the physico –chemical parameters and correlation coefficient of vedadri reservoir, Krishna district, AP, India. The physico-chemical characteristics and correlation coefficient were studied and analyzed during janauary-december 2014. Seasonal variation in water samples of Vedadri in different seasons were observed. The results stated that there was significant seasonal changes in some physico- chemical parameters and most of the parameters were in normal limits and indicated for better quality of lake water. Correlation co-efficient indicates showed high significant positive and negative relationship (p<0.01) and also show significant positive and negative relationship (p<0.05).

  255. Pranu Chakravarthy and Shifan Khanday

    Context: Stature estimation is frequently required by the Forensic Science experts which more often done on the skeletal remains. Since 1950`s the long bones in the human body for eg Humerus, ulna, Femur and Tibia are used for stature identification .Arm Span, nose length have also been used for height prediction. A study was needed to find out such a correlation in females as few studies have been conducted . Objective: To formulate an equation and relation for estimation of stature in living adult females by the measurement of their ulna bone. Method: This study was conducted in Sri Ramchandra Medical College Chennai and Dubai medical college for girls. Female participants who were chosen from faculty and students. Crown to heel measurement and ulnar length measurements (From tip of olecranon process to tip of styloid process) were done. Result: In the present study, the average height in 100 females was seen to be 162cm, the average length of right ulna was 25.7 and average length of left ulna was 25.4cm. The correlation coefficient(r) of the height and the length of the left ulna was (0.85) and that for the right ulna (0.81). Left side with height (0.85) The value of r implied that there was a positive correlation Conclusion: Being a percutaneous bone Ulna can be easily palpated and measurements for length can be taken reliably. A relation between height and length can be studied easily which will be beneficial for Anatomist, Clinicians and anthropometry studies.

  256. Govula Sravanthi and Vishwanath, H. L.

    Introduction: Metabolic syndrome by itself is a constellation of multiple risk factors causing cardiovascular diseases. Serum calcium and phosphate has been shown to be associated with metabolic syndrome, coronary artery disease, and also correlated with individual components of metabolic syndrome. Disturbances in calcium and phosphate metabolism can cause CVD and may be a predisposing factor for metabolic syndrome. This study is designed to find out the correlation of serum calcium and phosphate with individual components of metabolic syndrome. Aim: • To measure serum calcium and serum phosphate levels in diagnosed metabolic syndrome patients. • To assess the correlation between serum calcium and individual components of metabolic syndrome in the above patients. • To assess the correlation between serum phosphate and individual components of metabolic syndrome in the above patients. Method: Data of 30 out-patients with diagnosed metabolic syndrome (cases) and 30 age and sex matched healthy individuals from general population(controls)were collected and their blood drawn for serum calcium, serum phosphate, Fasting blood glucose(FBG) and lipid profile analysis in Beckman coulter Biochemistry auto analyser. Results: Serum calcium was higher in cases compared to controls. Serum calcium in cases was 11.2 ± 0.8 and in controls was 9.5 ± 0.4with t score of 7.3291 with P value of 0.0001 which is statistically very significant. Serum calcium showed positive correlation with components of metabolic syndrome namely FBG (r score: 0.1482 p: 0.001), triglycerides (r score: 0.116 p: 0.001) and TC (r score:0.181 p:0.001), Serum phosphate was lower in cases compared to controls. Serum phosphate in cases was 2.5 ± 0.7 and in controls was 3.3 ± 0.5 with t score of 7.1458 with P value of 0.0001 which is statistically very significant. Serum phosphate showed negative correlation with components of metabolic syndrome namely FBG (r score:-0.748 p: 0.001), triglycerides (r score:-0.716 p: 0.001) and WC (r score:-0.620 p: 0.001), SBP (r score:-0.804 p:0.001) and positive correlation with HDL-C (r score:0.690 p:0.001) in patients of metabolic syndrome. Conclusion: The results of this study indicate that serum calcium and serum phosphate may serve as a potential risk assessment marker of cardiovascular disease in metabolic syndrome.

  257. Preethy, T. T., Aswathi, K. K., Renisha Jayarajan Mannambeth and Dr. Asha V. Pillai

    Betel vine (Piper betle L.) is a dioecious perennial cash crop and its cultivation is referred as most distinctive agricultural industry. This crop had been referred in the ancient Indian literature dating back to AD 473. Betel leaf had an esteemed position in human society from the dawn of civilization. The origin of betel vine is believed to be in Malaysia or in surrounding East Asian region. Eight crore sq. km. area in the whole of the world is estimated to be under betel vine cultivation. According to Mabberley (1997), of the 2000 cultivars of P. betle distributed in the whole world, ten were available in Nepal. Pakistan and Sri Lanka are the other important countries with respect to variability in land races. Based on the morphological characters and essential oil content, Singh (1994) grouped betel vine varieties in India into five main groups viz., Bangla, Desawari, Kapoori, Sanchi and Meetha. Meetha was grown on commercial scale in West Bengal only. The important morphological characters of betel vine include plant height internodal colour, number of lateral branches, number of leaves, leaf area and weight etc. All these characters influence yield and consumer acceptability.

  258. Meghana Gore, Mobashshera Tariq, Darshana Raut and Aruna, K.

    The present study reports the synthesis of silver nanoparticles (Ag-NPs) using aqueous extract of Ocimum americanum (L.) leaf and silver nitrate (AgNO3) solution. The synthesized Ag-NPs were analysed using UV-Visible Spectroscopy (UV-Vis), Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) and Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR). The UV-Vis spectrum ofAg-NPs in aqueous solution showed an absorbance peak around 424nm, which is a characteristic property of nanoparticle formation. The antimicrobial property of Ag-NPs was analyzed by qualitative methods like disc and well diffusion method against Extended Spectrum β-Lactamase (ESBL) and Metallo β-Lactamase (MBL) producing E.coli, Pseudomonas, Proteus, Citrobacter and Klebsiella species. The mean zones of inhibition for Ag-NPs and AgNO3were found to be in the range of 14-20mm for the test pathogens. Also the nanoparticle coated dressings showed antibacterial activity against the same, indicating its potential to control wound bio-burden and hence reduce the risk of further infection.

  259. Dr. Shabana Borate and Dr. Suresh Gangane

    Short stature is a term applied to a child whose height is two standard deviations (SD) or more below the mean for children of that sex and chronological age. Turner syndrome is an important consideration in girls with short stature and especially growth failure, because shortness may be the presenting feature of this syndrome, other physical abnormalities can be variably expressed. Here we present a case of short stature, with some congenital abnormalities. The cytogenetic analysis from peripheral venous blood revealed four cell lines, 46, XX (10%) /45, X (10%) /46, X, i (Xq) (60%) /46, XX (ter rea) (20%), which is a rare finding.

  260. Usha, D., Santha Lakshmi Prasad, M. and Venkateshwara Rao, L.

    The present study explores the ability of biotic and abiotic agents as inducers to stimulate the plant immunity assessed through bio chemical estimations and to control the spread of fungal pathogen Alternariaster helianthi (Hansf.) E.G. Simmons in infected plants. Three chemical inducers α-Amino Butyric Acid (AABA), Ɣ-Amino Butyric Acid (GABA) and Salycilic Acid (SA) and two biological agents Trichoderma harizanum and Pseudomonas fluorescens as biological inducers on eight sunflower genotypes were studied. Bio chemical estimations of known plant defense enzymes viz., total phenols, peroxidases, total sugars, Phenyl Annine Lyase (PAL) and catalase were done spectro photo metrically at different intervals to understand the efficacy of inducers in developing resistance in plants. Among all the inducers tested GABA has shown effective response in systemic induction of resistance, followed by T. harizanum. All treated plants has shown high release of components at 18hours after inducer application. Observed defensive response of sunflower plants against the pathogen is different in inducer treated plant from untreated plant. In conclusion, chemical inducer GABA should be considered excellent and the results indicate that a comprehensive evaluation of inducers is advisable as they combine both direct antifungal activity against the targeted pathogen and the ability to develop prime plant immunity against various infections.

  261. Sudhamay Ghosh and Ajay Kumar Chatterjee

    Present study was carried out with the aim of investigating the effect of ascorbic acid supplementation and altered dietary protein level on the rectal temperature, haematocrit value and blood ascorbic acid status of rats exposed to chronic and acute heat stress. It was observed that the normal rectal temperature of adequately (18%) protein fed rats was quite higher (37.41 ± 0.12⁰C) than that of the protein restricted (6%) rats (36.65 ± 0.12⁰C) which was observed to be further augmented by the prior supplementation of ascorbic acid. It was further observed that the stabilizing tendency of rectal temperature took more than 3 days of heat exposure when rats were under protein restriction. Decrease in haematocrit value after chronic heat exposure and an increase in it in acute heat-exposure were observed. Haematocrit values of both control and treated groups of animals were also observed went down to a great extent as a result of protein restriction. Plasma ascorbic acid level was observed to be increased after acute heat exposure in 18% as well as 6% protein-fed rats and after chronic heat exposure in 6% protein-fed rats. But, when the ascorbic acid content was estimated in erythrocytes it was found to be diminished after acute heat exposure in protein-restricted rats only.

  262. Sivani Saravanamuttu, Jayakumar, A., Rebecca, V., Amirtha, V. and Sudarsanam Dorairaj

    India has witnessed an unprecedented growth of wireless technology. This has lead to people living in close proximity to mobile phone base stations in densely populated metros. The aim of the study was to resort to a questionnaire-based survey of people (n=200) living around base stations in an urban and a rural locality in the state of Tamil Nadu, India. It was found that 49% of urban people lived around 6 or more base stations whereas it was less than 3 for 66% of the rural people (p<0.001); 76% of the rural people lived between 50-300 m of the base station, whereas 43% of the urban people lived within 50 to <10 m (p<0.001); 31% of the urban people were found facing the antenna, whereas 41% of the rural people were found living beneath the antenna of the base station (p<0.001); and 95% of the urban people used their mobile phones >20 minutes/day, whereas, it was 7% for the rural people (p<0.001). The rural people reported more non-specific symptoms (fatigue, difficulty sleeping, feelings of discomfort, difficulty in concentration, poor short-term memory, depression) when compared to the urban people. On the contrary, the urban people had more medical complications (gastrointestinal, ophthalmic, respiratory, endocrine, cardiovascular) than the rural people. Presence of electrical transformers was evident in the urban locality and very high-tension power lines in the rural locality. The authors concluded that constant monitoring of rising indoor and outdoor radiofrequency electromagnetic fields in India is essential under the prevailing conditions.

  263. Barun Kr. Dey, Debdulal Banerjee, Suman Kr. Halder and Bikas R Pati

    Optimization of initial pH of the medium, suitable carbon, nitrogen sources, temperature, metal ions, phosphate source and C/N ratio for improvement in red pigment production by Pezicula sp. BDF 9/1 was carried out. Carbon sources like fructose and glucose were found important for growth and pigment production. Among the nitrogen sources glycine was found suitable for growth whereas maximum pigment production occurred with NaNO3. The pronounced formation of red pigment was found after the incubation time 20 days, initial medium pH 5.0 and at 23 C. C/N ratio 3: 0.8 was found suitable for both mycelial growth and pigment production. RSM optimization based on Box-Behnken Design (BBD) revealed that most influencing interaction of the variable on pigment production is in between temperature and glucose concentration followed by pH and temperature, and incubation time and pH. Furthermore, RSM study stated that maximum biopigment production (1.695 OD at 500nm) can be achieved when 20.15 days incubation time, 23.2 C temperature, 5.07 pH and 2% glucose were provided. The experimental result also very close to the predicted optimized response which validates the employment of the RSM in this case.

  264. Kamalinee A. Deodhar and Nanda W. Shinde

    Medicinal plants besides therapeutic agents are also a big source of information for a wide variety of chemical constituents which could be developed as drugs with precise selectivity. These are the reservoirs of potentially useful chemical compounds which could serve as newer leads and clues for modern drug design (Vijaylakshmi and Ravindran, 2012). The most important of these bioactive constituents of plants are alkaloids, tannins, flavonoids and phenolic compounds (Doss, 2009). Correlation between the phytoconstituents and the bioactivity of plant is desirable to know for the synthesis of compounds with specific activities to treat various health ailments and chronic diseases as well (Pandey et al., 2013). Owing to the significance in the above context, such preliminary phytochemical screening of plants is the need of the hour in order to discover and develop novel therapeutic agents with improved efficacy. The present study deals with the screening based on phytochemical tests of C. Paniculatus in presence of ethanolic extracts.

  265. Vinay Kumar Singh and Dr Sandeep Tripathi

    The anti-tubercular drugs Isoniazid and Rifampicin, the first line drugs used for tuberculosis therapy are associated with severe hepatotoxicity in Indian patients as compared to United State. Data reported that the combination of INH and RIF treatment in pulmonary tuberculosis patients taking ATD enrolled under DOTS, results in development of oxidative stress which has been considered as the most important mechanism of hepatotoxicity which results increase of MDA level decrease in body antioxidant level. MDA level is more in contrast to that observed in the normal GpI (48.21±12.13 n mol TBARS/ml blood Vs 13.56±2.06) & after treatment decreased significantly (** p<0.001). GSH levels in INH+RIF treated GpII and caused significant decrease in the blood GSH as compared to Normal GpI (169.95±96.4 Vs 218.51±121.5) while after treatment level increases (** p<0.00) vs normal (GpI). Similarly trends were recorded in SOD and Catalase level after treatment respectably (**p<0.001) vs normal group (GpI) & ** p<0.001 vs normal group (GpI). The postulated role of garlic organosulphur compounds in the prevention of INH and RIF hepatotoxicity was explained by their ability in free radical scavenging and prevention of hepatocyte GSH depletion. The aim of the study was to assess the role of garlic supplementation in the hepatoprotection of INH and RIF induced hepatotoxicity in pulmonary tuberculosis by monitoring the antioxidant levels.

  266. Revathy, V. and Chitra, K. C.

    Diisononyl phthalate (DINP) is used as a plasticizer for PVC products. Freshwater fish, Oreochromis mossambicus were exposed to DINP at 300 ppm concentration for 24, 48, 72 and 96 h maintaining positive (propylene glycol as solvent) and negative (without solvent and toxicant) control groups. At the end of every treatment period, gill, liver, muscle and ovary were dissected and fixed in buffered formalin. Histopathological changes in gill includes epithelial lifting, hyperplasia, aneurysm, blood vessel dialation, lose of primary and secondary lamellae. DINP-induced hepatic damages like cytoplasmic vacuolization, spindle shaped nuclei and necrosis was observed. Muscle tissues undergone various types of damages such as thickening of muscle bundle, segmented muscle fibres and muscular dystrophy. Histopathological modifications in ovary were observed as progressive reduction in the number of matured oocytes, increase in distorted and atretic oocytes. The present study demonstrates that acute exposure to DINP alters the normal architecture of vital tissues in fish.

  267. Harini, T. and Mary Esther Cynthia Johnson

    The present analysis deals with the study of physico-Chemical nature of water from Durgham Cheruvu. Water from 3 sites were collected monthly for one year from August, 2012 to July, 2013 analyzed for parameters like chlorides, pH, Atmospheric Temperature, Water temperature and Humidity. Throughout the study period Chlorides in water were 21 folds higher than normal value 8.3mg/l according to Livingstone 1963. The Atmospheric and Water temperatures are directly proportional to chloride concentration and the Humidity is inversely proportional to Chloride concentration in lake water. Therefore, the high levels of Cl was influenced by domestic sewage into the lake water in monsoon and evaporation in summer. Thereby there is an urgent need to evolve plan to protect the lake.

  268. Diptendu Sarkar, Girish N. Desai, Suresh Kumar A. and Manikanta, G. S.

    Cellulase is an inducible enzyme complex, produced by a number of bacteria, actinomycetes and fungi including Trichoderma species and Aspergillus species etc. Corn husk which is composed mainly of cellulose. It is a major component of agricultural and domestic waste. It can be converted to bioethanol, alternative source of energy. Production of cellulase was induced in the fungi Aspergillus nigerby growing it in mineral salt medium and alkali pre-treated corn husk. The product of hydrolysis was fermented with the help of Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Zymomonasmobilis. The cellulosic hydrolysate yielded 1.78 gl-1 sugars, from which got 9.10 gl-1 ethanol, which obtained after fermentation using Zymomonasmobilis. This is compared to ethanol yield produce by Saccharomyces cerevisiae which was just 8.20 gl-1. Thus, our study has shown that corn husk hydrolyzed with cellulase extracted from A. niger with the help of Z. mobilis and S. cerevisiae isolated from red wine could be a perfect source of bioethanol.

  269. Majdah M. Zain, Abd Rahman Syafar, A., Lasumange and Fatmawati

    The role of the agro-industry sector is important because it has strong linkages to other sectors. The linkage is not only the relevance of products, but also through linkages with final demand and primary inputs, namely the relationship of consumption, investment and labor. This implies that an increasing investment in the agro-industry sector will create job opportunities and sources of income of the people, so the farmer households are not only depend on a piece of land that is increasingly narrowed as their livelihood, but it able to support the growth of productivity. All of it will have a positive impact for poverty reduction which is mostly within the agricultural sector. Based on the background problems of production systems and the increase of competitiveness of rice production in the above, it is necessary to develop a model of group-based management of rice fields in order to create a strong structural transformation. One of the requirements that must be met in order to achieve the structural transformation of agriculture (paddy rice) to the manufacturing industry is an association of agricultural sector and industrial sector. The most appropriate link is processing of agricultural products into production systems through the development of business patterns. Strengthening institutions of rice farmers who produce rice needs to be fostered in order to increase capacity in the process of technology transfer and improve competitiveness and achieve their bargaining power in the market. A dynamic rice market conditions is indeed caused by the condition of "supply-demand" of rice in the respective markets. However, since rice is the staple food, the majority of the population demand are "in-elastic" so that the dynamic market conditions are likely to be affected by its supply side.

  270. Sangamithira, S. P. and Dr. Sheik Abdullah

    Anti-tuberculosis drug induced hepatotoxicity is a major hurdle for an effective treatment of tuberculosis. The present study was aimed to assess the preventive effect of eugenol (6mg/kg bw and 12mg/kg bw) on isoniazid (50mg/kg bw) and rifampicin (100mg/kg bw) induced hepatotoxicity was manifested by a significant increase in the activities of marker enzymes (AST, ALT, ALP, LDH and GGT) level in serum. The activities of enzymic (SOD, CAT, GST and GPx) and non enzymic antioxidants (VitC, Vit E and GSH) were reduced by the antitubercular drugs. Pretreatment of rats with eugenol reversed these altered parameters to near normal values. Results of this study revealed that eugenol encounter a significant defend in the mitigation of isoniazid and rifampicin induced hepatotoxicity.

  271. Dr. Pundareekaksha Rao, P. and Dr. Ravi Kumar, D.

    Hydrocephalus is a condition in which abnormal accumulation of cerebro spinal fluid within the ventricles or subarachnoid space of the brain. It develops when there is an imbalance between the amount of CSF production and the rate at which it is absorbed. This can be caused by a blockage in the pathways through which the fluid travels or from an overproduction of fluid. This disturbance then causes the ventricles to enlarge (i.e. ventriculomegaly) or subarachnoid space and intra cranial pressure to increase, resulting in an enlarged head along with other symptoms i.e. headache, irritability, lethargy, fever, vomiting, visual changes like setting sun sign, visual field defect, strabismus, papilledema etc.. Cranial Ultra Sound, CT and MRI play an important role in the diagnosis of Hydrocephalus. CT can assess size of ventricles and other structures. MRI can find malformation, tumors and other causes. Patients who progress to more severe forms will have to either undergo a shunt placement or endoscopic third ventriculostomy. Thorough eye examination is important to detect ocular changes and it will be useful to stop further vision loss. Further research is required in order to early diagnosis which helps in reducing severity of disease.

  272. Shanmugam Vinothkumar and Rajendran Rajaram

    Taxonomic description and DNA barcoding of a newly recorded Wrasse fish species, Halichoeres timorensis (Perciformes: Labridae) collected from Keelakarai region in Gulf of Mannar, Southeastern India. The mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase subunit I gene (mtCOI) with 656 bp region were sequenced for phylogenetic analysis. Recent studies have revealed that many marine fishes are closely associated with coral reefs. During the present investigation, mt COI gene sequence was used to identify the marine fish Halichoeres timorensis. This is the first report for the availability of this species in Gulf of Mannar, Bay of Bengal and the mt COI sequence was deposited in BOLD database and also in Gen Bank (Accession No: KF422721). The Neighbor-joining method was used for phylogenetic analysis that confirmed the analyzed species were dichotomy relationship with its ancestor species. The pairwise genetic distance calculated the species with eight different closely related species ranged from 0.095 to 0.280%. The length of open reading frame (ORF) was 252. This is the piece of evidence to assist in gene prediction. This study highlights the power of molecular method for species identification and need for an extensive, systematic molecular account of its existing marine ornamental fish biodiversity.

  273. Maj Deepa Kumari, V. and Lt Col Ajee, K. L.

    Background: The increasing prevalence of obstructive respiratory diseases is a matter of concern, as of 2010 three hundred million people were affected worldwide, and in 2009 Bronchial Asthma caused more than two Lakhs deaths globally (GINA 2009). Proper practice and training of the correct steps of using MDI can minimize the drawbacks and therefore nurses need to observe and analyze the existing knowledge and practice on the use of MDI use. Objectives: The objectives of the present study were to assess the patient knowledge regarding use of MDI, to observe the practice, correlate knowledge and practice and associate the knowledge and practice with selected socio demographic variables. Methods: A descriptive cross sectional study was undertaken with two hundred and three randomly selected participants with Bronchial Asthma and COPD .The knowledge regarding the MDI use was assessed by using a semi structured interview questionnaire and practice was observed using an observation checklist. Result: Majority were suffering from Bronchial asthma (87%, 177) and more than half had duration of disease of ≤ 10 years. The Mean knowledge score of the sample was 33.4 which fall into good category and mean practice score was 8.1. Socio demographic variables like age, gender, education, duration of using MDI had no significant association with both knowledge and practice of using MDI except the place of residence (p<0.05) and duration of disease suffering (p < 0.005). Conclusion: Incorrect inhalation practice is common among Bronchial Asthma and COPD patients in a pulmonary outpatient clinic. The results of present study have shown that the correct use of MDI was found to be poor for most participants even though they had good knowledge. All participants had made at least one essential mistake in their inhalation practice and the study emphasizes on the importance of enhancing the patient’s practice of correct steps of using MDI by providing regular reinforcement and training through an Asthma Action Plan or Chronic Obstructive Airway Disease Action Plan in the respiratory OPD using multimedia touch screen computer (MTS).

  274. Morbale, J. S., Anubhuti Kumari, Hricha Mishra, Kshitij Sachan, Morbale, J. S., Anubhuti Kumari, Hricha Mishra and Kshitij Sachan

    In this paper, we will deliberate how to control home appliances, safety and security system using GSM technology by using android application through android mobile phone. We will also show that we can control the appliances even in the absence of an android phone by sending a normal SMS. The advantage of using GSM technology is that we can control the home appliances from remote places anywhere in the world. This system allows the owner to control the appliances and to receive a feedback status of the home appliances by sending instructions in form of SMS as well as through an android application. For the home security system we are using an antitheft reporting system which will report the owner by ringing an alarm and by sending an SMS. Also for the safety system in case of fire or gas leakage it will report the owner by sending a SMS and also by ringing an alarm. Thus by using GSM technology, it provides the wireless access to the devices to be controlled. Index Terms Microcontroller, GSM modem, sensors, appliance control, android app.

  275. Maj Deepa Kumari, V. and Lt Col Ajee, K. L.

    Background: The increasing prevalence of obstructive respiratory diseases is a matter of concern, as of 2010 three hundred million people were affected worldwide, and in 2009 Bronchial Asthma caused more than two Lakhs deaths globally (GINA 2009). Proper practice and training of the correct steps of using MDI can minimize the drawbacks and therefore nurses need to observe and analyze the existing knowledge and practice on the use of MDI use. Objectives: The objectives of the present study were to assess the patient knowledge regarding use of MDI, to observe the practice, correlate knowledge and practice and associate the knowledge and practice with selected socio demographic variables. Methods: A descriptive cross sectional study was undertaken with two hundred and three randomly selected participants with Bronchial Asthma and COPD .The knowledge regarding the MDI use was assessed by using a semi structured interview questionnaire and practice was observed using an observation checklist. Result: Majority were suffering from Bronchial asthma (87%, 177) and more than half had duration of disease of ≤ 10 years. The Mean knowledge score of the sample was 33.4 which fall into good category and mean practice score was 8.1. Socio demographic variables like age, gender, education, duration of using MDI had no significant association with both knowledge and practice of using MDI except the place of residence (p<0.05) and duration of disease suffering (p < 0.005). Conclusion: Incorrect inhalation practice is common among Bronchial Asthma and COPD patients in a pulmonary outpatient clinic. The results of present study have shown that the correct use of MDI was found to be poor for most participants even though they had good knowledge. All participants had made at least one essential mistake in their inhalation practice and the study emphasizes on the importance of enhancing the patient’s practice of correct steps of using MDI by providing regular reinforcement and training through an Asthma Action Plan or Chronic Obstructive Airway Disease Action Plan in the respiratory OPD using multimedia touch screen computer (MTS).

  276. Morbale, J. S., Anubhuti Kumari, Hricha Mishra, Kshitij Sachan, Morbale, J. S., Anubhuti Kumari, Hricha Mishra and Kshitij Sachan

    In this paper, we will deliberate how to control home appliances, safety and security system using GSM technology by using android application through android mobile phone. We will also show that we can control the appliances even in the absence of an android phone by sending a normal SMS. The advantage of using GSM technology is that we can control the home appliances from remote places anywhere in the world. This system allows the owner to control the appliances and to receive a feedback status of the home appliances by sending instructions in form of SMS as well as through an android application. For the home security system we are using an antitheft reporting system which will report the owner by ringing an alarm and by sending an SMS. Also for the safety system in case of fire or gas leakage it will report the owner by sending a SMS and also by ringing an alarm. Thus by using GSM technology, it provides the wireless access to the devices to be controlled. Index Terms Microcontroller, GSM modem, sensors, appliance control, android app.

  277. Sukriti Ailavadi and Gargi Ghoshal

    In the past few years there has been a major shift in the driving force for development of new packaging technology. Changing consumer demands for food products that are minimally processed and can prolong for longer time with minimal loss in quality, new regulations for consumer health and safety, need for packages that prevent microbial contamination, rancidity and production of off-odours, gases, off-flavours etc. are some of the driving forces. Moreover, there have been changes in retail, distribution and purchasing of food products such as internet shopping. Henceforth, technologies like active packaging, interactive packaging, smart packaging, intelligent packaging, and modified atmosphere packaging are need of the hour. In this review different aspect of active packaging are discussed.

  278. Sanghita Das and Dr. Bibhas Deb

    Infertility is a major health problem now a days and it was described as the condition of healthy individual who is unable to conceive or produce or sustain a successful pregnancy during a one year period. A large number of genes are found on X chromosome and autosomes. Two closely related members of the transforming growth factor-β (TGF- β) super family: growth differentiation factor 9 (GDF9) and bone morphogenetic protein 15 (BMP15) originates from oocytes are played a very important role in determining follicle growth and these two genes drastically altered fertility and ovulatory rate and early folliculogenesis in humans. In this review, we focused on genetic analysis of female infertility that indicated mutations in these two genes can decrease the inhibin production and increase follicle stimulating hormone levels and lead to ovarian failure causes infertility. Blockage of folliculogenesis in human with a low ovulation rate and the development of monoclonal antibodies may block the activities of these two genes might be useful in the development of novel contraceptive tools for human purposes.

  279. Dr. Surya Bhushan Tiwari and Mr. Dinesh Sharma

    The 21st century is characterized by unprecedented challenges and opportunities, arising from globalization, the desire for inclusive development and the imperatives of climate change. Indian business, which is today viewed globally as a responsible component of the ascendancy of India, is poised now to take on a leadership role in the challenges of our times. It is recognized the world over that integrating social, environmental and ethical responsibilities into the governance of businesses ensures their long term success, competitiveness and sustainability. This approach also reaffirms the view that businesses are an integral part of society, and have a critical and active role to play in the sustenance and improvement of healthy ecosystems, in fostering social inclusiveness and equity, and in upholding the essentials of ethical practices and good governance. This also makes business sense as companies with effective CSR, have image of socially responsible companies, achieve sustainable growth in their operations in the long run and their products and services are preferred by the customers.

  280. Hanna, R. N., Mustafa, A. M., Zefaan, H. and Sameh M. Metwalley

    In the present paper an experimental research was carried out on a laboratory two cylinder, four-stroke, direct injection diesel engine, designed mainly to run on diesel fuel and converted with minor modifications to run on CNG-Diesel dual fuel mode. The aim is to analyze the emission characteristics of pure diesel first and then CNG-Diesel dual fuel mode. The measurements were recorded at CNG substitution rates of 10%, 20% and 30% and varying the load from 1.5 to rated load of 9kW in steps of 1.5. The results reveal that, there is drastic reduction in CO, CO2, HC, NO and smoke in the exhaust of dual fuel engine at all loads and for 10%, 20% and 30% CNG substitution rates. From the positive results obtained in this experimental research, it can be concluded that it is a promising technology for achieving controlling on emissions in conventional compression ignition engines with minor engine modifications, thus great saving the human and plant life from the hazardous effects of exhaust gas pollutants from the conventional diesel engines.

  281. Cristopher John S. Rosero

    This research focuses mainly on the three most elegant statements of triangle geometry, namely, Pythagorean, Euclidean, and Napoleonian theorems. In classical geometry, Pythagorean Theorem states that if one is to construct squares to each of the sides of any right triangle, then the area of the square constructed at the hypotenuse is equal to the sum of the areas of the other two squares constructed on the other two sides, while Euclidean Theorem states that if one is to construct similar figures to each of the sides of any right triangle, then the area of the figure constructed at the hypotenuse is equal to the sum of the areas of the other two figures constructed on the other two sides. On the other hand, Napoleonian Theorem states that if one is to construct equilateral triangles on the sides of any triangle, the centers of those equilateral triangles themselves form an equilateral triangle. Here, the researcher investigates the three above-said theorems and in the process provides proof of Euclidean Theorem using the Pythagorean Theorem, then goes to prove Napoleonian Theorem using again the Pythagorean Theorem.

  282. Mary Linda and Kalaiprasath, R.

    In current trends protecting the privacy of the Fingerprint is an important one, here a novel system propose protecting fingerprint by combining two different fingerprints. It will create a new identity. In the enrollment stage, fingerprints will be captured from two different fingers. Minutiae positions are extracted from one fingerprint. The orientation, (it indicates the flow of ridges and valleys) from other fingerprint, and the reference points are calculated from both the two fingerprints. Extracted combined minutiae templates are stored into database. In the authentication, two query fingerprints are needed which are all used in enrollment. For matching purpose Two-stage fingerprint matching process is used. Even when the database is stolen, the complete feature of single fingerprint will not be used for authentication, because the combined minutiae template is stored. Single fingerprint is not sufficient for the authentication. Attackers can’t easily identify such a new identity. By using the fingerprint reconstruction algorithm, real-look alike combined fingerprint are generated.

  283. Anita Kumari and Yadav, K.

    Binuclear complexes of Co(II), Ni(II), Cu(II) and Zn(II) with bis-biacetyl- 2-aminothiophenol (Schiff base) ligand have been synthesized and characterized on the basis of molar mass, elemental analysis, IR and electronic spectral studies, molar conductance and magnetic susceptibility measurement. On the basis of above physicochemical and spectrometric measurements it is proposed that the compounds act in a bi-dentate manner. Such complexes have varieties of useful pharmaceutical activity and many of them gained wide acceptance in clinical practice. The resulting complexes have been tested for their antifungal activity against various organisms. Complexes, excepting that of Zn(II), are colored. Electronic spectra and magnetic susceptibility study proposes octahedral geometry of the complexes.

  284. Ramya, R. and Deepika, N.

    The successful application of data mining in highly visible fields like e-business, marketing and retail have led to the popularity of its use in knowledge discovery in databases (KDD) in other industries and sectors. Among these sectors that are just discovering data mining are the fields of medicine and public health. This research paper provides a survey of current techniques of KDD, using data mining tools for healthcare and public health. It also discusses critical issues and challenges associated with data mining and healthcare in general. The research found a growing number of data mining applications, including analysis of health care centers for better health policy-making, detection of disease outbreaks and preventable hospital deaths, and detection of fraudulent insurance claims. Electronic health records (EHRs) are representative examples of multimodal/multisource data collections; including measurements, images and free texts. The diversity of such information sources and the increasing amounts of medical data produced by healthcare institutes annually, pose significant challenges in data mining.

  285. Millicent Otieno

    Extra-marital affairs are a common phenomenon in marriages in Rongo town, Kenya. Extra-marital affairs are an emerging alternative to polygamy. Formal polygamous marriages are diminishing and are being replaced by extra-marital affairs. Men and women prefer to keep other sexual partners besides their legitimate spouses for convenience. In Rongo town, Kenya, these sexual partners are referred to as side dish or ‘mpango wa kando’in common parlance. The study found out that the prevalent nature of extra marital affairs in Rongo town is emotional sexual affairs and transactional affairs. Generally, communication breakdown has been discussed as one of the major causes of extra-marital affairs. However, this study established that the cause of extra-marital affairs in Rongo town is the shift of communication due to family roles. The study also found out that men engaged in extra-marital affairs for sexual pleasure and for adventure while women engaged in extra-marital affairs to seek love and money. The study found out that men and women experienced positive and negative consequences as a result of extra-marital affairs. In regard to attitude towards extra-marital affairs, the study established that men felt that extra marital affairs were necessary while women felt they were necessary but evil. This study adopted a mixed approach in the generation and analysis of data. The study employed case study as the research design. It applied questionnaires and interviews as data generation techniques. Based on the findings of the study, it is recommended that programmatic guidance and counseling that enables couples to secure and sustain their marriages should be put in place by expert organizations. The continuous guidance and counseling should focus on the changing roles in marriage and communication in marriage

  286. Samer I. Mohamed

    With the introduction of the cloud computing and virtualization, a need for a new model that enables organizations to better satisfy their clients expectations from both infrastructure and services perspectives becomes a necessity (Bang et al., 2013). DevOps is a collection of best practices and standards that formulate the required model that enables those organizations to evolve and adapt to the target spectrum. This paper provides a new innovative DevOps transformation framework adopting a quantitative or metric phased approach that can be utilized by any organization aims to transform delivery model into the DevOps model. The edge of the proposed framework is that it provides a structured and quantitative mechanism via different transformation phases to measure both the current state in the assessment phase via clear KPI (Key Performance Indicators) and CSF (Critical Success Factors), and then isolate the gaps covered within the assessment phase to move to the next state via clear transformation actions. Thus instead of following qualitative measures, like those adopted by other transformation frameworks (Le-Quoc, 2011), the proposed goal-oriented framework quantitatively measures any project/organization maturity using metric phased approach, against different capabilities, with different capability levels. This is done by reviewing the observed project/organization behaviors against the standard framework description described at each capability level.

  287. Yousuf Haider and Dr. Maitreyee Dutta

    One of the major issues in verification of fingerprints is the lack of robustness against image-quality degradation. Poor-quality images result in spurious features, thus degrading the performance of the overall system. Due to this, it proposes a fingerprint recognition system with enhancement of image ridges and also optimization of dataset by ANN. The objective of the proposed system is to enhance the biometric recognition frameworks, by adding liveness assessment in a fast and user-friendly manner through the use of image quality assessment. To remedy the ridge areas and enhance the contrast of the local ridges, we first enhance the fingerprint image in the spatial domain. Experimental results show that our proposed algorithm is able to handle various types of input image contexts and achieves better results in terms of BER and PSNR value.

  288. Umabala, A. M., Suresh, P. and Prasada Rao, A. V.

    Photocatalytic degradation of aniline is studied over H2O2 sensitised monoclinic BiVO4 under visible light irradiation. Combination of BiVO4+H2O2 showed a synergetic effect in enhancing the rate of degradation. Formation of more. OH free radicals during irradiation in presence of H2O2 is ascertained by photoluminescence spectra using terpthalic acid as probe molecule.

  289. Selva Rathna and Dr. Karthikeyan, T.

    The aim of this paper is to identify the impact of the fuzzy based privacy preserving method for protecting sensitive data in Privacy preserving data mining. Fuzzy based member ship functions like Bell shape, S- Shape and PI shape member ship functions are applied on standard database to generate sanitised database. Further, Popular K-mean Clustering algorithm of data mining is applied on the sanitised database and the results are compared. WEKA tool is used for testing data mining algorithm on privacy preserved database generated using various fuzzy member ship function. This analysis will help to develop new Fuzzy Based privacy preserving techniques which can be applied for Privacy preserved data mining.

  290. Dr. Pore Sanjay Vishnu

    The objective of the present study is to examine the kinetics and mechanism of Single electron transfer redox reaction of Picolinic acid hydrazide (Pi-AH) by hexacyanoferrate(III) called HCF(III) in Sodium hydroxide medium which involves Fe(CN)63-.The Spectrophotometric monitoring of oxidation of Pi-AH by HCF(III)) was carried out. The kinetic determination of its mechanism in sodium hydroxide medium under pseudo first order condition was done. The formation of complex takes place during the course of the reaction between the reactants, which on decomposition in the subsequent step gives the products. The reaction proceeds by direct Single electron transfer with intervention of free radical and the order of reaction was found to be one with respect to the concentration of hydrazide (Pi-AH) and hexacyanoferrate HCF (III).The specific rate of the reaction increases with an increase in the concentration of hydrazide and hexacyanoferrate HCF (III). The salt effect that is ionic strength effect is positive ie addition of KCl increases the rate of reaction; hence the reaction must be between species of the same charges. Increase in the concentration of NaOH increases the rate of reaction and decreases with decrease in dielectric constant of the medium of the Reaction. The effect of temperature was studied between 25oC to 45oC. The activation parameters were determined and the values support the proposed mechanism as evidenced by considerable decrease in entropy of activation.(-ΔS # = 22.09 J K-1 mol-1) The progress of the reaction was followed by measuring the absorbance (A) of the HCF(III) at 420 nm.

  291. Manojkumar U. Chopade (s) and Anil U. Chopade, Harshal S. Patil

    An effective and convenient procedure for the Michael Addition using Fe (acac)3 (5 mol %) as an effective catalyst, catalyses the Michael addition reaction of nitro methane to Chalcone to produce corresponding γ- nitro ketone derivatives with good yields (85-95 %) under mild condition with high yield. Accordingly, we applied this synthetic strategy for synthesis of (±)-Baclofen and (±)-Rolipram. Reaction Conditions: a) Chalcone (0.82 mmol), Nitromethane (2) (4.10 mmol), 5 mol % Fe(acac)3, anhy. DMSO (2mL), rt.

  292. Kalyana Kumar, Granch Berhe and Redwan Jihad

    Infections are the major concern for the causes of diseases in any eye surgical procedures at Ethiopia. Modern surgical are employed with latest technology to know how to cure the infections rather than far-sighted of spreading. Using medium like polyethylene surgical drapes in ophthalmic surgery has no potential source of wound contamination especially when wetted with blood or saline. The comfort level of these drapes is very less to the user groups. Also reusable drapes made from woven fabrics on the repeating wash cycles could alter the final resistance to barrier penetration. To improvise the comfort level of the users and to prevent diseases from the site infections, an appropriate design were developed in this research works to investigate about the functional characteristics of disposable surgical drapes made from polypropylene nonwoven fabrics integrating with polyethylene sheet. The significance of the surgical drapes was studied through the quality evaluation of structural and comfort properties. Comparison was made with existing surgical drapes made with woven fabrics. The chance of barriers penetration through nonwoven is less observed which offers highest protection as well as good wearing comfort than the woven surgical drapes.

  293. Kirange, D. K. and Dr. Ratnadeep R. Deshmukh

    The “Sentiment Analysis” task focuses on the recognition and classification of emotions (positive, negative, conflict, neutral) in reviews for the aspect. In this paper we propose the system for recognizing and analyzing the sentiments using SVM for the restaurant and laptop review dataset. Here we also apply the proposed system of text classification for identifying the aspect in the review sentences. We compare the performance of the system with well-known KNN, Naïve Bayes and Neural Network classifiers.

  294. Harshal Tawde, Srinidhi Shetty and Fareen Shaikh

    This paper discusses the vision, the challenges, possible usage scenarios and technological building blocks of the “Internet of Things”. In particular we will look at the complete analysis of few of the technical papers on “Internet of Things”.

  295. Abbas Torabi

    The language of nature is mathematics and this language is the language of execution. Now in this discussion we try to identify the relationship between zero and nature and also determine the role and relation of this number in fluidity and water in the planet earth. We have to say that zero in mathematics is a basic number and when it releases in the horizon of the planet earth it establishes the water in the planet earth. Now how this number enter into the horizon of the planet earth. This is the discussion that we want to follow till the end of this article and to develop it we have to define the horizon of the planet earth. We continue this discussion as far as our imagination let us to follow this discussion.

  296. Basanta Pathak

    North-East has considerable expertise and experiences in climate science through collaborative research between independent research institutes and their external partners. The key step forward will be how to unite this expertise with the expertise of North-East universities to eventually build a bottom-up regional community of connected educators, researchers, students, practitioners, policymakers and local groups for climate change adaptation. To upgrade the public awareness, there is a need to increase public sensitivity to the environment, development problems, involvement in their solution, and a sense of personal responsibility, greater motivation and commitment towards sustainable development. Many environmental problems are caused by the absence of awareness like the unwise use of resources, all sorts of pollution, imbalance between population growth and available resources, the spread of diseases, and the destruction of land and its abuse. The main objective is to promote broad public awareness as an essential part of education efforts to strengthen attitudes, values and actions, which are compatible with sustainable development. Mass media offers some activities in this area but without any organized plan. The press is doing very little to promote public awareness as shown by various studies. Mosques, Churches, Clubs, industry, unions etc…..are doing little in fostering awareness among the public.

  297. Vishakha N. Dhanwate, Neelima A. Patil and Chaure, N. B.

    Copper indium diselenide (CuInSe2) thin films were deposited by using electrochemical deposition technique. The electrochemical parameters were optimized with the aid of cyclic voltammetry for slow scan rate. CuInSe2 thin films were electrodeposited on FTO coated glass substrates at -0.6 V and -0.8 V versus Ag/AgCl reference electrode. The films were thermally treated at 400 0C for 15 minutes to improve the homogeneity and degree of crystallinity. The electrical properties have been studied with the help Autolab potentiostat/Galvanostat.

  298. Mujawar, T. H., Bachuwar, V.D., Kasbe, M. S., Prabhakar, P., Shaligram, A. D. and Deshmukh, L. P.

    Wireless Sensor Networks (WSN) has recently been applied in various monitoring applications including hazardous gases detection. In this paper we present a WSN for hazardous gases detection with a special emphasis given on its monitoring and controlling for home safety. LPG leak can happen, though rarely, inside a home, commercial premises or in gas powered vehicles. Leakage of this gas is dangerous as it enhances the risk of explosion. Therefore, systems should be developed that can monitor the level of LPG gas in the vicinity of the firefighters and generate appropriate alarms if levels of such gases exceed the prescribed safe levels, sending SMS on user mobile phone and turning off the gas supply valve as a primary safety measure. The system more like a First Aid, automatically uses a normally closed solenoid valve for shutting off of the gas valve before calling for help via visual display and audible alarm to those within the environment. For the purpose, we propose to set up wireless sensor nodes to monitor the leakage area by measuring the Received Signal Strength Indicator (RSSI) values received by these sensor motes strategically placed at different locations.

  299. Tripathi, I. P., Sharma, R. and Dwivedi, A.

    Plants play an important role on medicines since thousands of years to treat various diseases. Oxidative stress may precede and speed up to development of diabetes. In diabetic complications antioxidant action may be an important property of medicinal plant linked with diabetes. The Lily family, Liliaceae, consists of fifteen genera about 600 species of flowering plants with in the order. Onion (Allium cepa) belongs to the Lilly family, it shows only a particular vertical shoot above the ground and is used for energy storage and as a spice. It could be in a range of shapes and sizes. Garlic (Allium Sativum) also of the lilly family has a strong characteristic odour and taste and the bulb is used a flavoring agent. Both plants of medicinal values excluding common cold, heat disease, osteoporosis and other diseases, which may be associated with its high bioactive compounds including flavonoids, polyphenolic and antioxidant properties. In the present study antioxidant activity of Liliaceae family was assayed by DPPH scavenging activity, flavonoid and total polyphenolic content.

  300. Zaki, A. A.,Hashem, H. M., Soltan, S., Abd El-Mongy, A. and Ramadan, A. A.

    Li1.3Al0.3Ti1.7(PO4)3 (LATP) electrolyte was prepared within the temperature range of 700-1050 ℃. The structure characteristics (phase abundance and grain size) were investigated by X-ray diffraction analysis using MAUD program. The electrical properties (electronic and ionic conductivity) were measured by impedance spectroscopy using equivalent circuit based on brick-layer model to fit the data (Nyquist plot). Themaximum LATPcontentof95% was obtained at a preparation temperature of 1000°C. However, the ionic conductivity of the electrolyte showed a maximum value of 6.6×〖10〗^(-4) S cm^(-1)at a temperature of 950°C where the LATP phasehas high concentration of 85% as well as the largest grain size of 750 nm. Thus, structure/properties correlation proves that the ionic conductivity of the electrolyte is affected by both the abundance of LATP phase as well as its grain size.

  301. Pramendra Singh Pundir and Alok Kumar Singh

    University of Allahabad, India In this paper, we have studied the major reasons affecting the population, social and economic development of Jammu and Kashmir. In particular we have studied various demographic rates and compared them with the respective rates of India. Also we have mentioned the major challenges for women in Jammu and Kashmir.

  302. Mohd Zaheen Khan, Nawaz, I. and Tiwari, G.N.

    The effect of wind velocity on the daily productivity of few active and passive solar stills is studied by computer modeling. Mathematical calculations have been carried out on extreme summer and winter days in New Delhi in order to correlate productivity with velocity for different masses of basin water for the passive stills and various thicknesses or mass flow rates of the flowing brine for the active stills. It is observed that for the active and multi-effect passive stills, productivity increases with the increase of velocity up to a typical velocity beyond which increase in productivity becomes insignificant. However, in all the investigated single effect passive stills, there is a critical depth of basin water beyond which productivity increases as velocity increases until typical velocity. For basin water masses less than the critical mass, productivity is found to decrease with increasing velocity until typical velocity. After typical velocity, the change in productivity is not important in a similar way to that obtained for the active and multi-effect passive stills. The critical depth of basin water for the observed single effect passive stills is found to be 4.5 cm. Moreover, the typical velocity is independent on the still shape and the operation mode (active or passive) but it shows some seasonal dependence. For the investigated stills, typical velocity is found to be 1.5 and 4.5 m/s on extreme winter and summer days, respectively.

  303. Krishan Kumar

    The project work assigned to us was to design a 132/33 KV EHV sub-station. We considered incoming power at 132 KV and the power was transferred to main bus through isolator-circuit breaker-isolator combination. The power from main bus was fed into a 20MVA transformer which stepped the voltage down to 33KV. The power is then fed into a 33KV bus from which different loads were tapped. In the process, the surge impedance loading of 132 KV and 33 KV lines were calculated and they were used to estimate the maximum power that can be transferred by one transmission line. The design of the entire substation was made keeping in mind the most basic requirements of a proper substation including the civil and domestic requirements. The design is then submitted to our mentor for verification

  304. Mishra, P. K., Dongale, T. D., Kamath, R. S. and Kamat, R. K.

    The present manuscript reviews trends and technologies pertaining to the future of public key infrastructure. Public key infrastructure (PKI) is one such technology that may offer benefits to net-centric organizations, being a system of services, technology, protocols and standards that can be used as a solution for providing secure transactions. Here we have reviewed some early work in the field of PKI's as well as some recent technological advance in the PKI's. We have also reviewed some issues with the traditional PKI and suggested some technological measures to overcome the limitation of conventional PKI's.

  305. Revathy, J. and Dr. Sheik Abdullah, S.

    Hesperetin is a flavanoid commonly found in many herbal medicines and food. The antidiabetic effect of hesperetin was determined. The animals were divided into six groups such as normal, diabetic untreated, diabetic treated with (20mg hesperetin/kgbw in saline), diabetic treated with (40mg hesperetin/kgbw in saline), normal rat treated with 40mg of hesperetin/kgbw in saline) and diabetic treated with reference drug Glibenclamide (1mg/kgbw in saline). Nine-week-old adult male albino rats of Wistar albino strain, weighing 120-150 g were acclimatized for one week at air conditioned room (25± 1°C) and relative humidity (55%) in a 12-hour light/dark cycle in a room under hygienic condition. The experiment is carried out for 45 days. After 45days, the rats were fasted for 12hr, anaesthetized and sacrificed by cervical decapitation. Blood samples were collected by and various biochemical parameters were measured using auto analyser. The levels of plasma glucose, insulin, blood haemoglobin and glycosylated haemoglobin were determined. The level of lipid profiles was also determined. Histopathology of pancreas was also determined. Our experimental findings with respect to the mechanism of action of synthetic compound in Streptozotocin induced diabetic rats suggest that it enhances insulin secretion by the islets of langerhans and enhances glucose utilization.

  306. Brajendra Kanta Sarmah and Dhritikesh Chakrabarty

    Drawing of random sample has been found to be the vital work in every branch of experimental Sciences. Most commonly used random numbers tables are due to Tippett’s (1927), Fisher and Yates (1938), Kendall and Smtih (1939) and Rand Corporation (1955). Tippett’s table consists of four digited numbers, Fisher and yets table consists of two digited numbers, Kendall and Smith’s table consists of four digited numbers whereas Rand corporation random numbers table consists of five digited numbers. But there is no any table of three digit random numbers. Therefore, In this study one table of three digit random numbers comprising of 10000 numbers has been constructed by applying random drawing method.

  307. Siti Istianah Mahdzur and Juhana Salim

    The transformation of e-Government to Smart Government services triggered many research in the area of business process change, information use and nature of business integration in the changing work system environment to realize organizational benefits. This paper addresses the question, “How can IS sustainability (ISS) benefits be conceptualized in the transformation of Government services?” This study build on the Belief-Action-Outcome (BAO) Framework that leverage on the Information System Integration (ISI) and Work System Theory (WST) and suggest that organizational memory and informational system’s ability to achieve organizational knowledge sustainability in realizing ISS benefits. The study couple this theoretical understanding and previous research on ISS benefits embedded in ISI under grids the explanation of our approach to measure an organization’s ISS benefits. Our measurement approach considers (1) the ability of organizational memory and informational system’s integration in the business processes that enable ISS realization, (2) the collaborations of stakeholders in business and system change, and (3) the organization’s ability in maintaining the equilibrium between work system elements. The research contributions is on ISS and government service transformation in specifying a conceptual model that link ISS benefits and ISI building upon BOA framework and WST, simultaneously giving adequate understanding of the implication and realization practice of ISS benefits during business change and government service transformation. In sum, the study provides insights into social and organizational perspective of sustainability, i.e. organizational knowledge as a valuable asset in sustaining government services.

  308. Daouda Diawara

    In the literature many determinists approaches (numerical and graphical methods), probabilists (the probability law, extreme value theory, Bayesian methods) exist for the detection of extreme claims. In this paper after a reminder of the extreme value theory and its application in the simulated data of a Malian mutual insurance, a contribution of the convex combination method of two threshold variables minimizing the variance is proposed.

  309. Dr. Narendranath Guria and Ritwij Tiwari

    Society has changed the direction of the way in which it educates its children. This trend, which has gained momentum since 1970 s, is the merger of regular or general education with special education; know as inclusion. Now the schools have to accommodate all children and arrange education according their needs. The term special education needs (SEN) refers to all those children whose needs arise out of their specific abilities on learning difficulties. Most people feel that educating a child with disability in general school is inclusion but it can be treated as total inclusion only when the general classroom teachers take most of the responsibilities for the education of these children. If the disabled child's needs are taken care of only by a specialist teacher in the general school, it is not total inclusion.

  310. Rajinder Kaur, Ramandeep Kaur, Parneet Kaur, Arun Kumar Rawat, Tahseena Akhtar and Aadil Islam

    Diabetes, a fastest growing epidemic of 21st century is rapidly showing an increase in its incidence rate due to the impact of its risk factors. It is a common chronic disease resulting from a genetic-environment interaction along with other risk factors such as obesity, physical inactivity and age. Objectives: To assess the risk of type 2 diabetes in population of Patiala district of Punjab (India). Materials and Methods: The present study was conducted on 1500 subjects. Anthropometric parameters such as height, weight, waist circumference, BMI were assessed to fill up Type 2 diabetes risk assessment scale developed by Jaakko Tuomilehto, in 2003. Results: 1500 subjects comprising 573 (38.2%) males and 927 (61.8%) females were studied. More than 50% i.e. 53.2% subjects fall under low risk score (>7), 34.2% subjects fall under second category (7-11) which showed slightly elevated risk score. Only 6.53% subjects showed moderate risk score (12-14). 5.061% subjects estimated high risk score (15-20) and only 1% of subjects showed very high risk score (>20) towards T2D and their chances of getting disease is 1 in 2. Conclusion: The subjects who are overweight (BMI >30kg/m²) in the age groups 21-30 years and 61-70 years and physically inactive are at higher risk (>20) for the development of T2D. Waist circumference shows no correlation with the risk for T2D.

  311. OmirzhanovYesbol and AlpysbekMoldirBirzhankyzy

    This article focuses on the problems and prospects of civil society formation in the Republic of Kazakhstan. The authors give complete information referring to various sources about the history of the development of civil society in Kazakhstan. There are some positive examples of cooperation between the state and civil society, information on civil forums that were organized with the support of the state. In addition, the authors dwell on the legal framework of civil society in Kazakhstan. The article also discusses the main challenges hindering the development of civil society of modern Kazakhstan. By giving some negative examples of government’s interference in the affairs of Kazakh civil society institutions, authors try to provide the realistic assessment of the government interaction and civil society institutions. As an example, the authors have chosen the most high-profile criminal cases against some excited Kazakh civil society activists in recent years. In the final part of the article, the authors give their recommendations referring to the opinion of authoritative experts on development of civil society in Kazakhstan.

  312. Hafiz Waqas Kamran, Areeba Tawab, Laiba Saeed, Maida Riaz and Warda Babar

    This paper refers the discussion of risk premium with the predictors in evidence of gulf states. In this we analysis the sample 05 gulf states; Kuwait, Bahrain, Iraq, Oman and Qatar have been considered from the year 2001 to 2010. A conceptual model has been developed for the understanding the whole study and key findings have been explained for the future decisions. We use the different model to analysis that deposit interest rate has no significant effect on outcome and real interest rate have a significant effect on the outcome due to it is country specific factors and this result is derived by random effect model. Entities individual effect has been controlled through Fixed effect model.

  313. Iman Mohmad Wahby Salem, Dr. Jawaher ALAhmada, Prof.BahaAbalkhail, Shahad T Howladar, Huda M Balto, Raneem H Abushanab and Heba S Alshiekh

    Background: Coronaviruses are enveloped virus with a high case fatality rate. Medical students are at risk of acquiring this lethal virus. Aim of the study: Assess the knowledge and attitude among medical students in King Abdulaziz University Hospital (KAUH). Methods: A cross sectional study was performed in (KAUH) on a 672 Medical students who were participate in this study. Knowledge and attitude were assessed by using self-administered, pretested questionnaire based on WHO guidelines. Descriptive statistics were carried out to express participants’ sociodemographic information, mean knowledge and mean attitude scores. Inferential statistics (p < 0.05) were used. Result: Our sample include 56.2% female and 43.8% males with mean age 21.91 ± 1.433 years. 49.9% of them have high social class. The mean knowledge score of the students was 10.32 ± 4.21 (based on 25 knowledge questions) which internet is the main source of their knowledge 19.5%. The mean attitude score was 8.53 ± 1.70 (based on 11 attitude questions). 51.4%, 57.1%, 51.4% of high knowledge were female, and in clinical years and who are lived in north Jeddah respectively. Also, positive attitude was noticed more in female 56.6%, students in clinical years 70.8%, and who are lived in north Jeddah 52.5%. Discussion: Data of the present research revealed that there is a statistically significant difference in students' knowledge according to their grade in college, age group, and social class (p<0.05) similarly to Muhammad, et al., 2014. While, there is a statistically significant difference in attitude of the studied sample according to their age group, and social class only (p<0.05) similarly to Mohamed O.et.al, 2015 Conclusions: Findings of this study showed that female medical students, high social class one and who are in clinical years in KAUH, in Jeddah Saudi Arabia have good knowledge and positive attitude towards MERS CoV more than others.

  314. Dr. Chaudhury, S. K. and Misra, D. P.

    In today’s development process, rural Self Help Groups (SHGs) are empowered to overcome many of weaknesses. These are created to mobilize the resources of the individual members for their collective economic development; to uplift the living conditions of the poor; to create a habit of savings to utilize local resources, to mobilize individual skills for group’s interest; to create awareness about rights, to assist the members financially at the time of need for entrepreneurship development, to identify problems, analyzing and finding solutions in the group, to act as a media for socio-economic development of the village; to develop linkages with institutions of Micro finance; to organize training for skill development; to help in recovery of loans; to gain mutual understanding to develop trust and self-confidence; to build up teamwork.; to develop leadership qualities and to use as an effective delivery channel for rural credit. In this research paper, the authors attempt to discuss the micro finance and its impact on socio economic development in selected coastal districts of Odisha.

  315. Hasbollah Toisuta, Abubakar Kabakoran and Leunard Onisivorus Kakisina

    Early 20th century all the Islamic movement organizations, both local and national, are all pushed to Islam Wasyatiyah (moderate Muslims) and not sensible radical. Where educational institutions were born of the participation of the local population, the primary mission of these institutions is the development of character and morals of Muslims in Maluku. Judging from the movement (2001-200), more focus on jihad (war), the Salafi movement today is more focused on missionary movement, education and economics. As for the future, be offered the idea of Islamic schools of Ambon as a movement of cultural Islam which is based on the contextual reality by opening up a dialogue that is honest and critical now, to build awareness of diversity, solidarity and mutual pro- existence, as well as social cooperation in various fields of life and development, Voicing human values as part of the mission of Islam which is a blessing for the universe.

  316. Rasak Majid and Sallahuddin Hassan

    Broiler farming in Malaysia use two type of housing systems namely close house and open house system. This paper has evaluated the economic impact of closed house system in broiler farm performance in Malaysia. An economic evaluation of 211 broiler farmers was conducted in three states in Peninsular Malaysia namely Perak, Pahang and Johor to determine the performance of the broiler farmers by using economic performance analysis. Pooled multiple regression model was used in the analysis. This model involves price per bird (PRM) as dependent variable and rearing housing system (DU), size of farm (SOF), feed conversion rate (FCR), average body weight(ABW), average marketing age (AMA) and mortality rate (MOR). The results show that all variables, except SOF, are significantly influence the performance of the farmers at five percent level of significance.

  317. Hafiz Waqas Kamran, Mariyam Yaseen, Saima Ashraf and Hifza Haroon

    This paper refers the discussion of earning per share with the predictors in evidence of banking sector in Pakistan. In this we analysis the sample of 12 from 2007 to 2011.A conceptual model has been developed for the understanding the whole model and key findings have been explained for the future decision makers which involve the investors and decision makers. We use the different model to analysis that market based factors have no significant effect on outcome and firm based factors have a significant effect on the outcome and this result is derived by random effect model.

  318. Usha Ahuja and Prem Narayan

    The paper mainly tries to assess the decision making power of rural women in their economic life. Objective of the study is two folds- first to analyze the pattern of decision making in each of the 13 identified areas and second to find out the factors affecting decision making power of women.150 women respondents were investigated to know the level of farm women participation in Agricultural decision-making in the rural areas of Sonipat district of Haryana state. Primary data were collected using structured questionnaire and interview schedule. Regression and observational analysis has been done to achieve the objectives. Results showed that for majority of the households joint decision making prevails for 7 out of 13 decision making areas. Land related decisions, decisions regarding purchase/ sale and selection of animals and household financing decisions are taken jointly by both husband and wife in majority of households. Female decision making is restricted mainly to livestock management. Arrangement of fodder and consumption/sale of milk are the decisions where female have a key role in decision making in majority of households. Hence females are able to take decisions in areas that are part of their household chores. Their role in decision making regarding economic and agricultural activities is negligible. Regression and observational analysis reveal that livestock, size of landholding, age and literacy of woman, nuclear family type and caste are the factors affecting decision making of woman.

  319. Paul C. Obidike, Kalu E. Uma and Hyacinth N. Aniagolu

    The paper dwells on the attainment of positive social change through sufficient design and teaching of peace education in Nigeria. The frequent crisis since after independence in the six geopolitical zones of the country presupposes absence of or lack of enough peace education. Ignorance of conflict resolution through dialogue is lacking in the consciousness of many Nigerians due to lack of proper information and training. The incidences of Niger Delta Militia, the kidnapping cases, the community clashes, the politically motivated crisis, the Boko Haram insurgency, among others in Nigeria show little or no peace education. On the basis of the country’s situation, among the suggestions made for change include: designing peace education programme at the formal and informal levels in such a way that the community leaders, churches, mosques, town union members and other social organisations will be involved; the faith based organisations have to live up to their responsibilities; peace education should be included in Nigeria’s education curriculum so that all levels of education are given the basic fundamentals of peace education.

  320. Samout Ammar

    The dynamics of the external debt is still a phenomenon little discussed in the literature for the Tunisian context and the previous work on this theme does not give to the Researchers of the techniques sufficient to deal with it. The objective of this research is to explain the effects of the external public debt on economic growth for Tunisia on the period 2000-2015. To analyze this impact, we issued a hypothesis that the public debt outside negatively affects economic growth. As a result of this finding, the question to which we will try to provide a response to the end of this research is: What is the impact of level of indebtedness on economic growth in Tunisia. It is clear from the results of this research that the rate of total investment affects positively and significantly the economic growth for the horizon of the long-term. In contrast, the rate of inflation, the service of the debt and the rate of population growth act negatively and significantly on economic growth in the short term.

  321. Professor G. S. Namusonge, Dr. Willy Muturi and Mr. Olawoye Olaniran

    This paper examines the role of aggressiveness on performance of firms on the Nigerian Stock Exchange. The paper is designed to look at the role of aggressiveness on performance of firms on the Nigerian Stock Exchange. The paper took critical interest in the contents of a number of studies which concluded that among Nigerian managers, lack of innovation and pro-activeness, aggressiveness, aversion to risk-taking, which are critical factors for growth of SMEs, were found to be high in 2007. The target population is 176 firms listed in the Nigerian Stock Exchange with financial returns as at August, 2014. Out of the population, a sample of 60 firms was taken. Methods of statistical analyses include mean, standard deviation, and Pooled, Random and Fixed regression models based on the preferences suggested by the Hausman specification test results. The results of panel analysis of the relationship between Entrepreneurial Orientation dimension – aggressiveness, and performance of firms listed in the Nigerian Stock Exchange, with returns on assets and returns on equity as proxy showed a positive relationship between aggressiveness and returns on assets and aggressiveness and returns on equity. This result negated a study conducted in 2007 in Nigeria on 88 SMEs earlier mentioned. But, it also confirms the outcome of a study carried out among Kenya’s manufacturing firms operating under the EAC in 2012, which showed that there existed a positive relationship between entrepreneurial orientation adoption and firm performance. Aggressiveness was found to have positive relationships with both returns on assets, and returns on equity. The implication of this study results is that, in Nigeria, entrepreneurial orientation has been widely adopted and practised, and aggressiveness exhibited a positive relationship with both returns on assets and returns on equity as it was found in Kenya.

  322. Çelik, Adnan and Güngör, Sadife

    In general terms, crisis is an inconsistent condition which is not steady and requires reform. The protection from the negative effects of the crisis and even to prejudice the crises in favor of themselves depends on the extent to success of the business in crisis management. An effective leadership provides to overcome the crisis as stronger form. The crisis is an important actor who shall play a key role in moving the competition power of the organization to the highest level by producing alternative policies in actualization of efficient reforms for the leadership. The aim of this research is to draw a conceptual frame related with the place and importance of the leadership in the crisis management on the basis of previous studies. Accordingly, a theoretical structure is tried to be formed by studying the researches which are made about the crisis, crisis management and leadership concepts. As a result, the leaders can manage the crisis and the modern leadership behaviors which defend the changes and innovation in leadership has a positive effect on the crisis management.

  323. Biswajit Das and Sunil Kumar Singh

    Fresh water is a scare resource. During recent decades, each and every anthropogenic activities such as domestic, agriculture and industries require large amount of surface water and ground water. It has been seen that globally water resources face extraordinary challenges but these are at highly in the world’s arid and semi-arid regions. In this region due to very little or no rainfall and lack of surface water, a ground water source becomes desired source for all activities. Identifying the potential region of ground water source become important for fulfilling the basic requirement of such region. In recent time the development of remote sensing approaches has helped in getting repetitive information of large area in short span of time. The satellite imageries of moderate to high resolution help scientist to delineate the ground water potential zone of the area with help of geospatial modeling approach. The present study employs the satellite imageries (Landsat Imageries, LISS III and Aster DEM) along with GIS technique to delineate the area having high potential of ground water source. The weighted overlay analysis is done using various thematic maps like, lineament density, geology, geomorphology, drainage density, Slope etc., to delineate the potential zones of ground water in water deficit district of Kalaburagi and Yadgir district of Karnataka.

  324. Shaker Shafi Alharthy, Mohd Zuri Ghani and Aznan Bin Che Ahmad

    A proposed (ICTiL) model that integrates thinking creatively into learning process was presented to bring the two processes in one process. A new proposed training program (PICTiL) -which was designed according to (ICTiL) model-was delivered to a study sample aiming at fostering creative thinking. The sample of the study consisted of (92) male gifted students of secondary school stage who were distributed equally onto control and experimental groups (46 respondents each) and were assigned randomly. Mixed-method approach was used with an explanatory sequential design. Torrance Test of creative Thinking (figural form; form B) was used as the instrument of the study. The findings revealed high size effect of (ICTiL) model represented in (PICTiL) program on respondents` creative thinking; there was a significant statistical impact of (PICTiL) training program on fluency, flexibility, originality, and elaboration of creative thinking. Suggestions and recommendations included adopting (ICTiL) model from all interested parties.

  325. Sevilay Konya and Sadife Güngör

    The concept of sustainable development is used together with the cultural, political, social and environmental concepts as well as the production, consumption, trade and development concepts. In this study, the fundamental idea is to provide a sustainable development with the help of green economy. The main purpose of this study is to question the operation of the green economy with reference of the concept of sustainable development. The evaluation of the world countries or country groups (China, United States, South Korea, European Union, France, Germany, United Kingdom, Japan, Canada, India and Brazil) which attract the attention with their economic condition shall be evaluated for sustainable development and green economy within frame of this main purpose. While this evaluation is made, green economy policies of China, United States, South Korea, European Union, France, Germany, United Kingdom, Japan, Canada, India and Brazil shall be considered.

  326. Dr. Nimmi Maria Oommen and Riya Anna Philip

    To be born without one of the primary senses, i.e. hearing through which a person mediates between the inner needs and the external environment, affects and restricts his whole development as a person and necessitates the acquisition of quite different modes of adjustment from those of a normal person. A student who is deaf of hard of hearing may have difficulty in communicating with peers, developing relationships and friendships and participating in the social inter course, which is so critical to emotional development. Hearing impairment, therefore, should be viewed not only from the larger perspective of their effects on the child’s overall adjustment. This study focuses on self concept and stress tolerance of hearing impaired students and tries to find the relation. We develop and maintain our self-concept through the process of taking action and then reflecting on what we have done and what others tell us about what we have done. Stress tolerance is the ability to handle emotionally charged situations and to resist burn out demanding environment. Hearing disability impairs not only hearing function but also intellectual, behavioral social and emotional functions, thus effect of handicap penetrates all aspects of the individual growth and development. The education should emphasize the child rather than his handicap and to understand that there is no two worlds, a deaf world and a hearing world but one world in which deaf and hearing people exist and interact on a daily basis.

  327. Dr. Peter N. Keiyoro, Josephine W. Ngunjiri, Walter Mwanda and Omondi Bowa

    Tungiasis is caused by female Tunga penetrans that embeds in the hosts, epidermis. The disease causes morbidity and social stigmatization among the children. It is also a health burden among children and elderly in the endemic areas. It may have negative effects on the economic activities of the infested adults and hence indirectly influence school attendance among children in the affected areas. The study focused on the relationship between the disease and school attendance and a possible cause of high drop-out rates among children of peasant families in Murang’a County in Kenya, East Africa. Cross-sectional survey involving randomly selected 720 pupils from six schools was used. The questionnaires captured data on disease infestation and school attendance among children. Of the participants 3.8.0% were infested while 96.2% had no infestation. Absenteeism and school dropout due to Tungiasis was found to have negative impact on children participation in educational activities.

  328. Nilotpal Kalita and Rana Sarmah

    This study is an attempt to estimate soil loss sensitivity based on universal soil loss equation (USLE) and GIS in the valley part of the Belsiri River basin falling in the state of Assam for the year 2008 and 2015. It is estimated that total soil loss from the basin is 1885 tons and 1956 tons in the years 2008 and 2015 respectively. The average rate of soil loss from the catchment of the study area is estimated to be 0.05 ton/ha/yr and 0.06 ton/ha/yr for the years 2008 and 2015 respectively. If this rate of soil loss continued then there is most likelihood of occurring fluvial hazards like drainage congestion, flood, etc. in some areas of both side of the river particularly in downstream part of the basin. This study also reveals that although high and extreme soil loss sensitivity zones occupied less area compared to other soil loss sensitivity zones yet erosion hazard in these two zones is highly significant because of their location in the thickly populated and intensively cultivated areas which are also the economically rich areas of the study area. This high and extreme soil loss sensitivity has been adversely exerting great pressure on the rural economy and thus required to be noted as the priority areas in soil and water conservation planning and erosion control.

  329. Asit Kumar Behera and Dr. Aliva Patnaik

    It has been a long time concern raised by ecologist and environmentalist over various threats from industrialization and urbanization which influence consistently terrestrial ecosystem and its biota from last two decades. Present investigation conducted to assess the species diversity of earthworms with their inhabiting soil physicochemical analysis to ascertain the range of impact under the hammer of Paradeep Phosphate Limited PPL pollution. Investigation revealed five earthworm species, Octochaetona surensis, Octochaetona barkudensis, Lampito mauriti, Perionyx excavates and Pontoscolex corethrurs belongs to three families, Octichaetidae, Megascolecidae and Glossoscolecidae. Perionyx excavates was the new arrival for this particular region of Odisha because it was not reported previously in this particular part of the district. Physicochemical assessment of soil ascertain that soil was highly contaminated with heavy metals such as Cd, Cr, Pb, Hg, Zn and As, which directly influence the earthworm population and its inhabiting number. Concentration of heavy metals was Cr>Cd>Pb>Hg>Zn>As>Cu>Ni. Particularly the around areas of PPL shows high contamination with heavy metals and very low pH (3.4) with high electrical conductivity (0.5) which is the consequence of high metallic deposit on soil. But the soil contamination levels gradually decreases with increasing distance from the plant.

  330. Wanekeya James, John K. Byaruhanga and Fredrick Kiongera

    Risk management has been identified as a vital process in the business institutions despite being less developed within the small business sector. Many developed countries record a time in history when entrepreneurial activities led to high economic development. This means that management of Operational Risk in Small and Medium Enterprises in developing countries and more so in Kenya can also lead to high economic development. It has been generally observed that most Small and Medium Enterprises (SMEs) do not survive to their fifth birthday (Hallberg, 2000) hence raising concern on their general performance. This article therefore investigates the effects of Operational Risk Management (ORM) practices on the performance of Small and Medium Enterprises. A cross- sectional survey design was adopted to establish the relationship between the key study variables. The primary data used in the analysis is based principally on a stratified random sample of 100 Small and Medium Enterprises respondents interviewed in 2015 in Kakamega Town. A range of secondary data sources served as the key bibliographic tools for identifying relevant work for review. Multivariate regression analysis was used to test the effect of the Operational Risk Management practices on the performance of Small and Medium Enterprises. The results show that there was a statistically significant positive effect of Operational Risk Management practices on the performance of Small and Medium Enterprises (overall beta value of 0.621 and significant). Given that there is a positive effect of regulatory compliance on the performance of Small and Medium Enterprises for instance, the government should proactively engage in creating a conducive environment in which the Small and Medium Enterprises operate.

  331. Yunes Azizian

    Goldbergian construction grammar as a cognitive theory which gives the same weight to form and function is used, here, to analyze Topicalization (TOP) and Left Dislocation (LD) as the very productive syntactic construction in spoken language of Persian. This theory by exploring argument structure and information structure, could present a comprehensive analysis of the studied construction. Results showed that the ‘agent’ cannot be topicalized in TOP and LD and the Aktionsart type of the verb plays no role in determining what may be topicalized in both of them. Preposed element in TOP could have a macro role assignment of ‘undergoer’ or no macro role assignment, but the element in LD must always have a macro role assignment. The topicalized constituent in LD, always represents with ‘-ra’ as topic marker, but the representation of this functional postposition with TOP is somehow optional. The leftmost constituent in TOP and LD constructions could have different functions depending on the previous discourse. The common functions of their sentence-initial element are ‘secondary topic’ and ‘contrastive focus’. The topicalized element in TOP could also be ‘focus’ which always contains new information. It also has been cleared that TOP and LD as abstract constructions are inherited by some less abstract constructions and also inherit some properties from more abstract ones. Goldbergi an construction grammar could determine their position in the network of constructions which exist in the mind of Persian native speakers based on their inheritance relations.

  332. Baharudin Othman, Sharifudin Md. Shaarani and Arsiah Bahron

    The aim of this study is to investigate the influence of dietary halal practices to organizational performance among the halal food industry in Malaysia. In this study, four key elements have been identified as performance predictors which are; halal and thoyyib, internal process, halal assurance, and staff. A cross sectional study design has been adopted in this study through quantitative methods using closed ended questions. Questionnaires were distributed to the halal food industry in Malaysia and 241 of them are usable for analysis at an organizational level. Respondents who participated in this study are internal committee members who are specially appointed for halal dietary management control within the organization. Data were analyzed by using SPSS version 21. Descriptive analysis showed that the level of halal practices and the performance of the halal food industry in Malaysia is positive. In addition, the inference test results prove that there is a significant correlation between all the variables studied. However, based on the regression analysis, the halal and thoyyib dimensions majorly influence the performance of the organization as compared to internal dimensions of process, halal assurance, and staff. In this research, few limitations have been identified. The first limitation is that there was limited number of respondents (241 companies) due to time constraint. Furthermore, some respondents were quite hesitant in giving their cooperation due to company’s confidentiality. If the return rate is higher then, the possibility to obtain more accurate results is higher. Secondly, the research was more focused on ‘halal’ food while the term ‘halal’ is now globally known not only in food industry but also in pharmaceutical, logistic etc. The standards used are only limited to the management of food. The implication towards theory and literature - Quality researches have always been linked to total quality management, this time it is the ‘Research Based View’ approach that was actually used. With that, the number of researches using strategic management as the core theory can be increased. Moreover, this research showed that other factors must be studied in order to produce a working halal model. Besides, the implication towards the industry is that the findings obtained have produced a new phenomenon in which the industry needs a paradigm shift and does not only stay in the secure zone but accept all the changes outlined by the government or halal certification body. In relation to this, the industry must know its responsibilities in order to convince the customers on the practice of halal by the organization. For the government on the other hand, it will be easy for them to make assessment on halal food industry in Malaysia aside from preparing an effective plan especially in the effort to draw a clear picture on the industry in relation to the real halal management including the understanding on standard acts or all the guidelines that have been introduced. For users, it gives the assurance that a product must undergo a few steps which are not only controlled by the industry, but the competent authorities as well in halal certification. In addition to the existence of a few acts, the rules and standards which binds the industry to always be responsible and practice integrity in halal implementation

  333. Yazan Salameh Mottee Oroud, Md. Aminul Islam and TunkuSalhaBinti Ahmad

    Accounting information is indispensable for any investment strategy by individuals and institutional investors. The purpose of this study is to verify which factors affect market value of equity and highlight opportunities for future research. The objectives of this study are to: • Determine the effects of cash flows and accruals on the market values, • Examine the extent to which one or more of the following parameters: current accruals, total accruals, aggregate accruals, non-current accruals, gross profit, operating profit, net income, operating cash flows, financing cash flows or investing cash flows are able to explain the market values, and • Investigate the potential that audit quality moderates the effects of cash flows and accruals on the market of Jordanian companies. Panel data method will be implemented to characterise the impact of cash flows and accruals on the market value of equity of all Jordanian companies listed on the Amman Stock Exchange (ASE). This investigation will be carried out for three periods, six years before the Financial Crisis, during the crisis, and six years following it.

  334. Manju Singh and Sunita Mishra

    The present investigation is to the social adjustment and emotional adjustment. The study is based upon sample of 60 children and the age rang 9-14 year. The sample consisted of 40 disabled children and 20 normal children selected randomly majority of the children were purposively in Lucknow city. A questionnaire schedule to elicit information of the respondent, self-administer questionnaire were used. The finding of the study was that there is a significant adjustment difference between disabled children and normal children.

  335. Kalathaki Maria

    Research object was the cultivation of values of ESD through the SPEEs in Secondary Education of Heraklion, Crete (Greece) prefecture. The values of ESD, and the followed methodology, for the cultivation of future environmentally literate citizens in the studied SPEEs constituted the Tool of Content Analysis, which applied to the projects’ archival material, to meet the aims of the research, to answer the research questions. There were sought references from the application forms and the final reports of the projects to some basic values that are enshrined in the Charter of Fundamental Rights (2000) of European Union and imported by UNECE strategy for ESD (2005) and Flogaiti (2006). These values were the ecological sustainability, social justice, autonomy, responsibility and tolerance, dignity, freedom, equality, solidarity, accountability and beauty sought to SPEEs as targets to be promoted and by what methodology. As the survey revealed, the teaching of values in schools with targeted projects and special methodology is in its infancy, at their very beginning stage. In the transformation of the EE Environmental Education to the Education for the Sustainable Development, school curriculum and educational projects need, immediately reconsideration and reconstruction to cultivate the future environmentally, scientifically, digitally literate active citizens.

  336. Dr. Mehmet Murat Payam

    Being one of the basic human needs, security is the most important public services provided by the law enforcement agencies, public or private, throughout the world. These agencies use different strategies and policing models to provide public order and security. Now more than ever, it is very necessary for police to repair relations with the people they serve by stepping up to the ethical mind as the security services when conducted in an ethical manner directly affects the work of high quality that matters to society and enhance the life quality of people. Respected researchers are stressing the importance of developing the exact skills that are being lost in order for today’s policing services to be successful. It is obvious that 21st century requires the demand for qualified police who have signs of ethical mind as ethical behaviors are essential to policing a democratic society. Therefore police should be equipped with ethical values that we must develop to meet the challenges of the future. It is believed that complying with the ethical values and principles will improve the quality of security services police serve. It is therefore important to examine the impact that the ethical mind could potentially have on policing services. In short, this paper aims to extrapolate the ethical mind to the profession of policing and to identify how the ethical mind could impact upon policing effectiveness.

  337. Peribadi, Muh. Arsyad, La Janu and Rahman

    This paper is a reflection of a research of writer about direct election process in 2004 and in 2009. One of the main focuses is how is the perception and evaluation of all society components toward legislative members who are elected in legislative body of Kendari city. The research is developed through a mixing method between qualitative and quantitative approach (Brannen, 1993; Creswell, 2013). The result shows that the members of Regional People's House of Representatives in Kendari elected in every legislative election tend to be viewed as “impromptu politician and bad politician”. It means that, up till now, the members of the house of representative do not show the real identity and character as trychotomy (religious, feudal and egalitarian) as reflection of socio-religious as Geerts meant (1983). Moreover, their competence and integrity are also still questioned by the people in area where they are elected, Kendari city.

  338. Dr. Pukeho Lokho

    The underlying principle for developing culturally indigenous materials for teaching of English at the middle school level in Nagaland is that it would help the learners learn English as a second language in the context of the learners’ own cultural experience. It is believed that themes familiar to the learners would facilitate the learners to learn better, the reason being that any new learning is in one way or the other influenced by previous experience and therefore learning a language in a situation away from learners’ context and experience would be less motivating and irrelevant. Culturally indigenous materials for teaching of English are required if at all the curriculum is to be socially and culturally sensitive however, should not be narrowed down to local materials alone but incorporate materials from other sources which are relevant.

  339. Tuğrul VAROL, Fahri Ersoy DEMİR and Halil Bariş ÖZEL

    Both of two sample plots have been chosen within the mixed forests of Hasankadı Forest Sub-District Directorate for analysis of natural regeneration of Oriental beech (Fagus orientalis Lipsky.) and Uludağ fir (Abies nordmanniana ssp. bornmuelleriana). The locations of all saplings (height ≤ 0.8 m), seedlings (height > 0.8 m) and trees (height > 1.8 m) have been determined, and the measurements have been performed. Spatial pattern analysis and statistical assessments have been carried out by Ripley’s K function in R software. Although grouping has been observed in all growth stages of Uludağ fir and oriental beech, there is a positive relationship between juvenilities of fir and older beech trees. These results indicate the stable growth in first stages of development. It is understood that the suitable growth locations are under the canopy of beeches for abies and under the older beeches for beech trees.

  340. Rama Krishnan, N., Mani, N. D. Phanindra Kumar, T. and Madhava Rao V.

    Global warming has become a threatening phenomenon for all living organisms on the earth as it leads to changes in rainfall distribution and increases the temperature. This issue has not only affected the life of people in the developed nations but also in the developing countries like India. India being an agrarian country the variations in climate affects its economic productivity and development. Tamil Nadu state heavily depends on monsoon rains, and therefore is prone to drought when the monsoon fails and flood occurs when there is heavy rainfall. According to the review the rainfall and temperature are the two major climate related factors directly continuing to the change. Therefore, this study made an attempt to assess the various changes rainfall and temperature pattern in Tamil Nadu state from 1901 to 2009. For the study the average, minimum and maximum rainfall and temperature data were used. For the changes were identified using Interpolation Techniques. In addition the coefficient of variation in rainfall were also calculated and mapped in ArcGIS software.

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