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Plagiarism Detection

IJCR is following an instant policy on rejection those received papers with plagiarism rate of more than 20%. So, All of authors and contributors must check their papers before submission to making assurance of following our anti-plagiarism policies.

March 2016

Introduction: Allergy to food in children affects 6% to 8% and is increasing in its prevalence with a global prevalence of 2-3.5%. Studies have shown that parents of children with multiple food allergy (FA) have a lower quality of life (QOL). The FAQOL of primary care givers is dependent on accurate perception of reaction severity, the number of allergens, the type of food allergy and self-regulated intervention. Case report: A report on a case of a 3 year old boy with allergy to cow’s milk, eggs, chicken and nuts and had eczema. He had an anaphylaxis reaction to egg at the age of one.

Apical periodontitis is an inflammatory process around the apex of a tooth root. It is primarily a sequel to microbial infection of the pulp space of teeth and is a remarkably widespread problem. The clinical management of apical periodontitis involves infection control by root canal treatment and often requires up to 12-24 months. The new Apexum procedure is based on advancing the debridement one step further by minimally invasive removal of the inflamed periapical tissues through root canal access, thereby enhancing the healing kinetics of periapical lesions.

We are reporting two cases of intrauterine perforation of ileum with intussusception of ram's horn type in one case and unihorn in other case following rupture of omphalocele membrane. Both cases were managed successfully by surgical intervention. Aim of this study is to add in literature that this type of complication can occur with rupture of omphalocele minor during intrauterine period.

Background: The aim of this study is to assess the quality of life of CABG and PTCA patients with co morbid condition . Methods: This study was a prospective, well-controlled, interventional study conducted in 120 patients over a period of 6 months in a tertiary care teaching hospital. Patient quality of life were assessed using MacNew Heart related QoL questionnaire. Results: In this study, commonly seen co-morbid condition is Type 2 DM (65%) and least condition is Epilepsy (3.3%).

Introduction: Stress levels among university students has been associated with negative outcomes like poor academic performance and degenerations of personal relations. Higher self-efficacy and social support may act as a moderator of stress for students. Hence this study was conducted to assess the correlation between academic self efficacy, social support, and stress among the university graduate students. Material and Methods: This survey was conducted among undergraduate students aged 18-22 years, of a dental school in India.

Objectives: To determine the prevalence of aural foreign bodies, modes of presentations, types, removal process and associated complications in a sub-urban health facility. Patients and methods: This was a retrospective study conducted on consecutive patients presenting with suspected foreign body in the ear to the Otolaryngology (ENT) clinic of Imo State University Teaching Hospital (IMSUTH) Orlu over two years. The prevalence, mode of presentation, foreign body types, removal methods and complications were evaluated.

Background: KOOS is a self -administered instrument which assesses patient's opinion about Knee associated problems. Original version of KOOS has been translated in various regional foreign languages. India, is multilingual country where each province has a unique language. Maharashtra is the second largest state in India and Marathi is the regional language of the communication. KOOS is a self‐report disease specific measure needed to be translated with unique method in order to achieve a normative equivalence and linguistic validation.

Background: Pancytopenia is a common problem encountered in routine hospital practice .It can be a manifestation of relatively trivial treatable cause to serious malignant disorders both haematological as well as non haematological .Bone marrow examination provides a definitive diagnosis for the further management of these patients . Objectives: To study the various patterns of presentation of pancytopenia and use of bone marrow examination as a diagnostic tool.

Background: Bharathanatyam is an Indian classical dance form which involves rhythmic dance movements. There are various postures in this dance form to attain which dancers need optimum muscle strength and adequate range of motion at required joints. Dancers need good body balance to maintain these postures. Dancers also have to maintain balance while movements and changing postures. Objective: To assess and compare static and dynamic balance in female bharathanatyam dancers and nondancers.

Squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) that arises from maxillary sinus generally has far reaching and devastating effects on surrounding tissues due to its proximity to orbit and skull base. SCC that arises in the maxillary sinus is considered to be a para nasal sinus disease that behaves differently from SCC of the maxillary alveolus and hard palate, which are considered to be similar to oral SCC

Objectives: To study the pregnancy rate following tubal recanalisation and to analyse the factors that influence the outcome. Materials and Methods: The study carried out in Jawaharlal Institute of Postgraduate Medical Education and Research, between July 2006 and August 2007 includes two group. All the patients undergoing recanalisation were included as the prospective group (40) and in the retrospective group (20) case records of those women who had undergone tubal recanalisation in the previous year were included.

Diarrhoea in calves is one of the most important disease complexes evident by rapid and frequent passage of semisolid and liquid faeces material through Several studies have addressed the high distribution of Escherichia coli (E. coli) strains in infectious calf diarrhoea the gastrointestinal tract. In the present study, the prevalence of E. coli F5 antigen was studied by strip test based on the principle of lateral immuno-chromatography in the calves of in and around areas of Jabalpur, M.P., India.

Dental injury to immature permanent incisors is the commonly encountered problem in young children during the turbulent years of transition into adolescence. The management of such teeth is complicated due to the presence of wide open apices. In such cases definitive endodontic treatment has to be postponed till an apical ‘stop’ or hard tissue barrier is formed for condensation of gutta-percha. This article presented two cases of fractured immature permanent incisors with open apex treated successfully with calcium hydroxide to induce apical hard tissue bridge formation.

Epidermolysis bullosa is a rare genetic connective tissue disorder. It has many genetic and symptomatic variations but all share the prominent symptom of extremely fragile skin that blisters and tears from minor friction or trauma. The severity can range from a mild, localized disease to a generalized, devastating process. Its affects 1 out of every 50,000 live births and those born with it are often called ‘Butterfly Children’. There is no treatment or cure. Daily wound care, pain management and protective bandaging are the only available treatment options.

Objectives: The Hepatitis-B virus (HBV) causes severe and often fatal liver disease. Since 1982, vaccination has proven remarkably successful in terms of effectiveness and safety; thus, it is administered to every primary healthcare worker (PHCW) to safeguard them against occupational exposure. The aim of this study is to investigate Saudi Arabian PHCWs’ hepatitis B vaccination coverage, knowledge, and attitude.

Background and objective: Preoperative treatment with chemo radiotherapy for rectal cancer is a standard approach for certain patients group with cancer rectum. This study reports on overall survival and disease-free survival, down staging and toxicity in rectal cancer patients who received combined chemo radiation therapy followed by curative surgery.

Background and Objectives: Squamous cell carcinoma is the most common intraoral malignancy. Despite intense research in the area of squamous cell carcinomas of the head and neck (SCCHN), its 5-year survival rate remains low. p53 alterations have been implicated in oral carcinogenesis process. Oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) lesions mostly occur at the tongue, followed by floor of the mouth, alveolar ridge/ gingiva, buccal mucosa, labial mucosa and hard palate. This study was undertaken to analyze the p53 immunoexpression in OSCC at different sites.

Objectives: This study was designed to evaluate for an appropriate treatment plan (extraction or non-extraction) for reducing the dental and soft tissue procumbency of bimaxillary protrusion individuals and also to compare the pre and post-treatment values of the two groups to provide an evidence based approach of premolar extraction in treating bimaxillary protrusion individuals.

Myofibroblasts are modified fibroblasts with smooth muscle like features characterized by the presence of contractile apparatus. Myofibroblasts have an important position in the inflammatory response. They produce matrix molecules such as collagen, glycosamino-glycans, tenascin and fibronectin in the interstitial space or basement membrane and play important role in growth, differentiation and wound healing which if deranged or separated can result in tissue fibrosis.

Purpose: In our study we aimed to predict preterm delivery using the salivary progesterone levels. Material and Method: In this follow-up study, we collected salivary samples from 100 pregnant women at 24, 27 and 30 weeks' gestation. Pregnant women with preeclampsia, diabetes, twin pregnancy and intrauterine growth restriction were not included in the study. The salivary progesterone levels were determined by enzyme immunoassay. The patients were followed until delivery. Findings: Preterm birth occurred in 11 (9.09%) of the 100 patients.

Introduction: Anaesthetic management in a patient with co existing cardiac disease is always a challenge especially when it is an emergency. Peripheral nerve blocks are always safer than centrineuraxial anaesthesia or general anaesthesia in a patient suffering from ischemic heart disease (IHD), use of USG makes block more specific. Case report: A 63 yrs old male suffered from crush injury of left foot was posted for emergency debridement and external fixation. History ECG and ECHO suggested old IHD.

Allergy is one of the most widespread diseases in the world. If the twentieth century was considered cardiovascular disease period, then XXI st century, after a forecast of the World Health Organization, will be a century of allergies. The number of allergy sufferers incessantly increase, this increase being higher in summer, while in winter is increasing respiratory allergic diseases. The mechanism of allergy consists in disorder of the immune response to certain stimuli, modifying the reactivity of substances and antigens molecules, in most cases being harmless to the body.

Dentinogenesis imperfecta or capdepont’s teeth is an autosomal-dominant trait with variable expressivity. It affects dentin of both the primary and permanent dentitions. This condition is also called as hereditary opalescent dentin because of clinical discolouration of teeth. In this case report we are presenting a case of dentinogenesis imperfect type II with the disease affecting two generations of a family. The purpose of this report is to highlight the features of this disease and to differentiate it from its other variables.

Purpose: To compare the safety and efficacy of naftopidil and tamsulosin with deflazacort as medical expulsive therapy for distal ureteric stones. Methods: This prospective study comprised of 60 patients with distal ureteric stones measuring less than or equal to 10mmThe patients were divided randomly into two groups.

Purpose: To evaluate the phacocapsulotomy technique for management of capsulorhexis in white intumescent cataracts regarding safety and effectiveness in comparison with needle aspiration. Methods: This prospective study included 100 patients with white intumescent cataracts. Patients were randomized into two groups comprising 50 each. Group I underwent phacocapsulotomy technique to facilitate CCC, where phaco probe is used to decompress the lens. Group II underwent needle aspiration technique to facilitate CCC, where 26 gauge needle is used to aspirate cortical fluid.

Background: Urinary tract infections (UTIs) are the second most common cause of Hospital Acquired infections (HAI) or Nosocomial infections. Indwelling Urinary Catheter associated urinary tract infections among hospital settings had become a potential source for drug resistance thereby increasing the morbidity and mortality especially in elder people and has now gained paramount importance in patient outcome. Purpose: To detect the prevalence of Catheter Associated Urinary tract Infection and to evaluate the bacterial etiology of Catheter Associated Urinary tract Infection.

Patient always wants scarless surgery, lesser pain and less cosmetic scar and this can be possible with use of cyanoacrylate adhesive glue. Since their discovery in 1949, cyanoacrylate compounds have evoked interest as being the ideal “tissue glue”. Several different forms of this compound have been developed in order to eliminate tissue toxicity. In our study, we have described a technique of sutureless closure of operative skin wounds and compared it to closure of skin with nylon.

Facial asymmetry is commonly seen in patients with temporomandibular disorders. Temporomandibular disorders have an impact on facial asymmetry and the degree of facial asymmetry in turn has effects on temporomandibular disorders. The present study was conducted to estimate the degree of facial asymmetry in subjects with temporomandibular disorders. The study was done in 60 patients divided into 30 patients of 2 groups each. Group 1 comprised of patients with temporomandibular joint disorders and group 2 comprised of age and sex matched patients without temporomandibular joint disorders.

The irritation or inflammation of the meninges, the covering of brain and spinal cord, is known as meningitis. Acute bacterial meningitis (ABM) is a medical emergency. The emergence of antimicrobial resistance has added to this problem. The aim of the present study was to analyze the emerging pathogen, bacterial profiles and antimicrobial susceptibility patterns of the isolates which were obtained from CSF of patients with ABM in the given area. In our study Gram’s stain provides 35% positivity for pus cells and 15% positivity for bacteria. In our study the culture positivity rate was 22%.

Endometrial cancer (EC) has an increasing incidence worldwide. Lymph node status is a strong predictive factor of recurrence. Therefore, determination of the nodal status is very important in order to optimally tailor adjuvant therapies and to reduce local and distant recurrences. Imaging modalities do not yet provide accurate lymph node staging, thus pelvic and aortic lymphadenectomies remain standard staging procedures. Sentinel lymph node (SLN) biopsy is intended to avoid extensive lymphadenectomy with its related morbidity and to provide significant oncologic information.

With advancement in clinical dentistry, implant therapy is one of the most upcoming treatment option for fixed prosthesis with a predictable outcome. However, sometimes insufficient bone due to long standing edentulism may pose a challenge for implant placement. To overcome such a clinical presentation in 1970s, ridge splitting or bone spreading procedure was introduced by Hilt Tatum. This technique has been used for esthetic rehabilitation and implant site preparation in cases of deficient alveolar ridges to satisfy the basic ideal need of hard tissue augmentation.

Waste foundry sand (WFS) represent the highest amount of solid wastes generated by foundries.WFS is a by-product of ferrous and non-ferrous metal casting industries .Foundries successfully recycle and reuse the sand many times in a foundry. When the sand can no longer be reused in the foundry and it is termed as waste foundry sand. Indian foundry industry is the 4th largest casting producer in the world. The majority (95%) of the foundry units in India falls under the category of small scale industry. These foundries generates approximately 17, 10000 tones WFS/year.

Hepatosplenic T-cell lymphoma (HSTCL) was first described as a distinct clinicopathologic entity in 19901 HSTCL is a rare type of non-Hodgkin lymphoma that was originally recognized by its characteristic clinical presentation, distinct histologic pattern, and expression of the ɤδ T-cell receptor (TCR)1.Recent scientific advances have allowed for better understanding of the histologic, immunophenotyping, and cytogenetic characteristics of HSTCL, including identification of HSTCL with αβ TCR expression. γδ HSTCL and αβ HSTCL are now considered immunophenotypic variants of the same disease.

Background: Patients with cardiac disease presenting for surgery pose a considerable challenge to the anaesthesiologist. Even patients belonging to geriatric and pediatric age group are detected to have electrophysiological disorders. Pacemakers are being used with greater frequency for both conduction and arrhythmia problems in such patients. Although no definite figures are available, the number of patients with pacemaker coming for anaesthesia and surgery is increasing now a days.

The present study was carried out to immobilize the multi-enzymes produced by a soil isolate Aeromonas jandaei. The three enzymes viz. amylase, lipase and protease produced by this isolate were partially purified by dialysis and were immobilized using 3 matrices- agar, agarose and alginate at 3 different concentrations. A washout of enzymes was seen at the lower concentrations of the matrices. At 3 % concentration the enzyme substrate interaction was reduced as low activity was seen. 2 % agar and agarose gave excellent enzyme retention and activity.

Benign breast diseases constitute a heterogenous group of lesions including developmental abnormalities, inflammatory lesions, epithelial and stromal proliferations and neoplasms. Many of these are clinically suspected as malignant lesions but diagnosed as benign after histopathological examination. ANDI [Aberration of normal development and Involution] classification provides a comprehensive framework within which to correlate clinical presentation with pathogenesis.

Juvenile Myoclonic Epilepsy (JME) is a young onset idiopathic epilepsy syndrome characterized by Myoclonic seizures, generalized tonic clonic seizures and absence seizures. JME is an inherited disorder but the mode of inheritance is still controversial. Photosensitivity is also a precipitating factor to initiate seizures in JME. Photosensitivity is influenced by inheritance, but relation is not yet clear and established. A total 55 patients with a diagnosis of JME were evaluated to know whether triggering of seizures were influenced by photosensitivity and positive family history.

A Holstein Friesian mal¬¬e cattle consumed Lantana leaves 2 days back and was presented with the symptoms of dullness, depression, anorexia, dry parchment like skin, lethargy and icteric mucous membrane. It was diagnosed as a case of photosensitization due to consumption of Lantana camara. However, the animal was treated with 500 ml of 5% dextrose normal saline mixed with 15 ml of B complex Vitamin supplements intravenously, Meloxicam @ 0.5 mg/kg intramuscularly and Avil @ 0.5 mg/kg intramuscularly for a week . Livotas syrup was advised to be given orally once a day @ 30ml for one month.

Background & Aim: The transcellular transport of phosphate (Pi) from the intestinal lumen to the blood is documented as a secondary active transport requiring energy. In renal tubules the source of ATP generation for Pi transport seems to vary with site of transport. As studies are not available showing energy sources of intestinal Pi transport an attempt is done in this study to explore the metabolic energy source related to intestinal Pi transport. Methods: Everted gut sacs of the proximal & distal intestine were prepared from Swiss male albino mice. The sacs were filled with 0.

Although numerous studies have been done worldwide, there is limited data available on demographic profile of fungal osteomyelitis in the North Karnataka population. This study was designed to evaluate the prevalence of fungal osteomyelitis of the jaws associated with diabetes mellitus in North Karnataka population over a period of 10 years. Histologically diagnosed cases of osteomyelitis of the jaws were reviewed from January 2005 to December 2015 and subjected to statistical analysis by Chi-square test for age, gender, site, area and diabetic status.

Perforative peritonitis is one of the most serious and most overwhelming catastrophic conditions that can befall a human being and hence they should be treated energetically. The objective of the study is to highlight the etiology, clinical presentation and management and outcomes of the patients diagnosed and treated asperforativeperitonitis. A retrospective study was done on 567 patients diagnosed and treated as perforative peritonitis at our institute for a period of 3 years from January 2013 to December 2015.

Central vein catheterisation of left Internal jugular vein was done under Ultrasound guidance. Post procedure chest Xray revealed abnormal position of central vein catheter tip and created confusion about its correct placement. Following confirmatory chest CT scan , it was found to be in persistent left sided superior vena cava. Its a common congenital thoracic venous anomaly. Hereby discussing case report of persistent left sided superior vena cava and its clinical implications.

This research aimed to analyze the motivation of goat smallholder farmers joined the farmer group using Vroom’s Expectation Theory. Vroom’s expectancy theory differs from the content theories of Maslow, Alderfer, Herzberg, and McClelland in that Vroom’s expectancy theory does not provide specific suggestions on what motivates organization members. Instead, Vroom’s theory provides a process of cognitive variables that reflects individual differences in work motivation. The sample used in this study was goat farmers in Yogyakarta Provice. A total number of respodents was 162 farmers.

Objective: The aim of this study is to evaluate the state of cyberbullying they performed and were exposed to and the state of loneliness. Methods: This cross-sectional study carried out in Cumhuriyet University. Total number of the students in Cumhuriyet University were 34,212 and 2.244 of them composed the sampling of the study. In collecting data, personal information form including the socio-demographic characteristics and the state of cyberbully – victim and UCLA Loneliness Scale were used.

Peripheral cement-ossifying fibroma comprises about 9% of all gingival overgrowth. It is considered to be more of a reactive benign lesion rather than a true tumor. It has a peak incidence in second-third decade of life and affects females commonly. About 60 % of the lesions occur in the maxilla and more than 50% of the lesions are seen in incisor-canine region. This report describes a case of peripheral cement-ossifying fibroma in a 37 year old male involving the maxillary anterior region.

The diagnosis fundament of vitiligo is focusing clinical manifestations followed by biopsy that is helpful for discriminating disorder from other clinical conditions characterized by hypo pigmentation. The rare inflammatory variant of vitiligo may be difficult to distinguish from hypo-pigmented mycosis fungoides (MF) on clinical, histological and even immunohistochemical grounds.

Introduction: Regenerative endodontics in immature necrotic teeth helps in root elongation and dentinal wall thickening. This case reports the use of Platelet rich Fibrin as a scaffold for regeneration in such tooth. Methods: An 11year old boy with the history of trauma was diagnosed with the pulpal necrosis, open apex and symptomatic apical periodontitis in tooth #21. Access preparation and minimal instrumentation was done to remove necrotic debris under copious irrigation with 2.5% sodium hypochlorite. Triple antibiotic paste was packed in the canal for four weeks.

Introduction: The risk of pulpal injury has been a matter of concern with electrothermal debonding. The present study has been done on extracted teeth to compare three Electrothermal Debonding (ETD) Techniques. The results were evaluated statistically and conclusions were made. Objective: To find out the best method of debonding the brackets with least possible damage to the pulp with ETD. Material & Method: 30 standard edgewise brackets were bonded on to the 30 extracted teeth. Occlusal side ‘A’ and gingival side ‘B’ of the wings were marked. An ET debonding machine was used.

Osteopetrosis is a descriptive term that refers to a group of rare, heritable disorders of the skeleton characterized by increased bone density on radiographs. Osteopetrotic conditions vary greatly in their presentation and severity, ranging from neonatal onset with life-threatening complications such as bone marrow failure (e.g. classic or "malignant" ARO), to the incidental finding of osteopetrosis on radiographs (e.g. osteopoikilosis) (Zornitza Stark and Ravi Savarirayan, 2009). It is caused by the failure of osteoclaststo resorb immature bone.

Objective: The purpose of this study is to evaluate functional outcome of open reduction and internal fixation with proximal humeral internal locking system (PHILOS) for proximal humerus fractures. Method: Functional outcomes of 11 men and 17 women aged 27 to 76(mean, 53.21) years who underwent Philos plate fixation for proximal humeral fractures by deltopectoral approach were reviewed retro prospectively. 18 patients were in the age group of <60 years and 10 patients in the age group of >60 years.

Objectives: The aim of this study is to compare the effect of artificial saliva on flexural strength of three commercially available denture base acrylic resins. Methods: In this study three commercially available heat cure denture base resins namely Trevalon, Trevalon-Hi and Pyrax Acryl-Hi were taken. The artificial saliva was prepared in one of our laboratory and the samples were immersed in artificial saliva in order to simulate oral environment. The time dependent changes in the flexural strength of acrylic resins was evaluated and compared with the samples soaked in artificial saliva.

Context: Foramen Magnum also known as Foramen Primum is the largest foramen of the skull. Its position and structures passing through it makes it an important landmark. After Pelvis the skull is an important bony structure which exhibits gender differences. Particularly Foramen magnum shows gender difference owing to which it becomes an area of interest for Anthropometry, Forensic sciences, Anatomy and Neurosurgery. Objective: To Study the morphology and do a morphomertic analysis of Foramen magnum and correlate with the gender of the skull.

Two adult camels (one male and female each) weighing about 450-500 kg body weight reared under captive conditions at Adhiparasakthi Agricultural and Horticulture College farm, kalavai, Vellore district had anorexia, debility, alopecia, intense purities and was not amenable to antibiotic therapy. Clinically camels were weak, emaciated and had itching, purities, biting and rubbing against objects and were totally restless and secondary bacterial infection were also noticed.

Since the inception of positron emission tomography many decades ago, this imaging modality has grown appreciably as one of the most valued imageology in both health and disease. Once upon a time PET had mere 20 detector elements, 2cm axial field of view and spatial resolution of approximately 25mm.Last couple of years witnessed its metamorphosis into 25000 detectors, 20cm field of view and 5mm spatial resolution. As a result, clinical applications of PEt also grew tremendously.

Introduction: Pregnancy is a special state during a woman’s life, which is associated with a myriad of complex anatomical, physiologic, metabolic, emotional and physiological changes. There are changes observed in cardiovascular, respiratory, gastrointestinal system as well as changes in oral health and increased susceptibility to oral infections. Majority of pregnant women have been reported to experience oral changes yet they do not seek or are advised not to seek dental care as a part of routine prenatal care.

An experiment was conducted on “effect of fertigation, split and mulching on N, P and K contents (%) in leaf of papaya cv. Taiwan 786 under south Gujarat conditions” with twelve treatments viz., 1st factor three levels of N and K2O @ 100, 80 and 60 % of RD (200:200:250), 2nd factor two levels of splits and 3rd factor two levels of mulching of black plastic mulch (BPM) @ 20 % area coverage (50 µ) in RBD with factorial concept (FRBD) including three replications at two locations during 2012-13.

In this work, chitosan and Chitosan-Ethylenediaminepentaacetic acid (DTPA) was prepared, evaluated and applied to inhibit calcium sulfate scale according to the following sequences: 1. Extraction and characterization of chitosan from shrimp shells waste. 2. Preparation and evaluation of chitosan-diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid (DTPA) as scale inhibitor. 3. Make a comparative study of the produced scale inhibitor with other scale inhibitors such as: • Ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA). • Sodium hexameta phosphate (SHMP). 4.

Quick and reproducible methods for evaluating the physiological quality of seeds are needed for decision making in quality control programs. Therefore, the objective of this study was to evaluate the efficiency and quickness of Pettenkofer method to determine the respiratory activity to differentiate the vigor of five lots of habanero pepper seeds (Capsicum chinenses jacquin). It also determined the water content, germination test, seedling emergence and electrical conductivity in seeds of five lots.

Kutcher Adolescent Depression Scale-11 Items (KADS-11) is a diagnostic instrument measuring depression and suicidal thoughts in adolescents and young adults. Some characteristics of KADS-11 such as ease of administration, treatment sensitivity, and the ability to distinguish comorbid symptoms motivated the researchers to examine the psychometric properties of the scale by utilizing the multidimensional form of Graded Response Modeling in order to find the relationship between item responses and the latent trait.

Powder of Ginseng root, type Panax ginseng has been used in three experimental fodders with three concentrations which were as follows: G1: 100mg/1kg, G2: 200mg/1kg, G3: 300mg/1kg of carp fish fodder. Results have shown equation of the first treatment with the ginseng free control group regarding average of weight and total length of fish. The treatments G2 and G3 overweigh the control treatment. The treatment G3, 300mg ginseng/1kg fodder overweigh the other treatments including the control one as it have has a high value.

Folk literature in field of Plants medicine is still barrel field of scientific investigations and finding. The currect work based on such ethnomedicinal plant like Butea monosperma (Lam.) Taub., Cleome viscosa L., Moringa oleifera L. and Sesbania grandiflora (L.) Poirfor its anti-inflammatory activity in different solvent system. It was find out that all four plants showing positive results were slight fluctuations according to solvent system used for plant extract. All results are recorded after 0.5, 1.0, 2.0 and 5.0 hrs. of treatment.

The waste generated from passion fruit juice processing is very significant and it is important to find solutions for the use thereof, since they exhibit high potential as a functional food. This study had as objective to make the chemical characterization of the waste generated from passion fruit juice processing (peel) of different species, as well as the supplementation effect with passion fruit peel flour on lipid profile plasma levels of the male Wistar rats.

Gingival overgrowth as a side effect of medication taken for non-dental reasons is a very commonly occurring condition. The drugs most commonly associated with this condition are anticonvulsants like phenytoin, immunosuppressants like cyclosporin and antihypertensive drugs such as calcium channel blockers. Cyclosporin is a selective immunosuppressant which is sued to prevent rejection following organ transplant procedure. Various hypotheses have been considered in the pathogenesis of gingival overgrowth induced by cyclosporin.

Shiitake is the common name for the mushroom Lentinus edodes. The Shiitake, meaning “mushroom of the shii (oak tree)” in Japanese, is highly prized in Asia for its flavor and reputed medicinal value. The present study aimed at development, sensory evaluation, nutrient composition and shelf life evaluation of value added biscuits. A good quality of Shiitake mushroom biscuits comparable with refined flour biscuits in terms of sensory attribute were successfully prepared. Value addition was done using treated or untreated dehydrated shiitake mushroom powder.

Coccinia grandis is a dioecious, perennial, and herbaceous climber, with glabrous stems,tuberous roots, and axillary tendrils. Leaves are alternate and simple. Fruit is a smooth, bright red, ovoid to ellipsoid berry 2.5–6 cm The present investigation was analyzed to evaluate the pharmacognostical studies on selected medicinal plant. The parameters such as anatomical, histochemical colour reactions, and phytochemical studies were done. The values calculated and data collected could be used for the identification of powdered drug of this taxon.

Water is a key factor in increasing agricultural production; its increasing scarcity has resulted into the emergence of various innovative and efficient water management techniques. The present study has been undertaken to assess the impact of laser leveling in crop cultivation for Mewat district of Haryana state. The study is based on the primary data collected from 16 farmers of 7 villages of Mewat selected under NAIP project. The selected farmers cultivated peal millet in the fields where LLL was applied.

The present study on antidiabetic activity of single blend nutraceutical incorporated cookies on alloxan induced diabetic rats was undertaken to develop low-glycemic index cookies using functional ingredient like flaxseed and as well as to assess its functional efficacy in terms of hypoglycaemic, hypocholesterolemic effect The cookies were developed at different level of incorporation of flaxseed flour (20%, 30% and 40%) and were subjected to acceptability trials. The cookies incorporated with 30% flaxseed flour was highly acceptable in terms of all the sensory attributes.

With the immense growth of industries, major problem is encountered as contamination of the environment with hazardous and toxic chemicals. Phenolics, one of the major pollutants, are discharged in the waste water from the various industries such as phenolic resin and pharmaceuticals, oil refineries, petrochemical plants, ceramic plants, steel plants, and coal conversion processes. Due to the toxic properties, including permeabilisation of cellular membranes and cytoplasm coagulation, phenolic contaminants can damage sensitive cells and cause profound health and environmental problems.

Obesity is a pathological condition, in which, excess body fat accumulates to the extent, probably, having an adverse effect on health leading to reduced life expectancy and/or increased health problems. Some dietary components show promise in the treatment of obesity, one of which is oil rich in Diacylglycerols (DAGs). Excess body weight is the consequence of an imbalance between energy intake and energy expenditure that is stored as triacylglycerol (TAG) in adipose tissue.

Character association and path coefficient analysis were carried out in a set of core germplasm lines of mungbean which included 13 promising improved varieties, four popular locally adapted mungbean land races of Odisha (India), one wild form (TCR 20) of mungbean (Vigna radiata var. sublobata), one genotype of its closely related species Vigna mungo, cv. UG 218 (urdbean) and a popular mungbean variety LGG 460 as standard check.

The data on C.V. % for Isabgul crop yield along with other details of 159 field experiments conducted during 1989-90 to 2011-12 at Main Research Station, Medicinal and Aromatic crop, Anand Agricultural University, Anand were collected and analyzed. The frequency distribution tables were prepared for various experimental factors. The upper fiducial limits (the yardstick) of C.V.% at 95% confidence based on non central‘t’ distribution were worked out for accepting the results of isubgul crop experiments which emerged as 23%.

The behaviour paradigms are relatively complicated, it is necessary to understand how the fundamental behaviour is organized at neural level, before a full understanding of the complex behaviour. Drosophila melanogaster has shown biased preference when facing sensory stimulation towards varied concentration of stimulants namely nicotine and caffeine. The preference behavioural assays were used to study sensory abilities based on feeding behaviour and climbing ability.

Drying is the process of removal of moisture from the product to such a low level that microbial and biochemical activities are checked due to reduced water activity, which makes the products suitable for safe storage and protection against the attack by microorganisms during the storage. Drying was done by three different methods that is Air Drying (450 C), Sun Drying (12-250 C) and Oven Drying (650 C) till complete drying. This was done to find out the better drying method, by comparing the nutritive value after biochemical analysis.

The complete research work was carried out with single experiment with factorial concept. The tuberose spikes were treated with different synthetic food dyes used are tomato red, rose pink, lemon yellow, kesar yellow, apple green and blue with two concentrations (6 and 8 %) and three different durations (4, 6 and 8 hrs). Number of florets dropping per day showed the significant difference for different food dyes from fourth to seventh day. Total number of florets were maximum dropped in P3 (12.02), which was on par with P2 (11.50) and minimum number of florets dropped in P6 (4.94).

Phlebotomus papatasi is the potential vector of zoonotic cutaneous leishmaniasis in the north eastern parts of Egypt, specifically in Rafah, North Sinai governorate. Thepresent study characterized DNA sequence of Internal Transcribed Spacer 2 (ITS-2) from two Phlebotomus papatasistrains collected from two geographically distinct localities in Egypt; Rafah, North Sinai Governorate, and El Agamy, Alexandria Governorate. DNA was extracted from morphologically identified P. papatasi specimens collected from Alexandria, and Sinai.

The present study aimed to investigate the biochemical, antioxidant and histopathological factors & consequences which alter the defensive role of 50% hydro-alcoholic Caesalpinia bonducella seed kernel extract (CBSKE) (100 & 200 mg/kg b. wt.) of total Phenolic content on the experimentally induced mastitis by Staphylococcus aureus in the late lactating rats. Thirty lactating rats were randomly divided into five groups (n=6); physiological saline treatment (control) group-I, S. aureus induced (diseased) group-II, S.

Several reviews have shown that plant-derived pesticides have great potential for the natural control of pests, particularly in tropical countries like Nigeria. Many of these plant species, apart from being readily available, cheap and eco-friendly, possess one or more useful properties such as repellency, antifeedant, fast knock down, flushing action, bio-degradability, broad-spectrum of activity and ability to reduce insect resistance.

The present status and distribution of various species of the genus Anogeissus have been assessed in nine protected areas of southern Rajasthan namely, Sajjangarh, Jaisamand, Phulwari ki Nal, Sitamata, Bassi, Bhensroadgarh, Mount Abu, Kumbhalgarh and Todgarh -Raoli sanctuaries. Five species of the genus Anogeissus are found in Rajasthan, out of which Anogeissus latifolia and Anogeissus pendula are found commonly in these protected areas. Anogeissus sericea var. sericea is the species having smallest distribution range in Rajasthan.

A number of laboratory studies were conducted to know the condition favorable for resin-P adsorption under arid environment. Several type of ion exchange resins were used for the study. The results clearly demonstrated more P accumulation by resin bag at pH 7.8. Resin bag adsorbed maximum P when soil EC was 2 dSm-1. In low organic matter soil chelating resin was more efficient; while with increase in organic matter level strongly basic anion exchange resin was found to be most effective in trapping P. Saturated moisture level in the soil demonstrated best P trapping by resin bag.

Pigeonpea [Cajanus cajan (L.) Millsp] is one of the important grain legume and is a rich source of protein. Though India ranks first in production, the productivity of pigeonpea is very low because of its vulnerability to a number of biotic stresses. Among these stresses the Fusarium wilt caused by Fusarium udum (Butler) is the most important limiting factor and is prevalent in all pigeonpea growing areas. Three methods namely root tip inoculation, piercing method and disease sick plot method were attempted.

The study was conducted with an Ex-post facto research design in four mandals of Chittoor district of Andhra Pradesh with a sample of 120 randomly selected farm women to know their managerial role. It revealed that majority of the respondents were under medium managerial role category. The components of managerial role like planning ability, organizing ability, supervision ability, communication ability, coordination ability and controlling ability were found to be in the medium category respectively.

The present investigation was conducted to study the production performance of Sirohi goats under field conditions. The overall least-squares means for production traits 90 days milk yield (90 DMY), 150 days milk yield (150 DMY), total milk yield (TMY), lactation length (LL) and dry period (DP) were 61.79 ± 2.48 lit., 90.96 ± 2.58 lit., 91.08 ± 2.56 lit., 150.75 ± 0.72 days and 151.63 ± 14.25 days respectively. Sire, cluster and year of birth had highly significant (P≤0.01) effect on all lactation traits.

An experiment was conducted at Botany Section, College of Agriculture, Nagpur (MS) India during year 2014-2015 to study the influence of putrescine and IBA (50, 75,100,125, 150 ppm each) on chemical, biochemical, yield and yield contributing parameters of soybean. Experiment was conducted in Randomized Block Design.

A survey on filth flies and their natural enemies was carried out at weekly intervals between July 2014 and June 2015. A total of 6 study sites comprising one poultry and five dairy farms in and around Pondicherry were selected for screening abundance of fly and hymenopteran puparia parasitoids. Density of adult flies was monitored using both scudder grill and sweep net technique. Sampling of immature of filth flies was carried out using litre sampling method.

Background: Primary Education provides a vital link between home education and the Secondary Education. The school is a place on which parents believes that their children will learn skills, values habits and knowledge. This will help him to live better life. Schooling has direct effect on children educational achievements. These basic skills place foundation for higher studies. Objective: The present paper aim was to find out condition of schools in Lucknow district on the bases of School environment by ranks.

There is currently a global program attempting to eliminate lymphatic filariasis (LF) by administering drugs to affected communities with the goal of interrupting transmission of the parasite. At present the global programme for the elimination of lymphatic filariaisis (GPELF) uses indirect human measures to evaluate the success of its primary goal, the interruption of transmission. An infective stage (L3) detection assay provides a more direct measure of transmission risk and may be useful as a sensitive and non-invasive method for monitoring GPELF programs.

Anti oxidant effect of green tea extract on 47 cryo preserved human semen samples were studied. Each sample was divided into two- one with green tea extract and the second without green tea extract. Percentage of motility, viability and DNA fragmentation were examined. While comparing the study results of control vs. green tea extract samples, the mean value of percentage of motility in control group was 51.2 with standard deviation of 10.18 vs. 53.03±10.40 in green tea extract group.

Given the importance of socio-cultural and economic development of rural cooperatives in developing countries and taking into account the impact of media on people, this paper is going to examine the effectiveness of educational services and advocating for services credits, production services and services bodies providing the agricultural product on the development of the province's agricultural production cooperatives in Lorestan.

A set of sesame genotypes including popular ruling varieties was characterized for genetic diversity based on 14 agro-economic traits including seed yield. The test genotypes were separated into five clusters. Principal component (PC) analysis revealed that first two PC axes explained 85.8% of the total multivariate variation. Number of capsules/plant contributed maximum to genetic divergence followed by number of seeds/capsule, 500-seed weight and seed yield/plant. Cluster V revealed comparatively dwarf plant type while Cluster II and Cluster IV were shown to have tall stature.

Newcastle disease (ND) an infectious highly contagious avian disease causing severe economic losses to poultry worldwide and controlled by vaccination. In spite of regular vaccination a number of sporadic outbreaks are observed in vaccinated as well as non vaccinated birds and constant threat to poultry since last few years. Isolation and identification of circulating Newcastle disease virus isolates are crucial for the accurate diagnosis of the virus strains, which could be valuable for developing better prophylactic measures.

Objectives: The study objective was to examine immunomodulatory and antimicrobial potency of Nigella sativa. Methods: Iron in Nigella sativa was studied by Spectrophotometer and molar absorptivity of metal concentration was by Calibration curve. Anti-microbial activity was evaluated by well and disc diffusion including its MIC and MBC values. Findings: In calibration curve, molar absorptivity of metal concentration was calculated as 10,000/M/cm at 515nm and concentration average values of five samples were 133.83038ppm.

The methanol extract of Brassica oleracea var. capitata rubra was investigated for anti-inflammatory and antipyretic activity in animal models. The extract has an anti-inflammatory effect against paw oedema in rats. Brewer’s yeast (15%) suspension was used to induce fever in rats. Our results were P˂ 0.05 significant even at lower dosage of 0.50 mg/kg which showed the dominant nature of methanolic extract of Brassica oleracea var capitata rubra.

The edible Paddy straw mushroom is the most extensively cultivated mushrooms in tropical and sub-tropical regions. Studies were conducted on the cultivation, nutritional analysis, biochemical and enzyme production of this mushroom. Among the various method of cultivation, circular bed method was the best method and it showed the good growth. The nutritive values of the mushroom were rich in proteins and fibres and observed a lower amount of lipid. The screening and biochemical determination showed presence of saponin, alkaloids, terpenoids, sugar, flavonoids and sterols.

Gene environment interaction is an important aspect in the development of coronary artery disease (CAD). Elevated plasma Homocysteine has been identified as a risk factor for coronary atherosclerosis. Elevated Homocysteine may result from deficient Methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) activity. MTHFR is involved in one carbon metabolism which is essential for DNA biosynthesis and methylation. The 5, 10-methyltetrahydrofolate reductase locus is mapped at the end of the short arm of chromosome 1(1p36.6).

Agriculture is one of the most important industries in India. In agriculture, cultivation of pulses is an essential aspect. It acts as a source of food, nutrition and generates revenue for the country as well. Out of many pulses grown in Jammu &Kashmir, Phaseolus vulgaris commonly known as Rajmash is worth mentioning. District Kishtwar of J&K state is best endowed by nature in having rich biodiversity. Rajmash (Phaseolus vulgaris) grown in this area is famous throughout India for its best taste and aroma.

The rose is called as queen of flowers because of its unique fragrance, colors, availability and uses for various bouquets, garland and other decorations etc. Growing media is very important thing for flower quality point of view as these media is maintained various physical and chemical balance in the plant. Locally available media like coco peat, rice husk, FYM, and other regular media like black soil and red soil are mostly used in our research. These media are eco-friendly and most of them are recyclable.

The present research paper communicates the helminth parasites infection rate of the fishes of Ikop Lake, Thoubal District, Manipur. A total of 1114 fishes were sacrificed during my investigation, 35 different fish species were examined for helminth parasites infection. Of these 697 fish individual belonging to 19 different fish species are found to be parasitized with a total of 1395 helminth parasites. Ikop Lake (locally called as Ikop Pat) contributes 35 fish species under 28 genera, 15 family and 5 orders. About 34 different of parasite groups (viz.

The study took place during the period 2013 – 2015 at the experimental field of IASS “Obraztsov chiflik” – Rousse. A field experiment was conducted with Aminobest and Biobest organic fertilizers in Venka 1 winter common wheat on soil type of strongly leached chernozem, after the block method in 4 replications, experimental plot being 10 m2. The sowing was carried out during the first week of October with sowing norm of 500 germ.s./m2 after legume predecessor. The first treatments with Aminobest and Biobest organic fertilizers were in stage of layering, at a dose of 0.250 ml/da.

In the present study, an attempt has been made to study the morphological and floral characters of the parental lines of the released hybrids. The morphological and floral traits of cms lines, their maintainers and restorer lines indicated that both the cms lines were morphologically different. All the parental lines had erect altitude of flag leaf blade, except MTU 9992R and IR 40750R which had horizontal and reflexed altitude of leaf blade.

Biosurfactants are surface active compounds produced by microorganisms by growth on various substrates, including renewable resources such as vegetable oil, distillery and dairy wastes. Biosurfactants are attracting attention in recent years because they offer several advantages over chemical surfactants such as low toxicity, inherent good biodegradability and ecological acceptability. The majority of known biosurfactants are synthesized by microorganisms grown on water immiscible hydrocarbons, but some have been produced on such water- soluble substrates as glucose, glycerol and ethanol.

A study on plant diversity and ethnomedicinal plants of sacred grove in Melapalur village was carried out in the present work. Through personal interviews and conversations, a total number of 46 plant species used by the human beings to treat different ailments was enumerated during field trips. The locals use 46 medicinal plants for the treatment of several diseases either in single or in combination with some other ingredients. The information on correct botanical identities with family and traditional practice of 46 species fall under 43 genera and 26 families of angiosperms.

Plants are playing an important role in the health of millions of people’s life in many villages of India in their day today life by its traditional usage. The village peoples are mostly depends on plants for food, medicine, fodder and shelter and they are highly used to plants for medicinal purpose. Therefore, the present study focused to assess the medicinal plant diversity in Elambalur village of Perambalur district, Tamilnadu. In the present investigation 98 medicinal plant species used in the treatment of different diseases were discussed.

Oleoresin is a viscous liquid, possessing aroma and flavor, extracted from red chilli fruits is preferred against ground chillies in view of its natural anti-oxidant, long shelf life under ideal conditions and less storage space. In food and beverage industries, chillies have acquired great importance in the form of oleoresins which permit uniform distribution of colour to foodstuffs and characteristic flavor. In the pursuit of promising oleoresin yield, a field experiment was conducted in Black soil of Dr.

The performances of Runge-Kutta (RK4) and Adams-Bashforth-Moulton(ABM) methods were compared by considering first order ordinary differential equations. Moreover the effectiveness of modifiers in the ABM method has been validated. The result of this research show that ABM method is the most efficient method for first order ODE but in terms of accuracy there is no one best method. So it is not possible to make generalizations. But it is possible to conclude that the performance of a given method depend on the characteristics of the ODEs we are considering such as stiffness and stability.

The steady, two dimensional, Flakner-Skan stretching and shrinking wedge flow of a power law fluid in the presence of viscous dissipation and convective boundary condition Using the similarity transformations, the governing equations have been transformed into a system of ordinary differential equations. These differential equations are highly nonlinear which cannot be solved analytically. Therefore, bvp4c MATLAB solver has been used for solving it.

In the modern day life, mobile phones have become an integral part of mutual communication. Today there are more than two billion cell phone users being exposed every day to the dangers of electromagnetic radiation (EMR)—dangers government regulators and the cell phone industry refuse to admit exist. Included are: genetic damage, brain dysfunction, brain tumors, and other conditions such as sleep disorders and headaches. The amount of time spent on the phone is irrelevant, as the danger mechanism is triggered within seconds.

Hydrolysis of tri-p-methoxyphenyl phosphate ester (tri-p-MPPE) was studied in micelle medium of cetyl tri methyl ammonium bromide n-C16H33N+ (CH3)3Br (CTABr) at pH-9.0. The hydrolysis followed first order kinetics with respect to tri-p-MPPE concentration. At the critical micelle concentration (CMC) the rate of hydrolysis increased with increasing with increasing CTABr concentration. Micelle with cationic or polar head group form micelle in water with hydrocarbon like interior or polar groups at the surface and bind cationic solute.

Pumps efficiency depends largely on the rotating impellers to provide rotary motion for constant supply of water for either domestic or industrial purposes. More so, all manually operated pumps uses the same principles of operation. However, to maintain the kinetic energy required to pump fluid to the desired destination, energy is required. The stress and fatigue associated with manual operations generally creates epidemiological conditions among users of locally fabricated manual pumps mostly propelled by hands.

In this paper we study how QR code can be embedding and extract using watermarking algorithm by different spatial and transform domain. Basics of QR code and watermarking technique its application in different areas. We will discuss the various factors used in watermarking, properties and application area where water making technique need to be used. Also a survey on the some new work is done in QR code and image watermarking field

Fourier and Stieltjes transforms represent an important area of analysis and properties of it are more elegant. The Fourier transform is most significant in functional analysis, complex analysis, number theory, representation theory etc. Also, Fourier transform has applicable in many areas such as image processing, time series analysis, antenna design, radar system, human auditory system etc. In the same way, the Stieltjes transform is also a basic tool for analyzing the behavior of many important functions in mathematics and mathematical physics.

Modular redundancy is more effective than component redundancy, as a modular scheme of redundancy allocation in multilevel systems not only enhances the system reliability but also provides fault tolerance to the optimum design. Therefore, to increase the efficiency, reliability and maintainability of a system, the modular redundancy should be considered instead of traditional approach of component redundancy. Multi-level redundancy allocation problem in fuzzy environment has been formulated and solved using advanced genetic algorithm (GA) and penalty function technique.

The α-clustering in transfer reactions in terms of Alt Grassberger Sandhas version of Faddeev approach are discussed. The electromagnetic properties of some even even nuclei including the rotational and vibrational modes are found out. The possibilities that A=4n nuclei could be composed of α- particles have the importance in nucleosynthesis .Considering the dynamical symmetries the excited states of α-clustering mechanism on even even nuclei are discussed.

In today’s world, Internet has become the most indispensable part of human life & it’s impossible to deny the advantages of internet after its changing the whole globe. The benefits are introduced in facilitating communications, decreasing the distances around the globe, emerging an easier life and surely many other benefits that one cannot deny. With the new move, the human mind is more connected to its surroundings and what lays beyond. For instance, anyone can communicate with anybody anywhere whenever they want.

This paper analyses the Soret and Dufour effects on an hydromagnetic two dimensional convective boundary layer flow of a viscous incompressible chemical reacting fluid over a vertical plate with convective surface boundary condition and has been studied. The similarity transformation is used to transform the system of partial differential equations into ordinary differential equations. An efficient numerical technique is implemented to solve the resultant system, using Runge-kutta fourth order method along with shooting technique.

Achilleafragrantissima and Cleome droserifolia crude extracts were blended with suitable eco-friendly polymeric materials (Chitosan, starch, glycerol and glutaraldehyde). Theseformulas have been characterized and their insecticidal activity was evaluated against Culexpipiens and Muscadomesticalarvae.The series of concentrations from Chitosan and starch were mixed with glycerol and glutaralehyde for producing M1 and M2 respectively. The potency of each extract was decreased while decreasing the chitosan material.

Plants have been used for a long time for their bioactive constituents which have medicinal properties. Phytochemicals like flavanoids, phenolic constituents, alkaloids, tannins etc are considered to be responsible for increasing the immunity of any individual. Moringa oliefera is one of the richest source of phytochemicals and is abundantly used in south India. This study is based on microwave assisted extraction method using two different solvents, methanol and chloroform.

Every educational organization from medium size to large size hosts Local Area Network (LAN) equipped with machines of different brands with disparate softwares installed on each of them and connected to different hardware devices. It becomes extremely challenging for the lab technician to keep track of hardware and software configuration details of LAN and their working condition. On many occasions the softwares which are rarely used are installed only on few machines of LAN.

The development of analytical methods which meet the resolution to quantify pesticides residues in complex environmental matrices still represents a challenge for many laboratories. The integration of two analytical methods, an ecotoxicological and a chemical one, demonstrates the potential for environmental analysis of methamidophos. This study tested two soils: a clayey and a sandy one. Both soils, when in contact with methamidophos, followed the kinetic pseudo-second order model.

The pairing of guanine(G) and cytosine(C) in a different manner from the Watson Crick(WC) type CG have been investigated by using DFT (B3LYP/6-31+G(d,p)) calculations. Certain sites of G and C in WC GC are very sensitive to proton that may result destabilization of hydrogen bonds . Several tautomers may be formed by destabilizing WC CG due to the effect of proton. Subsequently paring of tautomers through H-bonding in a different manner might lead to mispaired CG.

In a wireless network, when the adversary is being part of the network, they are well known about the protocol being used and other network secrets. A transceiver is enough to get the key and decrypt the message. Hence, simple cryptographic mechanism is not enough to protect the message. Moreover, jamming can be easily performed by modifying the packet header. At the message level permutation and padding are used to protect the message and at the communication level puzzle is used to hide the key. A puzzle solver module in the client system can solve the puzzle and get the key.

Today, everything from gaming to entertainment, medical sciences to business applications are using the 3D technology to capture, store and view the available media. One such technology is holography -It allows a coherent image to be captured in three dimensions, using the Refraction properties of light. Hence we are proposing a system which will provide a 3D calling service wherein a real-time 2D video will be converted to a three dimensional form which will be diffracted through the edges of the prism. The prism will be constructed along with the system.

Calcination is an important process to remove the template to open the pores of molecular sieves. The calcination process is difficult when the interaction of the template with the framework of molecular sieves is too strong. In some cases, it breaks the framework and reduces the thermal stability and crystalline nature of materials. During this investigation, the template molecules swift out from the pores when calcination at lower temperatures without breaking the framework.

Due to the presence of -unsaturated ketone chalcone derivatives from nature or synthetic provenance display manifold pharmacological activities. The present work deals with the unfolding of the biological potency, if any, of some of the newly synthesized benzalacetophenones. Out of the 20 homologues synthesized the 6 were found active against the bacterial strain and 3 were active against fungal strains. The structures of the compounds were supported by UV, IR, NMR, Mass spectroscopy and elemental analysis.

The In the cognitive process of research on gssets we bring in a new class of functions called gs irresolute function and contra gs irresolute function, and observe some of their characteristics.

Since the evolution of the internet, many small and large companies have moved their business to the internet to provide services to customers worldwide. To understand how cyber credit card fraud are being committed, in this we study the different types of cyber fraudsters that commit cyber credit card fraud and the techniques used by these cyber fraudsters to commit fraud on the internet is discussed. Fraud detection is a technique of identifying prohibited acts that are occurring around the world. Therefore, the need to ensure secure transactions for credit-card owners.

Mahasweta Devi is one of those writers who have been writing for the tribal and dispossessed. She is one of the few writers who have an unflinching commitment and passion for the underdog. Devi is a socially conscious writer, who writes about the most marginalized section of the society. The present research paper is an attempt to expose the hypocrisy of the so called civilized people who have grabbed all the resources and opportunities and have disposed off a large section of society and have forced them in the state of abject poverty and deprivation.

This work presents a new strategy for behaviour-based navigation of robots using a fuzzy logic approach. A key feature of the proposed approach is real-time assessment of terrain characteristics and incorporation of this information in the robot navigation strategy. Here fuzzy logic used is Sugeno modelling. The advantage of Sugeno is that it provides sharp response near boundaries with less time. The regional behaviour is complemented by two other behaviour’s, local avoid-obstacle and global seek-goal.

The rapid spread of the information and media through the digital world nowadays which is powered by ever faster system demands greater speed and security. As the world changes, technology is changing rapidly. Progress in the domain of network technology, multimedia and confidential information, relatively large amounts of images, videos are broadcast on the Internet easily. There are various chances for the attackers to steal or to leak these information while sending it over the internet.

Determination of optimum plot size and shape has been regarded as an important and useful area to measure soil heterogeneity in field experiments. The smith’s heterogeneity index method assumes the condition of independence of observations but often this condition of independence of observations does not satisfied. In this paper, we propose a method of determination of heterogeneity index using semivariances instead of variances used in smith’s method. The main advantage of semivariogram technique is it considers magnitude and direction of heterogeneity in field experiments.

The present study aims to evaluate a relationship between land-use and two water quality parameters i.e., nitrate and total dissolved solids (TDS) for selected areas within Karachi city of Pakistan during the year 2014. The water pollution data was combined with satellite land-use coverage in a Geographical Information System (GIS)-interface using Arc view 3.2 followed by Pearson’s correlation (statistical) analysis. The study remained highly successful in predicting drinking water pollution source.

In this study, simultaneous and real-time control of distributed servo drive systems is provided. Behaviors of each drivers was investigated under various loads and without a load in the study. In the implementation phase, PLC is used as a controller and SCADA is used for monitoring and controlling. Device-Net, an industrial communication protocol, is used between PLC and SCADA. Beside the property of SCADA and servo drive systems working in a coordinated manner, both local and central control is provided.

Indium doped ZnO thin films are deposited on quartz substrates using sol-gel spin coating technique. The structural characteristics of the deposited films are studied by x-ray diffraction (XRD) and field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM). The sensing properties of the films are investigated at different concentrations of ethanol and butanol by varying the operating temperature. The response% and response time are found to be 32% and 6 sec respectively, by exposing the film to 500 ppm of ethanol at 200oC which is quite encouraging. Also the recovery of the sensor is quite fast.

Orthogonal Frequency division Multiplexing is a prominent technology in modern wireless communication and is the key technology employed in 4G wireless communication. OFDM is a popular method for high data rate (Gordon et al., 2004). The orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplexing has a very large bandwidth of about 20 Mega Hz where as a GSM system has a bandwidth of 200KHz because of the large bandwidth the data rate in OFDM is very high about 500Mb/sec or 1Gb/sec. OFDM has gain importance in modern wireless communication because of its ability to overcome Inter symbol Interference (ISI).

We are developed the targeted drug delivery by HAp@SiO2 core-shell NPs. Hydroxyapatite (HAp) core was prepared by wet chemical co-precipitation method using different chemical precursors and silica shell coated on the HAp nanoparticle by stober’s process. Polyethylene glycol and biotin was functionalized with HAp@SiO2 core-shell NPs via covalent linkage. curcumin was loaded onto the surface of HAp@SiO2 core-shell NPs by the electrostatic interaction between curcumin molecules and the polymer segment.

The hydroxyapatite (HAp) NPs was synthesized by co-precipitation method and Al2O3 shell was coated by sonochemical process. Gelatine(GEL) and folic acid(FA) are attached onto the nanoparticles utilizing different techniques. HAp@Al2O3-gelatin-folic acid (HAp@Al2O3-GEL-FA) core-shell nanostructures were characterized by FTIR, XRD, and HR-TEM techniques. The incorporation of gelatin-folic acid onto HAp@Al2O3 NPs exhibited good water dispersibility, enhanced drug delivery efficiency, and remarkable targeting ability to cancer cells. 5-fluorouracil (5-Flu) was used as a model drug.

Hexane extracts of musk from the African civet (Civettictis civetta) were analyzed using Gas-chromatography-Mass-spectrometry (GC-MS). A total of 39 volatile compounds were consistently detected in all musk categories. The majority of the identified musk components were from four classes of organic compounds; Carboxylic Acids (38.5%), Alcohols (12.8), ketone (12.8%) and Aldehydes (5.1%).

This research study aims at establishing effects of microfinance on women borrowers, this is because it has been noted that, Women play a crucial role in the economic development of their families and communities but certain obstacles such as poverty, unemployment, low income and social discrimination mostly in third world countries have hindered their effective performance of that role.

Autonomy has become a keyword of language policy in educational systems around the world as the importance of independent learning and new technologies has grown. For many language teachers, autonomy is an attractive idea in theory, but somewhat far-fetched and idealistic in practice. Nevertheless, autonomy has enjoyed a long and respected tradition in educational, psychological and philosophical thought.

The paper examined the sectoral inflow of FDI and economic growth in Nigeria. The objective of the study is to determine the impact of FDI on economic growth in terms of selected sectors of the Nigerian economy because most other studies examined the aggregate impact of FDI on economic growth in Nigeria. A growth model was estimated via a multiple regression technique to establish the relationship between inflow of FDI to manufacturing sector, telecommunication sector, oil sector and economic growth (GDP).

Macroeconomic policies and economic growth in Nigeria was determined through co-integration and error correction modeling techniques. The time series properties of the variables were investigated by conducting a unit root test using annual series data for the period 1980-2013 and the data source was mainly Central Bank of Nigeria Statistical Bulletin. The result of the parsimonious ECM analysis shows that monetary rather than fiscal policy exerts a great positive impact on economic growth in Nigeria.

Water is the basic resource necessary for sustaining all human activities. So its provision in desired quantity and quality is of utmost importance. One of the most serious environmental health problems faced globally especially by those living in developing regions is related to lack of clean water resources and sanitation facilities which is mainly caused through anthropogenic activities (Gunther et al, 2006).Waterborne borne diseases are a major concern globally and in particular in developing countries and its adverse impacts have taken a toll on human health.

The global spread of English has given rise to several sociolinguistic outcomes leading to the emergence of several concepts, perspectives and paradigms to account for or describe such a sociolinguistic situation. In this study, the most popular of these concepts have been critically analysed with the view to specifying what each entails and what makes it distinct from others. The analysis has revealed that though the concepts appear seemingly similar they are uniquely distinct as each echoes a specific sociolinguistic perspective.

Every organized or established institution will want to provide quality services irrespective of who owns the organization, especially in the case of a university where the primary aim is to provide quality graduates of sound character, to transform the organization as well as be productive and creative in making a living for themselves. In light of this broad agenda many institutions have been established all over the world and Nigeria in particular has been committed to quality improvement.

Sentiment Analytics is widely in use in various domains like in Retails for campaign / Recommendation. In Insurance / Financial Sectors for detecting Frauds etc. Sentiment analytics can further be part of other Analytics to enhance model capability by reducing error. It is required, almost in all domains to address various purposes. In general there is no thumb rule to prepare parser which would address almost all need across domain.

A MIMO (multi input-multi output process) system is one in which one input not only affects its own outputs but also one or more other outputs in the plant. Thus such processes are difficult to control due to the presence of the interactions. The interactions between input/output variables are a common phenomenon and the main obstacle encountered in the design of multi-loop controllers for interacting multivariable processes. Increase in complexity and interactions between inputs and outputs yield degraded process behavior.

The term gender is a socially constructed term referring to roles, behaviors, activities, and attributes that a society considers for both men and women. The term marriage is the formally recognized union of a man and a woman and it confers social status to them. It is a bond of two people for whole life until death. Sartang is one of the tribal group of West Kameng district, Arunachal Pradesh (India). Like other ethnic groups of country they have their own customs which existed since the inception of human civilization.

The world is either globalized or globalizing and the nation state on the wane, this situation has put certain theories on retreat and others defunct. The current phase of capitalist accumulation is both qualitatively and quantitatively different from what was previously obtainable. There is now more than ever, swifter international mobility of capital with its global nature of the social, political and environmental pathologies. It is also indisputable that ‘national’ boundaries are mere paper works. These realities however, do not suggest the ‘death’ of the nation state.

Strategic Culture is the ability and the capability of the people and the society to develop power or force and to have political, social and economic will for effective use of that power. The Russian emphasizes onor strategic culture. The Russian military culture has been analysed from two perceptives; (1) the traditional military culture and (2) the modern one. In both, the important aspect was the interplay of political, economic and foreign policies. The Russian military power is there to protect the people by threat or actual use of force for political purpose.

Detailed geological and geochemical investigations, which have done in the studied Abu Khalag area showed that the area constitutes a part of Arabian-Nubian Shield (ANS). Lithogeochemical data derived from rock samples collected from the study area, were plotted on AFM diagram, and have shown calc-alkaline affinity, that confirms the subduction-related geological environment for these rock assemblages. Rock assemblages in Abu Khalag area, for the first time, were mapped in detail on scale of 1:350000.

During the Year 1950 to 2015 AD a study has undertaken the data for the investigation on the correlation amongst the rainfall, sunspots and El-nino & La-nina in the north-western part of India (specifically in the city of Ahmadabad). Average sunspots, rainfall, El-nino & La-nina data have been computed and tried to find inter dependence in context of Solar influence apart from the anthropogenic activities.

Since the protection of the state's right to stay means the existence of the state and the government that organizes people and land, are among the significant topics in the international law. From the perspective of the international law and Islamic Shari'a, the research included the state's right, its peoples and the sustainability of it political and legal systems as well as the land where people live.

The main purpose of this study was to explore students’ perspectives on the factors that impact strongly on their performance in exams. The study probed the students’ factors that lead to poor academic performance in the school through a descriptive qualitative study. Probability sampling was applied to ensure the results reflected the entire school population. Data was collected using survey questionnaires, structured interview, focused groups, observations and documents analysis. The research data was thematically analysed with frequency tables.

Purpose – The purpose of this descriptive survey was to compare how residential properties are assessed in Botswana and Sweden for property tax at local government level. Research design/methodology/approach – Both qualitative and quantitative research methods (interviews and questionnaire) were used to obtain data in order to meet the objective of the study. A survey involving a self-administered questionnaire to property valuers/principal Estate officer in the Department of Local Government Finance and Procurement was used.

The present study is an attempt to answer the question about whether Arab linguists of the past were acquainted with the problem of pragmatic intrusion into the semantic or truth-conditional content of what is said. Using many quotations from the traditional Arabic books of "usül" (Islamic jurisprudence) and "balagha" (rhetoric), sufficient evidence was found to support the hypothesis that Arab linguists of the Middle Ages were well acquainted with the central ideas of the problem. They engaged in debates and controversies very similar to those we find in modern pragmatic literature.

Usually in any project, the end Business requirement is to implement software in production flawless and for that to happen, each modules in the project should have minimum below properties for it to get integrated and automated with other modules. i. Least or no manual intervention while execution of module in production ii. Module uniqueness should be there and to avoid redundancy the same module should called by other modules. This proposition is for easy maintenance. Module redundancy is hard to propagate as the same is costly affair during maintenance. This is mainly design approach.

The slogan of ‘right to work’ and the ‘poverty eradication’ is not a local or a national agenda of discussion today. The observation of the International Labour Organization is that, the global unemployment rate increased to 6.0 per cent in 2008 from 5.7 per cent in 2007, while the total number of unemployed increased by 10.7 million, reaching about 190 million in 2008. The unskilled workers especially youth and women are losing their jobs and suffer from horror of income less.

The employment in informal sectors has been witnessed of the growing prominence of the labour market in present scenario in India, total contribution of the informal sector to the GDP of the country is more than half. The sector offers the employment opportunity to around 90 % of the total work force.

Context: The measurement of body composition helps in assessing nutritional status indirectly. It is considered to be an important factor in physical development especially in sports, where there is an advantage of being tall (e.g. basketball) or small (Libero, weightlifting), heavy (sumo wrestling, Shot Put) or light (gymnastics), etc. Objective: To discuss the common methods of assessing human body composition for better understanding of the technique used.

Retention of literacy skills of 3Rs is a world phenomenon. The present study was conducted to evaluate the performance of neo-literates in particular reference to the tribal areas. The main focus of the study was to analyse the current programmes lunched for development of different skills of the neo-literates in the tribal areas, in the same time the humble attempts also made to highlight current challenges in this field which are especially responsible for the unsuccessful of these programmes in the tribal areas.

According to the Efficient Market Hypothesis developed by Eugene Fama, it is unlikely to predict price movements in the markets. However, deviation from the mean of stock returns is observed and patterns appeared during certain periods, so-called anomalies. In this perspective, this research endeavors to figure out the existence of January Effect in 10 countries in the regions of the Middle East (Egypt, Israel, Amman, Kuwait, Qatar, Bahrain, Morocco, Oman, Saudi Arabia and Turkey) by employing Power Ratio methodology.

We are going through a time period in which the leadership, work and organization has attracted our attention. Although these hot subjects have been mostly discussed in the developed countries, there is a rising awareness toward them in the developing countries, too. In particular, Turkey is one of the important countries in creating its own different model of leadership in respect to the work and organization due to its long-term historical background.

This text proposes to analyze designations related to the teaching of landscape within the Tunisian curriculum. It tends, on the one hand, to approach the notion of education to landscape in the elementary schools in Tunisia, and to determine designations which the notion of the landscape in the primary education course incarnates, on the other hand.

Land use and land cover is an important component in understanding the interactions ofthe human activities with the environment and thus it is necessary to be able to simulate changes. Empirical observation revealed a change in land use land cover classification in Anantnag district, of Jammu and Kashmir State. In this paper an attempt is made to study the changes in land use and land cover in Anantnag district, over 18 years period (1992-2010). The study has been done through remote sensing approach using SOI toposheets of Anantnag1971.

The Right of Children to Free and Compulsory Education Act, 2009 (in short the Right to Education Act, 2009) has definitely come with a new challenge to provide ‘Education for all’ in the Society irrespective of their societal status. The motto behind the legislation is definitely of far- reaching importance to make education available to people leaving in each and every corner of the country, but as each coin has two sides, the Act too has a defective side also. Unless and until an honest analysis of the Act is made, the outcomes cannot be derived in a proper manner.

It is crucial to determine whether the world's leading credit rating agencies’ (Moody's, S & P's and Fitch's) credit notes affect the stock prices or not, for market participants. At this point, the main purpose of this research is to detect the effect of mentioned agencies' Credit Rating Announcements, occoured last five years (2009-2014),on share prices of companies listed on the BIST Bank Index by employing event study methodology. In that context, the effects of upgrade and downgrade notes are taken into account separately.

This research aims to study the behavior that reflects the visionary leadership of elementary school principals in the era of a new paradigm in education for the 21st century and to compare behavior by gender, work experience, and levels of education. The survey methodology was used, gathering data from a sample of the population who are public elementary school principals in Khon Kaen province.

Aims and objectives: The aim of this study was to assess the correlation between organizational climate and organizational commitment in the teaching hospitals in Iran. Background: Existence of manpower committed to an organization in addition to reducing staff’s absenteeism, delays and relocations causes a significant improvement in the performance of the organization and employees’ spirit, and results in better manifestation of organizational goals and achievement of personal objectives. Design: cross-sectional study.

Background: Diffuse axonal injury (DAI) is the brain injury in which damage in the form of an extensive lesions in white matter tracts occurs over a widespread area. DAI is one of the most common and devastating types of traumatic brain injury (TBI). Material and Methods: We reviewed from from different data set like pubmed/medline and google resources were retrospectively we reviewed to identify patients underwent both CT and MRI examinations of the head and patients were found with diagnostic images were available for DAI and de-identified images reported by ealier world literature.

The study proposed to assess ways for inclusion of watermelon waste in feed for tilapia. Thus, three tests were conducted: 1st – measuring the chemical composition of experimental feeds; 2nd – evaluating the digestibility of feed for fish and 3rd – determining the level of inclusion of waste in feed for tilapia.

Tuberculosis is an infectious disease which is spread through the infected droplets nuclei through air. People with prolonged, frequent, or close contact with TB patients are at particularly high risk of becoming infected. A descriptive survey design, non-probability purposive sampling technique and data was collected by using the self report interview technique among 100 caregivers of tuberculosis patient.

Introduction: The available therapeutic option in acetaminophen induced hepatotoxicity, N-acetyl cysteine (NAC) has potential side effects. Curcumin has shown hepatoprotective effect in animal models. Objective: To compare hepatoprotective efficacy of curcumin with NAC and their simultaneous administration in acetaminophen induced hepatotoxicity. Materials and Methods: Hepatotoxicity was induced in Wistar rats by acetaminophen (2000 mg/kg). NAC (300 mg/kg) was used as standard control in study. Curcumin was administered in doses of 300, 600 and 900 mg/kg.

Objectives: The precise anatomical of the lingula of the mandible is clinically significant because it is more susceptible to injury during a variety of oral and maxillofacial surgical procedures. This is the first study to identify, classify and measure the mandibular lingula using cone-beam computed tomography in South Indian population. Materials and methods: A retrospective study was done to measure the shape, height, and location of the lingula in relation to surrounding structures using cone-beam computed tomographic images.

Herpes zoster, an agonizing blister forming disease caused by Varicella zoster virus 1,2,3and analgesics even opioids fails cease agony of pain , local; anesthetics only provide transient pain relief 4,5,6 and accidental observation of complete relief of neurological pain with a composite Epineuron (Epalrestat and methylcobalamine ), intended to evaluate the composite in management of Herpetic neuralgia. 124 patients of Herpes zoster involving various body part, without any associated other disease were evaluated comparatively for pain relief and safety margin.

Purpose: To study the safety and efficacy of capsular tension ring in cataracts with pseudoexfoliation syndrome in terms of intraoperative and postoperative complications and to assess the visual acuity postoperatively in CTR and non CTR implanted patients. Method: This prospective study included 100 patients with cataracts with pseudoexfoliation syndrome. Patients were randomized into two groups comprising 50 each. Group I underwent CTR implantation Group II had no CTR implanted.

Background: The pathogenic factors in stroke like atherosclerosis and thrombosis are the same as for myocardial infraction in the latter disease, significant increase in plasma fibrinogen level has been detected, which has a correlation with severity of myocardial damage. It was therefore of interest to measure the plasma fibrinogen levels in patients with acute stroke and also to investigate whether these levels increase if the patient has additional risk factors like hypertension, diabetes, and smoking.

Gene therapy focuses at introduction of a defined DNA sequence into particular cells of a patient either to substitute a faulty gene, or to accord a new function to the cell for secretion of protein with alleged therapeutic function. The term ‘gene transfer’ refers to the delivery of a gene, a cDNA, a small RNA, that is, any type of oligonucleotide that might have some therapeutic benefit, to a predetermined target cell. Gene therapy allows specific gene products to be delivered to a precise anatomic location.

Introduction: Oral squamous cell carcinoma has a potential fatal outcome that accounts for 90% of oral cancers diagnosed worldwide. A variety of new emerging diagnostic aids and adjunctive techniques are currently being used in the screening of oral potentially malignant disorders (OPMDs). In vivo Staining methods namely, toluidine blue(TB), and methylene blue (MB), are advocated as simple, inexpensive and fairly sensitive, chair side investigative method for OPMDs detections.

Purpose: To evaluate the efficacy of topical human Placental extract in the management of diabetic foot ulcers in comparison with topical sucralfate. Methods: This prospective study included 100 patients with diabetic foot ulcers. Patients were randomized into two groups comprising 50 each. Group I received topical sucralfate, Group II received topical human placental extract dressing.. Initial wound measurement was taken in both the groups before starting their respective treatment that is sucralfate in group II and human placental extract dressing dressing in group I.

The united cause of smoking and alcohol drinking verses the site distribution of the upper aero digestive tract was evaluated using a case-control design on data from conducted between 2011to 2013 in Mahatma Gandhi cancer Hospital, Visakhapatnam, Andhrapradesh, India. Data collected from 103 incident head and neck cancer cases were analyzed using odds Ratio and p values. The odds ratios (ORs) for larynx in males 12 (18.46%) and females 4 (11.43%) OR=1.753, 95% confidence interval (CI)= (0.52to 5.82).

Autopsy study has helped modern medicine by establishing the cause of death, manner of death, comparing ante mortem amd postmortem findings and producing vital statistics. The present study was undertaken to know the spectrum of congenital heart disease in autopsy cases which has its importance in clinical care of patients. In this study, 10 cases of congenital heart disease were found in 270 autopsies having equal sex distribution. Maximum cases are of VSD (3 cases). Five cases died within 5 days of birth. Bronchopneumonia was the cause of death in 5 cases.

Background: Approximately 80 fungus species have been reported to be connected with respiratory allergy. Moreover, it is proven that four of them are the most common: Alternaria, Cladosporium, Aspergillus, and Penicillium. Despite of this, sensitization rates to these mould aeroallergens in children with asthma and allergic rhinitis are underreported. Objectives: The aim of this study was to investigate the sensitization rates to mould allergens and to establish the correlation between them and sensitization to the other most common aeroallergens.

Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is one of the most common chronic diseases and represents an important cause of morbidity and mortality. The main aim of this study is no know the alterations in serum vitamin C, erythrocyte glutathione activity and MDA in controls and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease patients. A retrospective study includes 120 subjects, comprising of 60 healthy controls and 60 COPD cases. Among 60 COPD cases 30 were chronic bronchitis patients and 30 were emphysema patients.

Aim: To prove the link of Aryans and Caucasians through dentistry and to prove the hypothesis of lord Ram actual existence. Introduction: There are documented facts that there was advent of Aryans in India. There are anthropological proofs of the same. Till date a lot have been done for the same and that there are instances of the very fact that Aryans were logically Caucasians. This article deals with one of the condition in dentistry called as Radix and describes the link of its prevalence with documented fact of Aryans did invade India.

Background: During the last 2 decades overweight and obesity have increased globally among children and adolescents. Methods: This was a descriptive, cross sectional study conducted during the period October 2012 to January 2013 among two high schools in Khartoum state. A total of 425 students from both schools were included in the study. Data was collected using a questionnaire, stadiometer and a measuring scale and body mass index was calculated. Data analysis was performed using SPSS program. P value was set on at 0.05 level of significance.

The background ionizing radiation in some selected hospitals and diagnosticcentres in Owerri, Imo State, South-eastern Nigeria was measured using a portable Geiger Muller counter model GCA-04. The measured background radiation in all the environments considered ranged from 0.092±0.02-0.225±0.01 µSv/hr. The measured values were observed to be lower than the world average of natural background radiation of 0.2741 µSv/hr. This shows that the areas have low natural background radiation.

Handicrafts are the art of creating decorative products using raw indigenous materials. Bankura has a rich cultural heritage of handloom industry and handicraft. It is world famous for terracotta temples, hand-woven textiles and exquisite craft of conch shell. The Conch is the shell of large sea snail Turbinella pyrum which lives in the Indian Ocean. Shankha is the finished product of conch shell which bears ritual and religious significance in Hindu mythology.

Blood pressure has been shown to vary in several health conditions. In adult life, weight gain seems to be an important risk factor for the development of hypertension. The relationship between measures of body mass and blood pressure has been extensively documented, usually with body mass index as the measure of relative weight. Since BMI is the simplest, affordable and noninvasive method of measuring obesity prevalence in a large population, this was adopted to ascertain how it correlates with blood pressure indices.

This work was conducted to study the role of Mg, Cu, Fe and Zn, on the recovery of cold-shocked bacteria in different combinations. Isolation of bacteria contaminating the frozen foods was performed and a design of a proper medium that recover almost all injured cells was achieved. The studied bacteria were Escherichia coli, Salmonella spp. Staphylococcus aureus and Klebsiellapneumoniae. The organisms were isolated from frozen foods (Sausages, Hamburgers, Meat ball and Ice creams) and identified to the species level.

Introduction and objectives: Serotonin; (5-HT) is a neurotransmitter that has major role in energy homeostasis, behavior and mood changes; thus affects the individual’s body weight and liability to obesity. 5-HT shows control over the appetite through different receptors with discrete functions. AA genotype of 5-HT2A gene promoter polymorphism was associated with increase receptor expression and binding. This study investigates the relation between the G1438A polymorphism of the 5-HT2A gene and the susceptibility to obesity.

Background: Diagnostic difficulties in pathology lead to seeking of second opinion, which drastically reduce errors and provides therapeutic and prognostic benefit to the patient. Aims and objectives: The present survey aims to assess the general perspective of pathologists on second opinion in oral and maxillofacial lesions with an attempt to find solutions to diagnostic challenges. Materials and Methods: A questionnaire based survey was conducted amongst 51 oral and 51 general pathologists.

Polygyria is a developmental anomaly of the brain characterized by development of numerous small gyri. It is a neuronal migration cortical organization disorder which is often sporadic or genetic but is also seen secondary to vascular compromise. In the present study, 100 brain specimens fixed in 10% formalin were studied extensively in the department of Anatomy, Lady Hardinge Medical College, New Delhi and the pattern of sulci and gyri of the two cerebral hemispheres with their variations were identified and photographed.

Background and Aims: Oxidative stress and adverse metabolic changes are key components of type2 diabetes mellitus. Gamma glutamyl transferase (GGT) enzyme maintains the GSH-cysteine homeostasis as well as detoxifies the toxic molecules thereby lower oxidative stress in the body. This enzyme is associated with albumin which is also a vital antioxidant molecule. Magnesium is required for the action of various glucose metabolizing enzymes and thus maintains glucose homeostasis as well as affects insulin secretion and sensitivity via modulation of oxidative stress.

Microorganisms can grow almost anywhere! And these tiny organisms carry with them some unpleasant product changes or even disease. Cosmetic must be harmless for user so the aim of this study Determine the degree of bacterial contamination among different types of cosmetic products. Methods: a total of 70 samples of different cosmetics products were collected, 78.5% were found to be contaminated.

Background & Objective: Malaria infection during pregnancy is a significant public health problem with substantial risks for the pregnant woman, her foetus, and the newborn child. So we conducted this study to predict the complications and outcome of malaria during pregnancy. Material & Methods: It was a case control type of study carried out at S.P. Medical College and Associate Groups of Hospitals, Bikaner, Rajasthan. 50 cases of pregnancy with malaria and 50 controls of pregnant females without malaria were chosen for study.

Lots of problems can be fenced if the biomedical waste management is properly executed. The activities that are usually performed as part of health care waste management involve segregation, storage, collection, transportation and disposal of biomedical waste. Since the implementation of the biomedical waste management rule in 1998, every concerned health personnel is expected to have proper knowledge and application of the same.

Background: Potassium citrate effectively reduces recurrence of hypocitraturic calcium nephrolithiasis. Objective: To evaluate the impact of long-term potassium citrate therapy on urinary metabolic parameters and stone recurrence rates in patients with hypocitraturic calcium stones. Design, Setting, Participants: This prospectively randomized controlled trial was conducted from January 2003 to December 2012.

The Present study tries to explore the effect of Recreational Therapy on Mental Status of Schizophrenics. Anxiety is an emotion characterized by an unpleasant state of inner turmoil, often accompanied by nervous behavior, such as pacing back and forth, somatic complaints and rumination. The present study aims to investigate the effectiveness of Recreational Therapy on Mental Status of Schizophrenics. For this data was collected randomly from Chaitanya Rehabilitation center, Pune on 60 schizophrenic patients.

Pesticide poisoning is a major global health problem, and it is more prevalent in countries like India. The harmful effects on human beings in the form of acute and chronic toxicity exposed to insecticides are well established. The incidence of pesticide poisoning is increasing according to the existing reports, and it is estimated that about 5 million people die every year as a result of intentional, accidental and occupational exposure worldwide.

Foetal macrosomia is a rising challenge in present obstetrics. It is more common in the infant of the diabetic mother, but it occur in non- diabetic pregnancies. In modern obstetrics, fetal macrosomia is a major contributor to obstetric morbidity. Increasing birth weight is known to predispose to a more difficult delivery and increasing rates of caesarean delivery. Women with a history of one macrosomic infantare at significantly increased risk of another macrosomic infant in a subsequent pregnancy.

Pulmonary Alveolar Microlithiasis is a rare and chronic disorder of respiratory system of unknown etiology which is characterised by widespread calcifications within the alveoli. We present a case of 65 year female who presented with cough with expectoration since 2 months and Grade III breathlessness. On auscultation there was presence of random wheezes and crackles predominantly in lower lung zones bilaterally. On chest radiograph finding were diffuse, discrete calcifications in both lung fields along with pleural calcification bilaterally.

Communicable diseases still remain a major cause of morbidity and mortality and is a major health concern. Present study was done to document incidence of various communicable diseases in a patient population attending tertiary care centre of north Maharashtra. Methodology- In this retrospective observational study with the help of data entry operator IDSP records from civil hospital Dhule were searched for the years January 2011 to December 2013. P and L forms data was collected and analysed. Results-Highest number of Dengue, typhoid and diphtheria cases were there in the year 2012.

Lymphangioma is a condition of congenitallymphatic tissue malformation presenting as benign, hamartomatous growth. Lymphangiomas can occur in the skin and mucous membranes in any part of the body. It is diagnosed clinically by transillumination test positivity and radioimaging. Treatment is surgical excision or sclerotherapy or combination of both. Here we report a case of giant cystic lymhangioma involving both side of the trunk symmetrically.

Implant placement in severly atrophic jaws is specially challenging because of the poor quality and quantity of the future implant bed. (Scortecci et al., 2001) Calvarial or iliac bone grafts, mental nerve displacement, and sinus lift procedures are often used to overcome the initially unfavourable anatomical and mechanical conditions. (Misch et al., 1999) Furthermore, patients are sometimes reluctant to undergo such procedures. Recent studies reported that basal Implants can be installed in which the vertical bone supply is reduced.

Background: This study was designed to assess the status of vitamin D concentration (deficiency and insufficiency), by measurement of 25 hydroxyvitamin D 25(OH)D in Iraqi healthy men and to show the effect of age on it. Subjects and methods: This cross-sectional study was carried out at Biochemistry Department, College of Medicine, University of Baghdad, Iraq, during the period from January 2013 to November 2013. This study included 180 healthy men, aged 18-82 years encountered from different regions of Iraq.

Aims: To compare the pain threshold, efficacy and procedure time taken using Atraumatic restorative treatment (ART), Chemo-mechanical & Conventional restorative treatment (CRT). Design, Methods and Material: 7-12 year old pediatric patients with at least three cavitated dentinal lesions involving occlusal surface of primary or permanent teeth, without pain and pulpal involvement were randomly assigned to 3 treatment groups- Atraumatic restorative treatment (ART) using a hand instrument like a sharp spoon excavator.

Background: Regenerative endodontic procedures and biological principles have now replaced the conventional apexification procedures in the treatment of immature, necrotic teeth. Stem cells from the pulp and ⁄ or periodontium contribute to continued root development when regenerative procedures are followed. Report: A maxillary anterior tooth with a necrotic pulp and immature apex was irrigated with sodium hypochlorite with minimal instrumentation and then dressed with tri-antibiotic paste consisting of ciprofloxacin, metronidazole and tetracycline.

The main objective of this investigation was to find out the effect of yoga and brisk walking on selected physiological variables (blood pressure and pulse rate) among hypertensive men. Subjects included in this study were equally divided into three major groups comprised of 30 per group. The detailed description are Group I underwent yogic practices, Group II underwent brisk walking and Group III acted as control. The study was formulated by the random design, consisting of a pre test and post test.

Early identification of patients at high risk s critical for early goal directed aggressive therapies in patients with Severe Acute Pancreatitis in preventing complications. A Prospective study was carried out over a period of two years at a tertiary hospital in rural India, and the results are presented here. The mortality rate was 3.92%.

Background: Coronary artery bypass graft (CABG) is still associated with frequent development of postoperative pulmonary complications, which are particularly concerning given its link to increased patient morbidity and mortality and resource utilization. Aim of the work: The aim of this study was to compare between the effects of two inpatient respiratory retraining techniques post coronary artery bypass graft.

Background: Coronary artery bypass graft (CABG) is still associated with frequent development of postoperative pulmonary complications, which are particularly concerning given its link to increased patient morbidity and mortality and resource utilization. Aim of the work: The aim of this study was to compare between the effects of different rehabilitation programs post coronary artery bypass graft. Subjects and Methodology: Forty-five patients of both sexes (22 women and 23 men) who underwent coronary artery bypass graft were enrolled in that study for five days while inpatient period.

Objective: This article aims at making Chest physiotherapy (CPT) simple, so that it could be incorporated as a routine intensive care procedure in neonates with respiratory problem for managing respiratory ailments. Introduction: Respiratory problems occur in 4 to 6% of neonates. CPT in the neonatal intensive care unit is associated with taking care of the neonatal lungs. CPT such as percussion, tapping or vibrating on the chest has been used to clear the secretions from the baby’s lungs. Respiratory distress is one of the commonest disorders encountered within first 42-78 hours of life.

Vasospastic angina is a rare disease which can present as an acute coronary syndrome emergency. This disease should be thought of in any atypical ECG not following the classic arterial territory involvement in a patient with acute chest pain. Also if there is evidence of long tubular narrowing with normal anatomy of other coronary arteries, then the probability of vasospasm should be kept in mind. Here we present a case of Vasospastic angina at our hospital which has atypical angiographic presentation.

Intussusceptions’ is the telescoping of portion of intestine into other; it is usually idiopathic, without an obvious anatomic lead point. Intussusceptions are classified into three general categories: enteric (small bowel into small bowel), ileocolic (small bowel into colon) and colonic (colon to colon). Ileoileal intususception due to polyp is very common. This cases is presented for its rarity.

The maxillary posterior edentulous region presents many unique and challenging conditions in implant dentistry as deficient alveolar ridges can jeopardize the placement of implants in posterior maxilla. This problem mostly occurs where ridge resorption and sinus pneumatization are often encountered. The procedure of choice is the elevation of the floor of the sinus with the use of the osteotome technique so as to increase the alveolar ridge height for the placement of implant.

Aims: To determine the prevalence of underweight, overweight and obesity in healthy adolescents as well as to establish the relationship of nutritional status with dietary habits and physical activity. Material & methods: Across sectional, observational study was conducted in a Tertiary Care Teaching Hospital for 12 months, which included 407 adolescent students of different socio economic group. Anthropometric measurements were taken and information regarding dietary habits, physical activity, TV watching habits and computer work were noted in a questionnaire.

Proximal humerus fractures are difficult to treat from the first evaluation to final outcome. Much controversy and confusion still exist, and no single treatment protocol or algorithm has been proved to be universally effective. From the time that they were traditionally conservatively managed, to now when more and more operative treatment is being done for these fractures.

The current concept of idiopathic scoliosis (IS) consists of a multifactorial disease involving genetic and non-genetic factors in the occurrence and progression of curvature. The candidate gene association study begins with selection of a putative candidate gene based on hypotheses, including biological systems involved in the development of deformity and assumptions based on results of clinical observations. The aim of a genome wide association study (GWAS) is to detect significant associations in a population between common diseases and common genetic variants.

Background: Hepatitis A and E are highly endemic and are significant contributors of morbidity and mortality in India. Retrospective analysis of the data was carried out to find the prevalence of hepatitis A and E virus ( HAV & HEV ) among the acute sporadic hepatitis patients. Aim: To find the prevalence of hepatitis A & E among sporadic cases of acute hepatitis from a tertiary care hospital. Settings and Design: Retrospective study conducted in a tertiary care Hospital Materials & methods: Data from July 2014 to December 2015 regarding IgM HAV and IgM HEV ELISA was analysed.

Introduction: Intracanal medicament has been widely advocated to help eliminate pulpal or periapical tissue microorganism either as local dressing after excavation of carious lesions or as a root canal medicament. Herbal medicine, also called “botanical medicine” or “phytomedicine”, refers to the use of plant seeds, berries, roots, leaves, bark, or flowers for medicinal purposes. Ocimum sanctum (Holy basil, Tulsi) is a plant native to India and has been known to have antimicrobial and anti inflammatory properties.

Objective: To determine the level of physical activity and nutritional status of adolescent boys aged 15-19 years at Dadu Majra Colony, Chandigarh. Methods: Cross-sectional study was done to interview 301 study subjects. Systematic random sampling was used in this study. Interview schedule was prepared from HEEADSS assessment tool for adolescents and following domains such as nutrition and activity were taken under for the study.

According to WHO, Hypertension is a condition in which the blood vessels have persistently high pressure. Normal adult blood pressure is 120mm Hg when the heart contracts (systolic) and 80mm Hg when the heart relaxes (diastolic).When systolic pressure is equal to or above 140mm Hg and diastolic pressure is equal to or above 90mm Hg the blood pressure is considered to be raised or high (WHO, 2015). Obesity is also a major contributing factor towards hypertension.

Low back pain (LBP) is a common and costly problem, often associated with high recurrence rate and equivocal management efficacy. Low back pain remains the primary cause of absenteeism and disability in every industrialized society.1 About 80% of the population experiences low back pain more than once throughout their lives. Those experiencing acute low back pain, 90% recover within two months, but chronic low back pain triggers physical atrophy and psychological problems.

Background: In Arab countries, many women continue to get pregnant until very advanced age. Many studies have investigated the outcomes of pregnancies in women above the age of 35. However, as it is such a controversial topic, there is no certain answer as to whether or not advanced maternal pregnancies affect the mother and baby’s health. This study aims to describe the maternal and neonatal outcomes of pregnancy at 45 years and beyond. Results: A retrospective review of three hospitals records from Riyadh encompassing 15,415 deliveries was carried out.

Dental caries is not a life menacing disease, so it is under progress with no active steps been taken for its total eradication. Active and passive immunization strategies have been developed which target key elements in the molecular pathogenesis of mutans streptococci. Along with established methods of caries prevention, caries vaccines have the potential of making a highly valuable contribution to disease control. Progress towards practical vaccine development requires evaluation of candidate vaccines in clinical trials.

Background: Platelet-rich plasma (PRP) has been used in periodontal therapy for past two decades. However, results obtained are conflicting. Moreover, the optimum concentrations of PRP to promote wound healing and regeneration still remains uncertain. Objectives: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the biological effects of platelet-rich plasma (PRP) on human periodontal ligament cells (hPDLCs) in vitro. This study was an attempt to find ideal concentration for clinical uses. Materials and method: Primary cultures of hPDLCs were obtained from healthy premolars.

Schwannomas are rare kind of benign neural tumors. They arise from Schwann cells of the neural sheath of peripheral, cranial, or autonomic nerves. Of twenty five percent of all Schwannomas located in the head and neck, only 1% have intraoral presentation. Due to its abysmal rate of occurrence, it makes a less likely diagnosis in case of oropharyngeal masses, leading to delay in identification and treatment. The most definitive way to diagnose this tumor is by its histopathologic and immunohistochemical examination.

During the period of seeds germination, many factors are determinant to the establishment of seedlings in field, being the water stress a negative effect. To create or adapt new cultivars to these conditions, plants breeding programs are fundamental. With this, the aim with this work was to verify the physiological quality of soybean seeds submitted to water stress. Were used seeds of five soybean cultivars (Savana, Conquista, Valiosa, BRS Celeste and Baliza) and five osmotical potentials (0, -0.2, -0.4, -0.6 and -0.8 MPa) diluted into water.

26 accesses of “Sabará” jaboticaba tree (Myrciariajaboticaba) were characterized in Diamantina-MG by the exploratory analyses of their morfoagronomic and physicochemical characteristics for the selection of promising matrixes for the in natura and the agroindustry market. Physical, physicochemical and chemical’s characteristics of fruits and physiologic characteristics of seeds were analyzed. Was realized the principal componentanalysis (PCA).

The use of quality seeds is fundamental to the success of any crop. In Brazil, it has been growing significantly the implementation of pastures areas, mainly of brachiaria. However, there are many difficulties to determination of quality of seeds from this genus of forages. With this, the aim with this work was to relate the characteristics of different substrates and the physiological potential of seeds of brachiariaMulato II.

Thyroid disease is the second most common endocrine disease affecting women of reproductive age. The current study aimed to assess the effect of pregnancy on thyroid function among Sudanese pregnant women at Wad Medani Police Hospital, Gezira State - Central Sudan. 115 pregnant women, at different stages of pregnancy, were randomly selected as cases. The gestational age was (28 first trimester, 32 second trimester, and 55 third trimester). 30 apparently age-matched and healthy non-pregnant women were selected as control group.

The corn extruded snacks were supplemented with moth bean and garden cress in order to enhance the nutritional quality of the snacks. The garden cress (GC) was added to different extruded snacks at the level of 2.5, 5%, 7.5% and 10% level while, moth bean (MB) was added at the level of 20 % to the corn flour. The developed snacks were acceptable till 7.5% level of garden cress incorporation. The organoleptically acceptable snacks were analysed for nutritional evaluation.

Among the speed tests that allows to determine the viability and vigor of seeds, the tetrazolium test is one of the most promising alternative. However, it is necessary to establish a specific methodology for each species studied. Thus, this present work was realized with the aim to adequate the methodology of tetrazolium test to evaluate the viability of canafistula(Cassia grandis L. F.). Were evaluated the following procedures to the removal of seeds coat: moistening in paper towel and immersion in water by 24 hours 30°C in an incubator type BOD.

This study assessed for the first time new trends in the epidemiology of Pediculosis in school children (age 5-14years) in the humid Niger Delta region and from the relatively drier environments of the south eastern states of Nigeria. Samplings covered 8230 pupils with more than 750 children interviewed and examined per selected school from nine cities of the two zones. Pupils from the two zones suffered pediculosis infection in 2012. Pediculosis cut across all ages sampled.

Palmyra palm tree belongs to the ‘Palme’ family. It is a tall and swaying tree well known as ‘Borassus flabellifer’. The word Borassus was derived from a Greek word and it means the leathery covering of the fruit and flabellifer means fan bearer. Palm fruits were collected from Ramanathapuram district. The fruits were washed with tap water and then allowed to ripen for 2-3 days if necessary. The products like squash and juice were prepared using fruit powder at 1g, 2g and 3g level of incorporation. Each ingredient was weighed using a weighing scale before preparation.

A field experiment was conducted at Dilla district, Gedio Zone Southern Ethiopia during the 2014 main cropping season under rain-fed condition, to study the effects of variable seed rates and time of nitrogen fertilizer application on yield and yield components of tef.

An attempt has been carried out to access the changes in pH of water samples brought about by selected plant materials from 24 species belonging to 17 families. Batch treatment was carried out with varying dosages of plant materials (0.5g, 1g, 2g, and 4g) and retention time (1.5HAT, 3HAT, 6HAT, 12HAT and 24HAT). Of 24 plants / parts selected, dried fruits of Phyllanthus emblica were able to neutralize both acidic (46% at 24HAT) and alkaline (55% at 6HAT) range of pH.

Fifty-one isolates of Klebsiella pneumoniae were recovered from different hospitals in Northern Palestine, during September-December 2015. Results showed that the prevalence of ESBLs, MBLs and AmpC β-lactamases using multiplex PCR technique were 92.2%, 9.8 and 3.92%, respectively. For ESBL genes, TEM gene was the most dominant (72.5%) among K. pneumoniae isolates. Other genes were (0.0%), (17.6%) and (31.4%) for CTX-M, SHV and OXA genes, respectively. For AmpC β-lactamase producing K. pneumoniae, only DHA gene was detected and all MBL producing isolates were carried NDM gene.

The present study aims the evaluation of antimicrobial potential of methanol extract of Kimia dates and to identify potential natural sources for the synthesis of new drugs to address the growing antimicrobial resistance.

Background: The Metabolic Syndrome is now considered as important factor of cardiovascular mortality around the world. Objective: This cross-sectional study aimed to determine the prevalence of metabolic syndrome in 81 voluntary men belonging to Toupouri ethnic group of Yaoundé Cameroon. The definition used is that of National Cholesterol Education Programm Adult Treatment Panel III (NCEP ATP III) 2001. Result: The prevalence of metabolic syndrome among Toupouri men was 29.62%.

With ever-increasing human population, there is an increasing demand to raise the production. Among the all measures to raise the productivity level, plant protection is playing a leading role. Specially in this field as well as for overall agricultural development in rural areas, the agricultural input retailers are playing an important role with their marketing environment and limitations. The present study was undertaken with the following objective- to identify the major independent variables affect on performance level of agricultural input retailers.

The Ludhiana is one of the fastest growing and most centrally located district of Punjab. It is the largest city in Punjab, both in terms of area (3860 sq km) and population (approximately 34, 87,882 as per 2011 census). Ludhiana is the first metropolitan city, popularly known as “Manchester of India”. The rapid population growth in Ludhiana continues to be a matter of concern due to its manifold effects on environment and one of the most important being groundwater contamination and overexploitation.

The Phytochemical activity of the ethanol extract of leafy part of the plants of Borreria articularis, Ichnocarpus frutescens and Zingiber officinale was studied to fix the parameters for pharmacognostical standards. These created an interest to test the possible phytochemical activity of the plant. In the screening process of selected plants indicate the presence of Protein, Total Carbohydrates, Total Free Amino acids, Proline, Phenols, β-carotein, Ascorbic acid, Thiamine, Calcium, Sodium and Potassium. This phytochemical study was performed by using standard procedure.

Experiments were carried out to test the effects of chemicals on different behavioural activities of T.chilonis females on the treated Corcerya cephalonica eggs was recorded the video for 10 minutes (600sec) and analyzed by using Observer® XT software developed by Noldus technology.

To study the effect of biofertilizer, chemical fertilizer and vermicompost on the productivity of Phyllanthus niruri, the pot experiment was conducted with five treatments, i.e. T1- C, T2- AC, T3- PS, T4- NPK, T5- VC. The results indicated the maximum growth. i.e. plant height, number of branches, number of leaves etc of P.niruri. From the analysis of result it has concluded the integrated use of biofertilizers, chemical fertilizers and vermicompost treatments significantly increased growth parameters of P.niruri.

In the present study antioxidant activities by (2,2-Diphenyl-0 picrylhydrazyl) radical (DPPH), hydrogen peroxide, hydroxyl radical inhibition, hemolysis by hydrogen peroxide assay, reducing power and total antioxidant activities of polyphenolic extract of selected plants leaves were investigated. The total polyphenolic contents of the extract were determined using standard methods. The results of antioxidant activities of poly-phenol extract obtained by different in vitro methods were varied depending on the method used.

Presently an attempt is made to get detailed information on anatomical architect of the nectariferous tissues present in the ventrally folded stipules in Cassia alata using cross section of stipule and its SEM images. The anatomical studies revealed that nectar secreting tissues are present both on ventral and dorsal fold of the stipules located on both sides of petiole in C. alata. The cross section of the stipule show upper and lower ends made of epidermal tissues and secretary paranchymatous tissues in between.

The present study focuses on Family Asteraceae is reinvestigated in various districts of Uttar Pradesh in which Conyza canadensis showing highly extensive length about 280 cm in Gorakhpur district. This species showing length about 15-90 cm in Flora of British India, 90 cm in Flora of Upper Gangetic Plain, 30-70 cm in Flora of Madhya Pradesh and 15-90 cm in Flora of India. During the floristic investigation this species are collected from different regions of Uttar Pradesh. This species was identified on the basis of morphological, anatomical and floral characters.

Anaemia in pregnancy is associated with increased rate of maternal and perinatal mortality, premature delivery, low birth weight and other adverse outcomes. This study was conducted to determine the prevalence of anaemia among pregnant females attending selected nursing homes in sivasagar district, Assam and to assess the etiologic risk factors contributing to it during pregnancy.

The present paper highlights the isolation of potential fungal isolate for optimization and production of cellulase enzyme. Cellulase enzyme produced by the isolate under Solid State Fermentation (SSF) was used as refining aid to produce quality paper from paper cup waste pulp. Fifty six fungal isolates were obtianed from different sources using soil, degraded wood and paper mill waste pulp, cotton waste and screened for cellulolytic activity by congo red plate method.

In the present investigation immunomodulatory activity was studied for the plant Borreria articularis leaf extract using rat model. Borreria articularis is an Indian medicinal system and has been used in ayurvedic preparation for the treatment of various ailments throughout the countries. Immunomodulation is a process, which alters the immune system of an organism by inferring with its function. Cyclophosphamide was used as a standard immunosuppressant agent.

In the present investigation immunomodulatory activity was studied for the plant Tinospora cordifolia leaf extract using rat model. Tinospora cordifolia is an Indian medicinal plant and has been used in ayurvedic preparation for the treatment of various ailments throughout the countries. Immunomodulation is a process, which alters the immune system of an organism by inferring with its function. Cyclophosphamide was used as a standard immunosuppressant agent. Sodium Carboxy Methyl Cellulose (SCMC) is being a non-immunogenic and tolerogenic substance, it has been considered as control group.

Inferior quality of fruit has been considered as a drawback of fruits grown and developed in low temperature conditions. In addition to it, higher planting densities create a microclimate which also affects the quality of fruits. Regarding this problem, an investigation was carried out in the Experimental Farm, Department of Horticulture, Jorhat during 2013-2014 in order to find out the best bunch cover material among white non-woven polypropylene bag, blue non-woven polypropylene bag, transparent polyethylene bag, leno bag, gunny bag, dry banana leaves and Control (no cover) in banana cv.

Schizophyllum commune is an edible and medicinal mushroom. It is a very good nutritional source of proteins, vitamins, lipids and minerals. This mushroom has been considered as the popular food and an effective medicine to treat several diseases. In the present investigation the strain Schizophyllum commune was collected from Microbial Type Culture Collection at Chandigarh. The sample was maintained in Malt Yeast Extract Broth. The cell free filtrate used for biosynthesis of silver nanoparticles.

The present study dealt with assessment of the physico –chemical parameters and correlation coefficient of vedadri reservoir, Krishna district, AP, India. The physico-chemical characteristics and correlation coefficient were studied and analyzed during janauary-december 2014. Seasonal variation in water samples of Vedadri in different seasons were observed. The results stated that there was significant seasonal changes in some physico- chemical parameters and most of the parameters were in normal limits and indicated for better quality of lake water.

Context: Stature estimation is frequently required by the Forensic Science experts which more often done on the skeletal remains. Since 1950`s the long bones in the human body for eg Humerus, ulna, Femur and Tibia are used for stature identification .Arm Span, nose length have also been used for height prediction. A study was needed to find out such a correlation in females as few studies have been conducted . Objective: To formulate an equation and relation for estimation of stature in living adult females by the measurement of their ulna bone.

Introduction: Metabolic syndrome by itself is a constellation of multiple risk factors causing cardiovascular diseases. Serum calcium and phosphate has been shown to be associated with metabolic syndrome, coronary artery disease, and also correlated with individual components of metabolic syndrome. Disturbances in calcium and phosphate metabolism can cause CVD and may be a predisposing factor for metabolic syndrome. This study is designed to find out the correlation of serum calcium and phosphate with individual components of metabolic syndrome.

Betel vine (Piper betle L.) is a dioecious perennial cash crop and its cultivation is referred as most distinctive agricultural industry. This crop had been referred in the ancient Indian literature dating back to AD 473. Betel leaf had an esteemed position in human society from the dawn of civilization. The origin of betel vine is believed to be in Malaysia or in surrounding East Asian region. Eight crore sq. km. area in the whole of the world is estimated to be under betel vine cultivation. According to Mabberley (1997), of the 2000 cultivars of P.

The present study reports the synthesis of silver nanoparticles (Ag-NPs) using aqueous extract of Ocimum americanum (L.) leaf and silver nitrate (AgNO3) solution. The synthesized Ag-NPs were analysed using UV-Visible Spectroscopy (UV-Vis), Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) and Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR). The UV-Vis spectrum ofAg-NPs in aqueous solution showed an absorbance peak around 424nm, which is a characteristic property of nanoparticle formation.

Short stature is a term applied to a child whose height is two standard deviations (SD) or more below the mean for children of that sex and chronological age. Turner syndrome is an important consideration in girls with short stature and especially growth failure, because shortness may be the presenting feature of this syndrome, other physical abnormalities can be variably expressed. Here we present a case of short stature, with some congenital abnormalities.

The present study explores the ability of biotic and abiotic agents as inducers to stimulate the plant immunity assessed through bio chemical estimations and to control the spread of fungal pathogen Alternariaster helianthi (Hansf.) E.G. Simmons in infected plants. Three chemical inducers α-Amino Butyric Acid (AABA), Ɣ-Amino Butyric Acid (GABA) and Salycilic Acid (SA) and two biological agents Trichoderma harizanum and Pseudomonas fluorescens as biological inducers on eight sunflower genotypes were studied.

Present study was carried out with the aim of investigating the effect of ascorbic acid supplementation and altered dietary protein level on the rectal temperature, haematocrit value and blood ascorbic acid status of rats exposed to chronic and acute heat stress. It was observed that the normal rectal temperature of adequately (18%) protein fed rats was quite higher (37.41 ± 0.12⁰C) than that of the protein restricted (6%) rats (36.65 ± 0.12⁰C) which was observed to be further augmented by the prior supplementation of ascorbic acid.

India has witnessed an unprecedented growth of wireless technology. This has lead to people living in close proximity to mobile phone base stations in densely populated metros. The aim of the study was to resort to a questionnaire-based survey of people (n=200) living around base stations in an urban and a rural locality in the state of Tamil Nadu, India.

Optimization of initial pH of the medium, suitable carbon, nitrogen sources, temperature, metal ions, phosphate source and C/N ratio for improvement in red pigment production by Pezicula sp. BDF 9/1 was carried out. Carbon sources like fructose and glucose were found important for growth and pigment production. Among the nitrogen sources glycine was found suitable for growth whereas maximum pigment production occurred with NaNO3. The pronounced formation of red pigment was found after the incubation time 20 days, initial medium pH 5.0 and at 23 C.

Medicinal plants besides therapeutic agents are also a big source of information for a wide variety of chemical constituents which could be developed as drugs with precise selectivity. These are the reservoirs of potentially useful chemical compounds which could serve as newer leads and clues for modern drug design (Vijaylakshmi and Ravindran, 2012). The most important of these bioactive constituents of plants are alkaloids, tannins, flavonoids and phenolic compounds (Doss, 2009).

The anti-tubercular drugs Isoniazid and Rifampicin, the first line drugs used for tuberculosis therapy are associated with severe hepatotoxicity in Indian patients as compared to United State. Data reported that the combination of INH and RIF treatment in pulmonary tuberculosis patients taking ATD enrolled under DOTS, results in development of oxidative stress which has been considered as the most important mechanism of hepatotoxicity which results increase of MDA level decrease in body antioxidant level.

Diisononyl phthalate (DINP) is used as a plasticizer for PVC products. Freshwater fish, Oreochromis mossambicus were exposed to DINP at 300 ppm concentration for 24, 48, 72 and 96 h maintaining positive (propylene glycol as solvent) and negative (without solvent and toxicant) control groups. At the end of every treatment period, gill, liver, muscle and ovary were dissected and fixed in buffered formalin. Histopathological changes in gill includes epithelial lifting, hyperplasia, aneurysm, blood vessel dialation, lose of primary and secondary lamellae.

The present analysis deals with the study of physico-Chemical nature of water from Durgham Cheruvu. Water from 3 sites were collected monthly for one year from August, 2012 to July, 2013 analyzed for parameters like chlorides, pH, Atmospheric Temperature, Water temperature and Humidity. Throughout the study period Chlorides in water were 21 folds higher than normal value 8.3mg/l according to Livingstone 1963. The Atmospheric and Water temperatures are directly proportional to chloride concentration and the Humidity is inversely proportional to Chloride concentration in lake water.

Cellulase is an inducible enzyme complex, produced by a number of bacteria, actinomycetes and fungi including Trichoderma species and Aspergillus species etc. Corn husk which is composed mainly of cellulose. It is a major component of agricultural and domestic waste. It can be converted to bioethanol, alternative source of energy. Production of cellulase was induced in the fungi Aspergillus nigerby growing it in mineral salt medium and alkali pre-treated corn husk. The product of hydrolysis was fermented with the help of Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Zymomonasmobilis.

The role of the agro-industry sector is important because it has strong linkages to other sectors. The linkage is not only the relevance of products, but also through linkages with final demand and primary inputs, namely the relationship of consumption, investment and labor. This implies that an increasing investment in the agro-industry sector will create job opportunities and sources of income of the people, so the farmer households are not only depend on a piece of land that is increasingly narrowed as their livelihood, but it able to support the growth of productivity.

Anti-tuberculosis drug induced hepatotoxicity is a major hurdle for an effective treatment of tuberculosis. The present study was aimed to assess the preventive effect of eugenol (6mg/kg bw and 12mg/kg bw) on isoniazid (50mg/kg bw) and rifampicin (100mg/kg bw) induced hepatotoxicity was manifested by a significant increase in the activities of marker enzymes (AST, ALT, ALP, LDH and GGT) level in serum. The activities of enzymic (SOD, CAT, GST and GPx) and non enzymic antioxidants (VitC, Vit E and GSH) were reduced by the antitubercular drugs.

Hydrocephalus is a condition in which abnormal accumulation of cerebro spinal fluid within the ventricles or subarachnoid space of the brain. It develops when there is an imbalance between the amount of CSF production and the rate at which it is absorbed. This can be caused by a blockage in the pathways through which the fluid travels or from an overproduction of fluid. This disturbance then causes the ventricles to enlarge (i.e. ventriculomegaly) or subarachnoid space and intra cranial pressure to increase, resulting in an enlarged head along with other symptoms i.e.

Taxonomic description and DNA barcoding of a newly recorded Wrasse fish species, Halichoeres timorensis (Perciformes: Labridae) collected from Keelakarai region in Gulf of Mannar, Southeastern India. The mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase subunit I gene (mtCOI) with 656 bp region were sequenced for phylogenetic analysis. Recent studies have revealed that many marine fishes are closely associated with coral reefs. During the present investigation, mt COI gene sequence was used to identify the marine fish Halichoeres timorensis.

Background: The increasing prevalence of obstructive respiratory diseases is a matter of concern, as of 2010 three hundred million people were affected worldwide, and in 2009 Bronchial Asthma caused more than two Lakhs deaths globally (GINA 2009). Proper practice and training of the correct steps of using MDI can minimize the drawbacks and therefore nurses need to observe and analyze the existing knowledge and practice on the use of MDI use.

In this paper, we will deliberate how to control home appliances, safety and security system using GSM technology by using android application through android mobile phone. We will also show that we can control the appliances even in the absence of an android phone by sending a normal SMS. The advantage of using GSM technology is that we can control the home appliances from remote places anywhere in the world.

Background: The increasing prevalence of obstructive respiratory diseases is a matter of concern, as of 2010 three hundred million people were affected worldwide, and in 2009 Bronchial Asthma caused more than two Lakhs deaths globally (GINA 2009). Proper practice and training of the correct steps of using MDI can minimize the drawbacks and therefore nurses need to observe and analyze the existing knowledge and practice on the use of MDI use.

In this paper, we will deliberate how to control home appliances, safety and security system using GSM technology by using android application through android mobile phone. We will also show that we can control the appliances even in the absence of an android phone by sending a normal SMS. The advantage of using GSM technology is that we can control the home appliances from remote places anywhere in the world.

In the past few years there has been a major shift in the driving force for development of new packaging technology. Changing consumer demands for food products that are minimally processed and can prolong for longer time with minimal loss in quality, new regulations for consumer health and safety, need for packages that prevent microbial contamination, rancidity and production of off-odours, gases, off-flavours etc. are some of the driving forces. Moreover, there have been changes in retail, distribution and purchasing of food products such as internet shopping.

Infertility is a major health problem now a days and it was described as the condition of healthy individual who is unable to conceive or produce or sustain a successful pregnancy during a one year period. A large number of genes are found on X chromosome and autosomes.

The 21st century is characterized by unprecedented challenges and opportunities, arising from globalization, the desire for inclusive development and the imperatives of climate change. Indian business, which is today viewed globally as a responsible component of the ascendancy of India, is poised now to take on a leadership role in the challenges of our times. It is recognized the world over that integrating social, environmental and ethical responsibilities into the governance of businesses ensures their long term success, competitiveness and sustainability.

In the present paper an experimental research was carried out on a laboratory two cylinder, four-stroke, direct injection diesel engine, designed mainly to run on diesel fuel and converted with minor modifications to run on CNG-Diesel dual fuel mode. The aim is to analyze the emission characteristics of pure diesel first and then CNG-Diesel dual fuel mode. The measurements were recorded at CNG substitution rates of 10%, 20% and 30% and varying the load from 1.5 to rated load of 9kW in steps of 1.5.

This research focuses mainly on the three most elegant statements of triangle geometry, namely, Pythagorean, Euclidean, and Napoleonian theorems.

In current trends protecting the privacy of the Fingerprint is an important one, here a novel system propose protecting fingerprint by combining two different fingerprints. It will create a new identity. In the enrollment stage, fingerprints will be captured from two different fingers. Minutiae positions are extracted from one fingerprint. The orientation, (it indicates the flow of ridges and valleys) from other fingerprint, and the reference points are calculated from both the two fingerprints. Extracted combined minutiae templates are stored into database.

Binuclear complexes of Co(II), Ni(II), Cu(II) and Zn(II) with bis-biacetyl- 2-aminothiophenol (Schiff base) ligand have been synthesized and characterized on the basis of molar mass, elemental analysis, IR and electronic spectral studies, molar conductance and magnetic susceptibility measurement. On the basis of above physicochemical and spectrometric measurements it is proposed that the compounds act in a bi-dentate manner. Such complexes have varieties of useful pharmaceutical activity and many of them gained wide acceptance in clinical practice.

The successful application of data mining in highly visible fields like e-business, marketing and retail have led to the popularity of its use in knowledge discovery in databases (KDD) in other industries and sectors. Among these sectors that are just discovering data mining are the fields of medicine and public health. This research paper provides a survey of current techniques of KDD, using data mining tools for healthcare and public health. It also discusses critical issues and challenges associated with data mining and healthcare in general.

Extra-marital affairs are a common phenomenon in marriages in Rongo town, Kenya. Extra-marital affairs are an emerging alternative to polygamy. Formal polygamous marriages are diminishing and are being replaced by extra-marital affairs. Men and women prefer to keep other sexual partners besides their legitimate spouses for convenience. In Rongo town, Kenya, these sexual partners are referred to as side dish or ‘mpango wa kando’in common parlance. The study found out that the prevalent nature of extra marital affairs in Rongo town is emotional sexual affairs and transactional affairs.

With the introduction of the cloud computing and virtualization, a need for a new model that enables organizations to better satisfy their clients expectations from both infrastructure and services perspectives becomes a necessity (Bang et al., 2013). DevOps is a collection of best practices and standards that formulate the required model that enables those organizations to evolve and adapt to the target spectrum.

One of the major issues in verification of fingerprints is the lack of robustness against image-quality degradation. Poor-quality images result in spurious features, thus degrading the performance of the overall system. Due to this, it proposes a fingerprint recognition system with enhancement of image ridges and also optimization of dataset by ANN. The objective of the proposed system is to enhance the biometric recognition frameworks, by adding liveness assessment in a fast and user-friendly manner through the use of image quality assessment.

Photocatalytic degradation of aniline is studied over H2O2 sensitised monoclinic BiVO4 under visible light irradiation. Combination of BiVO4+H2O2 showed a synergetic effect in enhancing the rate of degradation. Formation of more. OH free radicals during irradiation in presence of H2O2 is ascertained by photoluminescence spectra using terpthalic acid as probe molecule.

The aim of this paper is to identify the impact of the fuzzy based privacy preserving method for protecting sensitive data in Privacy preserving data mining. Fuzzy based member ship functions like Bell shape, S- Shape and PI shape member ship functions are applied on standard database to generate sanitised database. Further, Popular K-mean Clustering algorithm of data mining is applied on the sanitised database and the results are compared. WEKA tool is used for testing data mining algorithm on privacy preserved database generated using various fuzzy member ship function.

The objective of the present study is to examine the kinetics and mechanism of Single electron transfer redox reaction of Picolinic acid hydrazide (Pi-AH) by hexacyanoferrate(III) called HCF(III) in Sodium hydroxide medium which involves Fe(CN)63-.The Spectrophotometric monitoring of oxidation of Pi-AH by HCF(III)) was carried out. The kinetic determination of its mechanism in sodium hydroxide medium under pseudo first order condition was done.

An effective and convenient procedure for the Michael Addition using Fe (acac)3 (5 mol %) as an effective catalyst, catalyses the Michael addition reaction of nitro methane to Chalcone to produce corresponding γ- nitro ketone derivatives with good yields (85-95 %) under mild condition with high yield. Accordingly, we applied this synthetic strategy for synthesis of (±)-Baclofen and (±)-Rolipram. Reaction Conditions: a) Chalcone (0.82 mmol), Nitromethane (2) (4.10 mmol), 5 mol % Fe(acac)3, anhy. DMSO (2mL), rt.

Infections are the major concern for the causes of diseases in any eye surgical procedures at Ethiopia. Modern surgical are employed with latest technology to know how to cure the infections rather than far-sighted of spreading. Using medium like polyethylene surgical drapes in ophthalmic surgery has no potential source of wound contamination especially when wetted with blood or saline. The comfort level of these drapes is very less to the user groups. Also reusable drapes made from woven fabrics on the repeating wash cycles could alter the final resistance to barrier penetration.

The “Sentiment Analysis” task focuses on the recognition and classification of emotions (positive, negative, conflict, neutral) in reviews for the aspect. In this paper we propose the system for recognizing and analyzing the sentiments using SVM for the restaurant and laptop review dataset. Here we also apply the proposed system of text classification for identifying the aspect in the review sentences. We compare the performance of the system with well-known KNN, Naïve Bayes and Neural Network classifiers.

This paper discusses the vision, the challenges, possible usage scenarios and technological building blocks of the “Internet of Things”. In particular we will look at the complete analysis of few of the technical papers on “Internet of Things”.

The language of nature is mathematics and this language is the language of execution. Now in this discussion we try to identify the relationship between zero and nature and also determine the role and relation of this number in fluidity and water in the planet earth. We have to say that zero in mathematics is a basic number and when it releases in the horizon of the planet earth it establishes the water in the planet earth. Now how this number enter into the horizon of the planet earth.

North-East has considerable expertise and experiences in climate science through collaborative research between independent research institutes and their external partners. The key step forward will be how to unite this expertise with the expertise of North-East universities to eventually build a bottom-up regional community of connected educators, researchers, students, practitioners, policymakers and local groups for climate change adaptation.

Copper indium diselenide (CuInSe2) thin films were deposited by using electrochemical deposition technique. The electrochemical parameters were optimized with the aid of cyclic voltammetry for slow scan rate. CuInSe2 thin films were electrodeposited on FTO coated glass substrates at -0.6 V and -0.8 V versus Ag/AgCl reference electrode. The films were thermally treated at 400 0C for 15 minutes to improve the homogeneity and degree of crystallinity. The electrical properties have been studied with the help Autolab potentiostat/Galvanostat.

Wireless Sensor Networks (WSN) has recently been applied in various monitoring applications including hazardous gases detection. In this paper we present a WSN for hazardous gases detection with a special emphasis given on its monitoring and controlling for home safety. LPG leak can happen, though rarely, inside a home, commercial premises or in gas powered vehicles. Leakage of this gas is dangerous as it enhances the risk of explosion.

Plants play an important role on medicines since thousands of years to treat various diseases. Oxidative stress may precede and speed up to development of diabetes. In diabetic complications antioxidant action may be an important property of medicinal plant linked with diabetes. The Lily family, Liliaceae, consists of fifteen genera about 600 species of flowering plants with in the order. Onion (Allium cepa) belongs to the Lilly family, it shows only a particular vertical shoot above the ground and is used for energy storage and as a spice. It could be in a range of shapes and sizes.

Li1.3Al0.3Ti1.7(PO4)3 (LATP) electrolyte was prepared within the temperature range of 700-1050 ℃. The structure characteristics (phase abundance and grain size) were investigated by X-ray diffraction analysis using MAUD program. The electrical properties (electronic and ionic conductivity) were measured by impedance spectroscopy using equivalent circuit based on brick-layer model to fit the data (Nyquist plot). Themaximum LATPcontentof95% was obtained at a preparation temperature of 1000°C.

University of Allahabad, India In this paper, we have studied the major reasons affecting the population, social and economic development of Jammu and Kashmir. In particular we have studied various demographic rates and compared them with the respective rates of India. Also we have mentioned the major challenges for women in Jammu and Kashmir.

The effect of wind velocity on the daily productivity of few active and passive solar stills is studied by computer modeling. Mathematical calculations have been carried out on extreme summer and winter days in New Delhi in order to correlate productivity with velocity for different masses of basin water for the passive stills and various thicknesses or mass flow rates of the flowing brine for the active stills.

The project work assigned to us was to design a 132/33 KV EHV sub-station. We considered incoming power at 132 KV and the power was transferred to main bus through isolator-circuit breaker-isolator combination. The power from main bus was fed into a 20MVA transformer which stepped the voltage down to 33KV. The power is then fed into a 33KV bus from which different loads were tapped. In the process, the surge impedance loading of 132 KV and 33 KV lines were calculated and they were used to estimate the maximum power that can be transferred by one transmission line.

The present manuscript reviews trends and technologies pertaining to the future of public key infrastructure. Public key infrastructure (PKI) is one such technology that may offer benefits to net-centric organizations, being a system of services, technology, protocols and standards that can be used as a solution for providing secure transactions. Here we have reviewed some early work in the field of PKI's as well as some recent technological advance in the PKI's.

Hesperetin is a flavanoid commonly found in many herbal medicines and food. The antidiabetic effect of hesperetin was determined. The animals were divided into six groups such as normal, diabetic untreated, diabetic treated with (20mg hesperetin/kgbw in saline), diabetic treated with (40mg hesperetin/kgbw in saline), normal rat treated with 40mg of hesperetin/kgbw in saline) and diabetic treated with reference drug Glibenclamide (1mg/kgbw in saline).

Drawing of random sample has been found to be the vital work in every branch of experimental Sciences. Most commonly used random numbers tables are due to Tippett’s (1927), Fisher and Yates (1938), Kendall and Smtih (1939) and Rand Corporation (1955). Tippett’s table consists of four digited numbers, Fisher and yets table consists of two digited numbers, Kendall and Smith’s table consists of four digited numbers whereas Rand corporation random numbers table consists of five digited numbers. But there is no any table of three digit random numbers.

The transformation of e-Government to Smart Government services triggered many research in the area of business process change, information use and nature of business integration in the changing work system environment to realize organizational benefits.

In the literature many determinists approaches (numerical and graphical methods), probabilists (the probability law, extreme value theory, Bayesian methods) exist for the detection of extreme claims. In this paper after a reminder of the extreme value theory and its application in the simulated data of a Malian mutual insurance, a contribution of the convex combination method of two threshold variables minimizing the variance is proposed.

Society has changed the direction of the way in which it educates its children. This trend, which has gained momentum since 1970 s, is the merger of regular or general education with special education; know as inclusion. Now the schools have to accommodate all children and arrange education according their needs. The term special education needs (SEN) refers to all those children whose needs arise out of their specific abilities on learning difficulties.

Diabetes, a fastest growing epidemic of 21st century is rapidly showing an increase in its incidence rate due to the impact of its risk factors. It is a common chronic disease resulting from a genetic-environment interaction along with other risk factors such as obesity, physical inactivity and age. Objectives: To assess the risk of type 2 diabetes in population of Patiala district of Punjab (India). Materials and Methods: The present study was conducted on 1500 subjects.

This article focuses on the problems and prospects of civil society formation in the Republic of Kazakhstan. The authors give complete information referring to various sources about the history of the development of civil society in Kazakhstan. There are some positive examples of cooperation between the state and civil society, information on civil forums that were organized with the support of the state. In addition, the authors dwell on the legal framework of civil society in Kazakhstan.

This paper refers the discussion of risk premium with the predictors in evidence of gulf states. In this we analysis the sample 05 gulf states; Kuwait, Bahrain, Iraq, Oman and Qatar have been considered from the year 2001 to 2010. A conceptual model has been developed for the understanding the whole study and key findings have been explained for the future decisions.

Background: Coronaviruses are enveloped virus with a high case fatality rate. Medical students are at risk of acquiring this lethal virus. Aim of the study: Assess the knowledge and attitude among medical students in King Abdulaziz University Hospital (KAUH). Methods: A cross sectional study was performed in (KAUH) on a 672 Medical students who were participate in this study. Knowledge and attitude were assessed by using self-administered, pretested questionnaire based on WHO guidelines.

Early 20th century all the Islamic movement organizations, both local and national, are all pushed to Islam Wasyatiyah (moderate Muslims) and not sensible radical. Where educational institutions were born of the participation of the local population, the primary mission of these institutions is the development of character and morals of Muslims in Maluku. Judging from the movement (2001-200), more focus on jihad (war), the Salafi movement today is more focused on missionary movement, education and economics.

Broiler farming in Malaysia use two type of housing systems namely close house and open house system. This paper has evaluated the economic impact of closed house system in broiler farm performance in Malaysia. An economic evaluation of 211 broiler farmers was conducted in three states in Peninsular Malaysia namely Perak, Pahang and Johor to determine the performance of the broiler farmers by using economic performance analysis. Pooled multiple regression model was used in the analysis.

This paper refers the discussion of earning per share with the predictors in evidence of banking sector in Pakistan. In this we analysis the sample of 12 from 2007 to 2011.A conceptual model has been developed for the understanding the whole model and key findings have been explained for the future decision makers which involve the investors and decision makers. We use the different model to analysis that market based factors have no significant effect on outcome and firm based factors have a significant effect on the outcome and this result is derived by random effect model.

The paper mainly tries to assess the decision making power of rural women in their economic life. Objective of the study is two folds- first to analyze the pattern of decision making in each of the 13 identified areas and second to find out the factors affecting decision making power of women.150 women respondents were investigated to know the level of farm women participation in Agricultural decision-making in the rural areas of Sonipat district of Haryana state. Primary data were collected using structured questionnaire and interview schedule.

The paper dwells on the attainment of positive social change through sufficient design and teaching of peace education in Nigeria. The frequent crisis since after independence in the six geopolitical zones of the country presupposes absence of or lack of enough peace education. Ignorance of conflict resolution through dialogue is lacking in the consciousness of many Nigerians due to lack of proper information and training.

The dynamics of the external debt is still a phenomenon little discussed in the literature for the Tunisian context and the previous work on this theme does not give to the Researchers of the techniques sufficient to deal with it. The objective of this research is to explain the effects of the external public debt on economic growth for Tunisia on the period 2000-2015. To analyze this impact, we issued a hypothesis that the public debt outside negatively affects economic growth.

This paper examines the role of aggressiveness on performance of firms on the Nigerian Stock Exchange. The paper is designed to look at the role of aggressiveness on performance of firms on the Nigerian Stock Exchange. The paper took critical interest in the contents of a number of studies which concluded that among Nigerian managers, lack of innovation and pro-activeness, aggressiveness, aversion to risk-taking, which are critical factors for growth of SMEs, were found to be high in 2007.

In general terms, crisis is an inconsistent condition which is not steady and requires reform. The protection from the negative effects of the crisis and even to prejudice the crises in favor of themselves depends on the extent to success of the business in crisis management. An effective leadership provides to overcome the crisis as stronger form. The crisis is an important actor who shall play a key role in moving the competition power of the organization to the highest level by producing alternative policies in actualization of efficient reforms for the leadership.

Fresh water is a scare resource. During recent decades, each and every anthropogenic activities such as domestic, agriculture and industries require large amount of surface water and ground water. It has been seen that globally water resources face extraordinary challenges but these are at highly in the world’s arid and semi-arid regions. In this region due to very little or no rainfall and lack of surface water, a ground water source becomes desired source for all activities.

A proposed (ICTiL) model that integrates thinking creatively into learning process was presented to bring the two processes in one process. A new proposed training program (PICTiL) -which was designed according to (ICTiL) model-was delivered to a study sample aiming at fostering creative thinking. The sample of the study consisted of (92) male gifted students of secondary school stage who were distributed equally onto control and experimental groups (46 respondents each) and were assigned randomly. Mixed-method approach was used with an explanatory sequential design.

The concept of sustainable development is used together with the cultural, political, social and environmental concepts as well as the production, consumption, trade and development concepts. In this study, the fundamental idea is to provide a sustainable development with the help of green economy. The main purpose of this study is to question the operation of the green economy with reference of the concept of sustainable development.

To be born without one of the primary senses, i.e. hearing through which a person mediates between the inner needs and the external environment, affects and restricts his whole development as a person and necessitates the acquisition of quite different modes of adjustment from those of a normal person. A student who is deaf of hard of hearing may have difficulty in communicating with peers, developing relationships and friendships and participating in the social inter course, which is so critical to emotional development.

Tungiasis is caused by female Tunga penetrans that embeds in the hosts, epidermis. The disease causes morbidity and social stigmatization among the children. It is also a health burden among children and elderly in the endemic areas. It may have negative effects on the economic activities of the infested adults and hence indirectly influence school attendance among children in the affected areas.

This study is an attempt to estimate soil loss sensitivity based on universal soil loss equation (USLE) and GIS in the valley part of the Belsiri River basin falling in the state of Assam for the year 2008 and 2015. It is estimated that total soil loss from the basin is 1885 tons and 1956 tons in the years 2008 and 2015 respectively. The average rate of soil loss from the catchment of the study area is estimated to be 0.05 ton/ha/yr and 0.06 ton/ha/yr for the years 2008 and 2015 respectively.

It has been a long time concern raised by ecologist and environmentalist over various threats from industrialization and urbanization which influence consistently terrestrial ecosystem and its biota from last two decades. Present investigation conducted to assess the species diversity of earthworms with their inhabiting soil physicochemical analysis to ascertain the range of impact under the hammer of Paradeep Phosphate Limited PPL pollution.

Risk management has been identified as a vital process in the business institutions despite being less developed within the small business sector. Many developed countries record a time in history when entrepreneurial activities led to high economic development. This means that management of Operational Risk in Small and Medium Enterprises in developing countries and more so in Kenya can also lead to high economic development.

Goldbergian construction grammar as a cognitive theory which gives the same weight to form and function is used, here, to analyze Topicalization (TOP) and Left Dislocation (LD) as the very productive syntactic construction in spoken language of Persian. This theory by exploring argument structure and information structure, could present a comprehensive analysis of the studied construction. Results showed that the ‘agent’ cannot be topicalized in TOP and LD and the Aktionsart type of the verb plays no role in determining what may be topicalized in both of them.

Both of two sample plots have been chosen within the mixed forests of Hasankadı Forest Sub-District Directorate for analysis of natural regeneration of Oriental beech (Fagus orientalis Lipsky.) and Uludağ fir (Abies nordmanniana ssp. bornmuelleriana). The locations of all saplings (height ≤ 0.8 m), seedlings (height > 0.8 m) and trees (height > 1.8 m) have been determined, and the measurements have been performed. Spatial pattern analysis and statistical assessments have been carried out by Ripley’s K function in R software.

The underlying principle for developing culturally indigenous materials for teaching of English at the middle school level in Nagaland is that it would help the learners learn English as a second language in the context of the learners’ own cultural experience. It is believed that themes familiar to the learners would facilitate the learners to learn better, the reason being that any new learning is in one way or the other influenced by previous experience and therefore learning a language in a situation away from learners’ context and experience would be less motivating and irrelevant.

This paper is a reflection of a research of writer about direct election process in 2004 and in 2009. One of the main focuses is how is the perception and evaluation of all society components toward legislative members who are elected in legislative body of Kendari city. The research is developed through a mixing method between qualitative and quantitative approach (Brannen, 1993; Creswell, 2013). The result shows that the members of Regional People's House of Representatives in Kendari elected in every legislative election tend to be viewed as “impromptu politician and bad politician”.

Being one of the basic human needs, security is the most important public services provided by the law enforcement agencies, public or private, throughout the world. These agencies use different strategies and policing models to provide public order and security. Now more than ever, it is very necessary for police to repair relations with the people they serve by stepping up to the ethical mind as the security services when conducted in an ethical manner directly affects the work of high quality that matters to society and enhance the life quality of people.

Research object was the cultivation of values of ESD through the SPEEs in Secondary Education of Heraklion, Crete (Greece) prefecture. The values of ESD, and the followed methodology, for the cultivation of future environmentally literate citizens in the studied SPEEs constituted the Tool of Content Analysis, which applied to the projects’ archival material, to meet the aims of the research, to answer the research questions.

The present investigation is to the social adjustment and emotional adjustment. The study is based upon sample of 60 children and the age rang 9-14 year. The sample consisted of 40 disabled children and 20 normal children selected randomly majority of the children were purposively in Lucknow city. A questionnaire schedule to elicit information of the respondent, self-administer questionnaire were used. The finding of the study was that there is a significant adjustment difference between disabled children and normal children.

Accounting information is indispensable for any investment strategy by individuals and institutional investors. The purpose of this study is to verify which factors affect market value of equity and highlight opportunities for future research.

The aim of this study is to investigate the influence of dietary halal practices to organizational performance among the halal food industry in Malaysia. In this study, four key elements have been identified as performance predictors which are; halal and thoyyib, internal process, halal assurance, and staff. A cross sectional study design has been adopted in this study through quantitative methods using closed ended questions. Questionnaires were distributed to the halal food industry in Malaysia and 241 of them are usable for analysis at an organizational level.

Global warming has become a threatening phenomenon for all living organisms on the earth as it leads to changes in rainfall distribution and increases the temperature. This issue has not only affected the life of people in the developed nations but also in the developing countries like India. India being an agrarian country the variations in climate affects its economic productivity and development. Tamil Nadu state heavily depends on monsoon rains, and therefore is prone to drought when the monsoon fails and flood occurs when there is heavy rainfall.





Rosane Cavalcante Fragoso, Brasil


Chief Scientific Officer and Head of a Research Group

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Luai Farhan Zghair
Hasan Ali Abed Al-Zu’bi
Fredrick OJIJA
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