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August 2016

  1. Dr. Narinder Sharma, Dr. Mohinder Singh and Dr. Misbah Mehraj

    Diabetic foot is a common complication of diabetes mellitus which affects 15% of diabetic patients in their lifetime. Effective management of diabetic foot can reduce severity of complications such as preventable amputations and possible mortality, and can also improve overall quality of life. The Wagner classification is most commonly used for grading diabetic foot ulcers. Wagner developed a classification system and a treatment algorithm for each grade of ulcer. He asserted that ischemic index derived from Doppler flow pressures is an essential baseline test to predict ulcer healing. The aim of this study was to evaluate and manage different lesions of diabetic foot according to Wagner classification. We propose a treatment-oriented assessment of diabetic foot ulcers based on a cross-examination of the medical, foot, and wound history; a systemized and detailed physical examination; and the results of complementary diagnostic procedures. The pathophysiology and treatment of diabetic foot ulcers are reviewed. While these guidelines cannot dictate the care of all affected patients, they provide evidence based guidance for general patters of practice.

  2. Nwakpu, P. E.

    Oestrus Synchronization is a reproductive tool that assist farmers breed their animals within a Shorter predetermined time. Oestrus Synchronization is aimed at controlling the luteal phase of oestrus cycle using two major devices.(a)Using prostaglandins or its analogues to reduce the life of the corpus lutea or induce premature luteolysis.(b) Using exogenous rogester one to prolong the life of the corpus lutea, especially when the reproductive status of the goats is not yet determined. Use of prostaglandins is more effective in cycling goats. Some of the popular pharmaceuticals in the country are: i. Lutalyse, ii. Estrumate, iii. Estro PLAN, iv. Fluorogesterone acetate, v. Sil-Oestrus, vi. Medroxyl-progesterone acetate, ii. Synchromate-B, viii. PMSG ix. Controlled Internal Drug Release (CIDR) devices. Oestrus Synchronization techniques in WAD goats have not been widely adopted in spite of the qualities of the WAD goats because of the poor availability and obvious high costs of aforementioned pharmaceutical agents. The adoption of gonadotrophins in oestrus Synchronization protocols have been widely reported to improve oestrus responses in WAD goats. Efficiency of oestrus Synchronization are influenced by season and increasing the dose levels of exogenous hormones have generated variable results. Factors such as combining male stimuli with exogenous hormones, proper labeling of products (extra label for sheep and goats) and improvement of management techniques especially nutritional status of the animals would go a long way towards enhancing the efficiency of oestrus Synchronization in WAD goats.

  3. Dr. Shivani Varma, Dr. DildeepBali, Dr. VijayaDhar Bhatt, Dr. Prashant Bhasin and Dr. Era Arora

    Background: Biosafety is a concern in all health sector services. Confronted with a high biological riskboth for patients and professionals in dentalcare and due to the constant development of new technologies, information, equipment, material and behavioral attitudes in this area. Aim: The aim of this study was to assess sterilization and infection control practices that are followed by private dental practitioners in East Delhi region. Methodology: A descriptive, cross-sectional survey was conducted to assess the attitude towards and sterilization practices among the private dental practitioners in East Delhi, India. A structured proforma was used for the collection of the information by the investigator. Results: A large proportion (68.0%) of the private dental practitioners carried out the pre-cleaning of the instruments before sterilization. Autoclave (66.0%) was the principle method of sterilization of the instruments among the private dental practitioners followed by Chemiclave (18.0%). Most (46.0%) of the private dental practitioners utilized the sterilized instruments within 1 week of sterilization. Autoclave was used more by the dental practitioners with more than 10 years of experience (35.7%) for sterilization of burs. Most (40.0%) of the private dental practitioners were not sterilizing endodontic files in their office. Most (52.0% and 66.0% respectively) of the private dental practitioners sterilized paper points and guttapercha respectively in their office. Conclusion: To achieve sterilization, it is necessary to adhere strictly to procedures for instrument cleaning and wrapping and to follow carefully the sterilizer manufacturer's operating and maintenance instructions.

  4. Dr. Shivani Varma, Dr. Dildeep Bali, Dr. Vijaya Dhar Bhatt, Dr. Prashant Bhasin and Dr. Era Arora

    Aim and objectives: The aim of this study was to compare evaluate the quantitative formation of smear layer at the coronal, middle and apical thirds of root canals after using five different systems under the scanning electron microscope. Material and Methods: The study was conducted on 75 extracted single-rooted human premolars. The teeth were divided into five experimental groups of 15 each. Group 1 was Control Group (Manual NiTi K-flexfile), Group 2 was Hyflex CM Files, Group 3 was ProTaper Next Files, Group 4 was Twisted Files and Group 5 was WaveOne Files. Evaluation of the photomicrographs was done to grade the smear layer with a 5 score index for each using reference photographs. Photomicrographs at X4000 (for the smear layer) were taken in the apical, middle and coronal thirds of the canal. Results: Lower scores were found to be more among Group 1 and Group 3 whereas higher scores were found to be significantly more among Group 4 in Coronal, Middleand Apical third. The mean smear layer remaining value was significantly (p-value≤0.05) lower among GROUP 1 in comparison to groups 2, 4 and 5 in coronal and middle third. The mean smear layer remaining value was significantly (p-value≤0.05) lower among GROUP 1 in comparison to group 2 and 4 in apical third. Conclusion: Manual NiTi K-flexofiles were found to have the maximum cleaning efficiency in the root canal at the coronal third as well as the middle third whereas at the apical third WaveOne files gave excellent results.

  5. Sanusi Mohammed Ibrahim, Bilkisu Isa, Halima Abubakar Ibrahim, Dr. Abubakar A. Kullima and Ado Danazumi Geidam

    The importance of male to women´s sexual and reproductive health promotion was officially recognized by International Conference on Population and Development. Increase male involvement may therefore improve maternal health and reduce maternal morbidity and mortality. The aim of the study was to appraise the involvement of men in antenatal, labour and postpartum care services in different regions of the world. Information was obtained through electronic literature search conducted in Pub Med, Medline, and Google scholar, using the following search terms in combination, from 1st January 1992 to 31st December 2015: Male involvement, Maternal healthcare, Nigeria, Developed countries, Developing countries. All relevant peer-reviewed English language articles and publications were identified, retrieved and reviewed. Major findings from the review were analyzed and presented in text. The findings indicated that while there was high level of male involvement with consequent beneficial effects in maternal health in England and USA, the levels of involvement of men in developing nations such as India, Bangladesh, Nepal and Africa are variable with cultural and socioeconomic factors affecting them. The differential level of male involvement in maternal healthcare across different regions of the world underscores the need for health providers and policy makers to evolve couple-centered and male-friendly healthcare services, and also modify factors found to influence male involvement so that maternal health may be improved.

  6. Ezenobi, N. O. and Okpokwasili, G. C.

    Microbial quality of cosmetic products affects their shelf-life and effectiveness. A total of 30 (thirty) unopened cosmetic samples were studied. The methods employed in the analysis included physicochemical characteristics, microbial challenge test while preservative concentrations was determined by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Results showed that less than 10% of the samples contained microorganisms. Pseudomonas aeruginosa was the only isolate recovered from the samples. The preservative capacity of 63.3% of cosmetic samples was ineffective, while 36.7% passed the test. The result of HPLC analysis revealed that values for methyl paraben and propyl paraben ranged from 0.00030 % to 0.134 % and 0.0001% to 0.153% respectively. The values for physiochemical parameters analysed varied between 4727 mPa.S and 19,820 mPa.S for viscosity; and from 2.4 to 5.85 for pH. Moisture contents were between 14.59 % and 22.6 %. Our findings indicate that majority of the cosmetic samples do not contain microorganisms while a few samples were adequately preserved. The challenge test showed that preservatives were active more on the inoculated Candida albicans than on bacterial species (Pseudomonas aeruginosa (ATCC 27853), Escherichia coli (ATCC 25922) and Staphylococcus aureus). This will help in monitoring and reducing deterioration of cosmetic products, while maintaining quality.

  7. Ezenobi, N. O. and Okpokwasili, G. C.

    Environmental factors have a profound effect on the microbial quality of cosmetic products. Research works have been done investigating effects of the factors singly. In this work, the microbial quality of the samples and the effect of environmental factors such as temperature and pH with change in time on the growth of Pseudomonas aeruginosa obtained by culture were examined. Our findings indicate that the effects of environmental factors such as temperature and pH on the growth of Pseudomonas aeruginosa with change in time increased with increase in temperature and time while effect of pH revealed that growth of the organism was highest at pH 7. The effect of pH varied across time and growth increased with increase in time. The combined effect of different temperatures and different pH with change in time on the growth of Pseudomonas aeruginosa showed that growth is affected when the microorganism was exposed to more than one factor. The combined effect produced a growth pattern that is different when the factors are acting independently. Environmental factors influence significantly the condition of products during in-use by consumers and storage.

  8. Dr. H. Faizunisa, Dr. S. Vaishnavi and Dr. Preetha Chaly Elizabeth

    India is the developing country with a population of 1.21billion. 70% of the Indian population resides in rural areas with little health care facilities and the major share of health facilities is taken up by the urban areas where only 30% of the population resides. Therefore, India has a universal health care system run by the local (state or territorial) governments. Universal health care is health care coverage for all eligible residents of different regions and often covers medical, dental and mental health care. There is a structured referral system involving primary health centres (PHC), district hospitals, and tertiary health care Institutions. Primary Health Centres (PHCs) comprise the second tier in rural healthcare structure envisaged to provide integrated curative and preventive healthcare to the rural population with emphasis on preventive and promotive aspects.

  9. D. M. N. D. S. Menike

    Osteoporosis is a global health problem both in developed and developing countries. Community education forms an important part in the management of osteoporosis. The objective of this study was to evaluate knowledge and awareness about osteoporosis and identify their sources of information. Study samples are school teachers and rural women belong to age group 35-55. Knowledge was assessed using osteoporosis questionnaire and analysis was performed using Minitab software. Of the total sample 96% had heard osteoporosis and 35% reported television as the major source of information. Total sample were consisted of 60 and 35 of them were school teachers and 25 of them were rural women. Out of 35 of school teachers only 40% were aware about osteoporosis and 24% of rural women were aware of it.

  10. Dr. Furkaan M. Hamied, Dr. Ali Naji Al sharifi and Dr. Ali M. AlDeen

    Background: Intraocular pressure measurement (tonometry) has prime importance because it is the most significant risk factor for the development and progression of glaucoma, and due to the presence of numerous types of tonometers, it is important to compare between different tonometers readings [in this study Goldmann and Tono-pen (AccuPen)] Objectives: This study aims to evaluate the sensitivity, specificity and accuracy of theAccuPen tonometer in our clinical practice by comparing the measurement of intraocular pressure using this method with that using the Goldmann applanation tonometer (gold standard). Subjects and methods: A comparative study was done during the period from December 2014 to April 2015, during which the intraocular pressure for the (110) eyes of (55) Iraqi citizens (all of them attendants of the outpatient department of Ibn-Al Haitham-teaching hospital) was measured using both the Goldmann applanation tonometer and the AccuPen handheld electronic applanation tonometer. Results: The average difference between the readings of AccuPen and Goldmann tonometer’s (AccuPen minus Goldmann's readings) was 3.0 mmHg. Regarding the validity of the AccuPen test, this study found the sensitivity to be 100% and the accuracy to be 88% in comparison with the gold standard Goldmann tonometer. Conclusions: AccuPen is a good screening method for the detection of increased IOP with high sensitivity and accuracy in comparison with gold standard method (Goldmann tonometer).

  11. Khan Rafat, Belgaumi, U. I., Malik, N. A., Baad, K., Vibhute, N., Kadashetti, V. and Sushma Bommanavar

    Background - SCCs (SCC) of the gingiva are relatively rare tumours. Many unique features of gingival SCC clearly delineate it from oral SCC arising in other sites. Gingival SCC can mimic a multitude of oral lesions, especially those of inflammatory origin.1 Objective – to retrospectively evaluate the number and presentation of cases of gingival and alveolar ridge SCC reported in a period of two years. Methodology - Outpatients records, in the Department of Oral Pathology and Microbiology and Forensic Odontology, SDS, KIMSDU were retrospectively evaluated. Cases diagnosed as gingival/alveolar ridge carcinomas during January 2012-December 2013, were selected and their clinical and histologic findings were recorded and analyzed. Results – In the present study during the two year span, it was found that 70% oral SCC reported were found to be gingival and alveolar ridge SCC with the highest incidence in the 5th -6th decade of life, a predilection for males and the mandibular posterior region was also observed. 10% cases in the present study had a innocuous presentation which could have been missed without adequate investigations. Conclusion – These carcinomas constitute an extremely important group of neoplasms since the initial presentation mimics common dental infections & this may lead to delay in diagnosis and even misdiagnosis. Hence a thorough history taking, clinical examination and further investigation are vital to avoid a delay in diagnosis and or misdiagnosed.

  12. Padmanabha Kumar, G., Soma Sekhar Goud, E.V., Shanthi, M. and Ratnasothy, S.

    Noonan syndrome (NS) is a rare genetic disorder, which may occur as sporadic or inherited as autosomal dominant or recessive trait. It is a multifactorial condition that is characterized by a series of congenital malformations including facial anomalies, post-natal growth development, webbing of neck, pulmonary stenosis and undescended testicles in boys. NS can be confirmed genetically by the presence of any of the known mutations. However, despite identification of fourteen causative genes, the absence of a known mutation will not exclude the diagnosis, as there are more undiscovered genes that cause NS. Thus, the diagnosis of NS is still based on clinical features. The present report describes a case of this syndrome without cardiac abnormalities but with characteristic bilateral toe walking.

  13. Mrs. Sheeba Joseph

    Ageing is a multifaceted process that is determined not only by the passage of time, but also by certain psychological, physiological, social, economic and cultural factors. Loneliness is one of major problems elderly face. The main requirements of old people today are social, health and financial security apart from those related to psychological and emotional support, which can only be derived by family members and friends. This study is an attempt to find the loneliness experienced by elderly residing in the institution and also at home. The data was collected from 255 elderly (Institution-based=120 & home-based=135) in and around Bhopal. It was found that elderly in the institution experience more loneliness than the elderly who are staying with their family. It was also found that female elderly experience more loneliness than their male counterparts.

  14. Subhashish Tripathy, Anil Middha and Sudhansu Ranjan Swain

    Elaeocarpus Ganitrus Seed (Rudraksha) has been claim by Ayurveda and various scientific literatures for giving Antiageing property to human body giving better harmony to our body and mind. When practice with yoga and meditation, Rudraksha generate piezoelectric effects on our body and it has the ability of to generate an electric charge in response to applied mechanical stress. If Rudraksha is claim to possesses such kind of amazing medicinal property one should check the wearer blood sample for immune system and wearer BP, Diabetics, heart rate ,hemoglobin for physical fitness. If a person claims to be healthy that means his immune system WBC should be optimum level along with heart bit, BP and blood sugar. In the present pathological experiment an attempt has been made to congregate the Antiageing property of Rudraksha with Blood sample and BP heart rate of Naga Sadhu who practice yoga and meditation and regular wearer of Rudraksha.

  15. Dr. Prakhar Kapoor, Dr. Ipsita Kukreja and Dr. Shilpa Jamenis

    Giant cell fibroma (GCF) is an extremely rare histopathological entity characterized by uninucleated or multinucleated giant fibroblasts subepithelially, representing 0.4 - 1% of total biopsies. Etiology is unknown and there are various controversies regarding origin of giant multinucleated fibroblasts. It clinically presents as an asymptomatic, pedunculated or sessile growth less than 1 cm in size. A 30 year old male patient reported with a small growth over the tip of the tongue. Intra-oral examination revealed a solitary, pinkish-white firm growth with a sessile base, was firm and fibrous in consistency. A clinical diagnosis of fibroma was given and excisional biopsy was done. Histopathological examination revealed long and slender rete ridges. The underlying connective tissue consisted of dense collagen bundles with large multinucleated stellate shaped fibroblasts subepithelially. Based on the microscopic findings a final diagnosis of a giant cell fibroma was made. This case is reported for its rare occurrence.

  16. Lee Ji Hyun and Moo Kyun Park

    Dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) is often used as a solvent in vitro and is widely used in in vitro ear models. However, data on the cytotoxic effects of DMSO are scarce. We examined the cytotoxic effects of DMSO on rat inner hair cells (HEI-OC1 cells). Cell viability was assessed by MTT assay after exposure of HEI-OC1 cells to DMSO at different concentrations for various times. Exposure to >0.1% DMSO for 24 h decreased the viability of human middle ear epithelial cells. Exposure to >1% DMSO for 4 h decreased the viability of HEI-OC1 cells. We demonstrated the cytotoxic effects of DMSO in In vitro models of the ear.

  17. Dr. Shruthi Bhimalli, Dr. Sujatha, V., Dr. S. Pandu, Dr. Srinivas, B. and Dr. Pallavi, B. A.

    Purpose: The worldwide prevalence of diabetes mellitus has risen dramatically in the developing countries. Diabetic retinopathy is a microvascular complication of diabetes, has a significant impact on global health and that may threaten patient’s visual function. There are limited studies on knowledge, attitude and practice on diabetes mellitus and diabetic retinopathy in rural population. Such data are extremely important to plan the public health policies. The aim of the study is to report the KAP (Knowledge, attitude and practice) study of diabetes mellitus and diabetic retinopathy among patients and attendants of patients visiting hospital in rural Karnataka. Practice was evaluated only in diabetic patients. Methods: This observational study was conducted on patients and attendants of patients (n- 200) visiting various out-patient departments of hospital between November 2014 and December 2014. The participants answered questionnaire which included demographic profile, awareness about diabetes mellitus and diabetic retinopathy, attitude towards going for eye examination and practice of diabetes control and management. Result: Of 200 participants, 46 (23%) were diabetic, 172 (86%) heard of diabetes mellitus, 80 (40%) were aware of complications of diabetes mellitus. Among these 172 participants, 62 (36.04%) had heard of diabetic retinopathy and 20 (32.25%) were aware of treatment for diabetic retinopathy. Source of information of complications of diabetes mellitus were medical personnel 47 (58.76%), relatives 31 (38.75%) and media 2(2.5%). Only 38 (61.29%) out of 62 who had heard of diabetic retinopathy had attitude to go for eye examination. 32 (84.21%) participants who had attitude of going for eye examination only when vision is affected. Conclusion: This study reflects the poor knowledge and awareness in rural population. It emphasizes the need for increasing diabetes mellitus and diabetic retinopathy awareness activities in the form of mass campaigns, training anganwadi workers, ASHA workers and paramedical personnel who work at community level in rural areas.

  18. Nagraj, V., Manchanda, R., Mahawar, P. and Bhargava, N.

    Adenomyoma is circumscribed nodular aggregate of benign endometrial glands surrounding endometrial stroma with leiomyomatous smooth muscle. The presenting complaint being abdominal pain, dysmenorrhea and abnormal uterine bleeding. The aim of reporting this case is to highlight adenomyoma as the cause of chronic /acute pelvic pain and to distinguish it from it’s sinister causes and to establish laparoscopic diagnosis and resection as the earliest method of intervention. Here we report a case of lady presenting with severe pain in abdomen for 2.5 yrs. Her laboratory investigations were normal. Ultrasound showed a fibroid of 2*2 cm on left side of uterus. Patient had undergone upper and lower GI endoscopy which was normal. Laparoscopy revealed a myoma of 3*3 cm and an adenomyoma of 1*2cm on the fundus near the left cornua which were resected. Post surgery her symptoms abated dramatically and 5 months later the patient is still pain free for the first time in almost 3 yrs. On conclusion though adenomyoma is rare, we should be vigilant for its diagnosis and treatment in case of severe pain in abdomen, and the use of laparoscopy in the diagnosis and treatment of adenomyoma can help many a lady suffering from pain.

  19. Dr. Rajeshree Rangari, N. and Dr. Chandrasekhara Reddy, V.

    Aim: To clinically assess and compare cryosurgical therapy with tetrafluoroethane (TFE) and surgical scalpel technique in gingival melanin depigmentation. Twenty periodontally healthy, esthetically inclined males and females, with black gums were included in the study. Split mouth design was carried out in anterior maxilla and for each subject; area extending from mesial surface of right central incisor to distal surface of right canine was designated as Group A and treated with cryosurgical therapy. Area from mesial surface of left central incisor to distal surface of left canine was designated as Group B and treated with surgical scalpel technique. Melanin index and Area of pigmentation evaluated with help of standardized images, recorded at day one, 30th day, 90th day and 180th day, postoperatively. Statistical Analysis: Mann-Whitney U Test for intragroup and Wilcoxon Signed Ranks Test for intergroup comparison was used. Results: Mean Melanin index score and Area of pigmentation ( in Group A and Group B had decreased from day one - 30th day. Thereafter, there was an increase in repigmentation on 90th day and 180th day in both groups. On comparison, Group B showed a statistically significant decrease in repigmentation compared to Group A. Conclusion: Both techniques were clinically efficient for gingival depigmentation from day one -30th day. All subjects were satisfied esthetically and did not report any pain or discomfort during or after procedure. Though repigmentation had occurred in both groups, extent was less in surgical scalpel technique, compared to cryosurgical therapy.

  20. Dr. Trupti D Shah, Dr. Sachi Mehta and Dr. Satbir Kaur Arora

    Middle ear surgeries require hypotensive anaesthesia which is a technique to decrease intraoperative bleeding and improve the quality of the surgical field for better visualization. Dexmedetomidine is a new generation highly selective α-2 adrenoreceptor agonist. It decreases heart rate and arterial blood pressure by reducing norepinephrine and epinephrine plasma levels. The primary objective of our study was to evaluate the effect of loading dose on prevention of stress response during laryngoscopy followed by infusion of dexmedetomidine on haemodynamic parameters, quality of surgical field and post operative sedation. Patients received 1µg/kg body weight of Dexmedetomidine infusion intravenously over 10 min before induction, followed by 0.4 µg/kg/hour infusion during surgery in group D comparing to normal saline in group N. From study we have observed that intravenous infusion of 1µg/kg loading dose followed by continuous infusion 0.4µg/kg/min dexmedetomidine resulted in reduction in isoflurane requirement as compared to saline group. There was statistically significant reduction in pulse rate and blood pressure from base line values after loading dose infusion over 10 min. Dexmedetomidine infusion maintaince a stable haemodynamics including superior quality of surgical field throughout intraoperative period and decreases sympathetic response to intubation. Dexmedetomidine infusion resulted in some degree of sedation postoperatively but there is no statistically significant difference in sedation in comparison to saline group.

  21. Dr. Supratimtripathi, Dr.Tarun Gaur, Dr. Ramesh Chandra, Dr. Shailja Singh, Dr. HenaRahman, Dr. Jyoti Jain and Dr. Sanjay Jaiswal

    This is a case of an individual having bilateral canines with two canals. This is a rare entity and is often misdiagnosed leading to failure of endodontic treatment. The mandibular canine is usually considered a single-rooted tooth with a single root canal. However, twocanals and more occur rarely. This paper reports the case of a patient with bilateralmandibular canines with single root and two root canals.

  22. Dr. Sanjay Jaiswal, Dr. Supratim Tripathi, Dr. Ramesh Chandra, Dr. Shailja Singh, Dr. Hena Rahman, Dr. Jyoti Jain and Dr. Divya Chowdhary

    Developmental dental anomalies in human beingsare like fusion, gemination, concrescence, taurodontism, congenitally missing teeth etc; amongst them congenitally missing teeth is observed as one of the common developmental anomaly and is seen occuring in primary as well as permanent dentition. Hypodontia is a common developmental anomaly; however, oligodontia is a rare occurrence. Oligodontia can be syndromic or non syndromic. Non syndromic oligodontia cases involving primary and permanent dentition have rarely been reported in the literature so far. Treatment of such anomalies are multidisciplinary and expensive and if diagnosed early, can establish good orofacial function and esthetics. The aim of this case report is to present a rare case of Nonsyndromic oligodontia involving primary and permanent dentition.

  23. Jerusha Santa Packyanathan and Reema Lakshmanan

    Background: Good oral hygiene and the use of appropriate brushing technique is essential for the best of oral health. Bad oral hygiene is a conducive environment for dental caries, halitosis and a host of other dental problems. Good brushing techniques play an important role in the prevention of these problems. Purpose: Aims to evaluate the knowledge of patients of their routine brushing technique that they routinely use, and aspects of their oral hygiene and practices. To spread awareness of various tooth brushing techniques and their suitability in various oral conditions. Methods and Materials: Study subjects were recruited from a randomly selected patient population attending the outpatient department of a dental hospital. (n = 304). The patients who participated were from different socio-economic backgrounds, age, educational background, locations and included men and women. An informed verbal consent was obtained from the patients, to conduct the survey. The data collected was analyzed using Microsoft Excel (version 10) and tabulated along with explanatory visual charts with respect to the various parameters chosen. Results: The study showed a need for increase of awareness correct brushing techniques. Socio-economic status and education also play a significant role in affecting oral hygiene measures. Conclusion: There is a need to develop initiatives, patient educations programs targeting the lower socio-economic group and those groups of low literacy. It also shows the need for dentists to play a more dominant role in educating the general public on oral hygiene conditions.

  24. Jerusha Santa Packyanathan

    Aim: To analyze and determine why dentistry is a prospective career option among students. This study investigates the factors influencing the career choices of dental students Objectives: The study was designed to measure the level and distribution of satisfaction of dental students and to explore the associated factors. The study also set out to identify the reasons for choosing a career in dentistry and the factors that play a vital role in making that choice. The other objective was to understand the mindset of undergraduates about the profession. Background: There are many compelling reasons to choose dentistry as a career. Dentistry offers an opportunity to make a difference in a patient's health and well-being. It is a career that allows an independent dental practice. New exciting scientific breakthroughs in gene therapy and biotechnology offer dentists an opportunity to practice current and evidence based dentistry, which in turn improves patient care and satisfaction. Tomorrow's practicing dentists will use cutting edge technology like lasers and computer-assisted diagnosis. This makes the practice of dentistry exciting, challenging and rewarding. Reason: Dental profession is not only a source of income, but also one that entails practical skills and detailed crafting. In appropriate hands, it gives pleasure, joy, and a motivation to work. It is a profession that enhances the creative skills of the dental practitioner. These factors help improve patient care. As India faces a shortage of dentists, this article is aimed at motivating students to choose dentistry as a career to overcome this problem.

  25. Dipali Umesh Dumbre

    Pain during AV fistula puncture is a common problem in patients undergoes haemodilaysis. Cutaneous stimulation is an independent nursing intervention that advocated relieving pain and the nursing practice is qualified to give it accurately. Cryotherapy is a form of therapy consisting in the local or general use of cold. The study concluded that the cryotherapy is an effective intervention to reduce pain during puncture of arteriovenous fistula among patients of haemodialysis.

  26. Dr. Shatakshi Sharma, Dr. Vivek Singh Dr. Shailja Chatterjee, Dr. Himanshu Singh and Dr. Dalbir Singh

    Introduction: It is an established fact that sex of an individual can be determined from the dental pulp tissue in living as well as the dead using Barr-bodies. However to establish that which technique is better suited for Barr-body estimation is yet to be compared. Aim: The objective of the study is to compare histopathology and cytopathology techniques for determination of Barr-bodies in human dental pulp tissue. Material & Method: A study sample of 40 teeth all extracted for the purpose of orthodontic or prosthodontic treatment and periodontically compromised teeth were selected. The samples were divided into 4 groups of 10 teeth each, which were sectioned using a carborundum disc for obtaining the pulp tissue in toto. The group 1 and 2 (group1- 10 male samples, group2- 10 female samples) were processed conventionally to prepare tissue sections and were used for histopathological analysis. Tissues from group 3 and 4 (group3- 10 male samples, group4- 10 female samples) were crushed and centrifuged at 1000rpm for 10 minutes. The supernatant was then used to prepare the smear and were used for cytopathological analysis. The slides thus obtained were stained with conventional Haematoxylin and Eosin stain in order to locate and identify Barr-bodies. Statistical analysis: The mean Barr-body count was more in females than in male samples and in histopathological analysis as compared to cytopathological technique. Also cell morphology was better appreciated in histopathology than in cytopathology. Results & Conclusion: The cytopathology technique is effective while looking for these structures in commonly studied buccal mucosal smears. Though the histopathology technique is more time consuming but gives an excellent result in Barr-body identification through dental pulp tissue. Our study is in contraindication to the previous cytological studies reported in the literature.

  27. Jagan Mohan, Reddy Karnati, Monappa A Naik and Sharath K Rao

    Back ground: Unstable intertrochanteric fractures which lack either posteromedial buttress, lateral buttress, or both, after stabilization with a dynamic hip screw (DHS), these fractures tend to have excessive fracture collapse, with significant limb shortening and occasionally fixation failure. In general for treatment of unstable intertrochanteric fractures, two options exist: extra medullary or intramedullary stabilization. Currently controversies still exist about a suitable device for an unstable intertrochanteric fracture. Materials & Methods: Study was undertaken in Department of Orthopaedics, KMC, Manipal between August 2012 and July 2014. A total of 70 cases of unstable intertrochanteric fractures (AO 31 2.2 and above) were randomized into two groups (one group treated with (Dynamic Hip Screw and Trochanteric stabilization plate (DHS+TSP) and other with Proximal Femoral Nailing (PFN) ) as per computer generated randomised table at the time of first presentation to hospital, followed up both clinically and Radiologically. Clinical variables assessed were limp, limb shortening, range of motion, Salvati wilson hip score, Hip abductor power. Radiologically variables like progress of union, varus collapse, and screw cut out were analysed at 6 weeks, 3 months, 6 months and at 1 year Results: 20 cases were lost to follow-up. Remainder study group comprised of 32 males and 18 females with mean age of 68.3 years. All fractures united at mean 16.3 weeks in TSP group and 15.4 weeks for PFN group. There was 1 lag screw back out in TSP group & 2 in PFN group at 6 month follow up. None of the patient required revision surgery. At the end of one year, clinical variables (Limp (P value<0.08), Hip Movements, Hip Score (0.087), limb shortening (P value<0.11), Abductor power) and radiological variables (Varus collapse (P value<0.8)) showed no statistical significance. Statistical data was evaluated with the help of SPSS 21 software using Independent T test. Conclusions: In treatment of unstable trochanteric fractures, DHS+TSP and PFN have comparable clinic-radiological outcomes at the end of one year. However, further studies are required with large sample size and comparable groups.

  28. Dr. Soundharya, S., Dr. Murugesan, N., Dr. PankajSurana, Dr. Viswanathan, M. S., Dr. Uday Kumbharshamrao, Dr. Anbazhakan, R. and Dr. Shanmugasundram

    Background: Acute appendicitis is one of the commonest causes for acute abdomen in any general surgical practice(1,2). From the time that it was first described by Reginald Heber Fitz in 1886(3).Aims and objectives : To assess the RIPASA scoring system and the Modified Alvarado Scoring System (MASS) for the diagnosis of Acute Appendicitis, and compare them with respect to 1) Sensitivity 2) Specificity 3) Positive predictive value 4)Negative predictive value 5)Diagnostic Accuracy. MATERIALS & METHODS: This is a cross-sectional, comparative study conducted at ESIC Medical College & PGIMSR, K.K.Nagar, Chennai-78 for a period of 1 ½ years, from November 2013 to May 2015.RESULTS: Finally, out of the total score, the patients were categorized under 4 categories. 4% of the patients had a score of >12 and were categorized as D, 21% with a score of 7.5-12 fell under the category HP, 39% had a score of 5-7.5 and were categorized as LP and 36% with a score <5 were termed U. 81%,53%,47% and 48% had RIF tenderness, fever, raised TC and nausea/vomiting respectively. 23% patients had migratory pain and anorexia and about 17% had rebound tenderness. Conclusion: RIPASA is clinically and statistically a better scoring system for the diagnosis of acute appendicitis, as compared to MASS.

  29. Dr. Abhishek Verma, Dr. Somya Sinha and Dr. Arun Kumar Verma

    Idiopathic granulomatous mastitis is rare entity of breast simulating carcinoma clinically and its aetiology being unclear. We report this case as how idiopathic granulomatous mastitis can mimic other breast disease, correct diagnosis , treatment may prevent recurrence and avoid various iatrogenic complications.

  30. Al-Saffar, F. J. and Al-Haaik A. G.

    This project aimed to evaluate the carbohydrate histochemical profile in the small intestine and colon of indigenous rabbits at different postnatal ages. To conduct such investigation, forty eight offspring at different postnatal ages (1, 10, 15 and 40 days of age) were collected and set equally into four groups. Specimens from the wall of duodenum, jejunum, ileum and colon were prepared for different histochemical staining techniques (PAS, Alcian blue, Aldehyde fuchsine and Toluidine blue). Microscopic findings revealed the presence of neutral and acidic mucin in the mucosal lining of the small intestine in all studied ages. The sulfated acidic mucin was abundant in kits and suckling puppies while in older rabbits, the non sulphated mucin was the dominant type. The reaction of Toluidine blue moderate in older studied ages indicating the presence of glycosaminoglycans especially in the ileum. In colon, the different reactions indicated dominant neutral mucin in newly born kits and suckling puppies, but in older studied ages, the mixed neutral and sulphated acidic mucin and glycosaminoglycans were present in the surface epithelium whereas the non sulphated acidic mucin was dominant in the crypts of Lieberkühn. It can be concluded that the quantities of sulphated acidic mucin as well as glycosaminoglycans were increased dominantly at last parts of intestine in 15 days aged preweaned rabbits. Because such developmental changes are required to parallel the fermentation process which start at this age in which the feed of animals included greenish type of food.

  31. Dr. Rajkumar Sharma and Devarshi Kumar Choubey

    The main aim of the study was to assess the heath-related physical fitness in Indian school children. For this purpose, a cross sectional purposive sample of 437 male children into seven age groups i. e. 12 (N=63), 13(N=59), 14(N=63), 15(N=63), 16(N=63), 17(N=63) and 18(N=63) years belong to middle (N=215) and higher secondary (N=222) schools. The random sampling method was employed for the purpose of data collection from various schools running in the tribal region of Sarguja division in the state of Chhattisgarh. For estimated body fat percentage of an individual, two skin-fold sites i.e. triceps and sub-scapular were measured by standard Skin-fold Caliper of all the male subjects in millimeters. The measurements were made while the children were wearing light clothes and no shoes. Health-related physical fitness was assessed through the sit-and-reach test for flexibility, modified sit-ups test in one-minute for strength/muscular endurance and nine-minute running/walking test for cardio-respiratory endurance. The subjects were tested within one month of their birthdays. All the subjects were tested in AAHPER health related fitness test items i.e. 1.5 mile run, modified bent knee sit-ups for one minute, sit and reach test and triceps and sub scapular skin folds to collect the data on cardiovascular endurance, strength and endurance of abdominal muscles, flexibility of back and hamstring muscles and amount of fat. From this study, it was concluded that the health related fitness of boys of twelve to eighteen years of age of Sarguja division declined in all age groups on flexibility with advancement of age except fifteen years of age and inclined in all age groups on abdominal strength/muscular endurance and body composition with advancement of age. Which, possibly, may be attributed to the lack of physical activity after the age of fifteen years. They unproved in cardio-respiratory function at twelve to fourteen years of age and later on, they improved significantly up to the age of eighteen years with some fluctuations in time.

  32. Vrushabhendrappa, Niveditha Sundar Poojary and Harsh Vardhan Batra

    Brucellosis is one of the most common zoonotic diseases worldwide, caused by the infection of Brucella spp. Despite of extensive research, till now no licensed vaccines are available against Brucella infection for human application. In the present study, a recombinant chimeric protein rGB contriving immunologically active regions of Gapdh and bvrS from B. abortus S19 was constructed, cloned and expressed in E. coli host cell. Group of mice immunized with purified rGB protein elicited both Th1 and Th2 mediated immunity as indicated by the higher secretion of IgG2a and IgG1 antibody isotypes in the sera. This observation was further supported by the elevated cytokine profiles of IFN-γ and IL-2 reflecting Th1 and IL- 4 as an indicator of Th2 response upon stimulation of splenocytes with purified rGB antigen. The in-vitro lymphocyte proliferation assay resulted in a higher splenic lymphocyte response in immunized mice upon antigen stimulation in comparison with control mice implicating the development of elevated immune responses. Macrophage monolayer supplemented with anti-rGB polysera illustrated efficient protection (>85% survival, P < 0.001) against challenge of B. abortus strain 544. These findings demonstrate the potential efficacy of fusion protein rGB as a candidate subunit vaccine and showed the development of memory response and functional role of antibodies in protection against Brucella infections.

  33. Muralikannan, M. J. and Manivannan, R.

    Surgery for thyroid disorders are of several types depending on the amount of tissue that is left behind rather than the amount of tissue that is actually removed. In this regard, the thyroid surgeries that are widely practiced at present are total thyroidectomy, near-total thyroidectomy, hemithyroidectomy and the recent advance being the laparoscopic procedures. Though the type of surgery that is required depends on the anatomical diagnosis, consideration of the pathological diagnosis is essential before planning for surgery.Doing a total thyroidectomy for a benign solitary nodule of thyroid which is considered as over treatment, becomes the standard of care if the postop HPE proves it to be malignant and a hemithyroidectomy if done for the same patient might become an undertreatment.As there are no standardised institutional protocol for the management of solitary nodular thyroid, a retrospective analysis was done on 60 patients who had solitary nodule thyroid, half of whom underwent total thyroidectomy and 30 others who underwent hemithyroidectomy for the same.The main objective of this study is to compare the complication rates between total and hemi thyroidectomy for solitary nodule goitre. All the patients were preoperatively workedup which includedthyroid function test, ultrasound of neck and FNAC of the nodule. A comparative analysis was done based on the complication rates of the 2 procedures (Total and Hemithroidectomy). Though the incidence of clinically significant nerve injury was same in both, the need for resurgery was there in 9% of patients who underwent hemithyroidectomy. The other justifications for total thyroidectomy were based on intraoperative presence of nodules in the opposite lobe, incidence of malignancy, incidence of recurrence, difficulty of resurgery, patients losing followup, easier postoperative titration of thyroxine with total thyroidectomy and the pathological evidence in support of total thyroidectomy. In spite of all these, larger prospective trials with long term follow up is required to decide upon the standard of care for such patients.

  34. Ryait Jasmeet, Bhullar Mandeep, Kapoor Pooja, Hayer Jaspal, Aggarwal Isha, Verma Rashmi and Khurana Divleen

    Esthetics is prime consideration of adult patients. An adult patient has a negative reaction toward the conventional fixed orthodontic appliances mainly due to esthetic reasons. Lingual Orthodontics has become an alternative treatment technique for those patients who would like to have beautiful smiles but are more concerned about unsightly labial brackets. Lingual Orthodontics as a multibracket appliance began in the 1970s. It was started in Japan by Fujita K. This article reviews the historical perspective, development of lingual brackets and recent advances of lingual brackets.

  35. Jayasudha, M., Dinesh, M. D., Sreedevi, R., Vijisha, M. C. and Smitha Chacko

    The practice and significance of medicinal plants and traditional health systems in answering the health care problems of the world is ahead cumulative attention. As of this revival of interest, the investigation on plants of medicinal importance and applications is growing phenomenally at the international level, often to the detriment of natural habitats and mother populations in the countries of origin. Garciniagummi-gutta is medicinal plant with medicinal applications. In this review article described the features of Garciniagummi-gutta.

  36. Sheetal Barde, Dr. Jayalakshmi, N. and Dr. Sheela Upendra

    The present study tries to explore the effect of Progressive Muscle Relaxation Vs Music Therapy on Anxiety amongs Elderly residing at selected Geriatric Homes. Anxiety is a normal emotion. All human beings develop it as a means of Protection from danger and threat when we perceive danger. The present study aims to investigat the Effectiveness of progressive muscle relaxation versus music therapy on anxiety among elderly residing at selected geriatric homes at pune city. For this study data was collected randomly from Janseva Foundation’s Old age Home, pune from 150 Elderly. “ Geriatric Anxiety Scale” was used to assess the Anxiety level of Elderly. Initially Anxiety in Elderly was assessed using the scale followed by Interventions to PMR group and Music Therapy group for 7 days and no interventions to control group and again posttest was taken using the same scale. The result of the present study revealed some significant findings that Progressive Muscle Relaxation Therapy and Music Therapy both were effective to relieve anxiety and it was also found that Progressive Muscle Relaxation Therapyis more effective than Music therapy on anxiety.

  37. Shashikant Nikam, 1Fatima Farheen, Padmaja Nikam and Ravindra Walvekar

    Acute myocardial infarction (AMI) is mainly related to atherosclerosis, tissue destruction, and inflammation. Reactive oxygen species are involved in the pathophysiology of inflammation and atherosclerosis. In this study, activity of (Myelopeoxidase) MPO, Catalase and levels of Malondialdehyde (MDA) and Nitric oxide (NO) were determined in 50 AMI patients and 50 healthy controls. Unit of MDA as nmol/mL (99.42 ± 52.84, 35.72 ± 11.63) and MDA levels (5.6 ± 1.5, 3.88 ± 1.81) were significantly increased in AMI patients. Unit of NO as µmol/L (20.57 ± 6.05, 36.17 ± 7.02) and activity of the antioxidant enzyme Catalase (20.28 ± 10.35, 35.3 ± 7.7) were found to be significantly decreased in AMI when compared to controls. The present study indicates that there is increased activity of MPO, reduced activity of Catalase and reduced nitric oxide levels may lead to oxidative stress in AMI. MPO generated free radicals may induce damage in the form of endothelial dysfunction, plaque formation and plaque rupture. This may leads to progression of atherosclerosis and finally develops into AMI. Thus the study concluded that MPO, Catalase and nitric oxide have an important role in pathogenesis of AMI.

  38. Recurrent Aphthous stomatitis management – current trends and alternative modalities

    Recurrent Aphthous Stomatitis (RAS) is sometimes termed as recurrent oral ulceration, but it is important to note there are various causes of recurrent oral mucosal ulceration, hence the term RAS is considered more appropriate. RAS was first described in antiquity and since has been the subject of numerous clinical and laboratory investigations. However, the disease still remains poorly understood. It has been estimated that 20% of the general population will suffer from RAU at some time during their lives. While most aphthae are small and heal within seven to 14 days, larger ulcers can persist for weeks or months. It is the management of aphthous that poses a challenge. Treatment has largely been restricted to provide symptomatic relief to the patients and hardly any success has been achieved in preventing recurrence of the disease. Topical anti-inflammatory agents remain the cornerstone of treatment and myriad of drugs have been researched in curing this condition, rather with limited success. Dietary restrictions, topical steroids, topical antibiotics, topical immunomodulators, and coating agents are the mainstay to reduce pain and inflammation. Systemic drugs are used when the lesions are extensive, (major and herpetiform) and no relief is obtained with topical agents. Several alternative treatment have been tried including certain herbs, natural substances, chemical agents which have shown limited success in treating this self limiting but challenging condition. This review focuses on the various management modalities used in the treatment of RAS.

  39. Dr. Abhishek Verma, Dr. Anu Singh, Dr. Mukta Kumar, Dr. Trilochan Singh, Dr. R.K. Srivastava, Dr. Ratna Chaudhari, Dr. Purnima Bharati

    Background and Objectives: This study was designed to emphasise upon alarming rising trends in incidence of carcinoma cervix, vagina, vault, vulva and their precursor lesions eventually presenting with carcinoma cervix in follow-up. The main aim of this study was to identify precursor lesions as soon as possible by screening through PAP SMEAR as soon as possible and to make the patients and attending clinicians aware so that themorbidity can be reduced. Context: It’s unfortunate that incidence of female genital tract malignancies especially cervix has been rising due to lack of awareness, early age of sexual intercourse. Materials and Methods: Cusco’s speculum, swab stick, Ayre’s spatula, 95% Alcohol, PAP STAINING, Histopathological Techniques. This study was conducted over a period of 7 years commencing from August 2009 to July 2016. Approximately 11,200 patients were taken for the study and all these patients were subjected to Pap smear screening. The patients with diagnosis of L-SIL, H-SIL or carcinoma were further advised follow-up and Biopsy. Settings and Design: It is a prospective study carried out in department of gynaecology cytology, department of pathology, RIMS Results: Out of 11,200 cases, 874 cases were diagnosed as malignant, 3662 as premalignant, 6171 as inflammatory, 493 as ASCUS/ AGUS.4464 cases who came as follow-up for biopsy were diagnosed as squamous cell carcinoma (711 cases), Adenocarcinoma (355 cases), Small cell carcinoma (178 cases) and clear cell carcinoma (6 cases), LSIL (2232 cases) & HSIL(982 cases). Conclusion: This study was conducted to create awareness about rising trends in incidence of carcinoma cervix. Patients and general public should be aware so that predisposing factors to carcinoma cervix can be prevented and the incidence of disease can be controlled.

  40. Peñaloza-Cuevas Ricardo, Mendiburu-Zavala Celia, Rivero-NavarreteJosé Alberto, Cardenas-Erosa Rubén Armando and Arana-Guardia Olga Fabiola

    The aim of this research was to establish the prevalence of exostoses in oral cavity of patients from the Urban Health Center, Tekax, Yucatan. This population is characterized by a brachiocephalic-exostosis association. Exostoses area symptomatic bone growth anatomical variation, in jaws, resulting from genetic and environmental factors interactive. Methods: Observational, transversal, descriptive. To obtain data, 274 patients with mayan ascendances records from the Urban Health Center Township Tekax, Yucatán, between 10-80 years of age during a six months period were reviewed. Ninety-eight (35.76%) presented exostoses. A descriptive analysis with frequencies and percentages finding the inference between gender and exostoses category was performed. Results: Of the 274 patients data reviewed, 124 (45.25%) were male and 150 cases (54.74%) women. 98 (35.76%) presented exostoses: 54 (19.70%) women and 44 (16.05%) men. According to the Location reported that the MT (20.43%) had the highest and VE (1.45%) the lowest prevalence. Nodular shaped (9.4%) was the most prevalence. According to age range the group 21-40 years reported 15.69%, while 41-60 years revealed 14.96% and 5.10% for the 61-80 years. Exostoses shape and location were independent from gender; location also was independent from ages, while shape and location were dependent. Conclusions: According to the results found in this Mayan ethnic population, the prevalence of exostoses reported is the highest (35.76%) at the state level until today. But sex is still consistent with that reported being women who have a higher prevalence (19.70%).

  41. Dr. Arvind Singh, Dr. Rahul Mishra, Dr. Rajmangal Yadav, Dr. Abhishek Parashar, Dr. Archana malviya and Dr. Gunjan Verma

    Treatment of severe generalized dental fluorosis with surface defects to rehabilitate esthetics, phonetics, and mastication require removal of unsupported and pitted enamel and/or dentine, reestablishment of centric relation with or without reestablishing vertical dimension of occlusion and fabrication of full mouth crown and bridge work. Full mouth rehabilitation continues to be the biggest challenge to any clinician in Restorative dentistry. It requires efficient diagnosis and elaborates treatment planning to develop ordered occlusal contacts and harmonious articulation in order to optimize stomathognathic function, health and esthetics which then translates to patient's comfort and satisfaction. This case report describes the Full mouth rehabilitation of a 21 year old boy who reported with multiple decayed and discolored fluorosed teeth. The case was treated with individual Porcelain fused to metal crowns and a bridge with Group function occlusal scheme using Simultaneous full arch technique which is although exacting, exhaustive and demanding provides for a structured stable and predictable articulation.

  42. Yousra Abdelaal Elkhidir Ibrahim and Esam Mohamed Abdul Raheem

    Aim: The aim of this study was to evaluate the significance and importance of CD3 and CD20 in the diagnosis of lymphoma in formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded tissue sections in Sudanese patients. Study design: Cross-sectional descriptive study. Place and Duration of Study: Departments of histopathology at Radiation and Isotopes Center at Khartoum (RICK) and at the National Health Laboratoryduring the period between September 2015 and May 2016. Material and Methods: Tissue sections obtained from 100 formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded tissue blocks of lymphoma lesions were immunohistochemically stained using monoclonal antibodies for CD3 and CD20. Results: CD20 was positive in all B cell lymphomas and negative in all T cell lymphomas, while CD3 is positive in all T cell lymphomas and negative in all B cell lymphomas. Conclusion: Immunohistochemistry is an important tool in diagnosis of lymphoma and differentiation between B cell lymphoma and T cell lymphoma.

  43. Anupama Dhiman, Naveen K Goel, DineshWalia, Navpreet Singh and Abhiruchi Galhotra

    Exclusive breastfeeding is a well-established and recommended intervention for the improvement of child nutrition but still there exist many discrepancies. The present study was conducted with objectives to identify prevalence of breastfeeding practices and to study various socio-demographic factors influencing breastfeeding. A sample of 580 mothers accompanying under- five children were selected randomly at health centres in the Tricity of Chandigarh, India between April 2012 and September 2013.Stratified multistage sampling technique was used to select six community health centres, four primary health centres and eight sub centres from Chandigarh Tricity namely Chandigarh, Panchkula, and Mohali. Discrete data was analyzed using frequency, percentages and Chi- square test. Logistic regression was done to find the risk factors associated with breastfeeding. It was found that prevalence of exclusive breast feeding was 61.0%.Maximum children (72.6%) received breastfeed within one hour of birth. Among participants of low socio-economic status, exclusive breast feeding was found to be significantly higher (p=0.00). Exclusive breast feeding was significantly more among children those delivered in institutions as compared to home delivery (84.2%vs.15.8%, p=0.04). Practice of giving pre-lacteal feed was found among 35.3% participants. It was concluded that although exclusive breast feeding was found to be high in tricity but still pre-lacteal feeding practices were prevalent in society. Hence, focus on factors associated with exclusive breast feeding needs to be addressed for promotion of exclusive breast feeding and avoidance of pre-lacteal feed.

  44. Dr. Javvid Muzamil, Dr. T. Vishal, Dr. Naveed Mohsin, Dr. Firdousa Nabi and Dr. Gull Mohammad Bhat

    Aims: Lung cancer is the most common malignancy throughout the world. Non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) is most common type, and squamous cell type is most common in India. Mostly patients present with chest related symptoms and signs. Isolated skeletal muscle metastasis is rarely seen. Aim was to see muscle metastasis and its prognosis. Methods: We are presenting our data of eight years about this common malignancy with relation to muscle metastasis, either alone or with other system metastasis. Results: Muscle metastasis is seen 1.5% of patients, with M: F OF 8:1. Over all median survival was 15 months and progression free survival was 12 months. Conclusion: One peculiarity seen was isolated skeletal muscle metastasis with no pulmonary system and severe paraneoplastic hypercalcemia. Local therapy may be having an impact on overall survival in metachronous muscle involvement.

  45. Dr. Sushma Bommanavar, Dr. N. D. Shashikiran, Dr. Rajendra Baad, Dr. Nupura Vibhute Dr. Vidya Kadashetti, Dr. Uzma Belgaumi and Dr. Sushma R. Bhandary

    The Juxtaoral Organ of Chievitz is a normal anatomical structure located within the soft tissue in the buccotemporal fascia on the medial surface of the ascending ramus. It is considered of neuroepithelial origin with no known function. This structure is not unique for only adults but is also been reported in some other species. As a matter of fact, JOOC is one of the most treacherous pitfalls in surgical pathology with respect to lesions in the head and neck area. Hence the basic aim of this review is to reveal the importance about this organ and enlighten the oral pathologist about this histopathological structure, thus preventing extensive and unnecessary investigations.

  46. Sathvika. T, Shanta Chandrasekaran and Deepti Shastri

    Background: Dermatoglyphics is the study of dermal ridge pattern on the volar surface of digits, palm and sole. The development of dermal ridges starts from 12th-13th week of gestation and by around 20th week, well differentiated recognizable dermal ridges are formed. Intelligence quotient (IQ) level has a very significant effect on individuals and on society. Genetic factors influence both intelligent quotient level and dermatoglyphics. Aim: Our aim is to analyse and associate dermatoglyphics to intelligent quotient level of medical undergraduates. Materials and Methods: Finger and palm prints were collected from 200 medical undergraduates between the age group of 17-20 yrs by standard Indian ink method and their IQ level assessed using Raven’s Standard Progressive Matrices. Results and Conclusion: The results of our study showed a significant association between finger print patterns of right index, right ring and left ring fingers and IQ.

  47. Karthik, R. and Mohan, N.

    Patch test (epicutaneous test) is the gold standard in the diagnosis of Contact Allergies and Allergic contact Dermatitis: Performing the test significantly increases probability of accurate diagnosis, reduces costs of treatment, and leads to improved patients’ quality of life. Patch test results may be influenced by patient’s medication and health status, and interpretation requires due knowledge and experience.

  48. Dr. Vaneet Kaur Sandhu, Dr. Upender Sharma, Dr. Navtej Singh and Dr. Arun Puri

    Background: The ultrasound guided fine needle aspiration cytology has become optimal procedure to establish tissue diagnosis for discrete hepatic masses for their appropriate management. Aims: To study detailed cytomorphological features of hepatic aspirates and to correlate them with clinical, serum Alpha fetoprotein levels as well with radiological findings in order to distinguish benign from malignant and further to differentiate primary carcinoma from metastases. Material and Methods: This was a prospective study over period of two and half years,(January 2013 to July 2015) comprising of 150 patients with liver space occupying lesions who underwent ultrasound guided FNA. FNAC was performed under ultrasound guidance using a 21-23 guage lumbar puncture needle, fitted to a 20 ml disposable syringe attached to metallic syringe holder.1-3 passes were made to get adequate aspirates. Direct air dired smears were prepared for May Grunwald Giemsa and few smears were immediately fixed in 95% alcohol for Haematoxylin and Eosin stain. Special cytochemical stains such as Periodic acid Schiff and Ziehl Neilson were done as and when required. The stained FNA smears were examined by two cytopathologists and were categorized as satisfactory and unsatisfactory for evaluation Results: Out of 150 aspirates 10 aspirates were considered unsatisfactory for evaluation. Out of remaining 140 patients 110 were male and 30 were female. The male to female ratio was 3.6:1. The age of patients ranged from 25 to 80 years and mean age was 55 years. Neoplastic lesions (86.66%) of liver were more common than non neoplastic lesion and further metastatic deposits (66.6%) were more frequent than primary HCC (20%). Serum AFP levels were raised in HCC. HBsAg and HCV antibody positivity was observed in 70% and 6.6% cases of HCC respectively.HCC presented with solitary space occupying lesion in 76.66% patients and as multiple SOL in 33.33% cases. Among the cytomorphological features the presence of predominant trabecular pattern with transgressing vessels (70%), endothelial wrapping (20%), intracytoplasmic bile in tumor cells (33.33%), scattered atypical nuclei (88.33%) and high N/C ratio (86.66%) were the most important features which helped in distinguishing HCC from metastasis. Conclusion: The present study emphasized on stepwise algorithmic approach to fine needle aspiration diagnosis of hepatic lesions with close coorelation of clinicoradiological and serum AFP with cytomorphological features.

  49. Madhav, V. N. V.

    With the advent of digital technologies in Prosthodontics, the use of newer technologies must be used to aid the clinician in more objective methods than subjective methods. Clinician must rely on more than subjective findings (e.g. palpation and auscultation) when evaluating the temporomandibular joint. We need a way to objectively assess patient’s joint health and document both the pre-treatment conditions and the response to the treatments we provide. Use of Pre - treatment evaluation by Joint Vibration Analysis (JVA), helps in determining the presence or absence of joint pathologies before changes are made to the stomatognathic system. A post treatment evaluation will further aid in knowing the deleterious effects of the treatment procedures on the joint and suitable corrections can be initiated before permanent damage occur. The existence of this type of evaluation of the TMJ in function is critical for objective, diagnostically driven treatment. This article will describe the application of Joint Vibration Analysis in understanding the TMJ disorders and the role of DVA in occlusion.

  50. Madhav, V. N. V.

    All-ceramic anterior restorations can appear very natural. Unfortunately, the ceramics used in these restorations are brittle and subject to fracture from high tensile stresses. Fortunately the esthetic qualities of ceramic materials can be combined with the strength and toughness of metals to produce restorations that have both a natural tooth like appearance and very good mechanical properties. As a result they are more successful as posterior restorations than all-ceramic crowns. The cast metal coping provides a substrate on which a ceramic coating is fused. The ceramics used for these restora¬tions are porcelains, hence the common name, porcelain-fused-to-metal restorations. Fractures of these Metal ceramic restorations happen at different levels, and the restorations themselves are subjected to various types of stresses. This article describes test designs which can evaluate the strength of the metal ceramic bond in a laboratory setup, mainly flexural and tensile tests, to enable us to evaluate the newer ceramics to be used in a clinical setup, with advantages and shortcomings of the same.

  51. Safwat W., Ahmed Gamal, Mohamed Abou El Ezz, Amgad Anas, MohyEldeen Atteya, Mohamed Darwish El-Talkawy and Ahmed Elmekkawy

    Back ground: Argon Plasma Coagulation (APC) is the standard treatment of Portal Hypertensive Gastropathy (PHG). Endoscopic Band Ligation (EBL) is emerging as a new modality for treatment of PHG. Objective: Compare the effect of APC to EBL for the treatment of bleeding PHG in cirrhotic patients. Patients and methods: The study was conducted on 236 patients over a period of 30 months. The patients were divided into two groups as follows: • Group A (control group):124 patients who underwent primarily APC irrespective of the severity of PHG and • Group B (study group) :112 patients were managed by EBL of the gastric mucosal lesions also irrespective of their severity. Sessions were applied every 3 weeks till adequate endoscopic ablation was achieved. Regular follow-up and endoscopic assessment within 6 months Results: The efficacy to eradicate PHG (response to treatment) was 95.1% in APC group and 98.2% in EBL group. The number of endoscopic sessions needed to eradicate PHG was significantly less in EBL group (2.02 ±0.75) than in APC group (4.01±0.34).During the follow-up period, patients in APC group had significantly high rate of re-bleeding from recurrent PHG compared to EBL group mainly in patients with initially severe PHG Conclusion: Both treatment by APC and EBL are effective methods in treatment of bleeding from PHG ,however, EBL seems to be a significantly more effective modality on the long term follow up and prevention of recurrence.

  52. Deepa Ganesh, Nivedita Goverdhan, Venkatesan Guru and Natesh Bala

    Torsion of an adnexal cyst, especially ovarian, is an important cause of acute abdomen. However, isolated torsion of a fimbrial cyst is a rare event. Being difficult to detect on imaging, diagnosis is usually established only after surgery. Here, we present the case of a 43 year old female with fimbrial cyst torsion, which presented as an acute abdomen.

  53. Alkesh Shende, Lalitha Shiggaon, Sanjay Gawali, Alka Waghmare, Anuradha Bhatsange and Vijay Mehetre

    Aim: The clinical and antimicrobial efficacy of diode laser as an adjunct to scaling and root planing (SRP) was evaluated in chronic periodontitis patients. Materials and Methods: The study included 8 Chronic periodontitis patients, of which 72 sites were randomly assigned into three groups; Group I : Scaling & root planing (SRP), Group II : Laser (L), Group III : Scaling & root planing followed by laser (SRP + L). The clinical parameters included were Plaque Index (PI), Gingival Index (GI), Bleeding on probing (BoP), Probing depth (PD) & Clinical attachment level (CAL) & subgingival plaque samples were taken for the microbiological assessment of the major periodontopathic bacteria (S.Mutans, P.Gingivalis, P.Intermedia, T.Denticola, T.Forsythia).These parameters were evaluated at baseline, 4weeks & 8weeks except for PD & CAL which were evaluated at baseline & 8 weeks. Results: The clinical parameters showed significant reductions after 4weeks & 8weeks, in which the SRP+L group showed statistically significant reduction for PI, GI, BOP, PD & CAL compared to the other two groups. Also, the SRP group showed greater reductions compared to the laser group. The microbiological analysis also showed statistically significant reductions of the microbial colony count for the SRP+L group compared to the other two groups. Conclusion: The use of diode laser as an adjunct to scaling & root planning may lead to improvement of clinical parameters as well as the reduction of the microbial load and therefore a potential advantage over SRP alone.

  54. Sameer Patil, Dinesh Nikhate and Rahul Dighe

    Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is the most common sleep-related breathing disorder with periodic reduction or cessation of airflow during sleep. It is associated with loud snoring, disrupted sleep and observed apneas with prevalence up to 54% in elderly people. Treatment of OSA varies from simple measures such as dental appliances and nasal continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) to surgical procedures like Uvulopalatopharyngoplasty and tracheostomy. Dental appliances are a viable nonsurgical treatment alternative in patients with OSA, of which mandibular advancement appliances are most common. A Class II patient with retruded mandible contributes to the worsening of OSA is considered an indication to oral appliance therapy. This clinical report describes the treatment of a 32-year old Class II OSA patient for whom a modified mandibular advancement appliance was designed. The patient reported an improvement in AHI index and he was satisfied with the modified appliance.

  55. Dr. Snigdha Sharma, Dr. Jaidev Singh Dhillon, Dr. Harpreet Singh and Dr. Mandeep Kaur

    The main goal of endodontic therapy is to maintain the original canal anatomy of the root canal system. This can be attained by establishing a proper Glide path. The ease and success of root canal preparation is considerably increased when an effort is made to provide an effective glidepath. Glide path can be achieved using hand files as well as rotary glide path files. If glide path is established properly then there are less chances of endodontic mishaps and risks of undesirable instrument separation is reduced. Hence Glide path is the key to achieve success in endodontic therapy.

  56. Thoudam Bedita Devi, Binod Kumar Tamang,Th. Naranbabu Singh and Jibonkumar Singh, S.

    Secular changes have been taking place in the growth pattern of different body dimensions of different populations of the world during the last few generations. This trend of secular change is not an exception to human cephalo-facial dimensions. The present study is one which attempts to examine the secular trend if any in the cephalo-facial features viz. Maximum Head Length, Maximum Head Breadth and Cephalic Index of the Meitei population of Manipur. The findings of the study is based on the comparison of primary data collected from randomly selected 100 male adults of Bishnupur district, Manipur, and secondary data of Singh (1992) representing the Meitei Male population of previous generation. Overall findings of the present study reveal that a secular trend of increasing Head Length and Head Breadth, whereas, a decreasing trend Cephalic Index is taking place where in the present generation shows significant difference from the previous generation with regards to head length and head breadth. Even though there is no significant difference between the present and past generation as regards to frequency percent distribution of Cephalic Index, a tendency towards debrachycephalization is clearly observed in the present generation. Influence of exogenous factors like changed climatic conditions, better health and living condition and more particularly improved nutrition and dietary habit on the pre-established constitutional hereditary factors may probably be the cause leading to such a secular trend.

  57. Priyanka Chaudhary, Jitendra kumar and Kalawati Shukla

    Arsenic contamination in ground water has caused severe health problem around the world. The purpose of this study was to evaluate health impact of Arsenic contaminated ground water used for drinking in Gorakhpur, U.P, India. Arsenic was analyzed in ground water of study area during March to August 2015. Total 120 samples collected from different area of Gorakhpur. From the collected 120 ground water samples 31.67% of the samples were found arsenic concentration in the range of 10-50 ppb and 16.66% of the water samples were above 50 ppb. Thus total 48.33 % samples were recorded as arsenic more than the WHO standards of 0.01mg/l or 10PPb. Hydride generator Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometry (HG-AAS) is employed for the determination of Arsenic in water samples. Arsenic poising through drinking water can cause many disease like Skin cancer, gangrene, internal cancer, neurological effects, and pulmonary disease. Thus results indicate that the people drinking ground water of Gorakhpur are at risk.

  58. Firoz Naem Khan

    Aim and objectives: To identify M. tuberculosis strain prevalent in Bhopal region using microbiological, immunological and molecular techniques. Rapid and accurate detection, identification and susceptibility testing of mycobacteria is important in Indian scenario due to increase in incidence of tuberculosis, resistance to antituberculous drugs and increase in potentially pathogenic species of mycobacterium. It is important to identify false positive reporting from clinical infections. To use Amplified ribosomal DNA restriction analysis (ARDRA) for identification of Mycobacterium species with different restriction enzymes and compare obtained profiles with a library of ARDRA profiles of different species. Microbiological and immunological studies are also important to identify the TB strains. Methodology: Sputum samples were collected from Peoples Hospital, Bhanpur, Bhopal after consent. The sputum was examined: MICROBIOLOGICALLY: AFB and culture on LJ media, IMMUNOLOGICALLY: Immuno-Dot Blot assay to detect serum Anti-Ag 38 and 65 KDa using secondary conjugate and secondary gold conjugate antibody specific for M. tuberculosis. MOLECULARLY: Genomic DNA Isolation, purification, Agarose Gel electrophoresis GENE AMPLIFICATION : Rep-PCR using primer BOX, Gm3f and Gm4r, ARDRA using restriction digestion with Alu I, Msp I and Taq I. Comparative analysis done using NTSYSpc version 2.02i, UPGMA method for phylogenetic relatedness among Mycobacterium species. Results: 138 suspected TB sputum samples microbiologically were all AFB positive. Culturing showed that 78 samples were of M. tuberculosis (MTB) and remaining of other mycobacterium species. Immuno-Dot Blot assay using secondary conjugate and gold conjugate showed 59 samples as MTB affected with elevated level 80-85μg/ml of 38/65 KDa antigen. M. intracellulare affected sample showed 73 μg/ml and healthy samples were below 50μg/ml. Genomic DNA was isolated from 117 samples. Rep-PCR showed banding for 124 samples with yield of 193 scorable bands ranging from 700bp - 300bp. 53 samples showed MTB, 39 MTB sub-strains and 34 belonged to other Mycobacterium species. 14 samples showed no banding pattern. In ARDRA the restriction patterns with the enzymes Alu I, Msp I and Taq I for the species presented banding pattern at 500, 300 and 100bp. 16S rRNA sequencing gave 99.8% similarity to MTB. It revealed mutation shifts of 500 and 300bp band replaced by a single fragment of 800bp. 16S rDNA amplification showed merged band of 1500bp for MTB. The AFB positive samples were also identified as non-tuberculous organism with ARDRA. Comparative analysis resulted in the formation of two clusters.

  59. Antonio Rosario Neto, Marcela Pedroso Mendes, Heloisa Oliveira dos Santos, Isabela Pereira de Lima, Cínthia Souza Rodrigues, Moizés de Souza Reis and Flávia Barbosa Silva Botelho

    Bacterial and fungal diseases directly affect rice yield and quality, and the simplest and, often, the most cost effective management for diseases is planting resistant varieties. The aim of this study was to evaluate thirteen elite lines from the Brazilian Upland Rice Breeding Program for grain yield and tolerance to leaf blast, neck blast, grain discoloration, and leaf scald diseases, in order to select superior genotypes with potential to turn into new cultivars adapted to the upland crop system. The experiments were carried out in two environments considering the randomized block design with two replicates. The means for each trait were grouped according to the Scott-Knott approach, and it was obtained the Pearson correlation of diseases grades with grain yield. Lines showed significant differences for all traits, except for leaf scald resistance. All diseases showed negative correlation with grain yield, meaning that the occurrence of these diseases resulted in losses in lines productivity. Despite the incidence of diseases, nine of the thirteen lines showed grain yield above the national mean in 2015. However, lines CMG1509 and CMG1896 showed a bad performance for grain discoloration, what can be a limitation to its acceptance in the market. The lines with best performance for both grain yield and tolerance to the diseases considered were CMG1511, CMG2085, CMG2089, CMG1977, and CMG2170, indicating potential to be new upland rice cultivars.

  60. Adriano Alves da Silva, Edila Vilela de Resende Von Pinho, Laís Andrade Pereira, Bruna Line Carvalho, Heloisa Oliveira dos Santos and Renato Mendes Guimarães

    In this study the objective was to characterize millet cultivars through enzymes and microsatellite markers and select microsatellite primers and enzymatic systems to identify cultivars. Twelve millet cultivars, which were tested in seven enzymatic systems (ADH, CAT, EST, GOT, MDH, IDH and ACP) and 123 pairs of microsatellite primers were evaluated. By the enzymes ACP and CAT was not observed sufficient polymorphism to cultivars differentiation. Sixty pairs of microsatellite primers were selected. About the enzymatic systems evaluated, EST presented more polymorphic to distinguish cultivars. By the primers PSMP2008, PSMP2045 and PSMP2056 is possible to distinguish all cultivars used in this study. It is possible to identify millet cultivars by means of enzymes and microsatellite markers.

  61. Gustavo Henrique Demari, Ivan Ricardo Carvalho, Maicon Nardino, Vinícius Jardel Szareski, Simone Morgan Dellagostin, Tiago Corazza da Rosa, Diego Nicolau Follmann, Manoela Andrade Monteiro, Claudir José Basso, Tiago Pedó, Tiago Zanatta Aumonde and Paulo D

    Among several functions, the nitrogen plays a key role on plants metabolism, this element takes part in different metabolic path ways of great importance to plants and participates in the protein synthesis. Most of the cultivated soils allow plants growth without addition of nutrients in mineral form. However, to seek higher production levels, the application of nutrients in mineral form is required, the current recommendation of nitrogen fertilization to define the amount to be applied. More than 95% of the nitrogen in the soil is organic, this organic form is not assimilated by plants, requiring to go through a mineralization process, in other words, the transformation from organic to mineral nitrogen called amination and ammonification. The identification of the character of highest contribution to maize yield is an important tool which assists identifying the critical period of the crop development, allowing the adoption of management practices in order to optimize the conditions at the moment of the main grain yield component definition. Generally, nitrogen is present in the soil solution on nitrate or ammonium forms, however the plants are physiologically responsive only to nitric nutrition, there were verified different responses among genetic materials regarding on nitrogen utilization efficiency

  62. Tiago Pedó, Felipe Koch, Dominique dos Santos Delias, Geison Rodrigo Aisenberg, Vinícius Jardel Szareski, Ivan Ricardo Carvalho, Maicon Nardino, Velci Queiróz de Souza, Luciano do Amarante, Francisco Amaral Villela and Tiago Zanatta Aumonde

    Adverse environmental conditions have been negatively affecting plant growth and development. The present study aims at evaluating soil flooding effects in the initial growth and enzymatic activity of rye, wheat and bean plants. Plants were cultivated in a growth chamber and subjected to flooding. Afterwards, organ dry matter, leaf area, protein content and antioxidant enzyme activity were determined. Rye plants reduced shoot and root dry matter and increased leaf area and leaf mass ratiobetween two and three days of flooding. In wheat, root dry matter decreased from 3.5 days. In beans, root dry matter decreased and area ratio increased. Regardless of studied species, antioxidant enzyme activity measured in roots was higher in longer flooding periods. Soil flooding adversely affects initial growth and superoxide dismutase, catalase and ascorbate peroxidase enzyme activity. Enzymes are affected differently according to species and soil flooding period.

  63. Reeta Venugopal, Aniksha Varoda and Priyamvada Srivastava

    Background: There are about 1.2 billion adolescents, a fifth of the world’s population, and their numbers are increasing. In India the statistics shows that the adolescent population is 8.3 crores, so this large population needs special attention as this period of growth is very important and crucial span of life. Proper nutrition of children belonging to this group is essential so that optimum growth can take place, hence the present study was undertaken to assess nutritional status of adolescent girls. Materials and Methods: Present paper aims at assessing the nutritional status of adolescent girls of Raipur district of Chhattisgarh. 1000 adolescents girls aged between 12 and 18 years were selected from various schools of Raipur district (Chhattisgarh). Anthropometric measurements including weight, height were taken following standard techniques. Body Mass Index (BMI) was calculated using international BMI cut-off point for children and adolescence from 12 to 18 years of age. Results: Results revealed that girls of 12 years had highest (37.8%) prevalence of under nutrition. The overall prevalence of under nutrition was (64.7%). Body weight and height of the girls of present study were compared with reference data of NCHS (National Centre for health Statistics 1987), ICMR (Indian Council Medical Research 2010), CDC (Centers for Disease Control and Prevention 2007-2010) and M.Mitra (2002) which shows that the mean of the present study was lower than NCHS (1987), ICMR(2010) and CDC (2007-2010) and higher than M.Mitra (2002). Conclusion: It was concluded that the school going girls of Raipur district were suffering from very high rate of undernutrition. Nutritional intervention programme should be planned to enhance nutritional status of adolescent girls.

  64. Shanthi N., Janetta Nithia S.M. and Kulandaivelu, G.

    Depletion ozone layer and fluctuation of UV-B radiation on the earth’s surface is a most common phenomenon for last few decades. The potential impact of solar UVB radiation studied in three legume plants (Black gram, Cluster bean, Green gram) in field condition at two different seasons like summer and winter. The first season is (summer) coupled with dry weather and high temperature (35-40oC) and the second (monsoon) with rainy and slightly low temperature (28-32oC). The ambient UV-B levels in both seasons vary only marginally. The chlorophyll fluorescence induction kinetics are used to study the photosynthetic electron transport activity of the both ambient and UVB -treated plants.So the fast fluorescence transients give an overall picture of the early electron transport reactions. Enhanced UV-B radiation did not affect Fo values in all the three species. In Cluster bean, the UV-B radiation significantly affected the Fv/Fm ratio in both the season. Such reduction was very high in monsoon season than summer. This indicates a reduction in PSII efficiency and possible inhibition of energy transfer within the PSII reaction center. In Black gram UV-B radiation increased the Fv/Fm ratio in both the season. Whereas in green gram no change was noticed.This could be due to high proportion of light harvesting matrices per reaction centre

  65. Safa Baydoun and Nabil Amacha

    Eutrophication of Litani River, the most important water resource in Lebanon, has become a pressing national concern. In spite of the intensive efforts on studying the physiochemical properties of its water, not enough attention has so far been given to the biological quality elements and trophic status of the river. Considered as the most sensitive indicator for nutrient enrichment and algal biomass, seasonal levels of sestonic chlorophyll-a (Chl-a) were determined in this study at five stations of Litani River during 2013 and 2014 and the relationship with transparency (Secchi disk), nutrients and mineralization levels was tested. Findings revealed statistically significant spatial variations in chlorophyll-a between the stations under study with Upper Litani River forming a homogenous subset characterized by hypereutrophic levels (54.54±38.61 µg/L in Rayak; 57.39±42.67 µg/L in El Marj and 67.21±60.94 µg/L in Jib Janine), while oligotrophic levels were observed at the Lower Litani River (2.60±2.82 µg/L in Dellafi and 3.14±1.49 µg/L Khardali). Correlation coefficients between chlorophyll-a and levels of phosphates, nitrites and ammonia were significantly positive. Negative correlation was revealed with Secchi disk readings and nitrate levels, yet no statistical significance was reached with nitrates. It is concluded that phosphates and both nitrites and ammonia have positive influences on algal proliferation and eutrophication of Upper Litani River. However, the negative correlation with nitrates suggests that Chl-a did not relate to nitrates and it may be a poor criterion for assessing the ecological status and nutrient-related problems of the river possibly due to the complex nitrogen cycle dynamics of the river. Thus, it is of importance to explore total nitrogen and total phosphate and their relationship with chlorophyll-a as potentially a more reliable tool.

  66. Dr. Dalia Biswas, Dr. Ratnaprabha Fulzele, Dr. Samarth Shukla, Dr. Aruna Chandak and Dr. Shubangi Nagpure

    Introduction: There is need for education in values due to fast erosion of values in our country and the state of growing up of youth in the age of instant gratification, shortcuts, insecurities, fear based survival and existence. Methodology: In Datta Meghe Institute of Medical sciences (Deemed University), value education classes for 1st year MBBS, 1st year BDS, 1st year Nursing and 1st year Ayurvedic students are conducted. This course is designated as “Inculcation Course”. Lectures are taken by trained Value Education Cell (VEC) members of respective colleges, supervised by either convenor or co-convenor of VEC. These lectures are delivered through powerpoint presentations. Each lecture is of 1 hour and a total of 10 hours of lecture are taken. Pretest questionairres are administered to the students at the starting of classes and post test questionairres are administered to the students at the end of classes. The classes were taken under 4 heads namely-Values for adoption in Family life, Values for professional life, Value adoption for self development and Values for better living. Results: Learners Effectiveness Score (LES) was utilized to find out the Impact Factor. The study showed an average impact factor of 60 % in all the colleges. Conclusion: The initiatives taken by the Value Education Cell members will reach its goal with the creation of at least semi ideal doctors, dentist & nurses.

  67. Rajagopal, S., Muruganandam, A. and Rengarajan, R.

    The present investigation was aimed to evaluate the growth inhibitory effect of Hibiscus rosasinensis, Azadirachta indica, Ficus religiosa and Ocimum sanctum leaves extracts on Aspergillus niger, Candida albicans, Cunninghamella bertholatiae and Penicillium notatum. Aquous plant extracts were tested against 4 fungi. Gel diffusion method, were used in this investigation. The Azadirachta indica medicinal plant extract 11 mm (Mean value in Dia.) were showed enormous antimicrobial activity against Aspergillus niger, Candida albicans and Cunnighamella bertholatiae. Ocimum sanctum medicinal plant extract showed the maximum zone of inhibition 11 mm (Mean value in Dia.) against Penicillium notatum. Moderate amount of antifungal activity was observed on Hibiscus rosasinensis medicinal plant extract, the maximum zone of inhibition 7 mm (Mean value in Dia.) against Aspergillus niger. At the same time Hibiscus rosasinensis plant extract was highly sensitive 11 mm (Mean value in Dia.) against Candida albicans. All the pathogenic fungi were more resistance to Ficus religiosa medicinal plant extract. The present observation, the Azadirachta indica and Ocimum sanctum medicinal plants extracts were showed very promising antifungal activity.

  68. Gayathri, V. and A. Karthika

    Solanum nigrum is a common herb or short-lived perennial shrub. It is an important ingredient in traditional Indian medicines. Leucas aspera is an annual, branched herb. It is commonly used as an insecticide and in addition, the plant is also used in witchcraft. The present investigation on the biochemical aspect of the two medicinal plants has revealed the presence of various biochemical compounds such as chlorophyll, protein and carbohydrate in both the medicinal plants taken for the study. Among the two medicinal plants studied, the protein, chlorophyll ‘a’ and total chlorophyll were significantly higher in L. aspera. The carbohydrate and chlorophyll ‘b’ content was found to be higher in S. nigrum.

  69. Dr. Inbaraj, C. and Dr. Arul, V.

    The study was carried out in five North Eastern districts of Tamil Nadu (Kanchipuram, Thiruvallur, Vellore, Thiruvannamalai and Villupuram) five blocks were randomly selected from each districts. Ten apparently healthy female sheep aged below one year were randomly selected from a block. Approximately 8 ml of blood was collected from each sheep by jugular venepuncture. Predominantly two breed was observed such as Madras Red and Ramnad white in the study area. The blood samples were collected in EDTA vaccutainer for haematology and transported to the laboratory by using ice box. The samples were estimated by using auto Haematology analyser (Mindray BC- 2800 Vet). The hematological parameters viz., Packed Cell Volume (PCV), Hemoglobin (Hb), Red Blood Cell (RBC count), platelet count, Mean corpuscular volume (MCV) and Mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration (MCHC), of sheep were found significantly (P≤ 0.01) different between the districts. However the values were within the normal range.

  70. Dr. Rakesh Garlapati, Dr. Vennela Devarapalli and Dr. Thanuj, K. V.

    Introduction: High prevalence of non-communicable diseases particularly hypertension is gaining much importance in developing countries. Associations between body mass index (BMI) and blood pressure (BP) have been consistently observed but the unresolved question is, whether there is a linear relationship across the entire BMI range. There is further need to study the relationship of anthropometry with hypertension to assess its applicability in all populations. Aims/Objectives: To analyze the better anthropometric predictor of Hypertension. Results and discussion: Of the 39 hypertensive we found in our study 8 showed family history of hypertension i.e. about 20.5%, this shows that familial hypertension is also a major cause of concern. WC > BMI > WHR as indicators of hypertension (relative p values- 0.001, 0.038, 0.94 for waist circumference, body mass index and waist hip ratio respectively). Conclusion: The accuracy of anthropometric measurements as indicators showed that waist circumference was a better indicator than BMI which in turn is preferred over waist hip ratio.

  71. Mehmet SENER

    Information on land use/land cover in the form of maps and statistical data is very vital for spatial planning, management and utilization of land. Satellite images are using in the investigation of changes in land use and land cover as extremely useful tools. The objective of this study was to obtain changing in land use/cover, especially the rice production area is nearly 40% of the production takes place in turkey is located along the Meric river in Edirne province of Thrace region in Turkey. Landsat TM of 2001, 2006 and 2011 were acquired by USGS Earth Resources Observation and Science Center Site. Rapideye image of 2011 was obtained from Local distributor in order to control classification accuracy of low resolution Landsat image. For this purpose, a supervised classification methodology has been employed using maximum likelihood technique in Erdas 9.3 software. Study area were categorized into six different classes namely, Rice, Forest, Water, Agriculture, Pasture and Roads. The results were validated using ground truth data and long term data of Turkish Statistical Institute (TSI). The results indicate that especially between 2001 and 2006 Rice areas have been great increased as 41% from 25909 ha to 43839.33 ha and decreased to 41021.18 ha in 2011. In addition, as a result of comparison of high resolution Rapideye and low resolution Landsat image, highly good relationship was found in detection of Rice areas. The results show that the Landsat images could potentially be applied at large spatial scales to monitoring of rice on a timely and accurately.

  72. Sulakshana, G. and Sabitha Rani, A.

    Medicinal plants are widely used in traditional and modern system of medicine. Indiscriminate collection of these plants from the natural habitats is leading to their depletion. Hence there is a need to conserve and propagate important medicinal plants. The present study was taken up to standardize micropropagation protocol from nodal segments of Costus pictus. The explants were cultured on SH media supplemented with different concentrations and combination of BAP alone and in combination with IBA, IAA, NAA, KN and AdSo4 (Adenine sulphate) for inducing direct regeneration. Shoot buds appeared within 15-20 days and elongated to produce one to two shoots within one week. Among all combinations, highest shoot regeneration (86%) was observed in SH media with 1 mg/l BAP+ 1 mg/l IBA+25 mg/l AdSo4. To induce rooting, regenerated shoots were transferred to SH media with different concentrations of IAA and IBA. Roots appeared in both the combinations within 2-3 weeks. Among the two combinations, 1 mg/l IBA gave more rooting response (63%). Regenerated plantlets were transferred to field with 92% survival rate.

  73. Dr. Nimmy Maria James, Dr. Vibha. C and Dr. H. L. Vishwanath

    Background: Several epidemiologic studies have reported that high serum uric acid levels are strongly associated with prevalent health conditions such as obesity, insulin resistance, metabolic syndrome, essential hypertension and renal disease. There has been a growing interest in the association of hyperuricemia with hyperglycaemia. Thus, the study is conducted to investigate the association of serum uric acid with deterioration in glucose metabolism. Objectives: 1) To measure Serum fasting blood glucose (FBG) and Serum Uric Acid in prediabetics, Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus patients and normoglycaemics. 2) To assess the correlation between Serum FBG and Serum Uric acid in the above patients. Material and Methods: Case Control study of 30 prediabetics, 30 Type 2 DM patients of age group 20-85 years in Victoria Hospital, attached to Bangalore Medical College and Research Institute, Bangalore and 30 healthy individuals of same age group with no family history of Type 2 DM from general population. Data analysis was done by Pearson’s Correlation analysis, Chi square test and Student’s t test. Results: Mean serum uric acid levels in prediabetics is 6.903±0.42mg/dl, Type II Diabetes Mellitus is 2.97±1.01mg/dl and in normoglycaemics is 3.5±0.54mg/dl respectively. There is a positive correlation of FBG and Uric acid in prediabetes and a negative correlation in type II DM and both are statistically significant (p<0.00001). In normoglycaemics, uric acid shows a positive correlation but statistically insignificant (p=0.424) Conclusion: Fasting serum uric acid levels were higher in prediabetic population but lower in people with diabetes than in normoglycaemic people. Therefore uric acid may serve as the potential biomarker of deterioration in glucose metabolism.

  74. Fareeha Shahid, Saara Ahmad, Rubina Ghani and Kashif Nisar

    Divorce is a painful experience, and there are some unavoidable reasons for getting a divorce. The number of individuals opting for divorce has been steadily increasing over the past few years, including Pakistan. In recent times more number of women has been initiating divorce. Our study intends to find out the major risk factors of divorce. Material & Methods: Study was design cross-sectional and data was collected by means of self administered questionnaire in Malir district family court, Karachi and was analyzed by SPSS version 13.0 Results: Fifty percent (50%) of the women got divorce due to the lack of understanding from their husband and other 50% only having school education. Some of the women got divorce who’s age difference between husband and wife was high. Conclusion: This study has provided evidence to the ways that Muslim females are affected by divorce and shown the effect to which familial withdrawal and it concludes different risk factors.

  75. Oboma, Yibala I., Madukwe Jonathan and Stephen O. Elesha

    Molecular markers have been extensively investigated with a view to providing early, precise and accurate information on breast tumor outcome and predict response to treatment. We aim at comparing overexpression of certain tumour markers in patient below and above 50years of age. Archived breast tissue specimens were retrieved from the department of histopathology and subjected to routine pathological examinations and receptor status assessed by immunostain. The p53, Ki-67, BRCA1 and BRCA2 over expression were reported as dark golden-brown precipitate in 35%, 70%, 75% and 55% respectively out of the 20 cases that were malignant within the period of study. The p53 overexpression was more frequently seen in patients below 50years (85.7%), compared with those over 50 years old (14.3%).The immunohistochemical over expression of p53 shows high degree of receptor negativity for Her 2, progesterone and estrogen compared with positive receptor status. The Ki-67 immunostain shows more reactivity in patient below 50 (71.4%) compared with those above 50 years (28.6%). Ki-67 over expression was seen in 57.1%, 57.1%, and 35.7% for estrogen, progesterone, and Her2+ respectively compared with 42.9%, 42.9% and 64.3% with majority of the tumour been grade 3(71.4%).Also the immunostain ratio of BRCA 1: BRCA 2 shows a corresponding reactivity for estrogen positivity of 67.7:40.0%, progesterone 80.0:30.0% and Her2+ of 26.7:20.0% versus corresponding negativity of 33.3:60.0%, 20.0:70.0%, 73.3:80.0% for estrogen, progesterone and Her2 though not statistically significant at p<0.05.Tumor suppressor gene and proliferative tendencies is more expressed in breast cancer patients below 50 years suggesting good prognosis and response to treatment than those above 50years.

  76. Geison Rodrigo Aisenberg, Gustavo Zimmer, Felipe Koch, Simone Morgan Dellagostin, Vinícius Jardel Szareski, Ivan Ricardo Carvalho, Maicon Nardino, Velci Queiróz de Souza, Tiago Pedó, Emanuela Garbin Martinazzo, Francisco Amaral Villela and Tiago Zanatta A

    Triticum aestivum L., world’s second most produced grain, may have its productivity harmed due to various factors, such as sowing depth. This study aimed to evaluate the biochemical performance, vigor and characteristics of initial growth of wheat plants under different sowing depths. The experiment was performed in a greenhouse (31º48’15” S and 52º24’19” W). The experimental design were randomized blocks and the treatments were the sowing depths of 20, 30, 40 and 50 mm. The experimental unit was each tray with 50 seeds. Results were subjected to analysis of variance (p<0.05) and, when significant by F-test, adjusted to orthogonal polynomials. Variables evaluated were: seedling emergence, shoot and root length, shoot and root dry matter, leaf area, shoot to root ratio, isoenzymatic expression of peroxidase and malate dehydrogenase and a, b and total chlorophyll content. Seedling emergence, shoot dry matter and leaf area reduced with the increasing sowing depth, as the best performance in seedling emergence and the higher leaf area were obtained at 20 mm depth and the shoot dry matter decreased from 30 mm downwards. Chlorophyll a, b and total contents were higher at sowings depths from 30 to 40 mm. An additional isoenzyme of malate dehydrogenase was expressed at the shoots at the sowing depth of 50 mm while an extra peroxidase isoenzyme was expressed at the roots at the sowing depths of 30, 40 and 50 mm. Deep sowings reduce seed vigor, negatively affecting the initial growth of wheat plants.

  77. Tatiane Zanette, Daniel R. Sant’Ana, Gisele T. Selli, Sandro Rógerio Giacomelli, Vanessa Cristiane Datsch, Andrêssa Cristina Datsch, Gustavo Henrique Demari, Ivan Ricardo Carvalho, Maicon Nardino, Vinícius Jardel Szareski, Mauricio Horbach Barbosa, Ta

    The polyphenolic components of wines can be correlated to their antioxidant activity, which can provide human’s health with several benefits. Samples of eight different red and white wines, produced in the region were characterized in terms of their antioxidant capacities, resveratrol concentration, color index, tartaric acid content, and total polyphenols concentration. The total polyphenols content found in red wines was higher than in white wines. Among the varieties tested, the red wine Tannat accounted for the highest polyphenols content (19.1 μg/L) compared to the white variety, Chardonnay with 10.96 μg/L. Burgundy showed the highest resveratrol content (43.29 μg/mL). The highest concentration of tartaric acid was found in the red wines Burgundy (0.60%) and Cabernet Sauvignon (0.58%) while the dry whitewine accounted for the lower concentration (0.47%).

  78. Khoushika Raajshree, R. and Chitra, P.

    Inflammation is a bodily response to injury, infection or destruction characterised by heat, redness, pain, swelling and it is a normal protective response to tissue injury caused by physical trauma, noxious chemical or microbial agents. Infectious diseases caused by bacteria can become a threat to public health in this world. The rich wealth of plant kingdom represents a novel source of compounds with significant activities. Leaves of Costus igneus and Mangifera indica were subjected to qualitative tests and quantitative total phenolic content assay. Of all the extracts, the in vitro anti-inflammatory and antibacterial activity was found to be maximum in ethanol extract of Mangifera indica. Therefore, the plant source leads the way to treat bacterial infections and related inflammations which underlies almost in all diseased conditions.

  79. Bharathi D., Rajalakshmi G., Komathi S., Mythili S., Queen J and Sithara N. V.

    Lipase is an industrially important enzyme and has a wide range of applications in dairy, food, detergent and pharmaceutical industries. Lipases are highly produced from microbes and specifically, bacterial lipases play a vital role in commercial importance. The present investigation deals with the production of lipase from petrol spilled soil sample. The sample was collected from petrol bunk situated in Coimbatore, followed by serial dilution and subsequently spread plated on nutrient agar plates. 8 colonies were selected and characterized based on morphological and biochemical test. The selected colonies were streaked on Tributyrin agar plates. From the 8 isolates, 5 bacterial isolates that showed clear zone after incubation were selected as lipase producing strain. Selected bacterial isolates were then optimized for maximum yield of enzyme under various parameters like carbon, nitrogen sources, pH and temperature on production media. Lipase production was increased with sucrose and lactose as a carbon source and yeast extract as a nitrogen source. Effect of pH and temperature indicated that, the lipase production was maximum in pH 6.0 and at 37°C.

  80. Deepa Parihar, Saksena, D. N. and Rao, R. J.

    Condition factor and feeding intensity of Ompok bimaculatus, Xenentodon cancila, Puntius sarana, Labeo boggut were studied from May, 2012 to April 2013. The condition factor of Ompok bimaculatus was varied from 0.49±0.03 to 0.81±0.13. The maximum mean monthly condition factor of Xenentodon cancila was observed in the month of April (0.59±0.05) and minimum in the month of November (0.21±0.04). Condition factor of Puntius sarana showed variation from 1.07±0.04 to 1.9±0.05 and it was increased in the month of March while decreased in the month of November. The condition factor of Labeo boggut was varied from 1.01±0.13 to 1.87±0.09 and it was highest in the month of April and lowest in the month of December. It was observed that condition factor (K) was higher when fish entered into the maturity period during the month of March and April while in the other months K showed slightly lower values. The gastrosomatic index and hepatosomatic index, both indices were minimum in the months of June and July and maximum in the months of December and January due to availability of good food items.

  81. Chapla, J. and Gujju Gandhi

    Poliomyelitis was re surfaced in Hyderabad, India. Water samples were collected from different polluted water bodies near Amberpet nala of Hyderabad and observed the presence of P2 Strain, which has resistance for the polio vaccine, causing a great concern not only to the government of Telangana and also the Indian government. The P1 and P3 serotypes are controlled by vaccination. Polio 1, 2 and 3 are called serotypes also called as P1, P2 and P3.

  82. Tatiana Abreu Reis, Gabriel Abreu Reis, Rafaela Araújo Zambaldi Lima, Renata de Paulo Rocha, Antonio Decarlos Neto, Taciene Carvalho Mesquita and Luiz Carlos de Oliveira Lima

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the physical, chemical and sensory characteristics of wines from different grape cultivars (Vitis spp.) produced in Lavras, in the southwest of Minas Gerais, Brazil. Grapes of cultivars ‘Niagara Rosada’, ‘Bordo’, ‘Isabel Precoce’, ‘BRS Rúbea’, ‘BRS Cora’ and ‘Concord Clone 30’, used to produce the experimental wines, were produced in the orchard of the University Federal of Lavras, from August to December 2013. The winemaking followed the methodology proposed by Malgarin et al., (2006), adapted. The analyses used to physically and chemically characterize the wines were: soluble solids (SS), titratable acidity (TA), SS/TA ratio, pH, total sugars, reducing and non-reducing sugars, dry extract, reduced dry extract, alcohol content, alcohol/reduced dry extract ratio, density, antioxidant activity by DPPH and β-carotene/linoleic acid methods, total phenolics, vitamin C, anthocyanins and color (L*, a*, b* and C). The sensory analysis acceptance test was performed with 50 tasters, who evaluated the attributes: appearance, aroma, taste, overall impression and purchase intention. The different wines produced are within the standards of wine identity and quality, proposed by Brazilian legislation and the values of the variables found in the samples are close to reference values presented in studies with wines from traditional wine-growing regions in Brazil. The wines were classified as dry table wines; the 'Niagara Rosada' wine was light-bodied and the others were considered more full-bodied. Due to the difference among cultivars, considering the biochemical aspect and the grape metabolism, the antioxidant activity, phenolic compounds content, ascorbic acid and anthocyanin content varied. These differences suggest the possible interference of soil and climate conditions on the cultivar adaptation response in the region where the experiment was conducted, especially the cultivars ‘Bordô’ and ‘BRS Cora’. Overall, average sensory analysis scores of the samples fell between 4.56 and 7.22 on the hedonic scale, represented by the categories "neither liked nor disliked” and “liked moderately”, respectively, highlighting the ‘Bordô’, ‘Niagara Rosada’, ‘BRS Rúbea’ and ‘Concord Clone 30’ cultivars, which were preferred by consumers regarding aroma and taste, overall impression and purchase intention attributes. Regarding purchase intent of the different wines, the tasters answered "do not know if I would buy” and/or “I probably would not buy", which may be related to the profile of the tasters. In this context, production of grapes from different cultivars (Vitis spp.) for wine production in subtropical regions can be conducted as an alternative for the development and establishment of rural populations, since climate conditions positively influence physicochemical composition and sensory aspects of cultivated grapes. This allows, therefore, the development of products derived from grapes, with competitive features which may be accepted by a different public, which has a preference for dryer wines.

  83. Fabrizio Pezzani

    Plant derived essential oils may be an alternative agent in controlling the diseases caused by phytopathogenic fungi. Antifungal activity of Ageratum conyzoides, Eupatorium odoratum and Messua ferrae oil was evaluated against phytopathogenic fungi namely Alternaria alternata, Botrytis cinerea, Fusarium oxysporum and Penicillium expensum those cause post-harvest diseases in Kiwi fruits. Essential oil of A. conyzoides inhibits 100% growth of all the four phytopathogenic fungi at 5000 and 1000ppm concentrations and at low concentrations also growth of fungi was found inhibited. Essential oil of E. odoratum inhibited 100% growth of tested fungi at 5000ppm concentration and at low concentration also growth was found restricted. Inhibition in the growth of fungi was also reported by M. ferrae but it could not restricted 100% of growth at any concentration. On the basis of results it could be concluded that essential oil of A. conyzoides may be an alternative for control of phytopathogenic fungi after performing pharmacological evaluations.

  84. Anila Kumari, B., Uma maheswari, K., Rajeswari, K. and Jessi Suneetha, W.

    Malting of soy bean showed significant increase (0.01%, r>=0.606) in protein, total (double) and available iron content. Malting of cereals brought an improvement only in the protein (25%) content. Ready mixes prepared with soy and cereal (1:3) showed significant improvement in all the nutrients. There was a slight increase of total iron content in wheat, maize and decrease in sorghum on malting. In ready mixes, total iron content of wheat was highest and the available iron content was highest in maize mix. The storage studies at room temperature showed that the ready mixes prepared with wheat and sorghum incorporated with soy flour at the ratio of 1:3 was acceptable up to 21 days while maize mix was acceptable only for 14 days of storage.

  85. Gavali, D. J., Patel, T. R. and Mitali Patel

    Fresh water is essential for healthy living. River water is used for various purposes such as bathing, drinking, community water supply, irrigation etc. This natural resource is being polluted by disposal of industrial waste sewage and human activities which affect the quality of river water. In the present study an attempt has been made to study water quality parameters and pollution status of Mini River of Vadodara region (Gujarat). For this study the water samples were collected from pre-selected sampling stations during December to March 2015 and important physico-chemical parameters such as Temperature, Conductivity, pH, DO, BOD, COD, Salinity, TSS, TDS, Phosphate, Nitrate-N, Nitrite-N, Total nitrogen, Silicates, Sulphate, Flouride, Dissolved Petro-Hydrocarbon were analyzed. The values of COD at all stations was within Permissible limits prescribed by CPCB. The value of salinity and DO were beyond permissible limits in some samples. On the basis of this study it was concluded that water of Mini River is moderately polluted due to discharges of industrial waste, domestic sewage and agricultural run-off and required more efficient management to conserve this river.

  86. Rasera, K., Ferla, J., Riveiros, R. Dillon, A.J.P. Zeni, M.

    Polyamide-6.6 (PA-6.6) membranes were modified with glutaraldehyde, in a phase inversion process. Immobilization of the enzyme laccase from Pleurotus sajor-caju in the modified PA-6.6 film was quantified in the presence of the reducer 2,2’-azino-bis-3- ethylbenzoazoline-6-sulfonate (ABTS). Under these conditions, phenolic compounds present in the ABTS were degraded by an oxidative process. In the case of the immobilized enzyme, 110 mol of ABTS was degraded after 6 hours of reaction. The same amount of ABTS was degraded after 1 hour in the case of the free enzyme, since the oxidation process is decreased by the low diffusion of ABTS through the membrane containing the immobilized enzyme. This characteristic is relevant since the reaction kinetics may be controlled in immobilized systems. The kinetics of the thermal inactivation (Kd) of laccase activity and the half-life (t1/2) were determined. It was found that there is the possibility for the enzyme to be reused. The process described may be useful for the treatment of textile effluents.

  87. Habung Yami and Shukla, A. K.

    Plant derived essential oils may be an alternative agent in controlling the diseases caused by phytopathogenic fungi. Antifungal activity of Ageratum conyzoides, Eupatorium odoratum and Messua ferrae oil was evaluated against phytopathogenic fungi namely Alternaria alternata, Botrytis cinerea, Fusarium oxysporum and Penicillium expensum those cause post-harvest diseases in Kiwi fruits. Essential oil of A. conyzoides inhibits 100% growth of all the four phytopathogenic fungi at 5000 and 1000ppm concentrations and at low concentrations also growth of fungi was found inhibited. Essential oil of E. odoratum inhibited 100% growth of tested fungi at 5000ppm concentration and at low concentration also growth was found restricted. Inhibition in the growth of fungi was also reported by M. ferrae but it could not restricted 100% of growth at any concentration. On the basis of results it could be concluded that essential oil of A. conyzoides may be an alternative for control of phytopathogenic fungi after performing pharmacological evaluations.

  88. Sofia, S. and Merlee Teresa, M.V.

    The study was to examine the physico-chemical parameters and the concentration of heavy metals in water and sediment samples of Chirackal mangrove area, Ernakulam, Kerala. The parameters determined include pH, Alkalinity, Salinity, Chloride, dissolved oxygen (DO), biological oxygen demand (BOD), chemical oxygen demand (COD), % carbon and % organic matter by titrimetric method, phosphate, nitrite, nitrate and sulphate and silicate by UV-Visible Spectrophotometer as well as the concentration of heavy metals (Cd, Cr, Cu, Fe, Pb, Co, Ni, Mn and Zn) in water and sediment samples by Inductively Coupled Plasma-Atomic Emission Spectrophotometer ( ICP-AES) after pretreatment of the samples with microwave digestion system.. The results indicated that the average concentration of the metals in water and sediment on the periphery (station 1) was more when compared to the other two stations. Mangrove sediments showed high Fe (2441mg/g), Cu (6.04mg/g), Cd (2.83mg/g), Zn (61.04mg/g), Mn (28.36mg/g) and Pb (2.66mg/g) concentrations than water samples. The highest average concentration for Pb in water was 1.81ppm in station 2 and for sediment was 2.11ppm in station 1. Also, the highest average concentration reported for Cr in water and sediment was 2.22 ppm and 2.36 ppm respectively. With regard to the results concentration of the metal, the area contain low Cd, Cr, Ni and Pb contents.

  89. Agalya, A. and Josephine Nirmala Many

    Food safety practices are the shared responsibility of everyone in the food industry in all stages like production, storage, packaging and serving food. It is an increasingly important public health issue to prevent or control food borne illness. The food safety practices of the food handlers are often associated with the certain factors like education, basic awareness about hygiene and sanitation, economic background etc. For this reason, assessing the food safety practices and its influencing factors among the Self Help Group Food Business Operators in Puducherry region was felt very indispensable. The study targeted the SHG FBO’s in Puducherry region. The study involved a field survey and the food safety practices of the SHG FBO’s were analyzed through interview schedule. Majority (59.7 percent) of respondents belonged to the age group of 31-40 years. Majority (46.7 percent) of SHG FBO’s were able to read and write. Contribution of independent variables on food hygiene risk score was analyzed using Multiple Linear Regression analysis (α= 0.05 significant level). Out of the twelve independent variables, the regression coefficient of scheme of the SHG, monthly income, per captia income of the respondents and the years of experience in the field of SHG were statistically significant with the food safety practices of SHG FBO’s. From the results it was clear that the SHG FBO’s should be educated about the food safety practices, cross-contamination, safe temperature and technological aspects of street food vending.

  90. Vaithiyanathan, T. and Sundaramoorthy, P.

    Sugar mill effluent plays a vital role in polluting the environment which contained high pollutants. In the present study the physico-chemical properties of soil due to the effluent irrigation (before and after harvesting of African marigold with different concentration (10, 25, 50, 75 and 100%) of sugar mill effluent irrigation). Control of soil used as a tap water. The following parameters were analyzed such as pH, EC, moisture content, N, P, K, Ca, Mg, Zn, Cu, Fe and Mn. The results showed that sugar mill effluent reduced the pH and moisture content of the soil. The highest level of EC value recorded in higher concentrations of effluent irrigated soil. The sugar mill effluent significantly increased the nutrients and heavy metals in the soil with increasing of effluent concentrations. The highest agronomic performance of Tagetes erecta L. was found at 10% concentrations of sugar mill effluent irrigated soil. Based on the work lower concentrations of sugar mill effluent (10%) contained required amount of plant nutrient which increased soil fertility. The suggestion of the work the lower concentration (10%) of sugar mill effluent can be utilized for irrigation, which used for alternative the scarcity of water and fertilizer.

  91. Noha A. Mahana, Pierre E. Mehanny, Hanan A. Tag El-Din, Hanan M. Sobhy and Somaya O. El-Deeb

    Hepcidin, a small peptide hormone produced mainly by the liver, plays a central role in iron status regulation in humans and other mammals. Thirty six male albino rats were classified randomly into equally six groups (G). The obtained results revealed that low (17.5) and high (35) mg/kg b.w. DZN dose (G2 and G3, respectively) administration for 28 days significantly increased the pro-inflammatory cytokines (IL-6, TNF-α) and hepcidin, decreased erythropoietin and significantly decreased hemoglobin concentration, red blood cells counts, serum iron and its related parameters in comparison to untreated healthy control G1. Moreover, the groups co-administrated with curcumin (CUR) mixed with diet for 28 days (G5 and G6) revealed improvement of these parameters in comparison to those of corresponding groups. Thus it was concluded that subacute toxicity of DZN induces alteration in some immunological and hematological parameters which in turn cause alteration in hepcidin and CUR administration had a protective effect against these adverse effects of DZN.

  92. Francisco Vanies da Silva Sá, Geovani Soares de Lima, Luan Dantas de Oliveira, Hans Raj Gheyi, Lauriane Almeida dos Anjos Soares, Emanoela Pereira de Paiva, and Adaan Sudário Dias

    This study aimed to evaluate growth, production and technological characteristics of the fiber of colored cotton, cv. ‘BRS Topázio’, under saline water irrigation, potassium (K) fertilization and different proportions of nitrate and ammonium. The study was conducted in drainage lysimeters under greenhouse conditions, in a eutrophic Grey Argisol with sandy clay loam texture, in the municipality of Campina Grande-PB, Brazil, from November 2014 to March 2015. The experiment was conducted in a randomized block design, testing five K doses (50; 75; 100; 125 and 150% of the recommendation for pot experiments) and five proportions of nitrate and ammonium (100/0; 75/25; 50/50; 25/75; 0/100 mg of N kg-1 of soil). The dose of 100% of K corresponded to 150 mg K2O kg-1 of soil. There was significant effect of the interaction between K doses and proportions of nitrate/ammonium on plant growth and on the technological characteristics of the fibers of ‘BRS Topázio’ cotton cultivated under salt stress. Fertilization with 50/50 mg of nitrate/ammonium along with 50% of the K recommendation favored higher growth, production and fiber quality of colored cotton, cv. ‘BRS Topázio’.

  93. Amilton Alves Filho, Reginaldo de Camargo, Regina Maria Quintão Lana, Alirio Coromoto Daboin Maldonado, Marcia Regina Moraes and Roberto Terumi Atarassi

    This study aimed to evaluate the efficiency of solar radiation, combined with chemical treatment in acid and alkaline media during different hygienization periods given the total content of volatile solids, total solids, temperature, pH and total coliforms in sewage sludge. The experimental design process used was randomized blocks in a 5x3 +1 factorial scheme, with four replications, with plot factor being made up of disinfectant products (260 mg L-1 peracetic acid, 2400 mg L-1 Quaternary Ammonium Compounds, lime equivalent to 30% of the dry mass of the sewage sludge, 2500 mg L-1 sodium hypochlorite and pure sludge) and subplot factor being treatment period (T1= 7 days, T2= 14 days and T3= 21 days), plus an additional treatment made up of pure sludge at zero time. Hydrated lime at 30 dag kg-1 has reduced levels of total coliforms to acceptable limits by environmental standard, has raised total solid content, reduced volatile solid content and lowered foul odor emissions. Solar radiation itself was not able to reduce the amount of total coliforms to an acceptable standard required by Brazilian environmental legislation. Hydrated lime in the ratio of 30% dag kg-1 by weight of dry mass can be used as a way to disenfect sweage sludge, concerning bacteriological content and stabilization. The other disinfectant products did not perform the same efficiency on reducing total coliforms or volatile organic compounds.

  94. Adithya Rao, G. S., Padmalatha, H. V. and Kumaraswamy Udupa, E. S.

    Sharavathi Wildlife Sanctuary (SWLS) of Karnataka harboring rich floristic diversity and different types of forest. The diversity of tree species of buffer zone of SWLS studied by using six transects of 1.5km distance. A total of 100 species belonging to 75 genera and 40 families were documented in 30 quadrates during the survey. Olea dioica emerged as most important tree species in SWLS. Oleaceae emerged as most important family exhibits highest Family Importance Value. Among the 100 trees species, 16 species yield Non Timber Forest Products (NTFP) and 26 species are medicinally important plants. The presence of Myristica dactyloides, Dipterocarpus indicus, Dysoxylum malabaricum, Diospyros paniculata, Elaeocarpus tuberculatus, Eugenia macrosepala, Litsea floribunda, Mastrixia arborea, Polyalthia fragrance, indicates the evergreen nature of the forest whereas the presence of Terminalia paniculata, Randia dumetorum, Flacourtia montana, Grewia tiliaefolia, Careya arborea, Cedrela toona. represented the moist deciduous nature of the forest.

  95. João Batista de Campos Menezes, Cândido Alves da Costa, Hugo César Rodrigues Moreira Catão, Alcinei Mistico Azevedo, Celso Mattes de Oliveira and Ernane Ronie Martins

    Although cassava plants present high productive potential, national productivity is low, especially in the north of Minas Gerais. Therefore, the evaluation and characterization of genotypes adapted to the north of Minas Gerais are important because it enables the selection of genotypes with agronomic potential for cultivation and the integration in breeding programs. Therefore, the aim was to evaluate the most cultivated cassava varieties in the north of Minas Gerais, in order to obtain information of genetic parameters, correlations, dissimilarity and agronomic performance. For that, 54 morpho-agronomic traits were evaluated in 6 varieties in a randomized block design with four replications. For the dissimilarity study was performed the Tocher test and hierarchical dendrogram by the UPGMA method. There was genetic variability among the varieties and prevalence of genetic effects over the environmental ones for most evaluated features. The Vassourinha variety stood out with higher roots productivity being the most recommended for cultivation. The features, net photosynthesis and transpiration rate correlated with the root productivity, making them important for breeding programs. Three groups were formed by multivariate analysis, verifying that the crossing of variety Vassourinha with Amarelinhavarietie, Ass. E.N. or Sabará can enable obtaining high genetic variability progenies.

  96. Kalyani, P., Geetha, S. and Hemalatha, K. P. J.

    Fungi are the potential and promising sources for biologically active secondary metabolite production. Secondary metabolites are the chemical compounds that are produced during the stationary phase of the organism. Many years of study revealed that fungi are excellent sources for novel bioactive secondary metabolites. In the present study Aspergillus niger extract was screened for the presence of phytochemicals by standard procedures. After phytochemical screening check their antibacterial activity against human pathogens. The present work shows the presence of significant secondary metabolites and show maximum antibacterial activity.

  97. Dr. S. Krishnakumari and Amudha M.

    Free radicals are substances normally produced by the human body as one of the defense mechanisms against harmful substances. When the rate of their production exceeds the antioxidant capacity of the body, oxidative stress occurs. Oxidative stress carries harmful effects to all the body systems and is implicated in the pathogenesis of various diseases including hypertension, atherosclerosis, diabetes mellitus and cancer. Enzymatic and non-enzymatic antioxidants play an important role in protection of the body against the harmful effects of free radicals. A lot of researchers are going on worldwide directed towards finding natural antioxidants of plant origins. In this study, we assessed enzymatic and non-enzymatic antioxidant properties of stem of Tinospora cordifolia. Aqueous extract of Tinospora cordifolia (stem) was carried out by using Soxhlet apparatus. The resultant extraction was used to determine the enzymatic antioxidants (Superoxide Dismutase, Catalase, Glutathione Peroxidase, Glutathione S transferase) and Non-enzymatic antioxidants (Total reduced glutathione, Vitamin – C,) The present study revealed that stem of Tinospora cordifolia has an excellent source of enzymatic and non – enzymatic antioxidants. The present study, reveals the capability to scavenge the free radicals and protect against oxidative stress causing diseases. In future stem of Tinospora cordifolia may serve as a good pharmacotherapeutic agent.

  98. Balachandar, S., Rajaram R. and Veeramani, T.

    In order to introduce Artemia cyst to larvicultural feeding of aquatic animals, biometrical characteristics of Artemia cysts and newly hatched nauplii collected from two different sites viz. natural and algae fed Artemia culture pond in Tuticorin, Tamil Nadu, India have been studied. The dry and decapsulated cysts diameters, cyst hydration, chorion thickness and total length of newly hatched nauplii collected from wild and algae fed pond were measured under microscope. The results showed that Artemia franciscana cyst size ranged from 216.66 to 223.33 µm size, the hydrated cyst size varied between 232 to 237.66 µm, Chorion thickness 4.6 to7.6 µm, and the naupliar length from 448.66 to 476.66 µm have been observed in the study environment. The smaller sized Artemia cyst and naupli was noticed in algae fed Artemia culture pond while compared to wild collection. The small size of Artemia is suitable for shrimp post larvae, ornamental and marine fish larval stage feeding and it could be a good alternate feed for replacing the imported expensive cysts.

  99. Kushmander Singh, Neeraj Kumar and Kuldeep Singh

    Single extraction of solid phase metals in soil using selective chemical extractants such as strong chelating agent has been used to indicate the bioavailability of heavy metals in soil. Chelating agent like DTPA is used as the common extractant to determine the bioavailability of metals in soils. Bioavailability of metals in soil is controlled by several chemical reaction like adsorption, desorption and precipitation. These reaction govern the chemical equilibrium of metal ions in solid and solution phases in soil. Use of plants which are hyper accumulators of metals like different species of Brassica for phytoremediation of polluted soils. Chemical immobilization of heavy metals by the application of amendments like lime, FYM, phosphate and their combination.

  100. Meena, M. K., Jain, M.C., Singh, J., Sharma, M., Singh, B., Maurya, I. B.

    An investigation was conducted on uniform, healthy, eight year old trees of Nagpur mandarin (citrus reticulata Blanco) at Fruit Research Farm, Department of Fruit Science at College of Horticulture and Forestry, Jhalawar during 16 September, 2014 to 1 March, 2015. Various doses of Calcium nitrate (1.0%, 2.0% and 3.0 %), Boric acid (0.2 %, 0.4 % and 0.6 %) and Zinc sulphate (0.2 %, 0.4 % and 0.6 %) were sprayed before harvesting and compared with untreated ones. The results obtained indicated that the trees sprayed with T27 i.e. (Calcium nitrate @ 3.0 % + Boric acid @ 0.6 % + Zinc sulphate @ 0.6 %) showed maximum increase diameter of fruit, fruit weight, fruit volume, number of fruits per plant, fruit yield per plant, estimated yield per hectare, reducing sugar, non reducing sugar, total sugar, juice per cent, sensory score and reduced peel thickness over control. Further, T24 treatment combination (calcium nitrate @ 3.0 % + boric acid @ 0.4 % + Zinc sulphate @ 0.6 %) has also significantly increased number of segments per fruit, TSS, TSS: Acid ratio, ascorbic acid content, and reduced number of seeds per fruit and acidity percent of fruits.

  101. Ritesh Kumar Sharma, Anjana Goel and A. K. Bhatia

    Lawsonia inermis plant, generally identified as Henna, is a medicinal plant and leaves of this plant are used as dye from ancient time. The present study was conducted to study antityphoid activity and phytochemical screening of different extracts of Lawsonia inermis leaves. Methanol extract showed highest inhibition zone (13.74±1.52) at 20mg/disc and lowest inhibition zone (8±1) was demonstrated at 5mg/disc of hexane extract. Phytochemical screening of different extract revealed the presence of various phytoconstituents such as flavanoids, alkaloids, carbohydrates etc. Quinone is the main phytoconstituents which is responsible for antityphoid activity and presence of this compound was confirmed in all extracts while protein was absent in all extract of Lawsonia inermis plant leaves.

  102. Pastures recovery systems in the brazilian cerrado

    Improper management of added grazing the low soil fertility are each responsible for reducing pasture productivity increasing degradation. The objective was to evaluate three pasture management systems for the recovery of the productive characteristics of grass Marandu (Brachiaria brizantha) and the physical properties of the soil, in the third year of management in a pasture degradation in the Brazilian Cerrado. The experimental design was a randomized block with three treatments (recovery with chemical fertilizer; recovery with chemical fertilization associated with direct seeding corn, and chemical recovery associated with light rail use) with eight replications. The pasture was evaluated in its third year of this recovery management (2011/2012). The evaluations were performed at 35, 70 and 105 days after the start of treatment. It was found indirect index of leaf chlorophyll, shoot dry mass, index cover vegetation, bulk density, field capacity and soil penetration resistance. For dry weight of shoot and indirect chlorophyll content, the chemical recovery system with light rail use had the highest production (4.18 t ha-1) and indirect chlorophyll content in the leaf (50.85). The highest soil coverage (98.56%) was obtained in the recovery system for chemical fertilization. The recovery system with light grid was the one who showed improvement in mechanical resistance to soil penetration in the layers of 0-0.20 m.

  103. Durga, K. V. and Dr. Sheela, D.

    The present study investigate the phytochemical screening and quantification of primary and secondary metabolites like carbohydrates, protein, lipids, phenol, tannin and flavonoids from Spilanthes calva DC. The S. calva plant showed highest carbohydrate value (5.96%) than the other primary metabolites so it can act as a good remedy for nutritional disorders. Estimation of Secondary metabolites showed that phenol content (1.8%) is higher Spilanthes calva DC than the other metabolites. Thus Spilanthes calva DC can act as a good therapeutic agent.

  104. Krishna, L., Surender Raju, Ch and Sudheer Kumar, S.

    Twenty eight F1 rice hybrids developed through 8x8 diallel analysis (without reciprocals) were evaluated to estimate relative heterosis, heterobeltiosis and standard heterosis for yield and grain quality traits viz., days to 50 per cent flowering, 1000 grain weight, grain yield per plant, head rice recovery, kernel length, kernel breadth, kernel L/B ratio, kernel length after cooking and kernel elongation ratio. Based on the superior heterotic performance, the crosses NLR 145 x Sumathi, RNR 2354 x Basmati 370 and Akshyadhan x Pusa 1121 exhibited significant positive heterosis for yield and one or more grain quality traits.

  105. Ayona Jayadev and Lekshmi, M.

    Surfactants are the amphiphilic compounds which reduce surface tension between molecules. In the past decades, such compounds were reported to be produced on the surface of living organisms, especially microorganisms and are termed biosurfactants. These compounds are used for a variety of industrial purposes because of their varied advantages such as biodegradability, renewability, functionality under extreme conditions etc. The main areas of usage include oil and petroleum industries, pollutant site remediation, detergent formulations, cosmetics, food additives, pharmaceutical industry etc. Though these are promising compounds, the large-scale industrial production is difficult due to material costs, processing costs and manufacturing output. The work is done to identify and isolate microorganisms from marine system with a view to carry out in depth studies on the activity of the isolated strains and ways by which these strains can be used as economically viable sources for biosurfactants. Twelve strains were isolated from the marine water sample. Eight strains showed growth in oil supplemented medium. Four of these strains showed slightly higher growth than the rest of isolates. Emulsification index was calculated for these strains and two strains, Tb1 and Tb3 showed maximum emulsion index in both kerosene and diesel. But none of the tested strains showed glycolipid production.

  106. Ayona Jayadev and Lekshmi, M.

    Surfactants are the amphiphilic compounds which reduce surface tension between molecules. In the past decades, such compounds were reported to be produced on the surface of living organisms, especially microorganisms and are termed biosurfactants. These compounds are used for a variety of industrial purposes because of their varied advantages such as biodegradability, renewability, functionality under extreme conditions etc. The main areas of usage include oil and petroleum industries, pollutant site remediation, detergent formulations, cosmetics, food additives, pharmaceutical industry etc. Though these are promising compounds, the large-scale industrial production is difficult due to material costs, processing costs and manufacturing output. The work is done to identify and isolate microorganisms from marine system with a view to carry out in depth studies on the activity of the isolated strains and ways by which these strains can be used as economically viable sources for biosurfactants. Twelve strains were isolated from the marine water sample. Eight strains showed growth in oil supplemented medium. Four of these strains showed slightly higher growth than the rest of isolates. Emulsification index was calculated for these strains and two strains, Tb1 and Tb3 showed maximum emulsion index in both kerosene and diesel. But none of the tested strains showed glycolipid production.

  107. Chavan, U. D., Nirmal, S. V., Gadakh, S. R., Pawar, G. H. and Shinde, M. S.

    Fourteen sorghum genotypes grown at Dharwad and Udaipur during Kharif season-2015 were evaluated for nutritional and roti quality. The nutritional constituents proteins, sugars, starch, free amino acids and phenolics were found at higher level in Udaipur sample. From Dharwad center CSV 23, CSV 6, SPV 2296 and SPV 2305 were found promising for roti as well as for nutritional quality. From Udaipur SPV 2293, CSV 20, DSV 6 and SPV 2305 were found promising for roti and nutritional quality. The sorghum genotype SPV 2305 was found well for nutritional and roti quality at both the locations.

  108. IlkerHuseyin CELEN, Soner CELEN, Eray ONLER, Mehmet RecaiDURGUT, Erdal KILIC and Nurfer KAMA

    In many agricultural productions, especially in the production in the open field, pests have negative effects. As they can be effective during the production process, they can cause economic losses after harvest even after the sale. In this study, it is aimed to reveal in what way the plants will be affected when microwave energy is applied to the plants of bean, cucumber and aubergine in greenhouses and in the applications where the usage of microwave energy has become widespread. For this purpose, first, the power of microwave energy that the plants are affected, the duration of exposure to this power and the distance of the system from the target have been detected by preparing a testing apparatus. During these studies, in what way the plants were damaged in terms of colour and weight have been followed so they damaged. In the applications, as the application time was getting increased and the application distance was getting decreased, malicious mortality rate and weight and colour values of the plants also increased. As the value of microwave power was getting increased, there were some increases at the exchange rate of all measured values. However, since there were some tears at certain points, especially in stem sections, the smoothness of the measured value were impaired and irregular data were obtained. Colour and weight changes of aubergine, bean, cucumber by the effects of microwave energy determined

  109. Gustavo Henrique Freiria, Kawana Silva Bortolato, Fernando Modos Veiga Dias, Felipe Favoretto Furlan, Luiz Henrique Campos de Almeida, Guilherme Renato Gomes, Douglas Junior Bertoncelli, Guilherme Augusto Cito Alves, Mônica Satie Omura and Cássio Egídio

    This study aimed to evaluate the genetic divergence, the relative contribution of variables to the dissimilarity and the direct and indirect participation of the characters with the grain yield of commercial varieties of transgenic soybean first (RR) and second (intacta RR2 PRO) generation. Eight morphological characteristics of a quantitative nature were analyzed, 42 cultivars in the harvest 2014/2015 in Londrina, PR, Brazil, in a randomized complete block design with three replications. The Mahalanobis distance based the UPGMA cluster and canonical variable technique analysis. The relative contribution of the characteristics was calculated by Singh method and path analysis allowed us to estimate the direct and indirect participation of the variables with the grain yield. The 50% genetic distance was the formation of five groups by UPGMA method, with similar results to those obtained in the study of canonical variables. The largest relative contribution to the dissimilarity of the cultivars was provided by hundred grains mass, with the highest direct effect on grain yield, low participation of indirect effects.

  110. Shivani Dhodi and Prof. Indu Bansal

    Building right career at right time is one of the major issues for the youths today. Career choice has become complex with the advancements of the new technologies. The study Impact of demographic profile of medical students on choosing surgery as a career was undertaken successfully in ten north Indian medical colleges, on a sample of 677 students, with the following objectives: To study specialty preference of medical students and to find out individual influence (demographic characteristics) on specific specialty choices of medical students. Data was analysed on frequency and percentage; χ2 value to find association, if any with reference to demographic profile. Major findings revealed that, χ2 values are found to be significant for surgery on Gender, Marital Status, Residence and Type of family.

  111. Eichel, M.F., Acuña, A.J., Pucci, O.H., Pucci, G.N.

    Oil tank bottoms have a significant oil concentration, which is recovered by physical and chemical methods. The waste remaining after this process can be remediated by microorganisms. In this study, the benefits of integrating electro-bioremediation, which is an hybrid technology coupling bioremediation and electro kinetics to decontaminate contaminated oil tank bottoms were evaluated in 69-day-long laboratory-scale experiments. The unsaturated oil tank bottom sample was placed in three-compartment electro-bioremediation glass cells with a potential difference of 0.5V cm -1, applied to the electro-bioremediation cells for 69 days. Aliphatic and polyaromatichydrocarbons decreased from 80741.4 ppm to 32341.2ppm and from 414.2 ppm to 24.344 ppm respectively. The pH changed from 7.26 to 7.47 in the cathode and to 7.8 in the anode.

  112. Mehmet Recai DURGUT, Birol KAYIŞOĞLU, İbrahim Savaş DALMIŞ, Türkan AKTAŞ, Serkan TUĞ and Figen TAŞCI DURGUT

    Pellets which are produced using paddy stalks are the main type of biomass solid fuel and have great potential as a Bioenergy resource in the future of Turkey. But it also showed important problems because of its high content of ashes and its low gross calorific value, reducing the possibility to be used in domestic heating. In this research, the paddy stalks were chopped and then mixed with different materials such as coal powder, PVA (poly (vinyl alcohol)) and molasses before producing of pellets. In addition to these, only paddy stalk pellets without additive were produced to compare the other pellets. After preparation of the pellets, some physical and chemical properties of them were determined to investigate the effects of additives on the changing of these properties and gasification process. Pellet samples used in the tests were labeled according to additive percents are pellet produced using paddy stalk (PRF), paddy stalk + 3% PVA (PVA3), paddy stalk + 5% molasses (PML5), paddy stalk + 5% coal powder (PC5) and paddy stalk + 15% coal powder (PC15). Pellets were tested using downdraft fixed bed Gasifier. The volatile matters of PRF, PVA3, PML5, PC5 and PC15 were found to be in the range of 61.73 - 66.25%. Highest volatile mater found in pellets of PRF. Bulk densities were determined in the range of 494-606 kg/m3. Maximum bulk density was found for the PVA3 pellets. Highest ash fusion temperature was found to be 1436 °C for PRF pellets. The ash fusion temperatures indicate slag formation. The calorific values were changed in the range of 12, 18-12, 92 The PC15 pellets has highest calorific value compared to the other pellets. According to research results, it can be recommended that the pellets produced from pellets produced using only paddy stalk for gasification by using appropriate equipment.

  113. Atiya Firdous and Uzma Hameed

    In this research, we report a facile approach to synthesize NiO nano particles via simply sono chemical method, which revealed high proficiency and discrimination towards the adsorption of organic dyes. The structure and morphology of the nano particles were characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy. NiO nano particles were successfully employed as nano adsorbent for the treatment of congo red (CR) dye assisted simulated waste water under the influence of variable conditions to triumph best adsorption capacity. The effect of adsorbent amount, adsorbate concentration and stay time were analyzed. Adsorption isotherm models were also employed to analyze the practicability of the adsorption process. The adsorption results poved that the equilibrium data coincides very well with Langmuir and Freundlich isotherm, and the maximum adsorption propensities for Congo red (CR). The kinetic data can be interpreted by pseudo-second order model. The rational mechanism of adsorption attributed to hydrogen bonding, electrostatic attraction and ion \exchange between the dye molecules and NiO in the adsorption progression. These reutilizing methods effectively instigated at industrial scale and therefore assess the challenges pretended by them in the environment and community health.

  114. Kamaliyah Sarjo Hj Ahmad and YazrinaYahya

    ICT project management (ICT PM) has been the mechanism to delivering the projects. The developments of ICT projects have increased in many organizations to ensure that overall needs of customers in business requirements are fulfilled. However, many ICT projects failed and the due to the ICT project failure and its impact to the organization, researchers and practitioners are asked to specifically look at the history of how the project is carried out to find an effective approach and comprehensive to overcome this issue. However, there are limited numbers of studies which BPM approach in ICT PM. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to develop ICT project management framework using business proses management (BPM) approach in public sector that fit into Malaysia government scenario, in particular with respect to stakeholder management. To meet the purpose, ten responded of ICT management, ICT project managers, project committee members and a team of expert consultants in project management at public sector Malaysia were interviewed. Data for the study was collected using interview and analyzed documentation. The paper found out that three elements identified need to add in the initial framework were develop previously.

  115. Jitender Kumar and 2Verma, V. K.

    The conventional technique for power flow measurement of a network system are bulky in nature. The newer technique of Phasor Measurement Unit would be used for measurement of bus voltage and power flow. On usual, the concept of full weighted least square state estimator is follow a nonlinear technique, but in co-operation with PMUs it may improves the accuracy of the measurement without doing a bulky iteration process. In this paper the way of formation of measurement by using Full weighted least square state estimation and PMU device with conventional method will be investigated. A number of cases are tested by use of PMUs and their effect on variables accuracy on Real Power and Reactive Power flows over a system are demonstrated. The assessment of parameter obtained on IEEE 14 bus and IEEE 30 bus system will be discussed.

  116. Surekha B. Munoli and Shankrevva Gani

    This paper investigates existence of a causality relationship between rates of inflation and unemployment for SAARC countries using time series data from 2003 to 2014. We use VAR (Vector Autoregressive) methodology and Granger casualty/block erogeneity Wald test statistics to emphasize the type of causality between rates of inflation and unemployment. The empirical result shows that a uni-directional causality relationship exists between rates of inflation and unemployment.

  117. Jafar mouhsen Alkheir, Balsam Ahmad Eid and Tarek faisal Barhoum

    This Paper presents two adaptive vehicle suspension control methods, which significantly improve the performance of mechatronic suspension systems in full car model by absorbing shocks caused by bumpy roads and preventing vibrations from reaching the cockpit and providing stability and coherence required. The first control approach is an extension to the Adaptive Neuro-Fuzzy Inference System (ANFIS) called Extended adaptive Neuro fuzzy inference system (EANFIS). The second control approach is a special type of multi-inputs multi-outputs ANFIS model called Co-Active adaptive Neuro fuzzy inference system (CANFIS). MATLAB Simulink has used to build controllers and the full vehicle active suspension model with seven degrees of freedom. Three types of disturbances have been applied individually as excitations to test the robustness of the proposed controllers. In addition, a comparison between EANFIS controller, CANFIS controller and open loop model (passive suspension) has made with the three types of disturbances.

  118. Muddegowda Harsha, Muddegowda Umashankar, Kitappa Malavalli Mahadevan, Sannaiah Ananda and Manikyanahalli Narasigowda Kumara

    Allura Red AC (ARED) is an azo dye allowed as a food additive in the European Union and other developed countries. The kinetics of oxidation of ARED with Chloramine-T in HCl medium has been studied spectrophotometrically at 302K.The reaction exhibited first-order dependence of rate on both [ARED] and [CAT], inverse fractional order dependence of rate on [HCl]. Solvent composition shows negative effect indicating the involvement of negative ion-dipolar molecule in the rate determining step. Variation of ionic strength of the medium and addition of halide ions showed negligible effect. Addition of p-toluenesulphonamide, the reduction product retards the rate. Oxidation products were isolated and characterized and were identified as 1, 2-naphthaquinone and 4-methyl anisole which are often allergic to human beings. The effect of temperature is studied at different temperatures and Activation parameters have been evaluated. Plausible mechanism and related rate law have been deduced for the observed kinetics.

  119. Geometric mean labeling of subdivision on triangular snakes

    A Graph G = (V, E) with p vertices and q edges is said to be a Geometric mean graph if it is possible to label the vertices xV with distinct labels f(x) from 1,2…..,q+1 in such way that when each edge e=uv is labeled with f(e=uv)=⌈√(f(u)f(v))⌉ or ⌊√(f(u)f(v))⌋, then the resulting edge labels are distinct. In this case, f is called Geometric mean labeling of G. In this paper, we investigate the Geometric mean labeling behaviour of subdivision on Triangular Snakes.

  120. Senthil Devi, K. A. and Dr. Srinivasan, B.

    Keyword spotting (KWS) is an innovative research area and has many applications in speech mining. Keyword spotting is the task of identifying the occurrences of certain desired keywords in an arbitrary speech signal. In this paper, we propose a new keyword spotting approach using Wavelet Packet Decomposition (WPD) and sliding frames methodology (WPDSFM).The proposed method is capable of identifying a target keyword in a continuous speech of any length. Euclidean distance is calculated between keyword and a block of speech frames for similarity measure. Experiments are done to compare that the result of the proposed WPDSFM approach with the results of MFCC and Discrete Wavelet transform (DWT) features based sliding frame methods. The performance measures show that the proposed approach is better than that of the other two approaches in terms of accuracy.

  121. Abere Tegegn, Ademe Kebede and Keno Awol

    This study investigated factors that affect secondary school Mathematics teachers' teaching methodology & it was carried out secondary schools in Western Oromiya & SNNP regions, Ethiopia, from July 2014 to June 2015. Data sources was secondary schools’ mathematics teachers, vice principals, students & observations of mathematics lessons. This study involved six sample secondary schools that were selected through stratified random sampling technique &a sample of two, sections from each of the 6 sample schools was selected for data collection purposes. A total of 406 sample students were selected from each sample sections using proportionate allocation system. In addition, 26(all) mathematics teachers& six vice directors in the sample schools was selected & participated in the study. Lottery technique of random sampling was employed to select sample sections as well as the required sample students from each sample section. Data collection tools were structured questionnaire, structured interview & lesson observation check list. The teacher is a crucial tool when we want to ensure that students are developing a concrete understanding of all the mathematics concepts. Therefore I focussed on factors that affect secondary school Mathematics teachers' teaching methodology. The findings of this study revealed that there are negative as well as positive factors affecting mathematics teachers’ teaching methodology. Factors related to teachers, students & schools that are affecting mathematics teachers’ teaching method or strategy was identified from the survey analysis. An awareness of these factors can help, to improving the effectiveness of mathematics teacher’s teaching methodology if they are dealt with successfully.

  122. Automatic bruise detection system using thermal images

    Developed algorithm sorts bruise apple fruits automatically and uses image processing and machine vision technology to detect bruises. Machine vision includes the capturing of images, processing and analyzing images and therefore the assessment of visual quality characteristics of fruits by non-destructive method is made feasible (5). A Thermal camera is used to capture the image of the fruit and project not only aims to detect a bruise in fruit but also to estimate the size of that bruised part. As well as it gives the count of number of fruits bruised over the unbruised fruits. This will reduce the wastage of the fruits during storage time and also prevents fruit borne illness.

  123. Marshal Noel Paik, Rahul Davis, Pritish Sahu, Miss Namlen Ekka, Darla Sudheer and Solomon Samson

    In this paper illustration of the influence of input machining parameters on the surface roughness and Tool wear rate are determined along with regression analysis. This experiment was conducted on High Carbon High Chromium Steel (HCHCR) with Copper as tool electrode. The data collected during experimentation has been used to yield responses in respect of surface roughness and tool wear rate (TWR). The objective of this paper is to study the influence of operating input parameters of copper electrode on surface roughness of HCHCR and tool wear rate of copper followed by optimization. The effectiveness of EDM process with copper electrode is evaluated in terms of surface roughness and tool wear rate. In this work the parameters such as current, spark gap, flushing rate pulse on time, pulse off time were selected. Analysis is carried using the Anova analysis.

  124. Ademe Kebede, Abere Tegegn and Keno Awol

    This study was conducted to examine the effectiveness of formative assessment techniques used by high school mathematics teachers in Jimma at CBTP and practicum zone sites. Specifically, the study sought to gain an understanding of the extent to which the teachers use different assessment techniques and to support both the learning and teaching process in mathematics. Questionnaire was the main data gathering instrument for this study. Thus, all mathematics teachers’ 94 were included in the sample by using availability sampling technique since they are few in number and 253 students were selected by systematic random sampling technique to fill in questionnaire. Class room observation and interview was also conducted to enrich the quantitative data. The data gathered through interview and class room observation was discussed in line with questionnaire. As a result, the main findings come out from this study were: teachers’ perception of formative assessment and its connectedness with students learning and achievement in mathematics is insufficient; assessment for learning techniques help to encourage the necessary classroom environment for effective learning is not good enough. Finally, to minimize and if possible to solve the problems, the following recommendations were drawn; teacher and school administrator assessment literacy was a prerequisite for successful formative assessment implementation and hence Zone Education Departments and the regions in collaboration with schools should give training for the teachers and school administrator, all the zones can take the following tangible steps now to begin to implement research-based formative assessment strategies in their schools and districts that can yield positive results.

  125. Subbiah, K. and Latha, M.

    This paper presents a new procedure for the construction and selection of Single Sampling Plan (SSP) using weighted gamma Poisson distribution as a base line distribution. The main theme from this article is to briefly present the theory and technique of (SSP) using Gamma prior distribution and demonstrate how it can facilitate to find Average Quality Level (AQL) and Limiting Quality Level (LQL) bring about the result to reduce the Producer's Risk (α) and Consumer’s (β) Risk. In this article, we further designs the parameter of the plan indexed with Probabilistic Quality Region (PQR) and Indifference Quality Regions (IQR) which gives potential application to improve the quality levels in industry products. Tables are constructed for the selection of plan parameters.

  126. Keno Awol, Ademe Kebede and Abere Tegeng

    The main objective of this study is to identify factors contributing to students’ low performance in Mathematics Education in high Schools at CBTP & Practicum site zones of Jimma University. A survey design which used qualitative and quantitative aspects of research were implemented. Questionnaires and interview schedules were used to collect data. Participants (N=361) were made up of 197 girls, 164 boys and ten mathematics teachers from high schools. The research instruments used were the questionnaire which had close ended question for the students and interview for the teachers. Descriptive statistical analysis was used to interpret the data. The study revealed that learners attributed their low performance in mathematics to both internal and external factors such as laziness, lack of practice, lack of interest, absenteeism by themselves, material resources and educational facilities, poor parents support, methods of teaching, bad characters of teachers, poor back ground in the subject at lower levels, change of medium of instruction for oromiya region students, the abstract nature of mathematics and lack of guidance and counseling. The study recommends that the Ministry of Education should give sufficient training for mathematics teachers; educational facilities should be improved and made sufficient. Teachers should also introduce different methods of teaching to assist students. Difficulties faced by oromiya students due to the change of medium of instruction should be addressed. Awareness with regard to the importance of education should be created on Parents so that they will support and create awareness in their children. Finally, students should be guided and encouraged to view mathematics like the rest of the subjects in the school curriculum.

  127. Mohammed Ahmed

    Reliability of electric power delivery system is a critical issue in order to make a continuously available sufficient voltage, of satisfactory quality, to meet the consumer's' needs. The paper studies about the reliability analysis of Arba Minch distribution system using different index parameters. In the city electricity is highly affected by a continuous power interruption and outage from the main grid. The reliability indexes such as SAIFI, SAIDI, CAIDI, and ASAI parameters has been analyzed based on power interruption frequency and duration data. The reliability of Arba Minch city is poor so EEPCO should take different mechanisms of improving the power availability hours and reduce interruption frequency and duration.

  128. Sujata Chowgule and Asha Rani Borah

    Data Analysis has been the source of learning for every field from psychology, biology, astronomy to very recent social networking and online shopping. The customer who has always been the center for any business is even more important to businesses all over the world. The actions, reactions and responses of the customer today can be captured very easily. This is possible due to the widespread use of the computer like devices (PC, laptop, mobile, tablet etc) and networking. Current businesses have seen a steep increase in growth through the use of data mining, analysis and customer behavior predictability. In this paper we present the existing system of computer networks and explore them to understand the significance of each entity, their behavior, scope and limitations. The in-depth learning of computer networks brings the realization as to how frugally the network data has been comprehended. The data about the activities of the users of the computer networks has been studied and used to gain insights of behavior. The data related to the devices themselves remains unexplored to benefit both the user and the provider.

  129. Priti Warbhe and Reshal Deshmukh

    Aim of the present work is to synthesize 1-N amido 5-methyl 3(3-hydroxy) phenyl amino 1,2-pyrazole and its nitroso and benzoyl derivatives. Corrosion inhibition tendency of these compounds has been studied using weight loss method at different concentration of synthesized compounds at 300C in presence of HCl (0.1M) and H2SO4 (0.1M). Results of gravimetric analysis reveals that 1-N amido 5-methyl 3(3-hydroxy) phenyl amino 1, 2-pyrazole shows more corrosion inhibition efficiency towards H2SO4 as compared to HCl. Derivatives of these compounds also shows inhibition efficiency against corrosion of mild steel in acidic medium.

  130. Maicon Nardino, Diego Baretta, Ivan Ricardo Carvalho, Tiago Olivoto, Alan Junior de Pelegrin, Mauricio Ferrari, Vinicius Jardel Szareski, Valmor Antonio Konflaz, Braulio Otomar Caron, Denise Schmidt,Willian Silva Barros and Velci Queiróz de Souza

    Adoption of mixed models that estimate genetic parameters and predicted genotypic values correctly are important in increasing the efficiency of breeding programs, as decision-making during the selection process. The aim of the present study was to estimate variance components via REML and predict genotypic values of simple maize hybrids via BLUP. Trial was conducted in the city of Frederico Westphalen, RS, Brazil. Pre-commercial hybrids used were coming from the KSP Seeds Ltd. company's breeding program, located in the city of Pato Branco-PR. A randomized complete block design with three replications was used. Twenty-four pre-commercial simple hybrids (KSP Seeds Ltd..) were used in trial's conducting. Assessed traits were: 1. ear insertion height (EH) 2. Plant height (PH) 3. ear diameter (ED) 4. ear length (EL): 5. Average number of rows (NR) 6. number of kernels per row (NKR) 7. grain yield (GY) 8. Hundred-kernels weight (HKW). Deviance analysis was performed with and without heritability estimates thus generating obtaining their deviances, by subtracting the reduced model of the complete model it was obtained the likelihood ratio test (LRT), compared with tabulated value of the chi-square test one degree of freedom. Estimates of genetic parameters were obtained by restricted Maximum Likelihood and Best Linear Unbiased Prediction models (REML / BLUP), using Selegen software (Resende, 2007). Presence of genetic variation among the studied hybrids indicate that can have genetic gain in these maize hybrid's breeding program. KSP22 pre-commercial simple maize hybrid has high performance for grain yield, enabling their inclusion in regional trials with commercial checks.

  131. Cherukuri. Prasanth and Venigalla. Srinivasa Rao

    Carbon dioxide is one of the most important greenhouse gas that is threatening the present day human life as well as the quality of the environment, resulting in large scale effects (disasters) on the living organisms. The present work aims to employ process simulation software (Aspen Plus software) for the recovery of carbon dioxide evolved from the urea manufacturing plant. Though, commonly used solvent for the removal of carbon dioxide is Monoethanolamine, in this work CO2 extraction was by studied by employing three more solvents i.e., Diethanolamine, Methyl diethanolamine and Diglycolamine. An effective UNIFAC method is used to estimate the CO2 recovery (from carbon dioxide recovery plant). The recovery of CO2 is estimated at different absorber & stripper temperature conditions and concentrations of the solvent(s). The results of the solvents are compared to identify best operating parameters (solvent temperature and concentration). In absorber the overall percentage of CO2 removal from the flue gas for all the solvents was found to be; 99.983% with Diglycololamine solvent (at 0.55 concentration (mole%) and 10°C temperature), 99.981% with Methyldiethanolamine solvent (at 0.55 (mole%) concentration and 5°C temperature), 99.74% with Diethanolamine solvent (at 0.5 (mole%) concentration and 8°C temperature) and 98.07% with Monoethanolamine solvent (at 0.2 mole% concentration and 8°C temperature). From the results of this study, Diglycolamine is the best solvent to remove carbon dioxide from flue gas.

  132. Mihailo M. Jeremić

    If the mass-energy equivalence is introduced into the Newtonian dynamics, the altered formulae for inertia (inertial mass), force and acceleration, momentum and energy are obtained. All the mentioned quantities are in the function of the relative velocity of two bodies and they are essentially classical Newton’s formulae for low velocities (the velocities significantly lower than the speed of light), while for high velocities (the velocities comparable with the speed of light) they are significantly different from classical Newton’s formulae. The results of this paper show that STR (Special Theory of Relativity) is not correct. In addition, this paper has studied the mass and energy of photons and it has been shown that they also depend on the speed of two bodies (the body emitting photons and the body receiving photons) and on the relationship of the masses of these two bodies. Thus, photons with the same frequencies can have different speed, wavelength and energy depending on the Doppler Effect (which is in the function of speed of two bodies and the relationship of their masses).

  133. Sayyed Hussain, A. and Syed Yousuf Hussain, B.

    The oxidation of different alcohols by tetramethyl ammonium fluorochromate in acidic medium is studied kinetically. The reaction was arranged to be pseudo-first order with respect to oxidant for all alcohols. The reaction is found to be catalyzed by the hydrogen ions. The effect of change in temperature, concentration of substrate, oxidant and acid medium is studied kinetically. On the basis of results obtained the mechanism of the reaction is proposed and discussed.

  134. Maonde, F. and Asrul Sani

    Experimental research design of factorial 3x3x2 with samples of 450 students of Senior High and Junior High Schools in Kendari, Southeast Sulawesi Province through covariance analysis (Ancova) was aimed primarily to analyze: (i) the effect of covariates of prior knowledge and achievement motivation depending on the prior knowledge towards mathematics achievement, (ii) the effect of adjusted mean of interaction of three factors (A* B*C)ijk by controlling various combinations of the two factors ((A*B)ij, (A*C)ik, (B*C)jk) and the main factors Ai, Bj and Ck together or partially towards mathematics achievement on the number of hypotheses at significance level α = 0:05 based on the statistics F-Test and t-Test with the following conclusions: (1) empirically, them ean score of mathematics achievement after the implementation of the experiment had differences in supporting the proposed hypothesis, (2) covariates of prior knowledge and achievement motivation depending on the prior knowledge had significant effect on mathematics achievement, (3) the adjusted mean of interaction of three factors, interaction of two factors by controlling the main factors and covariates of prior knowledge and achievement motivation depending on the prior knowledge, all had significant effect on mathematics achievement.

  135. Monika Mittal and Dr. Maitreyee Dutta

    The term Biometric has the relation with "life measurement" however the tenure is commonly interconnected by means of exclusive physiological personality to recognize an individual. A uni-modal biometric system has a diversity of problems such as noisy data, nonuniversality, spoof attacks and undesirable error rate. These limitations can be solved by deploying multimodal biometric system. Multimodal biometric authentication system makes use of two or more individual modalities, like face, iris, retina and fingerprint etc. Here we have anticipated fingerprint and iris traits at feature level extraction. Pre-processing of images of iris and fingerprint is done and features are extracted from them. Our work composed of two foremost sections: Feature extraction of both traits and fusing them before matching and appliance of an encryption technique to boost the security of the fused template and lastly matching stage to authenticate a person.

  136. Kulveer Singh Rana and Petwal, K. C.

    The purpose of this paper is to give an idea of 1-dimensional Riemannian manifolds, and their complex structure. We are introducing complex structure, Riemannian surface, equivalence of conformal and complex structure, complex structure generated by metric, Beltrami coefficient, Beltrami equation, Cauchy-Kowalewski Theorem, Classification of Riemann surfaces, moduli of Riemann surfaces, associated hermitian form, Riemann surface with Riemann metric g compatible with the almost complex structure, the exceptional Riemann Surfaces; theorems and proposition related them will be presented with and without proof.

  137. Adil Salbi and Seddik Bri

    Electronic systems are becoming more compact thanks to technological development. Integrated technology provides electronic systems that are more and more thumbnails, economical and robust for different operating conditions. Biomedical technology and especially the electrical stimulator are also concerned by the embedded technology to provide a portable, inexpensive and most flexible and efficient in terms of accuracy and speed. In this work, we present a new VHDL modeling of an electrical rehabilitator from an original design. First, we propose an integrated architecture to reduce the electrical stimulator. We will discuss the operational units and their main functions. Then we present a reduced interface well suited to the portability of the device. The reduced system contains tow global blocks of analog and numerical treatment. This last one constitutes the main of this study and it consists of six blocks to generate stimulus signal and the command signal. The interface adopts two types of manual and automatic amplitude control in order to control the stimulation signal, and allows the setting of the stimulation training.

  138. Jain, B. B. and Patel, R. B.

    A new mesogenic homologous series : RO-C6H6-CH=CH-CO-C6H6-OC7H15 have been synthesized and studied with a view to understand establish the effect of molecular structure on mesomorphic properties and characterized by a combination of elemental analysis and standard spectroscopic methods (IR, 1HNMR and elemental analysis). In present series mesomorphism commences from C4 homologue, C4 and C5 exhibit only enantiotropic nematicmesophase whereas C6 to C18 exhibit enantiotropic nematic as well as smectic mesophase. The thermometric behaviours of novel homologue substances and their textures were determined by an optical polarizing microscopy (POM) equipped with a heating stage. Textures of a nematic phases are threaded or schlieren. The textures of smectic phase are directly judged from the heating top as smectic-A. The mesomorphic properties of present series were compared with other two structurally analogous series.

  139. Determination of nitrate in groundwater of Proddatur, Mydukur and Yerraguntla areas of Ysr Kadapa Dt., (AP) India

    Nitrate contamination in groundwater is a common problem in many parts of the world. Nitrate is a common nitrogenous compound due to natural processes of the nitrogen cycle, igneous rocks, anthropogenic sources like unsecured septic tanks, application of nitrogen-rich fertilizers in agricultural processes. The level of nitrate concentration in groundwater of three densely populated areas, Proddatur (PDTR), Mydukur (MYD) and Yerraguntla (YGL) of YSR Kadapa district was evaluated. A total of 30 samples from tube wells were collected and analyzed for nitrate using UV-VIS spectrophotometer. The average groundwater nitrate concentrations of the study areas are reported as 112.7 mg/L for PDTR, 41.3 mg/L for MYD and 120.82 mg/L for YGL area. The nitrate concentration in 63 % samples of the study area exceeded the maximum permissible limit of nitrate (45 mg/L) for drinking water set by WHO and thus pose a threat to human health. The consumption of nitrate rich water causes a large number of diseases like dizziness, abdominal disorder, vomiting, weaknesses, mental disorder and even stomach cancer and blue baby syndrome or methemoglobinemia which robs the blood cells of their ability to carry oxygen. Due to the detrimental biological effects, treatment and prevention methods must be considered to protect groundwater aquifers from nitrate leaching and high concentrations.

  140. Ashok Babu, K., Anupama, N. and Charan, P.

    The skin properties like skin dryness, parasite and hypersensitive side effects i.e. carving sort of issue relationship with skin composition profile is examined in the proposed thesis work. In the current situation, the skin images are analyzed in frequency domain. However, it is watched that the skin shading in surface images does not differ over a wide range. In this way, the histogram profile of the skin structure remains level. In the current work had done based on moved the skin surface analysis towards the gray level profile examination. The gray shading profile of the skin composition may give reasonable thought regarding the skin affectability and is another rising skin surface examination instrument. In the proposed work, gray Level skin image is enrolled as info parameter so as to discover skin composition investigation, through gray level co-occurrence matrix of skin image computed. Here in this proposed method DWT is using for dividing the image in to high and low frequency components of the input image. Features are extracted from this sub bands of the input image.

  141. Vasavi Sai Prasanna, L., Balaji, V. and Srinivasa Reddy, E.

    Super resolution is astoundingly significant and captivating zone of examination for image planning applications in light of wavelet change. Stationary Wavelet Transform (SWT) and Discrete Wavelet change (DWT) are utilizing as a part of our proposed work for actualizing the Super Resolution of the specific picture. In for the most part Single frame super resolution can be refined by utilization of various extension strategies like interpolation in any case this technique doesn't give precise result at edges, means here edges are getting with blur. Consequently this paper we are taking the samples from the pictures after that we are applying Discrete wavelet change (DWT) and Stationary wavelet Transform (SWT), then we are applying the wavelet filters on that super resolved image. For purpose of value part of the recently remade picture, for example, mean, variance, median, mode furthermore finding the MSE and PSNR.

  142. Lenilson F. Palheta, Pedro H. O. Simões, Glauco A. Nogueira, Ana E. A. Brito, Thays C. Costa, Vitor Resende, Jéssica T. S. Martins, Cândido F. Oliveira Neto, Walter V. D. Silvestre, Pablo R. F. Sousa and 1Benedito G. S. Filho

    The Bertholletia excels known as castanheira-do-brasil, this species is very exploited of the Amazon, with great importance in generating employment and income in the region. The aim in this research was to evaluate the biochemical responses of the species Bertholletiaexcelsa in water stress conditions. The experimental design was completely randomized with two treatments: irrigated and non-irrigated plants, with 9 plants each, considering each plant as a repetition, and these repeated treatments in 3 times (0, 5 and 9 days), totaling 27 plants per treatment. The condition of water deficit for nine days adversely affected the concentration of starch and total soluble proteins. The condition of water deficit for nine days, on the contrary, increased the total soluble carbohydrate concentrations, total soluble amino acids, sucrose and proline.

  143. Amenawo I. Offiong, Hycenth Okang Owui and Bassey Ina Ibor

    This study examined the impact of financial sector reforms on the Nigerian economy, utilizing annual time series data from 1987 to 2014. Financial reforms variables of interest rate, recapitalization, consolidation, credit to private sector, loans to deposit ratio and the ratio of non-performing loans were regressed on economic growth, represented by the gross domestic product. The data were analyzed using the Ordinary Least Squares (OLS) regression method. The results revealed that financial reforms, interest rate and the ratio of private sector credit to GDP have significant impact on economic growth in Nigeria. However, loans to deposit ratio and non-performing loans to total loans ratio showed negative relationships with Nigeria’s economic growth. Accordingly, the study recommends a regime of attractive interest rate on savings so as to attract more savings, leading to accumulation of large amount of savings for investment. Also, there should be a deliberate incentivization of credit to the private sector of the Nigerian economy in order to increase real sector investment that will grow the economy. Finally, the enforcement of effective risk management mechanism that moderates loans portfolio at risk to reduce non-performing loans, preserve depositors’ funds and maximize loan interest earnings to improve the profitability and stability of banks should be institutionalized (Word Count, 205).

  144. Phanindra Kumar, T., Murthy, D.S.R., Madhava Rao, V. and Rajesh, J.

    The receding glaciers, shrinking cover of natural forests, the rapid loss of biodiversity, the falling ground water levels, inter annual variation in rainfall, rising temperature, falling agricultural productivity, point to the destructing health of the ecosystems, not well known in the past. The Mangroves ecosystem on the Kakinada coast is not out of bounds for the same and experienced high rates of deforestation over period of time. Mangroves are a group of salt tolerant plant species, which occur in the tropical and subtropical initial estuary regions. Mangroves constitute a dynamic ecosystem with a complex association of both floral and faunal species of terrestrial and aquatic systems and the vegetation in this forest is of evergreen type. Mangrove forests, types of coastal ecosystems in tropical zone, play an important role not only for material of biogeochemical cycle but also for human demand and economic activities including aquaculture, fishing as well as improving local living standard. They perform many protective, productive and economic functions. Mangrove forests near estuarine areas act as a barrier against cyclones and mitigate their effects. They prevent storm water from entering the mainland and prevent soil erosion along the coastal areas. Mangrove wetlands serve as spawning and nursery grounds for many economically important estuarine/marine fishes and shellfishes; their impact on ecology is equally significant: they harbour many resident and migratory birds. Though the mangrove ecosystem is highly productive and has multiple uses, mangroves suffered serious neglect till very recently. They are undergoing widespread degradation due to a combination of physical, biological, anthropogenic and social factors. Human-induced stresses and factors - such as unscientific management practices, changes in water quality, soil salinity, diversion of fresh water upstream, and conversion of mangrove wetlands for aquaculture, salt pans and other land use practices - have reduced mangrove vegetation. Mangrove wetlands have also been degraded by indiscriminate destruction of mangrove resources and clear-felling of mangrove forest. Mangroves. It is being envisaged judicious and realistic land cover and land use change data in conservation planning, accurate and efficient techniques to detect mangroves ecosystem change from multi-temporal satellite imagery are desired for conservation optimally. In view of this scenario, a study was taken up in Kakinada coast, primarily to study changes in mangrove ecosystem, vegetation type, density and extent, analyze the extent of deforestation, identify the changes in density of vegetation and to understand the temporal changes. The study assessed the impact of various measures taken up to prevent, principally between 1996 to 2010. After geometric and atmospheric corrections, the satellite imageries were subsetted and subjected to hybrid classification in to 100 classes, grouped in to ten classes for calculating the aerial extent. NDVI was used to identify the changes in density of vegetation and the change matrix identified the variations in the land cover over period of time. DGPS was used for marking critical locations The mangrove distribution was made from investigation in situ or analyzing from remotely sensing images and GIS techniques. Monitoring the locations and distributions of Mangroves changes is important for establishing links between policy decisions, regulatory actions and subsequent land use activities. Planning plays a key role in the management of making best use of limited resources. Integrated use of GIS, Remote Sensing and Image processing technologies enable us to cope with the objectives of change detection.

  145. Samaila Crah Alkali, Gaiya Stephen and Aminu Kalip

    Histograms of lineament intersection lengths in the study area are positively skewed Variations in frequencies within their respective class intervals suggest that the stress intensity which gave birth to the lineaments are unequal. This is also true by the absence of lineaments within some class intervals. Directional lineaments’ intersection of the rose diagrams are mainly found in conjugate NE – SW and NW – SE orientations. Only small parts of the Kagoro hill area and associate rocks are covered by lineament intersections of high densities by drainage and satellite maps which suggest that they were produced mainly from shallow structural features associated with joints, stream and rivers. Magnetic and gravity maps present ideal images of lineament intersections, as high lineament intersections are located on the Kagoro Younger Granite outcrop and other rock exposures, which clearly indicate that they are derivatives of deep seated structures which could be linked to fractures and faults. A combined map of the four lineament sources expresses clearly the locations and trends of the Kagoro Younger Granite complex and its associate rocks. On this map, densely populated lineament intersections are located over outcropped rock units and trend in the same directions. Generally the two dimensional maps indicate the main structural features to be trending along the N – S, NE – SW, E – W and NW – SE directions, which is consistent with structural trends in the region and regional tectonic stress regimes and fractures in Nigeria.

  146. Kalshabayeva, B., Sadyrova, M., Eskekbaev, D. and Sarmurzina, N.

    Migration and adaptation of oralamns (Kazakh resettles from abroad) in Almaty region is the focus of the present paper. Since 1991 the number of Kazakh repatriates has steadily grown and now reached 1,000,000 people. Almaty region was and continue to be the main site of the oralmans over two decades. The authors highlight motives for resettling along with several stages in the process of oralmans migration to Kazakhstan. Migration raised a number of difficult questions including motives, which led people to leave their countries for independent Kazakhstan republic. The research of the repatriation became ground for authors’ assumption that first declared goals were realized in a way far from government’s plans. Main reasons affected processes of migration were: social structure of oralmans society, geographical factor, country of origin, cultural and economic factors. This is the main reason to select differentiate repatriates from ‘far abroad’ and “near abroad” countries. Hardships of the adaptation were caused by social-economic situation in Kazakhstan and states to emigrate from. During first decade most part of oralmans arrived at Kazakhstan from Mongolia, Iran, Afghanistan and Turkey to follow ten years later by migrants from Central Asia, i.e. Karakalpakstan, Uzbekistan. This group of migrants is characterized by “euphoria”, yearning for native land, while the first one’s preferences were to solve their economic troubles had experienced in home country. Sociological and ethnographic research was used to show peculiarities of adaptation processes.

  147. Neeraj Kumar Tyagi and Sunita Mishra

    Malnutrition is the manifestation of the inadequate or improper nutrition. The co-existence of under and over nutrition within the population is termed as dual burden of malnutrition. The emergence of the dual burden is a result of the nutrition transition along with epidemiological transition is underway in the populations. This phenomenon is not limited to upper-income developing countries, but is occurring across the globe in countries with very different cultures and dietary customs. Stuffed and starved both the extremes are responsible for dual burden paradox of under nutrition and obesity. Under nutrition and over nutrition co-exist in developing countries undergoing rapid nutrition transition, and women are susceptible to this double burden of "dysnutrition" often cumulating stunting or micronutrient malnutrition with obesity or other nutrition-related chronic diseases. Improving women's resources, including health, nutrition, education, and decisional power, is critical for equity and for the health of children and adults of future generations, since poor fetal and infancy nutrition is another risk factor for chronic diseases, in particular abdominal obesity, type 2 diabetes, hypertension, and cardiovascular disease. Addressing malnutrition and nutrition-related chronic diseases simultaneously is a challenge facing developing countries, and examples of promising initiatives are provided. Focusing on women along the lifecycle, according to the continuum of care approach, is essential to achieving the Millennium Development Goals and to breaking the intergenerational cycle of poverty, malnutrition, and ill-health.

  148. Gautam N. Ghadage and Ravindra K. Jagtap

    Test firing from unusual/unrifled/homemade firearm plays very important role in Forensic Ballistics. Single or double barrel breech loading countrymade firearms can be prepared. Unrifled firearms are imitation model of standard weapon. These firearms are manufacturing in some places of India. All country made/homemade/desi-katta/handgun designed to chambered appropriate diameter of cartridges. The body diameter of cartridge is smaller than the breech end diameter of barrel. Headspace of barrel is greater than the body diameter of cartridge, but rim diameter of rimmed cartridge always greater. If there is difference then, test firing problem arises. The Ballistics expert regularly test firing carried out. Test firing of each firearms were performed in the firing gallery. For test firing branded firing stand was employed. After test firing, test fired bullets recovered from firing box containing treated cotton. In this study, single barrel breech loading (SBBL) homemade handgun concerned. The headspace of barrel exactly chambered 8 mm rifle cartridge. Investigating Officer sent unrifled single barrel breech loading homemade firearm and 7.62 mm rimless long rifle cartridges. Test firing was performed by providing cotton thread at the cannular of 7.62 mm rifle cartridge.

  149. Impact of municipal solid waste disposal on groundwater in Mysuru city, India using Geographical Information System

    Mysuru city is among those cities that have been witnessing a drastic increase in urban areas and an inflow of population from its surrounding rural areas. The city has several well-known tourist attractions, which adds a good revenue to the city’s economy. These urbanization and tourism not only brings in prosperity to the city, but also the crisis of municipal solid waste management. The Mysuru City Corporation works hard to retain the title of the Cleanest City in India. The Land Use and Land Cover were assessed that clearly showed the development of settlement around the existing landfill site causing health hazards to the residents. To study the effects of the landfill site and several unauthorized disposal sites around the city on the groundwater resources, tools of Geographical Information System and Water Quality Index were used. The leachate formed from the MSW disposal sites drains down the soil, polluting both the soil and the groundwater. Groundwater quality were assessed based on certain chemical parameters & the standards prescribed by the Bureau of Indian Standards. The Inverse Distance Weighted method of spatial interpolation was applied to derive the groundwater quality for the study area based on the locations of the samples. To assess the quality of soil, samples were collected from in and around the landfill site. The environmental impact of the existing municipal solid waste landfill was found alarming and requires a new landfill site away from the inhabited areas.

  150. Trilok Nath Shukla

    The concept of shared value can be defined as policies and operating practices that enhance the competitiveness of a company while simultaneously advancing the economic and social conditions in the communities in which it operates. This concept was first introduced in Harvard Business Review article Strategy & Society: The Link between Competitive Advantage and Corporate Social Responsibility and further expanded in the January 2011 follow-up piece entitled Creating Shared Value: Redefining Capitalism and the Role of the Corporation in Society. The central premise behind creating shared value is that the competitiveness of a company and the health of the communities around it are mutually dependent. CSV acknowledges trade-offs between short-term profitability and social or environmental goals, but focuses more on the opportunities for competitive advantage from building a social value proposition into corporate strategy. The concept of shared value—which focuses on the connections between societal and economic progress—has the power to unleash the next wave of global growth. An increasing number of companies known for their hard-nosed approach to business—such as Google, IBM, Intel, Johnson & Johnson, Nestlé, Unilever, and Wal-Mart—have begun to embark on important shared value initiatives. But our understanding of the potential of shared value is just beginning. The concept of shared value blurs the line between for-profit and nonprofit organizations. New kinds of hybrid enterprises are rapidly appearing. For example, Water Health International, a fast-growing for-profit, uses innovative water purification techniques to distribute clean water at minimal cost to more than one million people in rural India, Ghana, and the Philippines. Its investors include not only the socially focused Acumen Fund and the International Finance Corporation of the World Bank but also Dow Chemical’s venture fund. Revolution Foods, a four-year-old venture-capital-backed U.S. start-up, provides 60,000 fresh, healthful, and nutritious meals to students daily—and does so at a higher gross margin than traditional competitors. So Companies must take the lead in bringing business and society back together. The recognition is there among sophisticated business and thought leaders, and promising elements of a new model are emerging. The solution lies in the principle of shared value, which involves creating economic value in a way that also creates value for society by addressing its needs and challenges. Businesses must reconnect company success with social progress. Shared value is not social responsibility, philanthropy, or even sustainability, but a new way to achieve economic success. It is not on the margin of what companies do but at the center. We believe that it can give rise to the next major transformation of business thinking. This paper seeks to examine the concept of shared value with respect to societal and economic progress. An effort is also made to suggest the ways to increase shared value.

  151. Dr. Paul Mansingh, J., Sasikumar, P. and Fikadu Abdise Erena

    Farmers are plagued by myriad issues such as timely and reliable access to farm inputs, access to markets, access to reliable information at the right time and cheap access to credit. The proliferation of mobile phones across the globe has impinged on agriculture in various ways. Mobiles are being used to help raise farmers’ incomes, making agricultural marketing more efficient, lowering information costs, reducing transport costs, and providing a platform to deliver services and innovate. The role of mobiles in enhancing food security and supporting rural livelihoods is increasingly being recognized and was officially endorsed at the World Summit on the Information Society (2003-2005). Several countries in Africa and Asia are now using mobiles for the dissemination of agricultural knowledge and information. Ethio Telecom currently provides mobile telephone service to approximately 50 million subscribers and aims to provide mobile telephone service to a total of 91 million subscribers, which is nearly double the number of current mobile users. Broadband internet data subscription will grow to 39 million from the current 1.46 million subscribers. Mobile internet data coverage will also grow from 8 million to 16.9 million users, while overall internet data coverage will grow to 10 per cent from the current 3.3 percentage. The most notable opportunity in Ethiopia is the presence of ICT infrastructure called the Woredanet that can be easily extended to reach most of the rural farmers and to further strengthen the research-extension-farmer linkage. The challenges of access to ICT can be divided into two: (i) access to ICT infrastructure and (ii) access to ICT services. The access to ICT infrastructure in Ethiopia is still very low despite some noticeable improvements registered in recent years. Damages on fibre optic cables and power interruptions are among the challenges the service provider faced in its expansion and network quality improvement efforts. However, the power of mobile phone technology in agriculture is its ability to catalyse a wide range of interventions that are core to transforming the sector.

  152. Jayanta Kumar Barman

    Sikkim is a part of inner mountain ranges of Himalayas and it is the 22nd state of India which came into existence with effect from 26th April, 1975. Sikkim is more colorful musically with the ritual culture of Nepali, Sikkkimese, Lepcha, Bhutiya Tamang, Limbu, Newar, Rai, Gurung, Manger, Sunwar etc. We can know the history, folk cultures and folklore through the songs and musical instruments of a particular community. Traditional music is very valuable culture due to the historical and cultural significance, but the modern musical forms and cultures are constructive and attractive, where the old forms of music are getting unattractive and unfashionable for thinking of general people. Traditional culture is the mirror of any community in the world. Through the music of any ethnic community we can get a particular identity of how the particular community is shaped. Limbus has many folk musical instruments and used in their own life cycle rituals, occasions, like -“Ke” or “Chyabrung”, “Negra”, “Penjekom”, “Murchunga”, “Chethya”, “Miklakom”, “Binayo” etc. Today their traditional music and musical instruments has been on the verge of extinction from our society. So it is the right time to feel to safeguard, promote and preserve the folk musical instruments for gift a strong history and heritage to the next generation. A preliminary introduction of the above mentioned instruments have been provided with.

  153. Dr. Neha Mehra and Dr. Promila Sharma

    Hospitality and tourism industry has emerged as one of the key drivers of growth among the services sector in India. Tourism in Uttarakhand is a potential game changer. It is a sun rise industry, an employment generator, a significant source of foreign exchange for the country and an economic activity that helps local and host communities. The hospitality and tourism industry is a major contributor to the economy of Uttarakhand. The sector also employs a high proportion of young workers and migrant workers. There are five main departments of hospitality and tourism industry i.e. front office, housekeeping, food production, food service and tours and travel. In order to achieve the objectives of the study descriptive cum experimental design was planned. The present study was carried out in Kamaun regions of Uttarakhand. Both purposive/convenient and snowball sampling techniques were used to select the study area and samples. A total of 200 workers were selected from kumaun regions of the Uttarakhand. There are various hospitality and tourism industry in uttarakhand but we selected almora, mukteshwar, binsar and lohaghat towns because of the need of the research. While comparing the data among different departments of hospitality industry, it was observed that among front office workers who were involved in official work, majority of the workers i.e. 80 per cent had reported pain/discomfort in shoulder, whereas workers of housekeeping department reported that problem occurred in elbow and upper back and in the food production department workers said that most affected body part were shoulders, neck, both wrist/hand and upper back. However, 50 per cent workers of tours and travel had reported that maximum pain/discomfort in both shoulders and wrists/hands and this may be due to lifting, loading and reloading etc. while on tour.

  154. Meeting challenges in farming suggestions offered by Neem tree owner farmers to Popularise Neem-an Indian perspective

    Neem is accredited today as an ecological alternative to many unhealthy practices followed by farmers. With input intensive farming adversities like pest resurgences, disease incidences and crop losses are escalating. The Role of neem is well established and it has much to offer in solving global agricultural, environmental and public health problems. The natural products of neem do not have any toxic reactions, so they are helpful in plant protection and eco-friendly management for sustainable agricultural development. Neem oil, neem fruit and its different by-products make efficient biopesticides, fungicides and organic manures. These products can help to construct a sustainable agricultural backbone for low-income group and developing countries with reasonably lower costs and ecological damages. In past many efforts have been undertaken by agricultural scientists to encourage such organic alternative neem based products among farmers for the control of various harmful pests. The present study was aimed to understand the extent of usage of neem based biopesticides by practising farmers and suggestions offered by neem tree owner farmers to popularise neem as system for meeting challenges in farming and presenting it as an Indian perspective. The most important suggestions given by neem tree owner farmers to popularize neem in agriculture in order of their importance were; create awareness about ill effects of chemical pesticides right from school level, need to give proper advertisement for various commercial formulations made of neem, need to promote environment friendly pest control measures etc.

  155. Morab, A. H. and Yadav, V. S.

    The study was conducted on influence of social support on mental health of elderly. The random sample consisted of 80 male and 80 female elderly was selected from Dharwad district in Karnataka state. The study emphasized on relationship between social support and mental health of elderly. Social support questionnaire developed by Heitzmann and Kaplan (1988) was used to assess the social support status of elderly and Mental health inventory by Jagdish and Srivastav (1983), was used to analyse the mental health status among elderly. Results revealed that Nearly 50 per cent of the elderly had very poor mental health status. Majority of elderly received support from 3-6 number of members. Social support and mental health were significantly related as a social support increased mental health status also increased among elderly.

  156. In-service EFL trainees’ attitude to oral presentation and assessment at Arba Minch university

    Attitude to oral presentation and its assessment is highly crucial in the acquisition of effective presentation skills. This is particularly more evident for teachers as they communicate with their students’ every time. In connection to this, teachers’ attitude to oral presentation and its assessment, and the association between these two variables were found felt gap. Accordingly, this study attempted to fill the void taking 140 summer and regular in-service trainees of year I and II enrolled for their M.A degree in Teaching English as Foreign Language /TEFL/ at Arba Minch University between 2014-2016 academic years. In order to obtain the participants’ attitude to oral presentation and assessment, questionnaire and semi-structured interview questions were used. To analyze the trainees’ attitude to oral presentation and assessment, frequency counts and percentages were employed. So as to see the association between the trainees’ attitude to oral presentation and assessment, the mean scores of attitude to oral presentation and assessment scales were tested. To do this, two-tailed Pearson product-moment correlation was employed. On the other hand, the data acquired from semi-structured interview were thematically analyzed qualitatively as verbal description to supplement the data obtained from questionnaire. In addition, patterns of the analyzed interview data were compared and contrasted in order to see the link between trainees’ attitude to oral presentation and assessment if any. The findings indicated that EFL trainees have favorable attitude to both oral presentation and assessment of oral presentation. Furthermore, strong and significant positive correlation was found between EFL trainees’ attitude to oral presentation and assessment of oral presentation.

  157. Shakti Pada Mandal and Krishnendu Gupta

    Water is a unique substance and it is essential for human beings and other animals as well as plants for survival. Agriculture requires vast quantity of water. Irrigation is an important factor for determining the water balance and cropping pattern of a region. Cultivated area determines the productivity of a land when it is facilitated by irrigation water, fertilizer, good quality seeds and other facilities. Kharif crops (Aman) are cultivated in the Monsoon season. A good rainfall produces bumper production and vice-versa. The Present study is confined on Simlapal block of Bankura District. The study has been taken keeping in view of the analyses focuses on the identification of net irrigated area (NIA) that provides a clear areal differentiation in case of net sown area (NSA), which also gives opportunity to future planners to establish more suitable irrigation system and agricultural development strategies.

  158. Seied Beniamin Hosseini and Dr. Mahesh, R.

    The Enron scandal, give out in October 2001, Enron Top officials abused their privileges and power, manipulated information put their own interests above those of their employees and the public and failed to exercise proper oversight or shoulder responsibility for ethical failings which eventually led to the bankruptcy of an American energy company based in Houston, Texas, and the dissolution of Arthur Andersen, which was one of the five largest audit and accountancy partnerships in the world. In addition to being the largest bankruptcy reorganization in American history at that time, Enron undoubtedly is the biggest audit failure. It is one of companies which fell down too fast. This paper will analyze the reason for this event in detail including the management, conflict of interest and accounting fraud. Meanwhile, it will make analysis the moral responsibility From Individuals’ Angle and Corporation’s Angle. Therefore, this paper will prove that the bankruptcy of the Enron was because of managerial scandal for the self benefit than shareholder’s benefit of this company.

  159. Exploring the relationship between parent’s socioeconomic status and student academic performance in urban primary schools of Bhutan

    The research aimed to explore the relationship between Parents’ Socioeconomic Status (education level, income level and marital status) and the student academic performance in the urban primary schools of Bhutan. 408 urban student’s parents were selected as sample through multistage random sampling method. One-way ANOVA statistics was employed to test for statistical significant differences among the observed sample means of student academic performance based on parent’s socioeconomic status. The results indicated that there were statistical significant differences in student academic performance based on parent’s income level; the student academic performance of the parents with high income is higher than those with middle and low income, while there were no statistical significant differences in the student academic performance based on parent’s education level and marital status.

  160. Dr. K. Vanitha

    Higher education system of a country plays a significant role in the creation of skilled human resources. In the emerging scenario of knowledge based on society across the globe, India is well placed with potential brains needed for the revolutionary changes. The New Education Policy of India considered that, “Expenditure on Education is nothing but investment which in turn has a multiplier effect on the utilization of other resources”. Educational expenditure and investment in human being results in enhanced future output. While giving education, parents expect that this expenditure will help increase the life time earning of their children or education will help them to be better human beings. According to the parents’ expectation the expenditure is either investment or consumption. As investment education serves as a means of making one more productive. When the expenditure on education is made with a view to having more moral and human vales, then education becomes consumption.

  161. Arvind Solanki

    The study is based on the investigation of malaria status among Bharia tribe. Bharia tribe is mainly resided in patalkot valley of Chhindwara district. Geographically the patalkot valley is situated from 22.24 to 22.29 ° North and 78.43 to 78.50° and spread over an area of 79 square kilometer. The valley is horse-shoe shaped and surrounded by giant hills and forests give suitable environment for mosquitoes breeding. Malaria disease spreads by the bites of an infected female Anopheles mosquito. Fever, shivering, aches, and pain in the joints and headache are the early symptoms of malaria. This study is based on secondary data collection from PHCs, District malaria office and their analysis.

  162. Sujoy Kumar Jana, Tingneyuc Sekac and Dilip Kumar Pal

    Tropical countries suffer the largest death tolls from the vector borne diseases like Malaria. The Malaria parasites are carried by the female anopheles mosquito. Tropical countries, being located in equatorial region normally have hot humid climate, the ideal breeding ground for such vector borne diseases. Papua New Guinea is one of those countries in tropical region where malaria happens to be the most dreaded disease. Malaria infection is transmitted from human to human through mosquito bite when a female anopheles mosquito has to complete their reproductive life cycle by sucking human blood. The paper tries to identify the possible geographical features or the input factors and then integrates them into the composite mapping units. Finally these units pinpoints the possible areas of different proneness for malaria in Morobe province of Papua New Guinea. GIS and remote sensing technology are basically used here for spatial analysis with a view to identifying various degrees of risk areas for malaria. Several factors responsible for attracting the vectors were identified and investigated using GIS and remote sensing and these are; elevation of the study area from mean sea level, distance from breeding site, slope factor, vulnerability index and Land use land cover type of the study area. Multi criteria evaluation (MCE) and AHP technique was attempted in GIS environment for assessing these factors’ contribution to malaria diseases in the Morobe province and the risk areas were identified and mapped with the aid of on MCE.

  163. Dragan Popovic, Evagelia Boli, Ankica Hosek-Momirovic, Milos Popovic, Vladimir Savic and Jasna Popovic

    Objectives: The research aimed to determine the structure of functional abilities of folk dancers. Methods: In order to determine the structure of functional abilities, 100 dancers of the Academic Folk Ensemble "Oro" of the Student Cultural Center of Nis were tested. The dancers ranged in chronological age from 18 to 27 years. The average dancing experience of the dancers was 8 years, while the continuous multi-year training process implied three sessions per week. For the assessment of functional variables, systolic (FBPSYS) and diastolic (FBPDIA) blood pressures were measured. Pulse rate at rest (FPURE) was determined by palpating the respondents` carotid artery after their 15-minute rest in a sitting position, and the number of beats in 15 seconds was multiplied by 4. Thus obtained frequency per minute was taken for processing. All the data in this study were processed at the Multidisciplinary Research Center of the Faculty of Sport and Physical Education, University of Pristina through the system of data processing software programs DRSOFT developed by Popovic, D. (1980), (1993) and Momirovic, K. & Popovic, D. (2003). Results: Pulse frequency during physical exertion (FPUEX) was measured in the sixth minute of riding a cycle ergometer. Maximal values of oxygen uptake VO2max, (FO2LM) and (FO2ML), or absolute and relative values, were determined by Astrand`s indirect method (Zivanic et al., 1999). Conclusions: The factor structure of functional abilities was analyzed on the basis of all the information provided by a matrix of significant principal components (Table 1). Based on the Guttman measure6, three characteristic roots (three latent variables) which explained 83.08% of the common variance were obtained.

  164. Dragan Popovic, Evagelia Boli, Ankica Hosek-Momirovic, Milos Popovic, Vladimir Savic and Jasna Popovic

    By means of sequential application of a taxonomic neural network, in a random sample of 1,730 male respondents aged from 18 to 50 years described as having emotional responding under war conditions typical of psychopaths, a set of 543 (31.4%) respondents was identified as a tax on of subjects with psychopathic emotional reaction pattern predominantly determined by the reaction of anger.161 (9.3%) of them participated in the war provoked by ΝΑΤΟ intervention. With respect to psychological characteristics of psychopaths in general, and especially their response characteristics in frustrating situations, it has been concluded that there is a likelihood, significantly different from zero, that some of them will do acts contrary to the laws and customs of war because, in situations characteristic of civil war, it is objectively impossible to control their behavior.

  165. Dr. Loida F. Tungao

    The study was primarily designed to assess the learning preferences and the academic performance of the working college students of Batangas State University – Malvar Campus. Specifically, the researcher first identified the profile of the respondents in terms of sex, year level, college/department, parents’ educational attainment, monthly family income, college/department and type of work. In addition, the respondents’ General Weighted Average from the previous semester was obtained to describe their academic performance. Likewise, their learning preferences were assessed along diverging, converging, assimilating and accommodating learning. On the other hand, significant differences on the respondents learning preferences were tested when grouped according to their profile as well as the significant relationship that existed between their learning preference and their academic performance. This has an end view of stipulating the implication of the findings of the study to the administrators of Batangas State University. The researcher utilized a total of 150 college working students coming from the different colleges of the university. The descriptive method of research was employed so as to fulfill the objective of the study. A self-constructed questionnaire which gone thorough validation served as the main tool in data gathering. Statistical treatments applied the gathered data include frequency and percentage, rank, weighted mean, T-test and Chi – square. Based on the results, majority of the respondents were females, with 4 – 6 siblings, with monthly family income of 5, 000.00 and below, their parents were mostly high school graduates, in the fourth year already and they are working as crew in restaurants and fast food chains. In addition, the working student – respondents assessed that they preferred diverging, converging, assimilating and accommodating learning styles. Meanwhile, it was found that most of the working – student respondents obtained very satisfactory academic performance. On the other hand, there were no significant relationships noted between the learning preferences of the respondents such as diverging, converging, assimilating and accommodating when correlated with their academic performance. As to the test for difference, there was significant difference observed when the learning preferences of the respondents was compared according to their sex. On the contrary, when the learning preferences were compared according to the respondents’ year level, college/department, parents’ educational attainment, monthly family income, college/department and type of work, significant differences were noted. Moreover, the analysis of data disclosed that the most common problems encountered by the working students were time management, having no time to join school – clubs, having less time with classmates and friends and to attend to extra –curricular activities and having less time to study and pass their assignments. Based on the findings and conclusions of the study, the following recommendations are hereby given: the administration of the university may find ways on how they can employ their students inside the campus so that they will no longer work outside the school. They can do this by hiring more student assistants who can work for the university. They may provide as well more scholarship programs that can help unprivileged students to continue college education without having the need to work; the teachers may consider the learning preferences of the working students. They may create or design activities which are suited the preferred learning of styles of the respondents; given the reality that there are students who really depend on their work so that they can continue college education; the College of Arts and Sciences may provide the students seminar on time management as this was found to be the greatest problem of the working students. Through this, the college working students may know how to balance their time between school and work; the parents of these working students are encouraged to provide their children financial needs so that these students could focus with their studies; the different colleges where these working student – respondents belong may consider the schedule of the students. The students should be given chance and freedom to choose the schedule fitted to them provided that they will have proof of working.

  166. Marwanto

    Bali is one of the famous tourism destinations in the world. It offers not only the beauty of its natural resources, but also the uniqueness of its culture. Development of economic in Bali is also shown through the marketing activities conducted in tourism sector. People marketing the natural resources and the result of human culture and to create tourism products on regional and community activities. This article aims to discuss the impacts of Tourism in the cultural perspective and the tourism arrangements in the cultural dimensions towards sustainable tourism. This article uses normative legal research that applies statutory, concept of law and comparative approaches. Paradise attracts tourists, at the same time the tourists undermine the paradise. One example of positive impacts of tourism in Bali is it has major contribution both to the central and local government of Bali. Meanwhile the negative impacts (including social impacts) are the life orientation of the people has shifted from efforts of pursuing "peace of life 'in the direction of looking for the" pleasures of life", the constantly evolving "touristic culture"’, shift in the population employment sector from agriculture to non-agricultural sectors, and the emergence of a competitive qualities, leaving the communal values (menyamabraya or mutual assistance). The arrangement of tourism in cultural dimensions towards sustainable tourism has been realized in the form of legislation: Law on Tourism and other related laws, as well as at the provincial level has been established several Provincial Regulation of Bali, including regulated also in the Regional Medium Term Development Plan and the Regional Long Term Development Plan. It seems that developing what so called “CBT” (Community Based Tourism) that fully supported by the Government can be one solution to this issue.

  167. Elham M. Al-Oraij and Asmaa Alsuwayed

    Whistleblowing became the center of attention since the 1980s and is still understudy until today. In this paper the author introduces whistleblowing on the group level with the concept of collective whistleblowing intention. Combining the findings of Gao, Greenberg and Wong-On-Wing (2015) whistleblowing intentions of lower-level employees with Henningsen and Henningsen (2014) preliminary examination of perception of social influences. The paper model combining the two findings, proposes similar results to the individual model with some modification. Some possible uses of this paper findings are presented lastly.

  168. Tong-Hsien Chow and Yih-Shyuan Chen

    Context: The arch is an anatomical structure of the foot which influences movements of the lower limbs and causes changes in plantar pressure distributions. Plantar pressure measurement is the effective method for assessing plantar loading and can be applied to evaluating movement performance of the foot. Objective: The purpose of this study is to explore the badminton players’ plantar loading characteristics and pain profiles in static standing. Methods: Experiments were undertaken on twenty elite badminton players (EB), twenty-four subelite badminton players (SB) and twenty-eight non-athletes (controls). ‘JC Mat’, the optical plantar pressure measurement, was applied to examining all subjects’ arch index (AI), plantar pressure distributions (PPD), and footprint characteristics. Pain assessment and self-reported health status were undertaken for evaluating the badminton players’ common pain locations. Results: Findings from the control group, the AI fell into the normal range. The badminton players’ arch type was classified as high-arched feet. PPD at the lateral longitudinal arch and the lateral heel of both feet, and the medial heel of the left foot was significantly higher in the badminton players, particularly the EB, than in the controls. PPD at the lateral metatarsal bone of both feet was significantly lower in the badminton players than in the controls. Compared with the SB, the EB had lower PPD in the lateral metatarsal bone of both feet. Footprint characteristics supported the results of the AI and PPD, and this reflected the corresponding pressure profiles. The badminton players’ lateral ankle and knee joints and gastrocnemius were the most common pain locations. Conclusion: The badminton players’ AI and PPD were generally classified as high-arched supinators, and their pain profiles paralleled the symptoms of foot supination. The findings reflected the possible link between badminton injuries and supinated feet, and the correlation is worth further studies.

  169. Anchal Garg, Sushil K. Tyagi and Prodyut Bhattacharya

    Globally different countries in the world use environmental risk assessment as a tool to evaluate the toxicity of a pollutant in the environment. Health risk assessment is done to evaluate the possible adverse health effects of benzene on human health. The concentration of benzene was measured at two locations in Delhi, a global city, during 2011-2015.The cancer risk in ambient air of Delhi was calculated at CEXPavg, CEXP50, and CEX90. From the year 2011 to 2015 at CEXPavg and CEXP50 cancer risk varies from 1.71 to 9.26 per 106 and at CEXP90 cancer risk varies from 3.9 to 24.12 per 106 which were higher in comparison with mean and median concentrations. The cancer risk calculated in this study is comparable with the studies conducted in Kolkata, India and few other European countries. The annual average exposure concentration of benzene ranges from 3.02 µg/m3 in 2015 to 16.3 µg/m3 in 2011.The mean value found in 2015 was less than National Ambient Air Quality Standards (NAAQS) of benzene i.e. 5µg/m3.Our study revealed that there is a decrease in the level of benzene from 2011 to 2015 at two locations in Delhi which may be attributed to the implementation of Auto Fuel Policy 2003, by the Government in reducing benzene contents in the gasoline from the source and subsequent environmental measures in Delhi.

  170. Central Asian Republic has immense economic significance for India. The growth of the Indian economy creates an ever-growing demand for energy and natural resources to fuel and maintain the momentum of our growth. The discovery of large reserves of hydrocarbons and other resources required for sustaining economic growth makes the Central Asian region immensely attractive for forging a mutually beneficial cooperative relationship. Although India acknowledges Central Asian Region as an area of economic and strategic importance a quantum jump is required in developing trade, commerce and energy ties. The paper attempts to analyse both economic interests and prospects in energy sector.

  171. Uday Pratap Singh

    In 2008, the EU and India for the first time showed their willingness ‘to work for peace and comprehensive security’. It was known as Joint Action Plan which did conceptualize ‘Non-Traditional Security’ (NTS) though it was regarded as part of comprehensive security. Nevertheless, elements of NTS have been part of the bilateral relationship for years. The paper will analyse how this concept of ‘non-traditional security’ should be understood; what are the limitation and what impact such limits may have on bilateral relations. Also attempt may be made to evaluate what has be done in this multifaceted field, and identifies such issues which raises specific challenges. As such it is necessary to examine the broader Asian and global context before defining the scope for enhancing Indo-EU cooperation.

  172. Raghvendra Pratap Singh

    Indo-French space cooperation has remained an important issue for many years among the scholars and strategic experts since independence. France was committed to overalls development in India’s science and technological field. From 1947 to 1991 France remained India’s friend and not an ally. As a result relationship reached new heights. When India’s exploded nuclear explosion France did not commented but rather signed strategic partnership with India. Under this coverage both the countries came together and collaborated in the field of space research. The paper is an attempt of better and cooperative understanding between India and France in the realm of space technological development.

  173. Diego Nicolau Follmann, Maicon Nardino, Ivan Ricardo Carvalho, Mauricio Ferrari, Alan Junior de Pelegrin, Vinícius Jardel Szareski, Gustavo Henrique Demari, Tiago Olivoto, Cleiton Antônio Wartha, Alberto Cargnelutti Filho, Velci Queiróz de Souza

    The current competitive agriculture drives the plant breeders to select genotypes with greater yield potential and responsive to environmental improvements. This targeted selection often does not prioritize the resistance of genotypes against pathogens as the main factor, but agronomic traits that influence greater yield potential. This targeting on the most yield potential of plants is sustained largely by the use of fungicides. However, the frequent use of fungicides causes the selection of pathogens with great aggression potential, endangering agricultural production and creating the necessity of strategies that enable reducing the fungicide use dependence. Genetic resistance, pyramiding resistance genes, and plant defense that involves the activation of defense mechanisms are strategies that help the plant defense against pathogens attack. The objective of this review was to address some of the principal biochemical plant defense mechanisms against pathogens and report some agronomic strategies that are currently reported in the literature to provide plant defense support facing pathogens. Among alternatives to fungicide use, induced systemic resistance in crops is a feasible alternative and current studies are contributing to this new reality.

  174. Mohammed Ahmed

    Reliability of electric power delivery system is a critical issue in order to make a continuously available sufficient voltage, of satisfactory quality, to meet the consumer's' needs. The paper studies about the reliability analysis of Arba Minch distribution system using different index parameters. In the city electricity is highly affected by a continuous power interruption and outage from the main grid. The reliability indexes such as SAIFI, SAIDI, CAIDI, and ASAI parameters has been analyzed based on power interruption frequency and duration data. The reliability of Arba Minch city is poor so EEPCO should take different mechanisms of improving the power availability hours and reduce interruption frequency and duration.

  175. Dr. Vaneet Kaur Sandhu, Dr. Upender Sharma, Dr. Navtej Singh and Dr. Arun Puri

    Background: The ultrasound guided fine needle aspiration cytology has become optimal procedure to establish tissue diagnosis for discrete hepatic masses for their appropriate management. Aims: To study detailed cytomorphological features of hepatic aspirates and to correlate them with clinical, serum Alpha fetoprotein levels as well with radiological findings in order to distinguish benign from malignant and further to differentiate primary carcinoma from metastases. Material and Methods: This was a prospective study over period of two and half years,(January 2013 to July 2015) comprising of 150 patients with liver space occupying lesions who underwent ultrasound guided FNA. FNAC was performed under ultrasound guidance using a 21-23 guage lumbar puncture needle, fitted to a 20 ml disposable syringe attached to metallic syringe holder.1-3 passes were made to get adequate aspirates. Direct air dired smears were prepared for May Grunwald Giemsa and few smears were immediately fixed in 95% alcohol for Haematoxylin and Eosin stain. Special cytochemical stains such as Periodic acid Schiff and Ziehl Neilson were done as and when required. The stained FNA smears were examined by two cytopathologists and were categorized as satisfactory and unsatisfactory for evaluation Results: Out of 150 aspirates 10 aspirates were considered unsatisfactory for evaluation. Out of remaining 140 patients 110 were male and 30 were female. The male to female ratio was 3.6:1. The age of patients ranged from 25 to 80 years and mean age was 55 years. Neoplastic lesions (86.66%) of liver were more common than non neoplastic lesion and further metastatic deposits (66.6%) were more frequent than primary HCC (20%). Serum AFP levels were raised in HCC. HBsAg and HCV antibody positivity was observed in 70% and 6.6% cases of HCC respectively.HCC presented with solitary space occupying lesion in 76.66% patients and as multiple SOL in 33.33% cases. Among the cytomorphological features the presence of predominant trabecular pattern with transgressing vessels (70%), endothelial wrapping (20%), intracytoplasmic bile in tumor cells (33.33%), scattered atypical nuclei (88.33%) and high N/C ratio (86.66%) were the most important features which helped in distinguishing HCC from metastasis. Conclusion: The present study emphasized on stepwise algorithmic approach to fine needle aspiration diagnosis of hepatic lesions with close coorelation of clinicoradiological and serum AFP with cytomorphological features.

  176. Deepa Ganesh, Nivedita Goverdhan, Venkatesan Guru and Natesh Bala

    Torsion of an adnexal cyst, especially ovarian, is an important cause of acute abdomen. However, isolated torsion of a fimbrial cyst is a rare event. Being difficult to detect on imaging, diagnosis is usually established only after surgery. Here, we present the case of a 43 year old female with fimbrial cyst torsion, which presented as an acute abdomen.

  177. Sameer Patil, Dinesh Nikhate and Rahul Dighe

    Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is the most common sleep-related breathing disorder with periodic reduction or cessation of airflow during sleep. It is associated with loud snoring, disrupted sleep and observed apneas with prevalence up to 54% in elderly people. Treatment of OSA varies from simple measures such as dental appliances and nasal continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) to surgical procedures like Uvulopalatopharyngoplasty and tracheostomy. Dental appliances are a viable nonsurgical treatment alternative in patients with OSA, of which mandibular advancement appliances are most common. A Class II patient with retruded mandible contributes to the worsening of OSA is considered an indication to oral appliance therapy. This clinical report describes the treatment of a 32-year old Class II OSA patient for whom a modified mandibular advancement appliance was designed. The patient reported an improvement in AHI index and he was satisfied with the modified appliance.

  178. Sureshkumar, R., Karuppaiah, P., Rajkumar, M. and Sendhilnathan, R.

    A study on influence of graded levels of nitrogen and phosphorus on growth and yield of bitter gourd ecotype ‘mithipagal’ under rice fallow of cauvery delta region was carried out in the faculty of Agriculture, Annamalai university, Tamilnadu The experiment comprised of twelve treatment combinations having the four levels of nitrogen (0, 30, 60 and 90 kg ha-1) and three levels of phosphorus (0, 15 and 30 kg ha-1) under factorial randomized block design with four replications. Potassium @ 30 kg ha-1 was applied in all treatments as constant dose except the control. Among the graded levels, N3P2 (nitrogen 90 kg ha-1 + phosphorus 30 kg ha-1) registered the maximum values in growth parameters viz., vine length, number of branches plant-1, number of leaves plant-1. However, it was closely followed by N2P2. Regarding the yield attributes, the treatment combination N3P2 showed the maximum values in fruit weight, fruit yield plant-1 (1.21 kg) and fruit yield ha-1 (16.03 t). However, it was on par with N2P2 which registered the fruit yield plant-1 (1.19 kg) and fruit yield ha-1 (15.71 t). The maximum net returns and returns per Rupee invested were recorded with the application of N2P2 which was followed by N3P2.

  179. Rajkumar, M., Karuppaiah, P., Sendhilnathan, R. And Sureshkumar, R.

    “An inve“Breeding potential of snake gourd (Trichosanthes anguina L.) genotypes using D2 analysis” was carried out in the Department of Horticulture, Faculty of Agriculture, Annamalai University, Tamil Nadu. The parents from diversified genotypes in snake gourd were evaluated for fruit yield per plant, yield attributing characters and quality traits with the objective of selecting superior genotypes for heterosis breeding. The characters observed were days to first male and female flower opening, number of fruits per plant, fruit length, fruit girth, flesh thickness, single fruit weight, fruit yield per plant, number of seeds per fruit, Vitamin C and acidity content of fruit. The degree of divergence among 40 genotypes was computed using D2 analysis. The results revealed that the genotype G27 followed by G2, G29, G5 and G12 expressed the maximum fruit yield per plant. High PCV, GCV and genetic advance as per cent of mean were observed among the genotypes for most of the traits studied except days to first male flower opening and acidity content of fruit. Among the 40 genotypes studied, the genotypes were grouped into eight clusters. Among 40 diversed genotypes, the cluster I consists the maximum number of 23 genotypes. The traits namely single fruit weight, fruit length, number of fruits per plant, number of seeds per fruit and fruit girth contributed more to the fruit yield per plant.

  180. Sendhil Nathan, R., Karuppaiah, P., Rajkumar, M. and Suresh Kumar, R.

    An investigation was carried out to find the effect of integrated weed management on growth, flowering and leaf yield in Periwinkle at medicinal plants unit, Department of Horticulture, Faculty of agriculture, Annamalai university, Annamalainagar. This study was conducted in randomized block design with three replication of 12 treatments with and without the combination of three herbicides viz., Alachlor 1.5 kg ha-1, Pendimethalin 1.5 kg ha-1 and Fluchlorin 1.5 kg ha-1, sugarcane trash mulching @ 12 t ha-1 and hand weeding on 45, 90 and 120 days after planting. The growth parameters viz., plant height (92.18 cm), number of branches plant-1 (14.68), number of leaves (565.96) and leaf area (21.82 cm2). The flower and leaf yield parameters viz., number of flowers (59.44), fresh leaf yield per plant (113.70 g), total fresh leaf yield per plant (331.70 g), fresh leaf yield per plot (22111.12 g), fresh leaf yield per hectare (36851.87 kg), total chlorophyll content (0.499 mg g-1), crop dry matter production (66.43 g plant-1) were registered to be the highest in the treatment T12. From the experiment, application of Fluchlorin @ 1.5 kg ha-1 along with sugarcane trash mulching @ 12 t ha-1 and two hand weeding on 45 and 90 DAT could adjudged as the best treatment in improving the growth and leaf yield of periwinkle.

  181. Sendhilnathan, R., Suresh, V., Rajkumar, M. and Sureshkumar, R.

    An experiment was undertaken to analyze the influence of organic nutrients and humic acid on fruit yield and alkaloid content of Thudhuvalai (Solanum trilobatum L.) in randomized block design replicated thrice with 13 treatments. Four different organic manures such as Farm yard manure @15, 17.5 and 20 t ha-1, vermicompost @ 2.5, 2.75 and 3 t ha-1, Coir pith compost @ 2.5, 2.75 and 3 t ha-1 t ha-1, Poultry manure @ 2.5, 2.75 and 3 t ha-1 along with Humic acid @ 0.1, 0.2, 0.3 per cent as foliar spray were studied under. The fruit yield parameters viz., number of flowers, number of fruits, fruit yield and alkaloid content were registered to be the highest in the treatment with application of Vermicompost (3 t ha-1) + Humic acid @ 0.3 per cent. Among the treatments, Vermicompost (3 t ha-1) along in addition with humic acid @ 0.3 per cent were found to be the best in increasing the fruit yield and alkaloid content in Thudhuvalai.

  182. Ananya Adak, Bidisha Paul and Angsuman Chanda

    Present study is a survey work done on the indigenous technology adapted and designed by the village people for fish harvesting from their nearby aquatic bodies to compensate their daily protein requirement as well as their livelihood. Present study reveals that the indigenous technology of fish harvesting in Paschim Medinipur has mainly been categorized into three heads namely hooks, nets and traps. All these technologies are very ecofriendly and causing no environmental hazards. But these technology needs revision for sustainability of utilization of small indigenous fish fauna of the study area.

  183. Pranita Mishra and Angsuman Chanda

    The idea of the present research work was originated from a fish poaching event in a remote tribal dominated village of Paschim Medinipur located in Block, Gopiballavpur – I, where the fish fauna of a pond was totally destroyed due to application of a plant twig locally known as Palash. The name of the plant was collected by the second author from a tribal community of the village Singdhuee of the said block. The Plant part for experiment was collected from forest and identified by plant taxonomist as Butea monosperma. During the present study experiment was designed to isolate the toxic part of the plant materials and the toxicity has been measured for both the crude material as well as the supernatant extract of the plant materials. The entire experiments have been performed on Channa gachua as test organism. LC50 value of the plant toxicant on Channa gachua has been assayed.

  184. Sharma, P.P., Mahesh Sharma and Mukesh Vyas

    A field experiment was conducted during kharif season 2015 to estimate the correlations and path coefficients for ten quantitative characters among 30 cowpea germplasm. Number of pods per plant, number of flowers per plant, test weight, number of clusters per plant, harvest index and number of primary branches per plant due to their direct high positive association with seed yield. The trait days to maturity had negative and non-significant correlation with seed yield per plant. Path analysis revealed that, seed yield per plant can be improved practicing selection for harvest index, number of pods per plant, number of primary branches per plant, test weight and plant height as they contributed directly to the seed yield per plant as revealed from path analysis. It indicated the possibilities of simultaneous improvement of these traits by selection. This in turn, will improve the seed yield, since they are positively correlated with the seed yield.

  185. Rajikkannu, M. and Nirmala Natarajan

    Bacillus sp., generally regarded as safe, has emerged as a robust organism that can withstand adverse environmental conditions and grows easily to very high densities. Tolerance and resistance to acidic pH, high osmotic concentration of NaCl, and bile salts were tested in broth medium. A probiotic bacterium isolated from the gut of Indian major carp Labeo rohita rendered maximum antagonistic activity against Aeromonas hydrophila pathogen and nutritive value were also tested. They were B. flexus (M3) and B. megaterium (M5) and their characteristics were as given below. B. flexus (M3) showed a higher capacity to grow even at 40°C with alkaline- pH 7. It also recorded higher nutrient value in all the biochemical parameters. B. flexus (M3) showed maximum inhibitory zone of 22 mm in well diffusion method and 16 mm in disc diffusion method against B. megaterium (M5).

  186. Sudhakar Malla, Selvam Arjunan, Sanjana, W.K., Anu John, B., Gunna Vidyanandh and Shriramwar Yogesh Gajanan

    Hair loss is one the dermatological disorder, estimated to effect nearly 2% of the worlds population. The problem of hair loss, greying of hair in young age is normally caused due to exposure to pollution, pesticides, imbalanced nutrition, altered gene expression and also harmful chemicals that are present in dermatological products. The present study was aimed to evaluate the expression of SGS1 gene which is homologue to human WRN and BLM gene that plays an important role in hair follicle development. The hair growth activity was studied by treating the yeast cells with herbal extracts (Eclipta alba and Ficus Bengalensis prop roots) and simultaneously inducing the cells to stress by organopesticides to investigate the inhibitory action of the herbal extracts on yeast cells. The cell viability and antioxidant assays were performed for the herbal extracts where significant results were observed in ethanol and methanol fractions. The expression of SGS1 gene was studied using RT-PCR, where the expression of the gene was found to be lowered in case of yeast cells treated with pesticides whereas the gene expression was found to be more in yeast cells that were treated with pesticides and herbal extracts. However further study at protein level is needed to conform the activity with the pure extract.

  187. Kiran, H.R., Kishore V.P., Dr. Puttaraju, H.P. and Ashwini, S.

    The Wolbachia is a maternally inherited, gram negative, obligate, intracellular proteobacteria which is found in number of invertebrates, except in the silkworm. To understand the Wolbachia-hosts interaction and molecular mechanism by which Wolbachia would interfere with viral replication,This symbiotic Wolbachia bacterium was isolated from RML-12 Aedes albopictus cells and was transfected into silkworm ovarian cell lines (DZNU Bm-12) maintained under in vitro standard conditions. The infection level was determined by PCR assay. None of the 1 to 40th passage showed infection in the silkworm. However, the techniques helped in understanding the incompatibles involved in non-infection of Wolbachia in silkworm. This study has opened out the scope for further assessment on the compatible factors.

  188. Jahanara Akter Keya

    In the study, we investigate extensively the levels, trends and differentials of nutritional status of the ever-married women in Bangladesh. To carry out the task fruitfully we have extracted 15,882 women for analyzing nutritional status from nationally representative Bangladesh Demographic and Health Survey 2011. The findings of this study reveal that the mean Body Mass Index of ever-married women in Bangladesh is 21.54±3.94 kg/m2 with considerable variations by background characteristics of the respondents considered in this study. Patterns of BMI over the time points reflect that the mean BMI is increasing 0.68 in every four years beginning from 1996. Under the study, the prevalence of underweight women is still very high with 23.6 % in our country though it is decreasing 7.16 percent in every four years. The result of the study shows that only 58.5 percent women are healthy. The women having overweight is also rapidly increasing over time, which is frightening in Bangladesh in the context of health ground. The prevalence of overweight is observed to be 17.9 percent and the overweight is increasing 4.4 percent in every four years beginning from 2004. Even though undernourishment are still remains the dominant phenotype for women of reproductive age in Bangladesh. The findings show that there is a steady increase of the prevalence of overweight and thus establishes the existence of double burden of malnutrition in both rural and urban poor areas of Bangladesh. In Bivariate and multinomial logistic regression analyses, the variables living environment, geographical region, respondent education, respondent working status, husband’s education, husband’s occupation, access to mass media, socio economic status, food security status, and decision making autonomy have found significant association as well as effect on nutritional status of women in Bangladesh. The insights obtained from this research work represent “A healthy mother is the symbol of a healthy nation”.

  189. Surbhi Jain, P. B. Singh and P. P. Sharma

    Correlation and path co-efficient analysis were carried out for pod yield and its component characters in 24 genotypes of groundnut. The genotypic correlation coefficients were found to be of relatively higher magnitude than the corresponding phenotypic correlation coefficients, indicating strong inherent association between the characters. Pod yield per plant displayed significant positive association with kernel yield per plant, mature pods per plant and plant height. Path co-efficient analysis revealed high direct effects of kernel yield per plant, plant height and matured pods per plant on pod yield per plant. Hence, it would be rewarding to give due importance on the selection of these characters for rapid improvement in pod yield of groundnut.

  190. Sara Mascaretti, Francesco Arrigoni, Carlo Masciocchi, Giulio Mascaretti and Eva Fascetti

    Background: Patients who are eligible candidates for the MRgFUS treatment for single and multiple uterine fibroids have been included thanks to the use of the shielding gel, that protects the sacrum from the heat produced by ultrasounds and it creates a bigger distance between the uterus and the last section of the sacrum. Methods: From October 2011 to June 2016, 60 patients aged between 23 and 53 suffering from single and multiple uterine fibroids sized between 1.5 and 14 cm underwent MRgFUS treatment without any inconvenience on the spinal nerves roots and bone thanks to the use of the intrarectal gel. Results: 60 patients have been treated with MRgFUS. 10% of it showed an excessive proximity to the sacrum that wouldn’t allow them to underwent the treatment and 6.5% of them showed a distance between skin and fibroids of more than 14 cm. Thanks to the intrarectal gel, these exclusion criteria have been overtaken and solved. Conclusions: This method allows an almost complete access to the MRgFUS treatment in those cases where the excessive proximity of the fibrotic growth to the vertebral column would have caused the exclusion from the protocol. Furthermore, no damage to the surrounding structures have been observed.

  191. Dr. Vaidya, S. M. and Dr. Kulkarni Pratibha, V.

    AcharyaCharaka divides methods of gaining knowledge in to three categories as 1. Adhyayana – method of study, 2. Adhyapana – method of teaching, 3.TadvidyaSambhasha – (seminars / symposium/ debate)-for this 44 terms are narrated with the word of VadaMarga. Vada aims to establish new creative ideas/ research work. VadaMarga lays a border for discussion. It makes discussion essentially end with conclusion (Abhyanujnana). In Charaka Samhita the concepts are established on the basis of the Vadas in several places (chapters). Organizing the knowledge gained and power of expression will be achieved with the use of Vada Marga Padas in debates and it is the essential component for the demonstration and presentment of research.

  192. Reetapa Biswas, Tiyasa Dey and Santa Datta (De)

    The seeds of watermelon are generally considered as agro-waste and are spitted out inspite of having its high nutritional value as well as therapeutic benefits. Cucurbitaceae species are potential sources of nutrients such as protein, minerals and lipids as well as ingredients for native medicine. Watermelon seeds are a good source of low-molecular-weight polypeptides i.e. globulin, glutenin and albumin. Seeds are also rich in aspartic acid, glutamic acid and serine. Since watermelon seeds contain high- quality proteins, the seed meal can be used as a non- conventional protein source as well as functional ingredients during food formulations. It has already been found that watermelon seeds has positive impact on growth, cardioprotective effect, anti-diabetic effect, anti-obesity , anti-arthritic effect and as well as anti-ulcerogenic effect and it has also been revealed that adequate doses of watermelon seed extracts can increase sperm count. Watermelon seeds may indeed represent an appropriate tool for the treatment of various ailments without any obvious undesirable side effects especially in those countries in which more classical therapeutic approach is not easily available for all. Watermelon seed oil and watermelon seed incorporated food products are already available and used in many countries. Still there is an ample scope of research to expose unknown bioactive ingredients responsible for the positive health benefits of these seeds.

  193. Syam Kumar Bariki and Prof. T Byragi Redyy

    Water samples were collected from bore wells, springs, tap and open wells of 07 different locations and analysed (June-July 2014) in pre and post-monsoon (December -January 2015) in Ananthagiri Mandal of Visakhapatnam district, Andhra Pradesh. The study was conducted to characterize the physicochemical parameters such as pH, Turbidity, Total Hardness, TDS, F, Cl, Mg, Ca, No3, SO4 etc. On comparing the results against the drinking water quality standards lead by BIS (ISO: 100500, 1995) and WHO. It was observed that the parameters, pH, Total dissolved solids, turbidity, Mg, Ca and DO was higher than the prescribed limits while other parameters were lower than the limits in pre and post monsoon periods. Water Quality Index (WQI) was also calculated for different sources individually in pre and post monsoon, it reflected that the WQI were found in the range of (82.86), Very poor water quality range and Unsuitable for Drinking water range (113.751) in pre and post monsoon periods respectively. Bore and tap water found to be in the range of very poor water quality (93.458 to 93.538), and the well and spring water were in the range of unsuitable for drinking water (110.757 – 112.866). It was resulted that the water is not suitable for drinking, and needed to be treated before it is consumed by local tribal community.

  194. Lúcia Helena Garófalo Chaves, Jacqueline da Silva Mendes, Iêde de Brito Chaves and Francisco de Assis Santos e Silva

    AgroSilicon (siderurgy slag) and MB-4 (rock powder) are materials of different compositions and when applied to the soil influence the properties thereof. This study was conducted in order to determine by potentiometric titration various electrochemical attributes of three soils of State Paraiba enriched with AgroSilicon and MB-4. For this, the soils were incubated for 100 days with different amounts of these conditioners. After this period the soils samples were air dried and subjected to potentiometric titration curves. The intersection of these curves determined the pH of the zero point of charge (ZPC), which reflects the equal condition of ion adsorption H+ and OH-. Based on pH and ZPC they were calculated ΔpH and surface electrical potential (Ψ0). The soils presented electric charges variables and predominantly negative sign. Soil conditioners, AgroSilicon and MB-4, increased generally all electrochemical properties of soils.

  195. Suzuki, A. B. P., Vidal, T. C. M. and Feiden, A.

    In order to meet the ever increasing demand for energy it is necessary to pursue new alternative sources of energy. This paper aims to verify the production of biogas from mixtures of poultry litter and cassava wastewater, to analyze its effluents and to check the reduction of organic load. It is in an attempt to solve the environmental issue caused by the disposal of these raw materials, while producing clean and renewable energy in order to contribute to the Brazilian energy matrix. Batch digesters made of PVC fed with different mixtures from the biomasses were used for the experiment. These digesters enable the verification of the amount and the quality of biogas. Significant productions of biogas of up to 0.39 and 0.30 L d-1 were found. The organic loading reduction reached 81.95%.

  196. Yamila Martínez-Zubiaur, Marlene Prieto Abreu, Maria del Carmen Pérez Hernández, William Sihler, Rosana Falcão, Bergmann Morais Ribeiro and ,Marlinda Lobo de Souza

    Grasserie disease of silkworm Bombyx mori Linnaeus (Lepidoptera: Bombycidae) caused by Bombyx mori nucleopolyhedrovirus (BmNPV) is one of the most serious viral disease in tropical countries and occurs throughout the year, causing considerable damage to the silkworm cocoon breeding. This report highlights the results obtained in the detection of the BmNPV for the first time in Cuba as the pathogen associated to the symptoms observed in silkworm rearing. In this context, there is an intense need to search for alternative remedial measures for control and potential restoration of ill insect breeding colonies in order to decrease economical losses in sericulture.

  197. Garima Mishra and Kiran, U. V.

    The present study is focused on instrument development and validation of a quality scale. There are limited measures to assess PWD’s ICT needs, purpose of using ICT devices and problems in the usage of various devices. Hence the study aimed to validate and standardize the schedule to assess ICT enabled devices used by differently abled. Market survey was conducted to check the availability of various ICT and assistive devices for differently abled students. With the help of relevant literature and market survey a questionnaire was developed for pilot study. The pilot study was conducted in disabled institutes using 30 respondents (10 respondent’s form each category of disability i.e. visually impaired, hearing impaired & locomotor impaired). With the help of pilot study the tool was developed and many parameters were added to the questionnaire. In the last phase, a group of 30 experts were consulted in the related and allied fields to validate the questionnaire. The experts were asked to evaluate the instrument in terms of clarity of items, linguistic accuracy and appropriateness of the instrument to achieve the purpose of the study. In this phase the items for relevance with the help of experts using 3 point likert scale was evaluated. Each item was scored as 3, 2, 1 i.e. highly relevant, moderately relevant and irrelevant. Revisions and suggestions made by experts were taken into account. After validation of the instrument, some parameters were added and some were deleted for its relevance and appropriateness. Thus, the tool was finalized and the finding of this study indicates good reliability and validity of the schedule.

  198. Abdul Hakkim, V. M., Abhilash Joseph, E., Ajay Gokul, A. J. and Mufeedha, K.

    In order to get optimum result from micro-irrigation, fertilizers in liquid form have to be applied to the crop along with the irrigation water directly to the region where most of the plants roots develop. This process is called fertigation, which is done with the aid of special fertilizer application devices (injectors) installed at the head control unit of the system, before the filter. Use of fertigation system to apply fertiliser reduces the need of mechanical operations and sometimes eliminates them altogether. Fertigation when combined with an efficient irrigation system, both nutrients and water can be manipulated and managed to obtain the maximum possible yield of marketable production from a given quantity of these inputs. Fertigation is typically used to address fertiliser deficiency which inhibits plant growth, labour and operational efficiencies. Fertigation is an absolute necessity in drip irrigation, to obtain maximum benefit cost ratio.

  199. Kour Preetpal, Tripathi, N. K. and Poonam

    In the present study acute toxic effect of mercuric chloride was carried out in three different tissues (RBCs, Intestine and kidney) of skittering frog (Euphlyctis cyanophlyctis). The study was conducted using the micronucleus test. The frogs were treated with four different sublethal concentrations of mercuric chloride (1.5µg/kg, 3.0µg/kg, 6.0µg/kg, 12.0µg/kg) after calculating the LC50 value which was found to be 18µg/kg. Each dose was injected intraperitoneally once in the treatment period for 24, 48, 72 and 96hrs to study its potential toxic effect. It was observed that this heavy metal treatment induced a significant increase in frequency of micronuclei at different concentrations in frog for 24, 48, 72 and 96hrs when compared with the control. The results lead us to the conclusion that there is a dose and time dependent induction of micronuclei frequencies in different somatic tissues of the frog due to genotoxic and cytotoxic properties of this heavy metal.

  200. Beatrice M. Ohaeri and Tosin E. Haruna

    Prostate cancer is a major cause of morbidity and mortality among men globally and in Sub-Saharan Africa. Good knowledge, attitude and perception of vulnerability could increase surveillance, uptake of preventive measures, thereby reducing morbidity and mortality rate Anecdotal reports indicate a worrisome prevalence among men in Akinyele Local Government Area, but little is known about knowledge, attitude and extent of vulnerability perception towards prostate cancer among them. Objectives Hence, we investigated the knowledge, attitude and perceptions on self-vulnerability towards prostate cancer among our participants with the hope of generating data that could be useful in instituting interventions, thereby reducing mortality and morbidity. Methods: This was a community based cross-sectional study. We utilized purposive sampling technique to select 107 men who consented and met the inclusion criteria from Ojo in Akinyele local government (Mean Age: 24.6, SD: 9.84) irrespective of their socioeconomic and educational status. Data were obtained using a structured questionnaire with 40 items and a reliability of 0.79. Analysis was done with SPSS, using descriptive statistics and Chi square at 0.05 level of significance. Results: Knowledge levels on prostate cancer was high (79.4%) among the participants, only 15% had ever received health information from health care providers, and only one-third ( 37.2%) of them knew about the availability of screening methods. Level of knowledge was influenced by religion (p =0.03), occupation (p=0.04) and educational levels (p= 0.005). Majority (77.6%), had poor attitude, while perception on levels of self-vulnerability to prostate cancer was low (14% and influenced by age (p=0.004) and marital status (p= 0.004). Conclusions and Recommendations: Findings indicated that there is high level of awareness among participants, with poor attitude, low knowledge on the availability of screening measures and poor health promotion attitude among health care providers. It is imperative that measures be put in place to create awareness on availability of screening facilities and self-vulnerability towards the disease, which might increase prostate cancer screening uptake in Akinyele LGA, Ibadan, thereby reducing morbidity and mortality.

  201. Anita, S., Sameshwari, T. and Kalpana, B.

    The present study deals with formulation of instant soup powder using millets, oats, maizeand dehydrated vegetable powder. The selected millets were pre-processed, milled and blended in various proportions to formulate instant soup powders namely A, B, C and D. The results of sensory evaluation reveals that formulation A was found to best with overall acceptability score of 8.1 and the results highly correlates with rehydration ratio. Hence formulation A was selected for further study. The results of nutritional analysis indicate that, Formulated instant soup powder (FISP) was enhanced with protein and crude fibre content when compared to commercial soup powder (CSP). Similarly, total phenolic content and antioxidant content of FISP was found to significantly higher than compared to CSP. The outcomes of α-amylase inhibition disk assay indicate that, FISP retain of low glycemic index and can be supplemented to diabetic patients. The shelf-life properties were found to be good and it retained flavour and taste after three months of storage. Hence, millet based instant soup powder can be easily manufactured at low cost and it can definitely meet out the needs of growing functional food market.

  202. Vijaykumar B. Malashetty

    Plants, since times immemorial, have been used virtually by all cultures as a source of medicine. The widespread use of herbal remedies for healthcare is described in ancient texts such as the Vedas and the Bible. In recent years, demand for medicinal plants is increasing in both developing and developed countries due to growing recognition of natural products, as non-narcotic, without side effects, easily available at affordable prices and sometimes the only source of health care available. The fertility control is the most important and urgent mainstay of all biomedical and biosocial problems. The need for evolving more acceptable and effective means of contraception with nil or minimal side effects is more actually felt now, than ever before, in view of the frightening rate at which population is growing. This review helps in the reinvestigation of the plants with potential antifertility activities as the rising trend towards natural contraception. But it is important to find out the mechanism of action and clinical research on few selected plants listed in this review as these plants already reported potential antifertility activities.

  203. ASSI Yapo Olivier, SIDIBE Daouda, COULIBALY Adama, KOFFI N’dri Emmanuel, KONAN N’guessan Ysidor and BIEGO Godi Henri Marius

    The interest of Côte d’Ivoire populations in mucilaginous food plants caused the use of experimental design to optimize mucilage extraction methods. So, 6 technological parameters have been selected. It is about the delipidation (X1), the ratio vegetal/water (X2), the steeping time (X3), the heating time (X4), the ratio filtrate/ethanol (X5) and the refrigeration time (X6). Plackett and Burman design and full factorial design application permitted to optimize mucilage extraction of this food plants. The results showed that delipidation is the most significant parameter for Irvingia kernels and it contributed to 100% in mucilage yield variation. The ratio vegetal/water and steeping time contributed to 12.37% and 11.96% respectively. To the level of the leaves, the most significant parameters are the steeping time (84.24%), the ratio vegetal/water (79.02%) and the heating time (48.34%). Optimal process application gave the experimental answers of 56.34±0.42% and 25.81±0.39% appreciably equal to the answers predicted by the mathematical computations that were respectively of 55.75% and 27.04% for the kernels and the leaves.

  204. Gupta Pooja and Singh Neetu

    Today, the focus has increasingly shifted toward higher quality requirements due to changes in eating habits and growing health- consciousnes. This paper is a product of a thesis on developing oat-based functional products in correlation with our youth generation. Oat proved to be a valuable ingredient that could improve considerably the nutritious value of cereal products like bread, pasta, noodles or cakes and, more specifically, gluten-free products. Recent studies also showed extrusion to be an advantageous method to produce oat-based products. New health benefits of oats with health claim potential were identified, like antioxidant capacity, reduction of atherogenesis, and hypoglycaemic and inhibitory effects on intestinal dissaccharidases. Oats are a popular food to their high vitamin, mineral, and amino acid contents as well as their pleasant taste. For a long time, they were particularly appreciated because they are easy to prepare. Oats and value added product prepare snacks for youth. Its nutritious and delisious product includind of value added product also i.e. raagi flour, dates banana, egg, honey and pulses to inhance their nutritive value.

  205. Vimal Archana and Singh Neetu

    Mushrooms are rich sources of proteins, vitamins and minerals. Low content of carbohydrate and fat makes mushrooms an ideal food for diabetes and persons who wish to shed excess fat. Noodles are most preferred food items among all age groups having longer shelf life and good commercial importance. The present study was conducted to compare nutritive value of developed mushroom fortified noodles with that of control group. Mushroom fortified noodles were prepared by fortifying mushroom powder in different levels to the Noodle flour, whereas noodles prepared out of noodle flour were kept as control. Developed product was evaluated on various parameters: sensory evaluation & nutritional analysis. Sensory evaluation of prepared product was carried out using 9 point hedonic scale, out of the three. Hence highest acceptable product was put forth for the nutritional analysis & percentage of protein, calcium, carbohydrates, fat and dietary fibre respectively.

  206. Guilherme Augusto Cito Alves, Gustavo Henrique Freiria, Felipe Favoretto Furlan, Douglas Junior Bertoncelli, André Prechlak Barbosa, Ronan Carlos Colombo, Ricardo Tadeu de Faria and Dana Kátia Meschede

    The aim was to evaluate the use of oxyfluorfen in Pilea microphylla control in desert rose cultivation. The experimental design was completely randomized, with six treatments with six replications, characterized by concentrations of oxyfluorfen (0, 240, 480, 720, 960 and 1200 g a.i. ha-1). The evaluations were performed at 7, 14, 21, 30, 60 and 90 days after application (DAA) of the herbicide to check the fitometrics level on desert rose plants and percentage of control Pilea microphylla. The 200 days of culture, was evaluate the fitometrics characteristics: height, number of sprouts, shoots length, diameter caudex, dry mass of stems, leaves and roots. Levels of toxicity symptoms if presented increasing with increasing dose of oxyfluorfen in the evaluations performed at 7 and 14 DAA from the thirtieth day there was no symptoms of phytotoxicity. For evaluations at 30, 60 and 90 DAA there was the 100% control of grease weed at all doses studied. Plant height and dry mass of roots showed decreasing linear effect. However, the number of lateral sprouts and dry matter stems have a quadratic behavior, with minimum point was 371.42 g a.i. ha-1 and maximum point was 450 g a.i. ha-1, respectively. The use of oxyfluorfen herbicide is effective in Pilea microphylla control in desert rose vases.

  207. Singh Suman and Mishra Sunita

    The study was conducted on BBAU central university Lucknow department of food science & technology and there nutritional property conducted on R- frac research institute Lucknow. Knowledge and concerns of the bad health implications of high fat intake in consumers has resulted in a rising demand for low fat foods consequently, the use of various flavour treatment as alternative food souses is gaining attention among producers and consumers. Banana is the common name for herbaceous plants of the genus. Musa and for fruit they produce. It is one of the oldest cultivation plants all parts of the banana plant have medicinal application. Three major products were developed using different composite mint flavour, tomato flavour, and sweet sugar flavour. Developed product was evaluated on various parameters: sensory evaluation & nutritional analysis. Nutritional analysis & percentage of sample T1 protein, carbohydrate, iron, moisture & ash were – 3.25%, 60.80%, 15.77%, 4.26%& 3.57% respectively. In sample T2 protein, carbohydrate, iron, moisture, & ash were- 63.76%, 63.76%, 17.5%, 3.13%, & 4.27% respectively. In sample T3 protein, carbohydrate, iron, moisture, & ash were- 12%, 27.2%, 1.36%, 2.12% &3.35% respectively. The study is to basically provide an alternative to potato chips. It can be proved to be a good snack for all age group people whose daily requirement of protein is high. Especially to school going children because of their growing period and people working in offices who generally have a habit of skipping there full meal in noon due to hard working hours, snacks made out of banana can come to the rescue for such people. The monotony of banana on regular basis can easily be broken with these innovative products. Thus, the snacks not only provide high amount of energy, protein, carbohydrates etc but they also provide whole range of choices in our plate.

  208. Maicon Nardino, Ivan Ricardo Carvalho, Willian Silva Barros, Velci Queiróz de Souza, Tiago Corazza da Rosa, Felipe Koch, Geison Aisenberg, Tiago Zanata Aumonde, Tiago Pedó, Vinicius J. Szareski and Gustavo H. Demari

    The knowledge about genetic relation between crosses is extremely important for plant breeding, contributing as the main parameter for combination choosing. The selection based only on desirable characters is insufficient to produce a high genetic potential progeny. This work of literature review was developed from March to June 2016.The genotype x environment interaction is a significant variation source in maize hybrids testing. There are evidences that GCA and SCA variance may interact with sites and years, and also that SCA includes dominance and epistasy deviations, as well a significant portion of the genotype x environment interaction. Maize is one of the most investigated crops within the field of genetics, serving as a template for many other cross pollinated specie. Its importance is also given by the large amount of food provided for the entire productive chain, as well as the recent inclusion of maize products in the functional food market. Due to the importance of maize in both national and international scenarios, researches continue to be efficiently and reliably done by numerous scientists. Genetic breeding, in combination with other fields of science, progressively contributed in the genetic improvement of maize, however the first one is the main responsible for genetic gains and the current genetic level of hybrids.

  209. Sunil Kumar, Arun Kumar Rawat, Tarun Narang, Wani Aadil Islam, Dimple Chopra, and Rajinder Kaur

    Background: Convincing evidence suggests that Psoriasis is an inflammatory disease. Inflammatory response in psoriasis is mediated by over expression of proinflammatory cytokines produced by Th1 cells and relative under expression of Th2 cytokines. These cytokines induce chemokines and other effecter cells via production of IL-17, IL-20 and IL-22, thus play role in pathogenesis of Psoriasis. Objective: To correlate the serum level of IL-17, IL-20 and IL-22 with Psoriatic lesions and area affected with Psoriasis in North India. Patients and Methods: In this study we calculated serum levels of IL-17, IL-20 and IL-22 in 150 Psoriatic patients as well as 200 healthy controls. Further the level of cytokines was assessed by ELISA and correlated to disease severity measured by psoriasis area severity index (PASI) score. Results: The present study includes 150 Psoriatic patients (101 males and 49 females) of age group 18-75 years with mean and SD of age 39.55±14.65. The mean and SD of PASI was 15.10±11.96, ranged from 0.3-49.2. Observations revealed that serum level of IL-17 in psoriatic patients was found 143.78±33.99 pg/ml. Serum level of IL-22 among studied psoriatic patient was found 74.42±24.08 pg/ml and serum level of IL-20 was found to be 96.73±26.52 pg/ml. Limitations: Follow-up of psoriatic patients was not done. A larger sample size would have validated the results further. Conclusion: Results show significant difference in serum level of IL-17, IL-20 and IL-22 in Psoriatic patients as compared to healthy controls. As it was observed that serum cytokines were significantly elevated in psoriatic patients, thus present study correlated the elevated level of serum cytokines with disease severity.

  210. Richa Chaturvedi and Nimali Singh

    Introduction: Obesity is a multi-factorial disease arising from a complex interaction between genetic and environmental factors. Why some people succeed at adopting and sustaining behaviours associated with weight control while others, undergoing similar treatment programs, do not, remains largely unknown. Objective: To identify factors associated with weight loss and changes in body composition in a commercial weight reduction program. Methodology: Purposive sampling technique was used to enrol subjects in the age group of 20-60 years visiting a commercial weight reduction centre with the purpose of weight loss. Baseline data included 624 subjects (310 males and 314 females) with the BMI ≥25kg/m2. Total 200 subjects participated in the study with 102 visiting a commercial weight reduction centre and 98 visited a Gymnasium. In the comprehensive study the nutritional status of the subjects was assessed at both pre and post intervention stages, including parameters such as - anthropometric indicators, body composition and diet recall. Results: Factors such as food habits, skipping of breakfast, marital status, stress, change in physical activity, cardio-respiratory fitness had an impact on weight loss, change in body composition and fitness levels. Significant associations were found between different variables. The macronutrient, stress and physical activity level model had a strong association with weight loss (r =0.649) and was responsible for 42.13% variability.

  211. Yogita Navani and Ansari, M. A.

    Integration of Information and Communication Technologies (ICTs) in education sector has completely changed the dynamics of teaching and learning process; and has undeniable impact on learning outcomes. Consequently, e-learning has emerged as an important educational tool to improve the learning outcome as well as expand the learning opportunities. The present study was undertaken to assess the e-learning readiness of teachers of a premier State Agriculture University (SAU) in India. Stratified random sampling with proportional allocation method was used to select the respondents. The results obtained indicate that the teachers of the SAUs under study are ready but needs little improvement regarding e-learning readiness. Further, Teacher’s age, gender, annual income, teaching experience, computer literacy, achievement motivation and attitude towards e-learning had a positive correlation with e-learning readiness (ELR) whereas educational qualification and designation had negative correlation. Further, coefficient of determination (R2 = 0.784) indicated that all the independent variables included in the study sample significantly contributed in their ELR to the extent of 78.4 %. Thus, the study would be a handy guide for any SAU for launching the e-learning initiatives in higher agriculture education systems.

  212. Vikas Tandon, Ankush Kumar, Chanchal Rana and Abhishek Rana

    Pollination is simply the transfer of pollen from the anther of one flower to the stigma of another or the same flower. After production of the sexual organs and associated structures, pollination is the first step in the reproductive process of higher plants. It is achieved by biotic and abiotic means. Abiotic pollination occurs by wind, water or gravity. Biotic pollination is effected by animals. Pollinating agents are essential for survival and reproduction of several wild plant species and in the recent years, there has been an increasing recognition of the importance of pollination, mostly by insects, in crop plants. The area covered by pollinator-dependent crops has increased by more than 300 per cent during the past 50 years. Few major crop species depend on animal pollinators. Animal pollination increases the quantity and quality of fruit production. Important Insect pollinators include honeybees, bumblebees, solitary bees, syrphid flies, wasps, beetles, butterfly and moths etc. Also commercially reared bumblebees are an important component of greenhouse tomato production. Plant-pollinator interaction in both wild and cultivated plant species is under threat as a result of indiscriminate pesticide use, habitat fragmentation and intensified cultivation practices. Pesticides are an important potential cause of biodiversity and pollinator decline. Climate change may affect the phenology and distribution ranges of both crop plants and their most important pollinators, leading to temporal and spatial mismatches. It is therefore important to identify the temperature sensitivity of the most important pollinators and their crop plants, and the environmental cues controlling the phenology and distribution of the identified species. Many wild plants in nature are being propagated through insect pollination which maintains the sustainability of ecosystems, environmental quality and help in the conservation of biodiversity. The pollinator species that do not visit crops play critical roles in natural ecosystems by ensuring wild plant seed and fruit set, thus sustaining wider biodiversity.

  213. Chennellu – A resistant variety of traditional rice cultivar in Kerala against bacterial blight

    Chennellu is one of the medicinal rice of Kerala and are indigenous to Northern Kerala. Chennellu in Kannur district is used for treat in diarrhea and vomiting, another type of Chennellu called ‘Valiya Chennellu’ from Wayanad district is used for recovering from jaundice. Chennellu, the red rice, is also a good source of Vitamin B1. In Asia, a large number of the population consumes rice in every meal and rice accounts for more than 70% of human caloric intake in many countries. Even though the average cost of rice production is highest in Kerala when compared to other states in India; it is a hot spot for pests and diseases. The high humidity and temperature of the rice growing environments during the cropping periods increases the incidence of diseases. Bacterial blight is one of major disease of rice in Kerala caused by Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae (Xoo) and is a reason for severe damage to rice crop in Kerala. Adukkan, Ayiramkana, Chennellu, Chomala, Gandhakasala, Kayma, Valichoori, Veliyan and Thondi were the local rice varieties in North Kerala used for finding out the susceptibility of Xoo. The field grew 45 days old rice plants were inoculated with 2.5µl, 5µl, 10µl and 25µl of the supernatant of 48-hour old Xoo broth culture at a concentration of approximately 108 CFU/mL (0.5OD600nm). Inoculations by creating wounds were carried out manually on the leaves with sterile forceps. Plants were visually examined after 21 days for bacterial blight severity, and the lesion length of each leaf was measured. Disease reactions were categorized according to the lesion length. Variation in lesion length across different concentration was tested individually for each rice variety with one-way ANOVA. During bacterial infection, the mean lesion length was least at the concentration of 2.5µl in Chennellu (0.5cm). In this study, it was concluded that Chennellu is the resistant rice cultivar against bacterial blight among other traditional rice cultivars commonly used.

  214. Hemalatha, G. and Mary Esther Cynthia Johnson

    The present study focuses on physico-chemical nature of Mir Alam Lake. Water samples were collected from three sampling stations (S1, S2 & S3) and were analysed at monthly intervals for a period of one year from August 2011 – July 2012. These samples were analysed for Total Hardness, Calcium and Magnesium. The Total Hardness was 466.77mg/l, Calcium was 70.88mg/l and Magnesium was 70.45mg/l. Total Hardness of Mir Alam Lake water exceeded the permissible limits given by IS 2012 and was within permissible limits given by WHO 1985 while Calcium was within the permissible limits Magnesium exceeded the permissible limits of IS 2012 and WHO 1985. Necessary measures are to be taken to conserve the lake.

  215. Dr. Meenakshi Fartyal and Padma Kumar

    Evaluation of the antibacterial activity of crude extracts from different parts (leaf and flower) of Allamanda cathartica (Apocynaceae) Linn. was carried out in the present investigation. Different parts were collected, dried and extracted by using polar (Water and Methanol) and Non-polar (Petroleum ether) solvents. Extracts were screened for antimicrobial activity using ‘Disc Diffusion Assay’ against 3 Gram negative (E.coli, K.pneumoniae and A.tumifaciens) and 2 Gram positive (S.aureus and B.subtilis) bacteria. Minimum inhibitory concentration, Minimum bactericidal concentration & Total activity were studied. Mean and Standard Deviation have also been calculated. B. subtilis & A. tumifaciens found to be the most susceptible organism. Water extract of flower showed the best activity against B. subtilis (IZ= 22 mm, AI= 0.63±0.01, MBC= 0.078 mg ml-1, MIC= 0.039 mg ml-1, TA= 397.43 ml g-1). Pet ether extract of flower (IZ= 21 mm, AI= 0.60±0.01, MBC= 0.156 mg ml-1, MIC= 0.078 mg ml-1, TA= 228.97 ml g-1) and methanolic extract of leaf (IZ= 21.5 mm, AI= 0.67±0.01, MBC= 0.078 mg ml-1, MIC= 0.039 mg ml-1, TA= 5224.36 ml g-1) also showed very good activities against B. subtilis. Methanolic extract of flower showed good activity against E. coli (IZ= 20 mm, AI= 0.57±0.01, MBC= 0.156 mg ml-1, MIC= 0.078 mg ml-1, TA= 2208.07 ml g-1). The range of MBC & MIC was found to be 0.625-0.039 mg ml-1 & 1.25-0.078 mg ml-1, respectively. Results reveal good antimicrobial potential of extracts of A.cathartica against tested microorganisms. Hence, may be explored for formation of new antimicrobial drugs.

  216. Tamilkodi, R., Victoria, J. and Dr. V. Dhivaharan

    The present study deals with the diversity and distribution of fungal and bacterial population in various seasons (Monsoon, Premonsoon, Summer and Postmonsoon) from three different places of Sirkazhi Taluk (Thenpathi (S1), Kovilpathu (S2) and Sirkazhi (S3)). The physicochemical parameters of such soils were identified. The physical parameters include the analysis of Soil Color, Texture, Electrical Conductivity (mmhos/cm.), PH, Moisture content (%) and Temperature (ºC) of the soils. The chemical parameters include the analysis of Calcium (mg/g), Magnesium (mg/g), Zinc (ppm), Ferrous (ppm), Manganese (ppm), Organic Carbon (ppm), Nitrogen (kg/ac), Potassium (kg/ac) and Phosphorus (kg/ac) present in three crop land soils collected. Totally, 19 different species of soil bacteria were observed from the soil samples. The highest percentage of frequency of bacteria isolated from all the soil samples were recorded, in, which, Sreptococcus, Pseudomonas fluorescens, Flavobacerium and Neisseria were predominant followed by the other species of bacterium. Totally 19 different species of soil fungi were observed from the soil samples. The highest percentage was recorded for Aspergillus flavus, Fusarium oxysporum, Aspergillus niger, Rhizopus oryzae and Trichoderma viridae followed by the other fungal species.

  217. Sugantha Rajamani and Dr. (Mrs.) P. A. Raajeswari

    Traditional Indian breakfast items are based on different cereal or grains and are popular for their unique taste and flavour. Indian breakfast or popularly known as ‘nashta’ and has its own diversity. Amongst the breakfast items, South Indian Breakfast is considered to be the most nutritious and wholesome. Idli, dosai, upma, adai, aapam accompanied with steaming sambhar and different chutneys rule the South Indian breakfast menu. The cereal portion used in these items mainly comprises of polished white rice or polished parboiled rice. Polished white rice contains only carbohydrates and devoid of vitamins, minerals and fiber due to polishing. This renders a high glycemic index and low satiety value to the product. Brown rice is whole grain, produced by removing only the husk or hull using pestle and mortar, retaining the bran layer. This causes the grain to remain intact and retain its soluble fibre and antioxidant content. Consumption of whole grains has associated to lower the risks of Cardio Vascular Diseases (CVD), Type II Diabetes, Cancers and other chronic degenerative diseases. In this study an attempt has been made to develop brown rice based Ready- To- Eat breakfast item Adai and evaluate its acceptability and Glycemic Index.

  218. Pedro Milanez de Rezende, Alan Mario Zuffo, Everton Vinicius Zambiazzi, Adriano Teodoro Bruzi, Igor Oliveri Soares, Antonio Henrique Fonseca de Carvalho, Alan Eduardo Seglin Mendes, Isabella Maria Monteiro Borges and Guilherme Dias Leite Vilela

    The combined use of nitrogen (N) with bacteria Azospirillum brasilense can improve the components of corn production and contribute to sustainable agricultural practices. Thus, the aim of this study was to evaluate the application of Azospirillum brasilense associated with nitrogen fertilizer on corn production components. The experiment was set in a randomized block design, in a 5x4 factorial scheme, with five doses of Azospirillum brasilense (0, 100, 150, 200, 250 ml per 20 kg of seed), BR 11005 strain (Sp 245) and four doses of N (0, 50,100, 150 kg ha-1) applied in the V6phenological stage, using urea (45% N) as a source of N, with three replications. It was evaluated the number of rows per ear, number of kernels per row, ear diameter, thousand grain weight and grain yield. The use of Azospirillum brasilense strain BR 11005 (Sp 245) isolated or associated with N doses does not influence the productive characters of corn. The dose of 50 kg ha-1 N in coverage is recommended to corn crops, as it promoted greater economic returns, regardless of the Azospirillum brasilense dose that was used.

  219. Kiran Kumar, S. J.

    The cellulase producing Bacillus species was isolated from rhizosphere soil and characterized by various staining procedures, biochemical analysis and partial purification. Further partial purification of cellulase was carried out by dialysis and ammonium phosphate precipitation and also to determine molecular weight by SDS-PAGE. Bacterial isolated were grown on Carboxy Methyl Cellulose (CMC) agar at various optimum conditions such as parameters like pH, temperature, incubation period, carbon and nitrogen sources prior to examined and identified primarily as genus, Bacillus species for cellulase production by morphological and biochemical analysis. The cellular enzyme was completely active in a large pH range (5 -8) and presented an optimum activity of 195U/mL. The cellulase production was found to be more when incubated for two days (48 hrs). Ammonium sulphate precipitation followed by dialysis was performed to partially purify the cellulase enzyme. The molecular weight was found to be 32 kilodaltons by SDS-PAGE method. The specific activity of the enzyme was found to be 0.3 mg/mL. The use of microorganisms for the production of enzymes offers a promising approach for its large scale production and as a possible food supplement or in pharmaceutical industry.

  220. Mishra Shaivya and Mishra Sunita

    Rapid urbanization, industrialization and consequent changes in eating habits of people have lead to development of instant dry mixes and ready-to-eat convenience foods. With the availability of "Retort Technology" developed by Defence Food Research Laboratory (DFRL); food processing sector like Ready to Eat (RTE) and Ready to Use (RTU) food segment has emerged as one of the fastest growing sectors in the Indian economy. Two value-added products i.e., Quinoa Upma mixes and Pearl Millet Upma mixes with the Quinoa (75%) and Pearl Millet (75%) as a basic ingredient were developed. These products were evaluated on sensory parameters using Nine point hedonic rating scale. Highest overall acceptability score was obtained for Quinoa Upma mixes. Micronutrient content increased significantly with incorporation of Dalia (25%) in both the two products. The developed value- added products are calcium, potassium, magnesium, iron, zinc, manganese, riboflavin, thiamine, niacin, lysine and tryptophan etc. The products are highly recommended for all the age groups, degenerative diseases and heart diseases.

  221. Dr. Swyeta Jain Gupta, Dr. Vivek Gautam, Dr. Amit Gupta, Dr. Nisha Singh and Dr. Gautam Bhambri

    Beauty is what gives the highest degree of pleasure to the mind & suggests that object of delight approximates to one's conception of an ideal. In the era of beauty peagants, involvement of anatomists and esthetic dentists in defining the beauty is well understood. The present article reviews the various anatomical parameters for assessing a beautiful face and a beautiful smile. These may be of help to anatomists, dentists and of course to aspirants. Cosmetic dentistry thus adds to the facial esthetics enhancing the overall beauty and well being of an individual.

  222. Khairnar, A. B., Gondkar, S. B. and Saudagar, R. B.

    The Sandwiched Osmotic Tablet System (SOTS), which is composed of sandwiched osmotic tablet core surrounded by a cellulose acetate membrane with two orifices on both side surfaces has been successfully prepared with the purpose of delivering Glipizide. In this a core composed of polymeric push layer sandwiched between two drug layers with two delivery orifices. Influences of tablet formulation variables and membrane variables on Glipizide release of SOTS have been studied. NaCl was used as an osmogent and MCC used as a release retardant. Cellulose acetate was used as the semipermeable membrane and PEG 400 was used as pore forming agent. Optimization was done using 32 factorial design considering two independent variable at three levels. Optimized formulation exhibited zero order kinetics with a drug release of 98.10 % in 24 hrs. The optimized formulation was also found to stable upon stability studies. The ideal formulation (F6) was stable when it was stored at 40±2 0c/ 75±5% RH as per ICH Guidelines for 6 months. It can be concluded that release of Glipizide was significantly controlled from sandwiched osmotic drug delivery systems.

  223. Sanjeev Rampalliwar, Chanda Rajak, Prabhakar Singh, Milind Shiralkar and Amita Singh

    Background: Stress and anxiety have been implicated as contributors to many chronic diseases and to decreased quality of life, even with pharmacologic treatment. Efforts are underway to find non-pharmacologic therapies to relieve stress and anxiety, and yoga is one option for which results are promising. (Li and Goldsmith, 2011) Aims & Objective: The aim of present study was to investigate whether regular practice of Yoga for 12 weeks can reduce the cardiovascular hyper-reactivity induced by cold pressure test. Materials and Methods: The study group comprises 50 healthy subjects of 18 - 25 years age group. At the beginning of the study, there were 22 hyper-reactors to cold pressure test. The hyper-reactivity of 16 (72.72%) volunteers converted to hypo-reactivity after the yoga therapy of 12 weeks. Other parameters like basal blood pressure, rise in blood pressure after cold pressure test, pulse rate and Rate Pressure Product (RPP) were also statistically reduced up to significant level. Result: Regular practice of yoga significantly reduces values of basal blood pressure, cardiovascular hyper-reactivity to blood pressure after one minute of cold stress, heart rate, & rate pressure product after 12 weeks of yoga practice. Conclusions: Non-pharmacological methods like yoga, meditation, diet, weight reduction and life style modification should been encouraged to control the modifiable risk factors. The cardiovascular parameters alter with age, but these alterations are slower in persons ageing with regular yoga practice. It can thus be concluded that these results and their explanations would justify the incorporation of yoga as part of our life style in prevention of age–related cardiovascular complications.

  224. Dr. Krishna Prasad, K., Dr. Arvind Ramachandran, Dr. Praveen, G. P. and Dr. Amal Abraham

    Background: Preoperative antibiotics for elective abdominal operations are essential in decreasing surgical site infections such that the timely and appropriate administration of antimicrobials is a quality benchmark measure. However, their role in emergent surgery for intestinal perforation is controversial. In the pre antibiotic era, penetrating abdominal trauma was associated with a mortality rate as high as 65% to 70%. 1 Methods: A prospective study compared using either 500 mg of intraperitoneal metronidazole or a saline control in 30 adult trauma patients requiring diagnostic peritoneal lavage was conducted over a 2 month period. Two groups were made Group A ¬ received metronidazole and Group B the saline wash. Result: In this prospective study comprising of 30 adults who underwent laparotomy, patients were randomised and assigned into group A and group B by odd even method. Group A consisted of 15 patients in whom diagnostic peritoneal lavage was performed using 500mg of metronidazole and group B consisted of 15 patients in whom diagnostic peritoneal lavage was performed using saline only. Septicemia evidence by presence of fever and tachycardia was noted in 8 out of the 15 patients of group B and 3 out of the 15 patients in group A comprising 53.3% and 20% of each group respectively. Wound dehiscence was seen i one patient of each group. Overall group A patients who received DPL with metronidazole 500 mg as compared to normal saline as DPL has lesser incidence of postoperative complication, shorter duration of hospital stay and lesser incidence of septic complication.

  225. Ms. Archana B. Garudkar, Dr. Ashok V. Bhosale, Ms.Trusha Y. Puttewar and Dr. Ravindra Y. Patil

    At present approximately 40% of new chemical entities identified by pharmaceutical companies are poorly water soluble. The formulations of poorly water soluble drugs (BCS) Class II for oral delivery presents a greatest challenge to the formulation scientists. Oral bioavailability depends on its solubility and dissolution rate. Several techniques have been developed over the years to enhance the dissolution of the drug such as solid dispersion, micronization, solubilization, and complexation with polymers, salt formation using prodrugs and adding surfactant. In present study the attempts have been made to increase the dissolution of BCS class II drug Ibuprofen using hydrophilic polymers namely polyethylene glycol (PEG) 6000 and polyvinyl pyrrolidone (PVP) K30 by microwave induced solid dispersion and conventional fusion method. Drug-polymer complex was prepared using batch method. Maximum dissolution rate was obtained at complex prepared from (Ibuprofen+PEG6000+SLS). A successful solubility enhancement of drug complex was confirmed by taking drug release in 7.2 pH phosphate buffer. The drug was characterized according to different compendial methods, on the basis of identification by UV spectroscopy, organoleptic properties and other tests. In this microwave induced solid dispersion exhibit significant improvement in solubility and dissolution rate compared to that of pure drug. Thus microwave technology offers a simple, efficient, shorter preparation time, solvent free promising alternative method to solid dispersion of Ibuprofen with significant enhancement of the in vitro dissolution rate. After that among the all formulation batches, solid dispersion (F8) was selected for further tablet formulation batches with considerable increase in drug release as compared to marketed formulation , nine formulations were developed and studied. The values of pre-compression parameters evaluated, were within prescribed limits and indicated good free flowing properties. The data obtained of post-compression parameters such as weight variation, hardness, friability, wetting time, water absorption ratio, content uniformity, disintegration time and dissolution and was found to superior over conventional formulation. The F9 batch with disintegrating time 28.19±0.66 second and dissolution 99.89±1.06 % was selected as optimized formulation and was found superior. When F9 formulation was compared with marketed formulation it gives highest percent drug release than marketed formulation. Batch F9 was also subjected to stability studies for three months and was tested for its disintegrating time, drug contents and dissolution behaviour monthly. It was observed that the contents of the tablets remained same. By an appropriate selection and combination of excipients it was possible to obtained immediate release tablets.

  226. Dr. Kafle, T. K. and Kafle, Tika K.

    Background: The nutritional needs of every women increase during pregnancy and lactation, if the requirements are not met, it affects mothers’ own health, birth outcome as well as infant health and the consequences can be serious for women and their infants. The overall nutritional status of pregnant and lactating women is poor in Nepal. Couple of evidences have shown that the nutritional status of Dalit mothers is significantly poorer than the Non-Dalits since history as a result of Dalit women’s exclusion in socio-economic and political dimensions. Still there is lack of studies which explores the nutritional status and its determinants related to Dalit mothers. Objective: To assess and compare the nutritional status of Dalit mothers with Non-Dalit mothers and explore its determinants. Methods: A cross sectional analytical study was conducted in Eastern Terai ecological sub-belt of Nepal during July to December 2011 among 720 Dalit and Non-dalit mothers having under five years children. To assess the nutritional status of mothers, the height, MUAC and Body Mass Index (BMI) were obtained and compared. Chi-square, t- test and Logistic Regression Analysis were used to analyse the result. Results: The mean height of the study mothers was 151.2 cm with SD 5.4cm and the mean BMI was observed 19.5 with SD 2.6. Moreover, 15.8 percent Dalit mothers had short height (<145cm), 25.8 percent had thin MUAC (<21.0 cm) and 43.7 percent had low BMI (<18.5) in compared to only 8.1 percent short height, 15 percent thin MUAC and 33.3 percent low BMI among Non-dalit mothers respectively. All three indicators of Dalit mothers were significantly poorer than Non-dalit mothers (p<0.001). The age and wealth index was found significant determinants for height, wealth index and age at marriage for MUAC and education, decision-making capacity and numbers of CEB were found as the key determinants for Body Mass Index (BMI). Conclusion: Nearly half (43.7%) of Dalit mothers were observed with low BMI and one in every six (15.8) mothers had short height. Dalit mothers had significantly poor nutritional status than Non-dalit mothers (p<0.001) in both indicators.

  227. Ramaprasad, J. and Chala Merera Erge

    With the high costs of the conventional protein supplements required in producing more quantities meat and its products to meet the escalating demand by the ever increasing human population, it is imperative that other cheaper affordable protein sources should be explored. Such protein rich bio-mass are aquatic plants such as algae (Spirulina platensis) and duckweed (Lemna gibba sp). This paper focuses on attributes and challenges in researches associated with the use of these plants which make it a special contender as protein source in livestock and poultry rations. Algae and duckweed are excellent sources of quality proteins, carbohydrates, essential fatty acids, pigments and vitamins and can form food source for human and animals. At present they are being used as food-web to marine species. They are grown to reduce chemical load and to absorb heavy metals in sewage ponds and are used as raw materials for pharmacy, cosmetic, food and feed industry and also to produce bio-diesel on small scale. Even though, there are some challenges and impediments in utilising these marine sources, they have great potential as feed supplements and can solve scarcity and affordability of protein sources in livestock and poultry rations, when they are produced at affordable costs on large scale. Algae have been used as food source to human and animals due to its excellent nutritional profile. There are very few investigations to utilise algae in ruminant rations due to its large requirements to conduct animal trials. Several research works has been conducted to utilise algae in layer and poultry rations which imparts intense orange yellow colour to egg yolk and meat. There are few investigations on duckweed inclusion as partial/full substitution either wet/dry form in cattle, sheep and goats. Duckweed has been extensively tested in layer and broiler birds and also in other poultry including ducks and quails. Results indicated that, it should be fed in relatively small amounts either fresh or dried form. It is of paramount important that the optimum level of inclusion of duckweed as protein sources should be tested widely to obtain their economic benefits. It is imperative to conduct more research on the development of high productive strains, their growth requirements, their production on large scale, processing techniques employed to reduce moisture content and to eliminate antinutritional factors inherently present in them, before advocating them as protein replacement feed resources in the rations of livestock and poultry.

  228. Detection of Metallo β Lactamase in lactose non-fermenting gram negative organisms-comparison of different methods

    Background & Objectives: Increasing incidence of bacterial resistance to β lactam antibiotics is a potential healthcare hazard. In majority of the cases, this resistance is orchestrated through production of β lactamases. Among these, Carbapenemases, especially transfer able metallo β lactamases (MBL), are the most important as they hydrolyze many antibiotics. MBL genes are often plasmid mediated and hence have potential for rapid dissemination. This study was conducted to phenotypically detect MBL in lactose non-fermenting Gram negative bacilli and to compare the different methods. Methods: Strains of Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Acinetobacter spp. isolated from different clinical specimens were included in the study. MBL was detected using EDTA-Imipenem (EIC) & EDTA-Ceftazidime (ECC) combination assay and EDTA-Imipenem (EDTA-IPM) & EDTA-Ceftazidime (EDTA-CAZ) double disc synergy test (DDST). Carbapenemase was detected using Modified Hodge test (MHT). Results: A total of 54 strains of P.aeruginosa and 55 strains of Acinetobacter spp. were studied. MBL was detected in most number of strains of P.aeruginosa using the EDTA-IPM-DDST (75%) method whereas the EIC and the ECC methods detected MBL in most number (53% each) ofstrains of Acinetobacter spp. MHT could detect Carbapenemase in 22% and 40% strains of P.aeruginosa and Acinetobacter spp. respectively. Interpretation &Conclusions: Our results suggest that while EDTA-IPM-DDST is better method for MBL detection in P.aeruginosa, the EIC and ECC assays are equally good for MBL detection in Acinetobacter spp.MHT can only be used for screening of Carbapenemases in Acinetobacter spp.

  229. Dr. Kruttika Bhuse, Dr. Ritu Shenoy, Dr. Devanand Shetty and Dr. Arvind Shetty

    Tooth loss and tooth mobility in the region of asthetics can be of great concert for the patient. The causes for tooth mobility in this region can be many, periapical pathology, bone loss, trauma etc. In certain cases extraction is the only solution, which is not acceptable to the patient. In such cases the natural tooth pontic technique is applicable. The concept of splinting is applied along with the use of natural tooth as a pontic, in the same region from where it was extracted. This Case series highlights the use of Natural tooth pontic as it is economic, fast, and easy to use chairside technique with the added benefits of periodontal stabilization.

  230. The efficacy of intranasal administration of Dexmedetomidine, Ketamine and morphine combination to young dogs

    The sedative effects of intranasal dexmedetomidine, ketamine and morphine combination were evaluated in young dogs. A combination of 0.1 mg/kg dexmedetomidine, ketamine 20 mg/kg and 0.4 mg/kg morphine was administered by inserting a lubricated catheter in intranasal. The sedation score was classified as ‘moderate’ from 2 to 10 minutes, ‘light’ from 10 to 30 minutes, the sedation level was insufficient from 30 to 45 minutes. The dogs were all awake at 45 minutes. Heart rate and rectal temparature did not change significantly from baseline at any time. Respiratory frequency decreased significantly (P<0.05) from baseline. Also SpO2 progressively dropped 10- 15 minutes when O2 supplementation was started, increasing significantly. PaCO2 enhanced significantly (P<0.05) at 10, mins and PaO2 lessening significantly (P<0.05) at 10, mins compared with baseline value. The intranasal dexmedetomidine-ketamine–morphine combinations has been successfully used for modarate sedation for 10 minutes in young dogs.

  231. Mahira Kirmani, Gupta, N. D., Afshan Bey and Saif Khan

    There are various treatment options for head and neck cancers consisting of surgery, chemotherapy and radiotherapy. Each of these are treatment options associated with a number of considerations related to treatment of the cancer and quality of life of the patient as they can affect one's oral health dramatically and can affect patients quality of life. The patient's oral care and function is an important contributor to post-treatment social adaptation and life quality. The oral and dental problems associated with radiation therapy can be prevented or minimized effectively through optimal management to a significant degree.

  232. Dr. Neha Tyagi, Dr. Sufian Zaheer, Dr. Amit Kumar Yadav, Dr. Ashish Kumar Mandal and Dr. Himani Bhankar

    Eccrine porocarcinoma is a rare malignant tumour of the sweat glands. It is most commonly seen in elderly individual and it mostly involves lower extremities. It can arise de novo or from pre-existing eccrineporoma. We report a case of Eccrine porocarcinoma in a 13 year old boy over lateral aspect of face.

  233. Dr. Neha Tyagi, Dr. Sufian Zaheer, Dr. Amit Kumar Yadav, Dr. Ashish Kumar Mandal and Dr. Himani Bhankar

    Eccrine porocarcinoma is a rare malignant tumour of the sweat glands. It is most commonly seen in elderly individual and it mostly involves lower extremities. It can arise de novo or from pre-existing eccrineporoma. We report a case of Eccrine porocarcinoma in a 13 year old boy over lateral aspect of face.

  234. Siddhanadham Arun Satyadev, Sowmya Mantha, Surendra Babu and Prashanth Varanasi

    Thiadiazoles and their analogues exhibit a wide variety of biological activities like antibacterial, antifungal, antitubercular, antidiabetic, anti-inflammatory, anti-convulsant, diuretic etc., In the present research work, some new series of 1,3,4- Thiadiazoles Schiffs bases were synthesized from Benzoic acid treated with thiosemicarbazide to form 2-amino-5-phenyl-1,3,4-thiadiazole derivative, the free amine group at the second position of the formed product was modified into various Schiffs bases by treating with different aromatic aldehydes to obtain the desired entity. The purity of the compounds was identified by TLC and purified by recrystallization and column chromatography. The structures were determined by IR, 1H NMR and Mass spectral data. 2-amino-5-phenyl-1, 3, 4-thiadiazole Schiff base analogues were screened for their antibacterial (Escherichia coli ATCC 25922), antifungal (Aspergillus niger ATCC 9029) by disc plate technique and antitubercular activity by use of MABA (Microplate Alamar Blue assay) analytical method on H37Rv strain of Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Based on the results shown by the synthesized compounds, all showed significant antimicrobial and antifungal activity activity. The mechanism of action of the compounds can be implicated for their cell wall disruption by inhibiting the peptidoglycon synthesis as potential antimicrobial agent or inhibiting the synthesis of mycolic acid as potential antitubercular agent.

  235. Dr. Ramesh Chander Nagpal, Dr. Anuradha Raj, Dr. Nadia Shirazi and Dr. Harsh Bahadur

    Kimura’s disease (KD) is a chronic inflammatory disorder with angiolymphati proliferation, angiolymphatic predominantly affecting young men of Asian race but is rare in other races. The etiology of KD is stillther unknown. We report a case of 23 year old male with KD involving right upper lid along with eosinophilia.

  236. Veena Rani, I., Annapurna, A. and Ganapathi, S.

    The study was designed to evaluate hepatoprotective activity of Convolvulus pluricaulis Choisy (CP) belonging to the family Gentianaceae in acute experimental injury by paracetamol (PCM) and the effects observed were compared with known hepatoprotective agent silymarin. Alcoholic (AECP), Chlorofom (CECP) and Aqueous (AqCP) extracts of Convolvulus pluricaulis Choisy in different doses (150 and 300 mg/kg)were administered to the groups for a period of 10 days which were pretreated with hepatotoxicant paracetamol (2 g/kg). The control group was administered with 1 % Tween 80. The blood sample was collected, centrifuged and the obtained serum was used for the assay of marker enzymes like and the liver was subjected to histopathologyAspartate aminotransferase (AST/SGOT), Alanine aminotransferase (ALT/SGPT), Alkaline phosphatase (ALP), Acid phosphatase (ACP) and Bilirubin. The liver was subjected to histopathology and DNA Fragmentation assay. Hepatotoxic rats pretreated with silymarin or CP extracts exhibited significant decrease in biochemical parameters enzyme level. From the histopathological observation, lymphocyte infiltration and marked necrosis were observed in PCM-treated groups (negative control), whereas maintenance of the normal hepatic structure was observed in group pretreated with silymarinand the plant extracts. More over the DNA was secured in these treated groups compared to the broken DNA in PCM treated group. In conclusion the AECP, CECP and AqCP extracts exhibited hepatoprotective potential and thus warrents further investigation.

  237. Mahmood H.M. Amen and Sarmad S. Muhammad

    The study was conducted in Kalar Technical Institute to investigate the effect of dietary licorice extract of Ross708 broiler chicks using (100) birds one day age and the duration of the experiment was 60 days, started from 02/15/2015 to 04/15/2015. Four treatments used in the experiment (the first treatment control 0 g licorice extract / kg feed), the second, third and fourth treatments are (1, 1.25, and1.5 gm licorice extract / kg feed) respectively. Birds were divided randomly into four groups on the four treatments, each group containing 25 birds, each group divided to the three replicates, chicks reared on the ground in the hall under same healthy conditions for broiler chickens and were supplied with regular lighting. Used Wood pens with dimensions (1Mx2M) per room and each replicates contain (8 birds). Treatment licorice extract led to a significant increase in the number of red blood cells (RBC) and packed cell volume(PCV%) and hemoglobin (Hb) concentration and the number of white blood cells (WBCs) in comparison with control. T2recordeda significant increase in the primitive body weight (the age of the first week) and to increase the final body weight. A significant decrease in weekly feed consumption and feed conversion ratio (FCR) in the birds of the second treatment. Also, treatments with licorice led to significantly (P ≤ 0.05) improve of bird immunity against Newcastle disease as HI -ND Titers in T2, T3, and T4 in comparison with control. We conclude through the study that the dietary licorice extract led to a significant improvement in the performance of broiler chickens and increase immunity response against Newcastle disease virus.

  238. Aman Kumar, Anubha, Kundan and Ravindra Kumar

    Fournier’s gangrene (FG) is a rare, rapidly progressive, fulminant form of necrotizing fasciitis of the genital, perianal and perineal regions, which may extend up to the abdominal wall between the fascial planes. Early diagnosis, aggressive resuscitation of the patient, administration of broad-spectrum antibiotics and aggressive radical surgical debridement(s), are the key of successful treatment. In this study, we aimed to investigate patients with FG and to identify risk factors that affect mortality. In this study the treatment records of 50 patients admitted to Patna medical college, General Surgery Department, with a diagnosis of Fournier’s gangrene during the 1 year period between May 2015 to April 2016 were reviewed. Of the 50 patients studied, 12 died and 38 survived; the overall mortality rate was 24%. The most frequent bacterial organisms cultured from the wound sites were Escherichia coli (85.6%) and Klebsiella (40.5%). Patients had a median hospital stay of 21 (range, 4–66) days. The median hospitalization time (MHT) for the surviving patients was 26.00 days compared to 8.00 days for the non-survivors.

  239. Dr. Upendra Hoshing, Dr. Madhukar Rao, Y., Dr. Suvarna Patil and Dr. Madhuri Patil

    The purpose of this in-vitro study was to compare the canal transportation and centring ability of Protaper Next (NT), Reciproc and OneShape (OS) file system. Materials and Methods: Thirty human extracted mandibular molars having non-calcified roots with mature apices, minimum length of 18 mm and an apical curvature of 15-30 degrees (according to Schneider’s method), were selected for this study. Samples were randomly divided into three groups (n=30) and canal preparation with Protaper NT, Reciproc and OS was performed according to manufacturer’s instruction. Pre- and post-instrumentation cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) images were captured and the extent of canal transportation and centering ability of the files were calculated, using the NNT Viewer software and Photoshop CS5, at levels of 3, 6, and 9 mm from the apex. The One-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) with Tukey’s honestly significant difference (HSD) were used to analyze the statistical significance between the three groups. Conclusions: The canal preparation with Reciproc file system showed lesser transportation and better centering ability than Protaper NT and One Shape file system.

  240. Sankar Kumar Dey, Durga Pada Dolai and Nirmal Kumar Masanta

    To assess the anthropometric and nutritional status, to compared the relationship between socioeconomic statuses (SES) of preschool children (4-5 years) of West Bengal. A cross sectional survey was carried out among 200 preschool children in Paschim Medinipur district. Anthropometric measurement like height, weight, mid arm circumference, chest circumference and head circumference and following anthropometric indicator like Gomez classification and Water low’s classification were measured of preschool children. Dietary nutritional status was assessed following standard method. From this present study, it has been found that the weights of the boys and girls of high socio-economic status are significantly higher than the weights of boys and girls of low socio-economic status but height is remain unaltered between two groups. The results found that mid-arm circumference and chest circumference are significantly varied among boys and head circumference is also significantly differ among girls belonging to high and low socioeconomic status of preschool children. On the other hand, the Gomez classification and Water lows classification are significantly lower in both boys and girls belonging to low socioeconomic groups. The results reveal that preschool children belonging to high socioeconomic status consumed significantly higher amount of dietary nutrient compared to low socioeconomic status. The present study shows that nutrient intakes were lower among preschool children with low socioeconomic status in both sexes. Thus, mean anthropometric characteristics was lower in this group. Consequently, much more emphasis is needed to be given to increase the nutrient of their diets especially among preschool children belonging to low socioeconomic groups.

  241. Kumari Anima, SushmaKumari, Jaya Sinha and Mishra, P. K.

    Background: It is paradox that while highlighting achievements in science and technology it is spoken high about space, nuclear and digital programme but on the other hand a sizable number of population is still fighting hunger, malnutrition and basic health problems. Hence it was of great interest to think and act for equitable and sustainable development of those who are lacking behind i.e the Tribal population of Hazaribag district Objectives 1.To assess the socioeconomic status of the study group/Tribal population. 2.To find out the reason behind the backwardness of the Tribal population. 3.To know the aspirations of the Tribal population. 4.To find out way to overcome the situation. Sample size: It comprised of 648 males and 412 females of age group 18 to 60,some were students, some were unemployed and some worked in unorganized sectors. Universe: The total tribal population of Hazaribag i.e.121768 as per the last census. Material and Methods: Localities having tribal population were regularly visited and interacted. Direct interview as well as group discussion was adopted to assess the situation. Questions were asked following the structured questionnaire. Data collected were analysed statistically using student ‘t’test. Results: Development of Tribal population was not as par to mainstream society although a large no of governmental schemes are available but it hardly reach to the actual beneficiary. Advantage of these schemes are taken away by middlemen. Tribal specially women are more egourous to have their development. They are highly concerned about their educational status, Health benefits, sanitation, water availability and other parameters of sustainable develop

  242. Dr. Sunita S. Dantkale, Dr. Smita S. Pudale, Dr. Swapna V. Rakhonde, Dr. Khushboo Birla

    Introduction: WHO defined sudden death as sudden unexpected death of a person usually seen within 24 hrs of onset of symptoms. Autopsy study helps in effective evaluation of cause of death and to apply such knowledge to the prevention and treatment of disease in society. Material and Methods: Seven years retrospective study was done in pathology department in tertiary care center in which 150 cases were studied. After performing autopsy, organs were grossly examined, representative sections were taken, routine tissue processing, H and E staining and microscopic examination of slides was done. Result: Age ranged from 0 to 70 years with mean age of 41-50 years. Male (111) to female (39) ratio was 2.85:1. Deaths due to cardiovascular causes accounted for 60.7% followed by respiratory disease 18%, vascular pathology 5.3%, Hepatobiliary lesions 4.6%, Gastrointestinal diseases 3.4%, central nervous system diseases 3.4%, Unknown causes contributed to 4.6%. Coronary artery disease (67%)constituted most common cause of sudden cardiac death. In respiratory causes 9.4% of deaths were due to lobar pneumonia. Cirrhosis accounted for 2% in hepatobiliary lesions. 2.7% death occured due to gastrointestinal perforation. In 4.7% where cause of death could not be determined, death can be attributed to diseases like ventricular arrhythmias, coronary vasospasm. Conclusion: Diseases of cardiovascular system are the major contributing factor for sudden natural deaths. Among these coronary artery disease is most common factor. Sudden natural deaths were associated with treatable coronary risks such as hypertension, diabetes, alcohol smoking. Pneumonia can be attributed to poor hygine, malnutrition and low socio economic status. By modifying these factors sudden deaths can be decreased.

  243. Bhushan Kamble, Umang Salodiya, Saudan Singh and Jugal Kishore

    Introduction: Tuberculosis is a major health problem in many countries. In India, TB kills 14 times more people than all tropical diseases combined, 21 times more than malaria and 400 times more than leprosy. TB has become a major barrier to social and economic development. The objective of the study was to study the perception regarding the treatment under revised national tuberculosis control programme among parents/guardians of pediatric tuberculosis patients. Material and Methods: We conducted cross-sectional study during January 2014 to October 2014. Out of 10 RNTCP zones of Delhi state, two zones namely south zone and south west zone were selected by convenient sampling method and all pediatric tuberculosis patients who were declared as cured or treatment completed at these two zones had been selected by complete enumeration method. Parents/guardians of these study subjects were interviewed for the perception regarding the treatment of their children under RNTCP. Results: Out of 462 informants, Only 105(22.7%) informants were aware about correct cause of TB i.e. Germ. Majority 145(31.9%) were not having any idea about mode of transmission of TB. About 432(93.5%) informants were aware about TB is curable and 420(90.9%) correctly said that TB is preventable disease.

  244. Dr. Cheena Singh, Dr. Kamal Sagar and Dr. Ritika Arora

    Gingival growths are most commonly seen now –a – days in daily routine diagnosis. These growths may be localized or generalized involving the gingiva. Most of these enlargements are considered to be reactive rather than neoplastic in nature. Clinically it is often difficult to differentiate one entity from other one. So in order to identify the lesion it is mandatory to perform biopsy andthus the histological evaluation. In this study, the clinical report of a 17 years old female patient with peripheral ossifying fibroma in the right maxilla (hard palate region) exhibiting significant size is presented posing diagnostic challenge. Clinical, radiographical and histological investigations are done to reach the final diagnosis of peripheral ossifying fibroma. Recommendations regarding treatment and follow up are provided in this case report.

  245. Dr. Kamal Sagar, Dr. Ritika Arora and Dr. Cheena Singh

    Periodontal regeneration is a specialized process which is very hard to achieve in routine clinical practise. New attachment apparatus should be formed to be considered for true regeneration like new cementum, bone and periodontal ligament. Various techniques and material have been used in the past to gain this therapeutic endpoint. In this case report we discussed the beneficial effects of platelet rich fibrin (PRF) with demineralised freezed dried bone allograft (DFDBA) in the treatment of infrabony defect mainly 2 and 3walled.

  246. Dr. Sandeip Kumar, Dr. Dhakshaini M. R. and Dr. Hamim, R. H.

    Statement of problem: Glass fibres reinforcement and microwave polymerization, both has been suggested as a method to improve the mechanical strength of acrylic denture base. However the post polymerization effect of microwave sterilization on Polymethylmethacrylate Denture Base Resin Reinforced with Glass Fibre has not been investigated. Purpose. The study analyzed the effect of microwave Sterilization on Tensile Strength of Polymethylmethacrylate Denture Base Resin Reinforced with Glass Fibres. Materials and Methods: In this study Heat cure acrylic denture base resin material and loose glass fibres of diameter 12 microns and length 15 mm, were used. A total of 30 specimens were polymerized by conventional heat cure according to manufacturer's instruction and divided into 3 groups (N=10). Group A is control, Group B is acrylic resins reinforced with 5% glass fibres, and Group C is acrylic resins reinforced with 5% glass fibres, sterilized by microwave. Group C specimens were subjected to post polymerization sterilization in a microwave oven in power 800W and time setting of 5 minutes. Tensile strength load measurements were made using universal testing machine at a crosshead speed of 3 mm/min with a span of 10 mm. The tensile strength values were calculated in Newton/mm2. Data analysis included one-way ANOVA and independent t- test. *Results: The tensile strength of Group C with application of microwave irradiation for sterilization, demonstrated significant strength improvement with respect to Group B and Group A. There was a statistical significant difference seen in between the groups (p=0.001). Conclusion: Microwave post polymerization irradiation for sterilization of acrylic resin prosthesis reinforced with glass fibres can be an effective method for increasing the tensile strength of acrylic resin.

  247. Dr. Vivek, H., Dr. Mohan Kumar, K. and Dr. Vikranth, S. N.

    Aims and Objective: The objective of this study was to review our 3 years of experience of most common age and cause of amputation, co-morbidities, patient survival, mortality and morbidity associated with amputation. Materials and Methods: This retrospective study includes cases that underwent Major lower extremity amputation between Sept-2015 to Sept-2012 in R.L.J. Hospital. Results: A total of 100 patients underwent major limb amputations during the study period. The patients were aged 24–68 years (mean 42.30 ± 13.72 days). 70 patients were males and females were 30.Complication of diabetes mellitus was the main indication for the major lower limb amputations. Above knee amputation was done in 26 patients and that of below knee is 74 patients. Post-operative complications occurred in 41 patients. There were a total of 6 deaths giving a mortality rate of 6%. Conclusion: Diabetic foot, peripheral vascular disease, trauma and gangrene are the leading indications for amputation in our environment. These are preventable conditions. There is need for government to increase public enlightenment on road safety precautions, establish and equip more trauma centres and specialized diabetic foot clinics. Widespread education of diabetics on foot care and glycaemic controls including regular blood sugar screening for the aging population will reduce the incidence of lower limb amputation.

  248. Sumnima Rai

    Depression today is quite common and the word itself is used as an adjective (eg “I am so depressed.”) but the fact is many people are mistaken with this term itself. Depression is a serious life taking disorder, it can be triggered due to small significant factors like low mood or sad emotion due to failure, small family problems and many miscellaneous but minor jolt in the emotion. This article aims to do a comprehensive review of what depression actually is and the various researches made to understand depression and the link between depression and suicide and to review Cognitive Behavioural Therapy along with other ways of dealing like medication as an effective way of dealing with depression.

  249. Dr. Mukesh Kumar, Dr. Rishav Singh and Dr. Sankalp Verma

    Aim: to determine the frequency of middle mesial (MM) canals in mandibular first molars in Eastern Indian population. Materials and methods: All mature mandibular first molars endodontically treated between March 2014 and March 2016were included in the study. After instrumenting the main canals, the clinician inspected the mesial developmental groove and, if found, was negotiated, cleaned, shaped, and recorded. Results: A total of 200 first molars were treated during the specified period, of which 27% had negotiable MM canals. The frequency of MM canals was 37% in patients 11–30 years old, 33.3% in patients 31–50 years old, and 29.6%in patients >50 years. Statistical analysis revealed a significant relationship of different age groups with the incidence of MM canals (P < 0.05). A significant relationship was also found between the detection rate of two canals in distal root and the presence of MM canals (P < 0.05) with gender having no influence. Conclusion: The presence of MM canals is quite high in Eastern Indian population. Younger patients had a higher incidence of MM canals. Mandibular first molars with two separate distal canals showed a tendency to have MM canals.

  250. Dr. Rohit Shahapurkar, Dr. Balaji Aironi and Dr. Kamlesh Jain

    Mitral apparatus plays an important part in maintaining the geometry and LV function (LVEF).In India, Rheumatic valvular heart disease (RHD) is the predominant disease which affects all the components of mitral apparatus with heavy calcification, subvalvular crowding, and chordal fusion. Hence valve repair becomes near impossible. So, we have considered the use of Neo-Chordae with re-suspension of papillary muscles as a simple, easily reproducible method to maintain annulo-papillary continuity and hence post-operative LV dimensions, geometry and LV function. 100 patients underwent Mitral Valve Replacement with chordal re-suspension and were compared with that of non-preserved replacements. Improvement in LV dimension was seen in 80% of patients who had maintained annulo-papillary continuity in the form of papillary muscle re-suspension. 10% rise in LVEF was seen in our study. 24% cases had LV dysfunction in other group with increased LV dimensions almost 20%, post-operatively in this group B.

  251. Suneeta Singh

    Madhumeha (Diabetes Mellitus) is the subtype of Vatik Prameha due to involvement of vital elements causes alarming health instability with higher prevalence in present time. Diabetes is fast gaining the status of a potential epidemic in India with more than 62 million diabetic individuals currently diagnosed with the disease. In 2000, India (31.7 million) topped the world with the highest number of people with diabetes mellitus. Today’s modernization and urbanization has led to changing life style, lack of exercise, fast food, improper unbalanced diet & sedentary life which leads to vitiation of doshas in our body and later it appear as in the form of Madhumeha. In present study a drug combination was selected from the drugs indicated in Ayurvedic text and hypothetical drug yoga (Madhumukti) was prepared. This Madhumukti was prescribed to 20 patients of Madhumeha. Encouraging results was obtained on the symptoms of Madhumeha and significant improvement in blood sugar level of these patients.

  252. Dr. Ishi Mandrik, Dr. H. Jyothi Kiran, Dr. Shivalinga, B. M. and Dr. Abhishek Ranjan

    Introduction: Class II division 1 malocclusion due to mandibular retrognathism is considered as one of the most frequently encountered problems in the orthodontic practice. Objective: To compare dento-alveolar, skeletal and soft tissue effects of Twin Block appliance and Forsus FRD anchored on orthodontic mini-implants. Also, to evaluate whether an association of orthodontic mini-implant with Forsus FRD bring absolute skeletal correction of Class II division 1, avoiding the undesirable proclination of lower anterior teeth. Materials and Methods: This retrospective study included 2 groups: TB and FFRDI of 7 patients each. Lateral cephalograms were traced using NemoCeph (NemoCeph, NX 2006) software at T1(Pre treatment) and T2(Post functional). The data obtained was analyzed by using descriptive statistics, Paired t-test and Independent sample t-test through SPSS for windows (v 22.0). Results: TB was able to induce both skeletal and dento-alveolar effects while FFRDI mainly induced skeletal effects. Significant lower incisor proclination occurred with TB while there was slight or almost no change in the inclination of lower incisors with FFRDI. Maxillary molar retroclination was significant in both the groups. Maxillary molar moved distally in both the groups significantly.SNA decreased in both the groups, by 0.58° in TB and significantly reduced by 2° in FFRDI. Conclusion: Both appliances were effective in correcting the class II division 1 malocclusion. Skeletal changes were induced by FFRDI while TB induced skeletal and dento-alveolar changes. Favourable soft tissue corrections were achieved by both the groups.

  253. Geetha, J. and Radhika, R.

    Objectives: To compare the efficacy of end tidal carbon-di-oxide with clinical assessment in endotracheal tube placement in children and to correlate EtCo2 with various clinical conditions. Methods: Patients between 1 month to 18 years of age admitted to the emergency room requiring tracheal intubation were studied excluding patients admitted with cardiac arrest. Design and Setting: Prospective analytical study done in emergency room of a tertiary care pediatric hospital between September 2010 and June 2012. Results: Capnography identified all esophageal and airway intubations accurately except for 1 airway intubation. Clinical assessment identified all airway intubations correctly but only 1 out of 5 esophageal intubations. The mean time taken for confirmation of ET tube position by capnography was 8.15 ± 4.07secs and by clinical assessment was 22.45 ±14.44 secs and esophageal intubation by capnography was confirmed in 12.4 ± 4.77 sec and by clinical assessment in 35.8 ± 12.79 secs. EtCo2 identified underlying circulatory/ metabolic derangement thereby helping appropriate management. Conclusions: Capnography and clinical assessment were sensitive in identifying airway intubations, however only capnography was 100 % specific in identifying esophageal intubations. The mean time to assess tracheal and esophageal intubation was significantly less with capnography. Capnography did not discriminate between tracheal and bronchial intubation. Capnography helped monitoring response to treatment in children with shock, respiratory failure.

  254. Dr. Praveen Awasthi, Dr. Amit Thahriani, Dr. Amritaksha Bhattachayra, Dr. Asit Vats and ,Dr. Sankalp Verma

    Due to increasing awareness about oral cancer and concern for own health, any lump in the oral cavity is often served with suspicion. Foliate papillitis is one of the painful swellings located at the posterior lateral margin of the tongue. Foliate papilla is covered by thin muosa, which when inflamed ruptures exposing the underlying foliate papilla. These exposed papilla may get secondarily infection leading to pain and swelling. In this article, we report a patient with foliate papillitis.

  255. Sunil Kumar, Anil Saxena, Suman Khangarot, Anees K. V. and Kamal Nayan

    Background: Exudative pleural effusions are a common diagnostic problem in clinical practice and it is difficult to determine the cause of pleural effusion. Aims and objectives: to evaluate the role of ADA and cytology in diagnosis of exudative plural effusion Materials and methods: 100 patients with exudative plural effusions were recruited Results: Tuberculosis was the most common cause of plural effusion in 74% followed by malignancy 18% then synpneumonic 6%. majority of tubercular pleural effusions 86.47% were found in less than 50 years of age and majority of malignant pleural effusion found in more than 50 years of age (73.03%). 89.18 % and 84.62% are the sensitivity and specificity of the test if ADA 40 U/L cutoff is used for finding extra pulmonary TB, it is 67.5% and 100% when the ADA 63U/L cutoff is used and it is 83.78% and 96.15% when ADA and cytology both included. Conclusion: In a clinically suspected case of plural effusion if the plural fluid ADA is >63U/L, it is virtually diagnostic of tubercular pleural effusion. If ADA is in between 40-63U/L it is highly suspicious of tubercular pleural effusion, and then the cytology report will aid in confirming the diagnosis.

  256. Sanusi Mohammed Ibrahim, Bilkisu Isa, Halima Abubakar Ibrahim, Dr. Abubakar A. Kullima and Ado Danazumi Geidam

    The importance of male to women´s sexual and reproductive health promotion was officially recognized by International Conference on Population and Development. Increase male involvement may therefore improve maternal health and reduce maternal morbidity and mortality. The aim of the study was to appraise the involvement of men in antenatal, labour and postpartum care services in different regions of the world. Information was obtained through electronic literature search conducted in PubMed, Medline, and Google scholar, using the following search terms in combination, from 1st January 1992 to 31st December 2015: Male involvement, Maternal healthcare, Nigeria, Developed countries, Developing countries. All relevant peer-reviewed English language articles and publications were identified, retrieved and reviewed. Major findings from the review were analyzed and presented in text. The findings indicated that while there was high level of male involvement with consequent beneficial effects in maternal health in England and USA, the levels of involvement of men in developing nations such as India, Bangladesh, Nepal and Africa are variable with cultural and socioeconomic factors affecting them. The differential level of male involvement in maternal healthcare across different regions of the world underscores the need for health providers and policy makers to evolve couple-centered and male-friendly healthcare services, and also modify factors found to influence male involvement so that maternal health may be improved.

  257. Sreeja, P. A., Dr. Thirumalaswami, Snigdha Asok, P. N., Swaroop Lal, Sona San and Fousiya, K. S.

    Objectives: To analyse the age wise and gender wise prevalence, risk factors, severity pattern, antimicrobial sensitivity patterns of infectious wounds.
    Methods: A prospective study, conducted for of 5 months. 138 wounds with pus were included. A data collection form including demographics, severity assessment scale, antibiogram, medication chart was used.
    Results: Infectious wounds were more prevalent in males (71.01%). An age group of 40 -49 years is found more associated with wound infections (26.81%). The major risk factor was Diabetes mellitus (57.24%). The most common site of infection was found to be leg (37.68%).Moderately severe infections were more (50.72%). Gram negative bacteria (54.03%) were observed more. Among gram negative bacteria E.coli (25.36 %) was common. S. aureus was predominant (70.17%) gram positive bacteria. E.coli was mostly sensitive to Amikacin (74.28%) and resistant towards Amoxicillin (51.42%). S.aureus was sensitive to Vancomycin (55 %) and was resistant towards Cotrimoxazole (32.5 %).
    Conclusion: Most of the microorganisms showed resistance to commonly used antibiotics indicates the need of sensitivity testing.

  258. Garg, S. and Chandla, S. S.

    Background & Objectives: With increased awareness and interest in health and natural remedies, breathing techniques are gaining importance and becoming increasingly acceptable to the scientific community Breathing is the most vital function for maintenance of life. Pranayama is an art of controlling the life force of breath. It produces many systemic psycho-physical effects in the body, besides its specific effects on the respiratory functions. Pranayama helps to bring the conscious awareness in breathing to reshape breathing habits and patterns. Thus the present study was conducted to elucidate the effect of bhastrika pranayama, a fast breathing type of exercise, on various pulmonary functions. Methods: The study included thirty medical students both male and female of age group 17-21 years. Students practiced bhastrika pranayama twenty five minutes daily for three months. Pulmonary Function Test (PFT) are measured before, at 6 weeks and 12 week after pranayama practice. Parameters included in the study were Vital Capacity (VC), Peak Expiratory Flow Rate (PEFR) and Maximum Voluntary Ventilation (MVV). Results: There occurs a significant increase (p value <.01) in all the parameters included in the study following practice of bhastrika pranayama for three months. Interpretation & Conclusion: Bhastrika pranayama plays a significant role in improving the various ventilatory functions of lungs in pranayama practicing subjects. Thus helps in improving the quality of life.

  259. Balkrishna Namdhari

    Aims: Wastage of blood due to ‘time expiry’ and surplus blood stock management. Design: Retrospective and cross sectional study of 12 years of district Solapur. Analysis: Average blood wastage % due to ‘time expiry’ wastage of blood for each block of 4 years and overall average of ‘time expiry’ wastage %.Results are plotted on area graph from year 2003 to 2014. Results: ‘Time expiry’ of blood discard% is increased from 1.27 % to 4.64 % i.e. 3.65 fold. Average of 12 years’ time expiry % is 2.65%. The government of India scheme of ‘bulk transfer’ is to be implemented to reduce further ‘time expiry wastage’. Conclusions: Inventory control on ‘time expiry’ wastage is by ‘bulk transfer’ of blood.

  260. Wafaa S. Mohammed and Mohsen A.A. Farghaly

    Background: Circulating 25 hydroxyvitamin D (25 (OH)D), an accurate measure of vitamin D status, is markedly reduced in rachitic infants. Aside from the known relationship between vitamin D and bone, vitamin D has also been implicated in cardiovascular homeostasis, immune function and inflammation. Furthermore, a mass of evidence is accumulating that vitamin D deficiency could lead to cardiovascular complications and imbalance of cytokines profile. Our objective was to study the relationship between vitamin D status (as determined by serum 25(OH) D concentrations) and inflammatory markers and left ventricular function in rachitic infants. Also, to evaluate the effect of vitamin D supplementation on the above parameters.
    Subjects and methods: This study included two groups; vitamin D deficiency rickets (VDDR) group (25 infants) and an age matched control group (15 infants). After subsiding of the acute illness, the rachitic infants received vitamin D supplementation for 6 months. Blood samples were collected in the morning before the start of treatment and analyzed for serum 25(OH)D, intact parathyroid hormone (iPTH), Alkaline phosphtase (ALP), calcium (Ca), Phosphorus (Ph) and inflammatory markers (interleukin-6 (IL-6), and C-reactive protein (CRP)). Electrocardiogram (ECG) and echocardiography measuring left ventricular functions were done. The biochemical variables, ECG and echocardiography were assessed at baseline and after 6 months of vitamin D supplementation.
    Results: VDDR group had significant lower 25(OH)D, Ca, Ph and significant higher iPTH, ALP, IL-6 and CRP compared to the age matched control group at baseline. Echocardiographic finding revealed significant increase in LVEDD and LVESD and significant decrease in EF% and FS% in VDDR group compared to the age matched control group at the study entry. Also, ECG finding showed abnormality in some patients at baseline. The biochemical, echocardiogrphic and ECG variables improved significantly after 6 months of vitamin D supplementation and reached to those levels found in the age matched control group. Finally, we found negative correlations between 25(OH)D level and IL-6, CRP, LVEDD and LVESD. Also, positive correlations were found between 25 (OH)D and EF% and FS%. These correlations were observed at baseline and after 6 months of vitamin D treatment.
    Conclusion: VDDR is associated with increased inflammatory markers and impairment of left ventricular functions in rachitic infants. Vitamin D supplementation ameliorated these effects. Also, results gleaned from this investigation support the possible contributing role of the elevated inflammatory markers in the pathophysiology of left ventricular impairment in vitamin D deficiency rachitic infants. More studies are needed to fully characterize the relationship between Vitamin D induced inflammation and cardiac function in rachitic infants.

  261. Rakhi Vaish, Taluja, J. S., Shrivastava, A. M., Nidhi Gupta and Yogita Pandey

    The study was conducted in eighteen prenatal female goats comprising group I, II and III having Crown rump length, up to 10 cm, 10-20cm and 20+ cm respectively. The initiation of the development of the mammary gland was observed as mammary line in the foetus of group I (4.50 cm CRL). The mammary line was made up of several (4-5) layers of epidermal cells, developed on the stratum germinativum. The further proliferation of cells lead to the formation of mammary hillock observed in the foetus of group I (5.20 cm CRL). The mammary bud remained below the epidermis and was ovoid, encapsulated by concentric arrangement of mesenchymal tissue. The initiation of the teat development appeared in the foetus of group I (6.70 cm CRL). The epidermal cells of the bud proliferated in the deeper mesenchyme to form the primary sprout. The luminization of the primary sprout proceeded from the base towards the apex of the teat in the foetus of group II (17.60 cm CRL). In group III (28.00 cm CRL), the cavity of the teat cistern was increased in size and the cells started to rearrange into definitive bilayered epithelium. The entire tissue next to the stratum germinativum was mesenchymal in nature. With the advancement of age the spherical masses of mesenchymal cells differentiated into adipose tissue called as fat pad, noticed in group II (20.00 cm CRL). In group III (36.00 cm CRL) the development of the adipose tissue became extensive throughout the udder tissue above and around the gland cistern and duct system. Traces of elastic fibers were noticed in the interwhorl connective tissue area of the fat pad in the foetus of group II (20.00 cm CRL) and distribution of elastic fibers were sparse and scattered in the connective tissue septae of the developing gland. However, distinct lamina of elastic fibers were observed in the blood vessel.

  262. Siddig Mustafa Mohammed Suliman, Suhair A. Ahmed and Omer Fadl Idris

    Backgrounds: Diabetes Mellitus is a metabolic disease characterized by hyperglycemia due to defective insulin secretion or action. There is increasing evidence of the involvement of trace elements in the pathogenesis of diabetes mellitus and its complications. Objectives: The aim of this study was to compare the serum levels of copper and chromium in Sudanese patients with type 2 Diabetes with that of non-diabetic healthy controls. Methods and Results: A case-control study was conducted at Alsheifa specialized hospitals in Khartoum state, Sudan, during the period from December 2015 to January 2016.Included 60 type 2 diabetic patients and 40 non diabetic subjects (male and female) as controls were enrolled in this study. Written consent will be obtained from all participants whom will be asked not to alter their usual diets and physical activities throughout the study. Both groups were matched for age and gender. The serum levels of copper and chromium were measured using atomic absorption spectrophotometry technique. SPSS was used for analysis of data. In the diabetic group, the mean of the serum levels of chromium was significantly reduced, whereas the mean of the serum levels of copper also was significantly reduced when compared with the control group show in Table (1). The serum levels of chromium in the diabetic group had asignificant inverse correlation with HBA1c, Age and glycemic status (P≤0.05) show in Table (3), whereas the serum levels of Copper had insignificant inverse correlation with HBA1C%, Age and glycemic status (P > 0.05) show in Table (2). In conclusion: The results of this study showed significantly reduced serum levels of chromium and significantly reduced serum levels of copper in Sudanese patients with type 2 diabetes.

  263. Dr. Sanjay Kumar Sinha, Dr. Birendra Prasad Gupta and Dr. Abhay Kumar

    Hyopituitarism is the condition, when pituitary gland is unable to provide sufficient hormones, due to an inability of pituitary gland to produce hormones or due to an insufficient supply of hypothalamic-releasing hormones. Symptoms depend on the degree of hormone depletion and the rapidity of onset. Hypopituitarism is usually a mixture of several hormonal deficiencies but rarely involves all the pituitary hormones. i.e. pan hypopitruitism. Hypopituitarism is usually chronic and lifelong, unless successful surgery or medical treatment of the underlying disorder can restore pituitary function. In this article, our patient had suffered from encephalitis and meninigitis in his early childhood, that resulted to hypopituitarism and growth hormones were suppressed, led to dwarfism. We are focusing on dental treatment challanges associated with hypopituitaric patient, presented to us with limited mouthopening, micrognathia, malocclusion and severely compromised periodontal health.

  264. Dr. R. Purushothaman, M. S. and Dr. R. Alagar Samy, M. S.

    Background: Appendicitis is one of the most common diseases that needs emergency surgery (Williams et al.,, 1995). Variations in anatomical position cause different clinical presentations (Singh et al.,, 1999). The aim of this study is to determine the anatomical variations of the position of appendix in Acute Appendicitis. Materials and Methods: This cross sectional study was carried out in ESIC Medical college and Hospital, Coimbatore on 53 patients for a period of one year from January 2015 to December 2015 who had undergone appendicectomy in acute appendicitis. Following parameter was ascertained : 1) appendix position during appendicectomy. Results: in our study Retrocecal position was the predominant position (39.62%) followed by pelvic 25.42%, paracecal 18.8% and Preileal 9.43% respectively. Conclusion: Retrocecal position is the most common location in our patients.

  265. Anisha, A. Mahtani and Dr. Thenmozhi M.S.

    Aim: To analyze the existence of the posterior condylar foramen and the morphometry of the posterior condylar fossa and the jugular foramen. Objective: To check the bilateral or unilateral existence of the posterior condylar foramen. To also observe variations in the measurements of the posterior condylar fossa and the jugular foramen using a vernier caliper. Introduction: The condylar fossae are situated at either side of the foramen magnum behind the occipital condyles and accommodate the postero-superior part of the lateral mass of the atlas when the head is bent backwards. The fossa is best visualized radiologically. The posterior condylar foramen may or may not exist. The jugular foramen is located behind the carotid canal and is formed in front by the posterior portion of the temporal and behind the occipital. It is generally larger on the right than on the left side. Materials and methods: The study was carried out using 40 dry skulls from the Anatomy department of Saveetha Dental College, Chennai, Tamil Nadu. The parameters were measured using a vernier caliper and a scale. Results: 50% of the skulls contained the right posterior condylar foramen and 51% contained the left posterior condylar foramen. The mean value of the right and left width of the jugular foramina was found to be 13.3mm and 12.45mm respectively and the mean value of the antero-posterior diameter for the right and left jugular foramina are 10.05mm and 9.6mm respectively. Thus the right jugular foramen was found to be larger than the left. The mean value of the right and left width of the posterior condylar fossa was found to be 7.17mm and 7.35mm respectively and the mean value of the antero-posterior diameter for the right and left posterior condylar fossae are 5.4mm and 5.5mm respectively.

  266. Petrov, P., Daskalov, Hr, Dinkova, At and Lalabonova, Hr

    Introduction: Wound sections resulting from high-energy laser treatment of premalignant oral lesions have a specific healing process. Objectives: Aim of this study is to follow up the dynamics of wound healing in patients with oral leukoplakia submitted to Er-YAG laser treatment. Materials: Observed in this study were 36 wounds resulting from surgical treatment of patients that were histologically proven with oral leukoplakia, without presence of cell displasia. Methodology: Laser ablation technique was applied using vapolarization. The rate of wound healing was taken each 1, 3, 7 postoperative days. Indications were followed up for pain, infection and appearance of healing in the treated area. Results: The wound healing processes run smoothly. There was no presence of pain and sensory disturbance. Feeding and comfort of the patients were recovered immediately after the procedure. Conclusion: Wounds resulting from Er-YAG laser treatment of oral leukoplakia are healing without pain and without complications. This method gives excellent comfort to patients combined with good quality healing outcomes.

  267. Indrajit Rana, Jugindra Sorokhaibam and Somorendro Paonam

    Introduction: One of the commonly performed invasive procedures in hospitalized patients is Foley catheterization. Retained Foley catheter due to non-deflating catheter balloon is a known complication though rarely encountered in day to day practice. The current study was conducted to evaluate our experience of managing retained Foley catheter due to non-deflating catheter balloon and review hospital policy to address the problem. Materials and Methods: This prospective, descriptive study was conducted at Shija Hospitals & Research Institute from 1st November, 2013 to 31st October, 2015 (2 years). All indoor, OPD and casualty patients who were diagnosed as a case of retained Foley catheter due to non-deflating catheter balloon were included in the study population. Results: 15 male (83.3%) and 3 female (16.7%) patients were managed for Foley catheter retention. Mean duration of catheterization was 11.9 days. Flushing with distilled water and cutting balloon port proximal to inflation valve were successful in 5.6% (n=1) and 23.5% (n=4) cases respectively. Balloon rupture was done in 72.2% (n=13) cases. Transvaginal puncture of catheter balloon was successfully performed in all 3 female patients. Puncture directly to catheter balloon retained at bulbar urethra was done in one case. In all other 9 cases transabdominal ultrasound guided suprapubic puncture of catheter balloon was successfully performed. Conclusion: Management of retained Foley catheter is challenging. Every hospital should have their own protocol to manage such cases. A good coordination between physician, surgeon and sonologist is often required to overcome the problem.

  268. Dr. Sheela L Gaikwad, Dr. Uddhav D Kumawat, Dr. Nagsen A Sakhare and Dr. Grace F D’costa

    Introduction: The skin acts as a buffer against the external environment and thus is more vulnerable to a variety of disease-causing microorganisms and physical assaults. The skin is affected by wide range of diseases comprising of inflammatory disorders to highly malignant neoplasms. Material & Methods: All the skin lesion received from Jan 2016 to June 2016, excluding those of oral & nasal mucosa and tongue, are studied retrospectively in the dept. of Pathology at Swami Ramanand Teerth Rural Government Medical College, Ambajogai. Results: Total 113 (10%) skin lesion specimens out of 1130 specimens were received during study period. Patient’s age ranged from 7 years to 80 years with maximum numbers of patients were from age group of 31 to 40 years and with male predominance (M:F= 2.1:1). Neoplastic (58%) lesions outnumbered non-neoplastic ones (42%). Epidermal cysts and squamous cell carcinoma were the most common benign and malignant neoplastic lesions respectively. Non-specific chronic inflammation was most common non-neoplastic lesion. Conclusion: Diversity of skin lesions were obtained among rural population in this study. Meticulous histopathological examination combined with awareness in mind regarding prevalence of diverse skin lesions in rural population can help in correct diagnosis.

  269. Shruthi M Shetty, Kiran, K. G., Vinayak J Kempaller, Rashmi Kundapur and Nalam Udaya Kiran

    Background: Hand hygiene plays an important role in preventing diseases. Hand hygiene techniques are simple and effective, but there is a poor compliance by health workers to maintain hand hygiene. Objectives: To assess the knowledge, attitude, and practices of hand hygiene in interns and postgraduates of a Tertiary care hospital of Mangalore. Methods: A cross sectional study was conducted from August- September 2015 using a semi- structured questionnaire based on WHO hand hygiene Questionnaire. Written consent was taken. Likert Scale was used for scoring of knowledge, positive attitudes, and good practices. Data was analyzed using SPSS. Mann Whitney U Test was used to assess the differences between interns, postgraduates and those who are trained and untrained in hand hygiene. Results: 150 students participated in this study, in which 40 were interns and 110 were post graduates. 78% of the students had received training for hand hygiene, yet only 61% of the students always washed their hands after seeing patients.7% strongly agreed that the facilities available for hand hygiene were satisfactory. Around 15% of students strongly disagreed that wearing gloves reduced the need for hand hygiene. Mann Whitney U Test revealed a significant difference in knowledge scores between interns and final year post graduates (p = 0.019), trained and untrained students towards attitude (p=0.004) and practices (p<0.001) of hand hygiene techniques. Conclusions: Differences were observed between trained and untrained students, and between interns and postgraduates. Ongoing training with assessment of the students is required to prevent the risk of transmission of infections.

  270. Hector Leal Silva, Esther Carmona Hernandez, Angel Perez Blanco, Mariana Grijalva Vazquez, Sugun Lee and Sebastian Leal Delgado

    Background: High-intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU) quickly raises local temperature of subcutaneous adipose tissue, resulting in instantaneous cell death within the targeted area; higher temperatures can be safely applied using contact cooling. Objective: Evaluate safety and performance efficacy of HIFU with surface cooling for Non-Invasive reduction of the subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT)in the abdomen. Methods: A new HIFU device (LIPOcel™, Jeisys Medical, Inc. Seoul, Republic of Korea) with contact cooling was used to reduce abdominal circumference adipose tissue in 3 treatment modalities. Results: 30 subjects, mean age of 35.4 years underwent one or 2 HIFU treatments. Mean total energy dose was 509.4 J/cm2, 495 J/cm2, and 374 J/cm2 for Groups A, B, and C respectively; whole study mean total fluence was 459.47 J/cm2. Mean waist circumference reduction was 2.95 cm, 2.4 cm, and 3.8 cm for Groups A, B, and C respectively. A significant mean waist circumference reduction of 3.05 cm from baseline was observed. Most subjects (63.3%) reported being satisfied or very satisfied with the results; 80% of the investigators reported satisfactory results. Conclusions: HIFU with surface cooling using high fluence, assessed by standardized waist circumference measurement, is safe and effective for abdominal SAT reduction and noninvasive body sculpting.

  271. Neneng Yetty Hanurawati, Nany Djuhriah, Pujiono and Elanda Fikri

    Laundry industry directly in the form of phosphate throw waste into the drainage channel or body of water without prior treatment. One of the alternative technologies that can be used to overcome this problem is biosand filter and activated carbon. Activated carbon is very effective in reducing the organic materials one phosphate, wherein the activated carbon made from waste plastic bag crackle of the type of polyethylene. The general objective of this study to determine the effect of various thickness of plastic bag litter activated carbon in reducing phosphate in industrial waste washing clothes (laundry). The study design was a laboratory-scale experiment, which studied the effect of the influence of various thickness of plastic bag litter activated carbon in reducing phosphate in industrial waste washing clothes (laundry). The study design was a laboratory-scale experiments, design done in this research is completely randomized design. The population is all the waste industry washing clothes contained in Cimahi Pasantren North Road area. Statistical test results obtained p value was 0.000 (p <0.0050, so there are differences in average thickness of activated carbon waste crackle in reducing phosphate in waste water washing (laundry). The conclusions of this study there is the influence of the thickness of the active carbon garbage plastic bag in reducing phosphate in industrial waste Laundry (Laundry) with a thickness of 10 cm which can reduce waste highest phosphate.

  272. Dr. Rolando Sánchez Artigas, Antonio Miranda Cruz, Oliver Pérez Martín, Liliana Araujo Baptista, Dailín Cobos Valdes and Dr. Onelio Mulet Pupo

    Tetanus is an illness caused by the neurotoxin produced by the Clostridium tetani and its control is a strategy of the vaccination programs developed by the Panamerican Health Organization. For the production of tetanus toxoid are used international standards of antitoxins gotten in equines, however, these antisera are not available for their routine use in Cuba. The purpose of this study was to obtain a potent antitoxin against tetanus toxin. Four groups of mares were immunized. For the immunization, the different amounts of immunogen were emulsified in Immune- stimulating oil emulsion and injected according to the several multisite immunization protocols in low volumes. The second immunizations were carried out in Immune- stimulating oil emulsion. The antibody response was evaluated by Ramón flocculation assay. The antitoxin antibody titers varied significantly from an immunization protocol to another according to the studied parameters. Nevertheless, the same antitoxin titers increased quickly and reached a plateau around the 6 weeks for three groups of animals. The antibody titers were significantly higher in the fourth group of animals, reaching their activity to 2000 LfeqU/mL. We could conclude that the antitoxin antibody concentration increases with the time and the repetition of the immunogenic stimulus, and it is demonstrated that immunization protocols more lingering produce better outputs of antitoxins. This potent antitetanus toxin should be useful as internal reference material in the tetanus toxiod antigen.

  273. Dr. Bhattacharya, D., Dr. Naik, N. S., Dr. Tripathi, S., Dr. Swati Tripathi and Dr. Chandra, S.

    Background: The main cause of pulpal and periradicularpathosis are microorganisms and their by-products in the root canal system. Teeth involving periapical pathology requires root canal treatment with hermetic seal. But sometimes periapical healing is not achieved even after conventional root canal treatment. Previously different leakage tests have been done to check the sealing ability of newer root end filling materials but never before bacterial leakage study has been done on newer root end filling materials. Aim: The aim of this study was to compare the bacterial leakage & CFU count of MTA & Biodentine used as a root-end fillings material. Results: Both bacterial microleakage and CFU count results showed statistically non-significant results between Group A (MTA) & Group B (Biodentine). But Biodentine had an edge over MTA. Conclusion: Although the results of the study were non-significant, but Biodentine opens a new avenue as root- end filling material. It certainly holds better possibilities on the horizon over MTA.

  274. Familial Joubert syndrome-a case report of two siblings

    Joubert syndrome (JS) is a rare autosomal recessive disorder characterized by hypotonia, ataxia, abnormal eye movement, and intellectual disability with a distinctive mid-hindbrain malformation (the “molar tooth sign”). Variable features include retinal dystrophy, cystic kidney disease and polydactyl. Recently, substantial progress has been made in our understanding of the genetic basis of JS, including identification of seven casual genes (NPHP1, AHI1, CEP290, RPGRIP1L, TMEM67/MKS3, ARL13B and CC2D2A.) Despite this progress, the known gene accounts for <50% of cases and few strong genotype-phenotype correlations exist in JS; however, genetic testing can be prioritized based on clinical features. We present to you two sibling with JS, diagnosed on the basis of clinical feature and neuroimaging

  275. Dr. Varunjeet Chaudhary, Dr. SeemaKapilLahoti, Dr. AnshujThetay, Dr. Kapil B Lahoti, Dr. AkhilRathi and Dr. Rajeshwar Singh

    Aim: To assess the frictional resistance of different orthodontic archwires using ceramic brackets. Material & Methods: This study was conducted using four different orthodontic archwires like Stainless steel, Nickel Titanium, TMA and Teflon coated having 0.019 x 0.025 inch cross-section ligated in a ceramic bracket with 0.022 x 0.028 inch slot with elastomeric modules. Result: ANOVA was significant (F= 219.85, p< 0.01) and Turkey’s t test assessed that the frictional resistance of the stainless steel wire was the least (185.05, 35.07), followed by Teflon coated wire (217.484, 29.79), followed by NiTi wires (262.55, 30.17), followed by TMA (537.55, 41.14) wires. Result of this study showed Frictional resistance of archwires starts from least friction to high as Stainless Steel< Teflon coated

  276. Prachi Mital, Ashwini B Prasad, Deepak Raisingani, Harshita Gwalani and Harshit Srivastava

    A correct diagnosis and an understanding of the etiology and dynamics of the processes involved in tooth resorption is critical to effective management. Some transient trauma induced resorptions require no treatment but should be carefully monitored to check for any complications such as infection. Infection induced tooth resorptions require the removal of the invading micro-organisms by endodontic therapy including intra-canal medication that can eventually facilitate repair of the resorbed tooth structure. The hyperplastic invasive tooth resorptions pose considerable challenges in management due to the complexity and aggressive nature of the resorptive process. With careful case selection and complete inactivation of resorptive tissue, successful management can be achieved. This Case report explains management of external inflammatory root resorption with recently introduced material Biodentine. Radiographical follow up for upto 3 years showed the good healing of the defect and bone formation.

  277. Dr. Rajni Dawar, Dr. Manushri Sharma, Dr. Anita Devi and Dr. Nilesh Sharma

    The presentation of methemoglobinemia in emergency care setting can be nonspecific and thereby difficult to diagnose. Cyanosis being a presentation it sometimes leads to unnecessary invasive procedures. Acquired Methemoglobinemia is a common entity and its incidence is much more than documented. Almost 100 compounds have been identified to cause Methemoglobinemia. So, close observation of clinical symptoms with saturation gap between oxygen saturation on pulse oximetry and arterial blood gas analysis, followed by confirmation by methemoglobin levels wherever available can help in diagnosis. Prompt diagnosis and treatment with removal of causative agents leads to good prognosis. Physicians and other health care workers should be made aware and should always consider this in differential diagnosis of cyanosis not responding to 100% oxygen

  278. Dr. R. Someshwaran, Dr. Shreeram A. Deshpande and Mr. K. Gnana Prakash

    Introduction: The attitude of medical students towards the proficiency of teachers and their teaching skills is very influential and has changed over a period of time. Periodic Self-evaluation of faculty to improve teaching is pivotal to roughly know where we academically stand. This study is mainly capacitated to know, analyze about the teaching skills of the Microbiology department faculty from the students point of view. Aim of the study: To evaluate the attitude of second year medical students towards the teaching principles of a faculty during his microbiology didactic lectures for a period of two months. Materials and Methods: A total of 142 second year medical students were involved as study participants. The study was conducted as a prospective epidemiological study for duration of three months and a properly structured feedback assessment tool in the form of a questionnaire was given to be duly filled by the subjects to assess the attitude of second year medical students towards their teachers exclusively on their overall teaching methods and skills. A Five-level Likert’s criteria (Table 1) were used to analyze a few questions in the questionnaire. A set criterion for determining student’s attitude towards faculty (Table 2) was in IBM SPSS 20.0 version software, followed by tabulation of results and interpretation. Results: A total of 142 Second year MBBS students were involved in the study but only 110 out of 142 (78%) gave informed written consent and expressed their willingness to undertake the questionnaire. The sex distribution in terms of male and female ratio was 0.69. Nearly 76% (101/110) of the students had revealed that they are treated as adults by the faculty. Around 89% of the students were satisfied with the faculties teaching skills and 78% were satisfied with motivation skills of the faculty. Only 80% of the students agreed for the good quality of content presented by the faculty during the lecture class. Conclusion: This is a novel study conducted for the first time in this part of southern India targeting medical student’s attitude towards the efficiency of a teaching faculty. To conclude, faculty of Microbiology department had utilized the essential elements of a theory class in terms of content, language, teaching material used, inspiring students and imparting knowledge. The overall attitude of medical students towards the teaching faculty taking didactic lectures was good but continuous monitoring of faculty and student performance by means of periodic assessments is mandatory.

  279. Dr. Premlata Mital, Dr. Pradeep Mital, Dr. Nupur Hooja, Dr. Priyanka Makkar, Dr. Divya Gupta and Dr. Sunita Singhal

    Introduction: Increase in the number of circulating Nucleated Red Blood Cell (NRBC) may result from various stimuli. NRBC count in umbilical venous blood of neonates has been reported as a possible marker of perinatal asphyxia. Aims The aim of the study was to correlate NRBC /100 WBC count with perinatal outcome in normal and pre-eclamptic women. Materials and Methods: It was a prospective case controlled study performed on 120 normotensive and 120 pre-eclamptic women. At delivery 1 ml of umbilical cord blood and 1ml of maternal blood was collected and analyzed for NRBC. Mean cord blood NRBC /100 WBC count was correlated with perinatal outcome in normal and pre-eclamptic women. Results: The mean maternal and cord blood NRBC counts in pre-eclamptic women was significantly higher than normotensive women (p<0.001). As the nucleated RBC count increased in maternal blood and cord blood, there was statistically highly significant decrease in mean neonatal birth weight and mean APGAR score and statistically highly significant increase in NICU admission and perinatal mortality in all women and pre-eclamptic women. Conclusion: Neonates with elevated cord blood NRBC counts are more likely to have low birth weight, low APGAR score, neonatal ICU admission and perinatal mortality. Cord blood NRBC count is a simple test which is cost-effective. It provides valuable information about the well being of the newborn. The determination of NRBC count in cord blood can be used as an additional tool in the diagnosis of fetal asphyxia and predicting early perinatal outcome.

  280. Dr. Taisir Shahriar, Dr. Sadia Afrin and Dr. Shaouki Munir

    Background: The main purpose of this article is to focus on mortality rate among males and females in rural and urban areas of People’s Republic of China (PRC) due to viral hepatitis. The age group of the reviewed population is between 0 and 87 years of age. Study Design: Review of literatures relevant to the article. Methods: The article uses the data from "3rd National Survey of Death Causes in China", which compare the mortality rate of viral hepatitis among the males and females in rural and urban areas in China. Additionally, overall mortality due to viral hepatitis all over China has been compared with regional mortality. Data are analyzed and graphically presented using Microsoft Excel, version 2007. Results: In general, review of literatures and analysis of data reveals that mortality rate due to viral hepatitis is higher in the rural areas as compared to urban areas. Again, overall mortality due to viral hepatitis is higher among the males than the females. By sex and place of resident, mortality rate due to viral hepatitis is higher among the males than the females both in urban area rural areas Region-wise, overall mortality due to viral hepatitis in higher in Western part of China, closely followed by Middle part of China and least in Eastern part of China. Conclusions: Susceptibility to viral hepatitis is general and mortality rate due to viral hepatitis is higher among the males than the females both in urban and rural areas in People’s Republic of China (PRC).

  281. Dr. Kalpana Mangal and Dr. Monil P. Thakrar

    Pulmonary alveolar proteinosis (PAP) is a rare unusual lung disorder of unknown etiology characterized by the accumulation of large amounts of a phospholipoproteinaceous material in the alveoli due to impaired alveolar macrophage function caused by neutralizing anti-granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating autoantibodies that stains positive by using the periodic acid-Schiff (PAS) method. Diagnosis may be difficult with clinical signs and symptoms only. We present a rare case of 22-years old male having idiopathic PAP presenting with dyspnoea on exertion, productive cough and fever.

  282. Purav Mehta, Prachi Mital, Ashwini B Prasad, Deepak Raisingani and Amit

    For successful root canal therapy a thorough knowledge of the internal as well as the external dental anatomy is required. Variations in morphology can be seen in any tooth, even maxillary lateral incisor. This case report describes a multidisciplinary approach involving endodontic and prosthetic considerations for a good esthetic and functional rehabilitation of the maxillary lateral incisor fused with a supernumerary tooth. The clinician should have an accurate knowledge about the anatomy of each tooth, to identify the presence of unusual numbers of roots and their morphology. Careful interpretation of the radiograph and clinical visualization of the floor of the chamber and proper modification of access opening are essential for a successful treatment outcome.

  283. Mahawar, P., Manchanda, R., Nagraj, V. and Bhargava, N.

    Ectopic pregnancy is defined as gestation in which implantation is outside uterine cavity. With the earlier and more accurate diagnosis of ectopic pregnancy based on beta subunit pregnancy test and the use of transvaginal ultrasound and laparoscopy, the percentage of diagnosed unruptured pregnancy is rapidly increasing. However treatment of ectopic pregnancy has also evolved from emergency laparotomy to conservative management either medical or surgical. Linear salpingostomy is one of such conservative surgical method in management of ectopic pregnancy. Here we present a case of 31 year female, who came to us with history of 2 month amenorrhea and vaginal bleeding. She was diagnosed as left sided unruptured ectopic pregnancy. She had also received 2 doses of inj methotrexate, despite which her sac size increased. She was operated on 28.11.2015, Diagnostic laparoscopy and linear salpingostomy with D&C was done. Post operatively the patient recovered well. Patient again reported to us with single live intrauterine gestation of 6 weeks 3 days on 11.06.16. We highlight that linear salpingostomy is therefore a good option in unruptured ectopic pregnancies in order to preserve reproductive function.

  284. Dr. Krishna Chaithanya, Dr. Deepthi, S., Dr. Narasimha Reddy, P., Dr. Sangamithra Gandra and Dr. Chaithanya Kumar

    Background and Objectives: The ultrasonographic visualization of the nerves to be blocked is a relatively new technique that holds promise for the future. The last few years have witnessed a tremendous increase in the use of ultrasound guidance for regional nerve blocks. Our study was conducted to study the effect of Dexmedetomidine added to the local an aesthetics for ultrasound guided supraclavicular block in respect to onset, duration of sensory and motor block along with duration of analgesia. Materials and Methods: After informed consent, 60 ASA I and II patients undergoing elective upperlimb surgery under ultrasound guided Supraclavicularbrachial plexus block in were divided into two equal groups in a randomized double blind fashion. Group I patients received 0.5% bupivacaine(15ml) + 2%lignocaine with adrenaline (15ml) + normal saline(0.5ml) and Group II patients received 0.5% bupivacaine(15ml) + 2% lignocaine with adrenaline (15ml) + dexmedetomidine (0.5ml-50mcg).Onset and duration of Motor and sensory block block were recorded. Results: Though with similar demographicprofile in both groups, sensory and motor block onset times was earlier in group II as compared to group I (p<0.001). Sensory and motor blockade duration were longer in group II than in group I (p<0.001).Intra-operative hemodynamicswere significantly lower in group II (P < 0.05) without any appreciable side-effects. Conclusion: We conclude that dexmedetomidine added to bupivacaine- lignocaine with adrenaline in supraclavicular brachial plexus block isextremely effective in reducing the time of onset and prolonging the duration of both sensory & motor blockade.

  285. Gangaram Usham, Aakash Teja Durbesula, Rajesh Kumar Meriga, Venkatakrishnan, T., Bhimasen Soren and Rohith Karnati

    Objective: Dengue viral infections are among the most important mosquito borne diseases of the Indian subcontinent and have become a major global public health concern. The objective was to study the clinical, biochemical profile and complications of dengue fever. Methodology: This prospective study was conducted in the Department of General Medicine at Narayana Medical College & Hospital, Nellore during the recent epidemic of Dengue fever in Andhra Pradesh from September – December 2015. All the patients who were suspicious cases of Dengue fever and who fulfilled were included in the study. Results: Of the 366patients admitted with probable dengue fever, 170 patients were serologically confirmed as dengue fever. Of these 170 cases, most of the cases were male (54.7%), and the most common age group was 21-30 years. The most common presentation was fever in 170 (100%), followed by vomitings (44.7%), myalgia (30.5%), abdominal pain (28.8%) and headache (25.8%).Most common hemorrhagic manifestation was malena (9.4%). On examination hepatomegaly in 45 patients (26.5%) and splenomegaly (15.3%) were observed. NS1 Ag positive in 141 patients(82.9%), IgM positive in 22 patients (12.9%) and IgG positive in 7 patients (4.1%) by Immunochromatographic test (J. Mitra, India). Leucopenia was seen in majority (71.7%) of the patients. Elevated hematocrit was seen in 48 patients (28.2%), AST in13 patients (7.6%), ALT in 22 patients (12.9%) and creatinine in 33 patients (19.4%). Thrombocytopenia was the single most common hematological abnormality noted in 149patients (87.6%). Radiologically GB wall distention (56.4%), hepatomegaly (26.5%) and Ascites (18.2%)was observed. Dengue Fever was present in 133(66.7%), DHF in 42 (24.7%) and DSS in 15 (8.6%).Out of 170 patients most of them had, acute kidney injury (19.4%), hepatitis (16.5%), ARDS(4.5%) and multi organ dysfunction in 7 patients (4.1%), pancreatitis (2.35%) and bell’s palsy in two patients Conclusion: Fever, vomiting and malaise are the common manifestations. They should prompt a clinician on the possibility of dengue infection. Awareness and timely recognition of the atypical & hemorrhagic manifestations are very important for proper management especially in Dengue fever.

  286. Wanjari, S. P., Anil Kumar Reddy Fulzele, R. R., Ujwal Gajbe and Chimurkar

    Anatomy stands as a backbone in medical education, teaching of gross anatomy in dissection hall by dissecting the cadavers facilitates the students to understand the subject very much advantageously in more efficient mode. Common problem encountered during anatomy dissection is drying of dissected parts of the cadaver and it is a major problem for medical colleges which are running in hot and dry climate areas like vidarbha region of Maharashtra. The concept of using thermocol in anatomy dissection for prevention of drying of dissected parts of cadaver is an innovative idea. Two adult male cadavers were used for the study, femoral triangle was dissected in both cadavers, Superficial and deep dissection was done by giving time interval for the study purpose. The dissected part of the cadaver (II) which was covered by thermocol box remains fresh, easy to identify the structures and to carry out further dissection. Other hand, dissected area of uncovered cadaver (I) was dried,the muscular boundaries and Neurovascular contents are decolourised and not clear for identification. The ideal thermocol box utilized for the study is most reliable, cost effective and easy to handle.

  287. Dr. Shilpi Gupta, Dr. Vikas Verma, Dr. Gunjan Verm and Dr. Abhishek Gaur

    Inverted third molar impaction with incompletely formed apices is a rarest occurrence. Very few cases have been reported in literature till date. Here we report an interesting case of inverted mandibular third molar impaction in a 27 year old female patient with rarest presentation.

  288. Dr. Sanjay M. Khaladkar, Dr. Vidhi Bakshi, Dr. Rajul Bhargava and Dr. V. M. Kulkarni

    Pseudolesions (THAD) of the liver and target sign are seen in liver abscess on MDCT. These resemble primary liver cancer or metastasis. THAD is suggestive of underlying liver disorder. THADare areas of enhancement on hepatic arterial phase that are as a result of a localized variation of hepatic arterial and portal venous supply. Double target sign in hepatic abscess is observed during dynamic CECT of the liver. This sign consists of a hypodense central abscess cavity surrounded by an inner hyperdense rim (corresponds to capsule of abscess) and outer hypodense zone (due to edema of hepatic parenchyma surrounding abscess). We report a case of 60 year old male patient having liver abscess in right hepatic lobe with target sign and abscess in left hepatic lobe with THAD on triphasic liver study.

  289. Dr Dhirendra Ray, Dr Mayank Mehrotra, Dr Abhimanyu Kapoor and Dr Ajmal Hasan

    Cholangiohepatitis is an inflammatory disease of the biliary system. It may occur due to stricture, obstruction, foreign body or without a known cause. Reflux of intestinal content may rarely occur at hepaticojejunostomy site. Medical and surgical treatments are frequently required in patients with symptoms of recurrent cholangitis.

  290. Zekiye Çetinkaya Duman and Melike Yönder Ertem

    Problem Statement: Individual’s research activities are reported to be influenced by a number of issues such as disinterest in the research area, taking research process as a threatening factor or incapability of doing research. Identification of research competency, attitude and anxiety factors in nursing doctoral students is vital for demonstrating the current state in nursing doctoral students. Methods: This descriptive correlational study’s sampling was limited to the nursing doctoral students chosen from the Nursing College and Faculties listed by The Council of Higher Education. The Pearson’s Correlation Analysis and the Independent Samples T-test were utilized to evaluate the survey data. Results: Increase in the students’ appreciation of research and caring for research corresponded to higher research competency scores. The students that regard the scientific research unrealistic scored high in research anxiety. Conclusion: In the light of the findings, further investigation of the reasons lie behind the research anxiety among the doctoral students, identification of those challenges in the course of establishing and enhancing positive attitude towards researching, and developing solutions key to the problems are recommended.

  291. Jae Kyu Kim, Nam Yeul Rim, Hyoung Ook Kim and Jae Yoon Chung

    Purpose: To evaluate the effectiveness of preoperative transarterial embolization of spinal tumors and the factors influencing subsequent surgical outcomes. Materials and Methods: We retrospectively reviewed the medical records of 22 patients who underwent preoperative embolization and surgery for a spinal malignancy from March 2005 to July 2014. Angiographic assessment of the main nutrient artery and bone tumor vascularity was performed, followed by tumor embolization using micro-coils, Gelfoam, or polyvinyl alcohol. Tumor staining was evaluated before the procedure was finished. Results: Embolization was successful in 20/22 (91%) patients and partially successful in 2/22 (9%). The average intraoperative blood loss was 2,658 mL among all patients. Intraoperative blood loss was lower in patients with successful embolization than in those with partial embolization although the difference was not statistically significant. Embolization using only microcoils resulted in more intraoperative blood loss than embolization with microcoils and Gelfoam, or microcoils and polyvinyl alcohol but the difference was not significant. Patients involving one vertebra showed less blood loss than those involving two vertebrae but this difference also was not statistically significant (p > 0.05). Conclusions: Although there was no statistically significant difference in the reduction of blood loss during surgery due to the embolic agent, degree of embolization, or the number of involved vertebrae, preoperative transarterial embolization of spine tumors is an effective method for reducing intraoperative blood loss in subsequent surgical resections.

  292. Dr. Ajeet Kumar Saharan, Dr. Manisha Saharan, Dr. Sunita Sharma, Dr. Virendra Singh Rajpurohit and Dr. Shalini

    Background: Stroke is the second most common cause of death worldwide after ischemic heart disease and is a major health burden. It contributes to three percent of disability worldwide. In developing countries, two-thirds of deaths occur due to stroke (Warlow, Sudlow, Dennis, Wardlaw & Sandercock, 2003). Stroke survivors may suffer from cardiovascular deterioration, motor deficits, postural control issues, balance disturbances, muscular weakness, spasticity and a limited ability to walk. Physical activity is decreased in people post-stroke, contributing to depression (O’Sullivan & Schmitz, 2004). A main goal of rehabilitation for people post-stroke is to improve motor performance and functional abilities when performing ADLs (Carr & Shepherd, 2003). Rehabilitation allows them to walk independently with sufficient velocity and endurance (Yen, Wang, Liao, Huang & Yang, 2008). It has been reported that up to 80% of people post-stroke are able to recover their ability to walk short distances, whereas the other 20% are not able to achieve the locomotor capacity that is essential for ambulation (Ross Bogey, 2007). In addition, people post-stroke require 50% to 100% more energy to walk at a self-selected speed as compared to age matched individuals (Ross Bogey, 2007). Treadmill walking with partial weight bearing helped improve gait patterns by reinforcing normal movement patterns by decreasing muscle spasms due to body weight (Petrofsky, Petrofsky & Bweir, 2004). Methods: Two people (1 male and 1 female) participated in land-based exercise, two people (1 male and 1 female) participated in aquatic exercise, and one person (male) was in the home-based exercise group. One participant in land-based exercise was excluded from the study for not being able to in the training sessions. Only four participants completed the study. The participants were recruited from Jaipur Physiotherapy College, Dhand They were randomly assigned to three groups: aquatic, land-based or home- based training programs. Inclusion criteria: Age 45-65years, Ability to ambulate, No cardiac conditions, Ability to communicate, Bladder and bowel control, No surgery within last six months, Minimum 10 month - 1 year post stroke, Medical clearance from a primary physician , No other neurological and/or orthopedic conditions, No current participation in any aquatic or land intervention. Exclusion Criteria: Fear of water, Open wounds, Inability to ambulate, Acute medical conditions, Any neurological condition other than stroke. The study was conducted at Jaipur Physiotherapy College, Dhand. The aquatic-based exercise program was held in a main therapy pool (4 foot depth) where the water temperature was maintained between 92- 94 degrees Fahrenheit. The land-based exercise program was held in the expansion room. The home-based exercise program was carried out at the participant’s home with a family member. Initial instruction and a program card were provided to the home-based exercise participant and their family member. Instrumentation: The Biodex Gait Trainer was used to collect participants’ walking data and Biodex Balance Equipment was used to collect participants’ balance data. Procedures: Two variables were tested with each participant: gait and balance. A total of five data collection points were included in the study. Pre-data were collected before the beginning of the exercise programs and then every alternate week during the exercise program. It was followed by the post data by the end of 8th week. The data collection procedures were explained to each participant and an informed consent form was obtained. After receiving instructions the participants were escorted to the assessment room for data collection. The participants were given two practice trials to determine the level of instability and for familiarization on the Biodex Balance Equipment. The participants were then given a 2-minute rest period followed by the three data collection trials. After the balance data were collected the participants were again given a 2-minute rest period followed by the gait data collection. For the gait data collection the participants were given one practice trial (2-minute walk) on the Biodex Gait Trainer to determine their comfortable speed and for familiarization of the equipment. This was followed by a 2- minute rest period. After the 2-minute rest period the data were collected on the Biodex Gait Trainer using a 2-minute walk test. Independent variables in this study were the training modes: aquatic exercise, land- based exercise and home-based exercise. The dependent variables in this study were spatiotemporal gait variables (cadence (steps/minute), stride length (meters), stride time (%), coefficient of variation (%), walking speed, and ambulation index. For balance, the dependent variables were: overall scores anterior/posterior index and medio-lateral index. Results: The purpose of this study was to determine the influence of aquatic and land- based exercise on balance and gait outcomes in people post-stroke. A total of five people post-stroke participated in this study. Two people (1 male & 1 female) participated in land-based exercise, two people (1 male & 1 female) participated in aquatic exercise and one person (male) participated in the home-based exercise group. One participant from land-based exercise group was excluded and only four participants completed the study. All the profiles of the participants are listed in Table 4. Fatigue, lower extremity weakness, impaired walking and impaired balance were most common symptoms among all participants. One of the five participants had pain due to spasticity in addition to other symptoms. Participants were randomly divided into three groups: aquatic, land-based and home-based exercise groups. The aquatic and land-based group participated in an 8-week exercise program with the home-based group following a similar program at home. All of the groups were tested on balance and gait parameters before the exercise programs began. These data were collected bi-weekly during the 8-week exercise program followed by the post data at the end of the 8th week. There was a total of five data collection points. The Biodex Gait Trainer was used to collect data for the gait parameters while the Biodex Balance Equipment was used to collect data for balance variables. The outcome of the study was analyzed by performing a visual analysis of progress based on a time graph series. Copyright©2016, Dr. Ajeet Kumar Saharan et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

  293. Dr. Ujjal Chatterjee, Dr. Ashish Kumar Srivastava, Dr. Madhu Ranjan, Dr. Arunoday Kumar and Dr. Sankalp Verma

    Background of the Problem: The recording of posterior palatal seal (PPS) is of great significance, because it contributes significantly to the retention of a maxillary complete denture. Hundreds of dentures have failed due to the improper establishment of the distal limit and to improper PPS. Aim of the Study: to study the individual variations in the shape and size of PPS and its vibrating lines. The objective is to study the correlation PPS with palatal angulation. Materials and Methods: The PPS area was measured in patient’s mouth. A lateral cephalogram was made to trace the hard and soft palatal contour, and the angle of the palatal contour was measured. The data was analysed statistically to study the relation between width of PPS and the angle of the palatal contour at the junction of the hard and soft palate. Results: Correlation of the angle of the palatal contour to PPS width, showed perfectly positive value while correlation of angle between anterior nasal spine, posterior nasal spine (ANS‑PNS) and PNS, Uvula (U) to PPS width showed partially positive value. Conclusion: The correlation of angle between hard tissue and soft tissue to PPS width, and the angle.

  294. Bhargava, N., Manchanda, R., Nagraj, V. and Mahawar, P.

    Adverse events during and after surgery are common. A number of patient, surgical and anaesthetic factors can result in such adverse events. We present the case of a patient who underwent laparoscopy and hysterectomy. Following uneventful surgery, patient developed hypoxia and was not responding to verbal commands. Also her pupils were constricted but her blood pressure was stable. Patient was shifted to I.C.U and after plethora of diagnosis; correct diagnosis of rare pentazocin intoxication was arrived after much deliberation and heartache. Antidote Naloxone was given with dramatic reversion of symptoms. Seven years later, another patient had similar episode after laparoscopic surgery in same hospital. This time being wiser, correct diagnosis of pentazocine intoxication was made and her wellbeing and the wellbeing of the coronaries of the surgeon ! were preserved with the same miracle drug Naloxone. Through this presentation we wish to highlight that though very rare lightening can strike twice and healthy suspicion bearing from knowledge of this entity may help in less panic and smooth management. And also the teamwork of surgeon and anesthetist help in proper diagnosis and hence prevention of morbidity and mortality.

  295. Dr. Rohit Chawla, Dr. Ajay Bibra, Dr. Mohan Alexander, Dr. Rajat Bhandari and Dr. Sonam Mahajan

    Background: The post surgical sequeale following surgical removal of impacted third molars such as pain, swelling and trismus can cause distress to the patients and affect the quality of life. Many clinicians have attempted to reduce these sequelae by using NSAIDs and Corticosteroids like dexamethasone and methylprednisolone. Recently studies have been conducted to test the efficacy of local submucosal injection of corticosteroids. Aim: To evaluate the effects of submucosal injection of dexamethasone on postoperative discomfort after third molar surgery. Methods and Material: 60 patients requiring surgical removal of impacted mandibular third molar were randomly divided into two groups of 30 each - 1ml placebo for control group and 4 mg of dexamethasone sodium phosphate 1 ml for test group injected submucosally followed by oral administration of ibuprofen 400 mg postoperatively for each group. Each subject was evaluated on 2nd and 7th postoperative days. Trismus and facial edema was recorded as the difference between preoperative and postoperative values. Postoperative pain was evaluated by the number of analgesic tablets consumed and using a 8-point visual analog scale (VAS). Statistical Analysis: Data was analyzed by Student t- test / Mann Whitney test, Chi-square test and Friedmann test. Results: Increase in mouth opening was seen in group B on 2nd and 7th day respectively (p<0.00) as compared to group B. Swelling had decreased in both groups on 7th day (p <0.000) as compared to day 2. Similarly, pain also reduced in both groups on 7th post-operative day (p< 0.034). Conclusion: Submucosal injection of dexamethasone locally reduces swelling, trismus and also pain and can be used routinely in 3rd molar surgeries without any adverse effects.

  296. Prof. (Dr) Rajesh Kumar Abbey, Dr. Vibhor Jain, Dr. Nishant Kumar and Dr. Anantbir Lubana

    Spontaneous Nephrocutaneous Fistula (SNCF) is a very rare entity. The known causes are: post-operative, calculous pyonephrosis, chronic pyelonephritis, renal infections, perinephric abscess, trauma, xanthogranulomatous pyelonephritis, renal tumours, open surgical procedures, reflux diseases and renal tuberculosis. Till 2013 only 29 cases were published. It is usually associated with obstructing calculus and non functioning kidney. A case of nephrocutaneous fistula in a 67 years old female patient complaining of seropurulent discharge from a fistula over the right lumbar flank for the last eight month, is presented and discussed here, for its rarity and management. CT fistulogram was performed which revealed a fistulous tract from the skin to the pelvicalyceal system of the right kidney, calcification of the renal parenchyma and obstructing renal stones (obstructive uropathy). Patient was investigated for renal tuberculosis, was found positive and was put on anti tubercular treatment to which she responded ,as the fistula healed and closed spontaneously. Open nephrectomy along with excision of the tract was performed. Follow up period remained uneventful. Open surgery, after 3-4 weeks of antitubercular treatment (ATT), is recommended in such cases.

  297. Rajeshree Rangari and Chandrasekhara Reddy

    Pathological tooth migration (PTM) is indisputably one of the dentoalveolar disorders that cause special concern to patients especially when occurring in the anterior segment. There appear to be multiple factors which are important in the expression of the tooth migration namely, bone loss, followed by tooth loss and gingival inflammation. Other factors that can be contributory to tooth migration include an aberrant frenal attachment, pressure from the cheek and tongue as well as that from the granulation tissue in the periodontal pockets, gingival overgrowth due to drugs occlusal factors such as missing or unreplaced teeth, shortened dental arches, excessive vertical overlap, posterior bite collapse, class II malocclusion and habits such as bruxism, tongue thrusting, finger sucking, pipe smoking, nail biting and playing wind instruments etc. The causes of tooth migration can be determined by a careful assessment and evaluation and a differential diagnosis can be made. Periodontal and radiographic examination will disclose any abnormal findings that could be valuable to formulate a logical treatment plan. To achieve the most essential and functional result, a careful determination of the contributory factors to PTM is critically important. This review provides an insight in to the etiological factors of PTM.

  298. A study on nasal carriage of staphylococcus species among medical and paramedical students in a tertiary care hospital, Coimbatore

    Introduction: Staphylococci are a part of the normal flora of the human body. They are ubiquitous in nature and they cause a variety of infections ranging from suppurative lesions like folliculitis, abscess, wound infections to urinary tract infections, toxic shock syndrome etc. The carriage of this species can be of nasal, vaginal or perineal origin. The emergence of Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) has evoked the need to screen for carriers since the treatment options available are very limited. Aim: A cross- sectional study was conducted among the medical and paramedical students to detect the nasal carriage of Staphylococcal species with emphasis on Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA). Materials and Methods: Nasal swabs were collected from the subjects and the identification of different Staphylococcal species was done by correlating the results of Gram stain by light microscopy, Colonial morphology by culture, Biochemical reactions and Antibiotic Susceptibility Test results. The results were tabulated and the data was statistically analysed with IBM SPSS version 20 software. Results: Out of the 310 samples that were collected, 191 (61.61 %) samples showed Staphylococcal growth. A total of 75 (39.26%) isolates out of the 191 isolates were found to be Staphylococcus aureus. Out of which 13(6.8%) isolates were Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus. Conclusion: The nasal carriage of Staphylococcal species, especially MRSA in healthy individuals carries a potential risk. In this study, a 6.8% incidence of MRSA was noticed among 191 Staphylococcal samples. Topical methods like nasal sprays or ointments of mupirocin or chlorhexidine can be employed to prevent the spread of the species.

  299. Aashwiin Miglani, Dr. Pramod Waghmare, Dr. Amit Chaudhari and Dr. Yogesh Khadtare

    Background: Cosmetic procedures have become an integral part of periodontology. Patients these days are more concerned about their smile and aesthetics. Gingival hyperpigmentation gives black appearance to the gums which are unaesthetic. Therefore this study was designed to test the efficacy of newly introduced cryogen, 1-1-1-2 tetraflouroethane for the treatment of gingival melanin hyperpigmentation. Aims: To test the efficacy of newly introduced cryogen 1-1-1-2 tetrafouroethane for gingival depigmentation Settings and Design: All the subjects were treated in the surgical section of the department of periodontology and Implantology, Bharati Vidyapeeth Deemed University, Dental College and Hospital, Pune, Methods and Material: Ten subjects(both males and females) in the age group of 18-50 yearshaving the complain of gingival hyper-melanin pigmentation were selected. Site for the study were the patients with pigmentation extending from distal of the right canine to the midline and distal of the left canine to the midline with a score of 2 or 3 on the Dummett and Gupta Gingival Pigmentation Index (DOPI). Subjects were evaluated based upon their DOPI scores, Visual Analogue pain scores and digital photographs Pre and Post-operatively. Statistical analysis used: Chi square test Results: The correlation of gingival pigmentation according to DOPI scores was carried out using chi square test [graph1] and a positive correlation was observed which was highly significant (P = 0.03) . Conclusions: Cryosurgical depigmentation of gingiva by TFE is a new method and can be used with minimum complications and equipment and is cost effective. However, to allow for its usage more commonly in routine dental practice, more studies with a large number of sample size including histological studies are needed. It can be concluded within the limitations of this study that it is a safe, cost effective, and non-invasive method for the treatment of gingival melanin pigmentation.

  300. Dr. Lalit Patil, Dr. Preetam Shah, Dr. Alok Patel, Dr. Rahul Lodaya, Dr. Chetan Bhat and Dr. Shweta Chaudhary

    Aim: The aim of this study was to compare the accuracy of Tactile, Radiovisiography and Electronic Apex Locator in determination of working length in primary molars. Materials and Method: In this study, 80 patients between the age group of 5-9 years were selected. After local anesthesia administration, tooth isolation and access cavity preparation was done. Pulp extirpation was done with the no. 15 H file and canals were irrigated using irrigating solution. File was introduced in the canal until tactile resistance was felt and rubber stop was adjusted. Distance from the tip of file to the rubber stop was measured and registered as tactile length. The same file was again introduced into the canal and intra oral digital radiograph was taken. This was registered as the radiographic length. Root canal length was clinically determined with the help of an electronic apex locator and was registered as the electronic working length. Statistical Analysis and Results: The data obtained was compiled, tabulated on a master chart and statistical analysis was carried out using one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) and Tukey’s Test for pairwise comparison. Using ANOVA test, we found that there was significant difference between the three methods. Using Tukey’s Test for pairwise comparison, we found that there was no significant difference between RVG and Electronic Apex Locator method, while a significant difference was found between Tactile method and RVG, also in Tactile method and the Electronic Apex Locator method. Conclusion: From the results of this in vivo study, it can be concluded that a combination of digital radiography and electronic apex locator provides reliable and precise information about root canal length in deciduous teeth.

  301. Dr. N. Uday Kiran and Dr. Nanjesh Kumar, S.

    Introduction: Rabies an archaic zoonotic disease. Nearly 15 million people are bitten by animals in India every year, with dogs being responsible for 96.2% of the bites. The most vulnerable members of society are children and poor or lower socio-economic classes. A majority of the victims had taken a partial course of vaccine. Methodology: Longitudinal study was conducted in the of CHC Mulky, among patients registered from Novmber2015 to April 2016. All the patients receiving anti rabies vaccine in the OPD during study period who are willing to participate in the study were included in the study. After obtaining informed consent, the participants were administered the pre-tested, structured questionnaire at the time of first visit. Results: The number of study subjects over a period of 6 months was235; all of them were bitten by dogs. Majority of them belongs 21 to 30 age group (22.9%). Males are more compared to females.89.7% subjects belongs Hindu religion followed by Muslims. 60% subjects belongs to BPL family. Only 34.4% subjects completed the full course of treatment. Conclusion: This study shows that dog bites affect people of all age groups. Though people are aware of the necessity to approach a health facility following dog bite they are not motivated to complete the full course of vaccination following exposure. There is a need to create awareness regarding adherence to treatment through a strong information education and communication programme among the community.

  302. Preetam Shah, Priyam Velani and Surekha Chavan

    Noonan syndrome is a rare autosomal dominant disorder with an estimated incidence between one in 1000 to 2500 live births. Characteristic features involve short stature, cardiac defects, haematological problems, developmental delays and several malformations in the oral cavity. Several features of Noonan syndrome resemble those of Turner’s syndrome; however a clear demarcation can be made based on the karyotyping of the individual. A child with Noonan syndrome requires additional care and support while carrying out his daily affairs. Early detection of the syndrome can prove to be extremely useful for the child, thereby opting for a multidisciplinary management. The present case report sheds light on the various features associated with Noonan syndrome, thereby helping its early detection. Management of the oral diseases in such patients at the earliest proves beneficial to the child’s physical and psychological state. Signs and symptoms generally lessen with age.

  303. Siva Pillai A. S., Swetha R., Sunayana Manipal, Prabu D., Rajmohan M. and Naveenraj, N. S.

    Stem cell research is a new field in dental health aspect. Stem cells can be used in various replacement and regeneration procedures. In this regard minimum knowledge of stem cells, scope, applications and research is important. Aim of the present study is to assess the knowledge, awareness and scope of stem cells among Dental Professionals in Chennai city. A closed ended questionnaire consisting of a set of 34 questions regarding difference in application of stem cells in each field; effectiveness; professionals developing interest over stem cells, ethical issues, dentists advocating patients in donating stem cells, preservation of stem cells, attending vocational training courses on stem cells were included in the survey. The questionnaire was pre- tested prior to the survey. A total of 175 participants were participated in the study. 92% of individuals were interested in developing knowledge about stem cells. Only 25.3% of dentists attended vocational training courses regarding stem cells and 86.7% of them support and encourage many stem cell banks in India. 68% of dentist believe that extracting embryonic stem cells is ethical. 16% believe that it is unethical.16% of participants don’t know ethical issues regarding stem cells.41.3% of participants don’t know that stem cells can be used as a supportive theory for hairloss in cancer patients and 49.3% of individuals don’t know that it can be effective in burn victims and psoriasis patients. Study shows that dental professionals have positive attitude towards developing knowledge regarding stem cells. knowledge regarding sources of stem cells, applications of stem cells in therapeutic use need to be improved.

  304. Prof. M. Ambaga

    The life was became strongly dependent from the presence of protons and electrons, which were formed during a events called as big bang, 15 billion years ago. i.e. the protons and electrons, which were formed during a events called as big bang through the process termed as singularity 15 billion years ago sets the stage for the formation of life in the universe. In this connection, it should be say that all Diagnostics and Treatment processes of Traditional medicine practices should be based on the morpho - functional unit, which really are existed inside a human body such as the membrane-redox potentials three-state line system dependent -full 9 stepped cycle of proton conductance inside human body, which we can see and measure. By us revealed that it is existed more close relationship between the membrane-redox potentials three-state line system dependent ATP making processes, which is functioned with participation of the full 9 stepped cycle of proton conductance inside human body and triple Rlung, Mkhris, Badgan theory theory of Tibetian Traditional medicine.

  305. Dr. Rahul Kewal Kumar, Dr. Asha Ram Tyagi, Dr. Rajesh Tiwari, Dr. Prashant Verma, Dr. Neeraj Rai, Dr. Deepak Saklecha and Mr. Arvind Kavishwar

    Tobacco Consumption is widely prevalent habit among Tribals & Non Tribals. Awareness about its hazardous effects is important to reduce the number of tobacco users and its dependency in them. Objectives are To find out the Magnitude of Tobacco Consumption among Tribal & Non Tribal, Its dependency status & Effects on Blood Pressure. A cross sectional study using Multi stage Random Sampling Method with house to house visits. Sample size came out 300 each from the Tribal &Non Tribal adults. Study was conducted in Narayanganj block of Mandla District. Tobacco consumption among Tribal 182 (60.7%) &Non Tribal 141 (47%) the difference was found to be Significant {χ2 = 11.27; p < 0.001}. Tobacco smoking in any form among tribals was 19 subjects (6.3 %) and among non tribals 32 subjects (10.3%). It was not found to be significant {χ2 = 3.62, p= 0.057}. The trend of Karl Fagersrom Score was shifted more towards tribals {χ2trend = 31.47, P < 0.001}. The association of hypertension and tobacco consumption was strong. Our study shows that the habit of Tobacco Consumption, its dependency & its association with Hypertension was more among Tribals.

  306. Ouafae. El ghadraoui, Farid. Abdi, Hamza. Bali, Taj-dine. Lamcharfi, Mohammed. Zouhairi and Michel. Aillerie

    In this research, two types of LiNbO3 congruent composition, doped and substituted with different concentrations of Yttrium (Y) ranging from 0 to 5 mol % are prepared by the classical solid method. The structural properties and composition of the obtained powders are characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and by the Energy Dispersive X-Ray Spectroscopy (EDS). The main results of this work point out the fact that the ceramic powder processing method is a well adapt method for obtaining good quality LN: Y ceramics in the Yttrium concentration range analyzed for both kinds of LN:Y, as the LiNbO3 phase is lonely present in the ceramics at the end of the synthesized process. Lattice Parameter c increases with Y concentration whereas a parameter shows constancy for all powders. EDS results show that for substituted powders, Y content in the lattice cell increases monotonously, whereas for the doped ones, Y content increases up to 2.5% and remain constant above this concentration. A mechanism of Yttrium incorporation into the lattice of LN is proposed for the range of doping concentrations for both kinds of studied LN: Y.

  307. Antony Dhivya Tharshini, S. and Shanthi, G.

    Interplanetary Coronal Mass Ejections (ICMEs) are the region of light scattered due to the electron densities in solar corona. The main objective of the study is to determine the distributions of Coronal Mass Ejections (CMEs) and solar flare parameters for the purpose of establishing the relationship between CME/flare properties derived from remote solar observations at the Earth. The identified CMEs are measured and their basic attributes are catalogued in a data base known as the SOHO/LASCO CME catalog. We have investigated some properties of all the fast and slow CMEs events. Our results reflect some of relatively well-known relationships between remotely observed solar properties, namely the importance of CME linear speed, angular width and associated solar flare. We also utilized various types of CME associated with different times of the solar cycle to estimate the impact on Earth. This paper presents the possible interpretations of the global CMEs and solar flare parameters, the summary of results obtained using the extensive events of Solar Energetic Particles (SEP) and radio burst at low frequency range associated with the energetic CME are greatly discussed.

  308. Patel, A. N., Oza, A. T. and Solanki, G. K.

    The ternary charge transfer complexes of TMPD (N,N,N,N- tetramethyl-p- phenylene diamine) have been studied with FTIR spectroscopy. The complexes have two-lower and higher-absorption edges in infrared range associated with two acceptors. TMPD-chloranil – I2 have 0.22 eV and 0.12 eV as edges while TMPD-DDQ-I2have 0.28eV and 0.12 eV as edges. Similar edges at 0.22 eV and 0.09eV are found in TMPD-TCNQ-I2 and 0.27 eV and 0.12 eV in TMPD-TCNE-I2 complex. The analysis of free-carrier absorption shows scattering by acoustic phonons in TMPD-Chloranil-I2 and TMPD-TCNE-I2 complexes while impurity scattering in TMPD-DDQ-I2 and TMPD-TCNQ-I2complexes. Chloranil and TCNE based ternary complexes are highly conducting.

  309. Synthesis, characterisation and anti-oxidant study of new fused iminopyrimido-benzimidazole derivatives

    This manuscript describes the simple condensation of bis (methylthio) methylene malononitrile (1) with 2-amino benzimidazole (2) in DMF and catalytic amount of anhydrous K2CO3 gives 3-cyano-4-imino-2-metylthio-4H- pyrimido [1, 2-a] benzimidazole (3) in good yield and further refluxed with different nucleophiles such as aryl amines, heteryl amines, substituted phenols and active methylene compounds to equip its 2- substituted derivatives. All newly synthesized compounds were deduced by spectroscopic technique such as IR, MS, NMR (1H & 13C) and screened their antioxidant activity.

  310. Mervat K. Tameem and Bushrah A. Hassan

    A cathode buffer layer made of TiO2 introduced in poly(3-hexylthiophene) (P3HT): Indene-C70 Bis-Adduct (ICBA) bulk heterojunction (BHJ) solar cell. The open-circuit voltage and fill factor increase respectively to 0.62 V and 63%, due to the enhanced electron extraction by inserting a TiO2 layer between the active layer and Al cathode. Thus, the power conversion efficiency increases from 5.8 % to 8% and the ecofriendly permanency is also much enhanced.

  311. Manohar, G., Suneetha, S. V. and Siva Prasad, R.

    We have considered the unsteady MHD flow through a loosely packed porous medium in an impulsively started vertical plate with variable heat and mass transfer. The temperature of plate is made to rise linearly with time. The fluid considered is gray, absorbing-emitting radiation but a non-scattering medium. The governing equations involved in the present analysis are solved by the Laplace-transform technique. The velocity, skin friction, Nusselt number and Sherwood number are obtained and computationally discussed for different governing parameters like radiation parameter, Schmidt number, Thermal Grashof number, mass Grashof number, magnetic field parameter, porous parameter and Prandtl number with the combination of the other flow parameters are illustrated graphically, and physical aspects of the problem are discussed.

  312. Guoqiu-Zhao

    Using literature (11) (12) (13) (14) we proved that quantum mechanics describes in dual four- dimensional space-time w(x,k), matter waves are physical wave, parallel quantum state is the product of the quantum segment. Measuring micro object before and after physical space has changed. Many key basic knowledge are concentrated here. For example, double-slit experiment, delayed choice experiment, the Schrodinger cat paradox, and the non-local quantum communication all are controversial problems today. We think that energy of macro instrument itself is continuous changeable and there is no energy level transition, no constant phase difference. So the instrument itself is of mixed stated and there is no coherence. According to our understanding, Mixed state form is pure states noncoherent hybrid, but mixed state is a product of measurement. Quantum measurement can induce continuous interaction, so one of the mixture states, namely a pure state becomes the collapsed eigenvalue corresponding state during the measurement. There is no constant phase difference in each mixture states, thus there is no energy quantization. The mixture states is not in w(x,k) space but in M4(x) space. The physical model is changing from field matter sphere model to mass point model and the physical wave is changing to be probability wave, though the probability wave function has the same form as matter wave. We will discussion about these problems in dual four dimensional quantum mechanics.

  313. Viswanadha Reddy, A., Venkateswarlu, C., Srinivasa Rao, T., Babu, S., 1Naidu, P. S. and Ratnakaram, Y. C.

    Glasses have been prepared by melt-quenching technique. Optical absorption and emission spectra of 0.5 mol% Dy3+doped lithium– sodium and lithium-potassium chloroborate glasses havebeen recorded. The amorphous nature of glass matrix was confirmed by XRD. Free-ion Hamiltonian model and Judd - Ofelt theory have been used to analyze the energy level scheme and the spectral intensities of Dy3+ ion in these glasses. The intensities of f-f transitions are parameterized in terms of Judd-Ofelt (JO) intensity parameters Ωλ (λ = 2, 4 and 6). The JO parameters obtained have been further used to predict radiative propertiessuch as total radiative transition probabilities (AT), radiative lifetimes (τR), branching ratios (βR) and integrated absorption cross-sections (Σ)forall the excited states of theseDy3+doped glasses. Photoluminescence spectra consist of two bands due to 4F9/2→ 6H15/2(blue) and 4F9/2→ 6H13/2(yellow). The stimulated emission cross-sections(σp)are also evaluated for all theobserved emission transitions. Optical band gaps (Eopt) for both direct and indirect transitions are reported. The rare-earth doped glasses with variousvisible emissions are useful for developing new color light sources, fluorescent display devices, UV-sensor and tunablevisible lasers.

  314. Seema Uday Purohit and Prasad Narahar Lalit

    In this paper researchers have discussed exchange call option valuation using Margrabe's formula in Fuzzy environment. To model the uncertainty in parameters of Margrabe's formula, the trapezoidal fuzzy numbers are used. By using case example, the range of option values is predicted to a certain extent, which eventually can help investors to decide the investment strategy.

  315. Alfred Hugo, Oluwole Daniel Makinde, Isambi Sailon Mbalawata and Santosh Kumar

    A deterministic compartmental eco-epidemiological model of Newcastle disease (ND) in Tanzania is proposed and analyzed by using the stability theory of differential equations. The main objective of paper is to estimate the model parameters using maximum likelihood estimation (MLE) and Markov chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) methods. The model is fitted using data for five districts in Dodoma and Singida regions in Tanzania. The sample 10,000 numbers of simulations were used in MCMC in parameters distribution to study the behavior of each parameter in the model. Many parameters show good convergence and we recommend to be used for numerical simulations in similar cases rather than using literature values.

  316. Abhinandan Banik and Samir Kumar Bandyopadhyay

    Gender classification problem is an active research area which has attracted a great deal of attention recently. It is a challenging pattern recognition problem. Generally gender classification involves a process of determining the gender. Gender is among the strongest predictors of crime, particularly violent crime. Arrest, self-report, and victimization data consistently show that men and boys commit significantly more crime, both serious and not, than women and girls. This pattern persists despite data indicating that crimes committed by females may be rising. Evidence also suggests that males are generally more aggressive than females, even before the preschool years. A multidisciplinary approach to crime is crucial for understanding both why crime occurs and the conditions for any possible gender differences. Sometimes during the course of a criminal investigation and its subsequent autopsy the pathologist may find his or herself faced with the task of identifying the gender after decomposition. Obviously before decomposition there are detailed differences between the formations of a male or a female but once decomposition has taken a hold and carried out the unpleasant tasks that nature has intended, all that remains is the skeletal form with teeth and possibly some hair to work with. This paper suggests method for classification of gender since it plays an important role for understanding behavioral pattern of crime.

  317. Dr. S. B. Prakash and Mr. Raju Subedi

    The incorporation of surface irregularities on the heat transfer surface is taking its attention because it enhances the thermo- hydraulic characteristics of the heat exchanger. However, the thermal performance enhancement and pressure drop increment comes parallel with heat transfer enhancement technique. But, in some applications, it is highly appropriate to provide surface roughness where space consideration is more vital to power loss as a result of pressure drop, namely on aerospace industry and nuclear reactors. The objective of this research is to study experimentally on the effect of surface corrugations to heat transfer using double pipe heat exchanger. The fiction factor and heat transfer parameters are obtained in the turbulent regime and the weight age of the both factors are compared with the help of thermal performance factor. The experimental data obtained from WILSON PLOT is validated with the data obtained from empirical relations. One smooth tube of 25 mm diameter and two enhanced tubes of same diameter with V corrugations on the outer surface having surface height, e = 0.3 mm and e = 0.6 mm and pitch, p = 1.3 mm are used. The corrugated tubes are found to be more advantageous than smooth tube for heat transfer applications. The percentage of heat transfer enhancement for tube with e = 0.3 mm is found to be 68 % to 51% and for a tube of e = 0.6 mm, is 90 % to 65 % in the Reynolds number regime of 16700 to 22300.The friction factor for the tube with e = 0.6 mm is found to be greater as compared to tube with e = 0.3 mm.

  318. Swati J Avhad and Prof. Ashok V. Markad

    In the current information technology scenario cloud storage is one of the best database platforms which provide the high security to stored data, and also decrease the burden of local data storage and maintenance. Main problem in cloud computing was the problem of data security and data access by unauthorized users. Storage and sharing of data in cloud can be changed simply by user. To overcome this data modification idea by cloud signature is provided to each individual who access data in cloud once the data modified by the user on block the user must ensure that the signature is provided on specific block when user get revoked from accessing cloud the existing user of that cloud must resign data signed by the revoked user to resigned data user must download the entire data and signed it. This difficulty is rectified with novel public auditing mechanism.

  319. Pradip Kumar Maity

    Tremendous growth of electronic industry, consumer culture, increasing rates of consumption of electronic devices has sharp rise in the volume of waste that these products generate at the end of their useful life. The problem of electronic waste (e-waste) is growing at an unsustainable rate. E-waste is now the fastest growing, and most toxic, component of municipal garbage. Local governments are facing huge costs to handle e-waste, and even greater costs if they do not capture this toxic stream and handle it in an appropriate manner. This paper presents an overview of the e-waste management and reuse of it.

  320. Vahedha and Dr. B. Naga Jyothi

    The paper mainly focuses on how smart the traffic controlling is being done. In India as the population is being increasing day by day the traffic is also increasing with proportionality. So the traffic signals need good coordination for the smooth flow of traffic during the busy hours as the traffic is at peaks. In order to avoid traffic jams when the emergency vehicles are passing towards the junction this work is being implemented. Each vehicle is equipped with the RFID tag which can’t be removed or destroyed. When the emergency vehicle reaches the junction point the RFID reader reads the signals and shows a green wave so that it can move smoothly without any jam. Automatically when it crosses the signal point the signal gets changed. This is done by considering the multi road junction point. The application of the proposed work include • Stolen vehicle detection. • Fire car clearance. • Clearance to emergency vehicles.

  321. Ajith Sinthuja, S.

    Coordination complex with metal ion Co(II) has been synthesized from the Schiff base (L) derived from glutaraldehyde and L-histidine. Both the ligand and the complex synthesized were characterised by elemental analyses, magnetic susceptibility, molar conductance, IR, UV-Vis, 1H-NMR spectral studies, X-ray diffraction study, SEM study and thermal studies. On the basis of the above studies, it is proposed that the ligand is suggested to act in a tetradentate manner coordinating through both carbonyl oxygen and amino nitrogen atoms. The antimicrobial activities of the ligand and its complex were screened by Disc Diffusion method. The activity data shows that the metal complex is more potent than the parent Schiff base ligand against bacterial and fungal species.

  322. Nayana Shivaji Gaikwad and Prof. Ramesh Y. Mali

    Irrigation is quite time consuming process if it is not well managed by user. Hence this system stands for the need of automated irrigation system. In this system two micro-controllers are used. One at pump site and another one is at field. When moisture level is above threshold voltage the automated commands are sent through interface and valves is switching ON or OFF. GSM Module is used to keep updated to user. ZigBee module is used in this system to interface both the controllers. Hence this system have proven best to reduce time consumtion while irrigation. Aim is to design low cost and simple design by considering users are mainly farmers. Water wastage is reduce will be reduce by certain amount by implementing this automated system.

  323. Santhi Kumar, R. and Suryanayana, K.P.S.

    Field equations in a modified theory of gravitation proposed by Harko et al. (Phys. Rev. D 84: 024020, 2011) are obtained with the aid of a spatially homogeneous and anisotropic LRS Bianchi type-I metric. Cosmological models corresponding to stiff fluid obtained. Some physical and kinematical properties of each of the models are also studied.

  324. Mahalakshmi, V., Maharasi, S. and Dr. S. Jayalakshmi

    In this paper we introduce the notation of weak bi-ideals in near-subtraction semigroup. (ie) A subalgebra B of (X,) is said to be a weak bi-ideal in near-subtraction semigroup if B3B and obtain equivalent conditions for various regularities in terms of weak bi-ideals and bi-ideals.

  325. Pranav Bhatia, Suraj U Rasal, Shraddha T. Shelar and Varsha Thanaji Mulik

    World has changed and so has Neurology. Researchers in neuroscience could not contain their excitement albeit with the concoction of Binaural beats there are many uncertainties of its usage both because of paucity of knowledge and copious skepticism of people in general regarding the usage of these so called “digital drugs”. Binaural basically means listening with both the ears. The sorcery in these beats use the simple phenomenon of “hearing” with both ears with frequencies not more than 1500Hz, with less than 40Hz difference between them. Binaural beats reportedly influence the brain in more subtle ways through the entrainment of brainwaves and can be used to produce relaxation, natural altered states of consciousness similar to what is experienced during meditation, and other health benefits such as pain relief.

  326. Parag Mishra and Dr Manoj Arya

    Heat exchangers are equipment that transfers heat from one medium to another. An air cooled heat exchanger, or ACHE, is simply a pressure vessel which cools a circulating fluid within finned tubes by forcing ambient air over the exterior of the tubes. In cross flow exchangers, the hot and cold fluids move perpendicular to each other. Some actual heat exchangers are a mixture of cross flow and counter flow (Known as Counter to Cross Flow Heat Exchangers) due to design features (Parag Mishra and Dr Manoj Arya, 2016). The proper design, operation and maintenance of heat exchangers will make the process energy efficient and minimize energy losses. Heat exchanger performance can deteriorate with time, off design operations and other interferences such as fouling, scaling etc. It is necessary to assess periodically the heat exchanger performance in order to maintain them at a high efficiency level. This section comprises certain proven techniques of monitoring the performance of heat exchangers, coolers and condensers from observed operating data of the equipment. In this we are doing the thermal design of forced draft counters to cross flow Air Cooled heat exchanger at normal ambient temperature i.e at 38 oC. The most important parameter, while taking into consideration of designing Air Cooled Heat Exchanger is permissible /minimum tube skin temperature. A major problem constantly faced by heat exchanger designers is to predict accurately the performance of a given heat exchanger or a system of heat exchangers for a given set of service conditions. The problem is complicated by the fact that uncertainties exist in most of the design parameters and in the design procedures themselves. The design parameters that are used in the basic thermal design calculations of a heat exchanger include process parameters, heat-transfer coefficients, tube dimensions (e.g., tube diameter, wall thickness), thermal conductivity of the tube material, and thermo physical properties of the fluids. Nominal or mean values of these parameters are used in the design calculations. However, uncertainties in these parameters prevent us from predicting the exact performance of the unit. The effect of the uncertainties is mostly in the performance degradation in service. Hence, there is an imperative need to consider all the uncertainties and to critically evaluate them and correctly predict the thermal performance of a heat exchanger. This is particularly true for critical applications. In thermal design of heat exchangers there are presently many stages in which assumptions in mathematical solution of the design problem are being made. Accumulation of these assumptions (e.g. use of mean values) may introduce variations in design as large as the uncertainties introduced in heat-transfer and flow friction correlations. The designer needs to understand where these inaccuracies may arise, and strive to eliminate as many sources of error as possible by choosing design configurations that avoid such problems at source. Heat Exchanger Thermal Design Problem referred to as the rating and sizing problems (Parag Mishra and Dr Manoj Arya, 2016)

  327. Eng. Magdy Saeed Hussin, Prof. Dr. Mohamed A. El-Samanoudy and Dr. Ashraf Ghorab

    Aero-elasticity is the subject that describes the interaction between the deformation of an elastic structure in airstream and resulting aerodynamic force especially on aircrafts. This work studies the numerical analysis of the airfoil flutter. To do this work, Euler equations are integrated in time to get aerodynamic forces, then, at each time step, these aerodynamic forces are coupled with airfoil equations of motion to simulate its flutter. Two numerical techniques are used in this work ; McCormack’s technique to evaluate aerodynamic forces, and Newmark’s technique to evaluate airfoil dynamic response. MATLAB program was developed for implementation of these techniques. For solution verification and validation, the work was implemented on NACA 0012 airfoil because of availability of its section parameters and aero-elastic characteristics. Most previous researches on flutter didn’t focus on two important flutter points. The first point is the numerical error produced in flutter velocity when using low coupling frequency (CFD-CSD). The second point is flutter velocity obtained by classical method is so close to that obtained by using sophisticated codes like Euler equations. As a result, the two cases have been investigated in the next pages and results presented : (I) Substantial error at using long coupling step (with time step=0.002s flutter velocity=174m/s, with time step=0.01s flutter velocity=166.8m/s). (II) Classical method can be used as first estimation of flutter because it give tolerable results (flutter velocity based classical=175m/s, flutter base Euler equations=174m/s).

  328. Visalakshi, S. and Geetha, R.

    The purpose of this study is to identify the socio-economic determinants of cumulative fertility-number of children ever born to women at the end of their reproductive period. The data on the explanatory variables is obtained from census 2001 and 2011. The multiple regression technique is used to study the relationship between the dependent variable children ever born and the explanatory variables and to predict the average parity for the year 2011. Variance inflation factor is used to test for multicollinearity. SPSS 17.0 is used for statistical analysis. The bivariate correlation analysis indicates that Children ever born has a significant positive correlation with urban population, per capita income, Below poverty line and a significant negative correlation with Average household size, female literacy rate (p<.05). The multiple regression analysis shows that the largest significant contribution for lowering the cumulative fertility is the proportion of urban population. The other significant determinants are Work participation rate and below poverty line (p< .05).

  329. Deshmukh, V. V., Nagpure, P. A., Burghate, D. K. and Chaudhari G. N.

    Manganese ferrite (MnFe2O4) nanoparticles, were synthesized by Sol-Gel technique, to investigate its applicability as electrode material for supercapacitor. The cubic spinal structure of MnFe2O4 was confirmed from X-ray diffraction (XRD) pattern and an average particle size calculated from Scherer equation was 15 nm. The scanning electron microscope (SEM) photograph reveals agglomerated nanosized grains of the product. Electrochemical properties were investigated via cyclic voltammetry and galvanostatic charge/discharge in 1M KCL electrolyte. The MnFe2O4 electrode exhibits maximum specific capacitance of 197Fg-1 at the scan rate of 1mVs-1.An electrochemical Impedance study of the product was also carried out to investigate its electrochemical characteristics. The MnFe2O4 nanoparticles seem to be promising material for supercapacitor.

  330. Isis Almela Endo Hoshino, Paula Nunes Tozato, Taylane Soffener Berlanga de Araújo, Elias Naim Kassis, Idiberto José Zotarelli Filho and Fábio Pereira Linhares-de-Castro

    Background: The endodontic therapy establishes the actual length of the root canal various methods are employed to measure this length, including, tactile sensitivity, x-rays and electronic locators foraminal. Objective: To evaluate the electronic foramen locator Root ZX in terms of accuracy and reliability in relation to the three locators third generation electronic foraminalNovApex, Gnatus and Apex Locator in determining root canal length of 0.0 millimeters (mm) and 1.0 mm below the apex with radiographic evidence. Methods: A total of 15 pre-molars of 15 patients donated by Term of Free Consent. The continuous predictors were the locatorsforaminal Electronics Gnatus, Apex Locator and NovApex. The response was the predictor Locator Foraminal Electronic Root ZX. Results: After nonparametric correlation between the response predictor Root ZX and continuous predictors Gnatus, Apex Locator and NovApex both 0.0 mm -1.0 mm as in the apex, it was observed that there was no statistically significant difference with p> 0.05, given that the measured values of locatorsforaminal diverged little from the exact value. Conclusion: the measurements Locator Foraminal Electronic Root ZX were accurate and reliable when compared to other locators of this study and compared with published results, and strongly indicated.

  331. Amala Jothi Grace, G., Gomathi, A. and Vedhi, C.

    The preparation and electrochemical characterisation of poly (3-methylthiophene-co-3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) modified glassy carbon electrode with 2-Amino anthra-9,10-quinone were investigated. The influence of pH on the electrochemical behaviour and stability of the poly(3-methylthiophene-co-3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) was studied. The diffusion coefficient values of anthraquinones at the copolymer modified electrode and the number of electrons involved in anthraquinone reduction were evaluated by chronoamperometric and chronocoulometric techniques. 2-Amino anthra-9, 10-quinone combined with the copolymer poly (3-methylthiophene-co-3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) showed excellent electrocatalytic ability for the reduction of oxygen. Scanning electron microscopy images proved the excellent modification of the modified electrodes.

  332. Prof. P. Senthil

    This tabloid presents a discovery with proof of identity of brain tumor, now It is use an image mining using development performances for a segmentation of image with engendered segmented image authorization to Multivariate division algorithm. Using MICCAI (Medical Image Computing and Computer Assisted Intervention) dataset segmented image is alienated hooked on protuberances, at this time perceive accurate with dishonest protuberances with concurrence to factual lump proposal a sapling then the leap protuberances are mingling with engendered a result. Catching with improvement algorithm are use to improve the MICCAI result. In the occurring system neural network is use for result but in neural network result in the form of 0 and 1 so clamor in result. Hence using the prearrangement progress the result and performance with great accuracy. More over all get a result ten time faster than executing Result.

  333. Mohapatra, B. K., Kamal Chauhan, U. S., Thakur, Bhuvnesh Yadav and Anupuma Raina

    In this study, the allele frequencies and statistical parameters of forensic interest were determined for the fifteen short tandem repeat loci included in AmpFlSTR Identifiler (Applied Biosystems) genotyping kit in Jammu & Kashmir (J&K) Muslim population. A total of 150 samples were analyzed for the above said study. All the analyzed loci met Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium expectations. A high combined power of discrimination and high combined power of exclusion was observed for all the loci, indicating them to be a group of excellent markers for paternity testing, identification of individuals and also for other forensic applications. The genetic relatedness analysis revealed the similarity between studied population and previously studied J&K Muslim population.

  334. Dr. Alka Mittal and Dr. Preeti Malik

    It was believed in the earlier part of the twentieth century that a person high on rational intelligence (IQ) will succeed in his life. Later, in mid 1990s, a theory was propounded that a person high on emotional intelligence (EQ), IQ being the same, has greater chances of faring well in life, for he is endowed with the capacity to manage his own and others’ emotions better. Towards the end of the century, it was highlighted that spiritual intelligence (SI), also SQ for short, is the ultimate intelligence, necessary for effective functioning of IQ and EQ. SQ allows human beings to be creative, to change the rules and to alter situations, giving us the ability to discriminate. Employing SQ one is enabled to differentiate between ‘right’ and ‘not right’ in the given framework of a society or a situation, listening to inner voice. Our brains are hard-wired for activation and utilization of SI, but most of the people let it remain dormant, missing out a richer quality of being. Quality of life (QoL or QQ) is perceived differently by different people, depending on their belief system. Life is infinitely a large canvas, all encompassing, major aspects being health (mental, physical, emotional and spiritual), finances, social well-being, job / occupation, family, reputation and the like. Life and its quality are influenced by application of human intelligences like IQ, EQ and SQ in different degree. Supported by the works of several renowned authors on emotional intelligence and spiritual intelligence, this paper is aimed at examining the impact of spiritual intelligence on quality of life.

  335. Dr. Shaik Abdul Majeeb Pasha and Ato. Wondwossen Jerene Daare

    Indian financial sector has been growing at a galloping pace, comparatively with other industries from the last three decades. At present, India is with above 150 public and private sector banks with more than 110000 branch network. Indian banking is currently going through a difficult period during this mergers and acquisitions era. However, the problems are not unique to India. Growth has also slowed down in many other Emerging Markets and Developing Economies (EMDEs). Present study motto of researchers’ wants to finds out the progress, challenges, and opportunities of Indian banking and to know reasons behind them. Finally, based on empirical findings reasonable recommendation and conclusion has given.

  336. Dr. Rakesh Kumar Mishra

    In this paper we have discuss about the meaning of web mining, Digital Library, Various types of web mining, and advantages of web mining in digital library system to extract information. Web mining is part of data mining, helps to find new patterns that enable a merchant to take new decisions for business opportunity.

  337. José Crisólogo de Sales Silva, Andrei Atroshenko and José Jackson dos Santos

    This study was conducted in order to gain knowledge of the market of the manioc flour in Alagoas, Brazil, and its potentials, based on the information from all links in the production and marketing chain. In Brazil, several products are derived from manioc. Due to that it has a greatsocial and economic importance. The current research is structured in the framework of the five forces analysis of Michael E. Porter (1947). A combination of the all factors suggests that the production industry of the manioc flour is attractive for producers since all five forces are benefiting. Thus, we can consider that an investment would lead to an adequate development in the scope of this study.

  338. Bindu, K. B. and Jaypal, G.

    Detailed study has been carried out for understanding the environmental status of Kadalundi River Basin in Kerala using secondary data collected from various departments and field survey. This study is a preliminary investigation of the early and existing environmental condition in the river basin which is one of the hot spots of biodiversity. Based on the published information in news papers, articles, internet and a pilot field study was carried out to find out the actual environmental status of the river basin. As per the survey it is noted that environmental status of Kadalundi river basin is deteriorating day by day. The major environmental issues are the dumping of plastic wastes in open space, decrease in the annual arrival of migratory birds, reduce in area under mangrove forest, increase in pest attack over areas in mangrove forest, drudging and illegal sand mining, ecological disturbance, salt water intrusion and disappearance of local flora and fauna due to implementation of inter cropping agricultural pattern. This study can be a base for an environmental evaluation and formatting a plan for integrated river basin model for Kadalundi river basin.

  339. Abid Thyab Al Ajeeli

    This paper addresses a framework that incorporate four integrated models; a mathematical formulation model which integrate final products with sub-assemblies and raw materials in order to generate optimal solution. The second model is the simulation which simulates the mathematical model to generate set of items of information. The third model is a knowledge base structure that records simulation output, and manufacturing organization procedures and policies. The fourth model is an automatic internal control interacting with the knowledge base structure in order to browse the structure and detect any violations to the procedures and policies set up by management of the manufacturing organization. The framework enables the internal control to explore data and information and to act as a guard against any misuse of the manufacturing system properties. It acts against any error occurrence, threats, and irregularities that might lead to inconsistencies. The framework supports a set of policies that monitors and controls finished products and raw materials. It determines how much of each item should be manufactured or be kept in warehouses, when low items should be replenished, and how many items should be assembled or be ordered when replenishment is needed. Although integration concept of manufacturing processes has enjoyed increased popularity among researchers and manufacturers, they also have a number of drawbacks due to the complexity of real-world problems. Using simulation, knowledge base, and internal control model will improve productivity. The proposed framework provides a traceability capability for finished products and their relationships. It also provides reasoning capabilities on the manufacturing system objects. The framework allows the complex simulation model to be manageable for the purpose of adaptation to the changing environment variables. The framework performs a querying system to furnish top management with a clear understanding of the structure of risks that may occur. This framework provides top managements with clear picture of how to make their production lines more efficient in terms of profits as well as enabling to remove any processes that are overly complicated.

  340. Hayet Ben Said

    This article examines the effect of the entrepreneur skills on predicting the default risk of investment credit. Our work seeks to determine if these variables affect the probability of default. To do this, we are based on a sample of 39 Small and Medium Enterprise to estimate a logit model of default probability. Our results show that the variables which are related to entrepreneur skills have a significant effect on the prediction of credit default probability. For that, Bank should take into account these variables and financial ones in their decision in order to minimize a credit risk specially after the spectacular government decision to remove the self-financing and guarantees for young unemployed who decide to create their own projects.

  341. Joniton, S. and Dr. Gopinath, V.

    The sports development framework in Sri Lanka expanded from 1972 with direct government involvement and with change in to open economic policies, the corporate sector took a direct involvement in sports development. The research is an investigation to assess the investment made by slim line pvt Ltd to develop female boxing in Sri Lanka. The purpose of the study was to find out the influence of inadequate female participation of boxing at slim line (Pvt) Ltd. To achieve this purpose of the study fifty hundred (n=50) female employers (non boxers) randomly selected as subject who were from the various slim line branches around Sri Lanka. The selected subjects were age range between 20 -25 years. The subjects tested by questionnaires and interviews. The results of this study shows that, positive perspective regarding cultural and social factors 56 percentage, perception and attitudes 55 percentage, and awareness about female boxing 66 percentage while only 32 percentage is positive in biological and structural changes. Hence, it was concluded biological and structural changes are the factors that affect on an inadequate female participation of boxing and therefore prospects of a promotion campaigns should be aimed on educating biological and structural changes that can be confronted by female boxers.

  342. Runa Roy and Pravat Kumar Kuri

    The incidence of child labour is one of the causes of social degradation particularly on the fair face of the globalized world. According to recent publication of ILO one in every six children aged between 5 and 17 (i.e., 246 million children) is involved in child labour. In India as revealed by the NSSO data 2007-08, the informal sector alone account for over two thirds of the child employment. The manufacturing sector and the trade, hotels and restaurant together accounts 6 per cent of the total child labour force in rural India. Moreover; there are substantial inter-state variations in the incidence of child labour. More surprisingly, the magnitude of child labours in the prosperous states like Andhra Pradesh, Gujarat, and West Bengal is found to be much higher. Among 15 major states of India, West Bengal ranks 6th in the incidence of child labour using NSSO 64th round unit level data. This paper attempts to examine the nature and extent of the incidence of child labour in India in general and West Bengal in particular. Moreover, using the Tobit regression model attempts have been made to examine the socio- economic and demographic determinants of the incidence of child labour. The incidence of child labour is observed to be causality related to labour market imperfection and the level of human capital at the household level.

  343. Dr. B. Radhika

    Today, from the time we awaken in the morning to the time before we sleep, we are surrounded by media, such as newspapers, radio, television, cellular phones, computers. Sometimes we are not even aware that we are surrounded by these media. All these media come under the overall umbrella of what we known as today’s ICTs. Knowing and using ICTs is important in today’s fast changing knowledge society, but we very often are confused about what these media are. ICT’s stand for Information and Communication Technologies. “ICT in Education” means Teaching and learning with ICT. ICTs are often spoken of in a particular content, such as ICT, in Education, Health care, or libraries. ICTs refer to technology that provides access to information through telecommunications. It is similar to Information Technology (IT), but focuses primarily on Communication Technologies. This includes the Internet, Wireless Networks, Cell phones and other communication mediums.

  344. Mohammad Allam

    Multiculturalism as an academic discourse and a state policy drew the attention of scholars and policy maker around the world. The process of globalization brought broader impact on multiculturalism both at national and international levels. At the international level, the trends of assimilation and clashes of cultures can be seen in peaceful co-existence and radicalisation of many nations and communities. At the national level, it has brought numerous challenges and opened better opportunities to the culture of minorities. India, being a multicultural society, is also facing numerous challenges and providing better scope for peaceful coexistence to numerous cultures. Muslim, being the largest minority community in India has an own special identity based on her own distinct culture and religion. This community has own experience of multiculturalism in India. They have responded multiculturalism in their own way. The present paper is about the response of the Muslim community towards multicultural society of India. What are the challenges of multiculturalism to Indian Muslims and how they are responding? The globalization has also created complexities for Indian multiculturalism and Muslim culture in India. This paper has further explored the experience of Muslim in Indian multicultural society. This is important to understand the response of Indian Muslims towards Multiculturalism to understand the response of the Muslims of other countries towards multiculturalism. This study would help in the understanding of radicalisation in the Muslim countries in cultural context. This will further help to the national government and world community in the formulation of policy for peaceful co-existence in regard to culture.

  345. Joko Suryono, Bandi Supraptono, Edy Budiarso and Isna Yuniar Wardhani

    Increasing the power of Acacia wood and wood beams Camphor at making lamina based on the concept of deformation. This research is compiled from Acacia wood board sheets and wood Camphor each test sample used as solid beams, beam lamina two layers, beams lamina three layers to gain strength MoE and MoR. Raw material for adhesive laminated beams Dovebond 30 and adhesive Synteko 1909 with Hardener 1999. The nature of physics and mechanics of wood : Testing Results Acacia wood moisture content < of wood Camphor and density, shear strength, MoE, MoRAcacia wood > Camphor wood. Thus, the smaller the value of test results of water content, the density value, the value of the shear strength, the strength values MoE and strength MoR result will be even greater. Beam glued lamina strength: shear adhesion strength of laminated wood beams Camphor using adhesives Dovebond 30 and Synteko 1909 Camphor wood glued have better power, better for the adhesive Dovebond 30 and adhesive Synteko 1909 amounted to 33,95% and 23,09% > beam Acacia wood lamina. Comparison beams lamina two layer and three layer: Camphor Wood, a second beam lamina two layers and three layers of adhesive Dovebond 30 experienced MoE power efficiency of 2,79% ; 16.80% and the second beam lamina two layers and three layers of adhesive Synteko 1909 experience MoE power efficiency of 2,31% ; 11,32% of the strength of a solid beam MoE . And the second beam lamina two layers and three layers of adhesive Dovebond 30 experienced MoR power efficiency of 4,15% ; 4,58% and the second beam lamina two layers of adhesive Synteko 1909 MoR have weakening strength of 4,86% and a triple beam lamina experience MoR power efficiency by 4,58% on the strength of a solid beam MoR. Strength value MoE and MoR best : Strength MoE and MoR number of layers and Camphor wood design Synteko 1909 adhesive layer number for interaction with the design is very significant, then followed by a further test. Value MoE further test the strength of interaction with a number of layers of design occurs in the number of layers of two layers with a design on three layer type 2 the average value of 95.899 kg/cm2 ; 93.299 kg/cm2 and 89.781 kg/cm2. Acacia solid wood beams, beams solid and lamina beams Camphor wood can be used as construction materials in sheltered conditions. The selection of adhesive to provide adhesion value for the type of wood used as a beam lamina. MoE strength values and MoR, plan beam lamina of the type of wood that will be used is to get some references of previous studies. Necessary to study some other type of wood to be used as laminated beams with due regard to the age of the tree and the anatomical structure of the wood.

  346. Dr. G. Vinayagamoorthi

    Foreign direct investment plays an important role in the economic development of the country. It helps in transferring of financial resources, technology and innovative and improved management techniques along with raising productivity. An Indian company may receive Foreign Direct Investment either through automatic route or government route. N the last years, investment in the agricultural sector in developing countries has been neglected and the share of public expenditures as well as Official Development Assistance (ODA) in agriculture has declined. The rising commodity prices have served as a wake-up call to support agricultural development and ensure food security and poverty education. FAO has estimated that investment of USD 83 billion per annumis required in developing countries’ agriculture to meet the food demand in 2050. This estimate does not include the investment in public good provision such as infrastructure, storage facilities, market development or R&D. Government spending and involvement (e.g. through ensuring agricultural institutions, extension services, education, sanitation) in agriculture and provision of public goods are suggested to be most effective in increasing productivity, enabling capital formation, providing incentives and opportunities for farmers to increase their private investment, and strengthen the sector and smallholder farmers in order take advantage of the prospective Foreign Direct Investment (FDI) in the sector. FDI in agriculture of developing countries was only 1% of total world FDI inflows, but has increased in the recent years, in particular in Asia and Oceania, Latin America and the Caribbean and South-East Europe and the Commonwealth of Independent States. However, developing countries receive (I) less FDI in food processing than developed countries, implying that a large share of higher value added activities takes place in developed countries, and (ii) more FDI in cash crops, e.g. renewable energy sector, than staple crops. Large-scale cash crops production may drive small-scale farmers out of production, increase farmer’s production risks, and negatively impact food security.

  347. Selvam, V.

    India has an opportunity to become one of the world’s most dynamic economics. Keeping this in mind, our Honourable Prime Minister Sri Narendra Modi was initiated and launched ‘Make in India’ a manufacturing hub campaign on 25th September, 2014 by inviting and motivating all global and domestic companies to manufacture their products in 25 identified industrial sectors in India. The aim of this initiative is to take the share of manufacturing in the country’s Gross Domestic Product (GDP) from a stagnant 16% currently to 25% by 2022 and thereby create more than 100 million skilled jobs in manufacturing sector. The present central government wants to improve the standard of living of socially and economically weaker section and wants to remove the poverty through various new schemes and programmes like Jan Dhan Yojan, Jan Suraksha Schemes-Ensuring Social Security among poor who earn less than $1 per day, Micro Units Development Refinance Agency (MUDRA), Swachh Bharat, Atal Mission for Rejuvenation and Urban Transformation (AMRUT), Digital India, Skill India, Sukanya Samriddhi Scheme and Smart Cities Mission (SCM) Housing for all by 2020 through which people may have real shift from being economically poor into middle class and this will lead to a good business opportunities in India. Based on the above, the existing literature survey from journals, magazines, newspapers and websites highlights on make in India a manufacturing hub and also this paper reviewed the real opportunities and challenges for India. Prior studies have not been successful in addressing the opportunities and challenges and in this paper the researchers presented an overview of the literature which explains make in India and the real opportunities and challenges. This review based study really highlights and helps the young and new researcher who wants to do research under make in India a manufacturing hub and also help them easily to identify the real challenges and opportunities for both men and women entrepreneurs who wish to start business in India.

  348. Paul Alhassan Nabila and Iddirisu Andani Mu-azu

    The functions of chief executive officers of universities differ only slightly from chief executive officers in other organizations. As special bureaucracies with very large concentration of professors and other professional groups, chief executive officers supervise their staff to teach, research, disseminate knowledge and to collate divergent opinions towards national development. The paper consults and criticizes the views of earlier writers on chief executives of universities. This paper painstakingly examines the roles of chief executives, highlighting their backgrounds before becoming chief executives, and their roles as heads of administration upon becoming presidents or vice-chancellors. Besides observations, the study relied on literature review (Desk Study). The paper further looked at the perceptions and attitudes that promote or impede the efforts of many presidents/vice chancellors. Changing university environments through large enrolments, aging professors, and stakeholder interests, curricula reviews for relevance, quality and equity among others have resulted in changing parameters in the searches for vice-chancellors. The changing scope and demands may be useful for sitting and future vice-chancellors in their search for jobs or in their performance upon appointment. A fundamental familiarity with motivation and respect of human beings for collegiality have been behind those presidents who were acclaimed as effective executives.

  349. Priyanka and Rajinder Singh

    Grass stains are frequently encountered as evidentiary material particularly in outdoor criminal investigations. These stains, if analyzed properly and identified correctly can solve the mysteries of outdoor criminal cases. High Performance Thin Layer Chromatographic (HPTLC) being highly sensitive, reliable and reproducible technique is best suited for the analysis of grass stains. In the present study, we report a HPTLC method for the separation and subsequent analysis of various phytoconstituents of leaf stains of forty grass species commonly found in Punjab, a state in northwestern India. It has been found that the HPTLC profiles of leaf stains of selected grasses can differentiate them and can be used successfully as a characteristic tool for the species identification of grass leaf stains.

  350. Shirantha Heenkenda

    This research sought to identify the motivational factors associated with the intention to readiness to retirement planning of estate sector employees in Sri Lanka. The theory of planned behavior (TPB) investigates the effects of the behavioral factors associated with the intention to readiness to retirement planning. Simple random sampling method was used to select the respondents and face-to-face interview was conducted to survey 900 households in the Nuwara Eliya district of the central province in Sri Lanka. The principal component analysis was used to calculate factors with Varimax rotation applied factor extraction. The regression analysis method was used to facilitate a path analysis of respondents’ behavior. The result revealed that estate sector1 employees’ readiness to retirement planning was significantly related to personal attitudes, social pressures and a sense of control. Readiness to retirement planning turns out to be of utmost important and the study discovered behavior patterns that have implications. Reducing structural barriers, financial knowledge and financial inclusion may culminate the retirement planning behavior. Findings of this study can be beneficial for financial product development, especially for rural and informal sector employees in attracting and retaining clients.

  351. Deepan, V. and Ramachandran, R.

    Tribal communities are one of the important segments of this nation. Indian tribal are traditional, conservative and unprivileged people. They are socially and economically weaker and also under object poverty and live in a subsistence economy and general backwardness. This is because of their ill health which is a cause and consequence of poverty. The major impediments to good health care inequity in health system and radical poverty of the masses. The present study was undertaken Andipottai and Kazhaparai settlements in Kanyakumari district. There is need for hour to establish government clinic or motivate private doctors to establish hospital and the government should more assistance to the private hospital. The medical personal should focuses on emphasizing the hygienic practices not only to patients but also to attendants.

  352. Phakru Dhammapissamai, Paisan Suwannoi, Akkharadet Neelayothin and Pataraphorn Arunmala

    This research aims to study the implementation of elementary school teachers that demonstrate learning management in the 21st century and to compare by gender, work experience, and levels of education. The survey methodology was used, gathering data from a sample of the population who are the elementary school teachers in KhonKaen province, Thailand. The results showed that: (1) the different gender; male and female, of elementary school teachers are no different to exhibit 21st century learning management (2) the elementary school teachers in KhonKaen with different work experiences showed no different of 21st learning management among the three groups of working experiences which are less than 5 years, 5-15 years, and more than 15 years(3) the elementary school teachers in KhonKaen who graduated with different levels of education; master and bachelor degree, showed no different to exhibit learning management in 21st century with statistically significant at the 0.05 level.

  353. Akkharadet Neelayothin, Paisan Suwannoi, Phakru Dhammapissamai and Pataraphorn Arunmala

    This research aims to study the behavior of elementary school principals that reflects transformational leadership in the new paradigm of 21st century education and to compare behavior by gender, work experience, and levels of education. The survey methodology was used, gathering data from a sample of the population who are public elementary school principals in Khon Kaen province, Thaialand. The results showed that: (1) the public elementary school principals in KhonKaen had behavior that reflects the transformational leadership at high extent, (2) male and female elementary school principals are no different to exhibit behavior that reflects the transformational leadership, (3) the public elementary school principals in KhonKaen with work experience of 5-15 years showed behavior that reflects transformational leadership more than two of those work experiences; less than 5 years and more than 15 years and (4) the public elementary school principals in KhonKaen who graduated with master degree had behavior reflecting transformational leadership more than those who graduate a bachelor degree.

  354. David Kipkorir Cheruiyot and Enose M.W. Simatwa

    Individual, Group and Peer Guidance and Counselling services in Secondary Schools are conceived as important services towards strengthening students’ character and academic achievement. In Bureti Sub County performance in Kenya Certificate of Secondary Education from 2007 to 2009 was below average, that is, mean scores of 4.445, 4.435 and 4.491 respectively in spite of Guidance and Counselling services being in place, perhaps due to shortcoming in the effectiveness of these Guidance and Counselling services on academic achievement. The purpose of this study therefore was to examine guidance and counselling services and their influence on students’ academic performance in Bureti Sub County, Kenya. The objectives of the study were to: establish the preferred types of guidance and counselling services offered in secondary schools and determine the relationship between Guidance and Counselling services and students’ academic performance in Public secondary schools in Bureti Sub County. A conceptual framework based on Biswalo’s (1996) concept that guidance and counselling helps students develop proper study skills and acquisition of knowledge on examination techniques was adopted in this study to establish the influence of Guidance and Counselling services on student’s academic performance. The study established that 13(65%) of the practicing school counselors did not have the required qualifications of diploma and above in Guidance and Counselling. Guidance and Counseling facilities were inadequate in most schools. Types of Guidance and Counselling services offered in schools included individual, peer and group. The relationships between Guidance and Counselling services offered and academic performance was statistically significant. The study concluded that the types of Guidance and Counselling services preferred were peer and group and that Guidance and Counselling services accounted for 46.6% of students’ academic performance as signified by adjusted R square of .466. The study recommended that teacher counselors should be trained and the facilities for counseling should be improved. The findings of this study are significant to teacher counselors, Principals and the Ministry of Education Science and Technology as they will enable them to enhance Guidance and Counselling services in schools so as to achieve the set objectives of school guidance and counseling program.

  355. Neamah A. Khafaji, Muhammad S.Abu-Salih and Abdelaziz B. Mohsen

    Background: The relationship between Transformational Leadership (TL) and Emotional Intelligence (EI) has been studied by many authors. There have been very few studies of this relationship in Iraq. Al’Ikha industrial establishment attempts to organize the relationship between the managers and staff according to scientifically studied research. It is concerned of choosing a leadership type which enhances EI for the benefit of the establishment ant its employees. Objectives: The objective of this study is to measure the impact of TL on EIinAl’Ikha establishment. The dimensions of TL are Idealized Influence, Intellectual Stimulation, Inspirational Motivation and Individualized Consideration. The dimensions of EI are Self Awareness, Self-Regulation, Motivation, Empathy and Relations Management. Methods: The study adopted the observational method, and the population is that of Abu-Salih et al. (2016) which consists of the general managers, heads of departments and chairs of sectionsin Al’Ikha establishment. Their total was 30 persons and a self- administered questionnaire covering the dimensions of TL and EI was distributed and collected from them. Results: The study showed high scores of the respondents on all dimensions of the independent variable (TL) and those of the dependent variable (EI).In addition, results indicated that TL has significant positive impact on EI and on three of its dimensions. Conclusion: Based on the results of the study, it is recommended that establishments develop and enhance the dimensions of TL in order to enhance the dimensions of EI. It is hoped that additional similar studies will be carried on other organizations.

  356. Anas M. Otuom and Mukhtar O. Siddiq

    The study aimed to prepare, design and produce an instructional computerized software to the deaf and mute students in the primary schools, the study aimed also to identify the impact of using instructional computerized software on checking homework lessons and remaining of the impact of learning and attitudes among the deaf and mute students in the basic level in subject of computer skills. The researchers had developed a study unit through programming PowerPoint PC program to the 1st level. Also he conducted a Pro & Pre Test then analyzed the study contents through designed a questionnaire to measure the role of PC and using PC Software and its impact on processes of learning and education among the deaf and mute students. The study conducted during the year (2012 – 2013) on the deaf and mute students at basic level within the centers of Jerash for the special needs, the researcher followed the descriptive and analytical approach in additional to the experimental approach, the community sample consists of dump and deaf students at the basic level within the center of Jerash for the special needs, the total numbers of community sample were 120 students, among them (50) students of basic level were selected as a study sample and divided into two groups : one of them is experimental and the other is a control group. The study showed that there is a statistically significant at the level of (P <0.05) to use PC in upgrading the ability of checking lessons of dump and deaf students at the basic level. The researcher recommended for providing a tutorial software in all institutes and programs of those with special needs with full concentration on providing the modern tools that considered the easiness of using and effectiveness of performance, in addition to necessity of training to the teachers who teaching students with special needs on using these tutorial software besides, providing a technology specialist to teach those with special needs in every institute.

  357. George Odhiambo Ochwata, Olel, M. A. and Enose M.W. Simatwa

    Technical and Vocational subjects have remained an integral aspect of the educational sector and is seen as the pivot upon which economic growth and development lies. Owing to its importance, enrolment into these subjects is very crucial in measuring the pace at which skills, attitudes and knowledge are given to the students. However, in Kisumu East, Central, North, West and Seme Sub Counties, enrolment in these subjects has been low since they were introduced in large scale in secondary schools in 1985.This low enrolment may lead to underutilization of the available educational such as teachers, workshops, books and equipment. The purpose of this study was to investigate perceptions of Stakeholders’ on factors influencing students’ enrolment in Technical and Vocational subjects in Public Secondary schools in Kisumu East, Central, North, West and Seme Sub Counties in Kisumu County. The study was undertaken from the perspectives of three key stakeholders- the students who enrolled for Technical and Vocational subjects, Teachers teaching any of the Technical and Vocational subjects and Head Teachers from schools where the data was collected. Objectives of the study were to; establish students’ perceptions on factors influencing their enrolment, establish their attitudes towards Technical and Vocational subjects and to establish the Head teachers and teachers’ perception on factors influencing students’ enrolment Technical and Vocational Subjects. The study established that; job prospect and Government policy were perceived by all the stake holders as factors that influence enrolment for Technical and Vocational subjects and were ranked first and second respectively. Contrary to previous studies, students had positive attitude towards Technical and Vocational subjects with mean of 3.008 on five point Likert type scale. Perception on parental influence as an enrolment factor was ranked low among all the stakeholders. The study concluded that Job prospect influence students’ enrolment in Technical and Vocational subjects and that student have positive attitudes towards the Technical and Vocational subjects and this is not tied to enrolment. The study recommended that government should establish vocational centres attached to secondary schools to facilitate the professional orientation of students with a view of improving enrolment and focusing on both formal and informal employment. The findings of this research are of great importance to the Education Policy makers in the Government and Researchers.

  358. La Ode Muharam, Wa Ode Hijrah and Aspin

    The attitudes development of Halu Oleo university students towards democracy and human aiming at developing students' attitudes through the improvement of learning system. The research methodology employed in this study is divided into three cycles. The students can construct the reality based on the material they have learned which in turn can build up their good attitudes. There are 6 developed strategies in constructivism learning, as follows, (1) situation, (2) grouping, (3) connecting, (4) questioning, (5) exhibition, (6) reflection. The result of this research shows that learning implementation of democracy and human right material through constructivism approach can develop students' knowledge and positive attitude towards democracy and human right values in their social lives.

  359. Juliana G. Wilbard and Dev Jani

    The purpose of this paper is to investigate the determinants of tourist satisfaction in Tanzania hotels. It aimed to achieve this through a cross sectional survey of five touristic hotels in Tanzania. Thus, a sample of 140 hotel guests in Dar es Salaam was used as an investigation to test four hypothesis of quality of hotel, rooms, food and facilities leading to outcome of guest satisfaction. Using regression analysis, findings showed that quality of hotel employees and facilities are positively related to guest satisfaction. The work recommends that hotels in Tanzania must learn from this work and be aware of factors that determine tourist satisfaction.

  360. Carren Akoth Olendo, Maureen A. Olel and John O. Agak

    In the year 2003, the government of Kenya adopted devolved system of funding of education through the Constituency Development Fund in order to promote quality of education in secondary schools. Constituency Development Fund being a form of composite fund, finances education in public secondary schools by providing bursary to needy students and developing infrastructure. This study focused on quality of education in terms of students’ academic performance in Kenya Certificate of Secondary Education examination. Public secondary schools in Kisumu County receive money from Constituency Development Fund but statistics show that performance is still low. In the year 2012 for instance, public secondary schools in Kisumu County received money from Constituency Development Fund amounting to Kenya Shillings 120,000 per school as minimum to Kenya Shillings 5,000,000 as maximum depending on their needs. Conversely, the county had a mean performance of 5.63 during that which was even lower than the national one which stood at 6.1. It was also not clear whether all public secondary schools in the county had the necessary infrastructural facilities which are crucial for effective teaching and learning process. The purpose of this study therefore was to establish the influence of Constituency Development Fund on Quality of Secondary Education in Public Secondary Schools in Kisumu County. The findings indicated that Constituency Development Fund had influence on student’s performance in Kenya Certificate of Secondary Education Examination. The study also confirmed the availability of the necessary infrastructural facilities constructed by Constituency Development Fund in many public secondary schools in the county. Several students in the county were being awarded some bursaries by the Constituency Development Fund. The study recommended that Constituency Development Fund should consistently give enough bursaries to needy students. This will enable them spend more time in school and concentrate in their studies which would eventually lead to good performance in examinations thereby improving quality of education. More funds should also be allocated for infrastructure development in schools which still lacked the facilities and projects started using Constituency Development Fund money should be completed on time. This study is important because it provides useful information on the influence Constituency Development Fund has on quality of secondary education in public secondary schools.

  361. Eze, Chinwe N. and Onoja Helen

    This study was conducted to establish the prevalence of intestinal parasites among Fulani Pastoralists in six bush encampments in Rivers State, South-South Nigeria. Standard parasitological procedures as recommended by World Health Organization were employed in sample collection and examination. An overall prevalence of 91.2% was observed among the 593 stool samples examined with one or more of the intestinal parasites. Intestinal parasite rate by bush encampments showed that Fulani Pastoralists in Elelenwo and Eleme were the most infected with 109(94.8%) and 104(92.9%) prevalence respectively. The males showed a higher prevalence of intestinal parasites infections 347 (94.0%) than the females 194 (86.6%). However, this is not statistically significant (p<0.05). Age group 21-30 years had the highest prevalence of 95.0% followed by 11-20 (94.8%) and 31-40 (92.7%). About 90% of all the infected individuals are in the first to four decades of life. Also, 100% infection rate was observed among the age bracket 11-20years in Eleme bush encampment and 21-30 years in Elelenwo bush encampments. The difference in the rate of infection with respect to age was not statistically significant. Eleven parasitic intestinal diseases of which hookworm had the highest prevalence 450 (75.9%) was observed. Hookworm was highly significant from all the intestinal parasites (p<0.05) identified in this study. Polyparasitim of A. lumbricoides + Hookworm in the Population was 58(10.7%); Hookworm + T. trichuris 13(5.4%), Hookworm + E. histolytica 31(5.7%), A. lumbricoides + Hookworm + Trichuris 13(2.4%). The study has documented a very high prevalence of intestinal diseases among the Fulani pastoralists examined. There is a great need to monitor and control infection; otherwise they will remain a permanent source of health hazard for all intestinal diseases.

  362. Eze, Chinwe N. and Onoja Helen

    This study was conducted to establish the prevalence of intestinal parasites among Fulani Pastoralists in six bush encampments in Rivers State, South-South Nigeria. Standard parasitological procedures as recommended by World Health Organization were employed in sample collection and examination. An overall prevalence of 91.2% was observed among the 593 stool samples examined with one or more of the intestinal parasites. Intestinal parasite rate by bush encampments showed that Fulani Pastoralists in Elelenwo and Eleme were the most infected with 109(94.8%) and 104(92.9%) prevalence respectively. The males showed a higher prevalence of intestinal parasites infections 347 (94.0%) than the females 194 (86.6%). However, this is not statistically significant (p<0.05). Age group 21-30 years had the highest prevalence of 95.0% followed by 11-20 (94.8%) and 31-40 (92.7%). About 90% of all the infected individuals are in the first to four decades of life. Also, 100% infection rate was observed among the age bracket 11-20years in Eleme bush encampment and 21-30 years in Elelenwo bush encampments. The difference in the rate of infection with respect to age was not statistically significant. Eleven parasitic intestinal diseases of which hookworm had the highest prevalence 450 (75.9%) was observed. Hookworm was highly significant from all the intestinal parasites (p<0.05) identified in this study. Polyparasitim of A. lumbricoides + Hookworm in the Population was 58(10.7%); Hookworm + T. trichuris 13(5.4%), Hookworm + E. histolytica 31(5.7%), A. lumbricoides + Hookworm + Trichuris 13(2.4%). The study has documented a very high prevalence of intestinal diseases among the Fulani pastoralists examined. There is a great need to monitor and control infection; otherwise they will remain a permanent source of health hazard for all intestinal diseases.

  363. Peter Taiwo Olagbemide, Tony Ifeanyi Ojiezeh and Mumini Idowu Adarabioyo

    Investigation into proximate content of some extracts (Aloe vera, Ganoderma, Earthworm and snail) used for alternative medicine was conducted. Proximate analysis showed significant differences (P< 0.05) among the extract samples. The moisture content, protein, fat, fibre, ash and carbohydrate contents from the extract samples were in the range of 7.03%-8.17%, 34.63%-67.47%, 2.17%-5.53%, 0.00%-7.63%, 7.33%-12.30% and 7.40%-41.73% respectively. The highest moisture content was recorded in the Ganoderma extract while the lowest moisture content value was recorded in the earthworm extract. The protein content in the earthworm extract was the highest while that of Aloe vera was the lowest. Earthworm extract had the highest fat value while the extracts of Ganoderma and Aloe vera had the lowest value. Earthworm extract had the highest ash value and Aloe vera extract had the lowest value. The highest fibre content was recorded in Ganoderma extract while no fibre was detected in the snail water. Aloe vera extract showed the highest level of carbohydrate while the lowest carbohydrate content was recorded in the earthworm extract. The results of the proximate analyses of the extracts showed that they are highly nutritious and can be used as remedies for various nutritional deficiencies and diseases. However, their usefulness in different cases would depend on their compositions.

  364. Yadav, B.P., Yadav, D. N., Koirala, K.B., Pandey, K.R. and Thapa, R.B.

    A field experiment was conducted at Agronomy research farm of IAAS, Rampur, chitwan, Nepal during summer and winter season 2010 and 2011 to study the effect of crop sequence and nitrogen rates on hybrid maize. There were thirty treatment combination consisting of six crop sequences, maize-maize, fallow-maize, greengram-maize, cowpea-maize, blackgram-maize, clusterbean-maize in main plots and five nitrogen rates 0, 50, 100, 150, 200 kg/ha in subplots with three replication. The research finding revealed that Maximum number of cobs (61,200/ha in 2010 and 61,900/ ha in 2011) was recorded under blackgram –maize sequence which was comparable to number of cobs/ha under greengram-maize while it was minimum under maize-maize sequence during both the years. Number of cobs was maximum 66,200/ha in 2010 and 67,200/ha 2011 with 200kg/ha and it was minimum under no nitrogen application. Percentage of barren plants was minimum (11.7 in 2010 and 11.5 in 2011) under blackgram-maize sequence which was comparable to greengram –maize sequence, while maximum percentage of barren plants was recorded under maize-maize sequence. Minimum percentage of barren plants (5.6 in 2010 and 6.2 in 2011) was recorded with 200kgN/ha and it was maximum under no nitrogen application. Minimum number of days to silking (54 .7 in 2010 and 53.3 in 2011) was recorded under greengram– maize sequence while it was maximum (57.3 in 2010 and 55 .8 in 2011) under maize– maize sequences . Number of days to silking was minimum (53.1 in 2010 and 52 .1 in 2011) with 200 kg N/ha while it was maximum (60 .6 in 2010 and 59 .1 in 2011) under no nitrogen application.At maturity (90 days after sowing), maximum dry matter accumulation per plant (174.7 g in 2010 and 176.0 g in 2011) was recorded under greengram– maize sequences and it was minimum under maize– maize sequences. It was maximum (206.0 g in 2010 and 207.2 g in 2011) with 200kg N/ha minimum with no nitrogen. At maturity (90 DAS) maximum plant height (170.7 cm in 2010 and 173.9 cm in 2011) under greengram– maize sequences while it was minimum under maize– maize. At maturity (90 DAS) maximum plant height (169.2 cm in 2010 and 173.1 cm 2011) was recorded with 200 kg N/ha while it was minimum with no nitrogen application. At silking stages (60 DAS) maximum leaf area index (3.39 in 2010 and 3.45 in 2011) was recorded under greengram – maize sequences and it was minimum under maize – maize . At silking stage (60 DAS) leaf area index was maximum (3.86 in 2010 and 3.72 in 2011) with 200 kg N/ha while it was minimum with no nitrogen application.

  365. Keerti Singh, Lokesh Gambhir and Kunal Kishor

    Medicinal plants contain a plethora of bioactive metabolites that have been used in various traditional indigenous preparations as treatment modalities of multiple disorders. Cymbopogon flexuosus, also known as lemon grass, is an important medicinal plant that has been a part of Indian traditional medicines. Essential oil from lemon grass has been reported to possess antimicrobial, anti-inflammatory, anticancer, antioxidant, allelopathic and anthelmintic activity. However, potential of leaf extract from lemon grass to inhibit the pathogen isolates from the wound has not been reported. The present study was undertaken to explore the potent inhibitory activity of leaf extract of lemon grass and to investigate its synergistic effect with antibiotics against pathogenic bacteria isolated from wound. Pathogenic bacteria from wound were isolated, characterized and were used as pathogens. Interestingly, leaf extract of lemon grass exhibited much potent antibacterial activity with maximum inhibition in methanolic and ethanolic extract. Susceptibility of different available antibiotics against wound pathogenic bacteria was determined. Extracts from different solvent system were employed in conjunction with antibiotics and a synergistic effect was observed. Further, phytochemical analysis provides a detailed insight of the probable presence of phytochemical constituents in leaf extract. These findings for the first time highlights the prospective of leaf extract of lemon grass against wound associated pathogenic bacteria and also pave the path of exploring the synergistic effects with antibiotics as treatment modality.

  366. Bruno César Gurski, Jorge Luiz Moretti de Souza, Daniela Jerszurki, Adão Wagner Pêgo Evangelista and Robson André Armindo

    Crop coefficient (Kc) has a key role in order to reach high precision crop evapotranspiration data. This study aimed to obtain functions to estimate the daily crop coefficient (Kc) in specific locations and check advantages in its use compared with grouped and generalized values. For that purpose,daily values of Kc based on days after planting named “Kc(DAP)”were estimated by specificadjustment functions and compared to field measured crop coefficient values of peanut, sugarcane, bean, corn and soybean. Estimated crop responses were compared and quatitatively analyzed through linear regression, index "d" of performance, index "c" of agreement and statistical deviation technique. It was possible obtain functions for setting daily crop coefficient for both studied crops and sites. Daily crop coefficient functions improved the accuracy of estimated crop evapotranspiration when compared to widely used values, by better reflect local climate and soil conditions of the crops; and, also for grouped values, because the curve decreases the variability of the data estimated daily.

  367. Shiby, V. K., Samyukta, S. and Pandey, M. C.

    Background: Avocado pulp having appreciable phytochemical properties was selectively used as a fat replacer and also as a source of natural antioxidant in formulating a new mayonnaise product to improve its nutraceutical value and reduce cost of production. Results: This product was found to be comparable to the Egg yolk (EY) formulated sample (experimental control) organoleptically. Incorporation of avocado pulp upto 50% of the emulsifier (EY) did not impart any bitterness and had improved physical properties such as increased color tonality with slightly lesser chroma values, lower thermal and non thermal creaming, homogenous and compact microstructure. The EY: Avocado (50:50) sample had comparable viscosity vis-à-vis the EY control. The avocado mayonnaise had similar carotenoid content (1.4-1.8μg/g ) and 12 % reduced fat content than Egg Yolk mayonnaise. The mayonnaise samples prepared with avocado pulp: EY in the ratio 50:50 had shown comparable emulsion properties with the commercial sample. Samples formulated with 75 % and 100% avocado had poorer microstructure and emulsion properties than control (100% EY). The cost reduction achieved in 50% formulation was to the extent of 10 %. Conclusions: Avocado mayonnaise is a product with lower cost and good sensory acceptability. It offers a suitable product for value addition of avocado where it is sold at cheaper rates.

  368. Maicon Nardino, Ivan Ricardo Carvalho, Diego Baretta, Diego Nicolau Follmann, Tiago Olivoto, Vinicius Szareski, Alan Junior Pelegrin, Mauricio Ferrari, Valmor AntonioKonflanz, Denise Schmidt and Velci Queiróz de Souza

    Penetrance and expressivity are phenomena that interfere the trait-gene relationship and tend to modify the correspondence between genotype and phenotype, difficulting the breeder's task. The aim of this study was to determine the penetrance and expressivity of following traits in cornhybrids (Zea mays L.): tassel length, distance from the last node of the stem to the first branch of the tassel, distance from flag leaf to the first branch of the tassel, number of branches on the main stem of the tassel, thousand-kernel weight and grain yield of corn as the magnitude of genetic parameters in different growth sites for single hybrid selection (HS). The crosses were performed in Clevelândia-PR, Brazil, which afforded 25 HS, the seeds were sown in five different environments. The experimental design was a randomized complete block design with three replications. The results reveal that the length of the tassel and the thousand-grain weight are the traits with high genetic variance, indicating variable penetrance and expressivity.

  369. Saeeda Bibi, Rukhsana Jabeen and Asma Abdul Hayee

    Allelopathy stimulate or inhibit the growth of plant by releasing allelochemicals. Thuja orientalis L is medicinal plant which belongs to family cuperacea. Aqueous extract of leaves, bark and seeds of T.orientalis. L were used at 1, 5 and 10g/L concentration with different time period (24, 48, 72 hrs.) to check its allelopathic effect on seed germination, fresh and dry weight and seedling growth of Pennesitum americanum. Result revealed that aqueous extracts of all parts of plant at all concentration and time period had significantly inhibited seed germination of P.ammericanum L. when compared with control. The inhibitory effect increases with increasing concentration of extracts and time period. The bark extract of all concentration of T.orientalis in 24hr and 48hrs show stimulation in seedling growth. Inhibitory effect when compared with different parts were leaves > bark >seeds. The test of phytochemical screening revealed that aqueous and acetone extract contain terpenoid, tannins, flavonoid and volatile oil. These phytochemicals are secondary metabolites which act as allelochemical. Hence it is concluded that aqueous extract had inhibitory effect due to these water soluble allelochemicals. These chemicals can be used as herbicides.

  370. Saeeda Bibi, Rukhsana Jabeen and Asma Abdul Hayee

    Overpopulation, industrialization and urbanization is main cause of degradation of natural resources. Environment is polluted continuously with heavy metals and organic pollutants which become serious problem because it threatens the living organisms. Different techniques are used for remediation of polluted water which are expensive and also has negative impact on ecosystem. Phytoremediation is cost effective, economically viable and environment friendly. The aquatic saprophytes such as water hyacinth, duck weed and butterfly ferns are hyper accumulator and produce greater biomass and can be used for water treatment. These can accumulate As, Ni, Cu, Pb, Zn, Hg and Cr and can be used to accumulate, detoxify and immobilize pollutants from waste water.

  371. Elvis Felipe Elli, Braulio Otomar Caron, Elder Eloy, Felipe Schwerz, John Robert Stolzle, Denise Schmidt and Velci Queiróz de Souza

    This study aimed to determine the Dickson's quality index (DQI) and its relationship with morphological variables in Acacia mearnsii De Wild seedlings, in the greenhouse. The experiment was conducted in a forestry nursery and a randomized complete block design was used, in which one forest species was evaluated through eleven evaluation periods after emergence, with five repetitions. Height (H), stem diameter (SD), dry leaf matter (DLM), dry stem matter (DSM), dry shoot matter (DSM), dry root matter (DRM), total dry matter (TDM), leaf area (LA) and Dickson's quality index (DQI) were evaluated. DQI was highly correlated with the TDM and DSM. All variables showed significant differences in relation to periods after emergence and a positive systematic change in relation to different DAE was verified. Pearson correlation analysis revealed that all coefficients among the variables studied were significant, and the highest coefficients for H, SD and TDM occurred with DAE. The H and SD are easily measurable variables and plants do not need to be destroyed for analysis, for this reason, they can be used to accurately assess the quality of Acacia mearnsii seedlings.

  372. Balakrishna, G. V., Krishna Sowmya, J., Vijay Raj, B., Yogesh Acharya and Raghavendra Rao, M. V.

    Free radical injury can cause a wide spectrum of tissue damage. An experimental study was performed to see the beneficial effect of secondary plant extract with organo-protective effect. Experimented animals (rats) were exposed to oxidative injury with Streptozotocin (STZ) and d-Galactosamine hydrochloride (GAL), for the generation of free radicals. The administration of these toxic agents like STZ or GAL induced various patho-physiological changes in the liver and generated disease condition due to free radical damage and oxidative stress. The experiment was followed with co-administration of aqueous, methanolic and methanolic fraction of aqueous extract of Albizzia lebbeck and Syzygium cumini. These secondary plant extracts significantly increased antioxidant enzymes and reduced the elevated serum levels of malondialdehyde in the experimental animals. The established hepato-protective actions of various extracts of Albizzia lebbeck and Syzygium cumini in experimental hepatic injury in rats widens the scope for further investigations in the field of research, either alone or in conjunction with other herbal molecules with proven hepato-protective action. Future efforts should be taken to establish such isolated compounds as potential drug in clinical practice.

  373. Vijayashree Priyadharsini Jayaseelan, Karthikeyan Muthusamy, Shridevi Venkataramani, Paramasivam Arumugam, Jayaraman Gopalswamy and Santhiya Sathiyavedu Thiagarajan

    Hypertension (HT) is the most prevalent, complex quantitative trait which is characterized by chronic increase in the blood pressure. High blood pressure is one of the known risk factor for stroke, coronary artery disease, congestive heart failure, end-stage renal and cerebrovascular disease. Essential hypertension (EH) is the most common condition which contributes to ~ 95% of cases and has no clear single identifiable cause. Monogenic forms of hypertension, familial studies, twin studies and cross transplantational studies in experimental models have revealed the association of genetic components with essential hypertension. In view of this fact a case-control association study was conducted to investigate the possible involvement of CDH13 (rs7200009) polymorphism in essential hypertensive patients. A total of 568 cases and 604 controls were recruited for this study. The SNP marker of CDH13 gene (rs7200009) showed significant difference between the case and control groups in south Indian population studied. The genotype frequency was almost the same for both the case and control data sets. The result of the present study indicates that CDH13 gene polymorphism (rs7200009) is associated with essential hypertension in south Indian population.

  374. Ravindra Singh and Ranjeeta Simon

    Biomass fuel refers to burned plant or animal material, wood, charcoal, dung and crop residues. In developing countries more than half of domestic energy as much as 95% in low income countries use biomass fuel for cooking and heating purposes. Indoor air pollution is potentially a large health threat in rural regions and is also responsible for the deaths and illness of millions of young children. This paper reports the results of a survey of types of fuel consumption and health among the 150 households in village Bande of Banda district. Firewood, dung cake following by Coal, Kerosene, Agricultural waste, were found to be the major fuels consumed by the villagers. In comparison to the other fuels dry leaves, shreds of cloth, plastic, etc are also consumed as fuels but comparatively in a very less proportion. Wood of Acacia nilotica was found to be consumed the maximum followed by the wood of Zizyphus mauritiana. Wood of Ipomoea carnea which produce highly toxic pollutants was also found to be used in good proportion in village Bande. The wood of Mangifera indica was found to be consumed the minimum in this village. Approximately 27.58 % people were reported to be lung infected and 24.13% were found to suffer from the eye problems among all the other diseased people. 6.89% people were having both the eye as well as lung related problems. As a result of the detrimental impact of biomass fuel consumption on health and mortality, many governmental, non–governmental organization and international organizations have started developing strategies aiming to reduce indoor air pollution. These strategies include subsidization of clean fuel technologies, promotion and subsidization of improved cook stoves, use of solar thermal cookers and solar water heaters. To reduce pollutants level from biomass fuel, behavioural changes like processing biomass fuel to make them cleaner and improving household design should also be adopted on personal aspects.

  375. Chandra Shakti and Mishra Sunita

    Ingestion of vegetables containing heavy metals is one of the main ways in which these elements enter the human body. Once entered, heavy metals are deposited in bone and fat tissues, overlapping noble minerals. Slowly released into the body, heavy metals can cause an array of diseases. A value of intake of heavy metals in human diets was also calculated to estimate the risk to human health. Vegetable samples were collected at the Lucknow city in Alambagh local area, and the heavy metal content was determined by SEM (Scan Electron Microscope). The heavy metals pollution is one of the problems that arise due to the increased uses of fertilizers and other chemicals to meet the higher demands of food production for human consumption. Health risk assessment for heavy metals is a very good technique because such assessment would be useful to give information about any threat regarding heavy metals contamination in vegetables. For health risk assessment different methods are used by different researchers.

  376. Yadav Garima and Mishra Sunita

    The use of refined flour blend with pumpkin seed flour and soybean flour respectively and encorporated with Dates and Cranberries was studied. The ingredients composition of value added bread was refined flour 300gm, blends with pumpkin seed flour 100 gm, and 50 gm dates and 50 gm cranberry respectively and another ingreduent composition of soybean flour value added bread was 200gm refined flour, 100gm soybean flour and 50 gm Dates and 50gm cranberries respectively and compared with control sample of refined flour bread. The bread loaves were produced using the straight-dough procedure and were subsequently evaluated for their nutritional composition and texture analysis. The TPA (Texture Profile Analysis) was used for the texture analysing of the bread. The hardness, corhessivness and adhessiveness property of the bread is analysed by the TPA. The result show that the both of the pumpkin seed value added bread was highly nutritional rich rather than control sample of refined flour and antioxidant, protein(, iron(11.80mg), calcium (63.94mg), ash(1.33gm), carbohydrate (76.81gm), fat(4.30mg) and fiber rich and the soy bean flour value-added bread results were fat(4.3mg), protein(12.17gm), carbohydrate (58.6mg), total ash(2.58mg), calcium(39.96), iron(25.55mg) It was concluded that both of the value added bread gave the bread with the best overall quality acceptability and both of the value added bread are being regarded valuable for the food industry.

  377. Katheria Nidhi and Mishra Sunita

    The present study was carried out in the laboratory of department of F.S.T BBAU University, Lucknow and somepart of analysis was done in RFRAC, Lucknow. Value added product namely brown bread were developed using barley and flaxseed flour in different sample T1,T2 ratio (50:20) analysis on nutritive qualities using proximate analysis method most people accepted T2 sample. Significant increase high nutritive value bread protein 9.34, carbohydrate 49.07, and ash 1.97, and dietary fiber 12.54, vitamin 8.56.functional brown bread is more nutritious in compression to normal brown bread. Brown bread supplies a significant portion of the nutrients required for growth, maintenance of health and well-being. It is an excellent source of proteins, vitamins, minerals, and fiber and complex carbohydrates. Barley is important sources of dietary fiber, vitamins, and minerals. Flaxseeds are a rich source of micronutrients, dietary fiber, manganese, vitamin B1, and the essential fatty acid alpha-linoleic acid, also known as ALA or omega-3.the developed value added product using barley and flaxseed flour could be recommended for aged person.

  378. Yadav Tanuja and Mishra Sunita

    Lifelong gluten-free diet is essential for patients having celiac disease. Since wheat flour contains gluten, it is necessary to replace wheat flour with other types of gluten-free flours The purpose of the study was to formulate biscuits by using different combination of gluten free biscuits and evaluated for nutritional analysis Three gluten free biscuits were prepared from blends of soybean, corn and rice flour at different ratio, sample T1 -RF: SF: CF (15:40, 45), and T2 – RF: SF: CF (20:45:35), T3- RF: SF:CF(25:50:25) respectively. The study has been carried out in research laboratory of Food Science and Technology, School for Home Sciences, Babasaheb Bhimrao Ambedkar University, Lucknow. The result of the nutritional analysis indicated that that the protein, carbohydrate content of sample T3 was significantly higher than other two samples. The dietary fiber content of sample T1 was significantly higher. The Iron and calcium of sample T2 was significantly higher. Calcium content was also higher in sample T3.





Rosane Cavalcante Fragoso, Brasil


Chief Scientific Officer and Head of a Research Group

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