Subject Area

  • Life Sciences / Biology
  • Architecture / Building Management
  • Asian Studies
  • Business & Management
  • Chemistry
  • Computer Science
  • Economics & Finance
  • Engineering / Acoustics
  • Environmental Science
  • Agricultural Sciences
  • Pharmaceutical Sciences
  • General Sciences
  • Materials Science
  • Mathematics
  • Medicine
  • Nanotechnology & Nanoscience
  • Nonlinear Science
  • Chaos & Dynamical Systems
  • Physics
  • Social Sciences & Humanities

Why Us? >>

  • Open Access
  • Peer Reviewed
  • Rapid Publication
  • Life time hosting
  • Free promotion service
  • Free indexing service
  • More citations
  • Search engine friendly

Plagiarism Detection

IJCR is following an instant policy on rejection those received papers with plagiarism rate of more than 20%. So, All of authors and contributors must check their papers before submission to making assurance of following our anti-plagiarism policies.













January 2020

The majority of Ethiopia’s farmers have been using the traditional way of agricultural practices. This has contributed to the low productivity of the agricultural sector both for crops as well as livestock sectors. The Objectives of the study were to identify factors affecting the adoption of improved chicken packages and analyze the existing conditions. A total of 123 respondents were selected by a simple random sampling technique and interviewed using an interview schedule and checklists.

The purpose of the study was to determine the effectiveness of public policies against trafficking in persons in the Madre de Dios district. The current of thought that guided the research was the paradigm is interpretive, with a qualitative approach and design of evaluative cases; Information gathering was done through interviews with social actors that are related to the problem, documentary review and participant observation.

Introduction: There are currently no approved pharmacological therapies for the core symptoms of autism spectrum disorder (ASD), prompting nearly half of patients or their carers to seek complementary and alternative medicine approaches. There is now compelling clinical and basic scientific evidence that megavitamin therapy can help relieve the core symptoms of ASD, perhaps by modulating cellular energy metabolism and oxidative stress. While many patients also use homeopathic preparations, there are very little data on their efficacy.

Background: To increase The reaction of Ethyl 5-(morpholinomethyl) furan-2-carboxylate with 4-amino salicylic acid afford a of 2-Hydroxy-4-(5-(morpholinomethyl)) furan-2-carboxamido)benzoic acid (MPFSA).. The transition metal complexes of Cu2+,Co2+ ,Ni2+, Mn2+ and Zn2+ of MPFSA have been prepared. The objective of the research work is synthesis, characterization and chelating properties of furan ring containing organic ligands to monitor its antimicrobial activity.

Abundance and distribution of Macroinvertebrate of Lande Stream, Tumu,Gombe State were evaluated. Three sampling sites (A, B, and C) were selected. Macro invertebrates sampled fortnightly for three months (September-November, 2019). The collected Macro invertebrates were identified using taxonomic keys. Simpson’s index was employed to determine the abundance in each sampling station.The results showed a total of 189 individual species of Macroinvertebrate in 7family among the five invertebrates taxa of Plecoptera, Coleoptera, Hemiptera, Odonata and Mollusca.

A series of 2-azetidinone and 4- thiazolidinone derivatives having piperazine moiety have been prepared to evaluate the anti-tuberculosis activity. Various Schiff bases have been prepared from N-ethylpiperazine on condensation with p-chloroaniline in absolute alcohol in presence of K2CO3 and subsequent reaction with various aldehydes (4a-4j).These Schiff bases on cyclocondensation with thioglycolic acid in 1,4-dioaxne gave 4-thiozolidinones (5a-5j). Similarly, Schiff Bases (4a-4j) on cyclocondensation with chloroacetic acid in presence of triethyl amine gave the 2-azetidinones (6a-6j).

Learning has been a recurrent and inseparable activity of human being since ever. People have been inventing and discovering various methods and techniques to improve its acquisition process and ways. One’s progress and development has always been evolutionary as regards to learning versatility. One has come to know various tactics, techniques and technologies according to the developing circumstances. Science and technology changes the whole internal mindset as well as external perspective. Computer changes the whole scenario.

Introduction: Bacterial infectious diseases in the elderly range of patients have a diagnostic problem that contribute to inadequate prescription of antibiotics (over-prescription or under-prescription) which can increase the mortality rate in this population. The C-reactive protein (CRP) and procalcitonin (PCT) have been developed to differentiate bacterial infections from other causes of inflammation and remain the most used parameters in this population.

In Ayurveda, Tridosha is a unique concept and has summarized all the bodily functions and phenomenons in three biological entities called Vata, Pitta, Kapha. Doshas are considered as forces or entities which cannot be equated with specific cell type, organ, biological system or signaling pathway. Among Tridosha, Vata is undoubtedly the most fundamental and crucial Dosha for survival. It is derived from the root word ‘Gati’ means movement and ‘Gandhaya’ means senses, knowledge perception.

The implementation of International Organization for Standardization (ISO) 9001:2008 Quality Management System (QMS) in education is a matter highly debated trend on whether or not the certification is appropriate for the Education sector. Some scholars consider its adoption as a strategic decision by educational institutions to ensure delivery of quality service therein while others do not. Complaints by some academic staff and students in public universities in Kenya on the impact of ISO 9001:2008 QMS casts doubt on their level of satisfaction with it based on non conformities.

Agriculture is one of the primary sources in Jammu and Kashmir for the development of the economy. Jammu and Kashmir have a sole feature in the agricultural and prevalence of homestead and crop cultivation, etc. Women play a vital role in farm activities in Tehsil Surankote of District Poonch. A study has been conducted in the three villages of Surankote block namely Dandi Dhara, Gunthal and Sangla with an aim to know the woman involvement and participations in the agricultural activity and various problems related to it.

Apanteles taragamae Viereck (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) is a gregarious(Peter and Davide 1092) larval parasitoid of a Cowpea pod borer Maruca vitrata Fabircius ( Lepidoptera: Cranmbidae),which is serious pest of flower and pods of cowpea Vigna unguiculata Walp( Lieguminosae: Fabaceae). However, some reports about A. taragamae specified that it parasitized five other Pyraloidea species (Peter and Divide 1992; Mohan and Sathiamma 2007) in India.

The axial aim of this study is to create a valuable Risk Management Approach that enables a Process Validation over products lifecycle. Quality risk management has been described in regulatory guidance for several aspects of process validation, such as product lifecycle, extent of validation, determination of critical quality attributes, critical process parameters, process design space, sampling plans and statistical confidence levels. Verification of the process in every single produced batch over the product life time is now an expectation from regulatory authorities.

This study investigated influence of behavior modification techniques of shaping as employed by teachers in dealing with students’ bullying, drug abuse and exam cheating in public secondary schools in Kenya. The design of this study was survey. This study employed Skinner’s behavior modification theory which advocates positive reinforcement as form of modifying behaviors. Mixed methods approach was used. The study population comprised 520 teachers from a total number of 52 public secondary schools in Bureti Sub County of Kericho County.

The objective of this article is to make the design and the validation of a solar mill for rural use. Based on the operating principle of the solar hammer mill, a transmission tree was being created, modeled and dimensioned. The tree behavior is obtained by analyzing its operation in all cases of possible load. The design and dimensioning were carried out based on analytical and empirical equations such as the ASME code. Five diameters (8 mm, 15 mm, 25 mm, 35 mm and 50 mm) wereevaluated according to different types of materials.

Produced Water (PW) and drilling gravel are tailings from the oil industry, and their management and treatment represent a key challenge for the oil industry. The literature reports numerous physicochemical techniques for the treatment of PW, and the adsorption process is the most attractive when removing traces of toxic metals present in this effluent, mainly due to its low cost, high selectivity and fast adsorption kinetics.

Hydrogen have the potential that can replace fossil fuels which is the primary source of environmental pollution. Hydrogen should be stored in high pressure reservoirs for any practical purpose. In this work hydrogen leak from a high pressure vessel by means of a 2mm tube length and 4.8mm diameter of pipe in atmospheric air is simulated using FLUENT 13. A strong shock wave is formed during the flow of high pressure hydrogen in a tube filled with atmospheric air which leads to heating of hydrogen behind the shock wave.

Hydrogen have the potential that can replace fossil fuels which is the primary source of environmental pollution. Hydrogen should be stored in high pressure reservoirs for any practical purpose. In this work hydrogen leak from a high pressure vessel by means of a 2mm tube length and 4.8mm diameter of pipe in atmospheric air is simulated using FLUENT 13. A strong shock wave is formed during the flow of high pressure hydrogen in a tube filled with atmospheric air which leads to heating of hydrogen behind the shock wave.

Design of an in-car user interface requires knowledge from the field of Human Factors as well as from usability the-ory. In this project, a user interface for an automatic parallel parking system has been developed. The main research question has been which display modality to choose, as current literature does not give a clear-cut answer to whether to use auditory or visual displays for in-car information systems. We also wanted to investigate how much information is needed in order to complete an automatic parallel parking.

Composite are produced when two materials are joined to give a combination of properties that cannot be attained in the original materials. Composite materials are widely used nowadays in various fields due to their unique property in weight. Reduction, High strength and rigidity and low cost. In the present communication it deals with fabrication and investigation by hybrid natural composite made from bamboo and aloe Vera fiber as reinforcement with epoxy resins as matrix.

A Magnetic conveyor design enables the efficient removal of ferrous materials. Its unique design features self lubrication synthetic track that greatly increases chain guide life and substantially reduces chain wear and stretch. Ideal for small parts and cast iron applications, the magnetic conveyor is sealed to prevent the abrasive material from contacting any moving parts the stainless steel conveying surface protects magnets from damage.

Composite material is a material produced using at least two constituent materials with essentially extraordinary physical or compound properties that, when consolidated, produce a material with qualities not the same as the individual segments. Composite materials are broadly utilized these days in different fields because of their extraordinary property in weight decrease, high quality and unbending nature and minimal effort.

People live in houses with different characteristics due to climate, topography and other factors, or are temporarily accommodated in different types of houses due to holiday. These differences, price, size, hardware, type and so on. many parameters. Nowadays, these houses are temporarily rented because of holiday, they are called holiday homes and can be easily rented through various booking portals. Large booking portals use a variety of artificial intelligence applications to assist customers and landlords.

Pesticides as bioactive substances contain poison for killing plant-disturbing organism. Pesticides exposure can cause damage for liver and pulmonary tissue. Each active substance that is contained in pesticides causes different symptoms of poisoning. The symptoms of poisoning (subjective complaints) which are caused as the impact of pesticides will be improved by us through providing ginger extract. Moreover, this research will be applied to mice (Mus musculus).

We are presenting a case report of Keratocytic Odontogenic Tumor in mandible with pre-operative CBCT finding, Histopath and Surgical treatment followed by one year follow up and post-operative CBCT findings. The case was managed by surgical enucleation along with chemical cauterization using carnoy’s solution. Histopath was done and it was found parakeratinized stratified squamous cystic lining.

Background: Obesity has been regarded as an independent risk factor for coronary artery disease and may be associated with more severe coronary artery disease (CAD). Approximately 10-12 million deaths occur every year due to CAD. The ralationship between anthropometric measurements and CAD severity is uncertain and debatable. Objectives: -The study was carried out to assess and correlate anthropometric measurements with severity of Coronary Artery Disease. • To find out association of severity of Coronary Artery Disease with socio demographic variables.

Introduction: Flare-ups is the phenomenon which may develope during Endodontic Procedures. It commenses within few hours or days during root canal treatment, characterised by pain and swelling, requiring unscheduled emergency visit. Non Insulin dependent Diabetes mellitus predisposes to chronic inflammation due to alteration in immune function. Diabetic patients have higher propensity for severe Endodontic infection and increased incidence of flare-ups. Aim: To compare the incidence of interappointment flare-ups during Endodontic treatment in Diabetic and in Non Diabetic patients.

Background: Paraquat is a widely used weedicide in India. It is now being increasingly used as a suicidal poisoning and is almost always fatal as there is no specific antidote for paraquat poison. ARDS, acute kidney injury or multi-organ failure are the frequent causes of mortality. Methods: The study aimed to study the morbidity and mortality rates of Paraquat poisoning in tertiary care hospital. Patients admitted with Paraquat poisoning were included, and the data collected and analysed.

Background: Presence of micronuclei in cells is a reflection of structural and chromosomal aberration in cells. Micronuclei frequency has been proved to be a reliable marker of genomic damage and can be applied to buccal cell cytology to determine the susceptibility. This method may help monitor and predict increased risk of cancer in humans.

Introduction: Astrocytoma is one of neuroepithelial tumor and these tumors are graded in four scale based on the aggresiveness. Overexpressions of MMP-9 has been correlated to tumor’s progresivity, poor prognostic and predictive marker in cancer, while Ki-67 is strongly associated with cell proliferation. Method: This study is being conducted to analyze the correlations between MMP-9 expressions and KI-67 in intracranial astrocytoma. This reprospective study is using cross-sectional method. The expression of MMP-9 and Ki-67 was evaluated, as well as its prognostoc value.

Objectives: assessment of the feasibility and safety of laparoscopic procedures under low-pressure CO2 pneumoperitoneum and regional anaesthesia. Patients and methods: 30 adult ASA I or II patients admitted for different laparoscopic procedures were enrolled in the study. Pre-anaesthetic values of HR, RR, body temperature, BP and pulse oximetry were recorded. Spinal an aesthesia was given in sitting position with a 25 G needle into the L1 - L2 subarachnoid space. Different laparoscopic procedures were performed with the pneumoperitoneum was maintained with low CO2 pressure at 8-12 mm Hg.

Back Ground: Oral hygiene plays an important role in the well being of an individual. Obesity is a growing health related problem worldwide. Oral hygiene could have a relation with weight of the participants. Aim: To correlate the prevalence of oral hygiene status and body mass index of school children (3-16years) of Takkellapadu village. Material and Methods: The study design was cross sectional which included 150 school children of age 3-16 years in which 94 boys and 56 girls.

Background: The human kidneys are supplied by renal artery and vein. Close to the kidney hilum the renal artery is divided into anterior and posterior branches and then gives five segmental arteries before entering the hilum while the renal vein is formed by the union of the segmental veins. The variations can occur in these vessels according to the previous studies and these variations are important for surgeons. Objectives: This study was aimed to demonstrate variations of renal vessels close to the hilum of the right kidney.

Penile metastases of adenocarcinoma of prostate is rarely seen. It is a devitalizing condition at presentation with poor prognostic implication and poor survival. Conservative management is generally recommended with focus on improving the quality of life of such patients. We present a case of 93 yr male patient with a whitish growth over the glans penis along with left sided inguinal lymphadenopathy. Patient was a known case of prostatic carcinoma with raised PSA levels.

AIMS & OBJECTIVES: The aim of the study is to clinically estimate the prevalence of common type of psoriasis in tertiary care hospital, Puducherry. MATERIALS & METHODS: The study was carried out as cross sectional study among 100 patients visiting the outpatient clinic of department of dermatology of our tertiary hospital for a period of 1 year. A structured interview schedule was used to elicit data regarding medical history. RESULTS: Detailed history was taken which shows itching and scaling as major complaints.

Aim: To assess the diagnostic performance of Cone beam computed tomography in the detection of secondary carious lesions under composite resin restorations. Objectives: To assess the diagnostic accuracy of cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) in the detection of secondary carious lesions under composite resin restorations. Materials and methods: 50 Extracted human permanent posterior teeth were collected and primary cavities were created. Then all the samples were randomly divided into two groups; Group A- study group (n=25) and Group B- control group (n=25).

A recent article has suggested that alcohol consumption is completely harmful for human health. However, this argument is the result of several mistakes and wrong assumptions in the methodology chosen. On the contrary, our opinion about this matter is that consuming alcohol moderately has positive impacts on people by protecting them from coronary heart disease. As it has been revealed in evidence-based trials, it might even be beneficial in relation to NASH and NAFLD.

Background/Aim: This study aims to determine the clinicopathological characteristics and outcomes of gallbladder cancer during the last nine years. Settings and Design: Retrospective chart review of the demographic and clinical profiles of gallbladder patients followed up at King Abdulaziz University Hospital, Jeddah, Saudi Arabia, for the period of 2008–2017.

Introduction: Meningiomas are the most common intracranial primary neoplasm in adults. We report 39 years-old-female with recurrent meningioma, the patient had craniotomy tumor removal 1 year ago, and the patient had second craniotomy tumor removal, and we performed an immunohistochemical staining with HER2.HER2 is a member of the human epidermal growth factor receptor (HER/EGFR/ERBB) family. Amplification or over-expression of this oncogene has been shown to play an important role in the development and progression of certain aggressive types of cancer.

Odontogenic keratocyst is an odontogenic developmental cyst. It is derived from remnants of dental lamina. The term was first termed by Philipsen in 1956. OKC was renamed as keratocystic odontogenic tumor (KCOT) in the WHO classifications of head and neck tumors in 2005 due to its aggressive, high recurrence rates and specific histological characterstics and was reclassified into the cystic category in WHO classification of Head and Neck pathology (2017).

Dental professionals commonly experience musculoskeletal pain during the course of their careers. The prevalence of work-related musculoskeletal complaints in dentists is high and the past two decades have witnessed a sharp rise in the incidence of various disorders. The most effected regions have been back and neck.

Aims and objective: Comparison of diagnostic accuracy of conventional radiography and orthopantomograph in detection of periapical lesion. Materials and Methods: The study groups comprised of 150 patients of either sex between age group of 20-60 year reported to the Department of Oral Medicine and Radiology. The determination of 'true pathology' was based on the results of the simultaneous interpretation of both the periapical and the panoramic radiographs in standard. Results: The intra-observer reliability analysis is done to measure the consistency in rating method of the observer.

This paper presents a research finding which aimed to investigate the perceptions held by High School Students and English language teachers on the characteristics of an Effective English teacher and the effects of these perceptions in learning as well as to compare the perceptions held by the two groups in purposely selected four High Schools found in the Guraghe Zone. In this study, 134 students drawn from two grade levels, namely 9 and 11, and 27 English teachers who teach in those schools were involved as sources of data.

The purpose of this study was to assess teachers’ attitude and practice of using literary texts in teaching reading skills at Borena Secondary and Preparatory School. Descriptive research design was employed to achieve the objectives of the study. English language teachers and students of Borena Secondary and Preparatory School were the participants of the study. Stratified and purposive sampling techniques in an integrative way were used to select 344 students among the total population of 2500.

This study reflects the town’s cultural heritage and their tender love and affections to culture in respect to human races, tourism advocates, enhancement of their children’s socio-educational talents, physical perspective.

The aim of the study was to examine the significance of the indigenous traditional authority institution to conflict prevention and socio-economic development at the local level. The study covered the Majang zone in the Southern West part of Ethiopia. Semi structured questionnaires were designed and administered scientifically to come out with the primary data. Purposively three focus group discussions were also organized in the 14 kebeles to cross check the interviewed data. At the local level, indigenous traditional authorities are the main actor of governance and development.

Traffic congestion has become a significant issue in many cities in Sri Lanka. Colombo, being the commercial capital and largest city of the country, is gravely in need of suggestions to mitigate the loss of efficiency and money due to the idle time on roads. Thus, this paper intends to explore the perception of passengers on an Inland Water Transit (IWT) system which is underexplored or rather unexplored in the context of Sri Lanka.

Cette étude analyse les facteurs de la pollution atmosphérique et les risques sanitaires encourus par les populations des quartiers précaires de la ville de Bafoussam. Elle combine les investigations de terrain et les analyses de la qualité de l’air en laboratoire. Les résultats obtenus révelent que dans les quartiers précaires de la ville de Bafoussam, l’air est pollué par les gaz tels que le dioxyde de soufre (SO2), le dioxyde d’azote (NO2), l’ozone (O3), le monoxyde de Carbone (CO), le dioxyde de Carbone (CO2).

According to the central statistical authority women account for close to 70 per cent of the micro enterprises in India are run by women. Women in advanced market economies own more than 25% of the business. This phenomenon is growing rapidly in Africa, Asia, Eastern Europe and Latin America. The main objective of the study is to find the role of digital entrepreneurship in economic development of country. The other objectives are getting theoretical background of entrepreneurship, digitalisation and technology in business and the role digitalisation in business.

The history of CSR in India is a pre-independence phenomenon and was largely influenced by the nation–building belief inspired by Gandhiji. Over the years the model of CSR practice in India has moved from Trusteeship to Stakeholder model but the focus has not shifted much. The original idea of helping to develop self-reliant countrymen has continued despite the emergence of idea that development has to be co-ordinated and linked.

The estimation of aboveground biomass (AGB) at the landscape level is necessary for estimating carbon pools in forest and provides baseline data for future studies. The objective of this study is to combine national forest inventory and remote sensing data to estimate aboveground forest biomass from remotely sensed data, and assess the accuracy of the method developed. The AGB maps 2015 across forest’s zone in Togo were produced based on secondary data from national forest inventory (NFI) field measurement using open sources Landsat images.

The analysis of the theoretical foundations related to contraceptive methods is a matter of relevance in our country, and specifically in the province of Los Ríos, where the number of adolescents with early pregnancy has increased rapidly in recent years, where ignorance The use of contraceptive methods is one of the causes, which have had the greatest impact on this problem that affects our society, which has also resulted in consequences, the increase in school dropout, the poverty rate and people suffering of sexually transmitted diseases and especially HIV or AIDS, which shows that ther

The present paper investigates teachers' guidance from the transformational leader of the school unit in the implementation of cross-thematic teaching. More Specifically, the research focuses on (a) the existence of transformational practices and behaviors of school principals and (b) the thematic of the formal discussions of the Teachers' Association on cross-curricular teaching and the achievement of the School's objectives through a cross-curricular approach.

The implementation of International Organization for Standardization (ISO) 9001:2008 Quality Management System (QMS) in education is a matter highly debated on whether or not the certification is appropriate for the education sector. Some scholars consider its adoption as a strategic decision by educational institutions to ensure delivery of quality service therein while others do not. Complaints by some academic staff and students in public universities in Kenya on the impact of ISO 9001:2008 QMS casts doubt on their level of satisfaction with it based on non conformities.

The Consumer Electronics exports have been widely studied. It also examined the trends in Consumer Electronics production, Changes in the direction of Consumer Electronics Exports and also studies the export of top items, major companies Exporting Consumer Electronics. Singapore, Hongkong & Other South Asian countries remain the top destination of Consumer Electronics during the year 2017-18. Smart Cards are emerged to be the top item during the year 2017-18.

In the present work, nonequilibrium molecular dynamics(NEMD) simulation was carried out to get an insight into the atomistic scale viscosity of graphene–polystyrene nanocomposite. The open access software Packmol was used to create amorphous PS and graphene+PS systems. The initial distribution of atoms in the two systems were created using cubic cells with periodic boundary conditions. Four pieces of graphene with side length of 5 nm x 5 nm and 400 polymeric chains consisting of three monomers per chain were randomly placed in the cubic cells to achieve a low concentration of graphene.

Molecular dynamics (MD) simulation studies were carried out on a single atom layer graphene sheet to get an insight into the temperature dependent uniaxial deformation. Uniaxial deformation was performed on a 50 nm x 50 nm graphene sheet in zig-zag mode at a constant temperature and a constant engineering strain rate of 0.001 per second. It was observed that failure strain and ultimate stress at failure strain decreased with increasing temperature. Although the variation in mechanical properties with temperature was small, it became significantly large for 1200K and 1500K.

Indian market is flooded with several fixed-dose combinations (FDCs) of corticosteroids with one or more broad spectrum antimicrobial (antifungal and antibacterial) agents which under no circumstances can be considered as rational. In 2013, such 2 irrational steroid cocktails were the highest selling corticosteroids in the country. This haphazard use of topical corticosteroid preparations is triggering off recalcitrant infections, distorting clinical diagnoses and is indubitably a public healthconcern. Indian Dermatologists are witnessing an epidemicof fungal infections.

Ascariasis is the most common parasitic infection in humans and is more common in developing tropical countries. The worm is usually seen in the small intestine, and cases involving the biliary tract are considered rare, and in these cases may be associated with serious complications. Imaging tests play an important role in detecting findings that demonstrate biliary tract infestation, often incidentally identified.

Background: Age estimation from teeth is a key indicator to establish identity in forensic cases. CBCT provides several advantages compared to conventional radiographic methods which has been used regularly in forensic cases. Purpose: Dental Age estimation by pulp-to-tooth volume ratio using cone-beam computed tomography. The Retrospective study will attempt to establishing a correlation between the chronological age of a certain individual and the pulp/tooth volume ratio using Cone-beam computed tomography.

The inferior alveolar nerve (IAN) block is the most frequently used mandibular injection technique for achieving local anesthesia in mandibular surgical procedure. However, the IAN block does not always result in successful anesthesia.Authors reviewed literature regarding comparison between inferior alveolar nerve block & its various modifications relating to specific local anesthetic delivery systems, degree of pulpal anesthesia, anesthetic efficacy.

Background: To increase HIV detection in countries with high HIV prevalence, UNAIDS/WHO/CDC recommends provider-initiated testing and counselling (PITC) strategy for HIV screening. The aim of this study was to assess the uptake of the PITC program, determine the HIV case finding among the population and the proportion of those who tested HIV positive that were enrolled into care and treatment.

Background: Investors and portfolio managers who intend to invest in stocks listed on Damascus Securities Exchange (DSE) should understand and evaluate the performance of portfolios constructed using different asset allocation strategies, which in turn helps them shape their allocation decision with this understanding in mind. The purpose of this paper is to investigate the impact of asset allocation strategy on portfolio performance. It compares the out-of-sample performance of mean-variance, minimum variance, equally weighted and market value weighted strategies.

Objectives: To indicatea single surgeon's experience in using of port-a-cath in patients who have cancer and discover the most frequent complications encountered with such procedure during a particular period in a single institution. Methods: A subcutaneous port catheter was received in a potential study between 2015 and 2018 by 130 patients; Data on implantation complications and complications during usage of the catheter have been collected. Results: The procedure was performed with an average of 44 minutes in most of the patients under local anesthesia.

In the content of the advanced technology engineers and scientists have visualized and conceptualization many composite and success of their material and concepts is the materialization of their composite. In short it can be said that production and manufacturing units consummate the composite material. Thus, the industry which gives the shape of the theoretical composite material. The basic element of composite material is testing and comparing with GFRAA.

Exploration of medical literature is a method to revive past tradition and upgrade the theoretical framework of treatment. Bhranthukalpam is such a traditional text detailing the practice of manasroga (Ayurvic mental health care) under the terminology “kirika”. Exploratory study of this text was conducted to identify the characteristics of traditional manasroga treatment and the medical significance of the concept of “kirika” in contemporary psychiatry. Methodology: An exploratory study was done on text Bhranthukalpam with special reference to term kirika.

Background: Hypomagnesemia is one of the conditions that can accelerate diabetes complications in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) by altered insulin function and secretion. Hypomagnesemia has been linked to poor glycemic control due to increased insulin resistance and impaired of insulin secretion. Objective: The aim of this study is to analyze the association between serum magnesium levels and glycemic control in patients with T2DM who treated with metformin or pioglitazone.

Periodontitis is the most common multifactorial oral disease of microbial origin characterized by loss of attachment apparatus of tooth leading to edentulism if left untreated. It releases systemic and local inflammatory byproducts which are the possible risk factors for major components of the metabolic syndrome such as Diabetes, obesity, hypertension. Metabolic syndrome is a complex pathology that constitutes of increased plasma glucose, hypertension, hypertriglyceridemia, low HDL cholesterol, elevated abdominal circumference. The presence of above any 3 factors constitute this syndrome.

Este trabajo es el resultado de una investigación realizada por los autores que consistió de una estrategia de intervención familiar que fue aplicada con el objetivo de contribuir a la preparación de la familia en función del área motriz, para el desarrollo del mismo se tomó como muestra a 20 niños (as)de ellos 8 del género femenino y 12 del género masculinode la comunidad Caymari del municipio Manzanillo, en la República de Cuba, donde se utilizaron los siguientes métodos de investigación: analítico- sintético, inductivo –deductivo, histórico lógico, sistémico estructural, observación, med

Este trabajo es el resultado de la experiencia investigativa del autor principal en el deporte de Levantamiento de Pesas, el cual se titula efectividad de la tecnica del ejercicio clásico arranque y su objetivo es analizar la efectividad del ejercicio clásico arranque en los levantadores de pesas de la categoría 15- 16 años de la Federación Deportiva de la Provincia de Los Rios, donde se evidencio que los sujetos investigados presentan dificultades en la ejecución de las partes de la técnica de este ejercicio, debido al debilitamiento de los músculos extensores de las piernas, el tronco y d

The child narrator is a popular narrative technique in children’s literature, especially magical stories and fantasies. However, most authors prefer adult narrators when narrating issues like political instability, gender-based violence, the AIDS scourge and religious exploitation, as this voice projects a feeling of seriousness and authority of experience to potentially attract a bigger readership, especially the adults in the society.

The child narrator is a popular narrative technique in children’s literature, especially magical stories and fantasies. However, most authors prefer adult narrators when narrating issues like political instability, gender-based violence, the AIDS scourge and religious exploitation, as this voice projects a feeling of seriousness and authority of experience to potentially attract a bigger readership, especially the adults in the society.

A total 453 Serum Samples from Women in Thamar with history of one or more unexplained abortion were screened for the presence IgG and IgM antibodies against Cytomegalovirus and Rubella virus by (ELISA). About 71 % (322/453) of the screened females were positive for either Cytomegalovirus or Rubella antibodies. Cytomegalovirus Ig M positive were (4.9 %) , Rubella IgM positive were (28.6 %) were positive CMV IgG (98.7 %) were positive Rubella IgG (27 %) ,and aborted women showed mixed infection with CMV IgM, with Rubella IgG.

The green chemistry revolution is providing an enormous number of challenges to those who practice chemistry in industry, education and research. So, green chemistry is one of the most explored topics these days. Major research on green chemistry aims to reduce on eradicate the production of harmful bi-products and maximizing the desired product in an eco-friendly way. The green chemistry is required to minimize the harm of the nature by anthropogenic materials and the process applied to generate them.

Epithelial ovarian tumors have been reported to mostly come from the simple cuboidal epithelial covering of the ovaries, accounting for 75% of all ovarian tumors and 90-95% of ovarian malignancies. This literature review aims to summarize the evidence of types, staging and management of Epithelial Ovarian Carcinoma. Epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC) is responsible for the highest mortality rate among women secondary to gynecologic malignancy, with a low 5-year relative survival of only 44%.

The high cost of hybrid seeds and seedlings is one of the key problems faced by famers. Problems in percent germination and germination time make it uneasy for farmers to attain uniform crop establishment and timely harvest. Seed viability decreases over time, and the natural ability in plants for inducing germination weakens with prolonged storage and dormancy. However, the use of plant growth regulators such as the synthetic gibberellic acid (GA) could be an alternative for enhancing germination of expired and long stored seeds.

Over the years, mathematical statistics have become increasingly important in the social sciences. In fact, the use of mathematical statistics methods is now ubiquitous: Almost all social sciences rely on statistical methods to analyze data and to form hypotheses, and almost all of them use more or less a range of mathematical methods to help us understand the social world to some extent.

Introduction: The use of biological markers in the diagnosis of tuberculous pleural effusion (TPE) is a breakthrough. Demonstration of elevated levels of Pleural fluid Adenosine deaminase (ADA), interferon-gamma (IFN-γ), tuberculous proteins/antibodies lysozme etc. have been proposed. Adenosine deaminase (ADA) estimation in pleural fluid has been shown as reliable biomarker specially when there is suspicion of tuberculosis. Detection of mycobacterium DNA by PCR is also a proposed test3,4.

Urban heat island (UHI) is a phenomenon of higher atmospheric and surface temperatures occurring in urban areas than in the surrounding rural areas due to urbanization. Rapid urbanization leads to increase in impermeable surfaces in the form of pavements and roads that may reduce natural vegetation cover and increase the surface temperature. Characterization of UHI is an important issue due to its harmful effects on human health and environment.

The purpose of this research paper is to compare health care systems within The vision 2030 of Saudi Arabia .A new primary health care system has been founded and initiatives have been implemented, to make sure we are developing within the right path, we have to compare our healthcare system to those in highly advanced industrialized countries, a comparison will be between the health care system of United States of America (USA) and Nordics countries ( Sweden, Denmark, Norway) and Saudi Arabia, it will be formulated by Murray-Frenk framework.

Students’ decision on their career choices has been studied thru interviews, a simple mathematical expression using spreadsheet has emphasized the importance of this study. Eventually, there were students failed to land their career choices and overpowered by their parents’ wants, entrance exams and standards negates their first career choice and took their present course of studies by chance. However, this chance turned into their choices.

Background: This study was carried out to describe the pattern of lymphadenopathy with demographic and clinical profiles of the patients presenting with cervical lymphadenothy and assessing relative diagnostic efficacy of the clinical evaluation, fine needle aspiration biopsy and open biopsy. Method: This prospective study was conducted in department of pathology in AL Ameen Medical collage , 150 cases of chronic cervical lymphadenopathy came to pathology department for FNAC or Histopathology were enrolled in this study.

Background: The aim of this study is to find out association of H.Pylori and acid peptic disease in patients with symptoms of Dyspepsia. Materials and Methods: 100 patients presenting with the symptoms of dyspepsia who underwent upper GI Endoscopy in department of surgery and those refered pathology department for histopathology. Results: Majority of patients were male and age group between 20 to 39 years i.e 47%.

Introduction: Ependymomas are glial series tumours that can occur throughout the neural axis, usually in close proximity to the ventricles (especially the fourth ventricle) or central canal., The histological features,which remain identical despite the varied morphology of intraventricular versus intraparenchymal tumours, are also considered. Case report: Here we report 4 cases of extraventricular intraparenchymal supratentorial tumors. Headache was the commonest presenting complaint seen followed by vomiting, seizure, raised intracranial pressure etc.

Nanotechnology is the science of manipulating matter, measured in the billionths of meters, roughly the size of two or three atoms. Nanotechnology has revolutionized all fields including health care and engineering, and dentistry being no exception. The way forward for nanotechnology in the various fields of dentistry seems to be full of possibilities as dental practices have the potential to be performed using these nano-eqiupments and devices.

Visceral artery aneurysms are uncommon conditions and, depending on the mechanism of formation and etiological factors, they can be divided into pseudoaneurysms and true aneurysms. Pseudoaneurysms are mainly caused by pancreatic inflammatory and infectious processes (pancreatitis), which allow the dissemination of proteolytic enzymes that promote vessel wall weakening and erosion. A 44-year-old male patient was admitted to our hospital with abdominal complaints.

Introduction: Frontotemporal dementia (FTD) is one of the leading causes of neurodegenerative dementia in people under 60 years old. Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is the most well-established environmental risk factor for dementia. Case Report: We present a case of 59-year-old male patient with 3 years history of behavioral abnormalities and personality changes with gradual onset.

There is an increased tendency for researchers to focus on accelerating methods for tooth movement due to the huge demand by adults for a shorter orthodontic treatment time. Unfortunately, adults typically require longer treatment periods because their metabolism is much slower than in younger patients. Probably the best way to shorten treatment time is to speed up tooth movement. Long orthodontic treatment time poses several disadvantages like higher predisposition to caries, gingival recession, and root resorption, decreased patient cooperation.

Selection of a suitable implant biomaterial is the most important criteria for the success of treatment. Implantology has become mainstream practice and accepted as a desirable treatment and as an alternative to conventional removable and fixed dental prosthesis. It is mandatory for a clinician to have a knowledge about various biomaterial used for dental implants for their judicious selection and application. This literature review makes an effort to summarize the evolution of various biomaterials their properties and characteristics and its impact on treatment outcome.

An increasing number of adult patients have been seeking orthodontic treatment, and a short treatment time has been a recurring request. To meet their expectations, a number of innovative techniques have been developed to accelerate orthodontic tooth movement. Corticotomy-assisted orthodontic treatment is an established and efficient technique that has gradually gained popularity as an adjunct treatment option for the orthodontic treatment of adults in which there is selective alveolar decortication with or without bone grafting.

This research was motivated by microbial air contamination such as mold, fungi, viruses, and bacteria. Indoor microbiological air contamination is more dangerous rather than outdoor microbial contamination. The purpose in this research was to understand the decreasing of Indoor Mold Number using Humidifier Modification with Sanseviera sp. Extract Solution. To understand this thing, we would count indoor mold number before and after using sanseviera extract as additional material in humidifier, next we would analyze the effectiveness of this method.

A considerable amount of overall population suffers from inordinate dental anxiety/fear that makes them to avoid the dental treatment. Avoiding dental offices can lead to many complications with bad consequences. It is the most frequently encountered issues in the dental offices. To perform an effective dental procedure on a patient suffering from anxiety/fear, it is very important to diagnose dental anxiety/fear and manage it in proper manner. It is important for a practitioner to properly assess patient’s behaviour, cause of his/her anxiety and treat it with adequate therapy methods.

Background: Root canal preparations done using many rotary endodontic instruments results in formation of root dentin defects because of the stress induced by the instruments within the root canal during cleaning and shaping, thereby worsening the long term prognosis of the root canal treated teeth. Many rotary instruments are been globally studied for the purpose of generating a correct instrument for root canal preparation. Objective: To compare dentinal microcrack formation whilst using ProTaper Next file, HyFlex EDM file and Two Shape file system.

Background: In spite of the relatively minimal knowledge on the etiology and pathogenesis of Alzheimer’s disease inflammatory activity in the brain has been proposed to be the most plausible cause. Researches have indicated that, peripheral infection /inflammation can have an impact on infection in central nervous system. Chronic periodontitis is a common peripheral infection with predominant bacterial etiology and a marked increase in the serum C Reactive Protein count. Periodontitis, lately has been known to be involved in various systemic diseases including Alzheimer’s disease.

Introduction: Autologous blood transfusion is the collection of blood from a single patient and re-transfusion back to the same patient when required. The primary driving forces for the use of autologous blood transfusion are to reduce the risk of transmission of infection and to protect an increasingly scarce resource. Case report: A 60 Year old female patient posted for thyroidectomy. On examination solitary swelling in front of the neck of 8*8 cm, oval in shape, smooth surface, extending superiorly upto hyoid bone and inferiorly till suprasternal notch.

Background: Breast cancer is the second most common malignancy in Indian women. Surgery is the mainstay of treatment. Modified radical mastectomy with or without reconstruction or breast preservation in addition to axillary lymph node dissection are common surgical procedures in breast cancer. Surgery of the axilla is associated with numerous complications, including infection, lymphedema of the ipsilateral upper extremity and collection of fluid in surgical site (seroma). Most common complication after breast cancer surgery is seroma.

Rapid Biodiversity Survey assessment was carried out along the sampling path of Lhonak Valley in the north district of Sikkim in October 2018 and a total of 102 floral species were recorded out of which, 81 species were represented by herbs and 21 species by scrubs. These species belonged to 55 genera in total (48 dicots, 4 monocots and 3 gymnosperms) and 33 families (27 dicots, 3 monocots and 3 gymnosperms). Out of the 102 species, 88 were dicots (86.3%), 11 were monocots (10.8%) and only 3 were gymnosperms (2.9%).

This study was an investigation of students’ oral presentation with regard to their personality traits and difficulties and how these variables relate to their speaking proficiency. Descriptive research method was used wherein the first set of respondents composed of 40 graduating Bachelor of Arts in English Language (AB-EL) students answered a questionnaire on personality traits in conducting oral presentation and a speaking proficiency test. Results showed that personality traits affect moderately the performance of the students when it comes to oral presentation.

Background: Anemerging and innovative method of applying technology in teaching is the use of mobile applications for learning. This meta-analysis aimed to provide evaluative data about several experiments that explore the effects of mobile applications in instilling knowledge, skills, and attitudes among students. Methods: In order to investigate these effects, this study scrutinized—using specific inclusion criteria—six full-text articles searched in academic databases. Effect sizes were computed for each research, and the mean effect size for all the studies was obtained.

This study examined how family background impacts the academic achievement of senior high school students, and how students with different family backgrounds are able to cope with problems they face in school. The study sample consisted of grade ten to twelve students from Baguio City National High School in Benguet, Philippines. Approximately 250 students consisting of 100 boys and 150 girls from five Departments in the School were randomly selected for the study. Data were gathered using questionnaires.

This study reviews four of the human needs theories as they relate to the commitment of employees in institutions of higher learning. Many factors account for why employees leave their jobs.This study tries to look at how factors such as stress and organizational climate influence organizational commitment. It begins by discussing the various components of the Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs as they affect the commitment of employees. It continues to discuss ERG theory, Herzberg’s Two-factor Theory, and finally, McClelland’s Acquired-needs Theory.

Background: participating in any sport activity has social, health and skill related benefits due to this physical disability individuals that participated on sport activity have increase their confidence. Objective: the main objectives of this study were to find out the incidence and the factors that affect the participations of Disability students in sport activity. Methods: to find out the factors the researcher were used cross-sectional research design in Woldia University totally 46 disability students so the researcher were used all students.

Background: Football is one of the most widely played sports in the world. FIVA represents over 200 million played football. Objective: the aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of injuries and causes on football players of a club in Woldia F.C in the season of 2018-2019 G.C. Methods: Descriptive survey study was used. For this study all players and coach was included on the selected club (21 volleyball players and 1 coach). A self– administered questions and observation were used.

A field trial was conducted on a farm at Al- Dujaila area, 36 km southeast of Kut city, Wast province, Iraq during the growing season of 2018 to study the response of sunflower to eight organic fertilizer treatments added with four levels.

Poor aqueous solubility, hepatic first-pass metabolism, presence of barriers and enzymes might be hamper the oral absorption of the majority of new chemical entities. Solid lipid nanoparticles (SLNs) can be an attractive for oral drug delivery vehicle as they grip tremendous possible to improve the oral bioavailability of drugs, associated reduction of drug toxicity and stability of drug in both GIT and plasma. SLNs are in submicron size range and are made of biocompatible and biodegradable materials capable of incorporating both lipophilic and hydrophilic drugs.

The scientists have faced major challenges in Ocular drug delivery system because of the unique anatomy and physiology of eye. In treating anterior segment diseases topical eye drop is the most convenient and patient compliant route of drug administration. There are two types of barriers in ocular drug delivery system: static and dynamic barrier. Static barrier includes cornea, sclera, retina and blood- retinal barriers while dynamic barrier includes choroidal and conjunctival blood flow, tear dilution and lymphatic clearance. These barriers influence the bioavailability of drugs.

Traditional herbal medicine is a chief source of biologically active compounds needed for the treatment of human ailments. There are many more medicinal plant species used as folklore medicine, but very few attempts has been made so far to validate those claims. Credibility assessment of medicinal plants is necessary for wider acceptance all over the world. Authentication and scientific validation of medicinal plant is a fundamental requirement of industry and other organizations dealing with herbal drugs.

Wounds are unpreventable events in life. Healing is a survival mechanism and it maintains normal anatomical structure and function of the skin through tissue regeneration. Plants play an important role in wound treatment, and induce healing and regeneration of the lost tissue by multiple mechanisms. Therefore, a survey was carried out with the help of local herbal halers in study area regarding use of plants in the treatment of wounds. It was found that, total 27 plant species are used by herbal healers in wound treatment. Plant parts used and treatment procedures are given in detail.

Charak samhita is believed to written around 400-200BCE. It is one of the most ancient and authoritative writings to Ayurveda. Acharya Charaka mentioned nineteen plant drugs of which Fruit is the useful part (Charak Samhita, 2011). These drugs are mainly indicated for Vaman, Asthapan, Virechan and shirovirechan karma ( Charak Samhita, 2011). Among these phalini drugs Dhamargava, Ekshvaku, Jimut, Krutavedhan, Madanphala, Kutaj, Trapush and Hastiparni are indicated for vaman, and Aasthapana karma. Apamarga is indicated for Nasya karma.

The review contains information on preclinical and clinical studies of cell therapy for bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD) in premature infants. It includes an analysis of 53 scientific publications devoted to this issue. It is important to remember that cell therapy for BPD is at the stage of experimental and clinical trials. Currently, there are no standards of its use in infants with this disease.

Background: Patients undergoing hemodialysis with end stage renal disease (ESRD) experiences many complications. Fatigue and sleep are the most common problems faced by them and there is a need for an effective intervention to minimize these complications. Objective: The purpose of this study was to assess the effectiveness of progressive muscle relaxation on fatigue and sleep quality of patients undergoing hemodialysis with ESRD.

Cancer is a broad group of various diseases, all involving unregulated cell growth. Cancer is the name given to a collection of related diseases. In all types of cancer, some of the body’s cells begin to divide without stopping and spread into surrounding tissues. Cancer can start almost anywhere in the human body, which is made up of trillions of cells. Objectives: To assess the knowledge on Prostate cancer among school teachers, to find out the association between level of knowledge on Prostate cancer with selected demographic variables.

Introduction: Thermoregulation is the ability of neonates to balance heat production and heat loss in order to stabilize internal body temperature. The neonates have special requirement for temperature maintenance due to large surface area in relation to body weight, less adipose tissue and subcutaneous fat and underdeveloped sweating and shivering mechanism. All neonates including term, preterm and SGA are at risk of heat loss especially during first 12 hours of life.

With the enormous rise in social media users globally, e-commerce payment systems are becoming ubiquitous, being applied rapidly in all facets of life. However, securing e-commerce payment systems have become more complex and have further made the CIA triad: confidentiality, integrity, and availability of enterprise’s data insecure, and prone to breaches and fraudulent activities. Securing enterprise e-commerce payment system is of paramount importance.

Angola have been allocating budget to many high-risk business areas. The return of the investments is so far down from the expected values. This paper deals on developing a risk analysis algorithm for responding the question How to allocate the interests to each economics sectors and business areas? We considered three economic sectors and thirty business areas, including Markowitz quadratic programming model in the algorithm.

Fungal meningitis in an immunocompetent host is generally uncommon, and infections due to brown-black or dematiaceous fungi are distinctly rare. These are distinct neurotropic organisms causing mostly cerebral abscess and paranasal fungal sinusitis. We report an unusual case of dematiaceous fungal meningitis in a man with no significant co-morbidities and no other identifiable risk factors for disease. CV junction meningeal biopsy was done which revealed this organism.

Objective: Assessing the value of conventional ultrasound (US) for detection and characterization of focal hepatic lesion. Setting: The examination conducted in Radiological department in Al-Zahrawi Teaching Hospital, IBN-Sina Teaching Hospital and Oncology and Nuclear Medicine Hospital. Participants: Selective 80 patients referred for US department with focal hepatic lesion and their diagnosis confirmed by CT and histopathological examination. Result: Of 80 patients with focal hepatic lesion, 41 cases (51.2%) found in male and mean age group is between 51-60 years.

Life style diseases are defined as those health problems that react to changes in lifestyle. The changed living habits due to increasing sedentary lifestyle, job requirements, competitive living are the main culprits against a healthy life. Ayurveda is a holistic science. It aims primarily to maintain healthy life in healthy individuals & secondly to treat the disease in diseased individual. Lifestyle diseases are becoming more common these days and affecting the majority of the population.

Brenner tumor is a raresurface epithelial group of ovarian neoplasm . It most commonly have benign presentation. They are divided into benign, borderline and malignant neoplasms. The majority of them are asymptomatic in nature and are found incidentally.

Background:Coronary artery disease is a major vascular complication of type 2 diabetes mellitus with a high mortality rate. Serum hemerin levels are involved in glucose and lipid metabolism and are associated with multiple cardiovascular risk factors. The aim of this study is to investigate the association and significance of serum chemerin concentration with the presence of coronary artery disease in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus. Methods: The study is retrospective-prospective, clinical, comparative, descriptive.

Background: labour is a natural process of child birth. The partograph is a graphical representation used to monitor labour. Close monitoring of labour and early detection of prolonged and obstructed labour can prevent disastrous complications. WHO modified partograph is universally adopted for monitoring labour. However, inspite of its universal recommendation it is rarely used. The major drawback for its non compliance is its complex nature of graph and shortage of doctors and nurses.

Background: Tooth discolorations frequently affect people of various age groups and are multifactorial in nature. Increasing demand in aesthetic dentistry has resulted in the widespread practice of extra-coronal bleaching or vital bleaching. An important complication following bleaching is decreased bond strength of composite resin to bleached enamel when bonding immediately after the bleaching process. The use of antioxidants immediately after bleaching showed increased bond strength to bleached enamel.

Loss of an eye can be disfiguring esthetically and psychologically. This article describes the use of two techniques for fabricating an ocular prosthesis namely the conventional paint on technique and the digital photography technique. A sequence of fabrication steps have been described for both the techniques. Both the techniques have their advantages and disadvantages.

Introduction & Ojectives –A major limitation of Radical perinealprostatectomy(RPP) was second access for pelvic lymph node dissection. We aimed to assess feseability of pelvic lymphadenectomy through same perinealinsciscion. Methods –A total series of eighteen RPP cases were categorized by partin risk estimation. Eleven cases were risk (greater than 5 %). Pelvic lymphadenectomy attemted in eleven cases, lymphadenectomy operative time, number lymphnode removed, conversion and completion noted.

Background: This study was designed to investigate the status of diabetes-related health literacy among the elderly in rural China and to explore the influencing factors. Methods: The "Chinese Public Diabetes Prevention and Control Literacy Questionnaire" and a general socio-demographic questionnaire were completed by the participants selected by the multistage cluster random sampling method. The collected data were used to analyse the factors affecting diabetes-related health literacy of the rural elderly. Results: A total of 867 elderly aged 60 years and over participated in this study.

Urban Poverty is an essential issue of urban advancement and administration in developed as well as developing nations. However, it is more intense and disturbing in developing nations like India. The most challenging of the urban difficulties, undeniably, is the problem generated by urban poverty. Economically developed states keep incoming people from backward states, which leads to a rise in the quantity of individuals and families living in an urban focus, this causes demands for new housing and services.

The main objective of the study was to examine the effect of service marketing mix on customer satisfaction and the effect of customer satisfaction on customers’ loyalty at Commercial Bank of Ethiopia branches located in Hawassa District. The study was heavily dependent upon primary data collected from the sample customers. A sample of 400 customers from 10 randomly selected branches was contacted for the survey purpose. Nonetheless, 340 customers have responded completely on the questions. Survey questionnaire was used as tool for data collection.

This research aims at the significance of studying Problems Encountered by Students in Reading Skill, a case study at Al-Ameeriah Secondary Schools in Gezira State (Wad medani). The purpose of this phenomenon is to be crowned by raising standard of students hence, they develop their reading skill that will give them chance to be good readers. In addition to that improving students' performance of comprehending any reading text. To enlighten the teachers and the parents of the students' difficulties that faced them.

Speaking performance is one of the core components of English language for the university students which are highly important to acquire to perform well during the class hours. Speaking is not merely opening mouth and say words and sentences, but it includes a cultural background of a target language which is spoken to get meaning interaction. The aim of the study is to investigate the factors affecting in the speaking skill performance of students and teachers feedback were found the significant differences.

ISO/IEC-17025 is an ideal International laboratory management system for testing and calibration laboratories. All over the world the testing and calibration laboratories are accredited as per ISO/IEC-17025 standard. Accreditation is an objective way to comfort your clients that you have established technical competency to issue authentic and correct results to enhance the reliability and confidence of the customer. PCSIR is the first ISO/IEC-17025 accredited testing laboratory in Pakistan, accredited in 2004 by Pakistan National Accreditation Council (PNAC).

Background: Dengue and Chikungunya infections are increasing in worldwide. As there is similarity between these viruses in seasonal transmission cycle and clinical presentation, it becomes difficult to distinguish them without specialized diagnostic techniques. Aim and objectives: To estimate the sero prevalence of Dengue and Chikungunya mono-infection and co-infection in Pediatric population and to analyze the outcome of all positive cases. Method: The study was conducted for a period of one year from November 2018 to October 2019.

Background: Super ovulation and Intrauterine insemination is an effective treatment for infertile couples. Probability of pregnancy is increased by increasing the number of oocytes available and by correcting any subtle defects of ovulation. Clomiphene citrate has been the first line of treatment for subfertile couples for quite some time. Letrozole also has been successfully used for the ovulation induction and in contrast to Clomiphene Citrate, it does not deplete the estrogen receptors.

Combined oral contraceptive pill (COCP) is a birth control measure that reversibly inhibit female fertility and it includes a combination of estrogen and progesterone. Non contraceptive uses of COCP include amenorrhoea, menorrhagia, dysmenorrhoea, PCOS. Pyogenic granuloma is a reactive tumour like lesion which arises in response to various stimuli such as low grade local irritation, traumatic injury, hormonal factors or certain kind of drugs like oral contraceptive pills.





Rosane Cavalcante Fragoso, Brasil


Chief Scientific Officer and Head of a Research Group

Advantages of IJCR

  • Rapid Publishing
  • Professional publishing practices
  • Indexing in leading database
  • High level of citation
  • High Qualitiy reader base
  • High level author suport













Luai Farhan Zghair
Hasan Ali Abed Al-Zu’bi
Fredrick OJIJA
Firuza M. Tursunkhodjaeva
Faraz Ahmed Farooqi
Saudi Arabia
Eric Randy Reyes Politud
Elsadig Gasoom FadelAlla Elbashir
Eapen, Asha Sarah
United State
Dr.Arun Kumar A
Dr. Zafar Iqbal
Dr. Ruchika Khanna
Dr. Recep TAS
Dr. Rasha Ali Eldeeb
Dr. Pralhad Kanhaiyalal Rahangdale
Dr. Nicolas Padilla- Raygoza
Dr. Mustafa Y. G. Younis
Dr. Muhammad shoaib Ahmedani
Saudi Arabia
United State
Dr. Lim Gee Nee
Dr. Jatinder Pal Singh Chawla
Dr. Devendra kumar Gupta
Dr. Ali Seidi
Dr. Achmad Choerudin
Dr Ashok Kumar Verma
Thi Mong Diep NGUYEN
Dr. Muhammad Akram
Dr. Imran Azad
Dr. Meenakshi Malik
Aseel Hadi Hamzah
Anam Bhatti
Md. Amir Hossain
Mirzadi Gohari