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September 2017

  1. Dr. Kumar, N.C., Dr. Suryoday Ghosh and Dr. Sapna KONDE

    Background: Mothers with increased cariogenic oral bacteria have a higher tendancy of infecting their children at an early age. Thus Gynecologists, the Primary Health Care providers, for expecting mothers bear the unique responsibility to detect and diagnose oral health problems for timely preventive interventions. Thus the aim of the study was to assess the knowledge, attitude and practices of Perinatal Oral Health Care (POHC) among Gynecologists of urban Bengaluru. Materials and Methods: A self-validated questionnaire survey was conducted amongst 100 Gynecologists practicing in urban Bengaluru. The questionnaire consisted of 28 questions which included demographic details, and questions regarding knowledge, attitude and practices of Perinatal Oral Healthcare. The responses were tabulated and subjected to statistical analysis. Statistical Analysis: Chi square test and independent t tests for measuring level of significance. Results: Chi square test analysis revealed that the professionals with higher qualifications, increased professional experience and greater number of consultations had higher knowledge about POHC, which was statistically significant. Only 36% gynaecologists were aware of anticipatory guidance and 15% about dental home. Professionals with higher qualification had a more positive attitude, which was statistically significant. Conclusion: The results of the study concluded that there adequate knowledge and attitude of POHC among Gynecologists, but their lack of practice has to be bridged by conducting educational programs, as they can play a strategic role in the prevention of various oral diseases in the future generations.

  2. Praveena, N. M.

    Dental lesions can pose a diagnostic challenge in many situations. The dental tissue consists of the endodontium and periodontium. Disease of one tissue may lead to secondary disease in the other as they have embryonic, anatomic and functional interrelationships. The perio-endo lesions have seemingly unclear, overlapping symptoms, inturn making accurate diagnosis difficult. A rationale diagnosis can be arrived at only with clear understanding of various diagnostic modalities. This review, an attempt is made to provide detailed diagnostic modalities for endo-perio dental lesions with emphasis on radiographic diagnostic advancements.

  3. Dr. Anjali V. A., Dr. Vineeth V. T. and Dr. Sateesh Kumar, B

    Objectives: This study was to evaluate the frictional resistance produced by various contemporary ligation systems in comparison with passive self-ligation system Materials and methods: The study was done using 0.019 X0.025″ Stainless steel wire of 7cm length with 0.022" MBT pre adjusted edgewise maxillary 1st premolar brackets and 3 different types of ligation-0.009” stainless steel ligatures, Superslick ligatures, Slide ligaturescompared to Smart Clip 3 passive self-ligating brackets. The study was conducted in dry and wet conditions at 7 and 21 days intervals. A customized testing jig with bracket, wire and ligature assembly was fabricated and mounted parallel to the vertical framework of universal testing machine. The mechanical testing was done with a load cell of 10 N at a crosshead speed of 5mm/min. 10 samples for each group were tested. Inter and intra group comparison was done using t Test and analysis of variance Test (F Test) with SPSS version 22 software. Results: SmartClip 3 showed statistically significantly low staticand dynamic friction compared to others in dry and wet condition at 7 days interval. There exists a significant difference in friction between the super slick and slide ligature in the 21 days wet condition. Superslick ligature showed rapid decrease in friction in wet condition compared to dry condition. However, SmartClip showed least dynamic friction in 21 days in wet condition. Conclusion: This study concluded that SmartClip self-ligating brackets produced least friction both in dry and wet condition. Frictional resistance reduced considerably when placed in wet condition for 21 days compared to that in dry condition in all the evaluated samples. Thus proving that self-ligating appliance are very effective in enhancing tooth movement during all stages of treatment and thus reducing treatment time

  4. Dr. Priyanka B. Aglawe, Dr. Rajesh K. Jha, Dr. Rishu Y. Mishra, Kamini M. Sakore, Dr. Deepti S. Shrivastava and Dr. Vedprakash Mishra

    Abnormal vaginal discharge (AVD) is an initial and one of the commonest clinical problem of women belonging to reproductive age group. It is considered to be the second most common problem after menstrual disorders. Cases of AVD is increasing with time especially in the rural population due to poor hygienic practices, low socio-economic status, structural and social inequalities and lack of awareness about the disease and its various complications. Social stigma and gender discrimination discourage women from revealing their reproductive and sexual health issues which also prevents them from taking medical help at proper time, in proper way. The present study was carried out to determine the sociodemographic and clinicopathological profile of AVD in women of reproductive age group coming to Acharya Vinobha Bhave Rural Hospital, Sawangi (M), Wardha – a rural teaching hospital with tertiary healthcare facilities in vidarbha region and also to critically appraise the therapeutic modules. This monocentric hospital based observational study was carried out between 1st January 2015 to 15th August 2017 in Obstetrics and Gynaecology Department, on 330 women of reproductive age group belonging to rural vidarbha region. Data was collected from in-depth interview of Senior clinicians, Junior residents as well as patients. Out of 330 study subjects, the total no. of AVD cases was 48.15% in 2015; 7.58% in 2016 and 44.24% in 2017. Maximum no. of AVD cases were found to be in females belonging to 36 – 45 years (49.09%) of age group, followed by 26 – 35 years (40.61%) and 15 – 25 years (10.30%). Most common clinicopathological causes of AVD were found to be Bacterial Vaginosis (66.06%), followed by Vaginal Trichomoniasis (24.24%), Mixed infections (06.36%) and Vaginal candidiasis (03.33%). Drugs prescribed to patients were Metronidazole (90.30%), CLID – V Pessary (72.72%), FAS – 3 KIT (06.36%), Fluconazole (03.33%), Candid Pessary (03.33%) and Doxycycline (0.30%). Statistical significance f the study was calculated by using descriptive and inferential statistics using chi square test and p value < 0.05 was considered as level of significance. Software used in analysis was SPSS 17.0 version and GraphPad Prism 6.0 version. Cases of AVD is increasing at an alarming rate in rural vidarbha region and there is no significant change in final outcome of recently prescribed treatment modules. It is recommended that counselling of male and female partners should be carried out through public health awareness camps at a regular interval, especially in the rural region for better hygiene practices, awareness about the disease, prompt consultation in proper way and in order to prevent the various complications of AVD.

  5. Rajni Thakur and Anjana Tiwari

    Introduction: Normal development of the fetal kidney in prenatal period is crucial to neonatal outcome and knowledge of the fetal kidney is important for the identification of abnormalities. Aim: To study morphometric and histological quantitative changes of nephrons during the development of the kidney in later half of gestation. Material and method: The study was conducted in the Department of Anatomy, Pt.J.N.M.Medical College Raipur, Chhattisgarh, India. The material for study (fetuses) were obtained from the labour room of the R.N.T.District hospital Kondagaon, Chhattisgarh. A total of 42 kidneys of gestational aged between16 weeks to 40 weeks, were taken from cases of abortions, stillbirth from premature and normal deliveries with apparently normal history of gestation. Fetal kidneys dissected out, histological slides were made, stained with Haematoxylin & eosin and observed under projection microscope. Result: in current study volume and weight, Crown lump length are continuous increases along with increase their developing gestation age. Growth of the kidney was occurring throughout prenatal life, but is more marked after 28 weeks. After this the numerical density of the glomeruli decreases, in spite of an increase in total number of glomerli. Conclusion: Numerical density of glomeruli per cubic m.m of kidney tissue was found to increase from 294.9 at 16 weeks gestational age to 430 in 28 weeks, but after 28 weeks a steady decline was seen up to 40 weeks when the density decreased to 339.9 .Except for the period between 16 week and 20 weeks and between 32 and 36 weeks .Significant variation was seen between different age groups

  6. Mohamed Ibrahem Rahma and Ali Hassan Ahmed Al-Shammary

    Carbapenemases producing or Extended Spectrum Beta Lactamase Resistant Klebsiellapneumoniae (ESBL/KPC) strains are pro-growing threat. This research focused on isolation and Identification of K.pneumoniae especially ESBL producers from raw white soft cheese and its whey made from Cows raw milk in Baghdad. Study design including collection and processing of ninetysoft cheese and its whey samples (forty five samples for each type: soft cheese & whey) from regions of Abu-Ghraib, Al-Fudhaliyah and Al-Sadrya (thirty samples from each region: fifteen samples for each type) from December (2016) to February (2017), in which they collected and processed according to modified dairy microbiological methodology in veterinary public health laboratory by McConkey agar, Electronic RapID™ ONE (4 hours) biochemical panel micro-tubes strep identification system compendium with reference colors chart and online confirmation microcodes data base software, and gold standard double staining technique, Microtiter Plate Assay for biofilm formation with methylene blue and safranin dyes. Antibiotics Susceptibility Pattern by Kirby-Bauer technique or disk diffusion method was proceed according to instructions of clinical laboratory standards institute (CLSI) or national committee for clinical laboratory standards (NCCLS) by using a Muller-Hinton agar and McFarland opacity tubes for checking resistance profile of isolates. Double diffusion inhibition technique or Oxoid Cefpodoxime Combination Kit determined ESBL resistance activity. Data were analyzed for significant differences by statistical package for social sciences software (IBM SPSS) in which a Chi-square was used. The results showed detection of thirteen strains of phenotypically indole negative K.pneumoniae out of ninety samples (14.44%): ten strains (11.11%) from Abu-Ghraib: nine (10%) from soft cheese and one (1.11%)from its why, two strain (2.22%) from Al-Fudhaliyah and one (1.11%) strain from Al-Sadrya. ESBL producers were noticed only from Abu-Ghraib region, in which they detected from seven (7.77%) samples: six (6.66%) strains from soft cheese and one (1.11%) from its whey. In conclusion, data showed contamination of raw white soft cheese and its whey in Baghdad with K. pneumoniae, in which ESBL producers were noticed, thus we recommend monitoring of soft cheese production cycles, handlers, cheese makers, soft cheese containers, environment, infected & carrier individuals, transportation and storage stages through application of sanitation practices during cheese processing and hazard analysis critical control points (HACCP) strategies to overcome or reduce these public health problems.

  7. Koner Rao, T., Nagendra Babu, M. and Karthik Reddy, R.

    Intertrochanteric fractures account for approximately half of the hip fractures in elderly, out of these more than 50% fractures are unstable. Sliding devices like dynamic hip screw have been extensively used for fixation. However, if the patient bears weight early, especially in comminuted fractures these devices can penetrate the head, bend, break or separate from the shaft. Intramedullary devices like proximal femoral nail has been reported to have an advantage in such fractures as their placement allowed the implant to lie closer to the mechanical axis, thereby decreasing the lever arm and bending moment on the implant. The goal of this study is to compare the clinical and radio graphical results of the DHS and PFN for the treatment of intertrochanteric hip fractures (Load bearing vs Load sharing).

  8. Dr. R. Sitharthan and Dr. T. Abdurahiman

    Bronchial Asthma is the most common respiratory disease which needs awareness among public. Homoeopathy is a unique system of medicine which treats the patients based on symptomatically and individually considering the susceptibility of the person affected. In recent era more research are done to focus on controlling and relieving the symptoms of Bronchial Asthma.

  9. Rasheed Badi Ermish Abo Bader and Nadia Ibrahim Abdulaal,

    Biofilm producing Pseudomonas aeruginosa is a highly versatile opportunistic food borne pathogen that contaminate food and causing serious problems in man, animals and food processing-manufacturing cycles. This research focused on isolation and Identification of P. aeruginosa from normal raw and mastitic cow’s milk from some regions in Baghdad. Study design including collection and processing of sixty milk samples (thirty samples for each type: normal & mastitic) from regions of Abu-Ghraib, Al-Fudhaliyah and Al-Sadrya (twenty samples from each region: ten samples for each type) during period December (2016) to February (2017), in which they collected and processed according to modified dairy microbiological methodology in veterinary public health laboratory using gold standard Cetirmide-Naldixic acid chrome agar (CNP), Electronic RapID™ ONE (4 hours) biochemical panel micro-tubes strep identification system compendium with reference colors chart and online confirmation microcodes data base software and gold standard double staining technique, Microtiter Plate Assay for biofilm formation with methylene blue and safranin dyes. Antibiotics Susceptibility Pattern by Kirby-Bauer technique or disk diffusion method was done according to instructions of clinical laboratory standards institute (CLSI) or national committee for clinical laboratory standards (NCCLS) by using a Muller-Hinton agar and McFarland opacity tubes for checking resistance profile of isolates. Data were analyzed for significant differences by statistical package for social sciences software (IBM SPSS) in which a Chi-square was used. The results revealed isolation and identification of nine strains of P. aeruginosa out of sixty samples (15%): three strains from Abu-Ghraib (5%): two from mastitic (3.33%) and one from normal raw milk (1.66%), two strain from Al-Fudhaliyah (3.33%): one from mastitic (1.66%) and one from normal raw milk (1.66%), and four strains from Al-Sadrya (6.66%): three from mastitic (5%) and one from normal raw milk (1.66%). In conclusion: data revealed contamination of raw milk and infection of dairy mammary glands with P. aeruginosa from some regions in Baghdad, thus we recommend monitoring of milk producing animals and their environment with milk production, transportation and storage stages through application of good management practices and hazard analysis critical control points (HACCP) strategies to overcome or reduce these public health problems.

  10. Dr. Chitra Patil

    Acute Necrotizing Ulcerative Gingivitis (ANUG) is described as “a rapidly destructive, non-communicable, gingival infection of complex etiology”. It is characterized by necrosis of the crest of the gingival papillae, spontaneous bleeding, pain and halitosis. If left untreated, it may spread laterally and apically to involve the entire gingival complex, including the mucosa and alveolar bone, leading to necrotizing ulcerative periodontitis to necrotizing ulcerative stomatitis and finally Noma. There are various predisposing factors like poor oral hygiene, stress, smoking, hormonal imbalance, nutritional deficiencies etc. This case report presents the conservative management of ANUG in patient and probable mechanism of pathogenesis of predisposing factors involved.

  11. Suresh, H., Harini Priya, A. H. and Ramesh Kumar, A

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are short noncoding RNA molecules that plays an important role in regulating enormous number of cellular processes. Its role in the field of stem cells pertaining to stem cell differentiation and function proves to be an excellent field for research. Increased expression of oncogenic miRNAs can alter the protein products of Tumor suppressor gene while reduction or loss of tumor-suppressor miRNA may lead to elevated oncogenic proteins, thereby both of these can be employed as biomarkers or therapeutic targets in cancer management. Thus, miRNA by itself can act as biomarker and a therapeutic target in various tumors. This article aims to review the origin and role of microRNA in Stem cell differentiation and Its Pro and Anti oncogenic role in the pathogenesis of Cancer.

  12. Renuka Gahine, Vishal Kulkarni and Chandrashekhar Indoria

    Abnormal uterine bleeding (AUB) is a common cause for women in the reproductive age group to be diagnosed with Adenomyosis. The prevalence of adenomyosis varies widely from 5% to 70%which is probably related to inconsistencies in the histopathologic criteria for diagnosis. The present study recorded a prevalence of 48.6 %. Two cases have been observed which showed cystic changes along with bleeding tract formation besides the uterine canal.

  13. Neelam Sood and Kumar Sharad Sinha

    Background: Gall Bladder Cancer (GBC) is a malignancy of aggressive nature with ethnic and geographical patterns. It is most commonly reported from Chile (16-27/100,000), Japan. In India, its incidence is from 1.01 per 100000 to 10.1 per 100000 in males & females respectively. Aim and Objectives: The objectives of the study were to analyze the demographics, incidence, histopathological findings with immunoprofiling in gall bladder carcinomas. Material and Methods: A retrospective analysis of 1208 cholecystectomy specimens were received for histopathology from 2011 till 2015 in a tertiary care hospital Delhiand analyzed. Results: A total number of 45 cases of carcinoma of gall bladder were diagnosed which included 43cases of Adenocarcinoma, 2 cases of Adenosquamous carcinoma. Most gall bladder adenocarcinomas were of pancreatobiliary-type, showing variable degrees of differentiation. Female: male ratio of 3.6: 1was observed, with mean age being 51years. Conclusions: Gall bladder carcinoma is rare, constituting 3-5% of all the gastrointestinal tumours. Gall stones are considered as one of the most common factors for initiating the malignant process. The patients are in advanced stages at initial presentation. Early diagnosis is difficult usually as they are common with benign disease of gall bladder. Further, correlation with radiographic and clinical findings is also important to avoid misdiagnosis.

  14. Dr. Bharat R Dave, Dr. Puspak Samal, Dr. Devanand, D., Dr. Ankur Patel, Dr. Denish Patel, Dr. Manish P Barot and Dr. Ajay Krishnan

    Instability of atlantoaxial joint secondary to Tuberculosis or Myeloma is a rare entity. Biopsy along with stabilisation is a described operative procedure. We presented a case of 47 years old male with C1-2 affection treated with occipitocervical stabilisation and biopsy proved as tuberculosis. Antituberculosis treatment was started and clinical improvement was apparent in 5 months. Aggressive progression of diseases after 5 months prompted us to investigate further. Reviewing the biopsy slides with repeat transoral biopsy confirmed features of myeloma which finally responded to chemotherapy. Patient improved significantly (neck disability index = 24%) at the follow-up of 3 years. Hence, coexistence of both tuberculosis and myeloma very rare but should be acknowledged

  15. Dr. Madhulatha, G., Dr. Manasa, P., Dr. Jaya Krishna, B. and Dr. Harshavardhan, T

    Introduction: Satisfaction of the patient with dental treatment provides an important aspect of quality of treatment and determines the future utilization of services. Fulfillment of patient expectation and demands as well as positive assurance, good responses to patient as well as resolve confusions and doubts of the patient provides better satisfaction and result in a future return of the patients to receive subsequent good quality of treatment. Feedback on contentedness regarding dental care is vital for continuous improvement of the service delivery process and outcome. Aim of present study: To explore satisfaction of patients associated with dentist and dental practice set up. Material and Methods: The present study included 1000 patients out of which 921 forms were evaluated. They were asked to tick appropriate options for 24 questions of the feedback form. These were tabulated and subjected to statistical analysis. Results: Among the 921 study subjects, 493 (53.5%) were males, and 428 (46.4%) were females. The overall report in terms of response was good & agree (79.1%), fair & neutral (20.8%), poor & disagree (0.1%). Based on main factors patients expressed maximum satisfaction patient–dentist interaction, (88.2%) and least with technical competency (50%) and moderate with administrative and clinic setup (66%). Conclusion: Though the responses were not high but they were satisfactory. Hence further improvement in all aspects and especially regarding aseptic instruments and waiting area to be considered for further utilization. By conducting such study one can be able to understand the difference between patients demands and patients satisfaction. This is the only study conducted on large sample size in category of studies related to patient satisfaction.

  16. Dr. Tushar Rothe, Dr. Aakruti Agrawal, Dr. Pritesh Gangde and Dr. Abhas Arora,

    Dentigerous cysts are most common bony lesions of oral cavity. Most of cases are reported in second and third decade of life, and it shows slight male predilection. (3:2) Dentigerous cysts are commonly seen in mandibular third molar region and maxillary canine region, as they are the most commonly impacted teeth. Radiographic findings cannot be considered as ultimate tool to diagnose dentigerous cyst because odontogenic keratocysts, Unilocular ameloblastomas, and many other tumors show similar radiological findings. Thus, histopathological examination holds important in its diagnosis. Cyst size and site, involvement of dentition and surrounding structures should be considered while treatment planning. On the basis of these criteria, different treatment modalities should be chosen. This includes cyst enucleation and extraction of impacted tooth, cyst enucleation and preservation of impacted tooth or decompression with surgical access. We are presenting a case of dentigerous cyst at maxillary canine region.

  17. Arjun N. Mithra, Pranav V. Mody, Mohamed Imran Zainvi and Bhushan G. Wankhade,

    Introduction: Interocclusal records are essential to relate dental casts to an articulator. The advance of the polymer science introduced elastomeric interocclusal recording materials in the field of dentistry. But their properties are not completely understood. Aim: To evaluate and compare the dimensional stability and surface hardness of two commercially available Vinyl Polysiloxane and Polyether elastomeric bite registration materials at various time intervals. Materials and Methods: The materials tested were ImprintTM bite, Futar® D and RamitecTM. A total of 30 specimens were made, 10 each from three elastomeric bite registration materials. A travelling microscope was used to measure dimensional change and Shore-A durometer was used to measure surface hardness. The measurements were collected at the time intervals of 1, 24, 48 and 72 hours and mean values were taken for statistical analysis. Statistical analysis was performed by one-way ANOVA test and post hoc analysis by Bonferroni to compare the percentage of change over a period of time. Results: Result showed that significant percentage of dimensional change was noted in all the three materials. Vinyl Polysiloxane showed significant dimensional change up to 48 hours. Polyether showed less dimensional change in the first 24 hours but later showed significant expansion. All the bite registration materials attained their maximum surface hardness in 48 hours. Vinyl Polysiloxane bite registration materials recorded the highest surface hardness.

  18. Akansha Virmani

    The ascent of products from stark commodities to prominent brands all through the 20th century was a salient development in consumer industries. In the 21st century, the internet makeover is impelling the industries’ mutation. In conjunction with technological evolution, the subtler but still imposing propellers of social and behavioral conversion have also provoked consumer industries to remodel. Digital is blurring the precincts between consumers, stores and shoppers’ brands, which embrace strategic breaks for consumer packaged goods companies who are geared up to radically remodel for the digital globe and apparent risks for those who would not be up to snuff. The present paper highlights an assortment of models of digital mutation in consumer goods industries and endorses a range of measures for enterprises to combat the backdrop of the fundamental changes affecting consumer industries.

  19. Dr. Rahela Tabassum and Raghaveni, T.

    In an age when people use Twitter rather than the newspaper for the latest updates, digital media is overpowering traditional media in many ways. Things are no different when it comes to marketing, where businesses are leveraging the advantage of new-age media solutions to enhance business impact and build their brand. Today, paid media (e.g. TV, radio or print commercials) are not seen as being on par with earned media (e.g. third-party blog posts, etc.) or owned media (e.g. company websites). Given the success of digital and social media platforms, these media are no longer considered ‘path-breaking’; rather, they are now seen as ‘standard’ marketing channels. Although eating habits and the causes of obesity are complex and are affected by many factors. This research identifies that the cause of obesity in children and young people is their attraction towards HFSS food advertised through digital marketing tools.

  20. Rashmi Raja, V. R. and Dr. C. Velayutham

    The new media spring has brought several issues including the Diaspora community into the limelight thus making the presence of citizen journalists felt. The minorities generally do not find a place that easily on the television but the internet and other new media do map their representation. It is said that after the internationalization of the mediaoccurred, there are no long distances. Hence this paper analyzes the news articles on how the Tamil Diasporacommunity across the world reacts towards the Jallikattu protests which happened from 8th to 23rd of January, 2017 in Chennai, Tamil Nadu. The main objectives of the research are: • To analyze new media’s crucial role in bringing the “Tamil Diaspora community” to limelight. • To examine the cultural identity of Tamil Diaspora represented through the new media in reference to selected Jallikattu related articles. • To understand the human rights issues involved in the Jallikattu protests by the Tamil community.

  21. Dr. Shalini Yadava and Deepa

    The study is an effort to assess the orientation of the present syllabus of Home Science being followed at undergraduate level in the University of Delhi, towards preparing students for the world of work. The strategy followed included critical analysis of Home Science syllabus with respect to vocational efficiency through inductive textual analysis. Alumni of the Home Science Department of the University of Delhi were interviewed to obtain real time feedback with reference to vocational efficiency of the syllabus and shortcomings contained therein. The findings of the study revealed that the present syllabus of Home Science at undergraduate level in the University of Delhi is adequately equipped to impart disciplinary knowledge in all the five domains of Home science. However, in terms of entrepreneurial and professional skills, there are many shortcomings. The course is presently preparing graduates in the theoretical and practical aspects of domain knowledge only.

  22. Javed Ikbal, Syed Ahmad Ali and Hamdi Aldharab

    Drainage characteristic of a micro watershed of Katla river has been studied by using topographic map of 1:50,000 scale and satellite data under GIS environment. The drainage network and morphometric parameters of the micro watershed were delineated and computed by using Arc GIS 10.2. Various morphometric parameters including linear, areal and relief parameter has been computed by standard method and formulae. The streams of Katla river basin shows trellis drainage pattern and in somewhere sub-parallel drainage pattern with maximum stream order of 5. The total stream length of 312 streams of Katla river basin is 181.808 Km and stream length ratio is 2.155. The bifurcation ratio of the study area is 3.95 which indicate that the watershed has more affected of structural disturbance. High drainage density of 3.436 with fine texture indicates that the area is composed of impermeable subsurface material. To identify the shape of the basin, the form factor 0.308 and circularity ratio 0.46 shows that the basin is sub circular to elongated in shape. The main course of Katla river is sinuous in nature and migrated towards north-east direction.

  23. Dr. Jeelani, S. and Katherina Sushmita Barman, P. J

    Background: HIV is one of the leading causes of death globally with approximately 10% mortality in pediatric population. Pediatric HIV infection is associated with a wide spectrum of lesions in the oral cavity and more than 90% of HIV infected patients will have at least one HIV related oral manifestation in the course of their disease. The rationale behind this study is to create awareness about oral health knowledge among the caregivers of the children living with HIV. Objectives: 1. To determine the oral health knowledge among the caregivers of HIV positive children using a questionnaire. 2. To provide oral health education among the caregivers of HIV positive children. 3. To assess the impact of oral health knowledge among the caregivers through the same questionnaire after oral health literacy intervention. Methods: A Pre post intervention trial was done using a self- structured questionnaire comprising of 24 questions to determine the oral health knowledge among the caregivers of HIV positive children and also to assess the impact of oral health knowledge among the caregivers through the same questionnaire after oral health literacy intervention. Results and Interpretation: It was found that the difference in knowledge after the intervention was found to be statistically not significant for few questions and statistically significant for few questions as part of the Questionnairre using Wilcoxon Signed rank test. Conclusion: The study reveals that caregiver’s of HIV positive children lacked adequate knowledge on the oral health prior to the health education and post education a significant outcome on the knowledge increase among the caregivers was noticed.

  24. Brahim El Gajoui, Mohamed El Mahdi Boubkraoui, Nour Mekaoui, Lamia Karboubi, and Badr Sououd Benjelloun Dakhama

    Introduction: Acute life-threatening illnesses are rarely encountered conditions at pediatric medical emergency wards but require fast and adequate management to save patient’s life. The aim of this study was to assess acute life-threatening illnesses epidemiology, outcome and factors associated with death of patients at a university pediatric hospital’s medical emergency department in Morocco. Material and Methods: This cross-sectional observational study of all cases of children aged from 29 days to 15 years admitted for an acute life-threatening illness at Rabat children hospital’s medical emergency room, was carried over a period of one year, from January 1, to December 31, 2014. Results: A total of 183 patients were included, corresponding to 0.3% of all admissions during the same period. The acute life-threatening illness was related to a respiratory disorder in 45.3% of cases, to a hemodynamic disorder in 20.7% of cases, to a neurological disorder in 25.1% of cases and to another disorder in 8.7% of cases. The overall death rate was 44.8%. Acute life-threatening respiratory disorders were more frequent in patients younger than 2 years (p < 0.001), while acute life-threatening illnesses other than respiratory or hemodynamic or neurologic disorders were more frequent in patients over 2 years of age (p = 0.009). Factors associated with death were age less than 2 years (OR = 2.872 (1.528;5.399), p = 0.001). Conclusion: Acute medical life-threatening illnesses in children were unfrequent but were burdened with heavy mortality in this study. Children younger than 2 years were more at risk of death.

  25. Dr. Rajkrinti, Laxmipriya Dei and Dr. Jaideep Gothwal

    WHO defines normal birth as: “spontaneous in onset, low-risk at the start of labour and remaining so throughout labor and delivery. In normal labour the foetus is delivered spontaneously in the vertex position between 37 to 42 weeks of pregnancy . After birth, mother and infant are in normal condition” Aim and Objectives- 1.To evaluate the role of Basti (Vasadi Kwatha+Dashamoola Taila) and Yonipurana (Eranda Taila) procedures in onset of labour, various stages and duration of labour after completed 8th month of pregnancy. 2. Effect of above drugs along with procedures on mother and baby. The study was Single Arm Open Labelled Interventional Clinical Trial in which 50 patients. Patients belonging to the age group 18 to 35 years were enrolled. Treatment, administration of Basti and Yonipurana 3 days alternativelyis useful to remove the Purana Pureesha and normalize the function of ApanaVata. Bastiis the main treatment forVatanulomanaandPrasava is totally depends on the action of PrasutiMaruta (Vyana and ApanaVayu). Yonipurana with medicated oil helps to soften the birth canal enabling easy delivery. Treatment showed highly significant result in symptoms i.e. Katiprushtha Vedana (backache), Udarashoola, Gaurava, Angamarda, Suptata, Daurbalya, Mutrakrichhta and Malabaddhata (Constipation). There was no any complications noted in the patients after procedures. It is the best treatment for preparation for Prakrita Prasava and less intervention during Prasava, mother and baby in good condition.

  26. Dr. Roua Hameed Kadhum and Dr. Sawsan Issa Habeeb

    Background: The importance of vitamin D was recently emphasized when it was reported to be involved in cell differentiation, proliferation, immune function and important for optimal function of many organs and tissues throughout the body, including the central nervous system. This vitamin may reduce seizure frequency and treating adverse effect of anticonvulsant drugs so its supplementation is associated with decreased seizures as it regulates pro-convulsant and anticonvulsant factors. Aim: A case-control study had been carried out to determine serum vitamin D level and other biochemical parameters in epileptic children and study it's relation to some selected variables who were treated with antiepileptic drugs for at least 6 months. Methods: Thirty seven epileptic patients who had normal age - appropriate development; visited the out patients neurological clinic in Basra General Hospital, their ages ranged from 2-14 years from the1stof February to the end of July 2014. Forty four apparently healthy children and adolescent; were age and sex matched as a control group. Information regarding history of epilepsy; age of diagnosis, type and frequency of seizures over the past 3 months and type of antiepileptic drugs were recorded. All patients were under went physical examination including general and systemic examination. Growth parameters were assessed and body mass index (BMI) was calculated and applied to appropriate growth charts. A list of investigation was measured as; serum calcium, phosphorus, alkaline phosphatase and serum 25-Hydroxy vitamin D. Results: Mean age of epileptic patients and control group was (7.67 ± 3.23) and (7.68 ± 3.5) year respectively. Two third of patients were younger than 10 years, as well as (86.5%) have normal body mass index, approximately 50% of patients received carbamazepine treatment for epilepsy and the duration of anti-epileptic drugs' therapy more than 24 months and more than 80% of patients were on monotherapy and were well controlled. The mean serum level of vitamin D was significantly low in epileptic patients than control group (21.41 ± 2.90), (67.59 ± 2.13) respectively as well as in children treated with polytherapy than those with monotherapy for epilepsy with higher level of alkaline phosphatase in epileptic patients than control group (299.09 ± 67.67) (122.21 ± 29.59) respectively (P value 0.000). On the other hand; levels of Calcium and phosphorus, serum level of blood urea and alanine aminotransferase (ALT) were not significantly differ among epileptic patient and control group (p value >0.05). Conclusion: Children and adolescents treated with anti-epileptic drugs especially those patients on polytherapy therapy should given supplements of vitamin D to satisfy their bodies requirement.

  27. Madda, F., Mekaoui, N., Benjelloun Dakhama, B. S. and Karboubi, L.

    Carbon monoxide poisoning is a serious pathology able to engage the vital and functional prognosis. It remains a public health problem by its frequency which is still high due to the use of precarious heating means. The aim of this study is to give an epidemiological approach to this pathology and to study its clinical and evolutive profile in children through a prospective study conducted at the Pediatric Medical Emergency Department of the Children's Hospital of Rabat-Morocco.

  28. Dr. Shilpa S. Ingle and Dr. S. S. Pathak

    A technical unit of measurement called the Defined Daily Dose (DDD) is defined as “the assumed average maintenance dose per day for a drug used for its main indication in adults”. Measuring drug utilization in DDD/100 bed-days is proposed by the WHO to analyze and compare the utilization of drugs. DDD can be used as a tool to analyze drug utilization with the ultimate goal of improving drug use. DDD are advantageous for comparing the use of drug in hospitals or regions. This comparison will provide valuable information when establishing appropriate usage level of drugs. Aims and Objectives: To evaluate and compare utilisation of β- lactam and Aminoglycosides antimicrobials in Medicine and urgery Intensive Care Unit. Objectives: 1. To determine the extent of DDD/100 bed days) use of β- lactam and Aminoglycosides AMS in medicine and surgery ICU 2. To compare utilisation of β-Lactam and Aminoglycoside antimicrobial in Medicine ICU and Surgery ICU. Type of study: It is a Cross sectional study. Study setting: The study was undertaken in Medicine I.C.U and Surgery I.C.U of central India Sample size: 357 patients. Methodology: The total dose of AMS (β lactam and Aminoglycoside) received by the patient during stay in MICU and SICU is calculated (Gram) for individual patient.Total dose (Gram) of individual AMS is calculated. ATC codes has been given to classify antibiotics (ATC-group J0; Antibacterial for systemic use). Then the data has been expressed as Defined Daily Dose per 100 Bed Days (DDD/100 Bed Days) based on the formula. Results and Observations: Total 11 Beta lactum and Aminoglycosides antimicrobials were used in 20 beded MICU. Among these AMS utilisation of injection Ceftriaxone (7.12) was highest followed by injection Cefotaxime (1.59), injection Piperacillin+ Tazobactum (1.42), injection Gentamycin (1.18). In SICU utilisation of injection Ceftriaxone (3.96) was highest followed by injection Piperacillin+ Tazobactum (2.29), injection Gentamycin (1.22). Conclusion: Drug utilization studies (DUR) using ATC/DDD system showed most commonly utilized (DDD/100 bed days) AMS in β - lactam class was Ceftriaxone (3rd generation cephalosporin) in SICU as well as MICU. But Piperacillin+tazobactum (broad spectrum penicillin) was maximally used in SICU (2.29) than MICU (1.42). While most commonly utilized Aminoglycosides AMS was Gentamycin followed by Amikacin with nearly equal utilisation in both ICUs (1.18 and 1.22 respectively).

  29. Manasa Nair and Dr. Sachin Gawande

    Objective: Post total knee replacement patients experience severe pain, anxiousness & discomfort which interfere with the patients’ functional mobility leading to slower recovery &increased pharmacological requirements. This study aims to find the effect of unconventional techniques, namely music on pain and anxiety in post-operative total knee arthroplasty patients. Design: Randomized control trial Methods & Findings: 54 subjects who underwent total knee arthroplasty were selected and randomly assigned into experimental and control group with 27 subjects in each through simple random sampling technique. The study was performed on post-operative day 1 or 2. A pre assessment of pain using VAS, anxiety & physiological parameters i.e. heart rate, respiratory rate, blood pressure & oxygen saturation was done in both the groups, following which both the groups received their scheduled exercise session, thereafter which the experimental group received 10 minutes of music in contrast to the control group who received 10 minutes of rest & a post intervention assessment was done. Results showed that even though there were some positive changes within the experimental group, there was no significant difference in pain (p=0.273), anxiety (0.498), or physiological parameters between the two groups. Conclusion: Music is clinically significant in reducing pain and anxiety post- Operatively there is no statistical difference in the results between the two groups.

  30. AMMINOU Loubna, El Harti Karima and EL WADY Wafaa

    Lipomas are common tumors in the human body, but are less frequent in the oral cavity (1-4%). They commonly present as slow growing asymptomatic lesions with a characteristic yellowish color and soft, often located in the buccal mucosa, floor of the mouth and tongue. We present case of a 70-year-old man with an asymptomatic buccal mucosa. The lesion was removed locally and was sent for histopathologic diagnosis, and final diagnosis of fibrolipoma was made.

  31. Lakshmi Girish, Kavya Krishnankutty and Sharda Vaidya

    In well planned cities, vehicular emission is one of the major causes of air pollution. The capacity of plants to act as bio indicator of air pollution differs from plant to plant. To identify the tolerance levels of plants APTI values were calculated based on four physiological and biochemical parameters such as leaf Relative Water Content (RWC), Ascorbic Acid (AA), Total Leaf Chlorophyll and Leaf Extract pH. By absorbing pollutants, plants create areas of clean air pockets. The study evaluated APTI and sensitivity of 12 plant species along the road side of highly polluted area of Navi Mumbai. The results showed order of tolerance Ricinus communis > Acalypha wilkesiana (green leaved)> Millingtonia hortensis, while the sensitivity was in the order Ficus benjamina > Cassia siamea > Ficus religiosa.

  32. Arka Swarnakar, Tarun Kumar Swarnakar, Angana Pal and Sandip Rajan

    The management of resorbed ridge has always posed a challenge to the prosthodontist for years. Obtaining a satisfactory stability in mandibular dentures has long been a challenge for every clinician. Severely resorbed ridges as in Atwood’s Order V and Order VI pose serious difficulties in providing successful dentures. Stability of lower denture in such cases is usually becomes the determining factor between success and failure. This clinical case report presents a case of severely resorbed ridge managed using the cocktail impression technique to improve mandibular denture stability in an atrophic mandibular ridge.

  33. Dr. Pradeep Shetty, Dr. Sanjyot Mulay, Dr. Manju Singh, Dr. Mamata Reddy, Dr. Monika Chawla and Dr. Mubssira Shaikh

    Purpose: Type 2 diabetes mellitus is the commonest form of diabetes. The common complications associated with DM are retinopathy, nephropathy, neuropathy, microvascular disease, infection and impaired wound healing. The relationship between oral health and diabetes has been extensively studied, particularly with respect to periodontal disease, but effect of diabetes mellitus on dental pulp is less documented in the literature. This study aims to explore the relationship between the dental pulp and diabetes mellitus by histological analysis, which in turn will widen the horizon of diagnosis and treatment planning of such conditions. Materials and Methods: A pilot study was conducted on 20 patients. 10 teeth were extracted from study group and the control group, employing intra-alveolar technique. Teeth were sectioned at apical third and subjected for histological procedure. The teeth were decalcified, processed and sections were stained. Results: Study group showed thickened basement membrane blood vessels (60%) and pulp stones (40%). Conclusion: Human dental pulp of type 2 diabetic patient revealed impairment of vasculature, which in turn interferes with tissue nutrition, pulpal repair, and creates a microaerophilic state for anaerobic development.

  34. Preetha Peethambar, Manasa, N. and Sapna Konde

    Introduction: Intraoral radiographic examination is an inevitable and integral part of Pediatric dental practice. Long hours of practice in closed clinical set up and continuous exposure to negligibly low dose radiation on a long term basis pose a potential source of health hazard among Pedodontists. Hence optimization, dose limitation and radiation safety practice is very much essential for the protection of the child and the Pedodontist. Aim: To determine the knowledge about radiation safety and to assess radiation safety practices undertaken by practicing Pediatric Dentists in Bengaluru city. Materials and methods: A questionnaire survey was conducted amongst practicing Pediatric dentists in Bengaluru city. A questionnaire containing 29 questions was distributed among 80 Pedodontists in dental clinics and practicing academicians in various Dental colleges in Bengaluru to obtain information regarding demographic details, knowledge about radiation safety, and radiation safety practices. The responses were scored, the results were tabulated and subjected to statistical analysis Results: From the study,it was found that 53% of the practicing Pedodontists had good knowledge on radiation safety. Female Pedodontists had better knowledge and radiation safety practices than males and Pedodontists seem to neglect radiation safety with increasing years of practice. Conclusion: Despite having good awareness about radiation safety and the need for a radiation safe practice, Pedodontists in Bengaluru city have failed to implement the same in their routine clinical practice. Therefore by avoiding negligence towards radiation safety practice we can prevent the cumulative adverse effects of radiation.

  35. Gyan Ranjan and Akshata Jain

    Bioenergy as a source of sustainable energy production from organic wastes has exaggerated research in this area in the past few years. Bio-ethanol, bio-diesel, and bio-electricity produced from a hybrid bioreactor consisting a combination of the fermentor, photobioreactor, and microbial fuel cell, has shown a promising result in producing eco-friendly fuel with economical benefits. Apart from the energy production, these systems have been used in waste water treatment, feeds for animals, beverages, and production of commercial gases like biogas (methane from anaerobic digester), oxygen, nitrogen etc. by employing advanced technology. However many drawbacks are also there in the system which can be resolved by producing genetically engineered strains and use of advanced techniques in the processing like pretreatment and isolation of the bioenergy from the system and use of advanced probes for better conduction of the current in microbial fuel cell. We conclude that for economical and effective alternative source of sustainable energy, the hybrid bioreactor can be a potential future with further more advancement.

  36. Soma Prabha, A. and Prabakaran, V

    Lactic acid bacteria (LAB) is defined as live microorganism, when administered in adequate amount confer a health benefit on the host. Raw cow milk was serially diluted, spread plated, sub cultured and pure cultured. Screening of isolates (MK-2 and MK-4) was performed on the basis of zone formation and characterized. The morphological and biochemicalcharacterization was carried out and it was identified as MK-2 (Lactobacillus sp) and MK-4 (Bacillus cereus). Both the organism were screened for Folateproduction by inoculating the microorganism in folate production media. The highest Folatedetected for MK-2 (Lactobacillus), followed by MK-4 (Bacillus cereus) revealed 150 μg/ml of Folate. In strain MK-4 showed 50-60 μg/ml of Folate production. Further study extended for Folateproducing lipase enzyme from MK-2 and MK-4 revealed negative resultfor lipase. Whereas, positive result was obtained for protease enzyme by MK-2 and MK-4. Antimicrobial activity of Lactobacillusagainst selective bacterial pathogens revealed maximum activity was observed against Pseudomonas aeruginosa, E.coli, Staphylococcus aureus, and Shigella flexneri. The antifungal activityrevealed maximum activity against Aspergillus niger and Aspergillus flavus. Probiotic properties of Lactobacillussptested against different concentration of ox bile with MK-2 and MK-4 strain showed resistance against ox bile. The strain MK-4 showed maximum survivability. In another study to assess the probiotic property such as NaCl tolerance, MK-4 strain showed maximum tolerance of6.5%of NaCl. MK-2 showed maximum growth at pH7. The total protein content of folic acid (bacteriocin) produced by MK-2 (Lactobacillus sp) revealed 2.01μg/ml, and the total protein content ofMK-4 showed 1.97 μg/ml protein content respectively. Determination of molecular weight of folic acid for the strain (MK-2 and MK-4) revealed 46 KDa and 30 KDaby SDS PAGE analysis. HPLC analysis was performed to analyze the metabolite present and it was confirmed with prominent peaks with retention time of 1.801 indicate the folic acid metabolite.

  37. : Gopalakrishnan, T., Dharmaratne, M. P. J., Pieris, R. M., Wanasekara, L. and Senadheera, R. K

    Panchawalkala is a poly-herbal formulation comprising of equal parts of the dried stem barks of five medicinal plants named, Ficus benghalensis, Ficus racemosa, Ficus religiosa, Ficus tsiela and Garcinia cambogia. The direct aqueous and sequential organic extracts of Panchawalkala were obtained by 3 extraction procedures to represent hot and cold conditions. The preliminary antibacterial screening was carried out using Cut-well diffusion method and minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) was determined using micro-broth dilution assay. The antioxidant activity was determined using 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH)radical. The highest antibacterial activity was demonstrated by the hot aqueous extract obtained by the reflux method. Both sequential methanol extracts (Soxhlet method and Bottle-shaker method) and hot aqueous extract demonstrated high DPPH radical scavenging activity compared to L-ascorbic acid and other tested solvent extracts.

  38. Saravanaraja, M., Aruna Devi, P. S. and Ananda Kumaran, S.

    Water is the elixir of life. Modern human society not interested with the environmental quality, especially with water bodies. Careless attitude towards inland water bodies lead to not only the extinction of precious water ecosystems but also the unimaginable loss of biodiversity. In this aspect most affected groups are aquatic organisms and floral species which highly depended on the inland ecosystem. Most studies have clearly explains the impact of water quality on the aquatic organisms. However, this study intended to high light the impact of water quality on highly useful ethano-botanical species. Odathurai lake of Erode district, South India is a selected study area. Odathurai lake latitude is 11o45’ 28” N and Longitude is 77o 51’ 75” E. By the analysis of water and sediment quality and recording of medicinal plant species, the present investigation addressed that the lake ecosystem is very much affected by urbanization and anthropological activities.

  39. Chaudhari, M. H., Patel S. R. and Chaudhari V. B.

    The experiment was conducted on sesame comprised of a half-diallel set of seven parents and their 21 crosses and it was laid out in randomized block design with three replications at college farm, N. M. College of agriculture, Navsari Agricultural University, Navsari during Late kharif, 2016-2017. The observations such as days to flowering and days to maturity, plant height (cm)], number of branches per plant, number of capsules per plant, capsule length, seed yield per plant (g), 1000 seed weight (g), harvest index (%) and oil content (%) carried out on randomly selected five competitive individual plants. The data were subjected to analyze combining ability and presence of both additive and non-additive gene effects. Combining ability analysis revealed presence of both additive and non-additive gene effects. The estimates of general combining ability effects suggested that parents AT 231 and AT 255 were good general combiners for seed yield per plant and its related attributes. As regards, specific combining ability effects cross combinations AT 242 x AT 255 (2.71) followed by AT 231 x G. Til 3 (2.23) and AT 231 x ASRT 8 (1.63) were significant positive effect for seed yield per plant. Looking to the role of additive as well as non-additive gene effects in the inheritance of most of the traits in the population under study, suggest diallel selective mating followed by heterosis breeding and biparental mating or recurrent selection breeding approaches for creation of more variability and to identify desirable transgressive segregants for further improvement of yield and yield component traits. On the basis of per se performance and combining ability effects for seed yield per plant and its components, parents AT 231 and AT 255 and the hybrids AT 242 x AT 255, AT 231 x G. Til 3 and AT 231 x ASRT 8 were identified superior hybrids for their large scale testing.

  40. Dr. Nitu Sharma and Dr. Rajni Dhingra

    The present research was conducted to study the perception of primary school teachers regarding the importance of divergent thinking skills for children. The sample for the present study comprised 100 teachers (both male and female) of 200 children who were categorized as HP (High Performer) and LP (Low Performer) on the basis of their performance on Divergent Production Ability Test (DPAT). A Self devised Teacher Perception Questionnaire was used to assess the views of teachers regarding divergent thinking ability of children. The results of the study revealed that almost all the sample teachers were in favour of providing freedom of expression to children. It was observed that a large number of teachers showed acceptance towards multiple ideas of children and appreciated original ideas of their students. Opportunities in the form of material and activities were provided to children through brainstorming, word games, sharing activities with children. The teachers were of the view that these activities help in enhancing creative thinking of children. Most of the sample teachers appeared to be positive in their perception about divergent thinking. The positive perception of teachers for divergent thinking skill can be constructively used to harness this skill among children in the class room situations. The study has implications for children, parents, teachers and professionals in the field of child development and can be used to provide inputs for enhancement of divergent thinking skills among children.

  41. Pranav Pitre, Sanjay Divekar, Pramod Hanamgond and Purandara, B. K

    Water quality evaluation is of paramount importance due to the population explosion and unprecedented industrial growth. In Indian context, water quality is a serious problem in many of the river basins due to unplanned development of urban and semi-urban areas. One of the major cities which is fast developing in Karnataka is Belagavi (previously known as Belgaum) which is located on the north western part of Karnataka. In the recent time, the Government of Karnataka has planned to set up many processing industries in the vicinity of Belagavi to meet the growing needs of the region and to ease out the pressure on the already existing industrial hubs in Karnataka State. Malaprabha, a tributary of river Krishna, originates in the hills of Western ghats (near Kankumbi) and flows through Khanapur and Bailahongal taluks and the water is impounded by constructing a dam at Naviluteerth in Saundatti taluk. It is planned to supply water from Malaprabha reservoir to Hubli-Dharwad city. During the last decade, lot of anthropogenic activities such as deforestation and excessive agricultural activities are ongoing in many parts of the catchment. Therefore, it is a matter of concern to the public with regard to the quality of surface water of Malaprabha river and groundwater in the adjoining catchment area. Considering the significance of water quality of the river, surface water samples were collected during Pre- and Post-monsoon seasons of 2013 and 2014. Samples were collected from selected locations and analyzed for both physical and chemical constituents in the laboratory. The results indicate that the majority of the water quality parameters which includes, bicarbonates, sulphates, chlorides, sodium, potassium, calcium and magnesium are within the permissible limits. However, water quality parameters showed spatial and temporal variations with respect to land use/land cover changes.

  42. Kai. Kannan and Vijaya Kumar

    Concrete is the very important product used in all types of constructions. It plays a very vital role in every construction. Concrete is a freshly mixed material which can be molded into any shape. The relative quantities of cement fine aggregate coarse aggregate and water mixed together control the properties in the wet state as in the hardened state. Cement is manufactured in factories and it is made available up to the required optimum quantities for the construction field. But aggregates are naturally available and their availability is limited one. Since the construction industry is developing very fast the requirement of concrete and their constituent materials are also increasing day by day. Hence the need becomes inevitable to find various alternate means for the aggregates and accordingly the researchers are going on in this way. Now a day practically it seems most probably coarse aggregate is available without any scarcity. But the availability of fine aggregate becomes difficult day by day. Fine aggregate is taken from the river beds which are the natural sources for storing the river water. Hence more than the certain quantity of fine aggregate cannot be taken from natural resources. Hence the need arises to find alternative for the fine aggregate. The material which is known as pond ash is available ash waste byproduct material from the thermal power plants. In India most of the thermal power plants use wet system for disposal of ash. The bottom ash from the boilers and the fly ash from the precipitators are mixed together and pumped off in the form of slurry to lagoons, where water is drained of or recycled. This material is being referred as pond ash. In this project work the material pond ash is experimentally analyzed and studied for its suitability as replacement as fine aggregate in concrete. So far few researchers analyzed its suitability as fine aggregate by finding the compressive strength of concrete. But in this project work the split tensile strength of concrete and flexural strength of concrete were analyzed by replacing pond ash as fine aggregate.

  43. Dhanalakshmi, C. P., Safa Salim Juma Al Balushi, Johayna Nasser Salem Al-Ghannami, Jalila Mohamed Salim AlSiyabi and Farah Khatim Khamis Al-Mamari

    Silver (Ag)- Poly ethylene glycol-4000(PEG), Silver-PEG nanocomposite materials were synthesized by a microwave assisted method. The synthesized Silver-PEG nanocomposite contains weight percentage 50 (50 wt%) silver. The Silver-poly ethylene glycol nanocomposite was characterized using Transmission electronic microscope (TEM), UV– visible and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). The UV absorption pattern indicated the presence of silver in the nanocomposite. The spherical morphology of silver nanoparticles was confirmed from the TEM image. FTIR spectroscopy was used for the structural elucidation. Silver- PEG nanocomposite exhibits good antimicrobial and antitumor properties. The reduction of silver ions into silver nanoparticles was achieved in starch solution and poly (ethylene glycol)-4000(PEG -4000). The incorporation of silver nanoparticles in the PEG material was confirmed by Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy analysis. In addition, the formed silver nanoparticles have an average particle size of ~ 16.5nm was observed by Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM). The anti-microbial silver- PEG nanocomposite was demonstrated significant effects against Escherichia coli (E. coli), Pseudomonas, Staphylococcus. Therefore, the present study explained the in situ preparation of Silver-poly ethylene glycol nanocomposite material and it was used in biomedical applications as antimicrobial packaging and wound dressing and antibacterial materials.

  44. Suresh Kumar Gigoo and Awadhesh Kumar Yadav

    21st Century is proving to be a huge paradox. While prosperity is getting relatively democratized globally, however it is also creating a new huge, huge problem never witnessed by mankind before. The Garbage Crisis is hitting all the cities, towns, rivers, lakes, seas, roads all around the globe threatening the basic well being and health across all species of living beings. Developing Countries are finding it more and more difficult to cope with the crisis. In India it has taken the top politicians and intellectuals to make us realize the gargantuan level of problem. This paper will attempt to give ideas to solve the problem by highlighting upon the gradual successes of automobile industry ,in aligning and in compliance with increasingly stringent Emission norms, and then discussing the ideas of making India clean by launching massive amounts of Engineering resources and ideas to create pan India Swacch Bharat Green and Clean.

  45. Maryam Moghadami, Dr. Senapathy, M., Mohammad Hasanzadeh and Saeed Shokraian

    The collection of the literature on the particular discipline will determine the concept of promoting the academic quality of the discipline as well as community in general. Of course, all these intellectual contributions made by the researchers has been changed the both academic and society. The main objective of the study is to investigate the relationship between the literature growth contribution on scientific productivity in the field of psychiatry and mental health. We applied search strategy by using psychiatry term. We narrowed the search to 2000-2012. No language limitation was applied. SCOPUS library software was used to select the articles pertaining to the psychiatry discipline. The result, our search led to 27516 articles. The US, England and Germany were identified as leading countries in producing the psychiatry articles, respectively. Pearson correlation test results indicated that there is a direct correlation between scientific products and mental health index. In one word, the more science increases, the more human well-being rises. With increased scientific productivity, life expectancy increases and decrease mortality. Immunization is also increasing with scientific productivity increase and this is very important in reducing child mortality. This specific research study showed that there is a direct relationship between the growth of science and human welfare. With the growth and development of scientific infrastructure, also improve the people's health. The results of this research study can serve as a guiding document in the field of health and mental health.

  46. Kadam, B. D., Kadam, R. P., Pawar, G. S. and Supe, D. V

    The extension services needs a strong media support to cover widely placed farming population. Radio, television and printed material are the powerful tools in multidimensional transformation of horticultural information for the benefit of farmers. Among the various mass media used in a country like India, newspaper occupies a place of prominence because of its low cost per copy, wide circulation and variety of contents. Along with non-horticultural information, horticultural information is also published and read by the extension personnel’s, farmers, scientists and rural people. Majority (87.75%) of newspaper space was allotted to the agricultural information as against about (5.21%) for horticultural information . news story topped (20.89 %), and followed by photo news on farming (16.30%), regular agricultural features (13.42%), editorial on farming (09.74%), agricultural articles (08.80 %), and Any others (07.90 %).

  47. Usman Ugboga Koku

    The purpose of any state is for the preservation of property of their citizens that is, lives, liberties and estates. State and government exist to provide security, welfare, well being and happiness to the citizens living in it territorial jurisdiction. This can be achieve through maintenance of law and order, promotion of awareness of human rights. In any form, human rights violations by individual, group of individuals or state is considered as a crime against humanity. Human rights violations include the abuse of the rights to life, lack of welfare, sexual harassment, and molestation of young girls, extra-judicial killings, displacement of people from their communities and places of their origin. Rights to education, shelter and health also violated. Therefore, the paper sought to examine the dynamics of state and human rights violations by using mainly secondary sources of data. Using Nigeria as a reference point. The paper argued that, despite that Nigeria is a signatory to international human rights charters and conventions, but still human rights violation is on the increase in the country, finally the paper suggests how human rights violations will be put to an end in the country.

  48. Dr. Allam Joseph Praveen Kumar

    The Economy and Financial needs of the Family made the women to come out the home and work for livelihood. They try to perform various jobs and sometimes may opt for the difficult jobs in order to satisfy the above need. The present study was on Female Police Personnel which was conducted in Telangana State Police Department, TS, India particularly on Women Police Constables and Head Constables. The study has aimed to find the impact of family Support on Work life Balance. Children age category, Elder parents/in-laws health care on Work Life Balance of Women Employees are also included in the study. Various Statistical tools were used to meet the above mentioned objectives. The results revealed that Women with the responsibility of elder parents‟ health need to be given a helping hand to balance their personal and professional works.

  49. Ramaprabou, V.

    The purpose of the present study was to study the effect of perceived social support on the subjective well being of the working women who are living away from their families. The role of educational attainment on the subjective well being of the participants was also investigated. The sample for the present study consisted of total of 80 working women who are living away from their families and living in the hostels. The perceived social support scale developed and standardized by Zimet, Dahlem, Zimet, and Farley (1988) and subjective well being scale developed by Rup Nagpal and Helmut Sell (1985) were used to collect data from the respondents. Results indicated that there is a difference in the subjective well being of the working women on the basis of their perceived social support. Also, it was found that the respondents do differ in their subjective well being on the basis of their educational attainment

  50. Bindu, K. B. and Jayapal, G

    Morphometric analysis of a river basin is useful for understanding the hydrological and geomorphological behavior of a river basin. The hydrological and geomorphological characteristic of any river is closely related to its morphology indicating its shape, drainage pattern, stream order, bifurcation ratio etc. Each and every river basin has its own unique morphometric characteristics which make it differ from other river basins. The present study is based on the morphometric analysis of Kadalundi river basin using geospatial technology. Kadalundi river basin is a sixth order stream. The drainage pattern is complex with considerable variation in spatial arrangements, which are controlled by topography, slope, rock type and structural deformations. There exist a relationship between the morphological characteristics of a basin and its runoff potential and infiltration capacity. This relationship is utilized to understand the hyrological potentiality of Kadalundi river basin. Based on the runoff potential and infiltration capacity the sub basins are categorized as area of low, moderate and high priority. This study is more useful for planning and implementing river basin development plan in Kadalundi river basin.

  51. Mohana Murali, S. and Dr. Chandra Sekhar Naidu, D

    The introduction of economic reforms in India, need arose for the liberalization of Indian Financial System which is broadly based on the recommendations on Narsimhaman Committees. Thus, Capital Market reforms constituted important part of economic reforms. Capital market reforms have their main objectives of achieving efficiency in the allocation of resources by liberalizing the existing stringent controls. SEBI came into existence with the objective of regulating the functioning of both primary and secondary market and of providing Investor Protection and Investor interest and Regulation of Financial Intermediaries in India. The Securities and Exchange Board of India which was set up as an administrative body in April 1988 was given statutory status on 30.1.1992 by promulgation of SEBI Ordinance which has since become an Act of Parliament. The Securities and Exchange Board of India (SEBI) with it’s over two decades of existence has made considerable dent in the Capital market through its various developmental and regulatory measures for investor protection and healthy development and regulation of the capital market as well as the Financial Intermediaries. According to the preamble to the SEBI Act, the objective of setting up SEBI is to protect the interest of investors in securities and to promote the development and to regulate the Security market. SEBI has thus three objectives or duties cast upon it by the Act- • To protect the interests of investors in securities, • To promote the development of securities market, • To regulate the securities market.

  52. George-Anokwuru Chioma Chidinma

    This paper empirically examined the impact of International trade on Economic Growth in Nigeria from 1980 to 2015. Nigeria is still experiencing macroeconomic instability and the benefits of International trade are not yet felt. The aim of the study is to investigate the effect of International Trade on Economic Growth using Foreign Direct Investment, Balance of Payments, Exchange rate, Trade Openness and Interest rate as International Trade Variables, while Gross Domestic product served as Economic Growth Variable. Cointegration and Error Correction Technique was employed to establish the long term relationship among the variables. The Findings showed that BOP and exchange rate are not significant, Interest rate showed a direct relationship with GDP while Degree of openness appears to be positively related to GDP. FDI has an inverse relationship with GDP. The study concludes that International Trade has not contributed maximally to economic growth in Nigeria and recommends amongst others that Government should promote local industries and diversify the export base of the nation.

  53. Hishochy Delgado Mendoza

    In my work as professor of Visual Arts and Semiotics in the career of Design with a mention in Visual Communication of the PUCE SD, I felt the need to investigate epistemological and methodological issues that allow me to develop the interpretation and construction of critical discourse. That is why I intend to support some theories and strategies - from a narrative perspective - that strengthen the critical view of the visual artistic object.

  54. Mohammad Mahdi Shaye Sani, Aziz Sadeghi, Arezoo Hadimanesh and SamanSorbi

    This article focuses on the industrial sector that is said to be low-tech or completely non-investigation and often has been formed the whole industry. The focus of this research, above all, is created by the critique of the mainstream of innovation, focusing on its high level technology. However, industry research with low and medium technology (low and medium technology industries) can structurally demonstrate that the completely non-research industries are innovative surprisingly, and play an essential role for the development of modern economies. Following up on the background, the industrial sector has gained the front-end innovation capability with low and medium technology (low and medium technology industries), in intelligent trending of available technology and existing knowledge, and their combination with high technology components. Therefore, the findings of the research presented here, come to the forefront in the hypothesis that hybrid innovations open up hopeful development perspectives for traditional industries. It has been pointed out that combined innovations are innovations, based on market-specific reforms of available technologies, and existing knowledge, as well as features based on their combination with new high-tech components. The basis of the methodology of reasoning is a systematic analysis of the industrial, industrial and industrial research of low and medium technology, which emanates from almost the past 10 years.

  55. Thankian Kusanthan and Margaret Malambo

    Throughout history, child sexual abuse has been a global phenomenon. Various studies have been documented on the causes and outcomes of such an act on a child. This study however aimed at investigating the gender differentials in nature and experiences of child sexual abuse. Using various methods and techniques like descriptive designs, in-depth interviews and qualitative and quantitative methods, the study based its research on 70 respondents, 10 boys and 60 girls, between the ages 8 and 18. The respondents were all sexually abused victims at the Young Women’s Christian Association (YWCA) in Lusaka. According to the study, it was found that while the female sex was most prone to sexual abuse, boys experienced and disclosed their experience longer than girls. It is for this reason that children should be awared on the issues of child sexual abuse from a tender age. Thus providing them with information on what to do when a perpetrator approaches them, how to protect themselves and what to do if sexually abused. This would also lessen on the misconception society imposes on both sexes, particularly boys.

  56. I-Chan Kao

    This study explores the needs of elderly learners regarding the curriculum design and teaching strategies of flipped learning, summarizes the conclusions and suggestions, and offers suggestions on how to adapt the learning and learning strategies of elderly learners to improve their interest, willingness to learn, learning outcomes, meet their learning needs, and achieve the learning objectives.

  57. Dr. James M. Malusha

    Background: Aflatoxicosis resulting from consumption of maize contaminated with aflatoxins mainly due to poor harvesting and storage of grains, poses a significant public health problem in many countries. Furthermore Aflatoxins related disease outbreaks, associated with a degree of mortality at times have been reported in Makueni County in Kenya. Objective: To determine maize pre-storage conditions and practices that influence development of aflatoxin in Makueni County, Kenya. Study design: A comparative descriptive study conducted in Kibwezi and Kilome sub-counties of Makueni County, Kenya. Methods: Four hundred and fifty households (225 from each study site) which had maize in household were randomly sampled and household heads or their representatives interviewed using interview schedules. Are presentative sub-sample of households had their maize samples taken for moisture content and aflatoxin determination. Results: The results showed that households allowed their maize to stay for a mean period of 25 days in low altitude and 45 days in high altitude after attaining maturity, and overwhelming majority (over 90%) of households removed outer covering (husks) of maize cobs during harvesting. Majority (96.3%) of households in both study sites dried their maize in open sunshine (sun drying) after harvest with majority of them (over 75%) placing maize on top of plastic sheeting material to avoid contamination, and to make their maize dry properly and faster. The drying time for maize was shorter in low altitude (mean14 days) than in high altitude (mean17 days). The study findings further showed that duration of maize in the field before harvest was significantly positively correlated with insect pests’ infestation in maize while in storage (P<0.05). Results further revealed significant negative correlation between duration of maize in field prior to harvest and moisture content in maize (P<0.05). The placing of maize on top of impervious sheeting material/layer during drying was associated with proper maize storage (P<0.05). Duration of drying of maize after harvest especially in higher altitude area had significant negative correlation with aflatoxin content in maize as well as in moisture content (P<0.05). Conclusion: Some maize harvesting and drying practices are associated with insect pests’ infestation as well as certain aspects of aflatoxin contamination in maize. Thus adoption and improvement of these practices will more likely contribute to proper maize handling and storage with subsequent reduction of aflatoxin contamination of maize.

  58. Maria de Fátima Duarte de Holanda, Luana Sheilla Muniz de Holanda, Antônio Carlos Borges Martins, Flávia Luiza Costa do Rego, Bruna Sayonara do Nascimento Miranda and Ana Karênina de Freitas Jordão do Amaral

    Introduction: This case study describes the psychological follow-up of an elderly patient (90 years), attended for three consecutive years. In the initial consultation, the family informed, as complaint, depression and medical diagnosis of Alzheimer's syndrome. The follow-up went with monthly case study with professionals in related fields: nursing, occupational therapy and phonoaudiology. The termination occurred when the patient affected by lung disease was hospitalized. Objective: to describe the follow-up and the outcome of the case through the psychological listening of the history preserved from the past, contemplating the language to active the cognition and to slow down the evolutionary loss of functional capacity. Method: case study whose attendance resorted to psychological listening, research, interpretation of what was said in the sessions, family orientation on the general care of the patient. The dialogue between psychology, nursing, phonoaudiology and occupational therapy through monthly meetings was relevant to the achieved results. Results: The sensitivity of listening and appreciation of affective aspects awoke in the patient better speech production, thus stimulating memory and cognition, favoring communication in family and social context, consequently improving the quality of life. Conclusion: The services contributed to the ressignification of the subject's life. Since the beginning of the treatment, over the months, there were significant improvements: in functional capacity, memory, language and family interaction.

  59. Ruthika Patil

    Most challenging area of: Oral cavity to place implants is maxillary posterior region. Factors leading to failure of implants in this region include; unfavorable anatomical region, decreased bone quality, resorbtion pattern following tooth loss and enlargement of antrum with age. One of the options for rehabilitating posterior maxillary resorbed ridges was the use of posterior cantilever on implant prosthesis. But cantilever are avoided for they lead to, screw loosening, fracture and bone loss. This following paper reviews all basic and advanced implant options for maxillary posterior resorbed ridges. Purpose: The standard of care regarding tooth loss replacement is evolving towards the use of dental implants. The practice of fixed bridges and partial prosthesis can be and are iatrogenic to the existing teeth and bone. Because of this principle the emphasis has focused on optimization of the alveolus to receive a root form implant. Dental implants are a viable treatment option when there is sufficient quantity and quality of bone to achieve the desired functional and esthetic results. Initially, malposition or short implants were used in areas of deficient bone volume. This often resulted in compromised prosthetic design and poor long term treatment outcomes. Therefore, the procedures for bone augmentation and implants options for posterior maxillary resorbed ridges are put forward in this the review. Materials and method: This theoretical and review paper focuses on bone augmentations procedures and implant options for maxillary posterior resorbed ridges. Results: Although the management of posterior maxillae presents many challenges for implant practitioners, progress on no of the fronts have made it increasingly possible to create successful bone anchored restorations in this region predictably. Conclusion: When atleast 8mm of bone is available then conventional implant can be planned, if not, variety of bone augmentation procedures are employed. Alternatively the use of implants which draw support from more distant bony sites such as pterygomaxillarysite, zygomatic bone have also been proven successful.

  60. Genale Wabe, Tefera Belachew and Gizachew Tilahun

    Background: Donation of different medical equipment to developing nations from different international and multinational organizations has been currently increasing. Donation of medical equipment to developing countries account 80% of the total equipment in their facilities, more than 70% of the donated medical equipment found out of service in Sub-Saharan African countries. Hence, this study was conducted to assess the utility of donated medical equipment and associated factors in Jimma University specialized hospital as a base line research. Objectives: To asses utility of the donated medical equipment found in Jimma University Specialized Hospital. Method: An institution based descriptive cross-sectional study was carried out from March to April 2015, Data were analyzed using SPSS for windows version 16.0, Chi-Square test and binary logistic regression were used to determine the association between the different factors. Result: A total sample of 180 donated medical equipment was included in the study. The result showed 81(45%) were in utilization 99(55%) were found out of service. Availability of a local expert was one of the factors predicting utilization (OR, 1.997 with CI of 95% 1.3, 4.2). availability of spare parts in local market were also found to predict utilization (OR 1.1212 with 95% CI of 1.2,2.2). Equipment condition and availability of accessories on arrival to the facility were also found to predict utilization of the equipment. Conclusion: Majority of the equipment’s obtained by donation are found out of service. Lack of skilled professionals in the institution, absence of spare parts in domestic market, condition of the equipment on arrival, absence of maintenance manual and accessory along machine are the predictors for utilization of donated medical equipment for intended purpose.

  61. Shahinlal, N., Anil Saxena, Suman Khangarot and Tintith Ansari

    India account for nearly 30% of global Tb burden (1).Tb account up to 4% acute pericarditis and 7% cases of cardiac tamponade (2). Here we report a case of 15 year old male who presented with fever, productive cough, dyspnoea since 15 days and eventually diagonosed as pulmonary Tb with cardiac tamponade after radiological and pericardial fluid analysis. He underwent emergency pericardiocentesis and responded well to anti tuberculosis treatment.

  62. Ugwuanyi, Daniel C., Chiegwu, Hyacinth U., Anakwue Angel-Mary, C. and Ebubechukwu, O. S

    Radiation exposure have been proven to be one of the major means of diagnosis which have gone a long way in improving health care services in diagnosis, treatment and patient management in severe cases. The aim of this study is to ascertain patients’ awareness and attitude towards radiation exposure in Nnamdi Azikiwe University Teaching Hospital Nnewi, Anambra state Nigeria. This is a prospective cross sectional survey design of 284 respondents consisting of (50.4% male and 49.6% female) using a well-structured questionnaire. The result of this study indicated that 61.3% of the respondents had good academic qualification. 67.6% and 74.6% respectively showed respondents significant awareness and knowledge to the use of ionizing radiation. 27.5% where of the opinion that CT and Fluoroscopy uses higher ionizing radiation dose. 8.1% of the respondents agreed that one of the effect of radiation exposure is fetal anomaly. While 64.4% of the respondents feel relaxed in the diagnostic rooms. Therefore, a higher percentage of 74.6% revealed that the referring clinicians explained the importance of radiation exposure for their examination.The study further revealed that there is significant good knowledge and positive attitude to the use of ionizing radiation and towards radiation exposure within the population.

  63. Imane Boujoual and Abderrahman Andoh

    Purpose: Lately immediate loading of implants at the time of placement is becoming a viable treatment alternative, mainly in the aesthetic zone when replacing one or two teeth in the anterior maxilla. The main advantages are the reduction of patient discomfort, treatment duration and costs. In fact the patient could enter with an edentulismand leave the same day with an aesthetically acceptable implant-supported crown. The aim of this study is to compare the success rates and complications of immediately loaded implants with those of implants that were leaved to osseointegrate prior to loading. Materials and Methods: A systematic review of the literature was conducted through the MEDLINE (PubMed) database between 03/01/2007 and 03/01/2017 and completed by a hand search in ebsco database. Only the randomised controlled trials (RCT)were included. The following combination of MeSH terms was used: "Immediate Dental Implant Loading"[Majr] AND delayed implant loading AND complications. Two reviewers achieved screening and data abstraction. Results: The first search through PubMed provided 17 papers. Then, after selecting only the randomised controlled trials we obtained 7 papers, the hand search yielded 7 (RCT) out of which only 5 met the inclusion criteria after full text selection. Therefore we obtained 12 articles were found potentially right to be included (after full text selection). The most significant results were: It was suggested to under dimension the drilling to achieve a higher torque value leading to stability of the implant and thus to a better outcome for immediate loading. The occurrence of complications depended on bone quality, implant type, implant dimensions, site and timing of placement, and splinting. Most of the authors concluded no statistically significant differences between the immediate and the delayed procedure, and stated that both of them are viable options. Conclusion: Within the limitations of our review, it can be concluded that implants are, nowadays, able to obtain high torque values and acceptable success rates with excellent soft tissue healing when immediately loaded, as long as the patient selection is appropriate

  64. Ashish Kumar Jaiswal, Sukhvir Singh and Amiya Nand Dev Goswami

    It has always been a query in the minds of the homoeopaths and scientists, what actually happens when the magical strokes given to the dilutions of the homoeopathic medicines during the process of potentization. The latent inherent curative powers of the drugs are aroused and increased by the methods of potentization, the crucial stage of which are succussions and trituration. We have carried out a fundamental research on the effect of succussions during the process of potentisation by analysing the Mercurious Solubilis 200 under the high resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM). The observations recorded in two different steps i.e. first “without succussion” and then “with succussions”. Microstructural features associated with the 10 stroked sample of Mercurious Solubilis 200 diluted with alcohol in the ratio 1:99 were observed under the HRTEM operated at 300KV and it was found that at different magnifications depict the presence of very fine particles agglomerated in a particular manner. Majority of the particles are found to have circular/round shape particles whose size varying between 3nm to 15nm. Variation in size and shape of these particles have taken place due to the strokes applied on the diluted solution of Mercurious Solubilis 200 as per specified method of homeopathy procedure. High density of nano sized particles observed for Mercurious Solubilis 200 after the 10 stroke is expected to be the reason of high potency of the drug and quick response to disease as experienced by the homoeopathic practitioners.

  65. Gitanjali Devi and Jisna George

    Mushrooms have medicinal properties and have great demand in pharmaceutical industries. Mushrooms have been collected for eating throughout the world and people become ill or died when they consumed poisonous mushrooms. Poisonous mushrooms have different types of toxic substances that should not be consumed without proper identification.

  66. Ghizlane El Ouazzani, Abdelwhab Kacimi, Kawtar Benjaout, Anass Hbali, Nabila Ismaili and Noha El Ouafi

    The combination of interventricular communication and left ventricular aneurysm is a rare situation. The interventricular communication is a lethal complication of myocardial infarction; it is a diagnostic and therapeutic emergency; it is observed in the anterior infarction and it is associated with a poor prognosis, the treatment involves surgical repair. The rupture of the basal portion of the septum is much rarer. Through the case of a patient who was hospitalized in our service, we illustrate the deadly complications of myocardial infarction while discussing its rare localization in the inferior left ventricular wall, its clinical, electrical and echocardiographic characteristics, as well as its rapidly fatal evolution without emergency care.

  67. : Sujatha Peethala, Sridevi Garapati and Appala Naidu Sambangi

    Background: Medical students and practicing physicians, in comparison with the general population and that of other professions, are exposed to academic and professional stress and therefore are vulnerable to psychosocial health problems and certain specific dysfunctions that may compromise their physical, mental, and social health. Objectives: To determine the prevalence of depression, anxiety and stress among the undergraduate medical students. Methods: A cross-sectional questionnaire based study was conducted among undergraduate second and final year part I medical students from Rangaraya Medical College, Kakinada, Andhra Pradesh, India using Depression Anxiety and Stress Scale (DASS) 21 in August 2012. Results: Data analysis was done on Statistical Package for the Social Sciences SPSS version 16. A total of 330 students participated in the study. Our study found that the overall prevalence of depression was 45.4%, anxiety was 64.9% and stress was 40.0% among all participated medical students. Conclusion: The higher level of psychiatric morbidity depression, anxiety and stress among undergraduate medical students warrants needs for strategic plans to alleviate depression, anxiety and the stressors right from the time they join medical school and has to be continued till they finish the course.

  68. Mrs. Krishnaveni, C., Dr. Roopakulkarni, Dr. Sridevi N.S. and Dr. Venkateshu K.V

    Introduction: Dissection as a part of anatomy brings students to a close encounter with human mortality. They experience a variety of emotional reactions during their first exposure to cadavers. Dissection forming an integral part of knowledge helps in developing a tactile appreciation of the structure of human body unlike learning from prosected specimens and computerized teaching. Methods: In order to assess the level of excitement or apprehension we prepared a questionnaire with 15 questions 14 were to be answered on a Likert’s scale and 1 was open ended. These questionnaires were distributed to 600 students over the period of 4 years (2011 to 2014 admissions). Statistical analysis was done. Results: Out of 522 students, 62% (324) were excited with dissection of cadavers and 20% (108) were apprehensive. 76% (393) students felt that dissection cannot be replaced by the computer assisted teaching. Student- teacher interaction helps them to understand better and cope with the varied reactions due to formalin odour. Conclusion: Dissection is associated with a variety of emotional reactions like excitement, fear, odour and some physical symptoms. A better teacher student relationship with prior interaction helps in overcoming the said reactions.

  69. Dr. B. S. Jagadish Pai, Dr. Ranjeeta Alexander, Dr. Nithya R. Krishnan, Dr.Radhika, B. and Dr. Anish Varkey

    Periodontitis is a group of inflammatory diseases that affect the connective tissue attachment and supporting bone around the teeth. A number of possible pathogens have been detected on the basis of their association with disease progression and also because of their possession of virulence factors which can damage the tissues. Attempts to relate microbiological data to clinical events have proved difficult due to the variability and unreliability of clinical diagnostic methods. “Periodontal diagnosis” is an important tag that a clinician ties on the periodontal disease condition of the patient, capturing all his past experience with the condition in question. Currently, the clinical parameters that are used to diagnose active periodontitis exhibit poor accuracy and reliability. Modern in-office diagnostic methods are clinical parameters of destructive periodontal disease such as longitudinal assessment of changes in pocket depth or attachment level, radiographic bone loss, bleeding on probing, suppuration, plaque scores, tooth mobility and patient reports of pain to detect disease. This review is an attempt to summarize the current status of chair side diagnostic tests in the field of periodontology. For that last 10 years articles were collected through search engine.

  70. Dr. Ragini Mehrotra, Dr. Jaya Patel and Dr. Nirendra Rai

    Acute intermittent porphyria is an unusual pathology with potentially severe consequences when not detectedearly. The porphyrias are a heterogeneous group of rare, primarily hereditary, metabolic diseases caused by a partial deficiency in one of the eight enzymes involved in the hemebiosynthesis, that can lead to severe disease that requires early diagnosis to avoid complications. The frequency of the disease is low and its association with pregnancy unusual, but it is a good time for patients carrying develop the disease or suffer an exacerbation of the same, hence the vital importance of prophylaxis of the risk factors. Despite the fact that pregnancy in women suffering from AIP has to higher rates of morbidity and complications, close management throughout the pregnancy could ensure a good outcome. Since practitioners rarely encounter this disease process, it is commonly not considered in the differential diagnoses. AIP can be confused with other causes of acute abdominal disorders such as appendicitis with peritonitis or nephrolithiasis. Here we are discussing the case of a 24 years old pregnant women with Acute intermittent porphyria its consequences and poor obstetrics outcome.

  71. Bigazzi, M. and Greenberg, B

    For the first half a century since its discovery, the peptide hormone Relaxin (RLX) encountered little attention as it was considered a pregnancy hormone only producing interpubic ligament elongation and uterine quiescence. Recently, however, RLX has emerged as an intriguing biological and pharmacological agent a very potent and intriguing bioactive agent and new promising pharmacological tool. It resembles insulin and insulin-like growth factors, its receptors have been well characterized as has as its main mechanism of action through AMP and nitric oxide (NO). The hormone is secreted into blood by the corpus luteum in pregnancy and during ovulatory cycles, although paracrine secretion has been found in several organs of both sexes. As it is active in heart, brain, uterus, lungs, kidneys, mammary gland, etc., RLX deserves to be called a ‘pleiotropic hormone’ and its widespread activities are consistent with the concept that it acts as the general manager of pregnancy, devoted to controlling and adjusting the body’s response to the obligatory increase in foeto-maternal needs that occur. In addition, there is evidence that RLX is active outside of pregnancy and in both sexes, particularly on the cardiovascular system (CVS). Based on the potent effects of RLX on the heart, vessels and blood, the results of experimental studies and the recent data from clinical trial in acute heart failure (AHF)(5) and ischemic-cardiovascular diseases (iCVD)(6,7,8 ) RLX is now recognized as a physiologic cardiovascular hormone it’s role as a novel therapy treating cardiovascular disease is currently an area of intense investigation.

  72. Dr. Sunny Jain

    The main purpose of the study was to determine the causes for the breakage of complete dentures of patients reporting to the Department of Prosthodontics, SDM College of Dental Sciences and Hospital, Dharwad, Karnataka, India. Data collected from 200 patients reported for repair of their complete dentures. Data was collected from patients, aged between 30 to 80 years (Mean 55 plus/minus 25 years), from both the genders. Investigations were done on factors causing the breakage. After the analysis it was observed that the ratio of breakage of upper to lower denture was 1:3. Most breakages were common among males (55%). The most common reason being accidental dropping of the denture in case of the lower and improper fit and stability of the denture, improper arrangement and occlusion of the teeth for the upper one. Midline breakage was the most common site for breakage (60%). After analysis, the causes for the breakage were divided into material factors and clinical/technical factors. It was concluded that after denture insertion, instructions of denture care were required to be told to the patients to reduce mishaps, proper principles of denture fabrication were required for mechanical advantage of the denture – balanced occlusion, removal of interferences, reduction of stress concentration areas etc has to be followed. The use of high Impact acrylics and strengthened acrylic along with methods increasing breakage toughness of the conventional acrylic dentures are to be used.

  73. Dr. Akshat Sudhanshu, Dr. Naveed Anjum Qureshi, Dr. Surinder Singh Sodhi and Dr. Ankush Kaul

    India Abdominal surgeries are the most common procedure performed in general surgical practice. In emergency settings surgeries for intestinal obstruction, intestinal perforation(s), acute appendicitis are common whereas hepato-biliary, pancreatic diseases and gut malignancies are common indications for routine abdominal surgeries. All these procedures are prone to complications and may require redo surgery after them. Aims and objectives 1. To document the occurrence and pattern of redo procedures after abdominal surgeries, in elective and emergency setup. 2. To determine the spectrum of co-morbid factors and post-operative complications leading to redo procedure and their impact on the outcome in terms of morbidity and mortality. 3. To suggest plan(s) of management for future reference in light of findings and conclusions drawn from the present study. Material and methods: This study was conducted in the Post Graduate Department of Surgery, Government Medical College, Jammu. All the patients undergoing abdominal surgeries in Post Graduate Department of Surgery, GMC Jammu requiring re-exploration during the same admission or early post-operative period (six weeks) were included in the study. Results and conclusions: It is suggested that redo surgeries should be planned and executed at the earliest to minimise the resultant morbidity and mortality. In the era of modern critical care settings intensive post operative care and monitoring should improve the outcome following these procedures.

  74. Dr. Phulkar Prerna and Dr. Kotak Nirav

    Haemoglobin D trait (heterozygous form) is an abnormal haemoglobin variant which when present is clinically asymptomatic but its coinheritance with other haemoglobinopathies like haemoglobin S (Hb S) or thalassemia can cause sickle cell disease and chronic haemolytic anaemia of moderate severity. Also patients with haemoglobin D (Hb D) trait can pass the trait to their children. Hb D disease (homozygous form) is a rare disease and usually presents with mild haemolytic anaemia and mild to moderate splenomegaly. Case of a pregnant patient diagnosed incidentally with Hb D trait in her antenatal period posted for elective lower segment caesarean section has been reported.

  75. Dr. Sagarika Laad, Dr. Saroj Gupta, Dr. Mary Jenifa Tigga, Dr. Harpal Singh, Dr. Pranav Saluja and Dr. Parag Ramnani

    Purpose: To study the awareness and knowledge about glaucoma in patients presenting to ophthalmology outpatient department of at tertiary care hospital. Methods: A hospital based cross-sectional study was conducted on 300 patients attending ophthalmology outpatient department. A questionnaire was provided to the patients after a written informed consent to assess their awareness and knowledge levels of glaucoma On the basis of response, the answers were categorized in to three groups for awareness as fully aware, partially aware and not aware and for knowledge as good knowledge, fair knowledge and poor knowledge. Results: In present study, out of 300 patients, 147 were male and 153 were females. Two hundred and thirteen patients (71.0%) were from urban area and 87(29.0%) were from rural area. Most of the patients were literate (83.3%). Among literate patients, 68(27.2%) were aware about glaucoma, 98(39.2%) were partial aware and 84(33.0%) were not aware. Only 0.4% had good knowledge regarding glaucoma, 17.6% had fair and 82.0% had poor knowledge. Among illiterate patients, only 8% were aware of glaucoma. Conclusion: Thus, present study showed that there is poor awareness and knowledge about glaucoma among large population. Lack of education is the major factor. Urban patients were more aware as compare to rural. Literate male patients were more aware then illiterate patients.

  76. Khalikar, S. A., Mistry, G. D., Dange, S. P., Mahale, K. and Khalikar, A.

    Dental implants have become a predictable treatment option for restoring missing teeth. The successful outcome of any implant procedure depends on a series of patient related and procedure dependent parameters. Bone density has been suggested as one of the main factors influencing implant therapy success. Purpose: To compare the bone densities of maxillary and mandibular bones in pre and post-menopausal women. Methods: Data was obtained from cone beam computed tomography of 2 groups: 20 premenopausal women and 20 post-menopausal women. Bone density was measured in maxillary and mandibular posterior region using the CS 3D software. Group averages were calculated and compared. Results: a significant difference was found in the bone densities of 2 groups (p< 0.0001). Bone density of maxilla and mandible in post-menopausal women was less compared to pre-menopausal women. Conclusion: The bone density of post-menopausal women is less as compared to pre-menopausal women. Radiographic analysis of the bone using CBCT is recommended to plan ahead for the consequences and complications, which can arise later.

  77. Monika Khangwal, Monika Khokhar, Ravinder Solanki and Arjun Soni

    The purpose of this article is to present conservative nonsurgical successful endodontic treatment of an odontogenic cutaneous sinus tract with exuberant extraoral granulation tissue .This case report emphasises the need for more awareness in differential diagnosis of extraoral sinus tracts by dermatologists and other medical practitioners. In the case of a single chronic suppurative or nodulocystic facial lesion, a dental clinical examination as well as a radiological assessment of the maxillary and mandibular dentition should be performed to exclude any odontogenic origin thus preventing unnecessary multiple antibiotic and surgical interventions. Antibiotic therapy should never be administered without diagnosis of the underlying dental cause. Conservative non-surgical endodontic therapy may be the choice for an extraoral sinus tract of endodontic origin.

  78. Dr. Ramya Kumari, S., Dr. Krishna Kishore, K., Dr. Gopinadh, A. and Dr. Sandeep, Ch.

    Background: Dental implants offer several benefits over conventional tooth replacements. Angulated abutments or a combination of angulated and straight abutments were used to support prostheses. Implant placement relates to emergence profile of the implant prosthesis and use of preangulated abutments to fulfill esthetic and functional objectives in selected cases. Aim and Objective: The aim of the study was to evaluate stress patterns on the bone around an implant of vertical and angulated abutments using finite element analysis. The objective was to evaluate and compare the Von misesstress (overall stress) distribution of vertical (00) and angulated (100,200& 300) abutments in D2 and D3 types of density of bone. Materials and Method: This study was conducted using finite element method. Two models were generated to simulate the D2 and D3 density bone using the digitized data computed from the computer tomography scans. Four groups of models with 00,100,200 and 300 abutments were analysed in ANSYS software. Axial loads of 178N was applied on the cingulum area of all the models. Results: The results showed an increased magnitude of stresses of approximately 4.4 folds was observed at overall bone implant interface as angulations of abutments increased from 00 to 300 under axial loading in D2 and D3 density types of bone. Conclusion: This concludes that Von Mises stresses were higher in 300 angulated abutment and increases from 00, 100, 200 & 300 on axial loading of 178N. However there was no significant differences was observed in magnitude of stresses in both D2 and D3 types of bone.

  79. Dr. Vasudhara Rathwa, Dr. Shivlal Vishnoi and Dr. Sarath Chandran

    Pyogenic granuloma is a reactive inflammatory process in which there is a vigorous fibrovascular proliferation of the connective tissue, secondary to low-grade chronic irritant. It is an excessive growth of the oral tissue, which usually arises in response to nonspecific infection. This kind of oral growths mainly affects females than males although they can develop in people of all ages & also usually seen in pregnant women. This case report explains Pyogenic granuloma in a 22-year-old female patient, discussing the clinical and histopathologic features that discriminate this lesion of oral mucosa and management of this lesion.

  80. Badal Singh, Hina Kausar, Krishna Pandey, Anand, C., Alok Tripathi and Aditya Pratap Singh

    Introduction: Precise sonographic assessment of gestational age and fetal growth based on population specific references is essential for optimal obstetric management. This cross sectional study was conducted to establish ultrasound dating formulae in specified North Indian population. Methods: Fetal parameters in 583 singleton pregnant females were ultrasonographically measured for subsequent statistical analysis. Results: The means and standard deviations of biparietal diameter, head circumference, abdominal circumference and femur length for each gestational age (derived from LMP) were calculated. Cubic Regression Equations were derived for each fetal sonographic parameter and a population specific dating formula was prepared. Discussion: North Indian fetuses are smaller than European fetuses even before 3rd trimester and gestational ages derived from sonographic Western reference equations are underestimated in this population. Hence IUGR is diagnosed frequently, suggesting the need of population specific formulae and charts. This cross sectional study is an endeavor to establish population specific fetal biometric parameters for assessment of appropriate gestational age and fetal monitoring.

  81. Atufa Malek, Nikita Patel, Kajal Patel, Palak Prajapati, Bhavisha Patel, Padma Tandel and Prachi Soni

    The current study aims to assess the Knowledge & Attitude regarding Health awareness among Menopausal women at selected rural areas of Anand district, Gujarat. India has a large Population, which has already crossed the 1billionmark with 71 million people over 60 years of age and the numbers of menopausal women about 43 million. Projected figures in 2026 have estimated the population in India will be 1.4 billion, people over 103 million menopausal women. It is not the secret that the common perception is that western culture treats older women as if they were less valuable members of society. While Menopausal women in India experience the emotional and physiological problems, it is almost officially unheard in public circles. India has traditionally ignored women’s health issues including menopause and latest societal trends are attempting to break the outdated attitudes towards women. As life expectancy and population of menopausal women increases, efforts are needed to educate them and make them aware about menopause. Thus the studies needed to done on knowledge and attitude regarding health awareness among menopause.

  82. Tanvi Raj, Bhoomika Tantuway and Mala, Y.M

    Cervical tuberculosis is very rare disease, accounts for 0.1- 0.65 % of all cases of tuberculosis. We are reporting case of 23 year old nulligravida lady presented with 4 years history of primary infertility, infrequent menstrual cycles and post coital bleeding. On examination, external genital was normal on inspection. On speculum examination cervix was replaced by irregular fungating growth which bled on touch. Bimanual examination showed normal sized anteverted and mobile uterus. There was slight thickening of left fornix with no palpable adnexal mass or tenderness. Punch biopsy was taken in view of suspected cervical malignancy. Histopathology of cervical biopsy was suggestive of tubercular cervicitis with diffuse areas of ulceration of lining epithelium with acute inflammatory granulation tissue. Deeper sub epithelium showed presence of ill-defined collection of epithelioid cells with occasional langhans type of giant cells. Stain for acid fast bacilli was positive. Anti-tuberculin therapy was given for 9 months.

  83. Dr. Das, K.C., Dr. Dash, A., Dr. Mohapatra, A. and Dr. Saroja, S

    Brucellosis is a zoonotic infection caused by the bacterial genus Brucella. The bacteria are transmitted from animals to humans by ingestion through infected food products, direct contact with an infected animal, or inhalation of aerosols. Whether this entity is highly prevalent among the carcinoma patients, not known and not yet reported. We came across an advanced carcinoma GB with highly reactive Brucellar antibody who optimally responded to antibiotics against Brucella.

  84. Mahesh, C. M., Jane Poornima, Mahendra, S., Arun, A. V., Bobby Joseph Babu and Araish Farzana, S

     The purpose of this article was to review the occupational hazards related to the practice of orthodontics, including all the risks involved. The classification of hazards was based on major sources of risks by system or tissue and by orthodontic office area. Potentially hazardous factors in general practice setting are to specific materials and tools that expose the operator to vision and auditory risks; to chemical substances with known allergenic, toxic, or irritating actions; to increased microbial counts and silica particles of the aerosols produced during debonding; and to psychological stress with proven undesirable sequelae. The identification and elimination of these risk factors should be incorporated into a standard practice management program as an integral part of orthodontic education.

  85. Manal F. Al-Harbi, R. N.

    Aim: The main purpose of this study is to determine the factors which influences pediatric emergency nurses to report medication errors. Methods: The study utilized descriptive correlation design with 200 conveniently selected pediatric emergency nurses from the tertiary hospitals in Saudi Arabia. SPSS Ver. 17.0 to was used to determine the average weighted mean, standard deviation and rank. Results: The fear towards the consequences, being blamed, and punishment by the organization hinders the nurses from reporting medication errors. However, the nurses will likely report errors when the incidence is potentially or absolutely harmful to their pediatric patients. When the incident is perceived beneficial and without fear of retaliating, it is more likely that errors are reportable. The positive relationship of the nurses to their supervisors also influences the likelihood of reporting the error. Conclusion: Accountability and fear are barriers to pediatric emergency nurses to conceal the errors. The administrative role in education and trainings, utilization of research, and standardization of operating procedures are recommended to create a flawless reporting system. This will make reporting mandatory, or nurses become driven to voluntarily report which will enhance the patients’ safety and ensure delivery of quality health care.

  86. Dr. G. Madhulatha, Dr. P. Manasa, Dr. M. Mahesh, Dr. N. Vijayalaxmi and Dr. T. Harshavardhan

    Introduction: The stature prediction occupies relatively a central position in the identification necessitated by the medico legal experts or medical jurisprudence and also in the anthropological research. Assessing the height of an individual, from measurements of different parts, has always been of immense interest to forensic medicine experts. Tooth and skull are useful in providing valuable clues for forensics for intricate identification in stature estimation. Aims and objective: The present study was conducted to evaluate and compare the reliability of tooth and head dimensions in the estimation of stature of an individual. Material Methods: 300 subjects between ages 18-30 participated in the study. Stature was taken as standing height and measured using metric tape. They were subjected to carreas index for right lower hemi arch and measurements (arch and chord) were made with divider caliper for cephalometric skull dimensions. Head length was measured as occipitofrontal distance and breadth as maximum biparietal distance using cephalostat. Head circumference was measured using metric tape, data obtained was analysed using SPSS 20 software. Results: Males were taller and had higher mean arch and chord values. Male subjects had significantly greater maximum head length (P<0.05), maximum head breadth (P>0.05), head circumference (P<0.001), and stature (P<0.001) when compared to the females. Conclusion: When other body parts are not found, It is seen that Carrea’s formula shows good reliability and applicability of estimatimation of stature and head dimensions also are helpful completely in females in the estimation of stature.

  87. Daiva Mockevicienė and Linas Rovas

    The article deals with the research the aim of which is stating the effect of early intervention on the impaired motor development of infants depending on the beginning of early intervention. In order to assess the motor development of infants Munich functional development diagnostics was used. There participated 210 infants attending early rehabilitation service at consulting polyclinics for children’s disease clinics. The first assessment of the complex motions of infants was made in different age groups (group I – 3±0,5 months; group II – 6±0,5months). Generalizing information in scientific literature about the results of evaluation of children’s motor development in different periods until the age of one who had undergone neurodynamic therapy and taking into consideration the results of the present research it is possible to say that the essential factor deciding the success of early intervention is infant’s age at the beginning of early intervention. If complex correction begins earlier than it causes better results of psychomotor development.

  88. Dr. Dinesh Kumar Anand, Dr. Sayed Irfan Kazi and Pradeep, B. K

    Sarcoidosis possibly will involve the kidneys in several ways. Incidence and prevalence of renal involvement in sarcoidosis remain uncertain. Usually, aberrations of calcium metabolism include hypercalcemia, hypercalciuria, and nephrocalcinosis, are responsible for the renal manifestations of sarcoidosis. Granulomatous infiltration of the renal interstitium produces severe derangements of renal function. Glomerulonephritis can occur with sarcoidosis, although the pathogenesis remains unclear. Besides renal insufficiency and frank renal failure, nephrotic syndrome, nephrolithiasis, hypertension, and a variety of tubular defects may complicate sarcoidosis. The sensitivity of "sarcoid nephropathy" to corticosteroids usually warrants therapeutic trial. Our case is the first in the literature that demonstrates the renal-confined sarcoidosis. A 29 year male referred to nephrologist for Chronic kidney disease pancreatitis hypertension. During his examination patient had developed renal disease and hypercalcemia. Mild splenomegaly with bilateral increased parenchymal echotexture were seen Interestingly, NO inter bowel free fluid seen, NO gross congestive features identified. NO obstructive uropathy and NO hydronephrosis were seen. Renal insufficiency associated with sarcoidosis was subsequently attributed to renal infiltration by sarcoid granulomas. Despite the presence of sarcoid granuloma in 13% to 22% of kidneys surveyed, the granulomas were usually few in number, limited in extent, and rarely suspected of producing important renal functional impairment.

  89. Gamze TEMIZ and Zehra DURNA

    Purpose: This study aimed to evaluate the reliability and validity of the Supportive Care Needs Scale (SCNS – SF34) in Identification of nursing care needs for cancer patients and examine the psychometric properties. Methods: Approval of the ethics committee and the institution was taken from the hospital where the data were collected. The sample comprised 450 patients with cancer. Pre-implementation approval was obtained from the patients. Forward-backward translation of the SCNS-SF34 from English into Turkish was conducted. Original English and translated forms were examined by a panel group. After the scope of validity for the final version of the scale, pre-treatment was performed in a group of 50 people with similar characteristics with patients to be included in the study. Validity was investigated using content, confirmatory factor analysis, and divergent validity. Reliability was assessed using Cronbach α values, item-total correlations, and intraclass correlations. Data were analyzed using SPSS 20. Results: The Cronbach alpha was found.73, which indicated perfect content validity; items in SCNS-SF34 were clear, concise, readable, and distinct. Confirmatory factor analysis confirmed the original construct of the SCNS-SF34.All items had factor loadings higher than the recommended level of .40. Reliability results were also satisfactory. Cronbach α values were within ideal limits. Item-total correlation coefficient ranged from .7 to .8. Test-retests results were found fairly reliable (p<.001). Conclusions: SCNS-SF34 showed acceptable reliability and validity. We recommend performing the Turkish SCNS-SF34 in determine the need of the cancer patients.

  90. Sapna Konde and Shalini Shinde

    Introduction: Indian Cancer Register reports the proportion of childhood cancers relative to all cancers as 0.8-5.8% in boys and 0.5-3.4% in girls. It’s imperative that dentists be familiar with the medical history and oral manifestations of Pediatric Malignancies in order to detect, diagnose and plan for effective intervention. Objective: To enumerate the types of Pediatric Malignancies as seen at Regional Cancer Center, Bengaluru, and to correlate it with their dental findings. Materials and Methods: This was a cross-sectional hospital- based study, involving in and outpatients aged 15 yrs. and below. Case history was recorded and retrospective analysis of medical files was undertaken. Relevant data was tabulated and subjected to statistical analysis. Result: Leukemia’s accounted for the most common type of malignancy reported. Significant reduction in constitutional symptoms was seen after chemotherapy, but oral complications like mucositis and ulceration were present. Dmft was significantly higher in cases group compared to control group. Conclusion: History taking, inspection and palpation should be mandatory in a dental setup. Also, once therapy is initiated appropriate treatment modalities should be employed to reduce the oral complications, so as to reduce discomfort and not hamper the progress of treatment.

  91. Dr. Aparna, S.H., Dr. Shreni Sunil Navalgi, Pradeep, B. K

    Diabetes mellitus is a chronic and progressive condition among the most common metabolic diseases in general medical practice. Intensive lifestyle intervention and metformin can prevent or delay progression to diabetes. Over the past decade, lifestyle interventions have been translated across various settings, but little is known about the translation of evidence surrounding metformin use. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the effect of metformin extended release formulation on the glycemic control gastrointestinal tolerability and patient satisfaction. Design: Retrospective analysis over a 1-year period. We examined data from August 2016 to July 2017 from ESIC hospital Peenya, Bangaluru using a retrospective analysis of metformin prescription among adults. Data were analyzed in 80 patients with type 2 diabetes not well controlled by diet (glycated hemoglobin [HbA1c] .7.0% and 8.5%). Patients were given metformin XR (Metadoze IPR® BIOCON) for a period of 4 months at the maximum tolerated dose. We evaluated, HbA1c, fasting, postprandial glucose and body weight. Moreover, at the baseline and after 4 months, we also validated the patients by SF 16 questionnaire to assess patients’ satisfaction toward treatments. After 4 months, metformin XR gave a greater improvement in glycemic control. A reduction in total cholesterol (TC) and low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol was observed with metformin XR. Conclusion: Metformin XR formulation seems to be more effective in improving glyco-metabolic control, lipid profile in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus. Fewer gastrointestinal side effects and a greater sense of well being and satisfaction were seen with this medication.

  92. Dr. Bhuvaneswarri, J., Dr. Sajid. T. Hussain, Dr. Ramya, V. and Dr. Preethepaddmanabhan

    Photodynamic therapy (PDT) employs a non-toxic dye, termed a photosensitizer (PS), and low intensity visible light which, in the presence of oxygen, combine to produce cytotoxic species. PDT has the advantage of dual selectivity, in that the PS can be targeted to its destination cell or tissue and, in addition, the illumination can be spatially directed to the lesion. PDT has previously been used to kill pathogenic microorganisms in vitro, but its use to treat infections in animal models or patients has not, as yet, been much developed. It is known that Gram-(−) bacteria are resistant to PDT with many commonly used PS that will readily lead to phototoxicity in Gram-(+) species, and that PS bearing a cationic charge or the use of agents that increase the permeability of the outer membrane will increase the efficacy of killing Gram-(−) organisms. Treatment of localized infections with PDT requires selectivity of the PS for microbes over host cells, delivery of the PS into the infected area and the ability to effectively illuminate the lesion.

  93. Dr. Deepa Tomar, Dr. Ipseeta Menon, Dr. Upasana Tyagi, Dr. Jyoti Goyal and Dr. Ritu Gupta

    Aim: to assess Dentist Awareness of Basic life Support (BLS) among Dental colleges of Ghaziabad U.P India. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional questionnaire survey was carried out in randomly selected 3 dental colleges out of 6, pursuing post-graduation courses in Ghaziabad. A questionnaire with 20 questions regarding the awareness and skills involved in BLS was used to assess the levels of awareness to BLS and its practical knowledge. The aspects on which the subjects were interrogated were about the abbreviation of BLS, AED and EMS (Emergency Medical Service), sequential steps in BLS, assessment and resuscitation techniques with regard to airway, breathing, circulation in unresponsive victims of different age groups, techniques regarding removal of foreign body obstruction, recognition of early signs of stroke and acute coronary syndrome Results: None among them had complete Knowledge of BLS. 248 out of 340(73%) had secured less than 50% marks. In the present study BDS faculty and postgraduates of dental sciences were same but MDS faculties were somewhat aware about BLS. On comparison MDS Faculty showed more awareness as compared to PG students and BDS faculty. Conclusions: It is also equally important that teachers, school children, public and all lay persons from the community be taught the facts of basic life support and first aid.

  94. Geethika, B. and Dr. Rakshagan

    Aim: To assess the knowledge, attitude and awareness about cleft lip among dental students. Background: Cleft lip is a congenital deformity which functionally and esthetically compromised the patient. Therefore, correct identification, treatment and management of cleft lip would improve the quality of life for a patient with cleft lip. Materials & Methods: This study was a cross-sectional study, which utilises a well-structured and modified questionnaire from other similar questionnaires. This study was conducted among the clinical students of Saveetha dental college. The questionnaire consisted of 10 questions. Once the students had answered the questionnaire, the results were tabulated. Comparisons were done for each question to determine the level of knowledge. Conclusion: Through this study the knowledge, awareness, and practices of the dental students about cleft lip management was assessed, the awareness was not consistent with the accepted standards. Therefore, education should be provided and topics on cleft lip should be emphasised as a priority of academic curriculum and also create some interdisciplinary training with medical professionals especially plastic surgeons.

  95. Alessandro Fulgenzi, Daniele Vietti and Maria Elena Ferrero

    Background: Many epidemiological studies describe the role of toxic metals in the complex etiology of neurodegenerative diseases (ND): multiple sclerosis (MS), Parkinson’s disease (PD), Alzheimer’s disese (AD), amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) Urine-sample analysis after provocation testing with chelating agents allows quantification of the toxic-metal burden in human subjects, including those affected by ND. Our objective was to compare the toxic-metal levels in the urine of patients with ND and those of healthy controls from the same geographical area (Italy), and to evaluate the effect of chelation therapy using calcium disodium ethylenediaminetetra acetic acid (CaNa2EDTA, or EDTA) to eliminate the chronic poisoning caused by toxic metals. Methods and Findings: Inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) was used to evaluate the levels of 21 toxic metals (Al, Sb, As, Ba, Be, Bi, Cd, Ce, Gd, Pb, Hg, Ni, Pd, Pt, Te, Tl, Th, Sn, Ti, W, U) in the urine samples of 1147 patients who underwent the EDTA chelation test: 671 were affected by ND (MS, PD, AD, and ALS), 138 by non-ND (e.g. fibromyalgia, rheumatoid arthritis, peripheral neuropathies), and 338 were healthy controls (HC). Study design: before the start of chelation therapy, the patients underwent a “chelation test” to verify the possible toxic-metal burden. Thereafter, their toxic-metal burden was periodically monitored for more than one year. Our patients did not display the presence of Bi and Ti, while Be, Pt, Te, and Sn were present in only a small number of patients; Ab, Ba, and Th were more present, but to a lesser extent compared with Al, As, Cd, Cs, Gd, Pb, Tl, W, U, Hg, Ni, Pd. Interestingly, Be, Pd, Pt, Te, Tl, Th, Sn, W, and U were never present in MS patients, but were present in other ND patients. Poisoned patients affected by diseases were more numerous than HC. Except for As, toxic-metal presence was significantly more elevated in the ND patients. Repeated EDTA chelation therapy was able to remove all toxic metals with no adverse effects. One important limitation was that the source of intoxication was not always evident. Conclusions: Our results underline the important relationship between the chronic body burden of some toxic metals and the presence of ND. Chelation therapy using EDTA can remove the toxic-metal burden.

  96. Om-Hashem M. EL-Banna, Engy M. Maher, Sahar A.Youssef and A. A. Shalaby

    In a preliminary study for the assessment of the sanitary status of olive trees in Egypt during April and May in the two successive season 2014-2015. Three hundred shoots were collected from symptomatic and asymptomatic ten olive cultivars from three different locations in Egypt i.e., Siwa, Marsa Matrouh and Beheira. RNA was extracted and used directly for one step RT-PCR with specific primer for each virus. Electron microscopy of sap extracts from olive infected leaves with the two viruses most commonly found Olive Latent Virus-1 (OLV-1) and Olive Latent Virus-2 (OLV-2) showed isometric particles consistent to Necrovirus (OLV-1) and bacilliform particles consistent to Oleavirus (OLV-2). Ultrastructure changes in inoculated Chenopodium amaranticolor and Chenopodium quinoa showed necrolization and vaculation of the cytoplasm, layside and degenerated of chloroplast membrane, deformation of chloroplast, tubular like structural, crossing the all wall and deformation and lysis of the nucleus. Nucleotide sequencing analysis for 230bp amplified fragment from the coat protein gene of OLV-1 and 222bp amplified fragment from the coat protein gene of OLV-2 showed homology ranged from 98% to 94 % with Italy and Poland Isolates for OLV-1 and 98 % to 94 % with USA and Italy for OLV-2. Based on molecular studies and cytopathological, viruses under study were identified as an isolates of OLV-1 and OLV-2.

  97. Shubham Yadav, Lav Kesherwani, Mishra, M. K., Gupta, A. K. and Vaibhav Saran

    Bloodstains and bloodstain are some of the most common form of physical evidence encountered during the forensic investigation of incidents involving violence against a person. Blood and blood stains are a very important entity in medico legal practices as factors like source of blood and their stains help in solving the crime of violence, accidental cases. This study was carried out at Sam Higginbottom University of Agriculture, Technology and Sciences, and Ewing Christian College of Allahabad. In the present study, 5 different sample of blood were collected from central pathology lab and three different type of cloth were also been used. Cotton, Nylon and mixed cotton and nylon cloth were used. The purpose of this study was for the Identification of Blood stain on burnt cloth debris through FTIR and this was carried out with objective to find out the sensitivity of Luminol and Benzidine test for the identification of blood at higher temperature (500-10000c). Analysis on Cotton, Nylon, and Simple Cloth surfaces were considered. Blood is one of the important biological evidence commonly encountered by the investigators at the scene of violence crime. Thus it becomes essential to determine the sensitivity of reagents on blood stains on any surface. But in most cases of violence the presence of blood on the different Cloths surfaces leads to false positive or negative tests which in turns results in no option by the experts. So it’s very necessary to examine blood which assists the forensic analyst in an enhanced way.

  98. Bharthi, D., Hemavathi and Shobha Rani

    Tidal power, also called tidal energy, is a form of hydropower that converts the energy of tides into electricity or other useful forms of power. The ocean, covering 70% of the Earth’s surface, produces a vast amount of mechanical energy in the form of tides and waves. Tidal power has the potential for future electricity generation. Tidal power is a major growth area, with a global potential up to 100GW installed capacity. As non-renewable energy sources such as coal, oil etc., are being tapped out, new and innovative ways of creating energy of our needs being explored. The extraction and use of fossil fuels are causing many environmental problems of the world, such as climate change, the ozone layer destruction and so forth. The combustion of fossil fuels created an excess of carbon dioxide, an acceptable power generation technology must be mechanically sound, environmentally acceptable, and economically profitable in order to become a real alternative for builders of new capacity. So, renewable energy is the only solution in order to meet up the future crisis. Solar, wind, hydal, wave, tidal, geothermal, biomass, fuel cell etc., are the renewable energy sources. Among them tidal energy is an old but efficient method. Tidal power is classified as a renewable energy source, because tides are caused by the orbital mechanics of the solar system and are considered inexhaustible within a human timeframe. Energy from tidal power is also a form of pollution free energy, which has a lot of potential. Tidal power may be an alternative solution to meet up recent power crisis. Given proper care in design, siiting, deployment, operation and maintenance, ocean wave and tidal power could be one of the most environmentally benign electricity generation technologies yet developed.

  99. Sujatha, C., Helena Rajakumari, J., Kopparapu Srishna and Kopparapu Leshna

    Coronary artery disease (CAD) the primary cause of disability and death worldwide is also one of the top five causes of death in India1. For the past few decades as there is stupendous increase in coronary artery disease globally, identification of risk factors has become an essential prerequisite to bring down the incidence. The objective of this study was to assess the prevalence of various risk factors of Ischemic heart disease (IHD) in Acute Myocardial infarction (AcMI). A total of 50 patients admitted in the Cardiology department S.V.R.R. Government General Hospital, Tirupati with evidence of acute myocardial infarction were included in this study. Conventional risk factors for IHD- hypertension, diabetes mellitus, dyslipidemia, smoking, obesity and family history of CAD were assessed. It was observed that male to female ratio was 2.13:1, hypertension-78%, dyslipidemia-72%, smoking-48%, family history of CAD-34%, obesity-12% and diabetes mellitus-20%. This study concludes that AcMI is significantly associated with conventional risk factors; early detection, life style modification and timely medication play a key role in reducing the burden of IHD. Hence awareness about the risk factors illustrates the enormous potential for prevention of AcMI.

  100. Singh, B. K.

    India has a very rich biodiversity, unique physical and ethnic diversity, and traditional culture. In recent years, the habitat loss due to developmental programmes, overgrazing, animal husbandry and tourism has resulted in the loss of biodiversity. Natural causes such as floods, earthquakes and landslides also add to this tragedy. With this point of view, present work has been conducted which deals with a detailed study of habit and habitat, frequency of occurrence, ecological conditions, floral characters and ethnomedicinal properties of some endangered but medicinally important angiospermic plant species collected from Raebareli (U.P.). The reported plant species have been declared threatened by the Indian Subcontinent Plant Specialist Group. Therefore, there is urgent need to document complete biodiversity, prioritize useful threatened plants, and conserve them in-situ and ex-situ for sustainable utilization in health care and human welfare.

  101. Sivaranjani, T., Sakthimurugesan, K., Thirumurugan, S., Anbalagan, K. and Ganesh Raja, A.S

    The crystal structure of the title compound, (C12 H16 N8 Ni O2, 2(Br) is shown below. The cation Ni(II) ion sits on an inversion centre and is octahedrally coordinated by four imidazole rings. The compound contains a six-coordinate Ni(II) ion lying on an Inversion center, which is bonded to four imidazole N atoms and two O atoms. Intermolecular hydrogen-bonding interactions are present, linking the nickel complex cations and bromide anions in the crystal structure. A two-dimensional perpendicular network is formed via N2-Br1, N4-Br1 intermolecular hydrogen bonds. The imidazole ring systems are inclined to one another with dihedral angles varying between 81.2 (4) and 170.9 (4). In the crystal, molecules are linked via N-H-Br hydrogen bonds involving one Ni(II)cation and the Oxygen atom in the equatorial plane, forming an inversiondimer-like arrangement.

  102. Gurmeet Singh, Athar Parvez, Digamber Chaubey, Sonalini Thakur and Suparna, P. N.

    The total concentration of calcium in bile is much higher (25 meq/lt) than the plasma concentration due to calcium binding by other components of bile, especially bile salts. Vitamin D plays an important role in regulation of bile salts and megalin thus preventing gallstones. Since an increase in Biliary Calcium was found during gallstone formation in various studies. In present study an attempt was done to see if Vitamin D deficiency causes a rise in Biliary Calcium and precipitating gallstones.In present study a negative poor correlation was also observed between Biliary Calcium and Serum Calcium (r= -0.02) i.e. if Serum Calcium levels fall the Biliary Calcium level may increase but such finding was not significant statistically (p=0.83). In all patients calcium in bile was higher than serum suggesting the ability of gallbladder to concentrate calcium in gallbladder bile that may lead to stone formation.In the present study the mean Serum Vitamin D3 level was 13.16±6.76 ng/ml which shows deficiency of vitamin D3 in patients of gallstones.

  103. Kalyanakumar, R., Sanjayan, K.P., Sithanantham, S. and Judy, S

    Mass rearing of the rice moth, Corcyra cephalonica Stainton is a key component in mass production of several entomophagous biocontrol agents, for use as the factitious host/prey in commercial insectaries. Improvements in the larval diets for mass rearing of C. cephalonica constitute one of the strategies to enhance the efficiency and economics of large-scale rearing. The present study compared the relative efficiency of four larval diets (maize alone, sorghum alone, maize+ millet and maize +sorghum) in C.cephalonica mass production. The total moth production (over eight weeks duration) was found to be significantly higher (1657/tray) for sorghum + millet, followed by sorghum alone (1638), followed in rank by maize + millet (1268) while maize alone was the least productive (828). The peak moth emergence for all the diets was in the fifth week, while the two superior diets(sorghum+ millet and sorghum alone) showed enhanced moth production during the fourth to sixth weeks. Further, the overall egg production per tray followed a different trend from the overall moth production, the maximum egg production (11.9cc/tray) being in sorghum + millet, followed by sorghum alone (9.8cc), compared to third position by maize + millet (9.5cc), while the least eggs (4.8cc) were obtained with maize alone. It was evident that the larval diets not only differentially influenced the total moth production but also the fecundity (egg production efficiency) of the moths. The egg production efficiency of moths was observed to be maximum in millet + maize ,closely followed by millet+ sorghum Overall, millet+sorghum diet could be reckoned as the most productive diet, based on the greatest egg production, although more moths were produced in sorghum or maize-millet treatments. Since millet also tends to be cheaper than sorghum or maize, millet+ sorghum diet may be more economical for Corcyra egg production in commercial insectaries. Further research on the hatchability of eggs from moths reared on the more promising larval diets and their nutritional quality as prey/host in multiplication of insect biocontrol agents is recommended

  104. Duong Trung Dung, Nguyen Thi Thu Hoan and Phan Thi Thu Hang

    Vietnam has natural conditions suitable for the growth and development of tea plants. Tea production plays an important role in the structure of agricultural production and tea products are important export items. Growing shan tea in the form of forestation is a technique that is very suitable to the land conditions, labor and farming practices of ethnic minorities in the uplands. Out of seven cuttings at different time annually on: January 15; Fabruary 15; March 15; September 15; October 15; November 15; December 15, those of the last two (Nov. 15th and December 15th) brought the best productivity. Of 5 new seedling height standards respectively: seedlings of 20cm (± 5cm) high; of 30cm (± 5cm) high; of 40cm (± 5cm) high; of 50cm (± 5cm) high; and those of 60cm (± 5cm) high. The results showed that newly planted Shan tea seedling height reached 60cm ± 5 after 12 months, the root diameter reached 1.24cm; the number of grade 1 branches reached 13.6; Number of leaves / tree reached 216.6 leaves; and survival rate was 96.7% higher than control at 95% of confidence level.

  105. Rida DRAIE

    Mannitol is a major compound related to carbon metabolism in the parasitic plant Striga hermonthica despite Mannitol 6-Phosphate Reductase (M6PR) that is the key enzyme of mannitol biosynthesis in plants is likely absent in the parasite. Previous studies suggest that M6PR activity is driven by a Cinnamyl Alcohol Dehydrogenase (CAD) in striga. This work aims to characterize the CAD isoforms of the parasite and to check their activity as M6PR. CAD is purified and characterized from the leaves that display simultaneously high M6PR and CAD activities, using a typical protocol for CAD purification from plants. At least two CAD isoforms, called CADa and CADb, is shown in the leaves, CADa being the major isoform. Only one band characterizes both CADa and CADb in SDS-PAGE, at 38 kDa and 40 kDa respectively. Native isoforms display CAD activity in native gels. CADa has a relatively low affinity for cinnamyl alcohol (Km = 400 µM) and a high stability to heat. Finally, both CADa and CADb do not display M6PR activity and the latter remains unidentified in the protein fraction that does not interact with the 2’ 5’ ADP-Sepharose affinity gel.

  106. Juhi Khandelwal

    Introduction: Taste perception is the basic sensory activity for the right selection of food and beverages which we eat daily. Tongue recognizes five fundamental tastes out of which salt provides more than just salty taste to the food. Salt provides sodium and chloride ions which are needed by the body. But the habit of tobacco consumption alters taste perception. Nicotine the core content in tobacco is leading cause for decreased effectiveness of gustatory system. This eventually leads to excess salt consumption by tobacco chewers causing other health problems. Methodology: An observational study with a total of 50 samples was carried out in Vidarbha region from February to April 2017. Out of which 25 were tobacco chewers and 25 were non-tobacco consumers of age 21 to 55 years were taken. Different concentrations of salt solutions were made. The samples were made to sip different solutions. The response scale was made with different age group people reacting to different salt solutions. The data was further collected and analysed statistically. Result: The analysis showed no correlation between the age and salt taste perception. But there was significant relation between the tobacco chewers and taste perception. Chronic tobacco chewers (in any form) had a significant loss of salt taste perception. Conclusion: The result of this study shows that we need to have various National Health programmes to create awareness about ill effects of tobacco consumption. It not only hampers the normal taste perception but also is responsible for all other fatal health related diseases.

  107. Made Antara and Made Sri Sumarniasih

    Biotechnology is applied of bioscience and one of the modern technologies in the field of biology, including in agriculture. Since the discovery of Dolly sheep cloning in 1997 and baby tube technology, ethics in biotechnology (bioethics) becomes a discourse. Ethics as values and moral principles used by a person or a group as a guide to his behavior. Ethics as a set of principles and values relating to morality (what is considered good or bad). Ethics as a science that studies human behavior from the point of norm and moral values. Bioethics is a kind of science that offers problem solving for moral conflicts that arise in the actions, practices of medicine and life sciences. As a rational ethic, bioethics stems from the analysis of scientific, biological, and medical data. The validity of human intervention is examined. Human transcendental value is highlighted in terms of the creator as the holder of absolute value. The pro-contra discourse of biotechnological products between a group of religionist, ethicist, and NGOs on the one hand with a group of biotechnologist and society on the other hand, will not end until now and. Nevertheless, the development of biotechnology is very useful for human health and treatment, improving livestock, fish populations, and increasing the agricultural production like corn hybrids and HYVS. The religionist, ethicist, and NGOs continue to criticize the biotechnology products, and biotechnologists continue to work, because everything that happens in this world is God's will.

  108. Ankita Moon, Shweta Chandak, Pankaj Chavhan, Shruti Karale, Sneha Khekade and Pali Dhongde

    Background: Dental anomalies in deciduous dentition are commonly encountered by dental professionals. Early detection and careful management of such conditions can help in usual occlusal development. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of dental anomalies in deciduous dentition among Indian children from rural population. Materials and Methods: The study sample comprised of 2809 children from 2-8 years (1641 boys, 1168 girls). The children were examined in outpatient department of Pedodontics and Preventive Dentistry. Based on the clinical and radiographic examination various anomalies were determined. Results: The dental anomalies were observed in 42 children in a population of 2809 with an overall prevalence rate of 1.5% with double teeth (0.5%) and hypodontia (0.6%), the most frequently observed anomaly. The other anomalies followed as 0.2% supernumerary teeth, 0.07% microdontia, 0.1% talon cusp. Conclusion: Identification of dental anomalies at an early age is of great importance as it prevents malocclusions, functional and certain psychological problems.

  109. Arimanwa J.I., Anyanwu T.U., Iwuoha, S.E. and Arimanwa, M. C

    This work studied the effects of fine aggregates on the strength properties of building blocks. The fine aggregates used were sharp sand, quartz sand, granite dust and run-off sand. A cement-fine aggregate mix ratio of 1:6 and a water-cement ratio of 0.5 were used throughout the work. Sixteen hollow blocks of dimension, 450mm x 225mm x 150mmand 12 solid blocks of dimension 600mm x 150mm x 150mm were cast for each of the fine aggregate samples. The bulk density of the fine aggregates used were1600kg/m3, 1550kg/m3 , 1400kg/m3 and 1500kg/m3while the water absorption rates were 6.12%, 4.65%, 10% and 5% for sharp sand, quartz sand, granite dust and run-off sand respectively. Mixing of the particles was done manually using spades on a clean relatively impervious surface. The samples were cast on a level surface and cured by sprayingwater morning and evening for 7, 14, 21 and 28 days. For each of the curing ages, 4 samplesmade with each of the aggregate types were tested for the compressive strength of the hollow blocks while 3 samples each were tested for the flexural strength of each of the solid building blocks. The highest and lowest values of the compressive strengths of the hollow blocks which were obtained for quartz sand and granite dust block samples respectively after curing for 28 days were 5.14N/mm2 and 3.42N/mm2. For the same period of curing, the flexural strengths of 5.03N/mm2 and 2.86N/mm2 were the highest and lowest values which were obtained for blocks made with sharp and run-off sands respectively. Results of the tests show that quartz sand is an excellent alternative to sharp sand for the production of building blocks. It was concluded that the compressive and flexural strengths of building blocks are significantly affected by the type of fine aggregates used in their production.

  110. Changshan Huang, Jinying Wu, Huiwu Xu, Min Zhang, Min Chen, MianXue, Xiaoguang Zhang, Guangxiu Cao and Can Huang

    Imidazoline quaternary-ammonium-salt corrosion inhibitor and thioureido-imidazoline quaternary-ammonium-salt compound corrosion inhibitor were synthesized using oleic acid, diethylenetriamine, benzyl chloride and thiourea as theraw materials. The resulting samples were characterized by static weight-loss method, electrochemical polarization curve, X-ray photoelectron spectrometry (XPS) as well as scanning electron microscope (SEM). The electrochemical characteristics of the inhibitors’ inhibition towards carbon dioxide corrosion were investigated, the major constituents of the protective film formed on the surface of A3 carbon steel by thioureido-imidazoline compound corrosion inhibitor were analyzed, and the corrosion inhibiting mechanism for thioureido-imidazoline in hypersaline was explored. The results indicated that thioureido-imidazoline compound corrosion inhibitor had better corrosion inhibiting effect than imidazoline and can efficiently inhibit the corrosion of A3 carbon steel by CO2-saturated hypersaline water.

  111. Shahzad Ali Jiskani, Shah Muhammad Mahesar, Sumair Memon and Amara Mahesar

    Background: Hematological derangements are among the common complications associated with HIV infection. HIV infection may affect any cell line causing, anemia, thrombocytopenia, and leucopenia or may cause pancytopenia. Patients and Materials: This study was conducted at Pakistan Institute of Medical Sciences, Islamabad from March 2017 to June 2017. Patients were diagnosed as HIV positive as per WHO criteria. Detailed medical history, physical examination, and investigations were conducted. Data was collected and analyzed on SPSS version 21.0. Results: Total 92 patients were selected for the study. Patients were divided into two groups. Group A consists of 48 control patients. Group B consists of 44 HIV – positive patients. Majority of patients belonged to reproductive age group (16 – 45 years) in both groups. Male to female ratio was higher (3:1) in both groups. Common clinical features among patients were fever (85%), weight loss (73%), anemia (35%) and oral thrush (19%) in Group B. Conclusion: Hematological abnormalities were present in presence of HIV infection as compared to control group. This may has significant effect on clinical outcome of the disease. So all the HIV- positive patients should be investigated for routine hematological evaluation.

  112. Ritu Shiromani and Monisha Mridha Mandal

    In the present study, an attempt was made to explore the flow behavior of non-Newtonian fluids in coiled micro tube. The non-Newtonian fluids were aqueous solutions of carboxymethylcellulose (CMC), a polymer, with concentrations of 0.1 wt% and 0.5 wt%. Initially, the numerical procedure was validated by comparing the present predicted pressure drop of Newtonian fluid flowing in straight micro tube with known experimental data. Numerical computations were then carried out to characterize velocity field and temperature field of the non-Newtonian fluids flowing in coiled and straight micro tube. Friction factor and Nusselt numbers were computed and compared with the existing correlations for conventional tubes for the flow range of 500≤ NRe ≤1000. The results showed that the pressure drop in micro coiled tube was higher than the conventional tube. The heat transfer performance of coiled micro tube was more significantly enhanced for Newtonian fluids. Further work was carried out to study the effect of heat transfer for pseudo plastic fluids. It was found that the heat transfer performance of coiled micro tube increased with increase in pseudo plasticity of fluid.

  113. Neeraj Kumar Sharma

    To accomplish flourishing accomplishment of total productive maintenance (TPM), first of all, literature review was completed meticulously to comprehend the fundamental perceptions of total productive maintenance. Outcomes achieved all the way through the observed revise divulges the anecdotal leanings in the overall equipment effectiveness and productivity of the machines. Further, observed study was conducted about automotive industries based on real time training was done to obtain achievable results. Finally questionnaires were distributed to assess information on successful implementation of total productive maintenance in the industry. The outcomes emphasize the foremost roots ensuing in the downhill time and enhancement in the productivity. A relative revise between world group industries where total productive maintenance has been employed and industries which do not pursue, total productive maintenance makes out the assorted ditch leading to dwindle in the overall efficiency of the industry and makes available important implications spotlighting on the paybacks and tactic for employing total productive maintenance in industries. Total productive maintenance is matter-of-fact modus operandi expected at capitalizing on the usefulness of amenities that are used within our association. It ascertains a arrangement of productive maintenance, wrappering the intact existence cycle of equipment, swathes all department, engages partaking of all workforces from top to bottom and endorsess petite faction autonomous activities. At some point in high augmentation epoch industries are building technological steps forward in automation and consolidatation of the industries, which desires bulky quantity of physical exertion to keep up the automation systems. The stratagem of upholding the equipment of a industry is decisive for the effectiveness of production. At the same time as the competitive environment in the world persists to amplify the rate of knots, our plan exertion plans to assist industries to glance for novel approach to put away on costs, build up workforces to countenance outlook confronts and convey about a new ethnicity at place of work.

  114. Syed ArishiyaNaseem Fatima, Trimbak Biradar and Hanumagowda, B.N

    In this paper, the combined effect of surface roughness and transverse magnetic field on the performance characteristic of the annular plates lubricated with conducting couple stress fluid (CCSF) has been studied. On the basis of the Christensen Stochastic model, the generalized stochastic Reynold’s equation is derived. Modified equations for the non-dimensional pressure, load-carrying capacity and squeeze film time are derived. The results are presented both numerically and graphically and compared with conducting smooth surface case. It is observed the surface roughness effects are more pronounced for couple stresses as compared to non-conducting Newtonian fluid (NCNF) in the presence of magnetic field.

  115. Amin Farajollahi

    Designing passive filter for the voltage source converter is very popular. In this paper a new approach to design a LCL filter is proposed. The step by step design procedure is shown which is missing in most of the papers published recently. The proposed method meets the traditional practical limits, while guarantees more stability even in the presence of wide grid inductance variations and filter parameter uncertainties. The performance of the proposed method are verified by simulation results

  116. Anitha, N. and Dr. Srividya, P

    This paper discuss about Survey done for the digital circuit design using different VLSI technologies. In digital electronic world, delay and power consumption improvement are the most important performance parameters of a circuit. To achieve this goal, we can reduce scaling of the feature size. In complementary metal oxide semiconductor (CMOS) technology, reducing the channel length below about 45nm leads to critical problems and challenges such as decreasing gate control, short channel effect, high power density, high sensitivity to process variation and exponential leakage current increment. For these reasons reducing the transistors size finally will stop at a point, leading to grabbing advantage of new technologies that helps to overcome above problems. Hence, the survey was conducted to replace CMOS technology and a comparison is done to replace the CMOS technology with a suitable technology.

  117. Tamer M. Alkadash and Dr. Muhammad Shahid

    The purpose of this study is to explore the relationship between human resource management practices on perceived organizational support in telecommunication firms in Palestine. A literature review covered the relationship between human resource management practices have a good impact on perceived organizational support. The author used a quantitative method in this study. Were the questionnaires distributed to individuals working in a virtual environment. The questionnaire required the respondents to answer all questions. The result indicates that there is a relationship between human resource management practices on perceived organizational support in telecommunication firms in Palestine. The result indicates that independent variables have a positive significant relationship on perceived organizational support in Palestine telecommunication firms. This study contributes to between human resource management practices and perceived organizational support studies field by investigating the effect of between human resource management practices on perceived organizational support in the different industry. Future research should extend this study and explore whether these findings are globalized.

  118. Suryawanshi, M. B. and Bobade, V. D.

    Benzodiazepines are well known class of antianxiety and hypnotic agents. They have replaced the traditional barbiturates and dicarbamates which were used for such treatments in 1990’s. Benzodiazepines are more effective in alleviating anxiety and stress as they have fewer and less severe side effects. BZD’s are also frequently prescribed as drugs for heart and circulatory problems. Objective of this review is to present a literature survey of preparation methods of [1,4] and [1,5]-benzodiazepines and their uses in synthetic organic chemistry. Few of these methods involve minor structural modifications so as to increase polarity, water solubility, metabolic degradation or better metabolic pathway. Some synthetic methods involve combination of pharmacologically active heterocyclic rings such as pyrole, oxadiazole, triazole, tetrazole or imidazole along with diazepine ring which is a promosing drug design strategy for site specificity.

  119. Makhtar Guène, Mamadou Guèye and Papa Charles Harris Mandiamy

    Nanostructured Nickel cobalt oxide Ni0.5Co2.5O4 powders were prepared by co-precipitation of hydroxides technique from mixed stoichiometric amounts ofhexahydrated nickel nitrate Ni(NO3)2.6H2O and of hexahydrated cobalt nitrate Co(NO3)2.6H2O (Aldrich) as sources of nickel and cobalt, respectively. X-ray diffraction (XRD) patterns showed that the oxides crystallize in a cubic spinel phase. Inductively coupled plasma-optical emission spectrometry (ICP-OES) confirms the stoichiometric proportions of metals in the cobaltites of nickel. The scanning electron microscopy (SEM) images reveal a porous structure. Cyclic and steady state voltammetries (CV and CSV) indicated high electrochemical properties.

  120. Theresa Mee S. Habagat

    The utilization of advanced technology in colleges and universities has led to increase efficiency in processing and exchanging of records, maintaining data quality, and production is leading to increase quality education and services. The study aimed to design and develop a computerized system to improve the student record management at the Guidance Office of Jose Rizal Memorial State University-Katipunan Campus, Philippines. The automated student record system computerizes the student records such as data from student record form, psychological test results, counseling notes, admission slips, referral slips and generates good moral certificates. It uses the developmental research method which system development life cycle approach is applied. Information Technology professionals and students were utilized to evaluate the system using the software quality factors by the International Organization for Standardization (ISO) 9126-1. The statistical tool used was mean computations in tabulating the results. The research revealed that this system possesses five software quality characteristics which are very much functional, reliable, usable, efficient and maintainable. Storing, sorting and retrieval of student records became faster and more efficient. The study concludes that this system eliminates the existing problems like untimely retrieval and time-consuming in sorting and searching records as well as improves the student record management.

  121. Theresa Mee S. Habagat and Sugar Mae T. Galeza

    The evaluation of software is paramountly important for an organization to have a quality and reliable system that is in compliance with the international standards. System evaluation administered on a periodic basis can remarkably improve the management and effectiveness of the organization. The system evaluation on LAN-based student account system of Jose Rizal Memorial State University– Katipunan Campus, Philippines aimed to assess if this system performs efficiently in processing the students school fees and determine whether it complies all the requirements needed at present by the Cash Disbursing Office (CDO) personnel. This study used the descriptive method involving respondents’ interview and observation on system’s operation in the operational environment. The system was evaluated using the system quality factors of the International Organization for Standardization (ISO) 9126-1 and used the mean computation in tabulating the results. The research revealed that system possesses the six standard software quality characteristics of ISO and complies all the technical requirements of the CDO personnel. It also revealed that there is no problem in the utilization of the system despite insufficient system documentation. The study concludes that the evaluated system is still a useful tool in serving the clientele which performs faster, efficient and accurate processing.

  122. Abaroa-Pérez, B., Vega-Moreno, D. and Hernández-Brito, J.J

    Extracting marine phytoplankton pigments is a frequently-used analytical technique for determining the main groups present in samples. Determining these compounds (carotenoids and chlorophylls) is done mainly by high pressure liquid chromatography (HPLC), with visible UV detection and fluorescence, using a range of published methods. But the preliminary extraction required to determine them is a little-studied step that requires optimising. This paper analyses several factors that affect the extraction process, using ultra-sound microprobe as the main technique, validating the method with culture samples and real samples harvested at different depths.

  123. Abdullah Saleh Al-Saleh and Omar Abdullah Al-Shaya

    With popularity of smartphones and the explosion of mobile applications, it has become necessary for the mobile devices to function with high performance processing tasks in comparison to the static clients along with the servers. The computational resources of a device can be limited due to the weight, memory, battery life, and heat dissipation. To overcome the limitations in the mobile devices, studies have realized cloud computing as one of the best solutions. However, cloud computing may express few issues, like long-latency and expensive roaming charges for the access of cellular radio. Cloudlets can provide benefits over the distance cloud; for example faster data transfer, efficient application processing, and reduced utilization of mobile resources. This paper has examined the routes among cloudlets in the cloud computing environment. It has been concluded that the combination of cloudlets can provide significant support to the cloud computing infrastructure environment. It can further enable the model to have access to more reliable and faster connections that may also suggest new routes for faster and more efficient data transfer.

  124. Scholastica MAKAU, Charles LAGAT and Ronald BONUKE

    There have been have been various studies investigating factors that influence hotel performance in Kenya mostly in coastal region in the recent past. These studies have analyzed the strategies, drivers and factors influencing performance focusing at reasons why some hotels perform outstandingly while other do not. This study focused on how information quality affects 3 to 5 star rated hotels performance in Nairobi, Kenya. The study adopted a survey design which allowed easy sampling and analysis of data. The Target population were employees of 3 to 5 star rated hotels with a sample of 384 from a population of 9,208 employees. A methodology for information quality assessment was used in formulating the study framework. The sampling technique used was stratified random sampling. Primary data was collected by use of questionnaire instrument and a pilot study was conducted to check for the reliability and validity of the research instruments which were administered through drop and pick method. The pilot study picked 2 hotels not in the main study. Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS) software was used to analyze and interpret data. The sampling technique used was stratified random sampling. Primary data was collected by use of questionnaires which were administered through drop and pick method. Data screening was done to identify any missing data and it was further tested for reliability and normality. Reliability was tested using Cronbach’s Alpha. The results showed that firms need to align their services delivery practices with the level of their information quality in order to achieve enhanced overall business performance. Based on these study findings the researcher concluded that Information Quality has a significant influenced on 3 to 5 star hotels performance to very a great extent. In order for hotel managers to sustain their customer and retain the customer base, there is need to take into consideration on the quality of information they avail to their customers in order to make right decision e.g. pricing, price, reservations and accommodations. The study recommended that for 3 to 5 star rated hotels to realize the dreams and vision of their customers in delivering quality service to their customers, they should proactively adopt information quality their operations in order to improve their performances.

  125. Ms. Souma Pal and Prof. Samir Kumar Bandyopadhyay

    Data and information are spread all over the world. So the secrecy of data is important to our digital world. To maintain the secrecy of data, two efficient approaches are introduced- Cryptography and Steganography. Steganography is the science that deals with conveying secret information by embedding into the cover object invisibly. In steganography, only the authorized party is aware of the existence of the hidden message to achieve secret communication. The message that is to be hidden and the cover medium where the message is hidden may be text, image, audio, video and protocol. In this paper, data (ASCII range 0-255) is embedded within an image (jpg,pgm,png or tiff) by implementing DWT using Hebb rule. Then LSB substitution method is for transmission only the stego-image file and follows the reverse procedure to decrypt the original data.

  126. Temel kan BAKIR, İnci Sönmezoğlu, Fatma Kandemirli and Reşat APAK

    Aims&Objectives: The area under curve (AUC) method is the first quantitative method measuring antioxidant protection against lipid oxidation, with a slightly different order of antioxidative effectiveness from reductive assays because of interfacial effects. In this study, peroxidation of copper (II) -induced linoleic acid (LA) emulsion was investigated using a new method of ‘area under curve’ (AUC) approximation based on iron thiocyanate colorimetry. Materials and Methods: The formation of hydroperoxides in the linoleic acid emulsion was carried out at 37 ° C and in an aerated incubation at pH 7. The peroxidation of LA followed by pseudo first order kinetics, and the increases of absorbance obtained as a function of the incubation period gave sigmoidal curves. When the maximum absorbance of the oxidation products is close to 1.0, the area under the kinetic curve (AUC) and the net AUC, i.e. (AUCsample – AUCblank) calculations, the calibration curve plotted with the net AUC versus the concentration for gallic acid. Results: Gallic acid equivalents (GAE) for 5-Methoxyisatin-3-(N-4chlorophenyl) thiosemicarbazone (H25MI3ClPT) and 5-Methoxyisatin-3-(N-phenyl) thiosemicarbazone (H25MI3PT) compounds were calculated using standard curves. As a result, the gallic acid equivalents (GAE) of antioxidant compounds followed the order of BHT (3,5-Di-tert-4-butylhydroxytoluene) > (H25MI3PT) > (H25MI3ClPT) with the use of this new AUC approach.

  127. Praveen Kumar, S., Dr. Shantharaja, M., Ketan Patil and Avinash, L

    This paper mainly deals with study of mechanical properties of Al 7005 alloy based hybrid MMC’s. Two types of reinforcement materials were used to obtain hybrid composite. Reinforcements were in the form of fibers and particulate. Stir casting method is followed to obtain the required composite material with proper mixing of reinforcements. By different combination of composition three castings were obtained with same base material of Al 7005 alloy. Further mechanical properties and microstructure were analyzed for all three castings by preparing specimens with required dimensional accuracy. Mechanical properties include tensile strength, compression strength, and hardness. Obtained results were then compared to the values of unreinforced alloy. Also graphical representation of all properties when compared with unreinforced alloy is shown. Properties mentioned like tensile strength, compressive strength, and hardness were found to be improved with increasing the composition percentage of reinforcements.

  128. Dipak Prasad Bastola

    In this present world monitoring Organizational Performance has become a mandatory prospect. If we are able to diagnose the weakness as well as the flaws in the organizational performance it will make our day to day activities even better in every aspect. There has been creation of different performance model by academic and industrial veterans. Thus the objective of this research paper is to find the flaws of the existing performance models and initialize the better ideas within them to finally construct the rewarding universal performance model for aviation organization.

  129. Muhammad Dahlan

    This study is to investigate should who manage governing body to ensure and delivered of public services such as public interest to intend outcome at all times for society and services users. In this research focus on the Bandung Sub-District Office of 30, that is introduce and proportional sampling of 5 as service users on 2016. The method of this research is time order decision by Johnson and Onwugbuzie’s, (2004). This approach is selected considering during the data are collected through interviewing related respondents to re-confirmation the data from questionnaires. By CIPFA 2013 has been considered as an important determinant of public service sector performance and applied of good governance concept. According to Contingency Theory and Goals Setting Theory in order to research findings indicated that; positively Pearson correlation among organizational culture, good governance and public service performance. And then, the result of regression analysis indicate that a positively and significant effect of the organizational culture and good governance on public service performance. This study should confirmed that if applied of good governance concept is on the tract would be delivered of public interest who manage of governing body to all times for citizens and services users where come bringing for all stakeholders in the country as well as. Governing body should achievement its intended outcomes for society and services users, and operates in an effective, efficient and ethical manner through each organization has its own benefit and public trust.

  130. Sarah A.M. Musaad, Khadiga Abdallah, Suaad Elnour, Afag Abdelaziz, Salah Ismail, Safa A. Mursal and Umbeli, T

    Background: Sweeping of membrane is a simple outpatient procedure performed to initiate onset of labour by increasing local prostaglandins production. Objective: To study the effect of sweeping of fetal membranes in initiation of onset of labour and its complications in postdate pregnancy (40-42 weeks) at OMH 2015. Methodology: This is a descriptive, prospective study, conducted at (OMH), during 2015. All low risk pregnant women attending antenatal clinic (ANC), who completed 40 weeks or more (40-42) were included after an informed consent. Ethical approval was obtained from ethical review committee (ERC) at Sudan medical specialization board (SMSB). Sweeping was done by an obstetrician or a senior registrar after initial fetal and maternal assessment and ascertaining of gestational age (GA). Data was collected by trained data collectors and analyzed by computer program SPSS version 21.0 Results: A total of 995 women with uncomplicated postdate pregnancies (40-42) weeks underwent sweeping of fetal membrane for induction of labour. Many of them; 724 (72.7%) started contraction within 48 hours, 310 (31.2%) had one attempt of sweeping and 679 (68.2%) had two-four attempts. Out of them; 828 (83.2%) delivered vaginally, 153(15.4%) delivered by cesarean section and 14 (1.4%) delivered by forceps. After sweeping; 609 (61.2%) developed discomfort, 44 (4.4%) slight vaginal bleeding, 14(01.4%) ruptured their membrane before onset of labour and eleven (1.1%) developed infection. Seven (0.7%) babies were admitted to neonatal intensive care unit (NICU), six of them with transient tachypnea of newborn (TTN) discharged after 24 hours and one delivered by forceps developed severe birth asphyxia and early neonatal death. Conclusion: Sweeping of membranes is a useful simple and safe procedure for initiation of onset of labour with high client satisfaction and success rate which can reduce the need for formal methods of induction.

  131. Damaris Barragán Gamba and Jannet del Carmen Rivera Crespo

    This document deals with the results of a research project on actions undertaken by women victims of gender violence in the modality of violence of couple and the institutional responses from health and justice sector, their demands or requirements. It describes the main obstacles to the accessibility of services and it`s likely part of the implementation of the law 1258 of 2008 of prevention, promotion, care and punishment of violence against women in Colombia. The study was conducted in the municipality of Tuluá - Valle del Cauca - Colombia, between the years 2014 - 2015, under the qualitative approach. The results show, once again, that violence against women is a serious violation to their rights and despite the legislative progress and public policy, in Colombia and in particular in Tulua, they remain large obstacles for women to make effective the right to a life free of violence; victims of gender-based violence there are weaknesses in the implementation of the frameworks responsible for the care and restoration of rights of victims, violating the fundamental right of access to justice, judicial authorities which constitutes further discrimination faced by women.

  132. Fajardo CupertinoHurtado, Alejandra Cruz Mazuera and Daniela Hernandez Arias

    This article highlights the increment in the level of importance in the supply chain that companies implement in the activities and processes that they constantly carry out inside themselvesand through the adoption and good management of these methodsto obtain better results and opportunities for growth and, economic and business development of organizations to successfully meet the challenges of globalization. The main objective of the research project "characterization of the supply chain in local SMEs (Tuluá-Buga) to face the challenge of globalization" is to propose a diagnosis that shows the current situation of local SMEs (Tuluá-Buga) against the use of the supply chain as a fundamental factor in the search to improve business competitiveness in order to face the challenge of globalization, for which a descriptive-analytical methodology was employed. As the results of the research were obtained, the holdup the SMEs under study in terms of supply chain and the importance ithas within the organization,was evidenced; being this a factor that contributes to competition in national and international spheres, concluding that improvement proposals that bring companies to levels of productivity and competitiveness are required and absolutely necessary in a globalized world.

  133. Eneis Jaramillo Rodríguez, Angie Nathalia Tascón Hernández and Karol Vanessa Yate Rivera

    The research project entitled "Characterization of total logistics in the SMEs in Tuluá - Buga as a fundamental tool for the development of international trade" was developed based on the need to raise awareness among students of the International Trade Program from the Faculty of Administrative, Economic and Accounting Sciences (FACAEC by its name in Spanish), about the need to obtain competences in the field of research as a fundamental element for the integral training of professionals; Since logistics is one of the key areas of the program offered by the Central Unit of Valle del Cauca (UCEVA), which is proposed as a specialty option within the academic pensum, and deserves the guidance of research efforts towards it. Likewise, this work is framed by the evident need to carry out productive and commercial activities in a competitive and harmonious way in the business sector of the cities of Tuluá-Buga and the neighboring municipalities, in order to facilitate all the processes for the elaboration of products, the services offer and the national and international commercial development. The type of research methodology employed is the applied research methodology and with descriptive study. Besides, complying with the need to know the logistics process carried out by local companies with exporting and importing vision, the posed objective was worked out, to generate a diagnosis of logistics, emphasizing on its whole conception, as a fundamental tool for the development of the international trade of the companies of Tuluá - Buga and the neighboring municipalities

  134. Mulatie Chanie

    Recent evidences indicate that a large increase in FDI inflows to African countries including Ethiopia. And this FDI has seen as a crucial source of capital inflows and stimulants of economic growth in the country. And in order to attract this FDI, Ethiopia took some steps towards liberalizing trade and the macroeconomic regimes as well as introducing some measures aimed at improving the FDI regulatory frame works. But empirical literatures find mixed evidence on the impact of FDI on Economic growth in the host country. So, the main aim of this study is to empirically investigate the impact of FDI on economic growth by incorporating a simultaneous equation econometric model and 3SLS estimation technique based on time-serious data over the period 1974–2014. Following this empirical analysis, the study found a positive and statistically significant impact of FDI on economic growth in Ethiopia though the impact is weak in magnitude which is below the relative impact of domestic capital investment on economic growth. Thus, this study implies that Ethiopia could enhance its economic growth by improving the amount of FDI inflows and its contribution in the growth process.

  135. Almina ALAGIĆ and Ismar ALAGIĆ

    Reading is a complex psychological activity which enables receiving the information in written form and its comprehension. The perception of signs has a major importance in the beginning of reading, but, as the child improves, it relies more on the content of reading. Enabling pupils in elementary school to realize and understand the facts in the text and the whole text, and to develop individual comprehension of the text, can significantly improve their school success, and, generally life success. It is of great importance for elementary school pupils to overcome all levels of reading, starting with remembering the shape of letters, connecting the letters and the sounds, recognizing the letters and their bonding in one unity, connecting words into sentences, learning the basic reading techniques, speed reading and reading to oneself with full comprehension of the read text. The aim of this paper is to explore the connection between understanding the read text and the general success of pupils. The survey includes 196 pupils of the fifth grade in Elementary schools, Huso Hodžić“, 1.mart“ and 9. Septembar“. In this paper, several methods were used, such as theoretical analysis and descriptive method. Besides the research methods, two research techniques were used: testing and interviewing. Within the testing technique, the test of knowledge was used, so called, test of understanding the read text“. Considering the distribution of frequency and percentage in the contingency table, as well as the chi square value and the contingency coefficient, we can make a conclusion that there is a statistical connection between understanding the read text and school success at the end of the fourth grade

  136. Prakash Sannakkanavar

    This paper compared high and low academic achievers in respect of study. This study consisting of 30 items on different aspects of learning ways. The scale was administered on the sample of 100 students those were studying in class IX in different schools of Vijayapura district. Similarly, academic performance was measured through marks obtained by the students in the school level examination of class VIII. The analysis revealed that the learning way of secondary school students is related with their academic achievement. The high achievers have better learning way than the low achievers. It also showed that there is no significant difference between the high and low achiever students in respect of their learning way.

  137. Benter Oseno Gudu,

    This paper discusses demotivational factors and emerging issues demoralizing secondary school teachers and creating low learning outcomes. Negative behaviours including frequent strikes, cases of examination irregularities and insecurity suggest moral decay and lack of values among learners. This indicates a decline in the quality of secondary education in the country. Teacher motivation is linked to improved student good performance in the national examinations. This review analyzes possible threats to teachers’ motivation and remedial measures. The specific objectives of this review were to (i) Examine demotivational factors and ii) Determine emerging issues in secondary schools in Kenya. Provision of non-attractive remuneration together with emerging acute shortage of teachers, inadequate opportunities for professional growth, insecurity in schools and haphazard implementation of devolved government system in Kenya demotivate teachers. The findings are useful to the government, educational administrators, and other stakeholders to mitigate teachers’ demotivation and improve performance in secondary schools.

  138. Zainab Akram and Dr. Nosheen Zaheer

    This paper explores the intertextual elements in Shazaf Fatima Haider’s (2013) How It Happened. The study is based on the theory of text and intertextuality proposed by Roland Barthes (1977). This theory suggests that no text ever exists in individuality. All the texts are interwoven, interlinked and dependent to each other by the intertextualelements. No text stands apart and claims to be original, and contains the aspects of creating a mosaic. The intertextuality is used and molded in accordance to the cultural needs, requirements and cultural context. The quantitative paradigm is employed in this research. By employing the descriptive analysis, the technique proposed by Sudaryanto (1993) the Simak Bebas Libat Cakap, is used to analyze the data. The data is selected after perused reading of the novel How It Happened (2013). The relevant data is extracted, noted down and further analyzed for intertextual references. The data are further elaborated in function of occupying that particular intertextuality. The findings revealed that strong intertextual elements from various fields, dimensions and realms are present in How It Happened. The intertextual references have specific functions to perform, which are traced as elaboration, intensification, humor, irony, comparison, extension and opposition in accordance to the specific cultural scenario.

  139. Dr. Noor Uddin Ahmed

    Arabic poetry is the earliest form of Arabic Literature, and the Arabs expressed their greatest mentality in the domain of their poetry in flowery art of language. Generally poetry has the capability to touch the heart of human being, while it bears moral values in its contents. Like many other philosopher poets, AbȗTammȃm (d. 788 A.D.) compiled an anthology entitled Kitabu’l-Hamȃsah comprising of 884 Arabic poems; they are accommodated with ten to eleven chapters; of which third chapter finds as Bȃbu’l-Adab i.e. “chapter of the manners”. It consists of specific poems that related to ethics and morality of high order.

  140. Kamaruddin Hasan and Musdalifah

    Culture according to behavioral perspective is a total way of life, while educational perspective sees culture as something abstract that is educational, which form a system of knowledge, spirit, belief, meaning, ethos, values, the capability of mind functioning in shaping patterns of behavior typical of a community group. School culture is the culture of the organization in the context of schooling, so that the school culture is roughly equal to the culture of educational organizations. School is actually designed to carry out the functions of balance between the organization of learning and at the same time pay attention to propagate the culture layer in the values of faith and devotion as the focus system. To strengthen the culture of the school, the school becomes a true culture of the future engineering (Engineering of future culture which function of the members of immunity to students in adapting to global culture. The development of the culture of the school is expected to always pay attention to aspects of learners in accordance with the values of kindness and balance with the goal of social change.

  141. Sujatha, N., Dr. Muninarayanappa, M. and Dr. Sathyanarayana

    Nowadays, an audit committee (AC) is being looked upon as a distinct culture for CG and has received a wide-publicity across the globe. Government authorities, regulators and international bodies all have indicated that they view an AC as a potentially powerful tool that can enhance the reliability and transparency of financial information. Being mandatory under Security Exchange and Board of India (SEBI’s) Clause 49 of the Listing Agreement, an AC can be of great help to the board in implementing, monitoring and continuing “good” CG practices to the benefit of the corporation and all its stakeholders.

  142. Neeraj Kumar, Kushmander Singh, Sangeeta Agarwal, and Anil Kumar

    Sewage sludge generated from wastewater treatment plants are being merited greater attention in light of their potential for improving soil properties and for providing important nutrient and trace element supplements that are essential for plant growth. Because of the differences in sludge characteristics among sludges that undergo different levels of treatment as well as the extensive and variable nature of pollutant inputs to wastewater, the fertilizer potential and pollutant risk of sewage sludge intended for agricultural application has to be specifically evaluated for each sludge. Sewage sludge generated from seven wastewater treatment plants in Swaziland were analysed for a range of physico-chemical characteristics including organic matter, nutrients, cation exchange capacity, pH and trace elements. Despite the differences in sludge processing and sludge storage ages, the sludge samples generally show high levels of organic matter, nutrients and trace elements needed for plant growth. The potential risk of heavy metal toxicity was evaluated by comparing the levels of heavy metals in the sludge samples with widely quoted and well known regulatory limits of a number of countries and the levels were found to be within acceptable risk level with respect to agricultural application. Chrome tannery sludge applied to agricultural land may have benefits in terms of added N for crop growth. An experiment was designed to compare tannery waste with commercial N fertilizer and investigate the potential of the waste as an alternative or supplement to commercial fertilizer. Soils with 38% and 7% organic C and N content of 1.3% and 0.2%, respectively, were amended with lime, commercial N fertilizer, or tannery sludge containing 1.6% Cr. A portion of the tannery waste was supplemented with additional Cr(+3) salt before adding to the soils. The amended soils were analyzed for total Cr, ammonium acetate extractable Cr, selected nutrient and trace element concentrations. The tannery sludge increased soil pH, total Cr and N, S, Ca, P, Mg, and Na concentrations.

  143. I Nyoman Sueca

    This study wanted to know the culture organization of Hindu religious adviser in Pasraman education development at the Mataram city. This study used field research method with qualitative descriptive analysis, which is carried out against Hindu religious adviser in the Ministry of Religious of West Nusa Tenggara Province. In the effort to develop theory based on field data, also use the method of observation, in-depth interview method and document study and cross check data (triangulation) so that data will be obtained more accurate. From the research it can be concluded that culture organization of Hindu religious adviser in the pasraman education development has provided an incentive for the management of pasraman to build competitiveness and independence. In practice, the organizational culture of of Hindu religious adviser in the Ministry of Religious Affairs of West Nusa Tenggara Province to the current quality of quality guidance is likely to be top down and the transition period before the Government Regulation No 19 of 2006 on National Education Standards.

  144. Mohamed Rifkhan A.H. Rahuman

    “This IPO is for investors who really want to buy our share and be benefitted in the medium term. If someone intends on punting with the IPO, we are not the bank for such people. With punting, we feel that a customer does not become a shareowner.” (FT.lk, 2013) The above statement was mentioned by the former MD/CEO of Amana Bank (“The Bank”) FaizalSalih in the end of the year 2013 when the bank started floating its shares in initial public offering (“IPO”) under the slogan: “Own your share in our journey of success”. The aim of this study is to critically review the progress of the bank based on its strategies, financial position and performance and to provide suggestions on the way forward. Amana Bank is operating in one of the high growth industry of Islamic banking (Consultancy.UK, 2016). However, it appears that so far the bank is following a very narrow path when it comes to its strategies and competition. This narrow view has impacted its share and financial performance and position. In order to overcome this struggle, it has to broaden its view to understand the real competitors and focus on wider customers. It also has to consider the impact of growing financing alternatives such as financing provided by vehicle dealers, Mutual funds, Insurance schemes and Sharia-compliant fund management companies while keeping a close eye on the political changes in the form of threats and mega projects in the form of opportunity for the bank. As a result of these internal and external environmental comprehensions, Amana Bank can deploy many strategies to revamp its journey towards success. This study suggests rebranding or repositioning of the bank while addressing its operational inefficiencies as one of the recommendation. The case of Amana bank provides many insights to Islamic banks that operate in an environment where the majority of the customers do not fall into religious sentiments such as the importance of services and customer care. It also shows the impact of clear future strategies in firm’s market value.

  145. Eliud Nyakundi, Phillip Otieno, Peter .O. Nyabera

    Churches face challenges in paying their clergy and financing church projects. The transition from missionary support to self-reliance, self-propagating and self governance has seen many local churches face financial constraints. One of the ways of financial sustainability is through Savings and Credit Cooperative Societies (SACCOs.The main purpose of the study was to determine the effect of KAG-SACCO in raising the income of the clergy, members and churches in Gusii District of Kenya Assemblies of God Church. The study objectives were to: determine the sources of church funding in KAG-Gusii District, determine the level of saving in the KAG–SACCO, determine the amount of funds borrowed from KAG–SACCO by Gusii District, determine whether income has improved after investment used by money borrowed from KAG-SACCO and determine the default rate among those who have borrowed from KAG-SACCO. The population of the study was 74 members and six departments. Descriptive research design was used. The study use census sampling procedure. An open ended questionnaire was used for data collection. Descriptive statistics was used for data analysis. The study findings were; 99% churches in Gusii District depended on their tithe and offering for church funding while only 1% of the churches relied on KAG-SACCO for funding, the level of saving in KAG- SACCO in Gusii was low as evidenced by only 14 % of respondents with over 50,000kshs of share, only 17% of respondent had borrowed over khs 50,000 kshs as loan to make significant economic impact, only 10 % of respondent reported income increase while 26 % of respondents got more poorer and 62 % reported no improvement in income and about 59% of borrowers had defaulted on loan repayment. The study concluded that the KAG SACCO had not led to economic transformation of SACCO members. The members needed to save more shares to borrow more loans and there was need to educate members of KAG SACCO on investment opportunities with returns.

  146. Sailau Baizakov and Nauryz Baizakov

    The application of the culturological approach allowed buildinga qualitative theory of money, which ensures the innovative development of the economies of the countries of the world. Using the model of social and political order, it becomes possible to correctly assess the indicators of the quality of national money. This opens the way for further development of methods for analyzing economic policy.

  147. Dr. Tindi Seje Nuru, Umar Saleh Baba, Dr. Kayindu Vincent, Idris Garba Riruwai and Gwokyalya Edith Baagala

    This study was carried out in 12 primary schools of Makindye Urban council, Kampala district in Uganda to establish the dominant management styles used by head teachers of Makindye Urban Council primary schools, as well as to find out whether there is a difference in the head teachers’ management styles between private and public primary schools in Makindye Urban Council, Kampala district. Using cross-sectional survey design with a quantitative approach, the data was collected from 360 respondents, 350 of whom were pupils and 10 were head teachers. The findings indicated that autocratic style of management was the dominantly used method by the head teachers, and there was no significant difference between private and public primary schools in the usage of the dominant management style. Based on the objectives of the study, the general conclusion made was that all head teachers use different management style in the execution of their duties. Thus, the researcher recommended that head teachers should apply more democratic management style than autocratic and Laissez faire. Democratic style of management builds team sprit among workers and tends to produce better results than autocratic management style, public primary schools need to borrow a leaf from the private ones to ensure that they employ more democratic management and shun laissez-faire management.

  148. Umar Saleh Baba, Dr. Kayindu Vincent, Idris Garba Riruwai and *Dr. Tindi Seje Nuru

    This study was carried out in 12 primary schools of Makindye Urban council, Kampala district in Uganda to assess the primary school pupils’ level of moral behavior in Makindye Urban Council, Kampala district. Using cross-sectional survey design with a quantitative approach, the data was collected from 360 respondents, 350 of whom were pupils and 10 were head teachers. The findings indicated that the pupils’ level of moral behavior was high despite the general outcry of moral decadence in the world. It was recommended that parents should try their best to ensure that they close the social, environmental and economic gaps which can be detrimental to their children.

  149. Ashiq, A.

    The civilian nuclear enrichment specifically focuses on economic development and technological advancement of the country. The paper raises a central question on the link between the nuclear programme and socio-political transitions in Iran. People of Iran had a significant historical role in determining the socio-political structures of the country. For instance, Islamic revolution of 1979 was resultant in establishing Islam-centric political and social system in the country. This such change would not be a longer solution to protect the interest of the citizens since the political mobility has been set in the very early period after the revolution. Mobilities such as these and subsequent changes have been empowered by the different domestic and external political factors. A new policy variable that was a nuclear programme put forward by the Islamic Iran in 1981 and got support from all the factions irrespective of their difference, and they held on no ambiguity on states’ affairs. New factions’ influence escalated in Iranian politics, notably since the last phase of the 1980s, which laid divisions in the approach of the people towards the nuclear enrichment. Then, it was not only the subject of international players but also the important parameter of domestic political factions in Iran. The article examines the changes in the socio-political spectrums of Iran from the standpoint of the development of the nuclear programme and confrontations. It analyses the dynamic political mobilisations and the impact of the nuclear deal (P5+1) on the socioeconomic profile of the country.

  150. Dr. Ravi Kant

    Microteaching is a compulsory part of any teacher’s training program to be taken before a student is allowed to go for the practice teaching. This indicates the importance of microteaching to prepare the future teacher trainees to teach in school. However, there are some modification in the practices of microteaching according to situations. This research had been carried out to investigate the attitude and perception of B.Ed. and M.Ed. students and teacher educators in Darbhanga district. 150 students from the B.Ed. and M.Ed. course and 10 teacher educators were chosen to become the respondents of this study. These respondents had involved in their microteaching course and had done their teaching practice in their training. Each respondent was asked to rate a set of statements (Rating Scale) consisted of 55 items regarding the microteaching experience. The findings of the study indicated that the students of both courses have high level of perception towards microteaching. They considered microteaching very useful for their prospective teaching. Teacher educators also had a positive attitude and perception towards microteaching but some teacher had low attitude and perception.

  151. Dr. Anand, R.

    Goal orientation refers to the goals individuals implicitly pursue while attempting to attain certain performance outcomes (Dweck and Leggett, 1988). Communication climate is the tone of interactions among individuals in a work environment, with tone reflecting not only the quality of those relationships but also the organization's effectiveness. The data for this study was collected through survey method. Executives those who are above 45 years of age were prefers neutral style of communication. Further details were discussed in this paper. Communication climate is the environment in which communication either thrives or languishes.

  152. Jimmy, E. O. and Nwafolor, O. O.

    Effects of stachytarpheta cayennensis on haematological parameters were investigated in thirty (30) albino rats for a period of two (2) weeks. There was significant (P<0.05) decline in red blood cells values with increase in extract concentration as compared with control but the values were within the normal range. There was increase in packed cell value with increase in extract dosage but the difference was not significant (P> 0.05) except in high dose that showed low value with increase dosage concentration and was significant (P< 055) as compared with control. There was little increases in haemoglobin value as in low and medium dosages than control but a drop at high dosage of the extract which was significant P<0.05. The mean corpuscular haemoglobin, (MCH) mean corpuscular volume, (MCV) and mean corpuscular haemoglobin concentration, (MCHC) were all reduced with increases concentration of the extract. But, the white blood cells and the platelets were all increased with increased extract concentration. However, there was a drastic increase in the weight of the rats at increasing dosages of the extract particularly at 14 days of the administration. It is observed that extracted of S. cayennensis does not impact positively on blood cells and it is dangerous in the treatment.

  153. Rushabh S Kamdar, Dr. Dhanraj, M. and Dr. Rakshaghan

    Aim: The aim of this study was to assess the knowledge, attitudes and awareness of the use of flexible dentures among dental practitioners. Material and Methods: This descriptive cross-sectional study was conducted at Saveetha Dental College and hospitals, Chennai. The study instrument was a structured, self administrable questionnaire consisting of eight multiple choice questions (MCQs), encompassing major aspects of flexible dentures conducted through an online survey. Results: The survey was conducted among 100 dental practitioners. The study included participants of which 93% were female and 7% were male. 49% of the respondents have clinical experience less than 5 years. In regard to the choice of the RPD types to be used, 48% of the respondents chose metallic framework, followed by acrylic and flexible. 61% of the respondents had knowledge on the use of flexible denture. 52% of the population was aware of the commercial name of the product flexible dentures. 35% of population has never provided flexible dentures. 63% of the population chose flexible dentures, for patient comfort. 39% of the population planned to choose flexible dentures for both temporary and permanent solutions. Conclusion: Although the awareness among the dental practitioners is satisfactory, the use of flexible dentures should be reinforced and followed on a regular basis in the curriculum.

  154. Rushabh S.Kamdar and Prof Dr. Chandana Subbarao

    Background: A major component of quality of health care is patient satisfaction. Patient satisfaction is multifaceted and a very challenging outcome to define. Patient expectations of care and attitudes greatly contribute to the satisfaction; other psychosocial factors, including facilities and treatments services are also known to contribute to the various patient satisfaction levels. Aim: To measure patient satisfaction about facilities, services and treatments offered by a dental hospital in India. Materials and Methods: Self administrated questionnaire was distributed to outpatients reporting to the dental hospital for treatment. The questionnaire consisted of 4 questions that included information about their satisfaction with the facilities, services and treatment received in the hospital. Results: About 75% of patients felt that the cost of dental hygiene services were reasonable, 85% of the patients were satisfied with the cleanliness of the clinic area, 80% of the patients said that it was easy to make an appointment, 85% of patients felt that the dentist was professional, courteous and polite. Conclusion: The majority of the patients were satisfied with the facilities, services and treatment received at hospital except for facilities such as water supply and scheduling appointments with patient convenience.

  155. Shamit Thaper and Dr. Mimansa Bhoj

    Aim: To assess the awareness of dental students and general public about oral cancer. Background: Oral cancer is one of the most common malignancy seen in head and neck region. The common causes for oral cancer include tobacco consumption (smoke and smokeless), areca nut, betel nut and others. Materials and Methods: 2 groups were formed with 150 participants in each group. The groups included dental students (final year BDS students and Interns) and general public from Chennai. Awareness of etiology, clinical features and management of oral cancer was assessed by means of a questionnaire. Reason: Though oral cancer is the most commonly encountered malignancy in head and neck region, there is poor awareness regarding its etiology, clinical features and management. An early diagnosis can lead to improved survival rate and better prognosis in many cases. Therefore awareness among the dental students and general population is essential for prevention, early diagnosis, improved prognosis and follow up.

  156. Dr. Yasmin Begum, M., Saisree, R., Harshitha, P., Shwetha, A. and Dr. Sudhakar, M

    Processing a poorly soluble drug is a challenging task during formulation development. Nano suspension is one of the techniques that can improve the dissolution of poorly soluble drug. Nanosuspension is the fine dispersion of uniform-sized solid particles in an aqueous vehicle. The present work was aimed at the formulation and evaluation of nanosuspension of Nifedipine, a poorly water soluble anti-hypertensive drug. The nanosuspensions were prepared by nanoprecipitation alone and in combination with ultrasonication method using acetone as solvent and water as antisolvent. The prepared nanosuspensions were characterized for particle size, zeta potential, polydispersity index, Scanning electron microscopy (SEM), drug entrapment efficiency and release behaviour. The effect of variable concentration of drug, stabilizer, extent of ultrasonication, and solvent to antisolvent ratio on the physical, morphological and dissolution properties of Nifedipine were studied. The average particle size of Nifedipine nanoparticles was found to be in the range of 13–230 nm. It was further confirmed by SEM photograph. The particle size varies with increase in concentration of drug and stabilizer. The preparations showed negative zeta potential and polydispersity index in the range of 0.3-0.9. The dissolution of prepared Nifedipine nanoparticles markedly increased as compared to the pure drug. The dissolution profiles of nanosuspension formulation showed up to 74.4 % release in 4 h. It may be concluded that the nanoprecipitation with ultrasonication have potential to formulate homogenous nanosuspensions with uniform-sized stable nanoparticles of Nifedipine. The prepared nanosuspension showed enhanced dissolution which may lead to enhanced oral bioavailability of Nifedipine.

  157. Rene Kuriakose, Godbole, S. R. and Angel Mary Joseph

    Aim: To study the effect of enzymatic and sodium perborate denture cleansers on tensile bond strength between permanent resilient liner and heat polymerized denture base immersed in different durations of immersion solutions. Materials and Methods: Sixty three samples with the resilient denture liner sandwiched between two polymerized PMMA blocks were divided into three groups A, B and C with 21 samples in each subgroup. All samples were stored in artificial saliva in an incubator at 370C for 15 days. They were then immersed in distilled water (Group A-Control group), enzymatic (Group B-Test group) and sodium perborate denture cleanser (Group C-Test group) for 8 hours once a day and repeated for fifteen days. Tensile bond strength values were evaluated using universal testing machine on 1st, 7th and 15th day. The type of bond failure was assessed using a stereomicroscope. The data was statistically analyzed using one way ANOVA (F-Test), Dunnett D test and Student’s paired t test. Results: Group A, B and C showed maximum tensile strength on 14th, 7th and 1st day respectively. Group A and B showed adhesive type of bond failure. Group C showed both adhesive and cohesive types of bond failure. The enzymatic denture cleanser showed more tensile bond strength compared to sodium perborate denture cleanser. Conclusion: This study demonstrated that there were significant differences among the samples for different types and durations of immersion solutions which are due to leaching out of plasticizers from resilient liner and composition of the different immersion solutions.

  158. Dr. Harshita Rai, Dr. Vaishali Keluskar, Dr. Shivayogi Charantimath and Dr. Anjana Bagewadi

    Sialolithiasis has been reported to be the most common disease of the salivary gland affecting 12 individuals per 1000 of the adult population. It is the most common cause of acute and chronic infections of salivary gland and accounts for greater than 50% of the diseases involving large salivary glands. Sialolith greater than 15mm in any one dimension or 1 gram in weight have been classified as giant sialoliths in literature. Residual cyst may be radicular, dentigerous or any other cyst which persists after the removal of its associated tooth. They account for approximately 10% of all odontogenic cysts and are usually asymptomatic. The aim to the present article is to report simultaneous occurrence of giant submandibular sialolith with unsusual shape and residual cyst on the contralateral side. The interesting point to note is the strikingly similar appearance of sialolith to canine.

  159. Anjali Ravi Jha, Chanamallappa Ramappa Ganiger, Renuka Lalit Pawar, Sandesh Ashok Phaphe, Yusuf Ahammed, A.R., Pratap Nivrutti Mane and Karan Vinayak Gaikwad

    The aim of this study is to evaluate the oral hygiene maintenance in patients undergoing orthodontic treatment. This will help the patients to maintain the oral hygiene in an effective way in terms of aesthetic as well as the success of orthodontic treatment. For evaluating the oral hygiene 150 patients undergoing orthodontic treatment were selected from school of dental sciences, Karad. These 150 patients were divided in 3 groups. 50 patients were allotted in group A, who were instructed to carry out their normal oral hygiene methods. Next 50 patients were in group B who were instructed to perform bass tooth brushing technique (The brush head is positioned in an Oblique direction turned to the root apex aiming to introduce the bristles on the gingival sulcus. The brush is then shifted on an antero-posterior direction, using short rhythmic movements) for the next 2 months. Last 50 patients were in group C who were instructed to use 0.12% chlorhexidine mouthwash (Chlorhexidine has always been the best option in management in severe gingivitis in adolescent patients. A three month use of 0.12 % chlorhexidine approximately reduced 65% plaque, 77% gingival bleeding) along with bass toothbrushing technique for the next 3 months. The oral hygiene of all patients was recorded on the 1st day, at the end of first month and at the end of second month. Gingival index: (loe h and silness p,1963) and Tureskygilmoreglickman modification of the quigleyhein plaque index: (1962) is used for evaluating the oral hygiene of all 150 patients in all 3 groups. According to the data recorded and after statistic evaluation it is seen that patients in group C (patients using bass tooth brushing technique and 0.12% chlorhexidine mouthwash) could maintain better oral hygiene as compared to group A (patients who followed their normal oral hygiene aids) and group B patients (patients performing bass tooth brushing technique). Thus, this study shows that bass tooth brushing technique should be performed along with 0.12% chlorhexidine mouthwash for maintaining oral hygiene for patients undergoing orthodontic treatment.

  160. Dr. Varsha Bhatia, Dr. Ashish Jawarkar, Dr. Varun Gohil and Dr. Darshana Patel

    The most common helminthic infection in Gastrointestinal Tract (GIT) is considered to be Enterobius vermicularis and when it affects appendix it produces symptoms of acute appendicitis. Its association with acute appendicitis varies from 0.2% to 41.8%, most predominantly affecting children and rare in adults. We present a case of 22 year old male clinically diagnosed as acute appendicitis but pathological examination revealed Enterobius vermicularis infection in appendix which is an infrequent finding. The intestinal parasitic infection may mimic acute appendicitis clinically but careful examination and evaluation of symptoms such as pruritis ani or eosinophilia on blood examination may be present.

  161. Dr. Charles E. Anyanechi

    Background: Maxillofacial fractures in children are rare, but present challenges that may adversely affect growth and development. Objective: To analyze the pattern and management of maxillofacial bone fractures in patients aged one to 12 years. Materials and Methods: A retrospective review was conducted on 47 pediatric patients with maxillofacial fractures that presented to our hospital over a 20-year period. Data on etiology, clinical characteristics, treatment and complications were analyzed. Results: There were 47/3996 (1.2%) pediatric patients with 58/4623 (1.3%) fractures out of the 3996 patients and 4623 fractures that presented. There were 33 boys and 14 girls giving a male to female ratio of 2.4:1. The age of patients ranged from 5-12 years with mean age of 9.2±2.3 years. As the age increased, the frequency of patients with fractures increased (p=0.001). Road traffic accidents (RTA) was the commonest cause of fractures (39/47, 83%, p=0.000), and concomitant injuries occurred in 11/47 (23.4%) of the victims. Majority of the patients were managed conservatively (n=32/47, 68.1%). Those knocked down by motor vehicle had more multiple (n=6/8, 75%) and displaced (n=11/15, 73.3%, p=0.01) fractures, longer hospital stay (4-7 days), and concomitant injuries (n=8/11, 72.7%, p=0.01). Conclusion: This study shows that the prevalence of maxillofacial fractures was low amongst one to 12 years age groups. As majority of them were knocked down by motor vehicle, preventive program if instituted will have a positive effect in reducing the prevalence of fractures.

  162. Israel Jeba and Arti Devi

    Introduction: The term menopause simply refers to the last menstrual period which is defined by not having had a period in 12 months. Although a technical definition of menopause refers to your last period, it is not an abrupt event but a gradual process. The cessation of menstrual cycles at the end of a woman's reproductive period is termed as menopause. Menopause before age 45 is considered premature in industrialized countries. The age of menopause is largely a result of genetics; however, illnesses, certain surgeries, or medical treatments may cause menopause to occur earlier. Methodology: In this pre-experimental study, 60 menopausal women in the age group of 45-55 years were selected as the samples for the study by using non-probability purposive sampling. The data was collected by using structured questionnaire on post-menopausal symptoms. Data analysis were performed by descriptive statistics and inferential statistics. SPSS-17 software was used and P values less than 0.05 were considered significant. Result: In the pre- test [mean =6.2, SD= .879], majority of the menopausal women had inadequate knowledge regarding post – menopausal syndrome and in the post test[mean= 12.15, SD=1.022], majority of the menopausal women had moderate knowledge regarding post – menopausal syndrome. Discussion: The result shows that there was improvement in knowledge regarding post – menopausal syndrome after implementation of structured teaching programme on post – menopausal syndrome which was calculated at 0.05 level of significance. So, it is concluded that the structured teaching programme on post – menopausal syndrome was effective to improve the knowledge of post - menopausal women.

  163. Neha Shukla

    Introduction: Early childhood, that is the first six years constitutes the most crucial period in life, when the foundations are laid for cognitive, social and emotional language, physical/motor development and cumulative lifelong learning. Child malnutrition may be defined as a pathological state resulting from inadequate nutrition, including under nutrition (protein-energy malnutrition) due to insufficient intake of energy and other nutrients. Cases with mild-to-moderate malnutrition are likely to remain unrecognized because clinical criteria for their diagnosis are imprecise and are difficult to interpret accurately. Aims & Objectives: To study nutritional status of registered children 6 months to 6 years of age among rural children attending the anganwadi centres and also to find out the determinants related to nutritional status in children. Materials & Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted among the children of block Parikshitgarh attending the anganwadi centres. Simple random sampling was done and a sample of 397 was drawn from the study population. A pretested structured questionnaire was used to collect data and anthropometric measurements were recorded. Data was entered and analyzed using SPSS 19.0 version. Results: Only 29.4% of the registered children were regularly attending the anganwadi centres. Prevalence of underweight and stunting was found to be 1.0% and 1.8% respectively. Prevalence of underweight was higher among the participants of joint family (2.3%). Conclusion: The findings of study shows that only 29.4% of children between the age group of 6 months to 6 years are attending the anganwadi centres regularly and the prevalence of underweight and stunting were 1.0% & 1.8% respectively, that is very low in comparison to other studies conducted in this area, so more and more children should be mobilized to get the benefits provided at anganwadi centres to prevent malnutrition.

  164. Dr. Manjusha Madhusudan Litake and Dr. Aditya Narasimhan

    Acute pancreatitis is a rare entity when presenting in a patient with Systemic Lupus Erythematosus. Since it was first described in 1939 less than 200 cases have been reported in literature. We are reporting a case of a 17 year old girl, a diagnosed case of SLE, who had developed sudden onset abdominal pain, and subsequently diagnosed with Lupus induced Acute Pancreatitis. She was started on steroid therapy after the diagnosis but consequently succumbed to the illness, after developing lupus pancreatitis related ARDS. This case report thus intends to highlight the need for early diagnosis with a raised index of suspicion with pancreatitis being the possible diagnosis in SLE patients presenting with pain abdomen and the need for early intervention in such patients.

  165. Chaitanya S. Buddhikot, Dr. Amit Mani, Dr. Shubhangi Mani and Dr. Sekharamantri Anuraga

    In globally growing of dental treatment provider’s, while providing best treatments to the patient, it is extremely important for a dentist to follow a protocol to facilitate cross infection control in the office and to prevent cross-contamination between the patients, dentists, assistants, and paramedical staff, yet cross contamination and its modes still remain the same. To ensure risk free practice it is essential to follow the two basic R’s: Reduce –the infection, Reevaluate the status. This article emphasizes fundamentally on different pathways of cross infection and methods that can be implemented in an attempt to remove but at least reduce creating an ideal situation to prevent cross contamination. Personal protection, decontamination and formulation of an infection control policy have been discussed

  166. Nur Qistina Binti Ahmad Fauzi and Yuvaraj Babu, K.

    AIM: To do the morphometric analysis of the hard palate. OBJECTIVE: By analysing the palatine length and breadth, which is used to determine the palatine index, the position of the greater foramen (GPF), the distance of GPF from the middle maxillary suture (MMS) and the variation in number of lesser palatine foramina (LPF); the variations of the hard palate in South Indians can be seen. BACKGROUND: The morph metric analysis of the hard palate is done by determining the palatine index, GDF, MMS as well as the LPF of unsexed South Indian skulls; which plays an important role in the passive articulation of speech. This information will also provide needed information about defects during development which can lead to conditions like cleft palate. The basis to this is that the osteological and morphological variations of the hard palate is of great clinical value. REASON: The hard palate has got variations in age and race. There is a need to analyse and find out the Palatine Index for South Indian population. This could prove as a useful tool for plastic surgeons as well as anthropologist.

  167. Nur Qistina Binti Ahmad Fauzi and Dr. Brigit Eapen

    The aim of this study is to highlight the importance of patient management for dental professionals and thus making it a necessity in the regular dental curriculum. By finding the importance of patient management, we improve the communication skills of a dentist towards a patient and thereby creating a healthy professional and humanitarian relationship.

  168. Chi J. Nwaobiora

    In 2009, Sacramento County Mental Treatment Center (SCMHTC) shut down half of the 100 inpatient beds in the only Crisis Stabilization Unit (CSU) in the county causing patients who depended on the county mental health with limited resources. The lack of resources in the community resulted in long wait times for appointments in the county outpatient facilities. Due to these complications, psychiatric patients resorted to the Emergency Departments (ED) for their treatment, causing an influx of psychiatric patients, poor and sometimes sub-therapeutic care from the ED clinicians. To formulate a better process to care for the patients in the ED, the Mental Health Improvement Coalition comprising of leaders from the Hospital Council of Northern and Central California region and other stakeholders worked with Sacramento County healthcare providers with goals of reducing the incidence of psychiatric crisis in the ED. The proposal included a strategy to ensure that psychiatric patients have access to quality medical care, both when they present to the ED, and when they transfer to the psychiatric inpatient facilities. This lead to a proposal to standardize the medical clearance process across all EDs in the Sacramento region, and inpatient psychiatric treatment programs. To facilitate the timely transfer of patients to appropriate treatment centers, the SMART medical clearance protocol was developed to provide a guide for ED physicians to medically stabilize patients.

  169. Dr. Shraddha Gokhale, Dr. Amita Mali, Dr. Pramod Waghmare, Dr. Amit Chaudhari and Dr. Smruti Lulla

    Laser stands for “Light Amplification by Stimulated Emission of Radiation”. They are being used for various periodontal therapies. Low level lasers have wavelengths suitable for periodontal healing. Diode laser is an excellent soft tissue laser and it helps in significant bacterial reduction, removal of the inflammatory products while creating excellent hemostasis. A flexible fiber optic delivery system allows the clinician easy and safe access around the periodontal pocket. In this case report the effectiveness of diode laser as an adjunct to scaling and root planing (SRP) in the nonsurgical treatment of chronic periodontitis has been evaluated.

  170. Tadesse Seda Bedassa and Sileshi Garoma Abeya

    Introduction: Epilepsy is one of the recognized Central nervous System (CNS) complications in HIV infected patients. However, so far there were unknown researches conducted regarding the prevalence of epilepsy among HIV infected adult patients in Ethiopia in general and in the study area in particular. Objectives: The study was conducted to determine the prevalence of epilepsy among HIV infected adult patients who were on Anti-retroviral treatment (ART) in Adama Hospital Medical College, 2017. Methodology: Hospital based cross-sectional study was conducted using quantitative data collection method. A total of 748 HIV infected adult patients on Anti-retroviral treatment were recruited. Face to face interview was conducted using pretested structured questionnaire to collect the data. The imaging and laboratory results were extracted from Anti-retroviral treatment Logbook using checklist. The collected data was entered using Epi Info version 7 and exported to SPSS version 21 for analysis. Results: The prevalence of Epilepsy among HIV infected adults patients on ART was 15.4% (95% CI: 12.7, 17.9). The most common opportunistic infections were Cryptococcal meningitis and Toxoplasmosis. Conclusion and Recommendations: The prevalence of Epilepsy among HIV infected adult patients taking ART is high. The health care providers should take in to account for the need of testing for HIV in adults while diagnosing Epilepsy.

  171. Nishant Vardhan, Dr. Tarun Sood and Dr. Mandeep Tomar

    Introduction: Blepharophimosis, ptosis and epicanthus inversus syndrome (BPES) is a developmental disorder for which diagnosis is based on 4 major features: Blepharophimosis, Ptosis, Epicanthus inversus and telecanthus). This condition is caused by mutations in the FOXL2 gene and is inherited in an autosomal dominant pattern. Case report: A 12 year old girl presented ptosis with strabismus in eye OPD. The patient had bilateral ptosis. On basis of ophthalmic examination diagnosis of BEPS made. There is a high incidence of bilateral strabismus than the general population which can be detected in our patient.Occasional ocular findings reported in some patients include microphthalmos, anophthalmos, microcornea, hypermetropia, and nystagmus which are not detected in our patient. Conclusion: Management of blepharophimosis syndrome type 1 requires the input of several specialists including a clinical geneticist, pediatric ophthalmologist, eye plastic surgeon, endocrinologist, reproductive endocrinologist and gynecologist.

  172. Shreyal Deshmukh, Dr. Darshana Shah, Dr. Rasika Pawar, Dr. Archana Gupta, Dr. Sangeeta Palaskar and Dr. Rupal Punse

    Background: In recent years forensic odontology has gained a lot of importance in age estimation of an individual. Developing teeth are used to estimate age in number of disciplines using various techniques of age estimation. Aim: To compare chronological age with age estimated by Nolla’s method in children of 6-13 years. Materials and Methods: Digital orthopantomogram of 100 children (50 males and 50 females) visiting Sinhgad Dental College and Hospital, Pune in the age group of 6-13 years were selected. Calcification stages of mandibular left and right canine were assessed and graded according to Nolla’s calcification stages for determination of dental age and compared with the chronological age.Paired ‘t’ test and Pearson’s correlation test was used for statistical analysis. Result: There was astrong positive correlation found between age estimation by Nolla’s method and chronological age on left as well as right mandibular canine. Conclusion: Nolla’s method is simple and reliable method in estimating dental age. Such studies should be carried out on larger sample size and variable age groups to generalize the result.

  173. Dr. Sumedha Kushwaha, Dr. Shitanshu malhotra, Dr. Khundrakpam Eremba, Dr. Pallavi Singh, Dr. Khundrakpam Nganba and Dr. Shahid M. Shaikh

    Objectives: To understand the trend of sale of Nicotine Replacement Therapy (NRT) at various Paan (betel quid) and Chemist shops across Noida city and devise a model to promote its social marketing. Methods: A pre tested, pre validated questionnaire was administered to 136 Paan and 136 Chemist shopkeepers. Questions like the availability of NRT, most common forms sold (chewing gums, patches, E-cigarettes etc.), most popular brand at both the settings, whether or not patients buy the product with prescriptions and estimated monthly sale were asked. Descriptive statistical tests were employed using SPSS version 20. Result: As a result, it was found that NRT was available at 58.8% Paan shops and 85% Chemist shops. Chewing gums and e-cigarettes were available at 58.8% and 4.2% Paan shops respectively. At Chemist shops, 70.6% chewing gums, 25% patches, 3.7 % E-cigarettes and at 0.7% other products like nicotine drops etc. were sold. At Chemists the most common brands were Nicotex (44%) and Nicorette (47%) but at Paan shops it was Kwiknic (100%). Hardly any consumer bought NRT with prescription. Conclusion: The sale of one particular brand of NRT at Paan shops can be understood as a specific marketing strategy by a particular company which can aid those who want to quit smoking. However, it can also be used to accentuate the level of tobacco addiction by the youth.

  174. Ezzaddin M. Alwabri, Liu Fangfeng, Ye Fangzhi, Luo Xiaodan, Chao Liang, Gao Hengjun, Song Xie, Zhou Xu, Zhu Huaqiang, Wei Yuhua and Chang Hong

    Background: Caudate surgical resection is considered to be the most effective method and the main indication for treating tumors in the caudate lobe and that is still a challenge for hepatobiliary surgeons. Our objective is to present two new main concepts; one is the fourth porta hepatis, the other is that large caudate lobe tumors could be defined if the size of the tumor is larger than 5cm. Methods: of the 22 patients who underwent caudate lobe tumors resection between January 2013 and December 2016, we performed various surgical approaches for resecting the caudate lobe tumors. Results: There were 12 male, 10 female patients, age ranging between 15 and 74 years. The indications were hepatocellular carcinoma in seven patients, hemangioma in six patients, focal nodular hyperplasia in two patients, cholangiocarcinoma in seven patients. Left-sided approach was performed in one case, right-sided approach in two cases, a combined approach in 17 cases, and anterior approach in one case. There was no death in the postoperative period. Conclusions: Caudate lobe is not only a hepatic segment but can also be defined as an Accessory liver, and it has individual bile duct and blood vessels which we define as a fourth porta hepatis. Caudate lobe Tumor size and location is the main factor that influences the choice of surgical approach.

  175. Manish Kumar

    Majority of tribal’s are living below the poverty line, possessing meagre assets and are exclusively dependent on wages, forest produce and agriculture. The income and living condition of the elder tribes in comparison with other community elder people are much discouraging. In order to get a clear view of this issue, this study attempts to examine the changing pattern in socio-economic condition and livelihood of the elder in tribal community of eastern Uttar Pradesh. The study is the outcome of intensive fieldwork analysis of collected data from 25 villages of three districts in eastern Uttar Pradesh, India. Main findings of the study can be succinctly summarised as; only 15.7 % of the total households had Pucca house in 2005 which is increased to 27.8 % in 2015 and only 3 % have toilet facility in 2005 which goes up to 10.6 % in 2015. Annual income of 43.7 % household in 2005 is less than INR 5,000 as compared to 24.2 % in 2015 and Out of the total sample only 8.6 % had access to loan in 2005 which has increased to 18.2 % in 2015. Prior 2005 only 11.6% were having saving bank account, during 2005-2015 number of households having saving increased to 25.5 % and major source of household income in 2005 was forest gathering and daily wage labour but in 2015 it include minor share of government and private Sector job. The study noted that as a result of developmental interventions like IAY(Indria Awas Yozna), MGNREGA, SGSY( Sanjay Gandhi Swarojgar yojana), OLD AGE PENSION and other awareness programs; the Lifestyle of elderly tribal have not changed and it’s not much helped them to join the mainstream.

  176. Dr. Shahid M. Shaikh, Dr. Khundrakpam Nganba, Dr. Sumedha Kushwaha, Dr. Khundrakpam Eremba, Dr. Pallavi Singh and Dr. Shitanshu Malhotra

    Introduction: The complex root canal anatomy has been the reason for great research by the dentists worldwide. Frequent variation like apical deltas, accessory canals, and multiple orifices, have great significance in pediatric dentistry because of the close anatomic relationship between the primary teeth and the follicle of succedaneous permanent teeth. Aims: The purpose of this study is to compare the decalcification technique and cone beam computed tomography (CBCT) in detection of accessory canals and to assess the prevalence, location and pattern of accessory canals in human primary molars. Methods and Material: The sample comprised of 75 extracted maxillary and mandibular primary molars. The presence of furcation & accessory canals were assessed by a single trained observer using a CBCT machine for radiographic technique & Microscope (Olympus SZX7) for cleared samples. The shape and position of accessory canal was tabulated under the stereomicroscope for every tooth separately. Results: There is a significant difference between CBCT technique and decalcification method in determining the presence of accessory canal in furcation area of primary teeth (P<0.05).The presence of oval shaped and round shaped canals were non significant and their presence in furcation area also failed to reach the level of significance (p > 0.05). Statistical analysis used: Fisher’s Exact Test & Chi square test. Conclusions: There is a high prevalence of accessory canal in furcation area of primary teeth. In comparing the different methods, decalcification was found to be significantly better than CBCT.

  177. Vathani, G., Kumari, M.J., Pandit, V.R

    Introduction: According to WHO, 12 billion intramuscular injections are administered annually throughout the world. On administering intramuscular injections, patients are experiencing pain and discomfort. Trying to provide injections with minimal pain is a part of nursing care to achieve greater outcome. Few researchers has found that injections and injection techniques revealed significant positive findings with non-pharmacologic pain management technique. Hence, it is necessary for them to provide helfer skin tap technique while giving intramuscular injection to reduce pain and discomfort. Objectives: The study was undertaken to evaluate the effect of helfer skin tap technique on pain reduction among the patients receiving an intramuscular injection and to associate between the level of pain with selected demographic variables & medication related variables. Methodology: The research approach was used experimental approach. Design was randomized control trial. Simple random sampling technique was used. Results: The findings of the study revealed that among 134 patients, the post-test pain score in the study group and control group (0.67±1.17 vs. 4.95±1.77) were found to be statistically highly significant at p<0.001 level. Conclusion: There was an effective pain reduction among the patients in study group who received Helfer Skin Tap Technique than the patients in the control group who received routine technique. CT

  178. Dr. Sanchit Jain, Dr. Rajesh B. Dhirawani, Dr. Ankit Sharma

    Aim: To understand and deduce the prevalence of mandibular fractures in patients having maxillofacial injuries which includes isolated mandibular fracture, maxillo-mandibular fractures and poly-trauma from a 42 month retrospective survey in central region in India. Material & Methods: The data base of 42 months has been evaluated from trauma centers in Central India in which we have assessed only those patients whose case history was complete with radiographic evidence. A total number of 596 cases of mandible fractures either present as a single entity or associated with poly-trauma. The total number of 1197 fractures was noted in mandible in 596 patients. Manual data analysis was done to evaluate the prevalence of mandibular fractures concerning the site and differentiated on the basis of age and gender. In our study we have excluded those patients which are having incomplete or inappropriate data. Results: We have found that maximum prevalence concerning the site of mandible fracture in the central region is at symphysis and parasyphysis region (34%) followed by body (22.3%), condyle (19.5%), angle (17.7%), dento-alveolar region (3%), comminuted fractures (2.4%) and coronoid fractures (0.66%). There is prevalence of fractures with gender ratio of 3.3:1 with domination of males with decreased association of other bone injuries (37%) as compared with its individual incidence (63%). We have also found the higher range of double site fractures in comparison with single and multiple ones. Conclusion: Maxillofacial injuries in the last few years has been decreased due to compulsory use of helmets and seat belts while driving. The pattern of fractures determines that the fractures are mainly due to high impact trauma and knowing a precise idea about the prevalence we can fabricate proper preventive measures and protocols for treatment regime.

  179. Dr. Harshvardhan Singh, Dr. Anmol Gupta and Dr. Sanjay Kumar

    Introduction: Cervical cancer, caused by the human papillomavirus (HPV), is the fourth most common cancer in women worldwide and the second most common among Indian women. Two prophylactic vaccines are currently available and marketed in many countrieswhich are directed against oncogenic genotypes. To communicate to the community regarding the new vaccine, it is important to understand the awareness and attitude among caregivers. The study envisaged to study the awareness and attitude of our medical college post-graduate students towards HPV and its Vaccine. Methods: A cross sectional study was undertaken on a calculated sample size of 53 using a pre-designed semi-structured 20 point questionnaire. Results: Majority of participants (24.5% each) scored 13 and 14 (65%-70% correct knowledge). The attitude towards introduction of vaccine in immunization schedule was negative among 20% of participants. Majority (97.9%) were of opinion that the term ‘cancer vaccine’ better suited rather than a vaccine against a sexually transmitted infection. Conclusions: The incomplete knowledge about the epidemiology of infection and cancer and its preventive measure among doctors is alarming for the health system. A lack of knowledge about the threat of vaccine-preventable diseases, risks and benefits of vaccines, mistrust of government and health workers, poor service delivery and alternative health or religious beliefs play a role in lower uptake of some vaccines. Hence, there exists a need to implement aggressive health education programs, group discussions and targeting mainly the adolescent population. We should encourage medical students in group discussions, interactive sessions and forums where all the doubts and aspects of HPV and its association with cervical cancer can be highlighted and clarified which would ultimately culminate in lowering the burden of cervical cancer.

  180. Yong Dai, Qigang Zeng, Chenxia Duan and Ziyi Fu

    Objective: To assess the efficacy and safety of Shenling Baizhu San (SLBZS) for the treatment of stable chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) through systematic review. Methods: Biomedical databases, including PubMed, EMbase, The Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL), CBM-disk, CNKI, VMIS and WFMO were searched from their inceptions until 31th October 2015. Randomized controlled trials of oral SLBZS involving the outcome measures of symptom improvement, quality of life assessment, forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1), arterial blood gas analysis and/or frequency of dyspnea or diaphragmatic fatigue. Twelve studies were identified and extracted by two reviewers. The Cochrane Risk of Bias tool was conducted for the assessment of Methodological quality. Data were analyzed using the RevMan 5.3.0 software. Results: Twelve studies involving 814 participants were included and all of them were carried out in china. The results of meta-analysis indicated patients receiving SLBZS plus conventional therapy showed a significantly relieving in clinical manifestation than those receiving conventional therapy alone (RR:5.00, 95% CI: 2.98 to 8.39), SLBZS plus conventional therapy also had greater improvement in the quality of life no matter using CAT (RR:-4.52, 95% CI: -5.72 to -3.32) or SGRQ (RR:-13.33, 95% CI: -15.97 to -10.68) for assessment. SLBZS may have a potential benefit in increasing dyspnea remission rate and decreasing the incidence of respiratory failure (RR:0.95, 95% CI: 0.62 to 1.47), as well as improving ventilation in patients (RR:-1.41, 95% CI:-2.49 to -0.33). It seems all trails had showed beneficial tendency. Nevertheless, the interpretation of research results still need to be cautious, because none of the trails described the method of allocation concealment, blind and follow-up. Conclusions: SLBZS seems to be an acceptable, additional treatment measures for stable stage COPD patients. The further evaluation of SLBZS in efficacy and safety needs more high quality randomized controlled clinical trial evidence.

  181. Dr. Sunanda Mahajan and Dr. Jayati Dave

    Background: Epidermolytic hyperkeratosis (EHK) is a histopathological entity used for wide variety of clinical presentations. The primary pathological process is clumping of keratin filaments which is due to mutation in gene encoding for keratin 1 and 10 and thus they are clustered under a umbrella term ‘Keratopathic ichthyosis’. The estimated prevalence of the disease is 1:200,000~300,000.We are presenting 5 clinical cases of EHK of sporadic nature. Method: Clinically appearing cases of EHK further proven on biopsy were included in the study. Detailed clinical history with examination and photographs were undertaken after proper consent. The results were analysed thereafter and classified. Results: We found one case with bullous congenital ichthyosiform erythroderma of Brocq (NPS 1).Two cases of Ichthyosis hystrix one each of Curth and Macklin and Lambert type, one case of systematised epidermal nevus, and one case of Ichthyosis bullosa of Siemens. All the cases were sporadic in nature. Conclusion: EHK can have varying clinical presentations.Genetic counselling and pre natal testing can pick up early cases and help further.

  182. Ravi Kiran, B.S., Sachdeva, A., Sasank, V.K. and Mishra, A

    Foreign bodies that enter a patient as a result of trauma are contaminated and produce a range of symptoms. Gunshot injury are known to cause severe morbidity in head and neck region. The complex facial anatomy is a challenge to medical and oral surgeons in reconstruction. We report a case in which the patient gives history involving a gunshot injury to the chin. The patient did not have any major complaints relating to the bullet injury in his mandible or any symptoms. However the bullet injury caused severe comminution of the lower border of the symphysis of mandible.

  183. Dr. Hershada Mithari and Dr. Vidya Kharkar

    Background: Seborrheic Keratosis (SK) are the most common benign epidermal lesions, which are raised brown or black papules with a “stuck on” appearance (Mackie, 2004). They may sometimes present with a plane flat verrucous surface which may be clinically confused with verruca plana (VP). Such lesions pose diagnostic challenge to the dermatologists. Since these two have significantly different etiology, treatment and prognosis, differentiation of SK from verruca is necessary. Objective: To study the dermoscopic patterns in plane verrucous lesions and determine its use in differentiating SK from VP. Materials and Methods: Eighteen patients with clinically plane warty lesions were selected. After obtaining consent dermoscopy was performed using a OITEZ e-Scope under white and polarized light with 20x and 200x magnifications. Dermoscopic patterns were observed and histopathological examination was done to confirm the diagnosis. Results: Among the 18 patients, on histopathology 14 patients were having SK and 4 had VP. Among the 14 patients of SK, features found on dermoscopy were; comedo like openings – 12 patients (86%), fissures and ridges – 10 patients (71%), milia like cysts – 4 patients (28%), hair pin vessels – 2 patients(14%), fingerprint pattern – 2 patients (14%) and moth eaten border - 4 patients (28%), sharp demarcation – 10 patients (71%). Among lesions of VP, dotted vessels – 4 patients (100%) and white halo - 3 patients (75%) were seen. Conclusion: Verruca plana being close differential to SK and having different treatment requires appropriate diagnosis. Dermoscopic patterns are characteristiscally specific with no overlapping findings in both the conditions. Thus we suggest the use of noninvasive, quick tool like dermoscopy in differentiating these conditions.

  184. Dr. Roshni Ramesh and Dr. Arun Sadasivan

    Objective: The aim of the present study was to analyse the physicochemical characteristics of three different types of alloplastic bone graft materials used in periodontal regeneration. Materials and Methods: The materials used were Monophasic Hydroxyapatite – Biograft HA, Bioactive Glass- Perioglas and Tricalcium phosphate- Biograft TCP. The physicochemical properties of the materials were tested using Scanning Electron Microscopy, Thermogravimetry and Dissolution rates. Results: Perioglas and Hydroxyapatite showed smaller particle size while Tricalcium Phosphate showed larger particle size. Biograft HA and Biograft TCP showed rough and irregular surface while Perioglas showed a smooth surface. As the three materials were synthetic or alloplastic, there was the absence of lattice water or organic content. The tested materials were stable upto 10000C, which shows that they were thermally stable and phase pure and without any impurities. In the dissolution tests done for calcium, all the materials showed positive results. Bioactive glass had more dissolution compared to Hydroxyapatite and Tricalcium phosphate. In the dissolution test for silica, Perioglas showed increased dissolution of silica upto 24 hours. Conclusion: The alloplastic biomaterials belonged to calcium phosphate and bioactive glass group. It was found that even for those with similar chemical characteristics, significant differences were noted with regard to particle size, surface roughness and dissolution properties. Calcium phosphate based ceramic showed porous surface architecture conducive to cellular and vascular proliferation. All the tested materials were phase pure with no impurities. Increased dissolution of calcium and silica were seen in Perioglas when compared to calcium phosphate.

  185. Dr. D. Rachita Rao, Dr. M. V. Ramoji Rao, Dr. P. Lakshmi Preethi, Dr. M. Sathish and Dr. P. V. Prasanna Kumar

    Hyperlipidemia is a condition where there is an elevation of serum levels of total cholesterol(TC) and triglycerides(TGL) due to the lipid metabolism alteration, with an increase in the liver lipogenesis and lipolysis in the adipocytes. It is well known that a causal relationship exists between serum lipid levels and systemic health particularly cardiovascular diseases, diabetes and tissue repair capacity. It is hypothesized thatperiodontitis causes bacteremia or endotoxemia producing a cytokine cascade that leads to increase levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines which results in fat metabolism and hyperlipidemia. On the other hand psychological stress can down regulate the cellular immune response. Stress disrupts the homeostasis, which inturn alters the immune function. The association of stress with periodontal disease is said to be a risk factor. This study is conducted to evaluate the association between the stress levels and the lipid profile in patients with periodontitis.

  186. Dr. Sneha Bhatia

    Introduction: Pressure ulcer is the lifelong and serious complications following the spinal cord injury. They have a potential to interfere with Physical, psychological and social wellbeing and to impact the quality of the life. Pressure ulcers are defined as the lesion caused by unrelieved pressure resulting in damage of underlying tissue (Bergstorm et al., 1992). They usually occur over the bony prominence and are classified as degree of tissue damage. Materials and Methodology: A through literature search was done Through mentioned database and a total of 37 articles were obtained out of which 19 articles were included in the study. The results of the studies were analyzed. Discussion: Different studies showed effects of different treatment techniques on pressure ulcer. It has been classified as positive, negative and conflicting evidence in this review. Conclusion: Decubitus direct current treatment, turning every 4 hours on a Visco Elastic mattress, Ultraviolet radiation (type B), electrical stimulation, foam mattress and multi layered high compression is found to be effective to treat pressure ulcer in patients with spinal cord injury.

  187. Sunil Raina and Roopali Fotra and Upma

    Type 2 diabetes mellitus is an extremely complex disease with a tremendous social and economical burden. This risk of this disease is further compounded by various environmental, biochemical as well as anthropometrical risk factors. The present study focused on the association of life style factors with the onset and progression of Type 2 diabetes mellitus. A total of 450 patients were enrolled under the present study. On the basis of the information recorded from T2DM patients, males were more affected (61.3%) as compared to females (38.6%). The disease was significantly higher (52.6%) in people between age group 46-65 yrs. The incidence of the disease was higher in the people of urban areas (65.7%). 55.5% were no smoker/ non alcoholic category which included both male and females. Mixed percent frequency was observed in case of eating habits, addiction and employment status. The consumption of Mustard oil was a common practice and was used by majority of the patients. The present study is an addition to the existing literature regarding the association of the risk factors responsible for T2DM. This research work is an attempt to make the general public about this association so that the incidence of the disease can be checked out

  188. Dr. Sudhamani, S., Dr. Sharada Datar and Dr. Prakash Roplekar

    Several infectious diseases are transmissible by blood transfusion, especially viral infections. The most common blood-transmitted viruses are hepatitis B virus (HBV), hepatitis C virus (HCV) and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). These viruses cause fatal, chronic and life-threatening disorders. The purpose of this study was to establish the current distribution of hepatitis viruses (B and C), Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV), Syphilis (VDRL test) and Malaria among donated blood units in a tertiary care teaching hospital. A total of 296 blood units were found positive on initial testing for a marker of transmissible infection. Distribution of seropositivity was as follows: HBV: 57.7% (171/296), HCV: 20.6 % (61/296), HIV: 17.9% (53/296) & VDRL: 2 % (6/296), Malaria - Nil Co-infection with HIV+HBV: 1 % (3/296) Co-infection with HIV+HCV: 0.6 % (2/296)

  189. Gunasekar, C., Sabarigirinathan, C., Vinayagavel, K., Ramkumar, K. and Dhanaraj, M

    Purpose: The Purpos of the article is to asses the improvement on speech quality analysis with spectrogram by modified maxillary denture. We should gain familiarity with acoustic cue features of consonants with spectrographic representations of sounds. Background: “Speech is a brief, physiologically generated and socially conditioned vibratory impact on the human organism upon the atmosphere”. The sound is characterized by phonation or articulation, or both plus resonances. Results: The acoustic cues for consonants like stop gap, release burst, VOT, Friction noise, Formants transition, formant durations, voice bar and formant frequencies are to be analyse perceptually and objectively. We need to appreciate the differences between narrow-band and wide-band spectrograms, by learning how features of speech sounds appear on spectrograms and how the spectrogram can lead to a quantitative analysis of the source and filter aspects of speech sounds. Conclusion: One of the main aspects of prosthodontic treatment for the management foredentulism depends on acoustic quality of speech. Maxillary palatal surface is significant in producing speech sounds particularly for consonants.

  190. Dr. Suneethi Margaret Dey, Dr. Nandini Manjunath, Dr. Jenny Susan Roy, Dr. Nita Syam and Dr. Akshata G. Kamath

    Frenum also known as frenulum or frena is a fold of tissue or muscle connecting the lips, cheek, or tongue to the jawbone. Ankyloglossia, commonly known as tongue tie, is a congenital anomaly characterized by an abnormally short/tight lingual frenulum, which restricts mobility of the tongue tip. Though the ankyloglossia or tongue tie is not a serious manifestation, it may lead to a host of problems including infant feeding difficulties, speech disorders, and various mechanical and social issues related to the inability of the tongue to protrude. Lingual frenectomy is advised for the management of ankyloglossia. The present paper discusses one such case of successful management of ankyloglossia using diode laser.

  191. Dr. Anuspandana Mahapatra and Dr. Akash Bihari Pati

    Background: Many patients with intussusceptions present late to the pediatric surgical department in developing countries. Several authors have described late presentation as a condition for failure of radiologic reduction. Methods: A retrospective review of data collected for all cases of intssusception was analysed with respect to clinical presentation, duration of symptoms and successful attempt at hydrostatic reduction. Results: 22 patients (35%) had reported late beyond 72 hours of being symptomatic. 19 of these patients were subjected to hydrostatic enema reduction which was successful in 17 patients(89%). Conclusion: Delayed presentation is not a predictor of irreducibility in cases of intussusception.

  192. Ayako Teranaka, Kiyoshi Tomiyama, Kaori Miyake, Katsura Ohashi, Tota Shimizu, Hirotoshi Iwai, Nobushiro Hamada, Norio Yoshino, Yoshiharu Mukai, Toshio Teranaka, Satoshi Hirayama and Tomotaro Nihei

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the adherence and detachment of bacterial biofilms formed on glass surface modified with 10F2S-3I or FF01 using a PMbiofilm model. Modified and unmodified cover glasses were immersed in buffered McBain medium containing stimulated saliva, and theywere cultured to develop PM biofilms. There were separated six experimental groups (n = 6), designated WC: cover glass washing withCPW, WI: modified with 10F2S-3I cover glass washing with CPW, WF: modified with FF01 cover glass washing with CPW, NC: cover glass without washing, NI: modified with 10F2S-3I cover glass without washing, NF: modified with FF01 cover glass without washing.The modified and unmodified groups were further divided by either gently washing withCPW or without washing. Serial dilutions were conducted of the bacterial cultures, which were then cultured on blood agar medium to count CFU.PM biofilms were easily detached from 10F2S-3I and FF01 modified surfaces by washing with CPW. There were no significant difference of CFU among NC, NI and NF. But WI and WF were significantly lower than in WC. It was concluded that PM biofilms grown on the glass surface modified were easily detached compared with the unmodifiedglass groups.

  193. Vijaylaxmy Malhotra, Dayashankara Rao, J. K., Payal Luthra, Krishna Kishor, Sonal Dhote and Monica Malik

    Odontogenic keratocyst of the mandible is a challenging pathology to treat in Oral and Maxillofacial surgery. Secondary infections in large Odontogenic Keratocyst can lead to histopathological misdiagnosis. In such cases final diagnosis is usually made after complete surgical enucleation. We faced similar situation in two cases which are reported in the article.Enucleation with open packing was used for their treatment and has been found to be a good conservative approach in its management.

  194. Afsoon Razavi, Muhammad Umair, Ravi Bhavsar, Zehra Tekin, Leelavathi Kasturi, and Adriana Abrudescu

    PAN is a systemic disease which can have different skin manifestations including tender erythematous nodules, purpura, livedo reticularis, ulcers, and bullous or vesicular eruption. Here we present a case of rapidly progressing skin ulcers in a 67 year old male with a past medical history significant for seizure disorder, hypothyroidism, and chronic inactive hepatitis B. He was admitted for right lower extremity cellulitis with necrotic ulceration. Surgical excisional debridement was performed at the bedside on the left leg. Post-debridement the patient started having fever spikes and was treated with intravenous ciprofloxacin. Cultures revealed growth of pseudomonas aeruginosa and beta hemolytic streptococcus group B from the right lower extremity. Venous studies revealed an old deep vein thrombosis in bilateral common femoral, femoral and popliteal veins. Rheumatological work up revealed elevated ESR levels of 104 mm/hr, high sensitivity CRP of >160.0 and positive ANA titers of 1:80 with speckled pattern. The probability of PAN became high in our differential given his history of chronic hepatitis B infection. A skin biopsy of the left ankle revealed acute and chronic inflammation along with perivascular neutrophilic inflammation, suggestive of leukocytoclastic vasculitis confirming the diagnosis of PAN. The patient was then started on prophylactic Tenofovir and steroids which led to significant improvement as evidenced by declining inflammatory parameters, rapidly healing ulcers and no further fever spikes. Antibiotics were slowly tapered off and the patient was discharged home on oral prednisone and Tenofovir. Hepatitis B infection regardless of activity status should prompt physicians to include PAN in the differential diagnosis of patients presenting with similar skin lesions along with signs of systemic inflammation. Timely initiation of steroids remains the gold standard therapy after prophylactic antiviral therapy is initiated in patient with chronic inactive status.

  195. Fayez Alshehri, Mohammed Alshehri, Mohammed Almashiakhi and Ibrahim Elmenshawi

    Background: Age related macular degeneration is the leading cause of visual loss in western population in patients older than 60 years old. As Oxidative stress has been implicated in the etiology of age related macular degeneration, antioxidant supplementation could be of benefit to prevent or slow the progression of this disabling disease. Objectives: The aim of this review is to investigate the relationship between antioxidant supplementation and the progression of age related macular degeneration. Methods: A literature search using Medline database was conducted for the years 1946 to 2017 to explore the relationship between antioxidant supplementation and the progression of age related macular degeneration. The search was restricted to studies published in English language. The first 30 articles were reviewed and five relevant studies were selected in this analysis. Results: Impacts of antioxidants supplementation on progression of age related macular degenerationwere investigated in five studies. Dietary intake of antioxidant supplementation was associated with slow progression of age related macular degeneration, improve vision, and reduce risk of developing age related macular degeneration in elderly people. Conclusion: Antioxidants supplementationcould slow the progression of age related macular degeneration. Furthermore, supplementation of antioxidants might improve the visual function in patients with age related macular degeneration.

  196. Ms. Rashmi Kharel

    Background: Hypertension is a major risk factor for cerebrovascular diseases including stroke, coronary heart diseases and renal failure. Therefore, prevention of risk factors through health education, becomes an important goal in overall efforts to reduce the incidence of hypertension related cererbrovascular complications and outcomes. Aim: The main aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of health education on prevention of risk factors of cerebrovascular accident among hypertensive patients. Design: One group pretest posttest under quasi experimental research design was adopted for this study. Sample: The study was conducted on 60 hypertensive patients using a purposive sampling technique. Materials: A 20 item structured knowledge questionnaire based on the knowledge on prevention of risk factors of cerebrovascular accident among hypertensive patient was used. The reliability of the tool was assessed by using test-retest method, which was found to be 0.75. Result: The result of this study revealed that, in pretest, 80% of the hypertensive patients had poor knowledge (score 0-6) and 20% of them had average knowledge (score 7-13) regarding prevention of risk factors of cerebrovascular accident. In posttest, all of them had good knowledge (score 14-20) regarding prevention of risk factors of cerebrovascular accident (Fig.1). This indicates that the knowledge of the hypertensive patients improved remarkably after health education. Conclusion: Health education plays an important role in creating awareness among people regarding the health issues. Hypertension is a major risk factor for cerebrovascular accident and this study proves that by imparting education regarding prevention of risk factors for cerebrovascular accident on hypertensive patients, an individual can be saved from the risk.

  197. Dr. Kushnareva, M. V., Dr. Yurieva, E. A., Dr. Keshishyan, E. S. and Vozdvizhenskaya, E. S.

    The content of Pb, Cr, Cd, Sb and As was analyzed in breast milk and its protective factors (phagocytosis of breast milk macrophages, lysozyme concentrations, SIgA, IgA, IgM, IgG) of 72 women. There were 52 women with somatic and gynecological diseases. 24 women of them had an increased level of heavy metals in breast milk, and it did not exceed the norm in 28 women. 20 healthy women had a normal composition of the chemical elements of breast milk. The average concentration of IgG, IgM and the phagocytic activity of breast milk macrophages decreased by 1.4-1.8 times among women with a high content of heavy metals in comparison with healthy women. There was a decreased IgM content and the dysfunction of phagocytes in women with various somatic and / or gynecological diseases, but with a normal composition of heavy metals in breast milk. The phagocytes were 2-3.6 times less and significantly less pronounced than in women with a modified composition of breast milk. The frequency of IgG low concentrations was 1.5 times higher in breast milk with a high content of heavy metals. Thus, the protective factors of milk were significantly reduced in women whose heavy metals (Pb and Cr) content was increased and / or they were present in milk in combination with Cd, Sb, As.

  198. Rajiv Ranjan

    Children are the most precious assets of any nations; every nation is investing heavily in the education of its system. The children’s educational need full fill from special education. Learning disabled children have different personality character than normal children behaviors of an individual seem to fit together in a meaningful way. It is to be kept in mind that the nature of behaviors is dynamic and there may occur changes in the organization and structure of behaviors over a period of time. It is in this sense that Allport (1937, 1961), defined personality as the dynamic organization within the person of the psychophysical systems that determine the unique adjustments to one’s environment. Here study of personality character of children with learning disability. Used test for measurement of personality Children personality questionnaire (CPQ) by Rutherford B. Porter, and Raymond B. Cattell, and IPAT Staff (1972).the main finding are Learning disabled children are rigid, distrustful, objective, cool, and critical. The children with learning disability have low intelligence level, low mental ability, unable to handle abstract problem.

  199. Dr. Waleed Khalid, Dr. Neha Rathore and Prof. Sankari, M

    Autistic disorder is an organic disorder characterized by brain abnormalities, especially the cerebellum and limbic systems. An understanding of the background of autism and available behavioral guidance theories is required for the management of patients with autism. The treatment approach to the individual patients would need modification by the practitioner. This case report aims to review the guidelines for management of an autistic child and presents a case report of ankylossia in an autistic child.

  200. Anass Hbali, Amine Kossir, Abdelouahab EL kasimi, Zakaria Bazid, Nabila Ismaili and Noha El Ouafi

    Coronary spasm is one of the mechanisms of myocardial infarction with non fixed organic stenosis of epicardial coronary arteries. Right ventricular ischemia with High-degree AV block and coronary spasm have been reported together rarely in medical literature. This is a case of a 57-year-old man; Admitted to emergency for chest pain, ECG showed third degree atrioventricular block with ST segment elevation in inferior and right derivations, coronary angiography with methergine test revealed an ostial spasm of the right coronary from, rapidly regressive after an intracoronary injection of isosorbide dinitrate.

  201. Dr. Waleed Khalid, Prof. Sheeja S. Varghese and Dr. Neha Rathore

    The restoring dental professionals are often in a dilemma regarding the restoration of clinically short crowns. To successfully restore a short clinical crown, an understanding of the periodontal parameters involved in restoration is necessary. To achieve a satisfactory result, a comprehensive treatment plan and sequencing of therapy is required. The following case series of clinically short crowns aim to review the guidelines for management of the same.

  202. Dr. Reshmi Sen, Prof. (Dr.) Sanchita Kundu, Prof. (Dr.) Sk.Abdul Mahmud, Dr. Rudra Prasad Chatterjee and Dr. Neha Shah

    Histoplasmosis is a mycotic disease caused by the dimorphic fungus Histoplasma capsulatum which exists as moulds in fertile and humid soil, rich in bird and bat droppings and as yeast in infected tissues. It is classified clinically as acute pulmonary, chronic pulmonary or disseminated form. Oral manifestations account for 25-40% of the disseminated form of the disease and can present as solitary, variably painful, shallow or deep ulcer or less commonly in the form of nodules. It is commonly found in immune compromised patients. Diagnosis of histoplasmosis can be established by identification of fungus from infected tissues and/or culture studies. Presence of fungal yeasts are best demonstrated by staining the sections with Periodic Acid Schiff (PAS) and Grocott Gomori methenamine silver (GMS) stain which demonstrate the characteristic 1-2 micron yeasts of Histoplasma capsulatum. Treatment modalities include, administration of antifungal drugs like intravenous Amphotericin B, oral Itraconazole or Ketoconazole but proper monitoring of hepatic function is essential. A unique case of localised, nodular variant of Histoplasmosis involving the hard palate in an immune competent patient without pulmonary involvement has been discussed with emphasis on clinicopathological and histological features along with treatment modalities.

  203. Dr. Waleed Khalid, Prof. Sankari M. and Dr. Neha Rathore

    With the advances in technology, most patients desire to maintain their natural dentition, when earlier they would have chosen extraction. Endo-perio lesions can be successfully managed with multidisciplinary approach and choice of treatment. Hemisection is one such procedure, where a multi-rooted tooth is sectioned with its crown portion and removed for cases with a loss of periodontal attachment and the original tooth structure is retained and restored with a fixed prosthesis. But for long term success, careful case selection is of prime importance. This case report aims at reviewing the management of endo-perio lesions and presents a case report of hemisection.

  204. Dr. Waleed Khalid, Prof. Sankari, M. and Dr. Neha Rathore

    The most commonly found impacted teeth are the maxillary canines. Their management, at times, proves to be frustrating for the orthodontist. The treatment planning and successful management of the impacted canines require a multi-disciplinary approach with the periodontist. The position of the tooth in the bone and other factors like the width of attached gingiva play a role in decision making for treatment of impacted canines. This article presents a case report of labially impacted maxillary canine and also aims to review the guidelines for management of the same.

  205. Dr. Waleed Khalid, Prof. Sheeja S. Varghese and Dr. Neha Rathore

    Maxillary permanent incisor impaction is not a very common finding in the dental practice. This causes its management to be challenging to the orthodontist. Various etiologies can be attributed to causing this condition. Timely diagnosis and early management is the key correction of this condition. The aim of this case report is to review the guidelines for management of impacted maxillary incisor and present a case of the same.

  206. : Narendar Dudhipala, Greeshma Ellaboina, Mahipal Donthi and Nagaraj Banala

    The content of the investigation was to prepare and evaluate the floating-bioadhesive tablets of baclofen (BC) to sustain the drug release. BC is a skeletal muscle relaxant and is used to treat muscle symptoms and also acts as antispastic agent. BC have biological half-life of 1.5 to 4 h and also shows pH dependent solubility. Hence, it is considered as a potential candidate for development of floating-bioadhesive drug delivery system. The BC tablets were prepared by wet granulation method using guar gum and xanthan gum as gel forming agents and sodium bicarbonate as gas generating agent. The prepared tablets were evaluated for physical parameters, in vitro buoyancy and in vitro dissolution studies. Further, in vivo radio graphic studies of optimized formulation were performed in healthy human volunteers in fasting condition. In vitro release studies revealed that guar gum and xanthan gum containing (F9) tablets of baclofen showed 97.89±1.04% of drug release at 8 h time period. DSC studies revealed that no interaction between drug and other excipients. In vivo radio graphic studies revealed that the tablets showed mean gastric residence time of 4 ± 0.8 h in the stomach. Therefore, the results conclusively demonstrate the sustained effect of baclofen was achieved by the combination of floating and bioadhesive mechanism.

  207. Arul Nisha, S.

    Background: An organ transplant may save a person’s life, or significantly improve their health and quality of life. People who receive a new organ can expect to survive and enjoy good quality of life. In India Five lakh people die due to non-availability of organs. 1, 00,000 people die of Liver diseases. Out of which only thousand get a Liver transplant. 2, 20,000 people are waiting for Kidney transplant out of which only 15,000 get kidney transplant. Aim: The present study aims to identify the level of knowledge and attitude towards organ donation. Methods: The cross sectional descriptive study conducted in 217 samples. The subjects were selected based on convenient sampling technique. Results: The level of knowledge on organ donation is out of 217 participants 193 (88.94%) of them have inadequate knowledge on organ donation, 24 (11.05%) of them have moderately adequate knowledge on organ donation and none of them have adequate knowledge on organ donation. The level of attitude on organ donation is out of 217 participants 148 (68.2%) of them have favorable attitude towards organ donation, 69 (31.8%) of them have moderately favorable attitude towards organ donation and none of them have unfavorable attitude towards organ donation. Conclusion: This study shows that <50% had inadequate level of knowledge on organ donation and >70% had favorable attitude regarding organ donation.

  208. Dr. Shweta Ajit Kolhatkar, Dr. Nilima Rajhans, Dr. Nikesh Moolya, Dr. Nilkanth Mhaske, Dr. Dhanesh Sabale, Dr. Tejas Patil and Dr. Prerna Gaikwad

    The residual cyst is a type of inflammatory odontogenic cystic lesion, caused by an inflammatory periapical cyst that persists retained within the bone after extraction of the affected tooth involved, or arises after incomplete removal of an original cyst, motivating the persistence of a radicular cyst. Also known as asymptomatic inflammatory odontgenic cyst, these cysts may rise from inflammatory fibrous and granulation tissue at the apex/periapical region of a tooth not curetted at the time of dental extraction. In this case report, a 40 year old female patient presented with a painless swelling of approximately 2x2 cm in size, on the mandibular left back region since one month. Clinical signs and symptoms suggested of residual cyst. Presentation, diagnosis and management of the cyst is discussed.

  209. Dr. Waleed Khalid, Dr. Neha Rathore and Prof. M.Sankari

    Lasers, which were first used in dentistry in 1960, are now an integral part of the dental practice. They are used in cavity preparation, surgical procedures and various other procedures. They can be used not only as adjunct but also as an alternative to conventional techniques. Soft tissue lasers can be put to use for a number of treatment options in periodontics. Here are case series reviewing the periodontal applications of soft tissue diode lasers.

  210. Dr. Deepa Gaayathri, D., Dr. Kanmani, R., Dr. Anandi, M. S., Dr. Kannan, A. and Dr. Raghuram, P. H.

    Aim & Objectives: To assess the role of mastoid process in gender determination by analyzing its dimensions in a computed tomographic image. Methodology: Sample size of 100 CT images was determined, considering a confidence level of 95% and an error rate of +/-5%. Radiographic linear measurements were made using customized DICOM software to accurately analyze the dimensions of mastoids in CT images. Statistics analysis: Z test and Interval estimation was performed. Results: Dimensions of mastoids in CT images of males were found to be higher when compared to females. Conclusion: The results of our study indicated that mastoids are one of the tools for gender identification, yielding a good level of accuracy by using computed tomographic images.

  211. Dr. Waleed Khalid, Dr. Neha Rathore and Prof. M.Sankari,

    Various reasons can be attributed to trauma to anterior teeth. An accurate diagnosis and treatment plan ensures their successful management. Diagnosis and treatment planning can prove to be troublesome even for experienced practitioners owing to the various luxation and fracture types. The International Association of Dental Traumatology has given guidelines which offer maximum success in management of traumatized teeth. Here is a case report discussing the management of atraumatizedanteriortooth.

  212. Flavia Fernandes Silveira Cupini, Flavia Camargo Bernardi, Daniela Bonassina, Silvana Cargnino Biegelmeyer, Uiliam Hann Biegelmeyer, Maria Emilia Camargo, Ademar Galelli and Marta Elisete Ventura da Motta

    Leadership has been studied extensively due to the important role it plays in the management of organizations, especially in a rather competitive market. In this context, leaders play a crucial role in the growth of companies. Thus, the aim of this study is to determine the influence of female leadership in the development of the people under their leadership in a multinational company operating in the segment of cosmetics. To this end, the methodology that has been used in this study was the exploratory survey through a case study with a qualitative approach. The survey was conducted through interviews based on a structured guide and participant observation. The interviews were carried out with five female leaders of the company that have become directors in less than two years and lead teams of at least 30 people. Observation, on the other hand, was made during a few meetings of the interviewed female leaders with those they lead. The survey has shown that the respondents exercise leadership through example and that the prevalent leadership styles are the charismatic and the transformational styles.

  213. Dr. Jesús M. González-González

    Introduction: The possibility of teleportation of humans and their organs has been described taking into account space-time relativity perpendicular to its movement. The objective is to study aspects of teleportation that can serve in the treatment of diseases, acting in their time and space of development. Methods: A theoretical model has been employed, in which a human organ is inside a moving tram. A close observer will determine the relative lengths and times of that organ in its approach. The possibility of controlled traction of the perpendicular lengths to its movement is valued to facilitate a teleportation of the organ. Results: When a moving human organ approaches a close observer, he sees a hyperbolic image of it. This occurs in any reference frame and is similar to the lines of force described for a magnet and for the Earth's magnetic field. According to this model it is possible to modify the hyperbolic spatial dimensions of that organ by pulling from them to make a controlled teleportation. Conclusion: the teleportation of a human organ can be represented as a hyperbolic image. This can theoretically be achieved by dilating lengths and contracting times, perpendicular to its movement, in a controlled way. This could be used in the treatment of diseases by modifying their development´s time and space. According to these results, the perpendicular Doppler Effect and the unified field theory can be explained.

  214. Dr. B. M. Vashisht, Dr. Vikram, A., Dr. Himanshu Bhardwaj and Dr. Anvesha

    The discovery of penicillin opened a new era in the treatment of infectious diseases, described as the “golden age” of antibiotic research (1940–1962). Discovery of other antimicrobials soon followed, and included widely used antibiotics like streptomycin, chloramphenicol and tetracycline. For the first time, many common bacterial diseases could be cured. However, with increasing use of antibiotics, more and more pathogenic bacteria developed resistance to their inhibitory effects. Currently, antimicrobial resistance threatens the effective prevention and treatment of an ever-expanding range of infections. It is an increasingly serious threat to global public health that requires immediate action. The major factors responsible for antibiotic resistance are (1) Inappropriate use & misuse of antibiotics (2) Indiscriminate use of antibiotics in agriculture and veterinary practices (3) Insufficient research and development. In order to combat the rising threat of antimicrobial resistance (AMR), the inappropriate and misuse of antibiotics by the general public should be discouraged by generating awareness regarding development of AMR and its consequences through IEC activities. There should be a check on over the counter sale of antibiotics. Guidelines on antibiotic use and infection control should be followed strictly by health care providers in health facilities and these guidelines should be timely updated.

  215. Dr. Bhandarkar Gowri Pandarinath, Dr. Shetty Kushal Vasanth and Dr. Dinkar Desai

    Lip is an essential feature of the face reflecting ones persona as well as forms an essential part of the mouth. Double lip is a rare anomaly and presents as a hyperplastic tissue on either side of the midline appearing as a Cupid’s bow when it affects the upper lip. Double lip at times poses esthetic/functional glitches and can affect a young patient psychologically as a result of a marring effect on smiling. This article reports a 16 year old male patient who presented with double upper lip and euthyroid goiter sans blepharochalism. The patient was referred for cosmetic surgery and followed up without any recurrence or development of blepharochalism for a period of one year.

  216. Girinadh Lekkala, R.S., Ravi Kumar Allu, Sravan Kumar Korrapati

    Background: Serum creatinine is considered to reflect renal function; however, it is not a very accurate gauge, especially in detecting early loss of renal function. To estimate the role of serum creatinine, sodium, and estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) as determinants of survival in patients with End stage liver disease (CTP-C). Methods: Patients with decompensated cirrhosis (CTP-C) and serum creatinine ≤ 1.5 mg/dl were included in the study. Patients with Diabetes, Hypertension, Post-transplant candidates were excluded. MELD was calculated by MELD Score. MELD Na was calculated by MELD-Na = MELD +1.59 (135 - Na).eGFR was calculated by the CKD-EPI (Chronic Kidney Disease Epidemiology Collaboration) formula. The primary event of interest in this study was death within 6 months. Results: Total 64 patients were included in the study. 30(46.8%) were having alcohol, 19 (29.6%) patients had viral etiology as the cause of cirrhosis. Out of 64 patients, 18 patients (28.12%) died during 6 months follow up. Hyponatremia was present in 61.1% of dead patients and 21.7% of survived patients. eGFR was ≥90ml/min/1.73m2 in 12 patients, 16% died. eGFR was 60-89 ml/min/1.73m2in 32 patients,25% died and eGFR was <60 ml/min/1.73m2in 20 patients, 40% died. Univariate Analysis of Baseline Variables showed serum creatinine had no significance in the survival of patients with end stage liver disease (CTP-C). MELD score, eGFR, serum sodium and MELD-Na had significance in the survival. Multivariate Cox Regression Summaries for MELD, Hyponatremia, and MELD plus Serum Sodium in Predicting Death Considering 6-Month Follow-Up Data showed c-Static for MELD is 0.75 where as c-Static for MELD-Na is 0.805 and for a model comprising bilirubin, INR, eGFR and sodium is 0.816. Conclusions: When compared to serum creatinine, eGFR is a better tool for estimating survival of patients with ESLD. As eGFR decreases the percentage of mortality increases.

  217. Ambaga, M. and Tumen-Ulzii, A.

    Without ATP making bioenergetic reaction medium as “Donators + membrane - redox potentials three - state line system + O2 + АDP + Pi + H+ + nH + membrane space = (ATP + heat energy) + H2O + nH + matrix + CO2” where formed such very important macroergic compounds as ATP, ADP and powerful reducing agent as NADPH it is absolutely impossible the biosynthesis of purine base, therefore the biosynthesis of DNA and RNA molecules. In such way the 5-phosphoribosyl - alpha - pyrophosphate (PRPP) molecules, which have been synthesized with participation of ATP and CO2, ATP molecules formed within reaction mediums as “Donators + membrane - redox potentials three - state line system + O2 + АDP + Pi + H+ + nH + membrane space = (ATP + heat energy) + H2O + nH + matrix + CO2” owing to the clockwise normal flow of electrons and protons by including in the structure of inosine monophosphate (IMP) after conducting the corresponding reactions became the unseparable structural parts of purine base molecules, also DNA, RNA molecules. The disturbance and stop of ATP dependent biosynthesis of purine base molecules and DNA and RNA molecules have been lead to the death, reversible damage of cells.

  218. Clarke, J., Medford, S., Islam, S., DeNoon, S. and Juman, S.

    Liposarcomas of the Head and Neck region are rare. Laryngeal liposarcomas are even rarer with only 40 reported cases in the world literature. However, dedifferentiated laryngeal liposarcomas are even scarce. These tumours are often misdiagnosed and mistreated as other tumours, in some cases even benign lipomas. There is no reported case of high gradededifferentiated laryngeal liposarcomas from the Caribbean countries. We report the first case of a dedifferentiated laryngeal liposarcoma from the Caribbean with up to date literature search and its management options are outlined.

  219. Menene Nkonika,Fei Li, Bidingija Mabika, 1Bei Wang, Kasangye Kangoy Mvuezolo Mbanza, Elsadig E. A. Elmaki, Hongyu Ding, Liao Lin and Hongjun Sun

    Aims: Thyroid pathologies are correlated to genetics, environmental and reproductive factors including pregnancy that has an impact on the thyroid gland, especially when it occurs on an iodine deficient ground. This study aimed to compare the ultrasonographic aspects of goiter in Chinese pregnant women with those of Congolese who consulted the department of endocrinology for thyroid disorders. Methods: Eighty pregnant women (40 Congolese and 40 Chinese) were retrospectively evaluated between February 2016 and March 2017 at the University Clinics of Kinshasa in Democratic Republic of Congo, and at the Qianfoshan Hospital in People’s Republic of China. Thyroid ultrasound was performed using a 7.5-9MHz frequency linear-array transducer with a device of a Doppler function. Results: Mean thyroid volume was recorded to be 12.1 ± 6.2 mL (range 4-28.6 mL) and 67.4 ± 7.7 mL (4-392.1 mL) in the Chinese group and Congolese respectively (p<0.001). 85% of Congolese subjects had goiter, while only 12.5% of Chinese subjects had it. Goiters were associated with sonographic Hashimoto’s thyroiditis in the Chinese group, while 91.2% and 8.8% of goiters were respectively nodular and diffuse in the Congolese group. The thyroid parenchyma in the Chinese group was especially hypoechoic and heterogeneous with variable degree of vascularization, while in the Congolese group, beside hypoechogenicity and heterogenicity, we noted a normal vascularization. Conclusions: Ultrasonography detected a higher prevalence of goiter in the Congolese pregnant women than in the Chinese.

  220. Charalampos Martinos, Anastasia Kotanidou and Panagiotis Ηalvatsiotis

    Background: Sepsis-induced multiple organ failure is the major cause of mortality and morbidity in critically ill patients. The precise mechanisms by which this dysfunction is caused remain to be elucidated. Because ATP production by mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation accounts for more than 90% of total oxygen consumption, we postulated that mitochondrial dysfunction results in organ failure, possibly due to nitric oxide, which is known to inhibit mitochondrial respiration in vitro and is produced in excess in sepsis. Methods: We did skeletal muscle biopsies on 25 septic patients within 24 h of admission to intensive care. The biopsy samples were analyzed for myosin heavy chains (MHC), isoform gene transcript levels using a real-time PCR technique, respiratory-chain activity and ATP production (complex V) using a real-time QPCR technique for mitochondrial enzyme gene transcript levels citrate synthase (CS), cytochrome C oxidase I-III, NADH and UCPs 2-3. Results: The gene transcription of myosin fiber types I, IIa and citrate synthase (complex V) was significant higher in skeletal muscle biopsy of septic survivors, and demonstrated lower insulin sensitivity using HOMA test. Severity of septic shock ( SAPS II) found to be higher in critically ill patients. Conclusion: In critically ill patients, we found an association between the type of myosin fiber and ATPase gene transcription and insulin resistance that relate to organ failure and eventual outcome. These data implicate bioenergetic failure as an important pathophysiological mechanism underlying multiple organ dysfunction.

  221. Keratiloe Gwebu, Malcolm Cort, Nonceba Vellem, Nomathemba Nonkelela, Jafta Ntsaba and Ephraim Gwebu

    Background: Body mass index (BMI) is commonly used in typical rural community health centers where the majority of people live in impoverished rural South Africa. We evaluated the correlation between BMI and Waist circumference (WC) with a view to recommend substituting BMI with WC as measure of insulin resistance in rural communities. Design and Methods: A total of 385 nondiabetic adult subjects attending community health centers in Eastern Province, South Africa, who had not eaten any break fast participated in the study. Anthropometric measures were done under trained supervision. Blood samples were collected for estimation of fasting insulin and fasting blood glucose levels. Two validated surrogate measures of insulin resistance were used: Homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) and Quantitative Insulin sensitivity Check Index (QUICKI. Results: Over 45% of the people surveyed were obese with over 10% being morbidly obese. The aim was to determine whether waist circumference alone can be used as the simplest, cheapest and reliable predictor of insulin resistance and obesity. Waist circumference was found to be significantly correlated with BMI: R = 0.775, P =0.00, for women and R =0.847, P = 0.00 for men and r =0.872, P=0.001 using HOMA-IR and QUICKI (r = 0.866, P =0.01) as the surrogate indices of insulin resistance. Conclusions: Waist circumference is significantly correlated with BMI according to surrogate indices of insulin resistance. It is recommended that waist circumference should replace BMI as indicator of insulin resistance, because measuring waist circumference is very simple and affordable instrument.

  222. Silvio Marcio Pegoraro Balzan, AlexandreRieger, ViníciusGrandoGava, Daniel Pra, Pedro Lúcio de Souza, Rafael AntoniazziAbaid, DanieliRosaneDallemole and Caio Fernando de Oliveira

    Purpose: Beta-blockers show promise in the attenuation of ischemia reperfusion during cardiac surgery, however its role on injury during liver surgery is not known. Methods: This preclinical study evaluated the use of beta-blockers during induction of anesthesia in a swine model of liver ischemia-reperfusion injury (metoprolol and control groups). Results: A total of 28 animals were studied and no difference was observed between groups in biochemical markers sampled before and after liver ischemia and reperfusion. Conclusion: The use of beta-blockers does not have a clinical impact on attenuating liver ischemia reperfusion injury.

  223. Mario Cappellette Jr., Lucia Hatsue Yamamoto Nagai, Fauze Ramez Badreddine, Mario Cappellette, Fabio Eduardo Maiello Monteiro Alves and Reginaldo Raimundo Fujita

    Purpose: Aglossia is a rare condition referring to the congenital absence of the entire tongue that is associated with activities such as sucking, swallowing, chewing, and phonation playing an important role in facial growth. The objective of this clinical case report is to demonstrate that adequate orthopedic and orthodontic procedures can re-adjust the buccal bone structures by redirecting the growth and the muscular adaptation, contributing to the improvement of the functions of the stomatognathic system. Methods: A girl 9 years and 4 mouths complained of difficulty to chew and diagnosed with congenital aglossia. The treatment included rapid maxillary expansion and mandibular midline distraction osteogenesis to correct transverse deficiencies and to provide conditions of myofunctional adaptation. It may occur in the course of growth and development of craniofacial complex. Results: Maxillary and Mandibular bones were successfully expanded allowing a better development of adaptive mechanisms to compensate for absence of the tongue. Conclusions: The use of a tooth-borne distraction device with a Hyrax-type screw to expand the mandibular by symphysis osteogenesis was efficient and improved the tongue tonus and occlusion. However, multidisciplinary continuous cares are required due to lack of proper stomatognathic function.

  224. Shreni Sunil Navalgi, Aparna S. H. and Pradeep, B. K

    Background: Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is assiocated with increased insulin resistance and an inexorable decline in β-cell function usually requiring intensive treatment to achieve and maintain glycemic control. The aim of the study was to assess the efficacy and safety of insulin glargine (BASALOG®,BIOCON) as a basal regimen in individuals with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) who are poorly controlled with oral antidiabetic drugs (OADs) and/or other insulins. Methods: This observational, study included 110 adult individuals with T2DM from PANACEA Hospital, Bengaluru. Baseline glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c) ranged between 7.5% and 9.5% and for whom a basal regimen with insulin glargine was initiated. Two follow-up visits were scheduled at 12 and 24 weeks after initating the treatment. The primary outcome target was HbA1c < 7%. Safety was assessed by the frequency of hypoglycemic episodes. Results: The target HbA1c level of < 7% was reached by 16% of patients after 3 months of insulin glargine treatment and 36% after 6 months. Mean HbA1c decreased significantly from 9.25±1.07% at baseline to 7.46±0.92% at 6 months (P < 0.001). Mean fasting blood glucose also decreased significantly from 247.5 ± 55.6 mg/dL at baseline to 129.7 ± 38.1 mg/dL at 6 months (P < 0.001). Approximately 13.6% of patients reported at least one hypoglycemic episode. No adverse events other than hypoglycemia were seen. Conclusions: This study shows that in a realistic setting, a basal regimen with insulin glargine significantly improves glycemic control in patients with T2DM who are inadequately controlled with OADs or other insulin regimens, Hypoglycaemia incidence and rates were as similar during the early and continued treatment periods across all treatment combinations

  225. Partha S. Das, Sandip Chakroborty, Keshab C. Mondal, Tapash C. Ghosh and Bikas R. Pati

    Protein abundance is a measure of expression of mRNA in a cell. The code of DNA is not expressed constitutively in all conditions; hence it is important to determine the population and abundance of proteins in a cell to determine cellular functions. Essential protein products are mandatory for functioning of a live cell. Thus patterns of abundance of essential and non-essential proteins may vary. A machine learning based framework has been applied here using neural net algorithm which could predict essential genes of S. cerevisiae using protein abundance as a feature using 77.65 percent accuracy.

  226. Krishna Raj, V., Dr. Lalitha Reddy, R.P. and Surendra, H.S

    The tribal population is identified as the aboriginal inhabitants of our country. According census of India 2011, Schedule tribes comprise 8.6% of the population. Nutritional status as reflected by anthropometric measurements are true indicators of a population’s health status. The objective of the present study was to know the current socio-economic status, determine the nutritional status based on BMI and different components of adult soliga tribes. The Study was conducted in four taluks of Chamarajanagar District. A sample of 1000 soliga tribal adult in the age between 18-40 years were included for the study. Structured questionnaire used for data collection on socio economic status, dietary habit, habitual practice, illness, anthropometric indices and Composition of fat, water (%), lean weight worked out. Chi-square test employed to know the significant variation in the measured composition between genders. Higher numbers of respondents (42.8%) were in the age group of 34-40 years. 54.0% were males and married (85.9%). Majority of them were illiterate and working as coolie. (87.9%) of them belong to nuclear families and found to be a norm among Soligas and majority of them were also non-vegetarian. It was evident that 42.3% of the respondents were in the habits of smoking and consuming alcohol. Respiratory infection, diarrhea, Dysentery and Skin allergy were significantly more prevalent among males while fevers urinary tract infections were significantly high among females. The number of underweight subjects were more among females (40.9%) than males (37.6%). The normal BMI values were found among (51.5%) of males compared to only 47.4% of the females. Regarding waist hip ratio the findings reveals that Normal observed considerably more among males (50.6%) than females (31.5%) indicating the difference between males and females fond to be highly significant (χ2 =32.94, p<0.01).The response on fat (%) and fat (kg) between males and females found to be highly significant (χ2 = 45.50 and χ2 = 18.43).The response on water (%) and water (liters’) between males and females found to be significant (χ2 = 56.09 and χ2 = 33.33). The data reveals that the difference between males and females on lean (%), lean weight (kg) and total weight (kg) found to be highly significant (p<0.01).

  227. Pushpa Khuraijam, Srilakshmi, R. and Surendra, H. S.

    Sexual health is an essential part of good overall health and well-being. Sexuality is a part of human life and human development. A good sexual health is significant across the life span and it is critical in adolescent health. When children grow up both physiological and psychological changes occurs in different stages of development of life. Imphal city of East and West district is selected as a study region. For intervention 5 schools from east region and 3 schools from west regions were selected randomly. The total sample for the study was 200 adolescent girls using simple random sampling. The questionnaire comprising of Socio-economic information and Attitude assessments consists of 62 statements with five point likert scale with response and score as strongly agree assigned ‘5’, agree ‘4’, undecided ‘3’, disagree ‘2’, and strongly disagree ‘1’. After obtaining pre test information intervention program administered to adolescent girls with audio-visual aids and teaching strategies for 3 months duration. Further, post test assessment was elicited. Majority of the study sample were in the age group of 15 years, studying in 8th Standard with one sibling, first ordinal position and 60-69% in academic performance. Majority were nuclear family, from urban area and income between Rs.20,001-30,000. Majority (49.0%) got menarche in the age group of 13-14 year, had regular menstrual cycle and had five days menstrual flow with problems as stomach ache and back ache. Finding indicates pretest mean attitude score found to be 48.8% as compared to post test 73.0%. The enhancement of attitude score from pre-test to post-test found to be 24.2%. The data subjected for statistical test reveals that the enhancement of knowledge found to be statistically significant (t =55.20*, p<0.05).

  228. Arati Kadam, Suraj Patil, Mrunalini Sonne, Kirti Dahigaonkar, Jaspal Kaur Oberoi and Pratibha Jadhav

    Potato Dextrose Agar is general purpose medium used for the cultivation of broad range of fungi. Use of commercially available culture media for research purpose is costly so cheap culture media needs to be formulated. The feasibility of developing alternative culture media for PDA was assessed using locally available cheap materials such as Vegetables and fruits wastes, as they contain considerable amount of carbohydrate, protein and macro elements. These wastes are easily available in local shops, vegetable markets and kitchen. Now a day’s waste disposal is also a major problem, so use of these nutrient rich waste materials for cultivation of fungi could be Good Avenue to look for. Waste such as Drumstick peel, seed; Cauliflower stalk, Potato peel, Fenugreek stem and orange peel was used to formulate media. Ability of media to support growth of Aspergillus and Trichoderma was tested. Elemental components of the media were determined. The medium had considerable protein and carbohydrate content. The pH of the media was adjusted to 4.0 ± 0.2 before sterilization. Growth on formulated media was comparable to commercially available media.

  229. Njipouakouyou Samuel, Galmai Orozi, Aoudou Doua Sylvain, Yacoub Idriss Halawlaw and Dokoubou Joseph Rodolphe

    Curves of time variations of evapotranspiration and precipitations have been plotted, their points intercept determined. This enable us to find out the seeding period and the duration of the useful rainy season which corresponds to the cultivation period in N’djaména and surroundings for the years from 1980 to 2007. This study has shown that the confortable time to begin planting is mid-July, the average duration cultivation period, from the moment of planting to the harvest, is fifty days. Outside this laps of time irrigation should be unavoidable.

  230. Judy, S., Sithanantham, S., Sanjayan, K. P. and Manikandan, K. R

    Mass reared trichogrammatid egg parasitoid species are deployed globally for augmentative biocontrol of many lepidopteran crop pests. In India, Trichogramma chilonis Ishii is being recommended for release against of many caterpillar pests, while T. japonicum with longer ovipositor is advocated against yellow stem borer in rice or top borer in sugarcane to reach the eggs which are covered by the moth scales. When these two Trichogrammatid species either co- occur in crop ecosystems or are released simultaneously in the same target crop , their relative progeny production will depend both on their innate fecundity and also the competitive ability of the females to parasitise the available host eggs in the same niche. In the first laboratory study, mated females of two species-T.chilonis and T.japonicum were kept, both alone (6:0 and 0:6) and together in ratios of 3:3, 5:1, 1:5, for oviposition on equal numbers of eggs of the factitious host, Corcyra cephalonica.. The progeny produced had more numbers of T.chilonis than T.japonicum across most ratios. The two species were which case the progeny production was greater when T.chilonis was allowed access first instead of T.japonicum first. successive, which confirmed that T.japonicum as both less fecund and less competitive for progeny production with Trichogramma chilonis.

  231. : Neeraj K. Charmkar, Shrikant Kol and Rishabh D. Saket

    Recent studies reported that the occurrence of obesity is determined by both environmental and genetic factor. This study was carried out to investigate whether the FTO gene is associated with obesity and related disorders in the populations of Vindhyan region. In general, the genomic DNA extracted from peripheral blood of healthy individuals and diseased individuals was subjected to PCR for polymorphism screening. The results were in normal subjects as mean of weights were 76.oo Kg, in overweight subject’s weight was calculated 90.4 Kg. In obese subjects mean weight was calculated 105.1 Kg. The mean height was measured 172.2 m, 173.1 m and 172.4 m in Normal weight, overweight and obese subjects respectively. The mean BMI in all three groups were 20.9, 25.3 and 28.4 for Normal weight, overweight and obese subjects respectively. Determination of FTO genotype in all three groups was performed by allele specific PCR reaction. The genotype scored in Normal weight subjects was TT = 40, TA = 46 and AA = 14. In the Overweight subjects it was 37, 45 and 17 for TT, TA and AA respectively. In the obese subjects it is scored 30 for TT, 54 for TA and 17 for AA genotype.

  232. Dr. Maitreyee Roy

    Gender sensitization is the process of changing the stereotype mind set of men and women, a mindset that strongly believes that men and women are unequal entities and hence have to function in different socio- economic space. Women play an essential role in the management of natural resources, including soil, water, forests, energy and often have a profound traditional and contemporary knowledge of the natural world around them. Sustainable development strategies must aim to foster women’s empowerment and effective participation. The study revealed that in both rural and urban areas the medieval mindset and gender bias prevails in our society. Gender discrimination is an enormous problem in Indian society. Traditional patriarchal norms have placed women to secondary status within the household and workplace. Implementing curriculums on gender sensitization which will enable students to learn that gender roles are interchangeable and that they are free to choose what they want to become or do depending on their likes rather their biological make up.

  233. Shafroz Parween

    Hypertension is rapidly growing as an global epidemic, and affecting all age groups. It occurs when the flow of blood in the arteries increases beyond normal, as a result the heart has to function more. Continued pressure on the hearts makes it weak and the person suffers from heart diseases, often leading to heart attacks. The prevalence of hypertension is fast growing due to changes in living standards and sedentary lifestyles. This article emphasizes the increase in its prevalence. Awareness is an approach to deal with this disease.

  234. Chatterjee, N. R. and Santoshkumar Abujam

    A review of the hatchery operation covering three states of India revealed a very gloomy picture in regards to the sustenance of the prized species of India i.e., Catla, Rohu, Mrigal. An in-depth study of the hatchery indicates that the persons involved in hatchery operation are not only illiterate but are devoid of any scientific training for practices of such a novel technology in captivity. Due to improper dissemination, profit making approaches and greediness on the part of fish breeders and hatchery owner, the technology which was initially implemented for the production of quality seed productivity now became a curse in disguise. Mixed spawning indiscriminate hybridization and several other faulty practices, throughout the years, has resulted in several genetic consequences among the hatchery raised fishes. The consequences includes in breeding, genetic drift and retrogressive hybridization which resulted in the loss of certain economically important traits and resulted in the development of a variant type of fishes in the hatchery sector. If this trend continuous, certainly a different variety of carps will come up due to genetic drift and bottle necking and it will be difficult to rebound to the original species.

  235. Dr. Bhawana Bhalmey

    Ayurved is a Sarvaparishada Shastra which means this system of medicine is related to all its scriptures, takes into account even the mutually divergent views expressed in various philosophical systems so far as they do not oppose the Ayurvedic concepts. The most nearest allied branch of Ayurved is the Darshana Shastra (philosophical texts). There are similarities of some concepts of Ayurved and Darshana Shastra, but as the Prayojana (aim) of both Shastra are different, they have been advocated in a different way. Darshan is that due to which we get as it is knowledge of to find origin of nature and human the same search was right from the also discussed in Upanishad. Actually it comes into existence in shankars placed these tatvas mentioned in Atma tatva according to their own opinion. As clarify how human body originates and this has been explained in systemic way in sutra. But along with that ayurved has made use of these grading disease, certain things are play important role in Ayurved and Get darshnik impact of Ayuverd.

  236. Khalida Nazeer, Dr. A. K. Gupta and Dr. M. K. Mishra

    In this research paper 10 herbal slimming products were purchased from herbal medical stores and e-shopping were analyzed for the purpose of detection of adulterants. The branded and famous or non famous samples were selected for the study to determine the presence of sibutramine and fenfluramine and their analogs. After the examination it was found that out of the 10 samples, S3 (ketamine), S4 (methamphetamine), S5 (Methoxyetamine), S6 (Methoxyetamine), S7 (25I-NBOMe) and S8 (2CT-7) contained suspected adulterant, whereas S1, S2, S9 and S10 are free from any adulterants. The herbal slimming products contain adulterants which may be hazardous to human health. This type of formulation faults are important concern of medico-legal issues because people consuming it, may suffer fatalities due to the adulterations.

  237. Yasar Mirza and Dr. Lav Kesharwani

    In this research paper the five different types of papers Plain paper (S1 to S5), Bond paper (S6 to S10), Newsprint paper (S11 to S15), Photography paper (S16 to S20) and Thermal paper (S21 to S25) had taken and prepared for smoldering. All types of paper samples were written by Blue ball point pen only with the text ‘BURNT PAPER MESSAGE HERE”. And these papers were burnt in a wood box. These burnt specimens were examined under VSC and Projectina with different illuminations for recovery the written content. Both instruments had recovered the written content from different burnt papers successively The written content of exclusive bond paper, newsprint paper, photography paper and thermal paper have positively recovered under EPI light, Side light L and Side light R, luminescence light and flood light successively.VSC-6000 had given positively good result in comparison of Projectina Docubox HD. But both techniques have the ability in the burnt papers examination for the forensic consideration.

  238. Dr. Madhusudan Gupta and Dr. Shashank Choudhary

    Health as well as diseases is dependent on various factors. As Acharyas had described that Ahara, Nidra and Brahmacarya are Triupstambha (three sub pillars), which support the body itself. Here Ahara has been placed first, which shows that it is most important to maintain and sustain the life. Man has always been interested in Ahara and the history of man to a large extent has been a struggle to obtain proper diet. Ahara supplies bio-energy to body. This bio-energy is supplied by proper and adequate nutrition in the form of its essential constituent’s viz. Proteins, Carbohydrates, Fats, Minerals, Vitamins and Water. In Ayurveda, Ahara, as well as the method of its intake both have equal importance. Food plays a decisive role in development, sustenance, reproduction and termination of life. Through centuries, Food has been recognized as an important factor for human beings, in health and diseased state. Ahara is not only needed for the continuity of life, but also for Bala, Varna, Upacaya etc. In other medical sciences, food is considered important, but not the manner of eating. The Ahara Vidhi (Dietetics) is an ancient, empirical and elegant art; it is the heritage of Indian culture that can be clearly observed in Ayurvedic views.

  239. Riffat Sultana and Santosh Kumar

    The grasshoppers and locusts are considered as pests to many agricultural crops, and the increased concerns over the deleterious environmental and health effects of using chemical insecticides to control their outbreaks. Like other microbial agents Entomopathogenic fungi are also responsible for suppression of grasshopper and locust population. During the present study an attempt has been made to investigate the lethal effect of entomopathogenic fungi eg: (Aspergillus, Metarhizium and Beauveria) on many grasshoppers’ species under laboratory conditions. Prepared medium of these bio-pesticides was sprayed on different species/stages of Acridinae, Calliptaminae and Gomphocerinae. Large numbers of species including their all developmental stages which were treated with this bio-pesticide showed significant suppression effect. Further, it was observed that insect’s undergone very interesting behavioral modification after the infection of pathogen and insect population decline rapidly in laboratory. However, improved prediction and monitoring are needed to facilitate the use of bio-pesticides and other IPM techniques against these pests. Beside this, in this paper we have also documented: how biological control option could be incorporated into integrated pest management (IPM) strategies and what future and development work is necessary to implement such IPM strategies in Pakistan.

  240. Beenu and Manish K. Singh

    Exposure to arsenic in individuals has been found to be associated with immune related problems via oxidative stress and inflammation. In earlier studies, we have demonstrated that amla protects against arsenic induced oxidative stress and apoptosis in thymus and spleen of mice. In continuation to that the present study has therefore been focused to investigate the protective efficacy of amla in arsenic induced elevated concentrations of serum matrix metalloproteinase (mmp)-2 and -9 and their associations with high risk of cardiovascular diseases in mice. Arsenic treatment in mice, significantly increased mmp-2 (2.16 fold, p<0.001) and mmp-9 (1.45fold, p<0.01) level as compared to controls. No significant changes were found in control as well as amla alone group. While co-treatment with arsenic and amla significantly decreases mmp-2(0.65 fold, p<0.01) and mmp-9 (0.81fold, p<0.05) level as compared to arsenic alone group. The study results underscore the protective effects of amla in arsenic induced serum up regulation of mmp-2 and mmp-9 level as a high risk of cardiovascular disease, the fruit extract of amla balance the mmps level due to hypolipidemic and cardioprotective nature.

  241. Verma, R. C., Singh, P. K. and Arya, J. K.

    The present study was undertaken to evaluate the different modules for management of sheath blight of rice caused by Rhizoctonia solani Kuhn in field codition. The On Farm Trials(OFT) was conducted during Kharif, 2016 to evaluate various chemicals & biopesticides (Module) for management of disease. The soil drenching of Trichoderma @5.0Kg/ha with 100kg FYM(Before transplanting), Seed treatment with Vitavax @ 2.5gm/kg (During nursery sowing) & two spray of tebuconazole 25EC @ 1.0ml/lt(During vegetative phase & before panicle initiation) was found most effective module for management of sheath blight of rice and resulted in minimum 8% disease severity with 33.14% increase in yield over the check followed by module no. 02 where disease severity was 11% and 25.14% increase in yield.

  242. Manoj Kumar Panda, Sunita Das and Acharya, U. R.

    Lead (Pb) is a potential heavy metal of Group IV B of the periodic table which is soft, malleable metal having bluish white colour. Besides having its useful properties, it causes the reproductive abnormality in male Swiss mice. Testis is the important organ of reproductive failure caused by the accumulation of lead that develops reactive oxygen species that results oxidative stress in the tissues of organism. In the present study, 0.2% of lead acetate in drinking water was given to the mother from the first day of pregnancy and was continued up to lactation phase. At the end of lactation phase, the male pups were separated and after attaining sexual maturity at 9-10 weeks of age, the male pups were sacrificed and the testes were processed for the estimation of various biochemical parameters. Exposed animals showed significantly decrease in the level of antioxidant enzymes like catalase and peroxidase, decreased sperm count and markedly increased rates of sperm abnormality. Oxidative stress was measured in terms of malonicdialdehyde content of lipids. However, antioxidant vitamins like vitamin C, vitamin E and its combined action i.e. Vitamin (E+C) to the lead-induced mice groups could ameliorate the oxidative stress by declining lipid per-oxidation, increasing the level of catalase and peroxidase, increase in sperm count and reduce sperm abnormality.

  243. Dr. Sambhunath Bandyopadhyay, Dr. Sumanta Kumar Mondal, Dr.Tarun Kumar Das and Dr. Debarshi Jana

    Introduction: Pregnancy-induced hypertension is developed due to pregnancy which is affected after delivery. Assessments of serum levels of calcium and magnesium in normal pregnancy and preeclamptic pregnancy may benefit in recognizing whether changes in the levels of these micronutrients are contributory to the interconnection of preeclampsia. Our study was evaluated role of serum calcium and magnesium in the pathogenesis of preeclampsia patients also was calculated the value of this biomarker as indicators in the etiopathogenesis and assessing the severity of pre-eclampsia in Eastern India. Materials and Methods: This hospital based cross sectional study includes total 100 pregnant women during January 2015 to December 2016. Simple random sampling was done based on inclusion and exclusion criteria at Obstetrics ward of SSKM Hospital, Kolkata. Group I (Control)--includes 50 normotensive healthy pregnant women, Group II (Case)--includes 25 mild pre-eclamptic patients and Group III (Case)--includes 25 severe pre-eclamptic patients. Serum calcium and magnesium levels were measured using atomic absorption spectrophotometer with standard methods. Statistical analysis was done by SPSS 20.0.1and Graph Pad Prism version 5. Results and Analysis: Difference of mean age and gestational age in two groups was not statistically significant. Thus age was matched in two groups. Mean BMI was significantly higher in case compare to control (p<0.0001). Mean serum calcium and magnesium level was significantly lower in group-III then group-II. When serum calcium and magnesium were correlated independently with systolic and diastolic blood pressure in preeclampsia patient, a significant negative correlation was obtained. Discussion: In my study shows that both the serum calcium and magnesium are significantly reduced in severe preeclamptic groups as compared to mild preeclamptic and normotensive healthy pregnant woman. Further when serum calcium and magnesium was correlated systolic and/or diastolic blood pressure a significant negative correlation was obtained. Conclusion: These findings support the hypothesis that hypocalcaemia and hypomagnesaemia are possible etiologies of preeclampsia. As the severity of preeclampsia increases more and more reduction in the levels of these electrolytes is seen in the maternal blood. Hence adjuvant supplementation of calcium and magnesium may prevent further progression of preeclampsia.

  244. Pushpalatha, J. K. and Mary Esther Cynthia Johnson

    The water samples were collected from Jurala Dam situated on Krishna river at. The present paper deals with the taxonomic enumeration of 10 taxa belonging to 3 genera namely –Nitzschia, Amphora and Cymbella which were investigated from Jurala Reservoir in Mahabubnagar district Telangana.

  245. Rajput, S. D. and Kute, N. S.

    Generation mean analysis was carried out to study nature and magnitude of gene effects for yield, its yield component and fatty acid compositions in a cross of sesame (Sesamumindicum L.) The parents with their F1, F2, B1 and B2 were evaluated in replicated trail for ten quantitative and four qualitative traits. The analysis showed that scales A, B and C were highly significant for all the traits, indicating the predominance of non-allelic interactions or epistasis ofAdditive x Additive (i) and Dominance x Dominance (l) for almost all the characters in both thecrosses. Predominance of non-additive (dominance) gene action was prevailed in the expression of seed yield/ plant, its components and fatty acid compositions with duplicate type of epistasis in the cross investigated. Hence, selection should be delayed until virtual homozygosity is attained to achieve the improvement in these traits.

  246. Rajput, S. D. and Kute, N. S.

    Generation mean analysis was carried out to study nature and magnitude of gene effects for yield, its component and fatty acid compositions in a cross of sesame (Sesamumindicum L.) The parents with their F1, F2, B1 and B2 were evaluated in replicated trail for ten quantitative and four qualitative traits. The analysis showed that scales A, B and C were highly significant for all the traits, indicating the predominance of non-allelic interactions or epistasis of Additive x Additive (i) and Dominance x Dominance (l) for almost all the characters in the cross. Predominance of non-additive (dominance) gene action was prevailed in the expression of seed yield/ plant, its components and fatty acid compositions with duplicate type of epistasis in the cross investigated. Hence, selection should be delayed until virtual homozygosity is attained to achieve the improvement in these traits.

  247. Rajput, S. D., Harer, P. N. and Kute, N. S.

    The eight diverse genotypes were crossed in 8 x 8 half diallel mating system. The resulting 28 crosses along with their parents were evaluated to study heterosis and sca effects for yield and its components. The study revealed that the heterosis in seed yield was influenced by high heterotic manifestation in number of branches per plant, number of capsule per plant, number of seeds per capsule and seed weight. As regards earliness, plant height, length of capsule and oil content the extent of heterosis was moderately high. The ranking of crosses on the basis of heterosis and sca effects were not similar. There was faire agreement between heterosis and sca effects. The cross combination JLS-116 x JLT-9707-2 for seed yield and capsules per plant, JLT-408 x VS- 07-23 for earliness and seed weight, JLT-408 x JLT-9707-2 for number of seeds per capsule and JLS-120 x VRI(sv)2 for length of capsule manifested desirable heterosis and high sca effects. These crosses could be exploited in subsequent generations to isolate desirable segregates.

  248. Biswaranjan Behera, Simanchal Sahu, Rajesh Kumar Kar and Ritu Kumari Pandey

    Since grain yield is a complex trait, controlled by non-additive gene action and is believed to have low heritability, hence direct selection for grain yield per se is often not reliable and effective. Further intergenotypic competition and a large experimental error associated with yield measurements often bias the outcome of selection for higher yield. Therefore, several workers in different crop plants have emphasized the importance of indirect selection for yield through the use of component traits governed by genes with additive effect and with strong correlation on grain yield. As no single trait could be taken as an adequate criterion of selection for yield, therefore, selection indices provide a useful method by making use of several correlated traits for greater efficiency of selection in yield. Selection indices study revealed that the thirteen character index was superior over the direct selection for yield per se. On the basis of thirteen character selection index promising genotypes namely MTU110, RTN28-1-5-3-2, CB12186, NP3003, WGL-821, RGL7011, R1130-80-1-52-1, GNV-14-25, CR3511-3-2-2-5-1, BPT2675, NLR3337, RGL7012, BPT2595, NLR3350, RP5947-123-6-2-1-1-B, AD12074, MLR3313 and RP5949-122-2-5-1-1 may be used for future breeding programme. It was interesting to note that the relative rankings of varieties selected on the basis of per se performance and index score differed indicating the importance of selection index over direct selection on grain yield.

  249. Singh, B. K.

    India has a very rich biodiversity, unique physical and ethnic diversity, and traditional culture. In recent years, the habitat loss due to developmental programmes, overgrazing, animal husbandry and tourism has resulted in the loss of biodiversity. Natural causes such as floods, earthquakes and landslides also add to this tragedy. With this point of view, present work has been conducted which deals with a detailed study of habit and habitat, frequency of occurrence, ecological conditions, floral characters and ethnomedicinal properties of some endangered but medicinally important angiospermic plant species collected from Raebareli (U.P.). The reported plant species have been declared threatened by the Indian Subcontinent Plant Specialist Group. Therefore, there is urgent need to document complete biodiversity, prioritize useful threatened plants, and conserve them in-situ and ex-situ for sustainable utilization in health care and human welfare.

  250. Swapna, K., Farzana Jabeen, Subba Rao, L.V. and Sruthi, K

    The present study was carried out to characterize seventy five farmers’ varieties of rice using twenty nine agro-morphological characters following DUS guide lines during Rabi 2012. A majority of varieties found to possess green basal leaf sheath colour (70), medium pubescence of leaf blade (38), presence of auricles (72) with light purple colour (66), split shape (74) and light purple (65) colour of ligule, semi erect attitude at early (39) and late (44) stages of flag leaf, late time of heading (39), absence of anthocyanin colouration of lemma apex (50) and stem nodes (64), white colour (57) of stigma, medium stem length (43), medium length (43) and semi-straight curvature (50) of panicle main axis (49), medium density of pubescence (35) and white colour tip (33) of lemma, absence (42) and tip only distribution (23) and yellowish white colour (22) of awns, semi erect attitude (48) and well exserted (34) panicle, straw colour sterile lemma (69), medium 1000 grain weight (38) and decorticated grain length (44), narrow decorticated grain width (75), short slender decorticated grain shape (60), white colour decorticated grain (33) and absence of decorticated grain aroma. This study will be useful for breeders, researchers and farmers to identify and choose the restoration and conservation of beneficial genes for crop improvement and also to seek protection under Protection of Plant Varieties and Farmer’s Rights Act.

  251. Shamit Thaper and Dr. Manish Ranjan

    Aim: To compare and evaluate wear resistance of three tooth coloured restorative materials on the basis of wear resistance. Background: Tooth colored restorative materials are very prone to wear due to abrasion and erosion by the various constituents of saliva, food consumed and other factors. Therefore it is important to determine the best material for class 1 restoration on the basis of wear resistance.

  252. Sandip Kumar Pan

    Wireless networks are very popular nowadays. Wi-Fi® is a system of wirelessly connecting devices that use radio waves, allowing for connection between devices without the expense of cumbersome cables or without needing them to be facing one another. Wi-Fi stands for Wireless Fidelity® and is used to define the wireless technology in the IEEE802.11b standard. It operates in the unlicensed 2.4 GHz radio spectrum, uses direct-sequence spread spectrum (DSSS) for modulation, supports variable data rates up to 11 Mbps, and has a range of about 50 meters. Wireless technology provides us much profit like portability and flexibility, increased productivity, and lower installation costs. Nowadays, communications through mobiles, computers, laptops, wireless networking technologies have extended to a great level. This does a maximum coverage all over the world. Security issues have also been crossed a level in Wi-Fi network because of the unauthorized users and the Wi-Fi hackers. So to implement the feasible Security WEP, WPA has been proposed in this paper to overcome the feasible security problems. These both protocols are generally used to encrypt the current data and information, so that the unauthorized and hackers cannot be able to decrypt the data and hack the Wireless Fidelity (Wi-Fi) networks. Many accessories can be connected with the Wireless Fidelity network with the help the Access Point (AP).

  253. Mohammad Tarique Jamali

    In thermal power plants coal is burn to heat the water in boiler and Making Steam to produce electricity through steam turbine. After burning coal, fly ash (coal ash) produce. It is collected in a large area and then flushed to the water resources. The water resources hardness is increase due to fly ash. In this study we utilize the fly ash as a foundation of making roads instead of mud and also make the bricks when adding concrete, clay as binder, cement and scraps of iron (called chips after machining the work piece) though powder metallurgy and compact press machine. This waste making strategy utilize the fly ash and also clean the water resources and clean the rescue land area covered by the fly ash. We also use the bigger filter paper or bag houses type vacuum cleaner to absorb the fly ash available in the air to clean the air through this fly ash contents.

  254. Omale, J. A., Ayeni, G. and Omale, A

    Pectin was extracted by a modified McGready (1996) method from Sinensis, Aurantifolia and Limon species of citrus and then precipitated by 95% acetone. Furthermore, the obtained pectin was qualitatively and quantitatively characterized to compare certain physical and chemical properties. Obtained results indicated that the three species have the same colour, brown and are insoluble in both cold water and cold alkali but soluble at elevated temperature. The equivalent weight in mg/mL was found to be 1849.62, 1388.89 and 1720.20 for C sinensis, C aurantifolia and C limon respectively, while the % methoxyl content determined gave the value of 4.19, 5.60 and 4.51% in the same order. The percentage moisture content obtained from the 3 fruits was 60.53, 59.80 and 78.00%, for C sinensis, C aurantifolia and C limon respectively. The percentage yields of the pectin on wet basis are 35.44, 36.48 and 30.09% while on dry basis were 3.74, 3.85 and 4.97%, in the same order with C limon having the highest percentage yield of pectin on dry basis. The pH determinations for the pectins were found to be C sinensis 4.3, C aurantifolia 4.9 and C limon 5.0.

  255. Gui Ren, Yann-Huang, Jeng-Daw Wu, Yu-Chen Lo and Hiroshi Honda

    This report was intended to investigate the effectiveness of innovativeness and management strategies on online purchase intention in e-commerce by using structural equation model of statistical analysis. A number of path analyses were conducted to indicate the impact of different factors.

  256. Walter Duarte de Araújo Filho and Luciana Martins Pereira de Araújo

    The manufacture of borosilicate micropipettes is a process based on the heating of a glass tube through a flame or electrical resistance associated with a longitudinal traction of the tube. The heating of the glass makes it malleable which causes it to suffer a linear deformation and consequent reduction of the cross section, allowing the production of micropipettes of internal diameters tip (ID), less than 10m. borosilicate micropipettes are used in various applications to inject micro-fluids or substances into microstructures. They are used in experiments that involve great precision and rigor and use microscopic amounts of substances notably in Analytical Chemistry and Microbiology. In Microbiology it can be used in IVF (In Vitro Fertilization), i.e., fertilization of the ovum occurs outside the female organism. Particularly in this area, the use of these devices has a high cost due to the high degree of precision and control of the internal dimensions of the part of the micropipettes that encounters the structures, in the specific case the ovule. In this case, the end of the micro capillary (tip or needle) must have rather small dimensions of the order of micrometers. The regular cost of each of these micropipettes is in the range of US$ 25.00 to US$ 30.00, which is a factor that costs the cost of the medical procedure highlighted. Aiming to reduce the burden of this operation, a process of manufacturing borosilicate micropipettes with the above characteristics was developed, at a maximum cost of US $ 0.17, that is, almost two hundred times smaller than the initial cost of a known micropipette. In this article, we will make a brief reference of the manufacturing process and the preliminary results achieved.

  257. Venkateswara Rao, P.

    To overcome the future energy crisis, vegetable oils can be used as a promising alternative energy source of fuel. Many vegetable oils have been studied with C I engine by modification of oil (Biodiesel) in case of density/viscosity. The blend fuels of diesel with Karanja oil methyl ester (KME) at 10%, 20%, 30% and 40% by volume were prepared to test the diesel engine performance. From the results, performance parameters were found to be very close to that of diesel fuel. The brake thermal efficiency and brake specific fuel consumption are better than diesel fuel for some blending ratios under certain loads. The emission characteristic levels of carbon dioxide, carbon monoxide, nitric oxide and hydrocarbons were found to be higher than pure diesel fuel.

  258. Jeffrey C. Cinco, Las Johansen B. Caluza, Devine Grace D. Funcion, Micheline A. Gotardo Lowell A. Quisumbing and Rommel L. Verecio

    ICT training plays an important factor in 21st-century instruction. Basic computer training provides a pedestal on which employees can build new skills on the job. With an ICTs particular computer, the internet and related engineering sciences are becoming more and more ubiquitous. One of the most commonly cited reasons for using ICTs in the classroom is to nurture a favorable learning environment. Technological literacy, or the ability to use ICTs effectively and efficiently, is thus seen as representing a competitive edge in an increasingly globalizing job market. However, this study examined the respondents’ perception of the Computer literacy Enhancement Program conducted by the IT faculty unit. Data were gathered through survey questionnaire and interpreted frequency count and mean percentages. The result shows apositive response from the participants of the training were a satisfactory impact was rated in the demeanor of the CLEP training. The CLEP training was beneficial to the respondents in making teaching-learning materials, reports and computing grades.

  259. Palani, R. and Selvarasi, J.,

    Glasses with compositions 80B2O3-20Li2O, 80B2O3-(20-x)Li2O-xK2O and 80B2O3-(20-x)Li2O-xCaO (where x = 0 to 10 in steps of 2 mol %) have been prepared using normal melt quenching technique. Structure that was investigated using X-ray diffraction has indicated the amorphous state of the prepared glasses. The density and the molar volume have been determined. Decrease in density and the increase in molar volume of the glass samples indicated the largeness of glass network upon addition of K2O and CaO. Furthermore, the optical and mechanical characterizations of these glasses were carried out. Variations in the different physical parameters such as the oxygen packing density, refractive index, dielectric constant, molar refractivity, molar electronic polarizability and metallization criterion of borate lithium glass with K2O and CaO content have been analysed and discussed in terms of the changes in the glass structure. Results show anomalies with addition of K2O and CaO confirming the changes in the rigidity and the content of non-bridging oxygens (NBOs). The Vicker’s microhardness studies reveals the anisotropy nature of the material. It further confirms that the samples belong to soft glass category. Decreases in microhardness were attributed to decreases in elastic moduli and bond strength with increasing load. The effects of composition of the glasses on microhardness are discussed.

  260. S.V.S.N.Murthy, B.V.V. Satyanarayana, CH.V.V.S. Srinivas and A.K.C. Varma

    In this present mobile world where people find no boundary for this valuable devices ranging from banking, e-ticketing, entertainment, social contact, Internet etc. This valuable technology becomes the fundamental needs in the fast changing 21 century. But most importantly technology where we put all the valuable information, data of our life has limited backup battery. Our paper Mobile to mobile wireless power transfer aim to wipe out this limitation by giving another feature of charging through the matrix of air from mobile to mobile. In this paper the transfer of electric energy or power over a distance without the use of wires, here the energy to be transferred safely coupled resonators are used through transmitter and receiver Tesla coil. Coupled resonators are two objects of the same resonant frequency that exchange energy efficiently without much leakage. Minimizing energy leakage is very important because the goal is to have much energy as possible be transferred from one object to another. For tomorrow transfer of energy from one mobile to another will give wider vista of battery backup flexibility whenever we go for whatsoever we required for our information in real-time situation.

  261. Prof. Amar Nath Singh and Er. Deepak Gantayat

    This paper presents a new perspective of Artificial Intelligence (AI). Although, number of attempts has been made to make an artifact intelligent, including evolution theory, neural network etc and a number of problems have been solved using these concepts but each of this theory covers only some aspect of human intelligence. Still there is a large gap between artificial intelligence agent and human being. In this paper I have discuss the extended version of Artificial Intelligence by augmenting it with emotions, and inheritance of neural architecture from parent generation to child generation that can make an artificial agent to match the intelligence and behaviour of a human being. At the same time it adds the power of two well knows Artificial Intelligence techniques viz. Neural Computing and Genetic Computing or Evolutionary Computing. The paper gives an idea of an artefact which is supposed to match the intelligence and behaviour of a human being. Paper also discusses some natural phenomenon and how they can be confirmed by the revised definition of artificial intelligence. The paper does not claim that existing definition of artificial intelligence has some faults. The paper just augments the existing definition by some other features that can make it more close to natural intelligence. The features augmented are naturally inspired similarly as AI, Neural Network and genetics all are naturally inspired.

  262. Noaman Bekheet

    Gears are vital components of any automobiles, power generation systems and in heavy machinery industries, they need to have good fatigue properties such as fatigue life, endurance limit and fatigue strength for better life and performance of the equipment or machinery. The objective of this study is comparative simulation on zero-based cyclic loading conditions in the fatigue life analysis on general gear materials, and concludes which suits for the better purpose of usage. The Finite Element Method (FEM) has been performed, using ANSYS Workbench 16.2, on the gear models to observe the distribution of stress and life. Comparison was done between Structure steel, Chromium molybdenum Alloy Steel 4130, GG 20 and GG 40. The FEM results of stresses were compared with theoretical results from American Gear Manufacturing Association (AGMA) contact and bending stresses and Hertz contact stress equations. Fatigue life equation derived based on Goodman line theory was used to estimate the minimum gear life using S-N characteristic diagram and FEM for validation purpose. The comparison showed that there is an accepted agreement between the theoretical and FEM results especially in the trend of variation. There is some deviation between the results which may need more effort and modification to decrease this deviation.

  263. Prof. Amar Nath Singh and Er.Dolagobinda Samal

    In the future, intelligent machines will replace or enhance human capabilities in many areas. Artificial intelligence is the intelligence exhibited by machines or software. It is the subfield of computer science. Artificial Intelligence is becoming a popular field in computer science as it has enhanced the human life in many areas. Artificial intelligence in the last two decades has greatly improved performance of the manufacturing and service systems. Study in the area of artificial intelligence has given rise to the rapidly growing technology known as expert system. Application areas of Artificial Intelligence is having a huge impact on various fields of life as expert system is widely used these days to solve the complex problems in various areas as science, engineering, business, medicine, weather forecasting. The areas employing the technology of Artificial Intelligence have seen an increase in the quality and efficiency. This paper gives an overview of this technology and the application areas of this technology. This paper will also explore the current use of Artificial Intelligence technologies in the PSS design to damp the power system oscillations caused by interruptions, in Network Intrusion for protecting computer and communication networks from intruders, in the medical area-medicine, to improve hospital inpatient care, for medical image classification, in the accounting databases to mitigate the problems of it and in the computer games.

  264. Neeraj Kumar Sharma

    Six Sigma's intend is to purge ravage and incompetence,in that way escalating customer satisfaction as a result of distributing what the customer is anticipating,in the end enhance quality. Six Sigma is a exceedingly obedienced route that aids to spotlight on expanding and distributing quality products and services. Six Sigma is a records obsessed tactic, and entails exact records assortment for the routes being evaluated. Six Sigma is as regards placing outcomes on Financial statements. Six Sigma chases a madeup tactic, and has delineated positions for the partakers. Six Sigma is a commerce obsessed, multidimensional madeup loom for perking up routing, lesser defects,tumbling route variability, plummeting costs,escalating customer satisfaction, enlarged profits. If you can evaluate how many defects are obtainable, It can methodically make out how to purge them and dig up as close to zero defects as possible or towering quality products and explicitly it ways a malfunction rate of 3. 4 components per million.

  265. Vasantharani, P. and Neelayathashi Alias Vichitra, S.

    This paper reports spectroscopic and thermal studies of cadmium doped manganese borate glasses of composition of x CdO - (40- x) MnO2 - 60 B2O3 prepared by melt quenching method. The influence of cadmium ions on physical and spectroscopic properties in the glasses were analysed using FTIR and TG-DTA. XRD traces suggest the amorphous nature of the samples prepared. FTIR spectrum confirms the presence of BO3 and BO4 units and the variations brought about by the modifying action of cadmium oxide. Thermal behavior and the stability of the system are understood by the TG-DTA studies.

  266. Prem Ravi Kumar

    Fiber optics and cloud computing growth has taken all the attention of various communities like researches, student, business, consumer and government organization. Big data is the main reason for coming of cloud computing in the show, everyday lots of data in the size of PETA bytes are uploaded in the digital world which required lots of storage and computing resources. Fiber optics and cloud Computing is a marketing term which is also known as utility computing delivers the service as software and proper hardware, platform and infrastructure as a service in pay-as-you-go model to consumers has the potential to transform a large part of the IT industry, making software with fiber optics networking even more attractive as a service.

  267. Sundaram, S. and Dr. Annadurai, B

    A special type of Red sandy dunal soil [Theri-soil] of Tamil Nadu is called Theri-soils. (Theri-soil) are located in Tuticorin, Tirunelveli and Kanyakumari districts of Tamil Nadu. The Merits of Theri lands aredeep sand zone, good permeability and quality ground water. The Demerits of Theri lands are un suitable for agriculture, the surface of the soil is not plane, higher level of soil erosion, sand dunes, from the top to the bottom only sand, low nutrients and minerals and Low water holding capacity. Tank silt and neem compost are the materials used for the amendment of the Theri soils selected for the study to improve the fertility constraints of the soil. Measurements were made on the physico chemical and physical properties such as pH, EC, Particle density, Bulk density, Porosity, Water holding capacity, Organic carbon content and Hydraulic conductivity. To convert this soil into a cultivable land, attempts were made to improve the soil moisture characteristics of the soil using soil amendment.

  268. Sharad Chandra Rajpoot and Prashant Singh Rajpoot

    This concept of restriction on the power supplied to a device is known as AC power control. AC power control allows us to efficiently use the available power for various applications. There are two types of AC power control: ON-OFF control or pulse skipping modulation control and phase angle control. In on-off control, the load is connected to the AC supply for short interval of time and the AC supply is switched off for some interval. A fast switching device like a thyristor is used to connect and disconnect the load to the AC power supply. In phase method, the load is connected to the AC supply for a specific period of both the half cycles. Firing angle control based AC power control is designed here which is a type of phase angle control. The circuit regulates the AC power supplied to any load like an electric bulb, motor, amplifier etc.

  269. Reena Maheshwari, B. K. Mehta and Darshana Mehta

    Stevia rebaudiana is a South American plant native to Paraguay that traditionally has-been used to sweeten beverages and make tea. Previous phytochemical studies have revealed this genus to be rich in secondary metabolites including glycoside, flavonoids, lactones and terpenoids. A phytochemical study was conducted on the leaves of S. rebaudiana.Lupeol-3(4’-hydroxy) dodecanoate were isolated and identified. The separations of the chemical constituents (triterpenoids) were carried out using different chromatographic techniques including column chromatography and structures of compounds were confirmed by spectroscopic techniques including nuclear magnetic resonance as well as mass spectrometry. Separation, isolation and characterization of novel secondary metabolites (triterpenoid), which may act as prototype for the preparation of new drugs with low side effects and better efficacy.

  270. Dr. Satish Kumar, Ashutosh Sharma and Loveleen

    Question document is the science that deals with suspicious and questionable documents including forgeries in handwriting, addition, obliterations in currency notes, cheques etc. on encountering such cases suspecting of a certain type of forgery, on examination it was seen that there were alterations in various number series of notes. Thus case study was performed to know how alteration can be detected.

  271. Selin Laleci and Ozge Ozden

    Urban expansion has resulted in global pressurisation on sustainable food production. This has given rise to an increased interest in urban home gardens. In recent years, across developed and developing cities the “Edible Garden” concept has become popular within the home gardens. Urban residents who practise an ecological living concept; using vegetable, fruit and ornamental plants within their home gardens. In Cypriot cultural landscapes the “Kitchen Garden” culture has been passed down through generations. Herbs and small scale fruit and vegetable production have always been part of Cypriot culture. The objective of this study was to document and consign a value to vegetables and edible herbs derived from urban home gardens in the city of Nicosia. We collected information on the homeowner’s lifestyle and interest on ecological living. During the surveys in 2015-2016 the physical setting of 100 urban home gardens was examined, the vegetable and/or edible herb production was determined within the sampled gardens and interviews were performed to collect information about home owner’s ecological lifestyle. During the survey a total of 14 different vegetable and 8 different herb species were recorded. Our results indicate that only 3 % of the garden owners were making their own compost and had an interest an ecological lifestyle. Through this research, the role of home gardens in the lives of urban residents, their effect on cultural and ecological socialization has been determined.

  272. Dr. Josheena Jose

    Job satisfaction is different from motivation and morale. Motivation refers to the willingness to work. Satisfaction on the other hand, implies a positive emotional state. Morale implies a general attitude towards work and working environment. It is a group phenomenon whereas job satisfaction is an individual feeling. The survey was made regarding the job satisfaction among lower level employees in KLF will facilitate and enable the management to know the perception and inner feelings regarding the job they are performing on day to day basis. The term “job satisfaction” reveals and focuses on the likes and dislikes of employees of KLF. This study tries to identify the causes for satisfaction among the employees in KLF.

  273. Hajer Al Hamed

    This essay initiates a conversation between Maalouf's text 'On Identity' and Hanif Kureishi's novel The Black Album. regarding their contrasting views of identity.

  274. Dereje Daksa Kano, Desta Kebede Ayana and Desalegn Beyene Debelo

    The purpose of the study was to assess the practices of instructional supervision in supplementing teaching-learning process in secondary schools of Qersa and Omo Neda woreda of Jimma zone. It particularly treats issues of how instructional supervision is practiced in improving the holistic teaching learning process, how instructional supervisors render professional support to teachers to enhance classroom instruction, and what challenges are there in practicing instructional supervision in think of promoting the provision of quality education. To accomplish this purpose, the study employed a descriptive survey method, which is supplemented by quantitative and qualitative research method to enrich data. The study was carried out in two secondary schools of the two woreda which comprises -58 teachers, 31 internal school supervisors (2 principals 2 vice principals, 12 department heads and 15 senior teachers) and 2 woreda supervisors who included in the study purposively. Questionnaire and interview was the main instrument utilized during data collection. Descriptive statistics like frequency, percentage for part and narration for qualitative were employed to analyze the data. Finally, the results of the study revealed that the practices of instructional supervision in supplementing holistic teaching learning in the woreda were ineffective and suffered with many challenges like lack of adequate knowledge among supervisors, shortage of resources for support, low top management attention and the like. Therefore, it is recommended that the woreda would be able to enhance the supervisory activities in considering its importance in assuring quality education by arranging training, improving resource allocation for supervision work and give due attention for the issue in order to alleviate the problem.

  275. John Karamunya and Dr. Patrick Cheben Simiyu,

    Road Network projects often aimed at socio-economic development in rural areas often results in a number benefits which accrue to all sections of the rural dwellers including less fortunate. Basing on this, the study sought to establish influence of road network projects on socio-economic development of the rural dwellers in Pokot South Sub County. This study was justified on grounds that issues pertaining road network projects in rural areas has not been focused so much in spite of them forming part of the Millennium Development Goals. The study is of benefit to the local people and the government at large as it sheds light on the importance of development of roads and their sustainability as well as socio-economic development. A descriptive survey study design was be adopted to solicit information from the residents of Pokot South Sub County. The Main data collection tool was research questionnaire which will be administered to selected residents in the sub county. The questionnaire will contain both structured and unstructured questions. Simple random sampling technique (with the help of the random table) was applied in picking the residents in each household. The sample size comprised of 315 Pokot South residents. Each of the four Divisions/wards in Pokot South Sub County provided 39 male and 39 female for the survey. Other data gathering methods that was adopted by the study are key informant interviews and informal discussions with residents (who had not be picked for administration of questionnaire) as well as structured observation. The collected data was analyzed using the Statistical Packages for Social Sciences (SPSS) and is presented in tables and charts for ease of understanding. The finding point out that 30% of the respondents held views that there were sufficient road network in the sub-county. Further, 54% of them agreed to have witnessed construction of new roads and/or repairing of existing ones and 54.9% of the respondents alluding that the county government and national government were the main contractors. It was further established that development of road network projects in the Sub-County had opened up most of the areas which were inaccessible have and as a result improving communication and security in the whole in the area. The study makes recommendation that government both county and national should put more effort in opening up the Sub-County by constructing more feeder roads in the area.

  276. Jamaluddin Hos

    The objective of this reserach was to explore the socio-cultural context that underlying the defense of poor fishermen in Tanjung Tiram Village North Moramo District of South Konawe Regency. This research used qualitative approach that showed the poor fishermen were not in a vacuum world, but they were in a social habitat with full of values and norms that made as a reference to do an action. The socio-cultural context includes the economic resources aspect, the cultural aspect, and the structural aspect that gave feature toward thepoor fishermen’s defense. The cconomic resources aspect was about the ownership and control of limited production tools, low education and skills, and also the condition of coastal natural resources around the village that wasdeclining. The cultural aspect was about habitual and lifestyle of fishermen society which highly depend on natural condition, values in going to the sea which put togetherness and harmony of nature rather than the encouragement of success in economic and life orientation of fishermen society who prioritized the safety than looking for benefit. The structural aspect was about an imbalance of economic access which gave rise the feature of vertical relationship between poor and wealthy fishermen, exploitative patron-client relationship, and some inadequate government policies. The socio-cultural context of fishermen with all various aspects gave the feature to the social practices of fishermen who were more reactive as a consequence of helplessness. This condition producedthe structure which more suppressing and debilitating than giving opportunities or empowering fishermen.

  277. Dr. Sumedha Kushwaha, Dr. Shitanshu malhotra, Dr. Khundrakpam Eremba, Dr. Pallavi Singh, Dr. Khundrakpam Nganba and Dr. Shahid M. Shaikh

    Objectives: To understand the trend of sale of Nicotine Replacement Therapy (NRT) at various Paan (betel quid) and Chemist shops across Noida city and devise a model to promote its social marketing. Methods: A pre tested, pre validated questionnaire was administered to 136 Paan and 136 Chemist shopkeepers. Questions like the availability of NRT, most common forms sold (chewing gums, patches, E-cigarettes etc.), most popular brand at both the settings, whether or not patients buy the product with prescriptions and estimated monthly sale were asked. Descriptive statistical tests were employed using SPSS version 20. Result: As a result, it was found that NRT was available at 58.8% Paan shops and 85% Chemist shops. Chewing gums and e-cigarettes were available at 58.8% and 4.2% Paan shops respectively. At Chemist shops, 70.6% chewing gums, 25% patches, 3.7 % E-cigarettes and at 0.7% other products like nicotine drops etc. were sold. At Chemists the most common brands were Nicotex (44%) and Nicorette (47%) but at Paan shops it was Kwiknic (100%). Hardly any consumer bought NRT with prescription. Conclusion: The sale of one particular brand of NRT at Paan shops can be understood as a specific marketing strategy by a particular company which can aid those who want to quit smoking. However, it can also be used to accentuate the level of tobacco addiction by the youth.

  278. Anass Hbali, Amine Kossir, Abdelouahab EL kasimi, Zakaria Bazid, Nabila Ismaili and Noha El Ouafi

    Coronary spasm is one of the mechanisms of myocardial infarction with non fixed organic stenosis of epicardial coronary arteries. Right ventricular ischemia with High-degree AV block and coronary spasm have been reported together rarely in medical literature. This is a case of a 57-year-old man; Admitted to emergency for chest pain, ECG showed third degree atrioventricular block with ST segment elevation in inferior and right derivations, coronary angiography with methergine test revealed an ostial spasm of the right coronary from, rapidly regressive after an intracoronary injection of isosorbide dinitrate.

  279. Keratiloe Gwebu, Malcolm Cort, Nonceba Vellem, Nomathemba Nonkelela, Jafta Ntsaba and Ephraim Gwebu

    Background: Body mass index (BMI) is commonly used in typical rural community health centers where the majority of people live in impoverished rural South Africa. We evaluated the correlation between BMI and Waist circumference (WC) with a view to recommend substituting BMI with WC as measure of insulin resistance in rural communities. Design and Methods: A total of 385 nondiabetic adult subjects attending community health centers in Eastern Province, South Africa, who had not eaten any break fast participated in the study. Anthropometric measures were done under trained supervision. Blood samples were collected for estimation of fasting insulin and fasting blood glucose levels. Two validated surrogate measures of insulin resistance were used: Homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) and Quantitative Insulin sensitivity Check Index (QUICKI. Results: Over 45% of the people surveyed were obese with over 10% being morbidly obese. The aim was to determine whether waist circumference alone can be used as the simplest, cheapest and reliable predictor of insulin resistance and obesity. Waist circumference was found to be significantly correlated with BMI: R = 0.775, P =0.00, for women and R =0.847, P = 0.00 for men and r =0.872, P=0.001 using HOMA-IR and QUICKI (r = 0.866, P =0.01) as the surrogate indices of insulin resistance. Conclusions: Waist circumference is significantly correlated with BMI according to surrogate indices of insulin resistance. It is recommended that waist circumference should replace BMI as indicator of insulin resistance, because measuring waist circumference is very simple and affordable instrument.

  280. Uma maheswari, R. and Leo Alexander

    In this paper, a parametric mixture model of two identical distributions is proposed to analyze heterogeneous survival data. Mixtures of Exponential-Exponential, Weibull-Weibull, Gamma-Gamma, Lognormal-Lognormal and Gompertz-Gompertz distributions were tested for the best fit to the simulated datasets as well as real survival datasets. Various properties of the proposed mixture models were discussed. The Expectation Maximization Algorithm (EM) is implemented to estimate the maximum likelihood estimators of the parameters of mixture models. Simulations were performed by simulating data, each randomly sampled from a population of two component parametric mixture model of identical distributions and the simulations has been repeated 500, 1000, 5000 times with samples of size 100 observations for each mixture model to investigate the consistency and stability of the EM algorithm. The repetitions of the simulation give estimators closer and closer to the postulated models, as the number of repetitions increases with relatively small standard errors. Model performances are compared using goodness of fit tests and Akaike's information criterion(AIC). Results revealed that the proposed model fits the real data better than the pure classical survival models corresponding to each component.

  281. Amruthavalli G. V., Aruna V. and Gayathri Rajagopal

    Specialty cosmetic formulations are meant for certain unique benefits that are linked closely with therapeutic effect and hence such formulations require high level of safety considerations. The cosmetic formulations meant for dry skin in Psoriasis, dry eczema, Atopic dermatitis, Ichthyosis vulgaries type conditions need to be very safe as the skin of these patients is very sensitive. More over the Psoriasis, Atopic dermatitis, eczema are auto immune diseases and the products for these should not have the potential for irritancy. The current study was done on human subjects to check the skin irritancy nature and potential for skin irritancy by skin irritancy test and skin sensitization test. Results are presented in the article.

  282. Dr. Monil Yogesh Neena Gala and Dr. Swanand S Pathak

    Diabetes continues to cause a great economic loss every year. With commercially available synthetic drugs having serious adverse events, traditional source of drugs like plants continue to play a significant role in search for a safer and effective treatment. In this study, the antidiabetic effect of ethanolic extract of leaves and flowers of Hibiscus Rosa Sinensis (HRS) are compared along with a standard drug, metformin. Diabetes was induced using Alloxan in Wistar Albino Male rats and were divided into 4 group respectively. Rats were treated separately with the extracts and standard drug with blood glucose monitoring at regular intervals for 21 days. Ethanolic extract of flowers is more effective then ethanolic extract of leaves with neither of them developing hypoglycemia which was observed with metformin treatment.

  283. Devesh, S., Vidushi, S. and Easow, J. M.

    Introduction: Rubella or German measles is an acute childhood infection, usually mild and of short duration, accompanied by low grade fever, lymphadenopathy and maculopapularrash. Infection during the first trimester of pregnancy leads to still births and spontaneous abortion. Material and method: This is a hospital based study. About 102 pregnant women irrespective of the age, immunization status, previous bad obstetric history and family history of CRS were included. About 2-3 ml of venous blood was collected after informed consent and questionnaires filled by the patient. Test was carried out using ENZYME LINKED IMMUNOSORBENT ASSAY METHOD (ELISA) using commercially available ELISA kit. Results: A total of 102 subjects were included in the study. All the 102 subjects, serum sample were tested for the presence of Rubella specific IgG. 84 (82.3%) subjects were positive IgG i.e. they were immune to rubella infection, 11 (10.7%) subjects were not immune to Rubella infection, 7 (6.8%) tested sample were equivocal. Conclusion: Testing for Rubella antibodies should be advised to the women in the child bearing age group who plan to conceive following marriage. If the results come out to be negative, they should be administered a dose of Rubella vaccine and advised to plan pregnancy after 3 months. Regular antenatal screening for Rubella antibodies should be advised to prevent adverse pregnancy outcomes, by the consulting Obstetrician.

  284. : Mohommad Shahid, Nemit Verma, and Joshi, S. P

    Present study deals with the medicinal plants and their utilization by the villagers of Doon Valley. Attempts were made for collection of medicinal plants in different seasons. 115 herbaceous plant species belonging to 95 genera and 40 families were collected from the Barkot forest in Doon Valley. Villagers were consulted to find the utilization pattern of medicinal plants. Documentation of traditional knowledge from the elder villagers of Doon Valley is of utmost necessity. Conservation protocol needs to be developed for the medicinal plants of Doon Valley as they are under various anthropogenic pressures.

  285. Dr. T. Sakthika

    The toxic effect of NaF (1/10 of LC50 & 1/5 of LC50) was investigated after calculating the LC50 value, on gill tissues of the fish Mystus montanus after 90 days. Possible ameliorative effect by Probiotic bacterium Lactobacillus rhamnosus was investigated after 60 days. Fluoride induced hyperplasia, desquamation of the epithelial cells, complete fusion of secondary gill lamellae and congestion of blood sinuses were the significant histopathological lesions observed in the gill tissues of Mystus montanus. Fish fed with Probiotic bacterium L. rhamnosus ameliorated the lesions of gill tissue. The recovery was more pronounced in the fish group fed diet supplemented with Probiotic bacterium L. rhamnosus. However, slow recovery was observed in depuration group of fish.

  286. Dr. Ramesh Guguloth, Dr. Kashaish Vasam and Dr. Chhaju Ram Yadav

    Infertility is a global proportions affecting on an average 10 -15% of couples worldwide. Low sperm count (Oligozoospermia), low motility (Asthenozoospermia) and morphological deformities (Teratozoospermia) of sperms are the main causative factor of male infertility and it is correlated with Shukragata Vata. There is no satisfactory treatment in modern medicine for these conditions. Ayurveda is the better option for these conditions. In this article we are focusing on the management of the Oligoasthenoteratozoospermia through Ayurveda.

  287. Dr. Anek R. Sankhyan

    Portable prehistoric art is rarely reported in rock art literature of India which focuses on graphic art of the caves or rock-shelters. In the name of portable art only a few engraved objects of chalcedony, bone and ostrich shells belonging to the Mesolithic/ Upper Palaeolithic period are recognised so far. Present paper reports five portable Pleistocene art objects, namely, a stone peacock on basalt, a stone peacock on chert, a bone pendant, a stone embryo-shaped pendant, and a painted cobble chopper. They are significant in understanding palaeoart development and expose the potential of India in origins of the Stone Age art.

  288. Dr. Monil Yogesh Neena Gala and Dr. Swanand S Pathak

    Diabetes continues to cause a great economic loss every year. With commercially available synthetic drugs having serious adverse events, traditional source of drugs like plants continue to play a significant role in search for a safer and effective treatment. In this study, the antidiabetic effect of ethanolic extract of leaves and flowers of Hibiscus Rosa Sinensis (HRS) are compared along with a standard drug, metformin. Diabetes was induced using Alloxan in Wistar Albino Male rats and were divided into 4 group respectively. Rats were treated separately with the extracts and standard drug with blood glucose monitoring at regular intervals for 21 days. Ethanolic extract of flowers is more effective then ethanolic extract of leaves with neither of them developing hypoglycemia which was observed with metformin treatment.

  289. Er. Mohammad Shabaz and Er. Neha Kumari

    In the vast field of computer science, carries lots of work with that having lots of problem with it. one of the traditional problem is string matching that looks very simple but internally major issue in the speedy world. The string matching problem operates usually on the text (0….n-1) and the pattern (0..m-1) with particular matching scenario. The string matching starts from the very left or right of the text and checks for occurrence of pattern. If pattern not found, pattern will move one shift towards the right. In this scenario, it works recursively till reach towards the right or left end of text. For handling problem of string matching there are number of approaches, one of them called Rabin karp but working of rabin karp have the dark-face. In the other word’s indication towards, dealing with integers or alphabets taking more execution time. So in this paper, the designed approach deals with a String which is purely alphabetic and hybrid using Advance-Rabin karp taking less execution time than Rabin-Karp

  290. Prof. Pooja Malhotra, Yash Kapadia, Krishna Saboo and Ankita Sarda

    With increasing information, lot amount of data is stored in relational databases in organized manner. Structured query language (SQL) is primarily used for extracting information from a relational database and allows us to manage and access process on database. But this is insufficient as not all users are accustomed to write SQL queries if the user question is in Natural language (NL). Hence there is a need to develop a system where non-sophisticated users can access data freely without going into technicality by asking question in Natural language. This paper focuses on creating semantic analyzer for automatic Question-answering system for domain specific database. It provides user with the relevant answers to the user questions using Natural Language processing (NLP) and Natural language interface for database (NLIDB). NLIDB are the systems that translate a natural language sentence into a database query. It contains the stepwise description on conversion of question to simple SQL query without using any clauses. It portrays completely automatic, reliable, fast way to query a database. Hence, Natural language processing techniques applied on English text is converted to SQL query using series of steps like lowercase conversion, tokenization, chunking, generation of SQL query and mapping the query to the database.

  291. Mohammad Giyahudeen, R.

    Coir fiber was selected for this study as it is non-toxic, low cost, high lignin content, low density, low cost, high lignin content, low density, low tensile strength, low tensile modulus and high range of elongation compared to other fibers. Composites were prepared using Coir fiber in the rough (raw) stage, after washing with tap water, and also subjected to various other treatments. After which their mechanical composition, Tensile, compressive, Flexural properties were determined and the results are discussed in the laboratory. There was a good improvement in their properties due to Mechanical composition modification and surface modification (fiber / matrix adhesion).

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