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August 2018

  1. Hooja Nupur, Sharma Avantika, Mital Premlata, Bhargava Smriti, Rajani Nawal, Bhomraj Kumavat, Kala Manisha, Kritika Tulani and Surabhi Arora

    Background – Caesarean section is one of the most frequently performed surgery in obstetrics. To make it better from cosmetic point of view, it is important to know if a surgical step has an effect on the wound condition postoperatively. Aim and Objective: The study was undertaken to study the effect of closure versus nonclosure of parietal peritoneum on postoperative wound condition. Material and Method: It was a hospital based interventional study done in a tertiary care hospital over one year. Detailed history, investigations, operative details, Southampton wound grading of postoperative wound was done. Unpaired t test was used for statistical analysis. Result: There was no significant difference in the incidence of wound infection on day 3 postoperatively in the closure and nonclosure groups as assessed by Southampton wound grading. However, on wound assessment at six weeks the scar was better in nonclosure cases. Conclusion: Peritoneal nonclosure can be chosen over closure as the wound condtion is better and leads to less postoperative stay in hospital.

  2. Aashita, Sah, A., Khan, Z. H. And Khokhar, A.

    Realising the impact of medical errors and the importance of patient safety in healthcare delivery has been an astonishing journey with surprising findings at each step. With very few rules and laws for safety of patients, it has been an undermined subject but, at the same time, has been associated with huge amounts of emotions and costs involved. It is said that, risk and safety are flip sides of the therapeutic coin. Patient safety must be an attribute of the healthcare system. An assertive action is needed to safeguard the interests of the patient in their healing process. But the action and progress on patient safety is frustratingly slow and inadequate. Robust plans of action should be created with the help of all levels of staff members and advancing technologies. Patient safety and error management may be inculcated in the undergraduate curriculum of medical students.

  3. Joshua David, S. and Nivetha, V.

    Sixty years ago, most consumers used cash or checks to buy goods and services, with cash predominately used for smaller purchases and checks for more costly transactions. While cash remains the predominate form of payment in some places in the world, it has become a less common method of transaction as the advent of general purpose payment cards has allowed consumers and businesses to buy and sell with greater convenience. Today, consumers can make electronic payments with credit, debit and prepaid cards and more recently, using all kinds of devices, from watches to mobile phones. The impact of card usage on consumption and economic growth varied considerably across the 70 countries. This reflects differing economic growth rates, penetration, and financial systems. Financial systems conducive to the growth in electronic payments include control over inflation and the money supply, a wide network of stable and readily accessible banks, insurance companies and pension funds, the existence of markets such as stock exchanges, and the availability of such financial infrastructure as ATMs. This paper is aimed at evaluating the present status and growth of online payment systems in small scale retailers and also takes a look at its future. In this paper, a comprehensive survey on all the aspects of electronic payment has been conducted after analysis of several research studies on online payment systems we have identified the consumers and business face disincentives in migrating to electronic payments.

  4. Abiskrita Das and Dr. Paromita Mazumdar

    Aim: To determine the surface roughness of three different direct composite resin after polishing. Materials and Method: All 30 specimen were divided into three groups. Group I: Microhybrid composite resin, Group II: Nanofilled composite resin, Group III: Bulkfilled composite resin. All the specimen were light cured and subjected to polishing protocol with sof-lex polishing kit. Specimen were then subjected to profilometric analysis to determine surfaces roughness measurement. Result: Group II showed minimum surface roughness followed by group III and group I. Conclusion: The surface roughness of a nanofilled composite resin after polishing with a multi-step technique is better than that of a bulkfilled and microhybrid composite resin.

  5. Moussaoui, H., EL Mesbahi, N. and Andoh, A.

    Zirconia ceramic is used as a metal substitute and is behind development of digital dentistry, which is based on computer-aided design and computer-aided manufacturing and helps decreasing laboratory work, reducing time and chance of error but it is a sensitive technique which also needs expensive unit. On the other hand, copy milling technique is based on a manually designed copings or frameworks with wax or composite that will be duplicate based on pantographic principle. It is an easy and economical method to produce zirconia frameworks for dental restorations. The purpose of this article is to present the principle, the advantages and the implementation of this technique, through a clinical case.

  6. Dr. Muthuchitra, Dr. Chozhan and Dr. Janani,P.

    Rhinosporidiosis and its causative pathogen Rhinosporidium seeberi have been known for over a hundred years. Yet unresolved enigmas in rhinosporidiosis include the mode of infection, mechanisms of spread, mechanisms of immunity, and some aspects of histopathology. This article discuss about the usual presentation of rhinosporidiosis and how effectively it was managed in endemic district.

  7. Dr. Nithin Joseph Jude, B., Salma Arif and Dr. Raghu, K.

    Double lip is an uncommon facial anomaly which maybe either congenital or acquired. Most often it is non syndromic, however it is also known to be associated with syndromes involving systemic disorders. Following is a report on an acquired case of double lip which was not found to be associated with any syndrome.

  8. Kunika K Jaiswal, Viddhi Patel and Komal Nagekar

    Background: The arches of foot provide functions of force absorption, base of support and acts as a rigid lever during gait propulsion. The assessment of plantar arch development, by the relationship between arch region width and heel region width obtained on a footprint, is proposed by Engel and Staheli‟s. Objectives: The purpose of study the correlation between Planter Arch Index and BMI in young adults. Methods: All 30 participants were given informed consent and were assessed according to age group i.e, 20-25 years. The BMI was calculated and planter arch index was taken with the help of Staheli’s PLANTER ARCH INDEX. The footprint was taken and A value (Width of central region of footprint) and B value (Width of heel region of footprint) were calculated and both value were correlated and result was found. The study design was Correlation. The statistical analysis was Pearson’s Corelation. Results: All subject were assess with the steheli’s planter arch index and their BMI was calculated. According to Pearsons’s Correlation, the r value of right side (0.36) and r value of left side (0.43) suggest that there is a positive correlation. Conclusion: The plantar arch index is easy to obtain from footprints and that there are no differences in Right and Left Side. There is a significant correlation between plantar arch index and BMI. This may lead to long term flat feet due to changes in arches especially medial longitudinal arch. There is no difference in right side and left side to BMI. Both are correlating with BMI.

  9. Dr. Aji Markose

    The unaffected, exposed vital pulp possesses an inherent capacity for healing through cell reorganization and bridge formation when a proper biological seal is provided and maintained against microbial leakage. Throughout the life of a tooth, vital pulp tissue contributes to the production of secondary dentin, peritubular dentin and reparative dentin in response to biological and pathological stimuli.

  10. Muhammad Atif Sheikh, Madiha Khalid, Sidra Munir, Iram Rahmat, Mahum Malik and Aqsa Ijaz

    This study is aimed at finding the effects of psychological contract breach on compassion Fatigue with mediating role of burnout among nurses specifically in Sialkot region. It is exploratory and descriptive in nature, an attempt to figure out the possible outcomes of Psychological contract breach and burnout on compassion fatigue. Data for this study is gathered via opinions of306 participants from Public and private sector using convenient sampling technique. Data is analyzed and interpreted via employing statistical tools of SPSS using reliability analysis, descriptive statistics, correlation analysis and regression analysis. 7 Hypotheses were postulated for this study where first six are tested via linear regression while the seventh is tested using Barron and Kenny mediation analysis model 1986. Results of this study showed a significant partial mediation of burnout on Psychological contract breach and compassion fatigue.

  11. Kimiko Konishi, Masayuki Tani, Norihisa Akashi, Michiho Sodenaga, Mitsugu Hachisu and Koji Hori

    In this article, we revise our previous hypothesis of the endogenous appearance of anticholinergic activity (AA) in schizophrenia and expand our commentary on the relationship between AA and schizophrenia. We speculate that the inflammatory system is upregulated in Alzheimer’s disease (AD) when the acetylcholine (ACh) downregulation reaches a critical level and then hyperactive inflammation generates cytokines with AA. We also speculated that the same mechanism might be active in schizophrenia; that is, downregulation of ACh or overloading of this system might already exist at even the preclinical stage (in those with a high-risk mental state) and when mental stress is added, the compensatory mechanism might fail, so AA might appear and psychotic symptoms develop. Recently, we reported the significant negative relationship between serum anticholinergic activity (SAA) and extrapyramidal symptom severity in patients with schizophrenia. These results support the theory of hyperactive ACh in schizophrenia. Accordingly, we re-hypothesize that there is a compensatory increase in the activity of the cholinergic system even in the prepsychotic phase. We also re-speculate that there might be an imbalance in not only the dopaminergic system, but also the cholinergic system in schizophrenia. Therefore, substantial levels of AA or antipsychotics with considerable AA might be needed in schizophrenia. Prescription of antipsychotics with AA might correct the imbalance in both dopamine and ACh and possibly achieve remission in patients with schizophrenia. Based on these speculations, we propose the use of SAA as a biological marker for evaluating the optimal dose of antipsychotics for patients with schizophrenia and suggest that, when the quantities of prescribed antipsychotics can be adjusted to achieve an SAA of slightly over 10 nM, the clinical symptoms (extrapyramidal motor symptoms and cognitive dysfunctions) might be minimized.

  12. Christy B. Alfeche and Erwin F. Corales

    Equipping individuals with sex-related information, motivation and behavioral skills is the main objective of sexuality education. It will enable the people especially the youth to avoid problems related to sexuality and to achieve sexual well-being aspects. This study evaluated the effectiveness of sexuality education integration among 100 students of Grade 10 Biology instruction in relation to student’s performance at Pinamungajan National High School. Quantitative and qualitative designs were used to determine the entry and exit knowledge of the students on sexuality education, looked into the pre and post-test performance of the students, the pre-post mean gain in integrating sexuality education, the module that was developed used for effective integration and the challenges met by the teacher in integrating sexuality education. The study was limited only to the Grade 10 students because reproductive system is being taught in Biology 10 instruction and it’s a good avenue for sexuality education integration. With the use of a researcher-made module in integrating sexuality education in reproductive system, the level of student’s awareness towards the cause and effects of early sexual activity and HIV spread increases for there was a significant difference between the pre-test and post-test mean gain of the students.The result of the evaluation of the integration indicates that sexuality education is a way forward towards enhanced Biology Curriculum Delivery. Since teenage pregnancy and HIV spread is rapidly increasing, there is a need now that teachers should start integrating sexuality education emphasizing teenage pregnancy and HIV spread to the students. This is one good intervention in delaying sexual activity, preventing them from the effects or risks caused by early sexual activity, help restore their values thus increase their self-efficacy towards decision making.

  13. Dr. Vasanthakumari, A., Dr. Vivek, K., Dr. Vivek Reddy, Dr. Jai Ganesh, I., Dr. Lokesh, S.

    Background: Oral disease prevention, health promotion and access to care are important aspects of oral health in a global setting. The following study was taken up with the aim to evaluate the oral health in the rural school children of Melmaruvathur, Tamilnadu. Methods: A total number of 300 children between the age group of 6-11 years were clinically examined for oral hygiene status based on WHO criteria. Results – Average for good oral hygiene status is 33.5% and fair oral hygiene status is 64.9% and poor oral hygiene status is 1.3%. Data shows boys were better compared to girls. Conclusion: This study substantiated the need to develop preventive school health programs along with the improvement of dental health services for school children.

  14. Sorojini Devi, H., Shyamchand Meitei, M., Monoranjan Singh, M. and Dinachandra Singh, K.

    Somatotype is a numerical shorthand method of studying the present morphological constitution of an individual or population. Somatotypes are determined by age, genetic, dietary condition and physical exercise. The present paper aims at studying the somatotype characteristics of two different communities of Manipur. Ten anthropometric measurements were measured from amongst 339 individuals aged 18-75 years of which 174 constitute males and 165 constitute females. BMI (Body Mass Index) was computed from height and weight of each subject. Somatotype rating of each individual was assessed using standard method. One way analysis of variance indicated significance differences in all parameters among the four groups of men and women (all P< 0.05) level. Regarding somatotype patterns, mesomorphic-endomorph was the most common type in all four comparing groups. Comparatively, Kom and Chothe women were higher in endomorphy with 9.22 and 8.54 ratings than male counterparts; on the contrary, high mesomorphy ratings were observed in both Chothe and Kom males with 6.65 and 5.05 respectively. The highest ectomorphy rating was indicated by the Kom males (2.11) whereas the lowest was indicated by the Chothe women (0.95). Significant variations have been shown in all somatotype components of endomorphy, mesomorphy and ectomorphy among the four groups (all P<0.05). Further, it was found that higher the mean BMI values, the larger were the endomorphy components and it was followed by mesomorphy, but the ectomorphy rating declined among the overweight and obese individuals.

  15. Dr. Ruchita Bali, Dr. Akhilesh Chandra, Dr. Rahul Agarwal, Dr. Kanupriya Gupta, Dr. Archana Agnihotri and Dr. Seema Gupta

    Objectives: Oral health is a very important component of general health. It is clear that proper functioning of dental chair is mandatory to deliver oral health care in dental office. Most dentists experienced problems with dental chair with varying frequency and they may not always have spare dental chair in their clinics. This definitely hampers the oral health care delivery. Most of the time, the dental chairs have minor problems that can be easily corrected by anyone with some technical understanding. Methods: A study was conducted to know the extent of such problems in dental offices of Varanasi (India) and to suggest any possible solution. The response of 300 dentists of Varanasi was collected in form of a questionnaire, amongst which 270 were included in the study. The data collected were statistically analyzed. Results: It was found that most dentists face technical problems with their dental chairs (p=0.014) and are not satisfied with dental chair technician services and felt that they were overcharged (p=0.000). Conclusion: It is suggested that dental chair technical training should be included in dental graduate’s curriculum which will help the new generation dentist to serve the community better.

  16. Amogh Tanwar, Dr. Ruchi Arora, Dr. Dinesh Rao, B. and Dr. Bharti Tanwar

    Introduction: Oral health is a crucial component of general health, with dental caries affecting a person's ability to eat, speak or socialize. There is a high prevalence of dental caries worldwide involving the people of all region and society. Schools provide a platform for the promotion of health and oral health not only for the students, but also for the staff, families, and members of the community as a whole. Aim: To determine the prevalence of dental caries in the primary and permanent teeth, and evaluate the brushing habits of school children. Material and Methods: This is cross-sectional short study was carried out in Nangal Raya Village , New Delhi district to assess the prevalence of dental caries among Government and public school children in the age group of 6–12 years. We covered 11, Government and public schools and examined and selected 2350 children with random sampling. The examination of dental caries was assessed using DMFT index (Klein, Palmer, Knutson 1938). Results: The caries prevalence and mean dmf scores in children who brush once daily 66.2% (Mean dmf 2.5) was higher than in those children who brush twice a day 50.6% (Mean dmf 2.1). These results were very highly significant The caries prevalence and mean DMF scores in children who brush once, twice and after every meal were 15.3% (Mean DMF 0.20), 23.8% (Mean DMF 0.31) and 14.7% (Mean DMF 0) respectively. This showed that caries prevalence was maximum in the children who brush once daily compared to other frequencies of brushing. These results were highly significant.

  17. Dr. Meetkumar S. Dedania, Dr. Nimisha C. Shah, Dr. Dhaval Bhadra, Dr. Namrata Bajpai and Dr. Kasak Sapariya

    Aim: To compare and evaluate the clinical performance of Silver Amalgam and Cention-N in simple class I carious lesions in permanent molars. Methodology: After ethical approval, Patients were selected as per inclusion and exclusion criteria and Class I cavity preparation was done under rubber dam isolation and randomly divided into two groups. In Amalgam group, deep lesions were managed by application of Dycal and zinc phosphate base and restored with silver amalgam. In Cention-N group, deep lesions were treated by application of Dycal followed by Cention-N restoration. Carving was done followed by finishing and polishing. Evaluation was done at 1 week, 6 months and 1 year time interval by examiner other than operator according to modified USPHS criteria. The results of the study were tabulated and statistical analysis was done. Results: There was no statistically significant difference in the clinical performance of Silver Amalgam and Cention-N in Class I carious lesions at the end of 1 week, 6 months and 1 year. Conclusion: Both materials showed equal and acceptable clinical performance at the end of one year. Cention-N should be preferred as an alternative to amalgam in simple class I lesions.

  18. Dr. Geetika Simhadri, Dr. Kala Vani S.V., Dr. Aparna K., Dr. Surya Mithra G.V.N., Dr. K. Prasanna Kumar and Dr. Fayaz Basha SK

    Introduction: The shift from hard tissue paradigm to soft tissue paradigm results in the establishment of numerous soft tissue cephalometric parameters to evaluate the facial esthetics in diagnosis and treatment planning. Objective: To evaluate the reliability and diagnostic acceptance of photograph based soft tissue cephalometrics. Materials & method: Thirty right profile photographs and lateral cephalograms were taken in natural head position (NHP) in patients around 14-30 years of age and assessed using Dolphin imaging software to evaluate the sagittal maxillary projection, mandibular projection and growth pattern in skeletal cephalometric analysis (SCA), radiographic based soft tissue cephalometrics (rSTCA), photograph based soft tissue cephalometrics (pSTCA). Kruskas-wallis and post hoc pairwise comparison tests were used to analyze the results. Result: Statistically significant concordance was observed with parameters N per pt A vs TVL to pt A’, N per Pog vs TVL to Pog’, hard tissue facial angle vs soft tissue facial angle between the skeletal cephalometric analysis (SCA), radiographic based soft tissue cephalometric analysis (rSTCA) & photograph based soft tissue cephalometric analysis (pSTCA). Conclusion: The study results suggested that the parameters taken in this study showed a positive correlation which supported the null hypothesis and reliability of photograph based soft tissue cephalometric analysis.

  19. Amina M Bano

    The purpose of this study is to determine parental awareness of their children's oral health maintenance and their attitude toward dental treatment. The objective of this study attempts to evaluate and compare oral health awareness amongst parents from different socioeconomic groups and their attitude toward dental treatment. Health is a universal human need for all cultural groups. General health cannot be attained or maintained without oral health. The mouth is regarded as the mirror of the body and the gateway to good health. Oral health education begins from footsteps of awareness. Today, various dental health education programs have been conducted in schools and other settings; however, these efforts will not succeed until people are not aware of the importance of oral health and positive attitude toward treatment modalities. As the oral health of children depends on awareness of their parents, evaluation of need for implementation of oral health awareness programs is important.

  20. Jouhadi, E.M., Mahdoud, F.Z., Zeroual, R., AL Jalil, Z. and Andoh, A.

    Purpose: To identify the most frequent natural tooth color using the Easy shade Micro spectrophotometer on a sample of the Moroccan population according to the 3D Master System. Materials and Methods: The middle third of the facial surface of natural maxillary central incisors was measured with an Easy shade Micro spectrophotometer in 1100 Moroccan participants aged between 16 and 89 years. Natural tooth color was recorded using the 3D Master System nomenclature. The program used for the results descriptive statistical analysis was SPSS. Results: The results show that the most frequent dental color in the total sample studied is 2R2.5 (25.7%), followed by the shade 1M2 (23.2%) and 2M2 (14.1%). Conclusion: According to the research methodology used, and taking into account the limitations of this study, it can be proposed that the most frequent color among the Moroccan population is 2R2.5; the most common value group is 2; the most frequent hue group according to the 3D Master System is M and the most frequent chroma group is 2.

  21. Dr. Archana Mhatre and Dr. Sameer Chitnis

    Introduction: Laryngoscopy and endotracheal intubation are associated with reflex sympathetic stimulation known as pressor response. Transient haemodynamic instability, an inevitable outcome of laryngoscopy can have serious effects especially in patients with heart disease, hypertension which can cause major complications. We compared the attenuating effect of time – tested lignocaine versus metoprolol on the haemodynamic response to laryngoscopy and intubation in normotensive patients undergoing general anaesthesia for spine surgeries. Method: After the approval of the institutional ethical committee, written informed consent was obtained from each patient. 60 patients who satisfied the inclusion criteria were divided into two groups Group L (n= 30) received Inj. Lignocaine 1.5 mg/ kg IV before induction and Group M (n= 30) received Inj. Metoprolol 0.1 mg/ kg intravenous before induction HR, SBP, DBP, MAP were recorded at baseline sedation, post induction, at laryngoscopy and post intubation and 0.5, 1, 2, 5 and 10 minutes post intubation. Statistical Analysis: Data was analysed using Paired Students ‘t’ test for intra group (within the group) variation, Unpaired student’s ‘t’ test for inter group (between the 2 groups) variation. Analysis of variance (ANOVA) for comparison between different baseline variables (age, weight, HR, SBP, DBP, MAP and RPP). Value of P < 0.05 was considered significant. Results: In lignocaine group, there was a significant increase in heart rate, systolic blood pressure, diastolic blood pressure, mean arterial pressure and rate pressure product in response to laryngoscopy and intubation. Values continued to remain high even after 5 minutes of post intubation as compared to metoprolol group. Conclusion: Intravenous metoprolol 0.1 mg/ kg given 5 minutes prior to laryngoscopy and intubation successfully attenuated the pressor response to laryngoscopy and intubation. In addition, it was found to be safer and more effective than intravenous lignocaine 2%.

  22. Dr. Saad Shyaa Jasim, Dr. Salah Mahdi Rashid and Dr. Omar Shaban Rajab

    Otitis externa and otomycosis are the common presenting complications of ear syringing encountered by otolaryngologists .So a prospective study carried out in three private ENT clinics in Baghdad from (January 2016 to february 2017) to evaluate effectiveness of povidone iodine 10% paint after ear syringing in reducing these complications . In this study , 300 ears syringing were performed .Our patients were divided in to groups , group A , constitutes 150 patients ,after preparation of them , ear syringing , moping, povidone iodine 10% paint on external ear canal was done for them. While group B, 150 patients, ear syringing , moping (without povidone iodine 10% paint) .Results : 10 patients (6.67%) from group B develop otitis externa within three days of syringing while no one from group A. Also 4 patients (2.67%) from group B develop otomycosis within 7 days after ear syringing while no one from group A develop otomycosis .So we find that povidone iodine 10% is very effective in reducing the risk of fungal and bacterial infection after ear syringing .

  23. Mohd Hasni Ja’afar and Sharul Rizan Ilias

    Cadmium is among heavy metals that known to disrupt the human endocrine system. Its tendency to accumulate in certain organs like the liver, kidney, adrenal gland, thyroid and pancreas is believed leads to its health impacts. Many countries have implemented control on the expose of this heavy metal, either from the environment or anthropogenic sources. In Malaysia, the people are exposed through several pathways especially through food about 53.0%. Some areas have shown to have high levels of cadmium. And about 17.5% of Malaysian had diabetes mellitus that contribute to high morbidity and mortality in the country. Studies about the relationship between cadmium and non-communicable disease, particularly diabetes mellitus are very scanty. This review focuses on effect of cadmium towards diabetes mellitus to increase awareness of the public as well as clinicians. Contribution and active programme from all stakeholders are necessary for the prevention and control of cadmium endocrine toxicity.

  24. Tarek Elserry and Hesham Radwan

    Background: Decompression through different fenestration techniques may effectively reduce unnecessary tissue damage, and therefore, decrease the incidence of the complications. The use of the surgical microscope or magnification loupe helped a lot to improve outcomes with such techniques. Methods: This study included 40 Adult patients with ligamentous lumbar canal stenosis in the period from July 2015 to August 2016. Patients had either laminectomy or bilateral fenestration. The main outcome measure was pain intensity (Back pain and Leg pain) over a twelve-month period. Other outcome measures included: Duration of operation and length of hospital stay. Results: There was statistically significant difference in the postoperative intensity of leg pain and low back pain between both groups after 12 months, with lower pain intensity in the bilateral fenestration group. Also, there was a statistically significant improvement in leg pain and low back pain in favors of the bilateral fenestration group Conclusion: Bilateral fenestration would provide relief of symptoms in cases of ligamentous lumbar canal stenosis, with less tissue damage and functional preservation of the spine in comparison to lumbar laminectomy.

  25. Dr. Raichel M. Geevarghese, Dr. Anuradha Pathak and Dr. Haridarshan Singh Sidhu

    Objective: This study aimed to evaluate the knowledge attitude and awareness of oral health practices of pregnant women of Patiala. Materials and methods: The study population comprised of 100 pregnant women and 100 same aged non pregnant women. Data related to knowledge, attitude and awareness of oral health practice assessed through self-structured questionnaire administered among 100 pregnant women. Clinical examination was conducted among both pregnant and non-pregnant women. Results: 69 % of pregnant women faced dental problem during their pregnancy. Bleeding from gum was the most prevalent problem faced by pregnant women (51%). 54% pregnant women complained that their dental problem caused interference with regular eating habit. Statistical Analysis was conducted using IBM SPSS STATISTICS (version 22.0). Mean OHIS score of pregnant women was 3.12 ±.55, while non-pregnant women was 1.9±.49. The difference was statistically highly significant (p value <.05). OHIS score was increased from 1st trimester to 3rd trimester. (Mean OHIS score of pregnant women of 1st, 2nd, 3rd was 2.8±.47, 3.11±.41, 3.3±.59). The difference was also statistically significant (p value ˂.05) Conclusion: This study concluded the knowledge among pregnant women about the importance of practicing the oral hygiene practice in pregnancy is less. Hence routine dental checkup should be included in the antenatal care for pregnant women.

  26. Mohammad-Noor Said Deeb Okour

    Recently, patient-centered care has evolved as one of the main health care practices that are associated with quality of the healthcare services. This study aims at evaluating the status of patient-centered care in Jordan where the primary data was collected using a questionnaire consists of the eight principles of patient-centered care distributed on medical specialists in the public hospitals in Jordan. the results have shown that patient-centered care is still in its initial stages in Jordan where more training and planning should be dedicated to enhance it.

  27. Sana Al-Ahmari, Asseil Bossei, Areej Badawood, Mohammed Shata, Hanan Al-Ghamdi and Azza Khafaji

    A 27 year old primigravida underwent caesarean section because of fetal distress following induction of labour. Intra-operative patient become dyspneic , lost conscious and unrecordable blood pressure. Subsequently, she developed respiratory failure requiring mechanical ventilation and dilated left ventricle . cardiac arrest followed after these events. The likely diagnosis was amniotic fluid embolism (AFE), a rare complication of pregnancy with a variable presentation, ranging from cardiac arrest and death through to mild degrees of organ system dysfunction with or without coagulopathy. The differential diagnosis includes pre-eclamptic toxaemia/pregnancy-induced hypertension, anaphylaxis and pulmonary embolism. The course of these events was so rapid and catastrophic, which was consistent with AFE. Thus, we report this case precisely and review pathophysiology, diagnosis, treatment of AFE by referring to up-to-date literatures. There is no diagnostic test for AFE; the finding of fetal elements in the maternal circulation is non-specific. Historically, AFE was thought to induce cardiovascular collapse by mechanical obstruction of the pulmonary circulation. It is now thought that a combination of left ventricular dysfunction and acute lung injury occur, with activation of several of the clotting factors. An immunological basis for these effects is postulated. There is no specific therapy and treatment is supportive. The mortality of the condition remains high.

  28. Abdullah Agilley, Lamya Akbar, Fadwa Ibnidris and Suzan Bakur Natto

    Background: Chronic periodontitis is inflammation of the tissues surrounding tooth structure. Several cytokines are involved in pathogenesis of periodontitis. For example, IL-20 promotes inflammation, angiogenesis, chemotaxis and regulates osteoclast differentiation. Objectives: the purpose is to evaluate the IL-20 levels found in salivary and gingival cervicular fluid (GCF) in healthy and chronic periodontitis patients. Methods: GCF and Saliva samples obtained from systematically free adult individuals. They were divided into ten patients with moderate and severe chronic periodontitis and ten periodontally healthy subjects. The GCF and saliva samples from chronic periodontitis patients were collected before and after nonsurgical periodontal therapy. All GCF and saliva samples were stored at -80°C till laboratory analysis. IL-20 levels were measured by ELISA according to manufacturer instructions. Results: IL-20 levels were significantly higher in patients with chronic Periodontitis compared with healthy periodontal patients (T=2.712, P≤0.010). However, the levels of IL-20 reduced after non surgical Periodontal treatment, but this difference was statistically insignificant (T=1.859, P≤0.079). Conclusions: We have shown that IL -20 may play a role in Chronic Periodontitis patients.

  29. Rysbayeva, G., Issayeva, Zh., Tungushbayeva, G., Suambekova, G., Zhakupova, A. and Baktiyarova, Sh.

    This article deals with phrase logical units connected with nature from the point of view of "Linguistic map of the world" theory. Bases of "the cult concept" in Turkic languages, including Kazakh, Kyrgyz, Uzbek are described and their ethno-linguistic and ethno-cultural features of use in languages have been under analysis. In any people, the "cult" concept takes the place in system of the spiritual and cultural concept. The spiritual culture is a view of people of world around, religious knowledge, character, beliefs and the ability to learn through other concepts. By itself, a word cult description is very complicated according to the abstract. The lexeme of the word "cult" is grouped in wide group of such concepts as, "to trust", "to pray", "to admire", "to respect". The cult is a part of traditional religion, religious trust, customs and traditions. The meaning of the lexeme the cult is abstract, not material, respect for any subject, worship of holy things, worship of saints, prayer, relationships, and the ability to offer information parts.

  30. Mamat, Rahayu Pertiwi

    Introduction: Preeclampsia incidence ranges from 1: 1000 to 1: 1700, and 50,000 mothers died of preeclampsia and eclampsia (MOH 2005). Increasing excessive weight gain during pregnancy is one of the factors thought to increase the incidence of preeclampsia. Objective: The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of Excess weight gain during pregnancy on the incidence of preeclampsia. Methods: This is a cohort study design, with the entire population of the sample of pregnant women and pregnant mothers are elected by their inclusion criteria. The type of data this research is primary data taken accidental a research or a visit to the respondents if the data is needed. Results: Univariate analysis of the results obtained by the average weight gain during the study (10 weeks), the lowest and the highest 2.3 12:50 with an average of 6.17 and the Standard Deviation 2:50. As many as 12 respondents (16.7%) had preeclampsia while adding weight during late pregnancy indicates the amount of weight gain over as many as 26 respondents (36.1%). Bivariate analysis results obtained from respondents who experienced more weight gain (> 7 kg) amounted to 34.6% the proportion is greater than those who have normal weight gain is 6.5%. With the value of RR (relative risk) of 5:30. Hypothesis test results demonstrate the hypothesis is rejected with value of 0.021. Multivariate analysis showed the effect of weight gain is more at risk of 16.76 times (OR / RR indirect = 16.76) on the incidence of preeclampsia with a p-value 0.004, after being controlled by the variable age with OR of 8.92, parity primi with OR for 9:57, multi parity with OR at 2:47, and the Pre-Eclampsia family history with OR at 7:17. The confounding variables that have significant (p <0.05), is a risky age group with a p-value 0.045 and parity primi with p value 0.042.

  31. Pervin Karlı and Beril Gürlek

    Introduction: Rectocele can be defined as the herniation of the front wall of rectum into the posterior of vaginal wall. It has been reported to occur quite often in female patients. Rectocele definition remains inadequate and the success of its treatment is still not satisfactory. Materials and Methods: Patients aged 45-75 years who had a rectocele operation between 2010 and 2017 were included in the study. Patients those who had surgery at least one year ago were included in the study. These patients were invited to outpatient clinics to have their vaginal examinations performed and all symptoms of the patients were recorded. Results: Presence of constipation were found 25.3% of the patients with rectocele. This rate went down to 8.5% after their rectocele repairs and further to 6.5% in those whose repairs involved meshes. Conclusion: In this study it was observed that rectocele repairs resulted in marked improvements in constipation symptoms whether they involved meshes or not. Although constipation is multifactorial and constipation diagnosis involves a combination of various criterias, the main theme of this study was that this symptom was one of the top complaints when presenting to clinics and the symptoms significantly decreased during the treatment process.

  32. Aremu Shuaib Kayode, Fawole Olumakinde Banjo and Adewoye Kayode Rasaq

    Objective: This review was designed to scrutinize the recent changes in the pattern of drug prescription in Ear, Nose and Throat, so that appropriate adjustment can be made for the benefit of patients. Data sources: A systematic electronic literature search of Medline/PubMed, CINHAL, Cochrane reviews and Web of Science was conducted for articles describing Pattern of Drug Prescription in ear, nose, and throat (ENT) Medical Practice. English-language articles and articles with an English abstract that focused on Pattern of Drug Prescription were considered for review. Review Methods: Each included article was reviewed by the author for study design, intervention, and outcome. Results: A total of 7 articles were identified for this literature review, and other 20 articles were taken into consideration for the review. Most of the studies revealed prescribing more than one medication. Most commonly used antibiotic in most of the studies was Amoxicillin – Clavulanate followed by Fluoroquinolones. Also along with the Antibiotics, one gastro protective, analgesic and anti-histaminic were commonly prescribed. Most of the times, Antibiotics were prescribed without culture and sensitivity reports. Conclusion: Review of all the studies showed that more than one drug was prescribed, most of which were FDCs or by Brand name. Also, most of the times Antibiotics were prescribed before Culture and Sensitivity tests, which may be the core factor of growing antibiotic resistance. Creating awareness amongst physicians via Continuous Medical Educations (CME) may overcome this issue.

  33. Hind A. A. Al-Zahrani

    Tabebuiaavellanedae “tabebuiaavellanedae” containing two antimicrobial active elements. This study aimed to cover one of the antimicrobial effect of Tabebuiaavellanedae against one of food pathogenic microorganism Staphylococcus aureus. About 50 gm dried Tabebuiaavellanedae coarse powder extracts were collected and stock solution of concentration of 10 mg/ml in (acetone and methanol). It was tested against one gram positive bacteria (Staphylococcusaureus) (ATCC 25923) then measuring the zone of inhibition. S. aureus enterotoxins genes multiplex PCR detected also. Results viewed the different inhibition zones on sensitivity test against Staphylococcus aureus using different concentrations of Tabebuiaavellanedae EO as following: the complete absence of inhibition effect in control samples while the inhibition effect were gradual grow up with higher Tabebuiaavellanedae concentrations as following; 1cm, 2cm, 6cm diameter around the disc immersed by 2.5%, 5% &10% concentrations respectively. Tabebuiaavellanedae had inhibition effect against; Sea, Sec, Sed, See virulence genes while not effect on Seb virulence genes.Further studies are recommend to increase researches study the genetic effect of TabebuiaavellanedaeStaphylococcus aureus and other bacterial virulence’s genes.

  34. Dr. Joyal Patel

    Stricture urethra, though a rare condition, still is a rational and troublesome problem in the international society. Major complications caused by this disease are obstructed urine flow, urine stasis leading to urinary tract infection, calculi formation, etc. This condition can be correlated with Mutramarga Sankocha in Ayurveda. Modern medical science suggests urethral dilatation, which may cause bleeding, false passage and fistula formation in few cases. Surgical procedures have their own complications and limitations. Uttarabasti, a para‑surgical procedure is the most effective available treatment in Ayurveda for the diseases of Mutravaha Strotas. A male patient of 55 years old consulted to OPD, Shree Gulabkunverba Ayurveda Hospital, Jamnagar, with complaints like hesitancy, intermittency, straining, dribbling, incomplete voiding, and burning micturition was assessed before and after treatment. Retrograde urethrography was done before and after treatment. This case study was treated with Bala Taila Uttarbasti. The result of the study was significant on all the parameters.

  35. Mandeep Sharma, Rohit Singh Subedar and Niharika Singh

    Background and Objectives: Surgical trauma to the tissues in the oral cavity can cause complications like pain, swelling, impaired function cause transient morbidity for the patients. To reduce these complications many drugs have been used may be pre-operatively as preemptive analgesia or post-operatively also. In this study we have determined the effects of pre-operative and post-operative use of dexamethasone in minor oral surgeries. Methodology: A study was carried on 40 patients of age group 20-45 years requiringminor oral surgery procedures were included in the study in a randomized controlled manner, visiting the Department of Oral and Maxillofacial surgery. 2 ml of 4 mg/ ml dexamethasone (total 8 mg) was injected into the sub mucosal area near the operative site. Pain, swelling and trismus were noted on 2nd, 5th and 7th day following surgery. Statistical analysis was done using Mann–Whitney U test, Wilcoxonsigned-rank test and chi square test. Results: Pre-operative dexamethasone was given in 20 patients in group A whereas post-operative dexamethasone was given in 20 patients in group B. Results showed that the post-operative swelling was significantly less in group A than in group B (p < 0.05). Interpretation and Conclusion: Pre-operative dexamethasone was better in reducing the post-operative complications than the post-operative administration of dexamethasone.

  36. Dr. Prasanna, S., Dr. Dinesh, S., Dr. Vidyashree Nandini, V., Dr. Senthilmurugan, T.K., Dr. Makesh Raj, L.S.

    Oral hygiene plays an important role in the quality and duration of the treatment which is controlled by the patients undergoing orthodontic treatment. A good oral hygiene needs a clear cut and proper professional instructions, necessary armamentarium and motivation of the patient in maintaining proper oral hygiene. A regular periodic check-up in evaluating the oral status and constant encouragement, reassurance to the patient regarding the oral hygiene will also significantly contribute to the better participation of patient in maintaining a good oral status. The study aimed at evaluating the oral hygiene awareness in orthodontic patients and also about the various oral hygiene aids used by them.

  37. Gulalai Rehman, Allauddin, Muhammad Samsoor Zarak and Hajra Ahmad

    Objectives: To determine the effect of junk food on the nutritional status of 12 years old girls. Background: Junk food has become a prominent feature of the diet of children worldwide. The ready availability, taste, low cost, media, and peer pressure make them popular among children. Junk food is widely available everywhere making it first choice for not only children but also adults. The fats, sugar, and salt in junk food draw kids like a magnet. Obesity in children has increased threefold or more during the last three decade raising serious public health concerns. Junk food consumption may be one of the contributing factors to this problem. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted in a government school in Quetta. Total fifty girls of the same age (12 years) were selected for the study. Their age was taken from the school record. Standardized Questionnaire was used which included 10 questions and 24-hour dietary recall form was filled. Height and weight of students were recorded according to standard methods. BMI was recorded using standard height and weight formula. Results: The results of weight according to age in percentile was as 28% (14) girls were at the 5th percentile. 34% (17) were below the 5th percentile for age. 28% were between 5th and 50th percentile for age, 10% (5) were between 60 and 70th percentile. The results of height in percentile was like 40% (20) girls were at the 5th percentile of height for age,20%(10) were between 5th and 50th percentile,10%(5) were between 60th and 75th percentile. 10%(5) were at 75th percentile. Conclusion: From this study, it is evident that problems in this area are somewhat different. Although snacking with junk food, use of unhygienic food, intake of empty calories are the same issues but obesity is not our problem rather our kids are underweight and stunted due to inadequate caloric intake, and poor quality food. Unemployment, lack of education and big families all are contributing factors to poor quality diet.

  38. Dr. Mridusmita Mukherjee and Dr. Krishna Das

    Aim: This study aimed to evaluate the effectiveness of four commercial desensitizing toothpastes in dentine tubule occlusion using the scanning electron microscopic analysis. Materials and Methods: The samples were divided into five groups having ten teeth each (n = 10); the groups were divided accordingly, Each of the five groups (A-E) were treated as follows Group A- Sensodyne Rapid (Strontium acetate), Group B – Sensodyne Repair (Stannous fluoride), Group C – BioRepair (Zinc-carbonate hydroxyapatite), Group D – Colgate Total Sensitive (New silica ), Group E- saline (control).Each tooth was then split longitudinally and was prepared for examination by scanning electron microscope under ×1000. Statistical Analysis: The scores were compared statistically within the groups using Mann Whitney test with a level of significance set at P<0.01. Results: Zn-CHA based toothpaste exhibited significant occlusion of dentinal tubules when compared to other groups Conclusion: The maximum desensitising efficacy was shown by Bio Repair (Zinc-carbonate hydroxyapatite) followed by Colgate Total Sensitive (New silica ) toothpaste.

  39. Dr. S. Maya

    This paper is an attempt to do a feminist analysis on religion and culture in India, to explore the reasons of gender issues in Indian society. It is trying to point out the scriptural influences that create and propagate the gender concepts in the society. This is basically done by analyzing verses from the text Manu-smrti, which was considered as the handbook for making social order, legislation and constitution in India. There is an effort to understand the overlapping ideas of religion and culture conceptualizations in India. The upshot would explicate the textual reasons which also caused immense subjugation for women in India.

  40. Panchal, K.M., Patel, P.P., Gandhi, A.M., Chauhan, A.P. and Desai, M.K.

    Objectives: To study the relation between efficacy, safety and plasma concentration of two different brands of lithium carbonate in patients of bipolar disorder. Materials and methods: This prospective, interventional study was done in newly diagnosed patients of bipolar disorder and randomized into two groups, Group A (generic) and Group B (branded generic).Lithium carbonate 300 mg thrice a day given orally in both groups. Data was recorded in pre validated Case Record Form. The Young Mania Rating Scale (YMRS) was measured at baseline and after 3 weeks of therapy. Serum lithium level was carried out on 21st day of therapy. Pearson Parametric Correlation Test and‘t’ test was used for analysis. Results: YMRS was 28 ± 1.07 and 29.08 ± 1.12 (baseline)and 14.04 ± 0.67and 14 ± 0.68(after 3 weeks) in groups A (n=25) and B (n=25) respectively. There was significant mean reduction in YMRS at 2nd follow-up (P< 0.0001). At the end of 3 weeks, the mean serum lithium level in group A and B was 0.68 ± 0.04 and 0.82 ± 0.07 respectively. One patient in each group A and B had low serum lithium level (0.2, 0.26) while 4 patients in group B had high serum lithium level (1.32, 1.32, 1.88 and 1.35). High S. lithium level was associated with increases ADRs. Correlation was significant between increases in lithium level and decrease in YMRS. Conclusions: There is strong correlation between efficacy (YMRS score), and ADRs in both generic and branded lithium carbonate.

  41. Gnanamani, I., Padmaja, M. and Florida Tilton

    Penaeussemisulcatus (grooved tiger prawn or green tiger prawn) accessions were collected from southern subcontinent of India and the anti-oxidant enzyme levels in their tissues were compared. The accessions were from Pondicherry, Pazhaverkadu, Royapuram and Thalankuppam. From the frozen tissue samples of these species, Lipid peroxidation, Catalase activity, Glutathione S Transferase, Reduced glutathione, Acetyl cholinesterase, and Superoxide dismutase enzyme levels were measured. All the enzyme levels were elevated in the species collected from Thalankuppam compared to other three species. This is possibly due to the associated environmental factors and is an indirect measure of pollution levels.

  42. Chennadi Amith Kumar

    This is a case series study done at tertiary centre, Prathima Institute of Medical Sciences, Karimnagar in northern region of Telangana. Cases were diagnosed to have congenital heart disease by echocardiography performed by cardiologist. In our study of 40 patients, 40% of patients had VSD followed by ASD at 25%. Other congenital heart diseases like PDA and valvular heart disease were found to be at 11%. Tetralogy of Fallot was diagnosed in 3 patients.

  43. Effect of selected distraction technique on pain during venipuncture among toddlers Girija, G., Dr. Vetriselvi, P. and Dr. Dilli Kumar

    Background and Purpose: The purpose of the present study is to assess the effectiveness of selected distraction technique on pain during venipuncture among toddlers – a Randomized controlled trial in Paediatric ward and Paediatric Outpatient Department, JIPMER, Puducherry. Material and Methods: A Randomized controlled trial was adapted for this study. The study setting was Paediatric ward and Paediatric Outpatient Department, Women and Children Hospital, JIPMER, Puducherry. 126 samples (63 in each group) who satisfied the inclusion criteria were selected using simple random sampling technique by means of computer generated random numbers sealed in opaque envelops. After obtaining formal permission from the institutuion and written informed consent from the mothers, toddlers were allocated to control and interventional group by block randomization technique. Interventional group toddlers were made to lie on the bed and showed selected distracting technique (sound and colorful light producing toy) two minutes before the venipuncture, during venipuncture and continued two minutes after completion of venipuncture, and pain score was assessed using FLACC scale. The child in the control group underwent venipuncture procedure in a routine manner and the pain score was assessed using FLACC scale. Results: The study results showed that there was a significant reduction in the mean pain score of toddlers who received selected distraction technique. There is no significant association between the pain score and socio-demographic variables of the toddlers like age, gender and weight. Conclusion: Distraction is an effective method of managing pain in children during venipuncture. Colorful and sound producing toy is an effective distractor in reducing pain in children during venipuncture. This technique emphasizes the concepts and importance of providing atraumatic care to children. Providing the child with colorful and sound producing toy is low cost intervention that can be effectively used in children.

  44. Dr. Mohamed Ataulla Shariff, Dr. Siddharth S Joshi and Dr. Harsha, S.

    .

  45. Supriya Sharma, Shaleen Chandra, Shalini Gupta and Surya Kant

    Genodermatoses are an inherited skin disorder often grouped into three categories: chromosomal, single gene, and polygenetic. Several of these disorders are isolated and also have an oral phenomenon, called Oral Genodermatoses. Between this Xeroderma pigmentosum is a rare genodermatosis as well as rare autosomal recessive disease in which excessive ultraviolet radiation causes skin, ocular, neurological, and oral lesions along with the development of cutaneous and internal malignancies at an early age. There is no definitive cure for the disease. Avoidance of ultraviolet radiation, use of protective clothing, sunscreens, oral retinoid, and 5-fluorouracil and regular consultations with dermatologists, ophthalmologists, neurologists and dentists forms an important part of the treatment protocol. This paper aims to throw light on the etiopathogenesis, clinical features and treatment modalities of this life-threatening disease. There is also a special mention of the oral manifestations and dental health considerations of the rare disorder.

  46. Dr. Mahdi Abdullah Mohammed AL-Sebaeai

    This paper explain threats web applications, Web Vulnerabilities. The web vulnerabilities are SQL Injection, OS command Injection, HTTP Header Injection, Mail Header Injection, Lack of Authentication and Authorization, Improper Session Management. This paper explain solutions problems to vulnerabilities in web application.

  47. Vaishali Khandelwal, Sunita Kulkarni, Rakhi Chandak, Ashish Lanjekar

    Goldenhar's syndrome, also known as oculo-auriculo-vertebral (OAV) spectrum, is a rare condition described initially in the early 1950's by Maurice Goldenhar. It is a complex syndrome characterized by an association of maxillomandibular hypoplasia, deformity of the ear, ocular dermoid and vertebral anomalies. The etiology of this rare disease is not fully understood, as it has shown itself variable genetically and of unclear causes. Here, we describe a 13-year-old male patient with classical signs of the syndrome as pre-auricular tags, microtia, kyphoscoliosis, polydactyly and cleft lip.

  48. Dr. Sudhir K. Atri, Dr. Pawan Goel, Dr. Mohini, Dr. Sunita Singh and Dr Anuj Chaudhary

    Introduction: Multiple myeloma is characterized by proliferation of a clone of plasma cells that manifest by one or more lytic lesions, monoclonal (M) protein in the blood or urine and bone marrow involvement, ( Sirohi and Powles, 2004) having varying presentation and hematological features. Complications such as renal failure, infections, anemia, lytic bone lesions and amyloidosis lead to morbidity as well as mortality (UK myeloma forum, 2001). Though untreated the disease is uniformly fatal, newer advances in treatment like autologous hematopoietic stem cell transplantation, mini–transplants and advances in chemotherapy have improved the quality of life and increased survival (Gupta et al., 2002). The three drug regimens that contain bortezomib (proteasome inhibitor), thalidomide (immunomodulator) and dexamethasone (VTD) is highly effective in newly diagnosed myeloma (Richardson et al., 2010). Aim and Objectives: To study the clinicohematological profile of patients of multiple myeloma and response to bortezomib based induction. Material and Methods: This was a cross sectional study conducted at Pt. B.D. Sharma PGIMS, Rohtak on all newly diagnosed multiple myeloma patients attending the haematology department, wards and OPD from Feb 2016 to Nov 2017. All newly diagnosed cases who fulfilled the diagnostic criteria of multiple myeloma by IMWG were included in study. Patient’s detailed history, physical examination and hematological parameters and other investigations and response to bortezomib based induction recorded on a study proforma and data was analyzed using standard statistical methods. Results: The study population consisted of 16 male patients and 14 female patients with male to female ratio 1.14:1. Mean age was 56.43±10.58 years. The common clinical symptom were bone pain seen in 83.33% of patients followed by weakness/fatigue (53.33%), renal failure (20%), polyuria/polydipsia (13.33%), infections/fever (10%), isolated bony swelling (6.67%) and neurological features seen in 3.33% of cases. On examination, 90% patients had pallor. Anemia was normocytic and normochromic in maximum of patients (46.67%) and ESR was raised in all patients and 90% patients had ESR >100 mm in 1st hour. 33.33% patients had hypercalcemia with serum calcium ≥11 mg/dl and 33.33% patients had renal insufficiency with serum creatinine ≥2 mg/dl. M-band was positive in all patients. Bone marrow plasmacytosis >50% was seen in 46.67%. Bence Jones proteinuria was seen in 30 % of patients and on skeletal survey lytic lesions were seen in 66.67 % of patients. ORR to VTD induction was 86.67%. Conclusion: Overall response rate (ORR) was 86.67%, 56.67 % patients achieved ≥VGPR hence VTD is highly active induction therapy before ASCT.

  49. Lord Prof. Momtchil Dobrev-Halachev, Lady Prof. Mariola Garibova, Mariika Dobreva and Alexander Garibov

    Lord prof PhD PhD Momtchil Dobrev-Halachev developed 2008 “Theory of generating of crises “2010 “Theory and praxice of the Mafiotismus” and 2001. “Theory of the mafia”. Based on these two theories this paper explane the establishment of the mafiotismus all over the world – principles, theory and praxis in European Union, European Commission and in the Republic Bulgaria

  50. Stanley Nkemjika, Fanta Kalle, Eamon Aghania, Jason Lee, Rula Saeed and Christina Rozario

    Background: Although some studies have recorded phobias, depression, and sexual disorders; FGM has been ignored as representing a violation of someone’s physical intactness, and classified as a psychological trauma according to DSM-IV. Study aims: We examined relationships between the FGM trauma and behavioral likelihood of not getting tested for HIV/AIDS in four African countries adjusting for age, level of education, religion and marital status. Methods: This study utilized secondary database analysis of the de-identified and publicly available Multiple Indicator Cluster Survey (MICS) 4 data for the period between 2009- 2011. A Cross-Sectional study was conducted for women with birth history using the data from Nigeria (n=19938), Ghana (n=8961), Togo (n=6013) and Sierra Leone (n=7945). Results: FGM victims in West Africa were significantly more likely to avoid acquisition of HIV testing or screening with a crude OR of 2.263 ([95% CI, 2.099–2.440]; P ≤0.05).The estimated adjusted OR remained significant with an estimated value of 1.279 ([95% CI, 1.180–1.387]; P ≤0.05). Conclusions: In this population representing women with birth there is a significant relationship between FGM and probable behavioral default or aversion to HIV screening methods as more women with FGM reported not to go for HIV screening.

  51. Kobasko, N. I., Moskalenko, A.A., Logvynenko, P.N., Totten, G.E. and Dobryvechir, V.V.

    It was proved in last decade that very intensive and uniform cooling eliminates quench crack formation and significantly decreases distortion of quenched steel parts as compared with their slow cooling in mineral oils. That opened a new era in design ing and governing cooling intensity of liquid quenchants for strengthening steel parts and decrease their distortion after quenching. The new approaches were developed by authors to provide accelerated and uniform cooling steel parts during quenching by creation on their surface thin insulating layers. For this purpose low concentration of water polymer solutions of inverse solubility are used as a quenchant. More information on cooling intensity of Poly (Alkylene Glycol) polymers (PAG) solutions one can find in a well known book (Totten et al., 1993). Along with decreasing distortion of steel parts, such approach decreases cost of bath’s coolant which less affects environment. It is shown in presentation that accelerated cooling should be interrupted at proper time to provide self tempering, fix compressive residual stresses, decrease more distortion and prevent quench crack formation. To govern process of quenching and make cooling interruption, software IQCalc2 was developed

  52. Febi Nur Biduri, Yumna Rasyid and Emzir

    The knowledge of culture and literature that has been studied in this university is not maximal and in accordance with the needs of Chinese literature students in Indonesia because it is so this research will focus on the making of teaching materials by taking aspects of the mastery Chinese literature and culture. This teaching material research will use literary and cultural themes with a contextual approach. The focus of the problem in this research is the effectiveness of reading material of literature and culture based on contextual developed. To test the effectiveness of the model the researcher has conducted experimental teaching material using pre-experimental theory so that only implemented in one reading class at Darma Persada University Jakarta with18 respondents students. The final semester test data is used as a post test and the pretest is executed at the beginning of the lesson. The results of post test and pretest are tested by t-Test. Teaching material used in the experimental class is a model of developmental teaching materials made by researcher. The t-test results show that T count (4.060) is greater than T table (2.101), thus it can be concluded that this significant mean difference means Ho is rejected and H1 is accepted. Thus the teaching material model of reading literature and contextual based culture is more effective in improving students' reading skill in 5th semester better than convensional materials.

  53. Faruque Ahmed, Md. Jahangir Alam and Md. Toufiq Iqbal

    Foliar spray of urea may improve mulberry leaf yield, quality and cocoon productivity. But, it is not clear how foliar spray of urea influence mulberry leaf yield, quality and cocoon productivity. Therefore, two years field experiments were carried out in the experimental field of Bangladesh Sericulture Research and Training Institute (BSTRI), Rajshahi, Bangladesh. The objective of this study was to quantify the effect of foliar spray of urea on mulberry plant growth, yield, leaf quality and silk cocoon productivity. This study consisted of seven treatments,T1 (Recommended Basal Dose, RBD) = 305 kg N/ha/yr, 105kg P/ha/yr and 66 kg K/ha/yr, T2 = 2.5 % urea solution 3 times foliar sprays, T3 = 3.5 % urea solution 3 times foliar sprays, T4 = 4.5 % urea solution 3 times foliar sprays,T5 = RBD + 2.5 % urea solution 3 times foliar sprays, T6 = RBD + 3.5 % urea solution 3 times foliar sprays and T7 = RBD + 4.5 % urea solution 3 times foliar spray were used for mulberry plant production. The leaf yield of mulberry plant was increased 6.26% and the crude protein, total sugar, mineral and soluble carbohydrate also increased 7.14%, 4.49%, 4.95% and 4.30% respectively as well as the silk cocoon productivity was 32.31% greater in treatment T5than to the treatment of T1.This study concluded that existing BSRT recommended basal dose (RBD) along with 3 times foliar spray of 2.5 % urea at 30 days after pruning (DAP), 45 DAP and 60 DAP respectively performed well and successfully augments the productivity and biochemical constituents of mulberry plant as well as cocoon productivity.

  54. Lasmery RM Girsang

    This article discusses role of women in struggling transformation within their community. As one of government policies in 2015 about eradication of slum areas under Basuki Tjahaja Purnama (‘Ahok’) as previous governor of Jakarta, many flats were built and provided to those who became the target of that program. It’s called ‘Rusunawa’ low cost simple flat. Researcher chooses ‘Rusunawa’ Pulogebang (the first flat located on East Jakarta) as the locus of research. Unfortunately, there are new social problems emerge. One of them is adaptation matter: changing habits from past location to new situation. Crashed by new system such as paying room regularly every month meanwhile having no permanent job/work yet gives seriously impact until now. Besides that, losing home also keep them traumatic. In such situation, not all people can change their way of life rapidly till some women driven by awareness struggling to change the community decisively by various sustainable efforts. Therefore, this qualitative research will analyze the three main ideas in Feminist Standpoint Theory: knowledge, experience and power relation. Intrinsic case study is used to get in-depth inquiry. Also, conducts as participant observer and in-depth interviewer towards two key informants and community itself. Therefore, based on critical paradigm, researcher tries to explore women’s struggle in ‘Rusunawa’ Pulogebang in some fields: health, education and economic. The result shows that those women succeed to lead the community towards social transformation.

  55. Abraham B. Bayron, Jr.

    This study aimed to analyze the literary elements permeated on Dr. Jose P. Rizal’s selected poems “Imno sa Talisay”, “Josefina”, “Awit ng Manlalakbay”, “Kay Don Ricardo Carnicero” at ang “Sa Aking Kinaliligpitan” written during his four-year exile in Dapitan City, Zamboanga del Norte. The researcher purposely used Qualitative Research Method through Content Analysis to analytically scrutinize the in-depth evaluation of the aforesaid literary genre of Rizal. Based on the result of the study, societal awareness will be uplifted through proper guidance of the Filipino youth considered as the hope of the fatherland which was implied in one of his poems. Depicted in his poem were the ideals of the Filipino youth in the place of exile few of which were services to the community and active involvement in community activities and keenness in societal issues. Sociological features were assimilated to intensify the inimitable nature of the pieces’ total development and this flaunted Rizal’s exceptional literary craft imbued by his unique literary fermentation, his atypical style of showing off his works to the readers. Hence, this obviously provided delight and amusement by giving meaningful human-life insights to their daily encounter of myriad human experiences to become better citizens infused with a genuine Filipino cultural enrichment and refinement.

  56. Dr. Vaijwade Kalyani, A., Dr.Bhadage Chetan, J., Dr.Bhoosreddy Ajay, R., Dr. Jaisinghani Mala, R. and Dr. Varma Shweta, S.

    Introduction: It is very important to detect pneumatization that is air filled cavities adjacent to temperomandibular joint as they represent sites of minimal resistance and help in spread of pathologies into the joints like inflammation, tumour, fracture and also complicated factor in TMJ surgery. To prevent surgical complications, the diagnosis of these air cells is important. Aim: To assess the prevalences and characteristics of pneumatized articular eminence and pneumatized roof of glenoid fossa using cone beam computed tomography (CBCT). Materials and methods: CBCT scans of patient was evaluated to detect frequency of pneumatization at articular eminence and roof of glenoid fossa. Age and gender was recorded for all patients. Certain characteristics (type, lateral spread etc.) were studied for all the selected joints. Results: Of the 200 regions, 12 (6%) presented with PAT and 56 (28%) with PRGF. Unilateral PAT and PRGF were found in 9(75%) and 23 (41.07%) patients, respectively. PAT prevalence was 33.33% in females and 66.66% in males and out of 200 regions, 66 % had grade 0 pneumatization, 24 % had grade 1, 6 % had grade 2, and 4 % had grade 3. Conclusion: CBCT images are accurate and reliable means to detect the exact size and type of pneumatization and their relationship to adjacent tissues. Detection of pneumatization is necessary before a surgical intervention is planned, in order to prevent complications.

  57. Ar. Riddhima Khedkar

    The central idea of this paper is to study the life of the Mumbai textile mills through a series of events that occurred, keeping the Great Strike of 1982 as the center point of all the events. The study would give insight in the internal conflicts, contestations and daily negotiations with life occurring in the mill land area. Along with this, the sudden growth of land values in the neighborhood and its surrounding areas due to the closing down of the mills play an important part in making arguments as to why private developers found this particular land a ‘hot pot’ for redevelopment into luxury spaces. All these put together resulted in the resentment and anger among the workers and the residents of the mill housing. In this paper, these aspects will be looked at as tension creating issues between developers, politicians, the elite class and more importantly the existing residents. How the area has been transformed throughout the years, reshuffling the socio-cultural structure of Mumbai would be used to base argument and points of interest throughout the paper.

  58. Alok Yadav, Chotu Kanahaiya, Hitesh Ganna and Prof Abhishek Venkteshwar

    Research in the field of Economy of developing nations have become a dynamic study area over the past few decades and is likely to become even more so as the importance of economic development is rapidly gaining momentum. Therefore understanding the economy of developing nations will be viewed as increasingly important. Terrorists can inflict heart-breaking loss of life and costly destruction of property. But does terrorism also have an economic impact that extends far beyond the violent act itself?. This article aims at examining the Impact of Terrorism on the Economy of Developing Nations.

  59. Parameshwara, M. N., Lakshmeesha, D.R. and Vanitha Shetty

    Background: Complementary and alternative therapies (CAM) have been used as corrective treatments for ailments including chronic pain and psychopathological conditions. Acupuncture and massage therapies are used for tension-type headache prophylaxis as well as treatment. Aims and objectives: The objective of this study was to assess the value of a structured acupuncture and head massage therapy program, in order to improve their quality of life by reducing their headache pain and to improve sleep with standard protocol for tension-type headache sufferers. Materials and Methods: A total of 100 tension type headache subjects aged 18-26 years were screened and after filling inclusion criteria as well as diagnostic criteria (International Headache Society criteria) 30 subjects were recruited to the study. Pre assessments were, made before the treatment. Acupuncture and Standard head massage was, given for the duration of 30 minutes each for 7 days. Post assessments were, made after 7 days of the treatment. All the details of the study were, explained and informed consent was, obtained from the subjects. Results: Values from PDI, VAS and headache diary recordings, significant differences were detected in headache. Subjects reported that there is a greater improvement in their sleep quality by reducing headache pain (p ˂0.047) intensity and duration for combined effect of acupuncture and head massage. Post analysis indicated sleep quality was improved from baseline (p ˂0.001), there was decrease in PDI (p ˂0.001) also reduction in headache intensity and duration for the combined effect of head massage and acupuncture. Conclusion: Acupuncture and head massage is effective for the treatment of tension type headache. Significant differences has been found before and after the treatment. Hence combining both massage and acupuncture plays a significant role in treating tension headache.

  60. Alka Kumari

    Stress is a common element in any kind of job and persons have to face it in almost every walk of life. Every job is challenging and more demanding. It requires high standard of performance, high quality in work and getting aspirations and expectation fulfilled.

  61. Khot, S. M. and *Aqleem A. Siddiqui

    Placement of sensor actuator pair at proper location is very important for active vibration control of structures. A large number of research work by various researchers have been carried out for the optimization of actuators and sensors location, based on different approaches. There are two broad approaches. In one approach the optimization of sensor/actuator location is combined with controller parameters, whereas in the second approach, the optimal locations are obtained independently of the controller parameters. In order to get the best vibration control, the placement of the piezopatches should be in the region of maximum strain location. This paper presents, a controller independent, simple optimal piezoelectric patch placement strategy, on fixed-fixed beams, based on modal strain topological pattern. The modal strain patterns obtained from FE analysis of beams, are utilized to devise a strategy for identifying the locations of piezopatches. The effectiveness of strategy adopted for optimal location is compared with the results obtained from a controller dependent placement methodology employed by previous researchers. It is found that the proposed methodology is in agreement with the work carried out earlier.

  62. Shreekanth Puligilla, Suresh Kumar, M., Konda Amarnath, Visalakshi, G. and Soumya, N.

    Aim: To evaluate the success rate of BCS implants and conventional implants in maxilla and mandible after extraction. Patients and Methods: A clinical study was conducted on the patients who wanted replacement of missing teeth with implants from the year 2015 to 2017. 20 patients are selected and distributed into Group A (10 pateints with Basal implants (BCS) and Group B (10 patients with conventional crestal implants). Results: bone level was good in basal implant group when compared to the conventional group. Also there was no need of bone augmentation procedures in basal implant group and stime taken for giving prosthesis is less in basal implant group. Conclusion: The technique of basal implantology solves all problems associated with conventional (crestal) implantology. It is a patient oriented therapy, which meets the demands of the patients ideally.

  63. Amirthalingam, N. and Dr. Sita Devi, K.

    The growth of agriculture depends on the efficiency of resource use and technological progress in the sector with an appropriate cropping pattern. The changes in cropping pattern in particular span of time clearly indicate the changes that have taken place in the agricultural development. These changes are brought about mostly by socio-economic influence and in most of the situations, the physical environment reduces the choice of certain crops altogether or by reducing their level. The adoption of better cropping pattern optimally suited to the technological changes is an important factor for augmenting growth in agriculture. Keeping this view, this study has been carried out with the specific objective of analysing the trend in cropping pattern changes in Cuddalore district of Tamil Nadu. The growth rate was worked out to estimate the changes in the cropping pattern in the district. The results clearly revealed that the share of major crop categories like cereals, oilseeds and millets has been decreased over the years in Cuddalore district. However, the share of pulses, plantation crops, fruits and sugarcane increased over the years, which shows the crop diversification in the study area.

  64. Megha Kasliwal and 2Dr. Kanjan Upadhyay

    Gagging With the increasing demand of natural resources, industrial exploration has extended. The slate pencil industry is the industry that produces a big volume of slate powder. The waste generated is highly hazardous in nature and has the possibility to serve adverse effect on flora and fauna along with living species. The paper concepts is with the thorough survey of the slate pencil manufacturing unit, the flow sheet, the source of generation of pollution and probable treatment methods for pollution abatement. The main aspiration of this assignment is to convert the waste in some useful product so as to increase the economic cost of waste, simultaneously reducing the pollution load generated due to these industrial manufacturing units.

  65. Dr. Prabu, D., Dr. Nirmala, S., Dr. Bharathwaj, V.V., Dr. Sunayana Manipal, Dr. Rajmohan and Dr. Nesa Aurlene

    Aims and Objectives: To reconnoiter whether dental manpower in current scenario in Tamilnadu is competent in delivering oral health care services to the public at large and to procure elucidations to most important remonstrance confronted in that aspect. Material and Methods: The current data was obtained from the website of Dental Council of India, Central Bureau of Health Intelligence and the Ministry of Health and Family Welfare and further data regarding number of dental educational institutes across Tamilnadu, the dentist registered in the Council, the number of dental institutions, number of seats in graduation and post-graduation courses were obtained from the database of Dental Council of India. These data were entered in Excel for descriptive statistics. Results: Among a total of 553 Postgraduate positions, 42 (7.59%) positions are offered by government sector and 511 (92.40%) positions are offered by private sector withthe estimated dentist population ratio of TamilNadu for the year 2018 as 1:3666.7. In North zone, for a population of 32.7% (2,36,33,167) there are around 18 (62.3%) dental educational institutes whereas for a population of 18.78% (1,35,53,283) there are around 3.4% (1) of dental educational institutes. Furthermore, the dentists employed in government sector is 569 (2.57%) compared to all remaining 21490 (97.4%) dentists who are self-employed or in private sectors. Conclusion: The challenges faced by the dental professionals are really grave in nature. The current system prevailing will lead to disastrous consequences unless intervened with emergency without negligence to save the dignity of the profession.

  66. Dr. Sumayya and Dr. Sivagami Srinivasan

    effluent by Pseudomonas fluorescens and Azospirillum sp. The Green leafy vegetable Sesbania grandiflorasowed seedswas treated withraw silk dyeing effluent, Pseudomonas fluorescens and Azospirillum sp. separately. After 45th days the biometric parameters such as First cotyledon, Seed germination (%), Seedling length (cm), Number of Leaves plant-1 , Surface area of leaves (sq/cm), Root length (cm), Shoot length (cm), Root shoot ratio, Root mass (g), Dry matter (%),Number of Seed bunch plant-1, Distance between the nodes (cm) were analysed. The phytohormone such as Indole acetic acidand Gibberellic acid were also analysed. The IAA production by Pseudomonas fluorescens and Azospirillum sp., in the silk dyeing industrial effluent was found to be 78μg 25ml-1 and 70.4μg 25ml-1 respectively. The biofertilizers Pseudomonas fluorescens and Azospirillum sp. synthesizes about 6.9μg 25ml-1 and 7.1μg 25ml-1 of GA3in the Whereas the untreated silk dying effluent was hardly seen the phytohormone presence. The study confirms that the selected biofertilizers (Pseudomonas fluorescens and Azospirillum sp.) produced more IAA than GA3. Thus Pseudomonas fluorescens biotreated silk dyeing industrial effluent can be used for the growth of plants.

  67. Buket Çınar Gelir and Ayşe Selcen Altınok

    In the yarn production, the combing process is very important in order to make the fibers parallel, clean and prevent the problem of nepp which adversely affects the quality of yarn and fabric. In this study; a new combing hub has been developed which improves the number of nepp errors after combing, spinning and winding (bobbining) processes as a result of making the combing process more efficient on the combing machine. Improvement of yarn quality due to decrease of yarn nepp amount and reduction of work load due to nepp cleaning process on the fabric as a result of increase of fabric quality are among the most important contributions of the work done.

  68. Jamaluddin, Lagangka, R., Khumaidi, A.

    Gelatin is one type of protein derived from natural collagen found within the skin, bones, and connective tissue of animals. This study, used eel (Anguilla marmorata (Q) Gaimard) fish skin as the material for gelatin which was extracted using acetic acid solution of 3%, 6% and 9% for 48 hours. This study aims at determining the concentration of acetic acid towards the yield value and the quality (organoleptic, water content, ash content, and arsenic content) in accordance with Indonesian National Standards. The method used to determine the water content is oven method, to determine ash content is muffle furnace method, to determine arsenic metal is Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometry (SSA) and to find out the gelatin functional groups is FTIR (Fourier Transform Infrared) spectroscopy. The result shows that the gelatin extracted using 3% acetic acid has the highest yield value of 18.2% and for the quality of gelatin concentration of 9% acetic acid is the most optimal concentration with yellowish gelatin color, odorless and flavorless, and has water content of 7.099%, ash content of 0.96% and arsenic content of <0.01mg / kg. The result of characterization using FTIR shows that sample obtained by characterization of functional group smiliar to gelatin.

  69. Pinky Sinha and Sheila Bedi

    The present study on the screening of cellulose degrading bacteria, isolated locally from the natural environment; and analysis of their carboxymethylcellulose (CMC) and filter paper activity has been carried out with the rationale to isolate novel strains having significant cellulolytic potential. From the present findings, it was observed that on 4th day the isolate-01 showed maximum CMC activity (9.4 mg/ml of released reducing sugar); followed by isolate-07 (5 mg/ml of released reducing sugar); whereas isolate-03 showed maximum filter paper activity on 6th day (8.0 mg/ml of released reducing sugar); followed by isolate-07 (7.4 mg/ml of released reducing sugar). Thus it can be concluded that isolate-07 has potential for both CMC as well as filter paper activities and can be explored for production of sugar from cellulosic wastes on commercial scale. On the basis of morphology, microscopic observations and biochemical tests, the isolate-07 showed resemblances with Streptomyces species; however, for confirmation 16 S rRNA sequencing is required.

  70. Anuradha Sharma, MDS., Ankit Gaur, MDS. and Pooja Siwach, MDS.

    The Peripheral ossifying fibroma (POF), term coined by Eversole and Robin is relatively a common overgrowth which occurs exclusively on gingiva, usually arising from the interdental papilla and is considered to be reactive rather than neoplastic in nature. An origin from cells of periodontal ligament has been suggested because of exclusive occurrence of POF from interdental papilla. Because it is possible to misdiagnose POF as pyogenic granuloma, peripheral giant cell granuloma, or odontogenic tumours, therefore, histopathological examination is essential for accurate diagnosis. This paper presents a case of peripheral ossifying fibroma in a 32-year-old female involving left lower gingiva (extending buccally from mesial surface of mandibular canine to mid surface of 1st premolar) along with the clinical, histopathologic, and radiographic features and treatment details. Postoperative follow up did not show any signs of recurrence.

  71. Deep Modi, Harsh Parekh, Darshan Rathod and Kushal Doshi

    Legal documents have always been lengthy and it is difficult to read and understand them completely. In this project, we devise a system which is Machine Learning (ML) based tool that takes in document and highlights anomalies in the text. The document can be given as soft copies. To our knowledge, some categories of legal documents contain duplicated information that do not require our attention. However, manually extracting non-duplicate information from documents requires considerable amount of effort. Thus, we want to use machine learning algorithms to pick up unordinary sentences for us. For this purpose, we propose a set of algorithms that filters out duplicate information and returns useful information to the user. We are able to train a learner that can mark unordinary parts of a legal document for manual scrutiny. Scikit and NLTK are open source module of python which have been used to develop this tool that we’ve created. Flask modules have been used for the simple User Interface. This project contains a simplified architecture which has various algorithms and methods that have been implemented successfully.

  72. Dr. Kavita Dube, Dr. Pradeep Jain, Dr. Dinesh Rao and Dr. Bonny Paul,

    Background: Sodium hypochlorite has been vastly used as root canal irrigant but its toxicity and storage risks are of concern. There has been a constant search for the ideal root canal irrigant. Objectives: The aim of this study is to evaluate electrolyzed saline, produced from a custom-made chair side apparatus for its smear layer removal efficiency on root canal walls and compare it with the commercially available agents- EDTA and MTAD. Methods: A chair side apparatus has been designed to produce and dispense electrolytically activated solutions (Electrolyzed saline) for the purpose of root canal irrigation. Two different solutions, one, which is oxidizing in nature, consisting primarily of Chlorine derivatives and another, reducing in nature, consisting primarily of sodium hydroxide, are obtained. A combination of these two solutions was used for root canal irrigation in extracted teeth. The other test agents included 3% NaOCl, 3% NaOCl alternated with 17% EDTA, Electrolyzed saline alternated with 17%EDTA and MTAD. Root canals were split and the samples were subjected to Scanning electron microscopic evaluation. Results: Under the conditions of this study, Electrolyzed saline significantly cleaned the root canal surfaces and the results were comparable to EDTA as well as MTAD. Alternating Electrolyzed saline with 17% EDTA irrigation showed similar smear layer removal efficacy. The cleaning efficacy of Electrolyzed saline was significantly better than 3% Sodium hypochlorite. Conclusions: Under the conditions of this study, the smear layer removal efficacy of Electrolyzed saline was significantly better than 3% NaOCl. There was no significant difference for smear layer scores when compared with the remaining groups (Sodium hypochlorite (3%) +EDTA , Electrolyzed saline +EDTA and MTAD)

  73. Bhanupriya, S. B., Janakiram, K. and Venkatesha, D.

    Back ground: Hepatitis B virus infection (HBV) is one of the most important community health problems and also one of the most common infectious diseases in the world. In endemic areas, HBV infection occurs mainly during infancy and early childhood, with mother to child transmission (MTCT) accounting for approximately half of the transmission routes of chronic HBV infections. Objective: The present study was undertaken to determine the prevalence of chronic HBV infection among rural antenatal mothers registered at Adichunchanagiri Hospital and Research centre, Bellur . Method: Hepatitis B surface Antigen (HBsAg) was determined as a serological marker for the viral infection among pregnant women. Blood samples collected from the study population under standard procedure were investigated for Hepatitis B surface Antigen (HBsAg) by Rapid Immunochromatography test and positive samples were further confirmed by commercially available ELISA kit. Results: Of the total 200 antenatal women, 03 were found to be positive for HBsAg (1.5%). All the pregnant women who were positive were in the age group of 15-25 years and in first trimester. Conclusion: Hepatitis B is highly infectious, associated with maternal complications and transmission to the child. It is mandatory that all the antenatal women should be screened for HBsAg and appropriately managed.

  74. Alberto Fisher, Anna Portale, Enrica Quattrocchi, Piero Pavone, Riccardo Lubrano

    Recurrent Aphthous Stomatitis is the most frequent ulcerative disorder observed in the oral cavity. The aetiology is unknown, but several predisposing factors have been identified as possible causes. These including local, immunologic, allergic, genetic, nutritional or microbial current events. In most cases the disorder is localized but in others, it can be a clinical sign of systemic diseases such as Behçet’s disease , or gastrointestinal disorders (Celiac Disease, Crohn’s disease, ulcerative rectocolitis) or congenital and acquired immunodeficiency (including HIV infection) and such conditions should therefore be sought and excluded. Here we presented our experience of twenty-one subjects aged between 0 and 12 years evaluated over a period of two years. In this study we aimed to define the clinical features of aphthous ulcers in children with accompanying clinical and laboratory findings supposed to be related to the disease. In our experience one was affected by periodic fever aphthous stomatitis pharyngitis , two were affected by Beçhet’s disease and one by Crohn’s disease.

  75. Dr. Anjali Dhananjayan, Dr. Jayakrishnan U., Dr. K Nillan Shetty, Dr. Rohan Rai, Dr. Abhinay Sorake and Dr. Pratham Shetty

    Self-ligating brackets are those type of brackets that do not require an elastic or wire ligature but have inbuilt mechanism that can be opened and closed to secure the archwire. Self-ligating brackets isgaining popularity over the year. Various advantagesfor these systems have been claimed.Self-ligating brackets have been reported for faster and more efficient treatments, which bought about curiosity to compare them to the conventional system. Unlike conventional appliances,self-ligating brackets do not require elastomeric or metal ligatures, better friction, torque expression, patient friendly and comfort, better maintaince of oral hygiene, faster alignment and space closure. This invention has bought about drastic change in the orthodontic mechanics.Therefore, the purpose of this literature review was to seek the latest studiesabout self-ligating brackets currently used in orthodontic treatments, confirming or correctingcurrent speculations.

  76. Dr. Ankur Akela, Dr. Gopal Paswan and Dr. Runni Kumari

    Background: Acute intestinal obstruction is one of the most common surgical emergencies which involves partial or complete blockage of bowel. Aetiologies of small bowel obstruction are diverse & varies according to geographical areas-strangulated groin hernias are leading in developing countries while post-op adhesions in developed world. Tumors are the most common cause for large bowel obstruction. Objectives: To study various aetiologies of small & large bowel obstruction and there outcomes in term of morbidity and mortality. Methods: 50 cases of intestinal obstruction admitted to emergency surgical ward of PMCH, Patna were selected for study. The criteria for selection of cases were based on clinical history, physical findings radiological and hematological investigations. The study was divided into clinical study, Investigation treatment and follow-up after discharge of patients up to 3 months. Results: The commonest cause of intestinal obstruction in the adults in this study was Adhesions and Bands (35%) followed by obstructed hernia (27%). Volvulus of sigmoid and caecum was 14.7% in this series. Overall mortality of this study was 14%. Conclusion: Adhesions and bands (commonly post-op) are the most common cause to produce intestinal obstruction. Clinical, radiological and operative findings put together can diagnose the intestinal obstruction. Mortality is still significantly high in acute intestinal obstruction.

  77. Nagoba Shivappa, N., Mandurke Arjun, D., Bhalekar Rohini, V. and Ningule Ganesh, M

    The study was designed with the aim to evaluate Econazole nitrate Microemulgel for a treatment of fungal infection. Microemulgel is isotropic mixtures of oil, water and emulsifying agent. Recently, Microemulgel has emerged as one of the most interesting topical preparation in the field of pharmaceutical sciences. The use of Microemulgel as a delivery system has several advantages such as ease of administration, increased residence time of drug at applied site, better drug release, good thermodynamic stability and higher transdermal permeability over conventional formulation. The objective of the study was to prepare Microemulgel of Econazole nitrate, using Carbopol 940 and HPMC [9004-65-3] as a gelling agent, oil phase, preservative, emulsifying agent and buffers was used as penetration enhancer. All the prepared Microemulgel formulations showed acceptable physical properties, appearance, spreadability, homogeneity, viscosity, pH, and Formulations were tested for drug excipient interactions subjecting to FTIR Spectral analysis, Skin irritation test, In-vitro drug diffusion studies showed 98.89% for F9 formulation maximum release of drug in 120 minutes and Stability Studies. The clinical evaluation proved the efficacy and tolerability of this preparation in the treatment of various topical fungal infections. Topical antifungal treatment was successfully achieved with Econazole nitrate microemulgel.

  78. Dr. Preeti Patil, Dr. Venkatesh G. Naikmasur, Dr Kirty Nandimath and Dr. Karthik Kabbur

    Neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF1, or Von Recklinghausen’s disease) is a genetic disorder transmitted as an autosomal dominant trait with variable expressivities and complete penetrance. It is characterized by a variety of clinical manifestations, including multiple neurofibromas that are associated with a high risk of sarcomatous transformation. This article reports a case of facial plexiform neurofibromatosis with mandibular hypoplasia and reviews various oral soft tissue and hard tissue manifestations of neurofibromatosis I.

  79. Darsi Phebe Sarah Koti Ratnam and Davala Simon

    Ramie (Boehmeria nivea Gaud) a member of Utricacease, yields fibres which are longest and toughest. These fibres showed highest resistant to the action of water and are use industrial point of view in paper and textile industry. A total of 20 fungal strains were isolated from Ramie canes. Of the 20 there are six strains were identified as Aspergillus species. Among the Six strains Aspergillus flavus showed maximum colony count at 72 hours of incubation. In the present study deals with the isolation and screening of freshly isolated potent fungal strain as Aspergillus flavus for the production of cellulase enzyme consisting of the endoglucanase. Assessment of Decortication and degumming also recorded in cellulase enzyme production by Aspergillus flavus. Further the studies were undertaken on the optimization of physiological and nutritional culture conditions in respect of pH, incubation time, and temperature. Maximum cellulase production was recorded with 9 days of incubation time, optimum pH 7.0 and 350 C temperature. Synthesis of maximum endoglucanase 77.8% viscosity loss at 12 days of age. Aspergillus flavus showed the production of higher activity of cellulase enzyme consisting of endoglucanase yielded higher cellulase enzyme activity.

  80. Suresh J. Algudkar

    Land and soil media are monopolistic and significant Agro-Eco system for Agriculture production. On the advent of green revolution, the information on natural resources is not utilized in true sense for intensification Agriculture. As result, the country has witnessed mass degradation of land resources. Present estimate indicates about 121 million Hectares Land (39% of total geographic area) is affected by various kinds of degradation (ICAR 2010), of the total degraded land 55 mh is waste land and 6.6 mh is salt affected area. 64 mh of net cultivable lands are prone to affected by one or the other kind of degradation (NBSS- LUP 2015). Deficiency of microflora and secondary nutrients is increasing rapidly, which results in bad health of soil and fertility. Different degradation process occurring alone or in combination are one of reason for declining total agriculture productivity particularly in irrigated lands. According to Agro – ecological survey (AES -2016), quantified that the area under semi aerid type of Bio-climate is increased and the area under Humid type of Bio climate is decreased.

  81. Tra Florent Goure-Bi, Celestin Melecony Ble, Nahoua Issa Ouattara Yao Laurent Alla and Assoi Olivier Etchian

    Two series of experiments have been successively conducted to determine the modalities of food distribution to Heterotisniloticus fingerlings in fish-farming pond. In the first experiments, three daily rations have been separately tested on fingerlings of 165.81 ± 4.59 g. These are: (T1) = 4% of fingerlings total weight the whole duration of breeding, (T2) = 5%, 4% and 3.5% of fingerlings total weight, respectively the first month, the second month and the last one for the continuation of the breeding, and (T3) = 3.5% of fingerlings total weight the whole duration of breeding. At the end of this experiment, T2 gave the best growth results in the fish which reached for this ration a final average weight of 933.79 ± 7.52 g. The second experiment concerned the frequency of feeding. Fingerlings of 281.26 ± 19.05 g, have been subjected to three frequencies of nourishment namely: (2md) = 2 meals per day, (3md) = 3 meals per day and (6md) = 6 meals per day. The highest final average weight of fish (1009.45 ± 17.51 g) and the best food efficiency were observed in fish receiving 6 meals per day. The frequency of 3 meals can also be recommended insofar as the obtained growth results of the fish are not significantly different from those obtained with 6 meals per day.

  82. Roberto De Vivo

    All the ruminal methane (CH4) emitted by ruminants (cattle, buffalo, sheep, camel goats and minor camelids) was calculated all over the world, standardized according to the size and therefore the quantity of methane emitted and was compared with the methane that could potentially be produced if the dejections were treated in anaerobic plants. Obviously we took into account the fact that not all types of breeding allow the recovery of dejections, for example grazing. This calculation was also made for other non-ruminant animals of zootechnical interest. The conversion of methane potentially used by anaerobic plants into electrical energy has also been calculated, considering both the various quantities of manure for each species and for each type of breeding and the yield in biogas and then in methane according to the various chemical composition. This calculation was also extended and separated also for non-ruminant species reared. To make the conclusions pragmatic, electrical energy and potentially powered homes were quantified.

  83. Sireesha Vimalabathina, Sindhuri Meduru, Prasanthi Ramineni, Suhana Shaik, VenkataRamarao Nallani and D.S. Raju Naidu

    Background: Clinical pharmacy is a health science discipline whereby pharmacists provide patient care that optimizes medication therapy and promotes health, wellness, and disease prevention. The practice of clinical pharmacy embraces the philosophy of pharmaceutical care; it blends a caring orientation with specialized therapeutic knowledge, experience, and judgment for the purpose of ensuring optimal patient outcomes. This field of pharmacy practice focuses on patient-oriented rather than drug product-oriented service. Objectives: • To identify drug interactions. • To identify adverse drug reactions. • To monitor impact of counselling. • To improve medication adherence. • To improve therapeutic outcome for chronic disease patients (Diabetes with hypertension.) Method: The study was conducted from October 2017 to March 2018 in Government General Hospital, Guntur. Patients were recruited in the study based on inclusion criteria. Data was collected by using data collection forms. Questionnaires were given to the patients. Regular follow-ups had been conducted and their laboratory data was recorded. During follow-ups patients were monitored for dispensing errors, prescription errors, dose errors, adverse drug reactions, drug interactions. Counselling had been provided to the patients regarding their medications, diseases, life style modifications. After continuous follow-ups for 3 months (20 days interval), we observed for improvement in knowledge regarding disease and drugs, medication adherence, therapeutic outcomes. Results: 60 patients are included (Diabetes with Hypertension). The mean therapeutic outcome value in Diabetes with Hypertension initially and after follow-ups is 175.88±39.15(FBS), 284.61±73.31(RBS), 152.16±15.95(SBP), 94.16±7.65(DBP) and 161.83±23.95(FBS), 226.15±44.86(RBS), 147.5±12.57(SBP), 92.16±6.13(DBP) respectively. KAP before counselling and after counselling was 55.45±6.41 and 55.45±6.41 respectively. Medication adherence before and after counselling was 32.26±2.29 and 42.51±2.44. Conclusion: By counselling the patients there is an increase in KAP, medication adherence, decrease in DRP’s thereby increase in therapeutic outcomes. So, clinical pharmacists are important in enhancing patient care.

  84. Harikrishnan Ramachandran Nair and Rajalekshmy, G.P.

    Background: In recent years measurement of glycated haemoglobin Al (HbA1c) has been widely introduced as a measure of control of diabetes and is used by many diabetologists. However, it is subject to a number of disadvantages. It requires incubation for several hours to remove the unstable intermediate Schiff base, it is quite a time consuming assay to perform and, by comparison with the measurement of other ketoamines, relatively expensive. More recently, a method has been described for the measurement of glycated serum proteins, known as fructosamine, which is based on a colorimetric determination utilizing the reducing properties of fructosamine at high pH. It has the advantage that it is rapid, inexpensive, and can be automated, thus reducing the amount of laboratory time required for the assay. Objectives: The aim of the study is to evaluate the different methods for the glycemic control in diabetic patients. The primary objective is to compare the efficiency of NBT reduction method for estimation of serum fructosamine with HbA1c estimated by ion exchange resin method & secondary objective is an attempt to develop cost effective, manual, dye based method for estimation of serum fructosamine. Method: 57 patients with type 2 DM and 57 controls were enrolled for the study. EDTA blood sample were used for HbA1c by Ion exchange Resin Method. Serum samples were used to detect fructosamine, FBS, PPBS, urea, creatinine, total protein & albumin. For fructosamine NBT Reduction method was used. Results: The average value of HbA1c for cases was 7.82±1.12 and for controls 5.3±0.9. The average value of fructosamine for cases was 3.79±0.78 and for controls 1.99±0.28. There was significant correlation between HbA1c by Ion Exchange Resin Method and fructosamine by NBT Reduction Method. The correlation coefficient r for case was 0.633 and for controls r = 0.643 (p< 0.05). NBT Reduction method for fructosaminehas been standardized and linear graph was obtained. HbA1c and fructosamine showed significant correlation with FBS, PPBS values and duration of diabetes. Calculated HbA1c from fructosamine result show significant correlation with HbA1c by Ion Exchange Resin method. Conclusion: The significant correlation of fructosamine with HbA1c suggests that, fructosamine can be used as an early marker of glycemic control than HbA1c as the half life of serum albumin is only 14 – 21 days. NBT Reduction method is rapid, inexpensive and time saving technique can be used as a routine test.

  85. HADDACH Abdelhay, BENFSSAHI Mouna, BEN ALLAL Laïla and AMMARI Mohammed

    Even though sustainable development concept originally included a clear social mandate, since a long time this social dimension has been neglected amidst abbreviated references to sustainability that have focused on economic and environmental issues. Lately, literature which concerns company’s social performance evaluation is more and more important. However, it usually focuses on one aspect of organization, production system. Now, social performance is a hot topic for researchers and it is one of major concerns of company leaders. In this context, many models and methodologies have been established in literature to assess company’s social performance, since it has become an important issue for society. However, few of them analyze social impacts. Assessing company’s social performance is an issue always new for any management team. So, by this work we try to answer the following questions: How to assess social performance of a large or Small and Medium-sized Enterprises? Are there tools or methods to make this assessment? Is everything can be assessed? What parameters are included in this assessment? In this paper, we present a conceptual model to perform company’s social performance assessment, based on issues which significantly affect the society.

  86. Dr. Sangita Totade and Dr. Ameya Puranik

    Background: Albino rats have natural tendency of burying behavior, more when they are under stress, this provides an useful model for study of Obsessive Compulsive Disorders. Aim and Objectives: 1. To observe effectiveness of Withania Somnifera in Obsessive compulsive disorder. 2. To observe effect of Withania Somnifera in Obsessive Compulsive Disorder on Albino rats. 3. To evaluate appropriate dosage of WithaniaSomnifera for Obsessive Compulsive Disorder. Methods: Rats are divided into six groups, the control group was given normal saline and other groups received Withania Somnifera (Ashwagandha) in increasing doses. The rats were placed in a box with marbles in each and the burying behavior is obsereved. Results: It was obserevedthat, the increasing dosage of Withania Somnifera less marbles are buried by rats. In control group 15 out of 18 marbles are found buried on an average, with 50mg/kg 12 marbles on an average are buried, with 100 mg/kg 8 marbles are found to be buried and with 200 mg/kg only 5 marbles are buried after one hour. Conclusion: Withania Somnifera (Ashwagandha) is effective in treating Obsessive Compulsive Disorders in Rats.

  87. Nainawat Manila and Gothwal Meenakshi

    Objectives: To study the effects of decreased Amniotic fluid Index (AFI≤5cm) on pregnancy outcome at or beyond 34 weeks of gestation. Methods: Prospective comparative study conducted in Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, SMS Medical College, Jaipur from Feb. 2013 to Oct. 2014. An analytic study comparing maternal and fetal outcomes in women with AFI ≤ 5 vs women with AFI > 5 in primigravida was designed. Results: AFI ≤ 5 was associated with higher number of labour induction (44.29% vs 22.86%) and LSCS (45.71% vs 35.71%) in mothers, increased incidence of low APGAR score (18.57% vs 2.86%), low birth weight (35.72% vs 8.57%), NICU admissions (17.14% vs 5.71%) and deaths (5.71% vs 1.43%) in neonates as compared to AFI > 5. Conclusion: Thus we conclude that oligohydramnios is associated with increased maternal morbidity and fetal morbidity and mortality. Early diagnosis and prompt management is essential. Antenatal and intrapartum monitoring will improve the perinatal outcome.

  88. Widad Matrood

    Objective:- To measure the level of the vitamin D3. Patients and Methods:- blood is typically collected from 100 patients via venipuncture and more recently “blood spots” from a simple finger prick from the individual being assessed. The serum (from venipuncture) or blood (from blood spot) is isolated and used in the assay being employed. There are then a number of methods to assess 25(OH)D to determine vitamin D status. Results:- One hundred patients were studied, 50 female (50%) and 50 male (50%), and female to male ratio was (1: 1). The age ranged from 10 years to 80 years, with a mean age of 40 years + 5 years. The majority being in the fifth decade of life constituting 27 patients (27%) . Also our study showed that the lower level of VITAMIN D3 is 4 ng /dl and the higher level is 45 ng/ dl and the mean level is 19.4 ng/ dl.

  89. Jinu, A. and Abdul Hakkim, V. M.

    The Land available for cultivation is decreasing and population is increasing. This necessitates the requirement of adopting scientific methods for achieving maximum production. Maximum yield from crops can be achieved by proving required quantity of nutrients and water and also the desired level of microclimate. Microclimate modification is possible in greenhouses and this is the advantage of greenhouse cultivation compared to open field cultivation. Greenhouse cultivation requires microclimate management as well as application of water and nutrients to plants daily. This requires labour and this cost can be reduced by adopting automation systems. This paper presents a performance study of a locally developed low cost automation system on greenhouse cooling. Temperature inside the greenhouse is to be reduced in summer in Kerala which falls under humid tropical climate. The automation system installed in one greenhouse and temperature recorded at hourly intervals. Temperature measurements were taken from another greenhouse which is manually controlled. Saniya variety of salad cucumber was cultivated in both the greenhouses. Temperature data and crop data from both the greenhouses collected and compared. Performance of the automation system was good in controlling the greenhouses temperature. Yield obtained from greenhouse operated by automation system was higher compared to other.

  90. Dr. Vijay Kumar, Dr. Manjari Kishore, Dr. Sadhna Marwah, Dr. A.S. Nigam and Dr. Minakshi Bhardwaj

    Acute promyelocytic leukemia (APML) is a type of acute myeloid leukemia with genetic abnormalities [t (15;17)]. The patients with APML can present with varied and unusual sign and symptoms. If treated timely, this subtype of APML has good prognosis; hence early diagnosis is important in such cases. Flowcytometric (FCM) immunophenotyping provides an accurate and early method of diagnosing this disease entity, especially in developing countries where molecular diagnosis is still not a feasible option for majority of the population. We present a triad of cases of APML with unusual clinical features where FCM played a significant role in giving an early diagnosis and management of APML.

  91. Dr. Besnik Hajdari

    The development of Information Technology has enabled the development of information management and economic branches that use the Internet to realize a successful business. So the information technology has influenced in the creation of a market which is growing so quickly as by doing business but also in the communication between consumers and business partners. Nowadays, almost all companies have access to the Internet and most of them use the internet to sell their products or provide their services across the world. This way of doing business is called "electronic business" and refers to all forms of business that are conducted online. While for Kosovo, which is my case of study e-business is a new field and almost unknown to a large part of its residents. The Kosovars are known as very large users of the Internet, but they have not yet gained the culture and the trust to begin with purchases and sales through internet. Best known model of e-business in Kosovo is the e-banking, although we can see some small movement towards the development of other models despite the lack of market for this area of business.

  92. Aschalew Terefe Refu

    The study was mainly to focus on parenting practices and its consequence on the social competences of kindergarten children in Indale and Bubu kindergarten Schools in Mettu town. For this study the primary data which was collected through well designed questionnaires and interview items. Simple random sampling techniques were employed to selected participants of this study from those schools. Using this technique, 50 samples were selected and involved in the study as primary source of data. The collected data was summarized and analyzed used descriptive statistics such as percentage along with table and charts. The result of the current study indicates that those parents that employ authoritative parenting practices had children who scored highest on measuring social competences development screening tools. Finally recommendation were forwarded based the finding of this study.

  93. Nikhil Padhi and Prasanna Kumar Illa

    Smart Factories have become a key link to success for a manufacturing driven organization. They can solve many problems that manufacturing world faces today. Analyzing the data generated on the shop floor and understanding them can drive data driven decision making. This can in turn help create competitive advantage for an organization. big-data and IoT play an important role in this mastering the data on the shop floor. Multiple organizations have started their IoT journey, many are about to start theirs. This paper attempts to provide a starting point for companies to start the IoT journey.

  94. Dr. Nina Kate, Dr. Subashini M, Dr. Saraswathy V and Dr. Shivraj More

    Endometriosis is described as the presence of functional endometrial tissue outside uterine cavity. Scar endometriosis is a rare disease and is difficult to diagnose. It commonly follows obstetrical and gynecological surgeries. Diagnosis is usually made only after excision of the diseased tissue. A case report of a patient with troublesome scar after caesarean section is presented.

  95. Yunusa, E.U., Ango, U.M., Musa, A.S., Shaba, M.A. and Khadija, A.S.

    Background: Workplace violence poses global health threats, endangering everyone in their places of work which is considered a public health hazard. Particularly in developing countries, assaults in the workplace results in stress, low self-esteem, and emotional instability leading to lack of effective and efficient performance of duties among workers in their places of work. This study aimed to determine the prevalence and factors associated with workplace violence against health workers in tertiary hospitals in Sokoto, Nigeria. Methodology: The study was cross-sectional, conducted from December 2015 to May 2016, among 180 health workers selected using multistage sampling technique. Data were collected using a set of pre-tested interviewer administered, semi-structured questionnaire, and were analyzed using IBM SPSS version 20 statistical package. Result: The mean age of the respondents was 26.14 ± 7.65 years. Seventy four (38.7%) of the respondents were within the age range of 30-39years.Majority 104 (54.5%) of the respondents were males. This study obtained a prevalence of physical violence of 33(18.3%). The doctors had the highest prevalence 12(23.1%). Most 23(65%) of the perpetrators of violence were patient relatives due to dissatisfaction with hospital waiting time (81.8%). Another factor associated with violence was lack of existing policies to protect workers which was reported among the respondents12 (37.1%). Conclusion: The study demonstrated a high prevalence of workplace violence among health workers in tertiary hospitals in Sokoto, Nigeria. The services in the healthcare facility should be improved upon to minimize wasting time during health service provision.

  96. Sarafidou, S.

    The self is a highly abstract construct, challenging to assess through research, especially in neurodegenerative disorders. Still, there is a great need to understand whether the self persists in disorders that affect the structure and function of the brain, since either conclusion would have important implications for brain function, for the theoretical approach to the self, and the experimental and clinical focus on it. How can we assess the self in cases of progressive neurodegeneration? Why is that important? A case study of a man with progressive multifocal encephalopathy, which developed into dementia, is presented. Most roots of communication (with others and with the environment) were influenced by the condition, yet the self made its appearance through cognitions, behaviors and emotional reactions. Using all aspects of the self as a stimulus, the person was able to connect to his surroundings, and develop a therapeutic alliance with the therapist, which was evident through behavioral and emotional expressions. This, in turn, allowed him to find meaning in the experience of living with a progressive disorder and become more receptive and active in the process of the treatment. The self is present even in states of high neurodegeneration, and it can be targeted therapeuticaly in order to connect the person with the ‘here and now’. There is a great need for accurate assessment and in- depth understanding of the subject, as well as for further research in the field. The case study brings forth several theoretical implications (concerning the self within a degenerating brain), and has a variety clinical applications, while the need for a psychosocial intervention in the progressed stages of dementia is made apparent.

  97. ZENNOUHI Omar, RFAKI Abderrazak, EL MDERSSA Mohamed, BOUIAMRINE El Houssine, IBIJBIJEN Jamal and NASSIRI Laila

    In order to rehabilitate degraded sylvo-pastoral land, we envisioned install Bituminaria bituminosa var. bituminosa, a pasture species with agronomic characters ideally suited to Mediterranean climates. The present research aims to evaluate the effect of different incubation temperatures (4, 17, 20, 28, 40, 45 °C) and different concentrations of NaCl (0, 1.5, 3, 4.5, 6 g L-1) on seed germination. Total germination (TG), Mean germination time (MGT) and Daily Germination Speed (DGS), were calculated during 20 days. The results obtained from this study revelated that Bituminaria bituminosa var. bituminosa showed a high germinative potential. Is able to germinate under a wide range of temperature (4 - 40 °C) and tolerate saline stress of above 4.5 g L-1.our results show that B. bituminosa var. bituminosa has promising characteristics that qualified, for rehabilitate degraded pastoral areas in Morocco.

  98. Mohammed, S.Y., Mohammed, K., Mekidani, M.A., Musa, M.Z., Aliyu, S., Aodu, B.A. Ya’u, S.

    Water is essential for life. Drinking water of good quality is of basic importance to human physiology and man’s continued existence depends very much on its availability. The provision of potable water to both rural and urban population is necessary to prevent health hazards. Consequent to the potential health hazards that may results from contaminated drinking water, it is therefore imperative to assess the quality of borehole and well water used for consumption and other domestic activities in Bomo village. Mineral elements content were determined using Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometer (AAS) while the physical parameters were measured using standard instruments. The results show that pH values were 5.76 – 7.72, temperature values were ambient. Conductivity values were in the range of 25.30 – 833.0 µS/cm for both borehole and well water. TDS result indicated values of 11.6 – 406.0 mg/l for both borehole and well water. Mineral elements analysis for both borehole and well water indicated the following results: Ca = 0.298 – 68.438 mg/l, Mg = 0.356 – 7.416 mg/l, Zn = 0.029 – 6. 969 mg/l, Cu = 0.027 – 0.168 mg/l, Fe = 0.091 – 2.087 mg/l. All values observed were within the standard limit of WHO.

  99. Asmaa Salah Elddin Mohamed, Ahmed Abdelbaqy Abdelrahman, Usama Farghaly Aly and Khaled Ali Khaled

    Pervasive developmental disorders is umbrella of five disorders: Autistic disorder, Asperger's disorder, Pervasive developmental disorder not otherwise specified, Rett’s disorder and Childhood disintegrative disorder. Each one differ than other in degree of symptoms. Generally, all of them called autism. High functioning autistic children are better in response to treatment by either hyperbaric oxygen therapy or combination of hyperbaric oxygen therapy and Risperidone. They have better cognitive abilities. Therefore, this study aimed to determine effects of hyperbaric oxygen therapy and Risperidone in decreasing degree of autism and to predict risk factors that leads to sever autism. The sample consisted of 80 Egyptian autistic children aged 5-7.They diagnosed and followed up by Childhood Autism Rating Scale, version2 (CARS2) between 2015 and 2017. Our studied sample were (80%) male and (20%) female, after adjustment for familial, socio-demographic and individual factors. We concluded that hyperbaric oxygen therapy alone or combination of hyperbaric oxygen therapy and Risperidone has superior effect than Risperidone alone in decreasing degree of autism. In addition, positive consanguinity is a risk factor for severity of autism.

  100. Charu Taneja, Pallavi Sharma and Nilanchali singh

    There can be many differential diagnosis of abdomino pelvic mass in young girls. Germ cell ovarian tumors which are the common ovarian malignancy of young age, which may present as acute abdomen. Likewise other surgical conditions may also present as large pelvic masses. Case: We herewith report a case of 20 year old unmarried female who presented with acute abdomen and a large abdominopelvic mass. Ovarian torsion was ruled out by doppler but high suspicion of ovarian malignancy was there as CA-125 was raised (371.4IU/ml). CECT findings were suggested of a large mass with undefined ovary margin. She developed jaundice and repeat MRI was done which showed large mass with bowel perforation with gas under diaphragm. Exploratory laprotomy was done by surgeons and to everyone’s surprise, patient turned out to be a case of appendicular lump which had perforated. Patient improved in postoperative period. Conclusion: In cases of large abdominopelvic masses, surgical causes should always be kept as differential as even advanced imaging modalities may not be diagnostic. Multidisciplinary approach may be beneficial.

  101. Rehema Ibrahim, Dr. Peter Keiyoro and Dr. Josephine Ngunjiri

    The burden of disease has continued to increase in most countries that have low social demographic Index including Kenya at sub national levels. Following the shortage of qualified health personnel and health facilities to serve the public, Community health workers come handy to bridge the gap in the health care systems. They are the most immediate contact with the community members as they are selected from their communities by community members through public participation, hence relate well with the respective communities often the communities know them well. The role of community health workers in improving child health Programmes is not yet fully understood although likely to promote lowering the disease burden at local levels. However, their major role is often to transfer knowledge, Information and skills through health education to community members. These relationships in most cases may enable them provide basic clinical support and health education that may promote primary health care as well as secondary disease prevention. Yet, their capacity to provide these services could be limited in terms of resources, knowledge and skills. Hence the purpose of the study was to investigate the influence of health education services provided by community health workers in the performance of child health care programmes; the case of Mbeere south in Embu county, Kenya. The objectives of the study were to determine how; Information provided through Newsletters, brochures; educational household visits and creation of awareness of diseases, injuries or risk factors influenced performance of child health care programmes. The study adopted Cross-sectional survey design and targeted a population of 346 households that had children aged five years and below and being served by 32 community health workers and 4 Community Health Extension Workers. The study had 222 respondents that is, 186 households, 32 Community Health Workers and 4 Community Health Extension Workers. Community health workers provided information on general healthcare practices, nutrition issues, and post/pre-natal care. The study found that Mothers were conversant and well instructed on child and maternal healthcare by the Community Health Workers. Community Health Workers effectively provided information on the need to seek antenatal care since majority of the households 125(69%) strongly agreed that they well advised on best practice. This could most likely led to low rates of mortality cases for new born babies in the area. It was therefore, recommended that there should be sustainable provision of educational service to communities in order reduce the burden of disease among children in the communities.

  102. Mr. Benson I. Muya, Prof. Christopher M. Gakuu and Dr Peter N. Keiyoro

    Modern technologies in beekeeping have advanced over the years. However, satisfying the basic needs of the rural people by improving their standards of living through adoption of modern technologies in beekeeping is still a challenge despite advances in the technologies. This is due to the relative slow adoption rates of the new technologies. This study was designed to find out how the economic factors influence the adoption of modern beekeeping technologies using the case of the women groups in Kajiado County in Kenya. The specific objectives of the study were to determine how product market prices, substitute commodity prices, consumer incomes, beekeeper’s income, and Government policies, influence adoption of the beekeeping technologies. The target population for this study was 720 beekeepers and six key informants selected through simple random sampling procedures from 72 women groups in Kajiado County. A sample size of 116 respondents was drawn. The researchers used personal interviews, questionnaires, observation guides and key informant interview guides to collect data from the targeted respondents. The collected data was cleaned, coded and entered into SPSS (version 21) software for analysis. The researchers found that economic factors influenced the adoption of beekeeping technologies. Among the economic factors identified were product prices, substitute product prices, consumer income, beekeeper’s income and Government policies. It was therefore recommended that these economic factors had vital influence on adoption of modern technologies. Hence the implementers of new technologies need to consider and take into account these factors whenever new technologies are being introduced to similar communities.

  103. Pradeep Battula, Neelambari, A. and Adnan Ahmed Khan, S.

    Background: Anaemia is a major public health problem throughout the world with annual prevalence of 400 million. The prevalence rates are higher in developing countries like India especially affecting children, adolescents and women. Objectives: The main objective of the study to assess the prevalence, severity of anaemia and also knowledge regarding anaemia among the hospitalised subjects in tertiary care hospital. Materials and Methods: A cross sectional observational study was conducted on anaemic patients. Questionnaire and information from subjects was collected based on study criteria in designed proforma, final diagnosis with system of involvement was documented. The data was subjected to descriptive analysis by using Microsoft Excel. Results: Out of 350 subjects, 280 cases were diagnosed with anaemia according to haemoglobin levels. Overall prevalence and incidences percentage of anaemia among the subjects found to be 80% and 78% respectively. Mild anaemia was found to be mostly seen in all categories. In view of knowledge, 62% were having poor knowledge regarding anaemia. The overall mean score was 4.99 concerning knowledge. Conclusion: The prevalence of anaemia tends to higher in developing countries. There is a higher prevalence and incidences among the subjects were observed. There is a need of awareness progress like health education and seminars should be conducted at regular intervals.

  104. Akanji Olufunke Christy, Osuntokun Oludare Temitope and Adewumi Bamidele

    Plants derived bioactive compounds have been the centre of recent research owing to their health promoting effects. An attempt was made in evaluating the phytochemical, minerals, proximate and anti-microbial activity of Ixora coccinea L. The phytochemicals, minerals and proximate analyseswere investigated using standard methods. Anti-microbial activity was determined by standard agar well diffusion method. The phytochemical analysis revealed the presence of alkaloids, saponins, tannins, flavonoids, cardiac glycosides, oxalate, phenol, anthraquinone and phytate. The minerals analysis revealed the presence of sodium, potassium, calcium, magnesium, zinc, iron, copper, manganese and phosphorus. Highest mineral content was recorded in magnesium (21.65 mg/100g). Proximate analysis showed the presence of ash (10.3%), moisture (7.10%), protein (16.45%), fat (6.10%), fibre (10.99%) and carbohydrate (40.20%). The antimicrobial analysis revealed the activity of the plant against Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus subtilis, Samonella typhi, Escherichia coli and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. It showed its highest potency against Pseudomonas aeruginosa. The results showed that substantial amounts of nutrients, minerals and phytochemicals present in I. coccinea leaves would contribute greatly to the human nutritional requirements and give adequate protection against various diseases associated with the tested organisms.

  105. Ambaga, M. and Tumen-Ulzii, A.

    Many studies have demonstrated that such widely divergent organisms as E.coli, yeast, pigeons, and humans have virtually identical pathways for the biosynthesis of purinenucleotides thereby further demonstrating the biological unity of life. We are proposing the new suggestion about existing of close interrelationship, formed during evolution development of life, demonstrating the biological unity of life and also all organisms on earth are descended from a single common ancestor by following lawfull processess, as at first: ATP/ADP cycle functioned as one of parts of membrane - redox potentials three - state line system dependent - full 9 stepped cycle of proton conductance, at second: synthesize ATP from ADP and a phosphate group with participation of membrane - redox potentials three - state line system dependent - full 9 stepped cycle of proton conductance, at third: Identical pathways for the biosynthesis of purinenucleotides with participation of ATP generated within membrane - redox potentials three - state line system dependent - full 9 stepped cycle of proton conductance of widely divergent organisms as E.coli, yeast, pigeons, and humans, demonstrating the biological unity of life, at fourth: formation of the biological unity of life in the level of ATP/ADP cycle and also in the level of membrane - redox potentials three - state line system dependent - full 9 stepped cycle of proton conductance. The ATP/ADP cycle is very important factors of the biological unity of life and also is main part of membrane - redox potentials three - state line system dependent - full 9 stepped cycle of proton conductance. All living organisms have the same kinds of monomeric subunits and the identity of each organism is preserved by its possession of many sets of nucleic acids and of proteins, which formed with participation of ATP/ADP cycle functioned as one of members of membrane - redox potentials three - state line system dependent - full 9 stepped cycle of proton conductane. The ATP/ADP cycle is oxidative phosphorylation, which occurs in the inner mitochondrial membrane, which are functioned with participation of membrane - redox potentials three - state line system dependent - full 9 stepped cycle of proton conductane.

  106. Dr. Ratheesh, P., Dr. Emy Surendran, Dr. Varsha Sumedhan, Dr. Meghna P. P., Dr. Sudhakar D., Dr. Srinivasan M. and Dr. Abhayadev, A.

    Diabetic eye disease comprises a group of conditions include diabetic retinopathy, diabetic macular edema (DME), cataract, and glaucoma. Polydipsia is one of the cardinal symptoms of diabetes mellitus (Prameha) so that the intake of water will be comparatively more when compared with normal person. The chronic exposure to the over hydration in diabetic patients may gradually results in constant decreased osmolality of the ECF. The condition may lead to alter the permeability of cells and increase the inflow of water in to the cells cause oedema. The oedematous changes are more evident in brain tissues. As eye is the forward extension of prosencephalon this is remarkably expressed as retinal edema and subsequent vision impairment. In Yogaratnakara, the regular intake of more liquid food (dravaannapanathi nishevana) is considered as an etiology of eye diseases. Ashtangahrudaya advised minimum water intake as a life style modification to be adopted in prameha and eye diseases. As diabetes mellitus is a life style related disorders some life style modification in the form of diet, diet style, habit is necessary to prevent the advanced complications of the disease. As per classical reference the intake of water more than the required quantity in diabetic patients will cause the special pathological condition called abhishyandha (microvascular changes) in the eyes. This article emphasizes on the importance of water intake regulation in patients with diabetic eye disease to prevent the advancement of pathology in eyes and to preserve the vision.

  107. Kunal K.S., Rajesh K.V. and Manvi K.

    Background: Ventilator associated pneumonia is associated with use of unsterile methods of intubation and contamination of lungs by oropharyngeal secretions accumulated around the cuff. We wanted to compare efficacy of SACETT in reduction of VAP in our ICU. Methods: Out of total 82 patients enrolled, 70 patients requiring mechanical ventilation for ≥48 hours were divided into two equal groups and randomized to get intubated with SACETT (group S) or ETT (group E). The rest of the preventive measures against VAP, and the mode of ventilation were similar between two groups. Results: The incidence of VAP was 25.71% in group E and 5.71% in group S; (P = 0.0457). The duration of intubation, mechanical ventilation and Intensive Care Unit stay were not significantly different between the two groups. (p>0.05) Conclusions: In this study of our institute there was a significant reduction in incidence of VAP with use of SACETT. The rest of the outcomes were similar with use of either type of endotracheal tube in the patients.

  108. Aradhana Panigrahi Bhaswati Patnaik

    Life style diseases like type 2 diabetes mellitus as well as other diseases of affluence which includes hypertension, obesity, artritis, cardiovascular diseases etc. are most important health concern in the 21st century. Type 2 diabetes is a chronic disease that disturbs a patient’s general health and well-being in various ways. For example, impose of severe dietary restrictions and daily self-administration of medicines or insulin may adversely affect a patient’s health-related quality of life (HRQOL). The present study focuses and explores the relationships between the various positive health aspects such as, life satisfaction, hope, happiness, relaxation and affect as major constructs which acts as mediating and moderating factors for reducing stress and thereby enhancing the quality of life within an individual. The prospective study was conducted on the clinically diagnosed type 2 diabetes mellitus patients in the various government and private hospitals of Bhubaneswar and Cuttack, Odisha in the eastern part of India. During the study period, 350 participants clinically diagnosed with type 2 diabetes mellitus patients were selected based on the inclusion and exclusion criteria. The selected participants were administered with the various scales included in the positive health aspects after seeking their consent. The inter-correlation matrix indicated that all the factors like life satisfaction, hope, happiness, relaxation and positive affect has a significant positive correlation.

  109. Valikhonova Gulnorakhon Komiljonovna Major

    In this article the big flow movement of Uyghurs from Eastern Turkistan, the features of their settlement in Fergana valley and rapid integration processes are focused on.

  110. A clinicopathologic study of various breast lesions by Fine Needle Aspiration Cytology (FNAC) in a tertiary medical college hospital of Bangladesh

    The expected and significant role of cytological diagnosis is to distinguish benign from malignant processes. FNAC of the breast has two main goals. One is to confirm a radiological and clinical benign lesion and avoid unnecessary surgery and the other is to confirm a malignant diagnosis and allow definite treatment planning. In breast lesions rapid diagnosis by aspiration cytology can be particularly useful for allaying the apprehension and anxiety of the patient whose apparent solid mass may turn to be a cyst thus reducing the anguish and morbidity associated with unnecessary surgical procedures. If the lesions turn out to be malignant, the patient can be referred for immediate treatment on priority so that treatment is not unnecessarily delayed. Thus, aspiration cytology is used more and more in the diagnosis of benign and malignant lesions of the breast. It is a cost effective and safe method that can differentiate benign and malignant lesions accurately. In advanced carcinoma or unwilling patients for surgery, it can form the basis of management. The objective of this study was to analyse cases of fine needle aspiration cytology of breast lesions. This study was cross sectional study including all the patients with breast lump who attended Dhaka Community Medical college Hospital for FNAC. A total 50 cases of all ages and both sexes were included in this study. Smears made from aspirated material were collected and examined. Most of the aspirates were from females. There were more benign lesions (43 cases) as compared to malignant cases (07 cases). Fibroadenomas were the most benign lesion of breast. The age of malignant cases ranged from 21 to 60 years with a majority of cases in the age group of 41-50 years (4 cases, 57.1%). FNAC is less time consuming, safe, useful, and highly accurate technique for breast masses and can segregate benign and malignant lesions with accuracy. Triple assessment by clinical, radiological and pathological examination is a standard approach in the evaluation of breast lumps. The clinical and radiological presentations of both benign and malignant lesions can be similar- as a hypoechoic focal mass, occasionally inflammatory lesions may mimic mass like lesions or appears as non-homogenous regions on radiographs. Here, FNAC can play a major decisive diagnostic role and minimizing the requirement of biopsy.

  111. Jahirah Jalal Abidin Shafizan Mohamed

    This study intends to understand the effect of localized parody videos on youths. By specifically focusing on how young Malaysians respond to Mat Luthfi, a famous Malaysian vlogger, the study explicates how video parodies could become a source of entertainment, information and even patriotism. The ideas of user generated content and remix culture are referred to in order to put the youths’ viewing experience into context. Interviews were conducted with students at the International Islamic University Malaysia (IIUM), qualitative analysis was applied to make sense of the respondents experiences. In short, the study found that the youths were very much entertained by Mat Luthfi’s videos. More importantly they had positive impressions of the messages embedded in the parody videos. Among others, the respondents identified messages of racial unity, humanity and positive attitude.

  112. Rajamani Mayathevar and Xavier Arulanandham

    Stress Three adsorbents, namely, Bagasse carbon(BC), silk cotton shell carbon( SCSC) and sorghum vulgare carbon (SVC) were prepared for the adsorption of reactive magenta(RM) and methyl red(MR). Adsorption was studying by optimize the process parameters such as the effect of the experimental parameter like, initial concentration of dyes, contact time, dose of adsorbent, pH and extent of removal of dye from water. The kinetic data were fitted to thepseudo-first-order, pseudo-second-order and intraparticle diffusion models. Langmuir, Freundlich, Temkin adsorption isotherms and various kinetic equation and models like Natarajan and Khalaf, Lagergren, Bhattacharya, pseudo-first order, pseudo-second order, Elovich and intra particle diffusion model for the adsorption data by employing linear regression analysis with the help of computer. The results are confirmed by before and after adsorption process with the help of the following instrumental techniques viz., FT-IR Spectrophotometer.

  113. Mohammad F. Almedhadi

    Skeletal class III malocclusion is a growth related facial deformity which increases if left untreated. The management of this malocclusion should be started as soon as the case is noted. The banded palatal arch in combination with a facemask appliance is one of the methods to treat skeletal class III malocclusion associated with maxillary deficiency. This case report was effectively treated using Petite facemask therapy to enhance the maxillary growth and to achieve balanced profile.

  114. Manikandan, V.

    Background of the study: Alcohol has now turned into a typical word in the Indian culture. Research in the previous couple of years has indisputably shown that about one out of 3 male grown-ups devour liquor. A lot of the general wellbeing load originates from inebriated conduct, bringing about mishaps, savagery and other social results. It has discovered that outrage goes about as a fundamental driver for a drunkard's barbarous conduct. In this way to keep the zonal territories calmly, it is important to learn and use outrage administration procedures for liquor subordinate patients. Methods: A evaluatory approach with one group pre-test post-test design was used for the study. The sample consisted of 50 Industrial workers working in selected industries, selected by non-probability convenient sampling technique. Data was collected by structured knowledge questionnaire and rating scales on harmful effects of alcohol use. After collecting demographic data and conducting the pre-test, self-instructional module was given to the subjects. Seven days after post-test was conducted using the same structured knowledge questionnaire used for collecting the pre-test. The collected data was analyzed by using descriptive and inferential statistics. Results: The result showed the significant difference suggesting that the SIM was effective in increasing the knowledge of the Industrial workers (t =31.19). The mean post-test knowledge score was (23.2) higher than the mean pre-test knowledge scores (11.96). There was no association between the pre-test knowledge scores and the selected demographic variables like age, gender, religion, work experience, type of industries and association between educational levels. Interpretation and conclusion: The findings of the study showed that the knowledge of the industrial workers was not satisfactory before the introduction of self instructional module, helped them to learn more about avoidance of alcohol. The post-test knowledge scores showed significant gain in knowledge. Hence the self instructional module was an effective strategy for providing information and improving the knowledge of subjects. Educating the industrial workers will help them to improve the knowledge.

  115. Dr. Malvika Singh MDS

    Abstract: The study of dental occlusion has been a subject of major interest since the time of emergence of modern dentistry and can be attributed to the fact that it is often less understood and and perhaps ignored by alot of clinicians. Inhibition of occlusal surfaces causes occlusal trauma to the individual and thus require its treatment. Cornoplasty is the procedure of selectively reducing the supracontacts thus relieving the patient of the same.

  116. Dr. Florence K. Nyamu, Dr. Leah N. Wanjama, Ms. Rose M. Irungu Mr. Fred N. Kariuki

    As the basic root of a community, culture defines a way of life, value systems, beliefs, attitudes, structures and systems of education. Each society has clear expectations and outcomes of the education process. Learning is through observation, imitation, participation and instruction particularly during ceremonies associated with rites of passage. Within culture are social, economic and political systems of educating the young to uphold the value systems of the community. Culture also provides mechanisms of moulding the behaviour of the youth to conform to societal expectations as they transit from childhood to adulthood. Within the culture, the young are assigned socio-economic roles that prepare them for adult life. However, some of the values inculcated are at variance with the realities in modern society causing feelings of inadequacy and pressure to conform. There is evidence that as dynamics of the world change, culture also evolves such that some practices become unnecessary, harmful and repugnant. Despite increased access to formal education and new knowledge, harmful traditional processes and practices continue unabated resulting in increased incidences of psycho-social trauma and health challenges. The purpose of this paper was to document stories and experiences of randomly and purposively selected young men and women at university level regarding harmful traditional practices and value systems. The stories from the young men and women provided evidence that despite gains in formal education, there are differences between the socialization processes and experiences from earlier years that make it difficult for them to fit in and enjoy their time at the university. They also intimated that they were aware of the existence of harmful cultural practices that are still propagated at the family/community level which are at variance with the behaviour expected at the university level.

  117. Gadadasu Swathi, Tatapudi Ramesh, Roja Reddy, ThumulaReshmi, Madamalasuvarna and Sureshsanikommu

    Early detection of Oral mucosal lesions plays a vital role in diagnosing and prevention of many dreadful diseases. Photographs taken with high quality cameras serve good purpose of exposure and helps in explanation of rarely encountered mucosal lesions. These photographs can also be used to assess knowledge of students regarding awareness of mucosal lesions. The aim of this study is to evaluate awareness of common oral mucosal lesions in undergraduate, postgraduate students using images. Materials and methodology: A total sample of 200 dental students who are 100 Undergraduate students 100 Postgraduate students were taken. They were supplied with blank answer sheets and a total of 25 slides with clinical pictures with brief history. Each question was projected one by one and students were asked to write their opinions. All the questions were categorized into basic, medium and difficult based on frequency of occurrence. Results: The highest mean score was obtained by post graduates in basic and medium levels and undergraduates had scored in difficult level. On intra group comparison, oral and maxillofacial surgery had scored highest in basic level and oral medicine students had scored highest in rest of categories. Conclusion: Knowledge of oral mucosal lesions was not at satisfied level both in undergraduate and post graduation levels. More emphasis has to be kept on differentiation and diagnosis of different mucosal lesions to ensure higher levels of knowledge in students.

  118. Jane Kuria, (Clinical Psychology), Sylvia Tuikong (PhD) and Moses Mwangi (KMRI)

    Introduction: The objective of this study was to determine the levels of PTSD among adolescents living in Neema and Tumaini Children Homes in Nyandarua County, Kenya. Adolescents who are registered into Children homes are vulnerable and highly prone to PTSD. Traumatic events that are experienced by adolescents may lead to the development of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Objective: To assess the levels of PTSD among Adolescents Residing at Neema and Tumaini Children Homes. Methodology: Quasi experimental research design was utilized for this study. The Population for the study consisted of 400 adolescents aged 11-17 years in the two homes. The Lemeshow et al., (1998) formula was used to calculate the sample size. A sample size of 180 from the two homes was obtained by use of purposive sampling. Out of the 180, 90 were for the experimental group (Neema), while 90 were for the control group (Tumaini). Adolescents were administered social demographic questionnaire, University of California, Los Angeles (UCLA) for PTSD. Analysis: The collected data was analyzed using statistical package for social sciences (SPSS) version 20 to compute univariate, bivariate and multivariate analysis. The results indicated that overall mean PTSD score was 38.5 (I 7.9SD) ranging between 25 and 59 and the score was not significantly different between participants enrolled in the two homes. Results: The analysis of the study revealed that the adolescents who had mild PTSD were 51.3% and those who had moderate PTSD were 48.8%. Overall mean PTSD score was 38.5 (+ 7.9 SD). Conclusion: Adolescents in the homes have been found to suffer PTSD. The home managers should adapt therapeutic programs that help them recover and be able to live productive lives as they relate well with self, their caregivers and peers.

  119. Seon-Ung Min, Hyun-Goo Han, Yong-GyunJin, Was-Su Hyeon, Eun-JiJo and Woon-Ho Yeo

    Considered the possibility of the improvement in dewaterability of sewage sludge by treating ultrasonic waves to sludge with waste wood. The sludge used in this study was collected directly from the sewage treatment plant. It is mixed with 5% waste woodwith holding the pH and temperature, and then treated by ultrasound at different treatment times. The study found that the CST values of sludge with wood waste that did not treated by ultrasound decreased compared to single sludge. Andthe CST values tended to decrease after 5min of ultrasound treatment but it was measured to increase gradually as time of treatment was increase.

  120. Dr. Kumari, M.J.

    Introduction: Reproductive health of women is essential to produce healthy citizen to thenation. Good reproductive health is important for women’s general health and wellbeing. Objectives: The study objectives were to assess the attitude towards reproductive health among women, to assess how the women were practice reproductive health and to find out the association between the attitudes of reproductive health among women with selected variables. Methods: A survey research design was adopted to assess the attitude and practice of reproductive health among the female patients in multispecialty hospital, Puducherry. Totally, 500 patients who were satisfied with the inclusion criteria involved in the six month of data collection period. The tool consists of three parts that is demographic variables, five point likert’s scale, multi response question related to practice of reproductive health. The data were collected by face to face interview method in regional language. Results: The study findings shows that mean value for attitude on reproductive health was 9.8 with standard deviation of 2.245. Out of 500 patients, 246 (49.2%) of women used old cotton cloth material during menstruation, 424 (84.8%) told that they change the undergarments daily. They make one of sunlight for drying the inner garments about 322 (64.4%), 264 (52.8%) dispose the napkin by bury and burn method. 256 (51.2%) does not follow any taboos during menstruation. Conclusion: The concluded few of them had favorable attitude regarding the reproductive health and satisfactory practice. They need education awareness program to improve their attitude and practice of reproductive health.

  121. Ruby Aban-Perez

    One of the key elements of aging well is to feel meaningful social relationships. Being far geographically from one’s relatives, impaired mobility or obligations hinder the older adults from the desire to have satisfying social contact. This study has a dual purpose: one is to examine whether Information and Communication Technology (ICT) use and the Internet has any effect through causing or reducing experiences of loneliness and social isolation among people in independent and assisted living and to examine the perceptions on how Internet use affects communication and social interaction. An axiomatic theory development and qualitative analysis were involved in the various procedures of analysing and interpreting data generated from the examination of documents and records relevant in this study. Theoretical analysis and data mining are resorted to, specifically on those data which are related to the purpose of this study. This documentary work involves reading lots of written materials and the researcher utilized the deductive research approach. The researcher reflected, analysed and then adjusted the research.

  122. Dr. Namita Arora, Dr. Namita Saraswat, Dr. Neerja Banerjee and Dr. Mohandeep Kaur

    Background: Osteoradionecrosis (ORN) is defined as an area of exposed necrotic bone, in an area previously irradiated, that fails to heal over a period of 3–6 months in the absence of recurrence of tumour. ORN of mandible, though rare, is a serious and dreaded complication of radiotherapy. Aim: To study the role of hyperbaric oxygen therapy (HBOT) as an adjunct in improving outcome of treatment of ORN of mandible. Material and Methods: A retrospective analysis was done, from 2015-2017, of various head, neck and oral cancer patients who developed ORN and were treated with HBOT at our centre. The subjects underwent 30 sessions of 2.4ATA for 60min, five times a week in a monoplace hyperbaric chamber. The parameters observed, both pre and post HBOT were wound healing, pain relief and overall wellbeing. Results: The study included 80 patients with a mean patient age of 53.5yrs. 24 (30%) patients improved with HBOT alone. However, 37(46.25%) patients required sequestrectomy and 19 (23.75%) underwent surgery for resection/flap cover along with HBOT. Further 10-15 sittings of HBOT were given to them post-operatively. Conclusion: HBOT alone and as an adjunct to surgery shows encouraging results. Our study corroborates the existing literature on the potential benefit of HBO as a adjunctive treatment of ORN.

  123. Dr. Thenmozhi Nachimuthu, Dr. Athikesavan Jayasenthil and Dr. Udhayan Asokan

    Introduction: Root canal treatment is a procedure that requires concentration and precision while performing in a confined space of the root canal system of the tooth. For the undergraduate students it’s a challenging procedure. Hence a questionnaire survey was conducted among 200 students of 4 dental colleges. Methodology: A self-administered questionnaire was distributed among the students. The questionnaire was divided into four main sections, which evaluated student perception regarding single and multiplevisit treatment, patient cooperation, and the nontherapeutic reasons for multiplevisits treatment. The collected data were tabulated and analyzed. Results: Most of the students are currently practicing both single visit and multiple visits. The main factors consider for multiple visit Root Canal Procedure is allow time for lessening the symptoms before obturation, reduction of post-operative pain , high success rate , easy collection of treatment fees from patient during multiple visit, patient time constrain. Conclusion: Single‑visit RCT is a stressful event for dental students especially if the treated tooth were multiple‑rooted such as anterior and premolar teeth.

  124. Hyun-Goo Han, Seon-Ung Min, Young-Gyun Jin, Wan-Su Hyeon, Eun-Ji Jo and Woon-Ho Yeo

    Sewage sludge in South Korea was generated 9,810.5 tons/day and Sludge treatment costs account for 25~50% of total wastewater treatment costs, so sludge dewatering and reduction are needed. About 20.4% of the generated sewage sludge is recycled as fuel, but it takes a lot of energy and cost to dewater and dry sewage sludge with high moisture content. Therefore, this study investigated whether coal ash, which is easy to dewater, can be used as an agent to improve the dewaterability of sewage sludge which is difficult to dewater due to high cake specific resistance through CST (Capillary Suction Time).CST was measured by adding 1, 3, 5, 7 and 10% of coal ash incinerated for more than 12 hours at 700℃ to the excess sludge generated from S sewage treatment plant. Andthe pH of each mixed sample was measured to determine the effect of coal ash on the pH of sewage sludge. As a result, it is expected that the use of coal ash as an agent to improve will not affect the pH of sewage sludge and it will not be a problem when used with other flocculants. Also, when 1% of coal ash was added to the sewage sludge, the CST was decreased by about 16% or more. This suggests that coal ash can be used as an agent to improve sludge dewaterability.

  125. Dr. Tedlapu Satyendra Kumar, Dr. Hima Bindu, R., Dr. Yalavarthi Ravi Shankar

    Background: Marginal gap and Microleakage are known factors which influence success of Fixed Partial Denture. Thermocycling can mimic oral conditions in invitro study. Question 1: Effect of different luting agents on marginal gap and microleakage. Question 2: Effect of thermocycling on marginal gap and microleakage. Objective: This study aimed at evaluating the effects of manufacturing type, cementation and thermocycling on marginal fit and microleakage of all ceramic samples luted with two different luting agents. Methods: Eighty extracted maxillary premolars were prepared for full-coverage crowns and were divided into four groups. Group 1and 2 : Heat pressed lithium-disilicate copings and crowns, Group 3and4 : CAD/CAM-fabricated ZrO2 copings and crowns. Copings were made following standard techniques, and groups were assigned cementation with resin modified glass-ionomer luting cement self (A) or adhesive resin cement (B). The marginal gap before cementation, after cementation and after thermocycling was measured using image analysis software. After marginal gap measurement, all samples are immersed in basic fuchsin solution, sectioned mesiodistally. The surface of each section was digitally photographed under a stereomicroscope. Microleakage was scored using a five-point scale. Data were statistically analysed using 2-way ANOVA, Kruskal-Wallis, and Mann-Whitney U tests. Results: The mean marginal discrepancy values for all ceramic pressable copings and crown were more after cementation than before cementation (p=0.0). The mean marginal discrepancy values for all ceramic pressable copings and crown were more after thermocycling than after cementation (p=0.10). Samples luted with resin cement showed less marginal gap than samples luted with resin modified GIC (P=0.10).CADCAM samples showed less marginal gap than pressable samples (p=0.2). Self-adhesive resin cement (A) showed a lower level of microleakage than resin modified glass-ionomer luting cement (B) in all groups (P = 0.029). Microleakage scores of ‘0’ were 83% for 1A, 50% for 1B, 50% for 2A, 16% for 2B, 33% for 3A and none for 3B. Conclusion: Marginal discrepancy and microleakage varied with cement type. Lower levels of microleakage were recorded with self-adhesive resin cement, while CAD/CAM-fabricated ZrO2 copings showed smaller marginal discrepancy and less microleakage in comparison to pressable samples.

  126. Arun, B., Mohan Gandhi, V. and Punitha Kumar, R.K.

    Introduction: Sedentary individual are more prone to have the muscle tightens, sedentary individual are the individual who does lot of activity in sitting postures. Hamstring muscle is a two joint muscle. Hamstring flexibility should be maintained well to gain full range of motion in both the joints. During ambulation activity of hamstring are more important. Stiffness in the hamstring could cause postural imbalance, pain, disability and reduced stability in the joint. Aim of the study is to identify the efficacy of Dynamic Stretching with Muscle energy technique on Hamstring flexibility in Sedentary Individuals. Quasi experimental study with 30 sedentary individuals was selected and their hamstring length was measured sit and reach testing. 30 volunteers were randomly allocated into two groups, experimental group with muscle energy technique and the control group with dynamic stretching. The programme was conducted for 8 weeks and the values of the hamstring flexibility were measured using sit and reach test. The pre value, 4th week and 8th week values were taken for the analysis. ANOVA was used to analyze the difference between the durations and the Tukey HSD test used to identify the amount of differences in each groups. Results: The result of the study shows that there was a significant improvement in the experimental group when compared with the control group with the significance of p value at 0.05. The Anova value is 56.7 in the Muscle energy technique group and the value is 168.54 in the dynamic stretching group. The critical value of U at p < .05 is 64. Therefore, the result is significant at p < .05. This study concluded that MET stretching would produce more hamstring flexibility when compared to the dynamic stretching in hamstring tightness.

  127. Joje Mar P. Sanchez, Reyna May E. Dolera, Raymond G. Rosalita Allan Roy B. Elnar

    Considering the serious threat caused by mobile phone use, the study dealt with the determination of how much carbon footprints from the use of mobile phones among the Science undergraduate students of a state university in Central Visayas, Philippines are emitted in the atmosphere. This study utilized the non-experimental quantitative research method, particularly the survey method, to gather data on the number of hours of mobile phone use, and on the conservation practices of the student respondents. The equivalent carbon footprint (CO2e) is obtained by converting the number of hours of phone use through the factor 57 g CO2e per minute use. Study findings revealed that the respondents spent the most in texting with an average of 17.95 kg CO2e per day. Application using, charging and calling contributed an average daily emission of 7.06 kg CO2e, 6.10 kg CO2e, and 1.78 kg CO2e, respectively. Bluetooth-using produced the least emission with 0.49 kg CO2e. These modes of use have implications in the educational setting, highlighting the need to adhere with significant educational theories and principles to maximize instructional time, rather than mobile use time. It was also found out that most students practiced conservation through reduction of mobile phone use, while 4% of them do not have mobile phones, and 9% do not have any conservation practices. Thus, the paper concluded that the students have affected the planet by contributing an annual emission of 84.71 tons kg CO2e, or less than a millionth of the total global emissions. In accordance with the Kyoto Protocol, the students should reduce their mobile phone utility by 25-31 minutes per day. Students are gaining advocay in environmentalism, and eventually towards sustainable development.

  128. Pallav Gupta, Gagandeep Singh and Mohinder Singh Chib

    Introduction: Both-bone forearm fractures in children can be treated non-operatively with a cast. Most previous studies have shown favourable outcome; however, information on the functional outcome after skeletal maturity is still scanty. Therefore, this study was conducted to determine the functional outcome after skeletal maturity in fractures with at least four years of growth remaining. Materials and Methods: This retrospective study was conducted from March 2013 until March 2014. Age at the time of fracture was taken as until 10 years for females and until 12 years old for males with at least four years of growth remaining. Fractures occurring in the diaphysis were included in the study. Functional outcomes were assessed at or after skeletal maturity. Results: Forty-four children fulfilled the criteria. The ages of the youngest and the oldest at the time of fracture was five and 12 years old respectively. Follow-up of the male and female patients were 7.4 years and 5.5 years respectively. There was a significant difference between post-reduction angulation and angulation at skeletal maturity of the radius and ulna (p<0.001). Out of 44 patients, 39 had excellent and five had good functional outcomes. No patient had fair or poor functional outcome. There was no association between the functional outcome and the angulation of forearm bones after skeletal maturity. Age at the time of fracture had a significant association with the functional outcome. Conclusion: Non-operative treatment of both-bone diaphyseal forearm fractures in a cast has good to excellent functional outcomes in children who still have four years of growth remaining.

  129. Mr. Benson I. Muya, Prof. Christopher M. Gakuu and Dr Peter N. Keiyoro

    The involvement of stakeholders or lack of it in a project management can positively or negatively influence project performance. The participation of stakeholders in dissemination of information in project documents, meetings, public hearings and seminars is important in making them aware of the performance of the project. Hence the purpose of this study was to determine the influence of sharing information on the performance of women group beekeeping projects in Kajiado County – Kenya. Thus, the specific objectives of the research were to determine how information sharing through seminars, public hearings, documentation, bulletins and use of leaflets influence performance of the beekeeping projects. Cross sectional research design was used in a mixed mode research approach. Quantitative data was collected through open and crossed-ended questionnaires while qualitative data was collected through an interview guide, observation and focus group discussions. Research instruments were tested for validity through content- related, construct and face validity. Reliability was tested using coefficient Cronbach alpha. A sample size of two hundred and seventy-two (272) respondents was drawn from a target population of eight hundred and forty-five (845) members drawn from forty-two (42) registered women beekeeping groups and five key informants in Kajiado County, Kenya. Regression models and correlation data analysis were used, while non-parametric tests were used to test hypotheses in the study. Qualitative data was scrutinized using content analysis, categorization into themes, narrations of respondents’ quotations and verbatim explanations. The results showed that majority of the women beekeeping projects depended on the use of seminars (88.21%) and public hearings (48.58%) as their tools of information sharing while relying on the use of farm visits with a mean of 3.95; extension workers with a mean of 3.48 and seminars or workshops with a mean of 3.89 as their methods of information sharing. Information sharing influenced project performance at p >0.05. It is recommended that to achieve maximum project performance, it is necessary that Project Managers and Extension workers incorporate information sharing processes in their planning in order to achieve maximum project performance. Further research should also be conducted to investigate other factors that contribute to the successful performance of women beekeeping projects.

  130. Jamaluddin, Rahmawati Nur, Yonelian Yuyun and Agustinus Widodo

    Eel (Anguilla marmorata (Q.) Gaimard) has a high fatty acid content of essentials fatty acids. This study aims to compare the levels of omega-3 fatty acids and omega-6 fish Eel phases of glass eel, yellow eel, and silver eel from the river Palu and lake Poso. The research stages include oil extraction by sokletasi method then analyzed FAME (Fatty Acid Methyl Ester) using Gas Chromatography (GC-MS). The result showed that the total fat content of glass eel phase from Palu (1.9939%) was higher than that of Poso lake (1.2349%), while the yellow eel and silver eel phases of total fat content from Palu (1.0933% and 0.9960%) were lower than the lake Poso (16.7766% and 19.5776%). Level of omega-3 fatty acid and omega-6 phase glass eel from Palu (0.201%) higher than Poso lake (0.088%), while in yellow eel and silver eel phase from Palu (0.101% and 0.059%) lower than origin of lake Poso (1.079% and 3.121%).

  131. Ossifying fibroma of maxilla- A case report

    Ossifying fibroma is considered to be a rare benign fibro-osseous neoplasm of the jaw. Patients generally report with a history of painless expansion of a tooth bearing portion of the mandible, but the lesions of the maxilla are less common. We hereby report a 56-year-old female patient who presented with a painless swelling in the left maxillary alveolar region since 6 months. An incisional biopsy was carried out and the report was suggestive of ossifying fibroma of the maxilla. The excision of lesion was carried out under general anesthesia.

  132. Papamichou, A. and Derri, V.

    Physical Education (PE), Constructive Teaching Strategies (CTS) help pupils to cooperatively learn by solving problems and to be actively involved in the creation of new activities by linking new knowledge to what they already know. The aim of the present study was to identify the possible effect of gender and study specialization of the Physical Education teachers (PETs) on the use of CTS. The survey involved 207 PETs from different regions of Greece. The Constructivist Teaching Practices Inventory in Elementary Physical Education (CTPI-EPE) by Chen Burry-Stock and Rovegno (2000) was used. The results showed that the gender X study specialization interaction was non-significant. Statistically significant differences were found between male and female PETs in all factors of CTS, in favor of the latter, and between PETs of different study specialization in facilitating student social co-operation in favor of graduates of School of Physical Education and Sport Science (SPESS). In conclusion, the gender of PETs is a factor of differentiation in the use of CTS in PE while study specialization affects slightly facilitation of student social co-operation. Specialized training programs in use of CTS can help PETs in their professional development.

  133. Stylianou Tasos, Athianos Stergios Konstandinoudis Kleanthis

    In this study we are trying to review the most important studies on the classification of the accounting systems, the environmental factor studies and the theoretical framework studies. The theoretical framework studies are the most recent development in comparative international accounting. The review of the major theoretical frameworks will provide a sound basis of understanding the relationship between a certain environment and its accounting system as expressed in the regulatory level or in practice. From all the selected studies we have concluded that whatever the perspective of the studies might have been, they all verify the fact that significant differences in cross-national accounting systems exist which have implication in any harmonisation attempts or in the communication of financial reports.

  134. Anas Alnasser

    Background: Paramedics have high levels of exposure to trauma and low levels of psychosocial wellbeing. As such, paramedics develop a range of personal coping strategies with the aim of challenging the demands that are put upon them. The aim of this scoping review is to understand the full range of coping strategies used by paramedics in response to exposure to trauma. Method: Electronic databases were searched on the basis of key search terms in order to identify research relevant to the research question. Eligibility criteria were applied during a process of sequential title and abstract screening. Following data extraction of key aspects of identified research, key coping strategies were identified and discussed. Results: Three key coping mechanisms were identified as follows: the use of humour, the use of alcohol, and the use of family social support. The studies identified were highly variable in their design, and many identified more than one coping mechanism used by paramedics. While the majority of studies identified the use of humour as a coping strategy, the use of alcohol was much more varied, likely due to differences in cultural norms relating to alcohol. Similarly, the use of family as social support was distinctly different across studies, with some identifying it as a useful strategy, and others clearly suggesting paramedics intentionally avoid this strategy to reduce burdening their loved ones. Conclusion: The coping strategies used by paramedics to stressful trauma varied across studies. Paramedics tend to seek family support, use alcohol and have sense of humour in response to traumatic events.

  135. Syed Hassan Mustafa, Adnan Rehman and Muhammad Umer Farooq

    Background: Stroke is sudden reduction in blood supply to the brain resulting in loss of its functions. Hemorrhagic stroke, though a less common type of stroke, is associated with greater morbidity and mortality, and its rapid diagnosis requires early neuroimaging techniques like CT scan brain or MRI brain. Since in Pakistan health care facilities are limited with neuroimaging inaccessible in certain areas, therefore, the main objective of this study was to find out the frequency of raised serum D- dimer levels in patients of hemorrhagic stroke, as plasma d-dimer level is an easily available and cost effective parameter, and may be used to as a screening tool. Methods: By nonprobability convenience sampling, all patients with hemorrhagic stroke admitted in the medical unit of Ayub teaching hospitals were included in the study. The study was conducted from 13th March 2015 to 12th March 2016. The diagnosis of hemorrhagic stroke was done on CT scan brain and plasma D-Dimer levels were send. Data was collected on specific proforma and was put to SPSS version 20. Results: The study group comprised of 243 patients with hemorrhagic stroke as per operational definition. The mean age of the patients was 56.27 ± 8.85. Minimum age was 40 years and maximum age was 78 years. There were 147 (60.5%) males and 96 (39.5%) females. D-dimer levels were found high in 50 (61.7%) patients in the entire study groups. Conclusion: The Frequency of serum D-dimer levels was found to be 61.7%. Therefore, even though a positive correlation was found, D-dimer assay alone is inadequate for screening of patients with suspected hemorrhagic stroke.

  136. Ashenafi Gemechu Degete, Alemayehu Chala and Bekele Hundie

    Stem rust caused by Puccinia graminis f.sp. tritici is one of the major biotic constraints of wheat production. For controlling this pathogen fungicide application mandatory in Ethiopia but appropriate spray schedules is not well known and farmers were applying at least three times to control the stem rust disease. Hence the current research was designed with the objectives to evaluate the effect of fungicide spray schedule on stem rust development and grain physical quality of durum wheat. For this purpose, a factorial field experiment involving six durum wheat varieties (Denbi, Hitosa, Tob.66, Mukiye, Ude and Mengudo) with different level of resistance to stem rust, and three Tilt spray schedules of Tilt®250 E.C at 7, 14 and 21 days interval was conducted at Debre Zeit Agricultural Research Centre during the main and off seasons of 2016/17. The experiment was laid out in randomized complete block design with three replications and untreated checks were included for comparison purpose. Results revealed significant variations in disease parameters and crop performance among spray schedules, wheat varieties and their interactions. Stem rust severity was significantly reduced by the application of Tilt across all wheat varieties, and the highest decrease in disease level (8.9 and 15.2%) was achieved by Tilt sprays at seventh day interval during off and main seasons, respectively. By reducing the stem rust severity, it was possible to improve yield and grain physical quality of the produce. Current results demonstrate the need for effective and sustainable stem rust management to improve the grain physical quality of durum wheat in Ethiopia.

  137. Ali Alyahawi and Muneer Al-wesabi

    Background: A key component in the management of a patient with chronic health problem is the assessment of its adherence with therapeutic regimen. Low levels of patient adherence with disease plans compromise the effectiveness of the therapies and have been associated with an increased risk of adverse health outcomes. Improving medication adherence with chronic diseases has been historically challenging due to its complex and patient-specific nature. Methods: Prospective evaluation of medications for187 insured patients with chronic diseases were included in the present study at the time of their visit to outpatient clinics at 48 model hospital (from October to December, 2017).The Morisky Medication Adherence 4-item Scale (Morisky et al., 1986) (MMAS-4) was used to measure patients’ self-reported adherence to their medications. The instrument has been widely used and it has been demonstrated to be accurate to assess medication adherence in patients with chronic diseases. Results: Among 187 of patients, 51.9% have more than five types of drugs and 86.1% of them were high adherence to use the drugs. Up to half of patients (52.9%) were non-educated, 88.8% of patients take of medication according to prescription, 86.1% of total patients were full compliance and 89.9% of these patients recognized their medication. Conclusion: The results of this study provided evidence about the high prevalence of adherence to prescribed medications in insured individuals affected by chronic diseases. This suggested the positive role of insurance coverage in increasing the compliance rate among patients with chronic diseases at health care organizations.

  138. Sheela, R. and Asha, B.

    This study evaluates the performance of Hybrid Up-Flow Anaerobic Sludge Fixed Film (HUASFF) reactor for treating sago wastewater. A laboratory scale HUASFF reactor having a volume of 30 litres was operated with Organic Loading Rate (OLR) of 0.55 kg COD/m3/d. Several effluent characteristics such as pH, COD, TSS, VFA and biogas production were studied until steady state was reached. The pH of the feed in the reactor was comparatively stable which are well suited for methanogenic activities. The results revealed that variation of effluent pH (from 7.45 to 8.47 ) during the operation with respect to organic loading rate varied from 0.8723 to 4.2011 Kg COD/m3.day with respect to following hydraulic retention time 4, 3, 2, 1.75 and 1.5 days.

  139. Sathya, R. and Xavier, A.

    Schiff bases and their complexes are versatile compounds synthesized from the condensation of an amino compound with carbonyl compounds and widely used for industrial purposes and also exhibit a broad range of biological activities including antifungal, antibacterial, antimalarial, antiproliferative, anti-inflammatory, antiviral, and antipyretic properties. Development of a new chemotherapeutic Schiff bases and their metal complexes is now attracting the attention of medicinal chemists. A novel schiffbase ligand is synthesized by aldehyde with Aromatic Amine to form Schiffbase ligand (L). It is mixed with 1stRow transition metal ions to form metal complexes. Complexes are characterized by Elemental analysis, UV- spectroscopy, Infrared spectroscopy and NMR. Elemental analysis of the metal complexes was suggested that the stoichiometry ratio is 1:2 (metal-ligand). The UVspectrum gives clear idea about the metal complexes. The Schiff base complexes have been screened for their invitro antibacterial activity against three bacteria via; (Staphylococcus aureus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Bacillus sp.) also studied antifungal activities (Aspergillus Niger and Aspergillus flavus). Anti-oxidant properties of metal complexes also have been studied.

  140. Dr. Azhar Mousa AL-Turahiey and Dr. Muntaha Naser Hussein

    Objective: The objective of the study is to document maternal central hemodynamic during clinical phase of pre-eclampsia. Material and methods: This was retrospective observational, comparative study. The study and control groups consist of 40 cases. It was carried out in Al-Hakeem general hospital in Al –Najaf province for the period from April 2016 to April 2017. This was conducted in the department of obstetrics and gynecology in Al –Hakeem maternity department in Al-Najaf. The study group was collected in delivery room. The first group was women who had an elevated blood pressure at least 145/90 mmHg first detected after mid pregnancy with marked proteinurea at least (2+), and the second group was normotensive women with no protein in their urine.

  141. Remedios C. Bacus

    Constant efforts to produce quality pre-service teachers have been undertaken by teacher education institutions. As such, initiatives, like scholarships that promote the pre-service teachers’ acquisition of teaching competencies, have been widely supported by universities and colleges that offer teacher education programs. In order to identify the priority training areas to be developed, 45 STEP Up scholars' data from the Teaching Skills Survey (TSS) and their academic grades were obtained. Using weighted means, findings revealed ‘teamwork’ as the highly learned skill while ‘initiative and self-direction’ was identified the least. A significant difference of the TSS scores was noted only when the scholars were grouped by year level. A post hoc comparison using the Tukey HSD revealed that the CTP scholars’ mean scoresare significantly different from the Juniors and the Seniors’ scores. Considerably, the study showed a negative correlation between the scholars’ TSS and their grade weighted average. While ‘good’ grades are potent indicators of performance, constant effort of both the mentors and the mentees shall be done to deepen teaching competence. While level and program-specific interventions can be done to continually hone the teaching skills of the pre-service teachers, they can benefit from the activities that foster their sense of initiative and self-direction. It is imperative that scholars mentoring plan be anchored on the results of the TSS and unified mentoring activities may be done to enhance their academic performance along with their teaching competence.

  142. Naga Sujata Devarampati

    Aim: Aim of this study is to clinically and radiologically compare the efficacy of two different bone substitute materials one is Hydroxyapatite with collagen and other one is Hydroxyapatite without collagen in alveolar bone defects caused by periapical cysts after cystectomy. Objective: The objective is to evaluate course of cystic bone defects when grafted with Hydroxyapatite with collagen and Hydroxyapatite without collagen by clinical and radiological evaluation of grafted sites through assessment of following parameters. 1) Postoperative subjective complaints both immediate as well as delayed such as pain, swelling etc., 2) Clinical evaluation for pathologic changes of alveolar bone defects including localized inflammation, wound infection and stability of teeth. 3) Radiographic determination of bone fill in the defect site over a period of 6 months Materials and Methods: The study was conducted in the department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, Government Dental College and Hospital, Hyderabad. Patients with periapical cyst of anterior maxilla, who required periapical surgery, were selected. A total of 10 patients aged between 15 – 30 yrs, are included in the present study and were treated by placement of graft material in the cystic defects, following cystectomy. Patients were divided into two groups with 5 in each group. In group I patients cystic defect was filled with Hydroxyapatite where as in group II patients it was filled with Hydroxyapatite with collagen. All the patients were followed for 6 months post operatively. Results: In Group I out of 5 patients two complained of mild pain, two complained of moderate pain and one patient had no pain postoperatively after one week. In Group II all patients complained of mild pain after one week of surgery. One patient in Group I in which wound dehiscence occurred complained of persistent pain and swelling even after 10 days. In all patients soft tissue healing was uneventful when the patients were recalled after 1st, 3rd and 6th months there was no incidence of infection. Non vital teeth, involved with the lesion that had grade1 mobility prior to surgery and grafting showed good stability when they were recalled after 3rd and 6th month.

  143. Balwinder Singh Aulakh

    Sex fixing of mammalian progenies has been a cherished dream of reproductive physiologists since long and it can be a formidable tool in increasing dairy productivity alongside ensuring considerable economic and social benefits. Many attempts to produce sexed off springs have been reported in scientific history and most of them involved techniques producing sexed semen. The present methodology is a novel in vivo technology which uses the administration of a liquid oral formulation which contains active ingredients like monosodiumethanoate and ethanoic acid which when given to females of dairy animals; cows and buffaloes before insemination, yields female off-springs with considerable success rate. The given technology is very simple, effective and has already been patented in USA and many countries of the world including Canada, New Zealand, Australia etc. Major advantages of this may be a rapid increase in the numbers of females of high yielding milch varieties of cows and buffaloes thereby ensuring increased milk production along with benefiting dairy industry too. With so many benefits in its basket of success, this new methodology is even strong enough a candidate to proclaim the arrival of a new class of drugs known as sex fixers in the already diverse and magnificent world of drugs.

  144. Halil Barış ÖZEL, Tuğrul VAROL, Hatice SERT and Bekir DEMİREL

    Background: In this research carried out in the Akkuş-Salman region, the growth status of 2 + 0 aged and naked rooted oriental beech (Fagus orientalis Lipsky.) seedlings used in the artificial regeneration field of the oriental beech has been examined. This growth of the first year, while providing important information on the future of work, does not yet have definitive results in terms of general evaluation of artificial regeneration. According to this; it was determined that the mean height growth of beech seedlings varied between 18.1-20.8 cm in the first year results. Root collar diameter development of oriental beech seedlings planted within the scope of the research has also been examined. As a result of the examinations made, it was determined that the average root collar diameter changed between 14.2-18.4 mm. The last variable examined in artificial regeneration areas of the oriental beech in Salman region is the percentage of survival of the seedlings. It was determined that the percentage of survival of the seedlings changed between 79.4-88.9% in the experimental areas taken from the research area.

  145. Suraksha Gupta, Pushpendra Kannojia, Priya Mishra, Varsha Bandil and Ritika Shakya

    Aim: To Investigate the Ayurvedic formulation for any sign of toxicity and biological evaluation. Materials and methods: The whole study was designed to carry out the research work on amnesia model in mice taking into consideration various parameters that were helpful analysed the potency of the test drug. The toxicity studies were also be performed on rodents prior to conduct the experimentation process in Morris Water Maze model. The study also includes the standardization of selected herbal formulation with various parameters like Ash value, extractive value, moisture content, pH and phytochemical investigation. Acute toxicity studies (50mg/kg, 300mg/kg and 2000 mg/kg orally of test sample)was conducted to determine the safe dose as per OECD-423 guidelines. Three Groups of animals (n=5) were used in this study. Group I was disease control group, Group II received Standard drug (Piracetam) and Group III received Test drug (Divya Medha Vati). Result: No sign of toxicity was observed. The test sample increases the latency time to find the hidden platform in M.W.M. Data of this method was analysed by annova and dunnetts multiple comparison at p<0.01. Conclusion: Results obtained in the present study suggest that the herbal formulation shows significant anti-amnesic activity when divya medha vati and piracetam were used separately.

  146. Indrani P Bora and Arundhati Baruah

    North eastern region of India is known as iodine deficient area and the population is prone to dreaded and endemic disease like goiter. Plant biofortification with iodine can increase in the concentration of the element in edible part of the plant that efficiently improves the consumer’s health. Leafy vegetable was found to have the strongest capability in iodine enrichment through biofortification. An experiment was carried out for two consecutive years to study iodine bio fortification in the form of KI and KIO3 in spinach and cabbage grown in different agro climatic zones of Assam. Five dosages of KI and KIO3 i.e.1.0 mg kg-1; 2.0 mg kg-1 ;3.0 mg kg-1;4.0 mg kg-1 and 5.0 mg kg-1 was applied in foliar and soil along with recommended dosage of organic (Vermicompost) and inorganic(NPK) fertilizer. Foliar application of KI @ 4.0 mg kg-1 showed maximum iodine content during initial year of cultivation (12.24 mg kg-1) which was found to be reduced in successive year (11.66 mg kg-1). The same trend was found in cabbage cultivation also. This may be due to the absorption of iodine by the growing crop during initial year of cultivation. Maximum value was recorded @ 3.0 m g kg-1 when iodine was applied in the form of KIO3 in both spinach and cabbage cultivation. However, iodine concentrations in soil solution were generally higher in iodate treatments compared to iodide in both spinach and cabbage. Low iodine concentrations in soil solutions in treatments with iodide may be due to substantial iodine volatilization. Results showed that foliar application is more effective in biofortification than soil application. It was also observed that iodine accumulation in foliar application was comparatively more under agro forestry than in open condition. This concludes that uptake of iodine by plants grown in soils is dependent on the availability of iodine in the soils, which is essentially governed by adsorption– desorption processes in soils.

  147. Tamar Shiukashvili

    The article deals with the main and very important issues of symbols based on the corpus of the Lawrence Novel “The Rainbow”. In this article we try to analyze the symbols with the structural-semantic points of view. Our research is based on the analyzer computer program AntConc. After the studying research we received very interesting picture. We think that some issues of the symbols with its structural-semantic aspects make interesting research material and enable us to analyze it with the help of our research methods.

  148. Shwetanjaligandhe and shyamGanvir

    As defined by the defined by the International Continence Society- any involuntary loss of urine, is a socially hygienic problem and it is objectively demonstrable. The prevalence rate of SUI ranges from 75- 80 %. Recommended Physical Therapy Management is least invasive and only method without undesirable side effects; apart from classical Kegel’s exercises, recent studies have been experimenting with multiple training options. Interventional studies have been including females aged 60-74 yrs and used the QUID questionnaire for choosing the type of incontinence. Perineometer has been an established and valid strength assessment device in a comparative study for digital palpation by OXFORD scale. This study demonstrates the use of perineometer as a strength assessment and endurance and the use of Pilates as an exercise tool for controlling stress urinary incontinence.

  149. Bhavna Pathak, Ritu Bhavsar, Asha Sharma Anjana Sharma

    Children’s screen dependency is increasing day by day. They are either glued on television screen or on mobile phone screen most of the time. It has been proved in several studies that exposure to food ads on television has direct impact on food habits of children. Food and beverage companies apply various marketing techniques like toys, giveaways along with food products which insist them to buy that product. Cartoon characters, attractive packaging, and musical ads of food and beverage attract young children towards them. Pediatricians accept that fast food and snacks contains high level of sugar, saturated fat, high in calories and low in nutrition. Study concludes that majority of parents (69%) agreed that they know fast food and snacks are unhealthy for their child but they cannot stop them from eating that food. Sixty five percents respondents said that television viewing and exposure to food ads have made their kids stubborn. They demand for those food items which they have seen on television ads. Majority of parents (56%) especially fathers fulfill their kid’s demand. This study shows that food and beverage advertisements affect children’s eating habits. Food ads have made them fond of fast foods and snacks.

  150. Adetomiwa Basiru

    Research productivity in any university is the totality of research performed by academic staff members within a given period of time. The quality of teaching, research and community service of lecturers coupled with their publication in any university system depend on the quality of the electronic database they use. Literature attributed low level of research productivity of academic staff to the poor state of accessibility and utilisation of electronic information resources. This study therefore, investigatedlevel of research productivity of academic staff in private universities in South-west, Nigeria. The descriptive survey research design approach was adopted. A total of 935 academic staff in the 21 private universities were sampled. Stratified random sampling technique was used to select 30% academic staff across the ranks in 21 private universities. The anaylysis showed low level of publication output among the academic staff. The weighted average of 2.02 shows a clear indication that the academic staff has a moderately low level of research productivityin private universities in South-west, Nigeria.

  151. Siti Abdillah Nurhidayah, Heru Kurnianto Tjahjono Susanto

    This research was conducted to analyse the influence of Islamic Work Ethics, affective commitment and altruism against knowledge sharing behaviour. The population in this study is a Doctoral Management student who is working in another organization or institution, in five universities in Yogyakarta. The population also exist in 5 universities in the Special Region of Yogyakarta. The sample in this study were 130 respondents. This research uses purposive sampling method to get the sample. The results of this study indicate that: 1) Islamic work ethics has significant result on altruism; 2) Affective commitment has no significant effect on altruism; 3) Islamic work ethics has significant influence on knowledge sharing behaviour; 4) Affective commitment has a significant effect on knowledge sharing behaviour; 5) Altruism has significant influence on knowledge sharing behaviour.

  152. Alok Yadav, Chotu Kanahaiya, Hitesh Ganna and Prof Abhishek Venkteshwar

    Research in the field of Economy of developing nations have become a dynamic study area over the past few decades and is likely to become even more so as the importance of economic development is rapidly gaining momentum. Therefore understanding the economy of developing nations will be viewed as increasingly important. Terrorists can inflict heart-breaking loss of life and costly destruction of property. But does terrorism also have an economic impact that extends far beyond the violent act itself?

  153. Feruz Sayfilloyevich Boboyev

    Rupture of diaphragmatic hernia is a very rare life threatening situation in pregnancy.it usually is followed by abstraction and strangulation of the herniated intra-abdominal organs such as colon, stomach and small bowel. Almost 50% of cases are misdiagnosed because of the non-specific manifestation of diaphragmatic hernia. The symptoms can be varied as the spectrum, from slight abdominal pain to acute abdomen or sever respiratory distress. High suspicion should be considered when the patient’s symptoms don’t response to usual supportive management. Delay in surgical intervention leads to high maternal and fetal mortality while timely diagnosis is resulted in favorable prognosis. Herein we present a pregnant woman with progressive epigastric pain and sever respiratory distress, who were undertaken thoracolaparotomy and gastrorrhaphy due to gastric strangulation via ruptured diaphragmatic hernia on 22nd week of gestation. Eventually both of them, mother and baby had a good prognosis. We concluded that although this condition is very rare but is very dangerous and it is mandatory to emergent surgery to avoid life threatening implications.

  154. Walter Duarte de Araújo Filho, Luciana Martins Pereira de Araújo, Djalma Menezes de Oliveira and Claudio Roberto Marquetto Maurício

    The article deals with the generation of monodisperse micro bubbles using a microfluidic device based on 3D printing. The micro bubbles play a role of carriers of biologically active compounds to act locally in the chosen region having the ultrasound as the drug-releasing agent from a known frequency. The micro bubbles are generated by the passage of gas (nitrogen) through an emulsion consisting of coconut oil, a surfactant, and water, forming individual outer shell layers consisting of sunflower oil. In the development of the work, micro bubbles with an average diameter of 23.50m with a dispersion of 1.1% were produced, which characterizes a population with a high degree of homogeneity. The Lupeol used was isolated from Maytenus acanthophylla (Celastraceae) plant leaves by phytochemical and spectrometric techniques, including methods in liquid chromatography and 1H and 13C magnetic resonance. The natural product Lupeol is recognized for presenting actions against inflammation, antitumor (prostate cancer), arthritis, diabetes, heart disease, kidney, and liver toxicity. The micro bubbles generated by the technique described above will be applied in in vitro assays to evaluate the behavior of tumor cells in the presence of a population of micro bubbles after collapse caused by the presence of a known ultrasonic frequency and intensity, allowing the interaction of diseased cells with the biologically active component.

  155. Khurshida Yunusova, Umid O’sarov

    The population of Central Asia had a lot of experience in agriculture, in particular, in the alternation of cultivated crops. Planted areas were planted several species, and after a certain time - other crops. This method played an important role in restoring the natural fertility of the earth and improving soil composition, as well as in combating various plant diseases.

  156. Medha Rawat, Pranav Joshi, Harsh Joshi, Kartik Shah and Supriya Malhotra

    Background: Migraine is a common neurological disorder associated with a significant disease burden. It is characterized by unilateral/bilateral severe pulsating headache. Insufficient data are available regarding the utilization pattern of available drugs for the prevention and management of migraine. Migraines can be severe enough to limit sufferers’ causing significant lost productivity and decrements in health-related quality of life. Objectives: To study drug utilization pattern in patient of migraine in the outpatient department of neurology at a tertiary care teaching hospital. To assess the impact of migraine on Quality of life [QOL] of patients suffering from migraine. Methods: This cross-sectional observational study was conducted for 12 weeks. All patients either gender and age were included attending the neurology Outpatient Department and diagnosed to have migraine. Demographic profile of the patient and drug data was collected. Tools of QOL in migraine are included: Migraine disability assessment (MIDAS) score, Headache Disability Index (HDI) score and Headache Impact Test (HIT-6) score. Results: Total 65 patients were included; 53 (81.5%) females and 12 (18.5 %) males. Most of the patients were of 21-50 years of age. Precipitating factors were travel (30.77%) followed by mental tension (18.46%) and irregular food intake/ hunger (15.38%). Common symptoms were photophobia (53.8%) and phonophobia (50.7%). Drugs prescribed propranolol 43 (66.1%), amitriptyline (21.5%), naproxen (6.1%) and paracetamol (6.1%). MIDAS score; most patients 36 (55.3%) presented with mild disability. 52 (80%) patients answered that they feel severe migraine pain. Conclusions: We observed that migraine is more common in females patients. Most common drugs used alone were propranolol, amitriptyline, naproxen and paracetamol. Most patients felt severe headache which has affected their day-to-day life disabling that it impacted their ability to do even daily routine work.

  157. Kalita, R.M., Sarma Baruah, R., Barman, T.K., Medhi, C.

    The Ru complexes are synthesized and electron transfer process has been analyzed by theoretical studies. The electron donating ability from the donor sites for the ligand towards Ru can be understood from the reduction of charge density of these atomic sites. Formation of stable complexes is expected from the extent of charge transfer from ligand to Ru. Moreover coordinating ability of donor sites is closely related to the stability of the complex leading to the variation of redox potential. The computed values of oxidation (OX) and reduction (RD) for these complexes vary significantly which are related to frontier energy gap.

  158. Nidhi Kumar and Dr. Gurpreet Singh Wander

    Background: Cardiovascular diseases are main cause of mortality and morbidity worldwide. Acute myocardial infarction needs prompt and urgent diagnosis and therapy. AMI patients often use denial during the first hours and even first days after the initiation of sign and symptoms contributing to Pre hospital delay. Factors associated with prolonged pre hospital delay in patients with AMI are unable to recognize symptoms of heart attack, old age, low socio-economic status, female gender, previous history of hypertension or diabetes and use of over the counter drugs. Objectives: - To assess the factors influencing pre hospital delay in seeking medical treatment among patients with Acute Myocardial Infarction. Methodology: An exploratory study was conducted on 100 Acute Myocardial Infarction patients in selected areas of Hero DMC Heart Institute, Ludhiana, Punjab. Purposive sampling technique was used to select the sample. Modified Dracup K. Moser DK (1997) Response to Symptom Questionnaire was used to assess the factors influencing Pre Hospital Delay in seeking medical treatment among Acute Myocardial Infarction patients. Data was collected using interview method. Results:- The findings of the present study revealed tht majority of AMI patients(45%) were having longer Pre hospital delay which is more than 8 hours and the factors influencing pre hospital delay among AMI patients were that they were not able to recognize the symptoms of AMI (74%) followed by visited local doctor(70%),did not recognize the importance of symptoms(60%)etc. Chest pain onset during night and presence of paramedical person in the family and source of information had association with Pre hospital delay time at p≤ 0.05 level. Conclusion: The study findings concluded that majority of Acute Myocardial Infarction patients were having longer pre hospital delay as they were not able to recognize the symptoms of heart attack contributing to Pre hospital delay. Recommendations: It is recommended to plan and organize community awareness programmes focusing on recognizing initial symptoms of AMI and immediate management to reduce Pre hospital delay and seek medical help immediately after symptom onset.

  159. Abha Anand and Murthy Chavali

    Ecological generation and isolation of heavy metals such as Ag, Au, Cu, etc by Phytoextraction one of the best methods in biotechnology and nanotechnology field for various applications for human use. Since Gold (Au) is one of the expensive heavy metal, so Gold Nanoparticles (GNPs) or compounds are also available in market at a very high price. Therefore the isolation of GNPs by Phytoextraction methods cost comparative very low. GNPs are easily prepared using neem (Azadirachta indica) leaves by phytoextraction procedure using HAucl4. This research work provides a more possible option for generation of GNPs in lesser time, very low cost and non-toxic procedure without using large and complex apparatus. This paper deals with the generation of eco-friendly and cost effective gold nanoparticles by using leaf extract of neem (Azadirachta indica) as reducing agent in short period of time by microwave assistance showing improvement particularly for reduction of time, modulation of size and shape.

  160. Zujaja Hina Haroon, Tahreem Kashif, Haroon Javaid, Muhammad Aneeq Haroon, Nadeem Paracha and Abid Sharif

    Objective: To determine the multi-organ effects of influenza A/H1N1 virus, particularly focusing on the derangement of hepatic and renal function during the course of the infection. Design: Cross sectional study Place and duration of study: Department of Chemical Pathology and Endocrinology Combined Military Hospital, Multan, from Nov 2017 to Jan 2018. Patients and Methods: All suspected cases with clinical features of influenza flu, who were admitted in Combined Military Hospital Multan, from Nov 2017 to Jan 2018 were closely observed for the purpose of investigating the multi-systemic effects of the disease.PCR for influenza virus was conducted. Liver function tests and renal function tests were performed in all suspected cases. In A/H1N1 positive cases LFTs and RFTs were repeated after completion of treatment with oseltamavir and azithromycin. A/H1N1 positive and negative groupswere compared.A total of 145 cases were analyzed. Results: Out of the 145(100%) cases that had been reviewed, 72 (49.65%) cases were positive for influenza A/H1N1 infection, 73 (50.35%) patients had negative results for influenza virus. Out of the positive 72(100%) cases, 18(25.1%) had deranged LFT’S, 15(20.83%) had deranged RFT’s and 10(13.8%) had both LFT’S and RFT’S deranged, and the remaining 29(40.27%) patients had normal chemistry. While the 73 patients with negative results for H1N1 virus had normal chemistry and no derangement of LFT’S and RFT’S. Our patients were treated for H1N1 infection, and the liver and kidney function reverted back to a normal level in 72 hours. Conclusion: Our study showed that significant number of patients with influenza A/H1N1 infection had derangement in LFTS and RFTS as compared to non –influenza flu cases indicating that it is a multi-organ effecting virus. Early initiation of treatment resulted in reversion of deranged LFTs and RFTs

  161. Youba Minta and Youssouf Traore

    Relationship marketing and customer loyalty are two concepts that have been explored by researchers because these two concepts are important in marketing. Today with hard competition, customers are at the foundation of business vision and their satisfaction is the main factor to gain a competitive advantage. This paper offers a literature review of relationship marketing and customer loyalty in general and particularly the relationship marketing factors most influencing customer loyalty. Several articles were examined for their relevance to the concept of relationship marketing and customer loyalty. The paper begins with an introduction; then, a review of academic research on relationship marketing and customer loyalty and, finally, a summary of the influence of relational factors on customer loyalty is presented. It is trusted that the paper could provide some insights that will be useful for academics and practitioners to study existing research and to consider future research.

  162. Mbugua Gerald, Mbuvi Harun, Muthengia Jackson, Irene Githinji, Nthiga E. Wanja and Moses Ollengo

    Water hyacinth plant is known to jam water bodies with thousands of tons of floating plant matter. In order to help in its control, it is important to explore ways to create value in its products especially the ones that can find use in water remediation. On the other hand rice husk is not waste anymore for its ash is rich in active silica. Thus, the present study determined the capacity and efficiency of water hyacinth ash, its insoluble residue, and rice husk ash to remove lead ions and turbidity from contaminated water. Mixtures of the two ashes were used to prepare zeolitic materials A and B by hydrothermal reactions. Material A was prepared using rice husk ash and the soluble fraction of water hyacinth ash while for material B, a mixture of equal amounts the two ashes including the insoluble residue of water hyacinth ash were used. The efficiency of the material was investigated by varying the effect of initial lead ions concentration, pH, contact time, temperature and adsorbent dose. Adsorption data for lead ions on rice husk ash, water hyacinth ash residue and materials A and B best fitted the Langmuir model and gave adsorption capacities of 37.04, 83.33, 142.86 and 278.6 mg/g respectively while water hyacinth ash best fitted Freundlich model and gave an adsorption capacity of 61.69 mg/g. The findings herein indicate that incorporating the residue of water hyacinth ash in the synthesis of the zeolitic material enhances its adsorption capacity and efficiency for lead ions and also imparts ability to remove turbidity.

  163. Dr. Pradnya Nagmode, Dr. Balaji Kapse, Dr. Hrishikesh Karpe, Dr. Raksha Rathi and Dr. Kanchan Chavan

    Introduction: The knowledge of the complex anatomy of maxillary molars and location of extra canals are essential for diagnosis and endodontic treatment success. Objective: The purpose of this study was to report a clinical case showing a varying number of palatal roots in a second maxillary molar with the aid of operating microscope (OM). Case report: A four-rooted maxillary permanent second molar with 2 separated palatal canals undergone endodontic therapy. After endodontic access, examination of the chamber floor using an operating microscope revealed two distinct palatal canals orifices. A radiograph was taken after the working lengths of each canal were estimated by means of an electronic apex locator which clearly identified the four roots with independent four canals. The canals were instrumented with ProTaper™ rotatory instruments under irrigation with 5% sodium hypochlorite, obturated with Pulp Canal Sealer® and continue wave technique. After completion of root canal treatment, the tooth was restored with composite resin. Results: After endodontic access, the presence of two different palatal canals was found in a second maxillary molar, resulting from a variation in the number of palatal roots of this tooth. Conclusion: The high magnification and clear illumination quality provided by the dental operating microscope increase endodontic treatment success of the variations in the internal anatomy of the tooth.

  164. Damianus Abun, Theogenia Magallanes and Mirriam Tabur

    This paper argues that solving environmental problems is complex because it is not a matter of introducing strict laws on environment. Laws will be always considered as an external burden to be followed. People’s environmental awareness must be roused because the environmental problem is coming from the mind which has been shaped by the culture. Therefore, it is not a question of laws but more than this, it is about cultural awareness that has influenced the attitude and behavior of people toward environment. Changing cultural perceptions is one fundamental option in solving the environmental problems.

  165. Prof. Dr. K. Prabhu Sankar, P.Raja Pandian, Prof. Dr. V. Usha, and Dr. M. Varun

    An ectopically erupted tooth with infected denigerous cyst within the maxillary sinus is a rare occurrence. A 20 yr old female patient presented with pus discharge, rhinorrhea, halitosis and swelling over the left cheek. It was diagnosed to be a large dentigerous cyst with ectopic tooth in left maxillary sinus. Early diagnosis and treatment is essential as it has greater tenden to produce some resorption of other teeth as compare to other jaw cyst. In this case ths cyst had lined the antral cavity hence enucleation had to be done through Caldwell-Luc approach.

  166. Shiva Rama Krishna Samala, Kishore Gokavarapu, Srinivasa Rao B., Sarita Gokavarapu and Sunil Gandhi

    A simple convenient and efficient process of Genotoxic impurity (F impurity) removal from the Imatinib API by treatment with base like sodium hydroxide at 45-50oC about 12hr using water as medium with negligible yield loss , this process can used as a high potential application in commercial scale Genotoxic impurity removal from the Imatinib API.

  167. Govindappa Navalagi and Sujata S. Tallur

    In this paper we introduce a new class of sets namely, sg*-closed sets in topological spaces. For these sg*-closed sets,we define and study their neighbourhoods. Mathematics Subject Classifications (2010): 54A05, 54B05.

  168. Ozougwu, C. P, Aniagolu, M.O and Ezeokeke, E.A

    Malaria during pregnancy continues to be a major health problem in endemic countries with clinical consequences including death of both mother and child and attendant derangement in trace elements. This study is aimed at evaluating the relationship between the trace element copper and malaria density in pregnant women with malaria. The patients are pregnant women attending ante natal clinic of Nnamdi Azikiwe University Teaching Hospital Nnewi, Anambra, South East, Nigeria. The controls are pregnant women without malaria, non-pregnant women with malaria and non-pregnant women without malaria. The concentration of copper was determined by atomic absorption spectrophotometry while the malaria density was determined by counting the parasites against white cells. From results, copper showed a significant increase in pregnant women with malaria 13.63±6.22µmol/L compared to pregnant women without malaria 12.49±3.62µmol/L, non-pregnant women with malaria 7.29±2.83µmol/L and non-pregnant women without malaria 5.26±1.41µmol/L (F=102.6; p<0.05). Copper has a moderate negative correlation with parasite density (r=0.32; p=0.003).

  169. Dr. Mateen Tahir

    India is one of the most rapidly developing countries in the world. This is unarguably the direct consequence of the economic reforms initiated primarily during the time of major macro-economic crisis witnessed by the country in 1991. On account of economic reforms the country has experienced a continuous rise in GDP growth rates barring certain exceptions. During this entire period the employment rate, per-capita income, wages and investment etc. have also shown improvement. However, this growth story has also led to a skewed distribution of the benefits thereby accentuating the perennial problem of poor-rich divide. The problem gets murkier with the inability of majority of people in the country to participate in the financial system in various ways. This problem is partly on account of non-availability of assets , savings, inappropriate design of products but also a great proportion of people stay away from the current system on account of the religious reservations. This paper tries to position Islamic investment products as a potential tool for supplementing & complimenting the current financial system in overcoming the problem of financial exclusion in India and other developing countries.

  170. Dr. S. Sivaranjani, Dr. Shafie Ahamed, Dr. Bhavani and Dr. Rajaraman

    Aim and Objectives: The present study was undertaken to evaluate and compare the remineralization potential of three different dentifrices with different composition (fluoro calcium phosphosilicate, nano-hydroxy apatite, calcium sucrose phosphate) on artificially induced carious lesions in vitro through scanning electron microscopy and quantitative assessment by energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy. Materials and method: The present in vitro study conducted on 30 caries free impacted third molars with intact surfaces divided into three groups (10 each). Artificial demineralization was carried out, followed by remineralization using dentifrice slurry as per the group allocation. After 10 days period the entire test groups were evaluated with HRSEM and quantitative assessment by energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy .the obtained data was analyzed statistically using one way ANOVA, student’s t test and tukey’s multiple comparison tests.p≤ 0.05 was considered to be significant. Results: All three dentifrices tested showed remineralization although insignificantly different from each other but highlights the concept of biomimetic bioactive glass as an effective remineralizing agent. Conclusion: To focus on the importance of minimal invasive treatment on incipient carious lesion by remineralization.

  171. Dr. Terence Abraham, Dr. Femy Terence, Dr. Kavita Eappen, Dr. Abhinay Sorake and Dr Ridhima Suneja

    This paper discusses the importance of oral lesions as indicators of infection with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and as predictors of progression of HIV disease to acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS). Oral manifestation is among earliest the most important indicators of infection. Seven cardinal lesions oral candidiasis, hairy leukoplakia, Kaposi’s sarcoma, linear gingival erythema, necrotising ulcerative gingivitis, necrotising ulcerative Periodontitis and non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma, which are strongly associated with HIV infection, have been identified and internationally calibrated and are seen in both developed and developing countries. They may provide a strong indication of HIV infection and be present in the majority of HIV infected people. Antiretroviral therapy may affect the prevalence of HIV-related lesions. The presence of oral lesions can have a significant impact on health-related quality of life. Oral health needs in people with HIV infection, especially in children, and in adults particularly in medical programmes and to integrate oral health care with general care of the patient. It is important that all the health care workers receive education and training on the relevance of oral health needs and the use of oral lesions as surrogate markers.

  172. Prabhjeet Kaur and Dr. Rekha Bhatia

    K-MEANS is a partitioning clustering algorithm in data mining which is very useful technique to find the nearest clusters in data. K-MEANS is an unsupervised learning, which use for divide the data into K-clusters. BIRCH is a Balanced Iterative reduction and clustering Hierarchies’ algorithm. It is a hierarchical based clustering in which is used to divide a large data in small clusters. To improve the quality to large dataset in which some values are not present we used a combination of K-MEANS and BIRCH algorithm to solve this problem. In this paper, we discussed the data set in which we do not get the exact problem in data set and how we solved it. To solve this type of problem we use represent a combination of K-MENAS and BIRCH algorithm.

  173. Nganso Ditchou Yves Oscar, Ndogo Eteme Olivier, Zondegoumba Ernestine, Mala Opono M. T. G. and Nyasse Barthelemy

    In the search for new compounds endowed with antibacterial, antioxidant and antiplasmodial properties in Cameroonian pharmacopoeia, a new compound was established using spectroscopic analysis techniques. The compound was isolated from the ethyl acetate fraction of Allexis obanensis. The antibacterial, antioxidant and antiplasmodial activities of this compound isolated were assessed in this study. It showed good antibacterial activities, good antiplasmodial activity against the chloroquine-sensitive Plasmodium falciparum 3D7 strain but has presented a weak antioxidant activity.

  174. Sabha Malik, Farhat Ali, Azhar un Nisa, Fida Mohamad and Liaqat Ahmad Malik

    Background: Preterm delivery is defined as birth occurring prior to 37 completed weeks of gestation and is one of the major cause of neonatal death. The objective of the study was to verify the correlation between low maternal serum magnesium levels and preterm delivery so that the high morbidity and mortality related to prematurity could be reduced by early diagnosis of its deficiency and its correction. Methodology: A prospective case control study was conducted between January, 2017 to January 2018 at SKIMS maternity hospital. A total of 88 women were enrolled, 44 women with established preterm labour and 44 of comparable gestation who had come to the hospital for routine checkup. Results: Women in preterm labour had a significantly reduced magnesium level with the mean of 1.369 ± 0.190 mg/dl versus 2.004 ± 0.132 mg/dl for those who delivered at term number of patients with preterm labour who gave history of muscle cramp were significantly greater than those delivered at term. Percentage of patient with preterm labour belonging to low socioeconomic class was significantly higher. Conclusion: Serum magnesium level can be used as a fairly good tool for predicting preterm labour. rticle deals with the generation of monodisperse micro bubbles using a microfluidic device based on 3D printing. The micro bubbles play a role of carriers of biologically active compounds to act locally in the chosen region having the ultrasound as the drug-releasing agent from a known frequency. The micro bubbles are generated by the passage of gas (nitrogen) through an emulsion consisting of coconut oil, a surfactant, and water, forming individual outer shell layers consisting of sunflower oil. In the development of the work, micro bubbles with an average diameter of 23.50m with a dispersion of 1.1% were produced, which characterizes a population with a high degree of homogeneity. The Lupeol used was isolated from Maytenusacanthophylla (Celastraceae) plant leaves by phytochemical and spectrometric techniques, including methods in liquid chromatography and 1H and 13C magnetic resonance. The natural product Lupeol is recognized for presenting actions against inflammation, antitumor (prostate cancer), arthritis, diabetes, heart disease, kidney, and liver toxicity. The micro bubbles generated by the technique described above will be applied in in vitro assays to evaluate the behavior of tumor cells in the presence of a population of micro bubbles after collapse caused by the presence of a known ultrasonic frequency and intensity, allowing the interaction of diseased cells with the biologically active component.

  175. GU Chun-chuan and WANG Ming-shan

    Objective: To investigate the effects of surgical thrombectomy on the treatment of prostate cancer complicated with deep venous thrombosis of the lower extremities. Methods: Between June 2015 and December 2016, 96 patients of prostate cancer complicated with deep venous thrombosis of the lower extremity who were admitted to Hangzhou Cancer Hospital were included into this study. The patients were randomly divided into Observation group and control group according to the random number table method and the difference of intervention measures (surgical thrombectomy vs drug therapy). Platelet (PLT), fibrinogen (Fbg), prothrombin time (PT) and new thrombosis rate were observed before and after treatment within 2 weeks. Results: Before treatment, there was no significant difference in PLT, Fbg and PT between the two groups (P>0.05). PLT and Fbg decreased significantly in the two groups after treatment, and the decrease in the observation group was more significant (P<0.05). The thrombosis rate (4.35%) was significantly lower than that of the control group (16.00%), and the difference was significant (P<0.05). Conclusion: Surgical thrombectomy is more effective than drug intervention in the treatment of prostate cancer with deep venous thrombosis of the lower extremity. It can be further studied as a preferred protocol.

  176. Henri Wilfried Hounkpatin, Guy Clarence Sèmassou, Basile Kounouhewa, Emile Sanya and Antoine Vianou

    Most of the houses in Benin are built randomly, with arbitrary orientations and unsuitable materials. This lack of rigor in the design of edifices and the inappropriate choice of materials lead to the construction of premises that do not meet the climatic requirements and lead to excessive energy consumption in case of air conditioning. Thus, the purpose of this work is to explore the suitability of various local roofing materials eligible for the construction of residential premises and to analyze their impact on the overall thermal and environmental performance of houses. To achieve this, four different roofs were tested on a building chosen as a model. The thermal contributions of these different roofs, as well as the energy consumption, were determined by dynamic thermal simulations in order to apprehend the thermal behavior of the chosen building. The TRNSYS software was used to model the building and perform the various simulations. The study showed that the straw roof reduces the need for cooling by 37% compared to the reference building whose roof is made of concrete slab. With the terracotta tile roof, the heat load is reduced by 15%. On the other hand, the zinc sheet roof increases the cooling requirement by 40% compared to the concrete slab benchmark. The study revealed that there exists an economic and environmental interest to develop roofing made from local materials such as straw and terracotta.

  177. Chavan, U. D., Lande, S. B., Kotecha, P. M. and Nirmal, S. V.

    In India sorghum is traditionally consumed in the form of unleavened pan cake/Roti/Bhakari. Because of sorghum is a staple food in many parts of the country. Though sorghum grains are nutritious, the consumption of this cereal is decreasing due to non-availability of easy cooking raw materials from the sorghum. The other major reasons are; dying traditional food habits, requirement of special skill for preparing sorghum rotis. For many years sorghum eating population particularly in rabi growing areas, the roti made from Maldandi (M 35-1) is preferred for taste and softness, over other genotypes. But now days some new genotypes of rabi sorghum are developed which gives better nutritional as well as organoleptic quality of the roti than the M 35-1. During Kharif-2017 (Dharwad Center) total 28 sorghum genotypes from advance varietal trials (AVT; 18) and advance hybrid trials (AHT; 10) were evaluated for flour, dough, roti and nutritional quality parameters using above parameters. On the basis of these characters among the new sorghum genotypes from AVT; DSV 4, SPV 2437, CSV 27 and SPV 2424 and from AHT; CSH 16, CSH 25 and SPH 1846 were found promising for flour, dough, roti and nutritional quality.

  178. Dr. Vaijwade Kalyani, A., Dr.Bhadage Chetan, J., Dr.Bhoosreddy Ajay, R., Dr. Jaisinghani Mala, R. and Dr. Varma Shweta S.

    Introduction: It is very important to detect pneumatization that is air filled cavities adjacent to temperomandibular joint as they represent sites of minimal resistance and help in spread of pathologies into the joints like inflammation, tumour, fracture and also complicated factor in TMJ surgery. To prevent surgical complications, the diagnosis of these air cells is important. Aim: To assess the prevalences and characteristics of pneumatized articular eminence and pneumatized roof of glenoid fossa using cone beam computed tomography (CBCT). Materials and methods: CBCT scans of patient was evaluated to detect frequency of pneumatization at articular eminence and roof of glenoid fossa. Age and gender was recorded for all patients. Certain characteristics (type, lateral spread etc.) were studied for all the selected joints. Results: Of the 200 regions, 12 (6%) presented with PAT and 56 (28%) with PRGF. Unilateral PAT and PRGF were found in 9(75%) and 23 (41.07%) patients, respectively. PAT prevalence was 33.33% in females and 66.66% in males and out of 200 regions, 66 % had grade 0 pneumatization, 24 % had grade 1, 6 % had grade 2, and 4 % had grade 3. Conclusion: CBCT images are accurate and reliable means to detect the exact size and type of pneumatization and their relationship to adjacent tissues. Detection of pneumatization is necessary before a surgical intervention is planned, in order to prevent complications.

  179. Dr. Niti Dalal and Dr. Sunita Singh

    Digital Pathology extends the limits of microscopy, enabling students, educators, researchers and clinicians to share tissue samples. Images sent or shared over the Internet or through specific analysis software open the path to a new and exciting microscopy tool. Software applications make it possible to see and share images beyond microscopes such as studying images on computer monitors, laptops, iPads and other portable devices. In some circumstances, multiple researchers are able to observe and discuss the same sample in real time over the Internet. Researchers that use a microscope as part of his/her daily regime can use Digital Pathology software to make digital slides, create a database and use advance programming to recognize and classify a tissue sample as well as identify abnormalities. Digital imaging technology advances possibilities in the realm of microscopy, providing a means to preserve, share, duplicate, and study a specimen. A standardized method of obtaining, storing and sharing digital images is needed and can lead to better diagnostic techniques and consultation methods for pathology diagnosis, however, these procedures have yet to materialize. In addition, utilizing digital images for teaching and consultation can be more effective for storage purposes and have easier accessibility as compared to traditional print photographs and slides. There is very little data assessing the utilization of microscopic digital images in India.

  180. Halil Barış ÖZEL, Tuğrul VAROL, Mehmet Onur GÜRKAN and İlker KAPUKIRAN

    In this research, the growth and adaptation status of natural young people coming to the area at the end of the first year were investigated as a result of the natural rejuvenation studies made on the beech-stem maple trees (Acer trautvetteri Medw.) in Sakarya-Hendek region. According to the measurement results obtained from the natural regeneration area, the mean height growth ranged from 10.6 to 13.4 cm, the mean root collar diameters ranged from 1.2 to 1.6 mm and the number of natural juvenilities varied from 4.3 to 5.6 item/m2.

  181. Esra Saatci, Efe Efeoglu, ZelihaAkman Usguloglu, Elif Can Halici and Emrah Ersoy

    Background and objective: The aim of this study is to define the level of organizational citizenship behavior and perception of organizational justice and related factors in employees of Cukurova University Hospital. Methodology: Our sample consisted of 159 employees. Data was collected with a sociodemographic questionnaire, Organizational Citizenship Behavior Scale, and Perception of Organizational Justice Scale. Results: All subdomain scores of organizational citizenship behavior were at the lowest quartile. Three out of four subordinates scores of perception of organizational justice were in moderate-high group. Only informational justice score was in low-moderate group. The significant related factors for all subdomains of organizational citizenship behavior were number of children, occupation, and tenure. Age was significantly related to all subordinates except civic virtue. Gender was significantly related to courtesy and sportsmanship. Perception of organizational justice was significantly related to age, number of patients per day, and the department where the participant works. Organizational citizenship behavior was significantly correlated with perception of organizational justice. Conclusion: As the level of organizational citizenship behavior were found to be low and the level of perception of organizational justice were found to be moderate-high in employees of Cukurova University Hospital, interventions are required to improve the level of organizational citizenship behavior and informational justice.

  182. Muniya Naik, M., Jayasankar, A., Sugunakar, Y.J., Sudhakara Reddy, M., Subramanyam, P., Udaykiran, V. and Sivasankar, R.

    The literature pertaining to “pesticide protein interaction” contributes immensely to the field of pesticide biochemistry. The pesticides are found to be alter the structural and soluble proteins by causing biochemical changes in the cell. In the present study Healthy adult mice of same age (100±10 days) and weight (75±10 g) were divided into four groups having ten animals each. The second, third and fourth groups of animals were termed as experimental animals, To the animals of second group single dose of pesticide (i.e. on 1st day) was administered orally by gavage method. To the third group of animals double doses were given i.e. on 1st and 3rd day. Similarly multiple doses i.e., 1st, 3rd, 5th and 7th day were given to the fourth group of animals. The first group of animals was considered as controls. The experimental Mice exposed to chlorpyrifos showed statistically significant (P<0.01) decrease of total protein content, significant (P<0.01) increase of free amino acid (FAA) content, significant (P<0.01) increased of Aspartate aminotransferase(AST) activity and significant (P<0.01) increase of Alanine aminotransferase(AlAT) activity in heart, liver, kidney and muscle respectively. The activities was dose and time dependent manner in chlorpyrifos treated mice.

  183. Shiva Rama Krishna Samala, Kishore Gokavarapu, Srinivasa Rao, B., Sarita Gokavarapu and Sunil Gandhi

    As we know Anti-cancer Drug have very tight and stringent specifications in final stage purity then only US FDA use to allow to keep that particular drug in to the market, especially in the preparation of Letrozole Drug one of the key Fluoro intermediate is 4-fluorobenzonitrile which is already available in market, using same difficult to generate desired specification at final stage of Letrozole Drug. So that, to avoid these issues we have worked on synthesizing this intermediate in our unit. In literature there are so many synthetic procedures are available but they are not industrial approach procedures almost all routes are involved costly key starting materials but in our research the starting material is 4-Fluorobenzaldehyde other key reagent is Hydroxylamine hydrochloride and solvents Dimethyl Suloxide (DMSO) and water.

  184. Manish Kumar Kanth, Sushil Kumar Singh, Abhijeet Kashyap, Smita Shalini, Aprajita, Rupam Kumari, Shivangni Singh, Ankita Kumari and Kumari Puja

    Background: Microorganisms like bacteria, viruses are common water contaminants and they lead to waterborne disease and epidemics. The aim of this study was to assess the quality of pond water. In this respect we evaluate Coliforms and other bacteria present in the pond water environment. Six samples of pond water were collected from six major ponds of the Patna urban area which is used for pissiculture. Methods: Samples were processed in isolation of different microbes by using Mac Conkey agar, EMB agar and etc. Microbes were identified by different biochemical test related to bacterial metabolism. All the experimental work was carried out between the periods of December, 2017 to February, 2018 at the Department of Biotechnology, A. N. College, Patna. Results: The result indicates the all the six ponds contain Coliforms for above the APHA limits. They also show the presence of Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Klebsiella, Shizella, Enterobactor etc., which could further endanger for both fishes and consumers. Conclusion: Results suggest that of monitoring the water quality from time to time. It will help to highlight the route of contamination.

  185. Dr. Gunja Dwivedi, Dr. Rohit Lokhande and Dr. Dharmendra Kumar

    Granular cell tumor (GCT) is a rare benign tumor of neural origin and the involvement of lower extremity is even rarer. The commonly involved sites are head and neck region, breast and upper extremities. In literature, very few cases have been reported on fine needle aspiration cytology (FNAC). Here we report a case of 54 year old female who presented with calf swelling diagnosed as GCT on cytology and confirmed on histopathology.

  186. Kharsan, V., Bandgar, V. and Naik, D.

    Segmental resections of the mandible resulting in discontinuity defects, present with a number of complications that hinder an optimal prosthetic rehabilitation of such defects. Re-establishment of continuity using free tissue transfer can help one overcome many of these shortcomings. Restoration of the missing dentition in such cases must be in the way of a stable prosthesis to combat the limited denture bearing area and non-keratinised tissue bed. An implant supported prosthesis depends on the availability of adequate bone height, alignment of the grafted bone, crown height space, recurrence of the neoplasm, the requirement of or the passage of time since radiation therapy, physical condition of the patient and economic factors. An alternative is a stable cast partial denture designed to facilitate broad stress distribution to the unresected side, avoid damage to the graft and aid in function. This case report describes the prosthetic rehabilitation of a partially resected mandible secondary to ameloblastoma, reconstructed with a free fibula graft, using a cast partial denture.

  187. Dr. Vipul Gupta, Dr. Sunita Singh, Dr. Yashika Bhatia, Dr. Shruti Bansal, Dr. Sandeep Yadav, Dr. Rajeev Sen and Dr Anisha

    Objective: Histomorphology and immunohistochemistry are essential tools for evaluation and classification of lymphoid malignancies. The present prospective study was conducted with the aim to categorize various Non-Hodgkin lymphoid malignancies in lymph node and extranodal biopsies using routine H and E staining and IHC markers based on WHO Classification system 2016 and to study their clinicopathological correlation. Material and methods: The present study was conducted in Department of Pathology at Pt. B D Sharma PGIMS, Rohtak. Hundred cases of Non Hodgkin’s lymphoid malignancy (lymph node and extranodal biopsies) were included in the study. Various histomorphological changes were examined on routine H&E. Cases with provisional diagnosis of lymphoma were further submitted to immunohistochemical staining for a panel of lymphoma markers and classified accordingly. Results: Maximum number of patients were in the age group of 61-70 years (26%). Males were more commonly affected (55%) with a male: female ratio of 1.2:1. Study included 57 cases with nodal and 43 cases with extranodal involvement. Among nodal, cervical (40.4%) was the most common site and among the extranodal, GIT was (27.9%) the most affected site. A significant association was found between presence of B symptoms with male gender and extranodal sites (p<0.05). B Cell type was the commonest type of Non Hodgkin’s lymphoid malignancy observed in the study (80%). The most consistent IHC marker for B cell lymphoma was PAX5 followed by CD20 and CD19 whereas CD5 was the most consistent IHC marker for T cell lymphoma followed by CD3. Conclusion: The distribution of NHL subtypes in India shows important differences with those from the rest of the world. PAX 5 can be used as a universal single pan B cell marker and CD5 as a pan T cell marker in resource poor setting.

  188. Dr. Bonny Paul, Dr. Kavita Dube and Dr. Charu Kapur

    Maxillary canines are as a rule considered being single rooted with a single canal. Few reports of presence of maxillary canines with additional canals have been reported in the literature. This article describes Endodontic treatment of a maxillary canine with two canals. The literature pertaining to unusual anatomy of maxillary canines has been reviewed.

  189. Dr. Bashar Mohammed Zaki, Dr. Faten Mohammed Basheer and Dr. Ammar Myasar Zaidan

    Background: Excessive weight has become one of the major health problems worldwide, especially with the globally increasing prevalence and the wide range of accompanying health problems, including metabolic syndrome, cardiovascular diseases and hypertension, liver and gall bladder diseases. During pregnancy, obesity is associated with increased maternal and perinatal morbidity, and sometimes mortality. Body Mass Index (BMI) is the most commonly used method to estimate the degree of obesity. Objectives: The aim of the study is to correlate between high maternal BMI at delivery and adverse pregnancy outcome (maternal and fetal). Patients and methods: This study is a prospective comparative study based on women attending labor ward at Al-khansaa Maternity Teaching Hospital in Mosul city conducted from the 1st of June 2017 to 30th of December 2017. A total of 200 patients were included, all of them had term, singleton pregnancy, with cephalic presentation and all underwent a trail of vaginal delivery. The patients were classified according to their BMI (calculated after delivery) to control group with normal BMI and case group with high BMI. Case group was further subdivided to three groups (overweight, obese, and severely obese) to find if any of the comparison parameters has linear association with the degree of obesity. Case and control group were compared for maternal and fetal complications during and after labor. Maternal complications included hypertension, gestational edema, gestational diabetes, ante partum or intrapartum hemorrhage, delivery mode, perineal tears and postpartum hemorrhage. Fetal complications included fetal distress during labor, large for gestational age, birth trauma, low apgar score, congenital abnormality, and admission to neonatal intensive care unit. Results: By comparing case and control groups, results showed that case group were statistically at more risk of having hypertension (OR=3.81), prolonged pregnancy (OR=2.68), lack of progression of labor (OR=7.98), emergency cesarean section (OR=3.57), and postpartum hemorrhage (OR=5.71), with the susceptibility to the first four factors increased linearly with the increase of maternal BMI. A strong association have also been found between maternal obesity and gestational edema (OR=6.74). Although more cases of gestational diabetes mellitus were recorded in case than control group but this difference was not statistically significant. The same was observed regarding the incidence of instrumental vaginal delivery, and deep perineal tears. Regarding fetal and neonatal outcomes, case group had statistically higher susceptibility to have large for gestational age babies (OR=4.94), abnormal fetal heart rate during labor (OR=2.52), low apgar score at 1 minute (OR=5.72). Statistically no significant increase in meconium stained liquor, congenital abnormality, birth trauma and admission to NICU. Conclusion: Delivery while having high BMI is considered a high risk condition, and requires special attention for early detection and appropriate management of complications and those ladies need more care during and after labor.

  190. Dr. Ankit Gaur, Dr. Anuradha Sharma, Dr. Pankaj Prasad, Dr. Ravinder Narwal and Dr. Renuka

    Finding a foreign body in the pulp chambers or root canal of a grossly carious tooth is uncommon and are diagnosed accidently during routine examination or when patient comes with any problem. It is quite challenging for the dentist to remove such foreign objects and treat the tooth successfully. Poking a tooth with foreign bodies can lead to accidental breakage of material within the tooth as we have seen in this case. Breakage of foreign material can also obstruct the path of endodontic instruments and can lead to compromised treatment conditions. Management of these kind of cases with foreign objects can be either to remove the foreign object from the tooth without compromising the tooth structure excessively or to bypass the obstruction and incorporate the foreign body within the obturating material. The following case report describes the non surgical endodontic management of foreign body impacted in a large carious tooth with a chronic apical periodontitis.

  191. Rajni, Manu Gupta, Shalik R Adhikari, Hema Nagpal Renu Mishra and Swati Yadav

    Aims & objective: The wormian bones are solitary, irregular bones that appear along with regular centres of ossification of cranium. The present study mainy aims at number, location of these wormian bones in the dried adult human skulls of north Indian population. The knowledge of sutural bones is essential for the radiologist and neurosurgeons in there clinical practice. Material method: About 55 dried human skull were collected from the department of anatomy, sims Hapur. These skull were examined for the presence of wormian bones, in respect to their location and number. After collection of data it was tabulated and analysed. Results: According to present study the incidence of wormian bone was28 out of 55 adult skulls. The maximum number of wormian bone at lambdoid suture 14(6 right, 8 left). The wormian bones were also seen at lambda 4, pterion 1, Asterion 3, pareitotemporal 3, occipitomastoid suture 1, sagital suture 1, bregma 1. Conclusion: The present study proves the occurrence of wormian bones in the human skull is common at lambdoid suture, also may occur at different sites at different sutures.

  192. Ravinder Narwal, Renuka, Anuradha Sharma and Ankit Gaur

    Gagging commonly occurs during dental procedures, such as making a maxillary impression. Clinicians successfully treat many patients with mild gagging problems using only minor procedural modifications. For some patients, however, severe gagging can be elicited by the dentist’s fingers or instruments contacting the oral mucosa or even by nontactile stimuli, for example, patients seeing the dentist or remembering a previous dental experience. Providing dental treatment for this challenging group can be a stressful experience for both patients and clinicians. Anticipation of the distress induced by dentistry can often dissuade a patient with a gagging problem from seeking regular oral care. As a consequence, the severely affected patient tends not to seek routine dental treatment, presenting only when in pain, and may request treatment under general anesthesia. Patients with a longstanding history of problematic gagging may therefore have poor dental health, and require extensive treatment. The clinician may believe that the difficulties encountered in restoring dental health are insurmountable, and treatment planning therefore tends to be more radical, commonly resulting in exodontia. However, this may merely compound the problem if the patient is unable to tolerate a removable prosthesis. Edentulousness, the final outcome, may profoundly affect a patient’s social status, reducing self-esteem and quality of life. The purpose of this article is to outline the etiology of problematic gagging and review the management of patients with an exaggerated gag reflex.

  193. Deepak Aher, Yash Agarwal, Rahul Verma and Sanjiv Gaur

    Aim: This study was conducted to evaluate the functional outcome of dual plating in distal humerus fracture with intercondylar extension. Material and Methods: 20 patients of age between 30 to 70 years with fracture of distal humerus with intraarticular extension were enrolled for the study of dual plating using olecranon osteotomy approach in out tertiary center from January 2016 to January 2018 of which 18 were males and 2 females. Results: The mean union time was 10 weeks. The arc of flexion was 110 degrees. Average Mayo elbow performance score (MEPS) was 84. There were 2 cases of infection. Conclusion: In distal humerus fractures with intercondylar extension, with dual plating, a good reduction can be achieved which leads to good union, which helps in early mobilization and restoring elbow functions with early intensive physiotherapy.

  194. Agbara, J.O., Gbadegesin, A.A., Oshodi, Y.A. and Sobande, A.A.

    Background: Hypertensive disorders are common complications in pregnancy and may be associated with adverse fetal and maternal outcomes. Current research interests focus on the identification of biomarkers with the potential to offer major advances in the diagnosis and management of preeclampsia Objective: To compare maternal serum high sensitivity C-reactive protein (Hs-CRP), soluble fms-like tyrosine kinase-1 (sFlt-1) and uric acid in pregnancy induced hypertensives and normotensive pregnant controls. Method: Prospective case-control study was conducted in Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, Lagos State University Teaching Hospital, Lagos, Nigeria. One hundred and fifty two subjects with hypertensive disorders of pregnancy and 152normotensive control had serum levels of Hs-CRP and sFlt-1were and Uric acid assayed. Data obtained were analyzed using SPSS version 19and p-value of <0.05 was considered significant at confidence interval of 95%. Results: The median serum level of Hs-CRP in preeclampsia was 0.090mg/ml (IQR 0.068, 0.10), gestational hypertension 0.056mg/ml (IQR 0.044, 0.073) and the normotensive 0.040mg/ml (IQR 0.021, 0.06) showed statistically significant difference (P<0.001). The median serum level of sFlt-1in preeclampsia was 4875pg/L (IQR 3266.5, 5703.5), gestational hypertension 1749pg/L (IQR 1639, 1825) and the control 1400.75pg/L (IQR 1480, 1541.75 and also showed statistically significant difference (P<0.001). Uric acid was elevated in all the women with hypertension in pregnancy compared with the controls. Conclusion: Both Hs-CRP and sFlt-1 were elevated in black women with pregnancy induced hypertension.

  195. Tanvee vora and Bharati Asgoankar

    Chronic nonspecific low back pain accounts for a significant percentage of all the back injuries encountered in young adults. Symptomatic treatment interventions have resulted in recurring pain. Pain avoidance behavior and Deconditioning of the gluteus maximus affects ADL’s. Hence this study was carried out to see the effect of hip extensor strength training on pain and functions in chronic nonspecific low back pain. The aim of this study was to find out if Hip extensors strength training had an effect on pain and functions. The study objective was to evaluate pre and post pain intensity, functional status, strength and endurance of hip extensors using VAS, ODI, 1RM and time in seconds respectively. Comparison of pre and post outcome measures was performed to see effect of hip extensor strength training. 40 participants with chronic nonspecific low back pain meeting the inclusion criteria were enrolled in the study after taking their informed consent. Each Participant’s Visual Analogue Scale (VAS) Oswestry Disability Index (ODI) score, bilateral Hip Extensor muscle strength (1RM) and endurance time (in seconds) was noted. They were then allocated in two groups by means of a computer generated randomized table where one group received general trunk exercises and hip extensor strength training while the other group received only general trunk exercises. Intervention was given for 6 weeks, thrice a week. Outcome measures were assessed at the end of 6 weeks. Results and Conclusion: Hip extensor strength training had added improvements in functional status with no significant difference in pain.

  196. Dr. Shivani Awasthi

    Pregnancy, which is essential in the course of a woman’s life, is a period during which there is high sensitivity to toxic substances. Difficulties of pregnancy on the other hand are reproductive health issues or problems that arise during pregnancy and may involve the mother’s health, the child’s health or both. Exposures to toxic metals by pregnant women have been an under distinguished health issues in developing countries such as India.

  197. Dr. Ankit Gaur, Dr. Anuradha Sharma, Dr. Hitesh Kumar, Dr. Ravinder Narwal and Dr. Renuka

    Traumatic injuries to dental tissues may lead to several clinical complications, one of them is the pulp canal obliteration, which presents itself as hard tissue deposition along the pulp chamber and root canal walls. It may partially or completely obliterate the pulp canal space causing a great challenge in treating the tooth. This article is showing a case of management of calcified tooth non-surgically.

  198. Salas, V., Pizarro, J. and Navarro, C.

    Emerging infectious diseases constitute one of the biggest problems facing human and animal health, and biodiversity conservation. Canine distemper virus has been strongly called attention in this regard, since it possesses a high prevalence in the canine population worldwide. Canine distemper is a systemic viral disease, highly contagious, one of the major causes of death in domestic dogs and other carnivores. In recent years, the incidence of canine distemper seems to have increased, documenting the occurrence of new and unusual strains. The reasons that explain these changes and their impact on the epidemiology of the virus still unknown. Canine distemper virus appears genetically heterogeneous, markedly in the hemagglutinin protein, which shows geographic patterns of diversification that are useful to monitoring the molecular epidemiology of canine distemper virus. In this work was detected hemagglutinin gene (H gene) of canine distemper virus using the Reverse Transcription PCR method, was sequenced the amplified DNA fragment and this nucleotide sequence was included in the phylogenetic analysis for the gene H using known sequences and official of canine distemper virus, including vaccine strains used for the prevention of disease (Genbank®). The results show that in Chile would be at least two of the lineages known for canine distemper virus: Europe and America-1.

  199. Dr. Poongodi. V, Dr. K. Saraswathi Gopal and Dr. Anitha Raghunathan

    The increasing demand for monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) used for diagnostic and therapeutic applications has led to the development of large scale manufacturing processes, with improvements in production achieved through continuous optimization of the inherent systems. The number of monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) that have already been approved for therapeutic applications and for use in clinical trials have significantly increased in the past few years. In view of the side effects and limitations of mAbs, several improvements and modifications to monoclonal antibodies have been developed. These modifications have facilitated the use of mAbs in various forms of therapeutic applications such as treatment of infectious diseases caused by bacterial, viral, fungal and parasitic organisms. Monoclonal antibodies have also been applied in the treatment of non-infectious diseases such as cancer, immune diseases, arthritis and other disorders resulting from organ transplantation. This review highlights mAbs applications in biomedicine, and discusses state-of-the-art technologies related to their potential uses.

  200. Dr. Alok Kumar, Dr. Neha Rai, Dr. Koustubh Rajgopal Bagul, Dr. Monika Porwal Bagul, Dr. Vinod Kumar Rai, Dr. Jasbeer Singh Kathpal, Dr. Dhanraj Panjwani, Dr. Archana Verma, Dr. Jignesh Dhameliya and Dr. Chetan Maniya

    Aim: To study clinical and etiological spectrum for early diagnosis and management of CVT. To evaluate factors associated with poor outcome (mRS >2), prognosis and sequelae of CVT at 3 months follow-up. Methodology: A Retrospective and prospective observational study performed during 2011-2017 on patients diagnosed of CVT (radiologically confirmed by CTV/MRV) were included. Clinical profile including detailed history, onset, progression, risk factors, etiological spectrum, systemic examination and Routine investigations were done. Neurological status was assessed by mRS and NIHSS. Patients followed-up after 3 months personally/telephonically. Statistical software SPSS used for data analysis. Results: MC (52.8%) in young (21-40 years) patients with male preponderance (59.7%) with sub-acute onset (56.9%). MC site were deep sinuses 30 (41.7%) f/b superior sagittal sinus 29 (40.3%). Headache (79.2%) was MC presentation f/b seizures (51.4%). Hyperhomocysteinemia (37.5%) as MC risk factor, OCP use (34.5%) in females and alcohol (46.5%) in males. mRS was not dependent on clinical, etiological and hematological profile. There was significant decrease in mRS and NIHSS on discharge. Altered sensorium, Papilledema, motor deficit, mRS>2, low GCS, high NIHSS, elderly and low calcium predicted poor outcome. Good outcome in (80.56%), poor outcome in (19.4%) and 1 expired. Conclusions: CVT is rare treatable cause of stroke with varied presentation and risk factors. MC presentation is headache and seizure; MC risk factor is Hyperhomocysteinemia, OCP, alcohol. CVT has good prognosis if diagnosed earlier and treated promptly.

  201. Dr. Vivek Bhasker, Dr. M.D. Kerketta, Dr. Suman Kumar, Dr. Gajendra Pandit, Dr. Makbul Ansari and Dr. Abhinav Kumar

    Introduction: Treatment of anal fistula is surgical. Seton has been in use for fistula treatment for many years. In this study we have used cutting Seton along with partial excision of the fistula tract for treatment of high type fistula. Material and Methods: 30 cases of trans-sphincteric high type anal fistula were treated by partial excision of fistula tract and use of cutting Seton. Patients were followed up for 6 months after treatment. Population characteristics, treatment received and follow-up data was analyzed. Discussion and Conclusion: Most patients were male. Posterior fistula was more common than the anterior one. Postoperative complications were minor and managed conservatively. No case of recurrence or fecal incontinence was seen on follow-up. Treatment by partial excision of fistula tract and cutting Seton produces satisfactory results.

  202. Dr. Rajkumar R, Dr. Manikandan P and Prof. Dr. Balasubramanian, D.

    Context: Intracerebral hemorrhage is a serious medical emergency because they increase intracranial pressure. The mortality rate for intraparenchymal bleeds is over 40%. ICH patients show worst outcome of all stroke subtypes (30-day mortality 30% - 50%). Aims: To find the morbidity and mortality indicators and to evaluate the correlation between the GCS, volume and prognostic outcome in ICH. To compare the outcome between conservative and surgically managed ICH. Settings and design: Retrospective analysis of 40 cases admitted between 2015 and 2016 in the Institute of Neurosurgery, Rajiv Gandhi Government General Hospital, Chennai was done. Patients admitted within 24 hours of ICH were included. Clinical and radiological data collected. Patients managed based on institutional protocol. Outcome was analysed based on GOS and Rankin score. Results: Increased incidence of ICH in men and in 40 – 50 years age (25% ). Six months mortality was 18% and 28% for surgical and medically managed patients respectively but statistically insignificant. There was minimal better outcome of good and moderate GOS in surgically treated patients. Rankin scoring showed a minimal better outcome with surgical intervention but statistically insignificant. Conclusions: ICH patients with GCS 13-15 can be safely observed. There is a strong evidence to support operating on ICH patients with GCS 9-12. For GCS < 9, surgical intervention appears to be less effective. Surgical intervention has better outcome in large hematoma. Presence of IVH significantly reduces the outcome

  203. Richa Sharma, Rahul Manchanda and Nidhi Chandil

    Aim: To Analyse the Etiologies, clinical features, diagnostic modalities used and the therapeutic outcome following Hysteroscopic adhesiolysis among women with Asherman’s Syndrome, managed at our Hospital during 5 years (1st March 2013 to 31st March 2018). Material and Methods: A Retrospective Cross sectional Study of 5 years was conducted and those Women who had undergone Hysteroscopic adhesiolysis for Asherman's syndrome were selected. Case records of these women were retrieved from Medical Record Department. Sociodemographic, clinical, Obstetric profile, Hysteroscopic findings, details of adhesiolysis, changes in menstrual pattern and Fertility outcomes were recorded. Results: The leading cause for Asherman’s was D&C (62%) and followed by Tuberculosis (19%).TVS assessment of Endometrial thickness was 64% diagnostic for moderate Asherman’s, if there is thin ET with few echogenic shadows and Doppler flow is impaired and irregular, echogenic ET (<2 mm) with High resistance doppler flow is diagnostic for severe Adhesions in 87.5%(p<0.001). Myometrial thickness assessement called RR method (named after authors) guided the amount of adhesiolysis and none of our women required laparoscopic assisted hysteroscopic adhesiolysis. Repeat Second look Hysteroscopies carried good results, 100% adequate cavity and menses restoration occurred after second look Hysteroscopies. Conception rate was 38% and term Pregnancy rate was 67%, majority of conception occurred in severe adhesion group. Obstetric complications can occur following adhesiolysis. Role of IUCD vs Foleys and E+P vs E+P with stem cell instillation were equally efficacious. Conclusion: skilled Hysteroscopy is the Gold standard for diagnosis and treatment of Asherman’s syndrome

  204. Chandil, N., Manchanda, R., Sharma, R.

    A P3L3,39 yr old women had history of total abdominal hysterectomy for dysmenorrhea with ASCUS on pap smear in 2013 in Nigeria presented to us with severe pain abdomen and bleeding from last 3 yr. Bleeding was irregular, occur every 2-3 month. On diagnostic hysteroscopy and laparoscopy, remnant of uterus along with cervix and right ovary and fallopian tube was found. So, laparoscopic removal of remnant uterus and cervix with right salpingoophorectomy done under GA on 29-6-18. Here auther wish to enlighten the ease of visualization and operability along with clarity of anatomy during laparoscopic trachelectomy following subtotal hysterectomy.

  205. Tomoyuki Nishizaki

    The pyrrolidinone derivative nefiracetam facilitates hippocampal synaptic transmission in a PKC-dependent manner. The present study was conducted to understand the mechanism underlying the action of nefiracetam on the PKC activity. In the cell-free system, nefiracetam enhanced the activity of PKCε, activated by linoleic acid, in an ATP concentration (2-500 μM)-dependent manner, and a huge enhancement was found at the concentrations higher than 100 μM. Notably, a similar effect was also obtained with uridine. ATP dissolved in water was spontaneously degraded into ADP, AMP, and adenosine in an incubation time (1-15 days)-dependent manner. The ATP degradation was accelerated by adding nefiracetam or uridine. Taken together, the results of the present study show that nefiracetam as well as uridine enhance the activated PKCε activity possibly by assisting ATP hydrolysis and lowering the kinase activation energy.

  206. Dr. Shirish Salunke, Dr. Kasthuri, T.B. and Dr. Valsa Diana

    Background: The health of the mother lays a strong foundation to the health of the nation in general. Pregnancy and child birth are normal physiological processes and outcomes of most pregnancies are good. But pregnancy in woman with advanced age is considered high risk. In obstetric practice, maternal age is an important determinant of the outcome of pregnancy. One such risk factor is an elderly pregnancy that leads to many complications during pregnancy, labor and also for the baby. In recent times women have changed their life style such as in the pursuit of higher education and entry into work forces and career advancement outside the home. Consequently, this has lead to postponement of child bearing, resulting in an increasing maternal age and it contributes to this upward trend. This study was designed to assess both maternal and fetal outcomes in elderly gravida women. Methods: This study was a Prospective hospital based study done in 200 elderly gravid NICU admissions 13.5%. enrolled after exclusion criteria in RGGWCH, Pondicherry during Jan. 2017 to Dec. 2017. Results: This study showed increased risk of maternal complications like Gestational hypertension develop in 12% elderly gravida, Gestational diabetes mellitus in14%, Caesarean section rate 75%., low birth weight baby15%, NICU admissions13.5%. Conclusions: In this present study it is found that, Advanced maternal age is risk factor for Gestational hypertension, Gestational diabetes mellitus, low birth weight baby, NICU admissions, caesarean sections. It is not a risk factor for APH, abnormal presentation, post term delivery, macrosomia, intra or post-op complications, pre-term delivery, need of blood transfusion, instrumental delivery, IUD, low APGAR score <7, neonatal deaths, instrumental delivery, MICU- admissions and maternal mortality.

  207. Iqbal H. Qadri

    The main aim of this study is to regenerate almond cultivars indirectly through callus culture that will pave way for introduction of some novel genes like spring frost resistance genes (Transgenic almond) or development of somaclonal variants that can survive in fringed areas of temperate climate for expansive cultivation. In this regard indirect regeneration potential of four thin shelled almond cultivars: Parbhat, Shalimar, Waris and Mukhdoom of J and K India was studied. The source of explants were immature almonds collected 90-120 days after pollination from orchards. The proximal ends of the immature cotyledons after chemical sterilization were cultured on MS() medium. The cultures were then maintained at 25±3°C with 16 h photoperiod(3000 lux) both in presence as well as in absence of light for first 2 weeks of culture period. After 8 weeks of culture period the explants were examined for indirect shoot production. Morphogenetic callus and the shoots regenerated from the proximal ends of these cotyledons under the influence of different phytohormones. The effects of different concentrations of 6-benzylaminopurine (BAP), Indole 3 butyric acid (IBA) and Naphthalene acetic acid(NAA) in presence or absence of dark period were determined and the best results were obtained when abaxial cotyledon surface was in contact with the culture medium.Shoot regeneration percentage was highest in both cultivars with dark treatment on Murashige and Skoogs (MS) medium at BAP(20 µM) and IBA(5 µM) concentration. BAP(5 & 10 µM) and IBA(5µM) combination significantly reduced both shoot regeneration percentage and the number of adventitious shoots produced per explant. Without dark incubation for first 2 weeks of culture period regeneration percentage was decreased in both cultivars There was also significant decrease in regeneration potential of both the cultivars at IBA(10 µM) or NAA(5 & 10 µM) in combination with BAP(5,10 &20 µM).Frequency of shoot regeneration were 80% and 60% for cultivar Waris and Mukhdoom respectively.

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