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June 2016

  1. Dr. G. Chitti Pantulu, Dr. Avinash Shende, Dr. Prathmesh Mule and Dr. A. A. Faruqui

    Introduction: Despite many therapeutic options available only one-third of hypertensive patients achieve target Blood pressure (BP). Different clinical studies have reported that reducing the blood pressure can substantially decrease cardiovascular risk and all cause mortality. Aim: The present study was undertaken to evaluate the efficacy and safety of, fixed dose combination of Olmesartan 40 mg + Chlorthalidone 12.5mg, in the management of hypertension uncontrolled with Olmesartan monotherapy. Materials and Method: 105 patients were enrolled in this postmarketing surveillance (PMS) study. Patients were prescribed to take fixed dose combination for 60 days. Result: There was a significant decrease (p<0.0001) in systolic blood pressure (SBP) & diastolic blood pressure (DBP) from the baseline to 15th, 30th and 60th days of the treatment. At the end of the study period of 60 days 93.4% & 91.6 % patients of age group >60 years and <60 years achieved the Joint National Committee (JNC VIII) recommended goal respectively. (<150/90 for elder patients aged above 60 year and 140/90 for those aged less than 60 years). Conclusion: Thus fixed dose combination therapy of Olmesartan & Chlorthalidone has been shown to be excellent in efficacy and tolerability & gives another option for the optimal management of hypertension.

  2. Dr. Priyanka Sontakke, Dr. Himanshu Kumawat, Dr. Prateek Jain, Dr. Gautam Biswas, Dr. Ramesh Sontakke and Mrs. Veena Sontakke

    Introduction: Examinations are the bane of students. Passing or failing usually has strong consequences for one’s career development, so examinations cause psychological stress for most of the students. Aim: To assess mental stress on Serum IgA, Gingival status and TMJ disorder among class 12th students before and during exam. Methodology: A prospective cohort study was conducted at private tutorial institute, Jaipur. The study population consisted of thirty subjects with age ranging from 16-18 years, who were divided into two groups;group A consisted of Science students and group B Commerce students. Venous blood samples were collected to assess Serum IgA level using immunoassay before and during exams. Clinical evaluation was undertaken using gingival index for assessing Gingival status and TMD prevalence was assessed by using Fonseca’s questionnaire before and during exams. Results: In both the groups Serum IgA levels increased during exam and it was more among Science students but results were not statistically significant (p≥0.05). Gingival inflammation and Mild & Moderate TMD was found to be more among Science students and results were statistically significant. With regards to gender, gingival inflammation was found to be more for males and TMD for females during exams. (p≤0.05) Conclusion: The parallel increase of Serum IgA level, gingival inflammation and TMD during exams in both the groups suggesting a possible relationship between stress and above three parameters.

  3. Tahira sidiq, Prof. Nilofer khan, Dr. Feroz Ahmad Wani, Dr. Abdul Majid Ganai and Dr. Bilal Ahmad

    Liver cirrhotic patients were investigated for their lifestyle, body mass index, biochemical and clinical signs of disease. The study included 500 liver cirrhotic patients who were visited and hospitalized in SKIMS and SMHS hospital Srinagar. The data was collected by using the self made questionnaire which was pretested on 10 patients. These ten patients were excluded from the study. Demographic data, level of education, biochemical values, clinical signs, weight, height and mid arm circumference was undertaken. Out of the 500 cirrhotic patients, 60% were from rural area and 40% were from urban area, 73.8% were males and 26.2% were females. It was observed that illiterates, laborers, married ones with nuclear type of family system from low economic status were being suffering from the liver cirrhosis. The disease is more seen in the age group of 46-60 years. Low BMI and muscle wasting were present in almost all of the studied patients. Hyperbilirubinemia, low albumin and protein levels were observed in studied patients. Anemia, PEM, ascites, edema, muscle wasting were prevalent in vast majority of the patients.

  4. Mate Siakwa, Dzigbordi Kpikpitse, Wisdom Azanu, Mildred E. John, Patience F. Doe, Nancy I. Ebu and E Hanson-Owoo

    Urinary Tract Infections (UTIs) are common during pregnancy because hormonal, physiologic and mechanical changes cause vesico-ureteral reflux and urinary stasis which facilitate bacterial growth. The association between UTI during pregnancy and high risk for adverse maternal and neonatal outcomes are widely reported globally although findings are inconsistent. This study therefore determined the association between UTI during pregnancy and risk for adverse maternal and neonatal outcomes in a tertiary hospital in Cape Coast, Ghana. A case-control prospective study lasting six months was carried out with 220 pregnant women with UTI (cases) and 200 without UTI (control) attending the Antenatal Clinic of Central Regional Hospital, Cape Coast. Participants were assessed at each ANC visit and during labour for several outcomes. Data were analyzed on SPSS 16. The study showed statistically significant associations between maternal UTI and adverse outcomes including foul-smelling liquor (p=0.006); premature rupture of membrane (p<0.001); intra-partum bleeding (APH and PPH; p<0.001). Neonatal outcomes included low birth weight (p=0.014), preterm delivery (p<0.001); Apgar score at 1 minute (p<0.001); stillbirth (p=0.022). Associations were not significant between maternal UTI and pregnancy-induced hypertension and baby’s Apgar score at 5 minutes. We conclude that UTI in pregnancy adversely affects the mother and the neonate.

  5. Owolabi Williams, Davidow Amy, Thomas Pauline, MangalaRajan, Nkemjika Stanley and Tokede Oluwatosin

    Background: A baby is said to be of low birth weight (LBW) if the estimated weight at birth is less than 2500g (5 pounds 8 ounces). LBW has serious and long lasting health implications for the baby, usually in the neonatal and infancy periods and may persist into adulthood. Several studies have been conducted in the past which looked into the relationship between exposure to ambient air pollution and the delivery of LBW babies with most of the studies concluding with inconsistent results. The goal of the study is to determine if an association exists between LBW and exposure of mothers to ambient air quality (PM2.5) in the first trimester of pregnancy in New Jersey. Method: A cross-sectional study using data derived from the 2008 Electronic Birth Certificates (EBC) for all live births to mothers residing in New Jersey and ambient air (PM2.5) data for 2007 and 2008 were obtained from the New Jersey Department of Environmental Protection (NJDEP). Both sets of data were merged using SAS and the resulting dataset was run through a series of linear and logistic regression steps to demonstrate any possible association. Result: Data analysis showed an increased risk for LBW with higher exposure to PM2.5, (unadjusted OR: 1.25, 95% CI 1.03-1.53, p<0.0271). Adjusted odds ratio for LBW was no longer statistically significant when the model included known risk factors for LBW. Conclusion: This study concludes thatPM2.5 exposure in the first trimester of pregnancy shows some positive association with LBW albeit weak with the condition compared with other known risk factors.

  6. Dr. Manju Pandey

    In India very less researches has been devoted to parents-child relationship and dyslexia among young children. Though the child having dyslexia is entirely depends upon his parents and their relations with him. Keeping this significant factor in mind, the present study is aimed (1) to identify dyslexic children and (2) to explore the effect of parent-child relationship on dyslexic children. For that purpose 100 dyslexic and 100 normal children were selected (7-9 years), from different schools of Srinagar Garhwal, Uttarakhand. After screening process, the Parent-child relationship scale was administered separately on both mother and father of the selected sample. By ‘self anchoring Technique’ the measurement was taken on eleven points for eight dichotomous dimensions of basic parent child relationship. The placement of relations on a dichotomous dimension makes the instrument highly sensitive and differentiating in the context. The result indicates that there is significant difference between parents dyslexic and non-dyslexic children on four dimension of parent-child relationship scale. These dimensions are - Rejection v/s Acceptance, Lenient Standards v/s Severe Moralism, Marital Conflict v/s Marital Adjustment and Faculty Role Expectation v/s Realistic Role Expectation.

  7. Carlos José Pimenta, Raphael Evangelista Orlandi, Bárbara Lemes Outeiro Araújo, Theo Mendonça Rodrigues, Luciana Marques Torres, Roseane Maria Evangelista Oliveira and Maria Emília de Sousa Gomes Pimenta

    The present study aimed to obtain acidic silages of different types of waste from tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) and its characterization through chemical, physical and microbiological analysis over the storage time. To obtain the silage different residues were used, which were divided into five treatments: T1 100% guts, T2 - 100% head, T3 - 100% carcass, T4 - 30% head + 70% carcass and T5 - 15% guts + 20% head + 47% carcass + 15% leather + 3% scales. Each treatment was performed by adding 5% acetic acid and 0.1% p/p of BHT / Kg. Analyses were performed at days 0, 7, 14, 21, 28, 60 and 90. It was found that the texture of the ensiled biomass showed no visible immediate changes, prevailing caramel coloring. The first hydrolysis signals were seen from the 4th day of storage. T1 and T5 treatments had lower temperatures in the biomasses. The pH of the silages were less than 4.5. T1 obtained the highest values of malondialdehyde / kg. The results of microbiological analysis have not detected the presence of aerobic mesophilic microorganisms, yeasts and molds for all treatments of the silages. The use of acetic acid and BHT acted efficiently to preserve silage quality. Thus, it can be said that the silages in the process are of high quality, with applicability in food and feed, as well as commercially valuing the fish byproduct and reducing to almost zero waste generation.

  8. Arjun Agarwal, Abhinay Reddy, M.S. Ganesh, Sathyanarayan M. Shivkumaram and Cheena Garg

    Scalp swellings are commonly seen in surgical practise. Hard swellings indicate bony origin with metastasis being more common than a primary bone pathology. Lung and breast cancer are the common primary malignancies in such cases. We review the literature on HCC as a source of skull metastasis and report a case of 45 year old man who presented with an isolated scalp swelling. CT scan showed a metastatic lesion in occipital region with osteolysis. Trucut biopsy was suggestive of adenocarcinoma but CT Chest, Abdomen and pelvis isolate the primary. Finally on PET CT, diagnosis of HCC was made and the patient who was being considered for definitive excision is now being given palliative chemotherapy.

  9. Dr. Lakshmi Shetty, Dr. Sneha Setiya, Dr. Swati Bharadwaj, Dr. Pallavi Sarve and Dr. Ravindra Bongulwar

    The infraorbital swelling due to canine space infection is always reported. In this case report the 11 year child, etiology for canine space infection was unknown and the interesting part was the difficulty in finishing endodontic access due to missed foreign body at the root tip of 21 which was visible only after extraction of 21.The patient was suffering from attention deficit hyperactivity disorder and had not given any history of self inflicting injury to reduce pain. The extracted tooth had a wooden stick at the apex which was a very rare and shocking finding and the answer to the surgeon’s dilemma. This case report is one of its kind where hidden wooden stick has caused canine space infection.

  10. Hasipha C. Tarpeh

    Lassa fever is endemic to West Africa. It is a zoonotic disease first described in the 1950’s in Sierra Leone but was not recognized until 1969. It causes over five thousand (5000) deaths annually the world over. In Liberia there is an annual increase of the Lassa fever cases reported at the only Lassa fever treatment center, the Phebe Hospital, in Suakoko District, Bong County. Lassa fever is a challenge to the health of the people as a result of limited knowledge of the disease. The researcher has identified the Phebe Community in Suakoko District, Bong County as a case study because of the proximity of the community to the only treatment center. This case study revealed that 8% of the target population of one thousand four hundred and ten (1410) residents has knowledge of Lassa fever and its prevention. The research further revealed that the educational level of the respondents is a significant determining factor for the limited knowledge of the disease. Of the highly educated people (college level) sampled in this research study, 42.70% is knowledgeable of the disease. A major contributing factor to the prevalence of the disease in Liberia is the lack of community health awareness of the disease. This research proved it through the statistics gathered from the Phebe Community on public health awareness. Only about 0.7 % of the sample size indicated that there was some form of awareness carried out in the Phebe Community, but could not even identify who conducted the public health awareness and how many times was said activity carried out in the community.

  11. Dr. R. Pradeep Kumar, Ms. Pavithra H Dave and Dr. S. Thenmozhi

    Background: Empathy is a fundamental value in health care. The present study was conducted to assess the empathy levels among students and assess the difference in empathy levels across gender and year of study and also to improve their attitude and skills towards the patients and their quality of service to enhance the dentist-patient relationship. Materials and Methods: Cross sectional descriptive studywas conducted to assess the level of empathy using a validated, self-administered questionnaire Jefferson Scale of Empathy, Health Care Provider Student version (JSE-HPS) in this study. Results: A total of 300 dental students and Interns participated in the present study; the mean empathy score among the male dental students was 84.4 and among thefemale dental students was 84.5. Conclusion: Mean empathy score among the male and female dental Students showed less difference however empathy should be given importance in dental curriculum toimprove dentist-patient relationship,thereby achieving optimal outcome in patient care.

  12. Mate Siakwa, Alex Boye, Wisdom Azanu, Dzigbodi Kpikpitse, Yaw Asante Awuku, Emmanuel Hansen-Owoo, Nancy Ebu, Patience Doe and Thomas D Amankona

    Both symptomatic and asymptomatic chronic Hepatitis B viral infections in pregnancy have been found to be associated with adverse pregnancy outcome for the mother and the baby. This comparative study compared maternal and perinatal outcomes of pregnancy between mothers with symptomatic HBV infection and those who were asymptomatic. The results revealed that HBV infected pregnant women with low income, low educational level and are rural dwellers are more likely to be symptomatic. There was statistically significant difference in maternal outcomes (parity, premature rapture of membrane, foul smelling liquor, history of abortion and STI/UTI) between symptomatic and asymptomatic HBV infected mothers. A positive association exists between symptomatic HBV infection and gestational age (P<0.001), birth weight (p<0.001), Apgar score at minute one (0.001), Apgar score at minute five (p<0.001), stillbirth (0.001) and asphyxia (P< 0.001). Antenatal care services must target screening and effective management of HBV infected individuals to reduce the adverse maternal and perinatal outcomes.

  13. Shilpa A. Deshpande and Nandkishor J. Duragkar,

    Background: Eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) from fish is known to have benefits on cardiovascular system by attenuating ischemic changes. Intending to produce alternative source to fish EPA, we have microbially synthesized EPA (mEPA) from α-linolenic acid from plant oil for pharmacological evaluation in myocardial infarction MI. Objective: The objective of present study was to evaluate cardioprotective activity of mEPA through effect on cardiac enzyme biomarkers and histopathology in experimentally induced MI. Methods: Animals were divided into 7 groups of six animals each; control, standard (Losartan 20 mg/kg); fish oil (1 g/ kg); 3 groups with mEPA (5, 10 and 50 mg/kg) for 15 days. MI was induced in all groups except control by two doses of Isoproterenol HCl at 24 hrs interval (50 mg/ 100 g; s. c.) at the end of treatment. Biochemical assays for serum CK-MB, LDH, SGOT, NO, ACE and antioxidant enzymes were performed. Histopathology of ventricular apex region was done to compare pathological changes. Results: Elevated levels of enzymes CK-MB, SGOT, LDH, NO, ACE and reduced levels of antioxidant enzymes in sham control group were significantly reversed in treatment groups. The effects of mEPA were significant as compared to standard and fish oil. This was evident from the histopathological observations of ventricular apex which indicated necrosis and other pathological changes in MI induced group which were decreased in treatment groups. Conclusion: mEPA has shown promising cardioprotective effect and can fulfil the need of alternative source of EPA to fish for use in MI patients.

  14. Ramavathi, J., Manju. G. Preeda and Yazhini, P.

    Several hypothalamic peptides that participate in the control of ingestive behavior are produced in neuronal cell bodies of the arcuate nucleus and/ or the lateral hypothalamic area. Apart from producing orexigenic or anorexigenic compounds of peptidergic nature, these neurons also produce excitatory and inhibitory amino acid neurotransmitters. The role of GABA and glutamate in regulating energy balance has received less attention in comparison to neuropeptides. The arcuate nucleus median eminence area, a region with a weak blood–brain barrier, contains at least two neuronal cell populations that exert opposing actions on energy balance.some other nucleus and other neuropeptides secreted from the hypothalamus regulate the feeding behaviour.

  15. Dr. Ayman A Bukhari

    Introduction: Ectopic pregnancy is one of the most important complications due to its role in increasing maternal morbidity and mortality. Early diagnosis provides more chances to treat it without complications. Aim: This study aimed to evaluate management plan of ectopic pregnancy Method: This retrospective study screened the medical records of all women admitted to ER department at King abdulaziz University hospital as an ectopic case throughout 2012-2014. Results: 120 patients were eligible and were included in this study. The mean age was 29.9±5.7 years. The mean of gravidity was 3.5±2.7. Thirty six (30%) cases had history of Pelvic Surgery and 21 (17.5%) had History of CS. All the 120 cases were admitted through emergency room (ER), 71 (60.7 %) had Vaginal Bleeding. Of the patients, 19 (15.8%) had expectant management, 42 (35%) received Methotrexate, 40 (33.3%) had laparoscopy & 18 (15%) had Laparotomy. Conclusions: The treatment would be determined by the association of three main factors: clinical symptoms, ultrasound examination and β-hCG levels. Methotrexate is recommended for all womenwithout hemodynamic problems, unruptured pregnancyand low β-hCG. The earlier EP diagnosis the greater the chances of reducing maternal morbidity and mortality rate.

  16. Pravina Mahadalkar and Santa De

    India contributes a very high share to the global maternal mortality i.e death due to pregnancy related complications. Evidence from other countries shows that Midwifery based maternity care has reduced maternal deaths. Midwifery in India though an old profession not fully recognized by law, society, and health professionals. A study was done to determine the perception of nurse midwives regarding “Independent Midwifery Practice (IMP) in India”. From a total of 363 samples 50-70% felt that the nurse midwife can perform the various aspects of maternity care independently namely antenatal checkup, recognizing high risk pregnancies, conducting normal deliveries ,managing complications related to mother and baby during delivery. 72% of the midwives felt that registered midwives can practice independently, Mainly in setting like Primary health centre (PHC), Rural Hospital (RH), or a Govt Medical College hospital.49% opined that the nurse midwife can run her own maternity home, among them majority felt that higher training is required with an additional 2-3 years field experience.56% of the midwives said other medical professionals in the field will support IMP. 88% of midwives have answered positively for a govt post of midwifery practitioner. This shows high level of confidence in the midwives for IMP.

  17. Yamini Sharma

    Background: To find out the efficacy of lumbar stabilization exercises by using pressure biofeedback and without pressure biofeedback on trunk angle in middle grade school students with no mechanical low back pain. Method: A total of 90 subjects participated in the study, 45 subjects assigned to each group with a 8 weeks’ intervention protocol. The first group was given lumbar stabilization exercises with pressure biofeedback and other group was given stabilization exercises without pressure biofeedback Results: After intervention in both groups showed improvement in trunk angle (sway back posture) but pressure biofeedback group showed more significant result. Conclusion: Lumbar Stabilization exercises using Pressure biofeedback is an effective way for improving trunk angle in middle grade school students

  18. Dr. Ajinkya Amritrao Deshmukh, Dr. Kirti Balkrishna Buva, Dr. Atul Deshmukh and Dr. Vaishali P. Chaskar

    Background: To find out the efficacy of lumbar stabilization exercises by using pressure biofeedback and without pressure biofeedback on trunk angle in middle grade school students with no mechanical low back pain. Method: A total of 90 subjects participated in the study, 45 subjects assigned to each group with a 8 weeks’ intervention protocol. The first group was given lumbar stabilization exercises with pressure biofeedback and other group was given stabilization exercises without pressure biofeedback Results: After intervention in both groups showed improvement in trunk angle (sway back posture) but pressure biofeedback group showed more significant result. Conclusion: Lumbar Stabilization exercises using Pressure biofeedback is an effective way for improving trunk angle in middle grade school students

  19. : Dr. Javvid Muzamil, Dr. ShiekhAejaz Aziz, Dr. Gull Mohammad Bhat, Dr. Abdul Rashid Lone, Dr. ShuaebBhat and Dr. FirdousaNabi

    Plasma cell dyscrasias represent 1.4-2 % of all malignancies and among hematologic malignancies; it constitutes 10 % of the tumors. Plasma cell dyscrasias are composed of multiple myeloma, primary and secondary plasma cell leukemia. Primary plasma cell leukemia (pPCL) is a rare and aggressive disease, represents 1-4 % of plasma cell dyscrasias. The prognosis of this is very poor with median survival of 8- 11 months in different reported series. We are reporting a study from our hospital over a period of ten years, in which pPCL was found in 1.8% of multiple myeloma patients, with slight male predominance and earlier age than multiple myeloma, and all had high disease burden with high LDH, β2 microglobulin, and plasmacytosis. This disease had very aggressive behavior especially with light chain lambda disease and all patients succumbed within 8 months of treatment.

  20. Dr. KirtiBalkrishnaBuva, Dr. AjinkyaAmritraoDeshmukh and Dr. AtulAmritraoDeshmukh

    Mucoepidermoid carcinoma is the malignant epithelial salivary gland tumor. Mucoepidermoid carcinoma shows a diverse behavior histopathologically. It resembles histopathologically with number of lesions, making a difficulty in diagnosis, merely on the basis of histopathology. As mucoepidermoid carcinoma most commonly occurs in parotid gland still this pathology shows grades, where high grade is an aggressive form and low grade favors initial malignancy. Thus a detailed histopathological study is must. The aim of this paper is to present a case report of a 26 year male patient who came with the complaint of painless swelling at the periauricular area, which was increasing in size gradually and was of soft consistency. The excision was done and sent to the pathology laboratory. Histopathology report was suggestive of various types of cells such as epidermoid cells, mucous secreting cells, intermediate cells, clear cells along with cystic spaces and mucin spillage. The final diagnosis was Low grade variant of Mucoepidermoid carcinoma of parotid gland.

  21. Dr. Prithviraj K., Dr. Prof H. P. Raghuveer, Dr. Dilip Kumar, R., Dr. Shobha, E. S., Dr. Prashanth, N. T. and Dr. Vinod Rangan

    Purpose: To assess bone regeneration in peri-implant bone defects grafted by demineralized freeze–dried bone graft using platelet-rich plasma and platelet-rich fibrin. Methods: Twenty patients who were to be rehabilitated by implant supported prosthesis were considered for the study. During placement of implants, the implant site was assessed for any peri implant defect and these patients with peri implant defect were divided into two equal groups randomly, one group to receive platelet-rich plasma with bone graft and other group to receive platelet-rich fibrin with bone graft. Immediate and three months post-operative CBCT was taken to compare the bone formation in the peri-implant defect. The CBCT image is screen captured and imported into a picture editing software and linear measurements of the bone is measured. Results: The mean vertical facial bone height formed by using Platelet rich plasma and Platelet rich fibrin with bone graft was 0.17+ 0.19 mm and 0.56 + 0.38 mm respectively(P = 0.015). The mean value in vertical lingual bone height formed was 0.15 + 0.27 mm and 0.72 + 0.68 mm for Platelet rich plasma and Platelet rich fibrin respectively (P = 0.033). Conclusion: Based on the results it was concluded that Platelet rich fibrin is efficacious in the treatment of a peri- implant defect.

  22. Dr. Vishal Goel, Dr. Ashish Arvind and Dr. Sushma Sood

    The objective of this study was to establish the normative data of motor nerve conduction velocity of median and ulnar nerve in normal healthy adults around the Rohtak region of Haryana. Method: An observational descriptive study was conducted in randomly selected 60 healthy subjects of both sexes of general population around Rohtak who were between the ages of 18 and 66 years by using RMS EMG EP Mark-II. Motor studies were performed on the ulnar and median nerves, both proximally and distally along the forearm on both side of arm. Parameter included Motor distal latency, amplitude and conduction velocity of ulnar and median nerves. Result: In the right median nerve, distal latency (DL) was 2.92±0.76 ms, the amplitude (CMAPA) was 11.72±5.17 mV, the conduction velocity (MNCV) was 52.35±6.99 m/s. In the left median nerve distal latency (DL) was 2.85±0.77 ms, the amplitude (CMAPA) was 13.59± 5.89mV, the conduction velocity (MNCV) was 52.76±7.58m/s. In the right ulnar nerve, motor distal latency (DL) was 2.05±0.49ms, the amplitude (CMAPA) was 10.5±2.52 mV, the conduction velocity (MNCV) was 53.02±5.13 m/s. In the left ulnar nerve distal latency (DL) was 2.1±0.47 ms, the amplitude was 10.24±2.6 mV, the conduction velocity (MNCV) was 51.89±5.2m/s. This data was compared with the previous studies which had been carried out for normative data on nerve conduction studies Conclusion: Normative conduction parameters of the median and ulnar nerves in the upper limbs were established for the NCV laboratory in Pt. B D Sharma PGIMS, Rohtak. The mean motor nerve conduction parameters for the tested nerves compared favorably with the existing literature data.

  23. Dr. Jayant Palaskar, Dr. Zankhana S. Mody, Dr. Shreyas S. Mohile, Dr. Jyoti H. Wankhade, Dr. Sayali R. Korde and Dr. Nikita M. Virdiya

    Radiation prosthesis is an artificially fabricated device that aids in the efficient administration of radiotherapy to the affected areas and thereby helps in limiting post radiotherapy complications. Radiotherapy is being used as an adjunctive form of treatment in the management of head and neck cancer. Adverse tissue reactions are associated with the use of radiotherapy in the management of patients with head and neck cancer. These reactions are painful and they diminish the quality of life, often discouraging the patient from taking treatment. A prosthodontist can help the Radiotherapist in radiotherapy of the patient by fabrication of certain devices. These devices are shielding devices, positioning stents and radiation source carriers. Radiation shielding devices minimize exposure of the surrounding healthy tissues, positioning devices help in delivering radiation to desired area, while radiation source carrier is used for radiation of intraoral localized area. This article aims at displaying the various prostheses that can be given to oral cancer patients to provide better treatment and decrease post radiation complications. The use of these devices is individualized and close collaboration between the radiotherapist and the prosthodontist is essential. Use of these devices minimizes severity of the problems, improves the prognosis and provides comfort to the patient. Radiation therapy is employed by many institutions and the dentist must be aware of the appliances that can be fabricated to prevent the undesirable side effects of radiation.

  24. Shahad Alkhuwaiter and Saeed Banabilh

    Objectives: To investigate the common symptoms and severity of temporomandibular disorders (TMDs) in university students using Fonseca’s questionnaire, to assess the association between self-reported questionnaire-based bruxism and TMD and to determine the relationship of TMD to age, gender, and different levels of anxiety. Methods: Common TMD symptoms were diagnosed using Fonseca’s 10 questions. Bruxism was diagnosed using self-reported questionnaire-based bruxism. The level of anxiety was measured using Trait Anxiety section of Spielberger State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI-T). Results: Out of 1100 questionnaires distributed, 745 completed questionnaires were received (response rate: 67.7%). Mean age was 21.62 ± 1.77. TMD was observed in 270 (44%) students. The most common symptoms of TMD were: have frequent headaches (53%), get tired/muscular pain while chewing (36%), and TMJ clicking while chewing or when they open their mouth (34%). The association between age and gender with TMD was not significant (p>0.1 and p>0.3 respectively). However, the association between bruxism habits and TMD levels revealed a statistically significant difference (p<0.000). Moreover, students with high level of anxiety had a 2.8 higher probability of developing TMD (95% CI: 0.3-26.7; P> 0.4). Conclusion: This study revealed a higher prevalence of TMD among college students, and described a strong relationship between this disorder and the levels of anxiety. Female students, older students, those with bruxism habits, and who considered anxious are more likely to develop TMD.

  25. Mohini, Shailender Rawal, Surekha Dabla and Manoj Yadav

    Purpose: Epidemiologic studies have shown that the incidence of epilepsy is the highest in the elderly population. As the elderly constitutes the most rapidly growing population in our country, epilepsy in this group has become an important health issue. To identify the characteristics of epilepsy in the elderly, etiology and effect of antiepileptic drugs on seizure control, we studied elderly population at tertiary care centre in this northern part of India for new onset of seizures. Methods: We studied all the patient with history of new onset of seizures with age above 60 years who attended neurology clininc over a period of year. All patients underwent detailed clinical history and physical examinations, various blood investigations, magnetic resonance imaging and/or computed tomography of Brain, and electroencephalogram (EEG). All patients were started on appropriate antiepileptic drugs and monitored for control of seizure and side effects of antiepileptic drugs. Results: We collected data of 118 patients who developed epilepsy after the age of 60 years. The mean age of seizure onset was 67.5 years and out of which 71% patients were males. Generalized tonic clonic seizure semiology was most frequent (n=72). Etiological diagnosis was possible in nearly 72% patients, including those with cerebrovascular disease. A clear cause of epilepsy was not found (i.e., non-lesional epilepsy) in 28% patients. Abnormal EEG was found in 46% patients. Of the 100 patients who were followed for more than 1 year, 75.5% were on antiepileptic monotherapy and 98% had been seizure-free for more than 1 year. Conclusion: In our cohort of elderly persons with new-onset epilepsy, primary generalized tonic clonic seizures was most frequent presentation. Cerebrovascular diseases formed the most frequent etiology of seizures. Epileptogenecity was relatively low in elderly patients and they responded well to antiepileptic medication.

  26. Kalpana U. Rathod and Prof. Y. D. Kapse

    Brain tumors are the most aggressive and devastating types of cancer and are one the most common or major reason for death among individuals. The chances of survival can be increased if the cancer is detected at its early stage. This paper present an artificial neural network technique, namely feed forward back propagation neural network to classify the magnetic resonance image (MRI) into normal and timorous MRI. Image processing technique helps in detection of tumor in MRI. Feature extraction from the gray level MRI achieves using gray level co-occurence matrix (GLCM). Neural network works in two modes first is training/learning mode and second is testing/recognition mode. The whole system is developed on a MATLAB version 7.5.0 platform

  27. Hosein DALILI, Fatemeh NAYYERI, Mamak SHARIAT, Noushin Rastkari and Vafa GHORBAN SABAGH

    Background: Human human milk may contain high levels of fat and toxins, which exist in our country based on many reports during the first postnatal week. Methods: This study was conducted on 50 mothers who gave birth to a healthy infant at Vali-Asr teaching hospital, affiliated to Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran, from 2014 to 2015. Within the first postnatal week, a 20 cc sample of mother’s human milk was obtained and was sent for laboratory analysis to measure PCB levels via GC Mass method. Results: Maternal diet had a significant role in the concentrations of PCBs in human milk; mothers who had higher daily intake of chicken had significantly higher concentrations of PCB 28 and PCB 180 in their milk (p=0.003, p=0.031, respectively). Mothers who had fish in their meals 3-4 times a week had significantly lower levels of PCB153 in their milk (p=0.025). The percentage of harmful PCB153 was also significantly lower in their milk (p=0.006). Mothers who had twice a week intake of cereals had significantly higher levels of PCB28 in their human milk (p=0.018). Conclusions: Maternal diet have direct influence on human milk PCB concentrations. Therefore, it is necessary to inform mothers of the potential harms that might be caused by overusing some ingredients. Objective: evaluating the concentration of PCBs (polychlorinated biphenyl) in the mother’s milk

  28. Yashbir Singh Raghav, Yashpaul Dev, Preetinder Singh, Rajeshwar Digra, Gaurav Chowdhary and Dinesh Duhan

    Aim: To comparatively evaluate the regeneration potential of Hydroxyapatite β- tricalcium phosphate and autogenous bone graft in the treatment of periodontal intrabony defects. Material and Methods: A total of 20 sites were selected from those attending the Out Patient Department (OPD) of Department of Periodontology and oral implantology at Swami Devi Dyal Dental College and Hospital, Barwala, Panchkula. Subjects for the study were selected randomly with no discrimination on the basis of sex, caste, religion or socioeconomic status. Complete medical and dental history was obtained. A complete clinical and radiographic evaluation was performed. Patients who were diagnosed as suffering from moderate to advanced periodontitis along with radiographic evidence of periodontal osseous defects were selected for the study. Results: The results were compiled and statistically analysed using paired T- test. The data was normally distributed and it was analysed by paired T-test. Analysis of the data was done in two parts: inter group and intra group analysis. Intra group comparision shows significant differences at 3 months and 6months (p>0.001) but intergroup comparison shows non significant comparision. (p<0.001) Conclusions: The results of the present study showed that all the graft material resulted in increased bone levels, increased attachment level, reduced probing depth, significant bone resolution.

  29. Dr. Ripon Md. Chowdhury, Dr. Indranil Chatterjee and Dr. Dev Roy, F.R.C.S

    Leukoplakia is the most common pre-cancerous lesion of the oral cavity with high incidence of malignant transformation. Several risk factors including tobacco usage and alcohol consumption leads to formation of leukoplakia and cytogenetically altered keratinocytes, arising from pre-cancerous oral epithelium results in its malignant transformation. Surgical excision and antioxidant therapy are the preferred line of treatment of oral leukoplakia. This review attempts to highlight various aspects of leukoplakia from its formation to diagnosis and treatment with the aid of various recent literatures available.

  30. Lt Col (Dr) Vds Jamwal, Major(Dr) Mohan Angadi and Col(Dr) Sushil Kumar

    The gall bladder is a flask shaped, blind ending diverticulum which lies attached to the inferior surface of the right lobe of liver by connective tissue. It is attached to the common bile duct by the cystic duct. The gall bladder is about 7 to 10 cm long with a capacity of about 50 ml. It usually lies in a shallow fossa in the liver parenchyma covered by peritoneum which continues from inferior surface of liver. The primary function of gall bladder is to store and concentrate bile. This concentration is done by absorption of water and inorganic salts through the epithelium into the vessels of the lamina propria of its mucosa (1). Gall bladders are one of the more frequently encountered specimens in the surgical pathology laboratory. They are usually removed for stones and/or inflammatory conditions, but rarely may they harbor a neoplasm. Gall stones are a major cause of morbidity and mortality throughout the world. Cholecystectomy is the means by which the pathologist can diagnose the most common pathology of the gall bladder, which is chronic cholecystitis typically accompanied by cholelithiasis. By studying the histopathological changes the pathologist can diagnose chronic cholecystitis, which is typically accompanied by cholelithiasis. About 10% of the adults have gallstones(2,3).There is a female to male ratio of about 2 to 1 in the younger age groups, and with advancing age there is increasing prevalence in females. After the age of 60 yrs about 10 to 15 % of men and 20 to 40 % of women have gall stones (2). The risk of gall stones is also associated with a history of childbearing, estrogen replacement therapy, oral contraceptive use and marked obesity.

  31. Dr. Priyajyoti Chakma and Dr. H. K. Goswami

    Background: Dementia is a serious loss of global cognitive ability in a previously unimpaired person, beyond what mightbe expected from normal aging. Dementia is often associated with physical, mental and financial burden. Care giving was associated with more psychological complaints & coping is most often conceptualized as a response to the demands of specific stressful situations. Aim: To assess the Burden in caregiver of persons with dementia and also assess the coping strategies used by the caregivers. Settings and design: The study was conducted in the Department of Psychiatry, Assam Medical College & Hospital, Dibrugarh. The samples for the study were recruited from the outpatient & indoor facilities of the department of Psychiatry, Assam Medical College & Hospital, Dibrugarh, after application of the inclusion and exclusion criteria (n=40) cases of Dementia and theircaregivers (n=40) were included in the study. Materials and Methods: Diagnosis of dementia were done by fourth edition of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-IVTR). The tools used were burden assessment schedule (Thara et al., 1998), Asamese version of ways of coping Quissionare (Susan Folkman and Richard S. Lazarus). Statistical analysis was done by using SPSS- 20. Results: The result revealed that level of burden reported by caregivers of dementia patients was high. The most common coping strategies used by caregivers of Dementia patients were confronting coping (72%), distancing (45%), seeking social support (45%) and self-controlling (45%). Conclusion: The various findings in our study evidence that dementia can have serious consequences on families particularly the primary caregivers. Result highlight the importance of improving the mixed coping skills in burdened caregivers.

  32. Mate Siakwa, Yaw Asante Awuku, Alex Boye, Wisdom Azanu, Dzigbodi Kpikpitse, Emmanuel Hansen-Owoo and Thomas D Amankona

    Hepatitis B viral load is directly related to the risk of disease progression. Studies reporting outcomes and indication for treatment are interpreted in relation to viral load. The main objective of this study is to determine the relationship between viral load and obstetric and neonatal outcomes in hepatitis B virus (HBV) infected mothers. Two hundred and sixty two pregnant women whose HBV status was determined by PCR and HBsAg were recruited for the study. They were categorized based on their viral load; viral load > 106 copies/ml as case and < 106 copies/mlas control. Maternal and neonatal outcomes were assessed and compared between the two groups. The results revealed age, income and place of residence (whether rural or urban) were comparable between the two groups. However, there was an association between an infected mothers’ educational level and serum HBV DNA level. Parity, PIH foul smelling liquor, and previous abortion were comparable between the two groups. PROM (p<0.05) and a history of STI/UTI (p<0.05) were associated with high maternal viral load. Mothers with viral load >106 copies/ml are at higher risk for PROM. The higher the viral load the greater the risk for having neonates with birth weight <2500g (p<0.05). Being preterm, asphyxiated and low APGAR scored neonate is not directly associated with maternal viral load. Routine screening of HBV infected pregnant women for viral load will determine the need for antiviral therapy to reduce adverse perinatal outcome and MTCT.

  33. Yogish, P., Girish, H. C., Sanjay Murgod, Sandesh, M., Asha and Kavitha, M

    Introduction: Epithelial–mesenchymal interactions are thought to play an important role in the pathogenesis of odontogenic cysts. Odontogenic Keratocyst (OKC) is a benign cystic neoplasm with a characteristic parakeratinized epithelial lining, which differs histologically and behaviourally from the Dentigerous cyst (DC) and Radicular cyst (RC). Biological behaviour of OKC is dependent on both epithelium and the underlying stroma. Collagen plays an important role in maintaining structural integrity and in determination of tissue functions. Collagen has natural birefringence which is attributed to arrangement of its fibres; this property is enhanced by Picrosirius Red staining. Aim: The purpose of this study will be to investigate the differences in collagen fibres within the fibrous tissue walls of OKC, DC and RC. Study design: Formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded tissue samples of OKC, DC, RC was segregated from the department of Oral Pathology & Microbiology, RRDCH and cut sections was subjected to staining with Picrosirius red and was observed under polarising light microscope. Polarising colours of the collagen fibres was recorded and statistically analysed. Materials and Methods: A group of 30 histopathologically diagnosed cases of Odontogenic cysts, 10 cases of Radicular cysts, 10 cases of Dentigerous cyst, 10 cases of Odontogenic Keratocyst and 2 cases of Dental follicular tissue as controls were retrieved from files of Department of Oral Pathology and Microbiology, Rajarajeswari Dental College and Hospital. Haematoxylin and Eosin stained slides were evaluated for the existence and degree of inflammation in all the slides. Paraffin embedded tissue blocks were sectioned at 5µm thickness. Sections were deparaffinised, hydrated and stained with Picro Sirius Red stain for collagen. Statistical analysis: Level of Significance: α=0.05 Statistical test used: Chi-squared (χ2) test Results: Our study showed that in, RC and DC - yellowish orange and orange color was seen indicating dense fibrosis in case of mild and moderate inflammation. Whereas in case of OKC , greenish yellow color was dominant in subepithelial, intermediate layer in absence and mild inflammation, whereas in periphery yellowish orange was seen in mild inflammation Conclusion: This method can be used to analyze the orientation of collagen fibers and also how inflammation can induce a change in the collagen from loosely packed thin fibrils to closely packed mature collagen. It can also be used as a diagnostic tool to differentiate two lesions and to predict their nature in terms of biologic behaviour and prognosis.

  34. Ramalakshmi Sathiss, Savitha Nagaraj and Manasa, B. M.

    Introduction: Blood stream infections are a major cause of morbidity and mortality despite the availability of antimicrobial therapy. Bacteremia due to Gram negative bacilli is a significant problem in hospitalized patients and frequent cause of sepsis. Aim: The aim of this study was to identify the distribution of Gram negative bacterial isolates and their antibiogram from blood cultures. Material and methods: A retrospective analysis was conducted from January 2014- June 2014 to identify the microbial profile in the blood culture isolates and their antibiotic susceptibility patterns. Results: A total of 996 blood cultures were processed during the study period from which 317 Gram negative bacilli were isolated. Among the Gram negative bacteria, highest was Escherichia coli 101(32%) followed by Salmonella Typhi 73(23%), Klebsiella 48(15%), Salmonella Paratyphi A 25 (8%), Gram negative Non fermenter 42(13%), Pseudomonas species 16(5%), Enterobacter species 6(2%), Citrobacter species 3(1%), Aeromonas species 3 (1%). Antibiotic resistance pattern of the Non fermenters were totally (100% resistance) resistant to the all antibiotics ,the Salmonella species isolated in our study were all susceptible to Ciprofloxacin and Ceftriaxone. The maximum resistance in Escherichia coli was to the Aminoglycoside group of antibiotics while Klebsiella showed maximum resistance to Cephalosporins. Conclusion: Early and appropriate identification and treatment of gram negative sepsis is necessary for reducing the mortality and morbidity among the hospitalized patients.

  35. Dr. Mishali Gill, Dr. Mahesh Shivaji Chavan and Dr. D. M. Sable

    Objectives: The present study was conducted to observe various mandibular measurements using digital panoramic radiography, which can be used for sex determination. The study was done among the Maharashtran population with a sample size of 500 out of which 250 were males and 250 were females of age group 20-50yrs. Method: The parameters considered for the study were mandibular angle, distance between mental foramen and basal border of the mandible, distance between mental foramen and alveolar border of the mandible, mental foramen breadth, mental foramen height, length of the mandibular body, maximum length of the mandible, height of the mandibular body, maximum ramus breadth, minimum ramus breadth, maximum ramus height, length of the condyle, breadth of the condyle, distance between the centre of mental foramen and mental tubercle, distance between the centre of foramen mentale and gonion, bigonial width. Result: Out of these 16 variables 9 variables were highly significant for sex determination which were, distance between mental foramen and basal border of the mandible, Length of the mandibular body, Maximum length of the mandible, Length of the mandibular body, Maximum and Minimum ramus breadth, Maximum height of ramus and bigonial width were highly significant and variables, distance between the centre of mental foramen and mental tubercle were significant in determining the sex of the mandible. Conclusion: This research showed that variables length of body of mandible, maximum length of mandible, height of body of mandible, maximum and minimum breadth of ramus, height of ramus and bigonial width exhibit highest degree of sexual dimorphism.

  36. Khudhair khalf Al-Kayalli and Burooj Mohammed Razooqi

    Background: Head lice infestation caused by Pediculus humanus var. Capitis, is the most prevalent human ectoparasitic disease worldwide, head lice are haematophagous, head lice infestation is particularly frequent among children 3-11 stigmatization and psychological distress. Traditional pharmacological therapies for the human head louse, Pediculus humanus Capitis, have focused on 1 or 2 courses of various ovicidal and pediculicidal topical therapies, permetherin 1% as first-line treatment for head lice, permetherin is abroad- spectrum synthetic pyrethroid, and trimethoprim /sulfamethoxazole is presumed to work by ridding lice of bacteria. Methods and Patients: Seventy five females patients with pediculosis capitis included in the study, their ages ranged from 3 to 60 years. In 40 patients the pediculosis was complicated by secondary bacterial infection. The patients were divided in to three groups, each group consisted of twenty five patients. Group 1:-The patients were treated by 5% permetherin solution applied for three successive days for 30 minutes for each application and repeated after 10 days as a single application for 30 minutes. Group 2:-Was treated by trimethoprim /sulfamethoxazole tablet or solution according to the age for 5 days. Group 3:- Was treated by combination of 5% permetherin solution and oral trimethoprim /sulfamethoxazole in similar does to the first and second groups. Swabs were taken from patients with bacterial infection. Results: The study revealed that 23(92%) patients of the first group who was treated by 5% permetherin solution, was cleared, 20(80%) patients from the second group who was treated by oral trimethoprim / sulfamethoxazole, also cleared and all the patients in the third group 25(100%) who were treated by a mixture of 5% permetherin topically and oral trimethoprim / sulfamethoxazole. Of those who were complicated by secondary bacterial infection 40(60%), 30(75%) the cultures shows growth of Staphylococus aureus, 6(15%) Streptococcus pyogenes and 4(10%) mixed growth of both Staph and Strep. The cultures which were tested by 5% permetherin shows no inhibition zone but those cultures which were tested by trimethoprim /sulphamethoxazol shows significant inhibition zone. It was concluded that permetherin was ineffective as antibacterial agent but it was highly effective as pediculocidal agent and it was more effective when combined with oral trimethoprim /sulfamethoxazol.

  37. Dr. Aruna Goyal, Dr. Upendra Bharadwaj, Dr. Dilaver and Dr. Nikhil

    Aims and Objective: To study the role of laproscopic fulgration and Low dose danazol therapy for minimal to moderate endometriosis in case of infertility followed by comparision of both therapy. Materials and Methods: The present cross–sectional study was conducted in the department of obstetrics and gynecology SN Medical college Agra. Over the period from Dec2010 to Nov 2012. Symptomatic women (n=50) of age group 20-39 yrs coming to gynecology OPD were selected for study group. The study group was subjected to detailed history, physical examination laboratory test, ultrasound examination, laproscopy. Then 25 patient were allotted for laproscopic fulgration and 25 for danazol treatment. Result: In our study out of 50 patient that transvaginal sonography we found that 10%of patient have cyst <2cm size and 20% have >2cm size, rest 70% have normal scan. On laproscopy 52% of patient have red lesion, 16% have bluish black lesion, 20% have yellow brown lesion rest 22% have no findings. On danazol therapy pelvic pain and dysmenorrhoea was relieved in 64% and 52% conceived. On laproscopic fulgration symptom was relieved in 69% and 60% was conceived. Conclusion: Based on this study it can be concluded that choice of therapy depend on age of patient, duration of infertility, physical findings, goal of surgery, experience of surgeon, availability of resources. In this study result was comparabile.

  38. Dr. Nilesh Patil, Dr. Suhas Vaze, Dr. Shruti Patil, Dr. Pankaj Patil, Dr. Madhura Kulkarni and Dr. Ashish Mahamuni

    There is high incidence of periodontal pocket formation and gingival recession on distal side of second molar after surgical removal of third molar. The periodontal pocket formation is commonly seen in mesioangular and horizontal impacted third molars. Scaling and root planning is not sufficient to reduce the distal pocket formation. In this study 20 patients requiring bilateral transalveolar mandibular third molar extractions which are mainly mesioangualar or horizontal were included after written informed consent. One side was randomly chosen as a test and the other side was the control. Commercially available alloplastic bone graft material placed in the extraction site and primary closure was obtained. The patient was called for follow up on the 1st day, 2nd day, 7th day, 3rd month & 6th after third molar surgery. The patients were evaluated for pocket depth and postoperative wound healing. Results and conclusion: There was decreased pocket depth was observed after 6 month distal to third molar. Third molar socket grafting with alloplastic graft material may be a predictable procedure to reduce the pocket formation after third molar surgery. Further follow up of present cases and larger sample size is required needed to evaluate the bone remodeling & maintenance of bone height distal to second molar. Research is required to use his bone graft material with corticocancellous bone & platelet rich plasma to evaluate osteogenic potential of the graft material.

  39. Prateek Jain, Priyanka Sontakke and Gautam Biswas

    Background: Maintaining a high level of good oral health throughout the force is an integral part of overall combat readiness as clinical dental resources are not always readily available in the deployed environment. Methodology: A total of 205 army personnel were included in this study. The interview comprised few questions to know their oral hygiene practices and deleterious oral habits. The answers to these questions as well as clinical data were recorded in the WHO form 2013. Results: Mean age was 30.4 ± 9.2 years among BSF personnel maximum subjects belonged to 26–30 years age group. Healthy periodontium was seen in 87(42.4%) BSF personnel. Conclusion: BSF needs to strengthen their existing Oral health care delivery system by emphasizing more on to their preventive aspect.

  40. Dr. Saraswathi Gopal, K. and Amala, M.

    Green tea is the most soughtful beverage of both the young and old due to its numerous health benefits. The biological activity of its components like catechin constitute towards this quality of green tea. Numerous studies have proved the antioxidant properties of green tea. Present study investigates its role in reducing the count of streptococcus mutans in the oral cavity and its effect on the salivary pH. Aim: To evaluate the salivary ph and streptococcus mutans count in healthy individuals before and after rinsing the oral cavity with green tea. Materials and methods: Unstimulated saliva is collected from 45 healthy south Indian population in the age group of 18 years and above. Salivary samples are collected before and after rinsing the oral cavity with green tea and tested for salivary ph using ph strips and Streptococcus mutans count in mitis salivarious agar. Results: To find the significant difference unpaired T test was used. There is statistically significant increase in salivary ph and decrease in streptococcus mutans count after rinsing the mouth with green tea. Conclusion: Based on the results of the study it could be advisable to encourage regular consumption of this healthy drink and to incorporate it in mouthwashes, toothpaste and chewing gums.

  41. Ujjal Bhakat

    Proximal humeral fractures, defined as fractures occurring at or proximal to the surgical neck of the humerus. Nowadays proximal humeral fractures account for almost 7% of all fractures and make up 80% of all humeral fractures. In patients above the age of 65 years proximal humeral fractures are the second most frequent upper extremity fracture, and the third most common non-vertebral osteoporotic fracture after proximal femur and distal radius fractures. The treatment of this lesion depends on the conditions like the patient’s age, degree of fracture displacement, the amount of damage to the soft tissue, last systematic diseases; fractured bone resulted of pathology, degree of bone damages and experience of surgeon. It might be chosen from surgical or nonsurgical treatment. Although series of conservative treatment suggest that reasonable functional results can be achieved with immobilization alone, without the morbidity associated with surgical management, even in more complex fracture types. With this background we have chosen this topic as a comperative study to evaluate the results of conservative and operative study in displaced proximal humerus fracture.

  42. Dr. Shalu Jain, Dr. Sumit Aggarwal, Dr. Stuti Mohan, Dr. Ashutosh, Dr. Pradeep Raghav and Dr. Harpinder Singh

    Missing first molars are a common intra oral finding in adult orthodontic patients. It is usually due to either caries or compromised periodontal conditions. It’s appropriate treatment possess a very challenging situation for the orthodontist. Impacted or lingually tilted molars require uprighting. There are several approaches by which molar uprighting can be accomplished, like Australian uprighting spring, cantilever spring, push spring appliance, NiTi coil spring, Mini implant, forced eruption by elastics, traction from removable appliances, surgical uprighting etc. This is a case report of uprighting of a mesioangular mandibular right permanent second molar. Though various treatment options are available, uprighting with segmental T loop along with second order bend was chosen.

  43. Anuradha Sajjan and Dr. S. G. Jadhav

    The present study examines self concept and state trait anxiety of pregnant jobholders and homemakers, 120 samples attending OPD and maternity clinics at Bijapur and Dharwad district of North Karnataka are selected, among them 60 are pregnant jobholders and 60 are pregnant homemakers. Self-concept scale developed by Mukta Rani Rastogi (1979) and State Trait Anxiety Test scale developed by Sanjay Vohra (1992) are used for data collection. The data is computed using Mean, SD, ‘t’-test and Karl Pearson’s coefficient of correlation. The results revealed that pregnant job holders have high level of self-concept compared to pregnant homemakers which is significant at 0.01 level. Whereas, there is no significant difference found in the level of state trait anxiety between pregnant jobholders & homemakers. There is no significant correlation between Self concept and anxiety of pregnant jobholders and homemakers.

  44. Yash Raj

    Aim: Immediately placed implant is lucrative and offers several advantages. This study was done to find out any hard tissue changes around the implants in bucco-lingual direction before and after 6 months of implant placement. Materials and Methods: This study was done on 18 patients who has undergone extraction and immediate implant placement. Implant system used was Alpha-Bio®. Pre- operative test includes computed tomography (CT) scan of the jaw, OPG and IOPA were done to assess the quality and quantity of the bone, proximity with anatomical structures and dimention of the tooth to be replaced and facio-palatal/lingual width of bone at the crest, 3 mm apical to the crest and 6 mm apical to the crest was calculated. Second stage surgery was carried out after 4 to 6 months depending upon the quality of the bone. Results: Statistical analysis was done on SPSS ver 15 software. The results were tested using Normality tests (Kolmogorov-smirnov & shapiro-wilk). The mean value bucco-lingual width, at the crest was 5.62±0.87 mm before implant placement and 5.35±0.78 after 6 months, 3 mm apical to the crest was 9.08±1.25 and after 6 months it was 8.87±1.21 and 6mm apical to the crest was 10.81±1.61 and after 6 months 10.55±1.64mm. Results from this present study showed statistically significant bone loss in bucco -lingual/palatal direction. Conclusion: We can say that immediate implant placement is a safe and predictable option, and bone remodelling bound to occur after implant placement but the facio-palatal/lingual changes are clinically not significant.

  45. Prof Dr. K. Mahadevan and Dr. A. Muthuvinayagam, Dr. S. Jeeva, Dr. A. Deepa and Dr. K. Sugumaran

    Introduction: Haemorroids is one of the commonest clinical condition that we have come acrossed in our surgical practice. It is one of the commonest troublesome disease also. It is usually diagnosed by their external appearance, symptoms obtained from the patients, proctoscopic examination, per rectal examination, and sigmoidoscopic examination. To rule out carcinoma rectum all cases should be screened by sigmoidoscopy. All patients of haemorroids cannot be treated with only one procedure, each of them is to be evaluated correctly with clinical findings, proctoscopic and sigmoidoscopic examinations. Sometimes manometric study may be necessary for the correct procedure. Materials and Methods: In this study,100 Patients were evaluated in thanjavaur medical college for open and closed haemorroidectomy from May 2015 – May 2016 .Those patients were evaluated for advantages and disadvantage in both procedure and final outcome were studied based on the postoperative outcome and followup. Observation: In this study majority of cases were above fifty years of age and constituting about 50 percent. Male female ratio approximately 2.4 :1 Two patients have the positive family history Among the 100 cases bleeding was the presenting feature in 68 cases, 64 cases had prolapse, 26 had anal discharge, 18 patients had the anal irritation. Operating time is shorter in the open method, in closed method operating time was slightly longer Wound healing was delayed in open operation patients.

  46. Sanjeeta Umbarkar

    Background: Valvular Heart disease patients are always have other system involvement due to their complications, In such kind of high risk patients if haemodynamic instability occurs during induction, intubation then it will be hazardous to the patients .Hence the ideal anesthetic induction agents if used will be be helpful to these patients. Hence we decided to study effects of etomidate and Fentanyl –Midazolam combination as induction agents as well as their effects on stress response of Intubation and cardiopulmonary bypass. Aim: To study the effects of induction dose of etomidate and Fentanyl Midazolam on stress response of intubation and Cardiopulmonary Bypass in adult cardiac valvular surgeries Materials and methods: After approval from the institutional review board, 60 patients undergoing cardiac valvular surgeries using cardiopulmonary bypass were enrolled in the study. Patients were randomized to receive either Etomidate or fentanyl-midazolam for induction of anaesthesia. Anaesthesia was maintained in both the groups with fentanyl 2 mcg/kg/hr, midazolam 0.02 mg/kg/hr, vecuronium 0.05 mg/kg/hr and Desflurane till the end of surgery. Results: Baseline demographic and hemodynamic variables and cortisol levels were comparable in both the groups. Cortisol and blood sugar levels decreased in etomidate group on cardiopulmonary bypass and significant difference was found between etomidate and fentanyl-midazolam group. Cortisol levels 24 hours after the surgery showed no significant difference. Conclusion: Etomidate induction results in significantly decreased cortisol and blood sugar levels on cardiopulmonary bypass as compared to fentanyl-midazolam group, and thus, decreasing the stress response elicited by cardiopulmonary bypass. 24 hours after surgery cortisol levels in both the groups were comparable without any untoward effects.

  47. Beulah Jebakani, GowriSethu, Arumugam Pahinian and Megala Devi, R

    Osteoarthritis of the knee is a common cause of pain, reduced mobility and quality of life (QOL) in adults. People with knee osteoarthritis experience restricted participation in activities and behaviors of their choice, and thus it affects their social life. Given the increasing incidence of symptomatic knee Osteoarthritis and the role of non-pharmacological interventions in mitigating symptoms, it is important to find low-cost, easy to administer interventions. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of therapeutic exercises on knee related pain, QOL and mobility by using KOOS, timed up and go test. The results of the present study imply that therapeutic exercises that comprising warm-up, active range of motion exercise, strengthening exercise, muscle stretching and cool down were effective over conventional therapies that included hot packs and isometric quadriceps exercise in improving the knee related pain, QOL and mobility of middle aged adults with knee osteoarthritis.

  48. Sruthi Srinivasan and Abilasha, R

    Dental anomalies may result in problems in maxillary and mandibular arch length and occlusion. The possible etiological factor for these anomalies may be the mutation of genes in the prenatal and postnatal period which may result in anomalies in tooth size, shape, position, number, and structure (Basdra et al., 2000; Baydas et al., 2005; Garn et al., 1965; Kotsomitis et al., 1996; Sofaer, 1979). These anomalies may involve either one tooth or all the teeth or may be present as a part of any systemic disorder (Basdra et al., 2000) Changes in the numberof teeth include supernumerary teeth (hyperdontia), i.e. excess teeth or hypodontia (less number of teeth or missing teeth). Anomalies of shape of teeth include microdontia and macrodontia. Anomalies of shape include gemination, fusion, root dilacerations, taurodontism, and concrescence. Gemination is defined as a single enlarged tooth or joined (double) tooth in which the tooth count is normal when the anomalous tooth is counted as one. Fusion is defined as a single enlarged tooth or joined (double) tooth in which the tooth count reveals a missing tooth when the anomalous tooth is counted as one. Taurodontism is a developmental anomaly of molar teeth in which the body of the affected teeth is very large with short roots and bifurcation near the apex. Dilaceration is any abnormal bend in the root or crown of a tooth. Radiographic and clinical examination will help dentists to diagnose these dental anomalies. The aim of the present study is to determine the presence of various developmental anomalies through examination of panoramic radiographs in a limited population.

  49. Tati Ruhmawati, Denny Sukandar and Mimin Karmini

    The existence of horse manure around the neighborhood can lead to pollution. This condition is still existed in the Babakan Loa Cimahi settlement. The application of appropriate technology with horse manure can be processed to produce biogas. In addition to horse feces, water hyacinth (Eicchornia crassipes) can be utilized in the production of biogas because it has a large hemicellulose content. The aim of the research is to find out the effect of water hyacinth addition to the volume of biogas generated from horse manure. The research hypothesis shows that there is an effect of water hyacinth addition to the gas volume production. The populations are all horse manures taken from stables in Babakan Loa and water hyacinths on the paddies, while the samples are partially taken from the population with temporary sampling technique. The type of research is quasi-experimental research with one group pre and post test design. Data collection is done by measuring the gas volume produced. The collected data is processed and analyzed using t dependent test. The result shows that the biogas volume produced without the addition of water hyacinth ranged from 0.7 to 3.1 liters, while with addition of water hyacinth ranged from 1.4 to 11.9 liters. There is a significant difference between the volume of biogas without and with the addition of water hyacinth.

  50. Dr. Ameya G. Moghe, Dr. Kamedh Y. Chowdhary, Dr. Prabhuji, M. L. V., Dr. Mrinalini D. Kunte and Dr. Himani S. Gupta

    Teeth maintain the integral balance between structure, function, and aesthetics. Loss of anterior tooth not only poses a social stigma for patients but also an additional challenge for the dentist as all patients seek immediate replacement, which in most of the cases is not practical and easily affordable. Most procedures involve preparation of adjacent teeth or are too costly in the form of immediate implants. Natural tooth pontic is less time consuming, easily fabricated, with a predictable outcome and can serve as an excellent interim restoration. It also concentrates on maintaining aesthetics and the soft tissue architecture. This paper describes report of four cases in which immediate replacement of anterior tooth is done using a fibre composite resin with natural tooth serving as pontic.

  51. . Harieesha, K. B., *Dr. Soummayya, Dr. Sharmada, B. K., Dr. Hemanth, M., Dr. Chatura Hegde and Dr. Karthik.J.Kabbur Dr

    Background: To determine the short term effect of fixed orthodontic therapy on periodontal health and to find out which of the ligation techniques adhere more amount of micro organisms. Methods: Total of 30 subjects were selected in the age range of 18 to 25 years in the study. on the first day (T0) Quigely Hein plaque index was performed using two tone dye and bonding was carried out half of the quadrant was ligated with elastic module and half of the quadrant with steel ligature, patients were recalled after 2nd day(T1) of bonding, bracket bond index was carried out. same patients were recalled after 30th day of bonding, Quigely Hein and bracket bond plaque index were performed. Elastic module and steel ligature from either quadrant were removed and placed in the vials containing Stuart transport media were sent for total bacterial count. Results: results were subjected for statistical analysis and it was found that Quigely Hein and Bracket Bond plaque indices revealed higher plaque scores on the side where elastomeric modules were used when compared to ligature wire. Conclusion: Within the limitations of the study, the microbial counts were increased in case of elastic module than the steel ligature. Furthermore, the findings of the present study demonstrated a link between accumulations of more amount of plaque on elastic module than the steel ligature.

  52. Mohammed A. Ali Omer, Mohamed Elwathiq, Ghada A. E. Sakin

    The aim of this retrospective study was to assess selective factors affecting the reversibility of the ischemic heart. The methodology carried out based on cardiac study at stress and rest for the distribution of 99mTc-MIBI with consideration to age, weight and gender. The results revealed that: the uptake in cunt/second/pixel (c/s/p) in stressed cardiac study for the affected heart segment (ischemic segment) has been decreased as the age increases, indicating the aging is a negative factor for ischemic reversibility, while there was a significant (R2 = 0.8) increasing uptake during the stress phase for whole heart uptake, Rt/Lt lungs and the gastrointestinal tract (GIT). And there were significant (R2 = 0.7) decreasing uptakes by whole heart, GIT and Rt/Lt lungs as the age increases with superior significant uptake by GIT during stress and rest at R2 = 0.6 and 0.5 respectively. And in the correlation between weights in Kg versus count/sec at stressed cardiac study, the analysis revealed significant increased uptakes by GIT, Rt lung, Lt lung, and whole heart (R2 ≈ 0.6) as the weight increases whereas the same organs (GIT, Lt lung, Rt lung and the whole heart) showing significant (R2 ≈ 0.7) decreasing uptake as the weight increases as well as the affected heart segment The study also showed there were high frequencies percent of obese and overweight patients 52% and 32% respectively with ischemic heart segment reversibility of 37% among female relative to 30% among male, while the irreversible cases were greater among male 15% relative to only 4% among female and the incidence % of IHD is predominant among male 55% compared with 45% among female. The stress cardiac study enhance the uptake by the reversible ischemic segment hence gives further knowledge about ischemic reversibility% that could be managed by simple medications.

  53. Ahmed Farouk , Ahmed Mohamed Fathy Ghoneim, Khaled Abd el-baqy Abd el-Rahman, Mohammed H. Hassan and Tahia H. Saleem

    Background: Myocardial ischemia is a metabolic phenomenon that occurs in patients undergoing open heart surgery like coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG). In myocardial ischemia, secondary myocardial carnitine deficiency has been observed. Objectives: Recording the perioperative hemodynamic changes among patients undergoing coronary artery bypass. Evaluation of the intraoperative cardiac ischemia via biochemical assessment of serum levels of Pyruvate, Lactate, L-carnitine and calculation of lactate/pyruvate ratio preoperative, intraoperative and postoperative. Methods: A prospective case control and clinical observational study was carried out on 17 ischemic heart disease male patients undergoing elective coronary artery bypass grafting who admitted at cardiothoracic surgery department-Faculty of Medicine- Assiut University. This was in addition to 25 apparently healthy age matched males as control group. Serum levels of pyruvate and lactate were estimated using spectrophotometric methods, while serum levels of L-carnitine were estimated using ELISA assay kit. Results: There were significant hemodynamic changes regarding the heart rate, arterial blood pressure and central venous pressure, preoperative versus one hour postoperative (p< 0.001). Also, there were significant lower serum pyruvate levels and higher serum lactate levels and lactate /pyruvate ratio intraoperatively when compared with the control group (p < 0. 01) .A significant lower serum L-carnitine levels intraoperatively when compared with the control group (p < 0. 01) and when compared with the preoperative assay levels (p < 0. 05).There was a negative correlation between intraoperative seum L-carnitine levels versus the clamping time (r= -0.607, p=0.01). Conclusions: The myocardial ischemia in various degrees that developed during the intraoperative phase of coronary bypass operations causes significant changes in the serum levels of pyruvate, lactate, lactate/pyruvate ratio and L-carnitine, which should be non-elevating and decreasing towards the control levels post-operatively to indicate good myocardial function with its return to aerobic metabolism with lower morbidity and mortality. Preoperative administration of L-carnitine in such group of patients is recommended as a protector against the intraopeartive cardiac ischemia.

  54. Ahmed Farouk , Ahmed Mohamed Fathy Ghoneim, Khaled Abd el-baqy Abd el-Rahman, Mohammed H. Hassan and Tahia H. Saleem

    Background: Myocardial ischemia is a metabolic phenomenon that occurs in patients undergoing open heart surgery like coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG). In myocardial ischemia, secondary myocardial carnitine deficiency has been observed. Objectives: Recording the perioperative hemodynamic changes among patients undergoing coronary artery bypass. Evaluation of the intraoperative cardiac ischemia via biochemical assessment of serum levels of Pyruvate, Lactate, L-carnitine and calculation of lactate/pyruvate ratio preoperative, intraoperative and postoperative. Methods: A prospective case control and clinical observational study was carried out on 17 ischemic heart disease male patients undergoing elective coronary artery bypass grafting who admitted at cardiothoracic surgery department-Faculty of Medicine- Assiut University. This was in addition to 25 apparently healthy age matched males as control group. Serum levels of pyruvate and lactate were estimated using spectrophotometric methods, while serum levels of L-carnitine were estimated using ELISA assay kit. Results: There were significant hemodynamic changes regarding the heart rate, arterial blood pressure and central venous pressure, preoperative versus one hour postoperative (p< 0.001). Also, there were significant lower serum pyruvate levels and higher serum lactate levels and lactate /pyruvate ratio intraoperatively when compared with the control group (p < 0. 01) .A significant lower serum L-carnitine levels intraoperatively when compared with the control group (p < 0. 01) and when compared with the preoperative assay levels (p < 0. 05).There was a negative correlation between intraoperative seum L-carnitine levels versus the clamping time (r= -0.607, p=0.01). Conclusions: The myocardial ischemia in various degrees that developed during the intraoperative phase of coronary bypass operations causes significant changes in the serum levels of pyruvate, lactate, lactate/pyruvate ratio and L-carnitine, which should be non-elevating and decreasing towards the control levels post-operatively to indicate good myocardial function with its return to aerobic metabolism with lower morbidity and mortality. Preoperative administration of L-carnitine in such group of patients is recommended as a protector against the intraopeartive cardiac ischemia.

  55. Cherry Chamria, Roshani Thakur and Devanand Shetty

    Introduction: The link between pregnancy and periodontal manifestations has been indicated to pose alteration to the systemic health. There is a very high risk of pre-eclampsia & low-birth-weight, pre-term labour in pregnant females with periodontal problems. Aim: The aim of his study was to evaluate the awareness among the Obgy about the periodontal problems faced by the pregnant females during the 3 trimesters & oral health practitioners about the complaints reported by a pregnant female during the same time frame. The establishment of the co-ordination among the dentists & the Obgy was the single main aim of this survey conducted. Materials and Methods: The Obgy& Dentist from various Medical, Dental hospitals & private practises were approached and they consented to join the study. Data was collected from a questionnaire format by means of 2 separate formats. 7 closed ended questions was asked after duly obtaining a consent. Results: It was found that there was very little co-ordination among the dentists and the Obgy. Dentists usually don’t carry out procedures for the pregnant patients, and Obgy’s are not keen about the oral health of their patients neither do they follow a referral protocol. Conclusion: Efforts to increase this awareness may prove valuable in improving preventive care during pregnancy. A strong need for the co-ordination among the Obgy & the Dentists is important to be established. Majority of the periodontal problems can be eliminated if the patient is given proper guidance. Also the chances of pre-eclampsia & low birth weight pre term infants would be decreased.

  56. Dr. Satish Deshmukh, Dr. Divish Saxena, Dr. Rajiv Sonarkar and Dr. Rahul Saboo

    Botryomycosis also known as bacterial pseudo mycosis is a rare chronic granulomatous bacterial infection that affects the skin and sometimes the viscera. The lesions are characterized by tumefaction, deformity, multiple sinus formation and fistulous tract with deep abscess and ulcerated area of skin. Common organisms include staphylococcus, pseudomonas, E.coli, proteus and streptococcus species. Botryomycosis has been known to affect humans as well as other mammals. We report a case of anaerobic Botryomycosis occurring in a young male patient who presented with atypical skin lesions at two different anatomical sites with a previous history of trauma. Complete excision of the lesion with primary closure of skin was done with excellent results. The final histopathological report of excised lesion was suggestive of botryomycosis with Hoeppli- Splendore reaction. We report this case as only few cases occurring in human beings are described in literature.

  57. Dr. Garima Singh, Dr. Mansi Chandana, Dr. Ritu Arora, Dr. Sompal Singh, and Dr. Namrata Nargotra

    Cutaneous leiomyosarcoma is a rare malignant soft tissue sarcoma that accounts for about 2-3% of all superficial soft tissue sarcomas. It mostly present in middle aged to elderly males with a predilection for lower limbs. Due to non specific morphologic features with a host of differential diagnosis, immunohistochemistry plays important role in arriving at the final diagnosis. We present the case of 77 year old woman with cutaneous leiomyosarcoma located on the upper back.

  58. Mate Siakwa, Dzigbodi Kpikpitse, Emmanuel Hansen-Owoo, Wisdom Azanu, Yaw Asante Awuku, Alex Boye, and Thomas D Amankona

    Vertical transmission of hepatitis B virus (HBV) from infected mothers to their fetuses or new born either in utero or peripartum remain a major source of perpetuating the reservoir of chronically infected individuals globally. The main aim of this study is to determine perinatal transmission of the HBV in the Ghanaian setting. One hundred and sixty one (161) pregnant women who were positive for HBV and their respective neonates were enrolled in the study. Viral loads of the mothers were determined using peripheral blood sample and analyzed by PCR. Cord blood of the neonates was assessed for HBV DNA using PCR. The mothers were categorized as having high or low viral load using 106 copies/ml as the reference point. Socio-demographic and obstetrical data were collected using a pre-tested checklist. The babies were assessed for birth weight, prematurity and any abnormalities. Sixty neonatal cord bloods were positive for HBV DNA, a perinatal transmission of 37.3%. The study revealed a positive association between maternal viral load (p<0.001) and neonatal HBV DNA status. The male sex (P<0.001) is at a higher risk for vertical transmission than the females. Preterm delivery and birth weight were comparable between the two groups. Screening of pregnant women for HBV is necessary for the required intervention to reduce MTCT.

  59. Dr. Gayatri Amit Deshpande, Dr. Divish Saxena, Dr. Murtaza Akhtar, Dr. Anil Kad and Dr. Dhaval Thakkar

    Idiopathic colonic perforation in adults is rare. We report a case of idiopathic sigmoid colon perforation in an adult male who presented to the emergency room with signs and symptoms of perforation peritonitis. On exploratory laparotomy, a single perforation was found on the antimesenteric border of the sigmoid colon, the biopsy of which revealed non specific acute inflammation. On evaluation, no etiological factor was found for the perforation.

  60. Koushal Dave, Pawan K Sharma and Rimple Sharma

    Substance abuse is one of its complicated and multifactorial phenomenon with which many societies are suffering and prevalence of adolescent's substance abuse is a significant public health problem. The aim of this study is to assess the knowledge towards specific substance abuse among adolescent school children. Non experimental descriptive research design was adopted and stratified random sampling technique was used. 100 adolescent school children studying in 9th to 12th class of different schools were enrolled. Objective based tools i.e. demographic and assessment of knowledge towards substance abuse were used. Data analysis was done using STATA 11.1, with the level of significance at p < 0.05. It is found that adolescences had average knowledge towards caffeine abuse and had good knowledge towards alcohol and tobacco abuse. Adolescents who belonged to the age group of 16-18 years had highest knowledge, females had more knowledge than males, and students of class 11th had better knowledge. Furthermore, adolescents who acquired knowledge by newspaper & magazines had maximum mean knowledge score towards substance abuse.

  61. Sumi Rose and Vasanthan, R.

    Back ground and purpose of the study: The ability to perform selective trunk movements is important predictor of functional outcome in post stroke individuals. However, studies evaluating effect of trunk strengthening aimed at improving trunk performance and functional outcome is sparse. Objective of the study: To find out the effect of trunk strengthening exercise in improving trunk performance and functional outcome Study design: Randomized control trial Participants: Both male and female subjects with post stroke duration of 3 months to 1 year between the age group 50 to 60 years who attended rehabilitation centre and home physiotherapy. Intervention: A randomized controlled trial was carried out .Patients were randomized to receive either trunk strengthening or no trunk strengthening exercises. The 24 subjects were assigned to experimental group and control groups. Experimental group n=12 and control group n=12. The source of resistance exercise is body weight or partial bodyweight, As the exercise performance increases, progression of the exercise was done by increasing the leverage for the movement task.10 minutes of warm up, 25 minutes of exercise, 10 minutes of cool down for 14 days over a period of 4 weeks and 3 sets with 8 to 10 repetition was given. The subject will receive 3 set of each exercise in one session for 3 days per week for about 6 weeks of strength training. Rest period between the sessions was 1 to 2 minutes. Each of the 5 exercises given below is repeated for 8 to 10 times per set. This repetition is based on the ability of the subject to perform number of repetition at a stretch without fatigue. Trunk performances was evaluated by Trunk Impairment Scale (TIS) pre intervention and post intervention, Functional Independence Measure (FIM) motor sub total score to evaluate the functional outcome pre and post intervention. Results: Mann Whitney Test (U test) and Wilcoxon signed rank test was performed to know pre and post intervention effects. The mean age group for experimental group was 57.08±2.8 and mean age group for control group was 56.66±3.1. The mean duration of the patients after stroke in experimental group was 7.4±2.2 and control group 5.6±2.5. Gender distribution was equivalent between the groups. Within the experimental group there was significant improvement only in TIS score pre and post with p <0.007 when compared to within control group the TIS pre post was significant with p=0.027. The statistical analysis between the groups showed that there was no effect of trunk strengthening exercise in trunk performance (p=0.755) and functional outcome after strength training (p=0.713). Conclusion: The main aim of the study was to find the effect of trunk strengthening exercise and no trunk strengthening exercise in post stroke subjects. The result stated that there is no effect of trunk strengthening in functional outcome but there was significant improvement in trunk performance in experimental group. The conventional treatment in control group also showed no significant change in the treatment but had significant improvement in trunk performance. Though the trunk performance improved in both the groups comparison between groups showed no significant difference in functional outcome and trunk performance. Hence the set of exercise given in the study may not have served the purpose and a better set of exercise has to be used to perform the exercise.

  62. Himanshu, V., Saurabh, S., Chetan, A., Mahesh, K., Juhi, S. and Nipun, A

    Dexmedetomidine has evolved as a panacea for various applications/ procedures in the perioperative or critical care settings with multiple promising delivery routes. It is fast emerging as a valuable adjunct to regional anaesthesia and analgesia, where future studies are required to build the evidence for its use in central neuraxial blocks, peripheral nerve blocks or even for local site infiltration. Although Dexmedetomidine has α1/α2 selectivity eight times higher than clonidine, an equipotent dosage of both the drugs in supraclavicular brachial plexus block has not been found in literature. We in this study compare clonidine (1ug/kg) and dexmedetomidine (1ug/kg) as an adjuvant to 0.25% bupivacaine in brachial plexus block and found dexmedetomidine as a safe, superior and far better adjuvant.

  63. Anjali Solanki, Raveendra Sandhu and Shveta Narang

    Molluscum contagiosum (MC) is a viral infection of the skin caused by a DNA poxvirus called the molluscum contagiosum virus. Although benign, MC can be socially stigmatizing and have an adverse effect on patients’ and their families’ lives, causing emotional concern and anxiety. Diagnosis is established by histopathological examination demonstrating characteristic molluscum bodies within the keratinocytes correlating with clinical findings. Since the lesions are self resolving in majority of the immunocompetent patients, accurate diagnosis and proper counseling is sufficient at times. We report a case of molluscum contagiosum in a young, immunocompetent female with self resolving nature of the disease which demonstrates the significance of diagnosis and mere counseling to alleviate the anxiety of such patients.

  64. Dr. Pranali Patil, Dr. Jayalakshmi, T. K., Dr. Abhay Uppe, Dr. Girija Nair and Dr. Pragati Agrawal

    COPD patients breathe against expiratory obstruction with low tidal volume and have ineffective ventilation while asleep. Such patients are at higher risk of developing nocturnal desaturation, which is considered a major determinant of disturbed sleep among COPD patients. However, nocturnal desaturation in each COPD patients depends upon severity of the disease. Early detection of night time desaturation in COPD patients can prevent further complications associated with hypoxemia like cor Pulmonale, pulmonary hypertension etc., by initiation of low flow nocturnal oxygenation. We conducted a pilot project in which 30 stable COPD patients fulfilling inclusion criteria were enrolled after obtaining an informed written consent. Out of 30 COPD patients, 6 had mild obstruction, 19 had moderate obstruction and 5 had severe obstruction with poor reversibility on PFT. Our results showed that Patients who had nocturnal spo2 below 85%:1 of 30 patients (3.33%) mild, 14 of 30(46.67%) moderate, 6 of 30 (20%) had severe COPD, spo2 between 85-90% :2 of 30 patients (6.67%) moderate, spo2 between90-95% : 4 of 30 patients (13.33%) mild, 1 of 30 (3.33%) moderate, spo2 between 95-100% : 1 of 30(3.33%) each had mild and moderate COPD. Out of 30 COPD patients 23 had OSA, of which 4 patients (17.33%) had normal BMI and 19 patients (82.6%) were overweight.

  65. : Dr. Abdul Aziz, Dr. Vishakha S. Patil, Dr. Amita M. Mali and Dr. Yogesh Khadtare

    Hyaluronic acid is a high molecular weight polysaccharide, which plays a major role in the functioning of extracellular matrices. Its presence has been found in connective tissues and is particularly concentrated in synovial fluid, the vitreous fluid of the eye, umbilical cords. Also it is found in periodontal tissues including mineralized and non mineralized tissues with a greater concentration in non mineralized tissues, such as gingiva and periodontal ligament. Due to its role in inflammatory and healing mechanisms, use of hyaluronic acid has been applied in various fields like ophthalmology, Dermatology, Orthopedics, etc in various therapeutic procedures. Recently hyaluronic acid has been applied in various periodontal procedures for its therapeutic properties. The aim of present review, article is to discuss application of hyaluronic acid in various periodontal procedures.

  66. : Sandhya Tamgadge, TamgadgeAvinash, AswathyJ, Vimala, N., GokulVenketashwar and Pooja Gore

    Inflammatory jaw swellings such as periapical abscess, granuloma and periodontal lesions are very frequently seen in jaws. One of the causes of such lesions is the presence of lateral canals. In contrast non inflammatory jaw swellings such as odontogenic cyst tumors, benign and malignant neoplasms of jaws are caused by various genetic alterations of cells but only in selected population. The cause for such genetic alterations within cells, present in periodontium, is still not yet completely understood. Additionally the relationship of lateral canals and various genetic alterations present in the neoplasms have not been yet established. Therefore this preliminary study was conducted to evaluate the lateral canalson extracted teeth from resected specimens under stereomicroscope using clearing technique and to establish a possible correlation of lateral canals with such neoplastic lesions of jaws.

  67. Dr. Chaitanya, P., Dr. Sharada Reddy, J., Dr. Suhasini, K. and Dr. Hema Chandrika, I.

    Ellis-van Creveld syndrome (EVC) also called as chondroectodermal dysplasia or mesoectodermal dysplasia is a rare autosomal recessive disorder caused by mutation in EVC1 and EVC2 genes (4p16). Classical EVC syndrome constitutes a tetrad of chondrodystrophy, ectodermal dysplasia, polydactyly and cardiac defects. Presence of variable clinical findings like fusion of upper lip to the gingival margin, presence of multiple frenula, conical, peg shaped and hypoplastic teeth, neonatal teeth, congenitally missing, absent or delayed eruption of teeth, molars with wide grooves and atypical cusps play an important role in the diagnosis of this syndrome. We report a case of 6 year old boy with short stature, genu valgum, bilateral postaxial polydactyly, dysplastic nails and multiple oral findings and dental anomalies. The diagnosis was made based on clinical and radiological features. EVC syndrome may be undiagnosed due to lack of awareness and improper screening. So, proper diagnosis and management is necessary.

  68. Bashir Ahmad Shah, Gousia Nisa, Fowzia Farzana, Gh. Mohd. Bhat, Mohd. Saleem Itoo and Showkat Ahmad

    The present study was conducted to study the effect of graded doses of Sodium fluoride on the microanatomy of Liver in Albino Rats over different periods of time. Sixty male adult albino rats taken from the animal house of Govt. medical College Srinagar were divided randomly into four groups of 15 animals each. Animals of the first three groups were given fluorinated water in various concentrations to drink and fourth group served as the control group getting plain tap water to drink. Animals from each group were sacrificed and examined after 30, 60, and 90 days of therapy and gross and microscopic changes recorded. It was observed that fluorides induce dose and duration dependent microscopic changes in Liver tissue ranging from mild edema to gross necrosis. Fluoride ions are known to affect the bones and teeth of human beings for a pretty long time now. On the one hand presence of fluoride ions in drinking water is essential for the normal development of the various organ systems of the body, particularly skeletal system and teeth. But presence of Fluoride ions in food and drinking water has increased worldwide resulting in toxic effects on various tissues particularly the skeletal system and teeth. However it is now a well known fact that the toxic effects of a substance cannot be limited to a particular system only and the present study was focused on dose and duration related effects of fluorides on Liver.

  69. Navjot Kaur and Jasbir Kaur

    Background and objectives: Breastfeeding is the most natural way of meeting the infant’s nutritional demands due to which exclusively breastfeed for a period of at least 6 is encouraged. But still there is a common practice in some cultures to give pre-lacteal feeds. Objective: To study the practices of pre-lacteal feeding and its associated beliefs among the primary care givers. Methods: An exploratory study was conducted on 100 primary care givers visiting Pediatric OPD which were selected by convenience sampling technique. Results: Total 48% received pre lacteal feed from which 50% received with in 1 hour of birth. Honey as pre lacteal feed was given by 75%, 52.1% of children received pre lacteal feed from their grandmother. About 50% gave prelacteal feed to develop qualities of prelacteal feed giver. Among the primary care givers with health related belief(s); 55.55% gave it to keep the mouth and throat of the baby moist. Those who had received counseling regarding exclusive breastfeeding, they did not give pre-lacteal feeds. Conclusion and Global health implications: Counseling regarding exclusive breastfeeding during antenatal visits can decrease the chances of prelacteal feed.

  70. Manisha Rani, Poonam Sheoran and Yogesh Kumar

    To assess the knowledge and attitude regarding pubertal changes among pre – adolescents (girls and boys). Material and Method: A descriptive study design was adopted with 204 pre-adolescents (104girls and 100 boys) of age group 12-14yrs. selected by purposive sampling technique from two different Government schools of Ambala District. Knowledge and attitude was assessed using structured knowledge questionnaire and 5 point likert scale respectively. The reliability coefficient of structured knowledge questionnaire for girls was found 0.74 and for boys 0.77 by Kudar Richardson-20 formula and for attitude scale it was found 0.79 for girls and 0.766 for boys by Cronbach’s alpha. Results: Majority of pre- adolescent girls and boys (75%), (74%) had below average knowledge regarding pubertal changes followed by 25 % girls and 24%boys had average level of knowledge and in levels of attitude, Majority of pre- adolescent girls and boys (95.19%), (90%) had moderately favourable attitude regarding pubertal changes followed by 3.84% girls and 10%boys had unfavorable level of attitude. This indicates that percentage of pre- adolescent girls and boys having below average knowledge and moderately favorable attitude is maximum Coefficient of correlation of pre - adolescent girls and boys as evidenced by the computed r value (-0.178) and (-0.025) was found to be not significantly correlated at 0.05 level of significance. Computed anova /t value of Occupational status of father (F=3.968; p=0.005) was found to be statistically significant with attitude scores of pre-adolescent girls at 0.05 level of significance, it denotes the association of occupational status of father with attitude scores of pre-adolescent girls. In pre-adolescent boys, education status of mother (F=2.525; p=0.046) was found to be statistically significant with knowledge scores and Educational Status of father (F=2.571; p=0.043) was found to be statistically significant with attitude scores at 0.05 level of significance. Conclusion: The finding of study revealed that pre-adolescent girls and boys knowledge and attitude regarding pubertal changes was not adequate and favourable respectively.

  71. Al-Zahrani, J.H.

    The natural radionuclide’s 226Ra, 232Th and 40K and some heavy metals (Fe, Cd, Zn, Cu, Mn, Ni, and Pb) were measured in the rice and the flour samples consumed in Saudi Arabia. Gamma ray spectrometry was used to determine the activity concentration of the three nuclides. Heavy metals were analyzed by an inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrophotometer (ICP-OES). The results indicate that the average concentration of 226Ra, 228Th, and 40K in the rice samples were 1.08, 1.19 and 83.08 Bq kg-1, respectively. While, in the flour samples, the average concentrations were 1.65, 1.61 and 171..31 Bqkg-1, respectively. The ingestion doses were calculated to be 0.224μSvY-1for the rice and 0.471 μSvY-1 for the flour samples which are below the recommended 1 mSv limit. The concentration of heavy elements (Fe. Cd, Mn, Ni, and Pb) in the rice and the flour samples were below the detection limits. Whereas, the mean contents of Cu were 3.75 mg/kg and 3.6 mg/kg of the rice and the flour samples, respectively. The mean values of Zn in the rice and the flour samples were 19.42 mg/kg and 17.3 mg/kg, respectively. The daily intake of Cu and Zn through the rice and the flour samples were lower than the tolerable daily intakes by FAO/WHO; this indicates there is no risk due to the intake of these foods to the people.

  72. Jadhav Parag, B., Padhiar, B. V. and Pokharkar, K. K

    An experiment was conducted on “Effect of fertigation, splittingand mulching on first flowering height (cm), days to first flower initiation and fruit maturity after planting of papaya (Carica papaya L.) cv. Red Lady” with twelve treatments viz., 1st factor three levels of N and K2 @ 100, 80 and 60 % of RD (200:200:250), 2nd factor two levels of split and 3rd factor two levels of mulching of black plastic mulch @ 20 % area coverage (50 µ) in RBD with factorial concept and three replications at two locations i.e. 1) Regional Horticultural Research Farm, Navsari. 2). Fruit Research Station, Gandevi, Navsari Agricultural University, Navsari (Gujarat) during 2012-13. The papaya plants receiving treatment N and K2O @ 100 % RDF (F1) after transplanting of seedlings was relived first flowering height (cm), first flower initiation and days to fruit maturity after transplantingof papaya cv. ‘Red Lady” during same year at both places and in pooled analysis also of investigation. Adoption of fertigation level @ 100 % RDF recorded the significantly papaya plants receiving treatment N and K2O @ 100 % RDF (F1) after transplanting of seedlings was relived minimum first flowering height (cm), first flower initiation and days to fruit maturity after transplantingof papaya cv. ‘Red Lady” during same year at both places and in pooled analysis.

  73. Maznah, M., Zahora Ismail and Ahmad Said, S

    Spodoptera litura a serious pest for many types of plant and the larvae can defoliate many economically important plants especially those have soft leaves texture. Centella asiatica, Hydrocotyle sp. and Orthosiphon stamineus were used widely as medicinal plant for health cure. These three different medicinal plants were supplied to Spodoptera litura larvae to investigate their effects towards S. litura development and leaves weight consumed. Centella asiatica shown highest mean leaves weight consumed with 1518.5 mg followed by Hydrocotyle sp. and O. stamineus with 121.5 mg and 1.69 mg for each. Cumulative leaf weight consumed per larva was highest on C. asiatica with total 478525.20 mg, followed by Hydrocotyle sp. with 3237.22 mg and O. stamineus recorded lowest leaves consumed by the larva with 72.25 mg. Development of S. litura also shown C. asiatica recorded only seven stadia compared to Hydrocotyle sp. and O. stamineus that recorded eight stadia for each medicinal plants.

  74. Verma, R. K., Verma, R. K. and Dhanai, C. S

    The present study deals with Vegetative growth and yield performance of Cassia angustifolia under seven year old Emblica officinalis based Agroforestry system. Vegetative growth of Cassia angustifolia was significantly depressed under the canopy of 7 year-old Aonla based Agroforestry system as compared to control (without trees). On an average of two years, plant density, stem girth (cm), plant height (cm), the number of leaves per plant and the number of branches per plant reduced by 42.68%, 35.00%, 31.66%, 31.92% and 52.59%, respectively under tree canopy as compared to control. Specific leaf area (cm2/g) was increased under the tree canopy while specific leaf weight (g/row in m2) was decreased considerably under the trees canopy. On an average of two years, seed yield per plant reduced by 75.70%, length of pod per plant by 10.82%, number of seeds per pod by 15.84%, 100-seed weight by 8.91% under tree canopy as compared to control.

  75. Neamat A. Al-Baiyati, Saife D. Al-Ahmer and Noor I. Al-Baiyati

    Background: The majority of women with Candida vaginitis suffer from uncomplicated vaginitis characterized by sporadic attacks of mild to moderate severity due to C. albicans, and these attacks occur in healthy adult women without any predisposing factors. In contrast, approximately 10% of women suffer from complicated Candida vaginitis, in which attacks either are more severe, occur on a recurrent basis, or are due to non-albicans Candida species. Although several conventional methods are routinely used for determintion; however, Candida vaginitis or vulvovaginitis a challenge for patients and gynecologists. Aims and objectives: Aims of the current study were to find out the prevalence of candidial vulvovaginitis attributed due to Non-Candida albicans Candida (NCAC) species such as Candida glabrata, Candida tropiclis and Candida parapsilosis, and to use a multiplex PCR technique as a rapid identification method for these Non-Candida albicans Candida species isolated from female patients clinically diagnosed with vulvovaginitis. Materials and Methods: In this study vaginal swabs from 160 female patients were used for culture, Api Candida system, VITEK 2 system and multiplex PCR analysis. Multiplex PCR was performed with species-specific primers targeted to the ITS region of rRNA gene of C. glabrata, C. tropicalis and C. parapsilosis. The result of the multiplex PCR was compared with conventional culture, Api Candida system and VITEK 2 system methods. The positive multiplex PCR product was identified by presence of ~ 423 bp, ~357 bp and ~300 bp amplicons of ITS region of rRNA gene for the C. glabrata, C. tropicalis and C. parapsilosis, reaspectively. Results: Conventional methods of candidial culture, Api Candida system and VITEK 2 system, showed that to sum up 100 out of 160 vaginal swabs were detected for Candida species; To sum up 16 out of 100 vaginal swabs were detected for C. glabrata, 10 out of 100 vaginal swabs were detected for C. tropicalis, 6 out of 100 vaginal swabs were detected for C. parapsilosis and 37 out of 100 vaginal swabs were detected for other Candida species. Five of the 60 samples that were negative by conventional methods were positive by multiplex PCR. Statistical analysis revealed that the PCR to have a sensitivity of 95.5 % in the detection of Non-Candida albicans in vulvovaginitis. Conclusion: This multiplex PCR method provides a sensitive, rapid, and reliable alternative to conventional methods to identify Non-Candida albicans Candida species isolated from female patients clinically diagnosed with vulvovaginitis.

  76. Pravash Ranjan Mishra, Priyanka Rathore, Rajnish Ranjan, Arun Kumar, Dinesh Agarwal, Shilpisudha Mohakud, Ramniwas Kumawat and Mayadhar Barik

    Background: People in our country are in waiting list for organ transplantation (OT) which could be overcome by deceased organ donation (OD). Our aim of the study was to evaluate the awareness regarding body/ organ donation after and before death in grass root level. Material and Methods: An observational study was conducted among post graduate medical students (Radiology group), non-medical students (Research group) and paramedics (Regular group) and. Staff (Nurses group) in our Institute population. Total 600 participants were answered through questionnaire based providing information about the knowledge and attitude towards body and organ donation on particularly medical students. Results: 91.73% of entire study group had strongly positive attitude about cadaveric organ donation from the medical student (Radiology group), Non Medical student (Research group) 97 % had idea about this. Paramedics (Regular group) 40 % of total participants were unwilling for body/organ donation after death. Staff (Nurses group) 74% of total participants were willing for body donation after death. Discussion: The present study has been done elaborately to find out the different barriers for body or organ donation. It is clear from the study that though there is high level of awareness, nobody has filled up the pledge form till now. It indicates that there is a gap between the knowledge and motivation for organ and body donation after death which has to be overcome by proper guidance and education. Media and other voluntary organizations could take an important role for this purpose. Conclusion: The present study has been done elaborately to find out the different barriers for body or organ donation. It is clear from the study that though there is high level of awareness, nobody has filled up the pledge form till now. It indicates that there is a gap between the knowledge and motivation for organ and body donation after death which has to be overcome by proper guidance and education. Media and other voluntary organizations could take an important role for this purpose.

  77. Jana, B. R., Munsi, P. S. and Manna, D. C

    Thirty two guava genotypes were evaluated at ICAR-RCER, Research Centre Ranchi, on the basis of winter production during 2009-10. The fruit bud differenciation took place in growing vegetative bud and the differences between peak flowering and peak harvesting were about to 4 months for all cultivars. The eight cultivars like Mild Fleshed, Chittidar Alllabad Safeda, Sardar, CHG-1, CHG-2, Kairala Seedling and Nasik were very promising under eastern plateau and hill region. To sudy of the botany of these crop had emense imporatance to breeder, researcher and students. The maximum fruit weight was recored in cultivar Chittidar 265.67g, followed by Sardar (234.3g) and Allahabad Safeda (232.0g). The maximum TSS of the fruit was found in cv.Chittidar 13.870B while the maximum acorbic acid was found in cv. Florida Fleshed which had 358.67 mg/100 g pulp being comparable with Kairala Seedling (357.67 mg/100g pulp). The maximum seed cavity diameter was found in Sardar and Sangam, which are 7.24 cm. The former also exhibited maximum weight of seed cavity tissue (95.98g) followed by Mild Fleshed (95.70g) and Chittidar (75.23g). Very small seed was found in cv. Florida Fleshed (seed no.443.40) as compared to Allahabad Safeda which produced soft and big seeds (no.91.38). Regarding shape of the fruit, cv.Nasik was pyriform whreas CHG-1, CHG-2, Mild Fleshed, Kairal Seedling and Allahabad Safeda were round while Chittiar but oval.

  78. Ignace Kindo, John Britto, S., Marandi, R. R., Mariat George and Emasushan Minj

    The present study deals with in vitro antioxidant and antifungal activities of bark extracts of Soymida febrifuga Roxb. The antioxidant activity was done by using 2, 2-Diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical, total antioxidant assay, and nitric oxide scavenging assay. This study ascertains that the S. febrifuga Roxb bark extract could serve as an important bio-resource of antioxidants for using in food and pharmaceutical industry. Besides, 5 antifungal strains namely Geotrichum candidum, Microsporum canis, Trychophyton rubrum, Chrysosorium tropicum and Rhizopus stolonifer were used for antifungal activity. Out of five tested G.candidum, M.canis and T.rubrum were found to be positive and of these three G.candidum showed higher inhibition zone compared to M. canis and T. rubrum. The result reveals the higher proportion of antioxidant and antifungal properties.

  79. Alan Junior de Pelegrin, Ivan Ricardo Carvalho, Maicon Nardino, Mauricio Ferrari, 1inícius Jardel Szareski, Rafael Belle, Carine Meier, Tiago Antônio Webber, Luiz Carlos Gutkoski and Velci Queiróz de Souza

    The improving wheat technological quality constitutes an aspect of fundamental importance in the search for products derived of high quality. This study aimed to analyze the technological quality of different wheat genotypes for the use of different nitrogen managements in coverage and sources of nitrogen fertilization. The experimental design was randomized blocks, arranged in a factorial design with three genotypes (Fundacep 52, TBIO Mestre and TBIO Itaipu) x two nitrogen sources (UR: urea - 45% nitrogen and AN: ammonium nitrate - 33.5 % nitrogen) x four managements (NN: no nitrogen, TIL: tillering, TLF: tillering and flowering and TBF: tillering, booting and flowering) arranged in three repetitions. The analysis of variance showed significance for genotype x nitrogen source x management for the characters tenacity (P), extensibility (L) P/L, gluten strength (W), falling number (NQ) and wet gluten (GU). Technological quality parameters are influenced by the managements, nitrogen sources and genotypes. Nitrogen management with urea and ammonium nitrate has no influence in protein content. TbioMestre genotype has higher gluten content, tenacity and extensibility when urea is applied at tillering and flowering, for the ammonium nitrate the best responses are obtained for dropping numbers.

  80. Mary Britto, S., Shanthakumari, D. and Radhiga, T

    Background: The exposure of skin to ultraviolet-B radiations leads to deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) damage and can induce production of free radicals which imbalance the redox status of the cell and lead to increased oxidative stress. The objective of the present study is to evaluate the protective effects of apigenin, against ultraviolet-B (290-320 nm) radiation induced cellular changes were investigated in human dermal fibroblasts (HDFa). Materials and Methods: HDFa cells pretreated with increasing concentrations of apigenin (1, 5, 10, 15, 30 and 60 μg/ml) for 30 min, were UVB irradiated and different cellular end points were analyzed. Results: The percentage of cytotoxicity, intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) levels, mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP), thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS), lipid hydroperoxides (LHP), morphological apoptotic cell death and DNA damage were significantly increased in 19.8 mJ/cm2 UVB exposed HDFa cells. Further, exposure to UVB causes significantly decreased antioxidants status in HDFa cells. Treatment of HDFa cells with apigenin before 30 min of UVB‑irradiation significantly restored MMP, ROS levels, antioxidant status, apoptotic changes and DNA damage in HDFa cells. Conclusion: The present findings indicate that apigenin prevents UVB induced cellular changes in human HDFa. Hence, it may be used as a constituent in sunscreen lotions.

  81. Natiga Ismayilzade and Arzu Mustafayev

     

    In the presented article it is given information about succession changes appearing in the forest ecosystems during natural and anthropogenic events occurring in forest ecosystems of Azerbaijan Republic. On the basis of statistical data the factors forming the fires on the woodland were researched, the fire areas and its expansion stages were ascertained, the reasons causing fire were revealed, the fire territories were systematically presented on the woodland. At the same time negative cases as a result of human activity caused changes in the vegetation, and it resulted in increase of invasive species. It was determined that during 5-10 years such plants had created 35-40% of succession processes. In the vegetation invasive-detrimental species prevail in the place of useful plants. In some coniferous forests the broad-leaved threes and bushed were formed.

  82. Deepika, S., Padmavathy, P., Srinivasan, A., Aanand, S. and Manimekalai, D

    Bycatch is the global concern and it is causing number of problems to the fisheries. Recent WWF report estimates that 40% of marine catches and discards are juveniles. Higher level of bycatch has impact on diversity, community structure and biomass. Banning the destructive fishing practices is the very good approach for managing the fisheries. Nowadays bycatch reduction devices based on different aspects are being developed to make the fishing practices, environment friendly but it needs to be implemented properly. Regulations and guidelines are needed to be properly followed by all the fishers to recover the future stock. FAO has given the Code of Conduct for Responsible Fisheries which encourages the nations to make policies for the management of fisheries. This article details the impact of bycatch in fisheries and regulations and guidelines needs to be followed for managing the fisheries.

  83. Chabungbam Bijayalakshmi, Romen Singh Ngasepam, Ningthoukhongjam Indira, Devashish Kar and Maibam Shomorendra

    The present paper reveals the estimation of soluble protein content present in Trichogaster fasciatus locally called as Ngapema (Schneider), Channa striata locally called as porom (Bloch) and Anabus testudineus locally called as ukabi (Bloch).The soluble protein contents were expressed as mg/g using Lowry’s method. Protein content was highest in Trichogaster fasciatus (145.83mg/g and lowest in Channa striata (17.9mg/g).This research work shows that these indigenous fishes contain high amount of soluble protein.

  84. Anshika N. Singh and Neeti Sharma

    The carcinoma of the Prostate has been known to be a major health burden in high income Western countries. However, with changes in lifestyle and increasing life expectancy, the incidence rate of Prostate cancer (PCa) is growing rapidly in India as well. Due to this increased incidence rate, Indian male population needs increased awareness for the disease. The established risk factors for PCa include advancing age, race, family history and dietary patterns. Several other lifestyle related attributes including sexual activity, obesity, smoking, vasectomy and smoking are also known to be associated with PCa risk in males. This mini review aims to shed light on the risk factors contributing to PCa initiation and also an epidemiological insight into PCa cases in Indian subcontinent in terms of incidence rates and trends over time

  85. Mahmoud M Kardousha

    One of the man-made wetlands and natural inland waters in Qatar were investigated for the aquatic fauna from September 2010 up to June 2013 during random intervals. The investigations have revealed 24 species of macroinvertebrates: one Rotifer, 3 gastropods, one Notostracan, 2 Ostracods, 2 Copepods, one Cladoceran, one Odonatan, 2 Hemipterans, 5 Coleopterans and 6 Dipterans. Except Gastropods, Ostracods, Copepods and the Odonatan, all the remaining taxa are recorded for the first time in Qatar. Surprisingly, these man-made wetlands have created a favorable habitat for enriched numbers of aquatic organisms in such arid desert.

  86. Golam Sarwer, Mahmudul Hasan Rony and Sharmin, S

    Food quality, including safety, is a major concern facing the food industry today. A number of surveys have shown that consumer awareness about quality of their food is increasing. The extensive of microorganism (total coliform, Vibrio cholerae and Salmonella sp.), growth promoters, residues of pesticide and dioxin, antibiotics etc. make fear and unease to consumer about what they eat. Moreover, Bangladesh export fish to developed countries and they are very conscious to their food quality rather than price. Therefore, the current study was undertaken to evaluate effectiveness of Hazard Analysis and Critical Control Point (HACCP) in the investigated processing plant. For this purpose, microbial status of Cooked IQF (Individual Quick Freezer) shrimp was assessed. In addition to SWAB tests of water, ice and different contact surface of shrimp were also conducted to assess the magnitude of contamination during processing. The abundance of total aerobic bacteria, total coliform, Vibrio cholerae and Salmonella sp. were determined in Cooked IQF (Individual Quick Freezer) process. In Cooked IQF Shrimp, while the MPN count of total coliform of the sample was <3, V. cholerae and Salmonella were not detected. A large amount of water is used in the fish processing plant, which is a superior source of microbial contamination of finish products. For good quality finish product, hygienic water management is now a prime concern. In the current investigation, the SPC of normal water, UV radiated water, ice, receiving table, grading table and panning tray, worker’s hand were 8.66 ± 0.45 cfu cm-2, 0 cfu ml-1, 5 ± 0.36 cfu ml-1, 45 ± 0.63 cfu cm-2, 91.33 ± 0.81 cfu cm-2, 79.33 ± 1.09 cfu cm-2, 42.33 ± 0.54 cfu cm-2 respectively, which were under the limit of international standard. In conclusion, the result of the present study implies that the hygienic condition of the investigated fish processing plant was good and the quality of Cooked IQF shrimp was excellent for export.

  87. Glauco A. Nogueira, Wander L. Ataíde, Bruno Maltarolo, Ellen G. Lima, Ana E. A. Brito, Roberto C. Costa, Cândido Neto, Edson José Neves Cereja Junior, Lucila E. F. Monfort and Ismael J. Viégas

    This research aimed to evaluate the metabolic responses of nitrogen forward the effects of water stress and flooding in young plants of pau-de-balsa. The experimental design was completely randomized in a factorial arrangement (3x4) in three water conditions: control (irrigated), water deficit and flooding in four periods of evaluation (0, 4, 8 and 12 days), with 5 repetitions. The water potential, nitrate, nitrate reductase and glutamine synthetase of reduced around 10; 5; 12.5 and 2.69 respectively in stressed plants, which did not occur with Free Ammonia which increased 1.72 in its concentration. The Amino Acid Concentrations, Glycine Betaine and Proline increased in plants under water deficit around 1.9; 2.13 and 2.5 respectively. However in flooding condition these variables significantly decreased from the 4th day of the experiment. Protein content decreased in plants under water stress and flooding about 1.9 and 4.37 respectively. Therefore, the analyzes carried out revealed that the pau-de-balsa plants are highly sensitive to flooding and tolerant to water stress.

  88. Silva, V.F., Nascimento, E. C. S., Castro, C.U.B., Andrade, L.O. and Lima, V. L. A

    In regions water scarcity the water reuse in irrigation is alternative for farmers. In this context, the study was conducted in order to changes the chemical attributes of organic substrates subjected to water replacement levels with different water qualities in pepper cultivation. The experimental design was randomized blocks in factorial design 2x5x2, being represented by two types of water (water supply and wastewater), 5 water levels based on water requirement (WR) culture [100% WR ( L5), 80% WR (L4), 60% WR (L3), 40% WR (L2) and 20% WR (L1)] and second substrates (cattle and goats). Were evaluated the Ec, pH and sodium Adsorption Ratio (SAR). Increasing water levels influence in the of Ec and pH. The pH was higher than 7 exchangeable and total acidity was zero, with no changes to these attributes. According the data obtained was found that there were changes in chemical properties of the substrate elevating the levels of the elements, necessitating leaching blades to reduce concentrations in substrates.

  89. Samreen Quareshi, Dr. Kiranmay Sarma and Prof. J. K. Garg

    This paper describes the methodology and results of classifications of multi-temporal Landsat 4-5 Thematic Mapper data of the River Yamuna in upper stretch, India for the years 1999 and 2011 respectively. Seven different land cover/use categories have been used, named built-up Area/settlement, forest, agricultural land, scrub land, wetlands, river/streams/drains and railways. The overall classification accuracies were 78.46% and 81.23% and Kappa as 0.7470 and 0.7795 for the year 1999 and 2011 respectively. One of the important results for the classifications is the decrease in agricultural land and forest areas and a considerable increase in built-up area as a result of anthropogenic activities in the study area. The classifications have provided an economical and accurate way to quantify, map and analyze changes over time in land cover.

  90. UaiseleUatesoni Mafi, Qian Wang, Dumin Li and Chuanfu Li

    Introduction: The main purpose of this study is to measure the inferior angle between celiac artery and Abdominal Aorta (AA) in the Chinese population which underwent Multi-detector Computer Tomography (MDCT) or Computer Tomography Angiography (CTA) for various reasons. Methods: A total of 520 patients were analyzed under CTA of the AA from January 1st 2015 to July 31st 2015. There were 306 males and 177 females cases, and 37 cases were not included in our study due to restrictions whom we labeled as not evaluate. The inferior celiac angle were measured from a constructed line at the posterior surface of celiac artery and anterior surface of AA. We marked the anterior side of the AA as the baseline, and the cranial and caudal sides of AA were designated as 180o and 0o, respectively. Results: The mean inferior celiac angle was (mean ± SD) 50.5o ± 16.73o and the median angle was 52.44o ±16.73o. There were 306 male patients with a mean celiac angle of 53o ± 17.43o and 177 female patients with a mean celiac angle of 51.5o ± 15.45o. It was found that 90.5% of the population’s celiac artery angle falls in between 0o and 90o angle, and 3.3 % has deep acute celiac angle. Conclusion: In conclusion, the CTA technique permits an accurate detail of the anatomical direction and angles of the celiac artery.

  91. Ranjini, A., Chinnu Salim, Rajini, P. S. and Manonmani, H. K.

    Acrylamide has been shown to be neurotoxic, genotoxic and a carcinogenic compound formed during the frying or baking of foods by means of the Maillard reaction. To evaluate the biological consequences of continuous exposure to acrylamide at levels found in common foodstuffs and its protection by resveratrol, we studied the effects of acrylamide using an in vivo model, nematode Caenorhabditis elegans. As for growth and fecundity nematodes showed retarded growth with reduced body and brood sizes, at 500 mg/L of acrylamide. Lifespan decreased significantly even in 500mg/L of acrylamide. The genotoxic effect was observed to be heritable being carried to further generations. Acrylamide formed DNA adducts bringing about the genotoxic effect. Of the xenobiotic metabolic genes studied, cyp-35A2, ugt-44 were upregulated in acrylamide-exposed worms. Among DNA repair genes studied xpa-1, apn-1, rpa-1, msh-2, ddb-1 and exo-3 were downregulated. Resveratrol which is a naturally occurring polyphenol exhibited protection against AA toxicity on growth, fecundity, and lifespan. The genotoxic effect of acrylamide was protected by resveratrol. The resveratrol preexposed worms showed upregulation of metabolic genes gst-4, ugt-44, a life span longevity genes daf-2 and DNA repair genes xpa-1, apn-1, rpa-1, msh-2, ddb-1.

  92. Benter Oseno. Gudu, Peter L. Barasa and Charles O. Ong’ondo

    Kenya is a multicultural country with between 42 to 63 linguistic and ethnic groups with distinct languages and cultural heritage. Consequently, secondary schools attract learners from varied cultural backgrounds which pose challenges in teaching English language lessons. Despite the profound influence of cultural background in learning of second language, little research is available in Kenya on how the diverse linguistic and ethnic groups affect the teaching and learning of English language. The study focused on the learner-related cultural dynamics and how they affect teaching and learning of English language in Kenyan secondary schools. It adopted relativist-interpretivist philosophical paradigm and used qualitative case study method. It was carried out in Uasin Gishu County, Kenya. Purposive sampling was carried out based on cultural backgrounds. Data was generated using in depth interviews of twelve form three teachers of English, forty eight learners participated in focused group discussions, analysis of teachers’ professional documents and observations were also done. The data was transcribed, coded and analyzed basing on emerging themes. The key findings were: Uasin Gishu County has two learner types active and passive, passive learners prefer teacher centered methods and individual work, active learners prefer learner centered teaching methods. The study recommends that Ministry of Education could make the English language curricula culturally relevant for learners thus culturally and communicatively competent learners. The findings are useful to teachers of English language and English language educators.

  93. Weldemariam Tesfahunegny Bezabh

    Ethiopia is a country where major habitat block is contained within political boundaries, having a high degree of endemicity in both fauna and flora. This annotated checklist of birds exploresthe current status and distribution of the 926 birds’ species of Ethiopia, providing a text with a brief description and information on habitat, distribution, habits, breeding. Furthermore, threats and IUCN category are covered. Moreover, a complete list of all known localities is added for each species. I thought birds would be ideal. There was plenty of data available, much as yet ungathered. This annotated checklist of birds is a vital tool for everyone wishing to contribute to our knowledge of the world's birds and to avian conservation. Effective conservation planning can only be based on a sound knowledge of the species, sites and habitats in need of protection. To make the best decisions, it is most important that the information on which such decisions are made is as accurate, systematic and representative as possible. A recent Ornithological knowledge on the complete check list of – Ethiopia avifauna have been compiled in this annotated checklist. It is our intention that these checklists will ease the scientific inquiry into the conservation of Ethiopian avifauna. The checklist sought to initiate the restoration of the depleted bird populations, and protect their threatened ecosystem. As well, it will help to develop Ornithological conservation psychology packages of important bird areas of the country. The annotated checklist will serve as baseline information for i) conducting baseline surveys and household surveys to understand local people’s attitudes towards bird conservation ii) training of youths and community leaders iii) development of community leadership, iv) information dissemination and v) community support building through introduction of conservation incentives. Conducting more birds’ surveys in other unidentified areas vii) creation of community forests/wetlands in designated key sites for the conservation of bird species viii) development of a community-based eco-tourism programme based on birds’ and wildlife watching as well as the aesthetic value of their natural environments. Generally, this annotated checklist will fill the exsting knowdlge gap observed in the aviafauna list of Ethiopia.

  94. Kalaivani B. and Vanithakumari, G

    Objective: The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the cardioprotective and antioxidant properties of Triphala and Trikatu against obesity induced cadiotoxicity in female albino rats. This was compared with standard herbal (ayurslim) and synthetic (sibutrex10TM) anti-obesity drugs. Methods: Animals were divided in to three groups. Group I: Control group, Group II: Short duration group, Group III: Long duration group. Group II and Group III were further sub-divided into six sub groups, each group consisting of five animals. 1. Obesity control - The animals received atherogenic diet as an oral dose. 2. Obesity + Triphala - The animals received atherogenic diet + 8.3 mg triphala / 100g body weight / day, as an oral dose. 3. Obesity + Trikatu - The animals received atherogenic diet + 4.16 mg. of trikatu /100g. body weight / day, as an oral dose. 4. Obesity + Triphala and Trikatu - The animals received atherogenic diet + 4.15 mg of triphala and 2.08 mg of trikatu respectively/ 100g. body weight / day, as an oral dose. 5. Obesity + Ayurslim - The animals received atherogenic diet + 13.3mg. of ayurslim / 100g. body weight / day, as an oral dose. 6. Obesity + Sibutrex10TM - The animals received atherogenic diet + 0.17mg. of sibutrex10TM / 100g. body weight / day, as an oral dose. Result: The present study showed that obesity had caused an significant (P<0.05) decrease in the activities of antioxidant enzymes like superoxide dismutase, catalase and glutathione in heart. There was significant (P<0.05) increase in lipid peroxidation in heart tissues. Conclusion: The oral administration of Triphla and trikatu were more effective in the restoration of obesity induced oxidative stress in the heart.

  95. Privat. Kouakou, Beda M. Yapo and Ghyslain Ouya Kahenouin

    Recently our research has allowed developing and using a novel electro-transformed strain of Lactobacillus LMG21688 as protective cultures for inhibiting Listeria monocytogenes in meat products. The result did not give total satisfaction because of the complexity of the matrix (meat) used. To show the total efficiency of this new strain against Listeria, another matrix less complex was tested. Different types of milk (full-cream and skimmed) were used in laboratory fermentations where Listeria monocytogenes was co-cultured at 37°C with either electrocompetent LMG21688 or Lactobacillus curvatus CWBI-B28 bacteriocin-producing strain. The Listeria cfu count reached after 168 hours was 200 times higher in high-fat milk than in skimmed milk.

  96. Arijita Banerjee, InduKhurana and C. S. Dhull

    Background Glaucoma is diagnosed by presence of “classical triad”- characteristic feature of visual field defects, morphological changes in optic disc (cupping) and raised intraocular pressure (IOP). Several studies related to blood pressure and ocular perfusion pressure (OPP) implicated vascular risk factors in the pathogenesis of glaucoma yet abnormal autoregulation in glaucoma is not fully clear. The most common method of evaluating autoregulatory function is through provocation like isometric head up tilt testing, which put the vascular system under stress and evoke an autoregulatory response maintaining normal ocular perfusion, a failure to this is indicative of disturbed auto regulation. Materials and methods The study subjects of age between 45-65 years of either sex comprised of 20 patients with Primary open angle glaucoma (IOP >21mmhg) (group ІІ) and 20 age and sex matched healthy controls (group І). Blood Pressure and Mean OPP was recorded at rest and immediately after relaese, then after 5minutes. MOPP was calculated as MOPP=2/3MAP – IOP. Results Mean basal MAP in group ІІ was significantly higher (104.73 ±1.45) (p=0.001) as compared to group І. The findings showed highly significant low values of basal MOPP (p<0.000) in group ІІ (POAG) compared to control group. During handgrip test the value of MAP was significantly higher and MOPP was significantly low (P<0.000) in group ІІ. The significant high value of MAP (p<0.000) and low MOPP in group ІІ during recovery period indicated delayed recovery due to sympatho-vagal imbalance. Conclusion Basal values of MAP and MOPP and changes observed during isometric exercise (stress test) and during recovery period indicated ocular vascular alterations and abnormal autoregulatory mechanism in POAG patients as compared to healthy controls.

  97. Dr. Nandini Vaz Fernandes

    Many researchers are stressing on the need to change the teaching methodologies to make learning more effective. Various new modes of teaching are suggested especially in the field of medical sciences. The studies mostly focus on the need to adopt Problem-based learning in medical field. The present study was undertaken to see the effectiveness of various teaching methodologies in undergraduate degree college in India. Effectiveness was measured from the students perspective as this study was focused on the response of the students to the questionnaire prepared to evaluate the effectiveness of different modes of teaching. The modes evaluated were ‘Lecture-based learning’ (LBL), ICT supplemented lectures (ISL), Interactive Classroom method (ICM), Problem-Based Learning (PBL) and Multiple Teaching Mode (MTM). The present study indicated that LBL, ISL and ICM was not very effective method of teaching as it only fostered gaining of knowledge and comprehension. PBL method is good as it enabled triggering higher order thinking of blooms taxonomy in the students. But PBL, if adopted as the only method of teaching did not cater to the diversity of learners in a classroom. Therefore, we recommend MTM as the new effective method of teaching as it has a combination of LBL, ISL, ICM and PBL. On a Five-point-Lickert-scale, MTM was indicated to enable students to learn the correct method of data collection and investigation(4.45±0.75), transform data and develop logical argument (4.04±0.79), be more creative (4.33±0.90) and thus helped to improve proactive learning abilities. The present study thus demonstrates that PBL can be used as component of MTM for effective learning even for the undergraduate nonprofessional degree courses of Bachelor of Science or Bachelor of Arts.

  98. Gurajala Nageswari, Aswartha Harinatha Reddy and Bada Venkatappa

    The present study was carried out to evaluate the in vitro antibacterial activity of aqueous leaf and stem extracts of Tinospora cordifolia on HIV related opportunistic bacterial pathogens. The leaves and stems of T. cordifolia were powdered and subjected to aqueous extraction. Preliminary phyotochemical screening was done by using standard procedures. The antibacterial activity of the aqueous extract of leaves and stems of T. cordifolia was studied using disc diffusion method against Escherichia coli, Enterococcus faecalis, Streptococcus pneumoniae, Salmonella typhi and Staphylococcus aureus these were isolated from blood and urine samples of HIV infected patients. The aqueous extracts of T. cordifolia exhibited effective antimicrobial activity against all tested microorganisms, while the leaf aqueous extract of T. cordifolia exhibited maximum zone of inhibition against Enterococcus faecalis (28 mm) and Salmonella typhi (26 mm) at 50 mg/ml concentration. The stem aqueous extract of T. cordifolia exhibited maximum zone of inhibition against Enterococcus faecalis (23 mm) and Streptococcus pneumonia (24 mm) at 50 mg/ml concentration. The present results suggest that the aqueous extracts of T. cordifolia have significant antibacterial activity against HIV related opportunistic bacterial pathogens.

  99. Renata GimenezSampaio Zocche, Suziane Antes Jacobs, Norton Victor Sampaio, Fernando Zocche, Bruno Jacobs, Velci Queiróz de Souza, Maicon Nardino, Ivan Ricardo Carvalho, CésarValmorRombaldi and Luíz Antenor Rizzon

    The region of Bagé, RS presents befitting edaphoclimatic conditions for the production of said guard wines. Wines with Vitisvinifera grapes of the region are being produced 5 years ago, although research aimed at improving the quality of wines from the region are scarce, and production and winemaking protocols are used in other regions with different edaphoclimatic conditions found in Bagé. The aim of this study was to investigate the influence of two harvest times (industrial maturation and advanced maturation) cultivars Merlot, Tannat and Cabernet Sauvignon, the composition of wines produced with grapes of the region. The Cabernet Sauvignon and Merlot cultivars showed high pH (up to 4.2 in Cabernet Sauvignon), low total acid (56 meq.L-1to Merlot), color indices and low total polyphenol already in the first crop (IM), and the results were lower in the second crop (AM). Tannatcultivar in the harvest in industrial maturation stage proved to be well adapted to Bagé region, with good oenological potential, and, during the late harvest, the anthocyanin levels increase as well as polyphenols. Then, being advanced maturation a good choice regarding the structure and phenolic maturation of these wines. The sensory analysis verified the data of physical chemical analysis and pointed Cabernet Sauvignon and Merlot wines as poorly structured, with low marks for color and acidity. Instead, the Tannat wine obtained high marks in both crops, with the second harvest highlighting quality. The negative data of high pH, low total acidity and instability of anthocyanins found in Cabernet Sauvignon and Merlot, may be attributed to adverse weather conditions for the maturation of Merlot and high amounts of potassium found in the leaves of grapevines before harvest and wines (above 2500 mg L-1) generated with Cabernet Sauvignon grapes.

  100. Dragan Popovic, Evagelia Boli, Ankica Hosek-Momirovic, Milos Popovic, Vladimir Savic and Jasna Popovic

    Objectives: For the classification of respondents drawn from different populations and described by different sets of variables, six taxonomic neural networks designed in a similar manner, but supplied with different preprocessors for input data transformation, were applied. Methods: The standard method used to classify objects was implemented by an Intruder neural network variation (Momirovic, Hosek. Popovic & Boli, 2002) codenamed Intruds. This network only standardizes input data, but does not perform any additional transformations over them. Results: Each of these networks consisted of Lebart`s adaptive perceptrons (Lebart, 1998) which classified objects by means of a backward error propagation technique at the output end. The initial classification in all the networks was carried out by transformation of a fuzzy classification, defined by the objects` position on the periphery of the hyperellipsoid formed by a semiorthogonal transformation of principal components of variables subjected to a monotonic transformation, into a hard classification. The final classification efficiency was checked by each network based on the outcome of a posteriori classification performed by Fisher`s linear classifiers in the total space of eventually transformed variables. The neural networks under the basic code name Invader perform nonlinear monotonic transformations over these data. Invader 1 transforms variables into sigmoid (0,1) form, Invader 2 transforms variables into sigmoid (-1,1) form, and Invader 3 – into staircase (-1, 0, 1) form. The neural network codenamed Bibltax reduces to zero all standardized values which differ from the expected value in the sample of objects by one half of the standardized deviation in order to eliminate noise produced by poorly differentiated objects; and the Exnetg neural network, a variation of the Exelnet neural network (Momirovic, 2002), transforms variables into standardized image form to eliminate noise produced by the unique variance of measurement instruments. Conclusions: Comparative analysis of the effectiveness of these taxonomic networks clearly shows that, in the all cases, better taxonomic effectiveness, or surer breaking up of the analyzed set of objects, is achieved by means of data preprocessing

  101. Ochepo, G. O.

    The study was carried out to assess the influence biodegradation on the nutritive value of cassava peels. Cassava peels were obtained from a ‘gari’ processing mill in Makurdi and sun-dried for a period of seven days to reduce the moisture content to less than 10 %. The dried cassava peels were milled using a hammer mill. Five hundred kilograms (500kg) of milled cassava peels were moistened with water on a concrete floor and covered with cellophane sheet and allowed to ferment for two weeks. Dried Pleurotus tuber-regium (mushroom) was soaked in water for 24 hours in a basin, transferred into a clean basin and allowed to grow mycelia. After the completion of the composting process, the fermented substrate was transferred to inoculation trays (60 cm x 180 cm) and allowed to cool for one hour; the trays were subsequently inoculated with the active mycelia of the mushroom. At the end of the degradation period (30 days), the biodegraded cassava peels were sundried until the substrate attained less than 10 % moisture content. The result shows that P. tuber-regium degraded cassava peels was significantly (P < 0.05) higher in dry matter, crude protein, crude fibre, ash and ether extract compared to un-degraded cassava peels: CP content was 5.41 % for UDCP and 6.04 % for BDCP, CF content was 15.40 % and 17.40 %, Ash content was 15.60 % and 19.20 % while DM was 93.70 % and 94.70 % for UDCP and BDCP, respectively. The NDF fraction was 65.82 % and 62.39 % for UDCP and BDCP, respectively while ADF was 28.18 % and 29.40 %, ADL was 11.12 % and 10.15 %, Hemicellulose was 37.64 % and 32.99 % and cellulose was 17.06 % and 19.25 % for UDCP and BDCP, respectively. The result shows a significantly (P < 0.05) decrease in the level of NDF, ADL and Hemcellulose after degradation whereas ADF and Cellulose component increase significantly (P < 0.05). it was concluded that biodegradation of cassava peels with Pleurotus tuber-regium enhanced its nutritive value.

  102. Dr. Norbert N’Dri Kouame, François Kouamé N’Guessan, Christian KévinDjè Tano, Hauverset Assiènin N’Guessan, Pierre Walet N’Guessan, Yao Tano and Nathalie Christiane Gouamene

    Cocoa orchard is the target pests as mirids that cause loss of very important to farmers production. To reduce the populations of these insects, leaches were conducted in seven districts of cocoa production in Ivory Coast. Sheeted cocoa underwent treatments with the insecticide super Callifan 40 EC. Insecticide treatments helped raise and identify different species of mirids. The results revealed the presence of four species of mirids: Sahlbergellasingularis, Distantiellatheobromae, Bryocoropsislaticollis and Helopeltis sp. The species S. singularis, listed in all areas of production, represented 77.93% of the harvested mirids. B. laticollis with an attendance rate of 16.50% was limited to the coastal area and mountains district. D. theobromae and Helopeltis sp., Represented respectively 3.76 and 1.8% of harvested mirids.

  103. Devendra Kumar, Neerja Trivedi and Rakesh Kumar Dixit

    A rapid and sensitive HPLC-PDA method was developed for the quantification of metformin in rat plasma using phenformin as internal standard. The analyte and internal standard were extracted from the plasma sample using a solid phase extraction method. Chromatographic separation was achieved on a Thermo Accuacore Hillic (150 × 4.6 mm, 5 µm) column with a mobile phase consisting 20 mM sodium acetate buffer and acetonitrile (45:55, v/v with pH-4 ); at a flow rate of 0.7 ml /min. The assay was validated with a linear range of 0.062 – 2 µg /ml for metformin using 200 µL of plasma sample. The intra- and inter-day assay precision ranged from 2.51 to 4.37% and 2.19 to 5.59%, respectively, and intra- and inter- day assay accuracy was between from 0.27 to 3.35% and -0.51 to 3.75%, respectively. The method was successfully applied to the pharmacokinetic studies of metformin in rat plasma.

  104. Khalid Dheyaa Abdulwahid,

    The current study conducted at nine sampling stations across the section of Khreisan River passing through Baquba city which is located in Iraq-Diyala in order to assessment the quality of water at this section of river by using of the most pollution tolerant genera and species for four groups of algae and employing of Palmer’s and Nygaard’s biotic indices as well as analytical of water samples for Dissolved Solids, Suspended Solids and Volatile Solids. The water samples were collected monthly from selected sampling stations for a period of 6 months starting from November 2014 to April 2015. According to Palmer’s biotic indices, Dominance of Chlorella, Scenedesmus, Oscillatoria, Navicula, Nitzschia and Euglena particularly with a total score greater than 20 for algal species Pollution Index at sampling stations (S3 and S1) which are located in Old Baquba's region and sampling station (S7) which is located in Buhriz's region considered to be indicate a confirmed high organic pollution. A probable high organic pollution induced in both of sampling stations (S8, S5 and S6) which are located in Buhriz's region due to frequently of Nitzschiapalea and Oscillatorialimosa and the dominance of Chlamydomonas spp., Navicula spp., which were caused a relatively high total score less than 20 for algal genera Pollution Index. According to Nygaard’s biotic indices, Eutrophic nature indicated from water sampling stations (S3 and S7) which are represented respectively (before river entry in popular Baquba's market and at beginning river entry in popular Buhriz's market), Meso-eutrophic nature indicated from water sampling stations (S1,S4 and S5), while the remaining sampling stations indicated Mesotrophic nature. Meso-eutrophic nature was obtained only by Chlorophycean at water sampling station (S3) and it wasn't recorded by the remaining groups of algae In the current study. Bacillariophycean wasn't recorded Olig-mesotrophic or Ultra-oligotrophic nature at any sampling stations. Chlorophycean wasn't recorded Oligotrophic and Ultra-oligotrophic nature at any sampling stations. Old Baquba's region recorded increase values of Total Volatile Solids (T.V.S.) in water sampling stations (S3) approximately (1.8)% followed by (S1) about (1.7)%, This was associated with decreased values of Total Dissolved Solids (T.D.S.) about (528 and 652) ppm and Total Suspended Solids (T.S.S.) about (114 and 163) ppm at sampling stations respectively (S3 and S1). Buhriz's region recorded increase value of (T.V.S.) in water sampling station (S7) approximately (1.7)% and this was associated with decreased value of (T.D.S.) about (572)ppm and (T.S.S.) about (130) ppm at the same sampling station. Uncoated by concrete and the zigzag path may effect on the flow rate of Khreisan River as well as high population density in some regions which is reflect directly on pollution levels due to decrease of dissolved oxygen and increased sedimentation rates as well as low solubility of pollutants, Perhaps this explains the high levels of organic pollution in those sampling stations across that section of river.

  105. Abebe Hailu Kassa

    The camel is an important animal component of the fragile desert eco-system. With its unique bio-physiological characteristics, the camel has become an icon of adaptation to challenging ways of living in arid and semi-arid regions. The camelidus inhabit the most extreme climates on the globe and their process of multiplication is determined by the availability of food and protection for the newborn, consequently their reproduction is governed by these factors. The physiological mechanisms, which allow the camel to survive periods of over two weeks without drinking water and to eat the most unpalatable plants, all have to do with the conservation of water and Up to 30 per cent of its body weight can be lost by loss of water - amounts that would be fatal in the case of other farm animals or even man. All the functions of the dromedary organism are conceived to be physiologically adapted to “water and food restrictions” and to a very hot climate. More specifically as with all mammals, camel reproduction is adapted to its specific behavioural, anatomical, physiological and endocrinological peculiarities and in addition to this review will deal with the reproductive performance of the dromedary/ the one-humped, hot-desert camel. The camel is one of the most important desert animal and the following points discussing how the camel copes with the desert environment. Knowing the peculiar characteristics of camel physiology is essential for researcher and breeders for Better selection, disease control, improved husbandry could not only improves production but also could improve productivity and quality of camel herds general, Whereas Improving reproductive capacity of the female and males camels through proper selection and best husbandry practice could improves the economic benefits from camel.

  106. Sanyal, S., Chakravorty, P.P. and Kaviraj, A

    Different levels of two herbicides Pendimethalin and Pretilachlor based on their recommended agricultural doses (RAD) were administered into the testboxes with a micropipette (Lofs-Holmin, 1983) with five numbers age synchronized specimens of Perionyx excavatus in each box. The 96 hrs acute toxicity tests showed that Pendimethalin with an LC50 value of 0.022mg/kg soil was more toxic than Pretilachlor, LC50 value 0.094 mg/kg soil. Open choice experiment was done on indigenous epigeic earthworm Perionyx excavatus with Anacardium occidentale (cashew), Mangifera indica (mango), Shorea robusta (shal), Acacia auriculiformis (Acacia) and Eucalyptus citridora (Eucalyptus), leaves to determine their food preference. In the feeding preference experiment the earthworms showed maximum preference for Anacardium occidentale (cashew) leaves. The activity of the digestive enzyme α-amylase was determined under laboratory conditions in natural garden soil by exposing the earthworms to sub-lethal doses of the two herbicides i.e., 25% and 50% of LC50 value, determined earlier. The activity of the enzyme, in Pendimethalin, grew significantly higher than the control value on the 15th day of the experiment In case on the 30th day of the experiment, the enzyme activity is decreased in both the sub-lethal doses i.e. 25% of LC50 and 50% of LC50 which are significantly lower than the control value. Pendimethalin was found more toxic than Pretilachlor but was less harmful to chronic exposure to the earthworms.

  107. Paramasivan, S., Geetha Ramesh, Ushakumary, S., Sathyamoorthy, O. R. and Sivagnanam, S.

    Histology under light and transmission electron microscopy was conducted on the pituitary glands collected from 35 Madras red ewes of different age groups. The chromophobes were round or irregularly oval shaped cells, which occurred in groups in the centre of the cell cords of the pars distalis adenohypophysis of prepubertal, pubertal and dry animals. Their population was more in the rostro-dorsal and rostro-ventral regions of the pars distalis with no affinity towards any of the acidic or basic dyes. These cells are thought to be non-functional reserve cells that become chromogenic when the cells become active. The folliculo-stellate cells were observed mostly around the follicles with a characteristic star-like morphology and long agranular cytoplasmic processes. These cells have supportive role by provided mechanical support to the endocrine population and also by producing many growth factors and cytokines In the current electron microscopic study showed some immature endocrine cells closely associated with chromophobes and folliculo-stellate cells forming an incomplete follicle suggesting that these two types of cells are likely to be involved in the differentiation of new endocrine cells as required by the physiological status of the sheep.

  108. NIAMKETCHI Léonce, AMANE Didier, SIDIBE Daouda, COULIBALY Adama, KONAN N’guessan Ysidor, CHATIGRE Olivier and BIEGO Godi Henri Marius

    The protective effect of three types of maize stored on the mycotoxins production during storage has been tested. These are the traditional granaries (control) and on the other hand traditional and improved granaries treated with leaves of Lippia multiflora and Hyptis suaveolens and then cover with polyethylene plastic. Maize stored as cobs and grains are preserved in natural atmosphere in these granaries during 8 months and the contents of moisture, water activity, ochratoxin A (OTA), fumunosin B1 (FB1) and zearalenone (ZEA) were studied and monitoring. Results showed presence of OTA, FB1 and ZEA respectively in 50%, 16.7% and 25% of samples, with rather higher levels than the reference values of the European Union. The levels of OTA, FB1 and ZEA resulted from both maize cobs and grains treated with biopesticides were significantly lower than those recorded with untreated maize of control granaries. For each stage, OTA, FB1 and ZEA levels of maize cobs and grains did not differ whether they are treated in traditional or improved granaries with both plant materials. The estimated daily intakes in OTA, FB1 and ZEA, deriving with consumption of maize stored for 6 months are respectively 13.10±0.40 ng/kg bw/day, 1167±15.05 ng/kg bw/day and 143.73±1.26 ng/kg bw/day from the untreated granaries and 2.00±0.35 ng/kg bw/day, 141±4.10 ng/kg bw/day, 20.0±0.43 ng/kg bw/day from the treated granaries. These levels are lower than the maximal Reference Value tolerated for Toxicity exposure set by the WHO except for OTA daily intake from the untreated granaries. Therefore, it’s necessary to sensitize, on a larger scale, actors of maize path, namely farmers, retailers, processers and consumers about such mycotoxins in maize products for providing health safety to Ivorian populations.

  109. Dr. Padam Meena, Dr. Dilip Gena, Rayees Ahmad Mir, Rajveer Singh Rawat and Dr. Bhanwar Lal Jat

    Herbs are plants grown for culinary, medicinal, or in some cases even spiritual value. The green, leafy part of the plant is typically used. General usage differs between culinary herbs and medicinal herbs. A medicinal herb may be a shrub or other woody plant, where as a culinary herb is a non-woody plant. By contrast, spices are the seed, berries, bark, root, fruit, or other parts of the plant, even leaves in some cases; although any of these, as well as any edible fruits or vegetables, may be considered “herbs” in medicinal or spiritual use. Culinary herbs are distinguished from vegetables in that they are used in small amounts and provide flavour (or spices) rather than substance to food. Ayurveda is the oldest surviving complete medical system in the world. Derived from its ancient Sanskrit roots – ‘ayus’ (life) and ‘ved’ (knowledge) – and offering a rich, comprehensive outlook to a healthy life, its origins go back nearly 5000 years. To when it was expounded and practiced by the same spiritual rishis, who laid the foundations of the Vedic civilisation in India, by organising the fundamentals of life into proper systems. The main source of knowledge in this field therefore remain the Vedas, the divine books of knowledge they propounded, and more specifically the fourth of the series, namely Atharvaveda that dates back to around 1000 BC of the few other treatises on Ayurveda that have survived from around the same time, the most famous are CharakaSamhita and the Sushruta Samhita which concentrate on internal medicine and surgery respectively. From this study we can assess that though the plant powder was procured from the authentic source but still for the confirmation we have done the organoleptic study under Pharmacognostic characteristics of Drug. The powdered drug was subjected to extraction protocol soxhalation. The extract so obtained was tested for the presence of phytochemicals like alkaloid, carbohydrate, amino acid, Glycosides, Phenolic compounds and Tannins that shows positive results for the extract. The antimicrobial activity of the powder extract was done with Chloroform, Petroleum ether and Methanol. The result indicates that the antimicrobial activity of the methanolic extract of amla shows the maximum activity. This shows the amla has an antimicrobial activity and this may be due to the extracted phytochemicals in methanolic extract. The amla shows positive results for tannins in the methanolic extract and even alkaloids may be responsible for the maximum antimicrobial activity. But further chemical characterization is needed to confirm the molecule responsible for the activity. The antimicrobial activity of this herbal formulation was even comparable with standard antibiotics like penicillin G and Oflaxacin

  110. Sajitha, N., Kavitha, K.P., K. U. M. A, Rafeeq and Uma D

    The aim of the study is to determine the total external lipid present in the wool fibre of goat. Different types of organic solvents such as methanol, chloroform, hexane and petroleum ether were used for extracting the lipids. The amount of lipid present in the chloroform:methanol mixture was about 0.82% to that of wool fibre of goat. The lipid figured from the methanol extract is much lower and is approximately 0.44%, considering the hexane and petroleum ether extract, the quantity of lipid is about 0.72% and 0.68% respectively. It was found that correlated with other solvents, the chloroform: methanol mixture (2:1) were capable of extracting polar, non-polar and neutral lipids attached to the wool fibre of goat.

  111. Naruka S. Yakubu and Dr. Afolabi, E. O.

    Formamidine disulfide was synthesized by oxidizing thiourea in the presence of potassium permanganate. It was then reacted with various aldehydes to give formamidine disulfide Schiff bases. Each Schiff base was then condensed with maleic anhydride and phthalic anhydride to yield corresponding 1,3-oxazepine derivatives respectively. The phthalic anhydride derivative of benzaldehyde Schiff base was not synthesized as a result of low yield. The antimicrobial activities of the schiff bases were better than the oxazepines. Those of the maleic anhydride oxazepine derivatives were better than those of the phthalic anhydride oxazepine derivatives. This shows that the imine group (-C=N-) is responsible for antimicrobial activity in schiff bases. More so, the best schiff base is the 3-nitro benzaldehyde derivative that is; 1,1’{disulfanediylbis[carbonimioylnitrilo (Z)methylylidene]}bis(3-nitrobenzene), for all the organisms used at the lowest concentration (@25mn/dl). At 200mg/dl, which is the highest concentration used, all the compounds synthesized show a level of activity. In between these two extreme concentrations antimicrobial activity of these analogues against E.coli began to show a trend.

  112. Dharkar Ninad

    The present paper deals with morphological and chemical studies of two species of Aplosporella Speg. (=Haplosporella Speg.)The species under study found to be morphologically and biochemically distinct. The species were collected on different hosts of same angiospermic family on comparison with the known species it treated as new species viz, Aplosporella leucocephala sp.nov. on Leucaena leucocephala (Lamk)de wit. And Aplosporella pithecolobiella sp.nov on Pithecolobium dulce (Roxb.)

  113. Satyapal Singh, Alok Kumar and Munish Kr. Singh

    A study was conducted in bread wheat to estimate the magnitude of heterosis for grain yield and its seven yield components. 10 F1 hybrids were derived from crosses between two female lines and five testers using line x tester analysis and these F1s along with 7 parents and one commercial check varieties were evaluated during Rabi 2010-11 using Randomized Block Design. Highly significant differences were observed among the genotypes for all the traits studied. The cross GIANT-3 x AAI-347 was recognized as the best heterotic cross for grain yield as it exhibited highly significant positive heterosis over the standard checks HUW 510. The cross GIANT-3 x PBW-343 exhibited highest and significant positive heterosis over better parent, mid parent and over the standard checks for number of tillers per plant and 1000 grain weight. The present study reveals good scope for isolation of pure lines from the progenies of heterotic F1s as well as commercial exploitation of heterosis in bread wheat.

  114. Maharaj Biswas and Chanchal Kumar Manna

    Background: To define various categories of obese and nonobese subjects by BMI and physical conditions (underweight and overweight problems) and also to identify obesity-related hypertension in studied people. Methods: A population-based survey was conducted to gather data about obesity and hypertension and their associated risk factors (sociodemographic and biochemical) from 2,453 members of households of studied people. Blood samples were also collected from 114 willing participants for the biochemical analysis. Data were analyzed using ‘z’ and chi-square test at both 5% and 1% level of significance. Results: The studied people were grouped into many stages like underweight (BMI<18.5kg/m2), Normal (BMI=18.5-24.9 kg/m2), overweight (BMI=25.0-29.9 kg/m2) and Obese (BMI≥30 kg/m2). The prevalence of hypertension is very common in overweight and obese (BMI≥25.0) subjects. Both blood pressure (p<0.01) and hypertension (p<0.01) are found to be significantly increased with increasing BMI. Conclusions: The results of this study indicate that the obesity is responsible for the development of hypertension.

  115. Fulya TAN and Nurçin BÜYÜKTOSUN

    The objectives of this study were determined to effect of vacuum treatments and to measure densities and dry matter losses in vacuum-packed polythene bags silage. Maize (Zea mays L.) was harvested at two maturity stage (30% and 45% dry matter) and ensiled in packages. In the experiment was made 3 vacuum treatments (0.07mPa, 0.1mPa and -0.1mPa). And vacuum-packing machine a model CAS CVP 260 PD type was used. In all experiments, the chopped material was packed into polythene bags (dimensions 200x250 mm). Three different types polythene bags (PA/PE, BOPA/PE and OPP/PE/EVOH/PE) were examined. Vacuum-packed bag silages were opened after 15 days, 45 days,80 days and at the end of one year of ensiling. Results showed that, average dry matter loss in the vacuum-packed bag silages was 8.85, 10.96, and 6.08% after end of the one year, respectively. The highest dry matter loss was BOPA/PE type bags. Dry matter loss affected by at the stage of maturity and vacuum treatments (P<0.05). Density ranged from 0.11 to 0.34 g cm-3. At all bag silages density increased linearly with increasing moisture while decreased with increasing vacuum level (P<0.05).

  116. Ruchi Yadav

    Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), also known as “Lou Gehrig’s disease”. It is a neurodegenerative disease associated with degeneration of motor neurons in the cerebral cortex, brain stem, and spinal cord characterized by distal muscle weakness, atrophy, normal sensation, pyramidal signs and progressive muscular paralysis reflecting. ALS2 is a juvenile autosomal recessive disorder, slowly progressive, that maps to chromosome 2q33 and is associated with mutations in the alsin gene, a putative GTPase regulator. In this paper we have done homology modeling of alsin2 protein using multiple templates (3KCI_A, 4LIM_A, 402W_A, 4D9S_A, and 4DNV_A) designed using the Prime program in Schrödinger software. Structural and function analysis is done by using Prosite and ExPASy server that gives insight into conserved domains and motifs that can be used for protein classification. Further modeled structure is used to identify effective binding sites on the basis of structural and physical properties using sitemap program in Schrödinger software. Docking of Resveratrol with alsin protein evaluates the binding site and potential role of antioxidant in neurological disease. This paper summarizes the structural, functional, binding site, docking on alsin protein that gives insight into functional role of alsin protein in neurological disease this study can be used in drug discovery process.

  117. MeiskeSofie Salaki, Mohamad Fadjar, Anik Martina Hariati, Diana Arfiati and Tilaar, F. F.

    This study was aimed to determine variations of morphological characters (Morphometrics and meristics) of rabbitfish (Siganusargenteus.) andcompare them with the fork length, head length and other morphometric characters. It was also intended to determine the morphological characters usable for species identification. The fish samples were collected from Manado Bay waters, North Sulawesi, and there was a total of 3 individuals of S. argenteus whose morphological characters were analyzed. Results showed that their taxonomic characters covering quantitative morphology (Morphometric and meristic) and qualitative morphology (color and typical characters) could be used to describe and identify the rabbitfish, S. argenteus. It also exhibited variations in value range of the morphometric character among individuals of the species.This species possesses nearly fusiform-like body shape. Caudal fin is forked. Mouth position is rather ventral and small-sized with blunt snout.

  118. Upen Deka and Sarada Kanta Sarma

    The present study deals with the investigation of the macrophytic diversity of some major wetlands of Nalbari district of Assam, India and their economic prospects. The study was carried out for a period of two years i.e. from January, 2011 to December, 2012. Four wetlands namely Batua kamakhya beel, Borbilla beel, Borali beel and Ghoga beel were selected for the present investigation. While Borali beel and Ghoga beel are regularly affected by river flood water, the other two wetlands i.e. Batua kamakhya beel, Borbilla beel face no such disturbances and are very rich in resources which are utilized by the people living in its vicinities. Various diversity indices of the wetland plant communities were calculated to show the species richness (Margalef, 1964), Shannon – Weiver Diversity Index (Shannon and Weiver, 1963), Simpson’s Dominance Index (Simpson, 1949), Evenness Index (Pielou, 1966) and Similarity index (Sorensen, 1948). During the study period significant values of species richness, diversity and dominance index, evenness and similarity index of the aquatic macrophytes were recorded during the summer season of the study periods. The study shows that the wetlands although situated away from one another yet so far as species contents are concerned, the wetlands have similarities in their plant species composition. These wetlands also act as sources of livelihood and source of bioresources for the people living around its vicinities. During the present study, 141 aquatic macrophytic species belonging to 116 genera and 53 families have been collected and identified from the wetlands of the study sites. Of these 141 species, 55 numbers of aquatic macrophytes which have found to be utilized by the local villagers for different purposes like food (7 sp.), fodder (11 sp.), vegetables (15 sp.), medicine (12 sp.), biofertilizers (9 sp.) and religious functions (8 sp.) for their day to day uses. But unfortunately the population of some economically important macrophytes of the wetlands i.e. Nelumbo nucifera, Trapa natans, T. bispinosa and Euryale ferox are decreasing alarmingly due to excessive anthropogenic pressure as well as natural disturbances in the wetlands occurring over the last few decades. Therefore, proper conservation measure should be taken to conserve these wetlands of the district which are sheltering many important plant species along with other vital resources.

  119. Rehana Abidi, Naireen Fariya and Chauhan, U. K

    The Myxobolus arcticus Pugachev and Khokhlov, 1979 (P.- Myxozoa; C.-Myxosporea; O.-Bivalvulida; F.-Myxobolidae) is a protozoan parasite residing in brain, nerves and spinal cord of the salmons (F.-Salmonidae). Its principal fish hosts are sockeye salmon - Oncorhynchus nerka, masu salmon - O. masou and Arctic char Salvelinus alpinus found in North Pacific coast of Far East Asia and North America. This is the first report revealing two new facts; first that Myxobolus arcticus was in the kidney (a new site of infection) and, second the host is a freshwater native catfish Clarias batrachus (O.- Siluriformes; F.- Clariidae), from river Gomti at Lucknow, Uttar Pradesh, India. The present article deals with morphological, morphometric and molecular description of this parasite Myxobolus arcticus. Further the morphometric parameters and small sub unit ribosomal gene (SSu rDNA) sequences of mature spores (trophozoites) were compared to demonstrate the morphological and genetic similarities between geographically distant isolates of M. arcticus. Sequence analysis of present M. arcticus (accession number KF662475) revealed that it has 98% sequence similarity with M. arcticus from O. nerka of Canada (accession number JN003829) and O. masou of Japan (NCBI accession number JN003830). Based on the maximum parsimony and maximum likelihood inferences, it is confirmed that present M. arcticus is conspecific to M. arcticus from Japan and Canada.

  120. Sangeetha, G., Nikhila, G. S. and Swapna, T. S

    Pseudarthria viscida (L.) Wight and Arn. belonging to the family Leguminosae is an essential component of many famous Ayurvedic formulations like Dashamoola, Mahanarayana taila and Dhantara taila. Major chemical compounds present in the roots are gallic acid, ferulic acid, caffeic acid, rutin, quercetin and oleic acid. Since Pseudarthria viscida has high commercial and medicinal values, the excessive collection has resulted in gradual disappearance of this plant from natural habitat and at present its number is highly reduced in the wild. To conserve the genetic stocks of this plant in vitro propagation can be utilized successfully. The main aim of this work is to identify an efficient regeneration and in vitro secondary metabolite production in Pseudarthria viscida using MS medium. Leaf, node and inter nodal segments were used as explants for callus induction, subsequent shoot regeneration and adventitious roots induction. Ninety eight percentage of callus induction observed from leafy segment on MS medium supplemented with 1.5 mgl-1 2,4-D + 0.5 mgl-1 Kinetin and 2.5 mgl-1NAA+1 mgl-1BAP. Maximum number of shoot regeneration from nodal segments noticed on medium with 0.5 mgl-1 NAA+2.5 mgl-1BAP after 28 days. Maximum number of rooting noticed on medium with 2.5 and 2 mgl-1IBA and NAA respectively after 29 days. The plantlets were then transferred to field after acclimatization. For secondary metabolite production, the four week old callus were cultured in suspension using abiotic (Salicylic acid) and biotic elicitors(Chitosan) for enhancing the production of phenolic compound. The optimal fold increase of phenolic compound were noticed in 48 hour callus culture by 1.5 mg Chitosan treatment. The bioactive phenolic compound (gallic acid) was then isolated from the different elicitors treated callus extract and its identification and quantification was carried out by HPTLC and HPLC methods.

  121. Bineeta Devi

    A study was conducted to estimate the extant of heterobeltiosis, standard heterosis and the nature of gene action for some quantitative traits using line x tester analysis. Among the parents, M1-10-29VL and TM07280 were the best performing parents for seed yield per plant and its components traits. Cross combinations IR77629-72-2-1-3 X IR64, Basmati 370 X CR2703, Sonam X NDR118 and IR7734-4-0 X CR2703 exhibited high significant effects with high per se performance and standard heterosis over PHB71. High magnitude of heterobltiosis and standard heterosis were observed for almost all characters. Cross combinations M1-10-29 VL X NDR118, Basmati 370 X CR2703, TM07280 X NDR118, IR77629 -72-2-1-3 X IR-64 and TM07280 X IR-64 exhibited highly significant heterosis over PHB71.

  122. Dr. Saima Sultan and Dr. Tasneem S. Ain

    This retrospective study was carried out to examine the patterns of drug prescribing for pediatric dental patients in and around Moradabad, city, U.P. Methods: A total of 200 prescriptions were collected from various dental clinics from march 2014 to may 2014. Patients older than 12 years were excluded. Out of 150 diagnosed conditions, only 35 conditions were treated with antibiotics. The antibiotics were prescribed preoperatively On 28 occasions and for a post-treatment condition such as swelling antibiotics were prescribed on 7 occasions. Regarding the combination medicines Amoxycillin+clavulanic acid were mostly prescribed in pulpectomies and extraction patients. Conclusion: Present results indicate that prescribing trends for pediatric population seems to be rational. However, antibiotics are often not necessarily needed for treatment of dental conditions in children. Conclusion: excessive and inappropriate use of antibiotics should be avoided in pediatric dental clinics and pedodontist should have enough knowledge of pediatric pharmacology.

  123. Lahiouel Yasmina, Lahiouel Rachid and Beddiaf Souad

    In this paper, we address the development of a global optimization procedure for the problem of designing a water distribution network that satisfies tat specified flow demands as stated pressure head requirements. The proposed approach significantly improves upmon a previous method of Lahiouel et al. (2004) by way of adopting a simultaneous layout and pipe size otimization of water distribution networks. The necessity of a coupled solution of the layout and pipe sizing problem is shown. The method does not start with a predefined layout which includes all possible links; it is capable of designing a layout of predefined reliability, including tree-like and looped networks. The applicability of the model for optimization of pipe networks with predefined reliability is illustrated by testing the method against on benchmark example in the literature.

  124. Anupam Goel, Shashank Kumar and Dharmveer Singh Rajput

    In this modern era, a lot of data is available to all the organisations so the real task is to gather the useful information from the data. There is a need to develop a robust technique that can resolve this problem. Clustering is a technique in data mining that groups together the similar data items into cluster. The data in a cluster is more similar to each other than data in the other cluster. There are different types of clustering algorithms like K–means (partitioning based), greedy based, hierarchical based algorithms, density based. Clustering has a wide range of application such as text mining information retrieval, Business analytics, data analysis, machine learning etc. In this we are using K-means clustering, firstly we have discuss how K-means algorithm is implemented then we have discuss the advantages and disadvantages of K-means and then finally we have selected one of the shortcoming of K-means algorithm. Then we have proposed are own method to improve this shortcoming and then we applied this algorithm on textual dataset. Finally we get the result of our algorithm.

  125. Mahmoud B. A. Alhasanat, Arabi N. S. Al Qadi, Madhar Haddad, Ayah Al-Eas and Amani Yaseen

    This paper intends to review past studies regarding the addition of waste plastic in self-compacted concrete. SCC is one of the ingenuities products in concrete technology. It is also a special type of highly flowable concrete that does not require vibration for placing and compaction. Mixture proportion could be done by adding a different material to SCC mixtures to improve the properties of SCC. Innovative materials are generally used for partial replacement of cement, sand and a combination of two or more items. The use of plastic waste materials in concrete is a common solution for waste disposal and also serves an economic purpose. Different research studies have been conducted on the use of plastic waste as creative material to produce good quality concrete. The result shows that using waste plastic as a fine aggregate improves the workability and reduces the density and the compressive strength of concrete containing between 10% and 20% of waste by 10% to 24 % respectively. In addition, when used as a coarse aggregate, the properties such as compressive as well as tensile strength are reduced, and the thermal conductivity of concrete is reduced, but the best usage of waste plastic was as a fiber because of its high compressive and flexural strength.

  126. Siva Murali Mohan Reddy, A., Dr. Venkatesh, M. Kulkarni and Manjunatha, K

    In thermal devices like heat exchangers, improvement of convection heat transfer becomes an important factor in the development of modern industrial world. Inserting porous medium in a fluidic region is one of the effective methods among the passive heat transfer augmentation technics. Further it is preferred not to fully fill the system with the porous medium. This is to avoid the significant pressure drops occurring in the fully filled systems. This paper presents a brief discussion on the application of partially filled porous medium in a channel and circular pipe for forced convection. And also it is extended to some special cases like flow through rotating pipes, oscillating and MHD flows. The overall review of analytical, numerical and experimental work gives an idea about the position, thickness, porosity and area to be filled to achieve maximum heat transfer with minimum pressure drop.

  127. Prathyusha, T., Srikanth, T., Sivasankar Reddy, A., Kartheek, K., Sreedhara Reddy, P. and Ch. Seshendra Reddy

    Nanocrystalline tin oxide (SnO2) thin films were deposited on glass substrates by DC reactive magnetron sputtering technique under various oxygen partial pressures. The films composition was nearly stoichiometery at the oxygen partial pressure of 7x10-4 mbar. XRD pattern reveals that the films are polycrystalline nature and (110) plane was predominant. The size of grains becomes bigger and spherical in shape with increasing of the oxygen partial pressure. The films show high optical transmittance of 93% at the oxygen partial pressure of 7x10-4mbar. The electrical resistivity of the films was decreases with increasing the oxygen partial pressure.

  128. Sawant, S. A. and Vijaykumar Bhusare

    This paper will explore the shape effect of building against the wind load using design software STADD pro and the load analysis are done on the basis of FEA method. For high rise construction needs to know the expected wind loads on the building so that to work out proper resistance systems to counteract the wind loads. The present study looks to examining the wind loading patterns on various shapes of building on direction basis. The computed wind loads are also benchmarked against standards code, IS:875-1987(part-3). In present paper the test models of G+20, G+40, G+60, G+80 with different shapes like square, rectangular, circular, hexagonal are established and then find out their results for maximum displacement and compare software results with manual analysis.

  129. Diksha Nagpal and Dr. Deepti Sharma

    Cloud computing has brought revolution in IT industry. There are major benefits of using cloud environment due to the better utilization of resources and reduced cost. Cloud infrastructure consists of the use of virtual machines like hypervisor etc. and it is similar to the large network. The cloud storage consists of huge amount of information and that can be shared from anywhere in the world with secure access. Wherever, the network is designed and internet is being used that becomes vulnerable to attacks. And as the technology is advancing, the cyber criminals have also become smarter and can identify the vulnerabilities, threats and can perform attacks on the cloud system. So,this paper aims at describing the different types of threats and attacks in the cloud infrastructure.

  130. Oyelowo P. Sunday

    The binomial probability computation have since been made using the binomial probability distribution expressed as (n¦x) P^x (1-P)^(n-x) for a fixed n and for x=0, 1, 2…, n. In this paper, a new formular, f(x+1)= a (n-x)/(x+1) f(x), fashioned out of the existing binomial probability expression (distribution) is proposed where the expression is stated as a recurrence relations that is f(x+1) in terms of f(x).

  131. Sagar Palao, Dhairya Shah, Manasi Karale

    This document gives brief idea about Sustainable Computing, Servergy- a sustainable product & innovative Sustainable Computing product proposed by us

  132. Ali Khalaf Hasan AL-SENED and Fatema Hameed Obeed AL-FATLAWI

    The low lying Spectra and high spin states have been calculated for the isotopes (134Te,134Sn and 134Sb) in different model spaces. First set of calculations have been carried in (0g7/2 - 0h11/2) valance space. The second set of calculations have been performed in (1f7/2 - 0i13/2) valance space and the third set of calculations have been performed in (0g7/2, 1f7/2) valance space. Nuclear shell model results showed that modified surface delta interaction is quite successful in introducing the spectrum energies of these nuclei and it able to produce the energy levels of the ground band clearly. In this work, the total angular momentum and parity for uncertainty and indeterminate experimentally energy levels were determinate and assured.

  133. Pravin B. Patil

    In any modern factory all types of DC motors, AC motors, power amplifiers are used. Therefore there is need of intelligent devices capable of controlling and driving a wide range of electromechanical devices. Series architecture of variable resistors is not good for controlling the speed of DC motor because it drops excess of energy and flux control is affected by commutation and armature control methods cannot provide speed control in the desirable range. Therefore Voltage control method is used to control the DC motor in which PWM signal is used to control electromechanical devices. PWM signal obtained from analog or digital IC contains harmonics; therefore mostly PWM signals are generated from (TMS 320 F 28027) Microcontroller. It reduces the hardware complexity and it consumes less power. By modifying CCP register of TMS controller PWM signal is generated. DC motor is connected with TMS through Motor driver. PWM signal is generated at four duty cycle for controlling speed of motor.

  134. Rajeswari Choudhury, Ashwini Vittal Devkar and Emon Chatterjee

    Probiotics are "live micro-organisms which, when administered in adequate amounts, confer a health benefit on the host". For the present study three different strains of Lactic acid Bacteria were procured from NCIM, Pune and Dairy Science College, Bangalore. The strains include L. casei, L. brevis and L. lactis. These LAB strains were co-microencapsulated with the prebiotics to form synbiotic food products. These synbiotics formed with highly efficient strains of probiotics and are highly bioactive. Prebiotics are the non digestible food ingredient that beneficially affects the host by selectively stimulating the growth of bacteria in the colon. The growth of LAB was studied by turbidometric measurements in the presence and absence of prebiotics at 48h and 72h of incubation. The prebiotics like pectin, oats and a combination of both was seen to increase the growth of the different strain of LAB. Co-microencapsulation of the synbiotic strains were done using Sodium Alginate followed by inoculating them into different fruit juices (grape, watermelon, mosambi, and pine apple) for fermentation. The synbioticated substrates were evaluated for pH and turbidity and were tested for shelf life. The pH level decreased with the increase in acid production in the fermented juices, the highest was observed in synbiotic grape juices. This was followed by increase in turbidity of the samples. The viability of the immobilized synbiotic cultures remained for a longer period of time. Understanding the synbiotic phenomena between the strains is of prime importance for the control of the cultures and could be used for developing a functionally healthy beverage or functional food to promote health and nutrition of the consumer. Prospective studies on mechanisms of the probiotic activities may enable their new medical applications for lactose intolerant and diabetic patients.

  135. Ajay Kumar Paliki, Sathish Mohan Botsa and Sailaja, B. B. V

    Nano ZnWO4 particles have been successfully synthesized through sol-gel process. The size and morphology of ZnWO4 nano particle can be controlled by adjusting the reaction time and temperature. The prepared nano ZnWO4 shows band gap energy of 2.9 eV calculated from UV-DRS, Scanning Electron microscope (SEM), EDS, Transmission Electron microscope (TEM) and FT-IR spectra techniques. The resultant sample is a phase pure ZnWO4. Further the Catalysis studies have been studied by the oxidation of functionalized benzyl alcohols to its corresponding aldehydes in good yields, and it was observed that the prepared ZnWO4 nano particles have better catalytic efficiency.

  136. Dr. Sundararaman, S. and Azhagarsamy, S

    The strength and durability of concrete depends on the curing of concrete. The use of shrinkage reduces admixtures such as polyethylene glycol, poly vinyl alcohol etc., influence on the hydration property and the strength of concrete. Any negligence in curing will interfere in the strength and durability of concrete. Self-curing concrete (SCC) is gaining importance in recent days as it avoids errors which were caused by human, structures which are not accessible, terrains where curing becomes difficult and in places where the fluoride content badly influences the property of concrete. This kind of curing technique can widely be practiced in places where there is scarcity of water. In this research paper M20 grade of concrete was chosen and the shrinkage reducing admixture polyethylene glycol (PEG-600) was varied in different proportions to concrete. Polyethylene glycol is non-toxic, odorless, neutral, lubricating, non-volatile and non-irritating and is used in a variety of pharmaceuticals. Cubes and cylinder were casted with varying percentage of PEG-600 of 0.5%, 1%, 1.5% and 2%. The compressive strength at 3 days, 7daysand 28 days have been obtained with normal curing and self curing condition. It was found that a compressive strength of 37.77MPa and split tensile strength 12.88MPa for 1% of PEG-600 was obtained at the end of 28 days. These results are very much comparable to the compressive strength and split tensile strength of conventional concrete. Hence SCC shows a proves to be a better options in places were scarcity of water.

  137. GagandeepKaur and Dr. Ritula Thakur

    Power quality has become a topic of concern due to extensive emphasis by power utility on the power system efficiency and customer awareness of power quality issues. This has occurred mainly due to the sensitivity of the modern equipment which are non- linear in nature and thus results in deregulation of the power distribution system. In addition, there are usually very high losses both to power utility and consumers due to poor power quality supplies which are below the set standards. Power quality parameters consist of voltage dips and swells, interruptions, harmonic distortions, voltage flickers, transients and frequency deviations. Among all harmonics are one of the major power quality concern. This paper mainly looks at effect of CFL lamps and Incandecent lamps on system in relation to harmonic distortions and low power factor. Power Quality Analyzer FLUKE 435 is used to carry out the harmonic analysis. The practical set-up used for this is available at NITTTR Chandigarh. The recorded harmonic data has established that the bulbs generate harmonic distortions above standards and leading power factor. Moreover combination of incandescent and CFL lamps was noted to improves the power quality.

  138. GagandeepKaur and Dr. Ritula Thakur

    This paper review the study of harmonics present in the system and harmonics filter of primarily used in electrical system. CFL loads Arc furnaces, converters, adjustable speed derives, switch mode power supplies and PWM modulated drives etc. are some of the non-linear loads that generate harmonics. In order to overcome harmonic related problems, passive filters have been used for a long time. The main aim of this paper is to monitorvarious power quality parameters of real time CFL load using power quality analyzer fluke 435 and designing of passive shunt type filter in the distribution system for harmonic mitigation of the load used in analysis.

  139. Tarun, P. S., Vidya Kumbhar and Sneha Kumari

    Background: Socioeconomic status of farmers plays a key role in agriculture. It is observed that eventually with time there has been a significant change in the overall life style of the farmers. Further the farmers are trying to increase their income level by investing more in agriculture activities. Purpose: The research work focuses on systematic assessment of socioeconomic status of the farmers from drought prone region of Maharashtra, India. Methodology: The area selected for the study was Khatav Taluka, a semi-arid region of Satara district of Maharashtra. Three villages were selected randomly from this area. The average annual rainfall varies from 250 to 300 mm and thus it is categorized as a drought affected region. Stratified random sampling method was employed for the collection of socio-economic data. Statistical Package for Social Sciences was used for analysis of the data. Findings: A survey of 59 farmers was made from several villages of Satara district. Number of family members, debt, loan recovery capacity, number of animals, cultivated crops, source of income and source of irrigation were some of the common terms taken from the literature for the discussion on the socio-economic status of the farmers. Research Implications / Limitations: Similar studies can be carried out to all the other drought prone tehsils of Vidharba region of Maharashtra. Originality: The study may be useful to formulate the policies to improve upon the socio-economic status of the farmers in Maharashtra.

  140. Pramod Bhatia

    Analysis of the vibration signals is one of the most powerful techniques available for determining the condition of operating machinery. Most serious faults will result in an increase of vibration level before actual breakdown, and thus allow shutdown before catastrophic failure. One such machinery is a gearbox, which finds its application in many areas. Spectrum analysis helps in converting the time-domain signal from the gearbox into the frequency-domain, thus enabling identification of the troubling frequency. But this tends to become difficult as the signal becomes complicated due to the multiple gear pairs in a gearbox. Therefore, in order to get a clearer picture of the condition of the gearbox, another mathematical tool called Cepstrum is needed which separates the side bands and makes the diagnosis easy. Here we present this tool, which was developed by us, and its results.

  141. Pramod Bhatia

    Ethane flames, for four different fuel compositions and two flame configurations were simulated on earth and in zero-gravity. Temperature contours were compared with the experimental photographs. As expected, the flame temperature increases with oxygen enhancement for all flames. Gravity and oxygen variation did not have any significant effect on flame length for inverse flames.

  142. Nawaraj Kapil, Karthik, N. M., Dr. Rajendra, S., Likhitha, R. and Vijay, K

    In recent years, India has been considered as one of the Earthquake prone countries in the world. Studies are carried out to examine the seismic behaviour of the structure when hit by an Earthquake. Only few of the researchers have researched regarding the effects of vertical irregularities in a Structural Building considering Soil Structure Interaction. In this paper, attempt has been made to study the effects of Vertical Irregularities in a RC Building with and without Soil Structure Interaction. The structure was modelled and Analysed by Response Spectrum Analysis using E-Tabs Software. The structure analysed has been already constructed in Earthquake prone area- Sikkim which falls under seismic zone- IV.

  143. Patel, R. P.

    VLF hiss emissions are the naturally occurring phenomena in audio frequency range electromagnetic signal propagating in whistler mode and readily detectable at middle and high latitudes. They have constant spectral density in the limited frequency band with right hand polarization. In this paper, we present some VLF hiss data were observed for the first time at the Indian Antarctic Station, Maitri, Antarctica (geographic latitude 700 46/ S, longitude 110 50/ E, geomagnetic latitude 660 03/ S, longitude 530 21/E) during February 17, 2001 has been analyzed. The typical dynamic spectra of VLF hiss emissions in the frequency range of 11 to 13 kHz and three harmonic lines in different frequency range at 6.2, 8.0 and 9.2 kHz are presented. The lower frequency harmonic line is stronger intensity in comparison to higher frequency harmonic line. To explain about these emissions, we propose that the hiss emissions are generated through Doppler – shifted cyclotron interaction near the geomagnetic equator and propagate towards the Earth in the whistler – mode. We have computed growth rate of the waves for different anisotropies and present the results.

  144. Chandraju, S., Chidan Kumar, C. S. and Varalakshmi

    Sprouting growth and yield of Aster (Asteraceae) flowering plant was made by irrigated with distillery spent wash of different concentrations. The spent wash i.e., primary treated spent wash (PTSW), 1:1, 1:2, and 1:3 spent wash were analyzed for their plant nutrients such as nitrogen, phosphorous, potassium and other physical and chemical characteristics. Experimental soil was tested for its chemical and physical parameters. Aster (Asteraceae) sets were planted in different pots and irrigated with raw water (RW), 1:1, 1:2 and 1:3 spent wash. The nature of sprouting and growth was studied. It was found that the sprouting and growth of plant was very good (100%) in 1:3 SW irrigation, while very poor (25%) in 1:1 SW, moderate (80%) in 1:2 SW and 95% in RW irrigation growth.

  145. Shanmugam, M., Sivakumar, G. and Mohanraj, K

    Recycling is well known environmental solution for saving the raw materials and to consequently the contamination of zero waste environment. Bamboo leaf is one the forest waste materials, it has been utilized in the present study. Replacement of quartz by bamboo leaf ash in the production of ceramic electrical insulator was achieved as per industrial norms. The influence of bamboo leaf ash on the fabrication of insulator to enhanced the superiority of this product. Fabricated insulator was characterized by its physico-mechanical properties. Mineralogical study revealed that the formation of crystalline phases mullite and quartz is dependent to BLA addition. Functional groups were identified by using the Fourier Transform Infra-red Spectroscopy (FTIR). Microstructure development of the insulator was analysed through Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM). Higher dielectric strength was found in BLA addition specimen. Analytical characterization results are correlated with the observed physcio-mechanical parameter. It should be observed that high quality electrical insulator can be achieved from bamboo leaf ash originated ceramic materials.

  146. Krishan Kumar

    Cooler with solar panel for residential Cooling is very important During the summer as well as in the life to maintain the food, fish, many items at constant temperature to avoide the bad effect of virouses. But air cooling is very importanant part during the summer for a man. Cooling process employs the different method to cool the air. Today air cooling methods are very expensive for AC coolers, air conditioning, fans and dehumidifiers. To running these products required Ac supply/electrical. The generation of electrical power ultimately responsible for hot and humid environments which causes global warming. Air conditioning, refrigeration, air cooling system are rapidly increased due to hot and humid condition that provide us a relaxed and comfortable life. But these products and source are not available every time in the home and villages. DC bettery and Solar power system are more suitable for the purpose. Solar and Dc system being considered as one of the path towards more sustainable energy system. Blower motors are used in this cooler for fan and water pump which gives us cooled air. This projects and research of DC and industrial application.

  147. Nazir Ahmad Wani, Haroon Rashid Boked, Ghulam Mohammad Jan, Fayaz Ahmad Bhat and Imtiyaz Rasool Parrey

    Antioxidants consist of a group of vitamins, minerals, and enzymes that have health enhancing effects for our bodies. Antioxidants work to neutralize free radicals before they do harm to our bodies. Free radicals are atoms that cause damage to our cells. They harm our immune system leading to many degenerative diseases. In this article the radical scavenging activity of Indian tropical fruit pineapple and grapes was calculated at different concentrations using DPPH method.

  148. Daniel Onwonga Auka

    The main aim of this study is to determine the influence perceived customer value on customer loyalty in retail banking in Kenya. It examines the relationship between perceived customer value attributes and customer loyalty. To achieve this purpose, data was collected from a sample of 384 current customers of commercial banks on perceived customer benefits and perceived customer monetary and non monetary costs. A questionnaire was used to gather data. Correlation and regression analyses were used to determine the relationship between perceived and customer loyalty. The results indicate that customer perceived value has a positive and significant influence on customer loyalty in retail banking. This finding reinforces the need for bank managers to put emphasis on the attributes that create favorable customer perceptions of value in order to build and maintain customer loyalty

  149. Rezina Nazneen Rimi

    Language planners’ inconsistent attitudes towards teaching English in Bangladesh have made the standard of English really poor. ‘Whether or not it is from such inconsistent language planning, the standard of the students’ proficiency in English has been going down steadily over the years’ (Quader 1998:57). In the context of Bangladesh, with large classrooms and emphasis on examinations, the majority of intermediate L2 learners lack competency in speaking. Most have difficulties in pronunciation. Their limited vocabulary makes it difficult for them to continue conversation. Again, lack of knowledge of syntax and structures makes learners unable to produce a conversation. Their goals for learning L2 are only to face the examinations. Memorizing certain given L2 items makes it even more difficult for them to use English in a real world. This paper aims at dealing with an Action Research to find out the effects of showing movies in speaking classes. Some learning theories will be presented to show the significance of using movies in teaching speaking. The paper also tries to prove that movies can be as important a tool as to motivate learners to learn the target language. It is hoped that this paper will be an eye opener to ESL practitioners.

  150. Ven. Phan Anh Duoc

    Buddhism is very popular in Vietnam, a South-East Asian country. From the past to modern age, Vietnamese Buddhism has developed considerably in various aspects including organization, education, and social welfare and so on. In this paper, I try to examine problems of introduction of English into Buddhist schools of Vietnam and give a suggested solution to that issue. I shall cover briefly the formation and development of Buddhism in Vietnam and then find out the causes and reasons why there are lots of difficulties for introducing English as the main language in Buddhist schools of Vietnam. As a result, various possible solutions to this problem will be given for development of English into Buddhist schools. Many opportunities and benefits of this process shall be analyzed for development of Vietnamese Buddhist education in globalization age

  151. Kunal Varshneya, Dhiraj J. Pangal, Avi M. Borad, Akash R. Patel, Mihir A. Tulpule, Sahit Menon, Ravi Menghani, M. D. and Robert A. Filback, PhD

    In an attempt to elaborate on the health and literacy attributes of a rural region in India, quantitative surveys were conducted over two six day periods in the village, Naga Valadia. Data describing the infrastructure, politics, and education as they relate to literacy and health outcomes are reported. Naga Valadia is unique in its sophisticated infrastructure and significant commitment to educating the youth; however, it, like most rural areas in India, it is plagued with substance abuse and non-sustainable sources of income. A profile of Naga Valadia, postulated causes of its successes and failures, and future implications are discussed in detail. This paper aims to elaborate on the state of affairs of Naga Valadia and how the researchers’ organization can implement sustainable solutions in an attempt to eradicate the aforementioned issues.

  152. Ms. Priyanka Soni

    In the recent years, there had been a great impact on the adoption of M-commerce in India. Large number of users is switching from desktop to mobile in order to achieve more desirable and effective transaction in the online markets. M-commerce had become prominent in India, swiftly during the past two years. The impressive growth rate in mobile penetration in India is due to increasing number of applications in mobile technology. With the advent of M-commerce, mobile phone in India, which is the most common device in every hand, is no more used for just text SMS and a voice call but also used for many other virtual activities. This paper’s theoretical contribution is to explain the future growth of M-Commerce with its present condition and various issues and obstacles faced by it.

  153. Mayank Kumar, Dr. Kaushal Kumar and Arjun Patel

    Background Glaucoma is diagnosed by presence of “classical triad”- characteristic feature of visual field defects, morphological changes in optic disc (cupping) and raised intraocular pressure (IOP). Several studies related to blood pressure and ocular perfusion pressure (OPP) implicated vascular risk factors in the pathogenesis of glaucoma yet abnormal autoregulation in glaucoma is not fully clear. The most common method of evaluating autoregulatory function is through provocation like isometric head up tilt testing, which put the vascular system under stress and evoke an autoregulatory response maintaining normal ocular perfusion, a failure to this is indicative of disturbed auto regulation. Materials and methods The study subjects of age between 45-65 years of either sex comprised of 20 patients with Primary open angle glaucoma (IOP >21mmhg) (group ІІ) and 20 age and sex matched healthy controls (group І). Blood Pressure and Mean OPP was recorded at rest and immediately after relaese, then after 5minutes. MOPP was calculated as MOPP=2/3MAP – IOP. Results Mean basal MAP in group ІІ was significantly higher (104.73 ±1.45) (p=0.001) as compared to group І. The findings showed highly significant low values of basal MOPP (p<0.000) in group ІІ (POAG) compared to control group. During handgrip test the value of MAP was significantly higher and MOPP was significantly low (P<0.000) in group ІІ. The significant high value of MAP (p<0.000) and low MOPP in group ІІ during recovery period indicated delayed recovery due to sympatho-vagal imbalance. Conclusion Basal values of MAP and MOPP and changes observed during isometric exercise (stress test) and during recovery period indicated ocular vascular alterations and abnormal autoregulatory mechanism in POAG patients as compared to healthy controls.

  154. Dr. Indrajit Roy Chowdhury

    The recognition of noise as an environmental problem and its impact both on community and occupational environment is rapidly growing. Every day several thousands of vehicles are moving in and around Kolkata city and it creates immense heavy traffic congestion and severe noise pollution in the city. Therefore most of the major arterial roads in North, South and Central Kolkata are experienced huge vehicular congestion during peak and lean hours and it crosses the permissible limit of standard decibel of noise level as maintained by Central as well as West Bengal Pollution Control Board and this permissible limit is identified as 40-50 decibel in silent zone, 55-60 decibel in commercial zone and 80-85 decibel in heavy traffic zone. Therefore some busiest traffic intersection points of north, south and central Kolkata have been selected to make the research paper evident. While it has been compared among all the megacities in India, Kolkata placed its first position and it is because of immense vehicular traffic, bad condition of road, speed of the vehicles, narrow space of the road, occurring traffic congestion, more prone to accident followed by unscientific diversion of traffic which create positively noise pollution throughout the city. However high level of noise pollution effect on human health and it creates auditory disorder, problem of blood circulation, unconditional effect on brain and hormones followed by some psychological and personological effect among the residents of Kolkata. Therefore in this research paper an attempt has been made to point out the scenario of noise pollution in and around Kolkata city and its immense effect on body and mind among the civilian of Kolkata followed by some remedial suggestions and mitigation strategies through which this noise level should reduce in coming future and Kolkata will be placed as a sustainable city in next future.

  155. Victor G. Aeby and Jason Radosevich

    The Asset Based Community Development (ABCD) model has been used across the globe to engage communities in proactive action however the interpersonal dimensions of this process have not been explored in great detail. The ABCD model often focuses solely on the macro environment with little attention being given to the micro environment. However Relational-cultural Theory, most often used in interpersonal relationships, can be utilized to create growth fostering relationships which bridge the gap between community changes and interpersonal changes. Through a meta-analysis of Academic Search Complete, ERIC, psych ARTICLES, psych INFO, Social Work Abstracts, Soc INDEX with Full Text, and Women’s Studies International, the authors hope to elucidate the nature of this model and theory as it applies to practice and how these theories can best be used to complement each other in clinical and community practice. Often social workers have their feet in both of these fields without a sturdy bridge between them. By combining these concepts, practitioners may be able to confidently serve their communities by helping to promote client growth by building trusting relationships and developing community partnerships in a positive manner.

  156. Akinsanya Ganiyu Moyosolu

    The Land Use Charge Law of Lagos state combined the three existing land taxes: the land rate, neighbourhood improvement charge and tenement rate with a view to generating more revenue for the provision of infrastructural services, and also to prohibit multiplicity of property taxes. The law stipulates that property owners are liable; meanwhile, economic theory suggests tax burden depends largely on elasticity of demand and supply. The paper sought the opinion of property owners and Estate Surveyors and Valuers in Lagos, Nigeria on the incidence of the Land Use Charge (LUC). Questionnaires were randomly administered on Estate Surveyors and Valuers and purposively on landlords. Data were analysed using descriptive statistics. Findings reveal that though property owners are statutorily liable, the respondents believe that LUC should be borne by both the property owners and tenants, and in most cases, the incidence of the tax has been shifted to tenants. The paper concludes that in any populated city like Lagos, where demand for real estate products is always on the rise, incidence of property tax irrespective of the position of the law may be unavoidably borne by tenants either partially or in whole.

  157. Victor Aeby, MS EdD, Tracy Carpenter-Aeby, PhD, LCSW, Jacqueline Coleman-Carmon, MSW M. Dawn Valentine-Barrow, MSW and Victoria C. Aeby, MSW

    Groupwork is routinely utilized in social work practice due to its economic value and evidence-based outcomes. The purpose of this study was to deconstruct group development using common group assessments and comparing them to sociograms. Further, this study examined the parallel process in which interns in a field education learning unit experienced their own task group development in order to better implement groupwork with middle school students. The results indicated that individualistically-oriented interns began functioning as a team. The teamwork component was essential for the continuation of their internship and understanding of group dynamics.

  158. Dr. Binthu Mathavan, S.

    For this investigation to evaluate on impact of 12 weeks plyometric training to influence the resting heart rate and respiratory rate variables for college level men soccer players. In this investigation twelve men football players who are all studying college level were selected and based on their playing ability, as well who are all participated in district /inter collegiate level football tournament) as a subjects for this study, from Pondicherry university. Since this investigation involved following variables such as resting heart rate and respiratory rate. The subject’s age ranged from 18 – 28 years as per their college/university records. The subjects were underwent plyometric training in the period of 12 weeks. The training was applied for 3 days per week one session 45- 90 minutes programme. The data were collected from experimental group men soccer players such as resting heart rate and respiratory rate variables before and after the plyometric training completion. The collected data were analyzed with paired ‘t’test for evaluating the impact of 12 weeks plyometric training. Results; the selected resting heart rate and respiratory rate variables has been showing positive influence by plyometric training. Hence it is showing that the selected plyometric training is suitable for develop selected physiological variables resting heart rate and respiratory ratevariables.

  159. Dr. Jeelan Basha, V.,

    Gold is a chemical element with symbol Au (from Latin: aurum) and atomic number 79. In its purest form, it is a bright, slightly reddish yellow, dense, soft, malleable and ductile metal. This metal has been a valuable and highly sought-after precious metal for coinage, jewellery, and other arts since long before the beginning of recorded history. The world consumption of new gold produced is about 50% in jewellery, 40% in investments, and 10% in industry. The primary purpose of the study is to examine the relationship between the Gold futures prices and Gold spot prices traded in India. The data has been collected from National Commodity & Derivatives Exchange Limited (NCDEX) for the period from May 2015 to Jan. 2016. The results from unit root test (ADF) indicate stationarity at 1st difference. Hence, Johansen’s cointegration test is examined to know the relationship between Gold futures prices and spot prices. The causalitytest reveals no contradictory findings If two or more time-series are cointegrated, then there must be Granger causality between them - either one-way or in both directions. It is concluded that there is long- term relationship between Gold futures prices and spot prices price traded in India on testifying Unit Root Test, Cointegration Test and Pair-wise Granger Causality Test. This study enables to determine which market is possessing better information. Spot prices of Gold are caused by the effects of Future prices. The study is immensely helpful for the investors and portfolio managers to develop effective trading and hedging strategies in the Indian gold market.

  160. Ruslan Mapeala and Nyet Moi Siew

    The main objective of this study is to explain about the development and validation of a Thinking Maps-aided Problem-Based Learning module for Year 5 Science subject of Physical Science Theme (energy, light, electricity and heat) which is less mastered by the students. The development of this module was based on ADDIE instructional design model that is the basis of other instructional design models. ADDIE model consists of five phases, namely analysis, design, development, implementation and evaluation. Four experts were involved in this study; a Malaysia public university lecturer, a director of Malaysia Regional Centre for Education in Science and Mathematics, a primary school science pedagogy lecturer at the Institute of Teacher Education, a Primary School Science's Excellent Teacher for the purpose of content validity and a linguist to perform face validity in terms of the use of language in the module. The findings of the expert panel evaluation show excellentmodule validity. The module prototype has been tested in a pilot study which involved 30 students from Year 5 at a primary school in Tawau, Sabah. The findings of this study show that the total value of the module reliability is high (Cronbach's Alpha = .96). This describes that the developed module has high internal consistency and is suitable to be used in the process of teaching and learning of Year 5 Science for the topics in Physical Science theme. Therefore, this study suggests that the developed module can be used as a teaching aid for topics in Physical Science theme of Science Year 5.

  161. Padma Mahanti, Bivash Pandav and Smita Mishra Panda

    Study of the food habits of the large mammals is a prelude to any conservation strategies. Tiger is an endangered species of the country and is also considered as a flagship species in conservation. It occupies highest position in the Food Pyramid. Keeping this in mind, an attempt has been made to study the prey base of Tiger and the food habits of the prey base in Periyar Tiger Reserve (PTR), India. Standard methods for field survey were adopted to ascertain the prey base of the Tigers in PTR. Enumeration of most common flora and fauna of the Tiger Zone of PTR was carried out. The results of field survey revealed that, of the 8 most preferred common prey of tigers, 3 belong to vulnerable, 4 belong to least concern and 1 belongs to endangered categories of species. It was observed that 23 % of the prey base was herbivorous. The most common flora (43 numbers) and fauna (54 numbers) of the Tiger zone of PTR were also documented in the present study. The Present work highlights the importance of prey base as well as associated flora and fauna in the conservation of Tigers in PTR.

  162. Perveena Fareed, Neha Mahajan and Farhana Siraj

    Objective: To find out whether placental laterality as determined by ultrasound can be used as a predictor for development of preeclampsia. Methods: In this prospective study, a total of 200 singleton pregnant women attending the antenatal clinic were included. The location of the placenta was determined by ultrasound at 20-24 weeks of gestation. These 200 pts were divided into two groups with group A (100) having lateral placenta and group B (100) having central placenta. The location of the placenta was determined by ultrasound at 20-24 weeks of gestation. These patients were followed till term. The end point of the study was the development of the preeclampsia as per the ACOG criteria. Results: Total of 200 patients were taken and allotted into two groups with group A comprising 100 patients with lateral placenta and group B of 100 patients with central placenta. Out of 100 patients with lateral placenta 39(39%) developed preeclampsia compared to 11% in patients with central placenta. This relationship was statistically significant (p value <0.005). The sensitivity and specificity of using placental laterality asscreeningtest were 78% and 59.33% respectively. Conclusion: Placental laterality as determined by ultrasound at 20-24 weeks; is a simple yet reliable and cost effective screening test for prediction of development of preeclampsia.

  163. Rafaela Liberali, and Suely Grosseman

    The aims and objectives of Home Science education have been changed to a greater extent. It is treated as the systematic arrangement for the use of human and non-human resources for deriving maximum satisfaction to bring about qualitative change in life. Further, the study of Home Science opens avenues for a number of vocations. Hence, it was felt necessary to construct a comprehensive, valid and reliable scale and an attempt was made to develop a scale in order to measure the attitude of the students towards Home Science degree programme. Eighteen statements were selected from 26 statements for which the validity was identified with the help content validity method and reliability was determined by split half method which was found to be 0.78.

  164. Muhammad Waqas Khan, Fatima Najeeb, Kinza Maxood, Irum Qamar Khan

    Action myoclonus is a rare complication that may follow after a successful cardiac resuscitation event. Lance Adams Syndrome, also known as chronic post-hypoxic myoclonus is an action myoclonus seen in patients who have regained consciousness after undergoing a cardiopulmonary arrest. It develops after days to weeks following the event. There are less than 155 reported cases in the world. Here we present the case of an 18 year old female who had complains of jerky movements in her upper limbs bilaterally after suffering two episodes of cardiac arrests. This case was diagnosed as Lance Adams Syndrome taking into accord a detailed history of hypoxic brain injury, clinical presentation, and appropriate neuroimaging studies. A correct and early diagnosis is essential and directly related to a positively related functional outcome of the patient. Recognition of post-hypoxic myoclonus depends on the awareness that such a syndrome exists, and the patients’ outcome relies on early diagnosis and appropriate management.

  165. Dr. Jyothi Mahadesh, Dr Laxmidevi B. Lankesh and Dr. Ashwini S. Hallikeri

    Background: Keratocystic odontogenic tumour and ameloblastoma are classified under tumours by WHO. tumour development and progression involves tumour suppressor genes and down regulation of onco-genes. Apoptosis inhibition is an important event in tumour formation which increases the life span of these cells. Aims and Objectives: To investigate the involvement of apoptosis inhibition in these lesions, expression of Bcl-2 was examined in 10 cases of KCOT (keratocystic odontogenic tumour) and ameloblastoma each. Our study revealed over-expression of Bcl-2 in all the cases in both tumours. The expression was analysed both qualitatively and quantitatively. Materials and Methods: 10 KCOT cases (sporadic parakeratinized KCOT n-9 and BCCNS KCOT n-1) and 10 Ameloblastoma cases (SMA n-9 and unicystic ameloblastoma n- 1) were selected. Immunohistochemical staining of Bcl-2 was carried out. • BCCNS(Basal cell carcinoma nevus syndrome) • SMA(Solid multicystic Ameloblastoma) • UA(Unicystic Ameloblastoma) Statistical Analysis: Differences in the mean scores for immunostain among the two types of lesions were analysed by students t test to compare the similarity or dissimilarity in the cell count of mean Bcl-2 expression between ameloblastoma and KCOT and their various layers. Results: : The intensity varied among the layers from intense to weak in basal / peripheral ameloblast- like cells and parabasal layers respectively and negative staining was seen only in superficial layer of KCOT but not in Ameloblastoma-central stellate reticulum-like cells in qualitative assessment. Quantitatively the basal layer/ peripheral ameloblast- like cells of both tumours had similar over expression while parabasal and central/superficial cells showed considerable differences. Our study indicates similar over-expression of bcl-2 in both the odontogenic lesions specifically basal layer / peripheral ameloblast- like cells which may represent tumorigenesis by escaping apoptosis. However does antiapoptotic activity and proliferative index warrant reclassification to tumour needs to be addressed.

  166. Dr. Trupti Dongre and Dr.Urmi Chakravarty Vartak

    Background: Adrenal glands are the least studied organ. Aim and objective: To study the gross and histomorphological changes of adrenals in various stress related conditions including mainly the non-neoplastic conditions and patients dying due to any kind of shock. Also to study the co-relation of changes in adrenals with the clinical presentation of the patient. Material and method: Retrospective and prospective study of one hundred and eight cases in a tertiary care hospital in a period between May 2007 to Nov 2009. Results: Out of 108 cases, various adrenal lesions were found in 93 cases while only 15 cases had normal adrenals. Conclusion: Adrenal lesions can present in various forms at autopsy. Non-neoplastic lesions should be given equal importance as neoplastic. An enlarged adrenal does not always indicate malignancy. There are many clinical conditions in which adrenals are affected as secondary phenomenon. Gross and histomorphological examination of the tissue can diagnose the adrenal lesions with great accuracy and is beneficial for patients further survival, in setups where facilities to perform adrenal biopsies is available. Adrenals should be investigated as a part of routine autopsy procedure in all postmortem cases.

  167. Idiberto José Zotarelli Filho

    Objective: The aim of the current study was to investigate the influence of smoking in the clinical presentation of periodontal disease (PD) in patients with other cardiovascular risk factors. Methods: Patients and controls were obtained in database of a dental surgeon in the periodontics area who has been attending cases in the last 35 years. This study was conducted using data collected from 1975-2009, involving 106 patients with PD. The occurrence of other cardiovascular risk factors was analyzed. Results: Among the periodontal conditions, significant differences were found between smokers and non-smokers with regard to tartar (p=0.0431), junctional epithelium (p = 0.0216), conjunctive tissue (p=0.0015), gingival coloration (p< 0.0001), tooth mobility (p < 0.0001) and bone loss (p = 0.0216). The main cardiovascular risk factors in smokers with PD were systemic arterial hypertension (SAH) (28.30%), alcoholism (20.76%), and stress (18.87%), whereas in non-smoker the most frequent included SAH (24.53%), stress (18.87%) and dyslipidemia (16.98%). Conclusion: The clinical examination of smokers and non-smokers with PD demonstrates that clinical characteristics, such as the presence of tartar, epithelium and conjunctive tissue alterations, gingival coloration, tooth mobility and bone loss, are more frequent among smokers. The principal cardiovascular risk factors encountered in smokers with PD are SAH, alcoholism, and stress.

  168. Govindarajalu Ganesan

    Objective: A detailed study was done in the patients with hookworm infection found in the duodenum while doing upper gastro intestinal endoscopy in order to classify patients with hookworm infection into five stages based on anaemia and eosinophilia in patients with hookworms found in duodenum while doing endoscopy. Such classification of hookworm infection into 5 stages has not been described so far in the literature and is described here for the first time in the literature. Methods: A study of 1307 patients who had undergone upper gastro-intestinal endoscopy for a period of 5 years and one month from May 2009 to May 2014 was carried out. In all the patients found to have hookworms in duodenum, investigations were done to know about the presence or absence of anaemia and presence or absence of eosinophilia. Results: Out of these 1307 patients, 14 patients found to have hookworms in duodenum while doing upper gastro-intestinal endoscopy were taken into consideration for our study. Out of these14 patients, 5 patients did not have anaemia and 9 patients had anaemia. Out of the 5 patients who had absence of anaemia, one patient also had absence of eosinophilia, but the remaining 4 patients had eosinophilia. Based on the presence or absence of anaemia and presence or absence of eosinophilia, hookworm infection is classified into 5 stages. Absence of anaemia and eosinophilia is the earliest stage or the first stage, absence of anaemia but with eosinophilia is the early stage or the second stage, mild anaemia is the third stage, moderate anaemia is the fourth stage and severe anaemia is the fifth or the late stage of hookworm infection. Conclusion: Such classification of hookworm infection into 5 stages will be extremely useful to the clinicians to stage hookworm infection according to its severity, to diagnose hookworm infection properly and as early as possible especially by using upper gastro intestinal endoscopy and to treat hookworm infection as early as possible.

  169. Najat bubtina, Enas Mangoush, Nada Benali and Sufyan Garoushi

    Objectives: The aim of this study was to evaluate the attitudes of dental practitioners toward posterior composite restorations in terms of case selection and concerns. Materials and Methods: 120 questionnaires were randomly distributed to the dental practitioners working in state and/or privet dental clinics in Benghazi. The questionnaires were designed to elicit information regarding case selection criteria and main concerns while placing posterior composite restorations. Results: 114 completed questionnaires were returned, 73 general dental practitioners and 41 specialists responded to the questionnaire. 36.8% of the dentists preferred composites for restoring only small defects and 35% selected composites for posterior restoration on patient demand. Conservation of tooth structure was the cause for placing 64.9%, esthetics for 57.8% and patient preference for placing 28% restoration by these dentists. 50% of the dentists reported concern in relation to isolation during composite placement, and 79.1% showed concern about polymerization shrinkage and microleakage. Differences in responses were not remarkable between general dental practitioners and specialists. Conclusion: Conservation of tooth structure and esthetics were the main reasons for selection of posterior composites. Posterior composite restorations were chosen mainly for small defects. Patient preference was given weightage for material selection.

  170. Rehab H. Abdullah, Ehsan M. Abo Zeid, Rashad M. Kebeish, Rasha A. Attiah and Samih I. El-dahmy

    Daucus glaber Forssk, a wild annual herb, is distributed from the Mediterranean area to East Asia. This plant seems to be rich in important medicinally active secondary metabolites as volatile oils, phenylpropanoid esters, sesquiterpene lactones and flavonoids that have many biological activities. Experiments were carried out to optimize conditions for callus induction, somatic embryogenesis and organogenesis from leaf, stem and root explants of the in vitro germinated seeds of Daucus glaber Forssk. The study investigated the volatile constituents isolated from in vitro induced calli and micropropagated plant using gas chromatography-mass spectroscopy (GLC/MS), besides screening three nonvolatile compounds previously isolated from the wild plant (Angeloyloxylatifolone, Glaberin A and Talasin A) in induced calli and micropropagated plants using high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Some calli and micropropagated plant showed strong cytotoxic activity against HepG2 cell line and a significant anti-microbial activity against Aspergillusfumigatus, Streptococcus Pneumonia, Bacillus subtilis and Escherichia coli. An approach for a suitable transformation system was developed for Daucus glaber by co-cultivation of the seedlings with Agrobacterium tumefaciens GV 3101 that contains pTRA-K-TL-cTP plasmid carrying phytoene synthase (PSY) gene.

  171. Ahmet ERKEK, Esra TURAN ERKEK and Sertaç Ata GÜLER

    Background and Aims: Idiopathic thrombocytopenic purpura (ITP) is an autoimmune blood disorder with a characteristic purpuric rash and thrombocytopenia. The disease can progress into chronic ITP when steroid treatment fails. A quarter of patients who had splenectomy due to chronic ITP may continue to have thrombocytopenia. In these cases, it is thought that testing positive for H. pylori may be perpetuating thrombocytopenia. Methods: We investigated the presence of H. pylori infection in patients with chronic ITP who are either responsive or refractory to splenectomy using invasive GI endoscopy followed by rapid urease test. Results: We report that chronic ITP patients who were refractory to splenectomy had improved platelet counts following the eradication of H. pylori Conclusions: We suggest screening for H. pylori in patients with chronic ITP refractory to splenectomy. Treatment of H. pylori can increase the response to splenectomy as judged by the increased platelet counts.

  172. Aditya Law, Shubhangi Gupta, Ellora Madan and Neha Joshi

    Gingival enlargement is often seen during puberty, characterised by enlarged, bleeding, and sometimes painful gingiva. As the person matures, the hormonal peak declines, usually bringing about a resolution of the enlargement. In cases where the enlargement does not subside, surgical intervention is required. This case report highlights such a situation in which the surgical management of the enlarged gingiva was done, along with the coverage of an adjacent denuded root surface.

  173. Dr. Khan Saba MohdAthar, Dr. IsmathShameem, Dr. Suhail and Dr. Aafreen

    Menopause is characterized by rapid and progressive reduction in estradiol which brings about physiological and psychological changes in a woman’s life. It is estimated that in 1998, there were over 477 million postmenopausal women in the world which may rise to 1.1 billion by the year 2025.Menopause is associated with vasomotor symptoms, loss of bone mineral density, urogenital atrophy, increased cardiovascular risk, sexual dysfunction which decreases the quality of life (QOL).Hormone replacement therapy (HRT) is the most common preferred treatment option for management of postmenopausal symptoms. The Women’s Health Initiative (WHI) study demonstrates that the major risks of HRT are venous thrombo-embolism, breast cancer, cardiovascular diseases etc. Hence, alternative treatments are needed to overcome this problem with an intention to improve the women’s QOL. In Unani system of medicine, phytoestrogens are emerging as an alternative to estrogen in the treatment of postmenopausal symptoms and due to the structural similarities to selective estrogen receptor modulator;it does not show negative side effects as compare to conventional therapies. The present paper is an effort to highlight the role of phytoestrogens present in Unanisystem of medicine which have multifaceted pharmacological actions and could be used as alternative to HRT.

  174. Dr. Cherry Chamria, Dr. Roshani Thakur and Dr. Arvind Shetty

    Background: Endodontic-periodontal combined lesion is a clinical dilemma because making a differential diagnosis and deciding a prognosis are difficult. Lesions of the periodontal ligament and adjacent alveolar bone may originate from infections of the periodontium or tissues of the dental pulp. Peri-radicular bone loss secondary to endodontic pathos is typically seen in teeth with necrotic pulps. The ultimate goal of periodontal therapy is not only to maintain the natural dentition, but also to restore lost periodontium. Combined periodontal and endodontic diseases involve the periodontal attachment apparatus. The treatment of endodontic-periodontal combined lesions requires both endodontic therapy and periodontal regenerative procedures. With advancements in new techniques and materials different treatment choices are available, providing a superior prognosis. This article includes case reports of combined endo-periolesions which were first treated with conventional endodontic therapy and then followed by periodontal surgery. This combined treatment resulted in a radio graphical evidence of alveolar bone gain. This case report demonstrates that proper diagnosis, followed by removal of etiological factors and utilizing the combined treatment modalities will restore health and function to the teeth with severe attachment loss caused by an endo-perio lesion. Extracted teeth are considered a clinical waste and therefore being discarded. It is evident that the clinical composition of dentin is similar to bone. The method for regeneration of the periodontal apparatus in the below given case series used extracted teeth from the respective patients. Aim: To manage the endodontic periodontal lesion with Grade 2 mobility using natural tooth as bone graft. Case description: 3 cases with combined endodontic periodontal lesion were explained. The appropriate management and outcome for each case was elaborated and justified. Discussion: In all the 3 cases, patient presented with established chronic secondary disease. Hence all the cases were planned to complete the endodontic therapy initially and then were preceded with periodontal therapy such as open flap debridement and bone graft. For these cases, autogenous bone graft using patients natural tooth was used. Conclusion: Treatment outcome found with 9 monthly follow-up was satisfactory. Mobility was reduced from grade 2 to almost no mobility. The radiographic changes were appreciable.

  175. Akanbi, O.O., Oyewole, A.O., Oguntola, A.S. Ajiboye, A.O., Adeoti, M.L., Amole, I.O. and Olalere, S.A.

    Goitre is an enlargement of the thyroid gland which often presents with a conspicuous swelling in the anterio-lateral region of the neck. We prospectively investigated the characteristics of 68 patients who attended our clinics over a 2 years period that previously patronized traditional healers in the course of their disease. Twenty two (32.35%) patients consulted orthodox doctors as their first and only point of contact, while forty six (67.64%) patients first consulted traditional healers prior to orthodox doctors’ consultation. The mean age of patients without traditional healers’ consultation was 33 years (±9.2412) which is lower compared to those with prior traditional healers’ consultation whose mean age was 47.95 years (±9.1780 ) (P <0.001). Female sex and patients in low socio economic class tend to consult traditional healers first. The patients’ marital status and religion show no statistical significant difference in their pattern of consultation. Better outcomes seen in the patients that consulted orthodox doctors, was the main reason for consulting orthodox doctors by traditional healer consulters. The mean powerful health locus of control for patients with prior traditional healers’ consultation is higher than that of patient without (31.23 (±1.38) vs. 17.41 (±0.361), p < 0.001) while the mean internal health locus of control for patients without prior traditional healers’ consultation is higher than that of patients with prior traditional healers’ consultation (29.11(±1.53) vs. 24.32 (±1.61), p < 0.001). The mean chance health locus of control shows no statistical significant difference. Most patients consulting traditional healers do so as a result of erroneous belief about the cause of goitre, immediate access to treatment within their vicinity and believe in the expertise of traditional healers.

  176. Dr. Savita, A.M., Dr.Shinde Sachin Vaijnath Rao, Dr. Sathyanarayan Sunil, Dr. Pai Sujatha Ballambettu, Dr. Neelakanti Abhilash and Dr. Krishnan Swathi

    Aims and objectives: This study was conducted to evaluate and compare salivary electrolytes and total protein in diabetic patients with and without periodontitis and in healthy adults, to correlate clinical parameters with electrolytes in all the groups. Furthermore, the correlation between electrolytes of all groups was carried out. Materials and Methods: 45 subjects of age group 25-60 years were selected and divided into 3 groups, Group 1: Healthy individuals, Group 2: Diabetic patients without chronic periodontitis, Group 3: Diabetic patients with chronic periodontitis. Clinical parameters (plaque index, bleeding index, probing pocket depth and clinical attachment loss) were recorded and non stimulated whole saliva was taken from all the subjects to perform biochemical analysis of salivary total proteins and electrolytes. Continuous variable with a normal distribution were expressed as means with Standard deviation. The intergroup difference was tested using one way ANOVA test. The categorical variables were expressed as numbers with percentage. The strength and direction of a linear relationship between two variables were measured using Pearson's Correlation Coefficient. All statistical analysis was performed by using SPSS (10.5) package. A value of P <0.05 was considered as statistically significant. Results: A statistically significant effect was demonstrated for plaque index and gingival index. The correlation of electrolytes between the groups was found but did not show statistical significance. Conclusion: Though the estimated values of salivary electrolytes are not significant in the present study, it can add to the data already recorded in Indian population.

  177. Rajak Chanda and Rahul Verma

    Sahaja Yoga is a unique method of meditation based on an experience called Self Realization (Kundalini awakening) and aims at achieving holistic health care for people, Gupta et al (2015) A study was designed to assess the effect of Sahaja Yoga meditation on Blood Pressure (B.P), plasma MDA levels and blood thiol level in 40 hyper- reactors to cold pressor test (in the age group of 20-25 years ) and was compared with B.P., plasma MDA levels and blood thiol levels in same hyper- reactors before starting the yoga. Blood samples were taken before starting the yoga and 90 days after Yoga practicing. The value of B.P., Plasma MDA level was found to be significantly reduced (p <0.001) and blood thiol level was raised significantly (p< 0.001) after 90days of Sahaja yoga. Similarly, Reduction in oxidative stress suggests that Sahaja Yoga can be used as a complimentary therapy in the management of cardiovascular diseases, diabetes and stress related disorders.

  178. Dr. Mariya Angelova, Dr. Ivan Todorov , Dr. Emil Kovachev

    The study included 1,850 pregnant women between 22 and 36 gestation week. In 21 patients placental lakes were noticed by ultrasound. No statistically significant difference was found between the pregnant patients with ultrasound diagnosed placental lakes and the control group in terms of gestation age at the time of delivery, fetal weight and its condition (Apgar score) and uteroplacental complications within the placental period.

  179. Navreet Kaur, Sukhraj Kaur and Mridula Mahajan

    Background and Aim: Thyroid hormones regulate the rate of metabolic activity and their alterations can perturb the activity of serum enzymes. The aim of this study was to determine the activity of serum Lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) in thyroid disorders and to evaluate the relationship between LDH and T3, T4, and TSH levels. Design and Methods: In this study, thyroid function tests (T3, T4 and TSH) and LDH activity was assessed in 359 individuals divided into four groups based on TSH levels as having normal TSH (group 1), Clinical hyperthyroidism (group 2), Sub clinical hypothyroidism (group 3) and clinical hypothyroidism (group 4). Statistical analysis: Data collected was presented as mean± S.D; Pearson’s coefficient of correlation was calculated to study the correlation between different parameters. Results: No change in LDH activity was observed in hyperthyroid state, however in sub clinical and clinical hypothyroid individuals it showed significant change at (p≤0.001) as compared to normal individuals but no significant correlation was found between thyroid hormones, TSH and LDH activity in any of the studied group. Conclusions: With no significant correlation observed between LDH activity and T3, T4 and TSH in any thyroid disorder state, LDH activity we may not use as a direct parameter to assess the thyroid dysfunction.

  180. Dr. Shweta Bali, Dr. Shobhit Arora and Dr. Priyanka Thukral

    Gingival recession according to glossary of periodontics is defined as “Displacement of soft tissue margin apical to the cemento-enamel junction” (Glossary of Periodontal Terms). Gingival recession is a most common condition affecting the supporting structures of the teeth, in which the change in the position of the gingiva affects the esthetics and also leads to hypersensitivity due to the exposure of the cementum (SPK. 2012). Coverage of denuded roots has become one of the most challenging procedures in periodontal mucogingival surgery. Various surgical options have been developed to achieve the root coverage and include the use of free gingival autograft (FGG), subepithelial connective tissue graft, laterally sliding flap, coronally advanced flap, double papilla flap, guided tissue regeneration etc (Raju Anarthe et al., 2013; Shobhit Arora, 2015). FGG is considered to be the best treatment option when recession coverage with an increase in the apicocoronal dimension of the keratinized gingival tissues is the desired treatment outcome (SPK, 2012). Present paper presents a case of class I gingival recession (Miller's Classification) successfully treated with root coverage by free gingival autograft.

  181. Dr. Rishav Singh, Dr.Mukesh Kumar, Dr. Aarthi Shenoy, Dr. Rajat R. Khajuria, Dr. Rashmi Singh and Dr. Sankalp Verma

    Background: to evaluate the interrelationship of severe early childhood caries and iron deficiency anemia in young children. Methods: A total of 102 children of age 2-6 years were screened by one of the pediatric dentists for the presence or absence of S-ECC according to the AAPD guidelines and were divided into 2 groups - study group (cases) and control group. Out of total 102 children screened, 60 children consented to participate in the study .The dental caries status, measurement of weight, and blood sample analysis were done for both groups. The blood sample collected was used for estimation of following parameters such as Hb, mean corpuscular volume (MCV), mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration (MCHC), and hematocrit packed cell volume (PCV) to diagnose anemia. The data collected were statistically analysed. Results: A total of 60 out of 102 children were recruited 30 cases and 30 controls (59% response); forty two parents did not give consent for the study. There was no statistically significant difference between groups regarding age, male/female ratio between two groups. 43% children in study group suffered with Iron Deficiency Anemia. Data revealed that Hb, MCV, and PCV level differed significantly between the groups, but MCHC levels did not differ significantly between the groups. Conclusion: Based on this, it can be suggested that pediatric dentists, pediatricians, and family physicians should recommend the assessment of anemia in S-ECC patients regardless of their clinical nutritional status.

  182. Dr. Tejashree Pangare, Dr. Sonal B. Shah, Dr. Pushkar Waknis, Dr. Pratik Suthar , Dr. Lakshmi Shetty and Dr. Mamatha G.S. Reddy

    Mucoepidermoid carcinoma (MEC) is the most common malignant salivary gland neoplasm. It displays a variety of biological behaviour. It affects both the major and the minor salivary glands. The clinical features and biological behaviour of MEC of the minor salivary gland has not been very widely documented. Low grade MEC usually demonstratres a benign nature. Here, we report a case of bilateral soft tissue swellings of the labial mucosa which presented as mucous retention cysts and later diagnosed histopathologically as low grade MEC of the minor salivary gland.

  183. Dr. Deepti N. Anandani, Dr. Shahin S. Pathan and Dr. Jaydeep B. Vaniya

    Background: Caudal epidural analgesia with bupivacaine is very popular in pediatric anesthesia for providing intra and post-operative analgesia. Several adjuvants have been used to prolong the action of bupivacaine. Objective: To compare the efficacy of Tramadol and Fentanyl in terms of quality and duration of analgesia they produce when added with bupivacaine by single shot caudal-epidural technique in children. Study design: Randomized Controlled Trial. Method: Sixty children, aged three to seven years, undergoing hypospadias surgery were prospectively randomized into two groups: 1. Caudal analgesia with 1 ml/kg of 0.25% bupivacaine with Tramadol 1mg/kg in Group A. 2. Caudal analgesia with 1 ml/kg of 0.25% bupivacaine with Fentanyl1 µg/kg as Group B. Post-operatively pain was assessed by Modified Objective Pain Score (MOPS). Result: The mean duration of analgesia was significantly longer in Group A(756.24±67.83) than the mean analgesic duration of Group B (464±31.79).The pain score assessed using Modified Objective Pain Score (MOPS).The children of group A has required less analgesic dose than the group B. Hemodynamics and level of sedation were similar in two groups. Post- operatively analgesia was supplemented with inj. Febrinil 8 mg/kg by intravenous route. Any adverse effects like respiratory depression, nausea, vomiting were recorded in all patients. Conclusion: For caudal block, Tramadol 1 mg/kg or Fentanyl 1 µg/kg significantly prolong the duration of analgesia and reduces the intra and post-operative analgesic requirements with preserved hemodynamic stability and lack of sedation, thus allowing single shot caudal anesthesia to be recommended for surgery lasting more than 150 minutes. So they may be the drug of choice to prolong duration of caudal anesthesia without respiratory depression.

  184. Dr. Minnal Uppal, Dr. Sanjeev Kumar, Dr. Vijay Kundal and Dr. Amit Badgal

    Upper gastrointestinal bleed has varied etiology and clinical presentations ranging from single episode of malena to profound hypovolemic shock, requiring immediate fluid resuscitation and urgent upper gastrointestinal endoscopy. The prognosis depends upon the volume loss, timely fluid resuscitation, immediate upper gastrointestinal endoscopy to find out correctable cause and expertise of the gastroenterologist.

  185. Bhattacharya M. K. Moitra, S., Sharma Sarkar, B. and Bhattacharya, A

    The infection, known as Zika fever, often causes no or only mild symptoms, similar to a very mild form of dengue fever. Zika may spread from a pregnant woman to the baby. This may result in microcephaly and other severe brain problems. (Rasmussen, Sonja et al., 2016; "CDC Concludes Zika Causes Microcephaly and Other Birth Defects, 2016) Zika infections in adults can, rarely, result in Guillain-Barre. The Zika virus belongs to Flaviviridae and the genus Flavivirus, and is thus related to the dengue, yellow fever, Japanese encephalitis, and West Nile viruses like other flaviviruses. Zika can be transmitted from a man to his sex partners. Emphasis should be also given to manufacture vaccines and antivirals for zika virus, that much alertness and sincerity only can prevent India from the future dangers from zika.

  186. Bhattacharya M. K. Moitra, S., Sharma Sarkar, B. and Bhattacharya, A

    The infection, known as Zika fever, often causes no or only mild symptoms, similar to a very mild form of dengue fever. Zika may spread from a pregnant woman to the baby. This may result in microcephaly and other severe brain problems. (Rasmussen, Sonja et al., 2016; "CDC Concludes Zika Causes Microcephaly and Other Birth Defects, 2016) Zika infections in adults can, rarely, result in Guillain-Barre. The Zika virus belongs to Flaviviridae and the genus Flavivirus, and is thus related to the dengue, yellow fever, Japanese encephalitis, and West Nile viruses like other flaviviruses. Zika can be transmitted from a man to his sex partners. Emphasis should be also given to manufacture vaccines and antivirals for zika virus, that much alertness and sincerity only can prevent India from the future dangers from zika.

  187. Abith.B.Shetty, Shantala, G. B. and Nagarathnamma, T.

    Introduction: Urinary tract infections (UTIs) are prevalent worldwide and are considered to be the most common type of bacterial infection in humans.The present study was undertaken to evaluate the use of chromogenic media as primary media for isolation of uropathogens and to compare it with the convention methods of isolation and identification of bacteria. Materials and Methods: A total of 200 samples were tested and inoculated on Blood agar(BA) and MacConkey agar(MA)and HiCrome UTI Agar media, Isolates were identified based on colour on HiCrome UTI Agar media and by standard identification protocol on MA and BA. Results: Out of 200 urine sample tested, 59 (29.5%) yielded significant growth of single organism and 5(2.5%) yielded polymicrobial growth of 2 or 3 organisms.Rate of presumptive identification of organisms in primary culture plate was high in HiCrome UTI agar media. For Escherichia coli, it was 94.73%) whereas and by Blood agar and MacConkey agar media in combination it was 76.31%. Conclusion: The result of this study showed that HiCrome UTI Agar media can replace use of conventional media in clinical laboratory as primary isolation media for urine culture particularly with common uropathogens like E.coli as it is user-friendly ,facilitates early reporting, saves time as well as cost and less labour intensive.

  188. Dr. Deepa Pandey, Dr. C. P. Baveja, Dr. Vinay Kamal and Dr. H. S. Hira

    Background: Smear microscopy remains the cornerstone for the diagnosis, treatment initiation; follow up of Pulmonary Tuberculosis (PTB) in high burden countries like India. Aim of the study: The objective of this study was to compare the diagnostic efficacy of Ziehl Neelsen (ZN) and Fluorescent Auramine O (AO) staining for the detection of Mycobacterium tuberculosis before and after sputum decontamination. Material and Methods: Fifty cases (n=50) of clinically diagnosed pulmonary tuberculosis were included in the study. Sputum smears were stained by ZN and AO stain both before and after decontamination by NaLC-NaOH method. Result: Smear positivity rate was 76% by ZN staining before decontamination and it increased to 96% after decontamination. However, AO staining sensitivity was 100% both before and after decontamination. Conclusion: AO staining is highly sensitive than ZN staining in detecting even paucibacilliary cases even in direct sputum smears. Sputum decontamination improves the diagnostic efficacy of sputum smears.

  189. Dr. Anita Choudhury, M.D. Dr. Manoj Kumar Patro, M.D. and Mr. Dinabandhu Bisoi

    Turnaround time has now-a-days become increasingly important. Conventional tissue processing is a time consuming procedure. Recently microwave tissue processing has been shown to reduce the processing time significantly. Laboratory microwaves are sophisticated costly instruments to be used routinely especially in developing nations like India. In the present study kitchen microwave was used for tissue processing to evaluate its usefulness in terms of quality and time saving in comparison with conventional one. 126 paired specimens were evaluated in a blinded fashion by two pathologists. Each H&E stained slide is evaluated based on the criterias laid down by Kumar et al 2014. Statistical evaluation of the two procedures using a chi-square test showed no significant difference in the sections produced by both the procedures.

  190. Dr. Shilpa S Bawane, Dr. Mayank Naresh Patil, Dr. Shreyas Sanjay Mohile and Dr. Sonal B Shah

    Radiolucency of the mandible is commonly occurring pathology. It should be differentiated from other pathological conditions as treatment of these conditions differs. As a clinician we should able to narrow our differential diagnosis so as to arrive at correct diagnosis. This case report highlighted an unusual case of bilateral radiolucent lesion of mandible & its differential diagnosis and emphasized the importance of radiographic examination prior to the removal of teeth.

  191. Tamgadge Sandhya, Tamgadge Avinash, Kashmira Kesarkar and Siddharth Acharya

    Background: Some odontogenic tumors are clinically benign but they are locally aggressive and recur. Therefore such lesions should be completely evaluated for their mitotic potential. Routine staining procedures often pose a problem in differentiating mitotic cells. Although various new methods have been recommended for identifying mitotic figures (MFs) in tissues, the time factor and cost makes them less feasible. Thus, an attempt was made to evaluate the efficacy of crystal violet in identifying MFs. Aim of the Study: 1) To compare various phases & number of mitotic cells in haematoxylin and eosin stain with that in crystal violet stain in odontogenic tumors with aggressive behaviour. Materials and Methods: This case control study included samples randomly selected from archives comprising of benign odontogenic tumors which behaved aggressively even though they were benign such as CEOC, PIOC, and Ameloblastoma etc. The control group comprised of squamous cell carcinoma & normal epithelium. Both the groups were stained with H and E stain and 1% crystal violet stain. The stained sections were observed under research microscope for identification of various phases of cell cycle and counting of MFs. Observations and Results: Data obtained was statistically analysed by using the two tail t test. Conclusion: Crystal violet stain could be considered as best stain to study mitotic figures in lesions with high proliferative potential.

  192. Dr. Hetal Marfatia, Dr. Ratna Priya, Dr. Nilam Sathe and Dr. Shampa Mishra

    Hear for all club started at the KEM hospital, Mumbai is an autonomous and selfless association that is dedicated to patients with congenital external ear deformity. Here, we focus on evaluating all patients with microtia and providing them with the best treatment plan. It has been one of the first efforts of its kind in the country. It works as a support group. Methods: Our interdisciplinary team consists of an ENT surgeon, a plastic surgeon, an audiologist, a dentist, a speech therapist, a paediatrician, radiologist, paediatric cardiologist and paediatric nephrologists and we all work together to give the child the best coordinated care . Activities include complete ENT and head and neck evaluation of the patient to rule out syndromic features, Baha trial, Baha surgery and holding meetings which give an opportunity to the patients and their families to interact, share their experiences and motivate each other Results: Beginning in 2011, at present we have a group of 60 patients of congenital external ear deformity which include 40 children and the rest are adults. Out of the 60 patients, 12 patients have undergone Baha surgery. Conclusion: Our club helps us to reach out to patients with microtia and their families and bring all of them together at one place and provide information, reassurance and guidance to deal with the microtia. Also, the presence of an interdisciplinary team helps in planning the best treatment options for the patient.

  193. Dr. S. P. Gayathre, Dr. S. Keerthana and Dr. M. M. Prasanth

    Aims and Objectives: 1. To study emergency presentation of groin hernias and its outcome 2. To study about various Acute surgical emergencies in groin hernia 4. To study various symptoms of presentation and complication 5. To study age and sex incidence 6. To study types of inguinal hernia that presented as acute emergency 7. To study the laterality among cases 8. To study content of hernial sac 9. To study duration of hernia before acute presentation 10. To study the type of surgery done Materials and Methods: Study design: Prospective study Study centre: Department Of General Surgery, Thanjavur Medical College Hospital, Thanjavur, Tamilnadu, India Study period: SEPTEMBER 2014 to SEPTEMBER 2015 Duration of study: 12 months Total number of cases studied: 47 Inclusion criteria: 1. Both sex, with age >18 years, 2. Incarcerated and strangulated inguinal and femoral hernias , recurrent irreducible inguinal hernias 3. Cases which were regular for post treatment follow-up. 4. Patients willing to be part of this study. Exclusion criteria: 1. Age <18 years 2. Ventral and incisional hernias 3. Cases which did not come for regular follow-up and 4. Patients not willing to be part of this study. Conclusion: Complicated groin hernias has been associated with increased mortality and morbidity and hence elective repair of hernia should be done once it is diagnosed. Even if it presents as emergency it should be treated surgically as early as possible to avoid grave complications like bowel gangrene, anastomotic leak, iliostomies, septicemia and even death. Incarcerated hernias should be operated in less than 12 hrs of presentation and strangulated hernia on an emergency basis to prevent prolonged morbidity and mortality.

  194. Samhitha, J. and Ramyasree, C.H

    Breast cancer appears to be a disease of both the developing and developed worlds. It is the leading type of cancer in women. Aim: To assess the knowledge and attitude among women on breast self examination. Methodology: quantitative descriptive survey research design was adopted. A sample of 50 women was selected using convenient sampling technique. Data was collected using structured questionnaire and a 5 point rating scale. Data analysis was done using descriptive and inferential statistics. Results: The test scores reveals among 50 women 22 (44%) had inadequate knowledge, 16 (32%) had moderate knowledge, and 12 (24%) had adequate knowledge. 12 (24%) had low attitude, 19 (38%) had medium attitude, and 19 (38%) had high attitude. Conclusion: Early detection and prompt treatment offer the greatest chance of long term survival. 2 clinical breast examination (CBE), breast self examination (BSE) are the secondary preventive measures used to screen breast cancer in early stages3

  195. Dr. Gursatinder Singh, Dr. Anita Gupta and Dr. Hema Chhabra

    The mainstay of treatment in a chronic disease like glaucoma is topical medications. Most of these medications need to be preserved with a preservative as mandated by the US FDA. Benzalkonium chloride (BAK) is the most widely employed preservative. It causes corneal and conjunctival damage and leads to various ocular surface disorders (OSD) which affect quality of life of the patients. The causality assessment of BAK has firmly established its role in the patho-physiology of OSD. This is further reinforced by many in vitro and in vivo studies. Chronic use of BAK challenges the basic concept of ocular therapeutics as it is bound to lead to the singular and quite predictable fate i.e. iatrogenic OSD over long term use. Hence, there is a need for newer preservatives or preservative free medications so that ocular surface health is not compromised in the long-term treatment of glaucoma.

  196. Dr. Murugesan, N., Dr. Veena Bheeman, Dr. Visvanathan, M.S., Dr. Uday Khumbar and Dr. Anbazhakan, R.

    We have encountered three cases of advanced gastric malignancies in persons in their early twenties. All three tumours were reported by histopathology to be poorly differentiated adenocarcinomas with signet cells and one among them also had a neuroendocrine component, proven by immunohistochemistry. They all had aggressive disease and were the first cases in their respective families. The presentation of these patients, molecular profile of the tumour and management will be discussed.

  197. Tamgadge Sandhya, Tamgadge Avinash, Hemant Bhutani and Nilay Kubal

    Multiple Dental anomalies are rare findings in asymptomatic patient. Here, a case of multiple anomalies in permanent dentition is reported. Routine oral examination revealed fusion in mandibular anterior region. A mesiodense was observed in maxillary anterior region. In the panoramic radiograph view, multiple supernumerary teeth on either side were seen. The article describes unique case of multiple developmental anomalies in an asymptomatic patient and its review of literature.

  198. Dr. Kurdukar, M.D., Dr. Khiste, J. A., Dr. Pandit, G. A., Dr. Moon, P. C.

    Primary involvement of lungs is seen in various types of infections, neoplasms and autoimmune diseases. But secondary involvement of lungs is common and it is seen in almost all terminal diseases. Clinical features and imaging studies are sometimes nonspecific and clueless. Autopsy study of lung is of great value to know the pulmonary alterations and disease processes. Present study comprised of 475 medicolegal autopsy cases received in the Department of Pathology for histopathological reporting during a period from January 2014 to December 2015. Lung specimens were examined thoroughly and processesed for routine paraffine embedding, H & E staining. Detailed microscopic examination was done. Present study observed that lung diseases were more common in males. Commonest pathological lesion was acute pulmonary congestion (58.95%) followed by pneumonia (41.47%). Rare lesion like pulmonary hypertension (2.32%) and atelectasis (0.84%) were also encounterd. Malignancies were observed in 1.05% of cases.

  199. Dr. Bhubaneswar Roy and Dr. Priyajyoti Chakma

    Background: Suicide is the third leading cause of death among young adults worldwide. The number of suicides in India during the last decade has recorded an increase of 25.0%. Suicide attempt rates are found to be higher than rates for completed suicides. Aim: This study is aimed to evaluate the socio demographic profile and psychiatric morbidity in attempted suicide patients. Settings and Design: The study was conducted in the Agartala Govt. Medical College & GBP Hospital, Agartala, Tripura. The samples for the study were recruited from those who admitted to different departments of AGMC and GBP hospital. These patients were interviewed within the first week of their admission. After application of the inclusion and exclusion criteria sample were included in the study. Materials and Methods: This study assesses the various socio-demographic correlates, the method adopted and the psychiatric disorders in patients with attempted suicide. The tools used were: a) informed consent form, b) proforma for socio demographic datac) MINI plus (mini international neuropsychiatric interview, d) ICD 10 Diagnostic criteria for diagnosis of psychiatric illness. e) Statistical analysis was done by using SPSS- 20. Results: The prevalence of suicidal attempt was high among males with psychiatric illness, whereas more female suicide attempters were without psychiatric illness. The most common psychiatric illnesses were found to be mood disorders (n=23) and dissociative disorders (n=14) as per the ICD-10 criteria. Family type, economic status and religion appears to be playing non-significant role in suicide attempt in this part of the country whereas age, sex, locality, occupation, educational status, Marital status, family history ,past suicidal attempt, mode of suicidal attempt and psychiatric illnesses are playing important role in suicide attempt. Other demographic variables, though, were statistically non-significant, but, below 30 years of age group, low socio-economic status, low education and nuclear families were found to be more vulnerable factors for suicide. Conclusion: The presence of psychiatric morbidity was observed to confer a considerable risk of suicide. Attempted suicide now a day is the burning issue There is need for further study in Indian population using samples from different regions and cultures within the county.

  200. Ahmad Al Nashar

    The recent concept of periosteal distraction osteogenesis (PDO) is based on the potential of Mesenchymal Stem Cells (PMSCs) of the periosteum to differentiate into osteoblasts by mechanical stimulus of tension on the periosteum, to fill the space over the underlying bone. However, it also seems there is a role of both progenitor cells from the blood and osteoblasts from the underlying original bone in bone formation in this technique. Therefore the precise contribution of the Mesenchymal Stem Cells (MSCS) and the old bone to de novo bone formation needs to be clarified. The purpose of this article is to investigate the role of PMSCs in de novo bone formation in periosteal distraction in osteogenesis.

  201. Ahmad Al Nashar, Hekmat Yakoob and Elias Boutros

    Objective: The aim of this work is to review the literature on the role of periosteal distraction in osteogensis (PDO) in the cranio- maxillofacial region. Design: Using related key words, electronic search of English-language papers was conducted on PubMed and Science Direct data-bases in March /2016. Studies that assessed the role of periosteal distraction in osteogensis in the cranio- maxillofacial region were included. The retrieved articles were thoroughly reviewed according to the type of distraction (static/ dynamic), the used device, protocols, the adjunctive technique, and the obtained results. Results: A total of 28 articles matched the inclusion criteria of this study. Eighteen out of 28 experiments were performed on rabbits. The reviewed papers presented evident heterogeneity with respect to several aspects including the surgical technique, the used device, the distraction rate, the latency period, the length of consolidation period and the adjunctive techniques. Conclusion: periosteal distraction could be considered as a reliable technique for bone regeneration and it might be applicable in cranio-maxillofacial surgery. PDO can produce a new bone formation which derives from both, the periosteum and the underlying bone.

  202. Dr. Arindam Chatterjee, Sania Shahbaz Hasnain and Dr Sameer Mehrotra

    Conflict begins when one party perceives that another party has negatively affected, or is about to affect negatively, something that the first party cares about. For decades hospitals and other healthcare providers and organizations have recognized the need for managing conflict within the healthcare workplace in order to assure that conflict does not impede quality care and patient safety. The purpose of this study was to identify and compare conflict mode choices of doctors and nurses in a tertiary care teaching institute and examine the relationship of conflict mode choices with their background characteristics. 120 doctors & 120 nurses were surveyed, using the Thomas-Kilmann Conflict Instrument. A similarity was found doctors and nurses in choice of the most frequently used mode in conflict management. The avoiding mode was found to be the significantly most commonly chosen mode (P = <0.05) by both.

  203. Dr. Ajinkya Amritrao Deshmukh, Dr. Atul Deshmukh and Dr. Kirti Balkrishna Buva

    Central odontogenic fibroma (COF) is extremely rare benign neoplasm which stands for less than 0.1% of odontogenic tumors. COF is mainly derived from dental origin tissue of mesenchyme-like dental papilla, periodontal ligament or dental follicle. It has more predilections in the mandible than in maxilla. Radiographically it shows both unilocular as well as a multilocular radiolucent lesion with a sclerotic border. Histologically it shows dense mature connective tissue stroma consisting of mature collagen fibers and plenty of fibroblasts which are usually plump and active in nature. COF is broadly of two types one is a simple type and other is WHO type. Here in our case, 09 years old girl represents central odontogenic fibroma in the mandible.

  204. Wormichon Ngasainao and Sheela Upendra

    Alcoholism effects almost every area of an individual’s life. Thus the present study has attempted to explore the social domain of an alcohol dependent person and bring about awareness of it through didactic therapy. The aim was to find out the effectiveness of didactic therapy on the social functioning. A pre experimental one group pre-test post-test research design was adopted for this study. 50 samples were selected using simple random sampling and the setting was selected rehabilitation centres in Pune city. The Modified Paul Clifford and Isobel Morris social functioning questionnaire was implied for assessing the social functioning of the samples. The reliability of the tool was found to be 0.86 after conducting the pilot study using Karl Pearson’s formula. The pre test was done using the questionnaire. And the didactic therapy was administered after pre test in a group of 5 samples per session. A week after that, the post test was taken for the samples. In pre test, results show that (0%) of alcoholic dependents have very low social functioning score (0-28), (0%) alcoholic dependents have low social functioning score (29-56), 18% of alcoholic dependents have high social functioning score (57-84), 82% of alcoholic dependents have very high social functioning score (85-112).In post test, results show that (0%) of alcoholic dependents have very low social functioning score (0-28), (0%) alcoholic dependents have low social functioning score (29-56), 12% of alcoholic dependents have high social functioning score (57-84), 88% of alcoholic dependents have very high social functioning score (85-112). The hypothesis is accepted. Thus it is concluded that didactic therapy was effective on social functioning of alcohol dependents.

  205. Syed Shehna and Chandra Shekhar

    This paper is the result of discussions and data collection from Kashmir valley’s most volatile places (districts of Srinagar, Budgam and Kupwara) and the subsequent vulnerable populations including; the half widows of Dardpora (Kupwara), Widows of police martyrs (Srinagar), Widows of the persons killed unlawfully in cross firings (Budgam), Rape victims of Kunanposhpora (Kupwara) and the Mothers of disappeared persons (Srinagar and Budgam). The study addresses post-traumatic stress and its impact on the health status of these women who continue to endure plethora hardships on daily basis. This work is a small effort in a direction which seeks to reveal how the incessant and ever-increasing violence in Kashmir has changed the lives of women forever. Results showed that PTSD significantly predicts the health status.

  206. Dr. Anjali Tewari, Dr. Deepti Gupta, Dr. Nupur Trivedi, Dr. Shefali Agarwal and Dr. Asha Agarwal

    Sarcoidosis is a systemic inflammatory disorder of unknown etiology, characterized by the presence of non-caseating epithelioid cell granulomas. Growing literature on sarcoidosis in India has led to an increased awareness of the disease. With the advent of better diagnostic tools, rare manifestations of sarcoidosis are likely to be recognized. However, a lot of diagnostic dilemma is associated with sarcoidosis. Clinical, radiological and histopathological similarities with tuberculosis pose even a greater diagnostic challenge in countries endemic to tuberculosis. Not only sarcoidosis is a close mimic of TB, but TB has been linked to the causation of sarcoidosis. Recent advances in immunologic and molecular techniques have strengthened the association between mycobacteria and sarcoidosis. Aims & Objectives: (1) To study the rare manifestations in patients with sarcoidosis. (2) To demonstrate the sarcoidosis-tuberculosis link, diagnostic modalities and dilemma in the diagnosis. Method: Retrospective review of records of 20 patients with histopathologically proven sarcoidosis seen over 2 years in a tertiary care centre in Kanpur, was done. Results: 20% (4 out of 20) cases had rare manifestations (one had isolated bone marrow sarcoidosis, two had isolated liver involvement and the fourth case had uterine sarcoidosis) while the rest 80% had lung or/and lymph node involvement. 6 (30%) out of 20 cases had a tuberculosis link. Four had tuberculosis and then later developed sarcoidosis, one had sarcoidosis and then later developed overt tuberculosis; one had coexisting tuberculosis and sarcoidosis. Conclusion: The clinicians and pathologists should keep in mind the rare sites of sarcoidosis before making a diagnosis of tuberculosis in India and should further investigate the patients for sarcoidosis. Also, in patients having recurrent tuberculosis or not responding to ATT with granulomatous pathology, a diagnosis of sarcoidosis should be thought of.

  207. Dr. K. G. Kiran, Dr. Nanjesh Kumar, S., Dr. N. Uday Kiran, Dr. Sanjeev Badiger and Dr. Swathi, H. N.

    Background: Knowledge about the health status of migrants is often limited due to lack of data. This is because migrants are often excluded from surveys. Immigrants from disease-endemic areas settle in urban slums with highly vector-receptive and unprotected housing, introducing new and drug-resistant strains. Aims and objectives: 1. Study of Morbidity Pattern among Migrant Workers Material & Methods: Migrant population in coastal city was the study population. Study duration: From December 2015 to April 2016. Study design: Cross sectional study. Subjects of this study included migrant population located in 3 different areas of coastal city. Clinical examination was done at the site of camp. Pretested questionnaire was used to collect data by interview method. Results and discussion: A total 300 migrant workers were included in the study, of this 75.33%were male workers and 24.67% were female workers. 39.33%of the workers belonged to the age group of 21-30 years. Amongst the migrants workers, musculoskeletal symptoms ranked 1st in 43.33% subjects. 22.66% migrants had skin problem followed by fever which was seen in 20.66% migrants. Other important illness seen in the migrants were gastrointestinal problems (9%) respiratory problems (8%) and urinary tract infections (6.66%). Only 6% of the migrants had complained of having malaria. Injuries were seen in 3.3% migrants. Conclusion: This study has shown the pattern of health problems amongst migrant workers, which can contribute to further development of health promotion strategies for migrant workers

  208. Naruka S. Yakubu and Dr. E. O. Afolabi

    Thiourea was oxidized in the presence of potassium permanganate to yield formamidine disulfide. This was then reacted with various aldehydes to yield formamidine disulfide Schiff bases. Each Schiff base was then condensed with maleic and phthalic anhydride to give corresponding seven-membered heterocyclic ring derivatives respectively. The structures were identified by their uncorrected melting point, FT-IR spectra and mass spectra fragmentation pattern.

  209. Menicagli Roberto and Denti Francesco

    Introduction, Objectives: The polymeric gel-forming mucins provide together with other proteins the structural framework of saliva and the mucus barriers that cover the mucosal surfaces of the oral cavity. The polyphenols content in green tea, which have many health benefits, are able however influence the barrier properties of these protective layers. The aim of this study it is that to verify in vitro such effects on two different samples of saliva Materials Methods: In two male volunteers, asked to provide a saliva sample, obtained from the collection of the same, at various times of the day, they were determined the pH, density, total proteins and mucins. To these samples they have been assistant increasing quantities of extract of green tea, and then, after centrifugation, determined in the surnatant the concentrations of total proteins and total mucins. The results are analyzed with Fisher Exact Test and T –Test Results: The precipitation of proteins and mucins in both samples after the addition of green tea extract are not statistically non-correlated data (p≥0.05), to the increase the amount of polyphenols compounds, but points out a tendency, by the Fisher Exact Test (FET). The results of this trend arising for the sample 1 by the maximum proteins precipitation value of 32,% and 57.6 %, for the mucins. Test 2 maximum precipitation for the proteins is 28.5%, and 50.0% for mucins. From the same results it is underlined instead that in both the champions the differences of concentration between the mucins and the proteins are statistically significant: the difference of the medium vale with T-TEST is ≥ 0 for both samples Discussion: The two samples of saliva have different initial biochemical parameters values; this fact influence in the differences in the precipitation of the proteins in the two different champions, as it happens for the mucins, but, also the different behaviour between the same proteins and mucins to parity of green tea assistant extract. A value of more elevated, or more distant pH from the isoelettric point, it stretches the protein structures favouring the interaction of the same with the polyphenols, The mucins are in this case more receptive for the presence of polysaccharide terminals groups Conclusions: These data demonstrate the possible effect of a dietary using of the green tea on the mucin network; given the diversity of human diet, many other dietary compounds may also affect the properties of mucus barriers at the level of the mucin network, but the polyphenols compounds are the most important in the alteration of mucus barrier properties in health and disease states, as demonstrated from this study and from various epidemiological evidence

  210. Ramesh Chandra, Anjali Agrawal and Madhu Dwivedi

    Vibrio is a diverse group of aquatic bacteria, currently include 72 species, 12 of which occur in human clinical samples. Some species are pathogens of fish, eel and frogs as well as other vertebrate and invertebrates. They account for a significant proportion of human infections such as gastroenteritis usually associated with consumption of raw or undercooked seafood, wound infections, septicemia and ear infections. The aim of the present work is to screen different water bodies for the presence of Vibrio species and determine their pathogenicity, which will help to control Vibrio –associated gastroenteritis in India.

  211. Viacheslav Kravtsov, Irina Mikhailova, Yuri Grukhin, Dmitriy Rzaev and Andrey Nosov

    Helicobacter pylori (HP) eradication therapy do not always achieve eradication. One of the probable reasons for the ineffectiveness of eradication treatment is bacillary-coccoid transformation of HP. We present that in cases when HP eradication was not achieved after the first line eradication therapy, patients usually had had a high degree of gastric mucosa colonization with coccoid forms of HP before the start of H. pylori eradication therapy. So, we confirmed the hypothesis of helicobacter coccoid forms can avoid eradication.

  212. Dr. Rashmi Sharma, Dr. Arnab Sinha, Dr. Santosh Kumar and Dr. Nirupama Verma

    OTC drugs are an inseparable attribute of democracy in which it is a human being who decides about their own future, including health OTC drugs provide people with an ability to treat the symptoms without thinking about the essence of the disease. Yet, every kind of freedom should be accompanied by knowledge and responsibility. The prevalence of self-medication practices is very high in the educated youth of India. It is the need of time to undertake certain measures to overcome the problem of self medication which may involve awareness and education regarding the implications of self-medication and strategies to prevent the supply of medicines without prescription by pharmacies. In this study the respondants were undergraduate medical students. The problem of drugs abuse among medical students is rarely the subject of a scholarly interest, so we may conclude that is rather underestimated. A feedback questionnaire covering various aspects of OTC drugs were distributed among the undergraduate medical students. The questionnaire was divided into two parts, part A assessed the prevalence and practice of self-medication and part B dealt with the attitude of students towards self medication. Information regarding the use, the factors affecting the use, ways of procurement, the type of medication, the source of information , motivating factors, illness for which the medication was used, reason for not consulting a doctor and the knowledge about and experience of adverse reactions amongst other information was collected. A total of 100 questionnaire feedbacks found to be completely filled were analysed.

  213. Oliver McLaren

    Malignant otitis externa (also known as malignant external otitis, necrotising otitis externa, necrotizing external otitis, skull base osteomyelitis and osteomyelitis of the temporal bone) is a rare and potentially life-threatening complication of otitis externa, historically with mortality rates as high as 60%. Management of this condition has varied over the years from radical surgical debridement to medical management only, to tempered combinations of the two. Malignant otitis externa is most often found in the elderly diabetic population and is associated with poor glycaemic control as well as immune compromise. Malignant otitis externa also has a predisposition towards the male gender. Due to the rarity of presentation and variety of management no randomised control trials exist for the management of malignant otitis externa. As a result of this there are no protocols to guide the management of malignant otitis externa. The majority of publications relating to malignant otitis externa are case-series and single case-reports. The paucity of randomised control trials arises from the rarity of condition and the ethical conundrum that would be presented by trialling different management. This review of 71 publications relates to MOE with particular attention to the success of medical, surgical and adjunctive therapies as well as radiological assessment and monitoring of disease. There is a lack of statistical significance in the existing literature, this review will not improve that; however amalgamating the current information will aid management of MOE by providing the necessary information to clinicians.

  214. Dr. Aditi Satija

    'Mental Health' of adolescents in a nation has rightly been called the Mental Wealth of the nation. This investigation was carried out with a view to assess the mental health of adolescents in selected cities of Punjab. Such studies have been rare in this part of the country. The Analysis of Variance shows that the mean level of mental health was found to vary significantly with city of residence. Mental health was found to be higher in smaller cities while it was comparatively lower in larger cities. One encouraging finding of the present study was that no gender differences existed in mental health in an area which is known for its skewed sex ratio and discrimination against girls. Moreover, t- ratios also revealed that females were better adjusted, more autonomous and felt more secure than the males though males showed better status on emotional stability and intelligence in some cases. The gender differences revealed by this investigation can give the parents, teachers and social custodians of mental health of adolescents, a basis to understand and help improve the mental health of girls and boys in this region. While it is reassuring to know about the sizable percentage of adolescents falling in average to high mental health, yet it also probes us to awaken to the needs of the adolescents falling in the low mental health status.

  215. Hamza AL Sabah, Ahmed Basher, M., Hussein Adnan Mohammed and Ali, S. Dawood

    Superior vena cava syndrome (SVCS) is obstruction of blood flow through the superior vena cava (SVC). It is a medical emergency and most often manifests in patients with a malignant disease process within the thorax. A total of 286 patients (218 male and 68 female) were diagnosed with CA bronchus. 253case (192 male and 61female) with an age mean ± SD (62.00 ± 11.896), (29 nonsmoker, 203 smoker, 21 ex- smoker) were diagnosed without SVCO, and 33 case (26 male and 7 female) with an age mean ± SD (62.76 ± 9.959), (5 nonsmoker, 27 smoker and 1 ex- smoker) were diagnosed with SVCO and CA bronchus (primary and or metastatic). Pre-bronchoscopy sputum cytology investigation of cases, Post bronchoscopy sputum investigation of cases and bronchoscopic evaluation of cases was done as well as, also the pleural biopsies and or fine needle aspirate were studied when available during the course of investigation. Otherwise radiological study was done in form of CXR and CT scan of the chest with and without contrast and according we divide the site of the lesion as upper left, lower left, upper right, lower right and others. Our results showed the smoking status within SVCO cases was non-significant difference as the p value was (0.257). According to the site of pathology the results suggested there was highly significant difference regarding the site of pathology in association with SVCO and highest rate with right upper lesion P value was (0.000). Also we compared the results regarding the type of pathology, and the results showed highly significant difference statistically the highest incidence of SVCO was with squamous cell CA and the P value was (0.007). The prebronchoscopic sample was statically significant P value was (0.000), also the results of postbronchoscopic sample showed no significant according to statistical analysis, P value was (0.321) within SVCO cases. Otherwise, the finding of the lesion by bronchoscopy was highly significant as it was positive in all 33 cases of SVCO P value was (0.000). And outcome is studied in all 33 patient within one year to see their survival, within one year from 33 cases of SVCO 21 were died ,6 survive and 6 lots to be followed. In conclusion from data derived from this study we concluded that SVCO is not uncommon within cases of CA bronchus.

  216. Maria do Rosário Dias, Ana Cristina Neves, Nádia Pereira Simões, José Grillo Evangelista, and José Martins dos Santos

    The present study examines how undergraduate students of Health Sciences represent the human body inner morphology. A quantitative- and qualitative-based longitudinal study was conducted where 123 health sciences students were asked to draw the inner morphology of a Healthy Person and of a Sick Person in two separate moments: (i) before and (ii) after taking a Human Anatomy course unit. Those drawings were evaluated according to a content analysis matrix specifically designed for the purposes of the current research. A comparative analysis (before vs after academic training) of the collected data suggests atypicality of contents and a differential approach to the inner body at the structural anatomy level. Overall, Healthy Person representations show considerable younger individuals than those found in Sick Person representations. In most drawings, the body outline, which would represent the human body’s largest organ (the skin), is absent. Drawings also show a desexualization of the depicted bodies, for both representation types (healthy vs sick) failed to include reproductive organs. The pathologies most frequently portrayed in Sick Person representations were neoplasms of specific organs. Interestingly, the damaged organs were highly invested pictorially, in contrast with the lesser investment and amount of accessory organs depicted in Healthy Person representations.

  217. Dr. Nanda Kishore, P., Dr. Shahnawaz Khijmatgar and Dr. Vikram Shetty

    The incidence of cleft lip and palate is very high among developed and developing nations. Craniofacial growth is affected with this deformity resulting in hypoplasia and asymmetry of the facial region, specifically the maxilla. Traditionally, orthognathic surgeries were performed in order to correct the deformity. The unsatisfactory outcome from orthognathic surgeries led to employ new approaches to correct the maxillary deformity. Distraction osteogenesis was introduced as a novel way to achieve acceptable results and patient oriented outcomes. The aim of this review is to discuss the current update and outcome of distraction osteogenesis in correcting facial deformity.

  218. Dr. Ameya G. Moghe, Dr. Joann Pauline George, Dr. Flemingson Lazarus, Dr. Gulnar D. Sethna, Dr. Mrinalini D. Kunte

    Purpose: Intrabony defects pose a clinical challenge in treatment practice. Various regenerative techniques have been proposed for the treatment of residual defects. In particular, for intrabony defects or angular defects with a ≥ 3 mm of intrabony component, osseous grafts have been widely used. They have shown bone fill in the deepest portion of the defect. The purpose of this study is to evaluate coralline porous hydroxyapatite as a bone substitute in treatment of such defects. Methods: This present article reports a case series demonstrating the clinical and radiographic response to 3 different surgical procedures in the management of intrabony defects namely - open flap debridement (OFD), open flap debridement in conjunction with bone substitute coralline porous hydroxyapatite (OFD+CHA) and open flap debridement and placement of coralline porous hydroxyapatite and a resorbable collagen membrane (OFD+CHA+MEM). This follow-up also includes a surgical re-entry in the OFD+CHA+MEM site. Results: OFD, OFD+CHA, OFD+CHA+MEM, showed gain in clinical attachement and recession of 3mm and 1mm, 4mm and 1mm, 3mm and 0mm respectively. The radiographic bonefill as assessed by image analysis was seen to be 0.3mm, 6.9mm and 6.9mm for OFD, OFD+CHA & OFD+CHA+MEM respectively. On surgical re-entry at OFD+CHA+MEM, the wound site showed remarkable healing, the membrane had undergone complete resorption; the graft particles showed no mobility and were incorporated in the surrounding alveolar bone. Conclusion: To conclude, the 3 treatment modalities yielded results in accordance with the previous studies. The surgical re-entry procedure also revealed incorporation of graft particles in the surrounding healthy bone. Also the graft particles were stable and did not show any mobility. There was evidence of new bone formation at the base of the defect. These observations suggest that the coralline porous hydroxyapatite granules are compatible with the surrounding bone.

  219. Jami Sagar Prusti, Pravash Mishra, Jeneeta Baa and Dr. Mayadhar Barik

    Background: Femoral neck anteversion (FNA) now frequently observed globally. Presently its higher incidence located in our country like India. Three-dimensional computed tomography (3D CT) by some investigators proposed as the gold standard for measurements of the femoral neck ante version angle (FNA).Particularly, developmental dysplasia of the hip (DDH) is a simple and reliable imaging method. We using by non-ionizing technique determine the consistency between measurements of the FNA in DDH using 3D CT and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) to estimate the precision, reliability, and reproducibility of FNA. Material and methods: The 3D CT and MRI were used to measure the FNA among patients, including girls and boys, with a mean age of 3-4 years (age range, 1-12 years), We performed independently by our radiologists and scientist at different time frames (2-3 weeks). Later on the radiologists had higher consistency was observed between the MRI and 3D CT. Results: This measurement we summarizes (intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) of 0.906, P < 0.05). The mean inter-observer & intra-observer agreements were higher.So for MRI (ICC = 0.949 and 0.965, respectively, P < 0.05 for both) and for 3D CT (ICC = 0.943 and 0.967, P < 0.05 for both) respectively. We compared with 3D CT and MRI provided a precise, reliable, reproducible and new method of measuring the FNA in DDH. MRI is now recommended as an appropriate technique for measurement of the FNA in DDH, and this approach could replace 3D CT. Conclusion: MRI delivers no ionizing radiation and offers a better display of soft tissue pathological changes above then 80% of FNA.

  220. Pillay, R. K., Pillay, S. and Ballabh, H.

    The Isipingo River and its catchment is regarded as one of the most severely impacted in KwaZulu-Natal. A series of highly publicized pollution episodes in the local media and general public outcry have cemented the impression that the degradation of the system is largely anthropogenic. This study identifies the significant land use changes following an extensive review of printed media, documentaries, photographs, prior research and interviews. The changes identified include development of a major airport, diversion of the Umlazi River, construction of river diversion works system and canalization of the lower Isipingo River. The developments have contributed to a drastic reduction in mean annual runoff from 102 to 3 million m3/year, exacerbating estuary mouth closure, and necessitating the construction of twin pipes at the mouth to maintain tidal exchange. Intensive residential and industrial development on the river floodplain has led to the removal of indigenous and riparian vegetation. The historically poor water quality in the Isipingo River and Estuary has been related to inadequate sanitation facilities and illegal discharges of industrial effluent. The deterioration of Isipingo River system demonstrates the consequences of improper planning and over-utilization of the catchment together with poor application of regulations pertaining to the environment. This paper documents the historical land use changes and events that have shaped the Isipingo catchment and ultimately influenced the quality and quantity of water over a 172 year period from 1840 to present day.

  221. Mary Esther Cynthia Johnson

    This paper deals with heavy metal concentration in the ground waters of Medak and Hyderabad districts located in Telangana, India. Four bore wells, SI, SII, SIII and SIV located in Medak and Hyderabad districts were identified and analyzed for a period of one year. Groundwaters from all these stations were used for drinking as well as other domestic purposes. In the groundwaters of Medak, Pb and Cd were analyzed while at Hyderabad, Zn, Pb and Cr. Pb was below detectable limits i.e., BDL at SI, II and III while at SIV it was 0.027 mg/l which is below the permissible limits given by WHO 1984 and BIS 1983. Cd concentration at SI and SII were 0.13mg/l and 0.10mg/l which was higher than the permissible limits. The concentration of Zn was 0.017mg/l at SIII and BDL at SIV which once again was below the permissible limits. Cr concentration which was 0.027mg/l and 0.037 mg/l at SIII and SIV respectively was well within the permissible limits. Interestingly, the ground water samples from SI and SII exceeded the permissible limits in Cd. Hence, unfit for human consumption. Alternate measures must be made for drinking purpose like supply of potable water or bottled water etc. Potable water protects the health of the individual which leads the progress of the state and nation at large.

  222. Nirmalendu Das, Sweta Mishra and Samarpita Ghosh

    P. pulnonarius produced laccase enzymes extracellularly both in stationary as well as in shaking condition. To obtain the optimum laccase production different cultural parameters were studied. Different carbon sources, nitrogen sources, and pH of the media showed differential influencing effect on laccase production. The laccase production was optimum in PSP (20% potato extract, 2% sucrose, 0.5% peptone) medium in pH 5.0. The value was 72.9 U/ml when measured using guaiacol as substrate. The enzyme showed more affinity towards ABTS than o-dianisidine or guaiacol. Three laccase isoenzymes were found in activity staining of the dialysed extracellular culture filtrate. Laccase isolated from P. pulmonaris can decolorised synthetic dyes (phenol red and malachite green) which were generally used in textile industries.

  223. Ifeanyi A. Ojiako, Jonas Chianu, Ken Johm and Chiji Ojukwu

    Learning through education and training is important in defining human capital because access to education is necessary to improve the quality of human resources. In this study, the drivers of human capital were examined using secondary data on primary and secondary education enrolment rates in Nigeria, 1981-2013. Effects of socio-political stability, per capita gross domestic product, government spending on education, health and agriculture were assessed alongside government oil and non-oil revenues. Data were analyzed using a combination of descriptive and inferential statistics, and regression techniques. Results revealed that gross primary enrolment was positively influenced by democracy (p<0.01) and per capita GDP (p<0.05). The boys' primary enrolment responded positively to changes in oil revenue (p<0.01), but negatively to per capita GDP (p<0.01) while the girls' responded positively to democracy (p<0.01) and negatively to health expenditure (p<0.05). Also, per capital GDP had a significant (p<0.01) positive influence on all secondary education outcomes, namely gross, boys' and girls' enrolments, as against the influence of agriculture that was significant (p<0.01) and negative. Generally, the study found some disconnect between school outcomes and non-oil revenue, education and health expenditure as these factors were grossly redundant in the estimated models. The study supports the sustenance of democracy and promotion of democratic institutions. While still in support of governments' continued funding of education, especially at the lower levels, areas of support should be redefined and prioritized. Sufficient funds should be provided to upgrade the constantly deteriorating infrastructures in public schools while deliberate policy instruments should be used to ensure provision of desired incentives to parents and school-age children to enhance enrolment into schools. Establishment of mini medical clinics in public primary and secondary schools across the country would help to cater for the immediate health care needs of pupils and students while in schools.

  224. Sowmia, E. Dr. Ebanasar, J. and Paul Raj, K

    Puthen Dam is a small reservoir regarded as mother of irrigation projects of kanyakumari District receives water from both Pechipparai and Perunchani reservoirs. Five stations were selected from the associated water bodies. The study was carried from April 2013 to April 2014.This present paper deals with the dynamic changes of pH, electrical conductivity metal ions in water and sediments of the reservoir. The seasonal variations in the water and sediment characteristics of the reservoir are presented and the significance is highlighted. The sediment pH found to have significant relationship with water pH in polynomial fit while other parameters are not significantly related. The best fit mathematical models are presented and discussed in the light of previous literature.

  225. Sowmia, E. Dr. Ebanasar, J. and Paul Raj, K

    Puthen Dam is a small reservoir regarded as mother of irrigation projects of kanyakumari District receives water from both Pechipparai and Perunchani reservoirs. Five stations were selected from the associated water bodies. The study was carried from April 2013 to April 2014.This present paper deals with the dynamic changes of pH, electrical conductivity metal ions in water and sediments of the reservoir. The seasonal variations in the water and sediment characteristics of the reservoir are presented and the significance is highlighted. The sediment pH found to have significant relationship with water pH in polynomial fit while other parameters are not significantly related. The best fit mathematical models are presented and discussed in the light of previous literature.

  226. Sujata Deka

    Every society makes provisions for health care delivery systems for its members with a view to providing medical and related services for the maintenance of good health and also prevention and treatment of diseases. Much before the advent of modern medicine, these societies developed their indigenous medicinal system through interaction with their environment. This paper, through literature review and survey, examines the features of commonly used herbal medicinal system in Assam which has often provided advantage to the people.

  227. Paritha Bhanu, A.

    Static bioassays were carried out to find the LC50 96 hr value of Cypermethrin to Cyprinus carpio and it was found to be 2.0 ppm. Then a group of fishes were recorded in a selected reared sub lethal concentration of the pesticide (0.2 ppm) for 4 weeks. From the control and treated fishes, serum and tissues like gill, liver, kidney and muscle were selected and used for the estimation of antioxidant parameters. There was an overall reduction of various antioxidant enzymes such as SOD, GSH, GR and GPX and an elevation of TBARS level. These results were indicative of occurrence of LPO with resultant ROS causing oxidative stress in the fishes by the pesticide.

  228. Sujatha, B., Priyadarshini, B., Ch. Umamahesh, Kumar, M. V. V. P., Priyanka, K. M. and Saraswathi, J.

    The effect of elevated aqueous SO2 (0, 10, 20, 30, 40, 50, 100 and 250 ppm) on total RNA and DNA contents, Ribonuclease (RNase) activity, incorporation of radioactive isotopes of 3H-uridine and 14C-thymidine of pigeonpea (Cajanus cajan (L.) Millsp. cv. PDM1) and amaranth (Amaranthus paniculatus L. a local cultivar) leaf discs under light and dark conditions has been studied. The synthesis of RNA and DNA were reduced in both the leaf discs incubated in aqueous SO2. In between the pigeonpea and amaranth aqueous SO2 stimulated gradually with increase RNase activity was more in amaranth under dark than light. The 3H-uridine incorporation rate into RNA and 14C-thymidine incorporation rate into DNA was recorded higher values in amaranth than in pigeonpea observed under light conditions.

  229. Dr. Rabinarayan Tripathy, Dr. Shaithya Raj, Dr. Rajeshwari, P. N., Dr. Athulya and Dr. Lakshmy C. Senan

    Agnikarma or thermal cauterization is one among the anushastras (substitute of surgical instrument) or para-surgical technique mentioned in Ayurveda. It is explained to provide complete relief in certain chronic diseases which are not cured by herbal medicine, surgical interventions and alkaline cauterization. Based on the specific heat retention and transmission capacity of different materials the ancient Indian surgeons had prescribed different materials like pippali (pipper longum), ajasakrut (goats excreta), godantha (cow’s tooth), shara (arrow), shalaka (metal Rods), kshoudra (honey), guda (jaggery), sneha (oil/fat) etc. for cauterizing specific body parts like skin, muscle, blood vessels, ligaments etc. According to the logic of the surgeon appropriate material should be selected for specific disease conditions. The mechanism of action of agnikarma is still obscure. Agnikarma act on a multi-factorial level in the body. Mainly it is indicated in the disease caused by vata and kapha because of its tikshna (quick action), ushna (Hotness), sookshma (subtle), vyavayi (Quick spreading), vikashi (works without being metabolised) proporties to remove srotorodha (obstruction in channels of body). In this article an attempt is being made to unveil the principles of agnikarma.

  230. Thavaselvi, A., Kanimozhi, K., Panneerselvam, A. and Soundra Rajan, S

    The success of establishing new plantations of a perennial crop like coffee mainly depends on the use of healthy seedlings with good vigour for planting. For this purpose, it is most essential to protect the seedlings in the primary and secondary nursery beds from attacks of pest and diseases. Coffee seedlings at the nursery stage are susceptible to fungal diseases. In the persent study four Trichoderma spp were tested for their ability to inhibit soil borne pathogen Rhizoctonia solani Kuhn. causing collar rot in coffee seedlings. Dual culture technique revealed that T. hamatum (75.68%) highly inhibited mycelial growth of pathogen followed by T.koningii (65.92), T.viride (57.90%) and T.harzianum (52.71%) respectively. This preliminary results are valuable for further studies.

  231. Dr. Nandini Vaz Fernandes

    Autism spectrum disorders (ASDs) are rather complex conditions, which may exhibit milder social abnormalities and communication impairment and less rigid interest restrictions in affected children. In some cases of ASDs there is a genetic cause either at the chromosomal or gene level. However many non genetic factors may also play an important role. The present study was focused on evaluating the possible non genetic causes especially to understand the potential risk posed by prenatal and post natal environmental factors. We also attempted to assess the academic and social skill development of ASD children in special school and compared it with the skill development of ASD affected children in regular school. A total number of 184 individuals were studied. According to the present study the potential risk factors for autism are advanced maternal age, stress during pregnancy, supplements taken, gestation period, parity, age gap between children and birth weight. The risk of ASD in pregnancy was reduced when the expecting mothers consumed folic acid-calcium supplement regularly. We conclude that stress during pregnancy can be a major risk factor for ASD. Skill assessment in ASD children revealed that there was considerable progressive improvement of social, play skills and academic skills in children, attending special care section of regular school, rather than ASD children attending special school when their IQ was ≥ 40. We observed that the special care section helped to address their unique needs and cultivate their talents as compared to those studying in a special school. Based on our observations we suggest that necessary measures can be taken to reduce the risk of ASD pregnancy and further extend support to ASD children to enhance their skills at regular school rather than at special school especially in children with IQ ≥ 40.

  232. Koiava, T., Gonçalves, D., Palmeira, J., Arobelidze, K., Tediashvili, M., Akhvlediani, L. and Ferreira, H

    The results marked the high prevalence of gene TEM.SHV, OXA, The majority of the strains carried two or more genes. This study points out the high resistance ESBL producing by Klebsiella pneumonia sample. A total of 28 clinical isolates of extended spectrum β- lactamase producing Klebsiellapneumoniae were sampled in Adjara region. The ESBL resistance was screened using disc diffusion method, while the resistance genes were detected by polymerase chain reaction (PCR). All sample were highly resistance to AML Amoxicilina, CTX Cefotaxima, FEP Cefepime, ATM Aztreonamo, CXM Cefuroxime, CAZ Ceftazidima, PRL Piperacilin, AUG Amox. + Ac. Clavulanico, TE Tetraciclin, STX Sulfamet. + Trimetrop-resistanec profile - 100%, F Nitrofurantoina, TOB Tobramicin- 84, 21%, ETP Ertapenemo- 78, 94%, C Cloranfenicol, CIP Ciprofloxacino, LEV Levofloxacin- 78, 94%, PIP/TAZ Piperacilin/Tazobactam, CN Gentamicina- 68, 42%, IMI Imipenemo, MRP Meropenemo, AK Amikacin - 57, 89%, NET Netilmicin-53%.

  233. Hana Mohamed Gashlan and Heba Abdullah Alghamdi

    Diabetes is recognized as a major risk factor for the development of kidney disease. Diabetic subjects with kidney disease may be at high risk for developing other health complications. The early detection of kidney dysfunction in subject with type 1 diabetes is of vital important to treat the progression to diabetic nephropathy. The aim of this study is to assess the level of cystatin C for studying early renal function decline in type 1 diabetic patients. This study included 64 type 1 diabetes mellitus patients (male and female) all the patients were hyperglycaemic with poor glucose control and control group included 30 healthy age matching subjects. Levels of HbA1c, serum fasting blood glucose, lipid profile, uric acid, creatinine and cystatin C were determined. Glomerular filtration rate was detected according to cockcroft-gault (CG) and modification of diet in renal disease (MDRD) formulas. For uric acid level a significant reduction was found in patients with GFRMDRD>90. The serum levels of cholesterol showed a significant increase (P< 0.05) and a very highly significant increase (P< 0.005) in high density lipoprotein in patients with GFRMDRM ˃ 90 ml/min/1.73m2, meanwhile the serum level of low density lipoprotein showed a non-significant increase in patients with GFRMDRM ˃ 90 ml/min/1.73m2. A highly significant decrease was found in cystatin C and creatinine (P< 0.01) and a very highly significant decrease (P< 0.001), (P< 0.000) in both formulas CG and MDRD > 90. This study may suggest that age, BMI, gender, glycaemic control and duration of the diabetes may influence the level of cystatin C and the GFR provides a good index for the decline of kidney function.

  234. Madhu Kumari

    During the last decade, the considerable problem deriving from the growth of energetic consumption and from the environmental “emergency” due to the emission of greenhouse gases, push-people to find out new solution and new technologies for the production of primary energy fit for fulfilling the urging and growing energetic demand. The climate change is one of the most compelling global challenges of our time. There has been a considerable increase in the average temperature is attributed to the earth in past century. This rise in temperature is attributed to the earth in past century. This rise in temperature is attributed to the effect of global warming brought about accumulation of greenhouse gases (GHG) in the atmosphere. The reason for increase GHG, mainly Carbon dioxide (CO₂), is because of the increased energy consumption, which results in emission of pollutants. As such growing telecommunication infrastructure requires increasing amount of electricity to power it and hence we opt our title of discussion as appropriate. This paper discusses how effective energy management system with the application of energy and environmental audit pave the way for Green telecom in terms of green telecom network, green telecom equipment maintenance, environmental friendly design of telecom building and shape telecom waste disposal. The discussion centered on use of solar energy in telecom towers and study carried out through case studies along with government directives to comply with requirement of strategic fit compliances for environmental protection

  235. Shaista M., Manzoor A Bhat, Noor Mohammad and Anis Ramzan

    The aim of this study which was to determine the parasites of carp Cyprinus spp inhabiting the Dal Lake of Kashmir valley. During the study, a total of 24 common carps were caught in different regions of Dal Lake and investigated parasitologically. On examining 11 fish were found positive to harbour cestodes Adenoscolex and Bothriocephalus from the intestines; trematode Diplozoan from gills and acanthocephala Pomphorhynchus from Intestine. Highest prevalence was shown by cestodes (93.9%) followed by trematodes (4.1%), and acanthocephalan (1.8%) in succession. Maximum mean intensity and abundance has been shown by Adenoscolex and Bothriocephalus (18.3 & 8.4) while the trematode Diplozoan was on the 2nd rank (0.81% & 0.37%). On the other hand, the least intensity and abundance was shown by acanthocephalan Pomphorhychus (0.36 & 0.16). The parasitization showed a significant positive relationship with size of the fish, while very small fishes were nearly free of parasites, this exhibit a correlation with feeding habits of the fish.

  236. : Tentu. Nageswara Rao, Krishnarao, N., Parameshwar, K. Karri. Apparao and Prashanthi, Y

    A easy, sensitive and inexpensive method was evolved the usage of solid-phase extraction, together with high performance liquid chromatographic method with UV detection for determination Thiophanate-Methyl and Its Metabolite Carbendazim residues in okra fruit samples. The evaluated parameters consist of the extracts via C18 cartridge, using acetonitrile solvent. The method becomes established the use of okra fruit samples spiked with Thiophanate-Methyl and Its Metabolite Carbendazim at different fortification levels (0.01 and 0.1 µg/g). Average recoveries (using each concentration six replicates) ranged 84-94%, with relative standard deviations less than 3%, calibration solutions concentration in the range 0.01-5.0 µg/mL and limit of detection (LOD) and limit of quantification (LOQ) were 0.003µg/mL and 0.01µg/mL respectively.

  237. Ratha Nibedita and Padhi Sailabala

    Microalgae are a promising alternative source of lipid for biofuel production. One of the most important decisions is the choice of species to use. High lipid productivity is a key desirable characteristic of a species for biodiesel production. This paper reviews information about microalgal growth rates, lipid content and lipid productivities for 8 species of freshwater microalgae. The information provide a framework for decision-making and a starting point for further investigation of species selection. The importance of lipid productivity as a selection parameter over lipid content and growth rate individually is demonstrated. Total lipid content of freshwater algae isolated from different aquatic habitats of Ganjam district, Odisha were examined. A comparative analysis showed variation or total lipid content in different seasons. Total lipid content was high in summer season and least in monsoon. As Microsysts sp. is a bloom causing algae, it is the best source of biofuel production due to its high temperature resistance character.

  238. Dr. Brahm Dutt Sharma, Dr. Durgesh Nandini Sharma and Dr. Rohitash Gurjar

    Hindu mythology describes various Samskaras (sacraments/religious rites) outlined from birth to death of an individual. Out of the sixteen Samskaras described eight are for children they are Jatakarma, Namakaran, Nishkraman, Annaprashan, Chudakarma, Karanvedbana, Upanyan, Vedarambha.This article analyzed only Phalaprashanand AannaprashanSamkarars in detail and gives a critical approach to their relevance in light of modern scientific knowledge.They were significant in context of child health, provide strong digestive system and prepares one for the next stage of growth. They were aimed to preparing the body for life successfully, developed proper feeding habits, ensure adequate nutrition, prevent from diseases and immune the body to environment for further survival. It took care of not only physical but also mental development of child.

  239. Lakshmaiah, G

    Fingerlings of Cyprinus carpio (C. carpio) fish were exposed to acute lethal toxicity (LC50/96 hours - 0.71 ppm/l) of phorate (ALTP) for one day and 4 days and the toxic effect of acute lethal concentrations of phorate on the histopathology of muscle was investigated in the present study. Lethal concentration (LC50) of phorate to C. carpio was determined by the probit method of Finney and the LC50 of phorate was taken as lethal concentration for acute toxicity study. On exposure for a period of 1 day to ALTP, splitting of muscle fibers followed by their thinning was observed in the muscle of the exposed fish. The muscle fibers exhibited longitudinal splitting with pyknotic nuclei. On exposure for a period of 4 days, a further increase in the longitudinal splitting of muscle fibers with pyknotic nuclei and cellular degeneration were observed. Karyolysis seems to have occurred as granular debris. The isolation of muscle fibers from one and another was noticed with necrotic changes. The findings of this study demonstrated that the histopathological changes induced by ALTP in the muscle of C. carpio were not only dependent on the concentration of the pesticide but also on the length of the fish exposure period.

  240. Ashwini Morab, Yadav, V.S. Pushpa Khadi and Havaldar, Y.N.

    India is an ageing society with the rate of growth of ageing population exceeding the growth of the general population. The United Nation has designated 1999 as the year of older person. Aging is a problem of almost every family involving strain of caring stresses of intergenerational interaction. It has become an important socio-psychological problem of disease, disability and psychophysical deterioration occurs, ultimately the support from the family, community, society decreases. Major concern in old age is health. Health problems such as disease and disability not only directly erode mental wellbeing but also have indirect effects by priming people to have negative perceptions of their health. Deteriorated physical health exerts negative effects on the overall quality life and mental well being among elderly. Hence this study was undertaken to know the relationship between physical health status and mental health among elderly. The random sample consist of 80 male and 80 female elderly were randomly selected from Dharwad district in Karnataka state mental health inventory by Jagdish and Srivastav (1983) and status of health of elderly was assessed by physiological health problem checklist developed by Ashwini and Yadav, V.S (2011). Were used to analyses the Physical health status and mental health status. Results depicted that nearly 50 per cent of the elderly had very poor mental health status and Majority of elderly had 11 -30 number of health problems. Significant relationship was found between Physiological health and mental health among elderly as physiological health problem increased the mental health status decreased among elderly.

  241. Srinivas, M., Bhargavi, R. and Aruna, M

    In the present study it was aimed to identify the aquatic macrophytes growing abundantly in Nagaram lake of Warangal district in Telangana State, for which a survey was carried out for a period of one year during 2014-2015.A total of 30 species belonging to 11 families and 24 genera under 4 classes were identified, 12 species of 10 genera and 6 families under the class monocotyledons, 2 species of 2 genera and 2 families under the class algae were recorded. The aquatic macrophytes were morphologically categorized as groups viz., classified under floating, submerged, submerged anchored, floating leaved anchored and emergent.

  242. Danilo P. Alura and Rhea Palma C. Alura

    The mangrove forest devastated by typhoon Haiyan in November 2013 was assessed to determine the rate of regeneration of trees and natural regeneration of seedlings in four sites in Eastern Samar. Two sites in the Pacific coast and two sites in the Leyte Gulf coast of Eastern Samar were studied. A 10 X 10 meter plot at 100 meters interval was laid parallel to the coast line at the center of damaged mangrove forest. The dead trees, length and number of regenerated shoots, number and height of seedling were counted and measured inside the plot. The dead trees were identified by formation the basal roots. Result showed that the highest rate of regeneration of mangrove trees differ from the Pacific and Leyte Gulf Coast; Sonneratia (40%) and Avicennia (25%) in Balangkayan, Avicennia (19 %) and Sonneratia (18%) in Hernani, Xylocarpus (88%) and Bruguiera (86%) in Giporlos and Xylocarpus (50%) and Ceriops (33%) in Lawaan. The natural regeneration of seedlings was highest in Giporlos (875/ha) with Bruguiera as highest percentage (71%), followed by Hernani (375/ha) with Avicennia as highest percentage (73%), and Balangkayan and Lawaan (100/ha) with Rhizophora and Ceriops with highest percentage (42%) respectively. It is recommended that the mangrove species with highest percentage of regeneration in a specific area will be prioritized in planting in mangrove rehabilitation projects.

  243. Aniket Kumar, Shweta Tekriwal, Rajkumar, B. and Vishesh gupta

    Background: An ideal restoration in a tooth should be able to maintain the esthetics and proper form and function. Cavity preparation on a tooth reduces its fracture resistance. Composite resins as restorations have shown to increase the fracture resistance of the teeth . The drawback with these were stress development and low fracture resistance. These disadvantages forced the researchers to search for a newer generation of composite that has better fracture strength with less polymerization shrinkage. Aim: This study aimed to evaluate and compare the fracture resistance of fibre reinforced composite, flowable composite and a core build up material on class II cavity. Method and Materials: 90 human maxillary premolars were selected and divided in to 5 Groups. Group 1 served as control group. In Group 2,3,4 & 5 class II cavities were prepared. Group 3,4 & 5 were restored with EverX posterior, SDR and Paracore respectively. All the samples were subjected to Universal testing machine. Results: Statistical tools used were one way analysis of variance, Dunnett’s test and Tukey’s post hoc test. p value <0.05 was considered statistically significant. Group 3 showed highest mean fracture resistance. Conclusion: Fibre reinforced composite (Group 3) showed maximum mean fracture resistance which was statistically significant when compared to all the tested restorative materials.

  244. Sarawgi, A. K. and Ojha, G. C.

    Undomesticated crops species acquire huge possible and most precious gene which can be successfully utilized in crop improvement to develop high yielding rice varieties. The two hundred fifty eight rice germplasm accessions were used in present study. Simple statistics (means, ranges, standard deviation and coefficient of variation) was measured to have a reflection of the level of genetic variability. Frequency distributions of qualitative traits were short out the genotypes into diverse classes. In quantitative traits, days to 50% flowering and days to maturity readily exist C.V. value not much than 10%. On the other hand, most of the characters cover high C.V. values over 10% and prominent to 28.56% for leaf length. Leaf length (r=0.238 at p<0.05) and effective tiller (r=0.375 p<0.05, 0.01) shows significant positive correlation with grain yield. As tillering in rice is a important determinant for panicle production and as a result, it affects total yield. In view of all desirable traits four rice germplasm i.e. IC 377061IC 300784, IC 376585, and. IC 145381, accessions were identified.

  245. Rupali R. Sonawane

    The aim of this system is to track person of interest in real time based on scenes obtained from camera modules. This system avoids potential human errors as we are using automatic monitoring. It is a histogram based real time tracking system. Moving objects are detected using background subtraction. Moving object detection, recognition and tracking are basic steps in processing video frames.

  246. Acharya, A. and Nayak, R. L.

    The phase shift calculations for the mirror nuclei by applying Gaussian 15 point quadrature method are done. The form factor, binding energy, normalization constants are the inputs in this case. The singularities are overcome by suitable techniques.

  247. Aparna, K. S., Chaitra, R., Kavya, A. N., Ballari, Karibasamma, K. and Poornima, H.

    Department Information System-know soft provides a simple interface for maintenance of department information according to National Board of Accreditation (NBA) (Ilango, 2013). Know soft means getting complete details of Department through software. It can be used by educational institutes or colleges to maintain the records of students easily (Bharamagoudar et al., 2013). The creation and management of accurate, up-to-date information regarding a department is critically important in the university as well as colleges. Department information system deals with all kind of student details, faculty details, infrastructure details, academic related reports, facilities in department, course details, curriculum, batch details, placement details and other resource related details too. All these details will be available through a secure online interface embedded in the department’s website.

  248. Mr. Amit D. Landge and Mr. N. M. Bante

    As per the technical evolution and technical trends taken into consideration so we have created a “Advanced Hybrid Multi-power Station Turbine Structure for Efficient Power Generation. This system uses an advanced savonius hybrid turbine which will rotate over multiple natural resources water force, wind power and related things having efficiency greater than aerodynamic turbine. The advancement of this turbine is that, this turbine not only rotate over multiple natural resources and artificial resources but also having capability of resources settlement into it according to multiple savonius blade structure. The advantages of this project as compared to other system is that, on one single Savonius structure unit we can able to rotate multiple power substation and other power station uses single turbine which will rotate only single generator. So power output is more efficient than that normal. This project we can able to implement at industries, factories, agricultural areas, home, airport, hill station and artificial creations. This is not a simple structure like simple turbine. This is advanced technical structure created specially taken vision over multiple natural resources and artificial resources. This structure having natural resources settlement and re-utilization capacity, that means this structure not only uses multiple resources i.e. wind power, water force and other but also settle them to reutilization so that this turbine rotate with more toque and able to create more output so that we can able to charge battery within minimum time.

  249. Iramkhan, Zaid Mahmood, Maham Naz and Tazeen Fatima

    Non-steroidal anti inflammatory drugs can be used as donor ligands for complexations of rare earth metals. Amoxicillin is non-steroidal, anti inflammatory drug and is used as extended-spectrum also penicillin and clavulanic acid act as β-lactamase inhibitor. The active components of drugs were detected at 210nm wavelength with the UV detector. Some new organo Erbium (III), Lanthanum (III) and Gadolinium (lll) derivatives of non-steroidal anti inflammatory drugs were synthesized. These compounds were structurally characterized by elemental, molar conductivity, U.V visible and Fourier transform infra red analysis . Also high performance liquid chromatography and thermal gravimetric analysis shows the stability and presence of hydrated and coordinated water molecules by which enthalpies can be determined. The thermal degradation study shows the final product metal oxide. The compounds were also screened against different plant pathogens. The molar conductance values suggest the non electrolytic nature of metal complexes. Thermal behavior suggests their more ordered activated state in complex formation. Phenyl bonded silica HPLC column was used to separate metal-NSAIDS complexes. The aim of present study is to synthesize and characterized a number of organo lanthanide complexes with NSAIDs, based on the fact that newly synthesized compounds show significant activity against microbes. Their cytotoxicity data indicates their positive lethality.

  250. Suchismita Mishra and Sarada Baboo

    The size as well as the complexity of the software are a substantial impact and are increasing with the increase of customer requirements and applications. As a result the maintenance of software becomes more and more tough. So in order to cope up the program complexity, slicing technique is performed. Program slicing is used for disintegration of a program. Slicing is a program analysis technique which is also used for various imperative programming languages. It aids understanding of data flow, control flow and debugging. Program slicing is used in various applications in the field of software engineering such as program debugging, understanding, program maintenance, testing and complexity measurement. Now a days the software size is very large and it is also very difficult to understand, maintain and test. To debug a program, the whole program is checked line by line and find out the error. This procedure is very slow and also time taking. To overcome such issues Weiser introduced program slicing. The process of slicing deletes those parts of the program that can be determined to have no effect upon the semantics of interest. Thus program slices are smaller than the program. The sliced program is easy to understand and maintain. In the past three decades, various notions of program slices have been proposed as well as a number of methods to compute them. Static slicing is the easiest program slicing and it is used to calculate the computation slice. In this thesis static slicer1.01 tool is used. Graphviz tool is used to construct CFG.

  251. Shelke, G.B., Patil, D.R., Patil, Y.B. and Attarde, R. R

    Thick films of bulk tin oxide powder were observed to be less sensitive to polluting, hazardous and inflammable gases. So, nanostructured SnO2 powder was synthesized by disc type ultrasonicated microwave assisted centrifuge technique. Thick films of nanostructured pure SnO2 powder were fabricated by screen printing technique. These films were surface functionalized by SrCl26H2O for different intervals of time followed by firing at 450oC for 30 min. The surface morphology, chemical composition, crystal structure, electrical and gas sensing performance of the unmodified and surface functionalized nanostructured SnO2 powder by SrO2 have been investigated by FESEM, E-DAX, XRD, etc.

  252. Nihar Ranjan, Kavyashree Pushpan, Shraddha Samgir, Anjali Nair and Rutuja Murhekar

    Document classification is an example of supervised machine learning. It is used to assign one or more categories to documents for making it easier to sort. Classification falls under Text mining. Complete task of text mining is to give the user, the benefit of the textual information and user could be able to perform the task of text retrieval, classification and summarization. The problem of assigning a specific category to a particular document can be done manually but when huge amount of documents exist, this task becomes practically impossible. Also, the time required to sort small amount of documents is also large compared to an automated classification system. Therefore, to reduce the manual efforts, a system is introduced that makes use of various machine learning algorithms.

  253. Saranya, S. and Dr. M. Pushpa Rani

    The liver is the largest organ in the abdomen. Liver cancer is one of the major death factors in the world. Most of the peoples who have liver tumour were died due to the fact of inaccurate detection. Medical image segmentation is difficult to detect the accurate results of tumour in liver. Tumour segmentation in liver CT images is a challenging task. This paper consists of various image processing techniques like image pre-processing and image enhancement which is used to improve the quality of the liver image. This helps to detect and segment the tumour in liver effectively. The automated segmentation of liver is addressed first and then filtering is used to remove unwanted noise finally The clustering algorithm helps to detect the tumour in liver CT image. In this work aids to improve the better classification performance. Early detection helps to save the people from liver cancer

  254. Sanket M. Sathe, Pranay N. Lonkar, Nayan A. Shendre, Sonali M. Shingade and Prof. Nihar Ranjan

    As the data is growing everyday and comparatively less amount of useful information is made available on the internet, it becomes necessary to introduce a mechanism that can easily search out relevant information from that bulk of data. This is what has contributed toward the rise of the concept of multi-document summarization where the whole document is condensed to a smaller version retaining its original meaning. We are going to work on automated creation of summaries of one or more text documents using similarity measure algorithm – cosine similarity.

  255. Anjana Sengupta, Ayan Ghosh and Shamik Chattaraj

    India is going through a rapid urbanization. With increasing population and increasing population density, arises the need of optimized and smart use of resources. With the ever developing science user friendly and custom made technologies serve the purpose of addressing the challenges faced. Thus comes the idea of smart city. Smart city uses technology to observe, measure, monitor and control 3 fold services- • Only utilities- by shifting the social behavior of citizens towards a more efficient • and sustainable utilization of city resources • Where utilities and revenues are generated- allowing service providers (such as utilities and transit companies) and government to provide more efficient and sustainable services • Fun / leisure. Smart city is a “smart”,” intelligent” or ”cognitive” concept which has a multidimensional affect on environment, society, economy and technology. This paper deals with the basic plan and prospect of a smart city.

  256. Mr. K. Das and Prof. S. K. Bandyopadhyay

    Visual cryptography is special type of technique for encipher the confidential visual information (e.g. printed text, handwritten notes, and picture) in such a way, that decipher can be performed by an authorized user with the help of human visual system (HVS) without any complex process. It also provides high security, so that hackers cannot observe any clues about a secret image from individual cover images. There are various measures on which performance of visual cryptography scheme depends, such as pixel expansion, contrast, security, accuracy, computational complexity, share generated is meaningful or meaningless, type of secret images (either binary, gray or color) and number of secret images (either single or multiple) encrypted by the scheme. Intent of this paper is on study and performance analysis of the visual cryptography schemes and also a comparative analysis on various visual cryptography schemes.

  257. Alka and Harjot Kaur

    The technology is allowing the users to communicate with each other. One of the most common way is to use the social networking like Facebook. The social networking sites will allow the users to create the account without any verifications and validation. As more and more user communicate with each other also causing the problem like deception. This is caused due lack of standards followed by the social networking sites. In the proposed paper a physical check mechanism is introduced with the help of which deception is going to be detected. This mechanism is also termed as background check mechanism.

  258. Anitha Gracy, J. and Dr. Pushpa Rani, M

    The Social Media Manager is an exceptionally energetic, imaginative individual with experience and an energy for interfacing with present and future clients. That enthusiasm comes through as he/she draws in with clients every day, with a definitive objective of transforming fans into clients. Group initiative and investment (both online and logged off) are essential to a Social Media Manager's prosperity. A vital segment is conveying the organization's image in a positive, bona fide way what will draw in today's cutting edge, hyper-associated purchasers. The Social Media Manager is instrumental in dealing with the organization's substance related resources. Google's #1 seek positioning element is applicable substance (content that serves the searchers needs the best). It's unmistakable then that overseeing substance ought to be a piece of the Social Media Manager's Job Description.

  259. Chitra, V. and Dr. M. Pushpa Rani

    The paper presents a collection of design techniques for building enterprise web services. By applying the techniques to web services development but not only the development increases reusability and productivity, but also the web services improve ability and compatibility. Enterprise web services require high grade of competency in designing web service contracts and A contract of web service formalizes an agreement between web service provider and consumer, in the forms of WSDLs, service schemas and policies. Contract - first method provides great potential of directly dealing with the contracts, a number of articles have been published regarding designing WS and XML schemas, however it is still risk for developers to find cookbooks or guidelines concentrated on designing web service contracts with contract-first method. To fill the gap, a set of web service techniques are introduced and deployed in practice, incorporating some best practices scattered in the web services community. These techniques cover to the most of the key aspects of web service, including consolidating service schemas in line with business entities, constructing coarse-grained namespaces, applying versioning over WSDLs and service schemas, and writing fine-grained filters with contracts.

  260. Saim Ahmad, Kaushal Mundada, KunalPhaltane and NiharRanjan,

    The science of home automation took roots in the late eighteen hundreds. However, the practical implementation were realised not until early twentieth century. Voice interaction to communicate with computer applications is a relatively old idea initiated by Bells labs in as early as 1930’s. The use of voice in controlling elements in the home has not been extensively explored. There exist home automation systems that respond to voice, but these systems have a limitation. These home automation systems identify only a fixed close set of pre-specified voice commands. Such systems do not generalise well for speech commands that are not included in the pre-specified set of identified voice commands. The project undertaken by us attempts to push the frontier of home automation by including natural voice interactivity within the home automation system. In other words, the aim is to understand a command even if it is presented in one of its paraphrases. The report outlines the methodology we plan to undertake and the progress we have made so far.

  261. Mr. R. R. Keole, Dr. P. P. Karde and Dr. V. M. Thakare

    The web is huge, diverse, dynamic, widely distributed global information service center. With the rapid growth of the web, users get easily lost in the rich hyperlink structure. User rely on the web for information, but the currently available search engines often gives a long list of results, much of which are not always relevant to the user’s requirement. Providing relevant information to the users to cater to their needs is the primary goal. Therefore, finding the content of the web and retrieving the users’ interests and needs from their behavior have become increasingly important. The search engine uses these ranking methods to sort the results to be displayed to the user. In that way user can find the most significant and useful result first. Information Retrieval is the activity of obtaining information resources relevant to an information need from a collection of information resources. Therefore in this paper we are proposing an Approach to combine web content, web structure & web usage mining for Enhancing Web Search Engine Results Delivery.For Web Content mining the textual content of web pages is captured through extraction of frequent words using a term-based weighted technique will be combined with hyperlinks using Weighted Page Rank algorithm of Web structure mining which takes into account the importance of both the in-links and the out-links of the pages & Web server log files to discover useful information of user. Finally, the Search result is optimized by re-ranking the result pages. This proposed system proves to be efficient as the pages desired by the user will be on the top priority in the result list and also optimize the query performance in terms of query results. The proposed work will focus on the problem of improving the performance of information retrieval in web search engine results.

  262. Patil Nitin Yashwant and Patil Nitin Yashwant

    Knowledge Management gives various blessings over normal gathering structures to change absolutely, absolutely assorted relationship to look at inside the world and centered markets. Regardless of these favourable circumstances, metric long measure has some vital consequences for the effectiveness. Through this paper a shot has been made to imagine the gains repercussions of this advancement related Indian assembling commercial ventures. Hence, Interpretive Structural Modelling (ISM) technique has been used to recognize the driving and reliance power measure consequences of the assembling business' structure. Moreover, a staff of mindful procedure has been used to find the mutual relations of these effectiveness proposals by working up a structure model. This staff of thought model is likewise used to recognize the key benefit proposals which might be valuable in the region of manufacturing. Inside the gift work, issue effective the profitability repercussions of Knowledge Management as measure saw through composing consider and related faculty of thought model has together been prepared maintained situating by appraisal of authorities.

  263. Nihar Ranjan, Abhishek Gupta, Ishwari Dhumale, Payal Gogawale and Rugved Gramopadhye

    With the dramatic increase of digital form of data, it is difficult to manage the huge amount of documents. Whenever any individual tries to find any information about particular topic, he may receive a large set of documents on the internet. Some of these documents may be in .pdf format some may be in .txt format or simply any word document. The title of these documents may seem relevant to what the individual is looking for but the content in those documents may differ. Thus there was a necessity to read, understand and analyze contents of all the documents at one glance. As a result, it has become necessary to categorize large texts (documents) into specific classes. In our propose system we are classifying the documents, both single and multiple documents into predefined classes. The documents can be of any form i.e .txt, .doc, .docx, .pdf. Then preprocessing techniques are used like tokenization, stop words removal, stemming on input files. The document is classified according to the given learning. Dynamic learning is used to update the learning datasets. This project covers how the classification of document is done and how exactly the desired output is determined (classified documents). We also aimed at generating a classification report of number of documents in a particular class with respect to total number of documents. The pie chart can also showcase why a particular document is inclined towards any particular category and what percentage of its content consists of related information towards that category.

  264. Dr Hiregoudar Yerrannagoudar, Manjunatha, K. and Abdul Khalaque

    Combustion reaction in the internal combustion engine depends on many different variables, one of the most important factors in an efficient combustion reaction is the ability of the reactants, the fuel molecules and the oxidant molecules, to interact with each other, Most fuels used in internal combustion engines are in liquid state, like gasoline, diesel, biofuels, and since combustion occurs in the gas phase, achieving a substantially even dispersion of fuel molecules among oxidant molecules can prove difficult due to the vapor pressure of the liquid, Therefore, an efficient combustion reaction would involve providing for the fuel molecules to be substantially and evenly dispersed throughout the oxidant molecules, thereby allowing sufficient interactions between the reactants and promoting the combustion reaction. Conventional systems and methods attempt to remedy this problem by increasing the quantity of gas phase fuel molecules by increasing the temperature of the liquid fuel to increase the vapor pressure. The present invention has been developed in response to the present state and in particular, in response to the problems and needs that have not yet been fully solved by currently available conventional system. Hence we have designed a new fuel supply system where the petrol/biodiesels (having low viscosity) is atomized using the ultrasonic sounds and allowing it to pass through the convective pre-heater where the atomized fuel is converted in to the vapor form (gaseous form) using the exhaust gases from the outlet valve of the engine ,which are at the sufficient temperatures to vaporize the bio-diesels and study of these system behavior by using bio-diesel as alternative fuel in the vapor form in the present petrol engine and to check the emission like CO, HC from the exhaust gasses of petrol engine with a 4-s petrol engine. The project’s goal is to develop specific knowledge as to whether these methods will increase the efficiency and oil is an acceptable supplemental fuel.

  265. Shikha Sharma

    Mobile ad hoc network (MANET) is a group of portable hosts without the required intrusion of any existing arrangement or centralized access point such as a base station. Due to the major characteristic of MANETs i.e. vigorous topology and lack of centralized management security, MANETs are vulnerable to attacks. Black hole attack is one of the possible attacks in MANET. A black hole attack is network layer attack in which the mischievous node misleadingly advertises to the source node that it is having shortest path to the destination and actually it does not have and drops the packets and as a result the destination node never receives that packet. In this paper, we study the behavior of AODV (Ad hoc on Demand Distance Vector Routing Protocol) with and without black hole nodes on various parameters like End to End delay, Packet delivery ratio, Throughput and Routing Load. All the parameters are analyzed using NS2 simulator.

  266. Dr. Hiregoudar Yerrannagoudar, Manjunatha, K. and Mahammad Inthiyaz, H.

    Sarcoidosis In view of increasing pressure on crude oil reserves and environmental degradation as an outcome, fuels like Methanol blended with Mahua oil may present a sustainable solution as it can be produced from a wide range of carbon based feedstock. The present investigation evaluates Methanol blended with Mahua oil as a diesel engine fuel. The objectives of this paper is to analyze the fuel consumption and the emission characteristic of a twin cylinder diesel engine that are using Methanol blended with Mahua oil & compared to usage of ordinary diesel that are available in the market. A four stroke Twin cylinder diesel engine was adopted to study the brake thermal efficiency, brake specific energy consumption, and emissions at zero load & full load with the fuel of methanol. In this study, the diesel engine was tested using Methanol blended with Mahua oil. By the end of the experiment, the successful of the experiment have been started which is Diesel engine is able to run with Methanol blended with Mahua oil but the engine needs to run by using diesel fuel first, then followed by Methanol blended with Mahua oil and finished with diesel fuel as the last fuel usage before the engine turned off. The performance of the engine using Methanol blended with Mahua oil fuel compared to the performance of engine with diesel fuel. Experimental results of Methanol blended with Mahua oil and Diesel fuel are also compared.

  267. Thummala Venkatamuni and Praveen Kumar, J.

    A Solar Operated Pesticide Sprayer is a pump running on electricity generated by photovoltaic panels or the thermal energy available from collected sunlight as opposed to grid electricity or diesel run water pumps. The operation of solar powered pumps is more economical mainly due to the lower operation and maintenance costs and has less environmental impact than pumps powered by an internal combustion engine (ICE). Solar pumps are useful where grid electricity is unavailable and alternative sources do not provide sufficient energy. Also this provides a modification from the conventional system, mixing the fertilizer thoroughly by using Electro mechanical Stirrer (Proposed). There by the toxic inhalation of the pesticides will be reduced. The battery will be charged during the day time and this power which is stored and used in night and cloudy weather condition.

  268. Naadir Kamal

    The science and technology of nanomaterials has created great excitement and expectations in the last few years. The past few decades have seen an explosive increase in our ability to create nanostructures and nanosystems with a great degree of control, using a diversity of techniques. This ability has been accompanied by a similar enhancement in our ability to characterize structures and systems at the nanoscale. Nanoelectronics refer to the use of nanotechnology in electronic components. The term covers a diverse set of devices and materials, with the common characteristic that they are so small that inter-atomic interactions and quantum mechanical properties need to be studied extensively. Some of these candidates include: hybrid molecular/semiconductor electronics, one-dimensional nanotubes/nanowires, or advanced molecular electronics. This article examines the important facets of nanomaterials research, highlighting the current trends and future directions. It covers structural characteristics and properties of nanostructures, nanofabrication techniques, methods for characterizing nanostructures, and applications for nanomaterials. The article also provides a thought-provoking assessment of the possible implications of nanotechnology in society, and likely future trends.

  269. Shibamay Mitra and Ankit Sappal

    Inherent uncertainties in demands and supply make it difficult for supply chains to achieve optimum inventory replenishment, resulting in loss of sales or keeping excessive inventories. An unkempt inventory can take up to one-third of an organization’s annual investment. Therefore, in order to compete with invariably erratic demands, it is not only challenging to develop an intelligent system to maintain and control an optimum level of inventory but has also become mandatory. Here we have tried to study the supply chain logistic management in manufacturing industry using XYZ analysis method. Supply chain: Supply chain management (SCM) is the oversight of materials, information, and finances as they move in a process from supplier to manufacturer to wholesaler to retailer to consumer. Supply chain management involves coordinating and integrating these flows both within and among companies Logistic: Logistics management is that part of the supply chain that plans, implements, and controls the efficient, effective forward and reverse flow and storage of goods, services, and related information between the point of origin and the point of consumption in order to meet customer requirements.

  270. Swapna M. Patil and Panchshila G. Sabale

    A now-a-days, application of wireless sensor networks (WSNs) has been increased due to its vast potential to connect the physical world to the practical world. Also, advancement in microelectronic fabrication technology reduced the cost of manufacturing convenient wireless sensor nodes and now it becomes a trend to deploy the large numbers of wireless sensors in WSNs so that to increase the quality of service (QoS). The QoS of such WSNs is mainly affected by the faulty or malfunctioning sensor nodes. Probability of sensor node failure increases if number of sensor node increases in the network. For maintaining the better QoS under failure conditions such faulty sensor node should be detected and it should be removed. In this proposed method, faulty sensor node is detected by calculating the round trip delay (RTD) time of round trip paths and comparing them with threshold value. This proposed method is tested with three sensors Nodes designed using microcontroller, sensor and ZigBee. The main server section which will display the failure sensor node is also designed using microcontroller and ZigBee.

  271. Gagandeep Singh, Amanjot Singh, Raman K Verma, and Rajiv Mall

    The synthetic and docking studies of Chromonyl linked thiazolidenedione (TZD), rhoadanine (RH), diethyl malonate (DEM), methyl acetoacetate (MAA), barbituric acid (BA) and thiobarbituric acid (TBA) analogues in an effort to develop novel peroxisome proliferator activated receptors ligands expected to exhibit PPARγ partial agonism in the management of hyperglycemia and hyperlipidemia for the treatment of type 2 diabetes is reported. Docking studies showed expected results.

  272. Rahangdale, P. K.

    The 2-HAAT novel polymer was synthesized through the acid catalysed condensation polymerization of 2-Hydroxy Acetophenone and Adipamide with Tioxane using proper molar ratio of the reacting monomers. The resulting polymer was characterized with Elemental Analysis, UV-Visible, FTIR and H1-NMR spectral data and SEM studies. The number average molecular weight of this novel polymer was determined with conductometric titration method in a non-aqueous medium. The chelating ion-exchange properties were also studied with the batch equilibrium method. The polymeric resin was proved to be selective chelating ion-exchanger for certain metals. The chelating ion-exchange properties of this polymer were studied for six metal ions viz. Cu2+, Ni2+, Cd2+, Zn2+, Pb2+ and Fe3+. The study was carried out over a wide pH range and in media of various ionic strengths. The polymer showed a higher selectivity for Pb2+ ions than for Cu2+, Ni2+, Cd2+, Zn2+ and Fe3+. The 2-HAAT polymer was tested for its inhibitory action against a few pathogenic bacteria and fungi. It has shown potent inhibitory action against bacteria, such as Escherichia coli and fungi viz. Candida albicans. Specific higher selectivity of this resinous novel polymer for Pb2+proved its practical applicability for abetment of lead, a toxic heavy metal, from contaminated water and thus for water treatment.

  273. Nnabuihe, I. K., Okeke, O. C., Israel, H. O., Obioha, Y. E. and Ikoro, D. O.

    One of the major environmental problems today is groundwater pollution. Pollutants originating from both anthropogenic and natural activities classified into point sources and non-point sources tend to threaten groundwater. This polluted groundwater in turn threatens both human and environmental health through acute and chronic exposures. In order to provide protection to both human and environmental health, there is need to prevent groundwater pollution in the first place by ensuring the elimination of pollutants at their sources. However, If pollution eventually occurs, the polluted groundwater can be remedied using a wide variety of techniques categorized into ex-situ methods (i.e. pumping out of water from aquifer and treating on the surface, e.g. steam stripping, carbon adsorption, chemical oxidation, thermal treatment, bioremediation, etc) and in-situ methods (i.e. in-place treatment of water, e.g. air-sparging, permeable reactive barriers, nanoremediation, monitored natural attenuation, bioremediation, etc). Common remedial measures such as boiling, filtration, sedimentation and chlorination should be adopted for treatment of water before consumption on the home front. A typical case of groundwater pollution is that of Ogoniland, Niger-Delta, Nigeria, contaminated with petroleum hydrocarbons but yet to be given any adequate remedial attention. Remediation as an option may not be feasible, hence, prevention is always the best option

  274. Williams Abayaawien Atuilik

    The Government of Ghana promulgated the Financial Administration Act, 2003, (Act 654)and its consequential Financial Administration Regulations, 2004 (L. I. 1802) for the purpose of improving accountability over the management of public funds. The financial management law in Ghana contains requirements for a robust and comprehensive financial reporting regime based on an accrual basis accounting system. Although, a reporting regime that complies with the requirements of the Financial Administration Act, 2003 (Act 654) and its consequential Regulations is not necessarily IPSAS compliant, will reflect a number of the requirements of the accrual basis IPSAS which will help improve accountability and deepen transparency with respect to the management of public funds. Discussions on the adoption of IPSAS by the Government of Ghana has been ongoing since 2007. Ghana was listed in September 2007 as one of the countries that had adopted cash basis IPSAS and was in the process of transitioning to accrual basis IPSAS by the International Public Sector Accounting Standards Board (IPSASB). This study used the qualitative approach of document analysis design as its methodology to assess whether or not the financial statements of MDAs, MMDAs, and the accounts of the Consolidated Fund of Ghana are prepared in compliance with the Financial Administration law of Ghana and IPSAS. The study found that Accounts of the Consolidated Fund, the financial statements of MDAs and MMDAs do not fully comply with the reporting requirements of the Financial Administration Act and its consequential Regulations. The financial statements of the public accounts of Ghana also do not comply with IPSAS.

  275. Anita Runjić-Stoilova, Marijana Tomelić Ćurlin and Vinko Vidučić

    This paper dealt with the impact of four components (language, media, standard of living and historical changes) on the idiom of the residents of the city of Split in Croatia over the period 1960. -2060.with the information model that has been based on the assumed linguistic and historical situation in three stages of the observed period, i.e. in the years of 1960, 2010 and 2060. The variables comprised by the information model include: accentual system, language situation, standard of living, historical circumstances and media. The research has produced direct growth rates of the information model for the impact of new settlers on the idiom of the residents of Split City from 1960 to 2060 on the index scale from 0 to 100: 1. Accentual system (89.8); 2. Linguistic situation (89.2); 3. Standard of living (50.0); 4. Historical circumstances (71.8); 5. Media (62.0).

  276. Sachin Coothoopermal and Dr. Hemant Chittoo

    Whilst consumer welfare has been well documented in the economics and marketing literature, the same cannot be said about the conceptualisation of consumer harm. This paper will thus help to enhance the existing body of knowledge in Competition Law and Consumer Protection fields by providing a conceptual framework that will incorporate aspects of consumer harm from both the Competition Law and the Consumer Protection perspectives. Whilst this aspect has already been subject to debates, the existing body of literature on competition law and consumer protection has tended to ignore a very important concept of consumer harm from the marketing perspective which tends to show that consumer protection should also incorporate consumer confusion. This paper will hence aim at filling this gap in the literature and provide an innovative framework that will integrate protection from harm from different perspectives including competition harm, consumer harm as defined in the consumer protection field, and consumer confusion.

  277. Arjun Agarwal, Shri Phani, Ganesh M. S. and Keerthi B. R.

    Pilomatrix carcinoma is the rare malignant counterpart of pilomatrixoma, a skin adnexal tumour arising from hair matrix cells that arises either as malignant transformation of pilomatrixioma or as de novo. Pilomatrixoma was first thought of having a sebaceous gland origin but was later found to originate from hair matrix cells. They are slow growing tumours, found in the lower dermis and subcutaneous fat and are predominantly found in the neck and the scalp region. They are rare tumours with 90 cases reported so far.

  278. Uma, N. and Dr. S. Indira

    The aim of this study was to find out the effect of yogic practices and physical exercises on systolic and diastolic blood pressure among women patients with NIDDM. Sixty women NIDDM patients undergoing treatment in Government Hospitals and Diabetic Centres in Chennai were randomly selected as subjects in the age group of 35 to 45 and divided into control group, experimental group I, which underwent physical exercises, experimental group II which underwent yogic practices and control group did not underwent any special treatment / training. Pre and post experimental scores on systolic and diastolic blood pressure were statistically analysed using ANCOVA. The results proved that experimental treatments significantly contributed to beneficially alter systolic blood pressure (F : 36.36) and diastolic blood pressure (F: 69.44). The adjusted mean comparisons through post hoc analysis of results proved that physical exercises and yogic practices significantly altered systolic blood pressure compared to control group (P <0.05). Yogic practices non significantly altered systolic blood pressure than physical exercises. As for diastolic blood pressure it was found that both physical exercises and yogic practices significantly regularized compared to control group (P<0.05). The results further proved that yogic practices were significantly better than physical exercises in beneficially alter diastolic blood pressure. Thus, it was concluded that yogic practices play significant role in regularizing systolic and diastolic blood pressure and can be popularized among diabetic patients for effect of use in treating and managing diabetics especially among women diabetic patients.

  279. Uma, N. and Dr. S. Indira

    Prevalence of diabetes is projected to increase to 80 million by 2030, placing an immense burden on the health care resources of our country. The aim of this study was to find out the effect of yogic practices and physical exercises on blood sugar and uric acid among diabetic women patients. 60 women NIDDM patients undergoing treatment in Government Hospitals and Diabetic Centres in Chennai were randomly selected as subjects in the age group of 35 to 45. They were grouped into three based on their mean random blood sugar level, such as control group, experimental group I and experimental group II respectively. Pre tests scores were determined on blood sugar and uric acid based on the blood samples collected. Experimental group I underwent 12 weeks yogic practices, experimental group II underwent 12 weeks physical exercises and control group did not participated in any of the special activity. Immediately after completion of the experimental period, the post tests were conducted on the above said dependent variables, which formed final scores of the subjects. Statistical analysis using ANCOVA proved that experimental treatments significantly contributed to beneficially alter blood sugar (F : 29.42) and uric acid (F: 16.97). Yogic practices were found significantly better than physical exercises in beneficially altering blood sugar and uric acid among diabetic women patients. It was concluded that yogic practices play significant role in regularizing blood sugar and uric acid and yogic practices can be popularized among diabetic patients for treating and managing diabetics especially among women diabetic patients.

  280. Ogola, Solomon Owuor, Ogembo, Jack and Magak, Kitche

    Peeling Back the Mask and Kidneys for the King are autobiographies. They are autodiegetic – the narrator is also the hero of the autobiographies. Miguna Miguna has applied the autobiographical first persona as a narratological strategy. The autobiographical first persona has an import on historiography. Autodiegesis has strengths and weaknesses. This impacts the portrayal of the historical process. This impact is elucidated using Miguna Miguna’s Peeling Back the Mask and Kidneys for the King. On the one hand, the autobiographical first persona provides unique, personalised and believable insights into events that other points of views may not achieve; on the other hand, given that the autobiography is an exercise in reconstruction, there is always the danger of the narrator being biased. This is in an attempt to reconstruct his person positively. This article focuses on how Miguna’s autodiegesis buttresses and erodes a credible portrayal of Kenya’s recent history.

  281. Alpana Srivastava

    The Indian economy is passing from the tough phase, leading to turmoils in various sectors and affecting them with negative shocks. One such effected industry with the present economic turmoil in India is Aviation Industry. India is one of the fastest growing aviation markets in the world, yet its airlines are deep in the red. All major carriers except Indigo are loss making and are burdened with massive debts.Rising fuel cost, heavy slide in rupee, low FDI, high interest rates are few factors affecting this sector adversely. Among the various existing Aitlines in India Kingfisher is affected most as its operations were suspended. This case study is taken to explore the various economic, financial and technical flaws responsible to the sudden rise and fall of this airline (2005-2012).Kingfisher Airlines was established in 2003. It is owned by the Bengaluru based United Breweries Group. The airline started commercial operations in 9 May 2005 with a fleet of four new Airbus A320-200s operating a flight from Mumbai to Delhi. It started its international operations on 3 September 2008 by connecting Bengaluru with London. Kingfisher Airlines Limited was an airline group based in India. Its head office is in Andheri (East), Mumbai and Registered Office in UB City, Bangalore. Kingfisher Airlines, through its parent company United Breweries Group, has a 50% stake in low-cost carrier Kingfisher Red. The airline had been facing financial issues for many years and the reason cited is the merger of Air Deccan airlines and ill-timely expansion that included ordering A380s (subsequently deferred). Until December 2011, Kingfisher Airlines had the second largest share in India's domestic air travel market. However due to a severe financial crisis faced by the airline at the beginning of 2012, it has the lowest market share since April 2012. The airline had shut down its operations when on 20 October2012 the DGCA suspended its flying license. This suspension had been due to failure to give an effective response to the show cause notice issued by DGCA. On 25 October 2012, the employees agreed to return to work. In February 2013 the Indian government announced the withdrawal of both domestic and international flight entitlements allocated to the airline.Kingfisher life cycle span was short term business cycle witnessing various peaks and undersides. On 15 November 2011 the airline released poor financial results, indicating that it was "drowning in high-interest debt and losing money". Now this study is propose to critically analyses the factors leading to the downfall of this airlines and the glimpse of its various phases of bailout plans

  282. Jeta Ajasllari

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of an intervention with CBT in patients with chronic renal disease. The study findings are in the context of previous researches and existing theories. Searches were done in the professional literature related to different chronic diseases and respectively with Chronic Kidney Disease in children and adolescents. Many pediatric chronic diseases are difficult to be managed because of the limitations caused by the disease itself, consequently some of them need to be subjected to painful and difficult medical procedures as well. Respectively, for children diagnosed with CKD life changes completely because of limitations, mainly physical ones, due to the characteristics of the disease which require constant adaption as well as development of strategies to face the disease. Their behaviors must change accordingly as part of a new life of self-care. Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy is a psychological therapy, which has been investigated extensively and has been found as very effective to reduce psychological symptoms caused by the disease. This therapy integrates the modification of behavior with the cognitive restructuring, the aim of which is to change the patient’s unhealthy behaviors through cognitive and behavior techniques.

  283. Bipul Ch. Basumatary

    The Kherai is the greatest religious festival or puza of the traditional Bodo people who worship Bathou through animal sacrifices. The Doudini is the epicenter of Kherai Puza. Any women or girl having knowledge of Bodo Gods and Goddesses and the worshipers of Bathou can become Doudini upto her capacity. She demonstrates various items of dance under the trance of Gods and Goddesses. It is said that she gives the lesson for human being through demonstration of different activities and dances. She tells fortune and misfortune also. The fortune telling of the Doudini is transmitted by the Oza and the Douri to the common people. The traditional Bodo people believe the telling of the Doudini as the Gods telling and means for peace and prosperity of all human being. The study will try to analyst the traditional practices in clear manner and propagate amongst their neighbours and abroad.

  284. Hajer Al Hamed

    The essay examines Naguib Mahfouz's novel The Beggar and Adrift on the Nile, and and it attempts to understand the author's views on the Role of the Intellectual. Written in the mid 1960s, the novels reflect on the Nasserite regime and the ontological, social, and political crises of the Egyptian intellectual during that period. The essay addresses question of responsibility in Mahfouze's works and draws from other intellectuals, particularly Ali Harb and Edward Said.

  285. Dr. Issa Seif Salim and Dr. Lufumbi J. Mwaipopo

    The dimensions of tourism cultural capital have become a key component in creating the image of destinations. Despite their importance to tourism, the amount of research that has been conducted on conceptualizing tourism cultural capital dimensions and their relationship with destination image does not reflect their importance. It is unlikely therefore that such dimensions feature in the image of most tourist destinations to attract tourists. This study explored the relationship between seven dimensions of tourism cultural capital and destination image. Structural equation modelling revealed that four underlying dimensions: historical objects, cultural behaviour, “food and culinary experiences” and handcrafts have a significant relationship with destination image and three were rejected; cultural events, “traditional medicine and spiritual practices” and “traditional aqua activities”. This study produced a broader conceptualization of how the dimensions of tourism cultural capital could be utilized and how these components contribute to the production of destination image so that appropriate management strategies for each may be formulated and implemented for improving the cultural destination to attract potential tourists.

  286. Yrd. Doç. Dr. H.Coşkun ÇELİK and Öğr. Gör. Aziz İLHAN

    In this research, it has been aimed to develop a measurement tool that can determine the teacher candidates’ attitudes toward statistics. Study group of the research has consisted of 401 teacher candidates. In the study, item analysis based on correlation and exploratory factor analysis methods have been used and Cronbach’s alpha coefficient has been calculated. In the analysis of item analysis based on correlation made on 50 items formed during the development of the scale, non-significant items have been removed from the scale. Exploratory factor analysis has been performed for remaining 41 items to determine the construct validity of the scale. As a result of this analysis a 28-item scale describing three factors (value, relevance and difficulty) and the 42.428% of the variance has been obtained. According to the results of the analysis it can be said that this scale developed is valid and reliable.

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